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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



C630.6 

N8a 
1960/62 



KBBffiMKSf-WCHWEL 



00017479836 



This BOOK may be kept out ONE MONTH 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE 
CENTS a day thereafter. It is DUE on the 
DAY indicated below: 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access (NC-LSTA) 



http://www.archive.org/details/biennialrepagric19601962 




BIENNIAL REPORT 

for 1960-1962 



NORTH CAROLI NA 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

L. Y. BALLENTINE. Commissioner 
RALEIGH, N. C. 



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STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 
June 30, 1962 



L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 
Ex-Officio Chairman 

J. Atwell Alexander Stony Point 

Thomas O. Gilmore Julian 

Hoyle C. Griffin Monroe 

Claude T. Hall Roxboro 

Tho mas G. Joyner Garysburg 

George P. Kittrell Corapeake 

Charles F. Phillips Thomasville 

J. H. Poole , West End 

A. B. Slagle Franklin 

David Townsend Rowland 

Others who served on the Board during this biennium until the 
expiration of their terms of office on May 4, 1961, were : 

W. I. Bissette Grifton 

Glenn G. Gilmore Julian 

J. Muse McCotter New Bern 






ABOUT OUR COVER PICTURE 

Our cover picture symbolizes the unbroken chain of rela- 
tionship from the plowed field to the market basket, in- 
volving modern technologies in every step from planting 
and cultivation practices to the processing and packaging of 
agricultural raw materials. 

It also symbolizes the unbroken chain of protective serv- 
ices provided by the North Carolina Department of Agri- 
culture. Beginning with the feed, seed, fertilizer and insecti- 
cides used by the farmer, protection is afforded not only the 
farmer, but also the consumer of his production. At every 
stage, the department has under scrutiny the grade, quality, 
wholesomeness, sanitation, packaging, labeling and weight 
or measure of every farm product moving into commercial 
channels. 

A study of this report will reveal how these and a host of 
other protective measures benefit everyone concerned — the 
farmer, the processor and the consumer. 

(Plowing scene by Ralph Mills) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Board of Agriculture 3 

Personnel 6 

Commissioner's Summary , 15 

Highlights of Board Meetings 32 

Accounting Division 38 

Chemistry Division 47 

Credit Union Division 59 

Dairy Division 63 

Entomology Division 70 

Farmers Market 77 

Markets Division 81 

Museum Division . 114 

Publications Division 125 

Research Stations Division 128 

Seed Testing Division 142 

Soil Testing Division 146 

State Fair Division 149 

Statistics Division 155 

Veterinary Division 158 

Warehouse Division 171 

Weights and Measures Division 174 



PERSONNEL 

of the 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

June 30, 1962 

L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 

Administration 

John L. Reitzel Assistant Commissioner 

Ruth C. Harmon Administrative Secretary 

Hazel I. Horner Stenographer III 

Barbara M. Williams Stenographer II 

Division of Accounts 

Grace H. Malloy , Accountant III 

Alice W. Brantley _ Accounting Clerk I 

Gaynelle Bulluck Cashier II — Dept. of Agriculture 

Linda S. Creech Accounting Clerk I 

Ollie G. Godwin __ Accounting Clerk I 

Elsie W. Jordan Accountant I 

Elizabeth W. Mitchiner Accounting Clerk II 

Linda A. Rhodes Stenographer III 

Annie F. Rosendahl __ Accounting Clerk I 

Eunice G. Smith Accounting Clerk I 

Peggy Y. Smith .._. Cashier I — Dept. of Agriculture 

Patricia P. Teal Accounting Clerk I 

Lunelle Yeargan .___. Accounting Clerk III 

Publicity and Publications 

M. Pauline DeCosta Public Information Officer III 

Julia G. Dodson Stenographer II 

Richard T. Evans __ Clerk I 

William E. Gulley Public Information Officer I 

Bettye T. Rogers Clerk II 

Inspection 

George A. Brown, Jr Feed, Fertiliser & Insecticide Inspector I 

Thomas E. Carriker, Jr ....Feed, Fertilizer & Insecticide Inspector I 

E. H. Cooper Tax Auditor III 

Ewell E. Evans Tax Auditor II 

Harvey C. McPhail.. .3= Feed, Fertilizer & Insecticide Inspector I 

James R. Stevens Feed, Fertilizer & Insecticide Inspector II 

Markets 

John A. Winfield Director of Agriculture Markets 

Wilbur S. Brannan Marketing Specialist III 

Ruby P. Britt Stenographer III 

Janice N. Burke Stenographer II 

Charles L. Campbell, Jr _ Marketing Specialist III 



Report For 1960-62 — Personnel 7 

John H. Cyrus ....Marketing Specialist HI 

Jay P. Davis. Jr.. Marketing Specialist IV 

Louise T. Dunn Stenographer III 

Charles B. Elks Marketing Specialist IT 

William J. Feimster ...Marketing Specialist II 

Joe B. Gourlay Marketing Specialist III 

Thomas E. Green, Sr Marketing Specialist III 

Evelyn G. Harper Stenographer HI 

Clarence E. Harris, Jr Marketing Specialist II 

Glen C. Hatcher, Sk Marketing Specialist II 

Wendell P. Hedrick Marketing Specialist IV 

James P. Hockaday, Jr Marketing Specialist II 

Robert D. Jenkins Marketing Specialist II 

Julius P. Jenrette - - Marketing Specialist IV 

Wallace G. Johnson Marketing Specialist III 

Ethel Y. Kiker Marketing Specialist HI 

Katherine B. Koppen .... Stenographer HI 

William E. Lane _.. Marketing Specialist IV 

Opal M. Liles. Laboratory Technician II 

Staley S. Long, Jr Marketing Specialist HI 

Hugh B. Martin Marketing Specialist IV 

Neill A. Morrison, Jr Marketing Specialist HI 

Charles G. Murray Marketing Specialist III 

Lavinia E. Murray Accounting Clerk II 

Hobart W. Myrick _ Marketing Specialist HI 

Mary L. Norman .__ Stenographer II 

Frances L. O'Neal.— Stenographer II 

William G. Parham, Jr Marketing Specialist HI 

Melvin J. Pierce Marketing Specialist III 

Arthur K. Pitzer... Marketing Specialist III 

Lois M. Pleasants Laboratory Technician III 

Phoebe D. Powers Stenographer HI 

H. D. Qltessenberry Marketing Specialist IV 

Joan E. Regal ...Accounting Clerk I 

B. S. Rich Marketing Specialist IV 

Walter M. Sawyer Marketing Specialist II 

Carson W. Sheffield Marketing Specialist IV 

Beatrice L. Smith Stenographer III 

Annie R. Strickland Stenographer II 

Curtis F. Tarleton Marketing Specialist IV 

Mallie A. Thomas Marketing Specialist II 

Carl H. Tower.. Marketing Specialist IV 

Vivian L. Traywick Marketing Specialist I 

Euris R. Vanderford Marketing Specialist II 

Grace F. Watkins Laboratory Technician I 

Pauline M. Watkins ___. Typist I 

Dewey C. Wayne Marketing Specialist IV 

Barbara J. Wood... Stenographer II 

Dairy 

C. W. Pegram Director of Dairy Service 

Lafayette H. Boykin, Jr Dairy Specialist II 

Charles W. Dunn .....Laboratory Helper 

Elmo H. Hollomon Dairy Specialist II 

Paul R. Jordan, Jr Bacteriologist III 

Dickson Q. Ketner Dairy Specialist II 

W. L. McLeod Dairy Specialist II 

Margaret L. Stubbs ..Laboratory Technician II 

Mary M. Weathers Stenographer II 

Giles M. Williams..... Dairy Specialist II 

Francis Patterson.. Dairy Specialist HI 



8 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Entomology 

C. H. Brannon -State Entomologist 

Hugh I. Alford, Jr.._. __. ...Entomologist II 

James F. Greene Entomologist II 

J. A. Harris... Entomologist III 

Jesse F. Sessions — Entomologist II 

Roy M. Schmarkey Entomologist II 

Norma R. Williamson Stenographer II 

D. L. Wray Entomologist III 

Seed Laboratory 

Willard H. Darst - Director of Seed Testing 

James M. S. Blocker Seed Specialist 

Shirley S. Bowling — Seed Analyst I 

Magdalene G. Brummitt Seed Analyst II 

Frances H. Colvix Seed Analyst II 

Mahlon B. Dickens Seed Specialist 

Stella W. Etheredge Seed Analyst II 

Virginia B. Griffix Seed Analyst I 

Kaye Frances Hymax Stenographer II 

Theodora W. King. Seed Analyst I 

Fred L. McHan Seed Specialist 

Murphy G. McKenzie, Jr Seed Specialist 

Tim H. Roberts Seed Specialist 

Ewald Smith Seed Analyst II 

Mildred W. Thomas — Seed Analyst II 

Analytical 

E. W. Constable State Chemist 

Elizabeth B. Barefoot Stenographer II 

Henry W. Barnes, Jr . Chemist IV 

Elizabeth F. Bartholomew Microanalyst 

Stanley E. Berkshire Food, Drug & Cosmetic Inspector 

Samuel C. Boyd .....Laboratory Helper 

Z. B. Bradford _._ ...Chemist IV 

Burney A. Britt Chemist II 

David E. Buffaloe Chemist IV 

William B. Buffaloe ...Chemist I 

Margaret B. Carter ___. Chemist II 

James A. Chapman Laboratory Helper 

Dorothy M. Davis.... Stenographer III 

J. Whitt Davis Feed, Fertilizer & Insecticide Inspector I 

Alicegrae F. Ferrell Typist III 

John J. Filicky Chemist II 

Evelyn A. Freeman Stenographer II 

Robert L. Freeman Food, Drug & Cosmetic Inspector 

Gilbert G. Garner Chemist I 

Charles H. Godwin, Jr..... Food, Drug & Cosmetic Inspector 

Pearl G. Gray Stenographer III 

Samuel H. Hinton Laboratory Helper 

Velva E. Hudson .. Typist III 

Harold L. Jackson ___ Food Chemist 

Jesse G. Jernigan Chemist II 

Vera C. Johnson _. Chemist II 

Frances L. Liles Stenographer II 

H. C. Matheson Chemist II 

W. P. Matthews Chemist IV 

Harry A. Miller Chemist VI 

William A. Morgan Laboratory Helper 

L. M. Nixon Chemist V 



Report For 1960-62 — Personnel 9 

Fred P. Nook ....Food, Drug & Cosmetic Inspector 

H. F. Pickering — Chemist IV 

J. S. Pittard Chemist IV 

L. B. Rhodes Food Chemist 

Clyde W. Roberts Food, Drug & Cosmetic Insnector 

Don H. Smith Laboratory Helper 

William Sylver, Jr Laboratory Helper 

Robert N. Tulloch __ Chemist II 

William T. Vick _._. Chemist I 

George R. Winstead, III Chemist II 

Crop Statistics 

John T. Richardson Administrative Officer 

Raymond R. Alford, Jr Miscellaneous Duplicating Machine 

Unit Supervisor. G. S. 4 

Mary S. Allen.. Research, Analyst I 

Thomas W. Brand, Jr Analytical Statistician, GS -12 

Louise W. Byrtjm Research Assistant 

Ben E. Clayton, Jr. ____ Statistician I 

Charlie H. Cross, Jr Duplicating Machine Operator III 

Martha F. Early Research Assistant 

Terry M. Edwards Duplicating Machine Operator II 

Evelyn L. Finch Vari-Type Operator II 

Jewell B. Hussey Research Assistant 

Ida L. King Research Assistant 

Minnie H. Langley... .Stenographer II 

Florine C. Leonard Research Assistant 

Mary F. Lloyd... Vari-Type Operator II 

Carrie Mae Mann Research Assistant 

Mary D. Matthews ...Research Assistant 

Natalie R. Shearin Research Assistant 

Robert H. Tilley Statistician GS-11 

Olaf Wakefield Agricultural Statistician GS-13 

Harry A. White Analytical Statistician GS-12 

Soil Testing 

Eugene J. Kamprath Director of Soil Testing 

John O. Anderson Laboratory Helper 

Billie G. Arrington Stenographer I 

Lula S. Bell. Typist I 

Evelyn S. Conyers Chemist I 

Carolyn O. Copeland Chemist I 

Joseph E. Douglas Laboratory Helper 

Sealey Gardner Chemist II 

Carolyn C. Holt Stenographer II 

Alice J. Honeycutt Stenographer II 

Juanita U. Matthews Laboratory Technician II 

Gerald D. McCart Agronomist I 

Alice F. McLamb Typist I 

Ann H. Scott.. Chemist I 

Dorothy R. Thornton Stenographer III 

Charles D. Welch Agronomist II 

Johnnie M. Wood all Stenographer I 

James R. Woodruff Agronomist I 

Veterinary 

Hal J. Rollins State Veterinarian 

Josephine A. Allen Stenographer III 

John Dean Baker Veterinarian III 



10 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Marvin A. Batchelok Livestock Inspector 

Charles R. Border Veterinarian III 

James C. Brown.__. ; . Veterinarian III 

G. I. Bullock - Livestock Inspector 

Rowland H. Butler... Clerk I 

Allie W. Carter Livestock Inspector 

Mary Esther Carter Laboratory Technician II 

Julius B. Cashion — _ Poultry Specialist I 

Jesse J. Causby Poultry Specialist II 

Kenneth G. Church.. .■-__ Poultry Specialist I 

James H. Clegg Poultry Specialist I 

William W. Clements Veterinarian III 

Alton L. Corbett Livestock Inspector 

Eugene C. Couch Poultry Specialist I 

Percy W. Dail, Jr Laboratory Helper 

Lilly F. Daughtry Stenographer II 

Guy E. Dowd Poultry Specialist I 

Thomas H. Eleazer .. Veterinarian III 

L. H. Fourie Poultry Specialist III 

James A. Frazier Poultry Specialist I 

George D. Fuller Livestock Inspector 

William B. Griffin — Veterinarian II 

Julian E. Guyton .Poultry Specialist I 

Ralph Hamilton Veterinarian II 

Nan M. Herndon .Laboratory Technician II 

Oscar F. Hill Livestock Inspector 

George Hinton Laboratory Helper 

George L. Hunnicutt Veterinarian II 

Geneva C. Hunt Stenographer II 

G. W. Ivey Poultry Specialist II 

Evelyn M. Jernigan Stenographer II 

R. Russell Jeter V eterinarian II 

Austin R. Johnson _.. V eterinarian III 

William W. Keever Livestock Inspector 

James D. Kelley Poultry Specialist I 

Irene K. Kilpatrick Laboratory Technician II 

Mary L. Kinsaul Laboratory Technician II 

Eunice G. Lipham Laboratory Technician II 

Fred D. Long Poultry Specialist I 

Paul C. Marley Poultry Specialist I 

Oren D. Massey, Jr Poultry Specialist I 

James R. Miller Veterinarian II 

Lola S. Mitchell Stenographer II 

CoRRiNE K. Murray Laboratory Technician II 

Nadine R. Nesbit Laboratory Technician II 

Christine B. Oliver Laboratory Technician III 

Mary D. Owen Laboratory Technician II 

Walter G. Pearson Veterinarian III 

Peter S. Penland Poultry Specialist I 

Herbert P. Perry ____ Poultry Siiecialist I 

Franklin Peterson Laboratory Helper 

Clifford W. Pittman Veterinarian III 

Lucy D. Ponder Laboratory Technician III 

Hugh M. Powell Veterinarian III 

Othell H. Price Stenographer II 

Verlin E. Reese... Poultry Specialist I 

James U. Richardson Laboratory Helper 

Terrell B. Ryan _ Veterinary Virologist 

Phil R. Sandidge ....Poultry Specialist I 

George W. Simpson Poultry Specialist I 

Dixie D. Southard Poultry Specialist I 



Report For 1960-62 — Personnel 11 

Wilton S. Thorp - V eterinarian III 

Mary G. Van Horn Laboratory Technician II 

Claude G. Wilkes..... Veterinarian III 

Kenneth C. Wilkins Laboratory Helper 

Theron S. Williams _. Veterinarian III 

John R. Woody Poultry Specialist I 

Thomas F. Zweigart, Jr Director Diagnostic Laboratories 



Research Stations 

Cecil D. Thomas Director of Research Stations 

William W. Allen Administrative Officer I 

Geraldine P. Narron Stenographer II 

Elwood Arlington Allen Maintenance Man I 

Fenner B. Harris Herdsman I 

Jacqueline S. Harrison Stenographer I 

J. L. Rea, Jr Farm Superintendent II 

Norman E. Callahan Farm Foreman II 

J. M. Carr Farm Superintendent II 

Elizabeth Floyd Stenographer II 

Joanne C. Hatton - — Typist II 

Chester Kearney .,— .. Farm Hand 

Alton E. Wood Agriculture Research Specialist IV 

Susan D. Killebrew Stenographer I 

Clyde Z. McSwain, Jr ._._ Farm Superintendent II 

Robert M. Smith ...Farm Foreman II 

Thilbert A. Suggs Agriculture Research Specialist IV 

Randolph Whitley Herdsman I 

Theodore R. Burleson, Jr Poultryman II 

Rufus Curtis Dairyman 

James R. Edwards .....Agriculture Research Supervisor II 

Bernice H. Harrell Stenographer II 

Garfield Harris Farm Foreman II 

William C. Holder Dairyman 

Murray R. Whisenhunt Farm Superintendent II 

Lena M. Neaves Stenographer I 

Gordon D. Sheets Farm Foreman II 

Dan L. Taylor Herdsman I 

Dana F. Tugman.... Farm Superintendent II 

Ernest W. English ..Poultryman 

Jacob B. Matthews Dairyman 

Melvin G. Richert Dairyman 

John Sasser, Jr Farm Foreman II 

Jesse W. Sumner Farm Superintendent II 

B. L. Williams Stenographer II 

Warren H. Bailey Farm Superintendent II 

Samuel J. Childs _ Agriculture Research Supervisor II 

Ralph Lynn Howard Agriculture Research Assistant II 

Anne Y. Lentz Stenographer II 

Samuel McKee Miller, Jr Farm Foremean II 

Homer G. Smith Dairyman 

James C. Taylor Herdsman I 

Charles H. Tomlin Dairyman 

Clark Wesley Walker Agriculture Research Supervisor II 

William B. Mallory _ Farm Foreman II 

Julia L. Skinner Typist I 

Millis B. Wright Farm Superintendent II 

William K. Brock. Farm Foreman II 

Wallace J. Dickens Farm Superintendent II 

Ruth 0. Lane Typist I 



12 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Weights and Measures 

C. D. Baucom... Superintendent of Weights & Measures 

John I. Moore Weights & Measures Inspection Supervisor 

Cecil C. Abernathy ____ Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I 

Walter R. Burnette ____ Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II 

Grady F. Hall Weights & Measures Inspector 

Robert R. Hyatt .__. Liquid Fertilizer Specialist 

Marion L. Kinlaw, Jr __: Weights & Measures Inspector 

Grover R. Kiser Weights & Measures Inspector 

Flora G. Lee Stenographer II 

Rufus A. Malloy Weights & Measures Inspector 

Jerry L. Morris ___. Heavy Duty Scale Inspector I 

Leroy S. Plyler Weights & Measures Inspector 

Ned A. Powell Heavy Duty Scale Inspector II 

Arline A. Rabil Stenogrpher II 

William D. Taylor Weights & Measures Inspector 

James M. Vestal, Jr __ Weights & Measures Inspector 

Dan C. Worley _. Weights & Measures Inspector 

Gordon S. Young Heavy Duty Scale Inspector 

State Museum 

H. T. Davis Museum Director 

Ludie V. Ashe Maid 

Julian W. Johnson __ Museum Exhibits Designer 

Ernest R. Jones Janitor-Messenger 

F. B. Meacham Zoologist 

Julia Lyles Nowell Stenographer II 

Sara D. Prince Clerk II 

Custodial 

Henry L. Hall Stock Clerk I 

Robert Harris Stock Clerk I 

Raleigh Farmers Market 

James A. Graham Manager 

Virginia P. Johnson Stenographer III 

Gasoline and Oil Inspection 

C. D. Baucom Superintendent of Weights & Measures and 

Director of Gasoline and Oil 

Josephine Aguirre Stenographer I 

Carey Mooney Ashley ..Chemist I 

Milton Barefoot Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Maddrey W. Bass Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Malver L. Boyette Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Glenn R. Cates Chemist I 

Lonnie E. Cayton Calibrator 

Harvey Clodfelter, Jr Chemist I 

Jack C. Connolly, II Chemist I 

Milton C. Converse ...Chemist II 

Emerson B. Deese, Jr.____ _' Liquefied Gas Engineer 

Joseph Denton Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Paul H. Etheridge Chemist I 

Thomas P. Gore Chemist I 

Roy B. Hallman ....Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Elliott Harrison.. Laboratory Helper 



Report For 1960-62 — Personnel 13 

Hugh F. Hayes Chemist II 

Horace E. Hekman .._. —.Calibrator 

Connie B. Hines, Se Calibrator 

Ira G. Holloway ._.. - Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Laura E. Hood Stenographer II 

Edwin H. Hutchins _ Chemist II 

Dorval T. Jones Chemist I 

Herman L. Jones Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Samuel K. Kelly Chemist I 

Richard W. King Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Gertrud Lake.. Accounting Clerk II 

Curtis R. Lindsay .Gasoline d- Oil Inspector 

Robert H. McArver __. .. Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Robert E. Mullen : ...Chemist I 

W. T. O'Briant: Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Douglas M. Pait Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

William H. Perry Calibrator 

Edsel H. Privette Calibrator 

Parley B. Rasmussen, Jr .....Chemist II 

Clyde W. Reeves. Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

James R. Rivers Gasoline &■ Oil Inspector 

Lindsey H. Roeertson, Jr Liquefied Gas Inspector 

Joseph C. Roebuck Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Milton H. Rowe, Sr — - Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

H. L. Shankle . Chemist V 

J. T. Shaw _____ Chemist II 

Harry W. Shelton ...Chemist I 

Ray D. Sigmon Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Koy S. Smith Gasoline <£■ Oil Inspector 

David S. Spivey .Calibrator 

Betty Jean P. Strobel Stenographer II 

Ralph G. Thornburg Chemist II 

James E. Turpin Gasoline & Oil Inspector 

Bobby W. Tuttle .___ Chemist I 

Howard L. Woodlief Chemist I 

Cooperative Inspection Service 

Beulah B. Pearce Accounting Clerk II 

Eldridge C. Price- Marketing Specialist III 

Samuel G. Rand _ Marketing Specialist II 

Egg Marketing Act 

Stuart A. Glover, Jr Marketing Specialist III 

Henry S. Kennett Marketing Specialist II 

Frederick D. Rowe Marketing Specialist II 

Sara P. Wells Stenographer II 

State Warehol'se System Supervision 

A. B. Fairley Warehouse System Superintendent 

Hazel K. Cobb ....Clerk II 

Frank C. Person _ Warehouse Examiner 

Martha E. Swindell Stenographer II 

Structural Pest Control Commission 

Rudolph E. Howell Entomologist III 

Norman R. Howell ._ Pest Control Inspector 

Barbara F. King __ Stenographer I 



14 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Credit Union Supervision 

W. V. Didawick -.Credit Union Administrator 

A. S. Bynum ...Fiscal Examiner II 

Joseph M. Jones _. Fiscal Examiner II 

Rodney C. Orndorff Fiscal Examiner II 

Esther M. Parrish Stenographer II 

Howard L. Pijahn Fiscal Examiner III 

Billy W. Ray Fiscal Examiner I 



Distribution of Surplus Commodities 

Samuel T. Avera Food Distribution Supervisor 

Gladys R. Dudley Stenographer III 

Catherine S. Holden Typist II 

James M. Hunter, Jr Warehouseman 

Cecil L. Morris Warehouseman 

Lanelle S. Phillips Accounting Clerk II 

William C. Taylor Food Distribution Supervisor 

Bobby G. Thompson Stock Clerk I 



State Meat and Poultry Inspection 

Earl W. Stapp State Supervisor, Meat <£ Poultry Inspection 

William L. Abbott Veterinarian HI 

Clarence B. Barker ..Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Billy R. Bradshaw Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Bobbie W. Brannan Stenographer II 

William C. Buchanan Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Algie D. Cobb .. _ Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Lewis J. DeMarcus ..Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Norman C. Eason Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Harry K. Edmondson Veterinarian II 

James R. Griffin Meat & Poultry Inspector 

James F. Holcomb ___. Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Cornelius W. Jonkheer Meat & Poultry Inspector 

George M. Kerr Veterinarian II 

Burt W. Larsen _ Veterinarian II 

Edmond G. Massad .Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Woodrow E. McGimsey Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Edward B. Moore Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Clare W. Nielsen Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Alexander W. Outterbridge Meat <& Poultry Inspector 

Fred R. Parrish .._. Meat & Poultry Inspector 

James Robert Phillips Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Harley W. Reason ___ __ Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Nicholas F. Shine Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Roy S. Staton ...Meat & Poultry Inspector 

William H. Taylor Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Joseph L. Thompson ._ .Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Peggy R. Upchurch . Stenographer II 

Grady M. Williamson.... __ Meat & Poultry Inspector 

Richard C. Yarbrough Meat & Poultry Inspector 



BIENNIAL REPORT 

OP THE 

NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

By L. Y. Ballentine 
Commissioner of Agriculture 

It is pertinent to begin this report with a quotation from the 
1958-60 biennial report. After discussing the multiple "prob- 
lems of progress" which came to a head during that two year 
period, I wrote: 

"We are not over the hump. Both regular and emergency de- 
mands on the Department can be expected to increase in volume 
and importance for some time to come. Certainly we can expect 
new problems in the biennium ahead, added to those not yet 
solved. Some will need handling by legislative amendment ; some 
will necessitate regulatory action by the Board of Agriculture; 
some will demand changed or expanded administrative proced- 
ures ; and some will require action at all three of these levels." 

That "biennium ahead" is now immediately behind us, and 
retrospect reveals no need for changing the statement then made 
in prospect. Yet each biennium develops one or more distin- 
guishing characteristics of its own, and two seem to be particu- 
larly outstanding as they relate to the Department of Agricul- 
ture in the 1960-62 biennium. One is the compounding of prob- 
lems by reason of a tighter over-all economy. The other, closely 
related to the first, is the increasingly acute awareness on the 
part of Department personnel that its protective services must 
be an unbroken chain all the way from raw materials to the ul- 
timate consumer. 

A tighter economy means keener competition and a scramble 
to get onto the market with something "new" or a frenetic 
manipulation of all kinds of sales gimmicks. Examples of some 
of these kinds of problems which have confronted the Depart- 
ment during this biennium include slack-filled packages, so-called 
cream substitutes, watered hams, innumerable weight-reducing 
products purported to be a complete diet in a can or a bottle, 
and other items which suddenly appear on the grocer's shelves 
bearing brand names but not the name of any identifiable food 
product. 



16 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

In short, this age of science which has brought us so many 
fine things, also makes it possible to exploit frivolous, use- 
less or even harmful things which are extolled as being of great 
new benefit to the human race. Of course, many products are 
worthy of such claim, and many others are not intrinsically 
harmful. Bui in the competitive race to get out something "new", 
there is an increasing tendency to put products on the market 
before they have been tested or approved by the authorities 
legally responsible for doing so. Tight competition affects ad- 
vertising concerns, too, both within and between agencies, creat- 
ing an increasing tendency to make extravagant claims for old 
and new products. 

Whatever the state of the economy, however, the unbroken 
chain of protection has become a permanent necessity in today's 
world. If such a chain can be said to begin anywhere that begin- 
ning is with the ultimate consumer. Indeed, most of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture's regulatory programs must now be aimed 
directly, first and foremost at protecting the ultimate consumer ; 
but this involves protecting also what might be called the primary 
and middle consumers. 

For instance, the farmer is a primary consumer of the ma- 
terials of agricultural production — seeds, feeds, fertilizers, 
pesticides and numerous other chemicals and materials. But 
protecting the farmer from unsafe or ineffective materials of 
production not only protects his economic position, it also pro- 
tects the middle consumer — the processor of his production — 
from harmful residues in food or feed crops, from low quality or 
scarcity of the products he processes, and in many other ways. 
Then the Department's protective responsibilities move into the 
processing plant, checking on its sanitation and the wholesome- 
ness of its output. But service and protection cannot stop there. 
For the ultimate consumer, that first and last link in the chain, 
the Department checks the finished product in retail trade 
channels — its wholesomeness, the truthfulness of its labeling, the 
accuracy of its weight or measure and many other factors of 
health or economic importance. And the benefits of these ser- 
vices pass back through the chain to the processor and farmer. 
No one segment can be singled out as having an exclusive in- 
terest in the protective measures. 

These factors have increased both the quantity and complexity 
of the Department's service and regulatory work. Indeed, it is 
almost impossible to draw a line between the service and regu- 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 17 

latory functions. It is always our desire to protect the con- 
sumer without inhibiting progress. Therefore, the Department 
must be increasingly alert to what is going on in every area of 
its responsibilities and find ways to work with the industries 
serving both farmers and consumers to help them meet reason- 
able standards while still protecting the consumer. 

Many of the problems which have had to be dealt with during 
this biennium have involved both an economic hazard and a 
potential health hazard to the consumers. 

Packages, slack-filled or so formed in such a way as to deceive 
the consumer regarding the amount of product he is getting for 
his money, involves of course only economics. And this is a 
matter that came to a head during this biennium primarily as a 
result of tightening competition. When the Weights and Mea- 
sures Division put on an intensive program to get packaged 
materials in line with the law most of the industries involved 
welcomed this move. This well illustrates that when the con- 
sumer is protected the industries involved are also protected — 
that when one or two members of an industry get out of line 
others are forced by competition to get out of line until finally 
deceptive or fraudulent merchandising is the rule, rather than 
the exception. 

Both health and economics are involved in administrative and 
regulatory measures concerning certain so-called cream sub- 
stitutes and many kinds of weight-reducing or dietary products 
which have come on the market. The former have been offer- 
ed to the market under a variety of brand names and not bear- 
ing the name of any food or dairy product which has been de- 
fined and for which standards have been set. Some are offered 
to be retailed in liquid form, displayed in dairy cases, and pack- 
aged in containers like those customarily used for cream or milk. 
Others are in powdered form for mixing with water. In 
restaurants, where they may be held or mixed under insanitary 
conditions and served at the table in unlabeled containers, the 
consumer may not only be defrauded but may be subjected to 
the hazard of high bacterial count. This is a matter that could 
be tackled administratively under existing laws and regulations, 
but it has severely taxed the personnel of the Dairy Division. 

For new dairy products offered as weight reducing diets, it has 
been necessary to draw regulations which would protect the 
consumer's pocketbook from high priced products making ex- 
travagant claims for their effectiveness. Warnings against their 



18 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

use as a total diet without a doctor's supervision had to be in- 
corporated in the labeling. And the inspection and analytical 
work has to be extremely careful to assure that all the vitamins 
and minerals claimed to be in the product are actually there. 

Changes in farm production and marketing patterns have 
come on rapidly and will continue. These require keeping a 
sharp eye on laws and regulations designed to protect the farm- 
er. In the past, for instance, farmers bought their feeds and 
fertilizers in bags. These could be inspected at the dealer's 
place of business and samples forwarded to the Department's 
Raleigh laboratory for analysis. Now a good part of the ferti- 
lizer moves directly from the factory to the farmer's field. Much 
is applied to the land in the delivery equipment and is not 
stored anywhere between the factory and the soil. Feed is haul- 
ed in bulk directly from the feed plant to the farmer's feeding 
equipment; much of it under contract-feeding arrangements 
whereby both the farmer and the feed manufacturer have a 
stake in its quality, but from different standpoints. These 
changes pose inspection problems. 

Inspection programs, too, seem to have entered into an "eco- 
nomic" phase and are, unfortunately, being appraised too much 
on the basis of their cost instead of the value of the inspection 
itself. At all times, and most especially in this time of exceed- 
ingly keen competition, it would be extremely short-sighted to 
permit changed merchandising methods to move the farmer away 
from some of the long-time safeguards provided for his benefit 
merely because the changes involve broader or more complicated 
inspection services. Instead laws and regulations should be kept 
abreast of these changes. This is not said for the purpose of pro- 
moting distrust between farmers and the industries supplying 
them with the materials of production. Rather it is intended 
as a reminder that, like the case of slack-filled packages, only one 
or two people intentionally cutting corners can, through compe- 
tition, force others to cut corners until a generally bad situation 
prevails, even though the large majority of the industries gen- 
uinely desire to do right by their customers. 

Inspection programs must also be geared to meet the unex- 
pected hazards of progress. One such which the department 
has had to deal with during this biennium is that of treated seed. 
The treatment of seed with mercurials and other highly toxic 
substances is now an almost universal practice. This is of great 
benefit to farmers in preventing fungus and other diseases in 



20 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

their crops. But it presents hazards which have had to be dealt 
with in a variety of ways. Regulations had to be adopted to pro- 
vide for cautionary labeling of such seed, so that farmers and 
others handling it will not inadvertently expose themselves to 
danger. A continuing publicity campaign has had to be conduct- 
ed to warn against holding left-over treated seed in unlabeled 
containers or mingling it with feed for livestock. The depart- 
ment's feed and food inspectors have had to exercise the utmost 
vigilance to see that poison treated seed does not get into feed 
and food products. It was even necessary to install special 
equipment in the department's seed laboratory to protect analysts 
from poison in the seed they test for purity and germination. 

During the biennium covered by this report, too, it was dis- 
covered that the seed of crotalaria, long grown as a cover crop, 
was highly poisonous to livestock and humans. This has neces- 
sitated an intensive program, both regulatory and educational, 
to protect farmers from economic losses and consumers from 
health hazards. 

New Programs 

One of the most important programs launched by the depart- 
ment in its entire history is the compulsory inspection of meat 
and poultry made possible by the 1961 General Assembly. This 
program is moving off in an orderly and satisfactory manner. 
Although the mandatory provisions of the laws did not become 
effective until July 1, 1962, much preliminary work was neces- 
sary to get the program under way. As this report is written 
the inspection service has been provided for 36 meat slaughter- 
ing plants, 36 meat processing plants and four poultry plants. 

The preliminary work vividly revealed how greatly this man- 
datory inspection was needed, particularly as it relates to plant 
sanitation. The program is discussed in more detail in the Vet- 
erinary Division chapter of this report. It is sufficient to say here 
that this is another program, which, though aimed at the protec- 
tion of ultimate consumers, will be of benefit also to both the 
growers and processors of products for consumers. 

Another act of the 1961 General Assembly which is of im- 
portant benefit to both farmers and consumers was the purchase 
of the Farmers Market at Raleigh. This facility, purchased by 
the department as of July 1, 1961, is being paid for and operated 
at no expense to taxpayers. It is noteworthy that after starting 
without any funds, the market came to the end of its first year 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 21 

of operation as a wholly state-owned facility having not only 
paid out of its revenue the first installment and interest on its 
purchase, a sum amounting to $25,509, but also for numerous 
repairs and some additions. When the department purchased 
the market there were 20 shed units for use by farmers. During 
the past year 58 more have been constructed, making a total of 
78. 

This market has meant much, and can mean considerably 
more to farmers and the economy of North Carolina. There are 
four essentials for the success of such a market: (1) Facilities, 
(2) management, (3) purchasing power, and (4) volume and 
quality of produce. There will probably be need to add to this 
market's facilities in the future but, for the time being, these 
are reasonably sufficient. The market has good management. 
It has more buying power than it has been able to satisfy with 
quality products. Thus, the biggest need is for the farmers of 
North Carolina to realize that here is a market for quality pro- 
duce that will justify their making the effort to grow it. This 
is one of the higher priced markets on the eastern seaboard and 
our agricultural economy is missing a golden opportunity by not 
taking full advantage of it. 

In addition to the compulsory poultry and meat inspection 
laws are other new programs initiated in this biennium which af- 
fect both the producer and consumer of meat and livestock pro- 
ducts. One of the most important of these was expansion of 
facilities at the large animal diagnostic laboratory to take care 
of virus disease diagnoses and also to incorporate in the same 
facilities the poultry diagnostic work which had been operating 
in "borrowed" quarters at State College. 

A law enacted by the 1961 General Assembly which is of im- 
portance to the State's increasing poultry industry was one re- 
quiring an approved disposal pit or incinerator on commercial 
poultry farms for the disposition of poultry which die of some 
disease. The purpose of this law is to prevent the spread of 
disease from one poultry flock to another. 

A special appropriation granted by the 1961 General As- 
sembly has enabled the cotton fiber testing laboratory to pro- 
vide both expanded facilities and the personnel for processing 
a larger volume of cotton samples. A preamble to the bill ap- 
propriating these funds pointed out that "The State of North 
Carolina could, with expanded facilities, improve cotton mar- 
keting potential by having an adequate scientific appraisal of 



22 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

when, where and why cotton lint produced in North Carolina 
in inferior in quality and could take correct measures and could 
keep cotton mills and merchants fully informed of the superior 
qualities of cotton if adequate funds were provided for the 
modernization and expansion of the services of the Fiber Test- 
ting Laboratory of the Markets Division of the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture." 

While this special appropriation is very small, $3,400, it has 
greatly enhanced the value of the cotton fiber laboratory's ser- 
vice to the cotton growers and the cotton industry in this state. 

A new product requiring legislative attention during the 
biennium was the so-called "fortified" mulch, which came on 
the market with the claim that it contained added plant foods. 
It was necessary, therefore, to amend the Fertilizer Law to de- 
fine such products and to provide for their registration and in- 
spection. This is typical of the many new things that require 
constant alertness on the part of the department. 

In a samewhat similar category was the need for bringing 
frozen dessert mixes under the ice cream law, which was done 
by the Legislature in 1961. This was necessitated by the sharp 
increase in the number of "soft-serve" establishments which 
dispense semi-frozen desserts from the freezers for immediate 
consumption. This type of operation involves preparation of 
mixes in dairy plants for delivery to the soft-serve freezing 
establishments. 

New Legislation Needed 

Of vital interest to the state's agricultural and over all econo- 
my is the federal legislation designed to eradicate hog cholera. 
With all-out state cooperation there is no reason why a crash 
program for the eradication of hog cholera cannot be as success- 
ful as similar programs have been in eradicating brucellosis, 
vesicular exanthema, tuberculosis and other costly animal 
diseases. Funds for North Carolina's participation in this pro- 
gram are being requested in the department's budget for the 
1963-65 biennium. For this important program a total of $179,- 
958 is being requested for the two years of the biennium. With 
matching federal funds this hog cholera eradication program 
can mean literally millions of dollars to the economy of North 
Carolina. 

North Carolina's participation in the expanded food distri- 
bution program for needy families involved the department's 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 23 

commodity distribution section in sharply increased activities. 
Details of this program are reported in the commodity distribu- 
tion section of the Markets Division chapter of this report. How- 
ever, it is pertinent to point out here that this expansion makes 
increasingly acute the need for a new storage warehouse in Ra- 
leigh, funds for which have been requested, but denied by each 
legislature for the past 10 years. The urgency of this need cannot 
be too strongly stated. The rented storage facilities at Butner 
are not only inadequate but are unsafe and unsuitable for the 
proper storage of food. Yet, not only is this program growing in 
importance to the state through the increasing volume of foods 
handled for schools, charitable institutions and needy families, 
but also in many other ways. For instance, food supplies stored 
in the state are available when disaster strikes, as was the case 
when a freak storm devastated coastal counties last March, and 
are also vitally important to our civil defense program. The 
warehouse at Butner was constructed as a temporary building 
during World War II. It is rapidly disintegrating and it is just 
a matter of a short time before it will be altogether unusable. 

Activities of the Administrative Offices 

In the spring of 1961 a most important agricultural program 
was launched in the state. Known as the Agricultural Opportuni- 
ties Program, this project has had the full and aggressive sup- 
port of Governor Sanford. What might be termed a blueprint for 
the program was prepared by the North Carolina Board of Farm 
Organizations and Agricultural Agencies. The three major ob- 
jectives are 

(1) To lift the farm income. 

(2) Develop marketing and processing facilities. 

(3) To promote education for family and community develop- 
ment. 

The program calls for tackling farm income and marketing 
problems on the basis of economic areas, rather than on the basis 
of county or community enterprises alone, and a more total ap- 
proach toward full development of both human and physical re- 
sources. 

The Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner, as well as 
many of the Department of Agriculture's division heads and 
staff members, have been actively participating in this program, 
attending meetings and helping to formulate projects for im- 



24 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

plementing it, as well as working directly for its implementation 
in the various areas of the department's responsibilities. 

North Carolina's progress places greater demands on all its 
state officials to participate in coordinated activities at both the 
state and federal levels. Currently the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture for North Carolina is First Vice President and a member 
of the Executive Committee and Chairman of the Transportation 
Committee of the National Association of State Departments of 
Agriculture; a member of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Advisory Committee on Cooperative Work under the Agricul- 
tural Marketing Act with the State Departments of Agriculture. 

In the state he is a member of the Board of Directors of the 
Agricultural Foundation of North Carolina State College, a mem- 
ber of the Cotton Promotion Committee, the North Carolina 
Board of Farm Organizations and Agencies, and Chairman of the 
North Carolina Committee on Migrant Labor. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Governor's Council on Occupational Health, the Gov- 
ernor's Commission on Educational Television, the Governor's 
Emergency Resource Planning Committee, the North Carolina 
Council on Foods and Nutrition, the North Carolina Veterinary 
School Selection Committee, the Board of Directors of North 
Carolina Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, the Executive Com- 
mittee of the North Carolina Council of Community and Area 
Development, and Chairman of the Army Advisory Committee. 

By legislation he is Chairman of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and the State Board of Gasoline and Oil Inspection, and the 
Board of Directors of the North Carolina Agricultural Hall of 
Fame; a member of the North Carolina Milk Commission, the 
Crop Seed Improvement Board and the Atomic Energy Advisory 
Committee. 

Certain laws also provide for participation of department per- 
sonnel in the work of other state agencies. Under such a law, 
Dr. W. H. Darst, head of the department's Seed Testing Division 
is a member of the Crop Seed Improvement Board. 

The Structural Pest Commission law provides for the appoint- 
ment of a member of the department's Entomology Division 
staff and another member representing the department at large. 
Since its organization in 1955, Assistant Commissioner of Agri- 
culture John L. Reitzel has been the appointee representing the 
department at large, and since July 19, 1959, he has been secre- 
tary to the Commission. J. A. Harris is the entomology division's 
representative. 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 25 

The Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture also represents the 
department on the Animal Nutrition Committee at N. C. State 
College. 

All of these, and many other cooperative activities on the part 
of the administrative staff, are essential to the effectiveness of 
this department in carrying out its responsibilities. 

Work assigned to the various divisions of this department is 
described in chapters of this report prepared by division heads. 
However, activities under several laws placed under the admin- 
istration of the Commissioner of Agriculture are not covered in 
other chapters. It is proper, therefore, that they should be re- 
ported here. 

One such law provides for the licensing and regulation of ren- 
dering plants operating in this state. Unlike most laws admin- 
istered by this department, authority to adopt regulations is not 
placed with the Board of Agriculture, but with the Commissioner 
of Agriculture acting with the advice of a rendering plant in- 
spection committee. Composition of the committee is specified 
by law to be "one member who shall be designated by the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture and who shall be an employee of the 
Department of Agriculture, one member who shall be designated 
by the State Health Director and who shall be an employe 
of the State Board of Health, and one member who shall be 
designated by the Director of the North Carolina Division of the 
Southeastern Renders Association." Dr. H. J. Rollins, State 
Veterinarian, has been the Deparment of Agriculture member 
designated to serve on this committee since it was organized in 
1953. Other members are Dr. Martin P. Hines, veterinarian with 
the N. C. Department of Health, and Joe Suggs of Rocky Mount, 
representing the Southeastern Renderers Association. 

There are now 14 rendering plants licensed to operate in the 
state. All of these are inspected by members of the committee 
at least once, some several times, each year to ensure continued 
compliance with the law and regulations. 

A law enacted in 1949 providing for supervision of all agri- 
cultural fairs in the state is administered directly by the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture. There are no funds appropriated for 
its enforcement and the inspection work is "farmed out" among 
qualified department personnel. This arrangement has worked 
out very well, so far, and the law has done much to eliminate 
abuse of the name "fair" by undesirable fly-by night carnivals 
and tent shows. Under the law, only bona fide agricultural and 



26 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

industrial expositions may use the name "fair", and those classi- 
fied as commercial (charging admission or operating traveling 
shows or games) must be licensed by the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture. To obtain such license, the fairs must meet minimum 
standards adopted by the Board of Agriculture. There were 74 
fairs licensed in the state in 1960 and 76 in 1961. 

At the beginning of this biennium plans had been completed on 
a shrine for the Agricultural Hall of Fame which was created by 
a law enacted in 1953. However, just as work was about to start 
it was learned that the North Carolina State Employee's Credit 
Union, which had been housed in the Agriculture Building, was 
going to construct a building of its own. Moving some depart- 
ment offices into that space would make available a more suit- 
able room for the Hall of Fame than originally planned, so work 
on the shrine was halted. In the late spring of 1962 the State 
Employees' Credit Union moved into its new quarters. As soon 
as the vacated space can be remodeled for department offices 
the Hall of Fame shrine will be constructed. 

A number of farm commodity groups continue to avail them- 
selves of legislation permitting voluntary self-help assessments. 
Any such assessment must be approved by a two-thirds majority 
in a referendum authorized by the State Board of Agrictulture 
to be held by the association it certifies to be fairly representa- 
tive of the growers of the commodity to be assessed. The assess- 
ments are for the purpose of raising funds to promote the use 
and sale of the commodities assessed. A provision of the law 
allows an association the privilege of requesting the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture to collect the assessments for it, and a num- 
ber of associations have chosen this method. Collections are 
made by the Commissioner and handled throug the department's 
Accounts Division. Total assessment funds collected and turned 
over to the authorized associations during this biennium were as 
follows : 

North Carolina Peanut Growers Association $108,900 

North Carolina Cotton Promotion Association 47,800 

North Carolina Cattlemen's Association 55,000 

North Carolina Peach Growers Society, Inc. 10,600 

N. C. Poultry Council, Inc. 95,500 

N. C. Sweet Potato Association, Inc. (9 months) ____ 18,000 

The assessments have proved an effective tool in the promo- 
tional work of these and other commodity associations, and 
many of them have been overwhelmingly approved in several 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 27 

referendums. The law provides that continuance of assessments 
must be approved by a two-thirds majority in referendums held 
at three-year intervals. 

One of the state's most important self-assessment programs 
is that popularly known as "Nickels for Know-How". It derived 
this nickname from the fact that the assessment is five cents a 
ton on all commercial feed and fertilizer purchased by the farm- 
ers of this state, and the funds are used to supplement agricul- 
tural research. Since enabling legislation was enacted in 1951 
the farmers of this state have enthusiastically endorsed this vol- 
untary levy in four referendums. The law provides that the 
referendums shall be conducted jointly by the governing boards 
of the North Carolina Farm Bureau Federation, the North Caro- 
lina State Grange and the North Carolina Agricultural Founda- 
tion, Inc., with the approval of the State Board of Agriculture. 
It also stipulates that the assessment shall be collected by the 
Commissioner of Agriculture along with feed and fertilizer in- 
spection taxes and remitted by him to the North Carolina Agri- 
cultural Foundation. The Foundation, in turn, allots the funds 
where needed to supplement or support needed agricultural re- 
search and dissemination of research findings. During this 
biennium "Nickels For Know-How" collected and turned over 
to the Foundation totaled $337,317.80. The "Nickels" have done 
much to help bring our farmers the "know-how" essential for 
their adjustment to the "technological revolution." 

Personnel Changes 

On April 17, 1961 the department suffered the loss by death 
of Dr. J. Sibley Dorton who for 25 years had served as manager 
of the North Carolina State Fair. Dr. Dorton had a rare com- 
bination of qualities which had enabled him to bring the Fair 
to a position of pre-eminence in the southeast and make it one 
of the outstanding exhibitions in the nation. He was an able 
administrator, had an innate talent for showmanship and un- 
bounded energy. His talent for making the greatest showing 
for the minimum expenditure was a key factor in achieving the 
Fair's pre-eminence while at the same time keeping it one of the 
few state fairs in the nation operating on its own revenues with- 
out tax fund appropriations. Finding someone to fill this very 
large "pair of shoes" could not be rushed. Over the years there 
had been close collaboration between the Fair manager and the 
Commissioner, and this, combined with the fine organization 



28 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Dr. Dorton left, has made it possible for the Commissioner to 
direct the Fair and carry forward its tradition of success, pro- 
gress and expansion. This arrangement will continue until the 
position of manager has been filled. 

In the loss of other key personnel by retirement or resignation, 
the department has been fortunate in having capable staff mem- 
bers available for on-the-job promotion. While loss to the depart- 
ment of these capable and experienced people could be viewed 
only with deep regret by the administration, it is, nevertheless, 
a source of satisfaction to have on the staff capable, ready- 
trained people to fill the vancancies. 

C. W. Pegram, for 25 years head the department's Dairy Divi- 
sion, elected to retire at the close of this biennium. His con- 
scientious diligence has carried this division through the years of 
North Carolina's phenomenal dairy industry expansion and the 
growing number of regulatory problems involved in increased 
technology in dairying and dairy products. Francis Patterson 
who became head of the Dairy Division as of July 1, 1962 had 
been for 15 years on Mr. Pegram's staff and for much of that time 
had been assistant head of the Dairy Division. His experience 
before coming to the department included 17 years as milk sani- 
tarian with the City of Rocky Mount Health Department and 
nearly four years as field representative in quality control work 
with Southern Dairies in Atlanta, Georgia. He attended the 
School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina. He 
is respected throughout the dairy industry both in North Caro- 
lina and surrounding states, for his ability and for his fine spirit 
of cooperation in helping to overcome the many technical prob- 
lems involved in this industry. 

Fred P. Johnson, who for 24 years had headed the cotton and 
engineering section of the department's Division of Marketing 
retired in the spring of 1961. No other single person has done 
more for the cotton industry of North Carolina than Fred John- 
son. For him no hours were too long or task too difficult. He 
regarded each technical problem as a challenge and never rested 
until he solved it. Johnson's position was filled by H. A. Smith 
who had been working under Johnson for a number of years. 
Smith's own ability and personality, combined with his experi- 
ence working under Fred Johnson, had made him a worthy suc- 
cessor to this position. However, within a year after his appoint- 
ment to this post Smith resigned to go into food processing work 
in the Commerce and Industry Section of the N. C. Department 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 29 

of Conservation and Development. Charles B. Elks who had 
been working under Smith was named head of the section on 
July 3, 1962. Elks has been with the Department of Agriculture 
since 1959, first as a marketing specialist in the poultry and egg 
section. He had transferred to the engineering section in 1961. 
He holds a B. S. Degree in Agricultural Education from N. C. 
State College and his experience includes seven years as voca- 
tional agriculture teacher at Pantego High School and two years 
as a county supervisor for the Farmers' Home Administration. 

In January, 1961, O. W. Faison, who had headed the Marketing 
Division's grain section for seven years resigned to accept a 
position with Selective Service. He was succeeded by William 
E. Lane who for six years had worked under Faison as a grain 
marketing specialist. Faison had done an outstanding job dur- 
ing years when North Carolina's sharply expanding grain pro- 
duction placed a great strain on the limited staff of this section. 
Equally outstanding has been the work performed by Lane since 
he succeeded Faison. Lane is also a graduate of North Carolina 
State College with a B. S. Degree in Agricultural Education. 

These promotions within the ranks are significant of the 
generally high caliber of employees in the department, indicating 
the fine administrative ability of those they succeeded and the 
generally conscientious devotion to duty which prevails in the 
department's personnel. It is not only gratifying to have people 
ready to step into the shoes of extremely able personnel which 
the department must lose in the natural course of events, it is 
also a financial saving to the state, since there is naturally an 
investment in on-the-job training which must be given to any 
completely new employee. 

During this biennium, as has been true in all bienniums in re- 
cent years, the department's resources have been stretched to 
meet increasing demands and in many instances its human re- 
sources have been stretched the farthest. The administration of 
the department and the people of North Carolina owe a debt of 
gratitude to many staff members at all levels who have volun- 
tarily and willingly given every ounce of their energies to meet- 
ing the demands. 

State Board of Agriculture 

The Board of Agriculture is the regulatory and policy making 
body for the Department of Agriculture. Its membership cur- 




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Report For 1960-62 — Administration 31 

rently, and by long tradition, represents the finest kind of in- 
telligent agricultural leadership and dedicated public service. 

The Board consists of ten members appointed by the Gover- 
nor for six-year terms of office. However, the law provides for 
staggered terms, so that not all expire at one time, and requires 
that the members shall be active farmers, representing the major 
sections and types of agriculture in the state. 

The multiplying problems of progress place commensurately 
heavier burdens upon this Board. Regulatory provisions on which 
they must pass increase in complexity and in number. The Board 
members are all busy farmers and businessmen, active in many 
civic affairs at community and state level. Except for a nominal 
pay for days actually in session or traveling on business for the 
Board, their only compensation is the knowledge that they are 
serving their state and their nation. Yet they give without stint 
of their time and talents to the business of the Board not only in 
formal sessions but in travel and other activities to further the 
interest of the Department and North Carolina Agriculture. 

Beginning on the following page is a summary of matters 
brought before the Board in sessions totaling 13 days during this 
biennium. This gives some idea of the duties and responsibility 
of this truly "working" Board. 



HIGHLIGHTS OF BOARD MEETINGS 
1960-1962 Biennium 



October 10, I960 
Raleigh 



Licensing 

Seed Cleaners 



Warehouse Loan 



High Fiber 
Poultry Feed 



Rice Hulls in 
Feeds 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G-. 

Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin. Claude T. Hall, George P. 

Kittrell, J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. 
Poole, A. B. Slagle. 

Received report from W. H. Darst, head of the Seed 
Testing Division, on possibility of controlling illegal 
sale of N. 2 Lespedeza seed by licensing seed cleaners, 
and recommended, Dr. Darst and committee continue 
study of the inferior seed problem, to report again at the 
next meeting of The Board. 

Approved loan from Warehouse Fund of $7,500 to Farm- 
ers Cotton Warehouse, Inc., Wagram, N. C. for expansion 
of its warehouse. 

Held public hearing on content of high fiber feeds for 
pullets and young turkey hens, and voted unamiously 
to extend the regulation governing it for another year. 

Heard manufacturer's request that rice hulls be per- 
mitted for use in feeds, and authorized a committee to 
study the use of rice fiber in feeds. 



Bottling Citrus in Held scheduled public hearing on a proposal to amend 
Plants A MUk regulations to permit bottling of non-carbonated and 
artificial fruit drinks in Grade A milk plants. The hear- 
ing was continued to the next meeting of the Board. 



Fortified Skim 
Milk 



Rural Road 
Identification 



Right-of-Way 
Agreement 



Heard informal proposals by industry: (1) To add forti- 
fied (vitamin-mineral) skim milk to definitions in regu- 
lations and permission to raise percentage of solids 
in skim milk; and (2) To establish definitions and 
standards for a dietary modified milk to be sold as a re- 
ducing diet. The Board referred these matters to an 
authorized committee, its findings to be presented at a 
future scheduled public hearing. 

Endorsed a request to petition the Highway Commission 
to continue using signs naming rural roads in addition 
to a numerical sign system. 

Approved right-of-way across old Piedmont Test Farm 
in Statesville to the Highway Commission. 



Peach Referendum Heard summary of votes cast in the Peach Referendum 
Report favoring assessment. 

November 21, i960 Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Rale '9 h Gilmore, Claude T. Hall, George P. Kittrell, J. Muse 

McCotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole. 

Audit for Year Received for study report on audit of the North Caro- 
lina Department of Agriculture from Mrs. Grace H. 
Malloy. 

Pesticide- Held scheduled public hearing on regulations governing 

Fertilizer Mixes pesticide-fertilizer mixtures and pentachloronitroben- 
zene — landplaster mixtures. Adopted regulations gov- 
erning mixtures permitted to be sold until July 1, 1961. 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 



33 



Illegal Sales of 
Lespedeza Seed 



Heard report of committee's study of problems in policing 
illegal sales of lespedeza seed, and recommended that the 
study continue, the committee reporting to the Board 
at its next meeting. 



Prohibit Sale of Heard and approved administrative measures to pro- 
Grain Containing n ibit sa i e f grain containing crotalaria in excess of that 
permitted by the federal government. 



December 19, I960 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Claude T. Hall, J. Muse McCotter, Charles F. 
Phillips, J. H. Poole and A. B. Slagle. 



Bottling Citrus Held public hearing on bottling of citrus and other fruit 
F^t^Driifk ^! 61 drinks in dairy plants. Board elected to permit dairy 
Dairy Plants plants to continue citrus and fruit drink operation un- 
til an appointed committee could work out standards for 
presentation to Board. 

Fortified Grade A In a public hearing approved dairy regulations defini- 

™-i? un » e £»^ Uk tion to provide skimmed milk with added solids to con- 
With Added , . , , ,. 1A .., ,., , - , 

Solids tain not less than 10 percent milk solids-not-fat. 



Dietary Modified 
Milk 



Held public hearing and adopted regulations permitting 
sale of dietary modified milk for six-month period. 



Counter ice Cream Held public bearing and adopted regulations permitting 
Freezers installation of counter ice cream freezers to be used in 

food preparation rooms where griddles and warmers are 
provided with specific adequate ventilation. 

Crotalaria — In a public hearing amended Seed Regulations, pro- 

Prohibited Nox- hitated noxious weed seed list, to include crotalaria when 

imi<2 \Vopn Sppri 



ious Weed Seed 



Warehouse Loan 
Foreclosure 



it is found in other crop seed. 

Voted to authorize the Commissioner to complete fore- 
closure on property securing loan from Warehouse Fund 
to Traywick & Traywick, Albemarle. N. C. 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn C. 
Gilmore. Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, J. Muse Mc- 
Cotter, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle. 

Held a public hearing and adopted regulations and 
standards for non-carbonated citrus juices and fruit 
flavored drinks bottled in Grade A milk plants. 

Voted to release a portion of land securing mortgage 
for Warehouse Loan at Sandhills Bonded Warehouse at 
Southern Pines. 

Approved warehouse loan of $50,000 to Moyock Trading 
Co., Inc., for construction of 32,000 bushels of grain 
storage. 

Confirmed earlier approval of lease of warehouse space 
at Salisbury for storage of commodity distribution foods 
for needy persons. 

Feed Law Endorsed recommended changes in feed law to permit 

rice hulls and some other materials to be used in feed- 
ing stuffs, and to require registration of feeds used by 
contract feeders. 

Meat and Poultry Endorsed proposed compulsory meat and poultry in- 
spection spection legislation pending in the General Assembly. 



April 17, I96I 
Raleigh 



Xon-carbonated 
Drinks Bottled 
in Dairy Plants 



Release of Land 



Warehouse Loan 



Lease of Food 
Storage Space 



34 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



June I, 1961 
Raleigh 



Fertilizer Grade 
List 



Fertilizer- 
Pesticide List 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, J. Muse Mc- 
Cotter, Charles F. Phillips and J. H. Poole. 

After a public hearing, adopted Fertilizer Grade List 
from previous year without changes. 

Held public hearing and adopted pesticide-fertilizer list 
for 1961-62. 



Labeling of Colored After a public hearing amended regulations governing 
Fertilizer fertilizers to require labeling where artificial coloring 

agents are added to mixed fertilizers. 



June 2, 1961 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, W. I. Bissette, Glenn G. 
Gilmore, Hoyle C. Griffin, Claude. T. Hall. J. Muse Mc- 
Cotter, Charles F. Phillips and J. H. Poole. 



State Fair Audit Heard report on audit of 19 60 State Fair. 

Bottling Lemonade Held public hearing and amended Food and Drug regu- 
rn Grade A Dairy ] a tions to permit bottling of lemonade in Grade A dairy 
plants. 



Frozen Dietary 
Modified Milk 



After a public hearing, amended dairy regulations to per- 
mit manufacture and sale of frozen dietary modified 
milk. 

Right-of-Way at Recommended grant of easement for right-of-way to 
Oxford station the state Highway Commission at the Oxford Tobacco 
Research Station. 



July 12, 1961 
Raleigh 



New Members 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, Hoyle 
C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, Charles F. 
Phillips, J. H. Poole, David Townsend. 

New Board Members Thomas G. Joyner, Thomas O. Gil- 
more and David Townsend were welcomed. 



Sweet Potato 
Referendum 



Heard petition and approved North Carolina Sweet Po- 
tato Association, Inc., as duly authorized agent to conduct 
referendum on the question of assessment on commercial 
sweet potato growers for purposes of promotion. 



August 14, 1961 
Raleigh 



Presents: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, Hoyle 
C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, Charles F. 
Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle and David Townsend. 



Warehouse Loan Tentatively approved a loan from the Warehouse Fund 
to the E. B. Grain Company, Inc., to increase its grain 
storage capacity provided sufficient drying accomodation 
was provided, the amount of the loan to be fixed at the 
Board's next meeting. 



Right-of-Way 

Easement 



Approved granting to Highway Commission a right-of- 
way easement at the Oxford Tobacco Research Station 
for a county road across the Station. 



Calcium Carbonate After a public hearing, approved amendments to Feed 

tr^Peed™ Weed Regulations gaverning percentage of calcium carbonate 

and Poisonous in poultry feeds; and adding poisonous seeds and viable 

Seeds seeds non-poisonous to list of ingredients not permitted 

included in commercial feeding stuff for sale. 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 



35 



Poison-treated 
Seed 



Dietary Modified 
Milk 



Held a public hearing on labeling seed treated with 
substances harmful to humans and other vertebrate 
animals, approving amendments of seed regulations to 
make them consistent with federal regulations. 

Held public hearing continuing in effect dairy regulation 
permitting manufacture and sale of dietary modifier! 
milk until February 15, 1962. 

Quiescently Frozen After public hearing, adopted amendments to the dairy 
Confections regulations setting definitions for quiescently frozen 

products. 

Held a public hearing on counter-freezer installations, 
and approved amendment to the dairy regulations re- 
quiring inspection certificate before installation. 

In a public hearing adopted amendment to dairy regu- 
lations permitting sale of ice milk in % pint containers. 



Counter-Freezer 
Installations 



Ice Milk 
Containers 



Commercial Weigh- Adopted amendments to weights and measures regula- 

ing and Meas- tions to provide consistency, with some exceptions, to 
urmg Devices „ , n , * , , , , . . 

federal standards and regulations. 

Railroad Encroach- Approved the grant of encroachment agreement to Alex- 

ment at states- an( j e r County Railroad for spur track along property 

owned by the Department of Agriculture at Statesville. 



Garbage-fed^ Swine Held public hearing and adopted rewriting of veterinary 
ease aiea^ures 1S " re § ula tions government movement, sale and quarantine 
of garbage-fed swine; and rewriting of regulations con- 
cerning Bang's Disease to conform with federal regu- 
lations. 

Land Purchase at Approved purchase of 20.6 acres of land and dwelling 
Piedmont Station ^ ^ e a^ed t property adjacent to poultry testing area 
as "buffer strip" to control disease contamination from 
neighboring flocks. 



October 16, 1961 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, 
Claude T. Hall. Thomas G. Joyner, Charles F. Phillips, 
J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle, David Townsend. 



Mexican Secretary Julian Rodriguez Adame, Mexican Secretary of Agricul- 
of Agriculture ture met with the Board and as their guest visited the 
State Fair. 



Warehouse Loan 



State Fair 



Approved loan of $28,000 from the warehouse fund to 
E. B. Grain Company of Battleboro. 

Participated in ceremonies opening 19 62 State Fair and 
dedication of Arena to late Fair Manager J. S. Dorton. 
Inspected Fair. 



January 29, 1962 
Raleigh 



Warehouse Loan 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, Hoyle 
C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, Charles F. 
Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle, David Townsend. 

Approved a warehouse loan of $112,500 to Laurinburg 
Milling Co., or half the cost of a grain storage facility, 
whichever is less, pending availability of funds and sub- 
ject to approval of plans by the Board. 

Food Distribution Adopted resolution permitting Commissioner to lease 
Warehouse Lease space on a continuing basis for storage of foods at Salis- 
bury for distribution to needy persons. 



36 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



Space Rental at Approved lease of space at Farmers Market formerly 
Farmers Market uged ag barber shop. 

Meat and Poultry After a public hearing adopted rules, regulations, defini- 
Reguiations tions and standards to carry out Compulsory Meat and 

Poultry Inspection Laws. 



Dietary Modified 
Milk 

Frozen Dietary 
Modified Milk 

Single-service 
Containers for 
Bulk Milk 
Dispensers 

Warehouse Loan 
Extension 



Extended effective date of regulations governing dietary 
modified milk manufacture and sale to August 15. 1962. 

Extended date of regulations governing frozen dietary 
modified milk manufacture and sale to August 15, 1962. 

Approved in principle and asked that regulations be pre- 
pared governing use of five or six gallon single-service 
containers to be used in bulk milk dispensers. 



Extended loan payment due date on loan 
storage to Fred Webb of Greenville, N. C. 



for grain 



March 5, 1962 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, Hoyle 
C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, George P. 
Kittrell, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle, 
David Townsend. 



Single-service 
Containers for 
Bulk Milk 
Dispensers 



Adopted regulation governing single-service 
tainer units for bulk milk dispensers. 



Veterinary Regula- Repealed sections of veterinary regulations dealing with 
R° n S j PC i lons serum and virus to swine intended for feeding and breed- 
ing purposes, and sale and distribution of virulent hog 
cholera virus. 

Voluntary Meat Repealed articles of regulations dealing with voluntary 
and Poultry meat and poultry inspection as superseded by the corn- 



Articles Repealed 



Second Creek 
Watershed 



Departmental 
Budget 1963-65 



pulsory law. 

Endorsed petition for a Second Creek Watershed Im- 
provement District, affecting agricultural economy in 
Rowan County and the Piedmont Research Station. 

Reviewed and approved budget for the Department for 
1963-65. 



Peanut Referendum Accepted report of referendum vote to permit assess- 
ment on peanut growers for promotional purposes as 
conducted by the N. C. Peanut Growers Assn., Inc. 



May 30-31, 1962 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, Hoyle 
C. Griffin, Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, George P. 
Kittrell, Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle 
and David Townsend. 



Appointment of Approved Commissioner's appointment of Francis Pat- 
Francis Patterson t erson to succeed C. W. Pegram, head of Dairy Division 

; ' ; " who retired June 30, 1962. 



After a public hearing, ammended the regulations gov- 
erning chemical standards for cottonseed meal. 



sion Director 

Cottonseed Meal 
Chemical Stan- 
dards 

Dietary Beverages Held a public hearing on a proposal to delete regula- 
in Special store tions requiring dietary beverages to be placed in "Spe- 
cial Dietary Foods" areas in stores. Deferred action. 



Report For 1960-62 — Administration 



37 



Dispenser Milk- Heard request to amend regulations to permit dispenser 
Shake Machines milk-shake machines in soft-serve establishments selling 

ill oOl L- Serve . --i-i-i-T-t "i-i 

Estab. four percent ice milk. Voted negatively, but requested 

further study of the situation. 



Japanese Beetle 



Warehouse Loan 



After public hearing, voted to repeal the N. C. Japanese 
Beetle quarantine, since a Federal quarantine eliminated 
the necessity of such a state order. 

Approved a loan of $24,000 to Shelby Bonded Ware- 
house, Inc., Shelby, for the construction of additional 
cotton storage. 



state Fair Audit The report on the State Fair Audit was heard by the 
Board and was accepted as presented. 



May 31, 1962 
Raleigh 



Present: J. Atwell Alexander, Thomas O. Gilmore, 
Claude T. Hall, Thomas G. Joyner, George P. Kittrell, 
Charles F. Phillips, J. H. Poole, A. B. Slagle, and David 
Townsend. 



Fertilizer Grade Held public hearing and adopted fertilizer grade list and 
rhtnr a Miv Hepta " list of pesticide-f ertilzer mixtures for 1962-63. 



ACCOUNTS 

Grace H. Malloy 
Auditor 



This division serves as the central fiscal and personnel division 
for the Department Proper and for 19 other Special and General 
Fund programs. Responsibilities of this division include: pro- 
curement, acceptance of receipts, including the collection of taxes 
and fees, and disbursement of funds, budget maintenance and 
control, and personnel affairs for the 20 programs, and the col- 
lection of assessments for seven agricultural promotional organ- 
izations and foundations. 

Financial report of the Department and the various divisions. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Code 28721 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962 

Summary by Purposes 1961-62 1960-61 

I. Administration $ 48,683.60 $ 45,518.72 

Accounting Office 63,704.33 55,422.80 

Publicity & Publications 45,402.15 41,464.43 

II. Inspection 73,745.90 72,601.72 

III. Markets 399,430.15 361,577.16 

IV. Dairy 78,336.43 72,623.90 

V. Entomology ._ 88,768.76 85,977.68 

VI. Seed Laboratory 95,889.77 89,557.93 

VII. Analytical _____ 264,529.05 233,221.37 

VIII. Crop Statistics 160,836.14 153,718.78 

IX. Soil Testing 114,151.58 105,987.62 

X. Veterinary 518,058.13 472,767.44 

XL Research Stations 636,048.29 558,690.39 

XIII. Weights & Measures _ 142,296.44 127,294.00 

XIV. State Museum 39,836.56 40.023.92 

XV. Custodial 18,644.48 18,335.62 

XVI. Miscellaneous _ 153,682.56 137,687.68 

XVII. Farmers Market 29,430.93 

XVIII. Merit Salary Increments 

XIX. Reserves __ 

Deferred Obligations Transferred to 1961-62 18,552.00 

Total Expenditures $2,942,044.32 $2,720,454.09 



Report For 1960-62 — Accounts 39 

Summary by Objects 1961-62 1960-61 

11. Salaries and Wages $2,010,825.40 $1,849,436.65 

12. Supplies and Materials 177.010.98 173.200.35 

13. Postage, Tel., Tel., and Express 36,310.49 38,233.17 

14. Travel Expense 203,433.44 202,886.69 

15. Printing and Binding _. 34,617.80 33,135.89 

16. Motor Vehicle Operations 17,596.52 18,215.41 

17. Light, Power and Water 10,821.65 12,599.85 

18. Repairs and Alterations _____ 61,413.37 45,988.87 

19. General Expense 107,645.02 112,776.88 

22. Insurance and Bonding 6,283.21 4,660.84 

23. Equipment _____ 135,544.70 81,533.34 

32. Additions and Betterments 

33. Stores for Resale 16,849.63 21,097.02 

Contribution to Retirement System 71,332.75 60,050.57 

Contribution to Social Security 52,359.36 48,086.56 

Reserves _ 

Merit Salary Increments 

Deferred Obligations Transferred to 1961-62.____. 18,552.00 

Total Expenditures $2,942,044.32 $2,720,454.09 



Less Transfer from RMA 58,306.64 56,254.02 

Less Transfer from AMA _____ 2,300.00 2,319.78 

Less USDA Cooperative Agreement 2,237.56 1,964.18 

Less Federal Cooperative Agreement..... 635.25 

Less Research Stations Perquisites _ 12,703.84 12,631.62 

Less Transfer from Cooperative 

Inspection— Code 28731 3,726.00 3,726.00 

Less Transfer from State Warehouse 

System— Code 28727 3,283.00 

Less Peanut Handler's Licenses.. _____ 1,850.00 1,840.00 

Less Sale of Equipment ____ 8,104.63 2,159.43 

Less Farmers Market 12,213.82 

Less Transfer from N. C. State College 4,167.00 3,972.00 

Less Market Inspection Fees _ 2,037.00 

Less Deferred Obligations Transferred 

from 1960-61 _____ 18,552.00 

Less Transfer from Distribution of Surplus 

Commodities— Code 28743 1,500.00 

Less Transfer from State Meat and Poultry 

Inspection Service— Code 28023 632.00 

Less Transfer from Gasoline and Oil 

Inspection— Code 12201 _____ 3,283.00 

Total $2,822,009.40 $2,620,090.24 

CONDITION OF FUNDS 

1961-62 1960-61 

Treasurer's Cash— June 30 _ $ 49,810.24 $ 49,259.73 

Investments in Bonds and Premiums on Bonds 103,874.98 103,874.98 

Total Credit Balance June 30 $ 153,685.22 $ 153,134.71 



40 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE 
Code 28721 

STATEMENT OP RECEIPTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

1961-62 1960-61 

Fertilizer T^x $ 400,193.76 $ 393,740.26 

Cotton Seed Meal ; 

Feed Tax 446.737.20 449,325. SO 

Seed Licenses 29.987.00 29,282.00 

Condimental Feed 11,543.00 8.340.00 

Serum _ 18.894.39 19,658.94 

Costs 11,404.27 9,816.01 

Linseed Oil (152.38) 345.48 

Bleached Flour 7,320.00 6,775.00 

Bottling Plants 1,170.00 1,420.00 

Ice Cream 4,345.00 2.435.00 

Insecticides 38,130.00 38,140.00 

Research Stations 206,072.62 204,284.98 

Bakeries 2,580.00 2,460.00 

Chicken Tests 97,111.49 95,880.99 

Seed Tags - 29.950.01 30,570.70 

Inspection Entomology 10,873.25 11,051.50 

Oleomargarine ._ 6,250.00 1,000.00 

Rabies 

Land Plaster and Agricultural Lime 34,378.66 36,459.36 

Fertilizer Registration 8,421.00 7,166.00 

Miscellaneous - 71.81 59.29 

Feed Registration - : 7,514.00 7,803.00 

Canned Dog Food Registration 1,316.38 405.00 

Lime Registration 405.00 450.00 

Livestock Marketing Permits 4,100.00 5,800.00 

Dog Food Stamps 14,150.95 12,499.14 

Hatchery Fees and Supplies 3,521.00 4,039.00 

Permits for Out-of-State Milk 75.00 

Anti-Freeze Permits ._.■. ..'.... 2,425.00 3,050.00 

Weights and Measures Fees 9,992.50 9,927.50 

Garbage Permits 482.00 317.00 

Babcock Testers License 186.00 192.00 

Tobacco Curers Tags - 8,117.50 7,699.00 

Sampler's Licenses 480.00 508.00 

Interest on Bonds 2,500.00 2,500.00 

Land P aster Registrations 45.00 70.00 

N. C. Sales Tax 

Rendering Plant License 100.00 

Recording Fee— Branding Cattle 6.00 1.50 

Potash Lime Tags 37.50 37.50 

Total Agricultural Receipts $1,420,559.91 $1,403,684.95 

Contribution from General Fund 1,402,000.00 1,233,987.00 

Total Revenue $2,822,559.91 $2,637,671.95 



Report For 1960-62 — Accounts 41 

gasoline and oil inspection 

General Fund— Code 12201 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1. 1960— June 30, 1962 

1961-62 1960-61 

Revenue Appropriation $ 394.751.00 $ 329.376.00 

Disbursements __ 383,3^0.82 31 5.670.75 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation 11,420.18 13,705.25 

CONTRIBUTION FROM THE GENERAL FUND 
General Fund— Code 28021 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 

July 1, 1960— June 30. 1962 

Revenue Appropiation $2,091,122.00 $1,435,523.50 

Expenditures 

Contribution to Department of 

Agriculture— Code 28721 1,402,000.00 1,233,987.00 

Contribution to Distribution of Surplus 

Commodities— Code 28743 167,896.63 23,828.34 

Reimbursement — Distribution of Surplus 

Commodities— Code 28743 1,536.50 

Purchase of Land Piedmont Research Station.... 14,646.75 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation 506,578.62 176,171.66 



STATE MEAT AND POULTRY INSPECTION 
General Fund— Code 28023 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1. 1960— June 30, 1962 

Revenue Appropriation $ 155,839.00 

Receipts 671.15 

Disbursements - 54,298.25 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation. 102,211.90 



STATE WAREHOUSE SYSTEM— SUPERVISION 
Special Fund— Code 28727 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1_ $ 10,238.55 $ 14,017.09 

Revenue Collections 34,423.91 35,734.40 

Miscellaneous Collections 723.85 13,241.14 



42 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

1961-62 1960-61 

Disbursements 

Expenditures 39,780.24 39,661.67 

Miscellaneous Expenditures 723.85 13,092.41 

Credit Balance — June 30 4,882.22 10,238.55 

STATE WAREHOUSE SYSTEM— PRINCIPAL 
Special Fund— Code 28729 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Cash on Hand — State Treas. July 1 $ 17,765.23 $ 16,367.22 

Receipts 

Repayment of Loans _.__ 59,974.00 43,574.00 

Sale of Bonds .__. 27,857.66 2,648.74 

Sale of State Property 355.00 3,835.00 

Payment of Loss Claim 10,000.00 

Total Availability 115,951.89 66,424.96 

Disbursements 

Purchase of Bonds 

Loans to Warehouses 78,000.00 47,500.00 

Judgment and Costs 62.10 

Foreclosed Mortgages 1,097.63 

Loss Claim ___. ____ 27,266.37 

Treasurer's Cash — June 30 10,685.52 17,765.23 

Loans to Warehouses 545,572.00 527,546.00 

Invested in 2%% U. S. Gov't Bonds 118,000.00 149,000.00 

Total Worth— June 30 674,257.52 694,311.23 



COOPERATIVE INSPECTION SERVICE 
Special Fund— Code 28731 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Treasurer's Cash— July 1 .__.. $ 253,713.33 $ 228,565.43 

U. S. Treasury Bonds— 2%% Par Value 40,000.00 40,000.00 

Premiums on Bonds 1,175.00 1,175.00 

Credit Balance— July 1 294,888.33 269,740.43 

Receipts __.. 480,309.23 445,228.16 

Disbursements __._ 459,501.24 420,080.26 

Credit Balance— June 30 __.. 315,696.32 294,888.33 



EGG MARKETING ACT 
Special Fund— Code 28733 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 

July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 13,601.39 $ 14,958.27 



Report For 1960-62 — Accounts 43 

1961-62 1960-61 

Receipts 25,571.18 23,303.99 

Disbursements ___ 26,178.65 24,660.87 

Credit Balance— June 30 ~ 12,993.92 13,601.39 



STRUCTURAL PEST CONTROL 
Special Fund— Code 28735 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1. 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 18,433.83 $ 14,717.97 

Receipts : .__. 18,034.00 17,162.00 

Disbursements 19,238.13 13,446.14 

Credit Balance June 30 _. 17,229.70 18,433.83 



VOLUNTARY POULTRY INSPECTION 
Special Fund— Code 28737 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 2,161.70 $ 2,161.70 

Receipts 

Disbursements 

Credit Balance— June 30 2,161.70 2,161.70 



CREDIT UNION SUPERVISION 
Special Fund— Code 28739 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 28,767.44 $ 22,629.08 

Receipts 57,787.68 53,141.27 

Disbursements 53,280.72 47,002.91 

Credit Balance— June 30 ..__. 33,274.40 28,767.44 



DISTRIBUTION OF SURPLUS COMMODITIES 
Code 28743 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 105,126.97 $ 96,667.01 

Revenue Appropriations 167,896.63 23,828.34 

Revenue Collections _ 4,127.81 13,326.69 

Disbursements 172,259.75 28,695.07 

Credit Balance— June 30 104,891.66 105,126.97 



44 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

SHEEP DISTRIBUTION PROJECT 
Special Fund— Code 28745 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

1961-62 1960-61 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 44,953.66 $ 51,553.22 

Revenue Collections 49,681.71 34,844.90 

Disbursements 32,210.84 41,444.46 

Credit Balance— June 30 62,424.53 44,953.66 



N. C. AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND MARKETING ACT 
FEDERAL FUND 

Special Fund— Code 28749 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 18,634.04 $ 18,307.84 

Receipts— RMA Matching Fund 60,717.98 58,900.00 

Disbursements 

Markets Division Expenses in Connection with 

RMA Project— Transferred to Code 28721 58,306.64 56,254.02 

Crop Statistics Division Expenses in connection 

with RMA Project Transferred to Code 28721- 2,300.00 2,319.78 

Credit Balance— June 30 18,745.38 18,634.04 



SPECIAL DEPOSITORY ACCOUNT REPORTING SYSTEM 
Code 28751 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 _ ...$ 5,000.00 $ 8,000.00 

Receipts — (Cash Bond Deposits) 

Reporting System 500.00 500.00 

Handler's of Farm Products 

Livestock Markets 1,000.00 

Disbursements 

Refund of Cash Bond Deposit Reporting System.... 500.00 3,500.00 

Refund of Cash Bond Deposit — Handlers of 

Farm Products 

Credit Balance— June 30 6,000.00 5,000.00 



Report For 1960-62 — Accounts 45 

voluntary meat inspection 

Special Fund— Code 28753 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

1961-62 1960-61 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 13,146.39 $ 13,352.07 

Receipts 78,963.23 86,286.91 

Disbursements 76,514.38 86,492.59 

Credit Balance— June 30 15,595.24 13,146.39 



OPERATION OP FARMERS MARKET 
Special Fund— Code 28755 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance — July 1 $ 

Receipts 67,524.04 

Disbursements 61,218.51 

Credit Balance— June 30 6,305.53 



RESEARCH STATIONS WOODLAND MANAGEMENT 
Special Fund— Code 28757 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Credit Balance— July 1 $ 

Receipts 18,682.51 

Disbursements 

Credit Balance — June 30 18,682.51 



PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS OF 1953 
Code 65342 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Appropriation $ 2,809.54 $ 2,809.54 

Disbursements 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation 2,809.54 2,809.54 



46 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS OF 1957 
Code 65777 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

1961-62 1960-61 

Appropriation $ 72.83 $ 72,000.41 

Transfer balance from Permanent Improvement 

Fund of 1949 Code 64981 _ 1,374.30 

Disbursements 73,301,88 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation 72.83 72.83 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS OF 1959 
Code 65961 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Appropriation $ 4,847.41 $ 37,778.70 

Receipts Highway Commission ___ 525.00 

Disbursements - 3,467.17 33,456.29 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation 1,380.24 4,847.41 



CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS OF 1961 
Code 66108 

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS 
July 1, 1960— June 30, 1962 

Appropriation $ 25,000.00 $ 500,000.00 

Receipts: 

City & County Property Taxes 

Raleigh Farmers Market, Inc.— 5,545.32 

Disbursements 5,973.82 475,000.00 

Unexpended Balance of Appropriation... 24,571.50 25,000.00 



DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY 

Dr. E. W. Constable 

State Chemist 

The work of the Division of Chemistry is constituted largely 
of the administration of a group of state control laws, the bsaic 
purposes of which are to safeguard the health, welfare, and eco- 
nomic interests of consumers, to curb fraud, misrepresentation 
and unscrupulous and destructive competition, and to promote 
sound agricultural and business economics in the respective fields 
as further indicated. 

The products to which these control laws apply are fertilizer 
and fertilizer materials; liming materials and landplaster; live- 
stock, domestic animal and poultry feeds — both regular feeds 
and medicated feeds ; automotive antifreezes, foods, drugs, cos- 
metics and devices, oleomargarine, flour bleaching, and the en- 
richment of foods with vitamins. Included also is the sanitary 
inspection of bakeries, bottling plants, other food processing 
plants, storages, vehicles and sales outlets through which these 
products are handled. The division also administers the aerial 
crop-dusting law which covers the application of pesticides by 
aircraft. 

Requirements which apply generally to these products are that 
they shall bear specified, factual and informative labeling and 
guarantees which must be lived up to. 

It is further required that foods, drugs and cosmetics be whole- 
some and free from adulteration or exposure to insanitation ; that 
drug labeling shall carry adequate directions for use, cautions 
against misuse and, in the case of dangerous drugs, notice of 
restriction to prescription sale. 

Pesticide labeling must also give directions for use, warnings 
of danger, antidotes in case of accident, and first aid instructions 
where needed. Registration with the Department of Agriculture 
is required for fertilizers and fertilizer materials, liming ma- 
terials and landplaster, commercial feeds, canned pet foods, and 
pesticides. Operators in the application of pesticides by aircraft 
must meet specific qualifications and must procure state licenses 
before operation is permissible in this state. 



48 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Activities under these various categories are given in follow- 
ing sections along with other pertinent information. 

Commercial Fertilizers, Agricultural Liming 
Materials and Landplaster 

The fertilizer and lime and landplaster laws, in addition to 
the requirement for registration, require inspection of these 
products in all parts of the state to determine compliance with 
labeling requirements and the payment of inspection taxes, and 
the collection of official samples for chemical analysis to deter- 
mine if guarantees are lived up to. 

The analyses required for fertilizer are for the major plant 
food elements — nitrogen, phosphate, and potash; the secondary 
plant foods — calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and boron; for acid- 
forming qualities and chlorine ; and for the trace elements — man- 
ganese, copper, iron, zinc and molybdenum. Those required for 
liming materials are for calcium, magnesium, acid-neutralizing 
value, fineness of particle size, and potash when that is included 
in liming materials; and for landplaster, the content of calcium 
sulphate. 

Coverage for the biennium was : 

Official fertilizer samples 21,149 

Unofficial samples of fertilizers and 

materials for farmers 53 

Official liming materials, lime potash 

and landplaster 623 



Total 21,852 

Individual reports of analyses were forwarded to all concerned 
as rapidly as work on respective samples was completed. Col- 
lective results of the work were then made available to the public 
in annual issues of the "Fertilizer Report" which is published by 
the department for that purpose. 

Results of the analyses and inspections showed that these 
materials sold in the state during the biennium were generally 
of good quality and measured up to the requirements and guar- 
antees made for them. Deficiencies in plant food content and 
other defects were found to be within normal range. Where these 



Report For 1960-62 — Chemistry 49 

occurred the products were either removed from the market or 
consumers were reimbursed according to the penalty provisions 
of the respective laws. 

Situations of more than usual note were the continued pub- 
licizing by fertilizer manufacturers and sellers of trace elements 
in fertilizers, yet with very limited registering, declaration by 
label, and guaranteeing of these elements ; and the rapid expan- 
sion in the use of liquid fertilizers, particularly nitrogen solutions 
and to some extent liquid mixed fertilizers. 

The inspection, sampling and analysis of these liquids were ex- 
tensively expanded. There was some confusion in this area with 
respect to responsibility for the products, their proper labeling 
particularly when they were transferred to service and applica- 
tion tanks, and at times the mixing of solutions of different 
analyses and from different manufacturers. Extensive improve- 
ment was made in this field, both in clearing up confusion and in 
perfecting methods of inspection, sampling, and analysis. 

In order to curb possible error and questions of error, all solu- 
tions were sampled in duplicate and, when these materials con- 
tained anhydrous ammonia which might escape because of its 
volatility and thus result in error, samples were taken without 
exposure to the atmosphere into containers with a weighed quan- 
tity of distilled water. The high solubility of ammonia in water 
eliminates question of its loss by evaporation as a cause of de- 
ficiency. Deficiencies in plant food elements and other defects 
in these solutions, although occurring at times, were at a low 
level. Further improvement in this relatively new field is in 
progress. 

Commercial Feeds 

The inspection of commercial livestock, domestic animal and 
poultry feeds, regular and medicated, and of canned pet foods 
was carried out statewide to determine compliance with require- 
ments for labeling, inspection tax payment, and others. Official 
samples were collected for chemical and microscopic analysis to 
determine the content of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, 
the presence and quantity of drugs, the presence and condition 
of declared ingredients, substitutions, adulterations, and com- 
pliance with guarantees and standards. 

Coverage for the biennium was: 



50 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Official feed samples 4,341 

Unofficial feed samples 523 

Analyses for medication in above feeds (237) 

Samples run for farmers in forage 

improvement program — N. C. Department 

of Agriculture cooperating with N. C. 

State College 2,000 

Samples run in connection with N. C. 

Experiment Station 350 

Total 7,214 

As rapidly as analyses were completed, individual reports were 
forwarded to all concerned. The collective work of each year then 
was made available to the public in the annual "Feed Report." 

Summary of the work for the two years showed that in gen- 
eral feed standards and quality were maintained on a satisfactory 
level, as has been true over a period of years. In the limited num- 
ber of deficiencies, deviations from stated composition and other 
defects, consumers were reimbursed according to the penalty 
provisions or the products were removed from the market. 

As stated in earlier reports, a continuing problem is the large 
increase in chemical work which is necessary to make full 
analyses of a given number of feed samples. This is due to the 
continually expanding number of feeds which contain growth 
stimulants and drugs in both prophylactic and medicinal quan- 
tity, and also the trend toward putting more than one of these 
additives in given feeds. Analyses for these additives is neces- 
sary for safety, to prevent fraud and destructive competition 
and to assure the integrity of the feeds. The chemical analysis 
for drugs and other additives is a specialty within itself and re- 
quires facilities and applications different and apart from trie 
usual analyses of feeds. The time and application required for 
fully analyzing medicated feeds is approximately double that re- 
quired for the non-medicated variety. Accompanying these com- 
plications is the fact that the volume of feed consumed in the 
state has nearly doubled during the past decade, but no commen- 
surate increase in the inspection and analyses has been made. 

Economic Poisons 

The requirements of the North Carolina insecticide law, simi- 
lar to those of the fertilizer and feed laws with the exception of 



Report For 1960-62 — Chemistry 51 

providing no penalties for deficiencies, call for statewide inspec- 
tion to determine compliance with such requirements as regis- 
stration, payment of inspection taxes, general labeling and proper 
packaging; and the collection of official samples for chemical 
analysis to determine agreement with registration declarations 
and guarantees made for the products. 

The large number of pesticide chemicals on the market and the 
various combinations of these chemicals which are used to serve 
broadly varying conditions precludes the development of a prac- 
tical penalty system as redress to consumers for defects and de- 
ficiencies. Recourse in lieu of the penalty procedure is removal 
of defective products from the market for reprocessing or de- 
struction and, where consumers may have suffered significant 
damage, notification of the situation to all parties concerned in 
order that remedial steps may be taken. 

The insecticide work load has been increased by the addition 
of pesticide fertilizer mixtures which are permitted by regula- 
tions adopted by the Board of Agriculture in response to an ur- 
gent demand from farmers. The chemical work required to check 
these mixtures is more involved and more extensive than that 
required for the unmixed products. 

In line with the pattern in preceding biennial reports, the cov- 
erage in analytical work reported herein is based on calendar 
years, (1960 and 1961) rather than fiscal years, since the insecti- 
cide seasons, unlike the fertilizer seasons, naturally fall into that 
pattern and insecticide laws are arranged accordingly. 

Coverage for the biennium was as follows: 

Official samples 2,548 

Unofficial samples 12 



Total 2,560 

The work of the biennium showed that standards were main- 
tained on a normal level as compared to experience over a period 
of years and that generally satisfactory products were supplied 
to consumers. The limited number of defective products found 
on the market were dealt with as prescribed by law. 

Reports of analyses on respective insecticide samples were for- 
warded to consumers, dealers and manufacturers as rapidly as 



52 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

the work progressed through the season. The work of each 
year collectively then was made available publicly through the 
annual "Insecticide Report" which is published by the depart- 
ment for that purpose. 

Application of Pesticides by Aircraft 

The North Carolina Aerial Crop-Dusting Law continues to 
serve very well its original purposes which were to eliminate 
the unethical practices, irresponsible performances and unscrup- 
ulous and destructive competition which at one time plagued the 
industry and engendered concerted moves to have the activity 
outlawed by legislation. 

The few complaints that have reached the department during 
the biennium have been of a "nuisance" nature such as the spread 
of dust and sprays beyond the property intended to be treated 
and onto adjoining property where pesticides were not wanted. 
This trouble arises both from the difficulty of applying pesti- 
cides to small fields, particularly in more thickly inhabited areas, 
and from the tendency of operators to proceed according to their 
greatest convenience. Precise observance of property lines is 
not practical in aerial applications. Also, in neglect of the rights 
of others, operators prefer to start and stop applications beyond 
property lines in order to simplify their work and to avoid un- 
treated edges of fields. 

No complaints have been received of "fraudulent business 
practices" or "application in a faulty, careless, or negligent man- 
ner" — these quoted expressions being the economic considera- 
tions which the law does take into account as compared to the 
"nuisance" considerations referred to above which the law does 
not take into account. In all instances, fuller inspection pro- 
visions particularly during the busy part of the season would be 
advantageous. 

Automotive Antifreezes 

As has been characteristic since its enactment in 1949, the 
North Carolina Internal-Combustion Engine Antifreeze Law has 
continued to serve as a highly effective instrument in assuring 
consumers of adequate supplies of high-grade products, in re- 
lieving ethical manufacturers of unscrupulous competition, in 
protecting consumers by keeping spurious products off of the 
market and in relieving North Carolina merchants of the 



Report For 1960-62 — Chemistry 53 

hazard of entrapment in damage claims as a result of buying 
and selling, in good faith, antifreezes which were falsely repre- 
sented as being entirely satisfactory. 

Registrations for the biennium, covering both the alcohol or 
volatile types, and the glycol or non-volatile types of antifreezes, 
were 92 brands for the year 1960-61 and 107 brands for the year 
1961-62, these representing a total of 54 manufacturers. 

Two innovations appeared in the antifreeze field during the 
biennium ; namely, permanent or glycol types of antifreezes claim- 
ed to be suitable for year-round service for an indefinite period 
of years, and the same type of antifreezes ready-mixed with so- 
claimed specially treated water. The "long-term service" or 
"never never never change" type was questioned on the basis of 
there not being available any knowledge or information of cor- 
rosion inhibitors which would last indefinitely or which would 
prevent glycols from following the usual course of breaking down 
in use over a period of time and producing by-product acids which 
would neutralize all inhibitors and result in damage to the cooling 
systems of automotive equipment. Several brands did carry a 
feature which has promise of usefulness to motor vehicle owners ; 
namely, an additive dye which imparts to the antifreeze mixtures 
a bright red color. This color disappears when the mixture be- 
comes corrosive thus serving as a danger signal. 

The other innovation — antifreeze ready-mixed with water — 
was questioned since it was purported to be an antifreeze where- 
as it was in fact, and should properly be labeled, a mixture of 
water and glycol antifreeze. As a 50-50 mixture of water and 
glycol, this product, particularly when not labeled so as to posi- 
tively advise consumers of its true character, did not appear to 
be in the interest of consumers since they would be led to pay 
for canning and transporting water over long distances, and into 
buying larger quantities of antifreeze than would be needed or 
customarily used in many sections of the country. 

Foods and Drugs 

The several laws applying to foods, drugs, cosmetics and de- 
vices which are administered through the department are the 
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Bakery Inspection Law, the 
Bottling Plant and Soft Drink Inspection Law, the Artificially 
Bleached Flour Law, the Oleomargarane Law and the Flour, 
Bread and Corn Meal Enrichment Act. The basic purposes of 



54 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

these laws collectively are to assure consumers of a safe, whole- 
some, economically sound and honestly labeled supply of the 
various products covered. 

Among the requirements to accomplish these purposes are that 
the products be composed of sound and wholesome raw materials, 
that they be handled, processed, packed and stored in a fully 
sanitary manner, and that environment, housing, equipment, ve- 
hicles and other facilities which may in any way contact or affect 
the products be kept and used in a manner to preclude exposure 
that may result in hurt or contamination. 

Among the procedures for carrying out these purposes are 
regular and systematic statewide inspections, written inspec- 
tion reports as permanent records, recommendations for correct- 
ing unsatisfactory conditions, closures, embargoes or other ac- 
tions as prescribed by law. Summary of these activities follow. 

Food Plant Inspections 

Bakeries and Daughnut Plants 2,579 

Bottling Plants 1,229 

Other types of plants and storages (processing and 
packaging meats, pickles, seafood, flour, meal, 
candy, potato chips, fruits and vegetables, etc.) _3, 112 



Total 6,920 

Plant Operations Suspended 

Bakeries 32 

Bottling Plants 3 

Others (as listed in preceding tabulation) 3 

Total 38 

Analyses of Samples, Embargoes 

In addition to the foregoing inspection and actions, further 
procedure for carrying out the purposes of the food laws is the 
statewide collection of official samples and their analysis — 
chemical, physical, microscopic, optical, and others. These 
analyses are indispensable tools since the final determination of 
adulteration and misbranding is dependent on them. 

Included in the work of the biennium was the handling and 



Report For 1960-62 — Chemistry 



55 




Food chemists work with an array of equipment in making a variety 
of tests and analyses of food products. 

checking of approximately 1,900 samples of various kinds and 
339 embargoes. The samples represented both satisfactory and 
unsatisfactory products, many of the unsatisfactory ones being 
reflected in the embargo actions. The embargoes represented 
all classes and types of foods — cereals, flour, meal, meats, vege- 
tables, fruits, canned goods, bakery products, sugar, spices, can- 
dies and others. Among the reasons for embargo actions were 
misbranding, spoilage, insanitation, contamination by filth, in- 
sects, rodents, worms and vermin, damage from storms, fires, 
wrecks and other types of exposure, and other types of adultera- 
tion, both inadvertent and intentional. 



Fires, Floods, Storms and Wrecks 

The loss of large volumes of foods, drugs and other products is 
a usual toll taken by fires, floods, storms and wrecks. The lack of 
knowledge by many people of the accompanying dangers involved 
from damage, contamination and spoilage ; the temptation of 
overzealous salvaging to minimize losses, the risk of epidemics 



56 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

are everpresent threats ; and can result in wholesale sickness and 
injury. The impounding, supervision and direction of the separa- 
tion, qualification and disposal of these products is a critical part 
of the inspection work and is given prompt and preferential 
attention. 

During the biennium six fires of significant proportion were 
dealt with in cities and towns of the state; namely — Siler City, 
Raleigh, High Point, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, and Rocking- 
ham. Covered also was one railroad wreck in the Four Oaks 
area which exposed, damaged and destoyed large shipments of 
food products enroute north from Florida, and a March storm 
which wrought heavy damage and destruction to property, food 
and drugs along the coastal area from Hatteras north. Total 
losses in foods and drug products amounted to a value of approx- 
imately $192,000. 

Among embargo actions of more than usual moment was the 
impounding and destruction of several lots of shucked oysters 
in the coastal area of the state. Florida oysters, which were later 
found to have been shucked in Florida plants where workers had 
active cases of typhoid fever, were shipped to Eastern North 
Carolina, mixed with local oysters and put on the market. All 
were traced, embargoed and destroyed. These oysters could 
have caused an epidemic, such as recently resulted from contami- 
nated clams on the New York and New Jersey coasts. That 
danger was obviated bcause all of the oysters were traced, em- 
bargoed and destroyed. Cooperating in this action were the 
health departments of Florida and North Carolina, the U. S. 
Public Health Service and this department. 

Poisonous Contaminations 

Situations involving adulteration with toxic contaminants 
which elicited attention over and above the average of such pro- 
blems were the occurrence of crotalaria seed in soybeans and 
corn and of chemical fungicides in feed and food grains. 

The crotalaria contamination largely resulted from voluntary 
crotalaria plants growing along with corn and beans, following 
the use of the crotalaria in soil improvement. Under modern 
methods the crotalaria is harvested along with the beans and 
corn, creating a problem which resulted in the embargoing of 
numerous freight car and truck loads of these products in both 
North Carolina and Virginia, by authorities of both of these 
states and of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. 



Report For 1960-62 — Chemistry 



57 




Food inspectors check equipment and procedures in food plants to ensure that 
products are processed in a sanitary manner. 



58 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The required cleaning of the products before they could be 
further moved in commerce resulted in extensive delay and clean- 
ing costs, and hurtful losses from shrinkage. One operator 
sought to curtail shrinkage losses by feeding the cleanings to a 
herd of some 18 or 20 hogs. All of the hogs died. Surveys of a 
following season indicated that a costly lesson had been learned 
fast and well. Crotalaria was dropped from the list of crops 
recommended for soil improvement. 

Contamination of cereal grains with chemical fungicides re- 
sulted largely from some seed processors trying to salvage their 
excess stocks of fungicide-treated seeds by routing them into 
the open grain market and mixing them with clean grain. Such 
contamination in feeds, particularly for poultry, is ruinous. Al- 
though human foods fare somewhat better because of the clean- 
ing and hulling applied to grains for such use, the callous and 
hazardous nature of the practice speaks for itself. Products 
found so contaminated are seized under applicable laws. Also, 
the Department of Agriculture has broadly publicized pointed 
notice and warning against the practice, this to be followed by 
appropriate further action as required. 



CREDIT UNION DIVISION 

W. V. DlDIWICK 

State Superintendent of Credit Unions 

The Credit Union Division was established by the 1915 Gen- 
eral Assembly for the purpose of organizing credit unions and 
supervising their operation. The supervision is to ensure that 
each credit union is conducting its operation in accordance with 
the law so that the members' money will be safe. 

This biennial report reflects the operation and condition of 
state-chartered credit unions doing business in North Carolina 
for the year ending June 30, 1962. 

With only minor exceptions, all credit unions continued to 
show a substantial growth for the two years covered by this 
report. At June 30, 1960, the total assets were $32,160,847.55 and 
at June 30, 1962, the total assets amounted to $38,899,671.33, or 
a net gain of 21 per cent. The increase in savings by members 
is still not sufficient to take care of the demand for new loans. 
Free loan protection insurance and life savings insurance to the 
members have been big incentives to both borrowers and savers. 

NEW CHARTERS :— During the two-year period, 10 new 
charters were issued and 13 were cancelled. This is a net loss of 
three credit unions. A special effort has been made to screen 
all new requests for charters. 

LIQUIDATIONS : — The practice of working with credit unions 
in the process of liquidation is both time consuming for the divi- 
sion and expensive for the other credit unions. However, I am 
convinced that considerable savings have been made to the mem- 
bers who have shares in the liquidated credit unions by this 
practice. Unsound business practices and inaccurate records 
seem to be the chief reasons for credit union failures. These 
failures continue to occur more frequently among the smaller 
credit unions. 

LOANS OUTSTANDING :— The total outstanding loans to 
members at June 30, 1962, was $29,130,332.68 — an increase of 
$3,636,961.43. These loans continue to be for provident purposes 
and average less than $600 per borrower. 



60 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



INVESTMENTS: — Only a few state-chartered credit unions 
have surplus money to invest more than the five per cent re- 
quired by state law. Most credit unions are now complying with 
the law in this respect. Occasionally, we find this investment 
incumbered as security for a loan. The investment accounts have 
shown an increase of $1,118,174.63 during the two-year period. 

OTHER ASSETS: — As credit unions continue to grow, they 
find it necessary to invest in office equipment, posting ma- 
chines, and the like. Each year more credit unions desire to have 
their own offices or buildings. At June 30, 1962, this account 
showed an increase of $1,175,169.26 over June 30, 1960. 

SHARES: — Members' savings accounts amount to about 90 
percent of the total liabilities of state-chartered credit unions. 




Credit unions come in all sizes. The State Employees Credit Union in Raleigh 
was started 25 years ago with less than $500 invested by 1 1 members. Today its 
assets are almost $5,000,000 and it has more than 13,000 members. Last year 
this credit union was able to erect its own building, shown above, and moved out 
of its former quarters in the Agriculture Building in mid-May of 1962. The build- 
ing provides ample and efficient space for the credit union's operations on the 
ground floor and in the basement, permitting rental o fthe two upper floors as a 
source of revenue. 



Report For 1960-62 — Credit Union 61 

These shares represent the principal source of funds available 
to credit unions for loans to members. There has been an in- 
crease of $6,205,729.54 in savings during the period covered by 
this report. 

DEPOSITS: — Members and non-members are permitted to in- 
vest in a credit union through this account. It shows an in- 
crease of $263,122.58 for the period. 

RESERVES: — Many credit unions have found it advisable to 
charge off losses to this account instead of carrying them in their 
active files. This gives a truer picture of the financial condition 
of each credit union as to its solvency. While this account has 
been reduced to some extent, the reserve fund is still more than 
sufficient to take care of foreseeable losses. 

UNDIVIDED EARNINGS .-—This account is the undistributed 
earnings after expenses and dividends have been paid. It has 
been reduced percentage-wise during this period. Free loan pro- 
tection insurance and life savings insurance, plus the desire to 
pay higher dividends, are the reason for this decrease. Credit 
unions have averaged paying a four and one-half per cent divi- 
dend to their shareholders during this biennium. 

INCOME AND EXPENSES :— The bulk of the credit union's 
income is derived from interest earned on loans to members. 
Salaries for employees make up the largest expense items for 
credit unions as a whole. Salaries account for about 30 per cent 
of the total expenses. The next largest single item of expense is 
borrowers' protection insurance. 

As required by law, we are making annual examinations of all 
credit unions as well as follow-up examinations where they are 
needed. Some credit unions are reluctant to correct practices 
that are unsound and unsafe when pointed out to them by our 
examiners. This points out the need for a revision of the Credit 
Union Law. 

Credit unions file a financial and statistical report each six 
months with this division. The information contained in these re- 
ports is compiled from our semi-annual reports. 

NUMBER, MEMBERSHIP, AND ASSETS 
OF STATE-CHARTERED CREDIT UNIONS 

June 30, 1960 June 30, 1962 

Credit Union Charters Outstanding _ 238 235 

Total Members 100,000 96,352 

Total Assets $32,160,847.55 $38,899,671.33 



62 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET 

ASSETS 

June 30, 1960 June 30, 1962 

Cash on Hand and in Banks $ 1,444,044.66 $ 2,252,563.12 

Loans to Members 25,493,361.25 29,130,322.68 

Investments 4,339,292.65 5,457,467.28 

Other Assets 884,148.99 2,059,318.25 



Totals $32,160,847.55 $38,899,671.33 

LIABILITIES 

Shares $25,675,601.40 $31,881,330.94 

Deposits 1,062,285.98 1,325,408.56 

Reserves 2,350,834.94 2,273,617.62 

Undivided Earnings 3,072,125.23 3,419,314.21 



Totals.... $32,160,847.55 $38,899,671.33 



DAIRY DIVISION 

C. W. Pegram 

Director 

The Dairy Division administers the laws and regulations gov- 
erning milk and dairy products produced for sale in the state. 
Most of the activities carried out by the division are directed 
toward consumer protection with regards to wholesomness and 
quality. But the protection advantages ultimately reflect in 
benefits for consumer, producer and processor alike. 

During the biennium, numerous technological developments 
have brought about changes in procedures and many new pro- 
ducts. Too, increase in the production of Grade A milk has 
pushed the state into an even firmer position as a milk-sufficient 
state. 

The many changes, as well as the increase in production have 
called for stepped-up vigilance on the part of the Dairy Division. 

Introduction on the market of so called cream substitutes, 
which presented both a hazard to the pocketbook and the health 
of consumers, was handled under existing laws and regulations 
relating to wholesomeness and labeling. 

New dairy products offered as weight reducing diets present- 
ed a similar challenge for the division, and necessitated drawing 
of regulations which would protect the consumer. Proper label- 
ing insures that the consumer is apprised of the contents and 
can judge the effectiveness against the cost. Too, labeling pro- 
visions require that the consumer be warned against using the 
product as a total diet without a doctor's supervision. Critical 
inspection and analytical work was called for, also, to ensure 
that vitamins and minerals claimed are actually in the product. 

Bringing frozen dessert mixes under the ice cream law during 
the biennium has given more uniform regulations consistent with 
laws in other states where this product enjoys a market. 

Regulations provided by the Board of Agriculture in 1961 per- 
mit the bottling of fruit drinks in Grade A milk plants. The 
responsibility for control standards being met is, of course, 
handled by the Dairy Division and added to the duties of its 
personnel. 

These and others matters that have reflected changes and addi- 



64 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



tions in the work of the Dairy Division are only part of the in- 
creasing and expanding services provided by that unit. 

In 1961 Grade A producers delivered 1,037 million pounds of 
milk as compared with 960 million pounds in 1960. This increase 
of more than eight percent is in line with the agricultural trend 
in the state as dairying become more important. The daily pro- 
duction per producer has increased, accounting for the higher 
total production even though the number of producers has de- 
creased by some 170 when compared with the number in dairy- 
ing in 1960. Nearly $60 million in Grade A sales meant an 
average of more than $15,000 per farm income. 

In addition to the Grade A producers there are approximately 
8,000 others who supply milk for manufacturing — evaporated 
milk, cheese, butter, etc. These part time producers delivered 
some 90 million pounds for a value of over three million dollars. 

One of the principal duties of the Dairy Division is to supervise 
the sampling and testing of milk and cream purchased on the 
butterfat basis. During the last biennium over 56,000 check 
tests were made covering the sampling and testing of 235 li- 




One of the three mobile dairy laboratories operated by the Dairy Division to 
provide faster and more efficient service in making butterfat tests and bacterial 
analyses of milk and dairy products. 



Report For 1960-62— Dairy 



65 




An interior view of a mobile dairy laboratory. 



censed samplers and 91 licensed testers, which required 1,481 
official investigations. Before samplers and testers are licensed 
by the Dairy Division the applicants must pass an examination 
attesting to proficiency and knowledge of their work. The divi- 
sion supervises the work of the samplers and testers on the basis 
of check tests made each month. Inspections are made of sam- 
plers' methods and equipment, and of the Babcock testing lab- 
oratories. 

This check and inspection work is most essential to the dairy 
industry for it is upon the butterfat content that payment is 
made to the producer, and the Milk Commission requires that 
market milk contain a minimum of 3.6 percent butterfat. Under 
a cooperative arrangement the Dairy Division makes the butter- 
fat tests for the Commission and 2,446 such tests were made 
during the biennium. 

In addition the division makes other butterfat tests and bac- 
teria analyses on milk and dairy products to see that they meet 
state-wide minimum standards for consumer protection. 

A new laboratory recently located at Fletcher is making it pos- 
sible to give better supervision of tests for Western Carolina 



66 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

dairy farmers. The field unit at Fletcher, along with another 
located at Salisbury, in addition to a mobile unit in the vicinity 
of Charlotte, extends the work area over the dairy belts of the 
state from the central lab located in Raleigh. 

Along with other tests, residue analyses are being conducted 
continuously. The possibility of carry-over of antibiotics used in 
treating cows for certain diseases, as well as residues of pesti- 
cides used on cows and feed, will continue as long as the useful 
preparations are being applied. This situation, of course, is in- 
herent with the advance in technology, and the division main- 
tains special laboratory facilities for these special analyses. 

The ice cream and frozen dessert inspection work requires much 
time in both the field and laboratory. Samples are purchased 
wherever they are offered for sale and delivered to the central 
laboratory, where both chemical and bacterial analyses are made. 
When deficiencies are found, plants are inspected to find the 
cause and to insure that corrections are made. The Dairy Divi- 
sion cooperates with the Division of Weights and Measures in 
checking weights of frozen desserts. 

During the past biennium 2,774 field inspections were made in 
plants producing ice cream, and eight establishments were 
closed for failure to comply with state standards. 

While the Dairy Division is concerned with milk and dairy 
products generally sold in packaged form, not only does it admin- 
ister rules and regulations governing the contents and labeling, 
but it also holds the responsibility for regulating products that 
are dispensed in open containers from bulk or continuous dispen- 
sers, and consumed on the premises. 

With packaged products the division supervises labeling, work- 
ing with processors to develop proper labels on milk and dairy 
products which are not misleading to the consumer. 

The division continually checks for adulteration of milk, 
either by carelessness or intent. A total of 3,385 samples were 
tested by cryoscope for the presence of added water during the 
biennium. 

In addition to making butterfat tests for the Milk Commission, 
the Dairy Division cooperates with city, county, state and federal 
agencies in handling matters pertaining to milk and milk pro- 
products in their jurisdiction. 

The division is presently engaged in a cooperative project with 
N. C. State College Dairy Extension in testing for solids-not-fat 
in milk. It is anticipated that in the near future an instrument 



Report For 1960-62— Dairy 



67 




A modern Grade A dairy farm is designed so that milk goes direct from the 
cow to bulk cooling tanks. The photo above shows the mechanical milker attached 
to the cow. Milk flows from the cow through glass tubes into the farm bulk tank 
shown in the bottom of the picture. The stainless steel bulk tank keeps the milk 
cool and fresh until it is picked up by a tank truck for delivery to the pasteurizing 
plant. 



68 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



will be developed which will permit testing, by electronics and 
ultrasonics, for fat and solids-not-fat contents in milk. 

Other inter-agency cooperation includes butterfat check tests 
for the Federal School Lunch Program, reciprocal inspection of 
ice cream manufacturers for others states, and inspection of 
frozen dessert suppliers for U. S. Public Health Service. 

The Dairy Division administers the Milk Import Law which is 
designed to assure consumers that the quality and wholesomeness 
of milk shipped into the state meets North Carolina standards. 
However, 1961 marked the highest milk production year since 
1957, with, an all-time record high per cow. Since the state is 
self-sufficient in Grade A milk production, import milk problems 
have diminished ; and the Dairy Division, cooperating with the 
Milk Commission, aids in directing milk from plants having a 
surplus to plants with a short supply in the state. 




One of North Carolina's modern ice cream plants. This novelty machine, 
making ice cream on a stick, is one of the newest and most efficient. It turns 
out, wraps and packages 600 dozen ice cream bars an hour. 



Report For 1960-62— Dairy 69 

statistical report 

1960-62 Biennium 

Plant Investigations (butterfat check testing) .... 1,481 

Milk Testers licenses issued _.. ____ 91 

Milk Testers examinations given 17 

Milk Sampler licenses issued- - 235 

Milk Sampler examinations given __ 60 

Butterfat check tests __ 56,624 

Composite check tests __ 2,280 

Butterfat tests, supervised 743 

Butterfat tests for Milk Commission 2,446 

Finished Milk Products Analyzed 4,244 

Official butterfat notices sent to producers 4,800 

Ice Cream plant inspections 2,774 

Ice Cream and frozen dessert samples analyzed _ _ 6,886 

Ice Cream plants closed 8 

Cryoscope determinations 3,385 

Lactometer tests _ 30 

Gallons of milk embargoed 815 

Antibiotic Tests - 1,154 

Pesticide Analyses _ 161 



DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY 

C. H. Brannon 

State Entomologist 

The Division of Entomolgy has the responsibility of adminis- 
tering the State Plant Pest Law and its work is concerned pri- 
marily with the suppression and eradication of serious plant 
pests. 

In this era of rapid transportation plant pests may be dissemi- 
nated very quickly all over the state, or from one state into an- 
other. Many pests, once established, cause enormous losses to 
our economy. The cotton boll weevil alone averages about $350,- 
000,000 in its damage to the United States cotton crop. Insect 
pests and plant diseases cause a damage of $10 to $15 billion 
worth of production each year ! There are over 20,000 destructive 
insects that would cause serious losses if introduced into the 
United States. The Federal government maintains inspectors 
at all major ports in order to prevent the introduction of these 
serious pests. 

The Division of Entomology cooperates with the Plant Pest 
Control Division and the Plant Quarantine Division, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, in the task of suppressing, con- 
trolling, and eradicating serious pests within the borders of this 
state, and in an effort to prevent the entrance of pests which 
may become established within our borders. 

Nursery Inspection 

There are 945 nurseries and 631 nursey dealers in North Caro- 
lina. Each nursery must be carefully inspected at least once a 
year by a staff member before a certificate can be issued. Nur- 
series which may be infested or infected with pests under quaran- 
tine are under constant supervision and may move their stock 
only after stringent control specifications are met. 

The careful inspection and certification of all 945 nurseries of 
the state is the largest single project of this division. This 
exacting duty requires the services of four staff members for a 
period of about four months each year. Special problems, quar- 
antines, and treatments require additional inspections and certi- 
fication as demanded by various problems which require addi- 
tional services each season. 



Report For 1960-62 — Entomology 



71 




Entomologists from far and near come to study the extensive insect collection. 
Shown here, at right, is Dr. John R. Metcalfe, British entomologist, stationed in 
Jamaica, who spent several weeks in 1961 with Dr. David L. Wray, at left, curator 
of the collection. Subject of Dr. Metcalfe's research was Collembola, commonly 
known as "springtails", tiny insects which are a problem in production of sugar 
cane, Jamaica's most important single crop. Dr. Wray is an international authority 
on Collembola. 



Insect Collection and Identification 

The large insect collection, comprised of over two million 
specimens representing 16,000 different kinds of insects, is now 
housed in modern up-to-date pest-proof cabinets which offer ef- 
ficient handling. The insect collection is a reservoir of informa- 
tion on insect conditions in North Carolina, and is constantly be- 
ing used by specialists throughout the nation. There is close co- 
operation with national entomologists in exchanging insect identi- 
fication records. The insect collection is an indispensable tool 
for our insect identification service to the people of North Caro- 
line. Service identifications of insect specimens sent in from 
over the state average approximately 5,000 specimens each 
year. Several hundred specimens of plant diseases are also 
diagnosed each year. 



72 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Through regular insect surveys, a constant watch is being kept 
for new and introduced insect pests. A new snout weevil, which 
feeds on shrubs, was recently discovered within the state for the 
first time ; it had not been found in the United States before. This 
beetle is a native of India and China and the potential importance 
of this pest is now under study and observation. It has now been 
found in the following counties: Wake, Mecklenburg, Gaston, 
Iredell, Wilkes, Yadkin, Davie, Forsyth, Davidson, Guilford, Ran- 
dolph, Caswell, Alamance, Orange, Vance, Warren, and New 
Hanover. 

Regular insect surveys are extremely valuable in ascertaining 
the limits of infestation of new insects before they spread from 
a small area and cause enormous loss. Vast numbers of insect 
specimens obtained from surveys are added to the collection for 
future reference. Brood II of the Periodical Cicada was found 
this year in Surry, Stokes, Yadkin, Forsyth, Guilford, and Rock- 
ingham counties. Moderate damage is expected to young or- 
chards near the forest lands. 

Witchweed 

The witchweed was first discovered in North Carolina in 1956. 
It had gained entrance into this state many years previously, 
but had not been discovered causing serious damage to the corn 
crop until 1956. 

An all-out effort is being made to control this serious pest 
which may completely destroy corn in infested fields. The witch- 
weed has been found in 20 counties in North Carolina: Bladen, 
Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Duplin, Harnett, Hoke, John- 
ston, Jones, Lenoir, Montgomery, Moore, Pender, Pitt, Richmond, 
Robeson, Sampson, Scotland, Wake, and Wayne. The infested 
area is found on 8,558 farms which includes 186,889 acres. 

The federal government has an investigational laboratory at 
Whiteville, North Carolina, with a highly trained staff. This 
laboratory is diligently searching for more effective control 
measures which, it is hoped, will lead to eradication of this 
strange pest. The witchweed is a serious threat to the corn 
crop of North Carolina, and the entire nation. 

The entire infested area is under close supervision by experi- 
enced inspectors. The program of cultural and chemical con- 
trol is working smoothly and effectively, thanks to a staff who 
are adept in good relations as well as witchweed control. 



Report For 1960-62 — Entomology 73 

Apiary Inspection 

Honey and bee production is a valuable part of the economy of 
North Carolina. The high food quality and the health value of 
high-grade honey is being recognized all over the country. North 
Carolina honey is sold all over the state and nation. 

During this biennium 20,292 colonies were inspected; 239 
colonies were found infected with foul-brood. Of these infected 
colonies 37 were treated and 202 destroyed. 

All bee colonies moving within, or into, the state are required 
to be accompanied by an official certificate stating that the col- 
onies have been carefully inspected and are free from disease. 

All requests for inspection required for movement of colonies 
have been promptly made. The regular inspection program for 
the elimination of foul-brood and other diseases has been con- 
tinued. This work is an invaluable service to the honey and bee 
industry which could not survive without this disease control 
and eradication program. 

Imported Fire Ant 

The imported fire ant, a native of South America, was im- 
ported into the United States in about 1918 through the port of 
Mobile, Alabama. It is now found in nine southern states. This 
pest has a vicious sting and can kill wildlife and young calves. It 
has seriously stung young children and could kill children and 
adults who are allergic to ant venom. Over 1,000 people are 
stung each day in the city of New Orleans alone. 

In the heavily infested areas, pasture lands may be ruined by 
the ant mounds which interfere with grazing and hay machinery. 

North Carolina is fortunate in having a limited infestation of 
this serious pest and, accordingly, has not been placed under the 
federal quarantine. 

In North Carolina we can look forward to possible eradication 
of the fire ant in a few years. In the deep south the problem 
is much more serious and the infested area extends over a vast 
area of fields and city lots. 

In North Carolina over 17,000 acres have been treated in the 
following counties: Brunswick, Carteret, Craven, Mecklenburg, 
Onslow, Pamlico, and Robeson. All infested areas, except 2,000 
acres in Carteret County, have been treated. The new, very ef- 
fective MIREX bait is being used to complete the treatments in 
Carteret County. 



74 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The MIREX bait has just recently been developed by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, and it is now being used on a 
large scale to hasten the control and eradication of this most 
serious pest. 

Soybean Cyst Nematode 

The soybean cyst nematode was first found in North Caro- 
lina in 1954. The infested area in this state now consists of 
5,831 acres in the following counties : Camden, Currituck, Gates, 
New Hanover, Pasquotank, Pender, Perquimans, Tyrrell, Union, 
and Wake. 

Fumigants, which seemed to offer promise in its control, have 
not proved effective. Breeding work, it is hoped, may produce 
resistant varieties of soybeans but this may be a long process. 
However, a five-year period in which the land is free of soybeans, 
and other host plants, seems to offer possibility of eradication. 

Definite infestation detection is difficult and slow. Microscopic 
examination of soil samples is the only sure way to determine 
the presence of cysts in the soil. 

Survey work, quarantine and control procedure will continue 
in an effort to control and eradicate this serious pest. 

White-Fringed Beetle 

The white-fringed beetle was first found in North Carolina in 
1942. This beetle, which cannot fly, has spread over a wide area 
in the south after being found in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and 
Louisiana in 1937. 

The white-fringed beetle infests 42,320 acres in the following 
31 counties: Anson, Beaufort, Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, 
Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, Har- 
nett, Hoke, Johnston, Jones, Lenoir, Mecklenburg, Nash, New 
Hanover, Northampton, Onslow, Pender, Pitt, Robeson, Rowan, 
Sampson, Stanly, Union, Wake, Wayne and Wilson. 

All infested areas have been treated, except 15,500 acres in 
three counties. This area is now being treated and North Caro- 
lina should be free from all serious infestations of this pest in a 
relatively short time. 

Japanese Beetle 

The Japanese beetle was first found in North Carolina in 1932. 
North Carolina is now under Federal Japanese beetle quarantine. 



Report For 1960-62 — Entomology 75 

Since the beetle has been found in 94 counties, the entire state 
is assumed to be infested and a state quarantine no longer serves 
a need. Intensive scouting and trapping would probably show 
infestations in the other six counties where beetles have thus 
far not been found. 

Intensive treatments continue to be made in the vicinity of 
markets, loading stations, and shipping points to minimize 
chances of adult beetles being transported into other sections. 

Due to the vast area now infested, the soil treating program 
of earlier years was abandoned because of the enormous expense 
involved. 

Vegetable Plant Inspection 

The Vegetable Plant Law was passed by the General Assembly 
in 1959. All vegetable plants for transplanting must be shipped 
into the state under certificate of the state of origin. These 
plants are also inspected upon arrival in North Carolina. 

We have received excellent cooperation from states shipping 
into North Carolina. As a result, high quality vegetable plants 
are available to growers in this state. 

The table below gives a record of plants inspected: 

1961 1962 

Onion Sets (321 lb. bags) 4,298 4,576 

Onion plants 4,242,000 1,250,000 

Cabbage 11,649,000 5,047,000 

Tomatoes 5,199,000 2,247,000 

Peppers 672,000 172,000 

Sweet potatoes 1,672,000 110,000 

Egg plants 45,000 24,000 

Narcissus Bulb Inspection 

Commercial growers of narcissus flowers, upon request, have 
been given inspection for nematode infestation for many years. 
In 1961, twelve properties of 93 acres were inspected. Two of 
these properties were found infested. In 1962, eleven properties 
of 104 acres were inspected. Again two properties were found in- 
fested. 

Infested bulbs were promptly removed and destroyed. 

The commercial narcissus cut-flower business means much to 
the economy of the areas involved and this program has kept 
bulb fields relatively free from this serious pest. 



76 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Post Entry Quarantine 

This division cooperates with the United States Department 
of Agriculture in checking plants released from ports of entry 
after being received from foreign countries. These imported 
plants are inspected and fumigated upon arrival and placed un- 
der observation after being planted. 

Such plants released under federal quarantine restrictions to 
North Carolina are kept under supervision by a number of our 
staff until official release has been issued by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

Federal Inspection at Ports of Entry 

A trained plant quarantine inspector is located in the United 
States Custom House at Wilmington, North Carolina. This in- 
spector also has charge of shipments into the port of Morehead. 
The KHAPRA beetle, a very serious stored-product pest, was 
intercepted there recently. The cargo and ship were fumigated. 
This is an invaluable service to North Carolina. Inspectors are 
located at ports all over the United States. 

Cooperation 

Most of the work in this division is a cooperative program with 
the Plant Pest Control Division of the United States Department 
of Agriculture. This agency of the federal government main- 
tains offices in Raleigh with a large group of inspectors who 
perform an excellent service to the state as well as the nation. 
Our relationship is one of cordial cooperation in all work affecting 
both state and federal projects. 

This division also maintains a cordial cooperative relationship 
with Experiment Station and Extension staff members at North 
Carolina State College. This works to the advantage of both 
groups. 

I wish to commend our entire staff for sincere and efficient 
work and hearty cooperation at all times. Our staff here in 
Raleigh, and those located in the field, are to be commended for 
a job exceptionally well done. We are most fortunate to have a 
staff composed of well-trained individuals of such good will, kind- 
ness, and courtesy. 



FARMERS MARKET 

James A. Graham 
Manager 

The Farmers Market in Raleigh is annually proving of in- 
creasing benefit to both farmers and consumers in North Caro- 
lina. 

It is geographically situated almost mid-point between heavy 
producing states to the south and the heavy consuming areas of 
the north — the only market of its kind between Baltimore, Mary- 
land, and Columbia, South Carolina. It is within easy reach of 
North Carolina's fruit and vegetable producing areas. Thus it 
is serving to enhance the quantity and quality of fresh produce 
available to North Carolina consumers the year around, while 
providing North Carolina farmers a profitable outlet for their 
quality produce. 

The Market is also filling another long-felt need. It is being 
used for experimental work in marketing equipment and for 
educating farmers in the best marketing methods, including 
grading, sizing, packaging and other procedures in preparing 
produce to receive top prices. 

The Farmers Market was established in 1955 as a privately 
owned enterprise, following a produce-market study by the U. 
S. Department of Agriculture which revealed the inadequacy of 
produce marketing facilities in the Raleigh area and recommend- 
ed a terminal market in a new location. In 1958 the farmer's 
section of the Market was offered to the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture on a dollar-a-year lease basis, and from 
July 1 of that year until July 1, 1961, the department operated 
that portion of the Market with the cooperation of the North 
Carolina Department of Conservation and Development and North 
Carolina State College. During those three years the Market 
has shown considerable progress as evidenced by the improved 
quality and yearly increased volume of produce handled. 

In 1960 the Market's owner offered the entire facility for sale 
to the Department of Agriculture, and funds for its purchase 
were made available as a self-liquidating loan by the General 
Assembly of 1961. The purchase was completed and the facility 
turned over to the department as of July 1, 1961. In the year 



78 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



since then the Market has not only operated entirely on its own 
receipts and paid the first annual installment on its purchase 
price, it has also paid for extensive repairs and some additions. 

The Market currently handles some 100 different commodities 
annually. The annual over-all gross volume runs from $10 to 
$12 million, and is showing an increase each year. The Market 
accommodates an average of 3,000 farmers and truckers during 
a one year period, and there are approximately 15,000 trucks 
entering its gates annually. 

Ideally located on four-lane highway U.S. 1, the Market com- 
prises I8V2 acres, more than 2% of which are under roof. The 
wholesale produce building is L-shaped and contains 36 units 
which house 12 wholesalers. Each unit is 22% feet wide and 100 
feet deep. All units are equipped with refrigeration facilities, 
and 28 are serviced by double-rail spur track at the rear. The 
rail platform is 10 feet wide, and the front of the buildings 
is spanned by a 24-foot, truck-bed-height platform which serves 
for display and in-and-out loading. Both front and rear plat- 
forms are canopied. The entire area is well lighted, as most of 
the trading is done at night or in early morning. Streets are 150 




Farmers, truckers and buyers get together for the selling and buying of produce 
at the Market. Since the above picture was taken sheds have been built over this 
area of the Market to provide protection from weather for buyers, sellers and 
produce. 




The Market participates in efforts to promote consumption of North Carolina 
produce in season. Above are two scenes from the Annual Watermelon Festival 
held on the Market grounds. The top photo shows Secretary of State Thad Eure 
competing in the matermelon seed spitting contest. Looking on and awaiting their 
turn at far right, are contestants Agriculture Commissioner L. Y. Ballentine and 
Hargrove Bowles, director of the N. C. Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. Bowles, the winner, broke all previous records. The bottom picture shows 
the "shot put" contest, in which small icebox watermelons are used. The events 
are fun for both contestants and spectators but, with full coverage given by all 
news media, they also serve to focus public attention on the abundance of North 
Carolina's fine watermelons at the time when they are at the peak of luscious 
flavor. 



80 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

feet wide for easy tractor-traiier handling within the market, and 
both incoming and outgoing trucks can be handled simultaneous- 

ly. 

The farmers and truckers shed is designed to provide farm- 
ers with one-stop service. Farmers can bring their produce to 
Market and be assigned a parking space in one or more of the 
78 shed units where their produce can be inspected by prospective 
buyers. 

It should be emphasized that this is a terminal market and its 
buying power is not confined to local business. It is a regular 
stop for truckers serving the northern markets. Buyers come 
down regularly from Virginia to supply their produce needs. 

Commodities from all over the world find their way through 
this marketing and distributing facility, which is growing and 
destined to be one of the largest on the east coast. 

But the volume of the Market's business is not the sole baro- 
meter of its service. The benefits of its indirect influence have 
possibly been as great as those derived directly from the Market's 
operation, if not greater. The department considers it a function 
of the Market management to bring buyers and sellers together, 
whether or not the produce ever passes through the Market 
gates. 

The leaders in volume of sales on the Market are tomatoes and 
bananas — two commodities which are basic to the success of 
any market of this type. These, together with the wide variety 
of other produce available, bring to the Market more buying 
power for quality produce than North Carolina farmers are yet 
satisfying. Thus the Market can play a vital role in the future 
expansion of North Carolina's potential for fruit and vegetable 
production. 

The Farmers Market is complete in every detail so that any 
bu\er, regardless of size, can enjoy one-stop services and buy 
from the variety of commodities and qualities those which meet 
his needs at fair prices to all concerned. 

The population is growing and with it the consumption of 
fresh fruits and vegetables. This Market is easily accessible to 
the Carolina's commercial produce growing section and the coast- 
al plains and mountain areas of western North Carolina. With 
increased interest, farmers are utilizing the Market more than 
ever before, and every effort is being made to step up this interest. 



DIVISION OF MARKETS 

John A. Winfield 
Director 

Marketing, to many people, suggests only the idea of a simple 
sale between two individuals or firms. To the more informed 
or experienced individuals, however, it means all of the involved 
processes of selecting the commodities and varieties to be pro- 
duced, methods of cultivation or type of feeding, assembling, 
transporting, grading, processing, packaging, storing, pricing, 
selling and merchandising. Thus, it can be said that marketing 
begins at the farmer's field and ends in the consumer's home. 
What goes on between these two points is of extreme importance 
to both producers and consumers and determines almost wholly 
how each of these groups will fare as to returns from production, 
cost for consumer purchases, and quality of consumer goods. 

While the main function of the Division of Markets is to as- 
sist farmers in doing an efficient job of marketing and thereby 
obtain the highest possible return for their products, there is 
a constant awareness of the consumer's desire to buy these pro- 
ducts in a desired form and condition at the lowest possible 
price. Therefore, the entire chain of events which takes place 
from the time production is initiated until the commodity 
reaches the consumer must be carefully watched, studied and 
carried out with both groups in mind. 

Division personnel continued their efforts in this direction 
during the 1960-62 biennium. In doing so, they were able to 
broaden their services to producers and producer groups, and 
at the same time, devote an increased amount of attention to 
problems directly related to consumers. Where possible, direct 
assistance was rendered but because of the heavy demand for 
available services, it was necessary to rely on mass news media 
to keep farmers and consumers alike informed of the many 
changes occurring in the field of agricultural marketing. 

The Division of Markets continued to enjoy splendid working 
relations with other agencies during the biennium. And it is 
the desire of the division to continue this cooperative approach 
in future efforts toward a more efficient marketing system for 
North Carolina agricultural products. 

Following is a sumary of activities for the biennium in var- 
ious phases covered by this division: 



82 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Livestock 

Livestock enterprises offer great opportunities to farmers from 
the mountains to the coast. They can increase their farm in- 
come, have a higher standard of living, and improve the fertility 
of their farms through livestock production. As livestock num- 
bers increase, marketing will be more efficient and producers 
will realize more profit from livestock farming. 

The primary objective of our work in livestock marketing is 
to assist all people involved in marketing livestock and livestock 
products. For producers this means buying or selling by private 
treaty or collectively in special pools or sales. For the livestock 
auction market it means planning sales, consigning livestock, 
grading and grouping for sale, contacting buyers, and assisting 
with sales. For packers and processors it means procurement 
of livestock for slaughter, grading beef carcasses and acceptance 
of meat products bought by state institutions. 

Our specialists, working with Extension livestock specialists 
and the N. C. Cattlemen's Association, scheduled and supervised 
39 special sales of 36,711 head of feeder calves, yearlings and 
stocker cattle during the 1960-62 biennium. These cattle were 
graded and sold in uniform lots. The quality and volume of 
sales attracted buyers from the midwestern, northeastern and 
southeastern points of the United States. Specialists bought cat- 
tle in these sales on order for buyers in and out of the state who 
were unable to attend sales. 

In this biennium there has been an increase in the size of com- 
mercial feed lots in the state. In 1960 approximately 75 per cent 
of the cattle sold in the special yearling and feeder sales were 
shipped to feeders outside the state. In 1961 approximately 75 
per cent of the cattle in these special sales were fed in North 
Carolina. Approximately 50 per cent of the cattle fed here in 
the state were under a contractual feeding agreement with pack- 
ers. The remainder was fed by independent feeders. 

North Carolina needs to produce more of the meat it consumes. 
Both cattle and hogs are shipped into the state for slaughter. 
The problem is to maintain a year-around supply of livestock 
for slaughter. At certain times we have a surplus of fat cattle, 
but this is usually for a short period of time. 

Considerable time was spent helping small producers to buy 
and sell commercial beef cattle, and in buying purebred bulls 
for herd sires. Assistance was given state breed associations 
in conducting their sales. 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 



83 




Beef cattle feed lots have been increasing in size and in number, but beef 
production offers a source of increased farm income for still more North Carolina 
farmers. Livestock marketing specialists in the department help small producers 
to buy and sell commercial beef cattle and to obtain purebred bulls for herd sires. 



Our work with swine was centered primarily on feeder pig 
marketing. This continues to offer an opportunity to many of 
our farmers, since both large and small farmers can participate. 
Many are already profitably producing feeder pigs of high quali- 
ty. At one time quality feeder pig auction sales were the primary 
marketing outlet, but some of these sales were unsuccessful be- 
cause of insufficient volume. The larger auction sales have 
survived and have grown in volume. In most of the areas where 
small sales were held farmers are now contracting pigs to feeders 
in the state. One three-county group is contracting pigs pro- 
duced in their area to a mid-west firm. The swine specialist has 
worked closely with this group and county Extension workers 
in helping producers in these counties to buy meat-type gilts and 
boars outside their area. 

One quality feeder pig auction sale now has a volume of 1,000 



84 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

to 2,000 pigs every two weeks. This sale has made it possible 
for a number of feeders to buy pigs of quality and in volume to 
feed out pigs on a year-round basis. 

Approximately 50,000 feeder pigs were sold through special 
sales across the state during the 1958-60 period. More than 
100,000 pigs were sold in special sales and under contract during 
the two year period covered by this report. 

The swine specialist also assisted with purebred sales, type 
conferences and market hog shows. Grading of hogs is primari- 
ly as a demonstration for farmers, since most of the large pack- 
ers are grading and paying a premium for the meat-type hogs. 

Sheep numbers have been declining in the past two years. 
This is a general trend which is expected when cattle prices are 
good. Only 850 western yearling ewes were shipped in and dis- 
tributed in the period of this report under a revolving fund set 
up for this purspose a number of years ago. Low lamb prices 
had considerable effect on flock replacements. The sheep spe- 
cialist graded 21,026 sheep and lambs in 53 state lamb pools. He 
also supervised the grader at one auction market that handled 
15,000 lambs and sheep. 

A decline in the amount of wool marketed in the wool pools 
occurred with the decline in sheep numbers. Wool in the state 
was offered for sale on sealed bid basis and sold and collected 
by personnel of the section working with the State College Ex- 
tension livestock specialists. The State Wool Pool, in eight pools, 
collected 259,456 pounds of wool, and the Mountain Pool, in two 
sales, sold approximately 154,000 pounds. 

The sheep specialist buys replacement ewes and rams for 
producers and also assists with sheep field days, sales and pro- 
motion of wool and lamb. 

Grading of beef, veal and lamb carcasses in approved North 
Carolina packing plants was continued during the biennium. A 
total of 11,607,905 pounds were graded using NCDA grades. 
Assistance was also given state institutions in buying meats. 
During the biennium 10,491,38 pounds of meat and meat prod- 
ucts were inspected and accepted for use in state institutions to 
insure quality and conformity to state specifications. 

Considerable time was spent assisting packing houses and 
livestock markets in improving facilities to handle the growing 
livestock industry. 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 85 

Poultry and Eggs 

All phases of the North Carolina poultry industry underwent 
many changes during the period covered by this report. Produc- 
tion continued to expand, but with this came improvements in 
grading, packaging and storing; increased processing facilities 
and efficiency; and greater consumer acceptance for poultry 
and egg products. 

North Carolina produced 156 million broilers in 1960 and 
183 million in 1961. Egg production amounted to 2,035 mil- 
lion eggs in 1960 and 2,115 million eggs in 1961. North Caro- 
lina produced 1,800,000 turkeys in 1960 and 2,555,000 in 1961. 
North Carolina ranks 4th among the states in broiler pro- 
duction, 7th in eggs and 11th in turkeys. The total cash re- 
ceipts from poultry and eggs in 1960 was $160 million and in 
1961, $165 million. 

Farm pay prices for broilers during 1961 averaged 13.41 
cents per pound as compared with an average of 16.24 cents 
during 1960. An all time low price of 10 cents per pound was 
reached during November, 1961. 

Egg producers fared better than the broiler and turkey pro- 
ducers. Grade A large eggs averaged 38.33 cents per dozen 
in 1961 compared with 41.2 cents during 1960. 

Average farm pay prices for turkeys during 1961 was 22.7 
cents per pound as compared with a 1960 average price of 26 
cents. Many turkey growers lost money as a result of these low 
prices. 

Many requests for assistance to egg producers and packers 
were received during the period covered by this report from prac- 
tically every area in the state. In most instances, these people 
were assisted with grading and handling problems that are asso- 
ciated with egg quality. Service work also included conducting 
egg grading schools to familiarize people with the proper method 
and techniques desired for handling and storing shell eggs. Re- 
quests for this type of assistance increased, due primarily to 
the discontinuance of egg grading by some of the chain stores. 
Some egg producers are candling, sizing and cartoning eggs on 
the farm for direct delivery to retail stores. 

During this biennium a study was made in cooperation with 
the Department of Conservation and Development of 18 poul- 
try processing plants concerning the possibility of exporting 
poultry to foreign countries. The object of the study was to 
determine the feasibility of North Carolina gaining another 



86 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

market for its ready-to-cook chickens and turkeys. Practically 
all of the 18 plants were interested. As a result of this study 
approximately 3,000,000 pounds of ready-to-cook chickens and 
turkeys were exported to foreign countries during this biennium. 

Technical assistance was extended to the poultry and egg 
processing industry. Plans were drawn for changing equip- 
ment layouts, and detailed floor plans were prepared showing 
outside dimensions, wall partitions, floor drains, offices, dress- 
ing rooms, coolers, shipping docks and other necessary details. 
Before making changes in plants operating under official in- 
spection, the floor plans must be submitted to the Inspection 
Branch of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for approval. 

Poultry and egg marketing specialists assisted in the organi- 
zation of an Egg Processors and Packers Association with 18 
members. They also assisted in the "Henny Penny" Program 
which was made possible by a referendum whereby the egg pro- 
ducers of North Carolina assessed themselves one cent for 
each hen going to slaughter. The money collected is adminis- 
tered by the North Carolina Egg Marketing Association, and 
used to promote the sale of North Carolina Eggs. The referen- 
dum passed by a two-thirds majority vote and the assessment be- 
came effective May 1, 1960, for a period of three years. 

Official egg grading has been inaugurated at Chick Haven 
Farms, North Wilkesboro; Carlisle Poultry & Egg Associates, 
Burgaw; and Tom's Fresh Eggs, Shelby. Poultry grading was 
started at FCX Poultry Products, Lexington, and Colonial 
Poultry Co., Robbins. At present 34 poultry plants are under 
official inspection and Federal-State poultry graders are lo- 
cated in nine plants. Four plants are grading eggs officially, 
and egg products are officially packed in three plants. 

Members of the poultry section have cooperated with the 
State Grange; Farm Bureau; Egg Processors and Packers As- 
sociation, the North Carolina Poultry Council and N. C. Egg 
Marketing Association by serving on various committees in an 
advisory capacity in guiding their programs as they pertain 
to poultry and eggs. 

Dairy 

There have always been problems associated with dairy mar- 
keting, but during this biennium there have been many pressing 
issues which have made a public service program essential. The 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 87 

dairy industry has been plagued with adverse publicity per- 
taining to such things as cholesterol, fallout, obesity and food 
fads. These problems are not insurmountable but they have 
pointed up the need for more concentrated work to keep the 
public thinking straight about the value and goodness of milk. 
Not only is there the need to maintain present markets, but 
also to tap the tremendous potential of increasing population 
for increasing dairy food sales. 

Through its service program the dairy marketing work is 
specifically designed to increase consumption of dairy products. 
Major emphasis is placed on assistance to the public schools. 
While children are in a formative stage is the important time 
to help develop proper eating habits, which include dairy pro- 
ducts. Also, most of the schools in North Carolina are on the 
Federal School Lunch and Special Milk programs which make 
milk available every day if children wish to purchase it. 

Work with the schools during the 1960-62 biennium was 
aimed at presenting sound facts on milk through illustrated 
lectures to children and teachers. A total of 488 such meetings 
were held during the two-year period at 233 different schools. 
Total attendance amounted to 76,623 children and 2, 758 teach- 
ers. Teachers were furnished factual materials to be used in 
classroom activities as a part of their regular health teaching. 
Most of this information was prepared by our dairy marketing 
specialist. Teachers were urged to correlate textbook work 
with the practical application of consuming milk in the lunch- 
room and taking advantage of the Special Milk Program to pur- 
chase extra milk either as part of a meal or for between-meal 
feeding. Preliminary figures for July, 1961 — January, 1962, 
indicate more than a seven per cent increase in school milk con- 
sumption over the same period in the previous year. Consump- 
tion has made a steady increase each year. 

Another outstanding part of the work was representing the 
Department of Agriculture on the N. C. Dairy Industry Pro- 
motion Committee. One of the main functions of this committee 
is the June Dairy Month promotion. There were many varied 
activities in connection with this work including Dairy Prin- 
cess contests, dairy luncheons and breakfasts, special events, 
parades, window displays, publicity and civic club meetings. 
All of these were for the purpose of increasing milk consum- 



88 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tion. For the past two years our Dairy Marketing Specialist 
has served as State Chairman of the Woman's Activities. Num- 
erous meetings and plans were involved in being a resource per- 
son for local, area and state activities. Assistance also was given 
the dairy industry in manning dairy bars and in their special 
ice cream and peach promotions. 

Excellent working relationships were maintained with other 
state agencies, home economists, nutritionists, professional or- 
ganizations and the dairy industry. Our specialist served as 
chairman of the Nutrition Section of the N. C. Public Health 
Association, and was a member of the committees of the N. C. 
Home Economics Association and the Council on Foods and 
Nutrition. An active interest was maintained in the N. C. Con- 
gress of Parents and Teachers. Several mailings of dairy in- 
formation were sent to home economics agents throughout the 
state. 

Our dairy marketing work is the only job in the state desig- 
nated solely for the purpose of promoting the consumption of 
dairy products. The work is planned in order to reach as many 
people as possible with sound information and to serve as a 
resource person for maintaining present markets and creating 
new ones. 

Grain 

The primary function of this section is to increase the effi- 
ciency of handling, storing, drying and marketing North Carolina 
grain and seed crops. 

During recent years, tremendous progress has been made in 
the expansion of grain drying and storage facilities in North 
Carolina. However, sharp increases in grain production and the 
use of modern handling equipment have created a greater need 
for further expansion of these facilities. 

Use of picker-shellers and earlier harvesting has resulted in 
a faster, heavier movement of our major grain crops. Lack of 
adequate storage facilities, on and off the farm, makes it nec- 
essary to sell a large percentage of our grain at harvest and 
move millions of bushels to export outlets or storage in other 
states. This has a depressing effect on prices and thus greatly 
affects the returns received by producers at a time when they 
are forced to sell. These excessive losses could be reduced if 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 



89 




Specialist in the process of grading a sample of grain in the N. C. Department of 
Agriculture's grain grading laboratory. 



adequate handling and storage facilities could be provided. In 
addition to the transportation and price losses, another $5,000,- 
000 is lost annually to insects and rodents because of insufficient 
storage facilities. 

To promote additional grain storage and marketing facilities, 
specialists worked closely with members of the grain industry, 
producers and other agricultural agencies. 

Grain production and storage surveys were made to deter- 
mine the need for, and economic justification of, new marketing 
facilities. Assistance was given in planning these new facilities 
for maximum efficiency and in developing long-range plans for 
future growth. 

During the biennium, on-the-farm grain storage was in- 
creased from 12,000,000 bushels to approximately 17,000,000 
bushels and commercial storage was increased from 23,348,000 
bushels to approximately 24,800,000 bushels. The need for con- 
tinued emphasis on additional storage facilities is evident. More 
than 109 million bushels of grain were produced within the state 



90 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Specialists in the grain section demonstrate the use of grain grading equipment 
and train personnel of grain and feed processing firms. Approximately 70 percent 
of our commercial grain firms are now merchandising grain on grade. 



in 1961. At this time we had only 41,800,000 bushels of im- 
proved storage, commercial and on the farm. 

The importance of efficiency in the operation of a grain fa- 
cility has increased considerably in the past few years. The 
rapid changes in handling, drying, storing and merchandising 
grain have intensified the competitive situation which has re- 
sulted in a reduction in profit margins. 

A study of the management programs currently being used 
in grain elevators and feed mills is now under way. A specialist 
has been assigned the duties of analyzing these programs and 
giving on-the-job assistance to grain elevator and feed mill 
operators in improving all phases of plant management. 

This section is also responsible for improving the marketing 
of grain and seed on a quality basis. Merchandising grain on 
the basis of grade and quality is constantly on the increase in 
North Carolina. Progress can be shown in this area by the 29 per 
cent increase during the biennium in the number of firms mer- 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 



91 



North Carolina Grain Storage and Production Picture, T 95 1-1 961. 



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92 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

chandising grain on a grade basis. Approximately 70 per cent 
of the total grain movement is now based on U. S. Grades. 

To further promote grain merchandising on a quality basis, 
specialists conducted instructional programs and demonstra- 
tions in grain grading through area and country grain grading 
schools. Special assistance was also given to firms in setting up 
grading rooms and equipment and in training personnel in the 
use of grading equipment. As a service to the grain industry, 145 
moisture meters were checked for accuracy, and adjustments 
were made where necessary. 

Specialists, in cooperation with other agricultural agencies, 
conducted extensive educational programs on special problems 
such as crotalaria contamination in corn and soybeans, har- 
vesting high moisture corn and stinkbug damage in soybeans. 

Crotalaria contamination and harvesting high moisture corn 
were reduced considerably by means of radio and TV programs, 
news articles, newsletters and conferences and group meetings 
with producers and grain dealers. There were only a few lots 
of grain found during the past season that were contaminated 
with crotalaria. The percent of moisture in the early havest- 
ed corn last season ranged from 22 to 25 per cent. In the past, 
corn had been harvested with as much as 35 to 37 percent 
moisture. 

Stinkbug damage became a serious problem among soybean 
producers and grain buyers in 1960. Since no research had 
been done in this state or in other states, specialists from the 
grain section, in cooperation with Extension and research per- 
sonnel at N. C. State College, started to work on this problem. 
Approximately 5,000 acres of soybeans were checked to help de- 
termine the extent of damage by the stinkbug and what farmers 
could do to prevent damage to their crops by this insect. This 
included a field count of stinkbug infestation and inspection of 
soybeans from treated and untreated fields. 

Working closely with Extension workers, agriculture teachers 
and producers in the state, the seed specialist conducted a seed 
oat drill-box survey in 1960-61 and a seed wheat survey in 1961- 
62. The purpose of these surveys was to determine the need for 
expanded service programs in this area. The surveys showed 
quite vividly the urgent need for an expanded service program in 
improving the quality of seed being planted by the farmers in 
North Carolina. 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 93 

Direct assistance was given the seed processors in handling, 
storing, cleanin, treating and marketing seed. Two countywide 
Seed Marketing Clinics and a statewide Seed Processors School 
were conducted in cooperation with other agricultural agencies. 
These were designed especially to help seed processors improve 
the efficiency of their operations. The ultimate goal in the area 
of seed marketing is to improve the quality of seed offered for 
sale to North Carolina producers. 

Another function of this section is the grading of all farm 
stored grain under the price support program in North Carolina 
and officially certifying the grade on lots of grain and hay upon 
request. Inspectors are also assigned to country point buying sta- 
tions upon request. Inspectors were stationed at seven tempo- 
rary inspection stations with individual firms last season, where 
6,445 farmer lot inspections were made. This was the largest 
number of grain inspectors ever stationed at buying points. 
Requests are continuing for this type of service. 

An office was maintained at the Morehead City Port Terminal 
where specialists handled the weighing and inspection of all grain 
coming in and going out of this port. Inspections were also made 
available in Elizabeth City and Charlotte where full-time licensed 
grain inspectors are located. 

Tobacco 

A review of the activities of the Tobacco Section during this 
biennium shows an increase in the requests for numerous and 
varied services from individuals, farm organizations and farm 
groups, agricultural teachers, county agents, werehousemen and 
other segments of the tobacco industry. 

During the biennium the tobacco service program was altered 
to meet the needs and demands of tobacco farmers in an ever- 
changing market. Changes in buying demand, and production 
and harvesting mechanization has made the farmers' problems 
two-fold. 

The first of these is the uncertainty of the kinds of tobacco 
that will be in strongest demand from domestic and foreign buy- 
ers. The next problem involves the changes that are necessary, 
from the use of bulk curers and mechanical harvesters, in pre- 
paring tobacco for market. These two problems are foremost in 
the section's service program. Requests from growers and farm 



94 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

organizations for more pre-marketing services were met by hold- 
ing group meetings in cooperation with agrictultural teachers and 
farm agents. In these meetings a thorough analysis of the to- 
bacco situation was given growers as it relates to stocks on hand, 
domestic and export disappearance, changes in buying practices, 
and new developments in the industry that establishes the trends 
and determines the kind of tobacco that will be in strongest de- 
mand during the season. These pre-marketing services give the 
grower a better knowledge of the demand outlook so that he can 
better adjust cultural and management practices to produce the 
kind of tobacco foreign and domestic buyers want. 

In late July after growers have produced the kind of tobacco 
in demand, the second phase of the marketing service program, 
which deals with market preparation, was started and continued 
throughout the remainder of the year. This service was conduct- 
ed in cooperation with the above named agencies through group 
meetings with farmers. Growers attending these meetings 
brought tobacco from their crop, and a specialist assisted them in 
sorting a sample into uniform standard grades so it would meet 
buyer demand. This was accomplished by using proper light for 
grading and showing growers how to apply a simplified system of 
farm sorting for getting tobacco into uniform grades with only 
a basic knowledge of the U. S. Standard Grading system. 



Announcement of experimental sales of untied tobacco in North Carolina for the 
rst time in 1 962 prompted one of the division's tobacco specialists to design a 
baler so that growers could present their tobacco to the best advantage on the 
warehouse floor. 

The four photographs on the opposite page show the various steps involved in 
the operation of the baler: 

1. Graded "straight-laid" leaves are placed in the baler, stems out with tips 
overlapping five to six inches in the center, and pressed. Successive layers under 
pressure are built to form a full bale of not more than 75 pounds. 

2. While the bale is still under pressure, three pieces of twine, previously 
placed in the form, are tied to secure the bale. The outside pieces of twine are 
about eight inches from the ends, and the third piece is tied where the tips overlap 
at the middle. 

3. The completed bale, secured by twine, is shown here. 

4. NCDA tobacco specialists demonstrate how the completed bale (shown here 
as less than a full bale) can be lifted from the form for easy handling. 



96 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

During the biennium, assistance was given the 12,000 grow- 
er members of the three operating farmer-owned cooperative 
warehouses, v/hich sold over 37 million pounds of growers' to- 
bacco and returned to growers over $100,000 in patronage divi- 
dends. 

New and unforseen marketing problems arise during each 
marketing season. These problems have been numerous during 
the past two years due to change in support prices of discount 
varieties and the use of sucker control material. These situa- 
tions were met with special assistance to individual growers in 
order to help them market their tobacco to the best advantage. 

Special marketing information was disseminated to growers 
through newspaper articles, radio, television, farm magazines 
and bulletins. 

Fruits and Vegetables (Service) 

North Carolina is becoming an important source of fruits and 
vegetables for processing through the contract system of market- 
ing. The processing industry, now established in North Caro- 
lina, as well as processors located in other states, have requested 
assistance in promoting and locating sufficient contractual 
acreages of the commodities they use. These marketing changes 
and systems of marketing during the 1960-62 biennium brought 
about a continuing need for service work in : 

(1) Encouraging contractual acreage for processors and striv- 
ing for more uniform and higher quality packs for the fresh mar- 
ket. Contractual farming, as it applies to fruit and vegetable 
production, involves a legal contract between grower and han- 
dler whereby the handler guarantees the grower a specific price 
for a specific grade of the commodity or commodities produced. 

(2) Assisting commodity groups in more effective promoting 
in advertising. 

(3) Reducing handling costs and more efficient harvesting 
techniques. 

(4) Promoting the assembly of volume and quality produce 
for centralized marketing. 

(5) Promoting self-help commodity group organizations. 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 97 

During the 1960-62 biennium, an increased effort was made 
toward meeting these needs through a cooperative program of 
action with state and federal agencies, producers and handlers, 
trade associations, cooperatives, and other organized groups. 
Some of these problems were included in research projects under 
Federal Matching Funds applied to improving marketing prac- 
tices of fruits and vegetables. 

Division specialists conducted or assisted other agencies in the 
following projects : 

(1) Promoting contractual acreages for processors of sweet 
potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, snap beans, okra, pickling cucum- 
bers, and pepperoncini, a new crop in the state for processing. 

(2) Assisting processing plants in Bertie, Martin, Henderson, 
Columbus, Robeson, Forsyth, Davidson, and Buncombe Counties. 
These plants, along with one in Wayne and another in Duplin 
County, now have under contract approximately 50,000 acres of 
various fruits and vegetables. 

(3) Continuing to assist peach, apple, sweet potato, and Irish 
potato producer associations with referendums on assessing 
themselves to raise funds for advertising and promoting the in- 
creased consumption and utilization of their respective commodi- 
ties. 

(4) Continuing to issue fruit and vegetable bulletins which 
listed the products available, normal harvesting dates, and loca- 
tion of the various products. These bulletins were sent to 600 
buyers, handlers and dealers in 20 states and Canada. 

(5) Working closely with processors and producers in arriving 
at more equitable contract prices for various commodities which 
increased the income of the producers during the biennium by 
approximately $475,00 over and above the old contract prices of 
the previous biennium. 

These projects and assistance programs enabled producers to 
diversify and have early cash crops under the contractual system 
of marketing, which eliminates risk to the grower in the market 
place. 

Other activities during the biennium included: 



98 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

(1) Participating in 101 conferences or group meetings per- 
taining to fresh or processing crops. These meetings were at- 
tended by 1,550 persons, including research, Extension and Con- 
servation and Development workers, as well as buyers, bankers, 
and processors. 

(2) Assisting 32 county farms agents with various marketing 
problems. 

(3) Assisting 12 vocational agricultural teachers in contractual 
system of marketing. 

(4) Providing general assistance to 44 firms one or more times 
during the biennium. 

(5) Assisting in making direct sales to various chain store 
warehouses and other buyers of local fruits and vegetables. 

(6) Assisting 13 firms in securing certified seed, contractual 
acreage, locating grading and processing equipment or sources 
of supply of fresh products. 

(7) Assisting Produce Processors, Incorporated, at Windsor 
in securing sweet potatoes for flaking. This is the only commer- 
cial sweet potato flaking plant operating in the United States 
at this time. Assistance also was given in securing 1,000 acres 
of sweet potatoes and 75 acres of pumpkins for their 1962-63 
processing seasons. 

(8) Continuing a program of coordinating more equitable f.o.b. 
prices in the 13-county Irish potato producing area to prevent 
wide differentials in prices of one area against another. This 
work is in cooperation with the N. C. Potato Association. 

Fruits and Vegetables (Inspection and Regulatory) 

This branch of the Fruit and Vegetable Section is responsible 
for employing and supervising 60 to 300 inspectors annually to 
grade and certify the quality and condition of fruits, vegetables 
and peanuts; and for assessing and collecting fees to cover the 
cost of the grading work performed by these inspectors. It is 
also responsible for carrying out the provisions of the "Handlers 
Act" and the "North Carolina Seed Potato Law". 

During the biennium, 11 training classes were conducted in 
which 109 men were trained for fruit, vegetable and peanut grad- 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 99 

ing work. In addition, 48 persons were given on the job train- 
ing and 385 experienced inspectors were given refresher courses. 
Twelve conferences were held with key personnel, at which in- 
struction was given in supervisory duties, general inspection 
policies and grade interpretations. 

Fifty to 75 graders were employed annually during the summer 
movement of potatoes, vegetables at auction, peaches and melons, 
and from 200 to 265 during the peak movement of peanuts and 
sweet potatoes in the fall and winter months. 

The volume of grading and certification work for this period 
was as follows: 7,543 carlot equivalents for producers and ship- 
pers of fruits, vegetables and cleaned and shelled peanuts ; 529,- 
012,000 pounds of farmers' stock peanuts delivered to buying 
points by farmers ; and 2, 295,344 packages of berries, vegetables 
and sweet potatoes at auction markets. A total of 1,014 carlots 
of fruits, vegetables and melons were certified for wholesale re- 
ceivers within the state and 7,951,414 pounds of produce were 
graded at or for delivery to state and federal institutions and 
military installations. 

Considerable effort was devoted to improvements in peanut 
grading during the biennium, with special emphasis placed on 
uniformity and accuracy. Mechanical peanut pre-sizers, shellers, 
shakers and splitters were added to our grading equipment, en- 
abling the grader to use a larger sample for analysis, which re- 
sulted in more accurate and efficient grade determination. Bulk 
handling materially increased during the biennium with approxi- 
mately 65 per cent being delivered in bulk during the 1961 season 
compared with about 23 per cent in 1959. Only the automatic 
and belt type sampling methods will be approved for use in ob- 
taining an official sample of bulk peanuts effective with the 
1962 crop. 

There were 343,401 hundredweight of seed potatoes examined 
to determine compliance with the North Carolina Seed Potato 
Law. 

Under the Handlers Act, contracts by processors with farmers 
to produce vegetables for processing were examined and, upon 
approval of the contracts, 41 permits were issued to processors 
authorizing contractual agreements. Bonds or certified copies of 
satisfactory financial statements were required to insure pay- 
ment to producers for produce grown under contract. 

Staff members of this section participated in 27 meetings of 



100 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

farmers, produce handlers, processors, and professional workers. 
These meetings were attended by approximately 1,625 persons 
interested in improving the marketing and grading of agricul- 
tural products in North Carolina. 

Special memorandums were prepared and mailed to the appli- 
cants for inspection, keeping them informed of all pertinent 
changes with reference to inspection work. Likewise, spe- 
cial memorandums were issued to licensed graders of farm pro- 
ducts, and frequent visits were made to the areas where in- 
spection work was being conducted, the purpose being to see that 
grade interpretation and application were uniform throughout 
the state. 

Engineering 

Today's agricultural economy is becoming more and more de- 
pendent upon automation, applied science and technology. The 
Engineering Section of the Markets Division is charged with the 
responsibility of assisting processors of agricultural products 
with the application of technology to their problems. It has 
prime responsibility for providing marketing services to the 
cotton ginning and milling industries. In cooperation with com- 
modity sections of the Division of Markets, other divisions of the 
Department of Agriculture or other agricultural agencies, the 
section provides technical assistance to initial marketing and 
processing firms for other commodities. 

Assistance to the ginning industry, during the biennium, was 
provided on a gin-by-gin basis and included: (1) Advice to gin- 
ners on the best operating techniques for existing gin equipment 
to properly preserve the quality of cotton as produced by our 
farmers ; (2) assistance in the selection, erection, and synchro- 
nization of gin equipment to improve ginning service; (3) pro- 
moting the recognition and use of grade, staple and fiber proper- 
ty values in the marketing of cotton ; (4) active participation in 
the organization and activities of ginner trade groups to foster 
better industry business practices and the dissemination of in- 
formation pertinent to the cotton trade ; (5) close cooperation 
with other govermental agencies and private organizations con- 
cerned with the welfare and promotion of the cotton industry; 
(6) designing and developing the first known commercial cot- 
ton seed drier in the United States to preserve quality of plant- 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 



101 




Services of the cotton fiber testing laboratory have been improved and expanded. 
Here laboratory technicians are operating one of the many modern fiber testing 
devices used in determining property values of cotton. 



ing seed; and (7) supervising and coordinating the production 
of a 25-minute color movie, with sound, entitled "Man With A 
Problem", highlighting the role of the ginner in the cotton in- 
dustry. 

During the biennium, the services of the Cotton Fiber Testing 
Laboratory were improved and expanded to enable the laboratory 
to make biweekly releases reflecting the fiber property values 
of the entire North Carolina cotton crop as it is ginned. These 
data are based upon samples collected from every gin in the 
state using the Smith-Doxey Classing Service of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. These reports adequately pinpoint the 
quality factors for every cotton producing area in the state and 
are widely used by cotton buyers throughout North Carolina and 
the southeastern states to obtain the desired quality of cotton. 
This usage brings us considerably closer to our long range goal 
of finding the most appropriate market for every bale of North 
Carolina cotton. The facilities of the laboratory are utilized 
throughout the year to aid mills, merchants and research scien- 



102 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tists in determining fiber properties and to train technicians for 
industry. 

Technical assistance to the milling industry in North Carolina 
is a continuing assignment of the Engineering Section. The 
milling industry is a vital link in the grain-livestock-food com- 
plex and has a responsibility for converting grain into whole- 
some, nutritious, and palatable products for both human and 
animal consumption. In view of the role of the milling indus- 
try, technical assistance during the biennium has been geared 
to physical plant improvement, in-plant sanitation, grain preser- 
vation and storage, improved packaging and marketing, and co- 
operative industry-wide promotional efforts. Thirty-three corn 
mills subscribed to and contributed approximately $6,000 an- 
nually, during the biennium, to a promotional fund to sponsor a 
statewide 4-H Enriched Corn Meal Muffin Baking Contest and to 
underwrite the publication and distribution of enriched corn meal 
recipes. These promotional activities were conceived, planned, 
coordinated and executed by the Engineering Section's milling 
specialist. The section continued to actively participate in or- 
ganized miller trade organizations within the state as a prime 
means of enhancing industry operating policies. 

Engineering services of the section normally center around 
the preparation of blueprints and (to a limited degree) specifi- 
cations, the selection of equipment, and the development of flow 
sheets or equipment layouts. These services tend to fill the gap 
between the status of "no engineering" and the fully developed 
plans of professional architects and engineers. Work in this area 
must be highly coordinated, utilizing the skills and knowledge of 
departmental specialists in assessing the biological and chemical 
characteristics of commodities to be handled, processed, pack- 
aged, stored and/or refrigerated. Indicative of the many and 
varied activities of the Engineering Section in this realm are the 
21 meat processing plants, 15 poultry processing plants, 14 grain 
storage facilities, eight egg grading facilities, 12 cotton gins, one 
corn mill, two egg markets, and one sweet potato flaking plant 
for which detailed plans were prepared. 

In addition, a mobile dairy laboratory was designed for the 
Dairy Division, a small building was designed for the Farmers 
Market, and a cold storage and meat processing plant layout was 
designed for North Carolina Prison Enterprises. 

A major undertaking during the biennium was providing as- 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 103 

sistance through the Veterinary Division to those meat and 
poultry processing plants readying their facilities for compliance 
with the State's Compulsory Meat and Poultry Inspection Laws. 
The engineering services provided by this section are a most ef- 
fective method of reducing the fruits of research to a practical 
level where they can be utilized by processors of agricultural 
products to expand outlets for commodities, reduce cost of pro- 
cessing, or enhance the appearance, stability or keeping quality 
of products. 

Market News 

A farmer must have factual, unbiased marketing information 
before he can do an intelligent job of marketing. Just as he 
must know what varieties of crops are best adapted to his locality, 
he must know where and when to sell the commodities he pro- 
duces in order to obtain the highest possible return. Providing 
this information is the main function and responsibility of the 
Division of Market's market news service. 

In carrying out this work during the 1960-62 biennium, em- 
phasis was placed on assembling accurate, up-to-the-minute mar- 
ket information and disseminating it as quickly and as widely as 
possible. More complete and accurate information was obtained 
by soliciting cooperation from reliable tradespeople. Improved 
dissemination resulted in more complete information being trans- 
mitted over the press service wires as newspapers and radio and 
television stations sought additional marketing information for 
their readers, listeners and viewers. 

Numerous changes had to be made in reporting the market 
for farm products because practices in marketing were changing. 
In broilers, for example, sales began to be made not on a flat 
price but on a price, plus or minus, depending on the contract or 
agreement between the buyer and seller. Because of this wide- 
spread practice, it was necessary to discontinue reporting the 
live broiler market as it had been reported for several years and 
to begin reporting a "base price" with actual premiums or dis- 
counts being listed. This was a rather drastic change for the 
industry to adjust to, but adjustments were made and the daily 
market reports become more realistic with the listing of prem- 
iums and discounts. 

In an attempt to keep up with the expanding production of 
commercial eggs and the many changes in marketing practices 



104 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

resulting from this increased production, the daily report on the 
egg market was expanded to a statewide level and the basis of the 
report was changed to conform with the level at which the bulk 
of eggs were being marketed. In addition, daily prices were 
reported for consumer grade eggs in cartons delivered to nearby 
retail outlets. 

One additional service rendered on a seasonal basis during 
1960-62 was the daily report on breaker stock eggs in North Caro- 
lina. This service was added at the request of the commercial 
egg industry and maintained through the peak production sea- 
son. 

Much of the preliminary work toward an expanded and im- 
proved service of reporting the markets on North Carolina live- 
stock was completed during the biennium. Plans call for more 
detailed reporting of auction prices for cattle and a revision in 
the method used in reporting cash prices for hogs. 

Transportation 

Transportation cost is a major element in agricultural mar- 
keting, the degree varying with the volume, distance and com- 
modity classification or value. Transportation cost is naturally 
a lower factor in the marketing of tobacco than in the market- 
ing of hay, grain, potatoes, vegetables or other lower value com- 
modities. Tobacco, for example, incurs a transportation cost 
factor of less than one per cent, whereas the transportation cost 
factor on hay may approximate 52 per cent. 

The North Carolina Department of Agriculture has maintained 
for a number of years a specific transportation section, primarily 
to assist all of the other marketing sections in transportation 
matters or problems and to likewise function for the general good 
of the agricultural farmers and interests. 

On January 1, 1961, the regulated motor carriers published 
new tariffs in conformity with the approbation of the North 
Carolina Utilities Commission, after a very extensive period of 
study and investigation, both by the carriers and the North Caro- 
lina Utilities Commission. The North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture participated directly in this revision. Motor carrier 
rates were adjusted to reflect highway distance and a system of 
rate bases established recognizing the county seat of each county 
as a base point in lieu of the former predication of motor carrier 
rates on rail base points and rail distances. 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 105 

In early 1961, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture 
assumed a liaison role between the Federal Government and the 
local agencies, covering the distribution of food to schools, wel- 
fare agencies and disaster areas. Bids were procured from 
motor carriers and contracts established, covering a majority of 
the counties in North Carolina. In the matter of exempt com- 
modities, no change detrimental to agriculture, either interstate 
or intrastate, has occurred in the last two years. There have 
been several additions to the so-called exempt commodities in 
North Carolina moving via motor carrier, such as grain, farmer 
stock peanuts and cotton seed. In mid 1961, the interstate motor 
carriers proposed to restrict their rate tariffs prohibiting the 
transportation of commodities exempt from economic regulation 
under the provisions of Section 203 (b) (6) of the Interstate Com- 
merce Act, Part 2. The North Carolina Department of Agricul- 
ture protested this proposal which subsequently failed of adop- 
tion and no changes were made. 

The State of North Carolina provided testimony in the attempt 
of the northern railroads to procure a higher division of revenue 
on traffic moving between northern and southern states. This 
testimony was presented at the request of the Southern Gover- 
nors Conference. 

One of the current issues now pending before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission is I & S Docket No. 7656, involving the es- 
tablishment of a new basis of rates on grain in multiple car ship- 
ments from river crossings to the south. Although this case 
specifically deals with grain, it involves the principle of lower 
rates on high volume shipments, such as those moving in five 
cars or more, versus rates presently standard on single cars. The 
principle of the large shipper versus the small purchaser or deal- 
er is necessarily at issue. Countering this circumstance is the 
element of lower transportation costs in the handling of large 
shipments versus small shipments. 

The State of North Carolina consumes a tremendous amount 
of grain and feed because of its egg and poultry production. North 
Carolina ranks fourth in broiler production and seventh in egg 
production. Except for local production, which is substantial, 
North Carolina is competitively at the greatest disadvantage of 
any broiler area in the United States with respect to freight 
rates on grain from Chicago and the Illinois area. The rate on 



106 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

corn and soybean meal from Decatur, Illinois, to Raleigh, is $18.06 
per ton, computed on a rail movement to Beardstown, Illinois, 
barge to Guntersville, Alabama, and rail beyond. The rate to 
Charlotte is $11.56 per ton, to Durham, North Carolina, $12.66 
per ton. The rate from Recatur, Illinois, to Gainesville, Georgia, 
via rail to Beardstown, Illinois, barge to Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
and rail beyond is $8,66 per ton. The rate to Chattanooga, Ten- 
nessee, is $5.96 per ton. The rate on corn from Chicago to Ra- 
leigh, North Carolina, is $12.75 per ton ; to Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina, $9.70 per ton ; $7.00 per ton to Gainesville, Georgia, and $2.85 
per ton to Memphis, Tennessee. The rates from the midwest on 
corn and soybean meal, which is the major source for this feed, 
is higher to the North Carolina area than any other producing 
area in the United States, and North Carolina is at a very decided 
disadvantage competitively with Georgia because of the barge 
line rates in effect to Alabama and rail movement beyond. Under 
the Southern Railway rate proposal involved in this case, corn 
now moves from St. Louis, Missouri, to Gainesville, Georgia, at 
a current rate of $10.50 per ton. Under the new rate proposal, 
corn will move over the same route for $3.97 per ton in lots of 20 
cars. If the Southern Railway proposal is permitted to go into 
effect, the per ton rate on corn from Memphis, Tennessee, to Ral- 
eigh, North Carolina will drop from $9.90 to $4.93 or a reduction 
of $4.97. Chicago corn, moving to Raleigh by barge and rail com- 
bination, will move for $7.78 as compared with the current rate 
of $12.75. The competitive situation of North Carolina, as re- 
lated to the other producing areas, has been and is unsatisfactory 
from a grain and feed standpoint. The entire poultry industry 
is presently in the doldrums of low prices but this is particularly 
accentuated in the case of North Carolina because of its rela- 
tionship with other areas. Relief is necessary from numerous 
sources, particularly in the matter of transportation costs. 

The North Carolina Department of Agriculture participated 
and has testified in behalf of the reduced multiple car rates. 

Cooperative 

Continued progress was made by farm groups in joining to- 
gether in commodity groups to handle a greater volume in selling 
farm products and in making purchases of farm supplies and 
services. Many associations added new buildings, equipment and 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 107 

personnel so they could render greater service to their members. 
The following new associations were organized during the bi- 
ennium to further serve producers : 

Burke-Caldwell Cooperative Dairy Herd Improvement Asso- 
ciation, Inc., Lenoir ; Piedmont Mutation Mink Breeders Asso- 
ciation of North Carolina, Walkertown; Twin County Rabbit 
Breeders Association, Inc., Red Oak; Chatham Dairy Herd Im- 
provement, Pittsboro; Chatham Superior Breeders Service Co- 
operative, Inc., Pittsboro; Sky-kist Farms, Inc., Asheville; Meck- 
lenburg County Mutual Federation of Home Demonstration Clubs 
and Curb Market, Charlotte; Scotland Marketing Cooperative, 
Inc., Laurinburg; Hyde County Breeders Cooperative, Inc., Fair- 
field; Montgomery Swine Producers Cooperative, Inc., Troy; 
Harnett Livestock & Poultry Cooperative, Inc., Lillington; Pis- 
gah Dairy Herd Improvement Association, Inc., Hendersonville ; 
Roanoke-Chowan Dairy Herd Improvement Cooperative, Inc., 
Halifax ; Wagwood Mutual Farms, Gibsonville ; Rockingham 
Poultry Corporation, Burlington; Loggers Incorporated (Mu- 
tual), Plymouth. 

In addition to the above list, assistance was given in the forma- 
tion of several promotional, non-profit corporations under chap- 
ter 55-A of the General Corporation Laws. 

The cooperative section aided associations by helping with 
their charters, by-laws, agreements, business organization and 
management practices. Also many older associations were as- 
sisted in making amendments to their charters and by-laws. 

Financial reports of cooperative and mutual associations were 
reviewed and filed in accordance with state laws. 

North Carolina laws require agricultural fairs to meet mini- 
mum standards, and inspections were made of the fairs in co- 
operation with other employees of the department to encourage 
them to improve exhibits and to better show both farm products 
and other products native to the area. 

Food Distribution 

One of the fastest growing phases of the department's activi- 
ties has been that of the distribution of surplus food. Food is 
donated to the state by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and 
the N. C. Department of Agriculture makes arrangements for 



108 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

the requisitioning, storage, and distribution of the food to eligible 
groups within the state. The agreement between the N. C. De- 
partment of Agriculture and the U. S Department of Agriculture 
sets forth the general overall policies governing the distribution 
of USDA donated foods. Within the framework of such policies, 
the state determines the methods and procedures to be followed 
by participating agencies. 

To assist the participating agencies in carrying out their re- 
sponsibilities and to make certain that compliance with federal 
and state policies is obtained, division personnel made periodic 
supervisory visits. Suggestions for improvements in operating 
policies, record keeping, storage practices, and utilization of com- 
modities are given verbally and confirmed in writing. Periodic 
checks and audits are conducted to verify the accuracy of records 
and reports maintained by the various recipient agencies. 

The food is received from the government in carload lots, 
either at one of the state warehouses located at Salisbury and 
Butner, or shipped to a central unloading point for distribution 
to participating agencies. In some instances shipments are un- 
loaded directly into the warehouse of the larger counties. Trans- 
portation costs to the initial unloading points are paid by the fed- 
eral government, and the state assumes the cost for intrastate 
transportation and distribution to the county warehouses. 

The groups which are eligible to participate in the distribution 
of USDA donated foods include the following: (1) non-profit 
school lunchrooms, (2) charitable institutions, both public and 
private, (3) needy families, (4) summer camps, (5) emergency 
and disaster organizations. 

School Lunchrooms 

This group of recipients has been receiving commodities for 
many years and continues to be one of the largest outlets for 
foods acquired under price support and surplus removal pro- 
grams. In addition, a quantity of food is purchased from the 
National School Lunch Appropriation to enable the participating 
schools to serve a nutritionally balanced lunch at a reasonable 
cost to the child. Such purchases are not for price support rea- 
sons, but are chiefly to supplement the foods available to the 
lunchrooms. 

Although some of the food distributed to the lunchrooms 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 109 

moves through the state warehouses, most of it is shipped direct- 
ly from the vendor or government warehouses to central unload- 
ing points where it is picked up by the boards of education for 
distribution to the lunchrooms within the respective administra- 
tive units. The county and city superintendents of school are 
very cooperative in this undertaking and generally serve as con- 
signees for the Department of Agriculture in the supervising, 
receiving, and unloading of the commodities for surrounding 
units, as well as for their own units. This cooperation enables the 
schools to receive the food at very little, if any, cost to the lunch- 
room. Any non-profit lunchroom, public or private, serving 
meals to children of high school grade or under, is eligible to 
participate in the distribution of USDA donated commodities. 

Charitable Institutions 

In this group are included the state mental hospitals, sanatori- 
ums. orphanages, county homes, child care centers, and private 
hospitals serving indigent patients. 

Distribution to this group of recipients is also generally han- 
dled from the freight car door at a minimum of cost to the state 
and institutions. Business managers of several of the insti- 
tutions are most efficient and cooperative consignees for the car- 
lot shipments. Generally, any tax-supported hospital is eligible 
to the extent of all patients served, while hospitals, which re- 
ceive a major part of their operating revenue from charges to 
the patients are eligible to the extent of those persons served who 
pay less than the full charges for the services provided. 

Needy Families 

This phase of the program was increased tremendously in 
March, 1961. At the direction of Governor Sanford, the Depart- 
ment expanded the program to include the distribution of donated 
foods to needy families in the state. Prior to that time, distribu- 
tion to needy families had been made only in cases of emergencies 
and disasters, such as hurricanes and other catastrophes. An 
initial sum of $60,000 was made available from the Contingency 
and Emergency Fund to finance the expanded program. Sub- 
sequently, the General Assembly of 1961 appropriated sufficient 
founds for the 1962-64 biennium to enable the department to pro- 



110 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

vide the necessary state warehouses, personnel, and other facili- 
ties needed. Beginning July 1, the state has paid the cost of 
transportation fro mthe state warehouse to the participating 
counties. Generally, the food is delivered monthly from one of 
the state warehouses to the participating counties. In addition 
to paying the transportation charges on the food, the state also 
provides a monthly cash grant in aid to the counties to help de- 
fray the cost of renting county warehouses, personnel, and other 
distribution costs. On July 1, 1962, the rate of reimbursement 
per person per annum was increased as follows : First 1,000 per- 
sons from $1.00 to $2.00 per person; second 1,000 persons from 
$.75 to $1.00 per person; for all over 2,000 persons the rate re- 
mained at $.50. This increase was necessitated by the fact that 
smaller counties found it more difficult to finance the program 
than some of the larger counties serving a greater number of 
persons. 

The distribution of food in the individual counties is under the 
supervision and direction of county boards of commissioners. 
This group is responsible for providing the necessary warehouse 
facilities and personnel needed to distribute the food. They also 
set up the local policies and procedures to be followed and, within 
the framework of the state and federal regulations, determine 
the policies to be followed by the county in administering the 
program. Applications from individual heads of households 
are received by the county welfare departments and determina- 
tions are made by the welfare departments as to eligibility of the 
applicant. Participation in the program has varied from month 
to month, but has been fairly constant at the figure of approxi- 
mately 32 counties serving 150,000 persons. The winter months 
see an increase in the number of persons served largely due to 
the absence of work for day laborers during that period of the 
year. A peak number of persons served was reached in March, 
1962, when 162,337 needy persons in 36 counties received sur- 
plus food through the N. C. Department of Agriculture. 

Summer Camps 

Each summer, commodities are made available to non-profit 
summer camps serving children of high school grade or under. 
Surplus foods are used to supplement foods purchased by the 
camps and enable the boys and girls attending camp to receive 



Report For 1960-62— Markets 



111 




Foods stored in the state for distribution to schools and charitable institutions 
also serve as a vitally important reserve in the event of emergencies and natural 
disasters. This was illustrated when a storm devastated the Dare County coast in 
March, 1962, leaving many communities and individual families isolated and with 
food supplies and other property destroyed. The food distribution section moved 
immediately to take foods from the warehouse at Butner to disaster victims. This 
picture shows the distribution center set up at the Methodist Church in Kitty Hawk. 
In following photographs are shown some of the means used for getting foods 
where they were needed. 



more nutritious meals than would otherwise be possible on the 
minimum fees charged by the camps. 



Emergencies and Disasters 

This phase of the program is extremely important in a dis- 
aster such as the storm on the Dare County coast in March, 1962. 
The department transported food from state warehouses to the 
stricken areas immediately upon receiving word of the emer- 
gency situation. The food was distributed by all available means 
including army trucks, jeeps, Marine Corps helicopters and ferry, 
to isolated families and other families which had suffered loss 
of their food supply and other possessions in the storm. Food 
was also made available to mass feeding kitchens set up in two 



112 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Food transported to Salvo by Marine helicopter, where it was transferred to 
a truck for distribution to disaster victims. 







' ' 


m~ ^mum. 




'■■ -y-1 


1 '"". **"w "■ ' - W 


— r.- . . 




^^ % 


"it""" 




JM . 


,. -Btev. 


" ""■ ;^-^^:^ 4, 














"^J 






S> : -r-^m 



The road from Kitty Hawk to Duck Island, covered with water, was photographed 
from the rear of an Army truck moving food to 12 isolated families. 



Report For 1960-62 — Markets 



113 




:: 



An Army truck, loaded with food, arrives at Duck Island, and the food 
is arranged for distribution. 



of the schools in the area. Persons without cooking facilities 
were able to come to these points for meals during the emer- 
gency. 

Statistical Summary 

The table below gives a resume of the distribution program 
during the biennium. 

Recipient No. of No. of Per- Commodities Distributed 

Agency Agencies sons Served Quantity (lbs.) Value** 

Schools 1977 668,954 33,961,262 $ 8,483,403 

Institutions 121 23,810 2,603,078 423,516 

Childcare Centers 20 1,181 24,838 6,848 

Summer Camps 108 18,994 169,135 33,162 

*Needy Families 37 164,053 35,726,443 9,215,156 

Total _.__ 2263 876,992 72,484,756 $18,162,085 

*Participation figures are for March 1962. 
**Wholesale value except needy families where retail value is used. 



STATE MUSEUM DIVISION 

Harry T. Davis 
Director 

Since its conception is 1851, the Museum of Natural History 
has come a long way. Up through the years, the changes and 
growth have not developed from the "new". Rather, "discovery" 
has given impetus to the museum's steady pace of carrying 
out the assignment which falls to such an institution. 

"Discovery" of the need for collection and diffusion of knowl- 
edge concerning the state's natural history and natural resources 
has been followed, perhaps, by lesser revelations. But, of most 
striking value was the "discovery" of the educational worth of 
the three-dimensional exhibit. 

Selection and display from North Carolina's rich variety of 
earth sciences, natural history and natural resources in this most 
valuable manner of presentation is metered only by time, money 
and space. 

The effectiveness of the museum in presenting the well or- 
ganized cross-section of the state's attributes is primarily mea- 
sured in terms of visitors. During the biennium the museum at- 
tendance was nearly 400,000. Underscoring this rating is the 
recognition of the museum by the N. C. Department if Public 
Instruction as a teaching resource of exceptional value to stu- 
dents of the natural sciences, resulting in growing attendance 
by school children and individuals in specialized study. Too, the 
general public's interest in the world about it in this age of 
science is reflected in increased attendance of the unclassified 
visitor. 

As before, the biennium found the public asking for and re- 
ceiving more direct and indirect services from the museum. There 
have been more visits as well as letters and telephone calls. The 
advance requests for formal guided tours of the exhibits have 
more than doubled during the biennium. Since most of the lat- 
ter are for the months of April and May for high school groups, 
it may well grow into a requirement for additional personnel. 

The 1959 Session of the Legislature enacted House Bill No. 
966 which placed upon the museum the responsibility of restor- 



Report For 1960-62— Museum 115 

ing and reactivating the Hampton Marine Museum at Morehead 
City. It had been opened in 1951 for a brief period. 

This museum was again opened for visitors on July 26, 1960, 
and is receiving regular and local support in new exhibits of 
marine and tidewater life, and history. Ample restrooms have 
been provided, and lighting and cases are being secured. Visitors 
are increasing as the facility becomes better known, and school 
classes in the area are using the exhibits for instruction. 

After making studies, the hours for Hampton Marine Museum 
have been set for Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
and on Sundays from 1 p.m. until 6 p.m. Since the museum is 
located in a summer resort area, it is being opened on April 1 
and closed September 30. 

Notable in gifts to the Hampton Marine Museum has been 
mounted fishes from Ken Newsome, Morehead City, and Wal- 
lace Fisheries has generously provided an exhibit of the pro- 
cesses and products of menhaden fisheries. The menhaden is 
the most valuable commercial species taken along the Atlantic 
coast. 

The museum is being operated as a branch of the Museum of 
Natural History at Raleigh because of the distinct economies 
realized. Exhibits may be interchanged and new exhibits can 
be prepared in the Raleigh workrooms for both museums. 

Mrs. Adeline W. Land of Morehead City is in active charge of 
the Hampton Marine Museum. The visitors counted for this 
biennium totaled 33,458. 

Accessions 

As used by museums the above word covers the primary raw 
materials for exhibits, conservation and research. For these the 
museum can make modest purchases, or send staff members to 
make collections of essentials to complete an exhibit. However, 
the citizens of North Carolina long have been generous in making 
gifts to the museum, and a large part of the collections are from 
this source. 

Each accession is recorded as a unit, and may account for 100 or 
more items. For this biennium the accessions are listed with 
notes on what appear to be more important items. 

Rocks and Minerals, 4-2. The Central Carolina Mineral Society 
has used an assigned case for a collection from the Eastern Pied- 



116 



N. C. Department op Agriculture 




The Museum staff must perform a wide variety of duties in maintaining and 
preparing exhibits. Here two are shown force feeding a rattlesnake, one of the 
Museum's exhibits of live poisonous snakes. Named Lucifer, this five-foot diamond 
backed rattler has been much in the headlines since he was put on exhibit in 
August 1961, first because of his noisy display of anger when visitors approach 
his cage and later when he went on a hunger strike. Although snakes can live a 
long time without food, fear of losing this valuable specimen led to the decision to 
force feed. After being kept in an icebox for an hour to render him somewhat more 
docile, Lucifer's mouth was pried open and several white mice were pushed in his 
throat and manually worked down into his digestive tract. The force feeding did 
not stimulate him to eat voluntarily, as hoped, and the process had to be repeated 
in six months. It is likely that continued force feedings will be necessary. The 
live snake exhibit is one of the most popular in the Museum and Lucifer attracts 
more attention from visitors than any individual snake in the exhibit. He well 
serves to show visitors not only what his poisonous species looks like, but also 
how it sounds when about to strike. 



mont that shows minerals that have not been known previously 
from the region. John C. Woody, Green Mountain, gave samples 
of massive Staurolite that is new to the museum. Robert Ruiz, 
Raleigh, provided a new mineral, Holmquistite, from Cleveland 
County. W. C. Lanier, Denton, gave showy samples of free gold 
on quartz. The Mount Airy Granite Company supplied fresh 
samples from their quarry. 

Fossils, 36. Dr. Walter H. Finch, Henderson, added Northamp- 
ton County as a new locality for a fossil mastodon. Raymond 



Report For 1960-62— Museum 



117 




This pigmy sperm whale and its calf, modeled from specimens cast up on 
Atlantic Beach after a hurricane, were a rare find and represent an important 
accession to the Museum's exhibits. 



Irvine, Tar Heel, gave a fossil horse tooth from Bladen County. 
Philip Kennel, New Bern, gave horse and mammoth teeth from 
Craven County. Mrs. W. Frank Folger, Washington, continued to 
supply valued collections of marine invertebrate fossils from 
Beaufort County. 

Plant Life, 32. Leaves of timber trees were collected, prepared 
and added to the exhibits. 

Invertebrate Animals, 89. These include the forms without 
backbones and most of them are in the insect group. Many 
others represent sea shells. Mrs. F. P. Hines, Raleigh, and 
Elizabeth T. Matthews and Elizabeth Grady, Wilmington, get 
credit for adding to the exhibit of marine shells. 

Fishes, 22. Ken Newsome, Morehead City, presented a record 
size, 18 pounds, mounted bluefish. This and other gifts are being 
shown at Hampton Marine Museum, Morehead City. 

Amphibians and Reptiles, 232. These crawling animals get 
more popular attention. Many are brought or sent in for identi- 
fication. However, many specimens have been added to the pre- 



118 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Requests for formal guided fours have more than doubled during this biennium 
and place a strain on the Museum's limited staff. Here Frank B. Meacham is 
explaining the intricacies of a whale skeleton to a group of eager and attentive 
youngsters. 



served research collections, 
research material. 



Students frequently request such 



Birds, 72. L. T. White, Raleigh, donated 44 mounted birds. 
These are used for exhibits, donations to N. C.fl community mu- 
seums and as exchanges. Carlos U. Lowrance, Catawba, presented 
a mounted Auerhahn, the largest known grouse, from Germany. 
Thanks to Kenneth Sprunt, Orton Plantation, we have exhibited 
our first Fulvous Tree Duck. Brantley Aycock, Whiteville, and 
Sam Walker, Jr., Poplar Branch, provided additional specimens. 



Report For 1960-62 — Museum 119 

Mrs. Dorothy Earl, Wrightsville Beach, provided a new bird 
for our state, the Black-whiskered Vireo and Charles White, 
Raleigh, presented a Black Vulture, new for our exhibits. The 
U. S. National Museum exchanged with us a pair of Oregon 
Juncos, rare in North Carolina. Albino birds were donated by 
F. H. Cheek, Littleton; Ernest Beal, Red Oak; and J. E. Regan, 
Jr., Oriental. 

For the research collection of bird skins, Mrs L. E. Whitfield, 
Fayetteville, presented a Razor-billed Auk Skin and D. W. John- 
ston, Wake Forest College, Winston-Salem, presented 5 skins of 
comparative western birds. 

Mammals, 44-. The most important of these is a cow and calf 
of a rare Pigmy Sperm Whale that came up on Atlantic Beach 
after a hurricane, during September, 1960. The calf remained 
alive for several hours. From these the Museum has made life- 
like reproductions and the skeletons are being cleaned for mount- 
ing. 

For decorative effects a mounted head of an elk and of a 
moose have been presented by H. A. Patten and Robert B. 
Broughton, both of Raleigh. Horace T. Elliot, Oxford, presented 
an albino squirrel. 

A Harbor Seal skeleton was received from a burial at Beaufort. 
A seal, as yet unidentified, has been buried for us by Chief Gas- 
kill at the Bogue Inlet Coast Guard Station. 

Indian Artifacts, 20. Notable accessions are pottery from 
Perquimans County, from Philip H. Philllips; from Carteret 
County from Bob and Mrs. Simpson, and from Nags Head by W. 
W. Dodge. A stone mortar and pestle was given by Harold Sen- 
ter, Jr. of Raleigh. Misses Janet and Matilda Hedgepeth, Tar- 
boro, donated a polished stone axe from the Roanoke River banks. 

Agriculture, 9. Of these the museum made a replica of a record 
watermelon, 130 pounds, grown and presented by S. S. Viverette 
of Enfield. Other items have historical interest from early 
farm homes and barnyards. 

Library, 36. The program is to build a working natural science 
library. With limited purchases, gifts and exchanges (for 
"Birds of North Carolina") this has made marked progress dur- 
ing the biennium. 



120 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Miscellaneous Accessions. The accessions book record carries 
many items that do not fit in the above categories. Friends and 
coworkers have donated excellent kodachrome lantern slides 
that will be of value in building sets on various subjects that can 
be loaned by the museum to schools and other groups. The Lone 
Star Steel Company presented a slide film on the processes of 
making steel. 

Exhibits 

During the biennium the new exhibits have not been notable 
except for the Pigmy Sperm Whale reproductions. Much time 
is required to renew, improve and maintain present exhibits. 
Another growing requirement is the number of mail and visitor 
inquiries, and problems, that require staff attention. Conducted 
lecture tours, intermittent as they may be, also take time from 
construction of exhibits. 

High school science fair exhibits are kept before visitors with 
exhibits from: 

Betty Lou Wallace, Mountain Park, N. C. 
Margaret Green, Canton, N. C. 
Daimon F. Whitehead, Ramseur, N. C. 

Attendance 

The total count of visitors in a given period is the one definite 
measure of how effective a musuem is in attaining its educational 
objectives. There are other measures of service that are less 
definite. The quality of the exhibits is another factor. 

The natural history and natural resources of North Carolina 
are rich and varied and the 46,000 square feet of space used is 
of modest "State Museum" size. 

By six month periods, attendance for the biennium was: 

July-Dec, 1960, 64,715; Jan.-June, 1961, 121,054; July-Dec-, 
1961, 72,293; Jan.-June, 1962, 120,357. 

This is a total of 185,769 for the first year of the biennium and 
192,650 for the second year. This is in contrast to previous 
counts when more visitors came during the years when the 
Legislature was in session. 

The chart herewith shows attendance by months for the gscal 
year 1961-62. 



Report For 1960-62— Museum 121 

Museum Attendance by Months, Fiscal Year 1961-1962. 
45,000 




There is a general attendance that grows consistently and this 
is augmented by school groups that come to Raleigh in March, 
April and May of each year. The peak count was 3,882 on May 
12, 1961. An indication of the composition of such groups is 
shown below for the year 1961-1962. 

College, 16 ; High School, 484 ; Elementary School, 341 ; Scouts, 
40 ; Church, 36 ; Misc., 26. 

These groups vary from 10 to 150 in number and come from 
all parts of North Carolina. Virginia groups also came from 
Riverdale, South Boston and (2) Roanoke. From South Caro- 
lina schools groups came from Blenheim, Bennettesville and 
Hartsville. 

Among the groups was one in wheel chairs from the Cerebral 
Palsy Center, Raleigh. School camp groups were given guided 
tours at night and a church group was admitted on New Year's 
Day. 

In this connection the fixed policy of the museum is to be 
open for 365 days each year except for the fixed State holidays 
for Christmas and New Year. Including ice storms, the museum 
was closed for 16 days during the biennium. 



122 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Busses bringing school children to the Museum frequently fill the entire block, 
and are sometimes backed up several blocks down the street, during the peak 
months of school visitations. 



In regard to visits of school groups it is of some concern to us 
that such groups have declined some 30 percent in number as 
compared to the previous biennium. Teachers inform us that 
school authorities are more strict about students being away 
from school rooms. More school groups are coming on Satur- 
days. 

In summary the museum in Raleigh had an attendance of 378,- 
419 and the Hampton Marine Museum, Morehead City, had an 
attendance, noted above, of 33,458. This totals an overall figure 
of 411,877 for the biennium. 



Loans 

Loans of research data and material on whales have been made 
to the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the 
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C; the Dominion Mu- 
seum, Wellington, New Zealand ; and the Whaling Research Foun- 
dation, Princeton, N. J. A series of preserved snakes were loaned 
to the University of Illinois. 



Report For 1960-62 — Museum 123 

Special exhibits were made up for the annual State Fair, Ra- 
leigh ; for the 1961 meeting of the Southeastern Flower and Gar- 
den Show, Raleigh, and for the Eastern Federation of Mineralo- 
gical Societies, Durham. 

A series of skins of native mammals have been made avail- 
able to the N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission for their annual 
education programs. 

One of our most important contributions to modern research 
came when the University of California Laboratories, Los Ala- 
mos, New Mexico, needed a certain type of meteorite for nuclear 
studies. This type was the Moore County Meteorite, which was 
loaned and returned intact. 

Publications 

The volume, "Birds of North Carolina", was revised by Dr. D. 
L. Wray of the Entomology Division and Harry T. Davis, Mu- 
seum Director. After delays by a printer's strike, the publica- 
tion came out in October, 1960. Based upon previous experience, 
the printing was 7,000 copies. This was financed by the "Mu- 
seum Extension Fund". Some 3,200 copies have been sold. 

The booklet, "Poisonous Snakes of the Eastern United States", 
is now being prepared for the printer. 

In 1962 the Fund also published a printed leaflet, "A Check 
Lits and Record of North Carolina Birds". The Carolina Bird 
Club has purchased many of these, and it is a must for out-of- 
state visitors who are interested in birds. 

The popular series of 32 free Museum Information Circulars 
(multilith) continues in strong demand. It is estimated that 
more than 350,000 of these have been distributed during the 
biennium. Most of these go to schools for class use, but they 
are also requested for camp programs and by individuals. 

The collection of color slides and slide films has had wide cir- 
culation for school and other use. An estimated 11,000 people 
have made use of them. 

Legislation 

The most important legislation affecting the museum was an 
enactment of the 1961 Legislature for appropriation to employ 
a general curator. 



124 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The 1961 Legislature also passed House Bill 1027, "To Estab- 
lish an Advisory Commission for the State Museum of Natural 
History". 

The House Bill provides for a 10-member commission to in- 
clude ex-officio the State Forester, Fred H. Claridge; the State 
Geologist, J. L. Stuckey; the Director of the U. N. C. Institute 
of Fisheries Research, Dr. A. F. Chestnut; the Director of the 
Wildlife Resources Commission, Clyde P. Patton; the Superin- 
tendant of the Department of Public Instruction, Charles F. Car- 
roll ; the Commissioner of Agriculture, L. Y. Ballentine ; the 
Museum Director, Harry T. Davis ; and three members appoint- 
ed by the Governor to represent the Eastern, the Piedmont and 
the Western areas of the state. For the last three, Governor San- 
ford appointed Roy Parker, Jr., Raleigh ; R. M. Schiele, Gastonia ; 
and L. L. Hendren, Elkin. These three men were inducted on 
November 21, 1961, in the Capitol Senate Chamber. 

On call by Honorable L. Y. Ballentine, the Advisory Com- 
mission met on January 31, 1962, and organized by selecting Mr. 
Hendren chairman, Mr. Parker as vice-chairman, and Harry T. 
Davis secretary. 

There followed an extensive discussion of the present activi- 
ties and exhibits of the museum, and the future planning re- 
quirements of the museum to maintain a high level of education- 
al value. 

The group instructed the Museum Director to prepare a basic 
program for consideration. On February 19, 1962, such a mem- 
orandum was mailed to members of the Advisory Commission, 
and by mail-ballot the commission approved reccomendation to 
the Advisory Budget Commission of a preparator-taxidermist 
addition to the staff of the museum. 



PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 

Mrs. M. Pauline DeCosta 
Director 

While the work of the Publications Division is varied, its pri- 
mary function is the dissemination of information and all of its 
activities relate to this directly or indirectly. Thus the volume 
of its work is in direct proportion to the generally increased de- 
mands on the entire department. 

During this biennium the work of the Publications Division 
has increased also by reason of the many new or changed federal 
farm programs on which farmers must be kept informed. Many 
of these tie in with the work of this department and in any event 
have certain specific applications at the state level on which 
farmers must be kept informed. 

There has been an increase also by reason of the more num- 
erous complexities of the department's responsibilities as they 
relate to consumer services and regulatory programs. The Pub- 
lications Division shares in all of these matters not only in its 
capacity as an information office but also in its work as a Secre- 
tary to the Board of Agriculture which is discussed further on 
in this chapter. The wide variety of the Division's activities, 
some recurring frequently, some recurring at prolonged inter- 
vals, and some of an entirely non-recurring nature, makes it dif- 
ficult to categorize the work of the Division. Most of the ac- 
tivities, however, fall within four broad categories. 

The first is the direct dissemination of information to the pub- 
lic by means of press releases, special articles, and the publica- 
tion of a semi-monthly paper, Agricultural Review. This bien- 
nium has seen a marked increase in the volume of work in this 
category. This has been occasioned both by reason of expanded 
activities of the Department and by demands on the division 
from outside for special articles on special subject. 

Demands on the Agricultural Review have increased propor- 
tionately. Requests for this paper have increased more sharply 
within this biennium than in any biennium period during the 
past twenty years. Its mailing list now totals nearly 76,000. This 
paper which goes directly to farmers and agricultural workers 
has become each year increasingly effective as a means of bring- 
ing agriculture information and programs direct to farmers. 



126 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

With the ever growing need for farmers to keep informed, reader 
interest has increased both in breadth and in depth. With the 
cost-price squeeze in farming operations, farm people have found 
ths paper's free "Farm Wants" service increasingly important to 
them. Other agencies, state and federal, with programs of in- 
terest to farmers seek space in this paper and every effort is 
made to cooperate to the fullest possible extent under the limita- 
tions of space. 

Some increases in funds made available for this paper have 
enhanced both its information and advertising service. During 
this biennium the 48 issues of the Review consisted of 25 eight- 
page issues and 23 four-page issues, a total of 292 pages. The 
column inches of "Farm Wants" in this paper have averaged 
197 per month, the equivalent of nearly five pages. 

This biennium has been characterized by an increased num- 
ber of direct expressions of appreciation for the information 
services provided by this division, in addition to that evidenced 
by increased requests for these services. 

The second category of Publications Division work is acting 
as a clearing-house of information for the department. This is 
a dual-purpose role, serving the department's 17 divisions and 
the general public as an information center. In this category 
are many non-recurring services too numerous to list individual- 
ly. Of a continuous nature, however, is the handling of thou- 
sands of requests for information which come to the department 
by letter, telephone and personal visits. This includes arranging 
programs and holding "classes" for groups who visit the depart- 
ment to learn about its organization and functions. These in- 
clude college classes, farm groups, vocational-agriculture stu- 
dents and foreign agricultural officials. They range in number 
from one or two on up to 25 or 50. 

In its capacity as a clearing-house, the Publications Division 
is called upon to prepare or correlate various special reports 
dealing with some or all phases of the department's work. These 
often involve considerable research. 

The director of this division also serves as Records Officer for 
the department, acting in a liaison capacity between the depart- 
ment's 17 divisions an dthe N. C. Department of Archives and 
History. 

The division's third category of work ties in closely with the 
first and second. In rendering secretarial service to the Board 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 127 

of Agriculture the division's staff keeps fully informed of not 
only the department's service and regulatory programs, but of 
their background as well. This kind of knowledge of the history 
of departmental programs, the steps in developing regulatory 
measudes, and other such details is essential in our work as an 
informational division. 

In addition to keeping minutes of meetings, secretarial service 
to the board includes advertising and recording public hearings ; 
writing, codifying, printing and filing regulations as required by 
law ; maintaining a master set of all regulations and responsibil- 
ity for revising and reprinting the various chapters from time to 
time. A correlary responsibility is the printing of laws admin- 
istered by the department, after checking them with the statute 
books to embody amendments enacted from time to time by the 
General Assembly. During the 1960-62 biennium this division 
prepared for printing 274 pages of amendments and revised 
chapters of the department's regulations, and laws totaling 155 
pages. 

The fourth category of activities of this division is editing 
and printing departmental publications. In addition to Agri- 
cultural Review, this includes a series of four bulletins each 
year, three of which report, respectively, on the inspection and 
analyses of feeds, fertilizers and insecticides in connection with 
the department's enforcement of laws covering these materials. 
The fourth is a market report on tobacco. The eight publications 
in this bulletin series totaled 925 pages during the biennium. 



DIVISION OF RESEARCH STATIONS 

Cecil D. Thomas 
Director 

Introductory 

The Division of Research Stations has the responsibility of 
supervising the operations of 16 research stations located in 
various type-of-farming areas of the state. 

Nine of these stations are budgeted in this department and 
seven in the Experiment Station of North Carolina State College. 
This has come about largely by reason of certain historical de- 
velopments, but the relationship and division of responsibilities 
between the two agencies is exactly the same at all the stations. 

In this joint program, the State Department of Agriculture is 
charged with operating the stations, while the Experiment Sta- 
tion plans and directs research projects on them. The arrange- 
ment provides for a specialization of functions, the operational 
and administrative phases directed by the division and the re- 
search program initiated and guided by the Director of Research 
of the Experiment Station at State College through research 
project leaders of the various subject matter departments. 

Experiments conducted on the stations are each a part of the 
total agricultural research program for North Carolina. A given 
project leader may have phases or parts of a project at several 
of the research stations for the purpose of sampling different 
soil and climatic conditions as well as providing replications of 
the experiment. 

This cooperative effort of the State Department of Agriculture 
and the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, in ad- 
dition to providing stronger support for research, serves to unite 
the two agencies in all agricultural programs. Certainly the 
service and regulatory functions of the Department of Agricul- 
ture are strengthened by having a good research base. By the 
same token, research work of the Experiment Station is made 
more effective by having additional channels for transmitting 
findings to the using public. 

As a Land Grant institution, State College receives consider- 
able support in the way of funds from the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture for the Experiment Station. Most of the 
support from the USDA is in the form of salaries for certain 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 129 

research personnel and for research projects rather than for 
general use for operating expenditures of the stations. However, 
the USDA does not furnish direct supplements to operating funds 
at three of the stations, Oxford, Coastal Plain and the Mountain 
Research Station. 

The Oxford Tobacco Research Station is staffed largely by 
USDA scientists who work in close cooperation with the North 
Carolina Experiment Station on the flue-cured tobacco program. 

The Coastal Plain Research Station at Willard receives sup- 
plementary operating funds from the USDA in connection with 
dairy research and the small fruits program. 

The USDA participates directly in the Burley Tobacco Pro- 
gram at the Mountain Research Station and at the Upper Moun- 
tain Research Station by supplying research personnel and cer- 
tain supporting funds for the research projects. 

Also, at the Mountain Research Station, the Tennessee Valley 
Authority maintains headquarters for important watershed stud- 
ies on the station and at off-station locations. The USDA main- 
tains a headquarters with offices and laboratories on the Border 
Belt Tobacco Research Station for the striga, or witchweed, 
eradication program. 

Significant Developments 

In order to keep pace with and meet the needs of a dynamic 
and growing research program, it is natural that many changes 
would occur over a two year period. Adjustments must be made 
in facilities and operating practices along with changes in em- 
phasis on the research program on any one or all of the 16 sta- 
tions. Depending upon the situation, rather striking develop- 
ments were made at a number of locations, while at others a 
normal progression of improvements to facilities, operating 
practices and service features can be reported. 

Outstanding changes were made on two of the college budgeted 
stations during the biennium, involving the relocation of the 
Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station within Hender- 
son County and a move of the Upper Piedmont Tobacco Re- 
search Station from Forsyth County to Rockingham County. 

The Mountain Horticultural Crops unit first began operation 
on rented land in 1949. Guided by a strong interest among fruit 
and vegetable growers of the area, land was purchtsed in 1959 
for a permanent site. Due to the intensity of effort required 
in this program, the organization was developed along lines dif- 



130 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

ferent from other stations. In addition to the Superintendent 
with his operating staff, five research scientists are located at 
the station for a full-time effort on a program with fruits and 
vegetables. During the biennium, an office and laboratory build- 
ing was erected and a greenhouse was constructed. Orchards 
including various tree fruits were planted. Work was accom- 
plished on water control measures in the form of waterways, 
tiling of wet areas, and a general reshaping of field areas for 
full-scale operation. 

The Upper Piedmont Tobacco Research Station was established 
on rented land at Rural Hall in Forsyth County in 1948. Late in 
1961, plans were made to move this research program to a farm 
in Rockingham County which had been given to the University 
of North Carolina in 1958. The Chinqua-Penn Farm was deeded 
to the University but control was retained by the owners for a 
number of years. Special arrangements were made for the use 
of certain land areas for the tobacco program and plans were 
laid for experimental plots and for the construction of essential 
tobacco research buildings. The tobacco program at this new 
location is underway with the 1962 crop year. 

Additions to and improvement of facilities were accomplished 
at a number of locations during the biennium. The Central 
Crops Station constructed a Horticultural building including 
sweet potato curing compartments, completed a crops drying 
building, and erected an additional tobacco curing barn. At the 
Oxford Tobacco Station, underground irrigation lines were in- 
stalled to improve the efficiency and economy of the system. 

Also at the Oxford Tobacco Station, a 3.5 acre field, formerly 
unsuited for experimental plots, was completely renovated and 
leveled. This was accomplished by removing and stockpiling the 
top soil, shaping the underlying material to the desired grade, 
and then replacing the top soil. Indications are that this reno- 
vation will furnish an additional area of good plot land for the 
Oxford Station and will provide the basis for future land form- 
ing work at many stations. 

The Piedmont, Mountain, Peanut and other stations made con- 
siderable progress in developing and draining land areas for 
use in the research program. Work at the Piedmont Station in- 
cluded the clearing of field borders to improve the shape of fields 
for better mechanized farming and to add land for feed pro- 
duction. The removing of rock outcroppings from a large field 
was a notable achievement. 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 131 

A very important facility was installed at the Peanut Belt 
Research Station by the North Carolina Peanut Growers Asso- 
ciation. This Association provided funds for a cold storage unit 
which is used to preserve valuable seed stocks of many lines of 
peanuts for future use in the breeding program. This facility 
makes it possible to keep the seed without having to plant and 
reproduce them every year. 

A most significant development for the Piedmont Station, was 
the purchase in 1961 of one of four continguous tracts of land jut- 
ting into the station property. This tract consists of 20.7 acres 
and includes a dwelling now used to house a key person involved 
in the North Carolina Poultry Random Sample Test. The land 
also is important as a buffer strip for the Random Sample Poul- 
try Test which is located immediately across a farm road. 

From a program standpoint, there were a number of changes 
during the biennium. Facilities for a Swine Evaluation Center 
were developed at the Central Crops Research Station. This pro- 
ject serves as a performance testing program for hog growers 
to help them in selecting superior breeding stock. Once swine 
growers became acquainted with this work, the entries increased 
to a point where all space was filled and some entries could not 
be accepted. 

The swine program at the Tidewater Station was altered con- 
siderably during the biennium. The work is now centered around 
a systematic cross breeding project involving approximately 40 
sows. The sheep project at the Tidewater Station was discon- 
tinued. 

Livestock programs at the Upper Coastal Plain Station were 
also modified. Swine on the station were sold in 1961, and a spe- 
cific Pathegon Free Swine program was started. This project 
should be of great importance to swine growers in eastern and 
other parts of North Carolina. The beef cattle work at this sta- 
tion was also changed from a steer feeding plan to a cow and calf 
program including twenty-five breed cows. 

Woodland on the research stations is a mixture of many spe- 
cies and it occurs in small areas in most instances on rough land 
which, if cleared, would not be suitable for experimental plots of 
field crops. Recognizing a need to use woodland for some pur- 
pose, a plan was developed with foresters of the Prison Enter- 
prises section of the Prison Department for a management pro- 
gram calculated to increase returns from wood products and to 
serve as an illustration of good woodland management practices. 



132 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Already work has been initiated on two of the stations, the Coast- 
al Plain Station at Willard and the Border Belt Station at White- 
ville. Approximately 90 acres of woodland at the Coastal Plain 
Station was clean cut except for the desired number of pine trees 
for re-stocking. At the proper time, the areas will be sprayed to 
kill hardwood growth which would otherwise limit the possibili- 
ties of pine reproduction. Other management practices will be 
applied at the proper time to insure a good growth of desirable 
trees. 

Woodland work at the Border Belt Station involves approxi- 
mately 40 acres. An important aim at this location is to remove 
old hedge row type field borders with a resultant improvement 
in the tillage condition of fields. A number of woods borders will 
be removed to improve the size and shape of existing fields. Cut- 
over woodland, not involved in reshaping fields will be placed on a 
reforestation and management schedule. 

It is anticipated that this program will be initiated at other 
stations as personnel of Prison Enterprises can schedule these 
operations. This project certainly should provide for a more 
complete utilization of resources on the stations and will be of 
real value to the total agricultural programs. 

Organization of Division 

The operation of the 16 stations involves a consideration of 
many things. Planning, developing and maintaining buildings 
and other facilities, selecting and purchasing machinery and 
equipment, budget development and management, purchasing 
supplies and materials, personnel matters, land management and 
land assignments, and many others require careful planning and 
the attention to many details. The staff of the Research Stations 
Office include an Administrative Officer who devotes his time to 
budgetary and other administrative matters, and an Engineer 
who works with the stations on all matters in which engineering 
is involved. In addition, there is an Accounting Clerk and two 
Stenographers. 

The organization of each station from an operating standpoint 
is basically the same — the superintendent, who serves as mana- 
ger and as a coordinator of research work at his station, a Farm 
Foreman, in most cases a Secretary, and the labor force. On 
stations having poultry and livestock projects, the station staff 
includes semi-technical personnel in the Agricultural Research 
Assistant or Agricultural Research Supervisor series. 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 133 

In addition to the operating staff, several specialized stations 
have one or more research scientists located at the station and 
working on a full-time basis. The Horticultural Crops Research 
Station at Castle Hayne has a plant Pathologist and also a Soils 
Scientist. The Oxford Tobacco Research Station, has on location 
a number of USDA scientists largely in Plant Pathology and En- 
tomology. The Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station 
has a research staff of five including a Plant Pathologist, an 
Entomologist, a Soil Scientist, and two Horticulturists. 

A USDA Agronomist is located at the Mountain Research 
Station, conducting research with burley tobacco at that station 
and also at the Upper Mountain Research Station. He is assist- 
ed by a part time research, part time extension specialist who 
is also located at the Mountain Research Station. All of these 
research men, except those with the USDA, are members of their 
respective staffs at North Carolina State College. Even the 
USDA scientists operate as if they were members of the Depart- 
mental staffs at State College, so closely coordinated is their 
dork. 

Except for the cases just reviewed, all research scientists hav- 
ing work at the stations reside in Raleigh and travel to the sta- 
tions as may be required in looking after details related to their 
research projects. 

Land Resources 

Land is a most important element in the make up of a research 
station. As a matter of fact, land is one of the main reasons for 
having outlying research stations. Having stations in different 
parts of the state, provides a great variation in soil types, ele- 
vation, and other conditions which makes research results more 
meaningful and more applicable to all parts of the state. The 
quantity of land available for experimental plots is of great sig- 
nificance . It is highly important that research scientists have an 
adequate supply of land to permit the proper checking of all work 
with sufficient replications to insure sound results. 

The total of 5,176 acres of land in the 16 stations as indicated 
in Table 2, plus other land areas available as shown in Table 2a, 
is put to good use in supporting the research program. The fig- 
ure of 1,200 acres of experimental plots does not tell the full 
story because all cropland and pasture is either used for experi- 
mental plots or is used to produce feed for livestock in the re- 
search program. 



134 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

It should be emphasized that an acre in experimental plots is 
a big acre from the standpoint of requirements in the way of 
labor and care and attention necessary in plot work. Depending 
upon the nature of the experiment, an acre in research would be 
equivalent to several acres of the same crop grown commercially 
when compared on the basis of total resources used. 

Cropland and permanent pasture combined as related to total 
land area in the stations is fairly typical of commercial farms. 
Generally speaking, woodland is found on the rough areas of 
each station and much of it, if cleared, would not be suitable for 
experimental plots. Other land includes land not classified else- 
where as well as roads, building sites, ponds and other areas of 
this nature. Research buildings and facilities use considerable 
land on the stations and this serves an important purpose. 

In regard to land use, it should be realized that land suitable 
for experimental plots is very scarce. To be used for this pur- 
pose, a given field must be as uniform as possible, otherwise 
soils difference will create variations in results which can make 
them worthless. On any farm which might be considered, satis- 
factory plot land would occupy a very small proportion of the 
total. 

The Research Program 
Because the research program on the stations is not a function 
of the Department of Agriculture, but is directed by the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station at North Carolina State College, 
only a brief summary will be given in this report on the lines of 
research at each station. It is given here as an indication of the 
scope of that part of the agricultural research program in North 
Carolina which is conducted on the outlying research stations. 
The prinicpal lines of work at each station are as follows : 

BORDER BELT TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION— Tobacco 
(varieties, cultural practices, fertility studies, insect and disease 
problems, plant bed studies), peanuts. 

CENTRAL CROPS RESEARCH STATION— Corn hybrids, 
cotton, soybeans, grain sorghums, tobacco, peanuts, small grains, 
forage crops, special new crops, vegetable crops, orchard (apples, 
peaches, pears), brambles (raspberries, dewberries), Muscadine 
grapes, tobacco plant bed studies, irrigation studies, and swine. 

COASTAL PLAIN RESEARCH STATION— Poultry, dairy, 
pasture and forage crops, Muscadine grapes, strawberries, corn 
hybrids, soybeans, sweet potatoes, and special new crops. 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 135 

COASTAL PLAIN VEGETABLE RESEARCH STATION— 

Vegetable Crops, (varieties, cultural practices, insect and disease 
problems), blueberries. 

HORTICULTURAL CROPS RESEARCH STATION— Vege- 
table crops (breeding, new introductions, cultural practices, di- 
sease and insect problems), bulbs (production and storage). 

LOWER COASTAL PLAIN TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION 

— Tobacco (varieties, disease and insect problems, cultural prac- 
tices, plant bed studies) . 

MOUNTAIN HORTICULTURAL CROPS RESEARCH STA- 
TION — Vegetable crops (varieties, cultural practices, disease and 
insect problems), orchards and vineyard (insect, disease and 
cultural problems) with apples, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, 
cherries, grapes. 

MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION— Poultry, dairy, burley, 
tobacco, corn hybrids, small grains, pasture and forage crops, Ir- 
rigation, orchards (apples), hydrologic studies (TVA). 

OXFORD TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION— Tobacco 
(breeding, variety tests, cultural practices, plant bed manage- 
ment, disease and insect problems, curing, irrigation) . 

PEANUT BELT RESEARCH STATION— Peanuts (breed- 
ing, cultural practices, rotations, harvesting, curing, disease and 
insect problems) , corn hybrids, grain sorghum, cotton, sweet po- 
tatoes, and weed control research. 

PIEDMONT RESEARCH STATION— Small grain, corn hy- 
brids, cotton, soybeans, vegetable crops, special new crops, forage 
crops, orchard, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and poultry Random 
Sample Test. 

SANDHILLS RESEARCH STATION— Peaches, apples, other 
tree fruits, muscadine grapes, and special new crops. Work is 
underway on varieties, cultural practices, insect and disease 
problems, irrigation, grading, storage, and packing of fruits. 

TIDEWATER RESEARCH STATION— Forage crops, corn 
hybrids, soybeans, small grain, Irish potatoes, other vegetable 
crops, muscadine grapes, beef cattle, hogs. 

UPPER COASTAL PLAIN RESEARCH STATION— Corn hy- 
brids, cotton, soybeans, tobacco, peanuts, small grain, grain sor- 
ghums, forage crops, hogs, beef cattle, weed control, and special 
new crops. 



136 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

UPPER MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION— Beef cattle, 
sheep, burley tobacco, corn hybrids, pasture and forage crops, 
vegetable crops, orchards (apples). 

UPPER PIEDMONT TOBACCO RESEARCH STATION— To- 
bacco (varieties, cultural practices, insect and disease problems, 
plant bed studies). 

Research Results 

One of the most striking developments in some time is re- 
search leading to effective control measures for the alfalfa weevil. 
Damage from this crop pest has reached serious proportions when 
the entomologists, using basic knowledge of the weevil, began a 
crash program of applied research which resulted in practical 
treatments to hold it in check. Prior to this work about the only 
treatment in use was that of a liquid spray in the spring of the 
year. Generally, the program was not too successful. From re- 
search it was learned that the application of granular heptachlor 
in the fall of the year was very effective. Also fertilizer impreg- 
nated with heptachlor and applied in the fall was good. Much of 
this work was done at the Piedmont Research Station and the re- 
sults are playing a big part in saving the alfalfa crop. 

Crop breeding programs, many of which are being conducted 
on the research stations, are resulting in a large amount of new 
plant material annually. Gradually, as new varieties of the var- 
ious crops emerge from this program by meeting rigid perform- 
ance tests, they are released to foundation seed growers and then 
become a member of the family of new and better varieties avail- 
able to growers. 

Tobacco, a crop of such great economic importance, has seen 
many new varieties having disease resistance, resistance to ne- 
matodes, and many other characteristics of value to the farmer. 
In the area of vegetable crops, the Nugget sweet potato, the 
smooth cucumber, and countless other items have become avail- 
able. The list of other crops is long and would include alfalfa 
and various forage crops, corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, barley, 
and cotton. 

Mechanization of crops, particularly the harvest phase, is re- 
ceiving much attention and is showing results. Once-over pea- 
nut harvesting is a reality, mechanical harvesting of cucumbers, 
cabbage, and tobacco, as well as other crops defying mechaniza- 
tion so long, is approaching the point where success is in sight. 

The basic knowledge required in the bulk curing of tobacco 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 137 

has put this system in the hands of farmers. Research contin- 
ues, however, to make this operation even more successful. And, 
too, the matter of mechanically placing tobacco on sticks to save 
labor is receiving much attention. 

There are many other research developments but those above 
are treated in a general way to illustrate the part the research 
stations are taking in this important program. 

Public Service Functions 

Although the research stations were established primarily for 
conducting experiments in the various type-of -farming regions 
of the state, the function of education and public service is a 
very important one. The stations are field laboratories for re- 
search personnel and at the same time they serve as laboratories 
for individual farmers, farm organizations, school groups, civic 
clubs, business organizations, and professional agricultural 
groups. 

Each of the stations plays host to a rather constant flow of 
visitors, either as individuals or as organized groups throughout 
the year, but especially during the growing season from spring 
to fall. Individuals are welcomed and given the information they 
seek, but usually it is desirable that visitors come as a part of an 
organized group upon arrangement with the Superintendent or 
that they attend a regularly scheduled field meeting designed 
to study a particular commodity or subject. 

Table 3 provides information as to the number of visitors to 
each of the 16 stations for the calendar year 1961. The total of 
14,913 visitors for the year represents an increase over previous 
periods. This is indicative of an increased interest in the sta- 
tions and of their usefulness to individuals and groups. 

Of significance, is the fact that in the total of visitors for 
1961, there were 294 from twenty-six foreign countries. A ma- 
jority of these foreign visitors were in this country on special 
study missions sponsored by their respective governments. These 
visitors came from Nigeria, Liberia, Ghana, Tanganyiha, Kenya, 
Ethiopia, Japan, Thailand, Australia, Canada, England, Phil- 
ippines, Africa, Burma, Bolivia, Tuniisia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, 
Germany, Belgium, Venezuela, India, Peru, Brazil, and Scandi- 
navia. 

In addition to disseminating information to individuals and to 
groups at commodity field days, special sessions are arranged for 
a number of groups. Annually workshops are organized at sev- 
eral of the stations for Soil Conservation Service personnel, pro- 



138 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



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N. C. Department of Agriculture 

TABLE 2a— ADDITIONAL LAND INFORMATION 



Station 


Explanation 


Central Crops ._ 


Rents 10 acres of cropland adjacent to sta- 
tion for experimental plots 


Coastal Plain Vegetable 


All land rented 


Lower Coastal Plain Tob. 


All land rented and an additional 7.0 acres 




in another location, also rented 


Mountain Horticultural Crops.__ 


51.8 acres owned by Asheville Airport avail- 
able to station — selected areas used 


Mountain 


Cropland on adjacent 34.3 acre 4-H Club 




tract used by station 


Tidewater _. ._ -.._ 


An additional undeveloped tract consisting 




of 1,064 acres is owned 


Upper Piedmont Tobacco 


All land rented 



viding an opportunity for this group to keep abreast of the latest 
research findings in soil fertility, forage and pasture plants, and 
other crops. This knowledge places these workers in a better 
position to deal with problems they encounter daily in the prep- 
aration of farm plans for cooperators. 

Several of the stations have made valuable contributions to 
the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service by hold- 
ing special training schools for field personnel of ths organiza- 
tion in the identification of tobacco varieties. This program has 
served well and has meant a great deal to the tobacco program. 

From time to time 4-H and FFA groups use the stations for 
livestock judging contests or for preparation for these contests. 
Livestock on the stations including dairy and beef cattle, swine, 
and sheep have been used for this purpose. 

Each of the research stations is an official weather reporting 
station for the Department of Commerce Weather Bureau. 
Monthly reports are made to the Weather Bureau on rainfall, 
and maximum and minimum temperatures. One research sta- 
tion, Upper Mountain, transmits daily reports to the Weather 
Bureau at the Raleigh-Durham Airport on rainfall and tempera- 
tures. Consequently, the research stations in addition to col- 
lecting weather data for use by the research scientists, contri- 
bute this information to a central agency for the development of 
more knowledge of weather conditions and weather patterns over 
the state. 



Report For 1960-62 — Research Stations 



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SEED TESTING DIVISION 

W. H. Darst 
Director 



The changes taking place in North Carolina farming opera- 
tions and the increasing production costs, make planting of high 
quality seed imperative. By high quality seed is meant pure 
seed of a high yielding variety, free of other crop and weed seeds 
and with high germination of viable seed. The relatively small 
investment in high quality seed, especially when used on highly 
mechanized farms will bring much higher returns than any 
other type of investment for lowering the cost of production. 

The Seed Testing Division was established primarily to enforce 
the North Carolina Seed Law, the purpose of which is to assure 
the farmers that the seeds they plant have been tested, are cor- 
rectly labeled and meet the minimum standards for germination 
and other standards for purity and weed seed content. 

The seed laboratory operates under the "Official Rules for 
Sampling and Testing Seed" adopted by the Association of Of- 
ficial Seed Analysts, and other requirements of the North Caro- 
lina Seed Law. The division is an active member of this asso- 
ciation as well as the Association of American Seed Control Of- 
ficials, and the Seed Control Officials of the Southern States. 
Participation in the work of these associations has been of great 
help in maintaining a high standard of efficiency in carrying out 
the functions of this division. 

In addtion to seed law enforcement, the division is required 
to analyze for purity and test for germination all seeds offered 
for certification by the North Carolina Crop Improvement Asso- 
ciation ; to analyze, test and approve all seed used by the land- 
scape department of the State Highway Commission ; to analyze 
and test seed for the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation 
Committee of the United States Department of Agriculture; to 
analyze and test seed on request, free of charge, for all farmers, 
dealers, and others residing within the state as time and facilities 
will permit ; and to cooperate with the United States Department 
of Agriculture in enforcing the Federal Seed Act 

The seed law has special safeguards to protect the farmer 



Report For 1960-62 — Seed Testing 



143 




The exhaust system for drawing off dust and fumes while 
analyzing poison treated seed. 




The exhaust system for drawing off dust and fumes when mixing 
poison treated seed for analysis. 



against inferior corn hybrids and tobacco seed. The law requires 
all hybrid corn varieties to be field tested, approved, and record- 
ed with the Commissioner of Agriculture. Tobacco seed growers 



144 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

must be approved and recorded in the same manner. In coopera- 
tion with the College of Agriculture, verification field tests are 
made of the tobacco seed sold by the growers of seed 

The personnel of the division includes 15 full time employees, 
consisting of one director, five seed specialists (inspectors), one 
supervising analyst, five purity analysts, two germination spe- 
cialists, and one stenographer-clerk. 

Since the work load in the laboratory varies greatly with the 
season of the year, additional temporary help is employed to 
supplement the work of the permanent employees during the 
months of August through March. These temporary employees 
consist of two full-time analysts, several agricultural college 
students, and some additional clerical help. 

The number of seed samples tested by this division during the 
1960-62 biennium totaled 42,996. In addition, 26,710 seed lots 
were inspected and analyzed at dealers' places of business. Stop- 
sale orders were issued on 223 seed lots consisting of 3,603 bags 
of seed which were in violation of the seed law Of this number, 
2,040 bags were relabeled in compliance with the law, and sale 
was prohibited on 1,563 bags. 

SUMMARY 

1960-61 1961-62 

Number of seed "lots" on sale, inspected 13,069 13,641 

Number of seed "lots" in violation of the Seed Law 128 95 

Number of bags of seed in violation 1,700 1,903 

Number of bags of seed prohibited sale 424 1,139 

Number of bags of seed relabeled — 1,276 764 

Number of seed "lots" in violation of the Federal Seed Act.— 13 36 

Number of agricultural seed samples tested 16,226 15,047 

Number of vegetable seed samples tested 5,496 5,344 

Number of flower seed samples tested 488 190 

Number of tree seed samples tested 16 79 

Total number of samples tested* 22,226 20,660 

*The North Carolina seed laboratory provides more service testing free of 
charge than any other State laboratory 

The rules and regulations of the North Carolina seed law were 
amended in 1960 and 1961 to add witch weed (Striga asiatica) 
and crotalaria (Crotalaria spp.) to the noxious seed list. When 
crotalaria or witch weed is found in any amount in seed crop, the 
seed shall be unlawful for sale. 



Report For 1960-62 — Seed Testing 145 

The rules and regulations were amended effective January 1, 
1962 for the labeling of treated seed. Much of both agricultural 
and vegetable seed now on sale is treated with a substance in- 
jurious to the handler and unfit for use as food, feed, or oil. 

More than a hundred chemical substances are now used for 
treating seed to prevent loss from various pathogens and insects. 
Almost one half of these substances contain mercury, known as 
mercurials. These substances are poison and very toxic. The 
other substances used are classed as harmful and seed so treated 
should not be used for food, feed, or oil. 

The amendment for labeling treated seed requires each con- 
tainer of seed to bear a separate tag showing the name of the 
substance used in treating the seed. If the seed has been treated 
with a mercurial or other similar toxic substance, the label shall 
show a statement such as, "Poison" or "Poison Treated" in red 
letters, and in addition a representation of a skull and crossbones. 
When seed is treated with other harmful substances, the label 
shall show the caution statement, "Do not use for food, feed, or 
oil." 

Treated seed has become a health hazard for the seed analyst. 
The dust and fumes given off from poison treated seed affect 
the skin, eyes and throat. The North Carolina Seed Laboratory 
installed a complete exhaust system in 1961 for all laboratory 
workers to reduce this hazard when opening containers of treat- 
ed seed, mixing, blowing, weighing, analyzing, and testing the 
seed. 

The present North Carolina Seed Law was rewritten and rati- 
fied by the 1949 General Assembly. Since that time many chan- 
ges have taken place in the processing, treating, handling and 
marketing of seeds. New problems in seed control have arisen. 
Also there is a strong urge for more uniformity in state seed laws 
by the national and regional seed associations, including the fed- 
eral government. The division, therefore, contemplates request- 
ing the General Assembly to modernize the seed law in 1963. 



SOIL TESTING DIVISION 

Dr. Eugene J. Kamprath 
Director 

Agriculture has been caught in a squeeze of rising costs and 
declining prices for its products. In order to survive it is neces- 
sary for North Carolina farmers to be efficient producers. When 
properly limed and adequately fertilized the soils of North Caro- 
lina are quite productive. 

Soil test summaries, however, show that over half of the cul- 
tivated soils need to be limed. Many of the Coastal Plain soils 
are low in potassium while the Piedmont and Mountain soils of- 
ten are low in phosphorus especially pasture land. 

It is estimated that North Carolina farmers spend from 10 to 
20 percent of their gross income for lime and fertilizer. If farm- 
ers are going to an efficient job of farming they need to know 
the lime status and fertility level of their soil, so that they can 
make the right decisions regarding their liming and fertilization 
practices. The State of North Carolina provides a soil testing 
service so that farmers can obtain this information. 

During 1960-62 biennium the Soil Testing Division analyzed 
133,700 soil samples. On each of these samples determinations 
were made of the pH, organic matter content, available phos- 
phorus, available calcium, and available potassium. This amount- 
ed to almost 700,000 individual determinations during the two 
year period. The agronomists of the division made lime and 
fertilizer recommendations for each of the samples submitted. 
Slightly over 36,000 farmers made use of the service of the Soil 
Testing Division during this biennium. 

Also during this time test were run on 3,343 samples of green- 
house soils sent in by florists. 

The division prepared summaries of the soil test results and 
the liming rates and fertilizer grades suggested for the samples 
received from July, 1958, through June, 1961. These summaries 
were made on a county basis for the major crops for which rec- 
ommendations were requested. The results of the summary are 
quite helpful to local agricultural workers in identifying the 
principal soil fertility problems which are limiting crop growth 
in a particular area. The summary of the percentage of ferti- 
lizer grades suggested for each crop are of help to the ferti- 



Report For 1960-62— Soil Testing 



147 




A section of the Soil Testing laboratory making one of the five determinations 
on each of the 134,000 soil samples submitted during this biennium. The entire 
laboratory occupies 4,500 square feet of floor space, not including its adminis- 
trative offices. 



lizer manufacturers in determining the need for each of the 
grades in different areas of the state. The summaries were pub- 
lished in two bulletins, The Fertility Status of North Carolina's 
Coastal Plain Soils and, The Fertility Status of North Carolina's 
Piedmont and Mountain Soils. Copies of the summary and re- 
prints of the county summaries were sent to local agricultural 
workers and fertilizer manufacturers. 

The agronomists of the Soil Testing Division participated in 
a large number of meetings with farmers and fertilizer dealers 
to explain the proper procedure for taking representative soil 
samples and to discuss the soil test results and the lime and 
fertilizer recommendations. A number of radio and television 
programs were conducted in which different phases of soil test- 
ing were discussed. 

The division had numerous foreign agricultural workers visit 
the laboratory to observe the organization of a soil testing lab- 
oratory and to study the agronomic and soil chemistry principles 
involved in the interpretation of soil tests results. Many agri- 
cultural groups from North Carolina also toured the laboratory 
in order to become more familiar with soil testing. 

During the summer months when the number of farmers 
samples received is low, chemical analyses are made of samples 



148 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

submitted by the research personnel of the North Carolina Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. During this biennium the division 
analyzed 14,689 samples from research plots on whic agronomic 
studies are being conducted. The information obtained from 
these studies is used to evaluate and make any needed changes 
in the lime and fertilizer recommendations being used. Through 
this cooperation with the North Carolina Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, the lime and fertilizer recommendations are based 
on the the latest research information. 

The rapid changes in agriculture and higher crop yields make 
it necessary to refine and develop new chemical methods for 
estimating the lime and fertility status of soils. A project was 
finished in which a study was made of the extraction of potas- 
sium from Piedmont and Mountain soils by several different 
methods. From the information obtained it is possible to do a 
much better job in the interpretation of the potassium tests as it 
relates to response from fertilization with potassium. Current- 
ly work is underway to refine the magnesium test. Many of the 
Coastal Plain soils are low in magnesium and information is 
needed on a method which will give a reliable measure of mag- 
nesium availability. 

The work accomplished by the division was possible only be- 
cause of the cooperation and hard work of the personnel. 



THE STATE FAIR 

During this biennium the North Carolina State Fair has ex- 
perienced the most successful two years in its history, both as 
an annual exhibition and as a year-round facility. 

This success is not measured only in terms of revenues, al- 
though these have shown an appreciable increase each year, but 
more importantly, in terms of interest and participation on the 
part of the people of North Carolina. The growing interest of all 
our people in the Fair exhibits reflects a deeper and more wide- 
spread desire to see and learn of the multitude of developments 
and technologies which permeate every area of modern living. 

Both of the annual exhibitions during this biennium broke all 
previous records for attendance, number of exhibits and pre- 
mium monies paid. Gross revenues in 1960 set a new record 
high, but one which was to be broken by a still higher revenue 
in 1961. In 1961, the Fair was for the first time, expanded from 
a five-day to a six-day event, an experiment which proved so 
successful that it is to be continued on a permanent basis. 

In short, the North Carolina State Fair is growing in every 
dimension — in service to the state, in the quality, depth and 
breadth of its presentations, and in its physical facilities. The 
philosophy of the Fair administration and the State Board 
of Agriculture that it is not the business of the Fair to accumulate 
profits has made this growth possible. Except for a modest 
balance maintained to tide the Fair over the possibility of an 
entire Fair week of bad weather, profits from operations are 
ploughed back into the Fair in the form of increased premiums of- 
fered and expansion or improvements of its physical facilities. 
Premium offerings have been increased each year for the past 
15 years and are again at a new high with the $60,000 being offer- 
ed for 1962. Profits from operations, totaling $81,340.80 for this 
biennium, have made possible numerous new or expanded facili- 
ties. Already completed, or in progress as this report is written, 
are: 

Enlargement of the pigeon-and-rabbit barn by 2,400 square 
feet. This department has long been one of the most popular 
among both exhibitors and viewers, and had outgrown the space 
provided for it. 



150 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Oid highway shop buildings, built during World War I and later deeded to the 
Fair with the proviso that they be removed, are still in use because of inadequate 
exhibit space. The photo above, a view from within the fairgrounds, indicates 
that the condition of the buildings is such as to make adequate repairs prohibitive. 
Below is a view from the road showing how the buildings jut out onto a major 
highway coming into Raleigh. 





Enclosure of the Youth Center dining hall with louvre type 
windows and installation of heating. Year-around use of this 
facility by both youth and adult groups has been on the increase. 
Numerous groups use it for short courses and have requested 
study-hall facilities. By enclosing and heating the dining area 
it can serve in a dual capacity, eliminating the need for another 
structure to provide a study hall. 



Report For 1960-62 — The State Fair 



151 




it takes a lot of people to put on a State Fair, and they must begin their planning 
early. This is a group of Fair department heads, representing various state agen- 
cies, who met early in May to map plans for the 1962 exhibition to be held in 
October. Each department head must call on scores of helpers, so that the Fair 
becomes the work of thousands of pairs of hands. 



Enlargement of the Village of Yesteryear building by 1,200 
square feet, providing one-third more space, and paving the 
center walkway and the flooring of booths. Another Fair fea- 
ture, which has been growing in popularity, the building has be- 
come inadequate to accomodate either the displays of handi- 
crafts or the crowds of interested viewers they attract. 

Asphalt topping of the area between the cattle barns, approx- 
imately 40,000 square feet, plus approximately 25,000 square 
feet of resurfacing between the Industrial Building and the 
Arena. 

Panic locks on 20 doors to lobbies of the Arena. 

Enclosure of vented area at north end of the swine barn. 

Waterproofing the flaked brick wall of the Lounge building. 

Regrading, draining and sandclay topping of race track. 

These, or course, are in addition to the general maintenance and 
repairs, such as painting, roofing, landscaping, etc., which must 
go on continuously to keep the buildings and grounds of this 
large facility in proper condition. 

However, these and other improvements and expansions of 
recent years are not keeping pace with expanding demands on the 
facilities for exhibit space at fair-time and for non-fairtime 



1-52 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Enclosure of the Youth Center dining hall with louvre type windows, and in- 
stallation of heating, render this a dual purpose structure. Its year-round use for 
short courses and similar purposes created a need for a study hall at the Center. 
With windows and heating this unit can now be used to serve that purpose while 
still being used as a dining hall. The louvred windows continue to permit open-air 
use in hot weather. 



events. Many exhibits are now inadequately displayed, and cer- 
tain special features which could be programmed are not included 
because there is not proper or adequate space for them. 

Old buildings, erected during World War I and occupying 
space on US Highway 1 right-of-way, were deeded to the State 
Fair a number of years ago with the proviso that they be re- 
moved from the highway right-of-way. It has been necessary 
however, to continue their use, although they are not adequate 
in any way. Even if they were not scheduled for removal, their 
condition is such that it would be poor economy to spend the 
money which would be required to put them in proper repair. 

A new building, architecturally compatible with the Arena. 
is needed to make the most effective use of the Arena itself. Such 
a building would be of inestimable value if designed so that it 
could be divided up into units of many different sizes to serve 
multiple purposes throughout the year, ranging from catering 
to large groups down to small meetings, and provide sizeable ex- 
hibit space during Fair week by the removal of all temporary 
partitions. Its basement could provide badly needed space for 
the Fair's maintenance shops. This building would enhance 
the Fair, and revenues from rentals for commercial, scientific 
and industrial expositions would amortize a large part of the 



Report For 1960-62— The State Fair 



153 




The Village of Yesteryear, one of the Fair's most popular attractions, was en- 
larged by 1,200 square feet during this biennium. This progress shot shows con- 
struction of booth flooring and the concrete center walkway already completed. 



cost. Upon its completion, the old buildings on the highway 
frontage could be razed, the steel work in them could serve to 
put under roof much of the paved area between the cattle barns, 
and this added barn space would provide badly need housing 
for additional livestock at Fair time. 

But, important as physical facilities are to the Fair, they are 
not the Fair itself. Rather the expanding needs for facilities 
only reflect an active and constructive Fair program. An illus- 
tration of the program planning which goes into the Fair was 
the institution ten years ago of an annual Fair "theme" for the 
presentation in depth of one important aspect of the state's life. 

These themes have included a wide variety of subjects. Many 
have focused on some one agricultural commodity from the farm 
to the consumer. One year the 50th Anniversary of 4-H- Clubs 
was highlighted. In 1960, mass communications media consti- 
tuted the special theme, with newspapers, radio and television 
stations cooperating to highlight the marvels of their modern 
public service in an increasingly complex age. 

In 1961 the Fair theme was a salute to the Centennial Anni- 
versary of the Land Grant College movement and the Diamond 



154 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 



Year Revenue 

1961 $379,865.58 

I960 365,187.26 

1959 295,460.35 

1958 ____ 346,017.41 

1957 268,159.77 

1956 : 282,032.88 

1955- 320,932.18 

1954 273,365.51 

1953 302,566.79 

1952 276,214.58 

1951.. 258,340.60 

1950... 212,455.58 

1949 233,523.22 

1948 196,924.72 

1947 166,312.27 

1946- 220,544.03 

1942-45 _ (No Fair* 

1941 101,856.00 

1940- 80,742.52 

1939 72,128.72 

1938- - 78,599.32 

1937 68,867.01 



Improvement, 




Maintenance 


Premiums 


of Grounds 


Paid 


$69,600.71 


$53,697.47 


64,650.96 


53,003.53 


59,057.53 


52,429.56 


40,736.56 


51,767.59 


33,442.33 


49,649.62 


35,141.53 


49,290.73 


28,182.03 


46,904.75 


23,108.17 


43,152.80 


34,293.53 


41,979.35 


55,187.48 


37,842.71 


44,311.22 


31,075.50 


19,383.29 


30.650.00 


25,635.68 


28,550.00 


26,174.24 


25,332.75 


34,639.31 


20,283.00 


36,855.35 


14,499.50 


26,170.43 




11,969.92 


18,775.25 


7,379.71 


17,254.25 


8,549.40 


16,677.75 


7,358.78 


15,383.00 


10,793.01 


12,664.92 



Jubilee of North Carolina State College. In addition to a graphic 
presentation of the State College program in the theme exhibit 
space, the opening day was marked by one of the most colorful 
and inspiring events in the Fair's history. This was the educa- 
tional convocation when the entire College faculty, some 800 
strong and in full academicals, marched into the State Fair 
Arena for ceremonies which included an address by Dr. Frank P. 
Graham, United Nations mediator and former president of the 
University of North Carolina. This event drew an audience that 
filled the 5,000 Arena seats. 

For the 1962 Fair the theme "Education . . . The Key To Pro- 
gress" has been chosen. Plans are under way to dramatize edu- 
cation in all its phases, to vividly portray its effect on the state's 
progress and its importance to a good life, a good living and the 
survival of all that is best in our civilization. Serving as a com- 
mittee for coordinating and directing the theme presentation 
are Dr. William C. Friday, President of the Greater University 
of North Carolina, Dr. Charles F. Carroll, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction for North Carolina, and Dr. Leslie H. Camp- 
bell, President of Campbell College and Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Church-Related Schools. 

In addition to the special "theme" exhibit in the usual space 
provided in the Arena, every department of the Fair will at- 
tempt to highlight its subject as it relates to education. 



DIVISION OF STATISTICS 

Henry L. Rasor 

Statistician in Charge 

Throughout a period of some 43 years the North Carolina De- 
partment of Agriculture and the United States Department of 
Agriculture have effectively participated in a cooperative Crop 
Reporting Service through which the resources of the two agen- 
cies are pooled for the purpose of compiling and disseminating 
accurate agricultural production and marketing statistics. 

The Federal Crop Reporting Service was established in 1839 
and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture was created 
in 1878. The cooperative agreement between the two agencies 
creating the Federal-State Crop Reporting Service, which was 
executed in 1919. represents one of the earliest such services in 
the nation. While the Federal Department of Agriculture is 
concerned primarily with state and national statistics, the State 
Department of Agriculture experiences a continual and increas- 
ing need for statistics at the local level. The Division of Statis- 
tics, staffed both by state and federal employees, has the re- 
sponsibility of fulfilling the statistical needs of the two agencies. 

As a part of the federal program, the division, through col- 
lection and analysis of sample data, provides timely and current 
information about agricultural production and prospective pro- 
duction at the state level. Among other items, it also provides 
information about the disposition of agricultural commodities, 
prices received for quantities sold, income from marketings, 
costs of production, etc. 

Under the state program, the division places major emphasis 
on the preparation of county statistics and upon the dissemination 
of both state and county statistics to the many thousands of 
persons and concerns scattered throughout the nation with direct 
interest in North Carolina agriculture. The annual State Farm 
Census provides the primary basis for its series of county esti- 
mates which are so essential to current and long range plans 
for farmers and agricultural workers, and for buyers, handlers, 
and processors of agricultural commodities. Under the com- 
bined state and federal reporting system, more than 450 sepa- 



156 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

rate reports, covering approximately 6,500 items of interest to 
people connected with agriculture, are published each year. 

The number of people in our state and nation who till the soils 
continues to decrease, while agricultural output increases. These 
trends are the natural results of increased mechanization and 
the many additional improvements in technology developed 
through the ingenuity of farmers themselves and through pro- 
fessional guidance of state and federal specialists. There is 
every reason to believe that these trends will continue for years 
to come. Inherent in the trends are rapidly mounting increases 
in capital investment and operating expenses which further mag- 
nify the necessity for sound planning in agricultural production 
and marketing. Thus, we find an ever increasing national de- 
mand both for increased coverage and improved quality in agri- 
cultural estimates. 

To meet this challenge the federal department has, for a num- 
ber of years, made intensive efforts to improve sampling tech- 
niques in the collection and analysis of sample data obtained from 
individual farmers. The pioneer work in this procedure was be- 
gun in North Carolina during 1953 and was continued through 
1959. Following this, enumerative probability sampling tech- 
niques were made operational in 10 southern states, including 
North Carolina. 

Results from these refinements thus far have been most en- 
couraging, and by 1962 probability sampling of major items had 
been made operational in some 20 states. It is anticipated that 
these refined techniques will be expanded to provide national 
coverage at a fairly early date. Through these new develop- 
ments it will be possible not only to improve the accuracy of pub- 
lished estimates for each of the various states, including North 
Carolina, but also to assign confidence limits to the estimates 
as published. The Division of Statistics takes pride in its con- 
tribution to the development of these improved statistical tech- 
niques. 

North Carolina has reason to take pride in its importance as 
one of the principal agricultural states in our nation. Within 
the boundaries of the state, approximately two-thirds of the 
nation's flue-cured tobacco is produced. About half of all to- 
bacco in the nation is produced in North Carolina. Production 
of commercial broilers has continued to expand, and we rank in 



Report For 1960-62 — Statistics 157 

about fourth or fifth place among the states of the nation in that 
endeavor. We are one of the leading southern states in the pro- 
duction of corn, and our per-acre yields of this crop have in- 
creased tremendously during recent years. Harvests of soy- 
beans, peanuts, and other crops are also gaining in importance 
within the state. 

Normally, North Carolina ranks in either third or fourth 
places among the states of the nation in receipts from sales of 
field crops. In marketings of all agricultural commodities it 
ranks from 10th to 12th position. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that information about North Carolina agriculture is in great 
demand. Each year approximately three-fourths of a million 
copies of bulletins and other published reports are distributed 
to the public at its request. In addition to information dissemi- 
nated through prepared reports, the division answers more than 
2,000 direct inquiries for information not available within the 
State for ready distribution. 



VETERINARY DIVISION 

Dr. H. J. Rollins 
State Veterinarian 

The State Veterinarian and his assistants, in cooperation with 
the Federal Veterinarians, recommend and carry out uniform 
methods of inspection, testing, diagnoses and quarantines neces- 
sary for the control and eradication of infectious diseases of live- 
stock and poultry on both a statewide and national scale. 

The programs for control and eradication of brucellosis, tuber- 
culosis, hog cholera, vesicular diseases, scrapie, scabies and other 
infectious diseases, including foreign diseases introduced by ac- 
cident or sabotage, are conducted by cooperative agreements be- 
tween the Veterinary Division of North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture and Animal Disease Eradication Division of United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

The control and eradication of infectious diseases of livestock 
and poultry is an essential factor in the economical production 
of both animals and poultry. The benefits of state and federal 
expenditures for the control and eradication of infectious diseas- 
es of livestock and poultry cannot be confined directly to the eco- 
nomy of livestock and poultry production. The protection and 
prevention of livestock and poultry diseases transmissible to the 
human family is one of the important factors in modern public 
health programs. 

There are more than 40 infectious diseases of livestock and 
poultry directly transmissible to man and more than 40 livestock 
and poultry diseases indirectly transmissible to man, wherein ani- 
mals and birds serve as a reservoir or intermediate host of such 
diseases. There is no way to evaluate from a dollar-and-cents 
standpoint the public health protection afforded by expenditures 
for the control and eradication of such infectious and transmis- 
sible diseases of livestock and poultry. The percentage of hu- 
mans infected with bovine tuberculosis and undulant fever con- 
tracted from animals is much lower than was present prior to 
the inaugaration of state and federal control and eradication 
programs. 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 159 

The North Carolina Compulsory Meat and Poultry Inspection 
Laws that were passed by the 1961 Legislature provide for in- 
spection for wholesomeness, contamination and adulteration of 
meat, meat products, poultry and poultry products in the 
slaughtering and processing establishments moving such pro- 
ducts inter-county. These laws were passed for the pupose of 
providing protection of public health. They will also benefit 
the producers, slaughtering and processing establishments in 
the marketing of meat and poultry products that are produced 
in North Carolina. 

Brucellosis (Bang's Disease) 

North Carolina has maintained the classification of a modi- 
fied certified brucellosis state continuously for the past 20 
years. During this biennium the counties of Brunswick, Cur- 
rituck, Edgecombe, Forsyth, Gates and Montgomery were certi- 
fied brucellosis free. The entire cattle population in the above 
counties, except those under six months of age, calfhood vac- 
cinates under 30 months of age, and steers, were tested and no 
Bang's reactors were found. It is reasonable to assume that a 
much larger number of counties will be eligible for this classi- 
fication during the next biennium. The State-Federal coopera- 
tive brucellosis program is carried out by the blood testing of 
herds and individual cattle by state, federal and accredited 
veterinarians. 

Blood samples collected by the veterinarians are tested in 
the Bang's Laboratory at Raleigh for identification of Bang's 
reactors and suspects. The Bang's reactors are branded with 
the letter "B" on the left jaw and identified by a reactor tag 
by state and federal employed veterinarians. The infected and 
exposed cattle on the farm or premises are placed under state 
quarantine. The veterinarians issue official permits for move- 
ment of such reactors direct to slaughter. 

The cattle that are eligible for state and federal Bang's in- 
demnity payments are appraised at the time of branding. The 
exposed cattle in the herd are retested at intervals of approxi- 
mately 30 days until it has been determined that the cattle are 
eligible to be released from quarantine. The duration of the 
quarantine is determined by the disease history of the herd. 
The majority of the herds are eligible for release from quaran- 



160 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

tine approximately 90 days from the date the last reactor or 
suspect is found. The usual procedure is a negative test within 
30 days with a second negative test 60 days later. Highly in- 
fected herds are required to be held under quarantine for a 
much longer period of time. 

The incubation is usually from 15 to 60 days following ex- 
posure to Bang's reactors or contaminated premises. The most 
dangerous period that reactors spread Bang's disease is at calv- 
ing time, or those that abort. The milk from reactors may 
contain Bang's organisms which are destroyed by proper pas- 
teurization prior to human consumption. Bang's reactors are 
carriers of the disease and are subject to ante mortem and post 
mortem inspection at the time of slaughter. Carcasses of Bang's 
reactors, that are otherwise healthy, are passed as wholesome 
food under the Federal and State Meat Inspection Regulations. 

The Bang's disease control and eradication program requires 
continuation of blood testing of the herds for identification of 
the individual reactors. Early diagnosis, removal of reactors 
and cleaning and disinfecting the premises, are major factors 
in preventing the spread of Bang's disease to healthy cattle. 
Calfhood vaccination of calves four to eight months of age and 
the purchase of herd additions only from known brucellosis free 
herds are additional important factors in the control and eradi- 
cation program. 

Collection of milk samples from dairy herds for the brucellosis 
ring test has been continued throughout the biennium. Herds 
suspected as a result of the milk ring test are blood tested to 
determine the presence or absence of any infected animals in the 
herd. 

A new program has been inaugurated during the biennium 
for the identification and collection of blood samples for Bang's 
test of cattle consigned to slaughter. Livestock inspectors iden- 
tify mature cattle, except steers, consigned to slaughter at live- 
stock markets and farms with a numbered back tag and sales 
tag number or farm of origin. Blood samples are collected at 
the time of slaughter and forwarded to the Bang's Laboratory 
for the official Bang's test. If reactors are found, the farm of 
origin is located and blood samples are collected from the entire 
herd. This program is of equal importance in the identification 
of Bang's reactors in beef herds as compared to the milk ring 
test conducted in dairy herds. 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 161 

The increased number of calves vaccinated with Strain 19 
Brucella vaccine is also a contributing factor in reducing the 
number of brucellosis reactors. The calfhood vaccination pro- 
gram is presently available to all herd owners at state-federal 
expense. During this bienninm the calfhood vaccination pro- 
gram has been adopted by approximately twice as many herd 
owners as during the last biennium. A great percentage of the 
herd owners are now purchasing only calfhood vaccinates for 
breeding herd replacements. A calfhood vaccination program 
has been adopted requiring all female cattle sold at one of the 
feeder calf sales to be held in the fall of 1962. We expect the 
majority of the female cattle sold through the feeder calf sales 
will be calfhood vaccinated during the biennium 1962-64. This 
vaccination program will provide an increased demand for 
North Carolina cattle moving to other states. 

There was a decrease of 536 Bang's reactors during the pres- 
ent biennium as compared to the 1958-60 biennium and 18,330 
more blood samples tested for Bang's during the same period. 
The present percentage of infection based on blood samples 
collected from inidvidual cattle for the period July 1, 1961, to 
June 30, 1962, is 0.23 percent. 

There was a marked decrease in the number of herds infected 
during the present biennium as compared to the previous bi- 
ennium. A total of 140 herds were found to be infected during 
the year July 1, 1960, to June 30, 1961, and 113 infected herds 
during the year July 1, 1961, to June 30, 1962. This is a total of 
253 infected herds for the biennium as compared to a total of 782 
during the previous biennium. This tremendous reduction in 
number of infected herds is significant since each infected 
farm is a constant source of danger in the spread of Bang's dis- 
ease. 



Summary of Brucellosis Blood Tests 

1960-61 1961-62 

Herds tested 21,621 18,685 

Cattle tested 289,480 285,102 

Number of reactors 561 655 

Number of infected herds 140 113 

Number of Calfhood vaccinates 14,870 17,109 



162 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

Summary of Brucellosis Ring Tests 

1960-61 1961-62 

Number of dairy herds 23,151 22,307 

Number of dairy cattle 451,855 623,525 

Ring test negative herds 23,048 22,226 

Ring test suspect herds 103 81 

Tuberculosis 

The intradermal tuberculin test is the official method of 
identification of animals and poultry infected with tubercu- 
losis. There was an increase of 164 reactors during the present 
biennium as compared to the previous biennium. Tracing the 
movement of cattle fro minfected herds, and T. B. testing of 
herds in which exposed cattle are added, combined with more 
vigilant supervision by state and federal employed veterina- 
rians and cooperation of accredited veterinarians, are major 
factors in the accelerated tuberculosis control and eradication 
program. A number of states have found a marked increase 
of cattle infected with tuberculosis. Constant supervision and 
testing of cattle will be continued during the next biennium with 
the expectation that the number of infected animals in herds 
will be materially reduced. 

Summary of Tuberculosis Tests 

1960-61 1961-62 

Herds tested 7,811 6,586 

Cattle tested 192,901 206,233 

Number of reactors 106 100 

Number of infected herds 34 31 

Swine Diseases 

The United States Congress enacted a law on September 6, 
1961, designed to aid in a nation-wide hog cholera control and 
eradication program. The President appointed a national com- 
mittee to promulgate federal rules and regulations governing 
interstate movement of swine and a hog cholera control and 
eradication program for adoption by all the states and terri- 
tories. The federal rules and regulations have not been adopted 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 163 

as of June 30, 1962, but reports indicate that these will be adopt- 
ed prior to December 31, 1962. 

The State Veterinarian on July 7, 1960, recommended to the 
swine industry a North Carolina hog cholera control and eradi- 
cation program in an article which was published in the Agri- 
cultural Review and a number of daily and weekly newspapers. 
This article set forth the essential requirements for controlling 
and eradicating hog cholera. 

The majority of states, as of June 30, 1962, have adopted 
rules and regulations prohibiting the use of virulent hog cholera 
virus in the vaccination of swine. Modified live virus hog chol- 
era vaccine in combination with an adequate dose of anti-hog 
cholera serum produces a high percentage of immunity in heal- 
thy swine over six weeks of age. Modified live virus vaccine 
must be adequately refrigerated at all times prior to use. 

The killed virus vaccines, such as crystal violet and Boyton 
tissue vaccine, are available for use on healthy swine that have 
not been exposed to hog cholera. These vaccines require ap- 
proximately twenty-one days to establish immunity. A much 
higher degree of immunity is established with killed virus vac- 
cine by administration of a second dose 30 to 60 days following 
the initial dose. Killed virus vaccine will be the product of 
choice in the eventual eradication of hog cholera. Modified live 
virus vaccine by repeated passage through susceptible swine 
may increase in virulence and, in some instances, has been sus- 
pected of producing hog cholera. As an added safeguard, swine 
susceptible to hog cholera should not be exposed to swine vac- 
cinated with modified live virus vaccine for a period of approxi- 
mately 21 days. 

A successful hog cholera eradication program will require com- 
plete cooperation and a desire by the swine producers individual- 
ly and collectively to eradicate hog cholera rather than to live 
with it. A uniform and vigorous educational program desig- 
nating the economic benefits must be available to each swine pro- 
ducer. This can be accomplished by state, federal and local vet- 
erinarians, swine Extension specialists at State College, County 
Agricultural Agents, Vocational Teachers, swine industry asso- 
ciations, operators of feed mills, auction markets, hog buying 
stations, slaughtering establishments and all other segments of 
the swine industry. 



164 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The minimum requirements of a successful eradication pro- 
gram will be as follows : 

(1) Vaccination of a high percentage of susceptible swine with 
potent modified live virus vaccine and the recommended dose of 
anti-hog cholera serum. The swine should be healthy, reason- 
ably free from parasites and other diseases and at the recom- 
mended age at time of vaccination. Killed virus vaccine re- 
quires approximately 21 days to produce immunity. A higher de- 
gree of immunity is established by administration of a second 
dose 30 to 60 days later. Killed virus vaccine to be used only 
on healthy unexposed swine with no history of hog cholera on 
the farm. 

(2) The adoption of a recommended sanitation and manage- 
ment program, which must include the isolation of all herd addi- 
tions for approximately 30 days. 

(3) The heat-treatment of all garbage fed to swine in com- 
pliance with the North Carolina Garbage Feeding Law. Hog 
cholera virus, at times, is present in the meat of apparently 
healthy swine. 

(4) The immediate reporting of all cases of Hog Cholera to 
the State Veterinarian. 

(5) Quarantine of all swine infected or exposed to hog cholera 
on the farm, including the disposition of infected and exposed 
swine in compliance with the law and regulations. 

(6) Cleaning and disinfecting of contaminated premises and 
all vehicles used for movement of infected and exposed swine. 

(7) Enact laws and regulations governing and controlling the 
intrastate and interstate movement of swine with provisions for 
isolation and quarantine as shall be required following movement. 

Atrophic Rhinitis is becoming a serious economic and disease 
problem of swine breeding herds. This disease may be spread 
by contact of the infected swine with the healthy swine on the 
premises. Highly contaminated premises may be another means 
of spreading the disease. The death losses from Atrophic Rhini- 
tis are reasonably low. However, a large number of the diseased 
pigs are stunted and much more expensive to feed out for slaugh- 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 165 

ter weight. The economic losses in commercial breeding herds 
are much lower than in herds of valuable purebred swine since 
the commercial swine are usually moved direct to slaughter sub- 
ject to ante mortem and post mortem inspection. Such infected 
or exposed swine are not eligible for admission to livestock mar- 
kets and should not be sold to other farms under quarantine for 
feeding and moving direct to slaughter. The purebred swine 
producers should maintain herds free from this disease. The 
removal of the visibly infected swine will not eradicate the dis- 
ease in the herd. The movement of the apparently healthy 
swine from infected herds is one of the known methods of spread- 
in gthe disease to healthy herds of either purebred or commercial 
breeders. 

The Veterinary Division has been engaged in preliminary 
work aimed at eradication of this disease. 

Vesicular Diseases 

Vesicular exanthema of swine was eradicated in North Caro- 
lina in January of 1954. The Garbage Feeding Law which re- 
quires heat-treatment of all raw garbage prior to feeding to swine 
was an essential factor in the eradication of this swine disease. 
The Garbage Feeding Law administered by this division, is 
also an important factor in the prevention of hog cholera since 
from time to time virulent hog cholera virus may be present in 
raw pork. 

Anaplasmosis 

A voluntary anaplasmosis control and eradication program is 
available to the herd owners in the state. The voluntary agree- 
ment, signed by the herd owner in cooperation with the Vet- 
erinary Division of North Carolina Department of Agriculture 
and Animal Disease Eradication Division of United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, provides for collecting blood samples 
from the entire herd for the complement-fixation test. The agree- 
ment provides for identification and isolation and quarantine of 
the reactors and movement of reactors direct to slaughter at 
time of disposal by the herd owner. 

Cattle that recover from anaplasmosis are classed as carriers 
and may cause the spread of the disease to other healthy ani- 
mals in the herd. The disease is transmitted by flies, ticks and 



166 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

other biting insects and also mechanical inoculation caused by 
contaminated needles, dehorners and other instruments. The 
death losses vary from a very very low percentage in young cat- 
tle to a much higher percentage in mature cattle. Massive doses 
of tetracycline in the earlier stages of the disease has been rather 
successful. 

Mastitis 

The diagnostic laboratory located at Raleigh is equipped to 
identify the bacteriological organisms in milk samples submitted 
fo rexamination. It is essential that sterile milk bottles or tubes, 
which are provided by the laboratory, be used for collecting the 
milk samples. The diagnostic laboratory made 2,264 bacterio- 
logical tests on milk samples for mastitis during the biennium. 
Mastitis, alone or in combination with other diseases, is responsi- 
ble for serious economic losses in the dairy population in North 
Carolina. 

Several meetings attended by personnel of the Veterinary Di- 
vision, U. S. Animal Disease Eradication Division, State College, 
and representatives of the dairy industry, were held during the 
biennium. The purpose of the meeting was for the inaugura- 
tion of a program designed to inform the dairy herd owners of 
improved methods in the prevention and control of Mastitis. 

Leptospirosis 

This diseases is important from both animal health and human 
health standpoint. Direct contact with infected dogs is a major 
hazard of human infection. However, the danger of human con- 
tact with infected livestock should not be overlooked. The dis- 
ease may vary from a form so acute that it causes death from 
one to three days to one so mild as to go unnoticed by the live- 
stock or dog owner. The control of leptospirosis is difficult, due 
to the nature of the disease, its ability to affect most species of 
animals, its apparently healthy carrier problem, its reservoir in 
wildlife and its ability to live outside of the animal body. Farm 
ponds contaminated by diseased herds should not be used by 
healthy animals. Pregnant livestock may abort during or fol- 
lowing acute cases of leptospirosis. The division is engaged in 
a special survey to aid herd owners in eradication of this disease. 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 167 

The diagnostic laboratory made 9,360 tests for leptospirosis dur- 
ing this biennium. 

Inspection and Quarantine 

The personnel of the Veterinary Division inspect garbage 
feeding premises, rendering plants, livestock auction markets, 
and poultry disposal pits, as required by the laws and regula- 
tions. They investigate outbreaks of transmissable diseases of 
livestock and poultry; illegal movements of livestock in the 
state; quarantine herds and flocks infected with transmissable 
diseases, including illegal interstate movement of livestock; su- 
pervise the cleaning and indisinf ecting of contaminated premises ; 
issue garbage feeding permits and perform similar services per- 
taining to control and eradication of infectious diseases of live- 
stock and poultry. 

State Inspection of Meat and Poultry 

The North Carolina Compulsory Meat and Poultry Inspection 
Laws were enacted by the 1961 Legislature. These laws pro- 
vided for inauguration of state inspection in slaughtering es- 
tablishments, meat processing plants and poultry processing- 
plants. Prior to July 1, 1962, state inspection was provided in 
18 such plants under these laws. There will be 150 meat and 
poultry plants operating under the compulsory section of the 
laws which are effective July 1, 1962. 

Dr. E. W. Stapp was appointed State Supervisor of the Com- 
pulsory Meat and Poultry Inspection Program on October 6, 
1961. Dr. Stapp and the Assistant State Supervisor of the Com- 
pulsory Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, Dr. W. L. Ab- 
bott, visited the various meat and poultry establishments dur- 
ing the period November 1, 1961 to June 30, 1962 for the purpose 
of making recommendations for construction and alteration of 
the buildings and the purchese and installation of equipment 
necessary to comply with the minimum requirements of state 
inspection. 

Dr. Burt W. Larsen was employed March 22, 1962, and Dr. 
Harry K. Edmondson was employed May 7, 1962, as Area 
Veterinary Supervisors of the Compulsory Meat and Poultry 
Inspection Program. Eight additional Area Veterinary Super- 



168 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

visors are needed. It is difficult to employ qualified Area Vet- 
erinary Supervisors within the present salary range. The em- 
ployment of local veterinarians on an hourly basis will be neces- 
say. The veterinary meat and poultry inspectors are assisted by 
trained meat and poultry inspectors similar to lay inspectors 
employed to assist the veterinarians in the plant operating under 
Federal meat and poultry inspection. 

The primary purposes of North Carolina Compulsory Meat 
and poultry products for the protection of public health. It 
and poultry products for the protection of public headth. It 
will also aid the North Carolina livestock and poultry industries 
in the marketing of livestock and poultry. 

Hatchery and Flock Inspection 

The National Poultry and Turkey Improvement Plans are 
administered by the Veterinary Division of North Carolina De- 
partment of Agriculture. Personnel of the Veterinary Division 
test and cull, or supervise the testing and culling, of chicken 
and turkey hatchery flocks. The majority of the chicken and 
turkey hatchery flocks are classed as pullorum-typhoid clean. 
The personnel of the division inspect hatcheries, supervise the 
operation of baby chick and hatching egg dealers and issue 
hatchery and chick dealer licenses. The number of hatchery 
flocks continue to decrease. However, the chicken population 
during the last year of the biennium is the highest that has 
ever been recorded in North Carolina. The majority of the 
chickens in hatchery flocks are plate tested by the poultry spe- 
cialists and testing agents on the farm. However, due to the 
requirements of some areas, the tube test is used. This re- 
quirement in most instances is for hatchery flock replacements 
and commercial egg producing flocks. The pullorum-typhoid 
tube test is used on each individual bird in turkey hatchery 
flocks. 

The poultry industry is an important part of the economy 
of North Carolina. It provides farm employment in the pro- 
duction and management of hatchery flocks, commercial egg 
flocks and broilers. It also provides employment in the pro- 
duction of commercial feed stuffs, poultry processing plants 
and numerous other profitable employment for residents of the 
state. 



Report Fob 1960-62 — Veterinary 169 

Summary of Pullorum-Typhoid Tosts 

1960-61 1961-62 

Chicken Flocks Tested 1,914 1,783 

Chickens Tested . 4,162,110 4,376,461 

Reactors 42 52 

Chickens Tube Tested 114,959 145,714 

Hatcheries 123 110 

Chick Dealers 387 252 

Hatching Egg Dealers ,—. 18 21 

Turkey Flocks Tested 99 70 

Turkeys Tube Tested 150,712 132,532 

Reactors 43 9 

Diagnostic Laboratories 

Three Poultry Diagnostic Laboratories were equipped and staff- 
ed during the biennium. They are located at Murphy, Robbins 
and Rose Hill. The new Virus and Poultry Diagnostic Lab- 
oratory adjacent to the Large Animal Diagnostic Laboratory 
was completed, equipped and staffed in July of 1960. The Virus 
and Poultry. Diagnostic Laboratory was formerly located in 
Scott Hall at State College. The operation of this laboratory 
as a unit provides for efficient use of the veterinary patholo- 
gists and the laboratory technicians. The Poultry Diagnostic 
Laboratories at Monroe, Shelby, North Wiykesboro and Waynes- 
ville, and the Swine Diagnostic Laboratory at Edenton, were in 
full operation during the biennium. 

The Poultry Diagnostic Laboratories are located in the major 
poultry producing areas of the state. They provide convenient 
and beneficial diagnostic services for the control and eradica- 
tion of poultry diseases in their respective areas. The Swine 
Diagnostic Laboratory at Edenton is located in one of the ma- 
jor swine producing areas in the state. The poultry and turkey 
producers will submit three to ten birds to the laboratories for 
diagnosis. This provides more accurate diagnostic service than 
if only one bird was submitted. 

The usual procedure at the Large Animal Diagnostic Lab- 
oratory consists of autopsy and diagnosis of a single animal 
since its value is many times greater than an individual bird. 



170 N. C. Department of Agriculture 

The selection of the animal submitted to the laboratory is of 
primary importance for completion of final diagnosis. The 
history of the herd, clinical symptoms of the diseased animals, 
treatment, and the selection of the diseased animal by the local 
veterinarian is a beneficial aid in the laboratory diagnosis. The 
selection for autopsy and diagnosis of runts and other animals 
that are not typical of the disease present is of minor benefit to 
the livestock owner. A field diagnosis by a qualified veterinarian 
is often times more beneficial to the livestock owner, especially 
in acute diseases, such as : hog cholera, erysipelas, pneumonia, 
and similar transmissible diseases. Immediate vaccination of the 
healthy animals in the case of hog cholera materially reduces the 
death losses in the majority of cases. Death losses are usually 
much lower than if the vaccination is delayed even one day. 

Summary of the Diagnostic Laboratories 

1960-61 1961-62 

Autopsies (Animals and Poultry) 28,078 31,199 

Serological Examinations 270,992 281,066 

Bacteriological & Mycological Examinations 13,080 12,288 

Histopathological Examinations 3,116 5,854 

Hematological Examinations 1,679 2,978 

Sensitivity tests Conducted 817 1,098 

Virus Isolations 408 655 

Other 240 250 

Field Trips (herds and flocks) 531 542 



WAREHOUSE DIVISION 

A. B. Fairley 

State Warehouse Superintendent 

The State Warehouse System, which licenses and supervises 
warehouse sstoring agricultural commodities, was created by 
the Legislature of 1919 as a result of a deplorable situation 
which cotton farmers faced at the beginning of World War I. 

The development of an adequate warehouse system for this 
stable crop was urgent, if the farmers were to withstand and 
remedy periods of depressed prices. It was therefore necessary 
that some modern system be provided, whereby cotton could be 
more scientifically and profitably marketed in order that this im- 
portant crop could serve as collateral in the commercial world. 
It was also evident that any such system would have to be under 
strict supervision and there was also the problem of establish- 
ing a guarantee fund to provide the financial backing which is 
essential to make the warehouse receipt universally accepted as 
collateral. This guarantee fund was derived from a ginner's 
tax of 25 cents a bale, and this tax was collected on cotton ginned 
in the state for three years. 

The warehouse fund can, under the law, also be used for se- 
curing first mortgages on warehouse construction. The purpose 
of this measure is to aid and encourage the establishment of 
warehouses operating under the system. The law requires that 
10 percent of the fund be invested in bonds, thus permitting the 
remaining 90 percent to be used for warehouse construction. 

The State Warehouse System operates on the interest derived 
from these loans and bonds, while the principal fund acts as a 
guarantee back of the receipts issued by state licensed ware- 
houses. 

Although it was first limited to cotton, the benefits derived 
from the State Warehouse System were so great that the Ware- 
house Act was amended in 1941 to include other agricultural 
commodities, with the exception of tobacco. This has proved 
of great benefit to producers of grain and other farm commodi- 
ties and has been the cause of a steady increase in the construc- 
tion of grain and other storage facilities. Several large grain 



172 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




This grain storage facility is one of many, filling a vital need in their areas, 
constructed with the help of loans from the Warehouse Fund. 



elevators have been constructed during the 1960-62 biennium, 
and several more are in the process of construction as this re- 
port is written. 

The law provides safeguards on warehouse loans. It speci- 
fies the kinds of mortgages which are acceptable, the amount 
of warehouse value covered by the loan, and the time limitation 
for the mortgage to run. 

Before a loan is made, the Warehouse Superintendent makes 
careful investigation to determine whether, in his opinion, the 
loan would be safe, and if the particular construction is needed. 
Approval of all loans must be given by the Board of Agriculture, 
the Governor, and the Attorney General. 

A cooperative agreement with the United States Government 
provides that all warehouses licensed under the State Ware- 
house System are also licensed under the United States Ware- 
house Act, and are under federal as well as state superivison. 
These warehouses are inspected several itmes each year by the 
federal examiners without cost to the state. Lespedeza ware- 
houses are under state supervision only and are periodically 
checked by the state. 

Commodities stored in licensed warehouses are insured 



Report For 1960-62 — Warehouse 173 

against loss by fire or lightning. All grain in storage is also 
insured against loss by windstorm. The law places the responsi- 
bility of seeing that adequate insurance is provided on the State 
Warehouse Superintendent and he is also responsible for the 
collection and payment of all claims. 

Warehouses licensed under the State Warehouse System pro- 
vide safe storage for farm commodities, and the receipts is- 
sued by these warehouses are accepted by all banks as the best 
collateral. Producers may therefore store their commodities 
and borrow money on them, instead of having to sell them when 
prices are depressed by harvest season gluts on the market. 
Storing farm commodities in licensed warehouses not only pro- 
vides safe storage, but also promotes more orderly marketing. 

During the past biennium the State Warehouse System has 
licensed 98 warehouses for the storage of cotton, with a storage 
capacity of 672,187 bales. These warehouses handled 368,131 
bales during 1961-1962. 

There were also licensed 21 grain and lespedeza warehouses, 
with a storage capacity of 2,480,500 bushels. 

Loans were made for warehouse and elevator construction at 
Moyock and Battleboro, both for grain storage. 

Payments of interest and principal on loans have, in most in- 
stances, been met promptly and the financial status of the State 
warehouse System is as follows : 

June 30, 1960 

Cash on hand and Cash on hand and First Mortgage Invested in Gov- 
principal fund supervision fund Loans ernment Bonds 

$16,367.22 $14,017.03 $542,420.00 $152,000.00 

June 30, 1962 
$10,685.52 $ 4,882.22 $545,572.00 $118,000.00 



DIVISION OFWEIGHTSANDMEASURES 

C. D. Baucom 
Superintendent 

The work of the Weights and Measures division affords eco- 
nomic protection for every citizen of North Carolina. Combined 
with this Division is the Gas and Oil Divison, and together these 
divisions perform multiple services in protecting the public's 
pocketbook. 

Administering the laws, rules, regulations and definitions de- 
signed to offer consumer protection in terms of quantity and 
quality involves a host of products, and services necessary to the 
economy of the state. 

Effects of the Weights and Measures Division are felt in a 
multiplicity of ways by the consuming public whether or not he 
be a final user of a commodity. 

Activities illustrative of the service and regulatory elements 
of the division was one requiring enforcement of the law govern- 
ing labeling involving food manufacturers and packagers who 
marketed more than 10 million packaged commodities each day. 

Another concerned testing and certifying for accuracy two of 
the largest commercial motor truck scales ever installed in North 
Carolina. 

In the former action concerning labeling, close cooperation 
with the manufacturers by the division smoothly worked out the 
labeling requirements of their particular labeling to conform with 
the law dealing with plain and conspicuous statements of a pack- 
age's net contents. 

In certifying and testing of the huge scales in the eastern part 
of the state, the division was able to aid a new industry in setting 
up its installation in North Carolina. The particular scales meas- 
ured 150 feet in length, had a capacity of 300,000 pounds and were 
checked for five pound graduations sensitivity, requiring some 
164,000 pounds in test weights. 

In one area alone, that of testing weighing and measuring de- 
vices, inspectors from the division paid some 150,726 visits to 
establishments where such devices were in use. 



Report For 1960-62 — Weights and Measures 



175 




Weights and measures inspectors check-weighed nearly 230,000 units of pre- 
packaged foods and other commodities during this biennium. 



<l: 




Serving heavy-duty platform scales, this newly redesigned test truck enables 
its two-man crew to test a scale unit in less than 15 minutes. Weighing nearly 
55,000 pounds itself, more than half of its load is comprised of the test weights 
it carries. This unit averages checking on six scales each day. 



176 



N. C. Department of Agriculture 




Gasoline samples are tested for octane rating on this specially designed 
engine in the gasoline and oil laboratory. 



These and other activities, carrying out the division's responsi- 
bilities for the biennium, were as follows : 

In the Weights and Measures inspection service, tests for ac- 
curacy were made on 5,975 pharmaceutical, grocery and other 
small capacity scales ; 4,200 motor vehicles and other heavy-duty 
scales ; 229,871 prepackaged containers of foods and other com- 
modities; 322 deliveries of coal, ice and other products; 67,129 
bags of fertilizer for net weight ; 238 taxicab meters ; crushed 
2,589 concrete blocks to test their load-bearing strength ; 380 
livestock scales ; reweighed 736,760 pounds of tobacco for ac- 
curacy of original weight certificate in 334 auction warehouses ; 
registered 1,705 weighmasters ; registered 112 scale mechanics. 

Gasoline and oil inspection registered 1,701 brands of gaso- 
line; tested 159,630 gasoline pumps at retail locations; 
analyzed 79, 892 samples of gasoline for quality and octane rat- 
ing; 17,070 samples of kerosene for quality; calibrated 11,758 
meters on fuel oil delivery trucks ; calibrated 2,635 transport 



Division of Weights and Measures 177 

truck tanks and bulk plant meters (some of which are used for 
milk and other liquids) ; registered 368 pump mechanics. 

One new livestock scale testing truck was put into service, and 
was used in testing 380 livestock scales in daily use acros sthe 
state. Also during the biennium, the two heavy-duty (43,000 
pound) testing vehicles were replaced with new ones. The older 
units had been in service 10 and 14 years, respectively. 

Recently, the 12 mobile laboratories used in gas and oil testing 
were replaced with new ones. Four of the older units were 13 
years old, each having travelled some 140,000 miles. Eight of 
the vehicles were 11 years old and had been on the road for ap- 
proximately 123,000 miles. Three of the calibrating units, hav- 
ing served 10 years with engine travel running 240,000 miles, 
were replaced with new ones. In the last year of the binnium a 
new meter calibrating unit was added to the equipment. 

In L. P. Gas inspections 187,573 installations were inspected for 
safety, and 394 L. P. Gas dealers and distributors were regis- 
tered.