Skip to main content

Full text of "Biennial report [serial]"

See other formats









This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 

BiensucU R&p&d 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access (NC-LSTA) 


for 1956-1958 


L. Y. BALLENTINE. Commissioner 

12-58 )M 


The photo on our cover symbolizes in several ways 
the "new look" in North Carolina agriculture. It illus- 
trates our expanding grain and forage production, 
which in turn partly reflects the steady expansion in 
our livestock industry. It depicts the trend toward in- 
creasing mechanization in our farming operations. 
The tall corn in the picture is a North Carolina hybrid, 
symbolizing our progress in utilizing agricultural re- 
search to obtain greater yields. 

All of these are encouraging signs of a brighter fu- 
ture for the state's agriculture. But they also mean 
that our farming people have been making, and must 
continue to make, some radical readjustments. North 
Carolina is a state of small farms, with the largest farm 
population in the nation. To meet competition, we must 
continue the trend toward mechanization and more effi- 
cient production methods. At the same time, it is desir- 
able to keep our large farm population gainfully 
employed in agricultural pursuits, and our farm pro- 
grams must be shaped with this need always in mind. 

To meet the challenge before us requires imagination, 
ingenuity, know-how and determination. But it can be 
met, because our farmers and agricultural workers 
have these qualities ; and, in addition, we are generously 
blessed with the necessary resources of soil and climate. 




Board of Agriculture .._•. 5 

Personnel 6 

Commissioner's Summary : ___. 13 

Highlights of Board Meetings ■ 21 

Accounting Division . 28 

Chemistry Division . 35 

Credit Union Division •_ 43 

Dairy Division 45 

Entomology Division 49 

Markets Division 55 

Museum Division 79 

Publications Division 87 

Research Stations Division 90 

Seed Testing Division ___108 

Soil Testing Division _v 111 

State Fair Division . 113 

Statistics Division :„115 

Veterinary Division 119 

Warehouse Division 126 

Weights and Measures Division 129 


L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 
Ex-Officio Chairman 

J. Atwell Alexander Stony Point 

W..I. Bissette Grifton 

Glenn G. Gilmore Julian 

Hoyle C. Griffin Monroe 

Claude T. Hall Roxboro 

George P. Kittrell Corapeake 

J. Muse McCotter New Bern 

Charles F. Phillips Thomasville 

J. H. Poole West End 

A. B. Slagle Franklin 


of the 


June 30, 1958 

L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 


John L. Reitzel Assistant Commissioner 

Bettie H. Carrigg Stenographer Clerk III 

Hazel I. Horner Stenographer Clerk II 

Doris B. Wofford _. Stenographer Clerk III 

Division of Accounts 

Grace H. Malloy ___. Auditor 

Edna C. Brown Accounting Clerk I 

Gaynell Bullock Accounting Clerk II 

Alicegrae F. Ferrell Accounting Clerk IV 

Mildred M. Horton ._ Accounting Clerk I 

Elsie W. Jordan Accounting Clerk III 

Jean G. Pace Accounting Clerk I 

Gwen W. Ratchford Accounting Clerk I 

Lena P. Sockell _ Stenographer Clerk II 

Lunelle Yeargan Cashier Department of Agriculture 

Publicity and Publications 

Blackburn W. Johnson Public Information Officer III 

Mary Yvonne Creech ____ Stenographer Clerk II 

M. Pauline DeCosta Public Information Officer I 

Joseph A. Hunter Clerk II 

Bettye T. Rogers Clerk I 


George A. Brown, Jr Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I 

E. H. Cooper Tax Auditor III 

Lindsey Ennis Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I 

Harvey C. McPhail Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I 

James R. Stevens Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector II 


John A. Winfield Director Agricultural Marketing 

Wilbur S. Brannan Marketing Specialist III 

Betty W. Chapman Stenographer Clerk III 

John H. Cyrus Marketing Specialist III 

Jay P. Davis, Jr Marketing Specialist IV 

Lewis F. Dunn Marketing Specialist II 

Louise T. Dunn Stenographer Clerk III 

Dewey H. Evans, Jr Marketing Specialist III 

Ollie W. Faison.. Marketing Specialist IV 

Jesse R. Ferrell Marketing Specialist II 

Cleo M. Gault Laboratory Technician I 

Joe B. Gourlay Marketing Specialist III 

Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 7 

Elmer C. Green Marketing Specialist III 

Thomas E. Green, Sr Marketing Specialist III 

Evelyn G. Harper Stenographer Clerk II 

George F. Harrington Marketing Specialist II 

Wendell P. Hedrick Marketing Specialist IV 

Vernon W. Hill Marketing Specialist III 

James F. Hockaday, Jr _ Marketing Specialist I 

Julius P. Jenrette Marketing Specialist III 

Fred P. Johnson __ Marketing Specialist IV 

Ralph B. Kelly Marketing Specialist IV 

Ethel Y. Kiker _ Marketing Specialist III 

Katherine B. Koppen ._ Stenographer Clerk III 

Frances A. Lancaster Stenographer Clerk II 

William E. Lane.. Marketing Specialist II 

Melba J. Lindsay Stenographer Clerk II 

Staley S. Long, Jr Marketing Specialist II 

Hugh B. Martin Marketing Specialist IV 

Neii.l A. Morrison, Jr Marketing Specialist III 

Charles G. Murray Marketing Specialist III 

Lavinia E. Murray Stenographer Clerk II 

Hobart W. Myrick Marketing Specialist III 

Mary L. Norman Stenographer Clerk II 

Betty S. Pethel : Stenographer Clerk III 

Arthur K. Pitzer „ Marketing Specialist III 

Lois M. Pleasants Laboratory Technician I 

Phoebe D. Powers Stenographer Clerk III 

H. D. Quessenberry Marketing Specialist IV 

B. S Rich Marketing Specialist IV 

Carson W. Sheffield __ Marketing Specialist IV 

Beatrice L. Smith Accounting Clerk I 

Horace A. Smith Marketing Specialist HI 

Robert W. Southerland Marketing Specialist II 

Ann B. Stoddart..- Accounting Clerk I 

Annie R. Strickland __ Stenographer Clerk II 

Clrtis F. Tarleton Marketing Specialist IV 

Carl H. Tower _ Marketing Specialist HI 

George H. Turner, Jr Marketing Specialist II 

Euris R. Vanderford ___ Marketing Specialist II 

Paclin e M. W atkins _. _ Typist Clerk I 

Dewey C. Wayne Marketing Specialist IV 

Patsi C. Wellborn Accounting Clerk II 

James A. Williams Marketing Specialist II 


C. W. Pegram Director of Dairy Service 

Lafayette H. Boykin, Jr ...Dairy Specialist II 

Elmo H. Hollomon Dairy Specialist II 

Paul R. Jordan, Jr Bacteriologist 

W. L. McLeod Dairy Specialist II 

Robert L. Merritt Laboratory Helper 

Francis Patterson Dairy Specialist III 

Mary M. Weathers Stenographer Clerk II 

Giles M. Williams Dairy Specialist II 


C, H. Brannon state Entomologist 

Hugh I. Alford, Jr Entomologist II 

James F. Greene Entomologist II 

J. A. Harris ...Entomologist III 

Pauline P. Newsom Stenographer Clerk II 

Jesse F. Sessions Entomologist II 

D. L. Wray... Entomologist III 

8 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Seed Laboratory 

Willard H. Darst Director of Seed Testing 

Magdalene G. Brummitt ....Seed Analyst III 

Walter E. Burgiss Seed Specialist 

Prances H. Colvin Seed Analyst II 

Mahlon B. Dickens Seed Specialist 

Stella W. Etheridge Seed Analyst II 

Pearl G. Gray .. Stenographer Clerk II 

Virginia B. Griffin ....Seed Analyst I 

Theodora W. King Seed Analyst I 

Murphy G. McKenzie, Jr Seed Specialist 

Kenneth M. Mintz Seed Specialist 

Evelyn J. B. Murdoch Seed Analyst I 

Ewald Smith Seed Analyst II 

Joe N. Tate, Jr Seed Specialist 

Mildred W. Thomas Seed Analyst II 


E. W. Constable State Chemist 

L. V. Amburgey Micoranalyst 

Henry W. Barnes, Jr Chemist IV 

Elizabeth F. Bartholomew Chemist II 

Samuel C. Boyd Laboratory Helper 

Z. B. Bradford ._ Chemist IV 

Burney A. Britt Chemist II 

David E. Buffaloe Chemist IV 

Margaret B. Carter Chemist II 

James A. Chapman Laboratory Helper 

Vera A. Culler. Chemist I 

Dorothy M. Davis Stenographer Clerk III 

J. Whitt Davis Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I 

Ralph E. Ferguson, Jr Chemist I 

John J. Filicky _„. Chemist II 

Evelyn A. Freeman Stenographer Clerk I 

Robert L. Freeman Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector 

Charles H. Godwin, Jr Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector 

Samuel H. Hinton Laboratory Helper 

Velva E. Hudson Typist Clerk III 

Harold L. Jackson Chemist I 

Jesse G. Jernigan Chemist II 

H. D. Matheson . Chemist II 

W. P. Matthews.. ~ Chemist IV 

Mary A. Melvin. Stenographer Clerk II 

Harry A. Miller ..Chemist VI 

William A. Morgan Laboratory Helper 

L. M. Nixon... Chemist V 

Fred P. Nooe Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector 

Myrna L. Nowell Typist Clerk III 

H. F. Pickering Chemist IV 

J. S. Pittard Chemist IV 

L. B. Rhodes _ Food Chemist 

Clyde W. Roberts Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector 

Don H. Smith Laboratory Helper 

Valyne F. Starling. Chemist I 

William Sylver, Jr Laboratory Helper 

Robert N. Tulloch • Chemist II 

Muriel M. Weathers Chemist II 

Hazel L. Willis Stenographer Clerk III 

Crop Statistics 

John T. Richardson Administrative Officer 

Raymond R. Alford, Jr. Miscellaneous Duplicating Machine Supervisor G-S 4 

Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 9 

Mary S. Allen Research Analyst I 

Louise W. Byrum Research Assistant 

Ben E. Clayton, Jr Statistician I 

Charlie H. Cross, Jr Duplicating Machine Operator II 

John S. DeCourcy Analytical Statistician GS 7 

Martha F. Early Research Assistant 

Terry M. Edwards Duplicating Machine Operator II 

Evelyn L. Finch Vari-Type Operator II 

Winifred C. Karangelen Research Assistant 

Ida L. King Research Assistant 

Mary F. Lloyd Vari-Type Operator II 

Carrie M. Mann Research Assistant 

Janie H. Murph Research Assistant 

Nancy C. Penny Stenographer Clerk II 

Josephine H. Smith... _ Research Assistant 

Robert H. Tilley Analytical Statistician GS 11 

Olaf Wakefield Analytical Statistician GS 12 

Harry A. White Analytical Statistician GS 12 

Rosa M. Wrede _ Research Assistant 

Soil Testing 

Eugene J. Kamprath Director Soil Testing 

John O. Anderson Laboratory Helper 

Jo Ann Briggs Stenographer Clerk I 

Carolyn E. Carroll Stenographer Clerk I 

Evelyn S. Conyers Chemist I 

Carolyn O. Copeland Chemist I 

Roberta B. Dean ..Chemist I 

Ruth S. Gardner Chemist II 

Arthur Giles , Laboratory Helper 

Joann J. Leazer ... Typist Clerk I 

Gerald D. McCart Agronomist I 

Alice F. McLamb Typist Clerk I 

Luella M. Remini Stenographer Clerk III 

Margaret E. Stancil Stenographer Clerk II 

Dorothy R. Thornton Stenographer Clerk II 

Charles D. Welch Agronomist II 


Hal J. Rollins..... State Veterinarian 

Josephine A. Allen Stenographer Clerk III 

William A. Andrew.... Poultry Specialist I 

John D. Baker Veterianrian III 

Marvin O. Batchelor Livestock Inspector 

Samuel O. Benson Veterinarian III 

Charles R. Border Veterinarian III 

Wilma N. Boykin Laboratory Technician I 

G. I. Bullock Livestock Inspector 

Julius B. Cashion Poultry Specialist I 

Jesse J. Causby Poultry Specialist II 

Kenneth G. Church Poultry Specialist I 

James H. Clegg Poultry Specialist I 

William W. Clements : Veterinarian II 

Henry B. Collins Livestock Inspector 

Donald E. Cooperrider Director of Diagnostic Laboratory 

Alton L. Corbett Livestock Inspector 

Eugene C. Couch Poultry Specialist I 

Lilly F. Daughtry Stenographer Clerk II 

W. J. Elkins _ Poultry Specialist II 

L. J. Fourie Poultry Specialist III 

Jamfs A. Frazier Poultry Specialist I 

George D. Fuller Livestock Inspector 

10 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Frank S. Hall Clerk I 

Ralph Hamilton Veterinarian II 

Franklin J. Helm ....Veterinarian II 

Elizabeth R. Helms Laboratory Technician II 

Frank Howard, Jr.- Laboratory Helper 

G. W. Ivey ._ _ - Poultry Specialist II 

R. Russell Jeter Veterinarian II 

William H. Justice Veterinarian II 

James D. Kellet Poultry Specialist I 

Irene K. Kilpatrick Laboratory Technician II 

Fred D. Long __ ....Poultry Specialist I 

Paul C. Marley Poultry Specialist I 

N. P. McDuffie Poultry Specialist I 

Lola S. Mitchell Stenographer Clerk II 

Sue F. Odom Stenographer Clerk II 

Donald D. Pate Veterinarian III 

Peter S. Penland Poultry Specialist I 

Lucy D. Ponder Laboratory Technician III 

Verlin E. Reese _ Poultry Specialist I 

James U. Richardson Laboratory Helper 

Laurie E. Roach Veterinarian II 

Phil R. Sandidge Poultry Specialist I 

Dixie D. Southard Poultry Specialist I 

John Williams, Jr Laboratory Helper 

Theron S. Williams Veterinarian III 

John R. Woody Poultry Specialist I 

Auburn L. Wright __ ..Poultry Specialist I 

Research Stations 

Cecil D. Thomas Director of Research Stations 

Julia N. Medlin Stenographer Clerk II 

George F. Stanley. Administrative Assistant of Agriculture 

J. L. Rea, Jr ___. Research Station Superintendent 

El wood A. Allen Senior Herdsman 

Herbert W. Allen Farm Foreman II 

Lillian A. Bishop Stenographer Clerk I 

Fenner B. Harris Herdsman I 

J. M. Carr Research Station Superintendent 

Elizabeth Floyd Stenographer Clerk II 

Locke C. Hagwood Farm Foreman II 

Chester Kearney Feed & Farm Laborer 

Marjorie J. King Typist Clerk I 

Warren H. Bailey _. Research Station Superintendent 

Susan D. Killebrew. Stenographer Clerk I 

Thilbert A. Suggs Farm Foreman II 

Randolph Whitley Herdsman I 

Murray R. Whisenhunt Research Station Superintendent 

Theodore R. Burleson, Jr __ Poultryman 

Rufus Curtis "Z~ZZ'ZZ"....Dairy<man 

James R. Edwards __ Dairy Superintendent 

Bernice H. Harrell ..„ Stenographer Clerk II 

Garfield Harris F arm Foreman II 

William C. Holder.... Dairyman 

Dana F. Tugman Research Station Superintendent 

Anna S. McClure Stenographer Clerk I 

Gordon D. Sheets.... Farm Foreman II 

Dan L. Taylor Herdsman I 

Jesse W. Sumner.... Research Station Superintendent 

Ernest W English _ Poultryman 

Jacob B Matthews Dairyman 

MELviN G. Richert..... Dairyman 

John Sasser, Jr..... _ Farm Foreman u 

B. L. Williams..... Stenographer Clerk II 

Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 11 

J. W. Hendricks Research Station Superintendent 

Gentry E. Belvins Farm Foreman II 

Rose B. Ingram Stenographer Clerk II 

Samuel M. Miller, Jr Herdsman 

Maynard L. Self Dairy Research Supervisor 

William L. Steele Dairyman 

Clyde Z. McSwain, Jr Research Station Superintendent 

Dwight C. Austin Farm Foreman II 

Julia L. Skinner Typist Clerk I 

Wallace J. Dickens Research Station Superintendent 

William T. Grimsley Farm Foreman II 

Weights and Measures 

C. D. Baucom Superintendent of Weights and Measures 

John I. Moore _. Weights and Measures Inspection Supervisor 

Walter R. Burnette. Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I 

Joyce G. Carter Stenographer Clerk II 

William T. Crawford Weights and Measures Inspector 

Grady F. Hall Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I 

Roderick M. Horton Liquid Fertilizer Specialist 

Marion L. Kinlaw, Jr Weights and Measures Inspector 

Grover R. Kiser Weights and Measures Inspector 

Rufus A. Malloy Weights and Measures Inspector 

Ned A. Powell Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II 

Marvin E. Shambley Weights and Measures Inspector 

James M. Vestal, Jr ._ Weights and Measures Inspector 

Frances A. Wilson Stenographer Clerk II 

Dan C. Worley Weights and Measures Inspector 

Gordon S. Young Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II 

State Museum 

H. T. Davis Museum Director 

Dudie V. Ashe Maid 

Julian W. Johnson Museum Exhibits Designer 

Ernest R. Jones Janitor-Messenger 

F. B. Meacham Zoologist 

Julia F. Nowell Stenographer Clerk II 

Sara D. Prince Clerk I 


Robert Harris.— Stock Clerk I 

Vernon A. Williams Stock Clerk I 

Gasoline and Oil Inspection 

C D. Baucom Director of Gas and Oil 

Carey M. Ashley Chemist I 

Milton Barefoot Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Maddrey W. Bass Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Malver L. Boyette Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Kathleen C. Brafford Chemist I 

John A. Bynum... Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

William L. Carpenter Chemist II 

Glenn R. Cates Chemist I 

Lonnie E. Cayton Calibrator 

Harvey Clodfelter, Jr Chemist I 

Jack C. Connolly, II ___. Chemist I 

Milton C. Converse __ Chemist II 

Joseph Denton Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Paul H. Etherujge Chemist I 

J. A. Galloway Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Roy B. Hallman Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Elliott Harrison Laboratory Helper 

Hugh F. Hayes Chemist II 

12 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Horace E. Heemak _ Calibrator 

Clarence L. Holland, Jr .- Chemist I 

Ira G. Hollow ay Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Edwin H. Hutchins Chemist I 

Herman L. Jones Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Lucy E. Jordan Chemist I 

Richard W. King Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Gertrud Lare -. Accounting Clerk II 

William J. Lee Chemist I 

Robert H. McArver Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Claiborne M. Nixon Calibrator 

Francis W. Oakes. Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

W. T. O'Briant Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Douglas M. Pait Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

William H. Perry .. Calibrator 

Betty J. Phillips __ -Stenographer Clerk I 

Parley B. Rasmussen, Jr Chemist II 

James R. Rivers— Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Milton H. Rowe, Sr -Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

H. L. Shankle Chemist V 

J. T. Shaw Chemist II 

Harry W. Shelton Chemist I 

Ray D. Sigmon Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Koy S. Smith Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

David B. Spivey _ Calibrator 

Fred O. Sumner Liquified Gas Inspector 

Ralph G. Thornburg _"_ Chemist II 

James E. Turpin ._. Gasoline and Oil Inspector 

Leon E. Van Brunt Calibrator 

Bobby M. Wagner.. ..Chemist I 

Mary Jo Warren Stenographer Clerk II 

Mildred B. York Stenographer Clerk II 

Cooperative Inspection Service 

Eldridge C. Price Marketing Specialist II 

Peggy Y. Smith Accounting Clerk II 

Egg Marketing Act 

Stuart A. Glover, Jr Marketing Specialist II 

Lilliam T. Isley Stenographer Clerk II 

Cecil R. Register Marketing Specialist II 

State Warehouse System Supervision 

A. B. Fairley Warehouse System Superintendent 

Hazel K. Cobb Clerk II 

Hallie K. Morrow Stenographer Clerk II 

Frank C. Person Warehouse Examiner 

Martha E. Swindell Stenographer Clerk II 

Credit Union Supervision 

W. V. Didawick Credit Union Administrator 

A. S. Bynum Fiscal Examiner II 

Howard L. Pijahn Fiscal Examiner II 

Edward H. Sessom _. Fiscal Examiner II 

John T. Simpson Fiscal Examiner II 

Structural Pest Control Commission 
Harry B. Moore, Jr Entomologist III 

Distribution of Surplus Commodities 

James A. Graham Manager Farmer's Market 

Elizabeth M. Boykin . Secretary 




By L. Y. Ballentine 
Co minis sioner of Agriculture 

North Carolina agriculture is going through a transition period 
which began shortly after the end of World War II. The nature 
of agriculture is such that any radical readjustments are some- 
what slow in coming about, and we can expect to remain in a 
transitory stage for years to come. Nevertheless, during the 
past two or three years the changes have accelerated in pace and 
broadened in scope. 

This is a very gratifying development. The state's agriculture 
has been shifting toward a position where it can begin more fully 
and efficiently to utilize our great resources of soils, climate 
and farming people. But, of course, the many changes have had 
their impact on the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. 
They have made new demands on the Department, and called 
for expansion of traditional activities. 

Much of this new or expanded work has been carried on with 
little or no increases in funds or personnel. This achievement 
has been due, in large measure, to two factors. One is increased 
efficiency made possible by the construction of badly needed 
facilities. The other, and most important, has been the dedi- 
cated loyalty of Department employees who have exerted them- 
selves "beyond the call of duty" to meet the demands. 

Further complicating and adding to the work of the Depart- 
ment and the Board of Agriculture have been the rapidly chang- 
ing technologies which have a direct bearing on the Department's 
regulatory and service work. In the dairy industry alone, for 
instance, new methods for handling milk at the farm, and new 
processes or products developed by dairy distributors, have call- 
ed for a great deal of effort in formulating regulatory measures 
and procedures. New methods for the manufacture and delivery 
of feeds and fertilizers have posed problems of inspection from 
the standpoint of both quality and quantity of these products. 

These are but illustrations of the types of changes which are 
calling for increasing work and study on the part of Department 

14 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

personnel and members of the Board of Agriculture. They are 
referred to in more detail in chapters of this report prepared by 
the heads of the various divisions responsible for these phases 
of the work. This section of the report will be devoted to the duties 
and activities which devolve more directly upon the Commission- 
er of Agriculture, some general departmental activities not cover- 
ed in other sections, and a review of some new responsibilities 
placed in the Department by the General Assembly of 1957. 

Activities of the Commissioner 

As agricultural problems and programs increase, so does the 
necessity for the Commissioner of Agriculture to work with 
other agencies dealing with agricultural problems at state, inter- 
state, and federal levels. At present, the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture for North Carolina is chairman of the Transportation 
Committee of the National Association of State Departments 
of Agriculture and a member of that Association's executive 
committee. He is also a member of the Advisory Committee on 
Cooperative work under the Agricultural Marketing Act with 
State Departments of Agriculture, the Agricultural Advisory 
Committee of the Democratic National Committee, and the Agri- 
culture Department Committee of the Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States. 

At the state level, he is a member of the Governor's Farm 
Advisory Committee, a director of the Agricultural Foundation 
of North Carolina State College, a member of the North Carolina 
Cotton Promotion Committee, and chairman of the North Caro- 
lina Committee on Migrant Labor. 

By legislation, the Commissioner of Agriculture is also chair- 
man of the State Board of Agriculture, the State Board of Gaso- 
line and Oil Inspection, and the Board of Directors of the North 
Carolina Agricultural Hall of Fame. He is a member of the 
North Carolina Milk Commission and of the Crop Seed Improve- 
ment Board. He is also charged with the responsibility for 
licensing and inspecting all agricultural fairs held in the state; 
and for regulating, licensing and inspecting all North Carolina 
rendering plants. 

All of these activities, whether in cooperation with govern- 
ment or non-government agencies, and whether voluntary or 
required by law, have an important bearing on North Carolina's 
agricultural welfare. The names of these committees or agen- 

Report for 1956-58— Administration 15 

cies indicate their character and the importance of their acti- 
vities to the state. 

Certain laws also require other Department personnel to parti- 
cipate in the work of independent agencies. One of these makes 
the Commissioner and the head of the Department's Seed Test- 
ing Division members of the Crop Seed Improvement Board. 

Another provides that the Governor shall appoint two members 
from the Department to the Structural Pest Control Commission 
and that one of these shall be from the staff of the Department's 
Entomology Division. By appointment, Dr. D. L. Wray has 
represented the Entomology Division, and Assistant Commis- 
sioner John L. Reitzel has represented the Department at large, 
since the Commission was established in 1955. Dr. Wray has 
served as secretary to the Commission since it was established. 
However, shortly after the end of this biennium Mr. Reitzel was 
elected to that office for the ensuing year. 

The law enacted in 1953 to license and regulate rendering 
plants authorized the Commissioner of Agriculture to designate 
a member of his staff to serve on a committee charged with 
making regulatory recommendations and rendering plant in- 
spections. Dr. H. J. Rollins, State Veterinarian, has represent- 
ed the Department on this committee since 1953. This law au- 
thories the Commissioner of Agriculture to adopt the regulations 
governing rendering plants, of which there are now 13 licensed 
in the state. 

Near the end of the 1954-56 biennium, the Board of Directors 
of the Agricultural Hall of Fame set up standards for the select- 
ion of individuals to be given recognition in the Hall, and de- 
signated a room in the Agriculture Building for its location. In 
May, 1957, Colonel Leonidas LaFayette Polk, first North Caro- 
lina Commissioner of Agriculture and leader of the National 
Farmers Alliance, was chosen as the first member of the North 
Carolina Agricultural Hall of Fame. As this biennium draws 
to a close, plans are under way for converting into a suitable 
shrine the room selected for the Hall of Fame. 

Supervision of agricultural fairs in the state continues to be 
an effective tool in preventing the abuse of the name "fair" by 
undesirable fly-by-nights. Under state law and regulations, the 
term fair must apply to bona fide agricultural and industrial 
expositions. Those classified as commercial (that is, charging 
admission or operating any traveling shows or games) must be 
licensed by the Department of Agriculture. There were 79 fairs 

16 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

licensed in 1956, and 77 in 1957. All of these fairs were inspect- 
ed ; and only one fair in 1956, and two in 1957, failed to meet the 
minimum standards and qualifications for re-licensing in the 
succeeding year. 

Commodity groups are continuing to take advantage of the 
state law which permits them to place assessments on their prod- 
ucts, when these are approved in referendums authorized by 
the State Board of Agriculture. The assessments are for the 
purpose of raising funds to promote the use and sale of such prod- 
ucts. Personnel of the Department of Agriculture assist such 
groups in launching these programs, and for several of them 
the Commissioner of Agriculture collects the assessments 
through the Department's Accounts Division. The North Caro- 
lina Peanut Growers Association chose this method of collection, 
and during the 1956-58 biennium, a total of $110,136.92 was col- 
lected and turned over to this association. 

Peach growers held a successful referendum in May, 1956, and 
authorized the Commissioner to collect the assessment of one 
cent for each tree in commercial peach orchards. Collections 
turned over to the North Carolina Peach Growers Society, Inc., 
during this biennium amounted to $5,861.90. 

During this biennium, the North Carolina Cotton Promotion 
Association and the North Carolina Cattlemen's Association re- 
quested and received authorization from the Board of Agri- 
culture to hold similar referendums. In both cases the assess- 
ments were approved by the required two-thirds majority of 
those voting. The cotton assessment became effective Septem- 
ber, 1957, and by the end of the current biennium the assess- 
ments collected totaled $21,270.90. The assessment on beef cat- 
tle sold for slaughter became effective April 1, 1958, and by the 
end of the biennium $3,617.40 had been collected. 

In 1957, North Carolina farmers for the third time overwhelm- 
ingly approved the "Nickels-for-Know-How" program. This is 
the popular name for a program authorized by state law under 
which farmers may vote an assessment of five cents a ton on all 
feed and fertilizer sold in the state to raise funds for the pur- 
pose of supplementing agricultural research and dissemination 
of research information. The law provides that referendums on 
the question of continuing the assessment be held at three-year 
intervals. The State Department of Agriculture serves as the 
collecting agency for these "nickels". During this biennium, 
"Nickels-for-Know-How" collections total $275,946.67. This 

Report for 1956-58 — Administration 17 

money was turned over to the Agricultural Foundation at N. C. 
State College, which administers the fund. 

New Legislative Responsibilities 

Technological changes in agricultural production and process- 
ing frequently make it necessary to re-appraise the legal and regu- 
latory measures designed to protect the farmer and consumer. 

A typical case is afforded by the flue-cured tobacco situtation 
at the beginning of this biennium. New methods of processing 
tobacco, and new types of cigarets, caused a shift away from 
light-bodied tobaccos to heavier types. In the meantime, several 
varieties had been developed which were high yielding but which 
had undesirable qualities in the light of the changes in consumer 
demand. Late in 1956, the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture an- 
nounced price support discounts, or penalties, on these varieties. 
The immediate result was a surplus of seeds of these penalized 
varieties and a shortage of seeds of the acceptable types. Inas- 
much as a tobacco variety cannot be determined by a visual ex- 
amination of its seed, it soon became apparent that some amend- 
ments to the Seed Law were needed to afford greater protection 
for the farmer in variety labeling of flue-cured seeds. 

The state Board of Agriculture, at the request of the Depart- 
ment's Seed Testing Division, the N. C. Experiment Station, and 
the North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, sponsored 
legislation designed to provided needed safeguards. These were 
enacted into law on April 9, 1957. 

In brief, these amendments provide : 

(1) That any flue-cured variety offered for sale in the state 
must be recorded with the Commissioner of Agriculture before 
November 1 each year. The same designation must be used 
for each variety recorded as was used when the variety was first 
sold or recorded officially with an agency responsible for the 
enforcement of a State Seed Law. 

(2) That a one-ounce sample of seed of each variety must be 
furnished the Commissioner at the time of recording. These 
samples are for planting in verification tests. 

(3) That the Commissioner accept for recording only those 
flue-cured varieties which have been declared by the Tobacco 
Seed Committee to be correctly identified. The Tobacco Seed 
Committee consists of four ex-officio members from the North 
Carolina Experiment Station and three persons appointed by the 

18 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Commissioner of Agriculture to represent the seed trade, the seed 
producers, and the farmers at large. 

A new law enacted in 1957 permits processors of meat and 
meat products to enter into voluntary agreements with the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture to have their products inspected for 
condition and wholesomeness under state supervision. To obtain 
this service processors must meet minimum requirements for 
plant facilities and processing methods under regulations adopted 
by the State Board of Agriculture on July 29, 1957. Processors 
pay the cost of the service including the salaries of plant inspect- 
ors and the Department of Agriculture is empowered to add a rea- 
sonable administrative charge. By the end of this biennium 
eight meat plants in the state had come under this voluntary in- 
spection program, and seven others did so shortly after the close 
of this biennial period. 

A law sponsored by the North Carolina Peanut Growers Asso- 
ciation to license and regulate buyers of. farmer stock peanuts 
became effective July 1, 1957. Under this law, any firm or in- 
dividual who buys one ton or more of peanuts from producers 
must obtain an annual license from the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture. A fee of $10 per buyer provides funds for the admini- 
stration of this law. 

While the law authorized the State Board of Agriculture to 
adopt rules and regulations necessary for its enforcement, it 
also stipulates that the Commissioner of Agriculture shall ap- 
point a five-member committee to advise in the enforcement of 
the law and in formulating regulations. The committee, by law, 
is made up of two representatives of North Carolina peanut 
growers, one representative of the Cooperative Marketing Asso- 
ciation serving the state's peanut growers, one member repre- 
senting North Carolina peanut commission buyers, and one repre- 
senting the peanut millers and shellers of the state. 

Regulations recommended by this committee were adopted by 
the Board of Agriculture on July 29, 1957. Under these regu- 
lations all licenses expire on June 30 each year, and each buyer 
must obtain his annual license at least 15 days before he makes 
his first purchase during the effective period of his license. An- 
other regulatory provision requires buyers to retain all records 
of transactions until the first day of October following the buy- 
ing season during which the transaction took place. 

The Plant Pest Law was extensively re-written by the 1957 
legislature to broaden and clarify the regulatory authority of the 

Report for 1956-58 — Administration 19 

State Board of Agriculture and the responsibilities of the De- 
partment as they pertain to the control and eradication of inscets 
and other plant pests. 

Personnel Changes 

On December 15, 1957, Dr. S. L. Tisdale, who had been director 
of the Soil Testing Division for two years, resigned to become 
manager of the National Plant Food Institute's regional office 
in Atlanta. Dr. Tisdale had made a fine contribution to North 
Carolina agriculture, first as Research Associate Professor of 
Agronomy at N. C. State College, and later in maintaining high 
standards of efficiency in the Department's Soil Testing Labora- 
tory. It was with reluctance, therefore, that we accepted his 
resignation — the more so because his new position took him out 
of the state. 

We had the good fortune, however; to obtain the services of 
Dr. Eugene John Kamprath to fill the post left vacant by Dr. 
Tisdale. Dr. Kamprath also came to the Department from N. 
C. State College, where he had been an Assistant Professor of 
Soils. He was graduated from the University of Nebraska with 
a B. S. in 1950 and an M. S. in agronomy in 1952. He did post- 
graduate work in soil fertility at N. C. State College, which a- 
warded him a Ph. D. in 1955. 

As this biennium drew to a close the Department of Agricul- 
ture was saddened by the death of Blackburn W. Johnson, who 
for 10 years had been director of the Publications Division and 
Secretary to the Board of Agriculture. He brought to this posi- 
tion broad experience in newspaper work, having served as a re- 
porter for the Associated Press and for several North Carolina 
papers, one of which he owned and published for a time. He had 
also been editor of the Farmers Federation News, Asheville, N. 
C, for several years, and, for a brief time, editor of the Carolina 
Cooperator, published by the Cotton Association and the F. C. X. 
in Raleigh. Such a combination of journalistic and agricultural 
experience, combined with his high standards of integrity and 
warm personality, made him invaluable to the Department and 
beloved by his co-workers. 

Filling the vacancy left by such a man was not easy. But as 
this report is written, we are glad to announce that a man who 
is well-equipped for the position by background and training 
has been appointed to this post. Elwood Mintz, who takes over 
the duties as head of the Publication Division on September 8, 
1958, comes to the Department from the N. C. Agricultural Ex- 

20 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tension Service, where he has been assistant publications editor 
for the past four years. He was born and reared on a Bruns- 
wick County farm and was graduated from the University of 
North Carolina with an A.B. degree in 1950. His earlier experi- 
ence includes several years of teaching school and two years as 
safety representative for the Department of Motor Vehicles. 

State Board of Agriculture 

The State Board of Agriculture is the regulatory and policy- 
making body for the Department of Agriculture. Its 10 mem- 
bers are appointed by the Governor for staggered terms of six 
years, and the law requires that they represent the major sec- 
tions of the state and various types of agricultural production. 
They serve without compensation, except for the days they are 
in session. 

During this biennium Board members, too, have borne the 
brunt of fast-changing agricultural and technological problems 
of the Department of Agriculture. Many complicated techni- 
cal matters have required their study and consideration, both 
during and between meetings of the Board. 

North Carolina is particularly fortunate in its Board of Agri- 
culture. The Commissioner and personnel of the Department 
of Agriculture, as well as the farmers and other citizens of this 
state, are deeply indebted to this group of men for the public 
service which they have given freely, and for the wisdom and 
impartiality they have brought to the offices they hold. 

During the 1956-1958 biennium, the State Board of Agriculture 
held 11 meetings and was in session 12i/2 days. 

Following is a brief list of the meetings which indicates the 
wide variety of subjects requiring the Board's consideration and 

1956-1958 Biennium 

July 26, 1956, 

Test Farm 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell. 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips. 

Heard report on auction of Old Piedmont Test Farm at 
Statesville, June 15, 1956. Adopted motion to commend 
Commission appointed to handle sale. 

Warehouse Loans Approved loan of $137,500 from Warehouse Fund to States- 
ville Elevator Co. for erection of grain elevator. 

Approved loan of $13,000 from Warehouse Fund to Farmers 
Bonded Warehouse, Inc., Wagram, N. C. 

Approved loan of $23,000 from Warehouse Fund to D. D. 
McCall and H. C. Council, St. Pauls, N. C. 

Approved loan of $25,000 from Warehouse Fund to Sandhill 
Bonded Warehouse, Inc., Southern Pines, N. C. 

Budget Requests 

October 15, 1956, 

Tidewater Re- 
search Station 
Easement for 
Telephone Line 

Bottling Non- 
Milk Beverages 
in Dairy Plants 

Ice Milk in Open 

October 16, 1956, 
State Fair 

Heard heads of divisions of Dept. explain proposed budget 
requests for the 1957-59 biennium. Approved budget. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. 

Approved easement granting right of way to Carolina Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company for telephone line and poles 
across Tidewater Research Station. 

Held public hearing and amended regulations to permit 
bottling of non-carbonated citrus juices in plant bottling 
Grade A milk. 

Held public hearing on proposal to permit ice milk to be 
served in open containers for immediate consumption. 
Deferred action. 

Attended opening of N. C. State Fair. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, J. H. Poole. 

Approved loan of $88,000 from Warehouse Fund to Fred 
Webb, Greenville, N. C, for construction of 250,000-bushel 
grain elevator. 

Dairy Regulations Held public hearing on amendments to Dairy Regulations: 
(1) Multi-vitamin milk and fortified skim milk — appointed 
a committee to recommend regulatory measures. (2) Defi- 
nitions of cottage cheese and creamed cottage cheese — 
adopted definitions. (3) Reports from butterfat testers — 
adopted regulation. (4) Licensing milk samplers — adopted 
regulation. (5) Procedures for sampling milk from farm 

bulk tanks deferred action. (6) Condemnation of worn 

or corroded equipment for manufacturing frozen desserts — 
adopted. (7) Requiring submission of plans for alteration 
or construction of ice cream or frozen dessert establish- 
ments — adopted. (S) Regulations to permit operation o* 
mobile frozen dessert units — deferred. 

January 14, 


Warehouse Loan 


N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Bologna, Frank- 
furters and 
Smoked Sausage 
— Definition 

Tobacco Seed 

Piedmont Test 
Farm, States - 


Soybean Cyst 

February 18, 1957, 

Tobacco Seed — 
Amendments to 
Seed Law 

Seed Potato Law 

"Nickels For 

Ice Milk in Open 

Vitamins in 

Dairy Regulations 
■ — Sampling from 
Farm Bulk 

Warehouse Loan 

Mobile Frozen 
Dessert Units 

News & Observer 
Farm Income 

April 8 and 9, 
1957, Raleigh 

Held public hearing and adopted regulation to define and 
limit the amount of cereal and dried milk solids in bologna, 
frankfurters and smoked sausage. 

Appointed committee to draft amendments to seed law for 
purpose of tightening provisions for labeling tobacco seed 
as to variety. 

Received report on land sold and remaining unsold at Old 
Piedmont Test Farm, Statesville. 

Heard report from C. H. Brannon, State Entomologist, on 
discovery of new pest known as "Witchweed" (Striga) in 
four counties of North Carolina. 

Heard report from C. H. Brannon on new discoveries of 
soybean cyst nematode in Tennessee and Missouri. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Hoyle C. 
Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, Charles F. Phil- 
lips, J. H. Poole. 

Heard and approved recommendations of committee ap- 
pointed January 14 on amendments to seed law providing 
for registration of tobacco seed varieties. 

Heard and approved proposal to amend seed potato law to 
require notification to Department as to disposition of 
potatoes found in violation of the law and as to anticipated 
shipments of seed potatoes; also to make illegal the posses- 
sion of un-official seed potato tags. 

Authorized "Nickels for Know-How" referendum to be held 
in 1957. 

Received request from counter-freezer operators for action 
on proposal to permit sale of ice milk for immediate con- 
sumption in open containers. Also heard opposition to 
this proposal from representatives of N. C. Dairy Products 
Association. Deferred action for further study. 

Received report of committee appointed Jan. 14 on recom- 
mended definition for fortified skim milk, but committee 
requested more time to prepare a definition of multi-vitamin 
whole milk. Voted to defer action on fortified skim milk 
until it could be considered with definition for multi-vitamin 
whole milk. 

Adopted regulations specifying procedures for sampling 
milk from farm bulk tanks on six months trial basis. 

Approved increasing by $6,000 the loan to D. D. McCall and 
H. C. Council, St. Pauls, N. C, approved on July 26, 1956. 

Considered further the request to adopt regulations to 
permit operation of mobile frozen dessert units. Deferred 

Voted to go on record as endorsing the Raleigh News & 
Observer's Farm Income Contest, and urging organizations 
and individuals in the various counties to supplement and 
support this program. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole. 

Report for 1956-58 — Administration 

State Pair Audit 

State Fair, Ap- 
pointment of 

Japanese Beetle 

Milling Grade 
of Corn 

Vitamins in 


Received Report on Audit, North Carolina State Fair, for 
the period January 1, 1956, to December 31, 1956. 

Reappointed Dr. J. S. Dorton as Manager of the North 
Carolina State Fair for the next 12 months. 

Amended regulation to extend Japanese Beetle Quarantine 
to 10 new counties. 

Held public hearing and established standards for a mill- 
ing grade of corn. 

Received report of committee appointed on January 14 to 
recommend regulatory measures, and adopted regulations 
on a six-month trial basis, governing Fortified Grade A 
Skimmed Milk and Grade A Vitamin-Mineral Fortified Milk. 

Held public hearing and adopted regulations and standards 
for dietary beverages made with non-nutritive sweeteners. 

ice Milk in Open Adopted regulations governing the sale of ice milk in 
Containers open containers when dispensed directly from freezers for 

immediate consumption on the premises. 

Three-pint ice Postponed action on a request from a container manufac- 
Cream Container t U rer to permit the sale of ice cream in three-pint con- 

Legislation to 
License Peanut 

(April 9) 

Cotton Refer- 

June 3, 1957, 

Fertilizer Grade 

Endorsed legislation proposed by N. C. Peanut Growers 
Association to license and regulate buyers of farmers stock 

Certified N. C. Cotton Promotion Association, Inc., as group 
representative of N. C. cotton producers, and authorized the 
Association to hold a referendum among cotton growers 
on the question of levying upon themselves an assessment 
for promoting the use and sale of cotton. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette. Hoyle C. 
Griffin, Claude T. Hall, J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phil- 
lips, J. H. Poole. 

Held public hearing and adopted official fertilizer grade 
list for fiscal year 1957-58. 

Fertilizer Regis- Adopted regulation prohibiting registering as a specialty 
Bomnv ° f £nl es grade any grade of fertilizer which has appeared on the 
official grade list at any time during the five years imme- 
diately preceding such registration. 

Removed From 

Warehouse Loan 

Received application for loan of $55,000 from the Ware- 
house Fund to Shelby Bonded Warehouse. All money being- 
out on loan, agreed to give this application first considera- 
tion when money becomes available. 

Dietetic Ice Milk Adopted definitions and standards for 
made with non-nutritive sweeteners. 

'Dietetic Ice Milk" 

Oxford Research Appointed a committee to negotiate with Oxford Future In- 
^esWcr^ndus- dustries regarding an exchange of land from the Oxford 
trial Site Research Station for a prospective industry. 

July 29, 1957, 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore. Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter. Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. 


N. C. Department of Agriculture 

(Oath of office 

Oath of office was administered in the Governor's office to 
Claude T. Hall, J. H. Poole and A. B. Slagle for appoint- 
ments to new six-year terms. 

Dairy Regulations Held public hearings on proposal to amend dairy regula- 
tions as follows. 

Farm Bulk Milk 
Holding Tanks 

Dispenser Milk- 
shake Machines 

Definition for 
Whipped Cream 
and Table Cream 

Swine Diagnostic 
Laboratory for 
Eastern N. C. 

Meat Inspection 

Fertilizer — Re- 
quest for Ex- 
ception From 
New Regulation 

Statesville Test 
Farm, Commit- 
tee to Lay Out 

State Fair Man- 
ager, Salary 

Peanut Buyers 

October 14, 



Soybean Cyst 


Beef Cattle Pro- 
motion Assess- 
ment Referen- 

Dairy Regula- 
tions — Choco- 
late Milk 

Amendments to clarify, and adapt to modern tank designs, 
regulations for installations of farm bulk milk holding 

Postponed action on proposed regulations to permit opera- 
tion of dispenser milkshake machines. Appointed com- 
mittee to make recommendations at next meeting. 

Postponed action on proposed definitions for "Whipped 
Cream" and "Table Cream Topping" and authorized com- 
mittee to make recommendations at next meeting. 

Authorized Commissioner to appoint a committee of repre- 
sentatives from eastern hog-raising counties to select the 
location for a swine diagnostic laboratory in Eastern N. C. 

Held a public hearing and adopted regulations under new 
law providing for voluntary inspection of meat, meat prod- 
ucts and meat by-products. 

Received request from H. G. Hastings Company, Atlanta, 
Ga., for exception from regulation requiring 5-year waiting 
period before grades removed from official list may be 
registered as specialty. Request denied. 

Authorized committee from the Board to lay out a road- 
way back of an 18-acre tract recently sold from the Old 
Piedmont Test Farm at Statesville. 

Approved increase in salary from $8,118 to $9,054 for Dr. 
J. S. Dorton, Manager N. C. State Fair, amount of increase 
representing equivalent of pay increase granted by legis- 
lature to State employees classified under Personnel De- 

Adopted regulations under new law to license and regulate 
buyers of farmers' stock peanuts. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. 

Adopted regulations quarantining certain areas of the state 
to prevent the spread of a new plant pest known as "Witch- 
weed" (Striga sp.) 

Revised regulation placing a quarantine on certain areas 
of the state to prevent the spread of soybean cyst nematode. 

Held public hearing on proposed revision of nursery regu- 
lations. Postponed action. 

Authorized North Carolina Cattlemen's Association to 
hold a referendum on the question of assessing themselves 
to promote the use and sale of beef. 

Held public hearing and amended Dairy Division regula- 
tions to permit the sale of chocolate milk containing a 
minimum of 2 percent butterfat. 

Report for 1956-58 — Administration 



Milkshake Dis- 
penser Machines 

Fertilizer Regula- 
tions, Guaran- 
tees of Water - 
Soluble Mag- 

Amended definition of milkshake to require the use of 
Grade A milk in this product. 

Adopted regulations governing operation of milkshake dis- 
penser machines. 

Heard request from fertilizer manufacturer that regula- 
tions be amended to permit guaranteeing percentage of 
magnesium which is water-soluble in tobacco fertilizers. 
Deferred action to permit industry to be heard. 

Fertilizer Regula- 
tions — Registra- 
tion of Grades 
Removed From 

Cotton Assess- 
ment Referen- 
dum Report 

Nickels for 

Know-How Ref- 
erendum Report 

Whipped Cream 
and Table 
Cream Topping 

October 15, 1957 

December 19, 1957 

Appointing Head 
of Soil Testing 

Fertilizer Grade 
List- — Request 
for Reinstate- 
ment of 3-9-6 

Heard request from fertilizer manufacture for modifica- 
tion of regulation prohibiting registration as specialty 
grade any grade which has appeared on the official list 
within a five-year period. Deferred action pending com- 
mittee recommendation and public hearing. 

Received report from North Carolina Cotton Promotion 
Association on results of self-assessment referendum held 
August 23, 1957. 

Received report from Agricultural Foundation, State 
Grange, and N. C. Farm Bureau Federation on results of 
"Nickels for Know-How" referendum held August 23, 1957. 

Received recommendations of committee appointed July 
29, 1957, that whipped cream and related products be re- 
quired to conform with regulations governing fluid cream 
products. Authorized Commissioner to notify manufac- 
turers of such products that they must so conform. 

Attended opening of 1957 State Fair. 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. 


Approved appointment of Dr. Eugene John Kamprath as 
head of Soil Testing Division, replacing Dr. S. L. Tisdale, 
who resigned effective December 15, 1957. 

Heard request for reinstatement of 3-9-6 on official fertilizer 
grade list. Deferred action until regular fertilizer grade 
hearing for 1958-59. 

Dairy Regulations 
— Butterfat in 
Skimmed Milk 
and Buttermilk 

Held public heaing and amended Dairy Regulations to place 
a maximum of one percent butterfat permitted in skimmed 
milk and buttermilk. 

Fortified Milks Made trial definitions of Fortified Grade A Skimmed Milk 
and Grade A Vitamin-Mineral Fortified Milk permanent 
sections of the Dairy Regulations. 

Sampling Proce- 
dures for Farm 
Bulk Tanks 

Made trial regulations governing sampling procedures for 
farm bulk tanks a permanent part of the Dairy Regulations. 

Nursery Regula- 

Adopted new Nursery Regulations, including revised nurs- 
ery inspection fees. 

Piedmont Re- 
search Station — ■ 
Purchase and 
Sale of Land 

Authorized a committee to conduct preliminary negotia- 
tions in connection with offers to buy three outlying tracts 
of land at the Piedmont Research Station in Rowan County, 
and recommended purchase of a 20-acre strip and building 
adjacent to the southeast boundary of the farm. 


N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Sale of Bldg. at Ratified sale of an old frame tenant house at the Upper 

R&s P e e a r rch°sta- in Mountain Research Station, Laurel Springs, 

Sale of Bldg. at Ratified sale of 2-story wood frame barn at Piedmont Re- 

feafcTltaton Search Station ' Rowan Count y- 

Weights & Meas- Held public hearing and adopted regulations setting forth 

tions— Custom- customary standards of weight and capacity measures, and 

ary standards, prescribing standard weight packages for butter, cheese, 

and Regulations oleomargarine and shortening, 
on Sale of Oleo- 
margarine, But- 
ter, etc. 

March 3, 1958, 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. 


Piedmont Research Received report of committee appointed December 19, 1957, 
of a LancT Sale *"° a PP ra * se l a nd for which purchase offers had been re- 
ceived. Approved sale of 23-acre tract to J. W. Hamby for 
$50 an acre, and sale of 4-acre tract to town of Kannapolis 
for $1,000. 

Piedmont Research Approved granting right-of-way easement to Duke Power 
of^WavlSii^*" ^°" *" 01 P° wer li nes connections at Piedmont Research Sta- 
ment tion. 

Visit by Gov- 
ernor Hodges 

Heard brief talk by Gov. Hodges commending the Board 
for their services to the state and urging their cooperation 
with Governor's Advisory Farm Committee. 

Swine Diagnostic 
Laboratory for 
Eastern N. C. 

Approved accepting the gift of one acre of land in Chowan 
County offered by J. Wallace Goodwin as a site for swine 
diagnostic laboratory near Edenton. 

Warehouse Loan — ■ 
Shelby Bonded 

Budget— 1959- 

Approved loan from Warehouse Fund of $55,000 to Shelby 
Bonded Warehouse, Shelby. 

Reviewed proposed requests under "A Budget" for operat- 
ing Department of Agriculture at present levels of service 
and for Capital Improvements. 

May 12-13, 1958 

Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, 
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole. 

Seed Regulations 
Amended — 
Standard for 
Garden Beans 

Amended seed regulations to lower minimum germination 
standard for garden beans from 75 percent to 70 percent, to 
bring this standard into uniformity with federal regula- 

Added witchweed to list of noxious weeds prohibited in 
crop seed. 

Lease to State of Approved lease to the State of North Carolina of certain 
Market 1 Farmers equipment and facilities at Raleigh Farmers Market, to be 
operated by the N. C. Department of Agriculture in co- 
operation with other state agencies in providing marketing 
services to farmers and conducting experiments in the 
operations of farmers' markets. 

Report for 1956-58 — Administration 


Meat Tenderizers 

State Fail- 
Audit Report 

State Fair Man- 
ager Appointed 

Apple Growers 

Department Bud- 
get 1959-61 

(May 13. 1958) 
Fertilizer Regula- 

Grade List 

Discussed with Health Department and industry representa- 
tives requests for regulations to permit the use of tender- 
izers on meat processed in North Carolina. Appointed 
Committee to study the problems involved and make recom- 
mendations to the Board. 

Received report from Department of State Auditor of audit 
for the North Carolina State Fair for the calendar year 

Re-appointed Dr. J. S. Dorton to serve as manager of the 
North Carolina State Fair for another year. 

Certified the North Carolina State Apple Growers Associa- 
tion as the agency representative of commercial apple pro- 
ducers in certain counties; and authorized the association 
to hold a referendum on the question of self-assessment to 
promote the use and sale of apples. 

Reviewed requests under "B Budget" for new or expanded 
activities in the 1959-61 biennium. Approved "A Budget" 
reviewed at March 3 meeting, "B Budget" and "Capital 
Improvements" requests. 

Held public hearing on various proposed amendments to 
fertilizer regulations. 

Adopted official fertilizer 
July 1, 1958. 

?rade list for year beginning 

Minor Elements Discussed proposal to require guarantees of amounts of 
in Fertilizer minor plant foods when these are advertised. Deferred 

Registration of 
Grades Re- 
moved from 


Amended regulation prohibiting registration as specialties 
any grades of fertilizers which have appeared on the grade 
list during the preceding five years, by making this prohi- 
bition apply only to fertilizers sold in bags of 25 pounds 
or more. 

Authorized Commissioner of Agriculture to accept labeling 
meeting federal requirements for the labeling of fertilizer- 
insecticide mixtures. 


Grace H. Malloy 


Financial report of the Department and the various divisions. 

Code 1101 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Summary by Purposes 1957-58 

I. Administration _. $ 39,584.29 

Accounting Office 43,227.01 

Publicity and Publications 37,988.42 

II. Inspection 56,173.53 

III. Markets 344,034.68 

V. Dairy ._ 58,765.10 

VI. Entomology 77,462.81 

VII. Seed Laboratory 83,634.34 

VIII. Analytical 222,310.34 

IX. Crop Statistics ~- 150,632.29 

X. Soil Testing 91,533.72 

XI. Blister Rust Control 

XII. Veterinary 335,541.60 

XIII. Research Stations 490,185.39 

XV. Weights and Measures 89,725.05 

XVI. State Museum 31,761.41 

XVIII. Custodial ___. 18,044.44 

XIX. Miscellaneous 109,495.74 

XX. Rabies 

XXI. Japanese Beetle Control 

XXII. White Fringed Beetle Control 

XXIII. Indemnity Diseased Slaughtered Livestock 

XXV. Vesicular Exanthema 

Deferred Obligations — Transferred 

to 1957-58 

Total Expenditures $2,280,100.16 

Summary by Objects 

11. Salaries and Wages $1,547,930.90 

12. Supplies and Materials 138,889.06 

13. Postage, Tel., Tel., and Express 33,571.72 

14. Travel Expense 178,919.47 

15. Printing and Binding 27,429.93 

16. Motor Vehicle Operation 15,337.07 

17. Light, Power, and Water. 7,189.06 

18. Repairs and Alterations 18,236.25 

19. General Expense 108,081.33 

22. Insurance and Bonding 3,074.38 

23. Equipment 61,952.63 

32. Additions and Betterments : , 34,944.16 


$ 36,744.86 



































Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 29 

1957-58 1956-57 

33. Stores for Resale 19,526.05 15,885.89 

Contribution to Retirement System 85,018.15 72,208.53 

Deferred Obligations — Transferred 

to 1957-58 21,841.00 

Total Expenditures $2,280,100.16 $2,041,924.43 

Less Transfer from RMA 68,855.99 79,373.77 

Less Transfer from AMA 1,898.48 3,716.93 

Less Sale of Land — Balance 18,679.15 

Less Transfer from US DA 

Cooperative Agreement 1,562.94 1,998.17 

Less Research Stations Perquisites 10,591.67 9,744.52 

Less Sale of Land — Piedmont Research 

Station, Iredell County 30,725.00 

Less Sale of Land — Piedmont Research 

Station, Rowan County 2,176.00 

Less Deferred Obligations — 

Transferred from 1956-57 21,841.00 

Less Transfer from Cooperative Inspection 

Service, Code 1803 3,726.00 

Less Transfer from State Warehouse System 

Supervision, Code 1801 3,283.00 

Less Peanut Handler's Licenses 1,840.00 

Less Sale of Automobiles _.. 5,334.93 

Less From Code 3214 — Purchase of Land 

Tobacco Research Station 4,945.00 

Totai $2,128,265.15 $1,923,466.89 


Treasurers Cash— June 30 __ $ 48,199.85 $ 161,027.51 

Investments in Bonds and Premiums on Bonds 103,874.98 103,874.98 

Total Credit Balance June 30 $ 152,074.83 $ 264,902.49 

Code 1101 


July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Fertilizer Tax $ 357,805.51 $ 383,854.72 

Cottonseed Meal 920.85 1,042.96 

Feed Tax 337,269.57 297,689.45 

Seed Licenses 30,394.00 28,981.00 

Condimental Feed _. 8,200.00 4,680.00 

Serum 15,972.37 17,668.98 

Costs 13,400.28 14,855.69 

Linseed Oil 504.09 328.29 

Bleached Flour 7,275.00 7,560.00 

Bottling Plants „ 1,650.00 1,150.00 

Ice Cream 2,445.00 1,435.00 

Insecticides 31,620.00 28,270.00 

Research Stations 139,457.79 148,103.93 

Bakeries 2,550.00 2,660.00 

Chicken Tests 59,738.23 58,680.66 

Seed Tags 19,374.33 25,396.54 

30 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

1957-58 1956-57 

Inspection Entomology 10,021.55 9,098.80 

Oleomargarine 1,150.00 1,250.00 

Land Plaster and Agricultural Lime 23,014.50 22,722.26 

Fertilizer Registration 6.368.00 6,432.28 

Miscellaneous 91.76 10S.77 

Feed Registration 8,256.00 7,738.00 

Canned Dog Food Registration 515.60 390.04 

Lime Registration 375.00 335.00 

Livestock Marketing Permits 6,300.00 5,500.00 

Dog Food Stamps 11,613.01 11,194.71 

Hatchery Fees and Supplies 4,007.05 4.323.30 

Permits for Out-of-State Milk 425.00 575.00 

Anti-Freeze Permits 2,935.00 1,475.00 

Weights and Measures Fees 7,215.00 8,317.50 

Garbarge Permits 713.00 777.00 

Babcock Testers Licenses 232.00 255.00 

Tobacco Curers Tags 602.00 20.00 

Land Plaster Registration 30.00 2,650.00 

Rendering Plants 50.00 

Sampler's Licenses 496.00 246.00 

Interest on Investments 2,500.00 2,500.00 

Total Agricultural Receipts... $1,115,437.49 $1,108,315.88 

Contribution from General Fund '. 900,000.00 798.958.00 

Total Revenue.... $2,015,437.49 $1,907,273.88 


July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 48,189.18 $ 15,148.96 

Revenue Collections 253,347.47 169,404.10 

Disbursements 286,998.54 136,363.88 

Credit Balance— June 30 14,538.11 48,189.18 

Code 19 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 116,758.39 $ 114,496.96 

Revenue Collections 6,607.30 12,849.85 

Disbursements 6,785.43 10,588.42 

Credit Balance— June 30 116,580.26 116,758.39 



Special Fund — Code 51 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 9,300.65 $ 6.978.06 

Receipts— RMA Matching Fund 70,814.06 70,814.03 

Sale of Cars 2,696.00 

Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 31 

1957-58 1956-57 


Markets Division Expenses in Connection with 

RMA Project— Transferred to Code 1101 

Crop Statistics Division Expenses in Connection 
• with RMA Project— Transferred to Code 1101. ... 

Credit Balance — June 30 







Code 56 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 4,750.00 $ 4,500.00 

Receipts — (Cash Bond Deposits) Reporting System 250.00 

Handlers of Farm Products 5,000.00 

Credit Balance— June 30 9,750.00 4,750.00 

General Fund — Code 320 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Revenue Appropriation $ 311,043.00 $ 276,511.00 

Disbursements 299,862.40 258,815.35 

Unspent Balance of Appropriation 11,180.60 17,695.65 

Special Fund— Code 1801 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 21,618.87 $ 22,098.04 


Revenue Collections 34,059.41 33,266.85 

Miscellaneous Collections 333,628.55 878,071.12 


Expenditures 38,719.25 33,746.02 

Miscellaneous Expenditures 333,984.88 878,071.12 

Credit Balance— June 30 . .._._. ____.. 16,602.70 21,618.87 

Special Fund— Code 1802 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Cash on Hand— State Treas.— July 1 ..„._.$ 10,193.75 $ 53,183.83 


Repayment of Loans 42,279.97 22,768.03 

Sale of Bonds 208,255.23 43,241. S9 

Total Availability 260,728.95 119,193.75 

32 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

1957-58 1956-57 

T~)l si") II T*fiPlYlPTl t s 

Loans to Warehouses 260,500.00 109,000.00 

Treasurers Cash— June 30 _ ._ 228.95 10,193.75 

Loans to Warehouses _ _ 612,868.00 394,647.97 

Invested in 2%% U. S. Gov't. Bonds 97,000.00 333,000.00 

Total Worth— June 30 710,096.95 737,841.72 

Special Fund— Code 1803 

July 1, 1956— June 30. 1958 

Treasurers Cash— July 1 $ 78,200.84 $ 32,326.20 

U.S. Treasury Bonds— 2%% Par Value 40,000.00 40,000.00 

Premiums on Bonds 1,175.00 1,175.00 

Credit Balance— July 1 119,375.84 73,501.20 

Receipts 447,623.44 408,435.46 

Disbursements 455,154.98 362,560.82 

Credit Balance— June 30 111,844.30 119,375.84 

Special Fund — Code 1804 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 8,918.09 $ 5,210.92 

Receipts _ 19,702.34 19,076.50 

Disbursements ._....: 15,206.79 15,369.33 

Credit Balance— June 30 13,413.64 8,918.09 

Special Fund— Code 1805 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 6,081.89 $ 3,696.05 

Receipts 17,613.00 7,001.00 

Disbursements 8,707.02 4,615.16 

Credit Balance— June 30 14,987.87 6.081.89 

Special Fund— Code 1806 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 5,052.03 $ 

Receipts 80,614.16 61,043.72 

Disbursements 80,691.96 55,991.69 

Credit Balance — June 30 4,974.23 5,052.03 

Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 33 

credit union supervision 

Special Fund— Code 1807 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

1957-58 1956-51 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 4,538.18 $ 

Receipts 37,572.23 32,918.46 

Disbursements _ 35,502.34 28,380.28 

Credit Balance— June 30 6,608.07 4,538.18 

Special Fund— Code 1808 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Credit Balance — July 1 .....% $ 

Receipts .__. 13,382.33 

Disbursements 10,929.32 

Credit Balance— June 30 2,453.01 

General Fund— Code 3212 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Revenue Appropriation $ 945,640.00 $ 908,284.79 


Contribution to Department of Agriculture — 

Code 1101 900,000.00 798,958.00 

Hay Curing Research Project 1,035.80 

USDA Feed-Grain Program 2,102.80 

Distribution — USDA Food Program 1,444.87 

Unspent Balance of Appropriation 45,640.00 104,743.32 


Code 14391 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Appropriation $ 132,938.35 $ 13,259.48 

Receipts 129,100.00 

Disbursements 126,583.96 9,421.13 

Unspent Balance of Appropriation _____ 6,354.43 132,938.35 

Code 1483 

July 1. 1956— June 30, 1958 

Appropriation $ 258,000.00 $ 

Receipts 16,700.00 

Disbursements 90,817.42 

Unspent Balance of Appropriation 183,882.58 

34 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Code 22 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

1957-58 1956-51 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ $ 

U. S. Department of Agriculture Allotment 582.49 48.33 

Disbursements 582.49 48.33 

Credit Balance — June 30 .__ 

General Fund— Code 637 

July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958 

Appropriation $ 3,205.00 

Disbursements _ 1,672.85 

Unspent Balance of Appropriation 1,532.15 


Dr. E. W. Constable 

State Che?nist 

The work of the Division of Chemistry involves administration 
of a group of control laws, the purposes of which are to safe- 
guard the health, welfare and economic interests of consumers, 
to promote sound agricultural and business economics, and to 
curb fraud and unscrupulous or destructive competition. 

As implied by the Division name, chemical and related pro- 
cedures are basic factors in this work to make determinations 
and evaluations. Because of their highly technical nature, these 
are services which cannot be performed generally by the people 

The products covered by these laws are fertilizers and ferti- 
lizer materials; liming materials and landplaster, livestock and 
poultry feeds, pesticides, linseed oils, automotive antifreezes, 
foods, drugs, cosmetics and devices, oleomargarine, flour bleach- 
ing, enrichment with vitamins. The Division also adminis- 
ters the laws regulating application of pesticides by aircraft, 
and inspections of bakeries, bottling plants, other food processing 
plants, storages, vehicles and sales outlets through which these 
products are handled. 

Requirements which apply generally to the products covered 
are that they shall bear specified, factual and informative label- 
ing and guarantees which must be met. It is further required 
that foods, drugs and cosmetics be wholesome and free from 
adulteration or exposure to insanitation, that drugs shall carry 
cautions, adequate directions for use, and in case of dangerous 
drugs, notice of restricted sale. Pesticide labeling must also 
give directions for use, warnings of danger, antidotes and first 
aid instruction when neeeded. Operators in aircraft dusting 
must meet certain qualifications and procure state licenses in 
order to operate legally in the boundaries of the state. 

Summaries of these activities, with other pertinent infor- 
mation are given in the following sections. 

Commercial Fertilizers and Liming Materials 

Samples of fertilizers, fertilizer materials, liming materials 
and landplaster are officially collected from all parts of the state 
by Division inspectors and sent in for analysis to determine com- 

36 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

pliance with guarantees. Inspections include checking for com- 
pliance with labeling requirements and coverage by inspection 
taxes. Analyses are made respectively as follows : for fertilizers 
— the content of nitrogen, phosphate, potash, calcium, magnes- 
ium, chlorine, sulphur, boron, acid-forming qualities, and (re- 
cently added) iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and molybdenum; 
for liming materials — calcium, magnesium, and screen size; for 
landplaster — calcium sulphate. 

Coverage for the biennium was : 

Official fertilizer samples 20,528 

Unofficial samples of fertilizers and 

materials for farmers 87 

Official liming materials — with 

potash and landplaster 226 

Total 20,841 

Details of samples collected and analyzed are published in the 
Annual Fertilizer Bulletins. These results show the products 
to have been generally of standard quality and as represented. 

The direct use on the soils of nitrogen solutions, liquefied an- 
hydrous ammonia and, to a limited extent, liquid mixed ferti- 
lizers appear to have become a fixed practice in farm operations. 
These products are registered, sampled, analyzed, and reported, 
and otherwise dealt with as is the practice with other fertilizers. 

Among the problems which have appeared in the fertilizer 
field are : 

1. The sale of very dilute fertilizer solutions (fractional per- 
centages of plant food), delivered in, and applied to turf from, 
fuel-oil tank trucks during the off-season in the sale of oils. 

2. The sale of fertilizer in bulk, at times delivered and applied 
to the soil by spreader trucks. 

3. The sale of liquid mixed fertilizers, either delivered as bulk 
lots or applied to the soil. 

4. The sale of solutions from compartment tankers which mix 
these as they are applied to the soil. 

5. The sale of materials from cars on railroad sidings, these 
materials moving from car to siding mixer, thence to regular 
vehicles for delivery as bulk mixes, or to spreader trucks for 
direct application to the soil for farmers. 

Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 37 

6. The sale of fertilizers as "buyers' mixes". 

The sale of very dilute solutions was stopped both because of 
failure to meet the minimum requirement of 20 units of plant 
food and also because of corrosiveness to equipment. The sale 
from compartment or "mixer-spreader" trucks and tankers and 
from freight cars at railroad sidings appear to be still in the 
developmental or experimental stage. Three of these practices — 
the sale in bulk of liquids and of solids, the delivery of these as 
bulk lots or spread on the soil, and the sale as "buyer mixes" — 
appear to be growing practices. Attendant problems of pro- 
tection and control are now under study. 

Because of increased interest in trace elements in fertilizers 
by manufacturers and users, the provision of the law for guaran- 
teeing additional plant food elements was brought into force and 
arrangements made for adding guarantees for manganese, cop- 
per, iron, zinc and molydenum. Fuller significance of this move 
remains to be disclosed by time. 

The fertilizer inspectors, although they regularly work on 
an "intermittent" basis, returning for each fertilizer season, are 
classified as "temporary", therefore receive none of the bene- 
fits that other employees enjoy. All receive the same pay, the 
lowest in the inspection scale, although a number of them have 
been in the work 10 to 20 years. Request is being made in the 
pending budget for improvement in this status, putting them 
on a pro-rate basis for all considerations extended other em- 

Commercial Feeds 

In line with the provisions of the applicable laws, samples of 
commercial livestock and poultry feeds and canned dog food were 
officially collected from all parts of the state, checked for com- 
pliance with labeling, tax and other requirements and analyzed 
chemically for content of crude protein, fat, crude fiber, urea, 
medication, moisture; and microscopically for ingredients and 
their condition. 

Results of the work show that standards and quality were 
maintained at a normal level. These were reported individually 
and also published in detail in the annual Feed Bulletins. Cov- 
erage for the biennium was as follows : 

Official samples 4,915 

Unofficial samples 343 

58 N. C. Department of Agriculture 
For medication (on above samples) (363) 

Total 5,258 

The annual increase in tonnage of feed sold continued through 
the biennium. The accompanying expansion of sales in bulk 
and as "customer's mixes", as in the case of fertilizers, posed new 
problems in protection and control. It is recognized that absence 
of effective control in these areas is an open invitation for return 
of fraud and unscrupulous competition in this industry. Stud- 
ies toward needed adjustments are in progress. 

Economic Poisons 

Following a period of rapid development and the appearance 
of many new economic poisons, the industry and usages to a 
large extent continue to maintain a relatively constant position, 
but with the addition of new items from time to time. North 
Carolina agriculture calls for a large volume of these products 
as it does of fertilizer. The volume of samples collected and 
analyzed is in proportion. 

The pesticide season naturally falls into the calendar year 
rather than a fiscal year. The pesticide law hterefore places 
registrations and other procedures on the calendar year basis. 
The annual Insecticide Report, in which details of activities and 
results of analyses are given is also on the calendar year basis. 
Therefore, reports herein are on the same basis. 

Results of the work for the biennium 1955-57 show that stan- 
dards were maintained on a normal level and that generally sat- 
isfactory products were supplied to users. Defective products 
were dealt with as prescribed by law. The coverage for the 
two years is as folows: 

Official samples 2,843 

Unofficial samples 27 

Total 2,870 

Some difficulty has been encountered due to bulk sale of pesti- 
cides from broken packages, an illegal practice. Some mer- 
chants, for greater profit or selling advantage, were buying cer- 
tain liquid products in 50 gallon drums and retailing them in 
gallon lots, put into any container handy, more often than not 
without the required labeling, directions for use, warnings of mis- 
application and dangers. In addition to this practice being il- 

Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 39 

legal, it resulted in damage to crops, i.e., mistakenly using MH- 
30 as an insecticide on young tobacco plants, the effect on the 
entire plant being the same as when used to stop growth of 
suckers on more mature plants. The practice was largely due to 
lack of information or carelessness and was promptly discontin- 
ued on notice. 

Aerial Crop Dusting 

Purposes of the aerial crop dusting law are to eliminate un- 
ethical practices and irresponsible performances in some seg- 
ments of this business, to allay numerous complaints and group 
moves to outlaw this type of crop dusting, to bring better order 
in this business, to support and maintain the sound element of 
the industry, and to preserve for the farmers of the state a 
useful facility in the production of crops. The law, now in its 
fifth year of operation, although still with some exceptions, 
has largely accomplished these purposes. 

The general turmoil and confusion which characterized the 
industry has disappeared. Complaints now are few. Usually 
these are readily cleared. There still is some carelessness in 
spreading pesticides on property adjacent to that intended to 
be treated. Several court actions have been necessary to en- 
force compliance with the requirements for registration and 
liability insurance coverage. These were effective. Fuller in- 
spection facilities would be advantageous. 

Licenses issued for the biennium were as follows: 

1957 1958 

Contractors 50 41 

Applicators 105 81 

Airplanes 101 76 

Automotive Antifreezes 

Experience in the control of internal combustion engine anti- 
freezes continues on the highly satisfactory level which has ap- 
plied since the law was enacted, 1949. No unethical operators 
have appeared, no spurious products have been found on the mar- 
ket and no complaints on these products have come to the atten- 
tion of the Department. Much credit for this highly satisfac- 
tory status is due the dealers and Oil Jobbers Association of 
the state and to ethical manufacturers for their cooperation. 
Merchants uniformly purchase stocks on authentic evidence of 
current clearance of these products by the Department. 

40 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Registrations were 65 brands for 1956-57 and 74 brands for 
1957-58. These, representing 37 manufacturers, covered both 
the alcohol and glycol types of products. 

Foods and Drugs 

The work of the Chemistry Division in administering the North 
Carolina Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act has been generally ef- 
fective within the limits of the facilities provided for that work. 
It is recognized, however, that this program has not kept pace 
with the state's growth in population and expansion in industry, 
particularly that dealing with foods. Obviously a staff of four in- 
spectors and two food chemists is inadequate to fully cover the 
expanded needs in safeguarding the state's food supply. 

These facts are set forth in the current budget and requests 
are made for the addition of two food chemists and two food 
inspectors as at least a tentative measure toward a more ade- 
quate food control program. 

Among the provisions of the food laws is the requirement that 
foods shall be composed of sound and wholesome raw materials, 
that they be stored, handled and processed in a fully sanitary 
manner and that environment, housing, equipment, vehicles and 
other facilities be kept and used in a manner to preclude ex- 
posure that may result in contamination. 

In order to determine compliance with these requirements, 
regular and systematic inspections are made of these facilities 
and written reports made accordingly. Defects of a minor nature 
usually are corrected by calling attention to them and giving 
information on requirements. Major defects or bad conditions 
may require stoppage of operations until corrections are made, 
embargoing and diverting products to other channels of use, de- 
naturing and destroying unfit products, or other appropriate ac- 
tions according to circumstances. Actions under these headings 
are summarized as follows : 

Food Plant Inspections 

Bakeries and Doughnut Plants 2,136 

Bottling Plants 1,184 

Other types of plants (processing and packaging 
meats, pickles, seafood, flour, meal, candy, po- 
tato chips, fruits and vegetables, etc.) 2,528 

Total 5,848 

Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 41 

Plant Operations Suspended 

Bakeries 29 

Bottling Plants 12 

Others (as per preceding tabulation) 76 

Total 117 

Among the many ways in which the food supply may become 
unwholesome, fraudulent or dangerous to health are contami- 
nation with poisonous or deleterious substances, insanitation, 
decomposition, exposure to vermin, products from diseased ani- 
mals, misrepresentation, abstraction of valuable constituents or 
substituting with cheap or worthless diluents. Among the most 
insidious types of adulteration is insanitation and contamination 
with bacteria. These often are the cause of sickness. 

In addition to food plant inspections, basic procedures for de- 
tecting adulteration are analyses (chemical, physical and other- 
wise) of official samples. Because of the great volume of food 
on the market, the greatest effectiveness of work is dependent 
on the critical judging and selecting of significant official sam- 
ples. Further information derives from reports and complaints 
made by consumers and dealers and from unofficial samples sub- 
mitted by them. 

The activities of the biennium included the handling and check- 
ing of 2,264 samples, representing products both satisfactory 
and unsatisfactory; 540,000 pounds of foods and 5,000 bottled 
items under 190 embargo actions. These embargoes involved 
all classes and types of foods — canned goods, beverages, fruits, 
vegetables, bakery products, sugar, spices, meats, candies, milk 
products, etc. — and for various reasons such as spoilage, in- 
sanitation, contamination by insects, rodents, worms and other 
vermin, storm and fire damage, etc. On a year-to-year basis, 
statistical data of this nature will vary broadly since a single 
heavy storm or flood, a large warehouse fire or the wrecking of a 
produce train can alter the picture overnight by thousands of 
items or millions of pounds. 

Each year has its quota of losses from fires, storms, floods and 
wrecks. Fortunately, this type of loss during the biennium was 
relatively small, and mostly limited to minor fires, occurring 
in shopping centers, markets and bakeries. 

The integrity of drugs as to quality, composition, and factual 
labeling can be determined only by chemical analysis. This is 

42 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

the basis for the part of the law which applies to drugs. The 
"boot-legging" or illegal sale of dangerous and habit-forming 
drugs also is a constant danger. The Department's facilities for 
work in this field is limited, but every effort is made to curb 
such activities and afford maximum protection. This work at 
times is carried on cooperatively with the U. S. Food and Drug 
Administration, since this class of drugs is produced largely in 
other states and moves in interstate commerce and, therefore, 
is subject to both federal and state laws. 

The policy of cooperation with other agencies permits work in 
certain lines to be carried out on a level of effectiveness not oth- 
erwise possible. In line with this procedure, the illegal sale of 
barbiturates was apprehended and the advertising and sale of 
bogus tranquilizer drugs was stopped. Under six embargo ac- 
tions, stock of plastic fingernail shields, located in various parts 
of the state, were stopped and removed permanently from com- 
merce, since, after being used for a period of time, they result- 
ed in many women losing fingernails. 

Personnel and Laboratories 

Questions of personnel and laboratories has been a part of the 
Division's budget and biennial reports for a period of years. 
Personnel status was somewhat improved in the past biennium 
by the addition of a secretary and a feed and insecticide in- 
spector. A continued need in this line, however, is for more 
adequate help in food inspection and analysis. Provision for 
two inspectors and two chemists are in the current budget 

Laboratory needs are well taken care of by the new space in 
the annex to the Agricultural Building. Current budget requests 
in this respect are limited to need of new and improved equip- 
ment which is necessary in analyzing new pesticide and feed 
medication materials. 



State Superintendent of Credit Unions 

The Credit Union Division was established by the 1915 Gen- 
eral Assembly for the purpose of organizing credit unions and 
supervising their operation. The supervision is to ensure that 
each credit union is conducting its operation in accordance with 
the law so that the members' money will be safe. 

We are now making regular examinations on a ten-month basis 
to all state-chartered credit unions and more frequent follow-up 
visits to those where examination reveals something wrong. 
Persuasion is the chief tool used to correct a bad situation, and 
it usually works. But, where it fails, the Division may use 
firmer methods. 

When embezzlement is revealed by an examination, we have 
been doing the detailed checking necessary to substantiate the 
claim with the bonding company for the credit union. This is 
not a primary function of this office. However, it is given as an 
additional service which is essential but which most credit unions, 
being non-profit organizations, are unable to provide for them- 

Any group having a common bond of association, occupation, 
or residence can organize a credit union in order to have a con- 
venient way to save money regularly, even in small amounts, and 
a place to borrow money at a reasonable rate of interest when 
the need arises. Because of growing interest in consumer credit 
costs and allied problems, many employers are now assisting 
their employees in securing a credit union to finance their pur- 
chase of consumer goods. The credit union loan is by far the 
best and cheapest to be had from any financial institution. 

Almost all of the 232 state chartered credit unions showed an 
excellent growth during the two-year period covered by this 
report. The consolidated figures reveal that the combined assets 
of these organizations increased $5,303,058.53 during the two- 
year period. Loans to members increased $4,597,170.23, and 
liquid assets (investments) increased $1,583,631.03. These 
consolidated figures were compiled from the financial and statis- 
tical reports received from the credit unions as of June 30, 1958. 

This Division has helped to conduct three workshops for credit 

44 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

union treasurers and officers during the biennium. These work- 
shops will pay off in better records being kept by the treasurers 
and in better audits being made by the supervisory committees. 
This will improve the operation of the credit unions and will make 
our supervisory-agency examinations easier and require less time. 


June 30, 1956 June SO, 1958 

Active Credit Unions 221 232 

Total Members 80,043 83,658 

Total Assets $19,241,841.94 $24,544,900.47 

Average Dividend Paid .042% 


June 30, 1956 

Cash in Bank and on Hand $ 2,208,213.29 $ 1,703,626.92 

Loans to Members 13,933,173.62 18,530,343.85 

Investments and Bonds 2,245,634.10 3,829,265.13 

Other Assets 854,820.93 481,664.57 

$19,241,841.94 $24,544,900.47 


Shares $15,310,732.45 $19,867,044.27 

Deposits 1,084,991.67 1,100,242.62 

Reserve Fund 1,226,106.77 1,372,311.40 

Undivided Earnings 658,173.60 537,270.55 

Other Liabilities 961,837.45 1,668,031.63 

$19,241,841.94 $24,544,900.47 


C. W. Pegram 


The dairy industry is developing into big business in North 
Carolina. During 1957 Grade A milk production reached an all 
time high of 837,158,295 pounds, exceeding record production 
in 1956 by 10.3 percent. Fluid milk and cream sales likewise 
were up 5.3 percent over 1956. Milk imports reached the lowest 
level since records were started in 1946. 

Many changes are taking place in dairying. Bulk tanks, 
milking parlors and in-place cleaning systems are being rapidly 
installed by producers. Processing plants are using paper bot- 
tles, short time pasteurizers, automation devices ; and some milk 
is being fortified with vitamins and minerals. Enforcement of 
North Carolina's dairy laws is important, and the Dairy Division 
has attempted to keep pace with the growth and changes of the 
industry by stepping up its regulatory program. 

The farm bulk tank movement has affected the pattern of 
butterfat check testing very materially. When milk was deliv- 
ered in cans, samples were secured at the plant. The farm bulk 
tank system requires farm visits to take official samples, and it 
is estimated that 3,000 farm tanks are in use. Indications are 
that all Grade A dairymen will use them in the near future. 
Samples are also secured by tank routemen, 240 of whom have 
been examined and licensed to perform this service. 

Practically all milk is marketed on the basis of butterfat con- 
tent, which is highly variable. One of the important duties of 
the Dairy Division is to supervise the sampling and testing pro- 
cedures covering 260 licensed samplers and 108 licensed testers. 
The Division has two well-equipped mobile dairy laboratories 
which are used on a year-round basis. The following plan of 
procedure is used: 

1. Inspections of 61 butterfat testing laboratories, with special 
emphasis being given to equipment and apparatus. 

2. Check testing of composite samples which are the basis of 
producer payments. In case errors are found, adjustments are 
required to be made. 

3. Securing and testing of four fresh stratified milk samples, 
either at plant or dairy farm, for the purpose of comparison 
with licensed samplers' tests. 

46 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

4. Observation of sample methods used by licensed samplers. 

5. Training and examining of applicants for samplers' and 
testers' licenses. 

6. Making special investigations upon request. 

7. Mailing to producers official notices of test results. 

Approximately 60,000 check tests were made during the bien- 
nium, involving 1,615 investigations. 

Accurate sampling and testing requires that every step be 
taken properly. Carelessness and indifference have no place in 
this important work and when found, corrections are required to 
be made. 

The supervision given to Babcock tests has resulted in more 
accurate testing and a better understanding between producer 
and buying plant. 

Part of the Division's activities are devoted to the purity and 
wholesomeness of milk and other dairy products. Samples are 
purchased on state-wide basis and delivered to one of our three 
laboratories (one central laboratory in Raleigh and two mobile 
units). Laboratory tests are made for butterfat, milk solids, 
and bacteria. In order to maintain the standards of purity, our 
fieldmen are constantly checking manufacturing practices of our 
processors. A total of 6,583 samples were analyzed during the 
biennium. This work is important to the consumer and makes 
for fair play between competitors. 

Adulteration of milk by the addition of water is an ever pres- 
ent threat to the industry. Usually it is caused by carelessness 
and indifference. The use of farm bulk tanks and pipeline milk- 
ers has aggravated this threat. An aggressive analysis pro- 
gram is being carried on, in cooperation with local health de- 
partments and industry. Since the freezing point of milk is one 
of its most constant physical properties, variations from the nor- 
mal are used in detecting the adulteration of milk with water. 
The cryoscope is an apparatus used for accurately measuring the 
freezing point of milk. An improved type has been installed in 
the central laboratory, which has made for more rapid determina- 

In December 1958, the Board of Agriculture provided for the 
sale of fortified vitamin mineral milk. This new product has 
offered additional problems in regard to labeling and assays. 
To determine that the declared vitamin and mineral additions 
are present, it is necessary to submit samples to an out-of-state 

Report for 1956-58 — Dairy 47 

biological laboratory for complicated assays. At present, 24 
plants are offering these products to the public. 

The matter of correct labeling of cartons occupies much time. 
The objective is to secure accurate and prominent labeling of 
milk and other dairy products in order that the consumer may 
fully understand exactly what he is buying and by whom it was 
processed or manufactured. For instance, one may easily confuse 
ice milk with ice cream. Enthusiastic salesmen and advertising 
personnel have presented many technical problems in regard to 
our labeling laws. Much progress has been made through cooprea- 
tion from the dairy industry and carton manufacturers. 

Another important phase of the work of the Dairy Division is 
administering the ice cream and frozen desserts law. This in- 
volves 60 wholesale establishments, and 250 retail "soft serve" 
plants which sell their product direct from the freezer to the 
consumer. The estimated production in 1957 was as follows : 


Ice Cream 12,825,000 

Ice Milk 5,802,000 

Milk Sherbet 756,000 

Water Ice 1,578,000 

North Carolina ranks 16th among the states in the manufac- 
ture of these products. This supervision service is devoted en- 
tirely to consumer protection. As shown in the statistical sum- 
mary at the end of this chapter, approximately 1,600 field inspec- 
tions were made along with nearly 3,000 complete chemical and 
bacterial analyses. All manufacturers are licensed; and annual 
license fees of $20 are paid by wholesale plants, and $5 by "soft 
serve" operators. License and permit fees collected during the 
biennium totaled $7,144. 

The Milk Import Law requires that before milk or cream may 
be brought into the state permits must be obtained from the 
Commissioner of Agriculture by both the receiver and the out-of- 
state shipper. Enforcement of this law has provided higher 
quality milk to the consuming public. The dairy industry has 
cooperated by using available surplus milk before making appli- 
cation for out-of-state permits. This has made for higher returns 
for dairy farmers. 

Fluid milk imports totaling 5,701,000 pounds during 1957 were 
at the lowest level since records were started in 1946. Imports 
in 1956 were 11,560,000 pounds. 

48 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The Dairy Division makes every effort to cooperate with all 
agencies interested in promoting quality, protecting the consum- 
er, and rendering service toward building a greater dairy in- 

One of the Division's cooperative duties is making butterfat 
tests for the North Carolina Milk Commission. The Commis- 
sion's rules require a minimum of 3.6 percent butterfat in all 
fluid milk offered for sale in this state. To avoid duplication of 
effort, the Department of Agriculture and the Milk Commission 
entered into a cooperative agreement whereby the Commission 
furnishes and equips a mobile dairy laboratory, and the Dairy 
Division of the Department provides the personnel to run the 
tests. The Division made 2,845 official tests for the Commission 
during the 1956-58 biennium. 

The Dairy Division also makes butterfat tests of milk supplied 
to schools through the school lunch program. It also makes 
inspections of plants supplying frozen desserts to food contract- 
ors serving interstate carriers, such as air lines. This is another 
cooperative project which prevents duplication of effort. 

Cooperation was also given to state and local health depart- 
ments in many fields of endeavor, and every effort is made not to 
duplicate inspection services. 


1954-56 1956-58 

Plant Investigations (butterfat check-testing) 1,199 1,615 

Milk Testers licenses issued 106 125 

Milk testers examinations given 36 55 

Milk sampler licenses issued ._ 371 

Milk sampler examinations given „ 195 

Butterfat Check tests -.39,410 52,710 

Composite check tests 1,479 4,797 

Butterfat tests supervised — - 354 1,933 

Butterfat tests for Milk Commission 483 2,362 

Butterfat laboratory inspections 180 

Farm Bulk Tank inspections- 239 

Official butterfat notices sent to producers 3,000 3,500 

Ice Cream plant inspections 1,201 1,592 

Ice cream and frozen dessert samples analyzed 3,106 2,996 

Ice cream establishments closed 5 3 

Processing plant inspections 12 123 

Gallons of milk embargoed 2,855 3,090 

Lactometer tests 5,373 1,218 

Cryosscope determinations 936 4,015 


C. H. Brannon 

State Entomologist 

The activities of the Entomology Division have been widely 
expanded in recent years to meet new or expanded needs. Basic 
legislation, long on the statute books, gradually became inade- 
quate to fully support all of this work. A new Plant Pest Law 
enacted in 1957 gives legal authority for work which has long 
been done, but for which statutory support was ambiguous. 

The Board of Agriculture adopted a new set of nursery regu- 
lations on December 19, 1957, based upon the new Plant Pest 
Law. These regulations, which revise the nursery inspection 
fees, also give specific instructions for the enforcement of the 
law, as applied to nurseries in the state. 

Nursery Inspection 

The annual inspection and certification of the nurseries of the 
state constitutes the largest project of this Division. There are 
now 725 nurseries in North Carolina which must be carefully 
inspected, at least once a year, by trained and experienced staff 
members. Nurseries with difficult plant pest problems, or those 
under the special requirements of state and federal quarantines, 
may require repeated inspections and constant supervision for 
the certification and movement of their stock. 

Nursery inspection alone requires the full-time services of 
three staff members for at least four months of each year. Fees 
must be collected and certificates issued before the nurseries can 
have their shipping tags printed. Each nursery is required to 
have an exact copy of its valid certificate printed on its shipping 
tag. These certificate copies must accompany all shipments or 
movements of stock from the nursery. 

The nursery inspection fees are as follows : 

First acre or fraction thereof $3.00 

Each additional acre up to 10 1.00 

Each additional acre 11 to 20 .75 per acre 

Each additional acre above 20 .50 per acre 

There are 535 nursery stock dealers in North Carolina. Deal- 
ers must file an affidavit with this Division, stating that they 

50 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

will handle only certified stock. The source of their stock must 
also be stated. Movements of truck shipments of nursery stock 
are inspected at shipping points and warehouse centers. Move- 
ments by rail are checked at transit centers by federal inspectors, 
and by state inspectors within the state. Stores handling nurs- 
ery stock are inspected as frequently as possible to see that their 
stock carries certificate tags from the state of origin. North 
Carolina allows entry of nursery stock from other states, pro- 
vided valid certification tags from state of origin are attached. 
Valid North Carolina certificate tags are likewise accepted by 
other states. 


Witchweed is the latest addition to the North Carolina list of 
serious plant pests. First found in this state during the latter 
part of 1956, this parasitic weed is a terrific threat to the basic 
economy of the state and the nation. Witchweed has never before 
been found in the western hemisphere. When and how it reached 
North Carolina has not been determined. It has possibly been 
here for 20 or 25 years, from reports of farmers in the infested 

Where heavy witchweed infestations exist, the corn crop is a 
complete failure ; other small grains and grasses are also attacked 
by the witchweed. 

A rapid survey in the fall of 1956 revealed a well-established 
infestation straddling the South Carolina line in the vicinity of 
Whiteville. Inspections were terminated by frost in the 1956 
survey before a thorough investigation could be made. 

Inspections in 1957 gave the following data : 

Infested counties 8 

Number of properties ... 278 

Total acreage of infestation 23,830 

This situation looked alarming. Meetings with farmers, Ex- 
periment Station, Extension Service, and federal officials were 
frequent during 1957. 

Early in 1957, Dr. Edward L. Robinson was employed by the 
Experiment Station and stationed on the Border Belt Tobacco 
Station at Whiteville for full-time research on the witchweed 
problem. Progress was slow, due to the fact that no work had 
ever been done before in this hemisphere. Results of work done 
in India and Africa, especially the latter, were carefully studied. 

Report for 1956-58 — Entomology 51 

Twelve acres of land were leased near Evergreen, in Columbus 
County, for field tests of any chemicals that looked promising in 
laboratory or plot tests. 

The federal government placed into effect a quarantine 
against the witchweed on September 6, 1957, and the state 
witchweed quarantine, adopted by the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, became effective on October 14, 1957. 

The witchweed is now found on 1,450 properties on 137,710 
acres, located in eleven counties, as follows: Bladen, Columbus, 
Cumberland, Duplin, Harnett, Hoke, Pender, Richmond, Robe- 
son, Sampson and Scotland. 

Congress has recently appropriated $3,000,000 for control and 
suppression of the witchweed because of its threat to the entire 
corn crop of the nation. 

The witchweed is also found in eight South Carolina counties ; 
it is not known to occur anywhere else in the western hem- 

Imported Fire Ant 

The imported fire ant has swept over 9 southern states from 
an infestation located at Mobile, Alabama. This serious pest 
was brought in from Australia, or South America, in about 1918, 
and is now well established on thousands of acres of land. This 
ant, which has a very painful sting, destroys crops, kills young 
livestock and wild life, may kill a young child, and causes painful 
stings to any one attacked. These insects build large, hard- 
crusted mounds which may be 15 inches in diameter and 10 inches 
in height. Blades of harvesting machinery may be badly dam- 
aged in striking these mounds. Over 1,000 people have been 
seriously stung in one day in New Orleans. 

A federal quarantine was placed in effect against this pest on 
May 6, 1958, but North Carolina was not included in this quaran- 
tine, due to the very small infested area in the state. 

The infested areas in North Carolina, all of which have been 
treated, are as follows : 

Brunswick County 12 acres 

Mecklenburg County 218 acres 

Onslow County 1,337 acres 

Total 1,567 acres 

52 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Soybean Cyst Nematode 

The center of the soybean cyst nematode infestation has shift- 
ed from North Carolina to the Mississippi Valley. Large infested 
areas were located two years ago in areas bordering the Missis- 
sippi River in Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi and 
Tennessee. The infestation in North Carolina may have come 
from the Mississippi Valley area. 

Let it be stressed that new discoveries of this pest do not nec- 
essarily mean new spreads. Infestations that may have existed 
for some years, being difficult to find, may have only been re- 
cently discovered. Federal and state quarantines have been in 
effect for some time and are being carefully enforced. 

The infested areas of North Carolina are as follows : 

Camden County . 225 acres 

New Hanover County 1,549 acres 

Pender County 604 acres 

Apiary Inspection 

The queen breeders in the state are carefully inspected each 
year and are issued certificates. Colonies were inspected in a 
wide area over the state in an effort to eradicate disease, where 
possible. Colonies infected with American foul-brood were de- 
stroyed unless, in the opinion of the inspector, the beekeeper was 
safely sterilizing with disease inhibiting drugs or antibiotics. 

The bee inspection program consists in carefully inspecting, 
as mentioned, queen breeders and package bee shippers, as well 
as clean-up inspections in an area or entire county. Inspections 
were made for all those requesting such inspections. Certificates 
were issued to beekeepers whose colonies were to be moved to 
other states, when inspections proved them to be free of disease. 

Inspection data is as follows : 

1956 1957 
Queen breeders and package bee 

shippers certified 12 12 

Colonies inspected 6,984 7,188 

American foul-brood, colonies inspected _ 79 104 

European foul-brood, colonies inspected „ 61 12 

Apiaries inspected 694 568 

Report for 1956-58 — Entomology 53 

Japanese Beetle 

The Japanese beetle has now spread to all sections of North 
Carolina. Therefore, the large trapping and suppression pro- 
gram formerly supported by state and federal funds, has been 
discontinued. However, 10 temporary inspectors were used 
mostly in the western and eastern counties of the state for in- 
spection of shipping centers, nurseries and greenhouses. This 
pest has now taken its place with the boll weevil, Mexican bean 
beetle, various tobacco pests, etc., which are established all over 
the state. It, therefore, becomes a problem for each individual 
or community to deal with according to their own means and 
desires. The money spent upon this pest by the state and fed- 
eral governments is considered well worthwhile since the spread 
of the beetle was delayed for many years. 

White-Fringed Beetle 

There has been no change in the status of the write-fringed 
beetle since the last report, when 26 counties in eastern North 
Carolina were under quarantine. No additional counties have 
become involved, though some additional acreage in the infested 
area has been added. 

Inspections and quarantine enforcement, in cooperation with 
the federal government, is going along very nicely. 

Narcissus Inspection 

Narcissus inspection has continued on the same basis as for 
many years. Growers must make application for inspections, 
which are designed to keep narcissus fields free from nematode 

North Carolina narcissus growers sell mostly cut flowers ; bulb 
sales are not of large volume in North Carolina. 

Inspection data is as follows : 

1957 1958 

Acres inspected 89 110 

Properties infested 2 2 

Insect Collection and Identification 

The vast insect collection of this Division, which consists of 
over a million specimens, is being transferred to modern cabinet 
shelves, which are of the latest design. The old Schmidt boxes, 

54 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

from which they are being moved, will be used for receiving, 
transferring and shipping to specialists for determination. The 
transfers will be completed during 1958, when all specimens will 
be safely stored in air-tight, pest proof cabinets. 


This Division maintains an inspector at Wilmington and Ashe- 
ville to carry out our activities in those areas. The Asheville in- 
spector supervises the inspection of large collecting areas of na- 
tive stock and cooperates with Federal and State Forestry offi- 
cials in the enforcement of the white pine blister-rust quarantine. 
All suppression and control of forest pests is under the super- 
vision of the State Forester. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Much of the inspection, survey and quarantine enforcement of 
this Division is carried out in close, cordial cooperation with the 
Plant Pest Control Division of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, whose local offices are in the Capitol Club Building in 

Experiment Station and Extension Service 

Close cooperation is maintained with research staff members of 
the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural 
Extension Service, in all problems which vitally affect North 
Carolina agricultural recovery. 


John A. Winfield 

If North Carolina farmers had been averse to changes, and 
unwilling to adopt new practices and techniques in their farming 
operations during the 1956-58 biennium, the results could have 
been disastrous. Fortunately, however, customs were cast aside ; 
new enterprises were given a chance and, in general, farmers 
prospered despite the many factors that tended to work against 

It was not an easy task for them. Major adjustments were 
necessary and the large outlays of capital which were required 
in many instances raised the stakes in their "game of chance" to 
almost unthought of levels. Economic conditions made this pos- 
sible for some; impossible for others. 

Weather conditions, always a major threat to the farmer, left 
much to be desired during the two-year period. Optimum condi- 
tions prevailed only for brief periods, and quality and yields were 
materially affected. Such conditions increased production costs 
and served as a hindrance to orderly and efficient marketing. 

It was largely a result of these circumstances that prompted 
Division personnel to use a more direct approach in assisting 
producers and others with their marketing problems during the 
biennium. Appropriately referred to as the "button-hole" ap- 
proach by many who have observed the results of its application, 
it involved making the necessary recommendations for getting 
an efficient job done and the necessary follow-up work to see 
that the suggested recommendations were properly carried out. 
This naturally involved a large number of personal visits to indi- 
vidual producers, buyers and sellers. But by following through 
on the various problems and actually assisting in the elimination 
of them, worthwhile results were obtained. Had it not been for 
the cooperative efforts of Extension Service personnel, research 
workers, vocational agriculture teachers, the Department of 
Conservation and Development, farm groups and others, this 
saturated effort could not have been as effective as it proved to 
be during the 1956-58 biennium. 

Only the surface has been scratched in this endeavor. However, 
two years of experience and proved results of its effectiveness 
have strengthened the hopes of Division personnel that greater 

56 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

and lasting efficiency in the marketing of North Carolina's agri- 
cultural products can be brought about. 

The Division of Markets is appreciative of the splendid work- 
ing relations it enjoyed with other agencies during 1956-58. It 
is the desire of the Division to continue this cooperative approach 
so that greater efficiency in the marketing of all agricultural 
commodities can be realized as quickly as possible. 

Following is a summary of activities for the past biennium in 
the various phases covered by this Division : 


During the past biennium the tobacco industry experienced 
revolutionary changes that affected growers, as well as manufac- 
turers of tobacco products. The rapid changes were brought 
about principally by the shift in consumer preference for filter 
tip cigarettes. These changes reduced the total use of flue-cured 
and burley tobacco resulting in fewer acres planted. 

Changes in buying patterns of companies, and increased use 
of processed tobacco in sheets, also contributed to an uncertain 
market and weakening demand for certain grades. 

The situation at present is the most critical faced by tobacco 
growers since the beginning of the tobacco program, 24 years 

In terms of loss to tobacco growers these shifts have meant 
about a 130-million dollar drop in North Carolina tobacco income. 

In order to offset as much of the loss as possible, every effort 
was made to assist growers in preparing, sorting and marketing 
tobacco to meet grading and buying changes. 

In rendering this service, group meetings were held in coopera- 
tion with vocational teachers, county agents, farm organizations 
and individual farmers. Two phases of the problem are ap- 
proached in these meetings. First, farmers are given a thorough 
analysis of the tobacco situation as it relates to stocks on hand, 
domestic and export disappearances, changes in consumer pref- 
erence and developments in the industry. These factors establish 
the trends that determine the kind of tobacco that will be in 
strongest demand during the coming season, and such analysis 
gives the grower a chance to adjust farming practices to market 

The marketing phases deal with farm sorting and market 
preparation problems. These are subjects of practical demon- 
strations on the farm and in tobacco warehouses. Growers at- 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 57 

tending these meetings are shown a simpler method of sorting 
tobacco into standard grades. Display demonstrations on ware- 
house floors are also part of the service program. In carrying 
out this program during the 1956-58 biennium, specialists held 
221 group meetings which were attended by 6,134 farmers. 

North Carolina statutes require that the Division of Markets 
issue a monthly report of tobacco warehouse sales. During the 
biennium this report was distributed to a mailing list of 1,200, 
including growers, warehousemen, dealers, press, radio, civic 
and farm organizations. 

The North Carolina "Tobacco Report" was prepared and dis- 
tribtued to 6,000 members of the industry each year. Informa- 
tion on prices, trends and other related subjects was also pre- 
pared for newspapers, magazines, radio and TV programs. 

Summary of Other Activities 

1956-57 1957-58 

Warehouses visited 311 310 

Farm organization meetings 18 14 

Civic Clubs 7 14 

Industry meetings * _ _. 14 16 

Radio talks 8 11 

Magazine articles 6 9 

Tobacco organization meetings 15 11 

Cotton and Engineering 

Activities of the Cotton and Engineering Section include serv- 
ices in the marketing of cotton, and technical or engineering as- 
sistance to other commodity sections in the Division of Markets. 

Cotton services are designed to: (1) Preserve the grade and 
quality values of cotton and cotton seed in pre-ginning handling, 
ginning and storage; (2) provide the trade and state agencies 
with laboratory test data on the fiber properties of North Caro- 
lina cotton; (3) improve and integrate the operating policies of 
all raw cotton interests, particularly those of ginners and initial 
cotton buyers; (4) cooperate with and supplement cotton pro- 
grams of other agencies and organizations. 

Of the three factors determining grade values of cotton fiber — 
color, smoothness of ginning, and trash content — the last two 
involve gin processing, and are controllable. Cotton ginners have 
many opportunities to assist their customers in the marketing 
of cotton. As engineers, our specialists are qualified to design, 
erect and operate modern gin facilities and to instruct ginners 
with respect to operating techniques. Their ginner contacts 
afford many opportunities to promote recognition of grade and 

58 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

staple values at the initial marketing level and to assist ginners 
in providing buying and selling services for their customers. 

Within recent years the use of laboratory test results on cotton 
fiber has become essential to efficient cotton spinning and the 
selection of cottons for specific end uses. The Division of Mar- 
kets operates a cotton-fiber testing laboratory and releases, at 
two-week intervals, laboratory reports on cotton from 27 selected 
points in the state. These reports facilitate the marketing of 
North Carolina cotton and increase the demand for it. 

Cotton work for the biennium includes 1,119 gin visits, 110 
cotton mill contacts and attendance at 120 cotton meetings. 

Technical or engineering assistance to the corn milling indus- 
try in North Carolina is a continuing assignment to this section. 
Services to the milling industry are conducted in close cooperation 
with the State Chemist and the Grain Section of the Markets Di- 
vision. Objectives of the program are to : (1) Improve sanita- 
tion in handling and processing corn for human consumption; 
(2) improve the design, construction and use of mechanical 
elements and facilities used by the corn milling industry; (3) 
standardize milling corn procurement activities; (4) elevate 
the operating policies of the industry and allied interests. 

Field procedures are patterned after the cotton ginning pro- 
gram and require approximately 275 mill visits annually. Our 
specialists cooperate with the industry in promotion and develop- 
ment activities. 

The need for technical assistance with pre-marketing opera- 
tions becomes increasingly urgent as agricultural enterprises in 
the state become more diversified and as modern merchandising 
of farm products requires more and more marketing processing, 
conditioning and handling. Practically all commodities require 
some grading or sampling or treatment of one kind or another in 
marketing channels. Farmers' markets, assembly plants and 
buying stations have traffic and other operational problems. 
Practically all use one or more items of mechanical equipment. 
The success and permanency of an agricultural enterprise often 
are determined by the location and efficiency of processors. 

Engineering services provided by this section are designed to 
fill the need between "no engineering" and the professional talent 
employed by heavily capitalized firms and corporations. Our 
services are available to other commodity sections of the Division 
of Markets, all divisions of the Department of Agriculture, and 
other state agencies. 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 59 

Activities of our engineers during the biennium include the 
design of a swine disease diagnostic laboratory, a slaughtering 
and meat packing plant, a sweet potato curing and storage facil- 
ity, a vegetable cooling device, and a method of bulk handling 
and sampling of peanuts. Assistance to the Grain Section in- 
cluded advising on the construction and improvement of 28 stor- 
age and handling facilities, feed manufacturing installations and 
commercial seed processing plants. 


Continued progress is being made in the construction of new 
and additional grain handling, storing and marketing facilities 
throughout the state. 

During this two-year period, six firms built new facilities 
totaling 558,000 bushels of storage capacity. Twenty-five firms 
added 1,469,000 bushels to existing plants. Grain producers built 
3,687,000 bushels of storage capacity on their farms, bringing 
the total on and off-farm storage capacity within the state to 
26,721,000 bushels. Nine firms are planning the construction of 
1,960,000 bushels of storage facilities for 1958-59. 

New and expanded grain storage facilities have increased the 
efficiency in grain handling and merchandising. They have also 
brought about a more competitive and stable market which, in 
turn, has increased the net returns to producers. With more 
storage facilities available in North Carolina, untold dollars have 
been saved and will continue to be saved from freight on grain 
out of the state at harvest and back in for feed during the re- 
mainder of the year. 

Market outlets are not only expanding through new and added 
grain facilities, but also through new and existing feed process- 
ing plants. This expansion has come about primarily as a result 
of sharp increases in the production of poultry, particularly 
broilers. An example of the expansion in broiler production, 
which caused the need for feed processing and in turn resulted 
in expanded outlets for grain, is found in the Rose Hill area. 
Three small feed mills in this area are processing approximately 
1,300,000 bushels of corn per year. This is approximately one- 
half of the average corn production for the county. This rapid 
increase in grain consumption is also seen in other parts of the 

To further expand outlets for the increasing production of 
soybeans, Gurley Milling Company in Selma is building a solvent 

60 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

processing plant; Buckeye Cellulose Corporation in Raleigh is 
installing the solvent process also, and other firms may shift to 
the solvent method for extracting oil from soybeans. This will 
enable processors to meet competitive prices because more oil 
can be extracted and their operations will be more efficient. 

The increase in grain handling facilities resulted in more re- 
quests from firms for assistance in operating elevators, dryers 
and grading equipment. This involved synchronizing the re- 
ceiving of grain with the size and speed of handling by the eleva- 
tor, and with the cleaning and turning equipment. Assistance 
also included checking grain dryers while they were in operation 
and instructing plant operators in the proper use of grain grad- 
ing equipment. In conducting this work, specialists made 557 
visits to grain handlers, elevator operators and processing plant 

To further train operators in the grain business, seven grain 
grading demonstrations were held with 447 attending. Special- 
ists in the Grain Section cooperated with the N. C. Grain Pro- 
duction and Marketing Committee in two Statewide Grain 
Schools with 76 attending, and 18 county schools with 374 attend- 
ing. At the grain grading demonstrations marketing specialists 
also explained the importance of merchandising grain on the 
basis of grade and quality, and discussed commercial facilities 
and marketing methods in North Carolina. 

Specialists cooperated with the North Carolina Extension 
Service in making surveys to determine the need for grain facili- 
ties in the areas of Selma, Kinston, Fayetteville and Rose Hill. 
These surveys included grain production, grain facilities, esti- 
mated operating cost, estimated marketable grain and an estimat- 
ed income. As a result of these surveys, one firm is constructing 
storage facilities for 100,000 bushels, and plans have been com- 
pleted for another with 150,000 bushel capacity. In addition, two 
others, which will have a capacity of 500,000 bushels, are in the 
development stage. 

Requests from commercial firms for grain inspection and 
grading during the harvest period is indicative of the increased 
interest among our grain trade in buying and selling on a grade 
and quality basis. Four additional full-time inspectors were 
placed at elevators during the two-year period. These inspectors 
are paid from the Department's Cooperative Account Fund, and 
all fees for inspections are paid into this fund. 

Inspection of all official moisture meters within the state were 
made each year of the biennium and corrections for accuracy 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 61 

were made where needed. Specialists also trained personnel to 
operate the moisture meters and other grading equipment. 

Another primary function of this section is to certify grade 
and quality of all grains, soybeans and hay upon request from 
commercial grain storage facility operators, feed and oil process- 
ing plants, brokers and handlers of hay. This service promotes 
the merchandising of grain and hay on a quality basis and as- 
sures buyers and sellers of receiving the quality of products 
they purchased. In this work during the biennium, specialists 
supervised the inspection and grading of 10,371 lots of grain and 
made 1,065 condition reports, representing 7,941,351 bushels of 
grain. There were 17 hay inspections made representing ap- 
proximately 170 tons. 

A new program in seed service and marketing is being initiated 
by this section. This program is designed to assist seed cleaners, 
seed handlers, and distributors in processing and marketing the 
highest quality seed possible throughout the state. Special efforts 
will be made to encourage proper seed treatment, seed drying and 
the production of seed specifically for seed purposes. The fol- 
lowing groups assisted in developing this program : N. C. State 
College Extension Service and Experiment Station; N. C. Crop 
Improvement Association ; Seed Testing Laboratory, N. C. De- 
partment of Agriculture; and the N. C. Seedsmen's Association. 

Fruits and Vegetables (Grading and Regulatory) 

The inspection and certification of fruits, melons, peanuts and 
vegetables continued to be a major activity. This service is ren- 
dered to producers, shippers and receivers upon request. Grad- 
ing is done on the basis of established U. S. Standards as adopted 
by the State Board of Agriculture. Buying and selling on the 
basis of established uniform standards is a basic part of orderly 

Properly trained inspection personnel is essential in the per- 
formance of the inspection work. During the 1956-58 biennium, 
141 inspectors were trained, 211 experienced inspectors were 
given refresher courses and nine key-man personnel conferences 
were held by the supervisor. At the peak period, 285 inspectors 
were employed. 

Shipping Point Certifications work for the biennium amounted 
to: 10,500 carlot equivalents of fruits, vegetables, melons, clean- 
ed and shelled peanuts; 305,527 tons of farmers' stock peanuts 
delivered to millers and government warehouses by producers, 
and 27,458 tons graded out of storages for CCC. Inspections at 

62 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

auctions amounted to 1,678,718 packages of various vegetables 
and berries and 837,955 bushels of sweet potatoes. Receiving 
market inspections totaled 883 carlots of various fruits and vege- 
tables for wholesale receivers, and 5,946,832 pounds of produce 
for delivery to military installations and state and federal insti- 

Inspection of string beans for delivery to processors conducted 
at Edenton, Pantego and Washington, and sweet pepper inspec- 
tion work was performed at the Dunn processing plant. 

Regulatory activities were chiefly the enforcement of the Han- 
dlers' Act and the Seed Potato Law. Contracts between pro- 
ducers and processors were checked and approved or returned for 
correction and the financial responsibility clause checked for 
compliance. Approximately 322,000 sacks of seed potatoes were 
checked for compliance with the Seed Potato Law. These meas- 
ures have contributed heavily to the protection of producers in 
avoiding unscrupulous dealings. 

Fruits and Vegetables (Service) 

The greatest needs in fruit and vegetable marketing in North 
Carolina at present are: (1) Better packaging; (2) more uni- 
form quality; (3) reduced handling costs; (4) reduction of 
waste; (5) more effective advertising; (6) assembling quality 
produce in quantity to attract larger buyers. 

During the past two years, the approach to these problems was 
through cooperation with other state and federal agencies, as 
well as with grower and shipper organizations and other groups. 
Close contact was maintained with state and federal research 
projects relating to improved marketing practices in 'fruits and 
vegetables, and the results were applied wherever possible. 

Among the special projects Division specialists conducted or 
cooperated in were : 

(1) Continuing to assist peach growers in their advertising 
program, and assisting in conducting the peach referendum 
whereby growers assess themselves a fee for promoting the peach 

(2) Continuing to assist potato growers in promoting and ad- 
vertising research and other promotional purposes. 

(3) Cooperating with various agencies in planning and pro- 
moting the Raleigh Farmers' Market; making surveys of fruit 
and vegetable production in a 100-mile radius of Raleigh and aid- 
ing in the original market operation. One Division specialist 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 63 

was assigned to the market to assist small farmers in improving 
their grading and packaging. 

(4) Continuing to issue fruit and vegetable bulletins which 
listed the products available, harvesting dates and location of the 
various products. These bulletins were sent to produce buyers 
in 20 states. 

The results of these projects were encouraging. Peach, potato 
and vegetable growers were aware of the necessity to change to 
more modern marketing practices in order to meet competition. 
Along this line, many of them installed modern precoolers and 
improved grading and packaging equipment. 

Other activities during the biennium included : 

(1) Participating in 153 conferences on processing crops. 
These meetings were attended by 2,567 persons, mainly research 
and extension workers, bankers and other farm leaders. 

(2) Assisting 65 county agents with various marketing prob- 

(3) Participating in 74 group meetings of producers, inte- 
grated with research and extension personnel. Attendance at 
these meetings totaled 2,325. 

(4) Assisting 195 producers in marketing or determining 
what crops to produce for market. 

(5) Conducting 288 demonstrations on treating" and bedding 
sweet potatoes, attended by 1,331 producers. 

(6) Assisting regulatory section in making 24 inspections at 
terminal and shipping points. 

(7) Assisting four firms in securing certified seed and in mar- 
keting their processed products or securing contractual acreage. 

(8) Assisting 13 fresh market facilities in installation of 
equipment and improvement of operations. 

(9) Conducting promotional meetings on peaches, water- 
melons, potatoes, onions, snap beans, strawberries, and other 

(10) Taking 80 color slides for use in promoting proper grad- 
ing and packing of vegetables. 

(11) Holding 1,767 personal interviews with producers on 
varieties, harvesting, grading, packing, assembling, and market- 

(12) Assisting 34 vocational agricultural teachers with bet- 
ter marketing practices for future young producers of vegetables. 

64 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

(13) Procuring more than 4,000,000 certified sweet potato 
plants for 163 producers. 

(14) Assisting in starting a new sweet corn project in Halifax 
county and a sweet potato and watermelon project in Bertie 

(15) Continued assistance in the onion marketing project in 
Robeson County and the pepper project in Harnett County. 

(16) Continued to assist Irish potato growers through the 
N. C. Potato Association, Inc., in 13 eastern counties. 


Livestock is an expanding enterprise in North Carolina and is 
becoming more important in the state's agricultural economy 
each year. The Division's aim in livestock marketing is to in- 
crease marketing efficiency so that the present production pat- 
tern can be maintained and our farmers can continue to expand 
and be assured of profitable returns from this important enter- 

Continuing to work closely with other agricultural agencies, 
Division specialists graded and assisted in selling more than 
11,500 head of feeder calves in 21 organized sales during the 
1956-58 biennium. Five yearling feeder cattle sales were held 
in which more than 5,500 head of cattle were sold. Cattle mar- 
keted through these sales were sold in uniform lots by grade and 
weight, and brought producers an average of $2.00 to $5.00 per 
hundred more than local sales averaged for feeder cattle of equal 

Combination fat and feeder cattle sales were held in the winter 
and spring of each year of the biennium. The approximately 
6,000 head of cattle sold in these sales were graded as slaughter 
cattle or feeder cattle and sold in groups. In 1958 a special graded 
sale for fat and feeder cattle was inaugurated at one auction 
where a sale is now being held each month. Special efforts were 
exerted by section personnel to secure out-of-state packer and 
feeder buyers for these sales. Their support, along with that 
from local packers and feeders, contributed much to the success 
of both the fat and feeder cattle sales. Division specialists assist- 
ed producers in marketing over 4,000 head of fat cattle direct 
from farms to packers. 

During the biennium, section personnel purchased through 
sales and at private treaty over 4,000 feeder cattle for North 
Carolina feeders. The purchase of another 4,000 head of North 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 65 

Carolina cattle for out-of-state feeders tended to stabilize the 

Endeavoring to improve the quality of commercial and pure- 
bred cattle in North Carolina, section personnel assisted in con- 
ducting 38 purebred cattle sales in which more than 3,000 head 
were sold. 

Assistance was given sheep producers in organizing and selling 
wool pools in which over 445,000 pounds of wool were sold. Wool 
was collected at Washington, Durham, Salisbury, Asheville, New- 
land, Boone, West Jefferson and Sparta each year. 

More than 23,000 lambs were marketed through 60 lamb pools. 
Pool schedules were arranged, lambs graded and buyers secured 
for the lambs. In addition 2,892 lambs were graded and sold 
through weekly auctions. 

A definite increase was shown in purchasing breeding ewes. 
A total of 4,435 western yearling ewes were purchased and dis- 
tributed to producers during the biennium by use of the revolving 
fund. In addition, 750 western ewe lambs were purchased and 
grown out for yearling ewes, making a total of over 5,200 addi- 
tional ewes. One purebred ram sale was held in which 45 pure- 
bred rams were sold. Section specialists purchased 52 additional 
rams for farmers. 

A new program of live hog grading at hog buying stations and 
auction markets was started in September 1957. Sixteen grad- 
ing demonstrations were conducted at auction markets before 
the grading program was initiated. Six graders were employed 
and trained by Division specialists. At present, this grading 
service is being conducted at 10 points within the state, and 
approximately 50,000 hogs have been graded since the service 
was inaugurated. Assistance was also given with planning and 
conducting 43 purebred hog sales. 

The livestock section also helped in the development of organ- 
ized feeder pig sales, and assisted in assembling and moving 
feeder pigs from the western part of the state to the eastern 
Carolina corn area. 

Grading of beef, veal and lamb carcasses at leading plants 
over the state has greatly increased. Specialists are now grad- 
ing in 14 plants over the state. During the biennium, 32,285 
head and approximately 18,063,310 pounds were graded, using 
N. C. D. A. grades. Packers using this service increased their 
business materially and some of them built new facilities to 
expand and improve their operations. 

66 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

A new service started November 15, 1956, is inspection of all 
meats and meat by-products sold to state institutions. It is requir- 
ed that these products be inspected before deliveries are made to 
ensure that they conform with state specifications. Approxi- 
mately 5,983,507 pounds were inspected during the biennium. 

Continued assistance was provided in improving livestock 
marketing facilities within the state. Many of the packing 
plants were assisted in improving their operations and facilities. 
The beginning of construction on a packing plant in eastern 
North Carolina by one of the nation's major meat packing con- 
cerns is evidence of the increased emphasis being placed on live- 
stock production in this state. This company has already ex- 
pressed confidence in being able to get its entire kill for this plant 
(approximately 250,000 hogs and 35,000 to 50,000 cattle an- 
nually) within the state. The trend in production since an- 
nouncement of the proposed plant indicates that such numbers 
will be available. 

It was largely through the efforts of Division personnel that 
this company was prompted to establish a plant in North Caro- 
lina. Many other state agencies and interested groups also as- 
sisted in promoting its establishment. 

Poultry and Eggs 

The Poultry Section of the Division of Markets made a con- 
certed effort during the biennium to increase its marketing 
services in line with the sharp increases that occurred in the 
production of poultry and eggs. During this period, North 
Carolina changed from an importer of shell eggs to an exporter. 

Along with the increase in shell egg production and consumer 
demand for quality eggs came a greater demand for services of 
marketing specialists in finding additional market outlets, teach- 
ing grading techniques, promoting better care of eggs on the 
farm and assisting with other related problems. During the 
biennium, some 250 producers were visited to observe and assist 
them in their egg handling, grading and packaging methods. 

In cooperation with the Extension Service, 20 egg grading 
schools were held in which approximately 500 persons were train- 
ed to grade shell eggs according to USDA Standards. 

Technical assistance was given six firms in setting up shell egg 
grading services as well as helping in the procurement, grading, 
and care of eggs. Specialists participated in 46 conferences rela- 
tive to egg care, procurement, grading and marketing. 

Report for 1956-58— Markets 67 

Specialists of the poultry section visited 2,315 retail stores and 
875 distributors in checking compliance with the North Carolina 
Egg Law. Assistance was given to retail stores on displays, re- 
frigeration and storage problems, while the distributors were 
assisted with packaging, labeling and candling of eggs. 

The North Carolina Egg Marketing Act was instrumental in 
bringing about the following : 

1. Better quality eggs for consumers through close adherence 
to carton labeling which truly represents the eggs in the carton. 

2. Preventing outside shippers from using North Carolina as 
a dumping ground for low quality eggs. 

3. Encouraging the production of market eggs and making a 
year round supply available in North Carolina, with a surplus 
of such quality as to command the attention of outside markets. 

Mandatory inspection of poultry moving in interstate com- 
merce will become effective January 1, 1959. This has brought 
about an increase in the number of requests for assistance in 
drawing floor plans for construction of new processing plants 
and the remodeling of existing plants. These changes were 
necessary in order for the plants to be more efficient in their 
operations and meet the qualifications for U.S.D.A. Inspection. 
Assistance along this line included : 

(1) Drawing floor plans for 34 processing plants; 

(2) Accompanying USD A Veterinarians and assisting them 
in making surveys for 29 plants desiring inspection ; 

(3) Making 236 plant visits to assist them in obtaining more 
efficient processing, as well as improving their grading 
and packaging. 

On July 1, 1958, nine processing plants in North Carolina were 
operating under U.S.D.A. Inspection. Four of these were under 
Compulsory Inspection and seven had official grading under 
Federal-State Supervision. Resident poultry graders graded 
116,854,476 pounds of chickens and turkeys during the bien- 
nium. A considerable amount of this poultry was sold to the 
Armed Forces. 

Official egg grading was inaugurated during the biennium in 
four places: Armour & Company, Greensboro; Farmers Ex- 
change, Durham; All Star Mills, Inc., Albemarle; and Township 
#3 Egg Producers Association, Shleby. The service at Shelby 
is unique in that it is believed to be the only official grading 

68 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

service permitting the producer to candle, size and pack his eggs 
on the farm under a limited license with USDA grade designa- 
tions. Graders on 20 farms in the area package shell eggs and 
deliver them to a central warehouse where the candler's accuracy 
is checked by a Federal-State grader. Much interest is being 
shown in this project and similar operations are expected to be. 
established in other areas. 

During 1957, marketing specialist participated in the School 
Lunch Egg Program, grading 36,124 cases for the Commodity 
Stabilization Service of the USDA. Grading for state and fed- 
eral institutions during the biennium consisted of 672,504 pounds 
of poultry, 54,522 cases of shell eggs and 41,776 pounds of frozen 

The 1957 Southeastern Egg Grading School was attended, and 
Division Specialists participated on the program. The 1958 
school, which was held at N. C. State College, was the first to be 
held in North Carolina. Specialists cooperated with personnel 
of State College and the Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association 
in making arrangements for the school and in notifying pros- 
pective students. Six states were represented at the school. 

March Egg Month, a nationwide endeavor by poultrymen to 
encourage use of shell eggs, was headed by this section in 1957 
and specialists, in cooperation with the Extension Service and 
the poultry industry, planned, prepared for and carried out the 
plans during March. Approximately 50 meetings, including 
area meetings and area breakfasts, were attended and partici- 
pated in relative to the planning and promotion of the project. 
The main event of the month was the kickoff breakfast, at which 
the Governor spoke. Assistance was also given in planning and 
promoting March Egg Month in 1958. 


The basis of the dairy marketing service program is to assist 
individuals and groups with ideas, materials, and other means 
of seeing the need for increasing milk consumption and of stress- 
ing the necessity of taking action in this direction. Much of the 
work is carried on in public schools where the children, all of 
whom are potential consumers, are more easily influenced than 
when they become adults. The Special Milk and the School 
Lunch Programs offer financial assistance to make milk available 
at a reasonable cost to children. 

Production of Grade A milk in 1957 was 10.3 per cent over 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 69 

1956, and the outlook for continued growth is excellent. Steady 
increase in fluid milk and cream sales continues, but not at the 
same pace with production. 

A total of 467 illustrated talks and demonstrations were given 
to 59,500 school children and 3,500 adults by the dairy market- 
ing specialist during the biennium. The major portion of this 
work was done in 186 schools ; but talks to Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations, civic clubs, professional organizations, teacher groups, 
college classes and other groups were also included. 

One of the outstanding events of the dairy industry during the 
biennium was the dairy exhibition held at the State Fair in 1956. 
In cooperation with other branches of the dairy industry, count- 
less meetings were held and untold hours of work were spent in 
planning and displaying the different phases of dairying in North 
Carolina. In addition to numerous exhibits this successful event 
featured the first State Dairy Princess contest and a visit from 
the American Dairy Princess. Excellent radio, television and 
press coverage added to the effectiveness of this promotion. 

Each year June Dairy Month observance is a cooperative pro- 
motion which increases in importance. The N. C. Dairy Industry 
Promotion Executive Committee, of which the dairy specialist 
is a member, is responsible for much of the initial planning. 
This committee also aids various groups in carrying out actual 
work on area and county levels where the real benefit is derived. 

The State Dairy Princess contest has become a vital part of 
Dairy Month promotion. One of the requirements of a contest- 
ant is that she be a consumer of dairy products. Approximately 
1,000 young ladies, potential homemakers, participated in the 
1958 contest. 

Cooperation w T as extended to professional organizations such 
as the N. C. Public Health Association and the N. C. Home Eco- 
nomics Association, the N. C. Congress of Parents and Teachers, 
the 4-H Dairy Demonstration participants, the School Lunch 
Staff, the State College Extension Service, and many others in 
an effort to increase milk consumption. Though much of the 
work is done individually, there are many times when more 
effective results can be realized by pooling resources with other 
groups who are interested in public welfare. Consumption of 
dairy products in adequate amounts is tremendously important 
to the welfare of the public and the dairy farmer. 

Promotion and other programs are proving effective as indi- 
cated by the increased consumption of milk by children to 120,- 
201,412 half pints in 1957-58 as compared with 71,555,547 half 

70 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

pints in 1953-54. Over-all sales of fluid milk and cream have 
also shown a steady increase. Figures for 1957 show an increase 
of 5.3 per cent over 1956. 


In response to requests, assistance was given to farmers in 
organizing 31 new cooperatives. These organizations were plan- 
ned with the idea of helping farmers with their marketing, pur- 
chasing and service work. In addition, six educational or pro- 
motional associations were aided in their organization. 

Assistance to these associations included determining their 
need and probabilities for success, explaining state and federal 
laws and preparing charters, by-laws, marketing agreements 
and membership certificates. Management, practices, financing 
and record keeping were also explained. Most of these associa- 
tions were small and sprang up where a definite marketing need 

The largest group to seek organizations were the fruit and 
vegetable farmers. These varied from the apple growers in the 
west to the fresh vegetable growers in the east. Most associa- 
tions had considerable difficulty in disposing of their products 
in such a way that their members could operate and show a 

The next large group to seek help was the dairy people. Much 
interest was shown in improving their dairy testing program in 
order to operate efficiently, and they grouped together in small 
associations so that this service could be rendered at a reason- 
able charge on a cost basis. 

Considerable assistance was given the well established coop- 
erative and mutual associations in improving or revising their 
charters and by-laws to meet the changes in new federal and state 
revenue regulations. Several associations were assisted in add- 
ing new equipment and in expanding their operations to take 
care of increased production of their members, and to better 
market their products by giving their customers more and better 

The cooperative and mutual associations are required by state 
law to file an annual operating and financial report with the 
Division. This section analyzes these reports and gives con- 
structive suggestions if improvements are needed. 

The North Carolina law requires agricultural fairs to meet 
certain minimum standards and it is necessary to make inspec- 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 71 

tions of the fairs each year. This work was carried out, with the 
help of other employees of the Department, to improve the fairs 
and encourage more farm participation. 


The Transportation Section services other sections of the Di- 
vision of Markets. It also works directly with the Commissioner, 
Assistant Commissioner, farm groups and farm organizations, 
on state or national legislative matters dealing with transporta- 
tion directly affecting agriculture. 

Typical of service to other sections of the Division of Markets, 
is the auditing of freight bills covering livestock purchased and 
distributed, the filing of claims, procurement of operating rights 
from the N. C. Public Utilities Commission for agricultural truck 
haulers, participation in rate increase cases before the North 
Carolina Public Utilities Commission or the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, furnishing rate quotations where needed, and pro- 
viding consultation service on any transportation matter which 
may arise. 

Unfortunately, major changes in transportation policies are 
usually long and drawn out, involving quasi-legal if not legisla- 
tive consideration. Rate cases before the regulatory bodies fre- 
quently run for years. In the 1954-1956 report, reference was 
made to the filing of a grain complaint by the southeastern states 
through the Southern Governors Conference, instigated largely 
by North Carolina. The final hearing in this case was held in 
Palm Beach, Fla. in the late Spring of 1958, no decision yet hav- 
ing been rendered by the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
However, in August 1957, the railroads, because of this com- 
plaint, voluntarily reduced the rates on grain within the south 
and to and from the south, approximately 20 per cent. The rail- 
roads further agreed to reduce the rates on flour and grain 
products to a differential of 115 per cent of the reduced grain 
rates. The N. C. Public Utilities Commission directed the han- 
dling of this case and deserves commendation for its outstanding 

In 1957, the railroads voluntarily restored the transit privileges 
on grain which they had previously taken away in 1955, threat- 
ening many of North Carolina's small mills with extinction. 
This "voluntary" restoration occurred only after numerous hear- 
ings and meetings. 

Certain rail rate cases involving general increases, originally 

72 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

authorized in 1953 and appealed to the courts by the Department 
of Agriculture through the Attorney General's Office, are still 
before the North Carolina courts. Many thousands of dollars in 
possible refunds are involved and the railroads have extended 
the time of recognition of claims to six years. 

Negotiations have been conducted, and are being continued, 
to bring about direct air cargo service to North Carolina, particu- 
larly to serve growers of gladiolas, chrysanthemums, orchids and 
other horticultural products. The cargo space available on 
presently operating commercial air lines is not sufficient, at least 
during peak seasons of movement. 

In 1956, the Interstate Commerce Commission authorized ac- 
quisition by the Southern Railway System of the A & E C Rail- 
road from Goldsboro to Morehead City, N. C. This established 
the first single line operation from the Atlantic Coast of North 
Carolina to the Mississippi River. It has occasioned reduction 
in rates to all points on this stretch of railroad, eliminating 
former so-called "short line" arbitraries. Certain reductions 
have been proposed on export traffic to Morehead City, but final 
action has not been completed because of competitive opposition 
by the Port of Wilmington. The Department of Agriculture has 
assisted in procuring additional export grain facilities at More- 
head City. 

Inasmuch as national transportation policies cannot be influ- 
enced or changed by a single state, North Carolina has led in 
trying to organize various State Departments of Agriculture to 
coordinate efforts for the protection of present agricultural trans- 
portation interests or to act in unison in procuring such changes 
as may be determined to be of mutual interest. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture of North Carolina is Chair- 
man of the Transportation Committee of the National Associa- 
tion of State Departments of Agriculture. Under the direction 
of that organization, a Southern States Transportation Commit- 
tee of Departments of Agriculture was formed in early 1958. 
The states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, North Caro- 
lina, Louisiana, Texas and Kentucky, now form the committee, 
with the expectation that South Carolina and Mississippi will 
add their support within a few months. For the first year, North 
Carolina has been designated as chairman of the southern states 

This committee has actively participated in pending legislation 
to be enacted by the present Congress. Correspondence and di- 
rect contacts have been maintained with members of the House 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 73 

and Senate Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committees, as 
well as with other members of Congress. This committee en- 
dorsed the repeal of the federal excise tax of three per cent on 
freight, effective August 1, 1958. 

The committee, of which North Carolina is chairman, has also 
actively participated in the pending legislation affecting railroad 
rate making, the freezing of agricultural exemptions, and the 
proposed establishment of a Congressional study group to review 
national transportation policy. Indications are that the legisla- 
tion to be adopted will not hurt agriculture, even though no 
specific benefits will be derived. 

The Department of Agriculture is interested and will partici- 
pate in N.C.P.U.C. Docket No. T-825-Sub. 20, an investigation 
ordered on January 22, 1958, on the motion of the N.C.P.U.C, 
into the intrastate common motor carrier rates. The case is now 
set for hearing in September 1958, but will probably take several 
years to complete. A study is being made by the Department of 
Agriculture Transportation Section to show that the farmer or 
resident in rural areas has to pay much heavier freight charges 
than the shipper or receiver in the larger communities served 
by regular rate carriers. The irregular route carriers are not 
pemitted to exchange freight or have combination rates. It is 
possible that legislation may be required to correct this situation. 

The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, where possi- 
ble, cooperates with the North Carolina Shippers League and 
holds a directorship on the Board of Governors of that organ- 

Market News 

Continued expansion in the production of certain agricultural 
commodities during the 1956-58 biennium required several ma- 
jor changes in procedures for reporting the market on these 

To more adequately meet the public's need for market informa- 
tion, the Division's market news service was forced to greatly 
expand its coverage on poultry and egg markets and to com- 
pletely reorganize its service on the markets for grain. These 
changes were made at practically no additional expense to the 
state, due to the cooperative agreement with the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, and they resulted in a vastly improved service 
on the commodities involved. 

One of the most significant changes was the consolidation of 
the three-area market report on commercial broilers into a state- 

74 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

wide report. Instituted with this change was a new technique 
known as "volume-price" reporting. This not only lessened the 
chance of error in reporting the market, but also made possible 
a more realistic report to producers and tradespeople. The in- 
dustry strongly encouraged this change and has actively sup- 
ported it through cooperative participation. 

Prior to August, 1957, egg prices had been reported on the 
Raleigh, Durham, and Charlotte markets based on ungraded 
eggs bought on a graded out basis. As more and more eggs were 
being sold on these markets on a clean, sized, minimum quality 
basis, our market reports became rather meaningless in that they 
reflected prices paid for only a small percent of the eggs bought 
and sold at these points. Therefore, with general approval of 
the industry and with excellent cooperation on the part of buy- 
ers and distributors of eggs, the basis for reporting eggs at these 
points was changed to : 'Trices paid by distributors for clean, 
sized, minimum 80 per cent A quality." 

This change in reporting the egg markets aided producers in 
getting a higher price for their eggs and encouraged many of 
them to do a better job of marketing. Industry support of this 
change has been highly gratifying. 

The continuing increase in egg production and the rapidly 
changing pattern of marketing has created the need for expand- 
ed coverage of egg markets throughout the state. No satisfactory 
approach can be taken to this problem, however, until marketing 
practices develop into a more uniform pattern. 

Budget limitations, plus some rather major changes in the 
marketing of grain within the state, increased the necessity for 
changing the procedure on reporting the market for grain during 
the biennium. 

Prior to the fall of 1957, the report on grain markets had been 
a heterogeneous one, in that it contained prices paid to producers 
only at some points and prices paid to dealers and handlers at 
others, without these bases being clearly identified. The lack of 
comparability in prices at the various points, along with the 
limited knowledge of producers in marketing en a grade basis, 
made it even more imperative that this service be revised in order 
to keep producers and tradespeople properly informed. As a 
result, the major buyers in eastern and piedmont North Carolina 
were contacted and their cooperation obtained in providing daily 
prices paid for grain on a grade basis delivered to elevators. 

One other important change made during the biennium involv- 
ed changing publication of the mimeographed market report on 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 75 

poultry and eggs from a daily basis to a semi-weekly basis. This 
resulted in a postage savings of approximately $7,000 annually 
and a large portion of this money, all of which was paid by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, was allotted to the market 
news service for telephone and travel costs in connection with 
poultry and eggs. This permitted an expanded coverage on both 
poultry and egg markets. 

A new and popular service, started early in the biennium, was 
a comprehensive report on the Charlotte cotton market. Here- 
tofore, North Carolina farmers had to rely on the average price 
reported for the nation's 14 leading markets based on middling 
15/16-inch grade. As a result of cooperative efforts of Division 
personnel and representatives of the Cotton Branch, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, daily price quotations are now being 
released for four grades and three staple lengths on the Char- 
lotte market. 

Additional efforts were made and assistance given to encourage 
radio and television stations throughout the state to increase the 
amount of market price information in their daily programs. 
More complete information is now being made available to them 
over the facilities of the two major wire services in the state. 
Prices on the following commodities were released during the 
biennium : Tobacco, cotton, peanuts, corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, 
milo, livestock, poultry and eggs. 

In providing daily market price information as accurately 
and efficiently as possible, the market news service continued to 
maintain two permanent offices. Information for the eastern 
and piedmont counties was compiled and edited in Raleigh, and 
for the western counties in Asheville. 

Special services on daily shipping point prices were made 
available to potato producers during harvest season through a 
temporary office located at Washington. 

Food Distribution 

The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, under a co- 
operative agreement with the United States Department of 
Agriculture, acts as the distributing agency in North Carolina 
for all food commodities donated by the Federal Government. 
The Markets Division is designated as the agency to handle this 
ever-growing phase of the Department's services. Commodities 
are acquired by authority granted the United States Department 
of Agriculture under the following legislation : 

76 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

1. SECTION 6 of the National School Lunch Act, which pro- 
vides for the purchase of foods for schools participating in 
the National School Lunch Program. 

2. SECTION 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, as amended 
and related legislation. This Act provides for funds to be 
used in the surplus removal and price support program. 

3. SECTION 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949. This Act 
also provides funds for the surplus removal and price 
support programs. 

Food purchased under Sections 32 and 416 are available to all 
nonprofit school lunch rooms as well as approved non-penal 
charitable institutions, summer camps for children, welfare agen- 
cies, and disaster relief organizations. Section 6 commodities are 
available only to schools participating in the National School 
Lunch Program. 

The primary objectives of the Commodity Distribution Pro- 
gram are : 

1. To aid in the United States Department of Agriculture's 
surplus removal and price support programs by providing outlets 
for agricultural commodities purchased. 

2. To create a larger demand for these commodities by train- 
ing school children to eat foods unfamiliar to them. 

3. To provide a means of getting commodities to recipient 
agencies in order that they may furnish more adequate meals 
and thereby raise the health level of the people of this country. 

During the 1956-58 biennium, all (174) city and county school 
units participated in the commodity distribution program. In 
addition to the public schools, the program benefited many pri- 
vate schools, child care centers, summer camps for children, and 
charitable institutions as well as the Camp Lejeune and Fort 
Bragg Schools. In the second year of the biennium, the number 
of school children participating climbed to well over 500,000, 
representing 1,900 schools. Benefits were also extended to ap- 
proximately 25,000 persons in 138 institutions. Participants in 
the commodity distribution program, including summer camps, 
child care centers, and welfare, numbered considerably over 
600,000 people during the biennium. 

In the fiscal year 1957-58 the Department's program to make 
surplus foods available to needy persons in family units was 
extended to approximately 10,000 persons in five eastern coun- 

Report for 1956-58 — Markets 77 

ties. Food with a wholesale value in excess of $120,000 was dis- 
tributed to this outlet. 

This program is one which directly benefits the majority of the 
people of this state, either through the utilization of available 
commodities or through the price support and surplus removal 

Shipments of commodities during the biennium amounted to 
1,136 carloads, or 41,061,540 pounds. The greater part of these 
foods was distributed to schools, with other eligible outlets 
accounting for lesser amounts. The wholesale value of foods 
distributed to all recipients was in excess of $12,500,000. 

Below are tables showing the kinds and quantities of commod- 
ities received during each year of the biennium : 


1 956-57 1957-58 

Commodity Pounds Pounds 

Beans, Canned Green 796,784 458,584 

Cherries, Canned 437,720 

Corn, Canned 264,360 

Grapefruit Sections _ 693,825 

Hamburger, Frozen 864,150 

Orange Juice, Cone. 344,504 

Peaches, Canned _ 893,160 1,230,533 

Peanut Butter 283,865 

Peas, Canned Green 521,960 

Plums, Canned . 354,510 — — 

Tomatoes, Canned 1,102,292 845,690 

Tomato Paste 234,324 

TOTALS 4,967,624 4,358,637 


N. C. Department of Agriculture 






•— , 





























<— i 



















1— I 









1— 1 






CO O Lfl 


o o 

CO ■* 







H0 0<0^ I t-HtH I I I I e ^.°* 1 1 <> 



O O o o"n" ' CO t- 1 I I 1 ^J"tjT ' 1 c- 






"*■*!>«« CON MM O 




rH C0~ rH rH CO rH 





> Oi 



o o o lo •»*< lo (sooO'Hjh eo eo o t- 



■* CD C- CO 1 00 CO I OlOlOCiJ 

t> t>0 C£ 

> t-^ 


OMO)N ' CD CO ' [- M N O IS 


- C^" 


t-OOl'HJ COr-( LO •f CO Tfl LO 

co lo co a 



co o «* co cot- OHce^ai 

CO t> c 

3 O 



T-t r- 

■1 00 


CO O LO o o 




o t- -^ 00 00 





1 LOLOT* 1 | LO 1 1 1 1 00 

1 1 "* 1 




1 O*10i* 1 1 CO 1 ' ' ' ' LO 

1 1 00 ' 




Hl>>* CO CO 






rH CO 




1 I 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III 

1 I 1 














MHH^ 1 1 CO 1 1 1 1 1 CO 

1 1 N 


(3 CO 

02 u 


LO CD CO ' • LO ' 1 ' ' ' LO 

1 1 eo" 1 



CO rH rH CO rH 





O O O 






U5 -°- "-III 




ll OO ll LO | l | l' 1 

■ it 




lH 1"H CO 






00 LO O O LO 





two 00 oo 






1 rH CO LO 1 |H 1 1 1 I ICO 

1 1 ,r i 




'loooco' ' **• ' ' ' ' 'OO 

1 1 00 




CO t- O c- C- 



w g 

EH g 


1-H rH 



00000 LOO CO O 

O C£ 

> LO 



O CO t~ LO t-H O rH CO 

O « 

> CO 


tHt-Tll 1 ft- 1 1 ICOlLO 

1 1 THa 

> o 



CD 00 LO rH ' CO O ' ' ' t- ' t- ' 

1 ' rHC- 


h- 1 


Tt< CO LO 00 COO0 rH ■* 

■>*i r- 

i rt< 




NOO O 00 




rH 00 O O CO 





1 IfllO^ I 1 LO 1 | 1 1 1 rH 1 

1 1 » 1 




1 O t-TlO 1 ' t-^ 1 1 ' ' ' CD 1 

1 1 LO 1 




CO CO O o t- 




EH Eh 


CO rH rH t- i-> 





o o -^ 

< CO 

02 gj 



C0COO0LO COLO ^ i-< 

co o a 

) CO 


MHHIO 1 t>N 1 I ICOI00 

t» 1 o> 

1 CO 



•^i^COCO'rHCS 1 ' ' rH ' 00 ' 

t- i oo ir 

i CD 



CO 00 LO "*l TfO LO O CO t- ^ 

* o 


rH CO CO rH 




L0C0OO00 OO O h* O 






OOCDt^O-"* I <BH 1 1 I cq ffl 1 1 CO I 



oot-^cococo ' T-Tl> 1 1 1 ' OOrjT ' 1 CO ' 








**< o co c- co coco ■* co oo 




rH CO*" t-H CO" 


OCOOO t-O Oi-<H<'H<CO'<tl LOOC 

> rH 


OOrHLOLO OLO CO 00 ■* rt< t- COOr- 

1 CO 
















t-TiHt-H rHrH CO tH t- 



*e , 






2 S 

O N 

■n o 








CD tc 

r* CO 

a co 

fH »H r- 


. — 


uit Sect 
rger, Fr 

on Meat 
onfat D 






' Eh 


co 55 CC « - tn 
-S » rt m g, h 

=3 J3 . 

CD ^2 CC 







] b. 





o — 



Harry T. Davis 

For the State Museum, the 1954-56 biennium was characterized 
by the detailed work of getting settled in new quarters — un- 
packing from storage and arranging presentable exhibits in 
proper sequence. This 1956-1958 biennium has been a period 
of improvement of exhibits as our resources would allow. 

With increased interest in the sciences, the public has request- 
ed and received much more service from our very limited staff. 
The result is that we have served better; but the exhibits pro- 
gram will not be up to a high standard until we can restore ex- 
hibits that were dismantled and build new exhibits to present 
the flora, fauna and natural resources of North Carolina. The 
obvious remedy for this difficulty is a modest addition to our 
technical staff. This has been included in budget requests. 


These are the foundations of Museum exhibits. Some of them 
come from interested citizens who wish to make a contribution, 
or who want identification and explanation of an object's signi- 
ficance. Other needs are met by purchase or field collecting 
by the staff. 

Each accession is recorded as a unit, though it may include 
as many as 100 specimens in a lot. Following is a listing of the 
number of accessions for the biennium, with notes on some of the 
important items: 

Rocks and Minerals, 60. Notable is a production panel do- 
nated by the Lithium Corporation of America, Bessemer City, 
North Carolina. Individual minerals were presented by Presi- 
dent Fred Allen and other members of the Southern Appalachian 
Mineral Society. The newly discovered phosphate mineral de- 
posit, deep under Beaufort County, is shown as a sample. 

Fossils, 21. Of most interest in these are a series of horse 
teeth, some a million years old, that were taken from the banks 
of lower Neuse River and presented by George Baxter of New 
Bern, North Carolina. 

80 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Plant Life, 12. Added to our tree collection was a cross- 
section of a sassafras tree presented by Mrs. Carl Lee of Four 
Oaks. The annual rings show large size and very fast growth 
as compared to normal specimens. 

Invertebrate Animals, 52. Of these 37 belong to the insect 
group and 15 belong to the marine forms. Of the latter Clarke 
Gaskill, of Morehead City, made valuable contributions to sea 
shell exhibits. 

Fishes, 16. We need to secure some of the large groupers 
and snappers now being taken off our coast. 

Amphibians and Reptiles, 179. The severe cold weather of 
early 1958 depleted our popular exhibits of live poisonous snakes. 
Bill Palmer and George Tregembo, Tote-Em-In-Zoo, Wilmington 
have been helpful in making the necessary replacements. 

Birds, 71. New for the Museum were eggs and a nest of the 
Florida Gallinule, from Lake Ellis, contributed by Matt Thomp- 
son of Chapel Hill. John Gatling brought in a Yellow Rail from 
Raleigh, and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service donated a Hut- 
chins Goose from Lake Mattamuskeet. Through Mrs. Doris C. 
Hauser of Fayetteville, the Museum received a Spotted Towhee 
which is a new bird for North Carolina. Mr. James L. Stevens, 
of Lumberton, secured for the Museum the heads and necks of 
two Sandhill Cranes. These are the first tangible records of 
the occurrence of this bird in North Carolina. Unfortunately 
the birds had been plucked and the opportunity to mount them 
for exhibit was lost. 

Hundreds of migrating birds are killed at night under certain 
weather conditions at the T. V. towers near Raleigh. Although 
this slaughter is deplored, through the efforts of William Craven 
and others the Museum has greatly augmented the research col- 
lection of bird skins. 

Mammals, Jf-3. Some of the smaller species were mounted to 
fill in the gaps in our exhibits series while others were made into 
scientific study skins. 

Indian Artifacts, 27. These prehistoric articles supplement 
the exhibits on the American Indian. 

Agriculture, 12. Mrs. J. R. Rogers, of Raleigh, gave to the 
Museum an excellent side saddle and pair of "spectacles" of the 
1800's. M. A. York, Raleigh, presented a set of old balances, 

Report for 1956-58 — Museum 81 

used by "the country Doctor". Specimens of primitive tobacco 
were added for the collection that is kept current on grades, 
statistics, etc. 

Library, 68. These volumes come from gifts and exchanges, 
except for minor purchases. Scores of useful pamphlets have 
come as exchanges. 

Miscellaneous Accessions. This includes the crayon holder 
used by John James Audubon while drawing pictures of birds in 
the Carolinas. This was presented by Mrs. Nancy P. Leak of 
Rockingham. Film strips were purchased for visual aid loans. 
Rev. Scott Turner, Buies Creek, donated a series of 33 koda- 
chromes of sea shells. The N. C. Academy of Sciences presented 
a series of 30 kodachromes on Science Fairs. 

Eleven modern cases were purchased for mineral, rock and 
fossil exhibits. 


The major effort has been to improve and add to exhibits that 
are already placed. 

In March, 1957, a special exhibit on atomic energy was shown 
for 10 days. This came from the Museum of Atomic Energy, 
Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 

Another special exhibit is the five panels showing the original 
20 pieces of art work used for the covers of the magazine "Wild- 
life in North Carolina". 

Science Fair Exhibits have been shown as follows : 
"Osteology", Charles P. Edgerton, Durham, N. C. 
"Evolution", John R. Sherrill, Acme, N. C. 
"Water Pollution", Clarence Styron, Jr., Morehead City, 

N. C. 
"Atoms", John Crow, Jr., North Wilkesboro, N. C. 
"Moth Life Histories", Betty Lou Wallace, Mountain Park, 

N. C. 
"North Carolina Snakes", Susan Powell, Apex, N. C. 

The major exhibit addition of the biennium was the shaping 
and refmishing of sections of large trees that were collected by 
Messrs. Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe during the 1890's. These 
are prized because trees of this size are not likely ever to be 
available again. The collectors were associated with the organ- 

82 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

ization of the first forestry school in this country, at Biltmore, 
N. C, in 1898. They later came to be nationally prominent in 
forestry and conservation. The original reason for assembling 
the collection was for exhibiting North Carolina resources at 
international expositions such as the Columbian at Chicago in 
1893, Paris in 1900, and Saint Louis in 1904. 

Special structures were built to carry the heavy sections. 
Cases are arranged to carry foliage, fruits, and special use items 
for each tree. 

Another development to compliment the organization of the 
North Carolina Shell Club has been the extensive second floor 
exhibit of mollusks. To the layman this largely means sea shells. 
There are also land forms and models of the animals that make 
these shells. 


It is proper to say that the educational value of a museum can 
be measured by the interest of visitors, the character and extent 
of the exhibits, the time the visitors spend viewing and studying 
the exhibits, and the total number of visitors for any given 

The natural history and natural resources of North Carolina 
are subjects that grip the interest of our citizens because they 
constitute the world we live in. The 24,000 square feet of exhibit 
space is of "State Museum" proportions. North Carolina is so 
situated as to be rich in plant life, animal life and other resources. 

By six month periods the counted attendance was as follows : 

July-Dec, 1956 Jan.-June, 1957 July-Dec, 1957 Jan.-June, 1958 

76,269 116,822 75,821 117,737 

This is a total of 193,091 for the first year of the biennium 
and 193,558 for the second year, making a total for the two 
years of 386,649. 

Report for 1956-58 — Museum 


Monthly attendance figures are shown below for July, 1957, 
to July, 1958 : 



Feb. Mar Apr. May June, 

This points to an obvious problem in that the normally ample 
floor space is crowded during the spring months of April and 
May. On April 25, 1958, we had the largest attendance, 6,015 in 
the eight hours. During April nearly 40,000 visitors came, 
mostly on the days Tuesday through Friday. 

The daily attendance is augmented by groups, ranging from 
seven to 600 in numbers. The greatest number of groups are 
from our schools in the spring season, as shown below: 


July-December, 1956 11 

January-June, 1957 18 

July-December, 1957 12 

January-June, 1958 ..21 

The 1957 figures reflect the larger number of school groups 
that come while the Legislature is in regular session. The larg- 
est group was 600 4-H boys and girls during their meeting in 
Raleigh. Groups come from all parts of the state, as far as 350 
miles. School groups were in from Bennettsville, S. C. and Hali- 
fax County, Virginia. We had the usual visiting overseas groups 
that were in this vicinity. 

The attendance records show that there is a problem of con- 
gestion in certain months. The entire Museum staff has to drop 

High School 

Elem. School 
























84 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

other work to handle the traffic and provide what guide service 
they can. The schools are faced with the problems of weather 
conditions, available transportation, and the place of the visit in 
their teaching program. Obviously, however, more could be 
gained from Museum visits if more groups could come during 
the months other than April and May. 

In the odd years the Legislature is an added reason for school 
visits. The severe weather in February and March of 1958 
caused an even greater concentration of visits in April and May. 

One improvement now in operation is a printed leaflet outlin- 
ing the exhibits to be found in the Museum. If teachers and 
others will mail a card or note in advance, saying when they plan 
a visit, how many and what grade and other interests, we will 
mail copies of this leaflet and other material. In this way they 
can correlate the three dimensional exhibits with the school work, 
and do this in advance as well as in a follow-up. The State De- 
partment of Education recommends this procedure. 

This leaflet states that guide service is available if arranged 
for in advance. Such requests for guides have quadrupled in 
the past biennium. Since we have no provision for regular guides 
the duty falls on one of the three technical personnel here. On 
the other hand the exhibits are arranged and labeled so as to 
be understandable without a guide, and some of the groups pre- 
fer seeing them this way so that they can give their chosen time 
to different subjects. 


Continuing the policy of placing exhibit and other material 
where it will be of most value, gifts have been made as follows : 

The bequests from Dr. Thomas M. Copple, Greensboro, and 
Miss Ruby Reid, Wake Forest, as noted -in the 1952-54 Report, 
have been given to the Department of Archives and History. 

The Old Lafayette carriage (1825) was turned over to the 
Department of Archives and History. 

Fifteen thousand of our Information Circulars were given to 
the Morehead Planetarium in Chapel Hill. 

Twenty volumes of the Elisha Mitchell Journal were given to 
the Library of Atlantic Christian College in Wilson. 

Mounted animals and other objects were given to the States- 
ville Museum of Arts and Sciences, The Greensboro Junior Mu- 
seum, and the Durham Children's Museum. 

Report for 1956-58 — Museum 85 


Mounted animals and skins were loaned to the State College 
Library, Duke University (for special teaching), and to the 
Wildlife Resources Commission (for T. V. and other educational 

Thirty preserved snakes were loaned for biology work at the 
Needham Broughton High School. Research loans were made to 
the Philadelphia Zoo and to the Zoology Department at State 
College. A moth exhibit was provided for a meeting of the 
American Entomological Society, and the scale model of the 
State Fair Arena was loaned for architectural exhipit in Europe. 

Visual aids in the form of kodachrome lantern slides and film 
strips, relating to the Museum exhibits, have been actively used 
by 102 school and other groups, with an estimated 10,500 viewers. 

Cooperative Work 

Through the Museum, individuals that are interested in mol- 
lusks (sea shells) were brought together and the Museum was 
host for the organization of the North Carolina Shell Club on 
March 9, 1947. 

The Southern Appalachian Mineral Society met at the Museum 
on November 10, 1956. The Carolina Bird Club had its annual 
meeting here in May, 1957. 

The Museum has been opened at night on two occasions for 
the trainee game protectors of the Wildlife Commission and one 
night for the YMW Club of Chatham County. 

The Director has worked with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service on banding colonial nesting birds and on "Operation 
Recovery" of birds moving south in Autumn. 

Research assistance has been given a number of state agencies. 


With the help of Dr. D. L. Wray the necessary revisions were 
made for the new volume "Birds of North Carolina". This was 
completed in November, 1957. An extended printer's strike has 
held up the finishing of this book for at least six months. This 
strike likewise has delayed the printing of a revised booklet on 
"The Poisonous Snakes of the Eastern United States". 

Our series of 31 Information Circulars (multilith) has been 
added to, and some 340,000 have been distributed to schools and 
other groups during the biennium. 

86 N. C. Department of Agriculture 


Miss Mary Knight, the veteran secretary of the Department 
of Agriculture and this Division, was retired and Mrs. Julia L. 
Nowell became the Museum secretary in 1956. 

On December 31, 1957, Mrs. Claire S. Johnson retired after 
10 years as receptionist and was succeeded by Mrs. Sara D. 
Prince. On July 1, 1957, Owen Woods retired after 2OV2 years 
as janitor-messenger (general housekeeper) and was succeeded 
by Ernest Jones. 


The present budget of the Museum does not provide for ex- 
hibits that would do the most credit to the natural history and 
natural resources of this state. Also the large number of visitors, 
especially the school groups, should have better educational ex- 
hibits for their studies. The cost of Museum operations per 
visitor is now about 16 cents. This is quite low for museums of 
this class. The addition of 2^2 cents per visitor would provide 
another trained worker and thus make possible better exhibits. 
This additional worker has been asked for in budget requests. 


Blackburn W. Johnson* 

While the Publications Division performs a variety of serv- 
ices, its work generally falls into the following major cate- 
gories : 

(1) The first responsibility of this Division is to keep the 
public informed of the activities of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and of the laws and regulations adminis- 
tered by the Department. 

(2) The second category can be most simply expressed by 
saying that the Division acts as a clearing-house of information 
for the Department. This aspect of its work has a dual pur- 
pose in that it serves as an information center for the 17 divi- 
sions of the Department, as well as for the general public. 

(3) This Division is responsible for the editing, lay-out and 
printing arrangements for all printed publications of the De- 

(4) The Publications Division provides secretarial service 
for the State Board of Agriculture. 

In discharging its first responsibility, the Division prepares 
press releases for newspapers, wire services and radio stations 
on news-worthy developments in the Department, as well as 
special articles for farm papers and magazines. It also pub- 
lishes a semi-monthly paper, Agricultural Review, which is an 
effective means of carrying departmental and other agricultural 
news directly to farmers and agricultural leaders in the state. 

The 48 issues of the Agricultural Review published during 
the 1956-1958 biennium consisted of 40 four-page issues and 
eight eight-page issues, a total of 224 pages. Six of the eight- 
page issues were printed in the last year of the biennium, 
when an increase in the printing appropriation for this paper 
became effective. Traditionally, this paper alternated regularly 
between four-page and eight-page issues. But as printing costs 
increased, without comparable increase in appropriations, it 
had been necessary for the past four years to cut the number 
of eight-page issues to four or five per year. This seriously cur- 

*The death of Blackburn W. Johnson occurred on July 3, 195S. following an illness of several 
months. This report has beep prepared by the staff of the Publications Division. 

88 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tailed the valuable service which the Review is capable of ren- 
dering through its news columns and free advertising service 
for farmers. It is, therefore, most gratifying that current 
appropriations permit some expansion. 

Funds available do not, however, permit expansion of the 
mailing list to any great extent. Names are added to the 
Review mailing list only on request and for some years the 
number of subscribers has averaged between 72,000 and 73,000. 
At least 100,000 to 150,000 North Carolina farmers should be 
receiving this paper. This could be achieved by only a little 
effort to bring the Review to the attention of those younger 
farmers or newcomers who do not know about it. But we have 
not been, and are not now, in a position to put on any kind of 
drive to increase circulation because current appropriations are 
not sufficient to take care of any sizeable increase in the mailing 

In its second category of activities, the Division performs 
non-recurring services too numerous to list individually. Of a 
continuing nature, however, is the handling of thousands of 
requests for information which come to the Department by 
letter, telephone and personal visits. A part of this aspect of 
the work is conducting tours or "classes" for groups who 
visit the Department to learn about its organization and func- 
tions. During this biennium, visiting groups have included 
college classes, farmers, vocational-agriculture students, and 
foreign agricultural officials. The foreign groups have ranged 
in number from one or two of a single nationality, to groups of 
15 or 20 from as many different countries. Arranging pro- 
grams and tours for these groups is often very time-consuming, 
but the results are rewarding to the Department as well as 
the visitors. 

In its capacity as a clearing house, the Division is also called 
upon to prepare or correlate various special reports dealing 
with some or all phases of the Department's work. Some of 
these are requested by federal or other North Carolina agencies, 
and some by non-government groups or individuals both within 
and without the state. An example of the latter are several 
which the Division prepared during this biennium for presenta- 
tion to congressional delegations or congressional committee 
hearings. Others were prepared for agricultural departments 
of other states or associations of state departments of agri- 

Publications handled in this Division include four annual 

Report for 1956-58 — Publications 89 

issues of The Bulletin — a series of reports on the results of in- 
spection and analytical work in administering the feed, ferti- 
lizer and insecticide laws ; and one market bulletin dealing with 
tobacco. The eight issues of The Bulletin printed during this 
biennium totaled 885 pages. 

Secretarial service to the Board of Agriculture involves more 
than the keeping of minutes. It also includes the advertising 
and recording of public hearings; and the writing, codification, 
printing and filing of regulations and amendments as required 
by law. The Division maintains a master set of all regulations, 
and is responsible for revising and reprinting the various chap- 
ters from time to time. A correlary responsibility is the print- 
ing of laws administered by the Department, after checking 
them with the statute books to embody amendments enacted 
from time to time by the General Assembly. 

During the 1956-1958 biennium, printed amendments and re- 
vised chapters of the Department's regulations totaled 123 
pages; and four laws, totaling 30 pages, were reprinted. 


Cecil D. Thomas 

This Division is responsible for the operation of sixteen re- 
search stations located in various types of farming areas of the 
state on which field experiments and tests are conducted by the 
Experiment Station staff of N. C. State College. These stations 
provide very important field facilities for the experimental pro- 
gram to go along with laboratory and greenhouse phases of the 
research at State College. Nine of the stations are budgeted by 
the Department of Agriculture and seven by the Experiment 
Station. Because of the arrangement regarding stations, this 
report will deal only with those in the Department of Agriculture. 

Supervision of the stations involves all aspects of farm busi- 
ness management and the management of experimental field 
plots and other research projects as well. Budget management 
and personnel management also play a vital role in the operation 
of research stations. Construction of buildings and other facili- 
ties and the maintenance of these facilities require technical 
assistance and entail much planning and attention. Also the 
selection and maintenance of machinery and equipment for con- 
ducting the program in a mechanized age are of great importance 
and are given much attention by the Research Stations office and 
by the superintendents. Numerous other phases of the opera- 
tional program including land management, soil treatments, weed 
control, and the coordination of all supporting elements for the 
research program are included in the functions of this Division. 

A number of departments and agencies participate in the pro- 
gram on the research stations. The United States Department of 
Agriculture takes part largely through the Experiment Station 
at State College in the form of research personnel, supplies, ma- 
terials, and equipment of a technical nature. There are several 
stations, however, where USDA participation is direct. This is 
the case at the Oxford Tobacco Research Station on tobacco ; the 
Coastal Plain Research Station on the dairy program; the Bor- 
der Belt Tobacco Research Station on striga (witch weed) re- 
search ; and the Mountain and Upper Mountain Research Stations 
on Burley tobacco. The Tennessee Valley Authority cooperates 
in certain projects such as special ground water studies at the 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 91 

Mountain Research Station. Many other agencies cooperate in 
the program in varying degrees both directly and indirectly. 

As an integral part of the research program for North Caro- 
lina, the outlying stations are playing a vital role. Field experi- 
ments coordinated with laboratory research have resulted in 
many new developments. Among the outstanding developments 
are new crop varieties including tobaccos with disease resistance, 
improved corn hybrids, higher yielding small grains, and better 
varieties of other field crops, fruits, and vegetable crops. Plant 
breeders are continuing their efforts to obtain better varieties 
and receiving unusual attention now are tobaccos having multiple 
disease resistance, crops having resistance to nematodes, and 
varieties of forage plants better adapted to the southeast. Im- 
proved lines of hogs, chickens, and sheep and more efficient pro- 
ducing dairy cattle and beef cattle are resulting from the research 
efforts. Outstanding progress is being made on tobacco harvest- 
ing equipment, bulk tobacco curing, peanut harvesters, and crops 
drying. Also there is notable progress in weed control, nematode 
control, and insect and disease control work. 


Wallace J. Dickens, Supeiintendent 

Prior to 1957 the Border Belt Tobacco Research Station was 
operated on leased land. As time advanced, however, it became 
apparent that a permanent station was greatly needed in the 
Border Belt area. In 1954 it was decided by the Department of 
Agriculture and the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment 
Station that steps should be taken to fill this need. Funds were 
appropriated by the 1955 General Assembly for purchasing suit- 
able land and very soon thereafter a committee was appointed 
by the Commissioner of Agriculture to select a new site. After 
an investigation of many possibilities, the committee recom- 
mended the purchase of a 103-acre farm in Columbus County. 
This farm was acquired during the year 1956 and possession of 
the property was obtained on January 1, 1957. 

The station is located lV-> miles northwest of Whiteville near 
Evergreen. Elevation of the station is 95 feet above sea level. 
Average temperature during 1957 was 62 degrees and total rain- 
fall for the year was 43.5 inches. Soil types are largely Norfolk, 
Ruston, Goldsboro, and Marlboro fine sandy loams with small 

92 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

areas of Dunbar, Duplin, Lynchburg, and others. There are 
other minor soil types in small areas giving a total of 17 different 
soils on the farm. 

During the first six months of 1957, a foreman's dwelling was 
constructed and a well was drilled to provide water for the sta- 
tion. On July 1, 1957, funds were available for a continuation of 
the building program and very shortly thereafter, a plastic 
greenhouse with a masonry block headhouse was constructed for 
use in connection with Striga (witchweed) research. Following 
this, a masonry-block office and utility building was erected and 
was in use on February 15, 1958. In rapid succession a tobacco 
packhouse with ordering and grading rooms was built and a five- 
compartment tobacco curing barn was erected. In addition to 
the new structures, one standard tobacco curing barn was moved 
from a field to the planned building area. Also, an old tobacco 
packhouse was moved to the new building area for use as a gen- 
eral storage facility. 

Considerable land development and improvement were accom- 
plished, including cleaning up and pushing back field boundaries 
with a bulldozer ; the clearing of three acres of land for building 
sites; and the reshaping and laying out of the fields and roads. 

About 2,500 feet of old ditches were filled and 3,000 feet of 
drain tile were installed. Also, a pond was dug to supply water 
for tobacco plant beds. 

Research on the station naturally deals primarily with tobacco. 
There are about 50 acres of usable plot land and this acreage is 
sufficient for a satisfactory rotation of experimental plots. Re- 
search deals with all aspects of tobacco production including the 
testing of disease resistant varieties for yield and quality, brown 
spot and mosaic studies, official variety tests, studies of fertilizer 
and arsenic absorption, breeding work, and tobacco insect and 
disease control studies. 

An allied program of research with the Striga weed problem 
is headquartered at the station and some of the research is con- 
ducted in the greenhouse. United States Department of Agri- 
culture personnel are conducting this project and seven acres of 
land are rented from a farmer in the area for experimental plots. 

At present the farm foreman is the only worker living on the 
station. All of the work is done by the foreman supplemented 
by temporary help during the planting and harvesting seasons. 

Facilities needed for further development of the station in- 
clude a laborer's dwelling and a machinery storage building with 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 93 

a shop and storage space for fertilizer and insecticides. Also 
there is a need for an additional pond or for wells to provide 
water for irrigation. 


M. R. Whisenhunt, Superintendent 

The Mountain Research Station, established in 1944, is located 
two miles southeast of Waynesville in Haywood County. This 
station consists of 354 acres of land with principal soil types as 
follows : Hiwassee, Halewood, Hayesville, Clifton, and Masada 
clay loams. Annual rainfall averages 45 inches, and the average 
elevation is 2,800 feet above sea level. Total land area in the 
station is used as follows : 132 acres are in permanent pasture ; 
there are 98 acres of cropland ; and 80 acres are in woodland. A 
total of 45 acres is devoted to field plots and other research 

There are nine dwellings on the station. Other facilities in- 
clude dairy buildings, tobacco barns, granary, implement shed, 
poultry buildings, and an office. Farm machinery includes 
trucks, tractors, ensilage and forage harvester, orchard spray- 
ers, spreaders, rake, cultivators, and planters. 

Research is being conducted at this station by the following 
departments of the Experiment Station : Agronomy, Animal 
Industry, Horticulture, Poultry, and also by the Tennessee Val- 
ley Authority. Specific lines of work are being carried out in 
agronomy research with forage and pasture crops, small grain, 
corn, and a joint watershed hydraulic data project with T. V. A. 
Research with Burley tobacco includes plant bed studies, field 
management tests, and variety evaluations. Dairy research in- 
volves breeding, calf-raising, heifer-grazing, irrigation, alfalfa 
grazing, and feeding trials with dairy cows. Research work with 
poultry is centered around broiler and hatching egg production. 
Breeding, feeding, and management investigations are included. 
The apple orchard which was started in 1953 is being used for 
variety testing and fertilization experiments. Additional trees 
including several new varieties have been added in the past 
few years. All land and facilities not being used directly for 
experimental work are used for producing feed for the dairy 
and poultry departments. 

During this past biennium a 140-ton concrete stave silo was 
constructed. A heating system was installed in the office 

94 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

building, and the laboratory in this building was repaired and 
additional facilities were added. Other improvements include: 
Additional tile drainage of bottom land, new varieties planted 
in the apple orchard, thinning and pruning of white pine plant- 
ings, pasture improvement, several buildings repaired and paint- 
ed, and the purchase of some new farm equipment. 

The future needs for this station include a hay storage and 
feeding barn for dry cows and heifers, a tobacco barn, apple 
grading and storage facilities, drainage work, grain storage facil- 
ities, repairs and alterations to dwellings and farm buildings,, 
and various additional items of farm equipment. 


J. M. Carr, Superintendent 

The Oxford Tobacco Research Station is located one mile west 
of Oxford, the county seat of Granville County. It was estab- 
lished in 1912 on an original tract of 250 acres which was en- 
larged to 330 acres by the purchase of 80 additional acres in 1941. 
The elevation is approximately 500 feet above sea level, and the 
principal soils are of the Durham, Colfax and Enon series. About 
100 acres are under cultivation using a rotation of small grains 
and tobacco, and the remaining open land is in permanent pas- 
ture used for beef cattle. Rainfall over the 37 year period July 
1, 1921 to July 1, 1958 has averaged 44.27 inches annually. 

A permanent force of seven laborers and one foreman is kept 
throughout the year. Seasonal laborers are hired from nearby 
Oxford and from families of men living on the farm. 

As the name of the station indicates, the research program is 
limited to tobacco with the exception of one acre devoted to 
tomato breeding work and four acres in lespedeza Sericea for 
beef cattle grazing tests. The total program involves the pro- 
duction of approximately 45 acres of tobacco annually under the 
direction of project leaders in Agronomy, Botany, Entomology, 
Engineering and Pathology. 

The agronomy program includes projects on nutrition, varie- 
ties, rotation, irrigation and the influence of stages of ripeness 
at harvest on the composition and quality of the cured leaf. 

Project leaders in botany are studying the effectiveness of 
sucker control measures and the influence of these practices on 
yield and quality. 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 95 

Entmologists are concerned with the biological control of to- 
bacco insects, the effectiveness of insecticides and the influence 
of insecticidal residues on the flavor of the leaf. 

The engineering program is devoted largely to the develop- 
ment of new methods of curing and fundamental studies of the 
changes that take place in the leaf during the curing process. 

Tobacco diseases constitute one of the most serious problems 
of production in North Carolina. For this reason the pathology 
program is necessarily the most extensive on the station. Much 
of the pathology program is concerned with the development of 
acceptable varieties resistant to blackshank, bacterial wilt, fusa- 
rium wilt, root knot and mosaic. About 3,500 square feet of 
greenhouse space and 10 acres of field plots are used in this phase 
of the pathology program. Several acres of field plots are used 
for the study of crop rotation and soil fumigation as a means of 
controlling the various nematodes that attack tobacco. A two- 
acre nematode infested area in Durham County, used as a testing 
ground in the development of nematode resistant varieties, is 
operated by this station. 

No major improvements were made to existing facilities during 
the biennium 1956-58. However metal roofs were put on six 
buildings. All other repairs were limited to normal wear and 
tear items. 

Research facilities added in the 1956-58 biennium included the 
addition of sixteen 4' x 4' x 9' compartments to an existing barn, 
and the construction of an additional compartment barn contain- 
ing six 9' x 9' units. These barns were badly needed and are fully 
appreciated by the project leaders. Two new seed bed areas were 
developed on locations that can be reached with irrigation equip- 
ment. Formerly all seed beds were watered by hand from city 
water lines. 

Increasing interest in irrigation as it influences tobacco pro- 
duction and disease behavior creates the need for additional irri- 
gation facilities. Installaton of approximately 2,000 feet of six- 
inch underground main would make it possible to reach most of 
the fields on the Station with relatively low labor costs. 


Clyde Z. McSwain, Jr., Superintendent 

The Peanut Belt Research Station, established in 1952, is locat- 
ed along the northern side of the town of Lewiston in Bertie 

96 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

County. The office and main buildings are 3/4 of a mile out of 
Lewiston on the Connaritsa highway. Elevation is 50 feet above 
sea level and the average annual rainfall, since 1952, has been 
48.5 inches. Temperature extremes for the same period ranged 
from a high of 102° to a low of 8°. Soil types typical of the pea- 
nut belt of North Carolina are found on the station. They are 
Norfolk, Goldsboro, Faison, Duplin and Dunbar. 

The station consists of 366 acres. In 1952 there were approxi- 
mately 80 cleared acres with about 70 acres in cultivation. Since 
that time cultivated land has increased to a total of 160 acres. 
An additional 27 acres is used for building sites, roadways and 
grassed waterways. With assistance from the Soil Conservation 
Service, a drainage plan was developed for the station. The plan 
calls for both open ditches and tile lines. Already, some 11,000 
feet of open ditches and 12,000 feet of tile have been installed. 
An additional 6,000 feet of tile will be installed after removal of 
the 1958 crops. 

During the biennium a much needed peanut drying building 
was constructed. The structure includes a shed for wagon dry- 
ing with six drying bays, each one accommodating a five-ton 
wagon. There is also a work room and a peanut storage area 
of 1,800 square feet. This drying facility fills a long felt need 
and will be invaluable to the research program in permitting the 
harvesting and processing of experimental plots ahead of bad 
weather in the fall which normally results in great losses. Other 
buildings on the station are the office and laboratory building, 
superintendent's residence, four laborers' dwellings, shop and 
machinery storage building and a platform hay drier. Buildings 
on the farm when purchased include an old dwelling (used for 
storage at present) , a general barn and a tobacco barn. 

Land use varies from year to year to meet the demands of the 
research program. Test plots totaled 79.2 acres for the 1958 
crop year. Peanut research accounted for 63 acres while the 
remainder was used for cotton, corn and sweet potato research. 
The Experiment Station departments involved in research on 
this station are as follows : Field Crops, Soils, Plant Pathology, 
Entomology, Horticulture, Agricultural Engineering and Agri- 
cultural Economics. 

All of the farming operations on the station are done by tractor 
power. The major items of equipment are two trucks, four 
tractors, peanut picker, hay baler, and the planting and culti- 
vating equipment necessary for the station program. In addition, 
a TD-14 crawler tractor with a dozer blade, grubber blade and a 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 97 

heavy bush and bog, all station owned, are used in the land clear- 
ing operation. 

Over two thousand visitors were on the station during the bien- 
nium. The scheduled field meetings were attended by growers 
from the peanut producing areas of North Carolina and Virginia. 
Many individuals and small groups visited the station from time 
to time. 

Major needs for the future include peanut combines and asso- 
ciated equipment. It is essential that two peanut combines be 
provided so that at least two groups of research specialists can 
harvest their valuable experimental plots at the same time dur- 
ing the fall months in order to take advantage of favorable 
weather. These combines are an essential tool for the research 
program. In addition, a dwelling should be provided for the 
foreman, and a fertilizer and pesticide storage building is need- 
ed. Funds are needed for additional drainage and for the re- 
placement of items of equipment in addition to the combine. 


J. L. Rea, Sr., Superintendent 

The Tidewater Research Station was established on October 1, 
1943, in Washington County five miles east of Plymouth on U. S. 
Highway 64. The station consists of 495 acres of land, of which 
235 acres are crop land, 185 acres are in pasture, 35 acres are 
partly cleared land, and 40 acres remain in woods. In addition 
to the station farm, a tract of undrained woodland lying adjacent 
to the station, comprising an area of 1,064 acres, is being held 
for future development. The station is 15 feet above sea level 
and the average rainfall is 55 inches. Predominant soil types 
are Portsmouth fine sandy loam, Bladen fine sandy loam, Bladen 
silt loam, and Bayboro loam. 

During the biennium two pig parlors were built, and one far- 
rowing house was constructed. General maintenance of the 
station property was accomplished so far as funds and labor 
would permit. Sixteen acres of land were cleared and initial 
clearing was done on an additional 50 acres. The tract of 50 
acres was ditched and the necessary culverts for all crossings 
Math retainer walls were installed. An additional 1,750 feet of 
farm drain tile will be installed in the fall of 1958. 

The following new equipment was added during the biennium : 
A tractor, a two-row planter, a large hydraulic tandem disk 

98 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

harrow, a potato grader, an ensilage field chopper and blower 
and one grass head attachment. 

The research program is set up to meet the needs of the black- 
land area of tidewater North Carolina. Practically all enter- 
prises common to this area are being studied and there are 
research projects on the station pertaining to many of them. 

The agronomy program includes: (1) soybean varieties for 
yields, adaptability and disease resistance, (2) corn hybrids for 
adaptability, resistance, stalk strength and yields, (3) weed con- 
trol with corn, soybeans and cotton, (4) soil fertility work with 
forage crops, (5) soil fertility studies with corn and soybeans, 
(6) small grain varieties of oats, wheat, and barley for winter 
hardiness, disease resistance and yields and (7) inoculation 

Horticultural research deals with the following projects: (1) 
Irish potato varieties, (2) treatment of Irish potato seed pieces 
and scab studies with potatoes, (3) effect of deep placement of 
lime on production of potatoes and cabbage, (1) muscadine grape 
cultural studies, (5) production of sweet potatoes resistant to 
disease. The Irish potato program is moving along more smooth- 
ly since the new potato grader was put in operation. A washer 
is, however, still badly needed to handle the potato work in an 
entirely satisfactory manner. 

The research program of the Animal Husbandry department 
is with hogs, beef cattle, and sheep. The project with hogs con- 
sists of (1) cost of producing hogs in pig parlors versus pasture 
lot feeding, (2) the development of a better meat type hog, and 
(3) the evaluation of protein supplements. 

Beef cattle work includes (1) determination, by weighing and 
grading of calves of a given sire, his ability to sire fast gaining 
calves, (2) wintering of beef herd and weaning calves on differ- 
ent feeds. 

The sheep program has recently been changed to include a 
study of early dropped lambs versus late lambs. Ewes are divid- 
ed into two groups, one group being bred in July and August and 
the other in October and November. The objective of this study 
is to determine the factors that have a bearing on the economical 
production of late lamb crops. 

A problem that has been of growing importance with beef and 
cattle producers is the lack of economical gains in the hot summer 
months. This matter will probably be studied in the near future 
if present plans materialize. The problem is of utmost impor- j 
tance in the eastern part of the state as this section is fast be- 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 99 

coming livestock minded. A great number of cattle are being 
grazed and fed out and, in all probability, the number will in- 
crease as more and more land is taken out of cotton, tobacco and 
peanuts and put in corn, small grain and forage. 


J. W. Hendricks, Superintendent 

In 1953 a tract of land in Rowan County was purchased for 
the purpose of relocating the Piedmont Research Station which 
was established in Iredell County in 1903. Initially, a block of 
land consisting of 1,061 acres was purchased. Since that time, 
however, two small tracts that were not readily accessible to the 
main area were sold. Total acreage of the station is now 1,034. 
The station is 800 feet above sea level. Average temperature 
during 1957 was 60 degrees and rainfall during that year was 
50.9 inches. Soil types are typical of the piedmont area and 
include Davidson, Iredell, Mecklenburg, Cecil clay, and some 
Altavista. In addition there are some alluvial soils along the 

Much progress was made during the biennium in getting the 
research program underway and in the construction of build- 
ings, land clearing, drainage, fencing, and the construction of 
roadways and waterways. Twelve new buildings were com- 
pleted during the biennium and seven additional buildings are 
under construction and will be completed during the fall of 1958. 
Buildings completed include four workers dwellings, an office 
and utility building, an implement shed, a general storage build- 
ing, and dairy buildings. Dairy buildings consist of a milking 
parlor, a lounging shed, hay storage building, experimental barn, 
and a calf barn. In addition to these structures a bunker silo 
was built and three trench silos were constructed. One trench 
silo is for the dairy and two for beef cattle work. 

Other than the buildings erected, many other improvements 
were made including the drilling of two additional wells, the 
clearing of additional land, and land improvement in general. 
Approximately 9,000 linear feet of ditches were opened by the 
use of a dragline for improving drainage of bottom land. Addi- 
tional farm roads were built bringing the total of roads on the 

100 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

station to six miles. Also, six miles of new fences were erected 
making a total of twelve miles of fences now on the station. 

Buildings now under construction and which will be completed 
in the near future include two dwellings — one for the poultry 
research supervisor and one for the herdsman. Also poultry 
buildings, consisting of a main poultry building and three all- 
purpose houses, are included in the present program. Poultry 
buildings are to be used for the Random Sample Testing Project. 
In addition a beef cattle barn is being built. 

The first experimental plots were put on the new station in the 
fall of 1954, and since that time many other phases of the total 
research program have been initiated. Forty-seven beef animals 
were purchased during the fall of 1957 for use in grazing trials 
which were conducted during 1958. Forty-five Holstein cows 
and heifers were moved to the station in April, 1958, as the be- 
ginning of the dairy research program. 

In addition to research with beef cattle and dairy cattle, much 
w T ork is under way in research with crops. This includes inves- 
tigations with corn, cotton, small grains, soybeans, and with for- 
age crops including alfalfa, grasses, lespedeza, and an accelerated 
program with various other forage plants. Also work is being 
done with castor beans and with other new crops to determine 
whether or not they are adapted to the area. 

There have been a number of personnel changes at the station 
during the biennium including the addition to the staff of a dairy 
research supervisor, a dairyman and a herdsman for beef cattle. 
In addition to these, two more full time laborers were employed 
bringing the total station personnel to twelve. 

As time passes, there are more and more visitors to the station 
to observe the research program and to study the results which 
are being obtained. There have been several organized field 
meetings with a good attendance and with a great deal of interest 
in evidence. It is apparent that this station will be of great 
interest and value to the farmers and professional agricultural 
workers in Piedmont North Carolina. 

Major needs for further development of the station include 
a dry cow barn, an extension of the beef barn, two additional 
all-purpose poultry houses, additional dwellings, and miscellan- 
eous structures. Over and above these, there is need for funds 
to provide for drainage of certain areas and to provide for the 
clearing of additional land. 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 101 


Warren H. Bailey, Superintendent 

Established in 1902, the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station 
is located in Edgecombe County, approximately six miles south- 
east of Rocky Mount on the Noble's Mill Pond Road. It has an 
elevation of 100 feet above sea level, and the average annual rain- 
fall is approximately 45 inches. Some 16 different soil types are 
found on the station, the principal ones being Norfolk, Marlboro, 
Duplin, Dunbar, Coxville, and Craven. 

There is a total of 441.9 acres in the station ; and of these, 
227.3 acres are classed as cropland, 53.4 acres are in improved 
pasture, 105.5 acres are in woodland, 55.7 acres are in roads, 
lanes, meadow strips, ponds, etc. In 1957, research plots occu- 
pied 111.7 acres of the 227.3 acres of cropland. The remaining 
cropland was used for field demonstrations and for producing 
feed for the swine and cattle programs. 

Buildings on the station include a crop drier, two compartment- 
type tobacco barns, a packhouse, three steel grain bins, two im- 
plement sheds, a shop, a feed barn, a laboratory, an office, and 
10 dwellings. The major items of equipment owned by the sta- 
tion are five tractors, with cultivators and other tillage tools, 
corn husker and sheller, peanut picker, hay baler, grain drill, 
three wagons, a high-clearance sprayer, two tractor dusters, and 
two irrigation pumps. Transportation is furnished by two pick- 
up trucks and one l\-> ton truck. The labor force consists of five 
permanent and three temporary laborers, all living on the station. 
Additional labor, when needed, is obtained from the laborers' 
families and from the surrounding community. 

General repairs and maintenance on a number of the station's 
structures during the biennium included considerable interior 
and exterior painting. One of the implement sheds was enclosed 
with corrugated galvanized metal, using station personnel to do 
the job. In the spring of 1958, a masonry block laborer's dwell- 
ing was built to replace an old frame dwelling. Here, again, some 
of the station personnel was used to good advantage in erecting 
this building. 

For several years, the station has been following soil conserva- 
tion practices recommended in a long range plan developed from 
a complete farm survey, made in 1954, by the Soil Conservation 
Service. Among the many improvements resulting from this 
survey are : Several fields were reshaped to better serve the re- 

102 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

search program ; meadow strips were built, seeded and maintain- 
ed ; areas not suited to row crops were seeded to pasture or hay- 
crops ; and drain tile was installed in some of the poorly drained 
areas of the farm. All of these improvements are aimed at con- 
serving the soil of the station and making it better suited to the 
research program. The results already obtained have proved 
their worth many times over. 

During the biennium, irrigation facilities were further expand- 
ed. To the already existing 2,900 feet of underground main, 702 
feet were added in the spring of 1958. Also added to the system 
were 1,940 feet of portable aluminum lateral and main pipe. 
These additions have made it possible to reach most parts of the 
station with irrigation, which has become an indispensable tool 
in the research program. Most of the water for irrigation is 
obtained from a 50-acre lake located on the northwest side of the 
station. For a small amount of irrigation, water is taken from 
a four-acre pond on the south side of the farm. 

The research program consists of numerous crops experiments 
and livestock studies. The field crops program includes studies 
dealing with plant breeding, variety and advanced strain testing, 
involving cotton, corn, soybeans, peanuts, tobacco, castor beans, 
sesame, and grain sorghum. There are also experiments dealing 
with weed control on corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. The 
Soils Department is conducting research dealing with fertiliza- 
tion, crop rotation, subsoiling, and residual effects of crop residue. 

The Agricultural Engineering Department is interested in 
peanut harvesting and drying methods, as well as cultivation 
and weed control. 

Plant pathology studies are directed toward disease control on 
tobacco, cotton, corn, peanuts, and soybeans. These problems are 
approached from several directions, including crop rotations, 
winter management practices, plant breeding, and chemical con- 

The Statistics Department is running extensive statistical 
experiments relating to plant breeding. The crops involved are 
corn and tobacco. 

Entomology investigations deal with the residual effects of 
certain insecticides on the flavor of tobacco, and insect control on 
peanuts and other field crops. 

The beef cattle and swine programs are supervised by the De- 
partment of Animal Industry. During the biennium a herd of 
17 cows, known to be dwarf carriers, was assembled on the sta- 
tion. These cows are being used in a study to develop methods 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 103 

of detecting animals that are dwarf carriers. The steer feeding 
program is designed to produce answers to feeding problems, 
such as the use of cheap roughages for over-wintering, and self- 
feeding grain on pasture. The swine project is directed toward 
breeding, feeding, and management studies. 

During the past two years there have been visitors from all 
over North Carolina, the United States, and many foreign coun- 
tries. Attendance was good at all of the regular field meetings, 
and there were numerous individuals and small groups coming 
to the station in search of answers to their farming problems. 
Many groups were brought in by Vocational Agriculture teach- 
ters, County Agents, Soil Conservationists, and other professional 
agricultural workers. 

F.F.A. and 4-H Groups have used the swine and cattle herds 
to train livestock judging teams. Tobacco plants for demonstra- 
tion plots are furnished to county agents requesting them. School 
groups are often brought in to observe, first hand, agricultural 
research being conducted in the field. Station personnel fre- 
quently give individual assistance to farmers requesting help in 
specific problems. The station is now, and has been for over 
half a. century, a very important link in the development of the 
agricultural economy of Eastern North Carolina. 


Dana F. Tugman, Superintendent 

The Upper Mountain Research Station is located in Ashe 
County, three miles west of Laurel Springs on Highway N. C. 
88. The station consists of 420 acres, of which 117 are devoted 
to field plots and grazing research, 140 to permanent pasture, 85 
in cropland and 78 in woodland. A seven-acre tract adjoining 
the station has been rented for the past two years for the pro- 
duction of Irish potato varieties and breeding lines. A 25-acre 
tract of woodland on the station is now being cleared. 

The principal soil series found on the station are Watauga, 
Clifton and Tate loams. Elevation on the station ranges from 
2,800 to 4,000 feet. The average annual rainfall in the area is 
52 inches. The summers are mild, with extreme temperatures in 
the middle to high eighties. The growing season is relatively 
short. The winters are long and comparatively severe, with 
temperatures of zero and lower. 

104 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The research program includes projects with beef cattle, sheep, 
forage crops, corn, Burley tobacco, potatoes, tomatoes and apples. 

Research projects with beef cattle include feeding, grazing and 
breeding studies. The feeding phase of the project consists of 
winter feeding trials in an effort to evaluate feeds which farmers 
in the area can produce efficiently, and to determine what com- 
bination of those feeds might be used most effectively in terms 
of adequate nutrition and economical beef production. During 
the summer months grazing studies are conducted to compare 
and evaluate rotational, light continuous, and heavy continuous 
grazing in terms of beef production and pasture management. 

During this biennium, 15 acres of alfalfa were seeded for 
grazing research in an effort to determine the value of alfalfa in 
grazing rotations. The station herd is also included in the U.S. 
D.A. Regional Beef Breeding Program. 

Research with sheep at this station is a breeding project in 
which the performance of three different breed groups, namely, 
Hampshire Crossbreds, Native crossbreds and western ewes, are 
evaluated for the production of slaughter lambs and wool. Cross 
breeding is obtained through the use of rams of different breeds. 
The objectives in the cross breeding program are to increase size 
of the animal, increase wool weight, and improve the milking 
ability. The above breed groups are subdivided into early and 
late lambing groups, in an effort to determine the most desirable 
lambing time for commercial lambs in terms of net returns from 
the lamb crop. Results to date indicate that western ewes are 
superior to the other groups mentioned in the production of lambs 
and wool, and that late lambing dates are preferable in the north- 
ern mountain area of the state. 

The forage research program has received considerable em- 
phasis during this biennium in an effort to strengthen the pasture 
and livestock feed production programs in the area. Forage 
crops projects now in progress include date of seeding, fertility 
studies, the effect of nurse crops and the effect of exposure. The 
evaluation of several strains of orchard grasses — fescue, alfalfa, 
birdsfoot trefoil and Ladino clover — is now in progress. One 
new variety of alfalfa, Du Puits, was added to the recommended 
list for the mountain area in 1958 following its evaluation in 
variety trials at this station. Birdsfoot trefoil, on the basis of 
its performance here, shows promise as a pasture legume in the 
northern mountain area. 

Work with corn consists of the production of breeding lines, 
and varieties for evaluation. Emphasis in the breeding program 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 105 

is for a corn of desirable yield and quality that will mature in 
the comparatively short growing season of the northern moun- 
tain counties. 

Research with Burley tobacco consists of tests involving fer- 
tilization and spacing, topping and suckering, date of transplant- 
ing, chemical sucker control, and the production of varieties and 
breeding lines. Emphasis in the breeding program is being 
placed on resistance to the more common Burley diseases. 

Horticultural research consists of the production of Irish po- 
tato varieties and breeding lines for observation and evaluation ; 
a breeding program with tomatoes in which the objective is to 
incorporate blight resistance with desirable fruiting qualities; 
and apple variety evaluation and orchard fertilization studies. 

In addition to the research projects, the principal farming 
operations on the station consist of the production of feed for 
livestock involved in research. About 75 acres are devoted to 
the production of hay and silage for winter feeding. 

Improvements during the past biennium consist of the con- 
struction of a 70-ton trench silo, construction of a machinery 
storage shed, relocation and improvement of farm roads, estab- 
lishment of a rotation for all cropland, and the beginning of 
clearing work on a 25-acre tract of woodland. 

The most urgent need in the program is for additional land 
suitable for plot work. All land on the station which lends it- 
self to research purposes is now being fully utilized, and an 
additional seven acres is being rented. However, many investi- 
gations pertinent to the agricultural economy of the area cannot 
be pursued until additional land is acquired. 


Jesse W. Sumner, Superintendent 

The Coastal Plain Research Station, established in 1905, is 
located one mile north of Willard and two miles south of Wallace 
in Pender County. The elevation is 51 feet above sea level, and 
the average annual rainfall is 48.9 inches. Of the Station's 411 
acres of predominantly Norfolk sandy loam soil, 149.8 acres are 
in pasture, which is used for dairy cows and for cooperative 
dairy forage research plots. There are 123.9 acres of crop land, 
of which 28.1 are used for field plots and other research, with 
the remainder devoted to general crops producing feed for poul- 

106 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

try and for dairy cows. The station also has 81.5 acres of wood- 
land ; and 48.5 acres in roads, building sites, and an irrigation 
pond. Station activities include the supervision of research proj- 
ects and the feed production program ; and public relations activi- 
ties, such as field days, instructing veterans groups, and giving 
information to farmers and other visitors. 

The four principal lines of research are: Dairy and forage 
crops, poultry, horticulture, and agronomy. A study of pasture 
production and maintenance, with a view to determining the 
best rotation and management in providing constant year round 
pasturage for the herd, is carried out in the forage crops program. 
Considerable work has been done with summer grazing of millets 
— Common, Star Hybrids, and Coastal Bermuda grass. The new 
bunker silos have been constructed and studies are underway 
to compare keeping and feeding qualities of silage in bunkers 
with silage in upright silos. 

Another phase of dairy research relates to breeding for higher 
milk production. Herd production has been increased both as to 
quantity of milk and amount of butterfat. Proof of better pro- 
duction is shown by the record of "Will Sena BDI Maid" who 
set a national record for a junior 4-year old for 305 days, twice 
daily milking for a registered Jersey, with 15,705 lbs. of milk 
and 821 lbs. of butterfat. Work is also being conducted to find 
a better and more economical way of raising calves. 

During the past two years the following phases of poultry 
research work have been under way: Breeding for superior 
Rhode Island Reds, free choice system of feeding, comparison of 
various blood lines of laying-type hens, testing growth factors 
for broilers, testing broiler strains, means of cooling laying 
houses, and cage laying house management. 

Strawberry research, a horticultural project, has been contin- 
ued during the biennium, and new selections have been made and 
tested. Selections previously made and introduced have con- 
tinued to demonstrate their worth. They serve as the principal 
commercial varieties grown in the southeastern part of the state. 
The use of these varieties has been spreading through the coun- 
try. Work is being conducted to establish selections that are 
virus free. Muscadine grape work consists of measuring yields 
of present varieties and testing new varieties. Studies are 
under way to determine better pruning and management methods. 

Agronomy research consists primarily of testing corn hybrids 
produced in the Experiment Station's breeding work, soybeans 

Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 107 

originating from the soybean breeding program, and new pro- 
ductions from other states. 

During the past fiscal year a platform hay drier has been used 
for the purpose of trying to determine a satisfactory way of 
curing hay in the humid eastern North Carolina climate. Soy- 
beans, coastal bermuda, lespedeza, and fescue have been cured 
on this drier. 

In order for this station to continue to serve the needs of the 
farmers of eastern North Carolina, we need to gear the research 
program to the fast changing developments in agriculture. On 
the station we need to keep up to date with modern, efficient 
machinery. As to the improvement of facilities there is a need 
for funds to modify some of the old buildings to better serve 
the requirements of the present research program. 


W. H. Darst 

The Seed Testing Division was established to enforce the North 
Carolina Seed Law, the purpose of which is to assure farmers 
that the seed they buy are correctly labeled and meet minimum 
standards for germination, purity and weed-seed content. 

To achieve this purpose, the Division carries on several types 
of activity. It inspects, analyzes and tests field and garden seed 
on sale within the state. As time and facilities permit, it ana- 
lyzes seed without charge for growers, dealers and other resi- 
dents of North Carolina. Its cooperative endeavors include 
analyzing all seed to be certified by the North Carolina Crop Im- 
provement Association, sampling and testing seed for the Land- 
scape Department of the State Highway Commission, analyzing 
and testing seed for the Agricultural Stabilization and Conserva- 
tion Committee of the United States Department of Agriculture 
for compliance with the minimum specifications of that agency 
for seed furnished farmers, and aiding in the enforcement of 
the Federal Seed Act. 

The official seed testing laboratory operates under the "Official 
Rules for Sampling and Testing Seed" adopted by the Associa- 
tion of Official Seed Analysts, and other requirements of the 
North Carolina Seed Law. The Division is an active member of 
this Association, as well as the Association of American Seed 
Control Officials and the Seed Control Officials of the Southern 
States. Participation in the work of these associations has been 
of great help in maintaining a high standard of efficiency in 
carrying out the functions of this Division. 

The personnel of the Division includes 15 full time employees, 
consisting of one director, five seed specialists (inspectors), one 
supervising analyst, five purity analysts, two germination spe- 
cialists, and one stenographer-clerk. 

Since the work load in the laboratory varies greatly with the 
season of the year, additional temporary help is employed to 
supplement the work of the permanent employees during the 
months of August through March. These temporary employees 
consist of two full-time analysts, several agricultural college 
students, and some additional clerical help. 

Report for 1956-58 — Seed Testing 109 

A survey made by the Association of American Seed Control 
Officials in 1956-57 showed that the North Carolina seed labora- 
tory ranks first in the nation in the number of service samples 
tested annually for farmers and seedsmen, and fourth in the 
total number of seed samples tested by a state laboratory. The 
survey also showed that, while North Carolina ranks second 
in the number of seed analysts employed in its central labora- 
tory, the unit cost per sample tested in this state is the eighth 
lowest reported. 

The number of seed samples tested by this Division during the 
1956-1958 biennium totaled 43,631. In addition, 54,426 seed 
lots were inspected and analysed at dealers' places of business. 
Stop-sale orders were issued on 368 seed lots consisting of 16,596 
bags of seed which were in violation of the seed law. Of this 
number, 9,962 bags were re-labeled in compliance with the law, 
and sale was prohibited on 6,634 bags. 

Comparing this biennium with the 1954-1956 biennium, there 
is good evidence that more seed dealers, within and without the 
state, are selling seed of higher quality and better labeled in 
compliance with the law. 

Several hearings on seed law violations were held before the 
Commissioner of Agriculture. At the end of this biennial period 
(June 30, 1958) one court case concerning the mislabeling of 
tobacco seed was still pending. Approximately 65 violations of 
the Federal Seed Act and the State Seed Law were reported to 
the federal district office for consideration. 

The North Carolina Seed Law was amended in 1957 to require 
that all flue-cured tobacco seed sold in the state must be recorded 
with the Commissioner of Agriculture before November 1 pre- 
ceding each growing season. 

The purpose of this amendment is to ensure the correct label- 
ing of tobacco seed as to variety, a question which cannot be 
determined by a visual examination of the seeds. Two provisions 
of the amendment are designed to aid in achieving its purpose. 
One requires that a sample of the seed must be submitted at the 
time it is recorded. This is kept on file, so that it can be grown in 
a variety test as a check against seed offered for sale under the 
recorded variety name. 

The second provision of the amendment established a "Tobacco 
Seed Committee", which must declare flue-cured varieties to be 
correctly identified before they may be accepted for recording 
by the Commissioner. 

110 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

In June, 1957, the General Assembly ratified "An Act to Re- 
quire the Inspection by the Department of Agriculture of Seed 
Planted in the State Highway and Public Works Commission." 
This law provides that any seed planted along a highway or road 
right-of-way in the state must first be tested in the laboratory 
of this Division and approved for compliance with the Seed Law 
and regulations. 

On May 12, 1958, the State Board of Agriculture amended the 
seed regulations by lowering the germination standard for garden 
beans from 75 percent to 70 percent. This was done to make the 
state standards conform to federal standards which had been 
recently changed. Uniformity between state and federal stan- 
dards is desirable insofar as this is practicable. 

Also on May 12, 1958, the Board of Agriculture added witch- 
weed (Striga asiatica) to the list of noxious weeds which are 
prohibited in crop seed. Witchweed is a comparatively new 
parasitic plant in North Carolina, and is a serious threat to corn, 
sorghums and similar crops. While the seed are very small and 
difficult to detect, any crop seed containing evidence of the pres- 
ence of witchweed is prohibited sale. 


Dr. Eugene J. Kamprath 


Efficiency in production has become a must factor for farmers 
in North Carolina who are dependent upon the production of 
food, fiber, and tobacco for their livelihood. To obtain maximum 
economic returns from crop production it is necessary for farm- 
ers to know the fertility and lime status of their soils. It is the 
function of the Soil Testing Division to provide this information 
to the farmers of the state. 

During the period from July 1, 1956, to June 30, 1958, over 
91,000 soil samples were analyzed for North Carolina farmers. 
Of these farmer samples, over 450,000 separate determinations 
were made during this period. In addition, 2,000 other soil 
samples from florists, nurserymen, and special problem areas 
were analyzed. 

The number of samples has decreased in comparison to those 
analyzed during the previous biennium. This is a reflection of 
the sharp decrease in the cultivated crop acreage due to the Soil 
Bank program. 

Considerable interest has developed in soil testing in the past 
year. During the winter of 1957-1958 a soil sampling drive was 
initiated by the agricultural workers of Hoke County. The ob- 
jective of this drive was to have every farmer take at least one 
soil sample and follow the soil test recommendation as a means 
of improving the economy of the county which is very dependent 
upon agriculture. 

Several other counties have made plans for an intensified soil 
sampling program for this coming year. In addition, fertilizer 
companies are placing renewed emphasis on the importance of 
soil tests as the basis for selecting the proper ratio and amount 
of fertilizer to apply. 

This Division has cooperated with various departments of 
North Carolina State College by making detailed chemical anal- 
yses of soil samples from research and demonstration plots. 
This work is important as it helps to evaluate present fertilizer 
recommendations and also provides data for any new recom- 
mendations which might be made. This work is conducted dur- 

112 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

ing the time of year when the number of farmers' samples re- 
ceived is at a minimum. During the two year period over 10,000 
soil samples were analyzed for the research personnel at North 
Carolina State College. 

The rapid technological progress in farming, and the increas- 
ing emphasis on efficiency in production, make it necessary to 
refine and develop new chemical methods for estimating the fer- 
tility and lime status of soils. The past several years' work has 
been under way to evaluate the nitrogen-supplying power of 
North Carolina soils by more adequate methods. Another re- 
search project has been started to compare various methods for 
estimating the available potassium content of certain mountain 
and piedmont soils. The development of more refined tests for 
nitrogen and potassium will result in a more efficient use of 
fertilizer by the farmer. 

The personnel of the Division participated in numerous radio 
and television programs, and meetings with farm groups, point- 
ing out the value of soil tests and the importance of proper soil 

The technical and clerical staff are to be commended for the 
fine job they did in carrying out the work of the Division. 


Dr. J. S. Dorton, Manager 

During the past two years, the State Fair has made progress 
in expanding its physical facilities. 

The old WPA records building has been remodeled, and is now 
an attractive, useful building. Before remodeling, this old 
structure was neither attractive nor useful except for shop 
space and storage. By converting it into a lounge building, it 
will serve many long needed purposes and should be a favorite 
meeting place for fairgoers. It will quarter first aid rooms, the 
Red Cross, the Lost Kiddies Colony and two badly needed rest 

The erection of seven new permanent-type lunch stands is 
another outstanding improvement made in 1958. 

During 1957, higher operation costs, the recession and Asiatic 
Flu (the Health Department reported 100,000 cases in the state 
on Wednesday of Fair Week) combined to curtail the financial 
success of the Fair. For the first time since the Fair became a 
division of the Department of Agriculture, revenues were insuf- 
ficient to meet production costs, and a net loss of $4,973.81 was 
shown by the audit. 

As this report is written, the 1958 Fair will begin in about 
a week. With good weather, higher attendance and revenue 
figures, we have high hopes for a successful year. With the 
interest already shown by the state's institutions, business en- 
terprises, and the citizens who are competing for the $50,000 in 
premium money, we hope to have the most representative group 
of exhibits ever shown. 

Ninety-three counties were represented by exhibits in 1957. 
This was the largest number ever represented. 

During the past year, the non-Fair use of buildings and 
grounds increased. Many school, church, club and professional 
groups were guests at the Youth Center. The State Fair Arena 
continues to attract tourists, engineers and architects from over 
the entire world in ever increasing numbers. Commercial and 
civic sponsors of entertainments and sports events are making 
greater use of it. With the addition of ice equipment in pros- 


N. C. Department of Agriculture 

pect, it is expected that a number of additional bookings may be 

Year Revenue 

1957 $268,159.77 

1956 282,032. 8S 

1955 320,932.18 

1954.__: 273,365.51 

1953 302,566.79 

1952 276,214.58 

1951 258,340.60 

1950 _.. _ _ 212,455.58 

1949 233,523.22 

1948 196,924.72 

1947 166,312.27 

1946 _ 220,544.03 

1942-45 _ (No Fair) 

1941 101,856.00 

1940 80,742.52 

1939 72,128.72 

1938 78,599.32 

1937 68,867.01 

of Grounds 






Henry L. Rasor 

Statistician in Charge 

In any economy the law of "supply and demand" has always 
been a dominant factor where marketing of products is con- 
cerned. More than a century ago our nation's farmers began 
to realize that they were placed at a disadvantage in bargaining 
because they knew so little about crop and livestock supplies. 
Prodded by agricultural interests throughout the nation, Con- 
gress in 1839 authorized an appropriation of $1,000 to the United 
States Patent Office to be used for distributing seed and for col- 
lecting agricultural statistics. 

From this very modest beginning was developed the Federal 
Crop Reporting Service which maintains 41 state statistical 
offices throughout the nation. In practically all of these offices 
the federal government has entered into cooperative arrange- 
ments with certain state agencies whereby detailed agricultural 
statistics are made available and disseminated to the public. 

One of these offices is in North Carolina, and it is popularly 
known as "The North Carolina Crop Reporting Service." This 
office, which embraces our Division of Crop Statistics, was estab- 
lished in 1919 as a cooperative effort of the North Carolina and 
the U. S. Departments of Agriculture. Its chief responsibilities 
are the preparation and dissemination of agricultural statistics 
for North Carolina and for the various counties and townships 
within the boundaries of the state. 

Statistics provide the factual information without which mod- 
ern society cannot properly function. This is equally as true 
for agriculture as for industry or any other phase of our econ- 
omy. It is only through the availability of such statistics that it 
is possible to measure changes or progress that are taking place. 
It is only through availability of agricultural production statis- 
tics that farmers' production and marketing plans can be carried 
out with optimum efficiency. 

It is worthy of note that North Carolina leads all other states 
in farm population and is second only to Texas in number of 
farms. In value of production the state usually ranks in either 
third or fourth place among the states of the nation. More than 

116 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

three-fifths of the total land area is classified as farm land. It is 
not surprising, therefore, that North Carolina agricultural sta- 
tistics are in great demand. 

The Crop Statistics Division is experiencing an almost un- 
precedented and constantly increasing demand for basic agri- 
cultural statistics at the state and local levels. This demand 
comes not only from our farmers and agricultural workers, but 
also from non-agricultural enterprises which recognize their de- 
pendence upon our agricultural economy. The increased empha- 
sis on establishment of new industrial plants in the state has 
greatly accelerated the demand for agricultural statistics at the 
local level. The public is becoming more and more interested in 
knowing which commodities are being produced in our state and 
in what quantities. They want to know, too, in what areas of the 
state these commodities may be found and when they will be 
ready for market. 

In order to meet this ever increasing demand for crop and 
livestock information, the Division develops more than 350 sep- 
arate reports each year, which cover approximately 6,500 items 
of interest to farmers. 

This wide coverage is made possible through the voluntary aid 
of approximately 40,000 farmers and businessmen throughout 
the state who give of their time to provide information for the 
common good of all. These voluntary reporters complete and 
return questionnaires which are mailed to them periodically 
throughout the year, with no monetary reward but with the 
knowledge that they are performing a public service in helping 
to provide current information necessary for accurate agricul- 
tural statistics. 

In addition to this regular corps of voluntary reporters, the 
Division has access to individual farm records from more than 
330,000 farm tracts. Data from these records are collected 
annually under the direction of the County Commissioners in 
connection with an annual state farm census. 

Although much of the basic information is secured through 
the return of mailed inquiries and through farm census reports, 
extensive field travel must be performed in making personal 
observations and interpretations and in contacting farmers, mer- 
chants, county agricultural workers, and others who are familiar 
with crops and livestock within their particular localities. Dur- 
ing the past two years, an average of about 110,000 miles were 
traveled per year by personnel assigned to the Division. The 

Report for 1956-58— Statistics 117 

bulk of this travel has been performed at federal government 

As the basic information is assimilated from various sources, 
it is processed by Division personnel, and summaries are care- 
fully analyzed by highly trained technicians in the preparation 
of official crop and livestock estimates. Releases containing 
these estimates are prepared immediately for distribution 
through newspapers, radio stations, and other interested con- 

As a ready reference to those interested in North Carolina 
agriculture, the Division publishes a semi-monthly "Farm Re- 
port." This publication is recognized as the official crop bulletin 
of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and contains 
current state and national estimates as released by the national 
Crop Reporting Board. 

The increasingly heavy demand for North Carolina agricul- 
tural statistics is demonstrated by the fact that during the fiscal 
year 1957-58 there were more than 835,000 separate copies of 
bulletins, reports, etc. distributed to people specifically requesting 
receipt of such information. This was an increase of about 
70,000 over the number distributed during the preceding year. 
This is in addition to the large number of requests received by 
mail, telephone, and personal visitation. During the fiscal year 
1957-58 approximately 2,400 such requests were received and 
serviced. Many of these involved the bringing together of a 
multitude of facts from various sources and presenting the com- 
bined data in comprehensive form for ready use by governmental 
agencies or private concerns interested in locating plants within 
the boundaries of the state. 

For the sake of continuity in our series of agricultural esti- 
mates, the work of the Division must follow some general pattern 
from one year to the next. At the same time, we attempt to 
provide new information as warranted by demands. At present 
the Division is undertaking an extensive survey of commercial 
broiler processors preparatory to developing broiler production 
statistics at the county level. Commercial broiler production 
is one of North Carolina's fastest growing agricultural ener- 
prises, and out of this rapid growth there has developed a very 
large demand for more detail in production statistics. 

Despite the large volume of North Carolina agricultural statis- 
tics made available to the public through the facilities of the 
Crop Statistics Division, we still receive many requests which 

118 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

cannot now be filled. Estimates of cash farm income by counties 
are badly needed as are comprehensive estimates of crop produc- 
tion costs. It is to be hoped that within the not too distant future 
it might be possible to meet these demands for such valuable 
information. In the meantime, we shall continue, as we have in 
the past, to develop as many different essential statistical reports 
as availability of funds and personnel will permit. 


Dr. H. J. Rollins 

State Veterinarian 

The Veterinary Division administers the laws and regulations 
designed to control and eradicate infectious and transmissible 
diseases of livestock and poultry. The Division performs various 
and complex services in specialized scientific fields. The State 
Veterinarian, within the framework of established policy, is 
responsible for administration of the North Carolina disease 
control and eradication programs. 

The State Veterinarian and his assistants, in cooperation with 
the Federal Veterinarians, recommend and carry out uniform 
methods of inspection, testing, diagnosis and quarantine for the 
control of infectious diseases of livestock and poultry on a state- 
wide and national scale. Programs for the control and eradica- 
tion of Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Vesicular Exanthema, Scrapie 
and foreign diseases introduced by accident or sabotage are con- 
ducted under cooperative agreements between the Veterinary 
Division of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and 
the Animal Disease Eradication Division, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

The livestock and poultry population in North Carolina con- 
tinues to increase each year. The increased numbers, concen- 
tration and mass movement of livestock and poultry, and rapid 
transportation by truck, train and plane, increase the hazards of 
both domestic and foreign disease outbreaks. 

Brucellosis : The blood testing of herds and slaughter of reac- 
tors is a major factor in the eradication of Brucellosis and the 
maintenance of Brucellosis free herds. The states adjoining 
North Carolina have made excellent progress under the national 
accelerated Brucellosis program. Cattle purchased for herd ad- 
ditions should be obtained from known Brucellosis free herds. A 
large number of reactors are found as a result of the purchase 
and importation of animals with questionable health status. At 
present a majority of the Brucellosis reactors found are in the 
commercial beef herds. 

The Mobile Ring Test Laboratory was in full operation during 
the biennium. Milk samples from Grade A and commercial dairy 
herds are collected and tested at six-month intervals. The Bru- 
cellosis ring test is an aid in the earlv detection of the disease in 

120 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

dairy herds. However, the accuracy of the milk ring test has 
not been perfected, and, therefore, it is not an acceptable substi- 
tute for the blood test. Brucellosis reactors have been found in 
negative ring test herds and only about 20 percent of the ring 
test suspect herds are found to have reactors by the official blood 

Calf hood vaccination with Strain 19 Brucella vaccine is avail- 
able to any herd owner upon request and adoption of the calfhood 
vaccination program. Calfhood vaccination establishes a vary- 
ing degree of resistance in the individual animal. Annual blood 
testing of the herd, including all calfhood vaccinates prior to 
breeding, is recommended. Calfhood vaccinates showing a react- 
ing blood test titer 18 or more months following date of vaccina- 
tion are classed as reactors. The percentage of calfhood vacci- 
nates classed as reactors when located in Brucellosis free herds 
is very low. 

Summary of Brucellosis Blood Tests 

1956-51 1957-58 

Herds tested 33,939 24,219 

Cattle tested _ 277,092 252,429 

Number of Reactors 639 634 

Number of Infected Herds _ 325 262 

Number of Calfhood Vaccinates 3,000 4,523 

Summary of Brucellosis Ring Tests 

1956-51 1951-58 

Number of Dairy Herds 21,595 23,034 

Number of Dairy Cattle..... 315,471 348,910 

Ring Test Negative Herds 21,420 22,764 

Ring Test Suspect Herds 175 270 

Percentage of Infection 0.14 0.15 

Tuberculosis: The tuberculin test is an accurate method of 
identification of animals infected with Tuberculosis. Early de- 
tection and slaughter of the infected animal have largely pre- 
vented further spread of the disease to other cattle. A larger 
majority of the tubercular reactors during the present biennium 
was identified as imported cattle or other cattle exposed to in- 
fected imports. 

Swine infected with Tuberculosis were located in four herds 
during the biennium. Cattle or swine infected with Tuberculosis 
are immediately slaughtered under federal-state supervision. 

Summary of Tuberculosis Tests 

1956-57 1957-58 

Herds Tested ._ 13,652 12,058 

Cattle tested 174,427 178,915 

Number of Reactors 9 20 

Number of Infected Herds . 8 5 

Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 121 

Mastitis continues to exact serious economic losses in dairy 
herds. Sanitation, management, proper housing to prevent in- 
juries, and differential diagnosis along with suitable medicinal 
agents, are essential aids in the control of Mastitis. A total of 
3,067 milk samples were examined in the diagnostic laboratory. 
A total of 2,789 milk samples were found to contain either coli- 
form or coccoid bacteria, with some samples containing both 
types of organisms. 

Leptospirosis has been diagnosed in livestock and dogs during 
the biennium. The disease may vary from a form so acute that 
it causes death in one to three days to one so mild as to go un- 
noticed by the owner. The laboratory report covering 2,212 
blood serum samples showed 223 positive or suspicious animals 
and 1,989 negative. Adequate control has been extremely diffi- 
cult due to the nature of the disease, its ability to infect most 
species of large animals, its healthy-carrier problem, its reser- 
voir in wildlife and its ability to live outside of the animal's body. 
The disease is important both from an animal and human health 

Vesicular Exanthema has not been known to exist in North 
Carolina since January 1954. Enforcement of the Garbage Feed- 
ing Law and the rules and regulations thereunder, has prevented 
the recurrence of this disease. Garbage fed swine and garbage 
feeding premises are inspected once each month and more often 
when necessary by state or federal inspectors. The frequent in- 
spections are expensive but must be continued to prevent future 
outbreaks of Vesicular Exanthema. 

The importance of Vesicular Stomatitis in cattle and swine is 
its similarity to Vesicular Exanthema and Food and Mouth Dis- 
ease. A differential diagnosis of this disease is by animal inoc- 
ulation and laboratory test. The disease generally occurs in the 
summer and fall and is mostly confined to the eastern part of the 
state. Infected and exposed animals are placed under quaran- 
tine and the premises are cleaned and disinfected following death 
or recovery of the infected animals. The chief economic impor- 
tance consists of restricted movement of infected and exposed 
animals, loss of weight of infected animals and the expensive 
inspection and diagnostic procedure. Death losses are very low. 

Vibriosis is a breeding problem of importance. A total of 420 
serology samples were submitted for laboratory examination 
with findings of 27 reactors, 68 suspects and 325 negative. 

Anaplasmosis has been diagnosed in a number of herds. A 

122 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

total of 180 blood serum samples were submitted to the labora- 
tory for test with findings of 153 positive and 27 negative. 

Parasitic diseases, both internal and external, continue to 
exact serious economic losses in the livestock and poultry popu- 
lation of the state. A program of sanitation and management in 
combination with available vermicides and insecticides will ef- 
fectively reduce serious economic loss. Parasitic infestation 
lowers the resistance of the affected individuals and is responsi- 
ble directly or indirectly for outbreaks of infectious, nutritional 
and non-infectious diseases of livestock and poultry. 

Equine Encephalomyelitis (sleeping sickness) has occurred in 
horses and mules, but fewer cases were reported than in the pre- 
vious biennium. This disease is primarily transmitted by mos- 
quitoes and other blood sucking insects. Annual vaccination 
prior to exposure is an effective method of prevention, control 
and eradication. Immediate vaccination is recommended in those 
areas where the disease is known to exist. The disease is trans- 
missible to man, other mammals and birds. The other infectious 
diseases affecting horses and mules have been minor in character. 

Hog Cholera alone, or in combination with other diseases, is 
responsible for the greatest number of death losses in the swine 
population of the state. A large number of susceptible swine, 
either unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated, continue as a con- 
stant threat to widespread outbreaks of Hog Cholera. The vacci- 
nation of swine by unqualified personnel, the use of improperly 
stored and reconstituted modified virus vaccine in combination 
with too small a quantity of anti-hog cholera serum, or without 
serum, is not recommended. Modified virus vaccine properly 
refrigerated and used in combination with an adequate dose of 
anti-hog cholera serum will produce a satisfactory immunity of 
healthy swine. A large dose of anti-hog cholera serum not only 
gives immediate protection against hog cholera but is an aid in 
the prevention of secondary diseases frequently observed follow- 
ing vaccination with modified virus. Anti-hog cholera serum 
alone will give effective protection for approximately 15 days, 
and this is often chosen, especially in herds infected with a dis- 
ease or diseases other than Hog Cholera. The local veterinarian 
is best qualified to determine the health status of the herd and 
the selection of the proper product to be used in the vaccination 
of swine. 

Three diseases relatively new to this area have been diagnosed 
and seem to be slowly on the increase. They are Transmissible 
Gastro-enteritis, Atrophic Rhinitis and Virus Pneumonia. Trans- 

Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 123 

missible Gastroenteritis is a serious killer of baby pigs and, in 
a few instances, has been responsible for the complete loss of 
one pig crop on infected premises. Atrophic Rhinitis and Virus 
Pneumonia do not produce such great death losses, their effects 
being mostly noticed as an economic loss in extending the grow- 
ing and feeding period requirements. 

Mass movement and concentration of livestock from various 
sources of origin at markets and other points present a huge 
disease problem. Compulsory vaccination of breeding and feed- 
ing swine, and testing of breeding and feeding cattle moving 
through livestock markets, are essential aids in preventing the 
spread of Hog Cholera and Brucellosis. 

The inspection of 57 public livestock auction markets and move- 
ment of livestock, and supervision of cleaning and disinfecting 
contaminated premises, are additional duties of the Veterinary 

A qualified veterinarian can usually diagnose and properly 
treat diseased livestock on the farm. Complicated disease prob- 
lems encountered by veterinarians on the farms should be refer- 
red to the laboratory for differential diagnosis. Laboratory diag- 
nosis is an additional aid to veterinarians in the selection of 
proper treatment of diseased animals. Early diagnosis and im- 
mediate treatment is an essential part of the control and eradica- 
tion of infectious and transmissible diseases. 

The greatest problem in operating the laboratory is difficulty 
in getting proper specimens from disease outbreaks in the field. 
Selection of the proper animal to be sent to the laboratory for 
examination should be made by veterinarians treating the herd. 
Selection of an animal representative of the condition in the herd 
is very important if the owner is to receive the greatest benefit. 
Submission of "runts", "culls" or decomposed animals or birds 
for examination, when they are not representative of the disease 
present, results in time-consuming and time-wasting effort from 
which no one receives any benefits. 

The large-animal diagnostic laboratory handled 1,083 patho- 
logical specimens or cases, which included 512 autopsies, in the 
fiscal year 1956-57; and 1,276 cases, 544 of which were autopsies, 
during the fiscal year 1957-58. These laboratory services were 
in addition to serological and bacteriological tests outlined in an- 
other section of this report. Swine comprised 65 to 75 percent 
of the laboratory autopsies. The most commonly diagnosed swine 
diseases are Hog Cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis. 

124 N. C. Department op Agriculture 

The large-animal laboratory also conducts histopathological 
examinations on selected tissues for the five poultry laboratories. 
During the biennium 1,215 tissue slides were examined for spe- 
cific pathology of disease. 

The production of hatchery flocks, sale of baby chicks, hatch- 
ing eggs, commercial eggs, and broilers constitute a major farm 
industry in North Carolina, and they have continued to increase 
in volume during the biennium. Many areas in the eastern part 
of the state have greatly increased their turkey and poultry 
operations. Present information indicates continued increase in 
turkey and poultry production in the eastern areas. Poultry 
disease problems increase in a comparative ratio with increased 
production and concentration of poultry and turkey flocks. All 
birds in hatchery flocks are pullorum-typhoid tested and culled 
by personnel of the Division or by licensed testing agents under 
the supervision of the Veterinary Division. The National Tur- 
key and Poultry Improvement Plans are administered by the 
Veterinary Division of the North Carolina Department of Agri- 
culture. The Division inspects hatcheries, licenses and super- 
vises the operations of baby chick and hatching egg dealers. The 
majority of flocks producing hatching eggs are classed as pul- 
lorum-typhoid clean. Flocks in which a minimum number of 
pullorum-typhoid reactors are found are retested and, if nega- 
tive, classed as pullorum-typhoid passed. 


1956-57 1957-58 

Number Chicken Flocks Tested..... 3,117 2,712 

Number Chickens Tested 2,781,109 2,984,750 

Number Reactors 223 280 

Number Chickens tube tested 51,852 87,238 

Number of hatcheries „_ 141 147 

Number of chick dealers. 398 374 

Number of hatching egg dealers 24 23 

Number Turkey Flocks tested 68 63 

Number Turkeys tube tested 61,522 61,555 

The poultry diagnostic laboratories are located at Monroe, 
North Wilkesboro, Raleigh, Shelby and Waynesville. The poul- 
try diagnostic laboratory in Raleigh is more adequately equipped 
and staffed than the other four laboratories. The Raleigh Lab- 
oratory, in addition to routine diagnostic services, received path- 
ological specimens from the four branch laboratories when more 
complicated laboratory tests were required. 

The poultry and virus diagnostic laboratory building, now 
under construction on Western Boulevard in Raleigh, should be 

Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 125 

completed and equipped during the first year of the next bien- 

The Wilkes Area Poultry Association built and donated a mod- 
ern poultry laboratory building during this biennium. The lab- 
oratory equipment was furnished by the Veterinary Division 
of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. 

The poultry diagnostic laboratories autopsied 7,268 birds dur- 
ing the fiscal year 1956-57 and 11,928 birds during the fiscal year 
1957-58. These laboratories conducted 113,374 serological tests 
during the fiscal year 1956-57 and 148,793 during the fiscal year 

The voluntary inspection of poultry for wholesomeness and 
voluntary inspection of meat, meat products and meat by-prod- 
ucts are under the supervision of the Veterinary Division. The 
veterinarians and lay inspectors required for inspection service 
are employed as temporary personnel. The inspection and ad- 
ministrative costs are collected from the operators of the poultry 
and meat establishments. 


A. B. Fairley 

State Warehouse Superintendent 

The state warehouse system, which now embraces a number of 
commodities, was created by the Legislature of 1919 as a result 
of a deplorable situation which cotton farmers faced at the be- 
ginning of World War I. 

Cotton was then bringing about 11 cents a pound, was difficult 
to sell and could not be used as collateral for borrowing. It was 
not practical to hold it for a rising market because there were 
not many cotton warehouses, and some of those did not enjoy 
good reputations. 

The few warehouses were located in large cities. Most eastern 
North Carolina producers sent their cotton to Norfolk on con- 
signment. If not sold immediately, it was carried back to the 
farm and usually left in the open. This resulted in heavy losses 
from water and weather damage and exposure to fire and theft. 

The development of an adequate warehouse system for this 
staple crop was needed to enable its growers to withstand and 
remedy periods of depressed prices. It was, therefore, necessary 
to provide a modern system whereby cotton may be more profit- 
ably and more scientifically marketed to make this important 
crop serve as collateral in the commercial world. It was also 
necessary to provide for strict state supervision of warehouse 
operations and to establish a guaranty fund for "the financial 
backing which is essential to make the warehouse receipt uni- 
versally accepted as collateral." This fund came from a ginner's 
tax of 25 cents a bale which was collected on cotton ginned in the 
state for a period of three years. 

The warehouse fund can, under the law, also be used to secure 
first mortgages on warehouse construction. The purpose of this 
measure is to aid and encourage the establishment of ware- 
houses operating under the system. The law requires ten percent 
of the fund to be invested in bonds, permitting the remaining 
90 percent to be used for warehouse construction. 

The State Warehouse System operates on the interest derived 
from these loans and bonds, while the principal fund acts as a 
guarantee back of the receipts issued by state licensed ware- 

Report for 1956-58 — Warehouse 127 

Although it was at first limited to cotton, the benefits derived 
from the State Warehouse System were so great that the Ware- 
house Act was amended in 1941 to include other agricultural 
commodities, with the exception of tobacco. This has proved of 
great benefit to the producers of grain and other farm commodi- 
ties. It has been the cause of a steady increase in the construc- 
tion of grain and other storage facilities. Several large grain 
elevators are in process of construction at this time, as well as 
several warehouses for storing sweet potatoes, and other com- 

The law provides safeguards on warehouse loans. It spells out 
the kinds of mortgages made, the amount of warehouse value 
covered by such mortgage and time limitation for mortgage to 

Before loans are made, the Warehouse Superintendent investi- 
gates to determine if it is a safe risk and if the warehouse is 
needed. Final approval for such loans must be made by the 
Board of Agriculture, the Governor and the Attorney General. 

A cooperative agreement with the United States Government 
provides for warehouses to be licensed under federal as well as 
state supervision. Warehouses are checked several times each 
year by federal inspectors without cost to the state. Lespedeza 
and poultry warehouses are licensed under state supervision only 
and these are checked three or four times each year under state 

Commodities stored in licensed warehouses are insured against 
loss by fire or lightning. If grain is stored, it is also insured 
against loss by windstorm. The law places responsibility for 
insurance on the State Warehouse Superintendent and he has 
other responsibilities relative to the collecting and payment of 

Warehouses licensed under the State Warehouse System pro- 
vide safe storage for farm commodities, and the receipts they 
issue are accepted by all banks as the best of collateral. Pro- 
ducers are, therefore, able to store their commodities and borrow 
money on them, instead of being forced to sell at a time when 
they feel that the price for their product is not a fair price. Stor- 
ing agricultural products in state licensed warehouses provides 
safety and promotes orderly marketing. 

During the past biennium the State Warehouse System has 
licensed for cotton storage the largest capacity in its history. 
There were licensed 99 warehouses for cotton, with a storage 

128 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

capacity of 875,000 bales. This represented an increase of 200,- 
000 bales over the previous biennium. 

There were licensed also 19 grain and lespedeza warehouses, 
with a capacity of over 3,000,000 bushels. This was an increase 
of three warehouses and elevators for grain, and an increase of 
1,000,000 bushels in capacity. There was one cold-storage ware- 
house licensed. 

Loans were made for warehouses and elevator construction at 
Shelby, Statesville and Greenville, the first of these being a ware- 
house for cotton, the other two for grain. The storage capacity 
of the grain elevators is 700,000 bushels. 

Several large cotton fires occurred, the total loss running over 
$500,000. This loss was adequately covered by insurance and 
all depositors were paid in full. 

Payments of interest and principal on loans have, in most 
cases, been met promptly, and the financial status of the State 
Warehouse System is as follows : 

June 30, 1956 

Gash on hand Cash on hand First Mort- Invested in Gov- 

Principal Fund Supervision Fund gage loans ernment Bonds 

$53,183.83 $22,098.04 $308,416.00 $380,000.00 

June 30, 1958 
$ 228.95 $16,602.70 $612,868.00 $ 97,000.00 


C. D. Baucom 

The Uniform Weights and Measures Law was enacted for two 
purposes : 

1. To protect the purchaser or seller of any commodity and 

2. To provide one standard of weight or measure which 
shall be used throughout the state. 

Thus, the purposes and objectives are clearly defined. In the 
attainment of the intent of the law, however, provision is made 
for the adoption of rules and regulations devised and approved 
by the Board of Agriculture which must be consistent with man- 
dates of the law. 

During the past biennium, the inspectors of this Division visit- 
ed 22,831 places of business where weighing and measuring 
devices were being used. They inspected 47,316 scales (con- 
demned 3,799) ; inspected 60,351 weights (condemned 702) ; re- 
weighed 212,151 packages (condemned 42,921, which unfortun- 
ately is on the increase percentage-wise) . 

In the auction tobacco warehouses they re-weighed 9,985 bas- 
kets of tobacco which weighed a total of 1,675,997 pounds. Of 
the number of baskets re- weighed there were 1,402 pounds gained 
and 6,737 pounds lost, or a net loss, while on the floor and in the 
process of sale, of 5,335 pounds or approximately three-tenths of 
one percent. 

In the enforcement of the Liquid Fertilizer Law, our inspectors 
visited 700 places where liquid fertilizer was being handled, 
stored or distributed. They approved 1,339 installations as be- 
ing safe and condemned 252 as being unsafe. During 1957, there 
were 504 liquid fertilizer dealers and contractors registered in 
this state, an increase of 143 over 1956. 

This Division is also responsible for the enforcement of the 
law dealing with the reduction of fire hazard in tobacco curing 
barns. In the conduct of this activity, 5,288 new installations 
were inspected, of which 4,489 were approved and 744 con- 

Under the Weighmaster Act this Division annually registers 
approximately 1,400 public weighmasters, who operate mostly in 

130 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tobacco warehouses and livestock markets. Under the Scale 
Mechanic Act approximately 90 scale mechanics are bonded and 
registered annually, a legal requirement for the protection of 
those who may need scale repair service. 

North Carolina is one of the few states that has a prescribed 
minimum-load-bearing concrete block strength. During the past 
biennium, 732 concrete blocks were picked up and tested, and of 
this number 656 were approved and 70 condemned. These 
sample blocks were taken from every block manufacturer in the 
state. It is interesting to note from our records that the average 
load bearing strength now is approximately 30 percent greater 
than the minimum requirement of 700 pounds per square inch 
of gross load-bearing area. 

It is also of general interest that basically the Weights and 
Measures Division was created in the interest of the consumer, 
and that all the services enumerated in this report were rendered 
by a personnel of 16 employees, at a cost to the consumers of 
North Carolina of less than two and one-half cents per person. 
Our appropriation for 1957-58 was $98,566.00. 

Gasoline and Oil Inspection 

Administration of the Gasoline and Oil Inspection Law is a 
separate function in the Weights and Measures Division. Its 
purpose, as stated in the law, is "to protect the public in the 
quality of the petroleum products it buys, to provide one standard 
of measure, that frauds, substitutions, adulterations, and other 
reprehensible practices may be prevented". Thus, our objectives 
are well defined. The attainment of our objectives may be 
evaluated by the following facts : 

During the past biennium 83,038 places of business were visit- 
ed; 205,995 pumps and meters inspected (7485 condemned) ; 
28,674 tank trucks, meters and oil measures calibrated (234 con- 
demned) ; 78,296 gasoline samples analyzed (292 condemned) ; 
18,899 kerosene samples analyzed (241 condemned) ; and 11,278 
liquefied gas installations inspected for safety (2496 condemned) . 

There was an annual registration of approximately 350 pump 
mechanics, approximately 275 liquefied petroleum gas dealers, 
and approximately 750 registered gasoline brands. Gasoline 
samples representing 1,450,654.894 gallons were taken during 
the year 1957-58. 

As of August 1, 1958 there were 18.203 gasoline retail outlets 
in North Carolina, equipped with 41,994 gasoline pumps, 16,334 

Report for 1956-58 — Weights and Measures 131 

kerosene pumps, and 408 diesel fuel pumps, or a grand total of 
approximately 58,736 measuring devices used daily in dispensing 
petroleum products to the consumer. 

A study of the above data reveals that the purpose of the law 
as well as the objectives expressed are being attained through the 
enforcement of the law, supported by reasonable rules, regula- 
tions, and procedures devised and approved by the Gasoline and 
Oil Inspection Board. The enforcement personnel consists of 
an office staff of five, with 20 pump inspectors, six calibrators, 
two liquefied petroleum gas inspectors, 20 chemists, and one lab- 
oratory helper. 

The total appropriation for 1957-58 was $311,043.00. Whereas 
an estimated four and one-half million citizens of this state bene- 
fit, directly or indirectly, by this inspection service, it is interest- 
ing to note that the cost per person is less than seven cents per