THE LIBRARY OF THE
THE COLLECTION OF
UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL
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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
L. Y. BALLENTINE. Commissioner
RALEIGH, N. C.
OUR COVER PICTURE
The photo on our cover symbolizes in several ways
the "new look" in North Carolina agriculture. It illus-
trates our expanding grain and forage production,
which in turn partly reflects the steady expansion in
our livestock industry. It depicts the trend toward in-
creasing mechanization in our farming operations.
The tall corn in the picture is a North Carolina hybrid,
symbolizing our progress in utilizing agricultural re-
search to obtain greater yields.
All of these are encouraging signs of a brighter fu-
ture for the state's agriculture. But they also mean
that our farming people have been making, and must
continue to make, some radical readjustments. North
Carolina is a state of small farms, with the largest farm
population in the nation. To meet competition, we must
continue the trend toward mechanization and more effi-
cient production methods. At the same time, it is desir-
able to keep our large farm population gainfully
employed in agricultural pursuits, and our farm pro-
grams must be shaped with this need always in mind.
To meet the challenge before us requires imagination,
ingenuity, know-how and determination. But it can be
met, because our farmers and agricultural workers
have these qualities ; and, in addition, we are generously
blessed with the necessary resources of soil and climate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Board of Agriculture .._•. 5
Commissioner's Summary : ___. 13
Highlights of Board Meetings ■ 21
Accounting Division . 28
Chemistry Division . 35
Credit Union Division •_ 43
Dairy Division 45
Entomology Division 49
Markets Division 55
Museum Division 79
Publications Division 87
Research Stations Division 90
Seed Testing Division ___108
Soil Testing Division _v 111
State Fair Division . 113
Statistics Division :„115
Veterinary Division 119
Warehouse Division 126
Weights and Measures Division 129
STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE
L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner
J. Atwell Alexander Stony Point
W..I. Bissette Grifton
Glenn G. Gilmore Julian
Hoyle C. Griffin Monroe
Claude T. Hall Roxboro
George P. Kittrell Corapeake
J. Muse McCotter New Bern
Charles F. Phillips Thomasville
J. H. Poole West End
A. B. Slagle Franklin
STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
June 30, 1958
L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner
John L. Reitzel Assistant Commissioner
Bettie H. Carrigg Stenographer Clerk III
Hazel I. Horner Stenographer Clerk II
Doris B. Wofford _. Stenographer Clerk III
Division of Accounts
Grace H. Malloy ___. Auditor
Edna C. Brown Accounting Clerk I
Gaynell Bullock Accounting Clerk II
Alicegrae F. Ferrell Accounting Clerk IV
Mildred M. Horton ._ Accounting Clerk I
Elsie W. Jordan Accounting Clerk III
Jean G. Pace Accounting Clerk I
Gwen W. Ratchford Accounting Clerk I
Lena P. Sockell _ Stenographer Clerk II
Lunelle Yeargan Cashier Department of Agriculture
Publicity and Publications
Blackburn W. Johnson Public Information Officer III
Mary Yvonne Creech ____ Stenographer Clerk II
M. Pauline DeCosta Public Information Officer I
Joseph A. Hunter Clerk II
Bettye T. Rogers Clerk I
George A. Brown, Jr Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I
E. H. Cooper Tax Auditor III
Lindsey Ennis Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I
Harvey C. McPhail Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I
James R. Stevens Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector II
John A. Winfield Director Agricultural Marketing
Wilbur S. Brannan Marketing Specialist III
Betty W. Chapman Stenographer Clerk III
John H. Cyrus Marketing Specialist III
Jay P. Davis, Jr Marketing Specialist IV
Lewis F. Dunn Marketing Specialist II
Louise T. Dunn Stenographer Clerk III
Dewey H. Evans, Jr Marketing Specialist III
Ollie W. Faison.. Marketing Specialist IV
Jesse R. Ferrell Marketing Specialist II
Cleo M. Gault Laboratory Technician I
Joe B. Gourlay Marketing Specialist III
Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 7
Elmer C. Green Marketing Specialist III
Thomas E. Green, Sr Marketing Specialist III
Evelyn G. Harper Stenographer Clerk II
George F. Harrington Marketing Specialist II
Wendell P. Hedrick Marketing Specialist IV
Vernon W. Hill Marketing Specialist III
James F. Hockaday, Jr _ Marketing Specialist I
Julius P. Jenrette Marketing Specialist III
Fred P. Johnson __ Marketing Specialist IV
Ralph B. Kelly Marketing Specialist IV
Ethel Y. Kiker _ Marketing Specialist III
Katherine B. Koppen ._ Stenographer Clerk III
Frances A. Lancaster Stenographer Clerk II
William E. Lane.. Marketing Specialist II
Melba J. Lindsay Stenographer Clerk II
Staley S. Long, Jr Marketing Specialist II
Hugh B. Martin Marketing Specialist IV
Neii.l A. Morrison, Jr Marketing Specialist III
Charles G. Murray Marketing Specialist III
Lavinia E. Murray Stenographer Clerk II
Hobart W. Myrick Marketing Specialist III
Mary L. Norman Stenographer Clerk II
Betty S. Pethel : Stenographer Clerk III
Arthur K. Pitzer „ Marketing Specialist III
Lois M. Pleasants Laboratory Technician I
Phoebe D. Powers Stenographer Clerk III
H. D. Quessenberry Marketing Specialist IV
B. S Rich Marketing Specialist IV
Carson W. Sheffield __ Marketing Specialist IV
Beatrice L. Smith Accounting Clerk I
Horace A. Smith Marketing Specialist HI
Robert W. Southerland Marketing Specialist II
Ann B. Stoddart..- Accounting Clerk I
Annie R. Strickland __ Stenographer Clerk II
Clrtis F. Tarleton Marketing Specialist IV
Carl H. Tower _ Marketing Specialist HI
George H. Turner, Jr Marketing Specialist II
Euris R. Vanderford ___ Marketing Specialist II
Paclin e M. W atkins _. _ Typist Clerk I
Dewey C. Wayne Marketing Specialist IV
Patsi C. Wellborn Accounting Clerk II
James A. Williams Marketing Specialist II
C. W. Pegram Director of Dairy Service
Lafayette H. Boykin, Jr ...Dairy Specialist II
Elmo H. Hollomon Dairy Specialist II
Paul R. Jordan, Jr Bacteriologist
W. L. McLeod Dairy Specialist II
Robert L. Merritt Laboratory Helper
Francis Patterson Dairy Specialist III
Mary M. Weathers Stenographer Clerk II
Giles M. Williams Dairy Specialist II
C, H. Brannon state Entomologist
Hugh I. Alford, Jr Entomologist II
James F. Greene Entomologist II
J. A. Harris ...Entomologist III
Pauline P. Newsom Stenographer Clerk II
Jesse F. Sessions Entomologist II
D. L. Wray... Entomologist III
8 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Willard H. Darst Director of Seed Testing
Magdalene G. Brummitt ....Seed Analyst III
Walter E. Burgiss Seed Specialist
Prances H. Colvin Seed Analyst II
Mahlon B. Dickens Seed Specialist
Stella W. Etheridge Seed Analyst II
Pearl G. Gray .. Stenographer Clerk II
Virginia B. Griffin ....Seed Analyst I
Theodora W. King Seed Analyst I
Murphy G. McKenzie, Jr Seed Specialist
Kenneth M. Mintz Seed Specialist
Evelyn J. B. Murdoch Seed Analyst I
Ewald Smith Seed Analyst II
Joe N. Tate, Jr Seed Specialist
Mildred W. Thomas Seed Analyst II
E. W. Constable State Chemist
L. V. Amburgey Micoranalyst
Henry W. Barnes, Jr Chemist IV
Elizabeth F. Bartholomew Chemist II
Samuel C. Boyd Laboratory Helper
Z. B. Bradford ._ Chemist IV
Burney A. Britt Chemist II
David E. Buffaloe Chemist IV
Margaret B. Carter Chemist II
James A. Chapman Laboratory Helper
Vera A. Culler. Chemist I
Dorothy M. Davis Stenographer Clerk III
J. Whitt Davis Feed, Fertilizer and Insecticide Inspector I
Ralph E. Ferguson, Jr Chemist I
John J. Filicky _„. Chemist II
Evelyn A. Freeman Stenographer Clerk I
Robert L. Freeman Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector
Charles H. Godwin, Jr Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector
Samuel H. Hinton Laboratory Helper
Velva E. Hudson Typist Clerk III
Harold L. Jackson Chemist I
Jesse G. Jernigan Chemist II
H. D. Matheson . Chemist II
W. P. Matthews.. ~ Chemist IV
Mary A. Melvin. Stenographer Clerk II
Harry A. Miller ..Chemist VI
William A. Morgan Laboratory Helper
L. M. Nixon... Chemist V
Fred P. Nooe Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector
Myrna L. Nowell Typist Clerk III
H. F. Pickering Chemist IV
J. S. Pittard Chemist IV
L. B. Rhodes _ Food Chemist
Clyde W. Roberts Food, Drug and Cosmetic Inspector
Don H. Smith Laboratory Helper
Valyne F. Starling. Chemist I
William Sylver, Jr Laboratory Helper
Robert N. Tulloch • Chemist II
Muriel M. Weathers Chemist II
Hazel L. Willis Stenographer Clerk III
John T. Richardson Administrative Officer
Raymond R. Alford, Jr. Miscellaneous Duplicating Machine Supervisor G-S 4
Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 9
Mary S. Allen Research Analyst I
Louise W. Byrum Research Assistant
Ben E. Clayton, Jr Statistician I
Charlie H. Cross, Jr Duplicating Machine Operator II
John S. DeCourcy Analytical Statistician GS 7
Martha F. Early Research Assistant
Terry M. Edwards Duplicating Machine Operator II
Evelyn L. Finch Vari-Type Operator II
Winifred C. Karangelen Research Assistant
Ida L. King Research Assistant
Mary F. Lloyd Vari-Type Operator II
Carrie M. Mann Research Assistant
Janie H. Murph Research Assistant
Nancy C. Penny Stenographer Clerk II
Josephine H. Smith... _ Research Assistant
Robert H. Tilley Analytical Statistician GS 11
Olaf Wakefield Analytical Statistician GS 12
Harry A. White Analytical Statistician GS 12
Rosa M. Wrede _ Research Assistant
Eugene J. Kamprath Director Soil Testing
John O. Anderson Laboratory Helper
Jo Ann Briggs Stenographer Clerk I
Carolyn E. Carroll Stenographer Clerk I
Evelyn S. Conyers Chemist I
Carolyn O. Copeland Chemist I
Roberta B. Dean ..Chemist I
Ruth S. Gardner Chemist II
Arthur Giles , Laboratory Helper
Joann J. Leazer ... Typist Clerk I
Gerald D. McCart Agronomist I
Alice F. McLamb Typist Clerk I
Luella M. Remini Stenographer Clerk III
Margaret E. Stancil Stenographer Clerk II
Dorothy R. Thornton Stenographer Clerk II
Charles D. Welch Agronomist II
Hal J. Rollins..... State Veterinarian
Josephine A. Allen Stenographer Clerk III
William A. Andrew.... Poultry Specialist I
John D. Baker Veterianrian III
Marvin O. Batchelor Livestock Inspector
Samuel O. Benson Veterinarian III
Charles R. Border Veterinarian III
Wilma N. Boykin Laboratory Technician I
G. I. Bullock Livestock Inspector
Julius B. Cashion Poultry Specialist I
Jesse J. Causby Poultry Specialist II
Kenneth G. Church Poultry Specialist I
James H. Clegg Poultry Specialist I
William W. Clements : Veterinarian II
Henry B. Collins Livestock Inspector
Donald E. Cooperrider Director of Diagnostic Laboratory
Alton L. Corbett Livestock Inspector
Eugene C. Couch Poultry Specialist I
Lilly F. Daughtry Stenographer Clerk II
W. J. Elkins _ Poultry Specialist II
L. J. Fourie Poultry Specialist III
Jamfs A. Frazier Poultry Specialist I
George D. Fuller Livestock Inspector
10 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Frank S. Hall Clerk I
Ralph Hamilton Veterinarian II
Franklin J. Helm ....Veterinarian II
Elizabeth R. Helms Laboratory Technician II
Frank Howard, Jr.- Laboratory Helper
G. W. Ivey ._ _ - Poultry Specialist II
R. Russell Jeter Veterinarian II
William H. Justice Veterinarian II
James D. Kellet Poultry Specialist I
Irene K. Kilpatrick Laboratory Technician II
Fred D. Long __ ....Poultry Specialist I
Paul C. Marley Poultry Specialist I
N. P. McDuffie Poultry Specialist I
Lola S. Mitchell Stenographer Clerk II
Sue F. Odom Stenographer Clerk II
Donald D. Pate Veterinarian III
Peter S. Penland Poultry Specialist I
Lucy D. Ponder Laboratory Technician III
Verlin E. Reese _ Poultry Specialist I
James U. Richardson Laboratory Helper
Laurie E. Roach Veterinarian II
Phil R. Sandidge Poultry Specialist I
Dixie D. Southard Poultry Specialist I
John Williams, Jr Laboratory Helper
Theron S. Williams Veterinarian III
John R. Woody Poultry Specialist I
Auburn L. Wright __ ..Poultry Specialist I
Cecil D. Thomas Director of Research Stations
Julia N. Medlin Stenographer Clerk II
George F. Stanley. Administrative Assistant of Agriculture
J. L. Rea, Jr ___. Research Station Superintendent
El wood A. Allen Senior Herdsman
Herbert W. Allen Farm Foreman II
Lillian A. Bishop Stenographer Clerk I
Fenner B. Harris Herdsman I
J. M. Carr Research Station Superintendent
Elizabeth Floyd Stenographer Clerk II
Locke C. Hagwood Farm Foreman II
Chester Kearney Feed & Farm Laborer
Marjorie J. King Typist Clerk I
Warren H. Bailey _. Research Station Superintendent
Susan D. Killebrew. Stenographer Clerk I
Thilbert A. Suggs Farm Foreman II
Randolph Whitley Herdsman I
Murray R. Whisenhunt Research Station Superintendent
Theodore R. Burleson, Jr __ Poultryman
Rufus Curtis "Z~ZZ'ZZ"....Dairy<man
James R. Edwards __ Dairy Superintendent
Bernice H. Harrell ..„ Stenographer Clerk II
Garfield Harris F arm Foreman II
William C. Holder.... Dairyman
Dana F. Tugman Research Station Superintendent
Anna S. McClure Stenographer Clerk I
Gordon D. Sheets.... Farm Foreman II
Dan L. Taylor Herdsman I
Jesse W. Sumner.... Research Station Superintendent
Ernest W English _ Poultryman
Jacob B Matthews Dairyman
MELviN G. Richert..... Dairyman
John Sasser, Jr..... _ Farm Foreman u
B. L. Williams..... Stenographer Clerk II
Report for 1956-58 — Personnel 11
J. W. Hendricks Research Station Superintendent
Gentry E. Belvins Farm Foreman II
Rose B. Ingram Stenographer Clerk II
Samuel M. Miller, Jr Herdsman
Maynard L. Self Dairy Research Supervisor
William L. Steele Dairyman
Clyde Z. McSwain, Jr Research Station Superintendent
Dwight C. Austin Farm Foreman II
Julia L. Skinner Typist Clerk I
Wallace J. Dickens Research Station Superintendent
William T. Grimsley Farm Foreman II
Weights and Measures
C. D. Baucom Superintendent of Weights and Measures
John I. Moore _. Weights and Measures Inspection Supervisor
Walter R. Burnette. Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I
Joyce G. Carter Stenographer Clerk II
William T. Crawford Weights and Measures Inspector
Grady F. Hall Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I
Roderick M. Horton Liquid Fertilizer Specialist
Marion L. Kinlaw, Jr Weights and Measures Inspector
Grover R. Kiser Weights and Measures Inspector
Rufus A. Malloy Weights and Measures Inspector
Ned A. Powell Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II
Marvin E. Shambley Weights and Measures Inspector
James M. Vestal, Jr ._ Weights and Measures Inspector
Frances A. Wilson Stenographer Clerk II
Dan C. Worley Weights and Measures Inspector
Gordon S. Young Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II
H. T. Davis Museum Director
Dudie V. Ashe Maid
Julian W. Johnson Museum Exhibits Designer
Ernest R. Jones Janitor-Messenger
F. B. Meacham Zoologist
Julia F. Nowell Stenographer Clerk II
Sara D. Prince Clerk I
Robert Harris.— Stock Clerk I
Vernon A. Williams Stock Clerk I
Gasoline and Oil Inspection
C D. Baucom Director of Gas and Oil
Carey M. Ashley Chemist I
Milton Barefoot Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Maddrey W. Bass Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Malver L. Boyette Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Kathleen C. Brafford Chemist I
John A. Bynum... Gasoline and Oil Inspector
William L. Carpenter Chemist II
Glenn R. Cates Chemist I
Lonnie E. Cayton Calibrator
Harvey Clodfelter, Jr Chemist I
Jack C. Connolly, II ___. Chemist I
Milton C. Converse __ Chemist II
Joseph Denton Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Paul H. Etherujge Chemist I
J. A. Galloway Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Roy B. Hallman Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Elliott Harrison Laboratory Helper
Hugh F. Hayes Chemist II
12 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Horace E. Heemak _ Calibrator
Clarence L. Holland, Jr .- Chemist I
Ira G. Hollow ay Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Edwin H. Hutchins Chemist I
Herman L. Jones Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Lucy E. Jordan Chemist I
Richard W. King Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Gertrud Lare -. Accounting Clerk II
William J. Lee Chemist I
Robert H. McArver Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Claiborne M. Nixon Calibrator
Francis W. Oakes. Gasoline and Oil Inspector
W. T. O'Briant Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Douglas M. Pait Gasoline and Oil Inspector
William H. Perry .. Calibrator
Betty J. Phillips __ -Stenographer Clerk I
Parley B. Rasmussen, Jr Chemist II
James R. Rivers— Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Milton H. Rowe, Sr -Gasoline and Oil Inspector
H. L. Shankle Chemist V
J. T. Shaw Chemist II
Harry W. Shelton Chemist I
Ray D. Sigmon Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Koy S. Smith Gasoline and Oil Inspector
David B. Spivey _ Calibrator
Fred O. Sumner Liquified Gas Inspector
Ralph G. Thornburg _"_ Chemist II
James E. Turpin ._. Gasoline and Oil Inspector
Leon E. Van Brunt Calibrator
Bobby M. Wagner.. ..Chemist I
Mary Jo Warren Stenographer Clerk II
Mildred B. York Stenographer Clerk II
Cooperative Inspection Service
Eldridge C. Price Marketing Specialist II
Peggy Y. Smith Accounting Clerk II
Egg Marketing Act
Stuart A. Glover, Jr Marketing Specialist II
Lilliam T. Isley Stenographer Clerk II
Cecil R. Register Marketing Specialist II
State Warehouse System Supervision
A. B. Fairley Warehouse System Superintendent
Hazel K. Cobb Clerk II
Hallie K. Morrow Stenographer Clerk II
Frank C. Person Warehouse Examiner
Martha E. Swindell Stenographer Clerk II
Credit Union Supervision
W. V. Didawick Credit Union Administrator
A. S. Bynum Fiscal Examiner II
Howard L. Pijahn Fiscal Examiner II
Edward H. Sessom _. Fiscal Examiner II
John T. Simpson Fiscal Examiner II
Structural Pest Control Commission
Harry B. Moore, Jr Entomologist III
Distribution of Surplus Commodities
James A. Graham Manager Farmer's Market
Elizabeth M. Boykin . Secretary
NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
By L. Y. Ballentine
Co minis sioner of Agriculture
North Carolina agriculture is going through a transition period
which began shortly after the end of World War II. The nature
of agriculture is such that any radical readjustments are some-
what slow in coming about, and we can expect to remain in a
transitory stage for years to come. Nevertheless, during the
past two or three years the changes have accelerated in pace and
broadened in scope.
This is a very gratifying development. The state's agriculture
has been shifting toward a position where it can begin more fully
and efficiently to utilize our great resources of soils, climate
and farming people. But, of course, the many changes have had
their impact on the North Carolina Department of Agriculture.
They have made new demands on the Department, and called
for expansion of traditional activities.
Much of this new or expanded work has been carried on with
little or no increases in funds or personnel. This achievement
has been due, in large measure, to two factors. One is increased
efficiency made possible by the construction of badly needed
facilities. The other, and most important, has been the dedi-
cated loyalty of Department employees who have exerted them-
selves "beyond the call of duty" to meet the demands.
Further complicating and adding to the work of the Depart-
ment and the Board of Agriculture have been the rapidly chang-
ing technologies which have a direct bearing on the Department's
regulatory and service work. In the dairy industry alone, for
instance, new methods for handling milk at the farm, and new
processes or products developed by dairy distributors, have call-
ed for a great deal of effort in formulating regulatory measures
and procedures. New methods for the manufacture and delivery
of feeds and fertilizers have posed problems of inspection from
the standpoint of both quality and quantity of these products.
These are but illustrations of the types of changes which are
calling for increasing work and study on the part of Department
14 N. C. Department of Agriculture
personnel and members of the Board of Agriculture. They are
referred to in more detail in chapters of this report prepared by
the heads of the various divisions responsible for these phases
of the work. This section of the report will be devoted to the duties
and activities which devolve more directly upon the Commission-
er of Agriculture, some general departmental activities not cover-
ed in other sections, and a review of some new responsibilities
placed in the Department by the General Assembly of 1957.
Activities of the Commissioner
As agricultural problems and programs increase, so does the
necessity for the Commissioner of Agriculture to work with
other agencies dealing with agricultural problems at state, inter-
state, and federal levels. At present, the Commissioner of Agri-
culture for North Carolina is chairman of the Transportation
Committee of the National Association of State Departments
of Agriculture and a member of that Association's executive
committee. He is also a member of the Advisory Committee on
Cooperative work under the Agricultural Marketing Act with
State Departments of Agriculture, the Agricultural Advisory
Committee of the Democratic National Committee, and the Agri-
culture Department Committee of the Chamber of Commerce of
the United States.
At the state level, he is a member of the Governor's Farm
Advisory Committee, a director of the Agricultural Foundation
of North Carolina State College, a member of the North Carolina
Cotton Promotion Committee, and chairman of the North Caro-
lina Committee on Migrant Labor.
By legislation, the Commissioner of Agriculture is also chair-
man of the State Board of Agriculture, the State Board of Gaso-
line and Oil Inspection, and the Board of Directors of the North
Carolina Agricultural Hall of Fame. He is a member of the
North Carolina Milk Commission and of the Crop Seed Improve-
ment Board. He is also charged with the responsibility for
licensing and inspecting all agricultural fairs held in the state;
and for regulating, licensing and inspecting all North Carolina
All of these activities, whether in cooperation with govern-
ment or non-government agencies, and whether voluntary or
required by law, have an important bearing on North Carolina's
agricultural welfare. The names of these committees or agen-
Report for 1956-58— Administration 15
cies indicate their character and the importance of their acti-
vities to the state.
Certain laws also require other Department personnel to parti-
cipate in the work of independent agencies. One of these makes
the Commissioner and the head of the Department's Seed Test-
ing Division members of the Crop Seed Improvement Board.
Another provides that the Governor shall appoint two members
from the Department to the Structural Pest Control Commission
and that one of these shall be from the staff of the Department's
Entomology Division. By appointment, Dr. D. L. Wray has
represented the Entomology Division, and Assistant Commis-
sioner John L. Reitzel has represented the Department at large,
since the Commission was established in 1955. Dr. Wray has
served as secretary to the Commission since it was established.
However, shortly after the end of this biennium Mr. Reitzel was
elected to that office for the ensuing year.
The law enacted in 1953 to license and regulate rendering
plants authorized the Commissioner of Agriculture to designate
a member of his staff to serve on a committee charged with
making regulatory recommendations and rendering plant in-
spections. Dr. H. J. Rollins, State Veterinarian, has represent-
ed the Department on this committee since 1953. This law au-
thories the Commissioner of Agriculture to adopt the regulations
governing rendering plants, of which there are now 13 licensed
in the state.
Near the end of the 1954-56 biennium, the Board of Directors
of the Agricultural Hall of Fame set up standards for the select-
ion of individuals to be given recognition in the Hall, and de-
signated a room in the Agriculture Building for its location. In
May, 1957, Colonel Leonidas LaFayette Polk, first North Caro-
lina Commissioner of Agriculture and leader of the National
Farmers Alliance, was chosen as the first member of the North
Carolina Agricultural Hall of Fame. As this biennium draws
to a close, plans are under way for converting into a suitable
shrine the room selected for the Hall of Fame.
Supervision of agricultural fairs in the state continues to be
an effective tool in preventing the abuse of the name "fair" by
undesirable fly-by-nights. Under state law and regulations, the
term fair must apply to bona fide agricultural and industrial
expositions. Those classified as commercial (that is, charging
admission or operating any traveling shows or games) must be
licensed by the Department of Agriculture. There were 79 fairs
16 N. C. Department of Agriculture
licensed in 1956, and 77 in 1957. All of these fairs were inspect-
ed ; and only one fair in 1956, and two in 1957, failed to meet the
minimum standards and qualifications for re-licensing in the
Commodity groups are continuing to take advantage of the
state law which permits them to place assessments on their prod-
ucts, when these are approved in referendums authorized by
the State Board of Agriculture. The assessments are for the
purpose of raising funds to promote the use and sale of such prod-
ucts. Personnel of the Department of Agriculture assist such
groups in launching these programs, and for several of them
the Commissioner of Agriculture collects the assessments
through the Department's Accounts Division. The North Caro-
lina Peanut Growers Association chose this method of collection,
and during the 1956-58 biennium, a total of $110,136.92 was col-
lected and turned over to this association.
Peach growers held a successful referendum in May, 1956, and
authorized the Commissioner to collect the assessment of one
cent for each tree in commercial peach orchards. Collections
turned over to the North Carolina Peach Growers Society, Inc.,
during this biennium amounted to $5,861.90.
During this biennium, the North Carolina Cotton Promotion
Association and the North Carolina Cattlemen's Association re-
quested and received authorization from the Board of Agri-
culture to hold similar referendums. In both cases the assess-
ments were approved by the required two-thirds majority of
those voting. The cotton assessment became effective Septem-
ber, 1957, and by the end of the current biennium the assess-
ments collected totaled $21,270.90. The assessment on beef cat-
tle sold for slaughter became effective April 1, 1958, and by the
end of the biennium $3,617.40 had been collected.
In 1957, North Carolina farmers for the third time overwhelm-
ingly approved the "Nickels-for-Know-How" program. This is
the popular name for a program authorized by state law under
which farmers may vote an assessment of five cents a ton on all
feed and fertilizer sold in the state to raise funds for the pur-
pose of supplementing agricultural research and dissemination
of research information. The law provides that referendums on
the question of continuing the assessment be held at three-year
intervals. The State Department of Agriculture serves as the
collecting agency for these "nickels". During this biennium,
"Nickels-for-Know-How" collections total $275,946.67. This
Report for 1956-58 — Administration 17
money was turned over to the Agricultural Foundation at N. C.
State College, which administers the fund.
New Legislative Responsibilities
Technological changes in agricultural production and process-
ing frequently make it necessary to re-appraise the legal and regu-
latory measures designed to protect the farmer and consumer.
A typical case is afforded by the flue-cured tobacco situtation
at the beginning of this biennium. New methods of processing
tobacco, and new types of cigarets, caused a shift away from
light-bodied tobaccos to heavier types. In the meantime, several
varieties had been developed which were high yielding but which
had undesirable qualities in the light of the changes in consumer
demand. Late in 1956, the U. S. Secretary of Agriculture an-
nounced price support discounts, or penalties, on these varieties.
The immediate result was a surplus of seeds of these penalized
varieties and a shortage of seeds of the acceptable types. Inas-
much as a tobacco variety cannot be determined by a visual ex-
amination of its seed, it soon became apparent that some amend-
ments to the Seed Law were needed to afford greater protection
for the farmer in variety labeling of flue-cured seeds.
The state Board of Agriculture, at the request of the Depart-
ment's Seed Testing Division, the N. C. Experiment Station, and
the North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, sponsored
legislation designed to provided needed safeguards. These were
enacted into law on April 9, 1957.
In brief, these amendments provide :
(1) That any flue-cured variety offered for sale in the state
must be recorded with the Commissioner of Agriculture before
November 1 each year. The same designation must be used
for each variety recorded as was used when the variety was first
sold or recorded officially with an agency responsible for the
enforcement of a State Seed Law.
(2) That a one-ounce sample of seed of each variety must be
furnished the Commissioner at the time of recording. These
samples are for planting in verification tests.
(3) That the Commissioner accept for recording only those
flue-cured varieties which have been declared by the Tobacco
Seed Committee to be correctly identified. The Tobacco Seed
Committee consists of four ex-officio members from the North
Carolina Experiment Station and three persons appointed by the
18 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Commissioner of Agriculture to represent the seed trade, the seed
producers, and the farmers at large.
A new law enacted in 1957 permits processors of meat and
meat products to enter into voluntary agreements with the Com-
missioner of Agriculture to have their products inspected for
condition and wholesomeness under state supervision. To obtain
this service processors must meet minimum requirements for
plant facilities and processing methods under regulations adopted
by the State Board of Agriculture on July 29, 1957. Processors
pay the cost of the service including the salaries of plant inspect-
ors and the Department of Agriculture is empowered to add a rea-
sonable administrative charge. By the end of this biennium
eight meat plants in the state had come under this voluntary in-
spection program, and seven others did so shortly after the close
of this biennial period.
A law sponsored by the North Carolina Peanut Growers Asso-
ciation to license and regulate buyers of. farmer stock peanuts
became effective July 1, 1957. Under this law, any firm or in-
dividual who buys one ton or more of peanuts from producers
must obtain an annual license from the Commissioner of Agri-
culture. A fee of $10 per buyer provides funds for the admini-
stration of this law.
While the law authorized the State Board of Agriculture to
adopt rules and regulations necessary for its enforcement, it
also stipulates that the Commissioner of Agriculture shall ap-
point a five-member committee to advise in the enforcement of
the law and in formulating regulations. The committee, by law,
is made up of two representatives of North Carolina peanut
growers, one representative of the Cooperative Marketing Asso-
ciation serving the state's peanut growers, one member repre-
senting North Carolina peanut commission buyers, and one repre-
senting the peanut millers and shellers of the state.
Regulations recommended by this committee were adopted by
the Board of Agriculture on July 29, 1957. Under these regu-
lations all licenses expire on June 30 each year, and each buyer
must obtain his annual license at least 15 days before he makes
his first purchase during the effective period of his license. An-
other regulatory provision requires buyers to retain all records
of transactions until the first day of October following the buy-
ing season during which the transaction took place.
The Plant Pest Law was extensively re-written by the 1957
legislature to broaden and clarify the regulatory authority of the
Report for 1956-58 — Administration 19
State Board of Agriculture and the responsibilities of the De-
partment as they pertain to the control and eradication of inscets
and other plant pests.
On December 15, 1957, Dr. S. L. Tisdale, who had been director
of the Soil Testing Division for two years, resigned to become
manager of the National Plant Food Institute's regional office
in Atlanta. Dr. Tisdale had made a fine contribution to North
Carolina agriculture, first as Research Associate Professor of
Agronomy at N. C. State College, and later in maintaining high
standards of efficiency in the Department's Soil Testing Labora-
tory. It was with reluctance, therefore, that we accepted his
resignation — the more so because his new position took him out
of the state.
We had the good fortune, however; to obtain the services of
Dr. Eugene John Kamprath to fill the post left vacant by Dr.
Tisdale. Dr. Kamprath also came to the Department from N.
C. State College, where he had been an Assistant Professor of
Soils. He was graduated from the University of Nebraska with
a B. S. in 1950 and an M. S. in agronomy in 1952. He did post-
graduate work in soil fertility at N. C. State College, which a-
warded him a Ph. D. in 1955.
As this biennium drew to a close the Department of Agricul-
ture was saddened by the death of Blackburn W. Johnson, who
for 10 years had been director of the Publications Division and
Secretary to the Board of Agriculture. He brought to this posi-
tion broad experience in newspaper work, having served as a re-
porter for the Associated Press and for several North Carolina
papers, one of which he owned and published for a time. He had
also been editor of the Farmers Federation News, Asheville, N.
C, for several years, and, for a brief time, editor of the Carolina
Cooperator, published by the Cotton Association and the F. C. X.
in Raleigh. Such a combination of journalistic and agricultural
experience, combined with his high standards of integrity and
warm personality, made him invaluable to the Department and
beloved by his co-workers.
Filling the vacancy left by such a man was not easy. But as
this report is written, we are glad to announce that a man who
is well-equipped for the position by background and training
has been appointed to this post. Elwood Mintz, who takes over
the duties as head of the Publication Division on September 8,
1958, comes to the Department from the N. C. Agricultural Ex-
20 N. C. Department of Agriculture
tension Service, where he has been assistant publications editor
for the past four years. He was born and reared on a Bruns-
wick County farm and was graduated from the University of
North Carolina with an A.B. degree in 1950. His earlier experi-
ence includes several years of teaching school and two years as
safety representative for the Department of Motor Vehicles.
State Board of Agriculture
The State Board of Agriculture is the regulatory and policy-
making body for the Department of Agriculture. Its 10 mem-
bers are appointed by the Governor for staggered terms of six
years, and the law requires that they represent the major sec-
tions of the state and various types of agricultural production.
They serve without compensation, except for the days they are
During this biennium Board members, too, have borne the
brunt of fast-changing agricultural and technological problems
of the Department of Agriculture. Many complicated techni-
cal matters have required their study and consideration, both
during and between meetings of the Board.
North Carolina is particularly fortunate in its Board of Agri-
culture. The Commissioner and personnel of the Department
of Agriculture, as well as the farmers and other citizens of this
state, are deeply indebted to this group of men for the public
service which they have given freely, and for the wisdom and
impartiality they have brought to the offices they hold.
During the 1956-1958 biennium, the State Board of Agriculture
held 11 meetings and was in session 12i/2 days.
Following is a brief list of the meetings which indicates the
wide variety of subjects requiring the Board's consideration and
HIGHLIGHTS OF BOARD MEETINGS
July 26, 1956,
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell.
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips.
Heard report on auction of Old Piedmont Test Farm at
Statesville, June 15, 1956. Adopted motion to commend
Commission appointed to handle sale.
Warehouse Loans Approved loan of $137,500 from Warehouse Fund to States-
ville Elevator Co. for erection of grain elevator.
Approved loan of $13,000 from Warehouse Fund to Farmers
Bonded Warehouse, Inc., Wagram, N. C.
Approved loan of $23,000 from Warehouse Fund to D. D.
McCall and H. C. Council, St. Pauls, N. C.
Approved loan of $25,000 from Warehouse Fund to Sandhill
Bonded Warehouse, Inc., Southern Pines, N. C.
October 15, 1956,
in Dairy Plants
Ice Milk in Open
October 16, 1956,
Heard heads of divisions of Dept. explain proposed budget
requests for the 1957-59 biennium. Approved budget.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B.
Approved easement granting right of way to Carolina Tele-
phone and Telegraph Company for telephone line and poles
across Tidewater Research Station.
Held public hearing and amended regulations to permit
bottling of non-carbonated citrus juices in plant bottling
Grade A milk.
Held public hearing on proposal to permit ice milk to be
served in open containers for immediate consumption.
Attended opening of N. C. State Fair.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, J. H. Poole.
Approved loan of $88,000 from Warehouse Fund to Fred
Webb, Greenville, N. C, for construction of 250,000-bushel
Dairy Regulations Held public hearing on amendments to Dairy Regulations:
(1) Multi-vitamin milk and fortified skim milk — appointed
a committee to recommend regulatory measures. (2) Defi-
nitions of cottage cheese and creamed cottage cheese —
adopted definitions. (3) Reports from butterfat testers —
adopted regulation. (4) Licensing milk samplers — adopted
regulation. (5) Procedures for sampling milk from farm
bulk tanks deferred action. (6) Condemnation of worn
or corroded equipment for manufacturing frozen desserts —
adopted. (7) Requiring submission of plans for alteration
or construction of ice cream or frozen dessert establish-
ments — adopted. (S) Regulations to permit operation o*
mobile frozen dessert units — deferred.
N. C. Department of Agriculture
Farm, States -
February 18, 1957,
Tobacco Seed —
Seed Potato Law
Ice Milk in Open
■ — Sampling from
News & Observer
April 8 and 9,
Held public hearing and adopted regulation to define and
limit the amount of cereal and dried milk solids in bologna,
frankfurters and smoked sausage.
Appointed committee to draft amendments to seed law for
purpose of tightening provisions for labeling tobacco seed
as to variety.
Received report on land sold and remaining unsold at Old
Piedmont Test Farm, Statesville.
Heard report from C. H. Brannon, State Entomologist, on
discovery of new pest known as "Witchweed" (Striga) in
four counties of North Carolina.
Heard report from C. H. Brannon on new discoveries of
soybean cyst nematode in Tennessee and Missouri.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Hoyle C.
Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, Charles F. Phil-
lips, J. H. Poole.
Heard and approved recommendations of committee ap-
pointed January 14 on amendments to seed law providing
for registration of tobacco seed varieties.
Heard and approved proposal to amend seed potato law to
require notification to Department as to disposition of
potatoes found in violation of the law and as to anticipated
shipments of seed potatoes; also to make illegal the posses-
sion of un-official seed potato tags.
Authorized "Nickels for Know-How" referendum to be held
Received request from counter-freezer operators for action
on proposal to permit sale of ice milk for immediate con-
sumption in open containers. Also heard opposition to
this proposal from representatives of N. C. Dairy Products
Association. Deferred action for further study.
Received report of committee appointed Jan. 14 on recom-
mended definition for fortified skim milk, but committee
requested more time to prepare a definition of multi-vitamin
whole milk. Voted to defer action on fortified skim milk
until it could be considered with definition for multi-vitamin
Adopted regulations specifying procedures for sampling
milk from farm bulk tanks on six months trial basis.
Approved increasing by $6,000 the loan to D. D. McCall and
H. C. Council, St. Pauls, N. C, approved on July 26, 1956.
Considered further the request to adopt regulations to
permit operation of mobile frozen dessert units. Deferred
Voted to go on record as endorsing the Raleigh News &
Observer's Farm Income Contest, and urging organizations
and individuals in the various counties to supplement and
support this program.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole.
Report for 1956-58 — Administration
State Pair Audit
State Fair, Ap-
Received Report on Audit, North Carolina State Fair, for
the period January 1, 1956, to December 31, 1956.
Reappointed Dr. J. S. Dorton as Manager of the North
Carolina State Fair for the next 12 months.
Amended regulation to extend Japanese Beetle Quarantine
to 10 new counties.
Held public hearing and established standards for a mill-
ing grade of corn.
Received report of committee appointed on January 14 to
recommend regulatory measures, and adopted regulations
on a six-month trial basis, governing Fortified Grade A
Skimmed Milk and Grade A Vitamin-Mineral Fortified Milk.
Held public hearing and adopted regulations and standards
for dietary beverages made with non-nutritive sweeteners.
ice Milk in Open Adopted regulations governing the sale of ice milk in
Containers open containers when dispensed directly from freezers for
immediate consumption on the premises.
Three-pint ice Postponed action on a request from a container manufac-
Cream Container t U rer to permit the sale of ice cream in three-pint con-
June 3, 1957,
Endorsed legislation proposed by N. C. Peanut Growers
Association to license and regulate buyers of farmers stock
Certified N. C. Cotton Promotion Association, Inc., as group
representative of N. C. cotton producers, and authorized the
Association to hold a referendum among cotton growers
on the question of levying upon themselves an assessment
for promoting the use and sale of cotton.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette. Hoyle C.
Griffin, Claude T. Hall, J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phil-
lips, J. H. Poole.
Held public hearing and adopted official fertilizer grade
list for fiscal year 1957-58.
Fertilizer Regis- Adopted regulation prohibiting registering as a specialty
Bomnv ° f £nl es grade any grade of fertilizer which has appeared on the
official grade list at any time during the five years imme-
diately preceding such registration.
Received application for loan of $55,000 from the Ware-
house Fund to Shelby Bonded Warehouse. All money being-
out on loan, agreed to give this application first considera-
tion when money becomes available.
Dietetic Ice Milk Adopted definitions and standards for
made with non-nutritive sweeteners.
'Dietetic Ice Milk"
Oxford Research Appointed a committee to negotiate with Oxford Future In-
^esWcr^ndus- dustries regarding an exchange of land from the Oxford
trial Site Research Station for a prospective industry.
July 29, 1957,
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore. Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter. Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B.
N. C. Department of Agriculture
(Oath of office
Oath of office was administered in the Governor's office to
Claude T. Hall, J. H. Poole and A. B. Slagle for appoint-
ments to new six-year terms.
Dairy Regulations Held public hearings on proposal to amend dairy regula-
tions as follows.
Farm Bulk Milk
and Table Cream
Eastern N. C.
Fertilizer — Re-
quest for Ex-
tee to Lay Out
State Fair Man-
Beef Cattle Pro-
tions — Choco-
Amendments to clarify, and adapt to modern tank designs,
regulations for installations of farm bulk milk holding
Postponed action on proposed regulations to permit opera-
tion of dispenser milkshake machines. Appointed com-
mittee to make recommendations at next meeting.
Postponed action on proposed definitions for "Whipped
Cream" and "Table Cream Topping" and authorized com-
mittee to make recommendations at next meeting.
Authorized Commissioner to appoint a committee of repre-
sentatives from eastern hog-raising counties to select the
location for a swine diagnostic laboratory in Eastern N. C.
Held a public hearing and adopted regulations under new
law providing for voluntary inspection of meat, meat prod-
ucts and meat by-products.
Received request from H. G. Hastings Company, Atlanta,
Ga., for exception from regulation requiring 5-year waiting
period before grades removed from official list may be
registered as specialty. Request denied.
Authorized committee from the Board to lay out a road-
way back of an 18-acre tract recently sold from the Old
Piedmont Test Farm at Statesville.
Approved increase in salary from $8,118 to $9,054 for Dr.
J. S. Dorton, Manager N. C. State Fair, amount of increase
representing equivalent of pay increase granted by legis-
lature to State employees classified under Personnel De-
Adopted regulations under new law to license and regulate
buyers of farmers' stock peanuts.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B.
Adopted regulations quarantining certain areas of the state
to prevent the spread of a new plant pest known as "Witch-
weed" (Striga sp.)
Revised regulation placing a quarantine on certain areas
of the state to prevent the spread of soybean cyst nematode.
Held public hearing on proposed revision of nursery regu-
lations. Postponed action.
Authorized North Carolina Cattlemen's Association to
hold a referendum on the question of assessing themselves
to promote the use and sale of beef.
Held public hearing and amended Dairy Division regula-
tions to permit the sale of chocolate milk containing a
minimum of 2 percent butterfat.
Report for 1956-58 — Administration
tees of Water -
Amended definition of milkshake to require the use of
Grade A milk in this product.
Adopted regulations governing operation of milkshake dis-
Heard request from fertilizer manufacturer that regula-
tions be amended to permit guaranteeing percentage of
magnesium which is water-soluble in tobacco fertilizers.
Deferred action to permit industry to be heard.
tions — Registra-
tion of Grades
October 15, 1957
December 19, 1957
of Soil Testing
List- — Request
ment of 3-9-6
Heard request from fertilizer manufacture for modifica-
tion of regulation prohibiting registration as specialty
grade any grade which has appeared on the official list
within a five-year period. Deferred action pending com-
mittee recommendation and public hearing.
Received report from North Carolina Cotton Promotion
Association on results of self-assessment referendum held
August 23, 1957.
Received report from Agricultural Foundation, State
Grange, and N. C. Farm Bureau Federation on results of
"Nickels for Know-How" referendum held August 23, 1957.
Received recommendations of committee appointed July
29, 1957, that whipped cream and related products be re-
quired to conform with regulations governing fluid cream
products. Authorized Commissioner to notify manufac-
turers of such products that they must so conform.
Attended opening of 1957 State Fair.
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B.
Approved appointment of Dr. Eugene John Kamprath as
head of Soil Testing Division, replacing Dr. S. L. Tisdale,
who resigned effective December 15, 1957.
Heard request for reinstatement of 3-9-6 on official fertilizer
grade list. Deferred action until regular fertilizer grade
hearing for 1958-59.
— Butterfat in
Held public heaing and amended Dairy Regulations to place
a maximum of one percent butterfat permitted in skimmed
milk and buttermilk.
Fortified Milks Made trial definitions of Fortified Grade A Skimmed Milk
and Grade A Vitamin-Mineral Fortified Milk permanent
sections of the Dairy Regulations.
dures for Farm
Made trial regulations governing sampling procedures for
farm bulk tanks a permanent part of the Dairy Regulations.
Adopted new Nursery Regulations, including revised nurs-
ery inspection fees.
search Station — ■
Sale of Land
Authorized a committee to conduct preliminary negotia-
tions in connection with offers to buy three outlying tracts
of land at the Piedmont Research Station in Rowan County,
and recommended purchase of a 20-acre strip and building
adjacent to the southeast boundary of the farm.
N. C. Department of Agriculture
Sale of Bldg. at Ratified sale of an old frame tenant house at the Upper
R&s P e e a r rch°sta- in Mountain Research Station, Laurel Springs,
Sale of Bldg. at Ratified sale of 2-story wood frame barn at Piedmont Re-
feafcTltaton Search Station ' Rowan Count y-
Weights & Meas- Held public hearing and adopted regulations setting forth
tions— Custom- customary standards of weight and capacity measures, and
ary standards, prescribing standard weight packages for butter, cheese,
and Regulations oleomargarine and shortening,
on Sale of Oleo-
March 3, 1958,
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B.
Piedmont Research Received report of committee appointed December 19, 1957,
of a LancT Sale *"° a PP ra * se l a nd for which purchase offers had been re-
ceived. Approved sale of 23-acre tract to J. W. Hamby for
$50 an acre, and sale of 4-acre tract to town of Kannapolis
Piedmont Research Approved granting right-of-way easement to Duke Power
of^WavlSii^*" ^°" *" 01 P° wer li nes connections at Piedmont Research Sta-
Visit by Gov-
Heard brief talk by Gov. Hodges commending the Board
for their services to the state and urging their cooperation
with Governor's Advisory Farm Committee.
Eastern N. C.
Approved accepting the gift of one acre of land in Chowan
County offered by J. Wallace Goodwin as a site for swine
diagnostic laboratory near Edenton.
Warehouse Loan — ■
Approved loan from Warehouse Fund of $55,000 to Shelby
Bonded Warehouse, Shelby.
Reviewed proposed requests under "A Budget" for operat-
ing Department of Agriculture at present levels of service
and for Capital Improvements.
May 12-13, 1958
Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G.
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell,
J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole.
Amended seed regulations to lower minimum germination
standard for garden beans from 75 percent to 70 percent, to
bring this standard into uniformity with federal regula-
Added witchweed to list of noxious weeds prohibited in
Lease to State of Approved lease to the State of North Carolina of certain
Market 1 Farmers equipment and facilities at Raleigh Farmers Market, to be
operated by the N. C. Department of Agriculture in co-
operation with other state agencies in providing marketing
services to farmers and conducting experiments in the
operations of farmers' markets.
Report for 1956-58 — Administration
State Fair Man-
(May 13. 1958)
Discussed with Health Department and industry representa-
tives requests for regulations to permit the use of tender-
izers on meat processed in North Carolina. Appointed
Committee to study the problems involved and make recom-
mendations to the Board.
Received report from Department of State Auditor of audit
for the North Carolina State Fair for the calendar year
Re-appointed Dr. J. S. Dorton to serve as manager of the
North Carolina State Fair for another year.
Certified the North Carolina State Apple Growers Associa-
tion as the agency representative of commercial apple pro-
ducers in certain counties; and authorized the association
to hold a referendum on the question of self-assessment to
promote the use and sale of apples.
Reviewed requests under "B Budget" for new or expanded
activities in the 1959-61 biennium. Approved "A Budget"
reviewed at March 3 meeting, "B Budget" and "Capital
Held public hearing on various proposed amendments to
Adopted official fertilizer
July 1, 1958.
?rade list for year beginning
Minor Elements Discussed proposal to require guarantees of amounts of
in Fertilizer minor plant foods when these are advertised. Deferred
Amended regulation prohibiting registration as specialties
any grades of fertilizers which have appeared on the grade
list during the preceding five years, by making this prohi-
bition apply only to fertilizers sold in bags of 25 pounds
Authorized Commissioner of Agriculture to accept labeling
meeting federal requirements for the labeling of fertilizer-
Grace H. Malloy
Financial report of the Department and the various divisions.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Summary by Purposes 1957-58
I. Administration _. $ 39,584.29
Accounting Office 43,227.01
Publicity and Publications 37,988.42
II. Inspection 56,173.53
III. Markets 344,034.68
V. Dairy ._ 58,765.10
VI. Entomology 77,462.81
VII. Seed Laboratory 83,634.34
VIII. Analytical 222,310.34
IX. Crop Statistics ~- 150,632.29
X. Soil Testing 91,533.72
XI. Blister Rust Control
XII. Veterinary 335,541.60
XIII. Research Stations 490,185.39
XV. Weights and Measures 89,725.05
XVI. State Museum 31,761.41
XVIII. Custodial ___. 18,044.44
XIX. Miscellaneous 109,495.74
XXI. Japanese Beetle Control
XXII. White Fringed Beetle Control
XXIII. Indemnity Diseased Slaughtered Livestock
XXV. Vesicular Exanthema
Deferred Obligations — Transferred
Total Expenditures $2,280,100.16
Summary by Objects
11. Salaries and Wages $1,547,930.90
12. Supplies and Materials 138,889.06
13. Postage, Tel., Tel., and Express 33,571.72
14. Travel Expense 178,919.47
15. Printing and Binding 27,429.93
16. Motor Vehicle Operation 15,337.07
17. Light, Power, and Water. 7,189.06
18. Repairs and Alterations 18,236.25
19. General Expense 108,081.33
22. Insurance and Bonding 3,074.38
23. Equipment 61,952.63
32. Additions and Betterments : , 34,944.16
Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 29
33. Stores for Resale 19,526.05 15,885.89
Contribution to Retirement System 85,018.15 72,208.53
Deferred Obligations — Transferred
to 1957-58 21,841.00
Total Expenditures $2,280,100.16 $2,041,924.43
Less Transfer from RMA 68,855.99 79,373.77
Less Transfer from AMA 1,898.48 3,716.93
Less Sale of Land — Balance 18,679.15
Less Transfer from US DA
Cooperative Agreement 1,562.94 1,998.17
Less Research Stations Perquisites 10,591.67 9,744.52
Less Sale of Land — Piedmont Research
Station, Iredell County 30,725.00
Less Sale of Land — Piedmont Research
Station, Rowan County 2,176.00
Less Deferred Obligations —
Transferred from 1956-57 21,841.00
Less Transfer from Cooperative Inspection
Service, Code 1803 3,726.00
Less Transfer from State Warehouse System
Supervision, Code 1801 3,283.00
Less Peanut Handler's Licenses 1,840.00
Less Sale of Automobiles _.. 5,334.93
Less From Code 3214 — Purchase of Land
Tobacco Research Station 4,945.00
Totai $2,128,265.15 $1,923,466.89
CONDITIONS OF FUNDS
Treasurers Cash— June 30 __ $ 48,199.85 $ 161,027.51
Investments in Bonds and Premiums on Bonds 103,874.98 103,874.98
Total Credit Balance June 30 $ 152,074.83 $ 264,902.49
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Fertilizer Tax $ 357,805.51 $ 383,854.72
Cottonseed Meal 920.85 1,042.96
Feed Tax 337,269.57 297,689.45
Seed Licenses 30,394.00 28,981.00
Condimental Feed _. 8,200.00 4,680.00
Serum 15,972.37 17,668.98
Costs 13,400.28 14,855.69
Linseed Oil 504.09 328.29
Bleached Flour 7,275.00 7,560.00
Bottling Plants „ 1,650.00 1,150.00
Ice Cream 2,445.00 1,435.00
Insecticides 31,620.00 28,270.00
Research Stations 139,457.79 148,103.93
Bakeries 2,550.00 2,660.00
Chicken Tests 59,738.23 58,680.66
Seed Tags 19,374.33 25,396.54
30 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Inspection Entomology 10,021.55 9,098.80
Oleomargarine 1,150.00 1,250.00
Land Plaster and Agricultural Lime 23,014.50 22,722.26
Fertilizer Registration 6.368.00 6,432.28
Miscellaneous 91.76 10S.77
Feed Registration 8,256.00 7,738.00
Canned Dog Food Registration 515.60 390.04
Lime Registration 375.00 335.00
Livestock Marketing Permits 6,300.00 5,500.00
Dog Food Stamps 11,613.01 11,194.71
Hatchery Fees and Supplies 4,007.05 4.323.30
Permits for Out-of-State Milk 425.00 575.00
Anti-Freeze Permits 2,935.00 1,475.00
Weights and Measures Fees 7,215.00 8,317.50
Garbarge Permits 713.00 777.00
Babcock Testers Licenses 232.00 255.00
Tobacco Curers Tags 602.00 20.00
Land Plaster Registration 30.00 2,650.00
Rendering Plants 50.00
Sampler's Licenses 496.00 246.00
Interest on Investments 2,500.00 2,500.00
Total Agricultural Receipts... $1,115,437.49 $1,108,315.88
Contribution from General Fund '. 900,000.00 798.958.00
Total Revenue.... $2,015,437.49 $1,907,273.88
SHEEP DISTRIBUTION PROJECT
SPECIAL FUND— Code 3
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 48,189.18 $ 15,148.96
Revenue Collections 253,347.47 169,404.10
Disbursements 286,998.54 136,363.88
Credit Balance— June 30 14,538.11 48,189.18
DISTRIBUTION OF SURPLUS COMMODITIES
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 116,758.39 $ 114,496.96
Revenue Collections 6,607.30 12,849.85
Disbursements 6,785.43 10,588.42
Credit Balance— June 30 116,580.26 116,758.39
N. C. AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND MARKETING ACT
Special Fund — Code 51
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 9,300.65 $ 6.978.06
Receipts— RMA Matching Fund 70,814.06 70,814.03
Sale of Cars 2,696.00
Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 31
Markets Division Expenses in Connection with
RMA Project— Transferred to Code 1101
Crop Statistics Division Expenses in Connection
• with RMA Project— Transferred to Code 1101. ...
Credit Balance — June 30
SPECIAL DEPOSITORY ACCOUNT REPORTING SYSTEM
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 4,750.00 $ 4,500.00
Receipts — (Cash Bond Deposits) Reporting System 250.00
Handlers of Farm Products 5,000.00
Credit Balance— June 30 9,750.00 4,750.00
GASOLINE AND OIL INSPECTION
General Fund — Code 320
STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Revenue Appropriation $ 311,043.00 $ 276,511.00
Disbursements 299,862.40 258,815.35
Unspent Balance of Appropriation 11,180.60 17,695.65
STATE WAREHOUSE SYSTEM— SUPERVISION
Special Fund— Code 1801
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 21,618.87 $ 22,098.04
Revenue Collections 34,059.41 33,266.85
Miscellaneous Collections 333,628.55 878,071.12
Expenditures 38,719.25 33,746.02
Miscellaneous Expenditures 333,984.88 878,071.12
Credit Balance— June 30 . .._._. ____.. 16,602.70 21,618.87
STATE WAREHOUSE SYSTEM— PRINCIPAL
Special Fund— Code 1802
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Cash on Hand— State Treas.— July 1 ..„._.$ 10,193.75 $ 53,183.83
Repayment of Loans 42,279.97 22,768.03
Sale of Bonds 208,255.23 43,241. S9
Total Availability 260,728.95 119,193.75
32 N. C. Department of Agriculture
T~)l si") II T*fiPlYlPTl t s
Loans to Warehouses 260,500.00 109,000.00
Treasurers Cash— June 30 _ ._ 228.95 10,193.75
Loans to Warehouses _ _ 612,868.00 394,647.97
Invested in 2%% U. S. Gov't. Bonds 97,000.00 333,000.00
Total Worth— June 30 710,096.95 737,841.72
COOPERATIVE INSPECTION SERVICE
Special Fund— Code 1803
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30. 1958
Treasurers Cash— July 1 $ 78,200.84 $ 32,326.20
U.S. Treasury Bonds— 2%% Par Value 40,000.00 40,000.00
Premiums on Bonds 1,175.00 1,175.00
Credit Balance— July 1 119,375.84 73,501.20
Receipts 447,623.44 408,435.46
Disbursements 455,154.98 362,560.82
Credit Balance— June 30 111,844.30 119,375.84
EGG MARKETING ACT
Special Fund — Code 1804
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 8,918.09 $ 5,210.92
Receipts _ 19,702.34 19,076.50
Disbursements ._....: 15,206.79 15,369.33
Credit Balance— June 30 13,413.64 8,918.09
STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL
Special Fund— Code 1805
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 6,081.89 $ 3,696.05
Receipts 17,613.00 7,001.00
Disbursements 8,707.02 4,615.16
Credit Balance— June 30 14,987.87 6.081.89
VOLUNTARY POULTRY INSPECTION
Special Fund— Code 1806
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 5,052.03 $
Receipts 80,614.16 61,043.72
Disbursements 80,691.96 55,991.69
Credit Balance — June 30 4,974.23 5,052.03
Report for 1956-58 — Accounts 33
credit union supervision
Special Fund— Code 1807
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ 4,538.18 $
Receipts 37,572.23 32,918.46
Disbursements _ 35,502.34 28,380.28
Credit Balance— June 30 6,608.07 4,538.18
VOLNTARY MEAT INSPECTION
Special Fund— Code 1808
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance — July 1 .....% $
Receipts .__. 13,382.33
Credit Balance— June 30 2,453.01
CONTRIBUTION FROM THE GENERAL FUND
General Fund— Code 3212
STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Revenue Appropriation $ 945,640.00 $ 908,284.79
Contribution to Department of Agriculture —
Code 1101 900,000.00 798,958.00
Hay Curing Research Project 1,035.80
USDA Feed-Grain Program 2,102.80
Distribution — USDA Food Program 1,444.87
Unspent Balance of Appropriation 45,640.00 104,743.32
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS— ADDITIONS AND BETTERMENTS
STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Appropriation $ 132,938.35 $ 13,259.48
Disbursements 126,583.96 9,421.13
Unspent Balance of Appropriation _____ 6,354.43 132,938.35
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1. 1956— June 30, 1958
Appropriation $ 258,000.00 $
Unspent Balance of Appropriation 183,882.58
34 N. C. Department of Agriculture
EMERGENCY HAY PROGRAM
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Credit Balance— July 1 $ $
U. S. Department of Agriculture Allotment 582.49 48.33
Disbursements 582.49 48.33
Credit Balance — June 30 .__
N. C. EDUCATIONAL RADIO & TELEVISION COMMISSION
General Fund— Code 637
STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1956— June 30, 1958
Appropriation $ 3,205.00
Disbursements _ 1,672.85
Unspent Balance of Appropriation 1,532.15
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY
Dr. E. W. Constable
The work of the Division of Chemistry involves administration
of a group of control laws, the purposes of which are to safe-
guard the health, welfare and economic interests of consumers,
to promote sound agricultural and business economics, and to
curb fraud and unscrupulous or destructive competition.
As implied by the Division name, chemical and related pro-
cedures are basic factors in this work to make determinations
and evaluations. Because of their highly technical nature, these
are services which cannot be performed generally by the people
The products covered by these laws are fertilizers and ferti-
lizer materials; liming materials and landplaster, livestock and
poultry feeds, pesticides, linseed oils, automotive antifreezes,
foods, drugs, cosmetics and devices, oleomargarine, flour bleach-
ing, enrichment with vitamins. The Division also adminis-
ters the laws regulating application of pesticides by aircraft,
and inspections of bakeries, bottling plants, other food processing
plants, storages, vehicles and sales outlets through which these
products are handled.
Requirements which apply generally to the products covered
are that they shall bear specified, factual and informative label-
ing and guarantees which must be met. It is further required
that foods, drugs and cosmetics be wholesome and free from
adulteration or exposure to insanitation, that drugs shall carry
cautions, adequate directions for use, and in case of dangerous
drugs, notice of restricted sale. Pesticide labeling must also
give directions for use, warnings of danger, antidotes and first
aid instruction when neeeded. Operators in aircraft dusting
must meet certain qualifications and procure state licenses in
order to operate legally in the boundaries of the state.
Summaries of these activities, with other pertinent infor-
mation are given in the following sections.
Commercial Fertilizers and Liming Materials
Samples of fertilizers, fertilizer materials, liming materials
and landplaster are officially collected from all parts of the state
by Division inspectors and sent in for analysis to determine com-
36 N. C. Department of Agriculture
pliance with guarantees. Inspections include checking for com-
pliance with labeling requirements and coverage by inspection
taxes. Analyses are made respectively as follows : for fertilizers
— the content of nitrogen, phosphate, potash, calcium, magnes-
ium, chlorine, sulphur, boron, acid-forming qualities, and (re-
cently added) iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and molybdenum;
for liming materials — calcium, magnesium, and screen size; for
landplaster — calcium sulphate.
Coverage for the biennium was :
Official fertilizer samples 20,528
Unofficial samples of fertilizers and
materials for farmers 87
Official liming materials — with
potash and landplaster 226
Details of samples collected and analyzed are published in the
Annual Fertilizer Bulletins. These results show the products
to have been generally of standard quality and as represented.
The direct use on the soils of nitrogen solutions, liquefied an-
hydrous ammonia and, to a limited extent, liquid mixed ferti-
lizers appear to have become a fixed practice in farm operations.
These products are registered, sampled, analyzed, and reported,
and otherwise dealt with as is the practice with other fertilizers.
Among the problems which have appeared in the fertilizer
field are :
1. The sale of very dilute fertilizer solutions (fractional per-
centages of plant food), delivered in, and applied to turf from,
fuel-oil tank trucks during the off-season in the sale of oils.
2. The sale of fertilizer in bulk, at times delivered and applied
to the soil by spreader trucks.
3. The sale of liquid mixed fertilizers, either delivered as bulk
lots or applied to the soil.
4. The sale of solutions from compartment tankers which mix
these as they are applied to the soil.
5. The sale of materials from cars on railroad sidings, these
materials moving from car to siding mixer, thence to regular
vehicles for delivery as bulk mixes, or to spreader trucks for
direct application to the soil for farmers.
Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 37
6. The sale of fertilizers as "buyers' mixes".
The sale of very dilute solutions was stopped both because of
failure to meet the minimum requirement of 20 units of plant
food and also because of corrosiveness to equipment. The sale
from compartment or "mixer-spreader" trucks and tankers and
from freight cars at railroad sidings appear to be still in the
developmental or experimental stage. Three of these practices —
the sale in bulk of liquids and of solids, the delivery of these as
bulk lots or spread on the soil, and the sale as "buyer mixes" —
appear to be growing practices. Attendant problems of pro-
tection and control are now under study.
Because of increased interest in trace elements in fertilizers
by manufacturers and users, the provision of the law for guaran-
teeing additional plant food elements was brought into force and
arrangements made for adding guarantees for manganese, cop-
per, iron, zinc and molydenum. Fuller significance of this move
remains to be disclosed by time.
The fertilizer inspectors, although they regularly work on
an "intermittent" basis, returning for each fertilizer season, are
classified as "temporary", therefore receive none of the bene-
fits that other employees enjoy. All receive the same pay, the
lowest in the inspection scale, although a number of them have
been in the work 10 to 20 years. Request is being made in the
pending budget for improvement in this status, putting them
on a pro-rate basis for all considerations extended other em-
In line with the provisions of the applicable laws, samples of
commercial livestock and poultry feeds and canned dog food were
officially collected from all parts of the state, checked for com-
pliance with labeling, tax and other requirements and analyzed
chemically for content of crude protein, fat, crude fiber, urea,
medication, moisture; and microscopically for ingredients and
Results of the work show that standards and quality were
maintained at a normal level. These were reported individually
and also published in detail in the annual Feed Bulletins. Cov-
erage for the biennium was as follows :
Official samples 4,915
Unofficial samples 343
58 N. C. Department of Agriculture
For medication (on above samples) (363)
The annual increase in tonnage of feed sold continued through
the biennium. The accompanying expansion of sales in bulk
and as "customer's mixes", as in the case of fertilizers, posed new
problems in protection and control. It is recognized that absence
of effective control in these areas is an open invitation for return
of fraud and unscrupulous competition in this industry. Stud-
ies toward needed adjustments are in progress.
Following a period of rapid development and the appearance
of many new economic poisons, the industry and usages to a
large extent continue to maintain a relatively constant position,
but with the addition of new items from time to time. North
Carolina agriculture calls for a large volume of these products
as it does of fertilizer. The volume of samples collected and
analyzed is in proportion.
The pesticide season naturally falls into the calendar year
rather than a fiscal year. The pesticide law hterefore places
registrations and other procedures on the calendar year basis.
The annual Insecticide Report, in which details of activities and
results of analyses are given is also on the calendar year basis.
Therefore, reports herein are on the same basis.
Results of the work for the biennium 1955-57 show that stan-
dards were maintained on a normal level and that generally sat-
isfactory products were supplied to users. Defective products
were dealt with as prescribed by law. The coverage for the
two years is as folows:
Official samples 2,843
Unofficial samples 27
Some difficulty has been encountered due to bulk sale of pesti-
cides from broken packages, an illegal practice. Some mer-
chants, for greater profit or selling advantage, were buying cer-
tain liquid products in 50 gallon drums and retailing them in
gallon lots, put into any container handy, more often than not
without the required labeling, directions for use, warnings of mis-
application and dangers. In addition to this practice being il-
Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 39
legal, it resulted in damage to crops, i.e., mistakenly using MH-
30 as an insecticide on young tobacco plants, the effect on the
entire plant being the same as when used to stop growth of
suckers on more mature plants. The practice was largely due to
lack of information or carelessness and was promptly discontin-
ued on notice.
Aerial Crop Dusting
Purposes of the aerial crop dusting law are to eliminate un-
ethical practices and irresponsible performances in some seg-
ments of this business, to allay numerous complaints and group
moves to outlaw this type of crop dusting, to bring better order
in this business, to support and maintain the sound element of
the industry, and to preserve for the farmers of the state a
useful facility in the production of crops. The law, now in its
fifth year of operation, although still with some exceptions,
has largely accomplished these purposes.
The general turmoil and confusion which characterized the
industry has disappeared. Complaints now are few. Usually
these are readily cleared. There still is some carelessness in
spreading pesticides on property adjacent to that intended to
be treated. Several court actions have been necessary to en-
force compliance with the requirements for registration and
liability insurance coverage. These were effective. Fuller in-
spection facilities would be advantageous.
Licenses issued for the biennium were as follows:
Contractors 50 41
Applicators 105 81
Airplanes 101 76
Experience in the control of internal combustion engine anti-
freezes continues on the highly satisfactory level which has ap-
plied since the law was enacted, 1949. No unethical operators
have appeared, no spurious products have been found on the mar-
ket and no complaints on these products have come to the atten-
tion of the Department. Much credit for this highly satisfac-
tory status is due the dealers and Oil Jobbers Association of
the state and to ethical manufacturers for their cooperation.
Merchants uniformly purchase stocks on authentic evidence of
current clearance of these products by the Department.
40 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Registrations were 65 brands for 1956-57 and 74 brands for
1957-58. These, representing 37 manufacturers, covered both
the alcohol and glycol types of products.
Foods and Drugs
The work of the Chemistry Division in administering the North
Carolina Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act has been generally ef-
fective within the limits of the facilities provided for that work.
It is recognized, however, that this program has not kept pace
with the state's growth in population and expansion in industry,
particularly that dealing with foods. Obviously a staff of four in-
spectors and two food chemists is inadequate to fully cover the
expanded needs in safeguarding the state's food supply.
These facts are set forth in the current budget and requests
are made for the addition of two food chemists and two food
inspectors as at least a tentative measure toward a more ade-
quate food control program.
Among the provisions of the food laws is the requirement that
foods shall be composed of sound and wholesome raw materials,
that they be stored, handled and processed in a fully sanitary
manner and that environment, housing, equipment, vehicles and
other facilities be kept and used in a manner to preclude ex-
posure that may result in contamination.
In order to determine compliance with these requirements,
regular and systematic inspections are made of these facilities
and written reports made accordingly. Defects of a minor nature
usually are corrected by calling attention to them and giving
information on requirements. Major defects or bad conditions
may require stoppage of operations until corrections are made,
embargoing and diverting products to other channels of use, de-
naturing and destroying unfit products, or other appropriate ac-
tions according to circumstances. Actions under these headings
are summarized as follows :
Food Plant Inspections
Bakeries and Doughnut Plants 2,136
Bottling Plants 1,184
Other types of plants (processing and packaging
meats, pickles, seafood, flour, meal, candy, po-
tato chips, fruits and vegetables, etc.) 2,528
Report for 1956-58 — Chemistry 41
Plant Operations Suspended
Bottling Plants 12
Others (as per preceding tabulation) 76
Among the many ways in which the food supply may become
unwholesome, fraudulent or dangerous to health are contami-
nation with poisonous or deleterious substances, insanitation,
decomposition, exposure to vermin, products from diseased ani-
mals, misrepresentation, abstraction of valuable constituents or
substituting with cheap or worthless diluents. Among the most
insidious types of adulteration is insanitation and contamination
with bacteria. These often are the cause of sickness.
In addition to food plant inspections, basic procedures for de-
tecting adulteration are analyses (chemical, physical and other-
wise) of official samples. Because of the great volume of food
on the market, the greatest effectiveness of work is dependent
on the critical judging and selecting of significant official sam-
ples. Further information derives from reports and complaints
made by consumers and dealers and from unofficial samples sub-
mitted by them.
The activities of the biennium included the handling and check-
ing of 2,264 samples, representing products both satisfactory
and unsatisfactory; 540,000 pounds of foods and 5,000 bottled
items under 190 embargo actions. These embargoes involved
all classes and types of foods — canned goods, beverages, fruits,
vegetables, bakery products, sugar, spices, meats, candies, milk
products, etc. — and for various reasons such as spoilage, in-
sanitation, contamination by insects, rodents, worms and other
vermin, storm and fire damage, etc. On a year-to-year basis,
statistical data of this nature will vary broadly since a single
heavy storm or flood, a large warehouse fire or the wrecking of a
produce train can alter the picture overnight by thousands of
items or millions of pounds.
Each year has its quota of losses from fires, storms, floods and
wrecks. Fortunately, this type of loss during the biennium was
relatively small, and mostly limited to minor fires, occurring
in shopping centers, markets and bakeries.
The integrity of drugs as to quality, composition, and factual
labeling can be determined only by chemical analysis. This is
42 N. C. Department of Agriculture
the basis for the part of the law which applies to drugs. The
"boot-legging" or illegal sale of dangerous and habit-forming
drugs also is a constant danger. The Department's facilities for
work in this field is limited, but every effort is made to curb
such activities and afford maximum protection. This work at
times is carried on cooperatively with the U. S. Food and Drug
Administration, since this class of drugs is produced largely in
other states and moves in interstate commerce and, therefore,
is subject to both federal and state laws.
The policy of cooperation with other agencies permits work in
certain lines to be carried out on a level of effectiveness not oth-
erwise possible. In line with this procedure, the illegal sale of
barbiturates was apprehended and the advertising and sale of
bogus tranquilizer drugs was stopped. Under six embargo ac-
tions, stock of plastic fingernail shields, located in various parts
of the state, were stopped and removed permanently from com-
merce, since, after being used for a period of time, they result-
ed in many women losing fingernails.
Personnel and Laboratories
Questions of personnel and laboratories has been a part of the
Division's budget and biennial reports for a period of years.
Personnel status was somewhat improved in the past biennium
by the addition of a secretary and a feed and insecticide in-
spector. A continued need in this line, however, is for more
adequate help in food inspection and analysis. Provision for
two inspectors and two chemists are in the current budget
Laboratory needs are well taken care of by the new space in
the annex to the Agricultural Building. Current budget requests
in this respect are limited to need of new and improved equip-
ment which is necessary in analyzing new pesticide and feed
CREDIT UNION DIVISION
W. V. DlDAWICK
State Superintendent of Credit Unions
The Credit Union Division was established by the 1915 Gen-
eral Assembly for the purpose of organizing credit unions and
supervising their operation. The supervision is to ensure that
each credit union is conducting its operation in accordance with
the law so that the members' money will be safe.
We are now making regular examinations on a ten-month basis
to all state-chartered credit unions and more frequent follow-up
visits to those where examination reveals something wrong.
Persuasion is the chief tool used to correct a bad situation, and
it usually works. But, where it fails, the Division may use
When embezzlement is revealed by an examination, we have
been doing the detailed checking necessary to substantiate the
claim with the bonding company for the credit union. This is
not a primary function of this office. However, it is given as an
additional service which is essential but which most credit unions,
being non-profit organizations, are unable to provide for them-
Any group having a common bond of association, occupation,
or residence can organize a credit union in order to have a con-
venient way to save money regularly, even in small amounts, and
a place to borrow money at a reasonable rate of interest when
the need arises. Because of growing interest in consumer credit
costs and allied problems, many employers are now assisting
their employees in securing a credit union to finance their pur-
chase of consumer goods. The credit union loan is by far the
best and cheapest to be had from any financial institution.
Almost all of the 232 state chartered credit unions showed an
excellent growth during the two-year period covered by this
report. The consolidated figures reveal that the combined assets
of these organizations increased $5,303,058.53 during the two-
year period. Loans to members increased $4,597,170.23, and
liquid assets (investments) increased $1,583,631.03. These
consolidated figures were compiled from the financial and statis-
tical reports received from the credit unions as of June 30, 1958.
This Division has helped to conduct three workshops for credit
44 N. C. Department of Agriculture
union treasurers and officers during the biennium. These work-
shops will pay off in better records being kept by the treasurers
and in better audits being made by the supervisory committees.
This will improve the operation of the credit unions and will make
our supervisory-agency examinations easier and require less time.
NUMBER, MEMBERSHIP AND ASSETS
OF STATE-CHARTERED CREDIT UNIONS
June 30, 1956 June SO, 1958
Active Credit Unions 221 232
Total Members 80,043 83,658
Total Assets $19,241,841.94 $24,544,900.47
Average Dividend Paid .042%
NORTH CAROLINA CREDIT UNIONS
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
June 30, 1956
Cash in Bank and on Hand $ 2,208,213.29 $ 1,703,626.92
Loans to Members 13,933,173.62 18,530,343.85
Investments and Bonds 2,245,634.10 3,829,265.13
Other Assets 854,820.93 481,664.57
Shares $15,310,732.45 $19,867,044.27
Deposits 1,084,991.67 1,100,242.62
Reserve Fund 1,226,106.77 1,372,311.40
Undivided Earnings 658,173.60 537,270.55
Other Liabilities 961,837.45 1,668,031.63
C. W. Pegram
The dairy industry is developing into big business in North
Carolina. During 1957 Grade A milk production reached an all
time high of 837,158,295 pounds, exceeding record production
in 1956 by 10.3 percent. Fluid milk and cream sales likewise
were up 5.3 percent over 1956. Milk imports reached the lowest
level since records were started in 1946.
Many changes are taking place in dairying. Bulk tanks,
milking parlors and in-place cleaning systems are being rapidly
installed by producers. Processing plants are using paper bot-
tles, short time pasteurizers, automation devices ; and some milk
is being fortified with vitamins and minerals. Enforcement of
North Carolina's dairy laws is important, and the Dairy Division
has attempted to keep pace with the growth and changes of the
industry by stepping up its regulatory program.
The farm bulk tank movement has affected the pattern of
butterfat check testing very materially. When milk was deliv-
ered in cans, samples were secured at the plant. The farm bulk
tank system requires farm visits to take official samples, and it
is estimated that 3,000 farm tanks are in use. Indications are
that all Grade A dairymen will use them in the near future.
Samples are also secured by tank routemen, 240 of whom have
been examined and licensed to perform this service.
Practically all milk is marketed on the basis of butterfat con-
tent, which is highly variable. One of the important duties of
the Dairy Division is to supervise the sampling and testing pro-
cedures covering 260 licensed samplers and 108 licensed testers.
The Division has two well-equipped mobile dairy laboratories
which are used on a year-round basis. The following plan of
procedure is used:
1. Inspections of 61 butterfat testing laboratories, with special
emphasis being given to equipment and apparatus.
2. Check testing of composite samples which are the basis of
producer payments. In case errors are found, adjustments are
required to be made.
3. Securing and testing of four fresh stratified milk samples,
either at plant or dairy farm, for the purpose of comparison
with licensed samplers' tests.
46 N. C. Department of Agriculture
4. Observation of sample methods used by licensed samplers.
5. Training and examining of applicants for samplers' and
6. Making special investigations upon request.
7. Mailing to producers official notices of test results.
Approximately 60,000 check tests were made during the bien-
nium, involving 1,615 investigations.
Accurate sampling and testing requires that every step be
taken properly. Carelessness and indifference have no place in
this important work and when found, corrections are required to
The supervision given to Babcock tests has resulted in more
accurate testing and a better understanding between producer
and buying plant.
Part of the Division's activities are devoted to the purity and
wholesomeness of milk and other dairy products. Samples are
purchased on state-wide basis and delivered to one of our three
laboratories (one central laboratory in Raleigh and two mobile
units). Laboratory tests are made for butterfat, milk solids,
and bacteria. In order to maintain the standards of purity, our
fieldmen are constantly checking manufacturing practices of our
processors. A total of 6,583 samples were analyzed during the
biennium. This work is important to the consumer and makes
for fair play between competitors.
Adulteration of milk by the addition of water is an ever pres-
ent threat to the industry. Usually it is caused by carelessness
and indifference. The use of farm bulk tanks and pipeline milk-
ers has aggravated this threat. An aggressive analysis pro-
gram is being carried on, in cooperation with local health de-
partments and industry. Since the freezing point of milk is one
of its most constant physical properties, variations from the nor-
mal are used in detecting the adulteration of milk with water.
The cryoscope is an apparatus used for accurately measuring the
freezing point of milk. An improved type has been installed in
the central laboratory, which has made for more rapid determina-
In December 1958, the Board of Agriculture provided for the
sale of fortified vitamin mineral milk. This new product has
offered additional problems in regard to labeling and assays.
To determine that the declared vitamin and mineral additions
are present, it is necessary to submit samples to an out-of-state
Report for 1956-58 — Dairy 47
biological laboratory for complicated assays. At present, 24
plants are offering these products to the public.
The matter of correct labeling of cartons occupies much time.
The objective is to secure accurate and prominent labeling of
milk and other dairy products in order that the consumer may
fully understand exactly what he is buying and by whom it was
processed or manufactured. For instance, one may easily confuse
ice milk with ice cream. Enthusiastic salesmen and advertising
personnel have presented many technical problems in regard to
our labeling laws. Much progress has been made through cooprea-
tion from the dairy industry and carton manufacturers.
Another important phase of the work of the Dairy Division is
administering the ice cream and frozen desserts law. This in-
volves 60 wholesale establishments, and 250 retail "soft serve"
plants which sell their product direct from the freezer to the
consumer. The estimated production in 1957 was as follows :
Ice Cream 12,825,000
Ice Milk 5,802,000
Milk Sherbet 756,000
Water Ice 1,578,000
North Carolina ranks 16th among the states in the manufac-
ture of these products. This supervision service is devoted en-
tirely to consumer protection. As shown in the statistical sum-
mary at the end of this chapter, approximately 1,600 field inspec-
tions were made along with nearly 3,000 complete chemical and
bacterial analyses. All manufacturers are licensed; and annual
license fees of $20 are paid by wholesale plants, and $5 by "soft
serve" operators. License and permit fees collected during the
biennium totaled $7,144.
The Milk Import Law requires that before milk or cream may
be brought into the state permits must be obtained from the
Commissioner of Agriculture by both the receiver and the out-of-
state shipper. Enforcement of this law has provided higher
quality milk to the consuming public. The dairy industry has
cooperated by using available surplus milk before making appli-
cation for out-of-state permits. This has made for higher returns
for dairy farmers.
Fluid milk imports totaling 5,701,000 pounds during 1957 were
at the lowest level since records were started in 1946. Imports
in 1956 were 11,560,000 pounds.
48 N. C. Department of Agriculture
The Dairy Division makes every effort to cooperate with all
agencies interested in promoting quality, protecting the consum-
er, and rendering service toward building a greater dairy in-
One of the Division's cooperative duties is making butterfat
tests for the North Carolina Milk Commission. The Commis-
sion's rules require a minimum of 3.6 percent butterfat in all
fluid milk offered for sale in this state. To avoid duplication of
effort, the Department of Agriculture and the Milk Commission
entered into a cooperative agreement whereby the Commission
furnishes and equips a mobile dairy laboratory, and the Dairy
Division of the Department provides the personnel to run the
tests. The Division made 2,845 official tests for the Commission
during the 1956-58 biennium.
The Dairy Division also makes butterfat tests of milk supplied
to schools through the school lunch program. It also makes
inspections of plants supplying frozen desserts to food contract-
ors serving interstate carriers, such as air lines. This is another
cooperative project which prevents duplication of effort.
Cooperation was also given to state and local health depart-
ments in many fields of endeavor, and every effort is made not to
duplicate inspection services.
Plant Investigations (butterfat check-testing) 1,199 1,615
Milk Testers licenses issued 106 125
Milk testers examinations given 36 55
Milk sampler licenses issued ._ 371
Milk sampler examinations given „ 195
Butterfat Check tests -.39,410 52,710
Composite check tests 1,479 4,797
Butterfat tests supervised — - 354 1,933
Butterfat tests for Milk Commission 483 2,362
Butterfat laboratory inspections 180
Farm Bulk Tank inspections- 239
Official butterfat notices sent to producers 3,000 3,500
Ice Cream plant inspections 1,201 1,592
Ice cream and frozen dessert samples analyzed 3,106 2,996
Ice cream establishments closed 5 3
Processing plant inspections 12 123
Gallons of milk embargoed 2,855 3,090
Lactometer tests 5,373 1,218
Cryosscope determinations 936 4,015
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY
C. H. Brannon
The activities of the Entomology Division have been widely
expanded in recent years to meet new or expanded needs. Basic
legislation, long on the statute books, gradually became inade-
quate to fully support all of this work. A new Plant Pest Law
enacted in 1957 gives legal authority for work which has long
been done, but for which statutory support was ambiguous.
The Board of Agriculture adopted a new set of nursery regu-
lations on December 19, 1957, based upon the new Plant Pest
Law. These regulations, which revise the nursery inspection
fees, also give specific instructions for the enforcement of the
law, as applied to nurseries in the state.
The annual inspection and certification of the nurseries of the
state constitutes the largest project of this Division. There are
now 725 nurseries in North Carolina which must be carefully
inspected, at least once a year, by trained and experienced staff
members. Nurseries with difficult plant pest problems, or those
under the special requirements of state and federal quarantines,
may require repeated inspections and constant supervision for
the certification and movement of their stock.
Nursery inspection alone requires the full-time services of
three staff members for at least four months of each year. Fees
must be collected and certificates issued before the nurseries can
have their shipping tags printed. Each nursery is required to
have an exact copy of its valid certificate printed on its shipping
tag. These certificate copies must accompany all shipments or
movements of stock from the nursery.
The nursery inspection fees are as follows :
First acre or fraction thereof $3.00
Each additional acre up to 10 1.00
Each additional acre 11 to 20 .75 per acre
Each additional acre above 20 .50 per acre
There are 535 nursery stock dealers in North Carolina. Deal-
ers must file an affidavit with this Division, stating that they
50 N. C. Department of Agriculture
will handle only certified stock. The source of their stock must
also be stated. Movements of truck shipments of nursery stock
are inspected at shipping points and warehouse centers. Move-
ments by rail are checked at transit centers by federal inspectors,
and by state inspectors within the state. Stores handling nurs-
ery stock are inspected as frequently as possible to see that their
stock carries certificate tags from the state of origin. North
Carolina allows entry of nursery stock from other states, pro-
vided valid certification tags from state of origin are attached.
Valid North Carolina certificate tags are likewise accepted by
Witchweed is the latest addition to the North Carolina list of
serious plant pests. First found in this state during the latter
part of 1956, this parasitic weed is a terrific threat to the basic
economy of the state and the nation. Witchweed has never before
been found in the western hemisphere. When and how it reached
North Carolina has not been determined. It has possibly been
here for 20 or 25 years, from reports of farmers in the infested
Where heavy witchweed infestations exist, the corn crop is a
complete failure ; other small grains and grasses are also attacked
by the witchweed.
A rapid survey in the fall of 1956 revealed a well-established
infestation straddling the South Carolina line in the vicinity of
Whiteville. Inspections were terminated by frost in the 1956
survey before a thorough investigation could be made.
Inspections in 1957 gave the following data :
Infested counties 8
Number of properties ... 278
Total acreage of infestation 23,830
This situation looked alarming. Meetings with farmers, Ex-
periment Station, Extension Service, and federal officials were
frequent during 1957.
Early in 1957, Dr. Edward L. Robinson was employed by the
Experiment Station and stationed on the Border Belt Tobacco
Station at Whiteville for full-time research on the witchweed
problem. Progress was slow, due to the fact that no work had
ever been done before in this hemisphere. Results of work done
in India and Africa, especially the latter, were carefully studied.
Report for 1956-58 — Entomology 51
Twelve acres of land were leased near Evergreen, in Columbus
County, for field tests of any chemicals that looked promising in
laboratory or plot tests.
The federal government placed into effect a quarantine
against the witchweed on September 6, 1957, and the state
witchweed quarantine, adopted by the State Board of Agricul-
ture, became effective on October 14, 1957.
The witchweed is now found on 1,450 properties on 137,710
acres, located in eleven counties, as follows: Bladen, Columbus,
Cumberland, Duplin, Harnett, Hoke, Pender, Richmond, Robe-
son, Sampson and Scotland.
Congress has recently appropriated $3,000,000 for control and
suppression of the witchweed because of its threat to the entire
corn crop of the nation.
The witchweed is also found in eight South Carolina counties ;
it is not known to occur anywhere else in the western hem-
Imported Fire Ant
The imported fire ant has swept over 9 southern states from
an infestation located at Mobile, Alabama. This serious pest
was brought in from Australia, or South America, in about 1918,
and is now well established on thousands of acres of land. This
ant, which has a very painful sting, destroys crops, kills young
livestock and wild life, may kill a young child, and causes painful
stings to any one attacked. These insects build large, hard-
crusted mounds which may be 15 inches in diameter and 10 inches
in height. Blades of harvesting machinery may be badly dam-
aged in striking these mounds. Over 1,000 people have been
seriously stung in one day in New Orleans.
A federal quarantine was placed in effect against this pest on
May 6, 1958, but North Carolina was not included in this quaran-
tine, due to the very small infested area in the state.
The infested areas in North Carolina, all of which have been
treated, are as follows :
Brunswick County 12 acres
Mecklenburg County 218 acres
Onslow County 1,337 acres
Total 1,567 acres
52 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Soybean Cyst Nematode
The center of the soybean cyst nematode infestation has shift-
ed from North Carolina to the Mississippi Valley. Large infested
areas were located two years ago in areas bordering the Missis-
sippi River in Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi and
Tennessee. The infestation in North Carolina may have come
from the Mississippi Valley area.
Let it be stressed that new discoveries of this pest do not nec-
essarily mean new spreads. Infestations that may have existed
for some years, being difficult to find, may have only been re-
cently discovered. Federal and state quarantines have been in
effect for some time and are being carefully enforced.
The infested areas of North Carolina are as follows :
Camden County . 225 acres
New Hanover County 1,549 acres
Pender County 604 acres
The queen breeders in the state are carefully inspected each
year and are issued certificates. Colonies were inspected in a
wide area over the state in an effort to eradicate disease, where
possible. Colonies infected with American foul-brood were de-
stroyed unless, in the opinion of the inspector, the beekeeper was
safely sterilizing with disease inhibiting drugs or antibiotics.
The bee inspection program consists in carefully inspecting,
as mentioned, queen breeders and package bee shippers, as well
as clean-up inspections in an area or entire county. Inspections
were made for all those requesting such inspections. Certificates
were issued to beekeepers whose colonies were to be moved to
other states, when inspections proved them to be free of disease.
Inspection data is as follows :
Queen breeders and package bee
shippers certified 12 12
Colonies inspected 6,984 7,188
American foul-brood, colonies inspected _ 79 104
European foul-brood, colonies inspected „ 61 12
Apiaries inspected 694 568
Report for 1956-58 — Entomology 53
The Japanese beetle has now spread to all sections of North
Carolina. Therefore, the large trapping and suppression pro-
gram formerly supported by state and federal funds, has been
discontinued. However, 10 temporary inspectors were used
mostly in the western and eastern counties of the state for in-
spection of shipping centers, nurseries and greenhouses. This
pest has now taken its place with the boll weevil, Mexican bean
beetle, various tobacco pests, etc., which are established all over
the state. It, therefore, becomes a problem for each individual
or community to deal with according to their own means and
desires. The money spent upon this pest by the state and fed-
eral governments is considered well worthwhile since the spread
of the beetle was delayed for many years.
There has been no change in the status of the write-fringed
beetle since the last report, when 26 counties in eastern North
Carolina were under quarantine. No additional counties have
become involved, though some additional acreage in the infested
area has been added.
Inspections and quarantine enforcement, in cooperation with
the federal government, is going along very nicely.
Narcissus inspection has continued on the same basis as for
many years. Growers must make application for inspections,
which are designed to keep narcissus fields free from nematode
North Carolina narcissus growers sell mostly cut flowers ; bulb
sales are not of large volume in North Carolina.
Inspection data is as follows :
Acres inspected 89 110
Properties infested 2 2
Insect Collection and Identification
The vast insect collection of this Division, which consists of
over a million specimens, is being transferred to modern cabinet
shelves, which are of the latest design. The old Schmidt boxes,
54 N. C. Department of Agriculture
from which they are being moved, will be used for receiving,
transferring and shipping to specialists for determination. The
transfers will be completed during 1958, when all specimens will
be safely stored in air-tight, pest proof cabinets.
ASHEVILLE AND WILMINGTON OFFICES
This Division maintains an inspector at Wilmington and Ashe-
ville to carry out our activities in those areas. The Asheville in-
spector supervises the inspection of large collecting areas of na-
tive stock and cooperates with Federal and State Forestry offi-
cials in the enforcement of the white pine blister-rust quarantine.
All suppression and control of forest pests is under the super-
vision of the State Forester.
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Much of the inspection, survey and quarantine enforcement of
this Division is carried out in close, cordial cooperation with the
Plant Pest Control Division of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, whose local offices are in the Capitol Club Building in
Experiment Station and Extension Service
Close cooperation is maintained with research staff members of
the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural
Extension Service, in all problems which vitally affect North
Carolina agricultural recovery.
DIVISION OF MARKETS
John A. Winfield
If North Carolina farmers had been averse to changes, and
unwilling to adopt new practices and techniques in their farming
operations during the 1956-58 biennium, the results could have
been disastrous. Fortunately, however, customs were cast aside ;
new enterprises were given a chance and, in general, farmers
prospered despite the many factors that tended to work against
It was not an easy task for them. Major adjustments were
necessary and the large outlays of capital which were required
in many instances raised the stakes in their "game of chance" to
almost unthought of levels. Economic conditions made this pos-
sible for some; impossible for others.
Weather conditions, always a major threat to the farmer, left
much to be desired during the two-year period. Optimum condi-
tions prevailed only for brief periods, and quality and yields were
materially affected. Such conditions increased production costs
and served as a hindrance to orderly and efficient marketing.
It was largely a result of these circumstances that prompted
Division personnel to use a more direct approach in assisting
producers and others with their marketing problems during the
biennium. Appropriately referred to as the "button-hole" ap-
proach by many who have observed the results of its application,
it involved making the necessary recommendations for getting
an efficient job done and the necessary follow-up work to see
that the suggested recommendations were properly carried out.
This naturally involved a large number of personal visits to indi-
vidual producers, buyers and sellers. But by following through
on the various problems and actually assisting in the elimination
of them, worthwhile results were obtained. Had it not been for
the cooperative efforts of Extension Service personnel, research
workers, vocational agriculture teachers, the Department of
Conservation and Development, farm groups and others, this
saturated effort could not have been as effective as it proved to
be during the 1956-58 biennium.
Only the surface has been scratched in this endeavor. However,
two years of experience and proved results of its effectiveness
have strengthened the hopes of Division personnel that greater
56 N. C. Department of Agriculture
and lasting efficiency in the marketing of North Carolina's agri-
cultural products can be brought about.
The Division of Markets is appreciative of the splendid work-
ing relations it enjoyed with other agencies during 1956-58. It
is the desire of the Division to continue this cooperative approach
so that greater efficiency in the marketing of all agricultural
commodities can be realized as quickly as possible.
Following is a summary of activities for the past biennium in
the various phases covered by this Division :
During the past biennium the tobacco industry experienced
revolutionary changes that affected growers, as well as manufac-
turers of tobacco products. The rapid changes were brought
about principally by the shift in consumer preference for filter
tip cigarettes. These changes reduced the total use of flue-cured
and burley tobacco resulting in fewer acres planted.
Changes in buying patterns of companies, and increased use
of processed tobacco in sheets, also contributed to an uncertain
market and weakening demand for certain grades.
The situation at present is the most critical faced by tobacco
growers since the beginning of the tobacco program, 24 years
In terms of loss to tobacco growers these shifts have meant
about a 130-million dollar drop in North Carolina tobacco income.
In order to offset as much of the loss as possible, every effort
was made to assist growers in preparing, sorting and marketing
tobacco to meet grading and buying changes.
In rendering this service, group meetings were held in coopera-
tion with vocational teachers, county agents, farm organizations
and individual farmers. Two phases of the problem are ap-
proached in these meetings. First, farmers are given a thorough
analysis of the tobacco situation as it relates to stocks on hand,
domestic and export disappearances, changes in consumer pref-
erence and developments in the industry. These factors establish
the trends that determine the kind of tobacco that will be in
strongest demand during the coming season, and such analysis
gives the grower a chance to adjust farming practices to market
The marketing phases deal with farm sorting and market
preparation problems. These are subjects of practical demon-
strations on the farm and in tobacco warehouses. Growers at-
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 57
tending these meetings are shown a simpler method of sorting
tobacco into standard grades. Display demonstrations on ware-
house floors are also part of the service program. In carrying
out this program during the 1956-58 biennium, specialists held
221 group meetings which were attended by 6,134 farmers.
North Carolina statutes require that the Division of Markets
issue a monthly report of tobacco warehouse sales. During the
biennium this report was distributed to a mailing list of 1,200,
including growers, warehousemen, dealers, press, radio, civic
and farm organizations.
The North Carolina "Tobacco Report" was prepared and dis-
tribtued to 6,000 members of the industry each year. Informa-
tion on prices, trends and other related subjects was also pre-
pared for newspapers, magazines, radio and TV programs.
Summary of Other Activities
Warehouses visited 311 310
Farm organization meetings 18 14
Civic Clubs 7 14
Industry meetings * _ _. 14 16
Radio talks 8 11
Magazine articles 6 9
Tobacco organization meetings 15 11
Cotton and Engineering
Activities of the Cotton and Engineering Section include serv-
ices in the marketing of cotton, and technical or engineering as-
sistance to other commodity sections in the Division of Markets.
Cotton services are designed to: (1) Preserve the grade and
quality values of cotton and cotton seed in pre-ginning handling,
ginning and storage; (2) provide the trade and state agencies
with laboratory test data on the fiber properties of North Caro-
lina cotton; (3) improve and integrate the operating policies of
all raw cotton interests, particularly those of ginners and initial
cotton buyers; (4) cooperate with and supplement cotton pro-
grams of other agencies and organizations.
Of the three factors determining grade values of cotton fiber —
color, smoothness of ginning, and trash content — the last two
involve gin processing, and are controllable. Cotton ginners have
many opportunities to assist their customers in the marketing
of cotton. As engineers, our specialists are qualified to design,
erect and operate modern gin facilities and to instruct ginners
with respect to operating techniques. Their ginner contacts
afford many opportunities to promote recognition of grade and
58 N. C. Department of Agriculture
staple values at the initial marketing level and to assist ginners
in providing buying and selling services for their customers.
Within recent years the use of laboratory test results on cotton
fiber has become essential to efficient cotton spinning and the
selection of cottons for specific end uses. The Division of Mar-
kets operates a cotton-fiber testing laboratory and releases, at
two-week intervals, laboratory reports on cotton from 27 selected
points in the state. These reports facilitate the marketing of
North Carolina cotton and increase the demand for it.
Cotton work for the biennium includes 1,119 gin visits, 110
cotton mill contacts and attendance at 120 cotton meetings.
Technical or engineering assistance to the corn milling indus-
try in North Carolina is a continuing assignment to this section.
Services to the milling industry are conducted in close cooperation
with the State Chemist and the Grain Section of the Markets Di-
vision. Objectives of the program are to : (1) Improve sanita-
tion in handling and processing corn for human consumption;
(2) improve the design, construction and use of mechanical
elements and facilities used by the corn milling industry; (3)
standardize milling corn procurement activities; (4) elevate
the operating policies of the industry and allied interests.
Field procedures are patterned after the cotton ginning pro-
gram and require approximately 275 mill visits annually. Our
specialists cooperate with the industry in promotion and develop-
The need for technical assistance with pre-marketing opera-
tions becomes increasingly urgent as agricultural enterprises in
the state become more diversified and as modern merchandising
of farm products requires more and more marketing processing,
conditioning and handling. Practically all commodities require
some grading or sampling or treatment of one kind or another in
marketing channels. Farmers' markets, assembly plants and
buying stations have traffic and other operational problems.
Practically all use one or more items of mechanical equipment.
The success and permanency of an agricultural enterprise often
are determined by the location and efficiency of processors.
Engineering services provided by this section are designed to
fill the need between "no engineering" and the professional talent
employed by heavily capitalized firms and corporations. Our
services are available to other commodity sections of the Division
of Markets, all divisions of the Department of Agriculture, and
other state agencies.
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 59
Activities of our engineers during the biennium include the
design of a swine disease diagnostic laboratory, a slaughtering
and meat packing plant, a sweet potato curing and storage facil-
ity, a vegetable cooling device, and a method of bulk handling
and sampling of peanuts. Assistance to the Grain Section in-
cluded advising on the construction and improvement of 28 stor-
age and handling facilities, feed manufacturing installations and
commercial seed processing plants.
Continued progress is being made in the construction of new
and additional grain handling, storing and marketing facilities
throughout the state.
During this two-year period, six firms built new facilities
totaling 558,000 bushels of storage capacity. Twenty-five firms
added 1,469,000 bushels to existing plants. Grain producers built
3,687,000 bushels of storage capacity on their farms, bringing
the total on and off-farm storage capacity within the state to
26,721,000 bushels. Nine firms are planning the construction of
1,960,000 bushels of storage facilities for 1958-59.
New and expanded grain storage facilities have increased the
efficiency in grain handling and merchandising. They have also
brought about a more competitive and stable market which, in
turn, has increased the net returns to producers. With more
storage facilities available in North Carolina, untold dollars have
been saved and will continue to be saved from freight on grain
out of the state at harvest and back in for feed during the re-
mainder of the year.
Market outlets are not only expanding through new and added
grain facilities, but also through new and existing feed process-
ing plants. This expansion has come about primarily as a result
of sharp increases in the production of poultry, particularly
broilers. An example of the expansion in broiler production,
which caused the need for feed processing and in turn resulted
in expanded outlets for grain, is found in the Rose Hill area.
Three small feed mills in this area are processing approximately
1,300,000 bushels of corn per year. This is approximately one-
half of the average corn production for the county. This rapid
increase in grain consumption is also seen in other parts of the
To further expand outlets for the increasing production of
soybeans, Gurley Milling Company in Selma is building a solvent
60 N. C. Department of Agriculture
processing plant; Buckeye Cellulose Corporation in Raleigh is
installing the solvent process also, and other firms may shift to
the solvent method for extracting oil from soybeans. This will
enable processors to meet competitive prices because more oil
can be extracted and their operations will be more efficient.
The increase in grain handling facilities resulted in more re-
quests from firms for assistance in operating elevators, dryers
and grading equipment. This involved synchronizing the re-
ceiving of grain with the size and speed of handling by the eleva-
tor, and with the cleaning and turning equipment. Assistance
also included checking grain dryers while they were in operation
and instructing plant operators in the proper use of grain grad-
ing equipment. In conducting this work, specialists made 557
visits to grain handlers, elevator operators and processing plant
To further train operators in the grain business, seven grain
grading demonstrations were held with 447 attending. Special-
ists in the Grain Section cooperated with the N. C. Grain Pro-
duction and Marketing Committee in two Statewide Grain
Schools with 76 attending, and 18 county schools with 374 attend-
ing. At the grain grading demonstrations marketing specialists
also explained the importance of merchandising grain on the
basis of grade and quality, and discussed commercial facilities
and marketing methods in North Carolina.
Specialists cooperated with the North Carolina Extension
Service in making surveys to determine the need for grain facili-
ties in the areas of Selma, Kinston, Fayetteville and Rose Hill.
These surveys included grain production, grain facilities, esti-
mated operating cost, estimated marketable grain and an estimat-
ed income. As a result of these surveys, one firm is constructing
storage facilities for 100,000 bushels, and plans have been com-
pleted for another with 150,000 bushel capacity. In addition, two
others, which will have a capacity of 500,000 bushels, are in the
Requests from commercial firms for grain inspection and
grading during the harvest period is indicative of the increased
interest among our grain trade in buying and selling on a grade
and quality basis. Four additional full-time inspectors were
placed at elevators during the two-year period. These inspectors
are paid from the Department's Cooperative Account Fund, and
all fees for inspections are paid into this fund.
Inspection of all official moisture meters within the state were
made each year of the biennium and corrections for accuracy
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 61
were made where needed. Specialists also trained personnel to
operate the moisture meters and other grading equipment.
Another primary function of this section is to certify grade
and quality of all grains, soybeans and hay upon request from
commercial grain storage facility operators, feed and oil process-
ing plants, brokers and handlers of hay. This service promotes
the merchandising of grain and hay on a quality basis and as-
sures buyers and sellers of receiving the quality of products
they purchased. In this work during the biennium, specialists
supervised the inspection and grading of 10,371 lots of grain and
made 1,065 condition reports, representing 7,941,351 bushels of
grain. There were 17 hay inspections made representing ap-
proximately 170 tons.
A new program in seed service and marketing is being initiated
by this section. This program is designed to assist seed cleaners,
seed handlers, and distributors in processing and marketing the
highest quality seed possible throughout the state. Special efforts
will be made to encourage proper seed treatment, seed drying and
the production of seed specifically for seed purposes. The fol-
lowing groups assisted in developing this program : N. C. State
College Extension Service and Experiment Station; N. C. Crop
Improvement Association ; Seed Testing Laboratory, N. C. De-
partment of Agriculture; and the N. C. Seedsmen's Association.
Fruits and Vegetables (Grading and Regulatory)
The inspection and certification of fruits, melons, peanuts and
vegetables continued to be a major activity. This service is ren-
dered to producers, shippers and receivers upon request. Grad-
ing is done on the basis of established U. S. Standards as adopted
by the State Board of Agriculture. Buying and selling on the
basis of established uniform standards is a basic part of orderly
Properly trained inspection personnel is essential in the per-
formance of the inspection work. During the 1956-58 biennium,
141 inspectors were trained, 211 experienced inspectors were
given refresher courses and nine key-man personnel conferences
were held by the supervisor. At the peak period, 285 inspectors
Shipping Point Certifications work for the biennium amounted
to: 10,500 carlot equivalents of fruits, vegetables, melons, clean-
ed and shelled peanuts; 305,527 tons of farmers' stock peanuts
delivered to millers and government warehouses by producers,
and 27,458 tons graded out of storages for CCC. Inspections at
62 N. C. Department of Agriculture
auctions amounted to 1,678,718 packages of various vegetables
and berries and 837,955 bushels of sweet potatoes. Receiving
market inspections totaled 883 carlots of various fruits and vege-
tables for wholesale receivers, and 5,946,832 pounds of produce
for delivery to military installations and state and federal insti-
Inspection of string beans for delivery to processors conducted
at Edenton, Pantego and Washington, and sweet pepper inspec-
tion work was performed at the Dunn processing plant.
Regulatory activities were chiefly the enforcement of the Han-
dlers' Act and the Seed Potato Law. Contracts between pro-
ducers and processors were checked and approved or returned for
correction and the financial responsibility clause checked for
compliance. Approximately 322,000 sacks of seed potatoes were
checked for compliance with the Seed Potato Law. These meas-
ures have contributed heavily to the protection of producers in
avoiding unscrupulous dealings.
Fruits and Vegetables (Service)
The greatest needs in fruit and vegetable marketing in North
Carolina at present are: (1) Better packaging; (2) more uni-
form quality; (3) reduced handling costs; (4) reduction of
waste; (5) more effective advertising; (6) assembling quality
produce in quantity to attract larger buyers.
During the past two years, the approach to these problems was
through cooperation with other state and federal agencies, as
well as with grower and shipper organizations and other groups.
Close contact was maintained with state and federal research
projects relating to improved marketing practices in 'fruits and
vegetables, and the results were applied wherever possible.
Among the special projects Division specialists conducted or
cooperated in were :
(1) Continuing to assist peach growers in their advertising
program, and assisting in conducting the peach referendum
whereby growers assess themselves a fee for promoting the peach
(2) Continuing to assist potato growers in promoting and ad-
vertising research and other promotional purposes.
(3) Cooperating with various agencies in planning and pro-
moting the Raleigh Farmers' Market; making surveys of fruit
and vegetable production in a 100-mile radius of Raleigh and aid-
ing in the original market operation. One Division specialist
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 63
was assigned to the market to assist small farmers in improving
their grading and packaging.
(4) Continuing to issue fruit and vegetable bulletins which
listed the products available, harvesting dates and location of the
various products. These bulletins were sent to produce buyers
in 20 states.
The results of these projects were encouraging. Peach, potato
and vegetable growers were aware of the necessity to change to
more modern marketing practices in order to meet competition.
Along this line, many of them installed modern precoolers and
improved grading and packaging equipment.
Other activities during the biennium included :
(1) Participating in 153 conferences on processing crops.
These meetings were attended by 2,567 persons, mainly research
and extension workers, bankers and other farm leaders.
(2) Assisting 65 county agents with various marketing prob-
(3) Participating in 74 group meetings of producers, inte-
grated with research and extension personnel. Attendance at
these meetings totaled 2,325.
(4) Assisting 195 producers in marketing or determining
what crops to produce for market.
(5) Conducting 288 demonstrations on treating" and bedding
sweet potatoes, attended by 1,331 producers.
(6) Assisting regulatory section in making 24 inspections at
terminal and shipping points.
(7) Assisting four firms in securing certified seed and in mar-
keting their processed products or securing contractual acreage.
(8) Assisting 13 fresh market facilities in installation of
equipment and improvement of operations.
(9) Conducting promotional meetings on peaches, water-
melons, potatoes, onions, snap beans, strawberries, and other
(10) Taking 80 color slides for use in promoting proper grad-
ing and packing of vegetables.
(11) Holding 1,767 personal interviews with producers on
varieties, harvesting, grading, packing, assembling, and market-
(12) Assisting 34 vocational agricultural teachers with bet-
ter marketing practices for future young producers of vegetables.
64 N. C. Department of Agriculture
(13) Procuring more than 4,000,000 certified sweet potato
plants for 163 producers.
(14) Assisting in starting a new sweet corn project in Halifax
county and a sweet potato and watermelon project in Bertie
(15) Continued assistance in the onion marketing project in
Robeson County and the pepper project in Harnett County.
(16) Continued to assist Irish potato growers through the
N. C. Potato Association, Inc., in 13 eastern counties.
Livestock is an expanding enterprise in North Carolina and is
becoming more important in the state's agricultural economy
each year. The Division's aim in livestock marketing is to in-
crease marketing efficiency so that the present production pat-
tern can be maintained and our farmers can continue to expand
and be assured of profitable returns from this important enter-
Continuing to work closely with other agricultural agencies,
Division specialists graded and assisted in selling more than
11,500 head of feeder calves in 21 organized sales during the
1956-58 biennium. Five yearling feeder cattle sales were held
in which more than 5,500 head of cattle were sold. Cattle mar-
keted through these sales were sold in uniform lots by grade and
weight, and brought producers an average of $2.00 to $5.00 per
hundred more than local sales averaged for feeder cattle of equal
Combination fat and feeder cattle sales were held in the winter
and spring of each year of the biennium. The approximately
6,000 head of cattle sold in these sales were graded as slaughter
cattle or feeder cattle and sold in groups. In 1958 a special graded
sale for fat and feeder cattle was inaugurated at one auction
where a sale is now being held each month. Special efforts were
exerted by section personnel to secure out-of-state packer and
feeder buyers for these sales. Their support, along with that
from local packers and feeders, contributed much to the success
of both the fat and feeder cattle sales. Division specialists assist-
ed producers in marketing over 4,000 head of fat cattle direct
from farms to packers.
During the biennium, section personnel purchased through
sales and at private treaty over 4,000 feeder cattle for North
Carolina feeders. The purchase of another 4,000 head of North
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 65
Carolina cattle for out-of-state feeders tended to stabilize the
Endeavoring to improve the quality of commercial and pure-
bred cattle in North Carolina, section personnel assisted in con-
ducting 38 purebred cattle sales in which more than 3,000 head
Assistance was given sheep producers in organizing and selling
wool pools in which over 445,000 pounds of wool were sold. Wool
was collected at Washington, Durham, Salisbury, Asheville, New-
land, Boone, West Jefferson and Sparta each year.
More than 23,000 lambs were marketed through 60 lamb pools.
Pool schedules were arranged, lambs graded and buyers secured
for the lambs. In addition 2,892 lambs were graded and sold
through weekly auctions.
A definite increase was shown in purchasing breeding ewes.
A total of 4,435 western yearling ewes were purchased and dis-
tributed to producers during the biennium by use of the revolving
fund. In addition, 750 western ewe lambs were purchased and
grown out for yearling ewes, making a total of over 5,200 addi-
tional ewes. One purebred ram sale was held in which 45 pure-
bred rams were sold. Section specialists purchased 52 additional
rams for farmers.
A new program of live hog grading at hog buying stations and
auction markets was started in September 1957. Sixteen grad-
ing demonstrations were conducted at auction markets before
the grading program was initiated. Six graders were employed
and trained by Division specialists. At present, this grading
service is being conducted at 10 points within the state, and
approximately 50,000 hogs have been graded since the service
was inaugurated. Assistance was also given with planning and
conducting 43 purebred hog sales.
The livestock section also helped in the development of organ-
ized feeder pig sales, and assisted in assembling and moving
feeder pigs from the western part of the state to the eastern
Carolina corn area.
Grading of beef, veal and lamb carcasses at leading plants
over the state has greatly increased. Specialists are now grad-
ing in 14 plants over the state. During the biennium, 32,285
head and approximately 18,063,310 pounds were graded, using
N. C. D. A. grades. Packers using this service increased their
business materially and some of them built new facilities to
expand and improve their operations.
66 N. C. Department of Agriculture
A new service started November 15, 1956, is inspection of all
meats and meat by-products sold to state institutions. It is requir-
ed that these products be inspected before deliveries are made to
ensure that they conform with state specifications. Approxi-
mately 5,983,507 pounds were inspected during the biennium.
Continued assistance was provided in improving livestock
marketing facilities within the state. Many of the packing
plants were assisted in improving their operations and facilities.
The beginning of construction on a packing plant in eastern
North Carolina by one of the nation's major meat packing con-
cerns is evidence of the increased emphasis being placed on live-
stock production in this state. This company has already ex-
pressed confidence in being able to get its entire kill for this plant
(approximately 250,000 hogs and 35,000 to 50,000 cattle an-
nually) within the state. The trend in production since an-
nouncement of the proposed plant indicates that such numbers
will be available.
It was largely through the efforts of Division personnel that
this company was prompted to establish a plant in North Caro-
lina. Many other state agencies and interested groups also as-
sisted in promoting its establishment.
Poultry and Eggs
The Poultry Section of the Division of Markets made a con-
certed effort during the biennium to increase its marketing
services in line with the sharp increases that occurred in the
production of poultry and eggs. During this period, North
Carolina changed from an importer of shell eggs to an exporter.
Along with the increase in shell egg production and consumer
demand for quality eggs came a greater demand for services of
marketing specialists in finding additional market outlets, teach-
ing grading techniques, promoting better care of eggs on the
farm and assisting with other related problems. During the
biennium, some 250 producers were visited to observe and assist
them in their egg handling, grading and packaging methods.
In cooperation with the Extension Service, 20 egg grading
schools were held in which approximately 500 persons were train-
ed to grade shell eggs according to USDA Standards.
Technical assistance was given six firms in setting up shell egg
grading services as well as helping in the procurement, grading,
and care of eggs. Specialists participated in 46 conferences rela-
tive to egg care, procurement, grading and marketing.
Report for 1956-58— Markets 67
Specialists of the poultry section visited 2,315 retail stores and
875 distributors in checking compliance with the North Carolina
Egg Law. Assistance was given to retail stores on displays, re-
frigeration and storage problems, while the distributors were
assisted with packaging, labeling and candling of eggs.
The North Carolina Egg Marketing Act was instrumental in
bringing about the following :
1. Better quality eggs for consumers through close adherence
to carton labeling which truly represents the eggs in the carton.
2. Preventing outside shippers from using North Carolina as
a dumping ground for low quality eggs.
3. Encouraging the production of market eggs and making a
year round supply available in North Carolina, with a surplus
of such quality as to command the attention of outside markets.
Mandatory inspection of poultry moving in interstate com-
merce will become effective January 1, 1959. This has brought
about an increase in the number of requests for assistance in
drawing floor plans for construction of new processing plants
and the remodeling of existing plants. These changes were
necessary in order for the plants to be more efficient in their
operations and meet the qualifications for U.S.D.A. Inspection.
Assistance along this line included :
(1) Drawing floor plans for 34 processing plants;
(2) Accompanying USD A Veterinarians and assisting them
in making surveys for 29 plants desiring inspection ;
(3) Making 236 plant visits to assist them in obtaining more
efficient processing, as well as improving their grading
On July 1, 1958, nine processing plants in North Carolina were
operating under U.S.D.A. Inspection. Four of these were under
Compulsory Inspection and seven had official grading under
Federal-State Supervision. Resident poultry graders graded
116,854,476 pounds of chickens and turkeys during the bien-
nium. A considerable amount of this poultry was sold to the
Official egg grading was inaugurated during the biennium in
four places: Armour & Company, Greensboro; Farmers Ex-
change, Durham; All Star Mills, Inc., Albemarle; and Township
#3 Egg Producers Association, Shleby. The service at Shelby
is unique in that it is believed to be the only official grading
68 N. C. Department of Agriculture
service permitting the producer to candle, size and pack his eggs
on the farm under a limited license with USDA grade designa-
tions. Graders on 20 farms in the area package shell eggs and
deliver them to a central warehouse where the candler's accuracy
is checked by a Federal-State grader. Much interest is being
shown in this project and similar operations are expected to be.
established in other areas.
During 1957, marketing specialist participated in the School
Lunch Egg Program, grading 36,124 cases for the Commodity
Stabilization Service of the USDA. Grading for state and fed-
eral institutions during the biennium consisted of 672,504 pounds
of poultry, 54,522 cases of shell eggs and 41,776 pounds of frozen
The 1957 Southeastern Egg Grading School was attended, and
Division Specialists participated on the program. The 1958
school, which was held at N. C. State College, was the first to be
held in North Carolina. Specialists cooperated with personnel
of State College and the Southeastern Poultry & Egg Association
in making arrangements for the school and in notifying pros-
pective students. Six states were represented at the school.
March Egg Month, a nationwide endeavor by poultrymen to
encourage use of shell eggs, was headed by this section in 1957
and specialists, in cooperation with the Extension Service and
the poultry industry, planned, prepared for and carried out the
plans during March. Approximately 50 meetings, including
area meetings and area breakfasts, were attended and partici-
pated in relative to the planning and promotion of the project.
The main event of the month was the kickoff breakfast, at which
the Governor spoke. Assistance was also given in planning and
promoting March Egg Month in 1958.
The basis of the dairy marketing service program is to assist
individuals and groups with ideas, materials, and other means
of seeing the need for increasing milk consumption and of stress-
ing the necessity of taking action in this direction. Much of the
work is carried on in public schools where the children, all of
whom are potential consumers, are more easily influenced than
when they become adults. The Special Milk and the School
Lunch Programs offer financial assistance to make milk available
at a reasonable cost to children.
Production of Grade A milk in 1957 was 10.3 per cent over
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 69
1956, and the outlook for continued growth is excellent. Steady
increase in fluid milk and cream sales continues, but not at the
same pace with production.
A total of 467 illustrated talks and demonstrations were given
to 59,500 school children and 3,500 adults by the dairy market-
ing specialist during the biennium. The major portion of this
work was done in 186 schools ; but talks to Parent-Teacher Asso-
ciations, civic clubs, professional organizations, teacher groups,
college classes and other groups were also included.
One of the outstanding events of the dairy industry during the
biennium was the dairy exhibition held at the State Fair in 1956.
In cooperation with other branches of the dairy industry, count-
less meetings were held and untold hours of work were spent in
planning and displaying the different phases of dairying in North
Carolina. In addition to numerous exhibits this successful event
featured the first State Dairy Princess contest and a visit from
the American Dairy Princess. Excellent radio, television and
press coverage added to the effectiveness of this promotion.
Each year June Dairy Month observance is a cooperative pro-
motion which increases in importance. The N. C. Dairy Industry
Promotion Executive Committee, of which the dairy specialist
is a member, is responsible for much of the initial planning.
This committee also aids various groups in carrying out actual
work on area and county levels where the real benefit is derived.
The State Dairy Princess contest has become a vital part of
Dairy Month promotion. One of the requirements of a contest-
ant is that she be a consumer of dairy products. Approximately
1,000 young ladies, potential homemakers, participated in the
Cooperation w T as extended to professional organizations such
as the N. C. Public Health Association and the N. C. Home Eco-
nomics Association, the N. C. Congress of Parents and Teachers,
the 4-H Dairy Demonstration participants, the School Lunch
Staff, the State College Extension Service, and many others in
an effort to increase milk consumption. Though much of the
work is done individually, there are many times when more
effective results can be realized by pooling resources with other
groups who are interested in public welfare. Consumption of
dairy products in adequate amounts is tremendously important
to the welfare of the public and the dairy farmer.
Promotion and other programs are proving effective as indi-
cated by the increased consumption of milk by children to 120,-
201,412 half pints in 1957-58 as compared with 71,555,547 half
70 N. C. Department of Agriculture
pints in 1953-54. Over-all sales of fluid milk and cream have
also shown a steady increase. Figures for 1957 show an increase
of 5.3 per cent over 1956.
In response to requests, assistance was given to farmers in
organizing 31 new cooperatives. These organizations were plan-
ned with the idea of helping farmers with their marketing, pur-
chasing and service work. In addition, six educational or pro-
motional associations were aided in their organization.
Assistance to these associations included determining their
need and probabilities for success, explaining state and federal
laws and preparing charters, by-laws, marketing agreements
and membership certificates. Management, practices, financing
and record keeping were also explained. Most of these associa-
tions were small and sprang up where a definite marketing need
The largest group to seek organizations were the fruit and
vegetable farmers. These varied from the apple growers in the
west to the fresh vegetable growers in the east. Most associa-
tions had considerable difficulty in disposing of their products
in such a way that their members could operate and show a
The next large group to seek help was the dairy people. Much
interest was shown in improving their dairy testing program in
order to operate efficiently, and they grouped together in small
associations so that this service could be rendered at a reason-
able charge on a cost basis.
Considerable assistance was given the well established coop-
erative and mutual associations in improving or revising their
charters and by-laws to meet the changes in new federal and state
revenue regulations. Several associations were assisted in add-
ing new equipment and in expanding their operations to take
care of increased production of their members, and to better
market their products by giving their customers more and better
The cooperative and mutual associations are required by state
law to file an annual operating and financial report with the
Division. This section analyzes these reports and gives con-
structive suggestions if improvements are needed.
The North Carolina law requires agricultural fairs to meet
certain minimum standards and it is necessary to make inspec-
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 71
tions of the fairs each year. This work was carried out, with the
help of other employees of the Department, to improve the fairs
and encourage more farm participation.
The Transportation Section services other sections of the Di-
vision of Markets. It also works directly with the Commissioner,
Assistant Commissioner, farm groups and farm organizations,
on state or national legislative matters dealing with transporta-
tion directly affecting agriculture.
Typical of service to other sections of the Division of Markets,
is the auditing of freight bills covering livestock purchased and
distributed, the filing of claims, procurement of operating rights
from the N. C. Public Utilities Commission for agricultural truck
haulers, participation in rate increase cases before the North
Carolina Public Utilities Commission or the Interstate Commerce
Commission, furnishing rate quotations where needed, and pro-
viding consultation service on any transportation matter which
Unfortunately, major changes in transportation policies are
usually long and drawn out, involving quasi-legal if not legisla-
tive consideration. Rate cases before the regulatory bodies fre-
quently run for years. In the 1954-1956 report, reference was
made to the filing of a grain complaint by the southeastern states
through the Southern Governors Conference, instigated largely
by North Carolina. The final hearing in this case was held in
Palm Beach, Fla. in the late Spring of 1958, no decision yet hav-
ing been rendered by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
However, in August 1957, the railroads, because of this com-
plaint, voluntarily reduced the rates on grain within the south
and to and from the south, approximately 20 per cent. The rail-
roads further agreed to reduce the rates on flour and grain
products to a differential of 115 per cent of the reduced grain
rates. The N. C. Public Utilities Commission directed the han-
dling of this case and deserves commendation for its outstanding
In 1957, the railroads voluntarily restored the transit privileges
on grain which they had previously taken away in 1955, threat-
ening many of North Carolina's small mills with extinction.
This "voluntary" restoration occurred only after numerous hear-
ings and meetings.
Certain rail rate cases involving general increases, originally
72 N. C. Department of Agriculture
authorized in 1953 and appealed to the courts by the Department
of Agriculture through the Attorney General's Office, are still
before the North Carolina courts. Many thousands of dollars in
possible refunds are involved and the railroads have extended
the time of recognition of claims to six years.
Negotiations have been conducted, and are being continued,
to bring about direct air cargo service to North Carolina, particu-
larly to serve growers of gladiolas, chrysanthemums, orchids and
other horticultural products. The cargo space available on
presently operating commercial air lines is not sufficient, at least
during peak seasons of movement.
In 1956, the Interstate Commerce Commission authorized ac-
quisition by the Southern Railway System of the A & E C Rail-
road from Goldsboro to Morehead City, N. C. This established
the first single line operation from the Atlantic Coast of North
Carolina to the Mississippi River. It has occasioned reduction
in rates to all points on this stretch of railroad, eliminating
former so-called "short line" arbitraries. Certain reductions
have been proposed on export traffic to Morehead City, but final
action has not been completed because of competitive opposition
by the Port of Wilmington. The Department of Agriculture has
assisted in procuring additional export grain facilities at More-
Inasmuch as national transportation policies cannot be influ-
enced or changed by a single state, North Carolina has led in
trying to organize various State Departments of Agriculture to
coordinate efforts for the protection of present agricultural trans-
portation interests or to act in unison in procuring such changes
as may be determined to be of mutual interest.
The Commissioner of Agriculture of North Carolina is Chair-
man of the Transportation Committee of the National Associa-
tion of State Departments of Agriculture. Under the direction
of that organization, a Southern States Transportation Commit-
tee of Departments of Agriculture was formed in early 1958.
The states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, North Caro-
lina, Louisiana, Texas and Kentucky, now form the committee,
with the expectation that South Carolina and Mississippi will
add their support within a few months. For the first year, North
Carolina has been designated as chairman of the southern states
This committee has actively participated in pending legislation
to be enacted by the present Congress. Correspondence and di-
rect contacts have been maintained with members of the House
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 73
and Senate Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committees, as
well as with other members of Congress. This committee en-
dorsed the repeal of the federal excise tax of three per cent on
freight, effective August 1, 1958.
The committee, of which North Carolina is chairman, has also
actively participated in the pending legislation affecting railroad
rate making, the freezing of agricultural exemptions, and the
proposed establishment of a Congressional study group to review
national transportation policy. Indications are that the legisla-
tion to be adopted will not hurt agriculture, even though no
specific benefits will be derived.
The Department of Agriculture is interested and will partici-
pate in N.C.P.U.C. Docket No. T-825-Sub. 20, an investigation
ordered on January 22, 1958, on the motion of the N.C.P.U.C,
into the intrastate common motor carrier rates. The case is now
set for hearing in September 1958, but will probably take several
years to complete. A study is being made by the Department of
Agriculture Transportation Section to show that the farmer or
resident in rural areas has to pay much heavier freight charges
than the shipper or receiver in the larger communities served
by regular rate carriers. The irregular route carriers are not
pemitted to exchange freight or have combination rates. It is
possible that legislation may be required to correct this situation.
The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, where possi-
ble, cooperates with the North Carolina Shippers League and
holds a directorship on the Board of Governors of that organ-
Continued expansion in the production of certain agricultural
commodities during the 1956-58 biennium required several ma-
jor changes in procedures for reporting the market on these
To more adequately meet the public's need for market informa-
tion, the Division's market news service was forced to greatly
expand its coverage on poultry and egg markets and to com-
pletely reorganize its service on the markets for grain. These
changes were made at practically no additional expense to the
state, due to the cooperative agreement with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, and they resulted in a vastly improved service
on the commodities involved.
One of the most significant changes was the consolidation of
the three-area market report on commercial broilers into a state-
74 N. C. Department of Agriculture
wide report. Instituted with this change was a new technique
known as "volume-price" reporting. This not only lessened the
chance of error in reporting the market, but also made possible
a more realistic report to producers and tradespeople. The in-
dustry strongly encouraged this change and has actively sup-
ported it through cooperative participation.
Prior to August, 1957, egg prices had been reported on the
Raleigh, Durham, and Charlotte markets based on ungraded
eggs bought on a graded out basis. As more and more eggs were
being sold on these markets on a clean, sized, minimum quality
basis, our market reports became rather meaningless in that they
reflected prices paid for only a small percent of the eggs bought
and sold at these points. Therefore, with general approval of
the industry and with excellent cooperation on the part of buy-
ers and distributors of eggs, the basis for reporting eggs at these
points was changed to : 'Trices paid by distributors for clean,
sized, minimum 80 per cent A quality."
This change in reporting the egg markets aided producers in
getting a higher price for their eggs and encouraged many of
them to do a better job of marketing. Industry support of this
change has been highly gratifying.
The continuing increase in egg production and the rapidly
changing pattern of marketing has created the need for expand-
ed coverage of egg markets throughout the state. No satisfactory
approach can be taken to this problem, however, until marketing
practices develop into a more uniform pattern.
Budget limitations, plus some rather major changes in the
marketing of grain within the state, increased the necessity for
changing the procedure on reporting the market for grain during
Prior to the fall of 1957, the report on grain markets had been
a heterogeneous one, in that it contained prices paid to producers
only at some points and prices paid to dealers and handlers at
others, without these bases being clearly identified. The lack of
comparability in prices at the various points, along with the
limited knowledge of producers in marketing en a grade basis,
made it even more imperative that this service be revised in order
to keep producers and tradespeople properly informed. As a
result, the major buyers in eastern and piedmont North Carolina
were contacted and their cooperation obtained in providing daily
prices paid for grain on a grade basis delivered to elevators.
One other important change made during the biennium involv-
ed changing publication of the mimeographed market report on
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 75
poultry and eggs from a daily basis to a semi-weekly basis. This
resulted in a postage savings of approximately $7,000 annually
and a large portion of this money, all of which was paid by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, was allotted to the market
news service for telephone and travel costs in connection with
poultry and eggs. This permitted an expanded coverage on both
poultry and egg markets.
A new and popular service, started early in the biennium, was
a comprehensive report on the Charlotte cotton market. Here-
tofore, North Carolina farmers had to rely on the average price
reported for the nation's 14 leading markets based on middling
15/16-inch grade. As a result of cooperative efforts of Division
personnel and representatives of the Cotton Branch, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, daily price quotations are now being
released for four grades and three staple lengths on the Char-
Additional efforts were made and assistance given to encourage
radio and television stations throughout the state to increase the
amount of market price information in their daily programs.
More complete information is now being made available to them
over the facilities of the two major wire services in the state.
Prices on the following commodities were released during the
biennium : Tobacco, cotton, peanuts, corn, wheat, oats, soybeans,
milo, livestock, poultry and eggs.
In providing daily market price information as accurately
and efficiently as possible, the market news service continued to
maintain two permanent offices. Information for the eastern
and piedmont counties was compiled and edited in Raleigh, and
for the western counties in Asheville.
Special services on daily shipping point prices were made
available to potato producers during harvest season through a
temporary office located at Washington.
The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, under a co-
operative agreement with the United States Department of
Agriculture, acts as the distributing agency in North Carolina
for all food commodities donated by the Federal Government.
The Markets Division is designated as the agency to handle this
ever-growing phase of the Department's services. Commodities
are acquired by authority granted the United States Department
of Agriculture under the following legislation :
76 N. C. Department of Agriculture
1. SECTION 6 of the National School Lunch Act, which pro-
vides for the purchase of foods for schools participating in
the National School Lunch Program.
2. SECTION 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, as amended
and related legislation. This Act provides for funds to be
used in the surplus removal and price support program.
3. SECTION 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949. This Act
also provides funds for the surplus removal and price
Food purchased under Sections 32 and 416 are available to all
nonprofit school lunch rooms as well as approved non-penal
charitable institutions, summer camps for children, welfare agen-
cies, and disaster relief organizations. Section 6 commodities are
available only to schools participating in the National School
The primary objectives of the Commodity Distribution Pro-
gram are :
1. To aid in the United States Department of Agriculture's
surplus removal and price support programs by providing outlets
for agricultural commodities purchased.
2. To create a larger demand for these commodities by train-
ing school children to eat foods unfamiliar to them.
3. To provide a means of getting commodities to recipient
agencies in order that they may furnish more adequate meals
and thereby raise the health level of the people of this country.
During the 1956-58 biennium, all (174) city and county school
units participated in the commodity distribution program. In
addition to the public schools, the program benefited many pri-
vate schools, child care centers, summer camps for children, and
charitable institutions as well as the Camp Lejeune and Fort
Bragg Schools. In the second year of the biennium, the number
of school children participating climbed to well over 500,000,
representing 1,900 schools. Benefits were also extended to ap-
proximately 25,000 persons in 138 institutions. Participants in
the commodity distribution program, including summer camps,
child care centers, and welfare, numbered considerably over
600,000 people during the biennium.
In the fiscal year 1957-58 the Department's program to make
surplus foods available to needy persons in family units was
extended to approximately 10,000 persons in five eastern coun-
Report for 1956-58 — Markets 77
ties. Food with a wholesale value in excess of $120,000 was dis-
tributed to this outlet.
This program is one which directly benefits the majority of the
people of this state, either through the utilization of available
commodities or through the price support and surplus removal
Shipments of commodities during the biennium amounted to
1,136 carloads, or 41,061,540 pounds. The greater part of these
foods was distributed to schools, with other eligible outlets
accounting for lesser amounts. The wholesale value of foods
distributed to all recipients was in excess of $12,500,000.
Below are tables showing the kinds and quantities of commod-
ities received during each year of the biennium :
SECTION 6 COMMODITIES
1 956-57 1957-58
Commodity Pounds Pounds
Beans, Canned Green 796,784 458,584
Cherries, Canned 437,720
Corn, Canned 264,360
Grapefruit Sections _ 693,825
Hamburger, Frozen 864,150
Orange Juice, Cone. 344,504
Peaches, Canned _ 893,160 1,230,533
Peanut Butter 283,865
Peas, Canned Green 521,960
Plums, Canned . 354,510 — —
Tomatoes, Canned 1,102,292 845,690
Tomato Paste 234,324
TOTALS 4,967,624 4,358,637
N. C. Department of Agriculture
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Harry T. Davis
For the State Museum, the 1954-56 biennium was characterized
by the detailed work of getting settled in new quarters — un-
packing from storage and arranging presentable exhibits in
proper sequence. This 1956-1958 biennium has been a period
of improvement of exhibits as our resources would allow.
With increased interest in the sciences, the public has request-
ed and received much more service from our very limited staff.
The result is that we have served better; but the exhibits pro-
gram will not be up to a high standard until we can restore ex-
hibits that were dismantled and build new exhibits to present
the flora, fauna and natural resources of North Carolina. The
obvious remedy for this difficulty is a modest addition to our
technical staff. This has been included in budget requests.
These are the foundations of Museum exhibits. Some of them
come from interested citizens who wish to make a contribution,
or who want identification and explanation of an object's signi-
ficance. Other needs are met by purchase or field collecting
by the staff.
Each accession is recorded as a unit, though it may include
as many as 100 specimens in a lot. Following is a listing of the
number of accessions for the biennium, with notes on some of the
Rocks and Minerals, 60. Notable is a production panel do-
nated by the Lithium Corporation of America, Bessemer City,
North Carolina. Individual minerals were presented by Presi-
dent Fred Allen and other members of the Southern Appalachian
Mineral Society. The newly discovered phosphate mineral de-
posit, deep under Beaufort County, is shown as a sample.
Fossils, 21. Of most interest in these are a series of horse
teeth, some a million years old, that were taken from the banks
of lower Neuse River and presented by George Baxter of New
Bern, North Carolina.
80 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Plant Life, 12. Added to our tree collection was a cross-
section of a sassafras tree presented by Mrs. Carl Lee of Four
Oaks. The annual rings show large size and very fast growth
as compared to normal specimens.
Invertebrate Animals, 52. Of these 37 belong to the insect
group and 15 belong to the marine forms. Of the latter Clarke
Gaskill, of Morehead City, made valuable contributions to sea
Fishes, 16. We need to secure some of the large groupers
and snappers now being taken off our coast.
Amphibians and Reptiles, 179. The severe cold weather of
early 1958 depleted our popular exhibits of live poisonous snakes.
Bill Palmer and George Tregembo, Tote-Em-In-Zoo, Wilmington
have been helpful in making the necessary replacements.
Birds, 71. New for the Museum were eggs and a nest of the
Florida Gallinule, from Lake Ellis, contributed by Matt Thomp-
son of Chapel Hill. John Gatling brought in a Yellow Rail from
Raleigh, and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service donated a Hut-
chins Goose from Lake Mattamuskeet. Through Mrs. Doris C.
Hauser of Fayetteville, the Museum received a Spotted Towhee
which is a new bird for North Carolina. Mr. James L. Stevens,
of Lumberton, secured for the Museum the heads and necks of
two Sandhill Cranes. These are the first tangible records of
the occurrence of this bird in North Carolina. Unfortunately
the birds had been plucked and the opportunity to mount them
for exhibit was lost.
Hundreds of migrating birds are killed at night under certain
weather conditions at the T. V. towers near Raleigh. Although
this slaughter is deplored, through the efforts of William Craven
and others the Museum has greatly augmented the research col-
lection of bird skins.
Mammals, Jf-3. Some of the smaller species were mounted to
fill in the gaps in our exhibits series while others were made into
scientific study skins.
Indian Artifacts, 27. These prehistoric articles supplement
the exhibits on the American Indian.
Agriculture, 12. Mrs. J. R. Rogers, of Raleigh, gave to the
Museum an excellent side saddle and pair of "spectacles" of the
1800's. M. A. York, Raleigh, presented a set of old balances,
Report for 1956-58 — Museum 81
used by "the country Doctor". Specimens of primitive tobacco
were added for the collection that is kept current on grades,
Library, 68. These volumes come from gifts and exchanges,
except for minor purchases. Scores of useful pamphlets have
come as exchanges.
Miscellaneous Accessions. This includes the crayon holder
used by John James Audubon while drawing pictures of birds in
the Carolinas. This was presented by Mrs. Nancy P. Leak of
Rockingham. Film strips were purchased for visual aid loans.
Rev. Scott Turner, Buies Creek, donated a series of 33 koda-
chromes of sea shells. The N. C. Academy of Sciences presented
a series of 30 kodachromes on Science Fairs.
Eleven modern cases were purchased for mineral, rock and
The major effort has been to improve and add to exhibits that
are already placed.
In March, 1957, a special exhibit on atomic energy was shown
for 10 days. This came from the Museum of Atomic Energy,
Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Another special exhibit is the five panels showing the original
20 pieces of art work used for the covers of the magazine "Wild-
life in North Carolina".
Science Fair Exhibits have been shown as follows :
"Osteology", Charles P. Edgerton, Durham, N. C.
"Evolution", John R. Sherrill, Acme, N. C.
"Water Pollution", Clarence Styron, Jr., Morehead City,
"Atoms", John Crow, Jr., North Wilkesboro, N. C.
"Moth Life Histories", Betty Lou Wallace, Mountain Park,
"North Carolina Snakes", Susan Powell, Apex, N. C.
The major exhibit addition of the biennium was the shaping
and refmishing of sections of large trees that were collected by
Messrs. Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe during the 1890's. These
are prized because trees of this size are not likely ever to be
available again. The collectors were associated with the organ-
82 N. C. Department of Agriculture
ization of the first forestry school in this country, at Biltmore,
N. C, in 1898. They later came to be nationally prominent in
forestry and conservation. The original reason for assembling
the collection was for exhibiting North Carolina resources at
international expositions such as the Columbian at Chicago in
1893, Paris in 1900, and Saint Louis in 1904.
Special structures were built to carry the heavy sections.
Cases are arranged to carry foliage, fruits, and special use items
for each tree.
Another development to compliment the organization of the
North Carolina Shell Club has been the extensive second floor
exhibit of mollusks. To the layman this largely means sea shells.
There are also land forms and models of the animals that make
It is proper to say that the educational value of a museum can
be measured by the interest of visitors, the character and extent
of the exhibits, the time the visitors spend viewing and studying
the exhibits, and the total number of visitors for any given
The natural history and natural resources of North Carolina
are subjects that grip the interest of our citizens because they
constitute the world we live in. The 24,000 square feet of exhibit
space is of "State Museum" proportions. North Carolina is so
situated as to be rich in plant life, animal life and other resources.
By six month periods the counted attendance was as follows :
July-Dec, 1956 Jan.-June, 1957 July-Dec, 1957 Jan.-June, 1958
76,269 116,822 75,821 117,737
This is a total of 193,091 for the first year of the biennium
and 193,558 for the second year, making a total for the two
years of 386,649.
Report for 1956-58 — Museum
Monthly attendance figures are shown below for July, 1957,
to July, 1958 :
Feb. Mar Apr. May June,
This points to an obvious problem in that the normally ample
floor space is crowded during the spring months of April and
May. On April 25, 1958, we had the largest attendance, 6,015 in
the eight hours. During April nearly 40,000 visitors came,
mostly on the days Tuesday through Friday.
The daily attendance is augmented by groups, ranging from
seven to 600 in numbers. The greatest number of groups are
from our schools in the spring season, as shown below:
July-December, 1956 11
January-June, 1957 18
July-December, 1957 12
January-June, 1958 ..21
The 1957 figures reflect the larger number of school groups
that come while the Legislature is in regular session. The larg-
est group was 600 4-H boys and girls during their meeting in
Raleigh. Groups come from all parts of the state, as far as 350
miles. School groups were in from Bennettsville, S. C. and Hali-
fax County, Virginia. We had the usual visiting overseas groups
that were in this vicinity.
The attendance records show that there is a problem of con-
gestion in certain months. The entire Museum staff has to drop
84 N. C. Department of Agriculture
other work to handle the traffic and provide what guide service
they can. The schools are faced with the problems of weather
conditions, available transportation, and the place of the visit in
their teaching program. Obviously, however, more could be
gained from Museum visits if more groups could come during
the months other than April and May.
In the odd years the Legislature is an added reason for school
visits. The severe weather in February and March of 1958
caused an even greater concentration of visits in April and May.
One improvement now in operation is a printed leaflet outlin-
ing the exhibits to be found in the Museum. If teachers and
others will mail a card or note in advance, saying when they plan
a visit, how many and what grade and other interests, we will
mail copies of this leaflet and other material. In this way they
can correlate the three dimensional exhibits with the school work,
and do this in advance as well as in a follow-up. The State De-
partment of Education recommends this procedure.
This leaflet states that guide service is available if arranged
for in advance. Such requests for guides have quadrupled in
the past biennium. Since we have no provision for regular guides
the duty falls on one of the three technical personnel here. On
the other hand the exhibits are arranged and labeled so as to
be understandable without a guide, and some of the groups pre-
fer seeing them this way so that they can give their chosen time
to different subjects.
Continuing the policy of placing exhibit and other material
where it will be of most value, gifts have been made as follows :
The bequests from Dr. Thomas M. Copple, Greensboro, and
Miss Ruby Reid, Wake Forest, as noted -in the 1952-54 Report,
have been given to the Department of Archives and History.
The Old Lafayette carriage (1825) was turned over to the
Department of Archives and History.
Fifteen thousand of our Information Circulars were given to
the Morehead Planetarium in Chapel Hill.
Twenty volumes of the Elisha Mitchell Journal were given to
the Library of Atlantic Christian College in Wilson.
Mounted animals and other objects were given to the States-
ville Museum of Arts and Sciences, The Greensboro Junior Mu-
seum, and the Durham Children's Museum.
Report for 1956-58 — Museum 85
Mounted animals and skins were loaned to the State College
Library, Duke University (for special teaching), and to the
Wildlife Resources Commission (for T. V. and other educational
Thirty preserved snakes were loaned for biology work at the
Needham Broughton High School. Research loans were made to
the Philadelphia Zoo and to the Zoology Department at State
College. A moth exhibit was provided for a meeting of the
American Entomological Society, and the scale model of the
State Fair Arena was loaned for architectural exhipit in Europe.
Visual aids in the form of kodachrome lantern slides and film
strips, relating to the Museum exhibits, have been actively used
by 102 school and other groups, with an estimated 10,500 viewers.
Through the Museum, individuals that are interested in mol-
lusks (sea shells) were brought together and the Museum was
host for the organization of the North Carolina Shell Club on
March 9, 1947.
The Southern Appalachian Mineral Society met at the Museum
on November 10, 1956. The Carolina Bird Club had its annual
meeting here in May, 1957.
The Museum has been opened at night on two occasions for
the trainee game protectors of the Wildlife Commission and one
night for the YMW Club of Chatham County.
The Director has worked with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service on banding colonial nesting birds and on "Operation
Recovery" of birds moving south in Autumn.
Research assistance has been given a number of state agencies.
With the help of Dr. D. L. Wray the necessary revisions were
made for the new volume "Birds of North Carolina". This was
completed in November, 1957. An extended printer's strike has
held up the finishing of this book for at least six months. This
strike likewise has delayed the printing of a revised booklet on
"The Poisonous Snakes of the Eastern United States".
Our series of 31 Information Circulars (multilith) has been
added to, and some 340,000 have been distributed to schools and
other groups during the biennium.
86 N. C. Department of Agriculture
Miss Mary Knight, the veteran secretary of the Department
of Agriculture and this Division, was retired and Mrs. Julia L.
Nowell became the Museum secretary in 1956.
On December 31, 1957, Mrs. Claire S. Johnson retired after
10 years as receptionist and was succeeded by Mrs. Sara D.
Prince. On July 1, 1957, Owen Woods retired after 2OV2 years
as janitor-messenger (general housekeeper) and was succeeded
by Ernest Jones.
The present budget of the Museum does not provide for ex-
hibits that would do the most credit to the natural history and
natural resources of this state. Also the large number of visitors,
especially the school groups, should have better educational ex-
hibits for their studies. The cost of Museum operations per
visitor is now about 16 cents. This is quite low for museums of
this class. The addition of 2^2 cents per visitor would provide
another trained worker and thus make possible better exhibits.
This additional worker has been asked for in budget requests.
Blackburn W. Johnson*
While the Publications Division performs a variety of serv-
ices, its work generally falls into the following major cate-
(1) The first responsibility of this Division is to keep the
public informed of the activities of the North Carolina Depart-
ment of Agriculture, and of the laws and regulations adminis-
tered by the Department.
(2) The second category can be most simply expressed by
saying that the Division acts as a clearing-house of information
for the Department. This aspect of its work has a dual pur-
pose in that it serves as an information center for the 17 divi-
sions of the Department, as well as for the general public.
(3) This Division is responsible for the editing, lay-out and
printing arrangements for all printed publications of the De-
(4) The Publications Division provides secretarial service
for the State Board of Agriculture.
In discharging its first responsibility, the Division prepares
press releases for newspapers, wire services and radio stations
on news-worthy developments in the Department, as well as
special articles for farm papers and magazines. It also pub-
lishes a semi-monthly paper, Agricultural Review, which is an
effective means of carrying departmental and other agricultural
news directly to farmers and agricultural leaders in the state.
The 48 issues of the Agricultural Review published during
the 1956-1958 biennium consisted of 40 four-page issues and
eight eight-page issues, a total of 224 pages. Six of the eight-
page issues were printed in the last year of the biennium,
when an increase in the printing appropriation for this paper
became effective. Traditionally, this paper alternated regularly
between four-page and eight-page issues. But as printing costs
increased, without comparable increase in appropriations, it
had been necessary for the past four years to cut the number
of eight-page issues to four or five per year. This seriously cur-
*The death of Blackburn W. Johnson occurred on July 3, 195S. following an illness of several
months. This report has beep prepared by the staff of the Publications Division.
88 N. C. Department of Agriculture
tailed the valuable service which the Review is capable of ren-
dering through its news columns and free advertising service
for farmers. It is, therefore, most gratifying that current
appropriations permit some expansion.
Funds available do not, however, permit expansion of the
mailing list to any great extent. Names are added to the
Review mailing list only on request and for some years the
number of subscribers has averaged between 72,000 and 73,000.
At least 100,000 to 150,000 North Carolina farmers should be
receiving this paper. This could be achieved by only a little
effort to bring the Review to the attention of those younger
farmers or newcomers who do not know about it. But we have
not been, and are not now, in a position to put on any kind of
drive to increase circulation because current appropriations are
not sufficient to take care of any sizeable increase in the mailing
In its second category of activities, the Division performs
non-recurring services too numerous to list individually. Of a
continuing nature, however, is the handling of thousands of
requests for information which come to the Department by
letter, telephone and personal visits. A part of this aspect of
the work is conducting tours or "classes" for groups who
visit the Department to learn about its organization and func-
tions. During this biennium, visiting groups have included
college classes, farmers, vocational-agriculture students, and
foreign agricultural officials. The foreign groups have ranged
in number from one or two of a single nationality, to groups of
15 or 20 from as many different countries. Arranging pro-
grams and tours for these groups is often very time-consuming,
but the results are rewarding to the Department as well as
In its capacity as a clearing house, the Division is also called
upon to prepare or correlate various special reports dealing
with some or all phases of the Department's work. Some of
these are requested by federal or other North Carolina agencies,
and some by non-government groups or individuals both within
and without the state. An example of the latter are several
which the Division prepared during this biennium for presenta-
tion to congressional delegations or congressional committee
hearings. Others were prepared for agricultural departments
of other states or associations of state departments of agri-
Publications handled in this Division include four annual
Report for 1956-58 — Publications 89
issues of The Bulletin — a series of reports on the results of in-
spection and analytical work in administering the feed, ferti-
lizer and insecticide laws ; and one market bulletin dealing with
tobacco. The eight issues of The Bulletin printed during this
biennium totaled 885 pages.
Secretarial service to the Board of Agriculture involves more
than the keeping of minutes. It also includes the advertising
and recording of public hearings; and the writing, codification,
printing and filing of regulations and amendments as required
by law. The Division maintains a master set of all regulations,
and is responsible for revising and reprinting the various chap-
ters from time to time. A correlary responsibility is the print-
ing of laws administered by the Department, after checking
them with the statute books to embody amendments enacted
from time to time by the General Assembly.
During the 1956-1958 biennium, printed amendments and re-
vised chapters of the Department's regulations totaled 123
pages; and four laws, totaling 30 pages, were reprinted.
DIVISION OF RESEARCH STATIONS
Cecil D. Thomas
This Division is responsible for the operation of sixteen re-
search stations located in various types of farming areas of the
state on which field experiments and tests are conducted by the
Experiment Station staff of N. C. State College. These stations
provide very important field facilities for the experimental pro-
gram to go along with laboratory and greenhouse phases of the
research at State College. Nine of the stations are budgeted by
the Department of Agriculture and seven by the Experiment
Station. Because of the arrangement regarding stations, this
report will deal only with those in the Department of Agriculture.
Supervision of the stations involves all aspects of farm busi-
ness management and the management of experimental field
plots and other research projects as well. Budget management
and personnel management also play a vital role in the operation
of research stations. Construction of buildings and other facili-
ties and the maintenance of these facilities require technical
assistance and entail much planning and attention. Also the
selection and maintenance of machinery and equipment for con-
ducting the program in a mechanized age are of great importance
and are given much attention by the Research Stations office and
by the superintendents. Numerous other phases of the opera-
tional program including land management, soil treatments, weed
control, and the coordination of all supporting elements for the
research program are included in the functions of this Division.
A number of departments and agencies participate in the pro-
gram on the research stations. The United States Department of
Agriculture takes part largely through the Experiment Station
at State College in the form of research personnel, supplies, ma-
terials, and equipment of a technical nature. There are several
stations, however, where USDA participation is direct. This is
the case at the Oxford Tobacco Research Station on tobacco ; the
Coastal Plain Research Station on the dairy program; the Bor-
der Belt Tobacco Research Station on striga (witch weed) re-
search ; and the Mountain and Upper Mountain Research Stations
on Burley tobacco. The Tennessee Valley Authority cooperates
in certain projects such as special ground water studies at the
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 91
Mountain Research Station. Many other agencies cooperate in
the program in varying degrees both directly and indirectly.
As an integral part of the research program for North Caro-
lina, the outlying stations are playing a vital role. Field experi-
ments coordinated with laboratory research have resulted in
many new developments. Among the outstanding developments
are new crop varieties including tobaccos with disease resistance,
improved corn hybrids, higher yielding small grains, and better
varieties of other field crops, fruits, and vegetable crops. Plant
breeders are continuing their efforts to obtain better varieties
and receiving unusual attention now are tobaccos having multiple
disease resistance, crops having resistance to nematodes, and
varieties of forage plants better adapted to the southeast. Im-
proved lines of hogs, chickens, and sheep and more efficient pro-
ducing dairy cattle and beef cattle are resulting from the research
efforts. Outstanding progress is being made on tobacco harvest-
ing equipment, bulk tobacco curing, peanut harvesters, and crops
drying. Also there is notable progress in weed control, nematode
control, and insect and disease control work.
BORDER BELT TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION—
WHITEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA
Wallace J. Dickens, Supeiintendent
Prior to 1957 the Border Belt Tobacco Research Station was
operated on leased land. As time advanced, however, it became
apparent that a permanent station was greatly needed in the
Border Belt area. In 1954 it was decided by the Department of
Agriculture and the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment
Station that steps should be taken to fill this need. Funds were
appropriated by the 1955 General Assembly for purchasing suit-
able land and very soon thereafter a committee was appointed
by the Commissioner of Agriculture to select a new site. After
an investigation of many possibilities, the committee recom-
mended the purchase of a 103-acre farm in Columbus County.
This farm was acquired during the year 1956 and possession of
the property was obtained on January 1, 1957.
The station is located lV-> miles northwest of Whiteville near
Evergreen. Elevation of the station is 95 feet above sea level.
Average temperature during 1957 was 62 degrees and total rain-
fall for the year was 43.5 inches. Soil types are largely Norfolk,
Ruston, Goldsboro, and Marlboro fine sandy loams with small
92 N. C. Department of Agriculture
areas of Dunbar, Duplin, Lynchburg, and others. There are
other minor soil types in small areas giving a total of 17 different
soils on the farm.
During the first six months of 1957, a foreman's dwelling was
constructed and a well was drilled to provide water for the sta-
tion. On July 1, 1957, funds were available for a continuation of
the building program and very shortly thereafter, a plastic
greenhouse with a masonry block headhouse was constructed for
use in connection with Striga (witchweed) research. Following
this, a masonry-block office and utility building was erected and
was in use on February 15, 1958. In rapid succession a tobacco
packhouse with ordering and grading rooms was built and a five-
compartment tobacco curing barn was erected. In addition to
the new structures, one standard tobacco curing barn was moved
from a field to the planned building area. Also, an old tobacco
packhouse was moved to the new building area for use as a gen-
eral storage facility.
Considerable land development and improvement were accom-
plished, including cleaning up and pushing back field boundaries
with a bulldozer ; the clearing of three acres of land for building
sites; and the reshaping and laying out of the fields and roads.
About 2,500 feet of old ditches were filled and 3,000 feet of
drain tile were installed. Also, a pond was dug to supply water
for tobacco plant beds.
Research on the station naturally deals primarily with tobacco.
There are about 50 acres of usable plot land and this acreage is
sufficient for a satisfactory rotation of experimental plots. Re-
search deals with all aspects of tobacco production including the
testing of disease resistant varieties for yield and quality, brown
spot and mosaic studies, official variety tests, studies of fertilizer
and arsenic absorption, breeding work, and tobacco insect and
disease control studies.
An allied program of research with the Striga weed problem
is headquartered at the station and some of the research is con-
ducted in the greenhouse. United States Department of Agri-
culture personnel are conducting this project and seven acres of
land are rented from a farmer in the area for experimental plots.
At present the farm foreman is the only worker living on the
station. All of the work is done by the foreman supplemented
by temporary help during the planting and harvesting seasons.
Facilities needed for further development of the station in-
clude a laborer's dwelling and a machinery storage building with
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 93
a shop and storage space for fertilizer and insecticides. Also
there is a need for an additional pond or for wells to provide
water for irrigation.
MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION
WAYNESVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA
M. R. Whisenhunt, Superintendent
The Mountain Research Station, established in 1944, is located
two miles southeast of Waynesville in Haywood County. This
station consists of 354 acres of land with principal soil types as
follows : Hiwassee, Halewood, Hayesville, Clifton, and Masada
clay loams. Annual rainfall averages 45 inches, and the average
elevation is 2,800 feet above sea level. Total land area in the
station is used as follows : 132 acres are in permanent pasture ;
there are 98 acres of cropland ; and 80 acres are in woodland. A
total of 45 acres is devoted to field plots and other research
There are nine dwellings on the station. Other facilities in-
clude dairy buildings, tobacco barns, granary, implement shed,
poultry buildings, and an office. Farm machinery includes
trucks, tractors, ensilage and forage harvester, orchard spray-
ers, spreaders, rake, cultivators, and planters.
Research is being conducted at this station by the following
departments of the Experiment Station : Agronomy, Animal
Industry, Horticulture, Poultry, and also by the Tennessee Val-
ley Authority. Specific lines of work are being carried out in
agronomy research with forage and pasture crops, small grain,
corn, and a joint watershed hydraulic data project with T. V. A.
Research with Burley tobacco includes plant bed studies, field
management tests, and variety evaluations. Dairy research in-
volves breeding, calf-raising, heifer-grazing, irrigation, alfalfa
grazing, and feeding trials with dairy cows. Research work with
poultry is centered around broiler and hatching egg production.
Breeding, feeding, and management investigations are included.
The apple orchard which was started in 1953 is being used for
variety testing and fertilization experiments. Additional trees
including several new varieties have been added in the past
few years. All land and facilities not being used directly for
experimental work are used for producing feed for the dairy
and poultry departments.
During this past biennium a 140-ton concrete stave silo was
constructed. A heating system was installed in the office
94 N. C. Department of Agriculture
building, and the laboratory in this building was repaired and
additional facilities were added. Other improvements include:
Additional tile drainage of bottom land, new varieties planted
in the apple orchard, thinning and pruning of white pine plant-
ings, pasture improvement, several buildings repaired and paint-
ed, and the purchase of some new farm equipment.
The future needs for this station include a hay storage and
feeding barn for dry cows and heifers, a tobacco barn, apple
grading and storage facilities, drainage work, grain storage facil-
ities, repairs and alterations to dwellings and farm buildings,,
and various additional items of farm equipment.
OXFORD TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION
OXFORD, NORTH CAROLINA
J. M. Carr, Superintendent
The Oxford Tobacco Research Station is located one mile west
of Oxford, the county seat of Granville County. It was estab-
lished in 1912 on an original tract of 250 acres which was en-
larged to 330 acres by the purchase of 80 additional acres in 1941.
The elevation is approximately 500 feet above sea level, and the
principal soils are of the Durham, Colfax and Enon series. About
100 acres are under cultivation using a rotation of small grains
and tobacco, and the remaining open land is in permanent pas-
ture used for beef cattle. Rainfall over the 37 year period July
1, 1921 to July 1, 1958 has averaged 44.27 inches annually.
A permanent force of seven laborers and one foreman is kept
throughout the year. Seasonal laborers are hired from nearby
Oxford and from families of men living on the farm.
As the name of the station indicates, the research program is
limited to tobacco with the exception of one acre devoted to
tomato breeding work and four acres in lespedeza Sericea for
beef cattle grazing tests. The total program involves the pro-
duction of approximately 45 acres of tobacco annually under the
direction of project leaders in Agronomy, Botany, Entomology,
Engineering and Pathology.
The agronomy program includes projects on nutrition, varie-
ties, rotation, irrigation and the influence of stages of ripeness
at harvest on the composition and quality of the cured leaf.
Project leaders in botany are studying the effectiveness of
sucker control measures and the influence of these practices on
yield and quality.
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 95
Entmologists are concerned with the biological control of to-
bacco insects, the effectiveness of insecticides and the influence
of insecticidal residues on the flavor of the leaf.
The engineering program is devoted largely to the develop-
ment of new methods of curing and fundamental studies of the
changes that take place in the leaf during the curing process.
Tobacco diseases constitute one of the most serious problems
of production in North Carolina. For this reason the pathology
program is necessarily the most extensive on the station. Much
of the pathology program is concerned with the development of
acceptable varieties resistant to blackshank, bacterial wilt, fusa-
rium wilt, root knot and mosaic. About 3,500 square feet of
greenhouse space and 10 acres of field plots are used in this phase
of the pathology program. Several acres of field plots are used
for the study of crop rotation and soil fumigation as a means of
controlling the various nematodes that attack tobacco. A two-
acre nematode infested area in Durham County, used as a testing
ground in the development of nematode resistant varieties, is
operated by this station.
No major improvements were made to existing facilities during
the biennium 1956-58. However metal roofs were put on six
buildings. All other repairs were limited to normal wear and
Research facilities added in the 1956-58 biennium included the
addition of sixteen 4' x 4' x 9' compartments to an existing barn,
and the construction of an additional compartment barn contain-
ing six 9' x 9' units. These barns were badly needed and are fully
appreciated by the project leaders. Two new seed bed areas were
developed on locations that can be reached with irrigation equip-
ment. Formerly all seed beds were watered by hand from city
Increasing interest in irrigation as it influences tobacco pro-
duction and disease behavior creates the need for additional irri-
gation facilities. Installaton of approximately 2,000 feet of six-
inch underground main would make it possible to reach most of
the fields on the Station with relatively low labor costs.
PEANUT BELT RESEARCH STATION
LEWISTON, NORTH CAROLINA
Clyde Z. McSwain, Jr., Superintendent
The Peanut Belt Research Station, established in 1952, is locat-
ed along the northern side of the town of Lewiston in Bertie
96 N. C. Department of Agriculture
County. The office and main buildings are 3/4 of a mile out of
Lewiston on the Connaritsa highway. Elevation is 50 feet above
sea level and the average annual rainfall, since 1952, has been
48.5 inches. Temperature extremes for the same period ranged
from a high of 102° to a low of 8°. Soil types typical of the pea-
nut belt of North Carolina are found on the station. They are
Norfolk, Goldsboro, Faison, Duplin and Dunbar.
The station consists of 366 acres. In 1952 there were approxi-
mately 80 cleared acres with about 70 acres in cultivation. Since
that time cultivated land has increased to a total of 160 acres.
An additional 27 acres is used for building sites, roadways and
grassed waterways. With assistance from the Soil Conservation
Service, a drainage plan was developed for the station. The plan
calls for both open ditches and tile lines. Already, some 11,000
feet of open ditches and 12,000 feet of tile have been installed.
An additional 6,000 feet of tile will be installed after removal of
the 1958 crops.
During the biennium a much needed peanut drying building
was constructed. The structure includes a shed for wagon dry-
ing with six drying bays, each one accommodating a five-ton
wagon. There is also a work room and a peanut storage area
of 1,800 square feet. This drying facility fills a long felt need
and will be invaluable to the research program in permitting the
harvesting and processing of experimental plots ahead of bad
weather in the fall which normally results in great losses. Other
buildings on the station are the office and laboratory building,
superintendent's residence, four laborers' dwellings, shop and
machinery storage building and a platform hay drier. Buildings
on the farm when purchased include an old dwelling (used for
storage at present) , a general barn and a tobacco barn.
Land use varies from year to year to meet the demands of the
research program. Test plots totaled 79.2 acres for the 1958
crop year. Peanut research accounted for 63 acres while the
remainder was used for cotton, corn and sweet potato research.
The Experiment Station departments involved in research on
this station are as follows : Field Crops, Soils, Plant Pathology,
Entomology, Horticulture, Agricultural Engineering and Agri-
All of the farming operations on the station are done by tractor
power. The major items of equipment are two trucks, four
tractors, peanut picker, hay baler, and the planting and culti-
vating equipment necessary for the station program. In addition,
a TD-14 crawler tractor with a dozer blade, grubber blade and a
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 97
heavy bush and bog, all station owned, are used in the land clear-
Over two thousand visitors were on the station during the bien-
nium. The scheduled field meetings were attended by growers
from the peanut producing areas of North Carolina and Virginia.
Many individuals and small groups visited the station from time
Major needs for the future include peanut combines and asso-
ciated equipment. It is essential that two peanut combines be
provided so that at least two groups of research specialists can
harvest their valuable experimental plots at the same time dur-
ing the fall months in order to take advantage of favorable
weather. These combines are an essential tool for the research
program. In addition, a dwelling should be provided for the
foreman, and a fertilizer and pesticide storage building is need-
ed. Funds are needed for additional drainage and for the re-
placement of items of equipment in addition to the combine.
TIDEWATER RESEARCH STATION
PLYMOUTH, NORTH CAROLINA
J. L. Rea, Sr., Superintendent
The Tidewater Research Station was established on October 1,
1943, in Washington County five miles east of Plymouth on U. S.
Highway 64. The station consists of 495 acres of land, of which
235 acres are crop land, 185 acres are in pasture, 35 acres are
partly cleared land, and 40 acres remain in woods. In addition
to the station farm, a tract of undrained woodland lying adjacent
to the station, comprising an area of 1,064 acres, is being held
for future development. The station is 15 feet above sea level
and the average rainfall is 55 inches. Predominant soil types
are Portsmouth fine sandy loam, Bladen fine sandy loam, Bladen
silt loam, and Bayboro loam.
During the biennium two pig parlors were built, and one far-
rowing house was constructed. General maintenance of the
station property was accomplished so far as funds and labor
would permit. Sixteen acres of land were cleared and initial
clearing was done on an additional 50 acres. The tract of 50
acres was ditched and the necessary culverts for all crossings
Math retainer walls were installed. An additional 1,750 feet of
farm drain tile will be installed in the fall of 1958.
The following new equipment was added during the biennium :
A tractor, a two-row planter, a large hydraulic tandem disk
98 N. C. Department of Agriculture
harrow, a potato grader, an ensilage field chopper and blower
and one grass head attachment.
The research program is set up to meet the needs of the black-
land area of tidewater North Carolina. Practically all enter-
prises common to this area are being studied and there are
research projects on the station pertaining to many of them.
The agronomy program includes: (1) soybean varieties for
yields, adaptability and disease resistance, (2) corn hybrids for
adaptability, resistance, stalk strength and yields, (3) weed con-
trol with corn, soybeans and cotton, (4) soil fertility work with
forage crops, (5) soil fertility studies with corn and soybeans,
(6) small grain varieties of oats, wheat, and barley for winter
hardiness, disease resistance and yields and (7) inoculation
Horticultural research deals with the following projects: (1)
Irish potato varieties, (2) treatment of Irish potato seed pieces
and scab studies with potatoes, (3) effect of deep placement of
lime on production of potatoes and cabbage, (1) muscadine grape
cultural studies, (5) production of sweet potatoes resistant to
disease. The Irish potato program is moving along more smooth-
ly since the new potato grader was put in operation. A washer
is, however, still badly needed to handle the potato work in an
entirely satisfactory manner.
The research program of the Animal Husbandry department
is with hogs, beef cattle, and sheep. The project with hogs con-
sists of (1) cost of producing hogs in pig parlors versus pasture
lot feeding, (2) the development of a better meat type hog, and
(3) the evaluation of protein supplements.
Beef cattle work includes (1) determination, by weighing and
grading of calves of a given sire, his ability to sire fast gaining
calves, (2) wintering of beef herd and weaning calves on differ-
The sheep program has recently been changed to include a
study of early dropped lambs versus late lambs. Ewes are divid-
ed into two groups, one group being bred in July and August and
the other in October and November. The objective of this study
is to determine the factors that have a bearing on the economical
production of late lamb crops.
A problem that has been of growing importance with beef and
cattle producers is the lack of economical gains in the hot summer
months. This matter will probably be studied in the near future
if present plans materialize. The problem is of utmost impor- j
tance in the eastern part of the state as this section is fast be-
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 99
coming livestock minded. A great number of cattle are being
grazed and fed out and, in all probability, the number will in-
crease as more and more land is taken out of cotton, tobacco and
peanuts and put in corn, small grain and forage.
PIEDMONT RESEARCH STATION
SALISBURY, NORTH CAROLINA
J. W. Hendricks, Superintendent
In 1953 a tract of land in Rowan County was purchased for
the purpose of relocating the Piedmont Research Station which
was established in Iredell County in 1903. Initially, a block of
land consisting of 1,061 acres was purchased. Since that time,
however, two small tracts that were not readily accessible to the
main area were sold. Total acreage of the station is now 1,034.
The station is 800 feet above sea level. Average temperature
during 1957 was 60 degrees and rainfall during that year was
50.9 inches. Soil types are typical of the piedmont area and
include Davidson, Iredell, Mecklenburg, Cecil clay, and some
Altavista. In addition there are some alluvial soils along the
Much progress was made during the biennium in getting the
research program underway and in the construction of build-
ings, land clearing, drainage, fencing, and the construction of
roadways and waterways. Twelve new buildings were com-
pleted during the biennium and seven additional buildings are
under construction and will be completed during the fall of 1958.
Buildings completed include four workers dwellings, an office
and utility building, an implement shed, a general storage build-
ing, and dairy buildings. Dairy buildings consist of a milking
parlor, a lounging shed, hay storage building, experimental barn,
and a calf barn. In addition to these structures a bunker silo
was built and three trench silos were constructed. One trench
silo is for the dairy and two for beef cattle work.
Other than the buildings erected, many other improvements
were made including the drilling of two additional wells, the
clearing of additional land, and land improvement in general.
Approximately 9,000 linear feet of ditches were opened by the
use of a dragline for improving drainage of bottom land. Addi-
tional farm roads were built bringing the total of roads on the
100 N. C. Department of Agriculture
station to six miles. Also, six miles of new fences were erected
making a total of twelve miles of fences now on the station.
Buildings now under construction and which will be completed
in the near future include two dwellings — one for the poultry
research supervisor and one for the herdsman. Also poultry
buildings, consisting of a main poultry building and three all-
purpose houses, are included in the present program. Poultry
buildings are to be used for the Random Sample Testing Project.
In addition a beef cattle barn is being built.
The first experimental plots were put on the new station in the
fall of 1954, and since that time many other phases of the total
research program have been initiated. Forty-seven beef animals
were purchased during the fall of 1957 for use in grazing trials
which were conducted during 1958. Forty-five Holstein cows
and heifers were moved to the station in April, 1958, as the be-
ginning of the dairy research program.
In addition to research with beef cattle and dairy cattle, much
w T ork is under way in research with crops. This includes inves-
tigations with corn, cotton, small grains, soybeans, and with for-
age crops including alfalfa, grasses, lespedeza, and an accelerated
program with various other forage plants. Also work is being
done with castor beans and with other new crops to determine
whether or not they are adapted to the area.
There have been a number of personnel changes at the station
during the biennium including the addition to the staff of a dairy
research supervisor, a dairyman and a herdsman for beef cattle.
In addition to these, two more full time laborers were employed
bringing the total station personnel to twelve.
As time passes, there are more and more visitors to the station
to observe the research program and to study the results which
are being obtained. There have been several organized field
meetings with a good attendance and with a great deal of interest
in evidence. It is apparent that this station will be of great
interest and value to the farmers and professional agricultural
workers in Piedmont North Carolina.
Major needs for further development of the station include
a dry cow barn, an extension of the beef barn, two additional
all-purpose poultry houses, additional dwellings, and miscellan-
eous structures. Over and above these, there is need for funds
to provide for drainage of certain areas and to provide for the
clearing of additional land.
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 101
UPPER COASTAL PLAIN RESEARCH STATION
ROCKY MOUNT, NORTH CAROLINA
Warren H. Bailey, Superintendent
Established in 1902, the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station
is located in Edgecombe County, approximately six miles south-
east of Rocky Mount on the Noble's Mill Pond Road. It has an
elevation of 100 feet above sea level, and the average annual rain-
fall is approximately 45 inches. Some 16 different soil types are
found on the station, the principal ones being Norfolk, Marlboro,
Duplin, Dunbar, Coxville, and Craven.
There is a total of 441.9 acres in the station ; and of these,
227.3 acres are classed as cropland, 53.4 acres are in improved
pasture, 105.5 acres are in woodland, 55.7 acres are in roads,
lanes, meadow strips, ponds, etc. In 1957, research plots occu-
pied 111.7 acres of the 227.3 acres of cropland. The remaining
cropland was used for field demonstrations and for producing
feed for the swine and cattle programs.
Buildings on the station include a crop drier, two compartment-
type tobacco barns, a packhouse, three steel grain bins, two im-
plement sheds, a shop, a feed barn, a laboratory, an office, and
10 dwellings. The major items of equipment owned by the sta-
tion are five tractors, with cultivators and other tillage tools,
corn husker and sheller, peanut picker, hay baler, grain drill,
three wagons, a high-clearance sprayer, two tractor dusters, and
two irrigation pumps. Transportation is furnished by two pick-
up trucks and one l\-> ton truck. The labor force consists of five
permanent and three temporary laborers, all living on the station.
Additional labor, when needed, is obtained from the laborers'
families and from the surrounding community.
General repairs and maintenance on a number of the station's
structures during the biennium included considerable interior
and exterior painting. One of the implement sheds was enclosed
with corrugated galvanized metal, using station personnel to do
the job. In the spring of 1958, a masonry block laborer's dwell-
ing was built to replace an old frame dwelling. Here, again, some
of the station personnel was used to good advantage in erecting
For several years, the station has been following soil conserva-
tion practices recommended in a long range plan developed from
a complete farm survey, made in 1954, by the Soil Conservation
Service. Among the many improvements resulting from this
survey are : Several fields were reshaped to better serve the re-
102 N. C. Department of Agriculture
search program ; meadow strips were built, seeded and maintain-
ed ; areas not suited to row crops were seeded to pasture or hay-
crops ; and drain tile was installed in some of the poorly drained
areas of the farm. All of these improvements are aimed at con-
serving the soil of the station and making it better suited to the
research program. The results already obtained have proved
their worth many times over.
During the biennium, irrigation facilities were further expand-
ed. To the already existing 2,900 feet of underground main, 702
feet were added in the spring of 1958. Also added to the system
were 1,940 feet of portable aluminum lateral and main pipe.
These additions have made it possible to reach most parts of the
station with irrigation, which has become an indispensable tool
in the research program. Most of the water for irrigation is
obtained from a 50-acre lake located on the northwest side of the
station. For a small amount of irrigation, water is taken from
a four-acre pond on the south side of the farm.
The research program consists of numerous crops experiments
and livestock studies. The field crops program includes studies
dealing with plant breeding, variety and advanced strain testing,
involving cotton, corn, soybeans, peanuts, tobacco, castor beans,
sesame, and grain sorghum. There are also experiments dealing
with weed control on corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. The
Soils Department is conducting research dealing with fertiliza-
tion, crop rotation, subsoiling, and residual effects of crop residue.
The Agricultural Engineering Department is interested in
peanut harvesting and drying methods, as well as cultivation
and weed control.
Plant pathology studies are directed toward disease control on
tobacco, cotton, corn, peanuts, and soybeans. These problems are
approached from several directions, including crop rotations,
winter management practices, plant breeding, and chemical con-
The Statistics Department is running extensive statistical
experiments relating to plant breeding. The crops involved are
corn and tobacco.
Entomology investigations deal with the residual effects of
certain insecticides on the flavor of tobacco, and insect control on
peanuts and other field crops.
The beef cattle and swine programs are supervised by the De-
partment of Animal Industry. During the biennium a herd of
17 cows, known to be dwarf carriers, was assembled on the sta-
tion. These cows are being used in a study to develop methods
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 103
of detecting animals that are dwarf carriers. The steer feeding
program is designed to produce answers to feeding problems,
such as the use of cheap roughages for over-wintering, and self-
feeding grain on pasture. The swine project is directed toward
breeding, feeding, and management studies.
During the past two years there have been visitors from all
over North Carolina, the United States, and many foreign coun-
tries. Attendance was good at all of the regular field meetings,
and there were numerous individuals and small groups coming
to the station in search of answers to their farming problems.
Many groups were brought in by Vocational Agriculture teach-
ters, County Agents, Soil Conservationists, and other professional
F.F.A. and 4-H Groups have used the swine and cattle herds
to train livestock judging teams. Tobacco plants for demonstra-
tion plots are furnished to county agents requesting them. School
groups are often brought in to observe, first hand, agricultural
research being conducted in the field. Station personnel fre-
quently give individual assistance to farmers requesting help in
specific problems. The station is now, and has been for over
half a. century, a very important link in the development of the
agricultural economy of Eastern North Carolina.
UPPER MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION
LAUREL SPRINGS, NORTH CAROLINA
Dana F. Tugman, Superintendent
The Upper Mountain Research Station is located in Ashe
County, three miles west of Laurel Springs on Highway N. C.
88. The station consists of 420 acres, of which 117 are devoted
to field plots and grazing research, 140 to permanent pasture, 85
in cropland and 78 in woodland. A seven-acre tract adjoining
the station has been rented for the past two years for the pro-
duction of Irish potato varieties and breeding lines. A 25-acre
tract of woodland on the station is now being cleared.
The principal soil series found on the station are Watauga,
Clifton and Tate loams. Elevation on the station ranges from
2,800 to 4,000 feet. The average annual rainfall in the area is
52 inches. The summers are mild, with extreme temperatures in
the middle to high eighties. The growing season is relatively
short. The winters are long and comparatively severe, with
temperatures of zero and lower.
104 N. C. Department of Agriculture
The research program includes projects with beef cattle, sheep,
forage crops, corn, Burley tobacco, potatoes, tomatoes and apples.
Research projects with beef cattle include feeding, grazing and
breeding studies. The feeding phase of the project consists of
winter feeding trials in an effort to evaluate feeds which farmers
in the area can produce efficiently, and to determine what com-
bination of those feeds might be used most effectively in terms
of adequate nutrition and economical beef production. During
the summer months grazing studies are conducted to compare
and evaluate rotational, light continuous, and heavy continuous
grazing in terms of beef production and pasture management.
During this biennium, 15 acres of alfalfa were seeded for
grazing research in an effort to determine the value of alfalfa in
grazing rotations. The station herd is also included in the U.S.
D.A. Regional Beef Breeding Program.
Research with sheep at this station is a breeding project in
which the performance of three different breed groups, namely,
Hampshire Crossbreds, Native crossbreds and western ewes, are
evaluated for the production of slaughter lambs and wool. Cross
breeding is obtained through the use of rams of different breeds.
The objectives in the cross breeding program are to increase size
of the animal, increase wool weight, and improve the milking
ability. The above breed groups are subdivided into early and
late lambing groups, in an effort to determine the most desirable
lambing time for commercial lambs in terms of net returns from
the lamb crop. Results to date indicate that western ewes are
superior to the other groups mentioned in the production of lambs
and wool, and that late lambing dates are preferable in the north-
ern mountain area of the state.
The forage research program has received considerable em-
phasis during this biennium in an effort to strengthen the pasture
and livestock feed production programs in the area. Forage
crops projects now in progress include date of seeding, fertility
studies, the effect of nurse crops and the effect of exposure. The
evaluation of several strains of orchard grasses — fescue, alfalfa,
birdsfoot trefoil and Ladino clover — is now in progress. One
new variety of alfalfa, Du Puits, was added to the recommended
list for the mountain area in 1958 following its evaluation in
variety trials at this station. Birdsfoot trefoil, on the basis of
its performance here, shows promise as a pasture legume in the
northern mountain area.
Work with corn consists of the production of breeding lines,
and varieties for evaluation. Emphasis in the breeding program
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 105
is for a corn of desirable yield and quality that will mature in
the comparatively short growing season of the northern moun-
Research with Burley tobacco consists of tests involving fer-
tilization and spacing, topping and suckering, date of transplant-
ing, chemical sucker control, and the production of varieties and
breeding lines. Emphasis in the breeding program is being
placed on resistance to the more common Burley diseases.
Horticultural research consists of the production of Irish po-
tato varieties and breeding lines for observation and evaluation ;
a breeding program with tomatoes in which the objective is to
incorporate blight resistance with desirable fruiting qualities;
and apple variety evaluation and orchard fertilization studies.
In addition to the research projects, the principal farming
operations on the station consist of the production of feed for
livestock involved in research. About 75 acres are devoted to
the production of hay and silage for winter feeding.
Improvements during the past biennium consist of the con-
struction of a 70-ton trench silo, construction of a machinery
storage shed, relocation and improvement of farm roads, estab-
lishment of a rotation for all cropland, and the beginning of
clearing work on a 25-acre tract of woodland.
The most urgent need in the program is for additional land
suitable for plot work. All land on the station which lends it-
self to research purposes is now being fully utilized, and an
additional seven acres is being rented. However, many investi-
gations pertinent to the agricultural economy of the area cannot
be pursued until additional land is acquired.
COASTAL PLAIN RESEARCH STATION
WILLARD, NORTH CAROLINA
Jesse W. Sumner, Superintendent
The Coastal Plain Research Station, established in 1905, is
located one mile north of Willard and two miles south of Wallace
in Pender County. The elevation is 51 feet above sea level, and
the average annual rainfall is 48.9 inches. Of the Station's 411
acres of predominantly Norfolk sandy loam soil, 149.8 acres are
in pasture, which is used for dairy cows and for cooperative
dairy forage research plots. There are 123.9 acres of crop land,
of which 28.1 are used for field plots and other research, with
the remainder devoted to general crops producing feed for poul-
106 N. C. Department of Agriculture
try and for dairy cows. The station also has 81.5 acres of wood-
land ; and 48.5 acres in roads, building sites, and an irrigation
pond. Station activities include the supervision of research proj-
ects and the feed production program ; and public relations activi-
ties, such as field days, instructing veterans groups, and giving
information to farmers and other visitors.
The four principal lines of research are: Dairy and forage
crops, poultry, horticulture, and agronomy. A study of pasture
production and maintenance, with a view to determining the
best rotation and management in providing constant year round
pasturage for the herd, is carried out in the forage crops program.
Considerable work has been done with summer grazing of millets
— Common, Star Hybrids, and Coastal Bermuda grass. The new
bunker silos have been constructed and studies are underway
to compare keeping and feeding qualities of silage in bunkers
with silage in upright silos.
Another phase of dairy research relates to breeding for higher
milk production. Herd production has been increased both as to
quantity of milk and amount of butterfat. Proof of better pro-
duction is shown by the record of "Will Sena BDI Maid" who
set a national record for a junior 4-year old for 305 days, twice
daily milking for a registered Jersey, with 15,705 lbs. of milk
and 821 lbs. of butterfat. Work is also being conducted to find
a better and more economical way of raising calves.
During the past two years the following phases of poultry
research work have been under way: Breeding for superior
Rhode Island Reds, free choice system of feeding, comparison of
various blood lines of laying-type hens, testing growth factors
for broilers, testing broiler strains, means of cooling laying
houses, and cage laying house management.
Strawberry research, a horticultural project, has been contin-
ued during the biennium, and new selections have been made and
tested. Selections previously made and introduced have con-
tinued to demonstrate their worth. They serve as the principal
commercial varieties grown in the southeastern part of the state.
The use of these varieties has been spreading through the coun-
try. Work is being conducted to establish selections that are
virus free. Muscadine grape work consists of measuring yields
of present varieties and testing new varieties. Studies are
under way to determine better pruning and management methods.
Agronomy research consists primarily of testing corn hybrids
produced in the Experiment Station's breeding work, soybeans
Report for 1956-58 — Research Stations 107
originating from the soybean breeding program, and new pro-
ductions from other states.
During the past fiscal year a platform hay drier has been used
for the purpose of trying to determine a satisfactory way of
curing hay in the humid eastern North Carolina climate. Soy-
beans, coastal bermuda, lespedeza, and fescue have been cured
on this drier.
In order for this station to continue to serve the needs of the
farmers of eastern North Carolina, we need to gear the research
program to the fast changing developments in agriculture. On
the station we need to keep up to date with modern, efficient
machinery. As to the improvement of facilities there is a need
for funds to modify some of the old buildings to better serve
the requirements of the present research program.
SEED TESTING DIVISION
W. H. Darst
The Seed Testing Division was established to enforce the North
Carolina Seed Law, the purpose of which is to assure farmers
that the seed they buy are correctly labeled and meet minimum
standards for germination, purity and weed-seed content.
To achieve this purpose, the Division carries on several types
of activity. It inspects, analyzes and tests field and garden seed
on sale within the state. As time and facilities permit, it ana-
lyzes seed without charge for growers, dealers and other resi-
dents of North Carolina. Its cooperative endeavors include
analyzing all seed to be certified by the North Carolina Crop Im-
provement Association, sampling and testing seed for the Land-
scape Department of the State Highway Commission, analyzing
and testing seed for the Agricultural Stabilization and Conserva-
tion Committee of the United States Department of Agriculture
for compliance with the minimum specifications of that agency
for seed furnished farmers, and aiding in the enforcement of
the Federal Seed Act.
The official seed testing laboratory operates under the "Official
Rules for Sampling and Testing Seed" adopted by the Associa-
tion of Official Seed Analysts, and other requirements of the
North Carolina Seed Law. The Division is an active member of
this Association, as well as the Association of American Seed
Control Officials and the Seed Control Officials of the Southern
States. Participation in the work of these associations has been
of great help in maintaining a high standard of efficiency in
carrying out the functions of this Division.
The personnel of the Division includes 15 full time employees,
consisting of one director, five seed specialists (inspectors), one
supervising analyst, five purity analysts, two germination spe-
cialists, and one stenographer-clerk.
Since the work load in the laboratory varies greatly with the
season of the year, additional temporary help is employed to
supplement the work of the permanent employees during the
months of August through March. These temporary employees
consist of two full-time analysts, several agricultural college
students, and some additional clerical help.
Report for 1956-58 — Seed Testing 109
A survey made by the Association of American Seed Control
Officials in 1956-57 showed that the North Carolina seed labora-
tory ranks first in the nation in the number of service samples
tested annually for farmers and seedsmen, and fourth in the
total number of seed samples tested by a state laboratory. The
survey also showed that, while North Carolina ranks second
in the number of seed analysts employed in its central labora-
tory, the unit cost per sample tested in this state is the eighth
The number of seed samples tested by this Division during the
1956-1958 biennium totaled 43,631. In addition, 54,426 seed
lots were inspected and analysed at dealers' places of business.
Stop-sale orders were issued on 368 seed lots consisting of 16,596
bags of seed which were in violation of the seed law. Of this
number, 9,962 bags were re-labeled in compliance with the law,
and sale was prohibited on 6,634 bags.
Comparing this biennium with the 1954-1956 biennium, there
is good evidence that more seed dealers, within and without the
state, are selling seed of higher quality and better labeled in
compliance with the law.
Several hearings on seed law violations were held before the
Commissioner of Agriculture. At the end of this biennial period
(June 30, 1958) one court case concerning the mislabeling of
tobacco seed was still pending. Approximately 65 violations of
the Federal Seed Act and the State Seed Law were reported to
the federal district office for consideration.
The North Carolina Seed Law was amended in 1957 to require
that all flue-cured tobacco seed sold in the state must be recorded
with the Commissioner of Agriculture before November 1 pre-
ceding each growing season.
The purpose of this amendment is to ensure the correct label-
ing of tobacco seed as to variety, a question which cannot be
determined by a visual examination of the seeds. Two provisions
of the amendment are designed to aid in achieving its purpose.
One requires that a sample of the seed must be submitted at the
time it is recorded. This is kept on file, so that it can be grown in
a variety test as a check against seed offered for sale under the
recorded variety name.
The second provision of the amendment established a "Tobacco
Seed Committee", which must declare flue-cured varieties to be
correctly identified before they may be accepted for recording
by the Commissioner.
110 N. C. Department of Agriculture
In June, 1957, the General Assembly ratified "An Act to Re-
quire the Inspection by the Department of Agriculture of Seed
Planted in the State Highway and Public Works Commission."
This law provides that any seed planted along a highway or road
right-of-way in the state must first be tested in the laboratory
of this Division and approved for compliance with the Seed Law
On May 12, 1958, the State Board of Agriculture amended the
seed regulations by lowering the germination standard for garden
beans from 75 percent to 70 percent. This was done to make the
state standards conform to federal standards which had been
recently changed. Uniformity between state and federal stan-
dards is desirable insofar as this is practicable.
Also on May 12, 1958, the Board of Agriculture added witch-
weed (Striga asiatica) to the list of noxious weeds which are
prohibited in crop seed. Witchweed is a comparatively new
parasitic plant in North Carolina, and is a serious threat to corn,
sorghums and similar crops. While the seed are very small and
difficult to detect, any crop seed containing evidence of the pres-
ence of witchweed is prohibited sale.
SOIL TESTING DIVISION
Dr. Eugene J. Kamprath
Efficiency in production has become a must factor for farmers
in North Carolina who are dependent upon the production of
food, fiber, and tobacco for their livelihood. To obtain maximum
economic returns from crop production it is necessary for farm-
ers to know the fertility and lime status of their soils. It is the
function of the Soil Testing Division to provide this information
to the farmers of the state.
During the period from July 1, 1956, to June 30, 1958, over
91,000 soil samples were analyzed for North Carolina farmers.
Of these farmer samples, over 450,000 separate determinations
were made during this period. In addition, 2,000 other soil
samples from florists, nurserymen, and special problem areas
The number of samples has decreased in comparison to those
analyzed during the previous biennium. This is a reflection of
the sharp decrease in the cultivated crop acreage due to the Soil
Considerable interest has developed in soil testing in the past
year. During the winter of 1957-1958 a soil sampling drive was
initiated by the agricultural workers of Hoke County. The ob-
jective of this drive was to have every farmer take at least one
soil sample and follow the soil test recommendation as a means
of improving the economy of the county which is very dependent
Several other counties have made plans for an intensified soil
sampling program for this coming year. In addition, fertilizer
companies are placing renewed emphasis on the importance of
soil tests as the basis for selecting the proper ratio and amount
of fertilizer to apply.
This Division has cooperated with various departments of
North Carolina State College by making detailed chemical anal-
yses of soil samples from research and demonstration plots.
This work is important as it helps to evaluate present fertilizer
recommendations and also provides data for any new recom-
mendations which might be made. This work is conducted dur-
112 N. C. Department of Agriculture
ing the time of year when the number of farmers' samples re-
ceived is at a minimum. During the two year period over 10,000
soil samples were analyzed for the research personnel at North
Carolina State College.
The rapid technological progress in farming, and the increas-
ing emphasis on efficiency in production, make it necessary to
refine and develop new chemical methods for estimating the fer-
tility and lime status of soils. The past several years' work has
been under way to evaluate the nitrogen-supplying power of
North Carolina soils by more adequate methods. Another re-
search project has been started to compare various methods for
estimating the available potassium content of certain mountain
and piedmont soils. The development of more refined tests for
nitrogen and potassium will result in a more efficient use of
fertilizer by the farmer.
The personnel of the Division participated in numerous radio
and television programs, and meetings with farm groups, point-
ing out the value of soil tests and the importance of proper soil
The technical and clerical staff are to be commended for the
fine job they did in carrying out the work of the Division.
THE STATE FAIR
Dr. J. S. Dorton, Manager
During the past two years, the State Fair has made progress
in expanding its physical facilities.
The old WPA records building has been remodeled, and is now
an attractive, useful building. Before remodeling, this old
structure was neither attractive nor useful except for shop
space and storage. By converting it into a lounge building, it
will serve many long needed purposes and should be a favorite
meeting place for fairgoers. It will quarter first aid rooms, the
Red Cross, the Lost Kiddies Colony and two badly needed rest
The erection of seven new permanent-type lunch stands is
another outstanding improvement made in 1958.
During 1957, higher operation costs, the recession and Asiatic
Flu (the Health Department reported 100,000 cases in the state
on Wednesday of Fair Week) combined to curtail the financial
success of the Fair. For the first time since the Fair became a
division of the Department of Agriculture, revenues were insuf-
ficient to meet production costs, and a net loss of $4,973.81 was
shown by the audit.
As this report is written, the 1958 Fair will begin in about
a week. With good weather, higher attendance and revenue
figures, we have high hopes for a successful year. With the
interest already shown by the state's institutions, business en-
terprises, and the citizens who are competing for the $50,000 in
premium money, we hope to have the most representative group
of exhibits ever shown.
Ninety-three counties were represented by exhibits in 1957.
This was the largest number ever represented.
During the past year, the non-Fair use of buildings and
grounds increased. Many school, church, club and professional
groups were guests at the Youth Center. The State Fair Arena
continues to attract tourists, engineers and architects from over
the entire world in ever increasing numbers. Commercial and
civic sponsors of entertainments and sports events are making
greater use of it. With the addition of ice equipment in pros-
N. C. Department of Agriculture
pect, it is expected that a number of additional bookings may be
1956 282,032. 8S
1950 _.. _ _ 212,455.58
1946 _ 220,544.03
1942-45 _ (No Fair)
DIVISION OF STATISTICS
Henry L. Rasor
Statistician in Charge
In any economy the law of "supply and demand" has always
been a dominant factor where marketing of products is con-
cerned. More than a century ago our nation's farmers began
to realize that they were placed at a disadvantage in bargaining
because they knew so little about crop and livestock supplies.
Prodded by agricultural interests throughout the nation, Con-
gress in 1839 authorized an appropriation of $1,000 to the United
States Patent Office to be used for distributing seed and for col-
lecting agricultural statistics.
From this very modest beginning was developed the Federal
Crop Reporting Service which maintains 41 state statistical
offices throughout the nation. In practically all of these offices
the federal government has entered into cooperative arrange-
ments with certain state agencies whereby detailed agricultural
statistics are made available and disseminated to the public.
One of these offices is in North Carolina, and it is popularly
known as "The North Carolina Crop Reporting Service." This
office, which embraces our Division of Crop Statistics, was estab-
lished in 1919 as a cooperative effort of the North Carolina and
the U. S. Departments of Agriculture. Its chief responsibilities
are the preparation and dissemination of agricultural statistics
for North Carolina and for the various counties and townships
within the boundaries of the state.
Statistics provide the factual information without which mod-
ern society cannot properly function. This is equally as true
for agriculture as for industry or any other phase of our econ-
omy. It is only through the availability of such statistics that it
is possible to measure changes or progress that are taking place.
It is only through availability of agricultural production statis-
tics that farmers' production and marketing plans can be carried
out with optimum efficiency.
It is worthy of note that North Carolina leads all other states
in farm population and is second only to Texas in number of
farms. In value of production the state usually ranks in either
third or fourth place among the states of the nation. More than
116 N. C. Department of Agriculture
three-fifths of the total land area is classified as farm land. It is
not surprising, therefore, that North Carolina agricultural sta-
tistics are in great demand.
The Crop Statistics Division is experiencing an almost un-
precedented and constantly increasing demand for basic agri-
cultural statistics at the state and local levels. This demand
comes not only from our farmers and agricultural workers, but
also from non-agricultural enterprises which recognize their de-
pendence upon our agricultural economy. The increased empha-
sis on establishment of new industrial plants in the state has
greatly accelerated the demand for agricultural statistics at the
local level. The public is becoming more and more interested in
knowing which commodities are being produced in our state and
in what quantities. They want to know, too, in what areas of the
state these commodities may be found and when they will be
ready for market.
In order to meet this ever increasing demand for crop and
livestock information, the Division develops more than 350 sep-
arate reports each year, which cover approximately 6,500 items
of interest to farmers.
This wide coverage is made possible through the voluntary aid
of approximately 40,000 farmers and businessmen throughout
the state who give of their time to provide information for the
common good of all. These voluntary reporters complete and
return questionnaires which are mailed to them periodically
throughout the year, with no monetary reward but with the
knowledge that they are performing a public service in helping
to provide current information necessary for accurate agricul-
In addition to this regular corps of voluntary reporters, the
Division has access to individual farm records from more than
330,000 farm tracts. Data from these records are collected
annually under the direction of the County Commissioners in
connection with an annual state farm census.
Although much of the basic information is secured through
the return of mailed inquiries and through farm census reports,
extensive field travel must be performed in making personal
observations and interpretations and in contacting farmers, mer-
chants, county agricultural workers, and others who are familiar
with crops and livestock within their particular localities. Dur-
ing the past two years, an average of about 110,000 miles were
traveled per year by personnel assigned to the Division. The
Report for 1956-58— Statistics 117
bulk of this travel has been performed at federal government
As the basic information is assimilated from various sources,
it is processed by Division personnel, and summaries are care-
fully analyzed by highly trained technicians in the preparation
of official crop and livestock estimates. Releases containing
these estimates are prepared immediately for distribution
through newspapers, radio stations, and other interested con-
As a ready reference to those interested in North Carolina
agriculture, the Division publishes a semi-monthly "Farm Re-
port." This publication is recognized as the official crop bulletin
of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and contains
current state and national estimates as released by the national
Crop Reporting Board.
The increasingly heavy demand for North Carolina agricul-
tural statistics is demonstrated by the fact that during the fiscal
year 1957-58 there were more than 835,000 separate copies of
bulletins, reports, etc. distributed to people specifically requesting
receipt of such information. This was an increase of about
70,000 over the number distributed during the preceding year.
This is in addition to the large number of requests received by
mail, telephone, and personal visitation. During the fiscal year
1957-58 approximately 2,400 such requests were received and
serviced. Many of these involved the bringing together of a
multitude of facts from various sources and presenting the com-
bined data in comprehensive form for ready use by governmental
agencies or private concerns interested in locating plants within
the boundaries of the state.
For the sake of continuity in our series of agricultural esti-
mates, the work of the Division must follow some general pattern
from one year to the next. At the same time, we attempt to
provide new information as warranted by demands. At present
the Division is undertaking an extensive survey of commercial
broiler processors preparatory to developing broiler production
statistics at the county level. Commercial broiler production
is one of North Carolina's fastest growing agricultural ener-
prises, and out of this rapid growth there has developed a very
large demand for more detail in production statistics.
Despite the large volume of North Carolina agricultural statis-
tics made available to the public through the facilities of the
Crop Statistics Division, we still receive many requests which
118 N. C. Department of Agriculture
cannot now be filled. Estimates of cash farm income by counties
are badly needed as are comprehensive estimates of crop produc-
tion costs. It is to be hoped that within the not too distant future
it might be possible to meet these demands for such valuable
information. In the meantime, we shall continue, as we have in
the past, to develop as many different essential statistical reports
as availability of funds and personnel will permit.
Dr. H. J. Rollins
The Veterinary Division administers the laws and regulations
designed to control and eradicate infectious and transmissible
diseases of livestock and poultry. The Division performs various
and complex services in specialized scientific fields. The State
Veterinarian, within the framework of established policy, is
responsible for administration of the North Carolina disease
control and eradication programs.
The State Veterinarian and his assistants, in cooperation with
the Federal Veterinarians, recommend and carry out uniform
methods of inspection, testing, diagnosis and quarantine for the
control of infectious diseases of livestock and poultry on a state-
wide and national scale. Programs for the control and eradica-
tion of Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Vesicular Exanthema, Scrapie
and foreign diseases introduced by accident or sabotage are con-
ducted under cooperative agreements between the Veterinary
Division of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and
the Animal Disease Eradication Division, United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
The livestock and poultry population in North Carolina con-
tinues to increase each year. The increased numbers, concen-
tration and mass movement of livestock and poultry, and rapid
transportation by truck, train and plane, increase the hazards of
both domestic and foreign disease outbreaks.
Brucellosis : The blood testing of herds and slaughter of reac-
tors is a major factor in the eradication of Brucellosis and the
maintenance of Brucellosis free herds. The states adjoining
North Carolina have made excellent progress under the national
accelerated Brucellosis program. Cattle purchased for herd ad-
ditions should be obtained from known Brucellosis free herds. A
large number of reactors are found as a result of the purchase
and importation of animals with questionable health status. At
present a majority of the Brucellosis reactors found are in the
commercial beef herds.
The Mobile Ring Test Laboratory was in full operation during
the biennium. Milk samples from Grade A and commercial dairy
herds are collected and tested at six-month intervals. The Bru-
cellosis ring test is an aid in the earlv detection of the disease in
120 N. C. Department of Agriculture
dairy herds. However, the accuracy of the milk ring test has
not been perfected, and, therefore, it is not an acceptable substi-
tute for the blood test. Brucellosis reactors have been found in
negative ring test herds and only about 20 percent of the ring
test suspect herds are found to have reactors by the official blood
Calf hood vaccination with Strain 19 Brucella vaccine is avail-
able to any herd owner upon request and adoption of the calfhood
vaccination program. Calfhood vaccination establishes a vary-
ing degree of resistance in the individual animal. Annual blood
testing of the herd, including all calfhood vaccinates prior to
breeding, is recommended. Calfhood vaccinates showing a react-
ing blood test titer 18 or more months following date of vaccina-
tion are classed as reactors. The percentage of calfhood vacci-
nates classed as reactors when located in Brucellosis free herds
is very low.
Summary of Brucellosis Blood Tests
Herds tested 33,939 24,219
Cattle tested _ 277,092 252,429
Number of Reactors 639 634
Number of Infected Herds _ 325 262
Number of Calfhood Vaccinates 3,000 4,523
Summary of Brucellosis Ring Tests
Number of Dairy Herds 21,595 23,034
Number of Dairy Cattle..... 315,471 348,910
Ring Test Negative Herds 21,420 22,764
Ring Test Suspect Herds 175 270
Percentage of Infection 0.14 0.15
Tuberculosis: The tuberculin test is an accurate method of
identification of animals infected with Tuberculosis. Early de-
tection and slaughter of the infected animal have largely pre-
vented further spread of the disease to other cattle. A larger
majority of the tubercular reactors during the present biennium
was identified as imported cattle or other cattle exposed to in-
Swine infected with Tuberculosis were located in four herds
during the biennium. Cattle or swine infected with Tuberculosis
are immediately slaughtered under federal-state supervision.
Summary of Tuberculosis Tests
Herds Tested ._ 13,652 12,058
Cattle tested 174,427 178,915
Number of Reactors 9 20
Number of Infected Herds . 8 5
Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 121
Mastitis continues to exact serious economic losses in dairy
herds. Sanitation, management, proper housing to prevent in-
juries, and differential diagnosis along with suitable medicinal
agents, are essential aids in the control of Mastitis. A total of
3,067 milk samples were examined in the diagnostic laboratory.
A total of 2,789 milk samples were found to contain either coli-
form or coccoid bacteria, with some samples containing both
types of organisms.
Leptospirosis has been diagnosed in livestock and dogs during
the biennium. The disease may vary from a form so acute that
it causes death in one to three days to one so mild as to go un-
noticed by the owner. The laboratory report covering 2,212
blood serum samples showed 223 positive or suspicious animals
and 1,989 negative. Adequate control has been extremely diffi-
cult due to the nature of the disease, its ability to infect most
species of large animals, its healthy-carrier problem, its reser-
voir in wildlife and its ability to live outside of the animal's body.
The disease is important both from an animal and human health
Vesicular Exanthema has not been known to exist in North
Carolina since January 1954. Enforcement of the Garbage Feed-
ing Law and the rules and regulations thereunder, has prevented
the recurrence of this disease. Garbage fed swine and garbage
feeding premises are inspected once each month and more often
when necessary by state or federal inspectors. The frequent in-
spections are expensive but must be continued to prevent future
outbreaks of Vesicular Exanthema.
The importance of Vesicular Stomatitis in cattle and swine is
its similarity to Vesicular Exanthema and Food and Mouth Dis-
ease. A differential diagnosis of this disease is by animal inoc-
ulation and laboratory test. The disease generally occurs in the
summer and fall and is mostly confined to the eastern part of the
state. Infected and exposed animals are placed under quaran-
tine and the premises are cleaned and disinfected following death
or recovery of the infected animals. The chief economic impor-
tance consists of restricted movement of infected and exposed
animals, loss of weight of infected animals and the expensive
inspection and diagnostic procedure. Death losses are very low.
Vibriosis is a breeding problem of importance. A total of 420
serology samples were submitted for laboratory examination
with findings of 27 reactors, 68 suspects and 325 negative.
Anaplasmosis has been diagnosed in a number of herds. A
122 N. C. Department of Agriculture
total of 180 blood serum samples were submitted to the labora-
tory for test with findings of 153 positive and 27 negative.
Parasitic diseases, both internal and external, continue to
exact serious economic losses in the livestock and poultry popu-
lation of the state. A program of sanitation and management in
combination with available vermicides and insecticides will ef-
fectively reduce serious economic loss. Parasitic infestation
lowers the resistance of the affected individuals and is responsi-
ble directly or indirectly for outbreaks of infectious, nutritional
and non-infectious diseases of livestock and poultry.
Equine Encephalomyelitis (sleeping sickness) has occurred in
horses and mules, but fewer cases were reported than in the pre-
vious biennium. This disease is primarily transmitted by mos-
quitoes and other blood sucking insects. Annual vaccination
prior to exposure is an effective method of prevention, control
and eradication. Immediate vaccination is recommended in those
areas where the disease is known to exist. The disease is trans-
missible to man, other mammals and birds. The other infectious
diseases affecting horses and mules have been minor in character.
Hog Cholera alone, or in combination with other diseases, is
responsible for the greatest number of death losses in the swine
population of the state. A large number of susceptible swine,
either unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated, continue as a con-
stant threat to widespread outbreaks of Hog Cholera. The vacci-
nation of swine by unqualified personnel, the use of improperly
stored and reconstituted modified virus vaccine in combination
with too small a quantity of anti-hog cholera serum, or without
serum, is not recommended. Modified virus vaccine properly
refrigerated and used in combination with an adequate dose of
anti-hog cholera serum will produce a satisfactory immunity of
healthy swine. A large dose of anti-hog cholera serum not only
gives immediate protection against hog cholera but is an aid in
the prevention of secondary diseases frequently observed follow-
ing vaccination with modified virus. Anti-hog cholera serum
alone will give effective protection for approximately 15 days,
and this is often chosen, especially in herds infected with a dis-
ease or diseases other than Hog Cholera. The local veterinarian
is best qualified to determine the health status of the herd and
the selection of the proper product to be used in the vaccination
Three diseases relatively new to this area have been diagnosed
and seem to be slowly on the increase. They are Transmissible
Gastro-enteritis, Atrophic Rhinitis and Virus Pneumonia. Trans-
Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 123
missible Gastroenteritis is a serious killer of baby pigs and, in
a few instances, has been responsible for the complete loss of
one pig crop on infected premises. Atrophic Rhinitis and Virus
Pneumonia do not produce such great death losses, their effects
being mostly noticed as an economic loss in extending the grow-
ing and feeding period requirements.
Mass movement and concentration of livestock from various
sources of origin at markets and other points present a huge
disease problem. Compulsory vaccination of breeding and feed-
ing swine, and testing of breeding and feeding cattle moving
through livestock markets, are essential aids in preventing the
spread of Hog Cholera and Brucellosis.
The inspection of 57 public livestock auction markets and move-
ment of livestock, and supervision of cleaning and disinfecting
contaminated premises, are additional duties of the Veterinary
A qualified veterinarian can usually diagnose and properly
treat diseased livestock on the farm. Complicated disease prob-
lems encountered by veterinarians on the farms should be refer-
red to the laboratory for differential diagnosis. Laboratory diag-
nosis is an additional aid to veterinarians in the selection of
proper treatment of diseased animals. Early diagnosis and im-
mediate treatment is an essential part of the control and eradica-
tion of infectious and transmissible diseases.
The greatest problem in operating the laboratory is difficulty
in getting proper specimens from disease outbreaks in the field.
Selection of the proper animal to be sent to the laboratory for
examination should be made by veterinarians treating the herd.
Selection of an animal representative of the condition in the herd
is very important if the owner is to receive the greatest benefit.
Submission of "runts", "culls" or decomposed animals or birds
for examination, when they are not representative of the disease
present, results in time-consuming and time-wasting effort from
which no one receives any benefits.
The large-animal diagnostic laboratory handled 1,083 patho-
logical specimens or cases, which included 512 autopsies, in the
fiscal year 1956-57; and 1,276 cases, 544 of which were autopsies,
during the fiscal year 1957-58. These laboratory services were
in addition to serological and bacteriological tests outlined in an-
other section of this report. Swine comprised 65 to 75 percent
of the laboratory autopsies. The most commonly diagnosed swine
diseases are Hog Cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis.
124 N. C. Department op Agriculture
The large-animal laboratory also conducts histopathological
examinations on selected tissues for the five poultry laboratories.
During the biennium 1,215 tissue slides were examined for spe-
cific pathology of disease.
The production of hatchery flocks, sale of baby chicks, hatch-
ing eggs, commercial eggs, and broilers constitute a major farm
industry in North Carolina, and they have continued to increase
in volume during the biennium. Many areas in the eastern part
of the state have greatly increased their turkey and poultry
operations. Present information indicates continued increase in
turkey and poultry production in the eastern areas. Poultry
disease problems increase in a comparative ratio with increased
production and concentration of poultry and turkey flocks. All
birds in hatchery flocks are pullorum-typhoid tested and culled
by personnel of the Division or by licensed testing agents under
the supervision of the Veterinary Division. The National Tur-
key and Poultry Improvement Plans are administered by the
Veterinary Division of the North Carolina Department of Agri-
culture. The Division inspects hatcheries, licenses and super-
vises the operations of baby chick and hatching egg dealers. The
majority of flocks producing hatching eggs are classed as pul-
lorum-typhoid clean. Flocks in which a minimum number of
pullorum-typhoid reactors are found are retested and, if nega-
tive, classed as pullorum-typhoid passed.
Number Chicken Flocks Tested..... 3,117 2,712
Number Chickens Tested 2,781,109 2,984,750
Number Reactors 223 280
Number Chickens tube tested 51,852 87,238
Number of hatcheries „_ 141 147
Number of chick dealers. 398 374
Number of hatching egg dealers 24 23
Number Turkey Flocks tested 68 63
Number Turkeys tube tested 61,522 61,555
The poultry diagnostic laboratories are located at Monroe,
North Wilkesboro, Raleigh, Shelby and Waynesville. The poul-
try diagnostic laboratory in Raleigh is more adequately equipped
and staffed than the other four laboratories. The Raleigh Lab-
oratory, in addition to routine diagnostic services, received path-
ological specimens from the four branch laboratories when more
complicated laboratory tests were required.
The poultry and virus diagnostic laboratory building, now
under construction on Western Boulevard in Raleigh, should be
Report for 1956-58 — Veterinary 125
completed and equipped during the first year of the next bien-
The Wilkes Area Poultry Association built and donated a mod-
ern poultry laboratory building during this biennium. The lab-
oratory equipment was furnished by the Veterinary Division
of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture.
The poultry diagnostic laboratories autopsied 7,268 birds dur-
ing the fiscal year 1956-57 and 11,928 birds during the fiscal year
1957-58. These laboratories conducted 113,374 serological tests
during the fiscal year 1956-57 and 148,793 during the fiscal year
The voluntary inspection of poultry for wholesomeness and
voluntary inspection of meat, meat products and meat by-prod-
ucts are under the supervision of the Veterinary Division. The
veterinarians and lay inspectors required for inspection service
are employed as temporary personnel. The inspection and ad-
ministrative costs are collected from the operators of the poultry
and meat establishments.
A. B. Fairley
State Warehouse Superintendent
The state warehouse system, which now embraces a number of
commodities, was created by the Legislature of 1919 as a result
of a deplorable situation which cotton farmers faced at the be-
ginning of World War I.
Cotton was then bringing about 11 cents a pound, was difficult
to sell and could not be used as collateral for borrowing. It was
not practical to hold it for a rising market because there were
not many cotton warehouses, and some of those did not enjoy
The few warehouses were located in large cities. Most eastern
North Carolina producers sent their cotton to Norfolk on con-
signment. If not sold immediately, it was carried back to the
farm and usually left in the open. This resulted in heavy losses
from water and weather damage and exposure to fire and theft.
The development of an adequate warehouse system for this
staple crop was needed to enable its growers to withstand and
remedy periods of depressed prices. It was, therefore, necessary
to provide a modern system whereby cotton may be more profit-
ably and more scientifically marketed to make this important
crop serve as collateral in the commercial world. It was also
necessary to provide for strict state supervision of warehouse
operations and to establish a guaranty fund for "the financial
backing which is essential to make the warehouse receipt uni-
versally accepted as collateral." This fund came from a ginner's
tax of 25 cents a bale which was collected on cotton ginned in the
state for a period of three years.
The warehouse fund can, under the law, also be used to secure
first mortgages on warehouse construction. The purpose of this
measure is to aid and encourage the establishment of ware-
houses operating under the system. The law requires ten percent
of the fund to be invested in bonds, permitting the remaining
90 percent to be used for warehouse construction.
The State Warehouse System operates on the interest derived
from these loans and bonds, while the principal fund acts as a
guarantee back of the receipts issued by state licensed ware-
Report for 1956-58 — Warehouse 127
Although it was at first limited to cotton, the benefits derived
from the State Warehouse System were so great that the Ware-
house Act was amended in 1941 to include other agricultural
commodities, with the exception of tobacco. This has proved of
great benefit to the producers of grain and other farm commodi-
ties. It has been the cause of a steady increase in the construc-
tion of grain and other storage facilities. Several large grain
elevators are in process of construction at this time, as well as
several warehouses for storing sweet potatoes, and other com-
The law provides safeguards on warehouse loans. It spells out
the kinds of mortgages made, the amount of warehouse value
covered by such mortgage and time limitation for mortgage to
Before loans are made, the Warehouse Superintendent investi-
gates to determine if it is a safe risk and if the warehouse is
needed. Final approval for such loans must be made by the
Board of Agriculture, the Governor and the Attorney General.
A cooperative agreement with the United States Government
provides for warehouses to be licensed under federal as well as
state supervision. Warehouses are checked several times each
year by federal inspectors without cost to the state. Lespedeza
and poultry warehouses are licensed under state supervision only
and these are checked three or four times each year under state
Commodities stored in licensed warehouses are insured against
loss by fire or lightning. If grain is stored, it is also insured
against loss by windstorm. The law places responsibility for
insurance on the State Warehouse Superintendent and he has
other responsibilities relative to the collecting and payment of
Warehouses licensed under the State Warehouse System pro-
vide safe storage for farm commodities, and the receipts they
issue are accepted by all banks as the best of collateral. Pro-
ducers are, therefore, able to store their commodities and borrow
money on them, instead of being forced to sell at a time when
they feel that the price for their product is not a fair price. Stor-
ing agricultural products in state licensed warehouses provides
safety and promotes orderly marketing.
During the past biennium the State Warehouse System has
licensed for cotton storage the largest capacity in its history.
There were licensed 99 warehouses for cotton, with a storage
128 N. C. Department of Agriculture
capacity of 875,000 bales. This represented an increase of 200,-
000 bales over the previous biennium.
There were licensed also 19 grain and lespedeza warehouses,
with a capacity of over 3,000,000 bushels. This was an increase
of three warehouses and elevators for grain, and an increase of
1,000,000 bushels in capacity. There was one cold-storage ware-
Loans were made for warehouses and elevator construction at
Shelby, Statesville and Greenville, the first of these being a ware-
house for cotton, the other two for grain. The storage capacity
of the grain elevators is 700,000 bushels.
Several large cotton fires occurred, the total loss running over
$500,000. This loss was adequately covered by insurance and
all depositors were paid in full.
Payments of interest and principal on loans have, in most
cases, been met promptly, and the financial status of the State
Warehouse System is as follows :
June 30, 1956
Gash on hand Cash on hand First Mort- Invested in Gov-
Principal Fund Supervision Fund gage loans ernment Bonds
$53,183.83 $22,098.04 $308,416.00 $380,000.00
June 30, 1958
$ 228.95 $16,602.70 $612,868.00 $ 97,000.00
DIVISION OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
C. D. Baucom
The Uniform Weights and Measures Law was enacted for two
1. To protect the purchaser or seller of any commodity and
2. To provide one standard of weight or measure which
shall be used throughout the state.
Thus, the purposes and objectives are clearly defined. In the
attainment of the intent of the law, however, provision is made
for the adoption of rules and regulations devised and approved
by the Board of Agriculture which must be consistent with man-
dates of the law.
During the past biennium, the inspectors of this Division visit-
ed 22,831 places of business where weighing and measuring
devices were being used. They inspected 47,316 scales (con-
demned 3,799) ; inspected 60,351 weights (condemned 702) ; re-
weighed 212,151 packages (condemned 42,921, which unfortun-
ately is on the increase percentage-wise) .
In the auction tobacco warehouses they re-weighed 9,985 bas-
kets of tobacco which weighed a total of 1,675,997 pounds. Of
the number of baskets re- weighed there were 1,402 pounds gained
and 6,737 pounds lost, or a net loss, while on the floor and in the
process of sale, of 5,335 pounds or approximately three-tenths of
In the enforcement of the Liquid Fertilizer Law, our inspectors
visited 700 places where liquid fertilizer was being handled,
stored or distributed. They approved 1,339 installations as be-
ing safe and condemned 252 as being unsafe. During 1957, there
were 504 liquid fertilizer dealers and contractors registered in
this state, an increase of 143 over 1956.
This Division is also responsible for the enforcement of the
law dealing with the reduction of fire hazard in tobacco curing
barns. In the conduct of this activity, 5,288 new installations
were inspected, of which 4,489 were approved and 744 con-
Under the Weighmaster Act this Division annually registers
approximately 1,400 public weighmasters, who operate mostly in
130 N. C. Department of Agriculture
tobacco warehouses and livestock markets. Under the Scale
Mechanic Act approximately 90 scale mechanics are bonded and
registered annually, a legal requirement for the protection of
those who may need scale repair service.
North Carolina is one of the few states that has a prescribed
minimum-load-bearing concrete block strength. During the past
biennium, 732 concrete blocks were picked up and tested, and of
this number 656 were approved and 70 condemned. These
sample blocks were taken from every block manufacturer in the
state. It is interesting to note from our records that the average
load bearing strength now is approximately 30 percent greater
than the minimum requirement of 700 pounds per square inch
of gross load-bearing area.
It is also of general interest that basically the Weights and
Measures Division was created in the interest of the consumer,
and that all the services enumerated in this report were rendered
by a personnel of 16 employees, at a cost to the consumers of
North Carolina of less than two and one-half cents per person.
Our appropriation for 1957-58 was $98,566.00.
Gasoline and Oil Inspection
Administration of the Gasoline and Oil Inspection Law is a
separate function in the Weights and Measures Division. Its
purpose, as stated in the law, is "to protect the public in the
quality of the petroleum products it buys, to provide one standard
of measure, that frauds, substitutions, adulterations, and other
reprehensible practices may be prevented". Thus, our objectives
are well defined. The attainment of our objectives may be
evaluated by the following facts :
During the past biennium 83,038 places of business were visit-
ed; 205,995 pumps and meters inspected (7485 condemned) ;
28,674 tank trucks, meters and oil measures calibrated (234 con-
demned) ; 78,296 gasoline samples analyzed (292 condemned) ;
18,899 kerosene samples analyzed (241 condemned) ; and 11,278
liquefied gas installations inspected for safety (2496 condemned) .
There was an annual registration of approximately 350 pump
mechanics, approximately 275 liquefied petroleum gas dealers,
and approximately 750 registered gasoline brands. Gasoline
samples representing 1,450,654.894 gallons were taken during
the year 1957-58.
As of August 1, 1958 there were 18.203 gasoline retail outlets
in North Carolina, equipped with 41,994 gasoline pumps, 16,334
Report for 1956-58 — Weights and Measures 131
kerosene pumps, and 408 diesel fuel pumps, or a grand total of
approximately 58,736 measuring devices used daily in dispensing
petroleum products to the consumer.
A study of the above data reveals that the purpose of the law
as well as the objectives expressed are being attained through the
enforcement of the law, supported by reasonable rules, regula-
tions, and procedures devised and approved by the Gasoline and
Oil Inspection Board. The enforcement personnel consists of
an office staff of five, with 20 pump inspectors, six calibrators,
two liquefied petroleum gas inspectors, 20 chemists, and one lab-
The total appropriation for 1957-58 was $311,043.00. Whereas
an estimated four and one-half million citizens of this state bene-
fit, directly or indirectly, by this inspection service, it is interest-
ing to note that the cost per person is less than seven cents per