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The Royal Society of Literature was founded 
by Royal Charter, granted in the year 1825 by 
His Majesty King George IV., for the purpose 
of promoting Literature in its more important 
branches, with a special attention to the improve- 
ment of the English Language. 

The plan proposed for effecting this object, in- 
cluded — 1 . The residing at the Society's meetings 
and the publication in its Transactions, of papers 
on History, Philosophy, Poetry, Philology, and the 
Fine Arts : — 2. The adjudication of honorary re- 
wards for works of great literary merit, and for 
important discoveries in literature : — 3. The pub- 
lication of inedited remains of ancient literature, 
and of such woi^ks as may be of great intrinsic 
value, but not of that popular character which 
readily commands the attention of publishers. 


In furtherance of the first portion of this plan, 
the Council of the Society has already published 
six parts, making three volumes in quarto, of its 
Transactions, and a fourth volume in octavo, the 
first of a new series, comprising researches into 
the origin of different languages, elucidations of 
ancient monuments, as medals, vases, and statues, 
disquisitions on points of ancient geography, 
classical history, and archaeology in general, — 
speculations on the hieroglyphical language of 
Egypt, the chronology of its several royal dynas- 
ties, and the age of its most celebrated monu- 
ments, — the illustration of Greek and Latin inscrip- 
tions, with other subjects relating to the history 
and developement of the human intellect. A fifth 
volume is in the press, and nearly ready for pub- 

The second division of the Society's plan has 
likewise been to some extent carried into effect. 
Two gold medals, placed at their disposal by its 
Royal founder, were annually awarded by the 
Pouncil during His Majesty's life, viz. : — 



1824, to 

1825, to 

1826, to 

1827, to 

1828, to 

1829, to 

18dO, to 

W. MiTFORD, Esq. 


James Rennell, Esq. F.R.S. 

Charles Wilkins, Esq. LL.D. 

Professor Schweighauser. 

DuGALD Stewart, Esq. F.R.S. 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

Robert Southey, Esq. 

The Rev. George Crabbe, M.A. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Coxb. 

Wm. Roscoe, Esq. LL.D. 

Le Baron Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy. 

Washington Irving, Esq, 

Henry Hall am, Esq. F.R.S. 

This part of the plan was unfortunately sus- 
pended by the demise of His Majesty King George 
the Fourth, without any provision having been 
made for the continuance of the Royal bounty. 

In the third department of its operations, the 
Society has likewise been hitherto restrained by 
the limited extent of its funds. It has neverthe- 
less continued, in a second volume of sixty folio 
plates, the publication of hieroglyphics, begun by 
the Egyptian Society, under the editorship of the 
late learned Dr. Thomas Young. The liberality of 


some of its members has further enabled the 
Council to engage in the present undertaking; 
and they have lately become entitled, in aid of 
this department of their labours, to the sum of 
5,000/., bequeathed to the Society by the late Rev. 
Dr. George Richards, one of its original promoters 
and most zealous friends. 

Vre»ilient0 ot tt^t ttosal SkotUtp of Uttetatute. 



First President, 


Elected 1832. 


Elected 1834. 

Elected 1845. 




FOR THE YEilR 1845—6. 












SIR JOHN DORATT, M.D. (Librarian and Forrign 


WILLIAM TOOKE, Esa. F.R.S. Trrasurbr. 


Thb literary history of the Anglo-Norman period is, on 
the whole, less in need of an Introductory Essay than 
that of the Anglo-Saxons, for it not only includes a much 
shorter space of time, and is of a less varied character, 
but a smaller proportion of its writings are anonymous, 
so that it is tolerably complete in the description of 
the works of each successive author. Very little of the 
popular literature of this period has come down to us ; 
and it is probable that it was not very extensive, or, at 
least, that the larger portion was never committed to writ- 
ing. It was an age of oppression and violence, during 
which the greater part of the population of England was 
reduced to a state of extreme misery and ignorance. We 
have seen, in the former volume of the present work, how, 
towards the latter end of the Saxon period, learning, that 
is, the study of Latin literature, was sinking into neglect in 
this island, and how knowledge of every kind was then 
spreading abroad in works written only in the Anglo-Saxon 
tongue. The use of this latter language, in writing, was 
almost abolished after the invasion of the Normans. It was 
only preserved in the continuation for a time of the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, and in some productions, mostly of a 
religious or moral character, for which we are probably 
indebted to the few Anglo-Saxon monks who were per- 
mitted to retain their places in our monasteries. Towards 
the end of this period, the native literature begins again 
to make its appearance. At this time the Anglo-Norman 



language had taken the place of the older Saxon ; and we 
may properly divide the literature of the whole period into 
the two classes of Anglo-Latin and Anglo-Norman. 

§ I. — Anglo-Latin Literature. 

At the period of the Norman invasion of England^ a 
great intellectual movement had commenced in the schools 
on the continent. This showed itself in an increasing 
study of the ancient writers of Rome, and a consequent 
improvement in literary taste and style. Latin composi- 
tion was cultivated nowhere with greater success than in 
the schools of Normandy 3 and some of the most distin- 
guished ornaments of those schools were brought over 
into our island by the Conqueror. From that moment 
the Anglo-Latin writers took a position in the literature 
of Europe which they had long lost, or which, more truly, 
they had never held before ; for the Latinity of the early 
Saxon writers is tame and incorrect when compared with 
that of the scholars of Lanfranc and Anselm. It was, 
however, essentially owing to the importation of learned 
men ; for, during the first half of the Anglo-Norman period, 
the distinguished Latin writers in our island were, with 
very few exceptions, foreigners who were brought over by 
the Norman monarchs to be the dignitaries of the English 
church. The earlier Anglo-Norman scholars were almost 
entirely theologians, and the epigrams of Godfrey of Win- 
chester stand alone amid a mass of writings which, with 
the exception of some valuable letters, and a few historical 
tracts, have little interest at the present day. 

The great developement of the scholastic system on the 
continent, and the intellectual agitation to which it gave 
birth, had a visible influence on the literature of our island, 
although it appears that, perhaps from the greater extent 
of our political troubles, the disputes of the scholastic 
philosophers were not much encouraged here. Although 


the schools at Oxford and Cambridge existed in the earlier 
part of the twelfth century^ they seem to have had little 
influence during the whole Norman period, and were looked 
upon only as introductory to the universities of France. 
Thither flocked most of our native scholars ; and English- 
men, such as Athelard, Robert de Retines, Robert de Me- 
lun, Daniel de Merlai, John of Salisbury, &.C., became the 
most distinguished ornaments of the continental schools. 

The Latin of the earlier writers is characterized by con- 
siderable vigour of style, arising from clearness and simpli- 
city of diction, which subsequently gave way to an affiecta- 
tion of florid ornament which made the style of the later 
writers very confused and often unintelligible. We meet 
with good Latin poetry throughout the twelfth century ; the 
writings of Laurence of Durham, Henry of Huntingdon, 
John of Salisbury, John de Hauteville, Nigellus Wireker, 
Alexander Neckam, and others, contain passages of great 
beauty, and almost classic elegance ; whilst a new style of 
Latin versification, in which rhymes took the place of the 
ancient metres, beginning with Hilarius, and brought 
to perfection in the satirical poems attributed to Walter 
Mapes, possesses a certain energy and sprightliness which is 
not without considerable attraction* This class of poetry 
became extremely popular, and continued to exist in its 
original vigour long after the style of the more serious 
Latin writers had become hopelessly debased. Indeed, 
the period at which it appears to have flourished most was 
the middle of the thirteenth century, under the troubled 
reign of Henvy IIL It may be observed that poetry in 
general was peculiarly the literature of the schools, and of 
the secular clergy ; and much of that of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries is distinguished by its hostility to 

By far the most important class of Latin writers during 
the twelfth century was that of historians. At first their 

b 2 


works were mere dry chronicles of events, like the remains 
of Florence of Worcester and Turgot. Eadmer's historical 
works may be considered in some degree as political trea- 
tises, their object being to commemorate and defend the 
conduct of his friend and patron Anselm. Ordericus Vitalis 
first made history the object of laborious research^ but his 
work wants system and arrangement. William of Malms- 
bury is the most elegant of our medieval historians ; and 
after his time several of his countrymen^ such as Giraldus 
Cambrensis and William of Newbury, attempted with suc- 
cess to raise the character of the historian above that of the 
mere chronicler. We can only look upon Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth as a writer of romance. It was in these histories diat 
the Latin style of the schools became most rapidly debased, 
partly because the authors were in many cases monks and 
not schoolmen, and partly because they had to deal with 
matters of private life, in which they were obliged to in- 
troduce a barbarous phraseology. This becomes more ap- 
parent towards the beginning of the thirteenth century ; 
and such writing as that of Jocelin de Brakelonde presents 
a strange contrast to the style of John of Salisbury and 
Giraldus Cambrensis. Very little Latin prose that is to- 
lerable was written after the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Norman and English had then, to a certain degree, 
driven the Latin out of the field, or at least had thrown it 
into the hands of a school of heavy theologians. 

The scholastic writers of the twelfth century appear to 
have prided themselves on their epistolary style, and many 
very important volumes of letters, collected and pub- 
lished by them or by their disciples, have been preserved. 
These are among the most valuable illustrations of the 
public and private history of the age to which they be- 
long. They begin with those of Lanfranc and Anselm» 
and become very numerous in the reign of Henry IL 
Those of Becket and his friends, as well as those of his 

• • • 


opponent Gilbert Foliot (which are preparing for publica- 
tion by Dr. Giles), were evidently published from political 
motives. Among the most valuable, and, in a literary 
point of view, the most interesting, we must place those 
of John of Sahsbury and Peter of Blois, which make us 
intimate not only with the political, but with the scholas- 
tical, history of the latter half of the twelfth century. 

§ II. — Anglo-Norman Literature. 

When the Normans entered England, although but a 
century and a half had elapsed since their settlement in 
France, they had entirely lost the language they had brought 
with them from the North, and had long adopted that of 
the people whom they had conquered, one of the dialects 
derived from the ancient Latin, called, from their origin, 
lingua Romanoy or langue Romane^ which has in the sequel 
been moulded down into the modern French. As early 
even as the time of the second of the Norman dukes, 
William I., only a few years after the death of RoUo, we 
are told by Dudo de St. Quentin, that the duke was 
obliged to send his son to Bayeux to learn the Danish 
tongue, as the langue Romane was almost the only tongue 
spoken at Rouen, then the chief seat of the power of 
the Northmen in France.* Benoit de St. Maure, para- 
phrasing Dudo in his History of the Dukes of Normandy, 
speaks still more strongly, — 

Si k Roem 1e fax garder If I cause him to be kept at Rouen 

£ norir gains longuement. And nonrished very long, 

II ne sanra parler neient He will not know how to talk at ^ 

Daneis ; kar nul ne Vi parole, Danish ; for no one speaks it there. 

8i Toil k'U seit k tele escole, It is very weU that he be at soch a 


* Qnoniam quidem Rotomagensis civitas Romana potius quam Daeieem 
nUtar eloquentiat et Bajocassensis fmitnr freqnentias DaciMCa Ungua quam 
Bomana, Dudo, lib. iii. p. 112. 



Que as Dsneis sache parler ; 

Ci ne tavent rienfort Romanz . 
Mais k Baiues eo a tanz 
Qai ne savent si Daneia non. 

That he may know how to talk to 

the Danes ; 
Here they know nothing but Romany ; 
Bat at Bayeuz there are many 
Who know nothing but Daniah. 

We learn from another source, that at the council of 
Mouson-sur-Meuse in 995, the bishop of Verdun spoke 
in French.* It is probable that, with their language^ the 
Normans had lost most of their national traditions and 
poetry ; for the literature of Normandy, when it first be- 
comes known to us, is, in this respect, purely French. 

The popular literature of the Normans in France and 
England previous to the twelfth century is totally unknown 
to us. The poet Taillefer is said to have repeated one of 
the songs of his native country at the battle of Hastings ; 
but this rests on authority not earlier than the middle of 
that century, and it is doubtful whether the song attri- 
buted to him related to RoUo, the founder of the Norman 
dynasty in France, or to Roland the celebrated hero of 
French romance. There does not appear to be any monu- 
ment of the language earlier than the year llOO.f 

However, as most of the popular literature of this period 
was confined to the jongleurs, who were at the same 
time authors and minstrels, and as it was probably sel- 
dom or never committed to writing, we have no difficulty 
in accounting for its loss. We know that there were 
jongleurs in Normandy at an early period, and that they 
followed their patrons into England. But we only become 
acquainted with their compositions at a later period. 

In literature, the Anglo-Norman language first makes 
its appearance in poems of a religious and serious charac- 

* Harduini Condi, torn. vi. p. 734. 

t The Abb6 de la Rue, Easaia Historiques, tom. i, pp. li, lii, has suppoaed 
that an epitaph in French on Frodoard, which he there prints, ia contem- 
porary with the death of that historian, which occurred in dG6 ; but it ia 
clearly of a much more recent dnte. 



ter ; and it seeiDS to have first found a distinguished patron 
in Adelaide of Louvaine, queen of Henry I. The patron- 
age of this lady was bestowed not only on Philip de Thaun, 
who dedicated to her his metrical Bestiary, but also on 
an anonymous irouv^re, or poet^ apparently a Benedictine 
monkj who composed the legend of St. Brandan in Anglo- 
Norman verse. This latter poem, if we may venture to 
give it such a name^ opens with the following lines :* — 

Donna Aaliz la reine, 
PUr qui ▼aldrat lei divine, 

Par qui creistrat lei de tenre, 

E remandrat tante gaerre 
For lea armes Henri la rei, 
£ par le conseil qui ert en tei, 

Salvet tei mil e mil feiz 
Li apoetoiles dans Benediz. 

Que comandas, 90 ad enpris, 

En letre mis e en Romanz, 

£ si cum fud li teons cumanz, 
De saint Brendan le boa abeth ; 

Mais tn 1* defent, ne seit gabetti. 

Qnant dit que set e fait que peot, 

Itel serrant blasmer n'esteot ; 
Mais si qui peot e ne voile, 
Dreiz est que cil mult se doile. 

The lady Alice the queen, 

Through whom the divine law wiU 

Tlirough whom the law of the land 

* will increase. 

And so great war will be pacified 

Through the arms of Henry the king, 

And through the counsel which will 
be in thee, 

The pope dan Benedict 

Salute thee a thousand and a thou- 
sand times. 

What you commanded, I have under- 

Have put in writing and in Ro- 

As it was thy command, 

[The life] of St. Brandan the good 
abbot ; 

Moreover you forbade that it should 
be done disrespectfully. 

When any one has said what he 
knows and dooe what he can. 

We should not blame such a servant; 

But he who can and will not, 

It is right that he should have much 

There is, however, none of the spirit or poetry of the 
jongleur in these pieces, and it is quite evident that their 
only object was to make the subjects on which they treated 
familiar to those who were not acquainted with the Latin 

* It is preserved in MS. Cotton. Vespas. B. z. 




language ; and they were written in verse as an aid to the 
memory, and perhaps also with the hope that the religious 
legends of the monks might thus take the place of the 
profane songs of the secular poets. We find during the 
twelfth century much anonymous verse in Anglo-Norman 
on pious and legendary subjects. A metrical collec- 
tion of Miracles of the Virgin in a manuscript in the 
British Museum (MS. Egerton, No. 612)^ written either 
at the end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth 
century^ appears to have been composed at an earlier 
date. The author, whose name was William, tells us that 
his contemporaries were too much attached to poetry which 
treated on love, and battles, and ^^ other adventures,^' al- 
though he confesses that there was something to be learnt 
from such subjects as these. — 

Li home de jolift^, 
Ki tant aiment lor volent^i 
Amereient milz autre eicrit 
Ke cuntaat amerua delit, 
U bataille, u altre aventore, 
Eq tela escria mettent lur cure. 

Tea escriz ne sunt k defendre, 
Kar grant sens i poet Ven aprendre 

De curtesie e de laTeir. 

Men of pleasure, 

Who love 80 much their will, 

Would like better some other writing 

Which told of love, 

Or battle, or other adventure ; 

In such writings they place their 

Such writings are not to be forbidden, 
For we may learn from them great 

Of courtesy and wisdom. 

M8, Eg. No. 612, fol. 9, r*. 

However, he says that they ought not to hold poems of 
this kind in so much esteem as to neglect more pious sub- 
jects, such as the miracles of the Virgin, and of the other 
saints. Even in the reign of Stephen, when the works 
of the trouvhres became much more numerous, they 
are chiefly of a religious character, and their authors were 
generally monks. We must, however, be understood as 
speaking of the written literature of the day ; for there 
can be no doubt that a great body of the medieval romances 



were in existence at this period^ of which we have an ex- 
ample in the noble chanson de Roland, by the trouvhre 
Turold, of which an early manuscript in the Anglo-Nor- 
man dialect has been preserved. 

Most of this religious and serious poetry consisted in 
mere translations or paraphrases from the Latin, and the 
writers make no further pretension. We have a few trans- 
lations in prose which appear to belong to the earliest pe- 
riod of Anglo-Norman literary history. One of the oldest 
of these is a version of the Psalms^ which is found in seve- 
ral manuscripts in England. The first Psalm^ taken from 
a copy in the British Museum (MS. Cotton. Nero C. vi.), 
will furnish an example of Anglo-Norman prose probably 
of the reign of Henry I. 

Beoniure banm chi ne alat el cnn- 
leil des fehmsi et en la veie des pec- 
heora ne stout, et en la chaere de 
pestilence ne sist. 


Mais en la lei de nostre seignor la 
Tolonted, e en la sue lei porpenserat 
par jum e par nuit. 

E iert ensement came le fust qued 
et de juste les decurs des ewes, kl 
dnnrat sun froit en son tens. 

E sa fuille ne decurrat, e tutes les 
coses que 11 unques ferad serunt fait 

Nient eissi 11 felun, nient eissi, 
mais ensement cume la puldre que 
11 ven2 getet de la face de terre. 

En pur iqo ne surdent 11 felun en 
jnise, ne ti pecheor el conseil des 

Kar nostre sire cunuist la Teie des 
justes, e I'eire des feluns perirat. 

Blessed is the man that walketh 
not in the counsel of the ungodly, 
and standeth not in the way of sin- 
ners, nor sitteth in the seat of the 

But his delight is in the law of our 
Lord : and in this law doth he medi- 
tate day and night. 

And he shall be like a tree planted 
by the riyers of water, that bringeth 
forth his fruit in his season. His leaf 
also shall not wither, and whatsoever 
he doeth shall prosper. 

The ungodly are not so : but are 
like the chaff which the wind driveth 

Therefore the ungodly shall not 
stand in the judgement, nor sinners 
in the congregation of the righteous. 

For the Lord knoweth the way of 
the righteous : but the way of the 
ungodly shall perish. 

In a fine manuscript of the first half of the twelfth 
century, in Trinity College, Cambridge, the Anglo-Norman 

• t • 



version of the Psalms is given as an interlinear gloss. A 
translation of the four books of Kings, evidently in Anglo- 
Norman, has been printed in Paris, under the editoriaji 
care of M. Le Roux de Lincy, from a manuscript pre- 
served at Paris, but probably written in England also in 
the first half of the twelfth century. The following extract 
will serve for comparison with the preceding example of 
the Anglo-Norman of the Psalms : — 

Samuel issi le fist. Revint al 
pople, et si lor dit : 

Rel m'avez demanded. Deus Tad 
oi, si Pad granted ; mais snr tub 
tele seigDurie aura que voz fiz & sun 
plaisir prendra : des uns en frad che- 
Talers, des altres curliens derant sun 
cfaarrei ; 

Des uns en frad ses preTOz e cu- 
nestableSf des altres vileins pur as 
terre arer, e pur ses blez seer, e pur 
ses armes forgier, e ses curres a- 

£ voz fillesy les unes frunfc les 
uignemenz, les altres le mangier ; 
les altres erent al pestrin. 

Voz champs, voz bones rignes, yob 
oliyers, toldra e k ses serfs les durra. 

Voz blez» les fruiz des vignes, il 
les dismera; as ses serjanz il les 

Voz serfz, toz anceles, le eslite 
bachelerie prendra, e h, sun servise 
les metra. 

De vostre pecunie frad sun plaisir; 
serfs serrez, si 1* vus estuverad sufihir. 

Lores crierez k Deu merci, mais 
il ne vus deignerad oir, pur qo que 
YU8 demandes rei» e degetez lui e 

And be [Samuel] said. This will 
be the manner of the king that shall 
reign over you: he will take your 
sons, and appoint them for himself, 
for his chariots, and to be his horse- 
men ; and some shall run before his 

And he will appoint him captains 
over thousands, and captains over 
fifties ; and will set them to ear his 
ground, and to reap his harvest, and 
to make his instruments of war, and 
instruments of his chariots. 

And he will take your daughters 
to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, 
and to be bakers. 

And he will take your fields and 
your vineyards, and your oliveyards, 
even the best of them, and give them 
to his servants. 

And he will take the tenth of your 
seed, and of your vineyards, and give 
to his officers, and to his servants. 

And he will take your men-ser- 
vants, and your maid-servants, and 
your goodliest young men, and your 
asses, and put them to his work. 

He will take the tenth of your 
sheep : and ye shall be his servants. 

And ye shall cry out in that day 
because of your king which ye shaU 
have chosen you : and the Lord wiU 
not hear you in that day. 



Among other translations^ we may mention that of the 
laws of William the Conqueror, which, although not pre- 
served in any very early manuscript, appears to be in the 
language of the twelfth century, as the following passage 
will show : — 

De entremeins aveir; k*il voldrat 
darner emblet, e il Tolge doner wage 
e trover plege k persair sonn apel» 
dune I'estaverad k celui qui Paaverad 
entrc'ineins nomer 8«unt guarant, si 
il Tad ; e 8*il ne Tad, dune nomerad 
sonn heimelborh e ces testimoines, e 
ait lea & jar e k termer b'iI les ad u 
s'il les pot aver. £ li entercenr 
iiveriad en guage sei siste mein ; e 
li altre le mettrad en la main soon 
warant n k heimelborh, lequel qn'il 
averad. E s'il n'ad guarant ne heim- 
dborh e il ait testimoines, que il 
I'achatad al marchiet li rei, e qn*il ne 
set soun warant ne le plege vif ne 
morti 960 jurad od ses testimoines 
par plein sennent; si perdra sonn 
chatel ; si il testimoinent qne il heim- 
elborh en prist, e s'il ne pot ayeir 
gnarant ne testimoine qne il heim- 
elborh en prist, e s*il ne pot aveir 
gnarant ne testimoine, si perdrad e 
pnrsoldrad ; pert sa werre vers sonn 
seignnr ; qo est en Merchendae. £ 
en Denelae e en Westsezenelae ne 
▼ocherad mie sonn seignour warant, 
i^eo qne seit mis en gnage ; e en 
Danelae mettre en vele main d'issi 
li qne il se derained, e s'il pot prover 
qne ^eo soit de sa nurture par treia 
parts sonn vigned, se il averad de- 

Of possession of live-stock ; if any 
one shall daim it as stolen, and he 
will give pledge and find sureties for 
pursuing his claim, then it will be- 
hove him who shall have it in his 
possession to name his warrant, if he 
have one; and if he has not one, 
their he shall name his * heimelborh' 
(title of possession) and witnesses, 
and have them at day and term, if 
he has them or if he can have them. 
And the claimant shall give in pledge 
himself and five others ; and the other 
shall put it in the hand of his warrant, 
or to the heimelborh, whichever 
he may have. And if he has no 
warrant or heimelborh, and he haa 
witnesses that he bought it in the 
king's market, and he does not know 
his warrant or his pledge, alive or 
dead, he shall swear that vrith his 
witnesses by full oath ; and he shall 
lose the goods ; if they witness that 
he took heimelborh of it, and if he 
cannot have warrant or witness that 
he took hdmdborh of it, he shaU 
lose it and pay a fine ; he loses his 
* were * (head-money,) towards his 
lord ; this is in Mercian-law. And 
in Danish-law and Westsaxon-law 
he shall not give his lord his warrant 
before the claimant be put in pledge ; 
and in Danish-law they will put the 
property in the hand of a neutral 
until he be cleared, and if he can 
prove that it be of his breeding by 
three parts of his * visnet,' he shaU 
be acquitted. 


The only known English writers of Anglo-Norman 
prose are Walter Mapes, Robert de Borron^ and Luces de 
Gastj the authors of some of the most popular romances 
of the cycle of the Round Table. An example of Mapes's 
style is given at p. 305 of the present volume ; it will be 
seen that the language had changed considerably from that 
of the earlier translations of the Psalms and books of 
KingS; but the variety of manuscripts of the work from 
which it is taken renders it impossible to say which of 
them represents most faithfully the language in which 
Mapes wrote. 

In the reign of Stephen there arose a new class of trou- 
vhresy who took their subjects from national history. 
Gaimar translated Geoffrey of Monmouth into Anglo-Nor- 
man verse^ and added to it a history of the Saxon kings, in 
which we first meet with the romance of Haveloc ; and a 
writer named David, whose work is lost, wrote a history 
of the reign of Henry I. in the same form. Under Henry 
II. the writers of this class become more numerous. Wace 
again translated Geoffrey of Monmouth, and wrote a metri- 
cal history of Normandy. His rival Benoit de St. Maure 
wrote a much more diffuse, but less poetical, history of 
the Norman dukes. Jordan Fantosme wrote a history of 
one of Henry the Second's wars, in which he had himself 
been present. Guernes du Pont de St. Maxence wrote 
the life of Thomas Becket. These are the only Anglo- 
Norman poets whom we know to have flourished during 
the reign of Henry II. Wace and Benoit have more spirit 
than the monkish writers of legends and miracles ; but, 
with the exception of a few passages here and there, their 
poems are very fiat and dull. Jordan Fantosme and Guernes 
are more vigorous. 

A new era of Anglo-Norman literature opens with the 
reign of Richard I. The lion-hearted King prided himself 



on his poetic talents, and he was the patron of jongleurs 
and trouveres, whose works, as far as we are now acquainted 
with them, become more numerous at this period. Some 
of them, such as Bozun, Herman, Simon du Fresne, and 
William the Clerk, still devoted themselves to religious 
and moral subjects. These writers were not properly min- 
strels ; they did not recite their own works, but committed 
them to writing, which is the cause of their being pre- 
served in early manuscripts. They were monks ; and some 
of them appear to have embraced the monastic life after 
having been professed poets, and to have made atone- 
ment for the profane productions of their earlier years by 
dedicating their talents to sacred subjects. Several of 
the writers of metrical legends allude to their own pro- 
fane poems, which have since perished, because at this pe- 
riod the clergy alone committed their works to writing. 
Thus William the Clerk tells us in a religious poem : — 

6ttillaame,aD8 clers qui fa Normans, William, a clerk who was of Nor- 
Who wrote verses in Romans, 
Used to tell fables and tales, 
In foolish and vaia matter 
He sinned often, may God forgive 
him 1 

Qui versifia en Romans, 
Fables et contes soleit dire. 
En fole et en vaine matire 
Pecfaa sovent, Dens li pardont 1 

Many of the metrical romances were preserved orally 
by successive jongleurs, alid when committed to writing 
they differed much from the original copy. This is the 
reason that different manuscripts of the earlier romances^ 
taken down from the recital of different persons, vary so 
much from one another, as in the case of the Chanson de 

A few romances, by known writers of the reigns of 
Richard and of John, such as William the Clerk (just men- 
tioned), Hugh de Rutland, Thomas, and Philip de Reimes, 
as well as some songs of this period, are still preserved. 


It is probable that some of the anonymous productions 
found in manuscripts of the thirteenth century also be- 
long to the same date, but of this we cannot speak with 
any degree of certainty. 

It will be seen by this brief review of the literature of 
the Anglo-Norman language during the twelfth century, 
that, until the close of the century, it has no great attrac- 
tions, beyond a few historical productions which might as 
well have been written in Latin, and one or two metrical ro- 
mances. These productions are most valuable in a philo- 
logical point of view, because they give us the forms of 
the language at particular and well ascertained dates. This 
language, in England, appears to have gone through less 
rapid changes than on the Continent ; and early in the 
thirteenth century it affords a means of comparison which 
we should not otherwise have possessed. In literature, 
this period can only be looked upon as an introduction 
to the history of French poetry in England and on the 
Continent in the thirteenth century, when its field be- 
came extensive, rich, and varied. The Latin writers of 
the twelfth century contain many aUusions to the exist- 
ence of the jongleurs and trouveres, but it was not till the 
thirteenth century that their compositions were preserved 
in writing : And then their history in England becomes 
more complicated, because a more purely national literature 
was springing up, in which the other was gradually merged* 

It would be in vain to attempt a history of English 
literature in the twelfth century, because everything con- 
nected with it is vague and uncertain. The proverbs of 
Alfred, in semi-Saxon verse, still preserved, existed in 
the time of Ailred of Rievaux, who mentions them.* A 
Bestiary, written in much the same style and language, 

* See the Biog. Brit. Litenria, Anglo-Saxon Period, p. 396. 


may probably be of the same date.'*' A version of the 
popular metrical dialogue or debate between the body and 
the soul has also been found» with a modernization of 
Alfric's Grammar» in a manuscript of the twelfth century. 
A translation into early English» or semi-Saxon» of the 
" Rule of Nuns^' of Simon de Ghent» which is preserved in 
several manuscripts» and a few collections of English 
sermons» belong certainly to a period not later than the 
beginning of the thirteenth century.t These productions» 
of no great importance in themselves» joined with the 
larger works of Orm and Layamon» and the elegant poem 
on the Owl and the Nightingale by Nicholas de Guild- 
ford» serve to connect the Saxon of the Chronicle with 
the English literature of the thirteenth century. 

* Both are printed in the Reliquiae Antiquse. 

t Spedmens of all these will be found in the Reliquiee Antiqnae. 



SECTION I,— Thx Lattbs Half op tbb EtBVtNTB CsNTUKTi 


Lanpranc stands justly at the head of the Anglo- 
Nonnan period of our literary history, not only for the 
high position which he held in the state under William 
the Conqueror, but because he may be considered the 
father of Latin literature in England during the ages 
which followed.* He was a native of Lombardy, his 
parents being of senatorial rank in the city of Pavia^f and 
was bom about the year 1005.^ Although from his child- 
hood Lanfranc was destined to the bar, his thirst for 
learning was displayed at an early age, and, after exhaust* 
ing the means of instruction in his native city, he left it 
to visit the more famous universities of Italy. Having 
made himself master of all the sciences then taught,§ 
he returned to Pavia, and practised as a pleader in the 

* There If a life of Lanfranci said to be written by his disdple Milo 
Criipiny cantor of Bee, shortly after hia death, and printed in the 
edition of bis collected works* The other anthorities of most importance 
are, Orderie. Vital, lib. It. p. 209, W. Malmsb. de Pontif. lib. i. p. 205, «t 
seq. and William of Jomidges. 

t Pater ejus de online illomm qui jura et leges ciTitatis assenrabant fuit. 
Vita Lanfrand, c. 1 . William of Malmsbury says only, Is gente Longo- 
bardus, non adeo alijecta et obscvra progenie oriundns erat. De Gest. 
Pontif. Ub. i. p. 305. 

t Hist Lit. de France, toI. viii. p. 260. 

i Ubi plorimo tempore demoratos, omni scientia sieculari peifecte Im- 
bntnsrediit. Vita Lanfr. c. I. 

VOL. !!• B 

2 LANFRANC. [Bom 1005. 

court with great success. But the ambition which dis- 
tinguished Lanfranc through life, and which was ill con- 
cealed by the outward modesty and self-restraint which 
his biographers ascribe to him, led him to desert the 
profession of the law for one which offered higher distinc- 
tions ; he crossed the Alps, passed through France into 
Normandy^ and opened a school at Avranches. This 
occurred subsequently to 1035, for Normandy was then 
governed by duke William. 

Lanfranc possesse4 in an eminent degree the qualities 
requisite for shining as a teacher, particularly at a period 
when in Normandy learning was in a very low condi- 
tion. He had already obtained an extensive reputation 
for his great proficiency in the liberal sciences. He 
was, moreover, eloquent in an extraordinary degree ; * 
and the school of Avranches was soon crowded with 
•ehoUurs. In a short time the clergy of Normandy, who 
had previously been celebrated only for their want of 
education, became distinguished for the excellence of their 
Latinity. When Lanfrano's reputation as a teacher had 
beepme established, a new field opened itself to his 
ambition. He was as yet but a layman, and could aspire 
to no further dignity than that of the schools ; the church 
was to him the only road to higher honours and power, 
and the way in which he entered it was a proof of his 
political talent. He suddenly disappeared from Avrmiches, 
without giving any intimation of the reason of his de^ 
parturi, or the direction he had taken. At that period 
there eidsted a small house of monks at Bee, which had 
been brought together by their unlettered abbot Herluin, 
and whose poverty obliged them to provide by manual 
labour the common necessaries of life. Hither the teaober 

* Tomalt AMmdHa apposite diMite mbm niptnrTit. Orimr. Vltel, 
p. 909. 

Died 1069.} lanfranc. S 

of Avranches bent his steps : he found the abbot Herltiin 
occupied in the humblest domestic duties^ but he was 
not deterred from entering himself as a member of the 
brotherhood. This occurred in 1042. He remained here 
in the strictest privacy during three years, at the end of 
which period, having been elected to the office of prior, 
he suddenly reopened his school in the then small abbey 
of Bee.* At a later period Lanfiranc's disciples spread 
abroad a story relating to this important step in his life, 
which was probably intended to enforce their prejudices 
against the secular learning which was then gaining ground. 
They said that he was on the way from Avranches to 
Rouen, whither he intended to remove his school, when, 
in passing the woods on the banks of the river ^ Risla,* he 
was attacked by robbers, plundered, and bound to a tree, 
his hoe covered with his capuce. Without any hope of 
being released in this solitary spot, Lanfranc turned his 
thoughts to Him who only had the power to assist him, 
but he found that, amid his multifarious studies, he had 
n^lected to commit to memory the forms of prayer 
enjoined by the church (debitas laudes Domino). In this 
dilemma he was seized with bitter compunction, and 
made a vow that, if he escaped with his life, he would 
tarn himself entirely to theological studies and pious 
exeroses.f The following morning he was released by 
some passengers who accidentally came to the spot, and, 
inquiring for the poorest monastic establishment in the 
neighbourhood, he was directed to Bee. 
Three years' fasting had rather increased than dulled 

* Vita Unflr. o». 1, 8. Ordaric. Vital, p. 910. W. hfalmab. 4a Poatlf. p. 90S. 

t St ooayanot ad DomimiiD» Domina Deai, ait, tantam tampoa ia dii- 
oandd axpaadi, at corpoa at aBimom ia studiis litararom attriTl, at adbae 
qooflMdo ta dabaam oraia atqaa landit ottoia tlbl partolvara bob dldid. 
J^\mn ma da baa tribolatioBa, at ago, ta aozUianta, sio irltam maam aorri* 
fare at iaititiiare curabo, at tibi tamre yaleam et tdam. Vita LaaftiBct, a. Ij 


4 LA.NFRANC. [Bom 1005, 

the growing appetite for learning, and no sooner war 
Lanfranc's reappearance publicly known, than he was 
surrounded by multitudes of scholars. The glory of the 
school of Bee soon surpassed that of Avranches.* Lan- 
franc pretended that his only object in teaching was to 
relieve the poverty of his monastery ; but, in his pride of 
superior learning, he even showed his contempt for the 
ignorance of his brethren, and when, with the riches 
amassed from the liberality of his scholars and their 
friends, he proposed to pull down the old lodgings of the 
monks, and build a magnificent monastery in its place, 
his proposal shocked the humility of abbot Herluin. 
But he overcame Herluin's scruples by the same craftiness 
which he appears to have shown on several other occa- 
sions ; in the midst of their debates on the subject, the 
old presbytery suddenly fell to the ground, the abbot was 
convinced that it was an intimation from heaven of the 
approval of Lanfranc's designs, and the foundation of 
the new monastery was commenced. The arrogance of 
the scholar was not jconfined within the walls of his 
cloister; it raised him numerous and powerful enemies 
without. On one occasion, when duke William's chap* 
lain, bishop Herfast, came to hear him with a numerous 
company of courtiers, Lanfranc insulted him by offering 
him a spelling-book.t Herfast made his complaint to the 
duke, which was probably enforced by those of many 
others of the offended Norman clergy, and William gave 
immediate orders to eject the teacher from Bee, and 

* Ezivit fama ejus FemotiBsimas Latinitatis plagas, eratque Beccum mag- 
num et famoBom Uteratorae gymnasiam. W. Malmsb. de Vit. Pontif. p. 5^5 

t Herfastus jam Willielmi comitis postea regis capellanns, ad lamosum 
gymnatiiim magna sodonim et equoram pompa pervenit : turn Lanfranciu^ 
ex prima coUocutione intelligens qaam prope nihil eciret, abecedariiun ipsi 
expediendum appoinit, ferodam hominis Italica facetia iUudeni. W. Malmabt 
dtVit.Pontif.lib.ii. p. 238. 

Died 1089.] LAnfranC. 5 

banish him from Normandy^ and to burn a farm or grange 
dependent on the abbey. The latter part of the duke's 
direction was immediately executed ; but Lanfraiic, 
mounted on a lame horse^ repaired to the court. ^^ I am 
ready to obey thy orders/' he said to the duke^ ^' but my 
horse is ill fitted for speedy fiight : give me a better^ and 
thy wishes will be more quickly accomplished/' The 
duke's mirth was excited by the strange figure of the monk 
and his horse, which thus produced the intended effect ; a 
brief interview was sufficient to make William acquainted 
with the surpassing talents of the man whom he was per- 
secuting, and from this moment Lanfranc's life was but 
a series of advancements. 

Lanfranc^ now become the intimate counsellor of the 
duke, found immediate opportunities of displaying his 
abilities to advantage. Duke William had disobeyed the 
pope in marrying his cousin, Matilda of Flanders, who wais 
within the limits of consanguinity then forbidden by the 
church, and Normandy was in consequence placed imder 
the papal interdict. It appears that one part of Lanfiranc's 
offence had been his open condemnation of that measure,* 
although most of the early historians pass over this cir- 
cumstance in silence. He now declared himself in favour 
of the marriage, repaired to Rome in 1050, and, by 
representing the political advantages to be derived from 
a toleration of it, obtained the repeal of the interdict*o]l 
the condition that the duke and duchess should each of 
them found a monastery at Caen. A circumstance which 
now happened raised Lanfranc's influence at Rome, and 
probably contributed not a little to the success of his 
negociations for the duke* One of Lanfiranc^s scholastic 
friends was the famous Berengarius, who taught at Tours, 

* Vita Lanfrancij c. 3. 

$ 1.4NFRANQ. [B^m lOOl. 

imd who was now «ctiyely spreading his opinionst Ht 
declaiedi in opposition to the doctrine then held by the 
chureh of Rome, that the eucharistic bread and wine were 
not transubstantiated into the real body and blood of Christ. 
It does not appear that the opinions of the western church 
were as yet uniform on this subject» and it is probable that 
Lanfranc had shared in the doctrine of Berengarius; at 
least he appears to have been seriously compromised by 
some letters between him and Berengarius which had 
accidentally been made public* The ostensible object of 
his journey to Rome was to clear himself from these sus*» 
picionsj and he gave such full satisfaction of his orthodox 
opinions at that time, and such proofs of his skill as a 
controversialist, that he was from that period looked upon 
as the. champion of the church against the heretical 
doctrines of its adversary, and in that capacity he was 
present at the councils of Rome and VerceUi in the same 
year. He returned to Bee towards the end of the year 
(1050), and continued his teaching until 1066,* when 
duke William, having finished his monastery of St« 
Stephen at Caen, made Lanfranc its first abbots and be 
removed thither his schools, which had increased in 
celebrity since the display of his dialectical learning in 
the controversy with Berengarius, and were now fre- 
quented by scholars, not only from Normandy^ but from 
France, Gascony, Bretagne^ and Flander8.t 

In 1070, when William, then king of England^ had 

* See Le Provost, note on Orderic. Vit«l. lib. W. p. 213. The eommoa 
aoconnt sayi in 1063, which agrees with W. of Malmsburj^s statement (De 
Qest Font, p* 31S) that Anselm was prior cf Bee fifteen jrears ; bat Orde- 
rions, who liv^d so soon after Anselm, seems to have been too well aoqnainted 
with the history of the Norman abbeys to hare fallen into an error. 

f Ftoma perititt illius hi tota nbertira innotait Europa ; unde ad magis- 
term» cjns malti coaYeoeniiit de Freacia, de Wasoonia, de Britaonia, neene 
Plandria. Order. Vital, lib. iy. p. 210. 

DM lost «] liANVBANCi. t 

d«po««d «rehbiahop 8tig«nd| with several other Angloi» 
Saxon prelates, he invited Lanfranc to England to take 
the vaoant aee of Canterbuty. But I^anfifane^ who had 
already refiieed the arehbishoprie of Roven, exhibited at 
least a feigned reluetanoe^ and deelined the honouri 
although in the sequel he was compelled to aoeept it 
by the nigent solieitatlona of the king, the pop4# and 
above all^ as he saidi by those of his aged frietid abbot 
Herlnin* He was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury 
on the 29th et August^ 1070 } and he immediately pr<H 
seeded to treat the Eoglish ehurch in the same manner 
as his royal master had treated the people. Within the 
space of a few years a laige part of the native English 
dergy was deprivedi in order to make room for foreigners* 
He Anglo-Saxon churchy during the whole «of this cen<* 
tury# had been more or less obnoxious to the papal courts 
and the Norman conquest was considered by the pope ai 
a signal victory of Catholicism. Lanfranc ejected entirely 
the secular olerks> who had recovered their position in the 
church since the time of Dunstan, and supplied their plaee 
with monks. He even treated with contempt the memory 
of the AngIo*Saxon saints i he abolished every part of the 
Anglo-Saxon service which differed from the continental 
practice ; he reduced the see of York to subjection to that 
of Canterbury ; and he would have deposed the amiable 
and venerable bishop Wulstan. In return^ as a mark of 
especial favour, he restored to the English bishops the 
precedency in the council and parliament, according to the 
order which had been in use under the Saxon monarohs.* 
But, in the sequel, he conferred a more solid benefit oil 
England by the number of scholars whom he brought 
over, and who laid the foundation of a school in which 

* W. MalmBb.dtQMi.lcs«Ub.iiLp. lis* 

8 LANFRANC. [BoTn 1005. 

science and literature were cultivated to a much greater 
extent than under the Anglo-Saxons. 
/ The remainder of Lanfranc's life belongs rather to his- 

/ tory than to literature. He was the favourite counsellor 
^ of the Conqueror^ and was entrusted with the reins of 
government during his absence in Normandy» We owe^ 
probably^ to his wisdom much of the moderation which 
characterised this king's reign.* The dispute with the see 
of York was long and obstinate. In 107 1 I^nfranc made 
his last visit to Rome^ in company with archbishop 
Thomas of York and Remigius of Lincoln, The pope 
received him with unusual marks of respect, and delivered 
him the palUum with his own hand« Lanfranc then laid 
before the pontiff his claims to spiritual sovereignty over 
the see of York ; but the pope recommended him to try this 
question in a national council, which was held at London 
in 1072, and decided in his favour. Lanfiranc occupied 
himself very actively with his reforms in the English 
church. Two councils were held at Winchester in 1076, 
for the regulation of church discipline, which were especi- 
ally directed against the wives of priests» Another council 
was held at London in 1078, in which some changes were 
made in the episcopal sees. In the following year, or 
early in 1080, Lanfranc wrote his celebrated treatise 
against Berengarius.t 

The monkish writers extol Lanfranc for his liberality 
and affability. They represent him as willingly absenting 

* The writer of Lenfranc's Ufe says that at one of the gteat festiTitieSt 
Qoidam scurra videos regem anro et gemmis radiantem» ezclamant in aula 
magna adnlationis Toce, et dixit, ** Ecoe Denm video, ecce Demn video I" and 
that the king, at Lanfranc's request, ordered him to be beaten for his gross 
attempt at flattery. Vita Lanfranci, c. 13. 

t This appears from the circumstance that it contains an allusion to the 
Council of Rome in 1078, and that it must have been composed before 
Berengarins*! retraction of his opinions in 1080. 

Died 1089.3 lanfranc. 9 

himself from the duties laid upon him by the state to 
watch over the welfare of his own diocese. The latter 
years of his life appear to have been chiefly spent in en- 
riching and enlarging his cathedral and the monasteries 
which were in his more immediate neighbourhood. His 
charity was felt by all classes that were in need of 
his support. Soon after his appointment to the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury^ he had sent for the aged abbot 
Herluin ; and in 1077 he returned the visit, and conse- 
crated the new church of Bee. He preserved his love of 
literature through life ; he frequently employed his leisure 
in hearing the disputations of poor scholars, and dismissed 
them with handsome presents.* He spent much of his 
time in correcting the English manuscripts of the Fathers 
and of the Scriptures, and in reducing the text of 
botb to strict conformity with that which was then re- 
cognised as authentic at Rome ; t for the manuscripts in 
England represented the text as it had existed at an 
earlier period, and they were also probably filled with 
errors of the copyists, the Anglo-Saxon scribes being 
extremely inaccurate. The writers of the Histoire Litte-» 
raire de France speak of manuscripts existing in the last 
century which were corrected by the hand of Lanfranc, and 
which sometimes contained his observations in the margin ;| 
and Dacherius has printed among Lanfranc's works four 

* Nee pudebatarchiepiflcopum alte suocinctum pauperibus cibos apponere, 
et tenuioris fortune scholarea ad diapntationiiiii pngnam committere. Post 
rerba utrique laeti abibant, dam et victor scientue premium et yictus ac« 
ciperet verecundiie solatiom. W. Malmsb. de Gest. Pontif. p. S14. 

t Lectioni erat assiduas et ante episcopatum et in episcopatu quantum 
poterat. Et quia scriptnr» aciiptomm vitio erant nimium corrupte, omnes 
tam Veteris quam Nori Testamenti libros, necnon etiam acripta sanctorum 
patnmiy secundum orthodoxam fidem studuit corrigere. Et etiam multa de 
his quibus utimur nocte et die in servitio eeclesin ad unguem emendavit : 
et hoc non tantum per se, sed etiam per discipulofl fecit. Vita Lanfranciy 
c 15« 

t Hkt* Litr dc ftance^ vol. Yiii. p. 987» 

10 I.AN9IIAN0. [B0m lOM. 

sucb notes on the Collationei P^tnun of Johannes Caeii* 
anus. Perhaps the Anglo-Saxon writers received some 
mutilation in the progress of correction^ for we have still 
manuscripts in which passages relating to the doctrine of 
the Eucharist hare been erased* In his earlier days Lan* 
franc had been distinguished for his attachment to dialee* 
ticsj but after his advance in the church he spoke of that 
science in a disparaging manner, and mamtained that in 
matters of faith authority ought to supersede argument. 
The following extract from the seventh chapter of the 
celebrated treatise against Berengarius contains his opi* 
nions on this subject, and affords a specimen of his style 
of writing and of reasoning :— 

B<r#i^^«Hit«. Npn enim oonitare potent »Slrmatio onmii, parte imlmtt i 
et hoc tieat didt beatui Aagaftinva in libro de Doctrina Christiana : inipaa 
•ternitatii Teiftate, qn» Devi ett inditsoluMUter coattat. 

lAo^flrmmeut» Raliotli saeria aufhoritataboa ad Dialeotiaam oaeA^im 
fiMsii. Et qvidam de myaterio fidei anditnrua ao feiponionia, qiue ad rem 
debeaat pertinere maUem audire, ac retpondere sacraa authoritatea quam 
dialedieaa fatlaeaa. Vwnni contra li«6 qmoqme noilrl erit atndii Mapeetoe» 
ne qpaina artia inopia ma pntea in hac tiU parte deeaae : fortaaae jaetsetla 
qnibnadam fidebitor, et oatentationi masia quam neoesaitati depntabitnr. 
Sed teatia mihi Dena eat et conadentia mea, quia in tractatu ditlnantm lite- 
rana see prapeetie nee ad prepeailaa raapondere evperen dIaleetleeaqvM- 
tionea Tel eanun aolutionea. Btaiquando materia diapntandi lalia eatt et 
biqna artia regvlaa yaleat enudeatins explicari, in quantum poaaom per «qui- 
pottentiaa p r ep e ai t i onum tego artem, ne ridear magia arte quam teritate 

sanoloruiqua patrum amtheritale coBidera Adhne alio argemaaW 

probate oontendia, panem Tinumque poat conaecrationem in principaUbua 
permanere eiaentiia, dicens, Non enim conatare potent aArmatio omnia, 
parte aubruta. Ad eqna rei probattonem non oportuit iaferri parlMhurem 
negationemt qua de pn a a anti qnaationa nihil oolisitwr» aed nniferaalaai 
potlnat per quam ennntlalur, nuUa afirmatio eonstere poterit parte anbnta. 
Age enim particularia lit negatio tna, non omnia aflrmatb eonataro pofearll 
parte anbrmta, ruraua aaaomptio tua. Fania et Tinmm altaria foleaMBodo aunt 
Moramentum, rtl pania et Tinum altaria aolemaMde ami Temm ChtM 
oerpua at aanguia; utrumque aifirmatio eat. Hla doabua partleelarfbw 
pnaoedemtibQa, poleriane regulariter oonelndeie, parte lubruta ea non aaat 
oonatare ? Abait. In nulla quippe ayllogiamorum Sgira» pmoedeuMbua 
duabua partioularibua eonaeqeenter inlertur eoneluaio uQa. Male IgUmr earn 
coUocaati. lUud yero perfunctorie non est prKtereundum, quod praSita 
propoaitionia tn» reritatem in ipaa trtereUsia twitato» fMl Dssi asi; Ma- 

DM 1089*} liANf AANO. 1 1 

toUiVUItor QOiiittre pwtril^uiiti, ldg«t bMH A«|«iUni dt Pootnu ChilititiM 
authoriUto firmafti. fitqaidem propoiitio iptatera est, yersque propo- 
MonUiPltt iM lo^ pMita •bttatrtl: «td ttt auOi «( Itttafadlcr «k pd« 
ndtlli A«. 

It ia Mid thiit tawttrda the end of WiUimn'a reign Lift* 
finuio hed lost some pert of the royel feroiir. On the 
king's death in 1087i he and Wolstan of Worcester were 
the prlndpal means of fiaing the orown on the head of 
his son WiUiatn Rufus^ to the prejudice of his elder 
fasother Robert.* Lanlrane survived his benefactor only 
nineteen months ; he died on the 28th of May, 1089^ and 
wu buried in his cathedral at Canterbury. He was 
long remembered in Kent for the good usages he had 
introduoedit and for the number of churches and houses 
which he had erected in the arohiepiscopal manors.^ Ilie 
Saxon Chronicle gives him the tide (which had been ap« 
plied to Eihelwald and Dunstan) of the father and pro* 
tector of monksǤ 

Although Lanfranc bad done so much to promote diei 
extension of learning» and had founded in England a new 
school of l4atinists> yet» as was remarked in the age whieh 
followed his death» |i he left few monuments of hie own 

* T«ta hf BobiUlM Aiiglla tohimnit emiiM Robertam In ngesi» «k. 
oepio I^tnfranooarcluf piioopo Cantnarenai et W^lrtano epiMiopo WygornitBiL 
Radborne, Hist. Mag. Wint. ap. Wharton, p. 363. 

t Hie mnltaa bonas coaaaatadliiea fecit: eaaqueperpetim obierrari deberv 
■t^tmt at pnMapit« Birohiagton, Yit. Arch. Cant p. 6^ ap« Wharton. 

X In maneriif ad avohiepiioopum pertinentibiu moltaa et honestea eodealaa 
«diilcaYit, multaa et honeatiaaimaa domoa pneparaTit. MS. Cotton. Cland« 
C. VI. M. 168, 1«, written in the tweUUi eentnry. Conf. Wharton, Ang. 
Saer. L p. I»5. 

$ An, 1089. On Naum geare se anmrSa moneca feder -j froTer Landfiiar 
aroebbcop ge-wat of Miram life ; ac we hopiat$ j( he ferde to -p heofanlloe rice» 

i) Tk 9f4m Indnatriaai pnedieabit Cantia, et^w doetrtnam in diid^alli ijw 
itupebit Latinitas, qnantam omnea anni dorabant. Nam ipse panen ^«^pftjl 
aui monumenta reliqnit, decretalea epistolafl, et pnedpnam contra Bereqga- 
rinm. W. Malmsb. de Qest. Pontif. p. 31 d. Osbum, who wrote at hit order 
the life of St. dphae*» ^f^ ^s pralae ol Lanftane, Ac qnemadnodnni pna* 
d]^te invi^Hnimo ioiiim IdithUiMik mi^tro Laoftranooarchiepiaoopo, fee. 

12 LANFRAKC, [Bom 1005. 

scholarship. His principal work is the treatise against 
Berengarius^ written at the close of 1079> or early in, 
1080^ and addressed to Berengarius in the form of a 
letter. Many manuscripts of this work exists and it has 
been frequently printed. It is sometimes found under 
the singular title of lAber Scintiliarum» The more 
common title is^ ^^ Liber de Corpore et Sanguine Domini 
contra Berengarium.^^ It is directed to Berengarius in 
the following words: '^Lanfrancus misericordia Dei 
catholicus Berengario catholicee ecclesiee adversario.^^ 

2. The editor of his collected works has published under 
the name of Lanfranc a commentary on the Epistles of St. 
Paul^ which the writers of the Histoire Litt^raire de France 
believe not to be his, because two passages cited by Sige- 
bert from Lanfranc's Commentary on the Hebrews are not 
found in it. In a fine manuscript of the twelfth century 
in the British Museum (MS. Reg. 4 B. iv.), which for- 
merly belonged to the priory of Worcester, we find a copy 
of Lanfranc's Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul to 
the Romans and Corinthians, at the conclusion of which 
the scribe seems to have been interrupted in his labours. 


It appears by comparison with this that the printed work 
is an abridged copy of Lanfranc, which accounts for the 
omission of the passages quoted by Sigebert. It appears 
also that Mabillon had in his possession a perfect copy of 
this work. In the manuscript of the British Museum 
just alluded to, Lanfranc's commentary is followed 
by anonymous commentaries on the Song of Solomon 
and the Apocalypse, which have been attributed also to 
Lanfranc, but (as there is every reason to believe,) erro- 

3. These, with sixty Epistles, chiefly on ecclesiastical 
matters, Lanfranc's Regulations for the English Benedic-» 
tine Monks (Decreta Lanfrand pro ordine S. Benedict!), 

XHed 1089.] lanfrano. 13 

and a brief tract De celanda confessione (which the writers 
of the Histoire Litt&aire de France believe to be suppo- 
sititious)^ form the collection of his works published by 

4. The editor, however, subsequently discovered ano- 
ther short tract or discourse by Lanfranc, which he printed 
in his Spicilegium, under the title of Sermo sive Sententia* 

5. There is extant another book, frequently found in 
manuscripts without any name of author, and sometimes 
attributed to Anselm, which we think was written by Lan- 
franc, probably before his elevation to the see of Canter- 
cury. It is composed in the form of a dialogue between a 
master and his disciples, and is entitled Elucidarium^ 
because, as its author informs us, its object was to eluci- 
date some obscure questions, chiefly in theology, on which 
his disciples had asked for his judgment. In a manu- 
script of this work preserved in the British Museum,* 
written probably early in the twelfth century, it is dis-^ 
tinctly attributed to Lanfranc in the following contempo- 
rary Rubric : Incipit Liber beati Lanfranci Cantuariensis 
archiepiscopi in sagacitate omnium sacri eloquii exposi- 
torum. The writers of the Histoire Litteraire de France 
have made the strange statement, that the Elucidarium is 
nothing but the Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul 
under another name.f 

It is clear that some of Lanfranc's writings are lost. 
His disciple William abbot of Mersburg speaks of his 
Commentary on the Psalms.^ Eadmer § mentions a brief 
history of the church by Lanfranc, which is probably the 
same as the history of his own time, which appears to have 
been extant in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and 
as the work which Sigebert calls the praises, triumphs, 


♦ MS. Reg. 5 E. VI. f Hist. Lit. de France, vol. viii. p. 29T. 

: Conf. Hist. Lit. de Fr. viii. 294. § Hiit. Nov. p. 30. 

14 LANVRANO. [JSOfll 1005. 

and deeds (laudes, triumphosi et res gestas) of l^^Uiam 
the Conqueror. The lists of the older bibliographers give 
titles of many works by Lanfranc which certainly never 
existed : Bale has made a number of different works out 
of the one treatise against Berengarius. 


Aooordlag to F»bridiif , the fint printed edition of the treitite of Lufirane 
•gainit Berengarins was edited bj FraD9oiB Carri (Frandaoiii Carreat), 
but he does not mention the date. 

PUlaftrii Epiioopi Briziensis Hsresetfn Catalogns. Cui adjeetu eat eradi- 
tlisiflana libeUna Lanfirand episcopi Canthnariensis de Saorame&to 
BnoharittiaB adTersos Berengariom none recens editi. Edited bj John 
Sichard. Baaili«, ez officina Frobenii, 1528. 8to. Pantser mentions a 
pMTions edition of this ▼olnme, without date or name of place. 

There wai a reprint of this Tolnme in 1551 . 

Lanfrancns adrersus Berengariam, was again printed with Pasohasiiu Bad* 
bertns, 8to. 1540. It was included among the Orthodoxograpbi, fai 
1565, and was giren in all the early colleetlons published under the title 
of Bibliotheca Patmm. 

It was printed with the writings of Algerus, Guimundns, &o. by Ultimerius, 
Bto. Loran. 1561. 

Apoitolatus Benedietiaorum in AngUa, sive Diaeeptatio Historiea de Anti- 
qultate ordinis congregationisque Monachorum Nigrorom Saneti Bene- 
dicti in Regno Angli» .... Opera et Industria R. P. Clementis Rey- 
heiL Duad» 16S6. fol. pp. 911— S53, Decreta D. Lanfiraadpro Or- 
4ae 8. Benedicti. 

Bead Lanliraiid Caotoariepsia Arohiepisoopi et Aa|^ Primalia, Ordinis S. 
Benedicti, Opera omnia qun reperiri potuenmt, erulgaTlt Oomnus Lu* 
eat Daeherius. . . . Luteds Parisionim, 1648. fol. 

IVAehertt Spidlegiom, 4to. 16SS.77. torn. It. p. SfT.ieeend edit. fol. I7t3, 
tom. i. p. 449. Sermo sive sententia Lanf^nd ardiiepiscopi. 

Maxima Bibliotheca Veterum Patntm. Tomus Deeimus Octayus. Lug« 
dnai, 1677. fol. pp. 69l-«76S, Beati Laaihmd . . in omnes D. Panli 
tpiftolaa Commentarii, eu« glossula iateijecta.*^pp. 768—777. DIti 
Lanfrand. . adversus Berengarimn Turonensem, de Corpore et San* 
guiae Domini.— pp. 778 — 806, Decreta Lanftrand pro Ordine Saneti 
Beaadieti.<«^pp. 807'^8Sd» Beati LaafraDci..Epistolanim liber.— pp. 
8S6— 833, Beati l^anfrand Cantuariensia Arohiepisoopi de odanda con- 
Ibsdone libellus. — ^p. 833, Ejusdem Lanfrand Ardiiepisoopi Cantua- 
lieaila sermo dre sententls. 

Letters, Venice, 1633. 4to. (indicated by Watt.) 

IHed abwt 1076.] out bishop of amixni. IS 


Among the Norman prelates who came over to England 
after the Conquest^ was Ouy bishop of Amiens, who, 
although his stay was not of long duration, deserves to be 
mentioned here on account of the Latin poem which he 
composed, probably at the king's desire, on the battle of 
Hastings. He was the almoner of queen Matilda, whom 
he accompanied to England in 1068.* He appears to 
have been a friend of Lanfranc, to whom he dedicates his 
poem in a brief prologue. He died in or before the year 

The poem of Ouy of Amiens is preserved in a manu- 
script at Brussels ; and is important for the interesting 
and authentic details it contains relating to the proceed- 
ings of the Normans immediately after their arrival in 
England. The style in which this poem is written is very 
mean. The following lines afford a fair, perhaps a favour- 
able specimen. Guy says that William refused to give 
Harold's body to his mother : — 

lUsilt pottqvtm fhmU oUrwtiiM Uapu, 

£t maadnm ftirvii expiat a tenebriiv 
LvstniTit campnin, toUmu et cma enoniin 

GMpora, dux teme oondidit in gremio. 
Vermibai atqnalapti, avibw oanilmBqne Toranda 

Deteiit Aiiglonim corpora strata solo. 
Heraldl oorpvf ooU«glt dllaotrttnm, 

CoUactnm lexit dudose pvrpvroa, 
Detolit at Menm repetent sua oMtra marina, 

Biplaat «t tolitu fimerit ezequiai. 
Hfvtldl «wtar aimio oooftriota dolora 

Miiit ad ntqiia dnetm» pottulat et predbiu 

* la den» qui ad dhlaa ei ministraliat, Celebris Guido Ambiaaomm pne- 
ml «niasbat, q«i Jam Mrtamta Heraldi at GoUItlml TeniSee ediderat. 
OrdwiOM VitaUt, Hilt Sod., lib. iv. p. 181, (ed. Le Pre? ott) ; lae aUo the 
tame writar, lib. lii, p. 158, with M. Le Prevost's note ; and QaiUkume de 
JamUfM, Ub. Ti. 0. 43« 

16 OEELAND* {^Flourished 1082, 

Orbattt misene natU tribus et Tiduatae 

Pro tribus uniuB reddat ut ossa sibi. 
Si placet) ant corpus puro proponderet auro ; 

Sed dux iratus prorsusi utrumque negat, 
Jurans quod potius pnesentis littora portus 

Illi committet aggere sub lapidum. 
Ergo yelut fiierat testatus, rupis in alto 

Precepit claudi vertice corpus humi. 
Extempio quidam partim Normannus et Anglus 

Compatit Heraldi ; jussa libenter agit : 
Corpus enim regis cito sustulit et sepeliTit 

Imponens lapidem, scripsit et in titulo : 
'' Per mandata ducis, rex» hie, Heralde, quiescii, 

Ut custos maneas littoris et pelagi." 

The concluding lines of this extract remind us of a 
similar sentiment in an extract from an Anglo-Saxon 
poem^ given in the introduction to our Biography of the 
Anglo-Saxon period.* 


Appendix C. to Mr. Purton Cooper's Report on Rymer*s Fosdera» pp. 

78 — 86. De Bello Normannico, seu de Conquisitione Anglitt per 

Guilelmum ducem NormannisBi Carmen elegiacum. Edited by Mr. W« 

H. Black. 
Collection of Historians edited by order of the Record Commission, vol. i. 

pp. 856 — 872. De bello Hastingensi carmen, auctore W. 
Chroniques Anglo-Normandes. . . . recueil. . . . public par Francisque Michel. 

Tome troisi^me. Rouen, 1840. 8yo. pp. 1—38. Widonis carmen de 

Hasting» Prtelio. 


Gerland is the earliest known writer in England on 
mathematical science after the Norman Conquest. So 
little is known of his personal history^ that he has gene- 
rally been confounded with John de Garlandia^ who lived 
in the middle of the thirteenth century, and he was sup- 
posed by the authors of the Histoire Litt^raire de Francef 
to have been a French monk of the twelfth century. Bos- 
ton of Bury, as quoted by Tanner, states that Gerland 

* P. 11. t Hist. Litt. de Fr. vol. xli. p. 288. 

JFIoumhed 1062.] gbblanp. 17 

flourished in 1040; which, however, is not correct, for 
Roger Infans, who wrote on the same subject in 1124, 
informs us that Gerland had observed an eclipse of the 
sun in 1086,* and Gerland's own tables published in his 
treatise on the Computus begin with the year 1182, in 
which year, or in the year preceding, the book was most 
probably composed. There is a good copy of Oerland's 
treatise on the Computus in the British Museum ; t the 
author appears to be learned in his subject, and avows that 
his design in compiling this work was to correct and clear 
up the errors and doubts of his predecessors, especially of 

The following is the preface to this work, (from the 
manuscript in the British Museum,) which, while it may 
serve as a specimen of the style of one of our early men 
of science, shows how cautiously and timorously the 
philosophers of the old school ventured to question the 
doctrines handed down to them from the ^^ masters,^' at 
the moment when a new school, founded upon that of the 
Arabs, was on the point of making the most daring inno- 
vations, and questioning every thing which had been done 
in previous times, 

Saepe yoluiiiina donmi Bed» de scientia computandi repUcans, et in eia 
qnedam aliter qnam traditio doctonun pnesentium ostenderet reperieni, 
Dei fretos adjatorio, Denm inyocans praeesse meo stadio, qots Tisa mihi fae* 
rant ntilissima inde pro captu ing^ioli mei defloravii et deflorata com qui- 
bnsdam aliunde conquisitiain unam congessi. Qaseso itaqne si unquam hnc 
compatationia fimbria, hsec styli ariditaa, haec scientise gntta ad alicujas 
intnitam penrenerit, ne statim in monnm livoria dentes acuat, ne anteqoam 
perlegat praejudicet, ne siqoid in toto notandnm invenerit, pro parte totum 
nt nonnulli solent yituperet, qnandoquidem, ut aiant quidam non insipien- 
tium, nihil est ab omni parte beatum. Non equidem me latet quosdam qni 
Ulpricum legenmt, et tabulam Dionysii videmnt, aliter in quibusdam sen- 

* Tempore antem Gerlandi facta est eclypsis solis, anno Domini secandnm 
ipsum, licet tabvdam snperiorem prius incepit. Bibl. Bodl. MS. 
Digby, No. 40, fol. 49, ▼•. 

t MS. Cotton. Vespas. A. ix. 


18 ROBERT BlditO^ Of HEREFORD. [DM 1095. 

ttre qiium ego ; feed slquu Bedam perlegeiit) sfc natttralem eompottuii ItMire 
▼oltierit, hie «t arbitror partim auctoritati, partim artis natur» adquiesoena, 
non indigne feret hie quedam podta qaae obviare Tiderunt Dionysio, quft- 
dam antem quae tJlprico. Nee in hoe tantnm eos censeo per omnia redat*- 
fttettdoi, Bi in aliqnaiti paHetn oparii lomnttB obrepierit, quia apiritni nbi 
mlt fpirat, aliquando antem nt ardentius qneratur inbterfngit. 

Oerlatid was also the author of a treatise on the 
Abacus^ the system of arithmetitial calculation which had 
inade so much noise since it was brought into fashion by 
Oerbert. This tract is preserved in a manuscript in the 
Biblioth^ue Royale at Paris.^i* 

Bale is the only authority for placing as contempory 
with Gerland a monk of Malmsbury named Oliver, Who, 
he says, was so profoundly learned in mathematics that 
his contemporaries regarded him as a magician. Bale 
gives as the titles of his books, Aitrologorum dogmata^ lib. 
i. De planetarum signU^ lib. i. De Geomaniia, lib. i. and 
says that he flourished in 1060. There are at present no 
traces of such works having ever existed. 


Among the more distinguished of king William's fb- 
reign bishops was Robert of Hereford, a hatlve of Lor- 
raine, whence he is sometimes called Robertus Losinga. 
After having made great progress in natural and mathe- 
matical science, he is said to have taught for sortie time 
in the schools in Flanders. He was brought to England 
With other scholars by king William some time after the 

* Fnnds da St. lector, No. 533. See the vtrj intereating RzpUoationi 
des Trait^s de PAbacns, by M. Chaales, (read befora the Acad^ie det 
Sdencea in January and February 1843,) p. 38. 

Died 10950 ROdSttt tttSHOP of HERBPOftO. 19 

Conquest, and appears to have settled at Wol*cestef, 
where he was ordained a priest by bishop Wtdstan, with 
whom, during the remainder of thAt prelate's life, he lived 
on terms of the warmest friendship. In 1079, Robert was 
chosen to fill the vacant see of Hereford, to which he was 
consecrated by Lanfranc on the 29th of Decembei*. During 
the petty wars on the Welsh border^ the cathedral of 
Hereford had been reduced almost to it heap of ruins^ and 
one of Robert's first cares was to rebuild it in a style worthy 
to contain the shrine of St Ethelred. He took for his 
model the church of Aix-la-Chapelle, which had been 
originally built by Charlemagne.* Wulstan spent much 
of his leisure In the society of bishop Robert, and it is 
related, as a proof of their affectionate regard for each other, 
that, when Wulstan lay on his death-bed at the beginning 
of the year 1095, Robert, who Was attending the court, 
dreamt that his friend came to tell him of his approaching 
end, and to request that he would hasten to Worcester to 
see him before he died, or at least to give the directions 
for his funeral. Robert obeyed the call, but, when 
he had nearly reached the end of his journey, he again 
saw Wulstan in a dream, who told him that he was 
alr^dy dead ; he added, that Robert should prepare for 
his own death, as he would not long survive him, and that, 
in testimony of the truth of this prediction, he Would 
receive a gift in remembrance of their friendship, which he 
would immediately recognise. After having performed the 
last duties to his friend, as Robert was mounting his 
horse to depart, the prior of Worcester came to oflfer him 
Wulstan's favourite cap, lined with lamb's wool ; he recog- 
nised the sign which Wulstan had promised him^ went 

* Qui ibi edcikiiMii tereti ttdificatit lehematof Aqaaniem batiliotm pro 
modo imitatns iiio. W. Malmtb. da Qtit» Poatif* p» 88S« 



soon afterwards to Hereford, and died there on the 26th of 
June following.* Bishop Robert was one of the prelates 
who took part most decidedly with the king against arch- 
bishop Anselm, in the council of 1095, a short time before 
his own death. 

Robert was looked upon as one of the most distin- 
guished men of science' of the latter part of the eleventh 
century ; and it is said that he excelled in the knowledge 
of the abacus^ of the lunar computus, and of the courses 
of the celestial bodies.t The work to which he owed 
most of his reputation was an abridgment of the chro- 
nicle, or rather of the chronology, of Marianus Scotus. 
Marianus was a German monk who had devoted him- 
self to the study of chronology, and had first observed the 
discrepancies between the calculations of Dionysius Exi- 
guus and the dates of the sacred writers ; he had undertaken 
the laborious task of collating and correcting the works of 
former chronographers, and reducing them to order. As 
soon as this work was published, which was in or shortly 
after the year 1082, bishop Robert obtained a copy^ and 
immediately undertook to abridge and perfect it. We 
are informed by William of Malmsbury, that he executed 
his task with so much skill and judgment, that the abridg- 
ment was worthy to supersede the too extensive and diffuse 
original.^ In fact, there appear to be reasons for doubting 
if the chronicle now known and printed as that of Marianus 
Scotus be anything more than Robertas abridgment. § 

* W. Malmsb. de Oest. Pontif. p. 386. 

f OmDiam liberalium trdam peritissimuB, abacum pnecipue, et lanarem 
compatam, et coelestium astrorum cursum rimatus. - W. Malmsb. ib. Simeon 
of Dorham Hist. Eccl. Dunelm. ap. Decern Script, col. 910, gives a similar 
acooaat, and praisei his great learning. 

X Deniqoe captns Mariani ingenio quicquid itle largius dizerat, in arctnm 
contr*ihens defloravit, adeo fiplendide, ut magis valere videatur defloratio 
qnam infentis ilUua Tolominti diffasio. W. Malmsb. ib. 

$ See WbHrton, Angl. Sac. vol. i. pref. p. zzit ; Tanner, p. 636 ; and the 

Died 1096.] william bishop of Durham. 21 

The old bibliographers also attribute to this prelate^ 
besides some theological works (especially several com- 
mentaries on portions of the Holy Scriptures), a work on 
the motions of the stars^ another on the Computus^ and 
a collection of Mathematical Tables. These titles are 
probably merely founded on the words of William of 
Malmsbury. The writers of the Histoire Litt^raire de 
France seem to think him the author of a treatise on the 
Computus, which has been attributed to Marianus Scotus. 


This prelate appears to have been a native of Bayeux^ 
to the church of which he was attached, until he left 
it to become a monk of St. Calais au Maine (Sancti 
Karilefi), whence he became commonly known by the 
name of Gulielmus de Sancto Karilefo. After being pro- 
moted to the rank of prior in this monastery, he was 
elected to be abbot of that of St. Vincent du Mans>* 
and was at last^ in 1080^ brought to England to succeed 
Walcher as bishop of Durham. He was consecrated on 
the third of January, 1081. In 1089 he incurred the 
displeasure of king William Rufus, for the part he had 
taken in the intrigues of bishop Odo^ and was obliged to 

Hht. Lit. de France, vol. Till. p. 417* A copy bearing thd name of Robert 
as the compiler is preserved in tbe Bodleian Library, MS. Bodl. 594 ; the 
twentieth year of WiUiam the Conqaerori i. e. 1086, is there spoken of as 
being the present year, or that in ^hlch it was written. 

* Ex olero Bajocensis ecclesise in monasterio Sancti Karilephi monachicd 
habitn snscepto, primo prior clanstri, postmodnm abbas est eifectus in 
monasterio Sancti Vincentii. Simeon. Dan. Hist. Dunelm. eccl. p. 343. 
W. Malmsb. de Gest. Pontif. p. ^7, calls him erroneously Abbas Sancti 

99 Wllilif AM BI8H0? OF DURHAM. [J)Mt 1096. 

fl; to Normandy» where he remained in exile till Septem- 
ber, 1091. On bis return be recovered entirely the king's 
fayour, and was the chief of the bishops who supported 
^lim against Anselm» in the assembly of Rockingham, in 
1095. Soon after this he again incurred the king's dis- 
pleaciure; but he appears tp have been more sincerely 
^ponciled with iVi^selm, who by his express desire 
attended on his death-bed. Bishop William died at 
G^oucesteri on the second of January 1096, and was 
buried at Durham. 

William of Malmsbury has preserved a story which 
appears to have been current among Anselm's partizans, 
who said that the bishop of Durham had aspired to 
the see of Canterbury, and that he joined the king 
against Anselm in the hope that he would be deposed, 
and that the king would then have appointed him to 
be his successor.* The old writers state, however, that 
he was generally esteemed and beloved. He laboured 
much for the improvement of his church and diocese. 
Simeon of Durham speaks of a collection of his let- 
ters written to the monks of Durham while in exile, 
which was extant in his time, but they appear now 
to be lost. The history of his exile, preserved in a 
manuscript at Durham, which has by some been attributed 
to him, was written apparently by one of his companions. 
It is printed in the appendix to Bedford's edition of 
Simeon of Durham. 

"^ W. MaUnib. 4« Gest. Pwtif. p. S77. 

DM 1Q98.] 8« 


Osmund waa by birth a Norman, a kinsman of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, and was in his own pountry cou^t 
of Sees, in England e^rl of Dorset He was «Iso 
chancellor of England. ^^ In }077 be was chosen to 
succeed Hereman as bishop of Salisbury^ and he coi|^- 
pleted the cathedral which Hereman had beguPt As a 
bishop, Osmund appears to hav^ retired much from the 
worlds and to have lived chiefly in the society of the 
learned canopy whom he had drawn together by his 
liberality. He collected for his church a noble library ; 
and it is stated, as a proof of his humility, thitt he not 
only copied books himself, but th^t he even bound them 
with his own hands.f He died on the third or fourth qf 
December, 1099 ; authorities differ ^h to the day. Osmund 
is said to have written a life of Aldhelm, which is not 
now extant. He also compiled a ritual for the use of his 
church, of which Bale has evidently made two titles of 
different works, Canone^ Offidorum ^cclesHe^ and Consue- 
tudindriuni EcclesuB. This became afterwards the cele 
brated liturgy ad uwm Sarum^ which was followed by % 
large portion pf the EngUsh plergy4 

* 8m Sir R. C. Hoare't HUtorj of Wiltshire, City of Balisbury, pp. 8, 9. 

t librorum oopia conquisi^, cum opUoopuf ipio pec icribert ace i«riptoi 
Ugare fiutidiret. W. Malmsb. de 6e|t. Pontif. p. ^50, 

X Higden, Polychron. lib. vii. fol. 201, r°. (MS. Arand. No. 86.) Hie 
quoqiia oompotoit ordinalem eeeleaiattiei ofidi qaem ConsnetudiiiAridiki 
▼oeanti qao fere nunc tota ADglia, Wallia utitur et Hibernla. DictaWt 
etiwa Vitam Siuicti Aldelmi. Tbe Ordinale of bisbpp Osmwi4 U itill 
preKnred in the library of Salisbury Cathedral. See WUtshirfi, City of 
Saliabory, p. 71^* 

24 [Died 1 100. 


Thomas of York was considered one of the most 
learned prelates of the end of the eleventh century. He 
was the brother of Samson bishop of Worcester, and 
son of a married priest of Bayeux in Normandy. Under 
the patronage and by the encouragement of Odo bishop 
of Bayeux, Thomas studied at Bee as well as at some of 
the German schools, and he is said even to have visited 
Spain in order to make himself acquainted with the learn- 
ing of the Arabs.^ This is somewhat doubtful. We 
know with more certainty that in the sequel Odo made 
him canon and treasurer of the church of Bayeux, and 
tliat he accompanied that prelate to England. In 1070 
William the Conqueror made him archbishop of York, 
and he immediately became involved in the controversy 
with Lanfranc in defence of the independence of his see. 
When he accompanied Lanfranc to Rome, the same year, 
he was accused of being the son of a priest, and was only 
allowed to retain his see by Lanfranc's intercession. At 
York he found the ruins of a cathedral, with only three 
almost houseless canons; but he soon collected around 
him a body of learned clergy, and he rebuilt the cathedral 
on a magnificent scale. He was accused by his succes- 
sors of having wasted the patrimony of his church on 
these objects.t In 1089, after Lanfranc^s death, arch- 
bishop Thomas consecrated Anselm as his successor; and 
in August of 1 100 he officiated at the coronation of Henry I, 

• Stubbs, de Pont. Eborac. col. 1705, who says, '* pectus stium Hispa- 
nicarom fecit armariam scientiaram.'' I doubt if this refers to the learning 
of the Arabs. Stubba and William of Malmsbury are the chief authorities 
for the life of archbishop Thomas. 

t Wi Malmsb. de Gest. Pontif. p. S73. 

Died 1100.] thomas archbishop of york. 25 

Anselm being then in exile. He died on the 18th of 
November following. 

We have little left to attest the literary abilities of 
Thomas of York. A letter from him to the archbishop 
of Canterbury is printed among the letters of Lanfranc ; 
and another^ written in 1084, in which he bears witness 
to his miraculous cure at the shrine of St. Cuthbert, is 
preserved in the annals of Roger de Hoveden. The latter 
is a remarkable proof of credulity in a man whom William 
of Malmsbury compares with the ancient philosophers.^ 
He was particularly attached to church music, and spent 
much of his time in composing hymns and chants. It 
has been supposed that some of these still exist in the 
old liturgies. It is further remarked of him that, when- 
ever he heard any new and popular secular song or ballad 
sung by the minstrels, he immediately composed sacred 
parodies on the words to be sung to the same tune.f The 
only specimen now extant of his poetical talents is the 
following epitaph on the death of William the Conqueror, 
preserved by Ordericus Vitalis.J 

dui rezit rigidos Normannosy atque Biitannos 

Audacter vicit, fortiter obtinuit, 
£t Cenomannenses Tirtute coercuit enses, 

Imperiique sui legibus applicuit, 
Rex magnus parya jacet hie Gnillelmus in urna, 

Sufficit et magno parra domus domino. 
Ter septem gradibus ae volverat atque daobns 

Virginia in gremiis PhoebuSi et hie obiit. 

* Philosophns antiqnis scientia comparandus. W. Malmsb. de Gest. 
Pontif. p. 273. 

f Nee cantu nee Toee minor, multa eccleaiastiea eomposuit carmina : si 
qnis in audita ejus arte joculatoria aliquid yocale sonaret, statim iUud in 
diyinas landes effigiabat. W. Malmsb. lb. Conf. Stobbs, eol. 1709. 

X Lib. Tils. p. 663, (ed Duchesne.) 

26 [Died abwt nW. 


Ovtbt life ofOsbemveiy little it known fiuiher than thit, 
M be inform! us himself^ he wm born et Canterbury^ and 
that he received his education in the monastery of that city. 
He was ordained by Lanfranc, and was appointed succes- 
sively precentor and superior of his house. It appears 
from his writings that he was present when the cathedral of 
Canterbury was burnt in 1070. It is probable that he did 
not dio before the end of the eleventh^ or the beginning 
of the twelfth century ) but the year is unknown. We 
learn, however» from an old obituary of Canterbury^ that 
the day of his death was the 28tb of November. * 

Osbem appears to have enjoyed the esteem of his con» 
temporaries for bis learning and talents^ He is said to 
have been very skilful in music.f We learn, however^ 
from the Introduction to his Life of Dunstan» that his 
favourite occupation was translating the lives of the 
English saints from Anglo-Saxon into Latin» in which he 
was encouraged by the exhortations of his fellow-monks. 
After the elevation of La^franc to the see of Canterbury, 
some dispute had arisen relating to the sanctity of arch- 
bishop Alfege (who had been murdered by the Danish in- 
vaders) ; it ended in bis being acknowledged by the 
Normans as a saint and martyr, and Lanflranc employed 
Osbem first to write a hymn or anthem to his memory, 
and afterwards to gather together the materials for his 

* TImm ftuits an coUtctod together by Whtrtoii, Anglia 8«or», toI. ii. pnsf . 
p. vili. 

f Fluni «t noa c(mlMiiiiend« de nxo [Danttano] Tokntem dieere rerocat 
CantnariK cantor OsbemuB» qui ejus ntam Romana alegantia oompoauit» 
nuUi nostro tempore stylo secimdua, musica oerte omniom sine controyenia 
primni. W. Malmsbt de Gest. Reg. lib. ii. p. 56. Again, speaking of 
Gotcdin, be says of him, '' MusicK porro palmam post Osbernnm adeptns.'* 
De G«8t. Rag. lib. iT. p» 130. 

about 1100.] 08BERN OF CANTBBBURT. 2j 

li&i which Utter was perhaps not finished until after the 
pnmate's death. He gives the following aooount of the 
mode in which he performed this undertaking; it will 
serve as a specimen of his style, which was so m^cb 
praised by William of Malmsbury. 

Sane Teritatem reram ita polUpeor ; ut nulla me» fublato ai quis inftierit 
splendora verbonim, dlctnrum profitear, qtut non ant ab Ub qui videnmt, ant 
a Tidentibiu andienint, acoeperim, et eis ftde timnl et aootoritate plarimom 
praMtantibua. Qaoram quidem Tocabnla icdrco sponte reAigio; qnoniam 
dicendi primitias barbarida appdlationibua decolorare nolo. Aliqua tamen 
de his rebuB non Incommode scripta inrenl ; qnorum sententiaa exinde aa- 
ramptaa prweenti scriptone congnio ordine inaerenda jndicayi. Illiua itaqne 
fireti anzilioy cigiiB gratnita bonitate lamut quicquid bene snmiia» cnjus lar- 
giflna miieratione aapimns quicqnid bene sapimua, tangamna psalterium, 
tangamna et cytharam. In altero sempiternam martyris gloriam ezoltando 
pnedioemns ; in altero corporalea ejus paanonea imitando Teneremur. Ac 
qnemadmoduni pneoipiente inTictis9uno totiua La^nitatU megiatro Lianfipvico 
arcMepiacopOy mnsica yirum modulatione dudum eztulimua ; lic oogentibus 
iia qnas disdmna rationnm cauais, oratoria eundem narratione eztollamna. 

We have also a Life of St. Dunstan^ and a collection of 
his posthumous miracles^ by this writer; and lives of 
Bregwin and Odo^ archbishops of Canterbury^ which have 
been attributed to him, though others have ascribed the 
first to John of Tynemouth, and the latter to Eadmer. 
The question of their authorship appears to be very 
doubtful. In a manuscript in Corpus Christi college^ 
Cambridge (No. 161) a Life and Miracles of king Ed- 
ward the Confessor are ascribed to Osbem. Bale and 
Pits make him the author of other works, but, as the only 
references they giv^e appear to be quite erroneous, the 
titles hardly deserve to be repeated. His treatise on 
music^ if he wrote one, is lost. This Osbem is supposed 
to be the author of the second and fifth letters of the third 
book of Anselm's Epistles. 


Acta Sanctorum Aprllia. Tomna II. AntrerpiM, 1675. Ibl. pp. SSI— 64^« 
Vita Sancti Elphegi, anctore Osbemo eoeleaisB Cantoarieniia monaeho. 
Ex MS. Codice S. Marl» Bonlfontis. 

Acta Sanctomm Ordinis S. Benedict!. Sieculnm V. Luteoiie PuiaionuB, 

28 INGULF. [Died in 1109. 

1685. fol. pp. 287—396, Vita S. OdoDis. pp. 654—688, Yito Sancti 
Danstani archiepiscopi Cantuariensis. Auctore Osbemo Cantuariensi 
monacho ssculo XI. pp. 689 — 701, Incipit Liber Miracalorum ejos- 
dem. Auctore eodem Osberno monacho. 

Acta Sanctorum Mail. Tomus IV. Antverpise, 1685. fol. pp. 359 — 384. 
Alia vita [S. Dunstani] auctore Osbemo prtecentore Cantuariensi. Ex 
MS. AntYcrpiensi et Bonifontis. 

Anglia Sacra (edited by H. Wharton.) Pars secunda. Lond. 1691. fol. 
pp. 75 — 77. Vita S. Bregwini, archiepiscopi Cantuariensis, authore 
(ut yidetur) Osberno. pp. 78 — 87, Vita Odonis, archiepiscopi Cantua- 
riensis, auctore (ut videtur) Osbemo. pp. 88—131, Vita S. Dunstani, 
archiepiscopi Cantuariensi*, authore Osbemo monacho et prsecentore 
Ecclesise Christ! Cantuariensis. pp. 127 — 147, Vita S. Elphegi archie- 
piscopi Cantuariensis, authore Osbemo. 


Ingulf was by birth an Englishman^ and, having ob- 
tained the favour of William the Conqueror, then duke of 
Normandy, was made his scribe or secretary. He after- 
wards visited Jerusalem, became a monk and subse- 
quently prior of Fontinelle under abbot Gerbert, and 
was recalled to his native country by king William, to 
succeed Ulfketel as abbot of Croyland, who had been 
deprived of his office by the Normans in 1075. After 
having presided over this ancient and celebrated monastic 
establishment during nearly thirty-five years in a period 
of trouble and difficulty, he died on the 17th of December^ 
1 109.* 

These facts we gather from Ordericus Vitalis, who was 
well acquainted with the affairs of Croyland, where he ap- 
pears to have been residing about the year 1112, three 
years after Ingulfs death.f In the History of Croyland 
published under Ingulfs name, he is made to give a more 
detailed account of his own history. He says that his 

* Orderic. Vital. Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. p. 287 (ed. Le PreTOst.) The du* 
ration of his abbacy, as giyen in Le PrcYOSt's text, xxy. must be an error 
for zzxv. According to Ordericus the date of bis death was the 16 kal« Pec. 
i. e. NoTemb. 16. 

t Orderic«0, tb* p. 389* 

Died 1109.] ingulf. 2B 

parents were citizens of London^ who sent him when a 
child to the school at Westminster^ from whence he was 
removed to the university of Oxford ; ^^ and, when I had 
made greater proficiency in Aristotle than many of those 
of my own age, I also studied profoundly the first and 
second books of the rhetoric of Tully/' As he grew up, 
he continues, he became ashamed of the mean estate of his 
parents, and left tJietn^ in order to frequent the court, 
where his taste for pomp and finery increased every 
day. It was at this time (i. e. 1051) that WiUiam duke of 
Normandy visited the English court, and he took Ingulf 
into his family in the quaUty of a scribe. Accompanying 
his new master, on his return to Normandy, he tells us 
that he rose so high in the favour of duke William that 
he ruled the whole court at his will, raising or humiliating 
whom he would, which excited the envy and jealousy of the 
other courtiers. In 1064, be tells us, he joined the expe- 
dition to Jerusalem, consisting of seven thousand pilgrims. 
At Constantinople they performed their reverence io the 
emperor Aleans, and, after being attacked and plundered in 
their way through Lycia, arrived at Jerusalem, where they 
were received by the patriarch Sophronius. On his return 
to Normandy Ingulph became a monk at Fontinelle.* 

Doubts have long been entertained of the authenticity 
of the history published under the name of Ingulf.f 
Nearly all the charters inserted in his work are forgeries, 
which must have been fabricated either in IngulPs time 
or subsequently ; and, even in the former case, he must 
have been aware of their character, and would hardly have 
published them ostentatiously. His narrative, the ground- 
work of which appears to have been the common histo- 
rians of those times, is full of errors and anachronisms, 

• Ingulfi Hist. p. 73, ed. Gale. 

t The donbtfal character of this History was first pointed out by Sir 
Francis Pal^ave. in an article in the Quarterly Review. 

So IN6ULF. [DUd 1109. 

even in the events of the age in which he lived.* The 
writer appears also to have used books^ such as the Life 
of Hereward, compiled subsequently to the time at which 
Ingulf flourished. There are many other circumstances 
connected with the book which concur to strengthen 
our suspicions. Even the account of the author is pet- 
haps a mere amplification of that given by OMericus 
Vitalis. It appears too vain-glorious to have been 
written by himself. The account of Ingulf^s education 
is evidently fabulous ; his studying Aristotle at Oxford 
indicates the thirteenth or fourteenth^ mther than the 
eleventh century; and an anecdote of his (childhood 
which he is made to relate in another place seems to con- 
tradict the description he gives above of his father^s station , 
when he states that while at school he used to visit his 
father, who reHded at court, and there he became known to 
the queen^ JBdith^ who argued questions with him in logicf 
He speaks of visiting the emperor Aleids at Constanti- 
nople in 1064 (which is known from other sources to have 
been the date of the pilgrimage that Ingulf is stated 
to have accompanied) ; yet Alexis Comnenus did not 
ascend the throne of Constantinople till 1081. It is quite 
impossible that Ingulf himself could have faUen into such 
an error as this, who in the same place speaks of William 
the Conquerbr as reigning when he wrote, so that it m&y 
be doubted if Ingulf could at that time have known that 
Alexis had been crowned emperor ; it is more probably the 
fault of a compiler, who confounded the expedition alluded 

* dd* the ac6oiiiit giY^tt by Lappenberg, Getehichte t6A EnfltAd» V61* i. 

pp. bdii. liiT. 

t Vidi ego illam multotieni, cum patrem meum in regit curia morantem 
adknc puer iiiTiserein, et saepios mihi de scholia Tenienti de Uteris ac trArtu 
meo apponebat, cam oceorrerem, et libentisaime de grammatica soUdate ad 
logicam leTitatem, qua callebat, decUnans, cam argmnentoniiii lubtOi liga- 
mine me oondnaiiMt, temper tribns aut quatuor nommlt per andllnlam niuie- 
ratii ad regivia penu traasmiiit, et rftfectQia dimliit. Ingnlfl Hltior. p. 6f . 

PMWOd.] iNOt^Ll^. 81 

to with thftt of Petet the Bermit. A difficulty in ascer- 
taining the date at which this work was compiled arises 
from the circumstance that no manuscript of any an^ 
tiquity is now known to exist ^^ but it has been supposed 
not to be older than the fourteenth century. It is not 
impossible thftt the compiler has interwoven into his 
text some fragments written by Ingulf ; in which case we 
might probably attribute to him the desctiption of the 
fire in lOBl. But it is singular that neither OrderieUb 
VitaUs, (who had been at Croyland, and was dUigent in 
searching for historical doouments^) nor William Of 
Croyknd^ who wrote the Uffe of eari Waltheof, and who 
mentions on three occasions the removal of the body of the 
e&rl by Ingulf t (which is also described in the history Attri- 
buted to Ingulf :^)j should have been aware that Ingulf was 
the author of a history of Croylandi if he ever had written 
such a book. It is stated in the history of Croyland that itk 
reputed author. Ingulf^ also wrote a life of St. Guthlac ; but 
no such work is known to exists nor is it mentioned else<- 
where. If the history be a forgery^ its object probably wait 
to support the claims of the abbots of Croyland in their 
law«suits with the monks of Spalding. 

The account of the life of Ingulf previous to his settle- 
ment in the abbey of Fontinelle deserves to be quoted as 
a specimen of the Pseudo-Ingulf s Latinity. 

Ego enim Ingulf us hamilis magUter S« Guthlad monasteriiqiie ivi Croi* 
landdniif) natiu in Anglia, eta porentibas Anglicu» qnippe orbiBpuloheniflMB 
LondoniaraiBy pro Uteris addisoendis in teneriori atate constitiitas» primiwi 
WeatmonaateriOf poitmodam Ozonienai studio traditns eram. Cvmqiie in 
Aristotile arripiendo supra multos coRtaneos meos profedssem, etiam lUie* 


* There Is S traiiserit»t of the latter part of the sixteenth oeatuiy among 
the Anudel MSB. in the British Mnienm, No. 178, which was OYideatl/ the 
eop3r from which fiavile printed his edition. The MS. used hj Gale Is seid 
tS eiltt in the Ubrary at HoUdiam. 

t win. Monac. Croiland* Vita et Pasaio Walderi eomitis, ap. Chroniqaes 
Anglo-Normandes, vol. ii. pp. 101, 118, I99t 

X Ingulfl Hist p. lOS. 

32 INGULF, [Died 1 109. 

toricam TuUii primam et Becundam talo tenus indaebam. Factas ergo ado- 
lescentior, fastidiens parentum meorum exiguitatem, patemos lares relinquere, 
et palatia regam aut principum affectans, mollibus Testiri pomposisque la- 
ciniis amiciri indies ardentias appetebam. Et ecce inclytas nanc rex noster 
Anglise, tunc adhuc comes Normanniae WilheUnusi ad colloquium tone regis 
Anglife Edwardi, cognati sui, cum grandi mioistrantium comitatu Londonias 
adventabat. Quibns citius insertus, ingerens me ubique ad omnia emer- 
gentia negotia peragendai cum prospere plurima perfecissemf in brevi agnitos 
illustrissimo comiti et astrictissime adamatus, cum ipso Normanniam ena- 
Tigabam. Factus ibidem scriba ejus, pro libito totam comitis curiam ad 
nonnullorum invidiam regebam, quosque Toloi hnmiliabam, et quos volni 
exaltabam. Cumque juvenili calore impulsus in tarn celso statu supra meos 
natales consistere teederem, quin semper ad altiora conscendere instabUi 
ammo ac nimium prurienti affectu ad erubescentiam ambitiosus ayidissime 
desiderarem, nuntiatur per uniyersam Normanniam plurimos archiepiscopos 
imperii cum nonnullis allis terrse piincipibus Telle pro merito animarum 
suarum more peregrinorum com debita devotione Hierosolymam profidsci. 
De familia ergo comitis domini nostri plnrimi tam milites quam clericif 
quorum primus et pnecipuus ego eram, cum licentia et domini nostri comitiB 
benevolentia in dictum iter nos omnes accinximus ; et Aiamanniam petentes, 
equites trigiota numero et amplius, domino Magunfclno conjuncti sumus. 
Parati namque omnes ad viam et cum dominis episcopis oonnumerati septem 
millia, pertranseuntes prospere multa terrarum spatia, tandem Constantino- 
polim perrenimus, ubi Alexim imperatorem ejus adorantes, Agiosophiam 
Tidimusi et infinica sanctuaria osculati sumus. Divertentes inde per Lyciam, 
in manus Arabicomm latronum incidimus, evisceratique de infinitis pecuniis» 
cum mortibus multorum, et maximo yitse nostrse periculo tIx evadente8> 
tandem desideratissimam civitatem Hierosolymam Iseto introitu tenebamus. 
Ab ipso tunc patriarcho, Sophronio nomine, viro veneranda canitie hones- 
tissimo ac sanctissimo, grandi cymbalornm tonitru et luminarium immenso 
fulgore suscepti, ad divinissimam ecclesiam sanctissimi sepulchri tam Syrorum 
quam Latinorum solenni processione deducti sumus. Ibi quot preces ino- 
rayimus, quot lachrymas inflevimus, quot suspiria inspiravimusi solus ejus 
inhabitator novit Dominus noster Jesus Christus. Ab ipso itaque glorio- 
sissimo sepulchro Christi ad alia sanctuaria civitatis invisenda circumducti, 
infinitam summam sanctarum ecclesiarum et oratorium, quse Achim soldanus 
dudum destruxerat, oculis lachrymosis vidimus ; et omnibus minis sanc- 
tissims civitatis tam extra quam intra numerosis lacbrymis intimo affectu 
compassi, ad quorundam restaurationem datis non paucis pecuniis, exire in 
patriam et sacratissimo Jordane intingi universaque Christi vestigia osculari 
desiderantissima devotione suspirabamus. Sed Arabum latrunculi, qui omnem 
viam observabant, longios a civitate evagari sua rabiosa multitudine innu- 
mera non sinebant. Vere igitur accidente, stolus navium Januensium in 
porta Joppensi applicuit, in quibus cum sua mercimonia Christiani mercatores 
per civitatis maritimas commutassenti et sancta loca similiter adorassent. 
Ascendeotes omnes» mari nos commisimus, et jactati fluctibus et procellis in- 
numeris tandem Brundusium appulimus. 

Died 1 107«] GODFREY OP WXNCHfiSTEB. 33 

The history of Ingalf embraces the whole period from 
the first fomidation of Croyland to the year of Ingulfs 
death, after which we have an equally spurious continu- 
ation, attributed to the celebrated Peter of Blois. An 
edition was first printed by Sir Henry Savile from a ma- 
nuscript which was incomplete at the end, and a complete 
edition was wanting till that of Fell appeared in the third 
volume of Calebs Scriptores. It is not known with cer- 
tainty what became of the manuscript from which this 
edition was printed. 



Reniin Anglicaram Scriptores post Bedam procipui» ex Tetiutiflsimis codi- 

cibuB mamucriptifl nunc primvin in lucem editi (by Sir Henry Sayile). 

Londinifl, 1596, foL Reprinted, Francofurti, 1601. fol. pp. 850—916. 

Ingulphi Historia. 
Kenim Anglioamm Scriptonixn Tetemm. [Gale] Tom. I* Quonun Ingiilfus 

nunc primnm integer, c«teri nunc primnm prodetint. fol* Oxonic, 

1684. pp. 1—107. Historia Ingulfi. 


Godfrey, prior of St. Swithin's at Winchester, was 
one of the most accomplished of the Norman writers who 
settled in England after the conquest. He is said to have 
been a native of Cambrai, but npthing further is known 
of his personal history, until he succeeded Simon as prior 
of Winchester in the year 1082.* In the twenty-five 
years during which Godfrey held this office he was re- 
markable for his attachment to literature, for the holiness 
of his life, and for the unremitting attention he gave to 
the interests of his house, which was benefited as much 
by the example of his virtues as by the prudence with 

* Amiales £ccl. Winton. up. WltartoDi Angl. Sacr. vol. i. p. S94. 


which he administered its worldly concerns^ and the dona- 
tions which he conferred upon it.* He died in 1107«t 
It is remarked that the steeple of his church fell on the 
day of his decease. 

Godfrey of Winchester was the first and best of the 
Anglo-Norman writers of Latin verse; in such of his 
works as are now extant^ he rises more successfully than 
any other poet of his own or the succeeding age above 
the barbarisms of medieval style, and in some of his 
epigrams he approaches nearly to the pmity of Martial, 
who was his model. William of Mahnsbury, in addition 
to other writings of which *he has not preserved the titles, 
mentions his Epistles^ composed ^^in that familiar and 
sweet style,'' his epigrams, and his verses '^ in praise of 
the primates of England.^'^ The last two of these works 
are all which are now known to exist, and are found in a 
manuscript in the Cottonian library, and in two manu- 
scripts at Oxford.§ Camden first drew attention to the 
merits of Godfrey's epigrams, and printed some of them 
in his ^* Remaines." They are arranged in several series, 

* See William of Malmsb. Hist. lib. v. p. 173. The Annals of Winches- 
ter, loc. cit. call Godfrey "vir perfectts bonitatis et pietatis," and add, 
''Quantse autem discretionis et bonitatis et caritatis prsedicti pnepositi Simeon 
et Godefridua ftierint, testantor qnsB adhuc snnt in Wintoniensi ecclesia 
illorum donaria.*' The epitaph printed by Tanner from a MS. at Oxford, 

" Wintonise monaches prior ntpote semper amandus 
Rebus dita^it, moribna ezcolnit." 
f A. Mcyii. Godefridus prior Wintoniensis venerabilis memoria deoessit. 
Annal. Eccl. Wint. p. 297. The epitaph in Tanner thus records the day 
of his death : 

** Sol erat in GeminJs, et erat Cancmm sabitams 
Post sex inde dies, cum Godefridus obit." 
X Literarum protestantur libri plures, et epistols familiari illo et dulci 
stylo editte, mazimeque epigrammata quae satirico modo absolvit, praeterea 
▼ersns de primatum Anglic laudibus. W. Malmsb. Hist. lib. ▼. p. 173. 

$ MS. Cotton. Vitellius A. xii. and in the Bodleian Library, MSS. Digby, 
No. 65, «ad Digby No. US. 

Died 11O70 OODFRBT of winghbstbr. 35 

two^ four^ six^ and eight lines each, their object being to 
inculcate moral sentiments, or to ridicule or satirize either 
the personal vices of some of his contemporaries, or the 
general vices of his time. The following specimens will 
give a notion of his distichs : 

Pauea uHUa muitU inutiiibtu proponm^. 

Pauoa Titas pretioss dabat, sed rilia plura i 
Ut mellora habeam pavea det oro Titus. 

Neque decipere neque decipi. 

Nnlluio decipias nee decipiaris ab ullo, 
Fallere vel falli, Pirame, par Titium est. 

ExituB rerum intpieiendos. 

Aut sapit Archesilas et prospicit ultima rerum, 
Aut si oontemnit non sapit Archesilas. 

In the following tetrastich, Godfrey enforces the gospel 
doctrine of doing to others as we would wish to be done 

QHUB aliiafeeeris ab eis ejtpectare modern, 

Jurgia, damores tibi gloria, gloria lites, 

Et facia et dicis omnibus unde noces ; 
Ezpectas eadem qna nobis feceris, Albi, 

Nam qnem tu kedis te ferit ille libens. 

In another, he amplifies a well-known proverb : 

Locum morea nan mutare. 

Serpentem innocuum facinnt deserta loconun, 
Non quia virus abest, sed quia cui noceat ; 

Dat Tims natura, locus non, ergo recedens 
Tu Tims tecum, Gratidiane, feres. 

In a third he describes the vicissitudes of human life : 

Viiam kominii voriam me» 

Alternis vicibns mntantpr tempora mundi, 

Temperies coelii Plaute, vices patitur ; 
Sic altematur humane formula vitse, 

Tristibiis et tetis assimulata ruit. 

The lines on Lanfranc may be given as a specimen of 
Godfrey's collection of epigrams on some of the great 
men of his time. 


36 liUCiAN OF CHESTER. [Flourished llOO. 

J)e La^firanco arehitpUcopo, 

YizUti, venerande pater, sapienter et fleqae^ 

Vixiflti Yivens, mors quoque vita tibi. 
Inter divitias pauper, Lanfrance, foisti, 

Divitiis manans pauperom amator eras* 
Qutt te florentes artes valuere Latinte, 

Grsecia de nobis ecce triumphat orans. 
Tu Latios ortu Gallosque docendo lerasti, 

Te sibi primatem oardo Britannus habet. 
In terra d^ens ooelestia mente petebas, 

Exemptus terra sidera liber adis. 
Sol Geminos denis obsederat igne diebas, 

Promsit luna diem, nocte solntos abis. 

Tanner indicates one or two other small pieces which 
have been attributed to Godfrey of Winchester, but ap- 
parently without any good reason. His epigrams have 
not yet been printed.* 


Among the manuscripts in the Bodleian library^f a 
book is preserved, which purports to have been written 
by a monk of Chester, who names himself Lucianus, and 
which is entitled De Lavdibus CestruBy (On the Praises of 
Chester.) This treatise is curious as being the earliest 
attempt we know at writing the history or description of 
a town. It is supposed to have been written about the 
year 1 100, and the manuscript is perhaps contemporary, 
or nearly contemporary, with that date. Unfortunately, 
the chief ornaments of Chester in the eyes of the author 
of this book were its monks ; and, after giving a few 
desultory chapters on the city, its gates, streets, and 
churches, he proceeds to the monastery of St. Werburgh, 

* Articles on Godfrey of Winchester will be found in Leyser, Hist. Poet. 
Med. ^v. p. 371, and in the Hist. Lit. de Fr. torn. iz. p. 352. 
t MS. Bodley, No. 672. 

Flourished 1102.] SiEWULF. 37 

the praises of which, and of the clerks^ monks^ bishop^ 
abbot, prior, sub-prior, &c. take up by much the larger 
part of the book. Nothing further is known of the writer ; 
but it is pretended that he was the author of another his- 
torical work, entitled Instrumenium Histaricum Af^licB.* 
The following extract, which contains the commencement 
of the description of Chester, will serve as a specimen of 
the character of this book. 

Primo Tidendnm quod Cestria, id esty qnse sdificatar ut dvitaB cnjai^ 
positio invitat aspectam, qiue in occiduis Britannifle positai legionibiu ex 
longinqno yenientibus receptoria quondam ad repansandum fuit, et Roman! 
serf ana limitem imperii, clayesi ut ita dixerim, Hibernorum custodire 
sufficit. Nam contra aquilonare comu Hibemise opposita, non tarn crebro 
quam continue ob causas meantium et commoda merdum diversarum, velis 
aptatis Tiam aperit cursibus nayium atque nautamm; dumque orientem 
yersua prstendit intuitu non solum Romanam ante se cathedram et im- 
perium Terum et orbem prospidt universum, ut tanquam spectaculum 
proposita sint obtutibus oculorum fortia facta patmm, series longissimi 
rerum, et quicquid in orbe quibusque personis, locis, temporibus» bene 
gestum est cognoscatur, quod male actum est cayeatur. Quse a yentis 
quatuor portas quatuor habens, ab oriente prospectat Indiam, ab occidente 
Hiberniamy ab Aquilone mitforem Normanniam, a meridie earn quam diyina 
seyeritaa ob ciyiles et naturales] discordias Britannia reliquit aogularem 
angustiam. Qui olim discidiis et odiis amans Britanniam in Angliam 
mutayerity et quibus adhuc moribus fnlgeant qui yidnantur ds cum lacrimis 


Within a few years after the Norman Conquest a tra- 
veller^ whose name shows him to have been an Anglo- 
Saxon, visited the Holy Land, and wrote an account of 
his travels, which is still preserved. Scewulf has left us 
no further information concerning himself than his name 
and the narrative of his wanderings; but William of 

* Tanner; Biblioth. p. 487. 

38 8AWULF. [Flouriihed 1102. 

Malmsbury has preserved a story of a man of this name^ 
who lived at the same time, and whose character seems 
so far to coincide with that of the traveller^ that we can 
hardly hesitate in believing him to be the same person* 
William of Malmsbury tells us that SsQwulf was a mer- 
chant who frequently repaired to Wulstan of Worcester 
to confess his sins^ and as frequently^ when his fit of peni- 
tence was over, fell back into the same course of worldli- 
ness. Wulstan advised him to quit the profession in 
which he met with such continual temptations^ and become 
a monk ; and when he refused, the bishop prophecied that 
the time would arrive when he should take the habit in 
spite of his previous repugnance; '^ which/' says the relator, 
" I afterwards saw fulfilled, for he was converted in our mo- 
nastery in his old age^ driven to it by disease/^ ^ It 
seems natural enough that the merchant, in a moment of 
penitence, should have undertaken a pilgrimage to Jeru- 
salem, to which people's attention had just been called by 
the first conquests of the crusaders. I think there is no- 
thing in the narrative to lead us to believe that the tra- 
veller was a monk at the time he made the voyage ; and 
he speaks in remarkable terms of his own failings.f 

Saewulf s narrative begins abruptly with his departure 
from Monopoli on the coast of Italy, on the 13th of July, 
1 102. A violent storm drove the pilgrims along the coast to 
Brindisi, where they were obliged to stay till their ship 
was repaired. Having again left the coast of Italy, Sae- 
wulf passed by the Ionian islands, Corfu (July 24), and 
Cephalonia (Aug« 1) and arrived at Corinth on the 9th of 
August, from whence, passing by Stives, the ancient 

* W. Malmsb. de Geit. Pontif. p. 382. 

t Ego SRwlfds, licet indignus et peccator, Jerosolimam pergens.. ..yel 
pondere pre9tu» peeeamhiMinf toI penuria Xk&yiB, per Bltain pelagOB tran- 
flire nequiyi. Prolog. 

Flourished 1102.] ajswulf» 39 

Thebes, he reached Negropont on the 23rd. Here the 
pilgrims embarked again, and, after touching at many of 
the islands of the Grecian archipelago, and suffering much 
from tempestuous weather, they landed at Joppen, or 
Jaffa, on the 12th of October. The next seven months 
were spent in visiting Jerusalem and the holy places from 
Gennesareth to Hebron, the account of which occupies 
the larger portion of Saewulf's narrative. He left Jaffa 
on his return on the 17th of May, 1103, and, retracing 
partly the same route by which he had come^ he went 
to Constantinople, where the narrative leaves him in 
the month of October. 

The relation of Siewulf is of small extent, and his lati- 
nity is rude and unpolished. It is valuable for a few 
points of historical and geographical information which it 
contains^ and as a link in the chain of evidence relating to 
the holy sites. Only one manuscript of this book is 
known to exist; * from which it was edited by the learned 
geographer M. IPAvezac, who, in his Introduction, has 
investigated with remarkable penetration and erudition 
the dates of Swwulf's wanderings and his geographical 
nomenclature. The description of the storm which he 
escaped on his first arrival at Jaffa, will give a notion of 
the latinity of the merchant-pilgrim. 

Arrigite aures, carissimi, et audite misericordiam qaam Dei dementia 
mihiy licet ultimo lerro svo, meisque ezhibuit. Nam eadem die qua appu* 
limuB, quidam dixit mihi, ut credo» deifice, ** Domine, hodie litut asoendey 
ne forte nocte vel diluculo tempestate superreniente craa aacendere non 
poMis.'' Quod dum audivi, statim captus desiderio ascendeodi, naviculum 
conduxi, et cum omnibus meis ascendi. Me autem aacendente, mare turbaba- 
tur ; crevit commotio et facta est tempestas valida, sed ad litus divina gratia 
fayente perveni illsesus. Quid plura ? Civitatem hospitandi causa intrayi- 
muBf et longo labore victi atque lassatii refecti pausayimus. Mane vero» 
dum ab ecelesia venimus, sonitum maris audiyimus, clamorem populi, omnes- 
que concurrentes atque mirantes de talibus prius inauditis; nos autem 

• MS. Corp. Cbr. Coll. Cambr. No. 111. 

40 SiBWULF. [Flourished 1102. 

timentes cnrrendo rimul cnm aliia TeniiiiiiB ad litus ; dam enim iliac penre- 
nimoBi vidimas tempestatem altitadinem superexcellere montium ; corpora 
quidem innnmerabUia hominum atriasqae sexas siunmerBoram ia littore 
miserrime jacentia aspeximos ; naves minatatim fractas jazta yolatantes 
simol TidimuB- Sed quis pneter rai^tam maris et fragorem naviom quic- 
qnam aadire potait ? Clamorem etiam populi, sonitumqae omnium turba- 
rum ezeessit Navis aatem nostra maxima atqae fortissima, aliseqae multte 
fromento alitiqae mercim'oniis atque peregrinis venientibos atqoe redevnti- 
bus oneratae, ancboris fanibasque adbnc in profundo ntcnnqae detentn, quo- 
modo ilactibas jactabantur I qnomodo mali metu incidebantur ! quomodo 
mercimonia abjieiebsatar I qoalis ocnlns intuentiam tam durus atqae 
lapideas a fleta se posset retinere? Non dia illnd aspeximos anteqoam 
Tiolentia andaram Tel flactnom anchorse lapserunt; fiines vero rampe- 
bantar ; nsTes rero, sereritate andaram laxatK, omni spe evadendi erepta, 
nanc in altam elevatae, naoc in ima detrasse» paalatim de profanditate 
tandem in arenam Tel in scopolos projiciebantar ; ibi yero de latere in 
latas miserrime coliidebantori ibi minatatim a tempestate dilacera- 
bantar; neque ferocitas Tentorom in profandnm rererti integras, neque 
altitado arense sinebat eas ad litas perrenire illssas. Sed quid atti> 
net dicere quam flebiliter nautse et peregrini, qaidam naTibus, quidam Tero 
malls, qaidam antennis, quidam autem traostris, omni spe CTadendi privati, 
adhsserunt? Quid plant dicam? Qaidam stupore consumpti ibidem 
dimersi sunt ; qaidam a lignis propriae navisi quod incredibile multis Tide- 
tur, adhserentes, me TidentCi ibidem sunt obtruncati ; quidam autem a tabulis 
navi evulsis iterum in profundum deportabantur ; quidam autem natare sci* 
entes sponte se flnctibus commiserunt, et ita qaamplures perienmt; per- 
paud quippe» propria Tirtute confidenteSf ad litus illesi pervenerunt. Igi- 
tur ex navibus triginta maximisy quarum qusedam dromundiy quiedam Tero 
guUfri, qUBdam autem catti Tulgariter Toeantur, omnibus oneratis palmariis 
Tel roercimoniis, anteqnam a litore discessissem, tIx septem illses» perman- 
seruot. Homines Tero diversi sexus plusquam miUe die ilia perierunt : ma- 
jorem etenim miseriam una die nullus Tidit oculus ; sed ab bis omnibus sui 
gratia eripuit me Dominusi ctti bonor et gloria per intinita secula : Amen. 


Recueil de Voyages et de M ^moires publics par la Soci^t^ de Geographic 
torn. It. Paris, 1839, 4to. pp. 817 — 854. The Voyage of Snwulf, edited, 
with a Tery learned and Taluable Introduction, by M. D*ATezac. 

Died 1108.'] gundulf. 41 


Gundulf, * one of the most celebrated of our early Nor- 
man bishops^ was bom in the diocese of Rouen^ and 
studied grammar at Rouen in his boyhood. His talents 
and behaviour procured him the friendship of William 
archdeacon of that churchy and^ through himi of the arch- 
bishop Maurilius.f In company with the archdeacon he 
undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem^ and^ being over- 
taken by a dangerous storm on their return^ they both 
made vows to become monks if they escaped. They even- 
tually reached Rouen in safety, and each hastening to fulfil 
his vow^ Gundulf repaired to Bee to place himself under 
the rule of abbot Herluin and prior Lanfranc. It was 
there that he first made the acquaintance of Anselm^ who 
entered the abbey of Bee the same year (A. D. 1059), and 
formed a friendship which lasted during his life. The 
amiable spirit of Gundulf soon rendered him a favourite 
with Lanfranc^ who^ when he became abbot of Caen, took 
him with him to assist in the management of that monas- 
tery.J William of Malmsbury has preserved a story 
which represents Lanfranc, while abbot of Caen^ prophe- 
cying that his disciple Gundulf would one day be a 
bishop.§ When, in IO70, the abbot of Caen was promoted 
to the archbishopric of Canterbury, he took Gundulf with 
him to England^ and, well acquainted with his skill in 
domestic business, placed him over his own household. || 

* An tnoii3rmott8 life of Gundulf^ written by a monk of Rochester soon 
after hiB death, is printed in the Anglia Sacra, torn. ii. p. 373. 

t Vita Gnndulfi, p. 274. 

X Ut secnm in ^osdem coenobii gnbematione coadjutorem haberet. Vita 
Gondnlfi, p. 376. 

§ W. Malmsb. de Vit Pontif. lib. 1. p. Sd3. 

II Et quia in rebut etiam ezterioribns indnstrins Yalde erat» rei famlliaris 
gate procoratorem conitituit. Vita Gunduldi pt 376» 

42 GiTKOttLP. [2>ied 1108, 

In this office Gundulf had the distribution of tl.e arch- 
bishop's numerous charities^ an occupation which appears 
to have been peculiarly suited to his taste^ for his bio- 
grapher descants frequently on the benevolence of his 
disposition.*' Anselm now renewed by his letters the 
acquaintance which appears to have been broken off since 
Gundulf s departure from Bee. Some of Anselm^s letters 
to Gundulf are still preserved among his correspondence. 

In 1076 Lanfranc promoted Gundulf to the bishopric 
of Rochester, and he was consecrated on the 19th of 
March, 1077- He rebuilt his church, increased the num- 
ber of monks, raised the monastery to a high state of 
prosperity, and was indefatigable in the defence and im- 
provement of his diocese. Before his promotion to the 
bishopric, he had gained the good opinion of William the 
Conqueror ; and he conducted himself with so much pru- 
dence in the disputes between Anselm and William Rufus, 
as neither to offend the king nor desert his friend.f He was 
a principal instrument in securing the crown to Henry I., 
whose favour and that of his queen Matilda he enjoyed 
during the remainder of his life. Gundulf died on the 
8th of March, 1108, and was buried in the cathedral of 
Rochester. A time-worn and almost shapeless effigy in 
stone, still preserved there, is believed to have formerly 
adorned his tomb. 

Although Gundulf was not distinguished as a writer,^; 
he evidently possessed a love of letters and of art. One 
at least of his letters to Anselm is preserved, and several 
letters from Anselm prove that he must have written at 
least an equal number, which it is to be feared are now 
lost. Gundulf appears to have been an active assistant of 

• Vita Gundnlfi, pp. 376, 280, 284. 
f Hist. Lit. de Fr. torn. iz. p. 369. 

% MalmslKiiy nyi» Brttqve 6and«lAis rdlgioais plettVf , litmnim non 
nesciuB, in rebus foreniAlmt m« et tiimatis. 

Died 1108.] oxrard abohbishop of tobk. 43 

Lanfranc in copying and correcting the ancient ecclesiastical 
writers. The authors of the Histoire litt^raire de France 
mention a laige Bible written with his hand^ which was 
sold at Amsterdam among the books of Herman van de 
Wal in 1 734 : at the beginning was inscribed Prima par$ 
Biblia per bona memoria Gundulphum Roffenaem epieeo* 
pum/f^ In modern times Gundidf s chief celebrity rests 
upon his skill as an architect» Besides the church of 
Rochester^ he is said to have built for the king the formi- 
dable keep of Rochester castle^ which became the model 
for most of the castles of his time» 


Gerard was the nephew of Walchelin bishop of Win- 
chester, and of Simeon abbot of Ely^ and was therefore 
distantly related to the Conqueror. He was grand-chanter 
of the church of Rouen^ and probably came to England at 
the invitation of his uncle bishop Walchelin, by whose 
interest he was made one of the chaplains to William 
Rufus. That king sent him with another of his chaplains 
to Rome to watch the proceedings of Anselm's friends, at 
the time of his quarrel with the archbishop. In 1096, 
Gerard was made bishop of Hereford \ being then only 
subdeacon, he was ordained deacon and priest on the 
same day, and the day following was consecrated bishop.f 
Bishop Godwin says that he was chancellor of England. 
He was promoted to the archbishopric of York in 1100, 
on the death of archbishop Thomas, and went to Rome to 
receive the pallium. 

Archbishop Gerard appears not to have been high in 

* Hist. Lit. de Fr. torn. U. p. 374. f lb. p. 376. 


favour with the English clergy of his time. William of 
Newbury accuses him of avarice. But a much more 
serious crime appears to have been his refusal to acknow- 
ledge the primacy of the archbishop of Canterbury, until 
he was persuaded by the king or terrified by the pope into 
a compliance.* It is probable also that he was attached to 
scientific studies, on which the more orthodox among his 
contemporaries were then accustomed to throw discredit. 
The writer just mentioned, who flourished about a cen- 
tury later, tells us that he was accused of practising sor- 
cery,t and it is related as a thing disgraceful to his 
memory that after his death the astrological writings of 
Julius Firmicus were found under his pillow. He died 
unexpectedly, and while his household were occupied with 
different affairs, and consequently without confession and 
absolution. His clergy made this an excuse for refusing 
him burial within the church ; he was committed ignobly 
to the ground without the doors, and his body was allowed 
to be insulted by those who were looking on.t His suc- 
cessor,' however, ordered his remains to be disinterred, 
and buried them honourably beside his predecessors. His 
death occurred in 1108. 

The writers of the Histoire Littdraire de France cite a 
poem as being preserved in the Cottonian Library, under 
the title of Versus Girardi archiepiscopi Eboracensis ; but 
nothing of the sort appears now in the catalogue of this 
collection. Anselm speaks of this prelate as ^^ vir admo- 
dum literatus/^§ Three of Gerard's letters to Anselm 
are preserved among Anselm's Epistles and in Eadmer's 

* W. Malmsb. de Gest. Pontif. lib. iii. p. 973. W. Newbrig. Derebas 
Angl. lib. i. e. 3. 
t Uc plorimi asseTeront, maleficiui etlam aftsttetas. W* Newbrig. ib. 
t W. Malmsb. and W. Newbr. ib. 
§ Aiuelmi ESpist. lib. iy. ep. 2. 

nth cent.] sulcard. ricemarchus* 45 

Minor Writers op the Eleventh Century. 

Sulcard is known only as the writer of a short legen- 
dary history of the abbey of Westminster, of which he 
was a monk. As it is dedicated to the abbot Vitalis, it 
must have been written between 1076 and 1082; and the 
writer says that he saw the old monastery before it was 
pulled down and rebuilt by Edward the Confessor, which 
must have been early in that monarch's reign. Bale con- 
sidered him to have been an Englishman ; but the writers 
of the Histoire Litt^raire de France are of opinion that he 
was a Norman, in which case he must have been one of 
the foreign clergy introduced into our island in the reign of 
the Confessor. Two copies of this tract are preserved in 
the British Museum.^ Pits says, that in his time Sul- 
card's tombstone was still seen at Westminster with the 
inscription : Sulcardus monackus et chronograpkus. 

RiGEMARGHus, bishop of St. David^s, wrote a life of St. 
David, which was the foundation of all subsequent bio- 
graphies of that saint. Of this author little is known : 
according to Wharton,t he was made bishop of St. David^s 
about 1085, and he is said to have died in 1096. Several 
manuscripts of his life of St. David are preserved; j: and a 
portion of it, containing matter not found in the life of 
the same saint by Giraldus Cambrensis, was printed by 

* MSS. Cotton. Faustina, A. iii. and Titus, A. viii. It consists of six 
leaves. The writers of the Hist. Lit. de Fr. vol. yiii. p. 138, supposed it to 
be a large book. 

f AngL Sacr. vol. ii. pref. p. xxy. Others say in 1088. 

X One in the British Museum, MS. Cotton. Vespas. A. xiv. two in the 
Bodleian Library, and one in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 


Wharton in the Anglia Sacra.* It is written in a very 
proUx and affected style. 

HsicMiNO^ sub-prior of Worcester under bishop Wul- 
stan^ is known by the valuable chartulary of the church of 
Worcester which he compiled by Wulstan^s directions. 
This chartulary contains some pieces of his own writing, 
particularly a brief memoir of his patron the bishop^ 
written soon after his deaths which has been printed by 
Wharton. The whole chartulary was afterwards published 
by Heame.t Considerable extracts are also printed in 
the Monasticon. 


Anglia Sacra (edited by H. Wharton), pars prima. Lond. 1691 , fol. p. 541 . 

Vita S. Wlfltanl episoopi Wigomienais. Anctore Hemmlngo monacho 

Hemingi Chartnlarinm Eccleaise Wigomienais. . .deaoripsit ediditque Tho. 

Heamins. Ozonii, 1733, 2 vols. 8to. 

Hahelinus of Verulam, prior of St* Albania and a dis- 
ciple of Lanfranc, compiled a book on the customs 
and government of monks^ extracts from which are 
printed in the Thesaurus Anecdotorum of Martene and 

CoLMAN^ a monk of Worcester, also wrote the life of 
bishop Wulstan. He was the bishop's chaplain during 
fifteen years, and signs a charter in 1089 (printed in the 
Monasticon) as his chancellor. He was subsequently 
made by Wulstan prior of Westbury,§ and according to 
Florence of Worcester died on the 4th of October, 1113, 
probably at a very advanced age. William of Malmsbury 

* Angl. Sacr. yoI. ii. pp. 645—647. 

t The original ia MS. Cotton. Tiberiua, A. xiti. 

X Thesaur. Aneed. torn. ▼. col. 1454. 

§ W. Malmsb. de Vit* Wvlstani, lib. ill* c. 10. 

lliheentJ] ai^win* faritiu». lxofrio. 47 

says that he wrote his life of Wulstan in EngUsh (i^ e« in 

Alwin or AiLWiN^ an EngUsh hermit who is supposed 
to have lived at the end of the eleventh century, wrote a 
book said by Pits to be extant in the library of St. Peter's 
College, Cambridge, which he describes as ^^Librum 
quendam ad Herebertum episcopum Norwich' 

Among the writers of lives of saints who flourished at 
this period we must not omit the name of Faritius, the 
writer of a life of Aldhelm frequently quoted by William of 
Malmsbury. He is said to have been a native of Tuscany, 
and to have been brought over to England by Lanfranc. 
He became first a monk of the abbey of Malmsbury, 
which he quitted to be made abbot of Abingdon in the 
year 1100. Faritius was a skilful physician, and as such 
is reported to have been high in the favour of the king. He 
is said to have written a book to prove that children dying 
without baptism could not be saved. Bale also attributed 
to him a collection of letters. His life of Aldhelm is ex- 
tant, and was printed as an anonymous biography in the 
Acta Sanctorum, from a MS. in the Cottonian Library.f 
Faritius died in 11 17. 

One of the few Anglo-Saxon writers after the Conquest 
was Leofrio of Brun, a priest in the service of Hereward. 
The writer of the Latin life of Hereward has preserved the 

* ColmannoB monachus Tester, vir nee scientiae imperitas, nee sermone 

patrio infaoetoi. Seriptit enim AngUoei ne gettorum avolaret memoria, 

▼itam ejntdem patria ; ai atteadaa ad senaomi lepore graTi, ai ad literam 

simpliciute rudi. W. Malmib. De Vit. Wnbt. ap. Angl. Sac. voL ii. 

i p. 243. 

t Aiota Sanetomm Mail, torn. ▼!. p. 84. See the authoritlea for the 
account of Faritins, in Tanner, p^ 873. 


name of this man from oblivion ; he says that he wrote the 
history of Hereward's youth^ and that it was his fjEtvourite 
occupation to collect together the romantic legends of 
his country^ and commit them to writing in his native 

Warnier^ or Garnier^ who from his writings obtained 
the title of homeliariuSf was a monk of Westminster^ and 
dedicated his homilies^ which appear now to be lost^ to 
Gilbert Crispin. We learn from Thomas of Ely that he 
was present, and then very aged, at the translation of the 
body of St. Withburg in October, 1 106, Besides his col- 
lection of homilies or sermons for the whole year^ he is 
said to have written Deflarationes SS. Patrum, which is 
supposed to be the same work which was printed at Basil 
in 1494 under the title, Jei^neri abbatis deflorationes super 
Evangelia de tempore per anni ctrculum. This cannot be 
the work of Warmer of Westminster, who was never 
abbot. The Fasciculus Temporum has also been wrongly 
ascribed to him. 

Several writers place immediately after the Conquest an 
English grammarian whom they name Johannes Gram- 
MATicus, and to whom they attribute various works which 
were certainly written by other persons.f As far as I 
have been able to discover, this writer is a mere creature 
of the imagination, made out of the names of Johannes 
Philoponus, Johannes Guallensis, and Johannes de Gar- 
landia, some of whose writings have been attributed to 
an imaginary personage, because they happened to be 
found under the simple name of magister Johannes. 

* Hujus enim memorati presbyter! erat stadianii omnes actus gigantam 
et bellatorum ex fabulis antiquonmii aat ex fideli relatione, ad edificationem 
audientium congregare, et ob memoriam Angliae Uteris commendare. De 
Gestis Herwardi, ap. Chron. Anglo-Normandes, toI. ii. p. S. 

t See Warton, History of English Poetry, yoI. i. p. cxvii. (edit, of 1840} 
and Tanner, nnder Johmnet Gramtnaiicut* 

Died ilOO.] akselm. 49 


Anselm, like his predecessor Lanfranc^ was a native of 
Italy.* He was bom at Aosta, in Piedmont^ at the foot 
of the Graian Alps^ about the year 1033. His parents 
held an honourable rank in society j for his mother, Er- 
menberga, appears to have been distantly related to the 
counts of Maurienne^ the ancestors of the ducal house of 
Savoy .t His father^ Gundulf, was descended from a 
noble Lombard family, and had settled at Aosta^ where 
he married Ermenberga. They possessed a moderate 
fortune ; but it required all the prudence of Anselm's 
mother, who was a careful housekeeper, to preserve it 
from the effects of his father's extravagance. It appears 
that Gundulf was a man of violent temper, and that his 
life was somewhat irregular, until at the approach of death 
he took the habit of a monk. Anselm in his childhood im- 
bibed religious sentiments from the teaching and example 
of his mother, and exhibited an early taste for learning. 

* Our chief aathority for the history of Anselm is the life by his disciple 
Eadmer, and the Historia NoTomm of the same writer. William of Malms- 
bury, who g^Tes a long account of Anselm, professes to follow Eadmer 
chiefly. The Life and Works of Anselm hsTebeen frequently treated by mo- 
dem writers. A Spaniard named Joseph Saens d'Aguire wrote a large work 
on the Theology of St. Anselm in the latter halfof the seventeenth century, 
which was tvice printed in three vol. folio, at Salamanca, 1679 — 1685, and 
Rome, 1688 — 1690. An Istoria panegyrica di S. Anselmo, by Andrea 
Raineri, in 4 vol. 4to. was published at Modena, 1693 — 1706. In Germany, 
more recently, G. F. Franck published a Darstellung Anselm's, Ttibingen, 
184S ; and F. R. Hasse, who had published a scholastic dissertation (An- 
selmi Cantuariensis de imagine divina doctrine,) in Ilgen's Zeitschrift far 
histor. Theologie in 1835, has given to the world the first volume of a larger 
memoir under the title, Anselm von Canterbury, 8vo. Leipsig, 1843. 

f Eadmeri Yit. Anselmi, p. 2. In Gerberon's edition of his works. 
Hasse, Anselm v. Cunt. vol. i. p. 4S. 


50 ANSSLM. [Bom 1033. 

His father discouraged the child in his pursuits^ and when, 
at the age of fifteen, Anselm ventured to declare his wish 
to embrace a monastic life, the anger of the parent was 
so strongly expressed that the youth determined to quit 
his home and country and throw himself upon the wide 
world.* He left home secretly, in company with a do- 
mestic chaplain, who perhaps had encouraged the design, 
and they loaded an ass with a sack containing a small 
stock of provisions. These failed them when they were 
passing over mount Cenis 3 they were compelled to melt 
snow in their mouths to quench their thirst, and Anselm 
became so weary and faint that he was unable to proceed. 
A small loaf, unexpectedly found in a comer of the sack, 
gave him courage and strength to continue his way, and 
enabled them to reach the bounds of these inhospitable 
regions. Of the next three years of Anselm's life, we only 
know that they were spent, perhaps fruitlessly, partly in 
Burgundy, and partly in France. It does not appear how 
he was occupied during this period, but in the course of 
his wanderings he arrived at Avranches, and there he first 
heard of the fame of his countryman Lanfranc and the 
school of Bee. 

The eagerness after learning which had distinguished 
Anselm in his childhood now returned, and he hastened 
to Bee to place himself under Lanfiranc's tuition. He 
devoted himself to his studies with wonderful persever- 
ance, scarcely quitting his books by night or by day, 
and often forgetting his meals. When Lanfranc at length 
made him a partner in his labours, and entrusted to him 
the instruction of others, Anselm showed little taste for 

* Patrlam terrain ^zeiindl patrfs ira adoleficenti occaeionem ingessit : quam 
cum ille nuLlo posset lenire ingenlo, ne domestiea simultas in yiolationem 
mtiurae tranairet, absoessn fefidlit buo. W. Mabnsb. de Gestis Pontif. lib. i. 
p. 216. Conf. Eadmer, pp. S, 3. HaNe, rol I p. 46. 

Died 1 109.] anselm. 5 1 

this occupation ; he preferred solitude and meditation to 
an active life^ and^ after much doubting as to where and 
how he should take the habit, and alter consulting with 
Lanfranc and with Maurilius archbishop of Rouen, he 
became a monk in the abbey of Bee, in the twenty-seventh 
year of his age (a,p. 1060). Still Anselm was not allowed 
to remain inactive ; for, when Lanfranc was made abbot 
of Caen (not, as commonly supposed, in 1063, but in 
1066), Anselm was chosen to succeed him as prior of Bee, 
an office which he held till abbot Herluin's death in 1 078, 
when he was farther raised to be his successor. As monk 
and prior, Anselm was disting^shed so much by his piety 
and virtues that his brethren believed him to be possessed 
of the power of working miracles. At his election to fill 
this office, the other monks were jealous at seeing so 
young a man passed over their heads, but he gradually 
conciliated them by the gentleness of his temper. He 
was indefatigable in teaching and in attending to the 
spiritual welfare of those committed to his care. At the 
same time he found abundant leisure for study and medi- 
tation ; for it was during this period that he composed 
the greatest portion of his works, including the Monolo- 
gion and the Proslogion, the tract against Gaunilo, the 
treatises de Veritate, de Casu Diaboli, de Libertate Ar- 
bitrii, and De Grammatico, and his Meditations. With 
these works his fame spread not only through Normandy, 
France, and Flanders, and the surrounding countries, but 
he was well known in England, and added to the reputation 
as well as to the riches of his abbey.* 

The abbey of Bee had possessions in England, and soon 
after his election abbot Anselm found it necessary to visit 
them. This was a favourable opportunity of consulting 
with his ancient friend Lanfranc, by whom he was re- 

* Eadmer, Yit. Anselmiypp. 3—8. W. Malmib. p. 216. 

E 2 

5^ ANSELM. [Bom 1033. 

ceived at Canterbury with the greatest marks of distinc- 
tion and esteem. He spent a short time in the society of 
the monks of Canterbury, and gave his advice in the ques- 
tion then agitated relating to the sanctity of the Saxon 
archbishop ^Elfege.* 

In other parts of England Anselm was received with 
the same marks of respect as at Canterbury. This oc- 
curred in the year 1079, and Anselm appears not to have 
visited our island again until he was invited over by 
Hugh earl of Chester, in 1092, to settle a colony of monks 
of Bee in the monastery which that nobleman had founded, 
or rather restored, in that city. At this time Lanfranc 
had been dead about four years, during which period the 
see of Canterbury was allowed to remain vacant, and the 
king, William Rufus, collected the revenues into his own 
treasury. It appears that the eyes of the English clergy 
had long been directed towards Anselm as his successor ; 
and it is said that he deferred his visit to England to 
avoid giving any occasion of believing that he was ambi- 
tious of the dignity .t Anselm arrived at Canterbury on 
the 7th of September, 1092, and proceeded immediately 
to Chester, where he remained during the greater part of 
the winter. At Christmas the bishops and barons pressed 
upon the king the necessity of filling up the vacant arch- 
bishopric, and recommended Anselm ; but William re- 
fused to listen to them, and was only reluctantly com- 
pelled to yield by the terror caused by a dangerous disease 
with which he was shortly afterwards visited. It appears 
from his letters that Anselm was retained in England by 

* Eadmer, Vit. Anselm. p. 10. 

f Hujusmodi verba ad aures ejus perlata continuerunt eum in Normannia 
totis 5 annis, qaamYis crebro causis ingruentibus ultra mare advocaretur : 
invitayit ergo eum mnltorum necessitas, sed retrahcbat timor ne faroK me- 
lioris oblitus raptari ambitione arcbiepiscopatus putaretnr. W. Malmsb. de 
Gest. Pontif.'lib. i. p. 217. 

Died 1 109.] anselm. 53 

the affairs of the monastery of Bee:* in the February 
of 1093 he was preparing for his return, when the king 
suddenly declared his election to the see of Canterbury, 
Anselm obstinately refused the proffered dignity : but the 
English bishops, after vainly attempting to overcome his 
scruples, forced the pastoral staff into his hand, dragged 
him into the church of Gloucester (where the court was 
then held), and there hastily consecrated him, on Sunday 
the 6th of March, 1093. Anselm declared that this act 
was null, as being contrary to his will : but he was at 
length prevailed upon to waive his scruples and obey the 
king's commands. He made his entry into Canterbury 
on the 25th of September following, and he was more 
regularly consecrated on the 4th of December. 

Anselm's conduct, and the reasons he gave for it, show 
that he had a presentiment of the troubles with which his 
new dignity was afterwards attended. At the feast of 
Christmas immediately following his ordination, Anselm 
attended the court, and the king took that opportunity of 
demanding the heriot, which in England it had been the 
practise to demand on the death of the holder and in- 
duction of his successor, even in ecclesiastical estates. 
The archbishop offered him five hundred pounds of silver; 
but after it had been received with apparent satisfaction, 
some of the courtiers who were opposed to Anselm per- 
suaded the king that this sum was too small, and he de- 
manded a thousand instead of five hundred pounds. 
Anselm refused, on the ground that by giving so great a 
sum he would incur the suspicion of having obtained the 
primacy by simony, and the king dismissed him in anger.f 
This first quarrel with the king was almost immediately 
followed by another, arising out of the primate's urgent 

* AnBelmi Epist. lib. 2, p. 51» 

t Eadmer» p. 13. Hasse, pp. 293, 394. 

S4 ANSBLM. [Bom 10S3. 

representations of the necessity of discontinuing and re- 
pairing the injuries which William Rufiis was inflicting 
upon the Churchy and of enforcing discipline. Anselm 
now felt the uneasiness of his position^ and looked back 
with regret to the tranqxdllity of his abbacy : yet amid the 
persecutions to which he was at this time subjected he 
found leisure from his secular occupations to write his trea- 
tise jye Incamaiione Pi?rM, which he dedicated to the pope.* 
On the king's return from Normandy in November 
1094, Anselm repaired to court to request his permission 
to risit Rome for the purpose of receiving the pallium 
of Pope Urban II. At this time the succession to the 
papal chair was disputed by two candidates. King Wil- 
liam burst into a violent passion when he heard the name 
of Urban, declared that he had not acknowledged him as 
pope, and that it was not the custom for any one to be 
acknowledged as pope in England without the king's 
consent.t Anselm refused to yield this point, and re- 
ferred it for more mature consideration at a fuller as- 
sembly of the prelates and barons, which was accordingly 
held at Rockingham, on the 11th of March; and the 
debate was prolonged through two days. Nearly all the 
bishops, headed by William bishop of Durham, sided 
with the king, and a few of the secular barons only plead- 
ed in favour of the primate. The proceedings were violent 
and noisy. It was decided to be a breach of allegiance to 
the crown to acknowledge Urban as pope, and Anselm 
was himself treated with rudeness. At the conclusion of 
the meeting Anselm requested permission to retire to the 

* Eadmeri Vit. Anselm. p. 14. 

t At ille ad nomen Urbani turbatus, dixit se ilium pro papa non tenere, 
nee scue conmetcuttBif esse at absque sua eleotiotie alievi liceret in regno suo 
papam nominare. Eadmer, de Vit. Ansel, p. 17. Conf. Eadm. Hist. Novor. 
p. 57. (?). CoDsaetndo regni mei est a patre meo instituta, at nuUus pr«eter 
Ucentiam regis appelletur papa. TT, Malmsb. p. ?19. 

Died 1109.'] ANSELM. S5 

continent, which, after many protnises and delays, the 
king refused. The monkish writers, who were favourable 
to Anselm, follow Eadmer in accusing all the English pre- 
lates of being influenced in their conduct by mercenary 
motives ; a charge which does not appear to be supported 
by other circumstances, or by their individual characters. 
The excitement caused by these proceedings had scarcely 
subsided, when a royal ordinance suddenly appeared ac- 
knowledging Urban II. as pope. The king had sent two 
messengers to Rome, and by promises and gifts having 
made his peace with the pope, the latter sent back a 
legate with the pallium, which Anselm was obliged to 
receive through the king's medication. A reconciliation 
was at the same time effected, and Anselm was allowed to 
remain in peace during the rest of the year.* This peace 
lasted during the following year (l096), king William be- 
ing occupied with the affairs of Normandy : but new causes 
of dispute arose on his return in the February of 1097. 
When, after the successful termination of an expedition 
against the turbulent Welshmen, Anselm was repairing 
to court for the purpose of urging the necessity or reform- 
ing the church, he was arrested on the road by an angry 
letter, in which the king accused him of intentionally send- 
ing a smaller number of soldiers than was due from him as 
archbishop, and thus endangering the affairs of the state. 
Anselm returned no answer to this charge, but, after an 
angry interview with William, he obtained a reluctant 
licence to go to Rome. He proceeded immediately, ac- 
companied by two or three of his monks, to Dover, where 
he was detained fifteen days by contrary weather. During 
his stay at Dover he was placed under the surveillance of 

* Serena pads tranquillitafi toto iUo anno ab animo Anselmi curas depolit, 
et bononim hominum le^aTit sollicitadines. W. Malmsb. De Gest. Pont, 
lib. i. p, 220. 

56 ANSBLM. IBom 1033. 

one of the king^s clerks, named William de Warelwast, and 
when, at the end of October, 1097, he went on ship-board, 
he was subjected to the further indignity of having his 
baggage brought out on the beach and publicly searched.* 
Anselm landed at Witsand, and proceeded immediately 
to the monastery of St. Bertin, where he remained five 
days. He then continued his route through Flanders and 
France to Cluny, amid the most extravagant and joyful 
congratulations of the population through whose country 
he passed ; so that his progress resembled more a triumphal 
march than the flight of a persecuted fugitive. His only 
companions were two English monks, Baldwin and Ead- 
mer, to the latter of whom we owe the history of his 
troubles. Anselm arrived at Cluny the third day before 
Christmas, and met there his friend Hugh bishop of 
Lyons, whom he accompanied to that city. In the middle 
of March, 1098, Anselm quitted Lyons on his way to 
Rome, where he was received by the Pope with the greatest 
marks of distinction. After a stay of only ten days at 
Rome, the unusual heat of the weather afforded him an 
excuse for visiting one of his old scholars, John abbot of 
Telesi, near the confluence of the rivers Galore and Vol- 
tumo,and the heat being there scarcely less oppressive than 
at Rome, he subsequently retired to a small farm belonging 
to the abbot on the summit of a mountain, where he re- 
signed himself to the same contemplative life which he had 
formerly led at Bee. In this solitary spot, which was 
known by the name of Sclavia, Anselm finished his treatise 
entitled Cur Deus homo? which had been commenced 
amid his troubles in England. In May he visited Roger 
earl of Sicily in his camp before Capua, and was present 
during part of the siege of that place. After its surrender, 

* Eadmer, Vit. Anselm. p. 19. W. Malmsb. pp. 220, 221. Eadmer, 
Hist. Not. 

Died 1109.] ANSELM. 57 

early in June^ he accompanied the pope to Aversa. Anselm 
took this opportunity of requesting to be permitted to re- 
sign his archbishopric ; but the pontiff refused to accede to 
his request, represented to him the pusillanimity of desert- 
ing his flock^ and urged him to return, requesting him how- 
ever to attend the council of fiari against the schismatic 
Greeks in October, where he should hear his final deter- 
mination. Anselm spent the intervening time in retire- 
ment at Sclavia ; and, after distinguishing himself at Bari 
by his eloquent defence pf the Romish church against the 
Greeks, returned with the pope to Rome, where he re- 
mained about six months, and was present at the council 
held there for the regulation of discipline, April 24, 1099, 
and the day after the conclusion of the council he left 
Rome and returned to Lyons. He awaited here the result 
of the pope's expostulations with the English king ; but 
Urban died in the mean time on the 29th of July, 1099, an 
event which lengthened the period of Anselm's exile ; and 
he was still residing at Lyons when in the beginning of 
August, 1100, news arrived of the sudden death of William 
Rufus. During his residence at Lyons Anselm wrote 
several of his works.* 

On the accession of Henry I. Anselm was immediately 
recalled and received into favour, for the king was obliged 
to conciliate the favour of the church, as a support against 
the adherents of his brother. Anselm had, however, 
now become the unflinching champion of the temporal 
power of the church of Rome, and he was very soon 
dragged into new disputes. It had been customary for 
the prelates of the church to receive the ring and crozier, 
by which the temporalities of the see were understood to 

* Eadmer, Vit. Anaelmi, pp. 80—33. Hist. Novor. pp. 65—74. W. 
Malmsb. pp. 282-^984. Hasse, Anselm yon Canterbury, book u. chap. 5, 
pp. S^B'-SSZ. 

58 ANSELSt. [Bom lOfi^. 

be conveyed, from th^ hands of the sovereign ; but the 
pope had been long endeavouring to take this investiture 
out of the hands of the Seculat prince, and it had been 
decided in the council of Rome in 1099 that any layman 
who should presume to graht such investiture, Or the priest 
who might accept it, should thereby incur the sentence 
of excommunication. The real question was, whether 
the clergy should hold their estates, and be the subjects, of 
the king or of the pope. A few days after his return, the 
king required Anselm to make the usual homage for his 
archbishopric. Anselm referred the king to the decision 
of the Roman council, and met his demand by an absolute 
refasal. The matter was referred to the new pope, Pasca- 
cius II., who decided against the king. But Henry was 
resolute in opposing this invasion ot the rights of the 
crown, and, after every attempt had been made to over- 
come the scruples of the primate, it was at last resolved 
that he should repair to Rome in person, where he found 
the king's messenger, who had arrived before him, and 
who made an unavailing effort fo obtain from the pope 
the concession of the right of investiture. It was inti- 
mated to Anselm, as he was returning from Rome, that he 
would not be received in England unless he rendered the 
same allegiance to his sovereign which had been yielded 
by his predecessors, and he again sought an asylum at 
Lyons. The king thereupon seized the temporalities of 
the see of Canterbury. 

Anselm remained at Lyons during the whole of 1104 
and the first months of the year 1105 ; but towards the 
summer of the latter year he accompanied Adela countess 
of Blois to meet king Henry in Normandy, where he was re- 
ceived into favour and restored to his rights, although his 
return to England was delayed for different reasons, and he 
retired to Bee. The dispute between the king and the 

Died 1109.] ANSfiLM. 59 

pope was at length set at rest by mutual concession, the 
latter yielding to the secular prince the right of exacting 
homage but not of investing. Anselm returned to Eng- 
land in the autumn of 1 106, and employed himself zealously 
and effectually in the reform of many abuses which had 
crept into the church during his troubles, and which occu- 
pied the remaining years of his life. On the 24th of May, 
1108, a council was held at London for the enforcing of 
discipline. The year following Ansdm appears to have 
been chiefly employed in writing : he composed at this 
time his tract De Voluntaie and the treatise De Concordia 
prmscientim et pradestinationis et graiuB Dei cum libero 
arbitrio, and was commencing a new work De origine 
amnuB when death put a stop to his laboiurs. He died of 
a lingering illness, attended by a distaste for all kinds of 
nourishment, on the 21st of Aprils 1109^ in the seventy- 
sixth year of his age5 after having held the see of Canter- 
bury sixteen years. He was buried in his cathedral, at 
the head of his friend and predecessor Lanfranc.^ 

Anselm was equal to Lanfranc in learning, and 
far exceeded him in piety. In his private life he was 
modest, humble, and sober in the extreme. He was 
obstinate only in defending the interests of the church of 
Rome, and, however we may judge the claims themselves, 
we must acknowledge that he supported them from con- 
scientious motives. Reading and contemplation were 
the favourite occupations of his life^ and even the time 
required for his meals, which were extremely frugal, he 
employed in discussing philosophical and theological 
questions.f By his rare genius he did much towards 

* The history of the last nine years of the life of Anselm is g:iYeii by 
Eadmer, Vit. Anselm. pp. 24—26, and more fully in the Hist. Novor. pp« 
75-.103. W. Mahnsb. pp. 224—229. Howie, book ii. chap. 6—11. 

t Eadmer, Vit. Anselm. p. 15, who adds. Cum vero absentibos hospitiboB 
priyatim coin fm cderet; et nulla qusesiio 9piritualis cnjusris ex parte pro- 

60 AN8BLM. [Bom 103:^. 

bringing metaphysics into repute. He laid the founda- 
tion of a new school of theology, which was free from the 
servile character of the older writers, who did little more 
than collect together a heap of authorities on the subjects 
which they treated. The Monologium and the Pros- 
logium are admirable specimens of abstract reasoning. 
His reading was extensive, and his style is clear and 
vigorous. The following extract from the first of tlie 
treatises just mentioned will serve as a specimen. 

Qitod ilia ratio rit qHtcdam rerum loeuti t»icut/aber dicii print apud se 

quodfacturui est. 

Ilia autem forma renuDy quse in ejus ratione res creandas pnecedebat, 

quid aliud est qoam reram qiuedam in ipsa ratione locutio ; yeluti cum faber 

facturus aliquod sun artis opus prius illud intra se didt mentis conceptione ? 

Mentis autem sive rationis locutionem hie intelligo, non cum voces rerum 

significatiTB cogitantur ; sed cum res ipsss ve\ fiiturse vel jam ezistentes acie 

cogitationis in mente conspiciuntur. Frequenti namque usu cognoscitur quia 

rem unam tripliciter loqui possumns. Ant enim res loquimar signis sensibi- 

libus, id est, quae sensibus corporeis sentiri possunt sensibiliter utendo ; aut 

eadem signa, quae foris sensibilia sunt, intra nos insensibiliter oogitando ; 

aut nee sensibiliter, nee insensibiliter his signis utendo ; sed res ipsas, vel 

corporum imaginatione, vel rationis intellectn, pro rerum ipsarum diver- 

sitate, intus in nostra mente dicendo. Aliter namque hominem dioo, cum eum 

hoc nomine, quod est homo» significo ; aliter cum idem nomen tacens cogito : 

aliter cum eum ipsum hominem mens, aut per corporis imaginem, aut per ra- 

tionem intuetur ; per corporis quidem imaginem, ut cum ejos sensibilem 

figuram imaginatur : per rationem vero, ut cum universalem ejus essentiam, 

quse est, animal rationale mortale cogitat. Hee vero tres loquendi varie- 

tates singulse verbis sui generis constant : sed illius, quam tertiam et ulti- 

mam posui, locutionis verba, cum de rebus non ignoratis sunt, naturalia 

sunt, et apud omnes gentes sunt eadem. Et quoniam omnia alia verba 

propter htec sunt inventa : ubl ista sunt, nullum aliud verbum est neces- 

sarium ad rem cognoscendam ; ut ubi ista esse non possunt, nullum 

aliud est utile ad rem ostendendam. Possunt etiam non absurde dici tanto 

veriora, quanto magis rebus, quarum sunt verba, similia sunt, et eas ex- 

pressius significant ; ezceptis namque rebus illis, quibus ipsis utimur pro no- 

minibus suis ad easdem significandas, ut sunt qusedam voces, velut A vo- 

calls : exceptis, inquam, his, nullum aliud verbum sic videtur rei simile, 

cujuB est verbum, aut sic eam exprimit, quomodo ilia similitudo quse in acie 

diret, praelibato potios quam sumpto cibo mox cessabat, lectionique int^n- 
dens manducantes expectabat. 

Died 1109.] anselm. 61 

mentis rem ipsam cogitantis exprimitur. lUud igitur jure dicendum est 
maxime propriam et principale rei verbum. Quapropter si nulla de qnalibet 
re locutio tantum propinqnat rei, quantum ilia qus hnjusmodi verbis con- 
stat ; nee aliquid aliud tarn simile rei vel future, yel jam ezistenti in ratione 
alicujus potest esse : non immerito yideri potest apud summam substantiami 
talem rerum locutionem et fuisse, antequam essent, ut per eam fierent, et 
esse, cum facta sunt, ut per eam sciantur. 

The published writings of Anselm are * 

1. The Monologion, a metaphysical treatise, in which 
Anselm attempts to establish by abstract reasoning the 
existence of God, his attributes, &c. He submitted this 
work to the judgment of Lanfranc, before he ventured to 
publish it. 

2. The Proslogion, in which he undertakes to prove the 
existence of God by one single continued argument.t 

3. The answer to Gaunilo, a monk of Marmoutier, who 
had criticised the Proslogion and espoused the cause of the 
insipiens (whom Anselm had introduced as his imaginary 
opponent) against Ansehn's arguments. In this tract he 
enlarges and explains some of his arguments which had 
been misunderstood. 

4. On the Trinity and the Incarnation, a controversial 
treatise against the celebrated philosopher Roscelin. 

5. On the Procession of the Holy Ghost, another con- 
troversial treatise, in which he collected the arguments he 
had employed in the council of Bari against the Greeks, 
who denied that the Holy Ghost proceeded from the Son. 
Anselm is said to have written this book between 1100 
and 1103, at the request of Hildebert bishop of Mans. 

6. A dialogue in twenty-eight chapters De casu Diabolic 
treating chiefly on the subject of the origin of evil. 

7. A treatise entitled Cur Deus Homo? in two books, 

* A good detailed account of Anselm's writings is giTen in the Hist. Lit. 
de Prance, vol. ix. pp. 416—465. 

t Coepi mecum queerere si forte posset inveniri unum argumentum quod 
nuUo alio ad se probandum quam se solo indigeret. Prsef. in Proslog. 

02 AN8BL1I. [B&m 1033. 

written in the form of a dialogue between the author and 
Boso abbot of Bee, for the purpose of showing the neces- 
sity of the Christian scheme of redemption, and proving 
the resurrection of the body. It was begun in England 
and finished in Italy. 

8. A treatise in twenty-nine chapters on the Conception 
of the Virgin and on Original Sin, composed at Lyons, 
and addressed to the same abbot Boso who appears in the 
Cur Deu8 Homo ? 

9. A dialogue De Veriiate between a master and his 


10. A treatise De f^oluntate, first published by Gerbe- 
ron, who found it without the name of the author, but 
with strong internal proofs that it was a work of Anselm. 

11. A dialogue De Libero Arbitrio. 

12. The treatise De Concordia prascientue et prcsdes- 
tinationis et gratus Dei cum libero arbitrio. This was 
Anselm's last, and perhaps his most profound, work, in 
which he undertakes to prove, first, that prescience is not 
repugnant to free-will, secondly, that predestination does 
not exclude free-will, and, thirdly, that grace does not ex- 
clude free-will. 

13. A short tract Defermento et azymo, 

14 and 15. Two brief treatises on Priests who keep 
Concubines, and on Marriage between certain degrees of 
affinity, questions then agitated in England. 

16. A dialogue on Dialectics, entitled De Grammatico. 

17. A very short treatise De Voluntate Dei. 

18. Sixteen homilies. 

19. A treatise on the Contempt of Temporal Things. 

20. Another short tract in question and answer entitled 
Admonitio morienti» 

21. Twenty-one Meditations, of some of which the 
authenticity is doubtful. 

Died 1109.] ansblu. 63 

22. A collection of serenty-four prayers. 

23. Hymns, and a Psalter of the Virgin, which are pro- 
bably erroneously attributed to Anselm. 

24. A large collection of miscellaneous letters, many of 
which afford valuable materials for the history of the 

25. His Constitutions. 

In addition to these, the writers of the Histoire Litteraire 
de France enumerate no less than thirty- six treatises 
which have been wrongly attributed to Anselm. Among 
these we may plac^ the poem De CofUemptu Mtmdi, 
which was the work of Alexander Neckham. Some ad- 
ditions might still be made from manuscripts to his 
authentic works, particularly to the Homilies, Meditations, 
and Letters ; and perhaps some of Anselm*s writings are 
entirely lost, such as the poem on the death of Lanfranc, 
mentioned by Ordericus Vitalis. 


Opera et tractatut beati Anielmi archiepUcopi Cantnarien. ordinia aancti 
Benedict!. At the end, Opera aancti Anaelmi que ii soripsit hoc libro 
qnam salutari sidere clauduntnr. Anno xp'i .M.cocclzzzjg. die vero 
Ticeaimaseptima martii Nurenberge. per Caspar Hochfeder: opifecem 
mira arte ac dilij^ntia impresaa. fol. This volume containa the Duo 
libri cur Deua homo ; liber unua de incarnatione verbi ; De oonceptn 
▼irginali et peccato originali ; Declaratio ciqnadam de eodem ; Fh>i« 
logion ; Monologion ; De processione apiritua aancti contra Gnecos ; 
Dyalogua de caan Dyaboli ; Pro inaipiente ; Contra inaipientem ; De 
diveraitate aaeramentonim ; De fermento et aaimo ; Expoaitionea mem- 
brorum et actunm Dei et Teatimentonuu ; De rolantate ; De eoncordia 
prsBcientiK et prcdeatinationia et gr^sa Dei cnm libero arbitrio ; De 
libero arbitrio ; De veritate ; De aimilitudinibua ; De menanratione 
crucia { Meditationea magnse Anaelmi ; Meditatio ejoadem de redemp- 
tione generia human! ; De paaaione Domini ; Speculum eyangelici aer- 
monia; Uomelia, lutraTit Jeaua in quoddam caatellumi Epiatol» 
Sancti Anaelmi ; De imagine mundi. 

Thia edition waa reprinted in 1494. 

temonea tres de paaaioiu Chriati. Argeatie, M.Mec.zon. 4to. At the 
end, Big. & 4t ii i^dMf ABMlmi derQtiiiiau d» puiioiie Jmu Chriitl 

64 ANSELM. [Bom 1033. 

queretis de gloriosisBime b't'e Marie V'guiis respondent*, dyalogus 
incipit feliciter. 

Opuscula beati Anselmi archiepiscopi Cantuariensis ordinis sancti benedicti. 
fol. without name of place or datCi It contains two tracts not in the 
edition of 1491| De miseria hominis, and De ezcellentia Virginis Maris. 
It also contains an index. There was another edition of the Opuscula 
without date. 

Omnia diyi Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi theologomm omnium sui 
temporis facile principis Opuscula, Antonii Democharis Ressonni in- 
dustria nunc primum restituta. Parisiisy 1544. fol. This contains, in 
addition to the previous editions, the tracts De similitudinibus, and De 
▼oluntate DeL Reprinted in 1549. 

D. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi, theologorum omnium sui temporis 
feicile principis, nemlnique eorum qui post eum fuerunt vel sanctitate, 
vel eruditione, yel eloquentia secundi» luculentissimae in omnes sanc- 
tissimi Pauli apostoli epistolas et aliquot Evangelia enarrationes. Has 
enarrationes alii D. Hervco ascribunt. Parisiis, 1544. fol. 

Opera Venet. 1549. This edition appears to have been reprinted at the 
same place in 1568. 

Anselmi Elucidarium. Paris, 1560. 

Opera, Colon. 1560. fol. and again, Colon. 1573. fol. 

B. Anselmi Vita et Opera iv. tomis, ubi ejus Epistole adject» sunt et notis 
illustrates, per Joh. Piccardum. Col. Agr. 1612. More complete than 
any of the preceding editions. 

B. Anselmi Opera extraneis in Sacros Libros Commentariis exonerata, re- 
censuit et edidit Theoph. Raynaudus. Lugd. 1630. 3 yoIs. fol. 

S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi de Felicitate Sanctorum dissertatio. 
Exscriptore Eadinero Anglo canonico regulari. Editore Joanne Bapt. 
de Machault, Parisino, Soc. Jesu. Parisiis, 1639. 8to. 

The dialogue De libero arbitrio, was published in the third volume of the 
Opuscula of St. Augustine, 4to. Lovan. 1648. 

Divi Aurelii Augustini Hippon. episcopi Meditationes, Soliloquia, et Ma- 
nuale. Meditationes B. Anselmi, cum tractatu de humani generis re- 
demptione, &c. Coloni» Agrippinse, 1649. 16mo. 

D'Acherii Spicilegium, 4to. 1653—77, tom. iii. p. 24. Second Edit. Paris, 
1723, fol. vol. i. pp. 443 — 449. Sancti Anselmi Cantuariensis archie- 
piscopi tractatus asceticus, 4to. tom. iii. p. 121, tom. ix. pp. 116 — 123. 
Second ed. tom. iii. p. 433 — 435. Some letters of Anselm. 

Usher, Veterum Epistolarum Hibernicarum Sylloge. 4 to. Dublin. 1632. pp. 
88 — 99. Six letters of Anselm. 

Sancti Anselmi ex Beccensi abbate Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi Opera .... 
labore ac studio D. Gabrielis Gerberon monachi congregationis S. 
Mauri ad MSS. fidem expurgata et aucta. Secunda editio, correcta 
et aucta. Lutetia Parisiorum, 1721 , fol. The first edition was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1675. A third was printed at Venice, 1744, in 2 vols, 
The works of St. Anselm, more or less complete, will also be found in dif- 
ferent collections printed under the title of Bibliotheca Patnun. 

Died ] 109.] anselh. 65 


A French translation of the Meditationi of Anselm was pnblished in 1571 > 
and reprinted in 1588, 1603, and 1643. 

Another French Transktion of the Meditations, by Cerisins, ^>peared in 
1650. A German translation of the Meditations had been printed at 
Lunenburg in 1638. 

The Monnt of Olives : or. Solitary DeTOtions. By Henry Vaughan, 
Silurist. With an excellent discourse of the blessed state of Man in 
Glory, written by the most rererend and holy fkther Anselm, archbishop 
of Canterbury, and now done into English. London, 1653. ISmo. 

A third French translation of the Meditations was published anonymously in 

Pbus Breathings. Being the Meditations of St. Augustine, his Treatise of 
the Love of God, Soliloquies, and Manual, to which are added Select 
Contemplations from St. Anselm and St. Bernard. Made English by 
George Stanhope, D.D. chaplain in ordinary to his Majesty. London, 
1701. 8yo. 

A translation into French of the treatise Cur Deu$ homo ? has been recently 
published in Paris. 



Section ii.*— Reign of Henry I. 


King Henry I. is said to have received the surname 
or title of Beauclerc (Bellus clerictAs) on account of his 
learning and literary taste. He was a scholar of Lan- 
franc^ and must, therefore, have received a superior 
education* That he studied at Cambridgei or at Oxford, 
and took the degree of master of arts there, is but the 
legend of a later date.* The fact of his having published 
a code of laws is certainly no proof of the king's Uterary 
talents, although Leland for this work has given Henry 
a place among the learned English writers. Bale says 
that he wrote ^^ Letters to Anselm,'^ probably the official 
letter which was written by the king's order to recall the 
primate to England. The abb^ de la Rue, for equally 
unsatisfactory reasons, placed the king among his list of 
Anglo-Norman trouveres, and believed him to have been 
the author of the collection of Esopean fables alluded to 
by the poetess Marie de France, and of an Anglo-Norman 
poem on behaviour at table, &c. entitled Le Diciie 
d^Urbain, The first of these works more probably went 
under the name of Alfred than Henry, and has been 
already spoken of in our account of that monarch. The 
DictiS (PUrbain was written at a later date; it is not in 
the slightest degree probable that Henry I. was its author. 
M. de la Rue has published four lines of an anonymous 
Latin poem, entitled Urbanus, preserved in a MS. of the 
BibUotheque Royale at Paris (No. 3718), in which it is 

* I believe the earliest authority for this statement is Rudbum's Historyi 
in Wharton, Angl. Sacr. toL i. p. ^3. 

nourished lllO.'] wiluam of Chester. 67 

said that ^^ the old king Henry ^^ had published the pre- 
cepts there given ; but it does not seem dear that this 
appellation belongs to Henry I. of England^ or that the 
^^ documenta" alluded to were anything more than the 
rules of behaviour followed in the household of the 
kings and of the great barons at the time the poem was 
written^ which may have been established in the form 
then existing by this king :* 

Clerus praecipue) miles, matrona, puella, 
Qailibet iflgenaiu haec senret scripta noTella ; 
Rex yetus Henricns primo dedit hsec docomenta 
lUepidis» libroque novo scribniitar In uto. 


Very little is known of William of Chester, except 
that he was the fUend of Anselm. The writers of the 
Histoire Litteraire de France are probably correct in sup- 
posing him to have been a native of Normandy and a monk 
of Bee, where he appears to have been one of Anselm's 
disciples. He was, perhaps, one of the colony of monks 
from Bee which Anselm established at Chester in 1092.t 
It is evident that he survived Anselm, but it is not at all 
probable that he was the same person who was elected 
abbot of St. Werburg's at Chester in 1131, and died in 
1140, as Tanner seems to intimate. Wil^am wrote a 
poem on the elevation of Anselm to the see of Canter- 
bury, and another on his death, in Latin elegiacs. The 
letter in which Anselm acknowledges the receipt of the 

* M. de la Rue's article on Henry I. will be found in hia Eaaaia Hlato- 
riqnes ntr lea Bardes, lea Jonglenn, et les TrouT^rea Normands et Anglo* 
Normandfl, vol. ii. pp. 33^40. 

t Hiatf lit. de Fhmos, tom. z. p. IS* 


68 GILBERT CRISPIN. [Died 1114. 

fonner is extant,* as well as the poems themselves. 
They are both short. The elegy commences with a brief 
abstract of Anselm's life; the following lines will serve 
to convey an idea of the style in which it is written : 

?elix ItalU pne cnnctifl partibi» orbis, 

QoB meruit talem progennisse ▼inun. 
Infelix itemm quae talem perdit alumnum, 

lufelix plane pignoris orba sui. 
Tu quoque coenobium quondam Beccense vigebaa, 

Dum tuns Anaelmus dux fuit et monachus ; 
Amiait veterem focies tua pene decorem, 

Dum tuus Anselmua desiit ease pater. 
Cantia, tu quondam totum veneranda per orbem 

Pnesulis Anaelmi tempore aigna dabas. 
Te minor orbia erat ; populos tua fama per omnes 

Fluzit amica bonia, invidioaa malia. 
Te monachua, clerua, populuaque docendus adibat, 

Dum tuna Anaelmua vizerat ille bonua. 


Staphani Baluzii Tntelenaia Miacellanea, noyo ordine digeata, tomus iv. 
Lucse, 1764, fol. p. 15, Carmen in laudem aancti Anaelmi arcbiepiscopi 
Cantuariensia. p. 16, Epicedion in obitum ejusdem. Probably they 
were taken from the same manuscript which was formerly in the 
possession of Leland. 


Gilbert Crispin was one of the most distinguished of 
the monks whom Lanfranc brought into England from 
the abbey of Bee. He was of a noble Norman family, 
being descended from Gilbert count of Brienne, who had 
obtained the surname of Crispin, or Crespin, from his 
crisp or curly hair. His father placed him in the school 
of Bee at a very early age, and he had made great pro- 

* Anaelmi Epist. lib. iii. ep. 34. 

Died 1\14,] gilbert Crispin* 69 

gress in all branches of learning, first under Lanfranc and 
Herluin^ and afterwards under Anselm^ when Lanfranc 
brought him to England^ and made him abbot of West- 
minster. He is said to have held this dignity thirty-two 
years, and to have died in 1114 or 11 17.* 

Gilbert Crispin appears to have enjoyed considerable 
reputation as a writer. His most celebrated work was a 
treatise against the Jews, some of whom he is said to have 
converted. This treatise^ dedicated to Anselm^ is written 
in the form of a dialogue between a Jew and a Christian. 
In the following lines of the introductory letter to Anselm, 
Gilbert describes the occasion on which this book was 

Patemitati et pradentise vestrse discutiendnm mitto Ubelliim, quern nuper 
scripei, pagin» commendana quae Judeeus quidam olim meoum disputans, 
contra fidem nostram de lege sua proferebat, et qusB ego ad objecta illius 
pro fide nostra respondebam. Nescio unde ortus, sed apud Moguntiam 
litteris educatus, legis et litterarum etiam nostrarnm bene sciens erat, et 
exercitatum in scripturis atque disputationibus contra nos ingenium habebat. 
Plarimum mihi familiaris seepe ad me Teniebat, turn negotii sui causa, turn 
me yidendi gratia : quoniam in aliquibus illi multum necessarius eram : et 
quotiens conveniebamus, mox de scripturis ac de fide nostra sermonem 
amico animo habebamus. Quadam ergo die sotito majus mihi et illi Deus 
otium concessit ; et mox unde solebamus inter nos quaestionem cospimus. 
Et quoniam quae opponebat convenienter satis et consequenter opponebat, 
et ea quae opposuerat non minus convenienter protequendo explicabat, nostra 
vero responsio vicino satis pede ad opposita illius respondebat et scriptu- 
rarum «eque testimonio nitens eadem ipsi concessu fadlis esse videbatur et 
approbanda, rogaverunt quidam qui aderant ut memorise darem nostram 
banc disceptationem fortasse aliquibus profnturam. Scripsi igitUTi et tadto 
mei et ipsius nomine scripsi sub persona Judiei cum Christiano de fide nostra 
disceptantisi scriptumque et exaratum hoc opus yestroe transmitto examl- 
nandum censurse. 

The only other work of this writer which has been 
printed is the Life of Herluin, first abbot of Bee. Most 
of the treatises ascribed by Cave and others to Gilbert 
Crispin belong to other persons of the name of Gilbert ; 

* The better authorities appear to be in fkvour of the earlier date. 8e% 
Tanner. The writers of the Hist. lit. de France seem inclined to place his 
death several years later, but their evidence is not satisfactory. 


70 T VRGOT. [Died 1115. 

the comments on the Bible are the work of Gilbertus 
Universalis* The writer of the article on Gilbert in the 
Hist. lit. de France states erroneously that there is a dia* 
logue on the Procession of the Holy Spirit by Gilbert of 
Westminster in the Cottonian Library. The same bio* 
grapher* quotes the following titles from an early cata- 
logue of books giyen to the abbey of Bee : ^^ Contra Judeeos 
liber Gisleberti Crispin!. Item^ ejusdem de Simoniacis^ 
et de veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini» Item^ ejus- 
dem sermo de dedicatione ecdesiee. Item, homilia ejus* 
dem super : Cum vigilasset Dominusi Item, ejus epistolse 


Beati Lanfranci • • opera • eTul^vIt donmu Lveas Dacheriu. Lut. Par. 

1648, fol. Appendix, pp. 3S— ^. Vita Mancti et glorioeisflmi patris 

Uerluini . • authore Gilberto Crispiiie abbate Wettmoiiasterleiiii. 
Acta Sanctomm Ordinia 8. Benedloti . . . Snciiliim tI. Pan Seennda. 

Latedse Pariiiomin, 1701, fol. pp. 340— ^55, Vita B. Herioini Bec- 

oenBie abbatia primi et eonditorie* Attctore Gialeberto Crigpino abbate 

WeatmonasterienBi, ejus dladpiilo. 
Sancti Anselmi opera, fol. Pariaiii, 1721. pp. 512—544. Disputatio Jndsei 

cum Cbrutiano de fide Christiana, aoripta a domno Gisleberto abbate 

Westmonaf terii, kactenns inedHa. 


Among the earliest historical writers after the Con-- 
quest was Turgot, who wrote a history of the monastery 
of Durham from the first settlement of the monks there 
to his own time, which contains valuable notices relating 
to the history of the north of England in the Anglo- 
Saxon and eariiest Anglo-Norman times. We first hear 
of Turgot in 1074, when a monk named Aldwin quitted 
his own monastery of Winchelescombe (or Winchcomb) 

* HUt, Lit de Fr. tom. x, p. 196. 

DiedlllB.'] TURGOt. 71 

in Gloucestershire^ to visit some of the monasteries which 
had been injured or ruined in the troubles of the preceding 
age. Aldwin went with one or two companions to Eve- 
sham^ York, Newcastle^ Jarrow or Yarrow, from which 
latter place he was invited by bishop Walcher to Durham. 
He was accompanied from Jarrow to Durham by Turgot, 
who was then a young man and a clerk, but not a monk.* 
Aldwin and Turgot soon rose high in the favour of Wal- 
cher, who gave to them and their companions the monas- 
tery of Jarrow, which they began to raise from its ruins. 
The monks, however^ appear not to have agreed well in 
this place; and a party of them, with Aldwin at their 
head, left it and repaired to Melros. Turgot was again one 
of Aldwin's companions on this occasion* They were 
here persecuted by the king of the Scots^ and, induced by 
the persuasions and threats of Walcher, they returned to 
Durham^ and the bishop settled them at Wearmouth, 
which also they raised in some measure from its ruins. 
Here Turgot received the tonsure at the hands of Aldwin. 
In 1083, after Watcher's death, bishop WiUiam (his suc- 
cessor) obtained the king's licence to turn out the secular 
canons attached to his cathedral, and introduce monks in 
their place. On this occasion he transferred the monks of 
Jarrow and Wearmouth to Durham, and reduced those 
two ancient houses to the position of cells to his larger 
house, of which latter he made Aldwin the first prior. 
Aldwin dying in 1087, Turgot, who enjoyed the favour of 
his bishop, was chosen to succeed him, and as prior as- 
sisted at the foundation of the new monastery in 1093. 
He was subsequently made archdeacon of the diocese, and 
in 1 109 he was elected to the bishopric of St. AndreVs^ 

* At Aldwiniu de Gyrnnensi monasterio egrediens, comitem itlneris et 
propositi in eleiicati adhnc liabitu Tnrgotnin liabidt^ Sim. Danelm. Hist, 
de DnndLm. Eccles. col. 45. 

72 TURGOT. [Died 1115. 

which he held till 1115^ when, sick and aged, and dis- 
gusted with the treatment he received from the Scottish 
king, he obtained licence to resign and return to Durham, 
where he died two months after his arrival, at the begin- 
ing of September, 1115,* 

Turgot's history of his monastery of Durham appears 
to have been republished about fifty years afterwards by 
Simeon of Durham, who put his own name to it, although he 
made scarcely any alterations in it, and did not even con- 
tinue it^t It is written in clear and simple language. The 
following is Turgot's description of the site of Durham, at 
the time of the arrival of the monks of Lindisfarne, who 
had escaped from the Danes with the body of their saint. 

Comitans Banctisdmi patris Cathberti corpus universas populas in 
Dunelmum, locum quidem natura munitnm sed non fecile habitabilem in- 
Ycnit, quoniam densissima undique ailya totum occupaverat. Tantum in 
medio plauicies erat non grandis, quam arando et seminando excolere con- 
sueverant : ubi episcopus Aldhunus non panram de lapide postea ecdesiam 
ereziti aicut in consequentibus apparebit. Igitnr priefotus antistes totius 
populi auzilio et comitis Northanimbrorum Uhtredi adjutorio totam eztirpana 
Bilvam Buccidit, ipsumque locum brevi babitabilem fecit. Denique a flumine 
Coqued usque ad Teisam universa populomm multitude tam ad hoc opuB 
quam ad construendam postmodum ecdesiam prompto animo accessit, et 
donee perficeretur devota insistere non cessavit. Eradicata itaque silva, et 
unicoique mansionibus sorte distributis presul antedictus an ore Christi et 
sancti Cuthberti fervens, ecdesiam honesto nee paryo opere inchoavit, et ad 
perficiendam omni studio intendit. Interea sanctum corpus de ilia quam 
superius diximus ecclesiola in aliam translatum que alba ecclesia yocabatur, 
tribus ibidem annis dnm major ecclesia construeretur requievit. 

* This information is gathered from the brief but valuable Annals of 
Durham printed in the Monasticon, vol. i. p. 235, and from Turgot's own 

f It was printed under Simeon*s name by Twysden. See the article on 
Simeon in the present volume. A fine early manuscript of Turgors book is 
in the firitish Museum, MS. Cotton. Faustina A. v. A learned essay 
written by Sdden to prove that Turgot, and not Simeon, was the author, is 
printed in Twysden. Rudd, who published a new edition, endeavours to 
confute the arguments of Selden, and the question still seems involved in 
some doubt. It may be observed that the passages quoted by Fordun from 
Tuigot are not found in the History of Durham attributed to him. 


Turgot also wrote the Life of St, Margaret queen of 
Scotland^ probably during the period he held the see of 
St. Andrew's: it was preserved in a manuscript in the 
Cottonian library which unfortunately perished in the 
fire.* Bale pretends that Turgot also wrote a history of 
the kings of Scotland^ a life of king Malcolm^ and a 
history of his own time. The historian Fordun quotes 
frequently from Turgot's writings. 


The first general historian, or rather chronicler, who 
wrote in England after the Norman conquest, was Flo- 
rence, a monk of Worcester. All we know of the per- 
sonal history of this writer is, that he died on the fifth 
of June 1 118, and that he was esteemed by the monks of 
his house as a man of great erudition and industry .f Le- 
land gives an exaggerated estimate of his character. His 
chronicle, which commences with the creation, and is con- 
tinued to the year of his death, is little better than a com- 
pilation from the chronicle of Marianus Scotus, and from 
the Saxon Chronicle. The part which relates to our own 
island is almost a literal translation from the latter work. 
An anonymous continuation of the chronicle of Florence 
from lll8toll41isof much greater value than the chro- 
nicle itself. The account of events which occurred in the 
year 1083 will furnish an example of Florence's style, and 

* MS. Cotton. Tiberius D. iii. This life is quoted by Fordun, Scoti- 
chron. lib. v. c. S3. 

f His continuator says, A. 1 118, Nonis Julii obiit dominns Florentius 
Wigornensis monachus. Hujas subtili scientia et studiosi laboris industria, 
prieeminet cunctis hsec Chronicarum Chronica. The Worcester Annals^ 
printed in Wharton, Anglia Sacra, torn. i. p. 475, give the same date. 


may be compared with the account of the same year in 
the Saxon Chronicle.* 

1083. Henricus urbem Romse inliregit et oepit, Wigbertam in sede apoB- 
tolica ooiutitait. HUdebrandiu Tero Beneveiitam adilt, abi «sque ad obitvm 
saum dqjuit. Henrioiu rex in Tentonicain patiiam rediit. Seditio neftuida 
inter monachos et indigne nominandnm abbatem Tontanum GlaatoniaB facta 
est, qnem rex Gnlielmns de monasterio Cadomi, nulla pmdentia instmctum, 
eidam loco abbatem pivfeeerat. Hie inter CKtera stultitie nue opera, 
Gregoriannm cantum aspematus, monachos coepit oompellere nt illo relicto 
cujnsdam Gnlielmi Fescamnensis cantum discerent et cantarent. Quod 
dnm segre acciperent, quippe qui jam tam in hoc quam in caetero ecclesias- 
tico officio secundum morem Romanae ecdesie insenuerant, subito (armatus 
militari manu) illis ignorantibus quadam die in capitulnm irruit, monachos 
nimio terrore fugientes in ecclesiam usque ad altare persequitur, jaculisque 
et sagittis cruces et imsgines ae feretn «anetomm manus militaris transfi- 
gens, unum etiam monachum, amplexantem altare lancea transrerberans in- 
teremit, alium ad altaris crepidinem sagittis oonfossum necayit. Csteri 
rero necessitate compulsl scamis et eandelabiis ecdesift fortiter se defend- 
entei» lloet graviter nJiierati, miUtea omiies retio ohornm ab^genint ; aieque 
ftctum est ut duo ocdsi quatuordedm yulnenti ex monaehis, nonnulli etiam 
de militibus sauciati existerent. Hinc moto judicio, dum maxima abbatis 
ease cvUptL patait, rex evndem abbatem summovlt, et In monasterio suo in Nor- 
mannia posuit De monaohia Tero quam plurimi per episoopetos et abbatias 
jussn regis custodiendi disperguntur. Ciqus post mortem, idem abbas ite- 
rum abbatiam suam a filio ejus Gulielmo quingentis libris argenti emit, et 
per eodesiis poasesslones aliquot auds perragatus, krnge ab ipso monasterio 
(ut dignus erat) miiere vitam finirit. Regina Matiildia quarto Nonas No- 
▼embris feria quinta decessit in Normannia, et Cadomi est sepulta. 

The old bibliographers attribute several other works to 
Florence of Worcester ; but there is strong reason for be- 
lieving that they had no authority for them» 

• W. Malmsb. De Antiq. GlsstoB. Eoeleai»» q>. Gale, p. 383, in die 
chapter De Discordiis inter Turstanum et suum oouTentum, et de cmoe tuI- 
nerata ; at the end says, Acta sunt hsec anno Domini MLXXXI" : hujus 
etiam rdi testis est Orosius Angloram hlstoriographus. As no other writer 
mentions anj EagUsh ehronider of this name^ at the end of the eleventh and 
beginning of the twelfth centuries, I am inclined to think that Ortmu» is a 
mere error of the scribe for Flormtim$. It is singular that Orderiens VltaBs, 
speaking apparently of Florence of Worcester, calls him John, lib. iiL p. 159 
(ed. Le PreTost). Periiaps, like Ordericus himself, ha may have had mote 
names than one. This historian says, that John of Woraester, the chro* 
nicler, was of Anglo-Saion Mood, and wm edacated In the monastery tnm 
his childhood. 

Died 1 1 19.] hbrsbbbt, bishop of nobwioh* 75 


ChronicoD ex Chronic», ab initio mundi usque ad annum Domini 1118 de- 
ductom, Auctore Florentio l^^igorniensi monacho. Acceasit etiam con- 
tinuatio usque ad annum Christi 1141, per quondam ejusdem eoenoUl 

eruditum Londini, ezcudebat Thomas Dausonus, pro Bioazdo 

Watkins, 1592, 4to. Edited by William Howard, and dedicated to 
Lord Burghley« 

Flores Historiarum per Matthieum WestmonasterieiiBem eoUeotl* • • • • • £1 
Chronicon ex Chronicis ab initio mundi usque ad annum Domini 
MCXTIII deductum : Auctore Florentio Wigomiensi monacho. Cui 
acoessit Continuatio usque ad annum Christi MCXLI, per quondam 
ejusdem coenobii eruditum* FrancoAirti, 1601, fol. 

Collection of Historians, edited by order of the Reoord CommJMioni vol. i. 
pp. 522 — 615. Chronicon ex Chronicis, ab initio mundi usque ad an- 
num Domini M.C.XYIII. deductum, auctore Florentio Wtgomiensi 
monacho. The portion extending ftom AJ>. 4^0 to the Noman Con- 
quest, pp. 616 — 644. Florentii Wigomiensis ad Chronicon Appendix. 
Tables of bishops, kings, &c. 


HBREBBRT^known commonly by the surname of Losinga, 
was born at Hiesmes in Normandy, (pagus Oximensis,*) 
and became a monk in tbe abbey of Fecamp, of which he 
was subsequently made prior. William Rufus invited him 
to England in 1087, and made him abbot of Ramsey. 
By the king's favour, and other means^ Herebert soon be- 
came very rich; and in 1091 he bought of the king^ for 
the sum of a thousand pounds, the bishopric of Thetford 
for himself, and the abbacy of Winchester for his fictther 
Robert.t This transaction appears to have created much 

* The greater nnmber of modem biographers, with Bartholemew de Cot- 
ton, in the Anglia Sacra, vol. i. p. 407, have read Ozunensis, and Oxonien* 
sis, and supposed him to be a natiye of Oxford. 

t W. Malmsb. de Gest. Reg. lib. IV. p. 128, and de Gest. Pontif. lib. II. 
p. 338. Roger de Hoveden. Annal* p. 464. See also the articles on Here^ 
bert in the Hijit, lit. de France, torn, z, and in Godwin de Episc. 


scandal at the time^ and to have been loudly condemned. 
Herebert went in person to Rome to obtain absolution of 
his sin of simony, and endeavoured to make amends for 
it by his exemplary conduct in after life. On his return 
from Rome in 1094, he removed his see from Thetford to 
Norwich, and founded at the former place a house of 
Cluniac monks. At Norwich' he built the cathedral and 
founded the monastery at his own charges ; and he also 
built five, parish churches in his diocese, two at Norwich, 
and the others at Elmham, Lynn, and Yarmouth. He 
died on the 22nd of July, 1119, and was buried in his 
cathedral church.* 

William of Malmsbury speaks of Herebert as a man of 
considerable learning ; and Henry of Huntingdon mentions 
his writings then extant.f According to Bale he was the 
author of a book of sermons, eighteen in number, begin- 
ning with the words, Convenistis, dilectissimi fratres ; and 
of separate treatises, Be proliantate temporum^ and De fine 
mundi ; he also attributes to him a set of constitutions 
for the government of monks, a collection ^of letters, and 
a treatise Ad Anselmum contra sacerdotes. If these works 
ever existed, they appear now to be lost. But we learn 
from the Histoire Litteraire de France,! that in the last 
century there was still preserved, in the library of the 
abbey of Cambron, Herebert* s treatise on the seven sacra- 
ments^ under the title, Herebertus de Septem Sacramentis. 

* Bale and Pits place his death in 1120 ; but the other date is supported 
by better authorities. See Tanner. 

t NorwiciK sedit Herbertus, vir benignus et doctus, cujus extant scripta. 
H. Hunt. De mundi contemptui p. 700. 

t Tom. X, p. 2C7. 



The next Anglo-Norman poet of any importance after 
Godfrey of Winchester was Reginald of Canterbury. We 
learn from his own writings that he was bom and educated 
at Fagia, apparently in the south of France,* and that 
Aimericlord of Fagia was his patron.f He came to England, 
and became a monk in the Benedictine abbey of St. Augus- 
tine at Canterbury. We have no date of any event of his 
life ; but we know that he was the contemporary of Anselm, 
to whom he addresses some of his writings, and that he 
was intimate with most of the scholars of that age. In a 
short poem addressed to Gilbert Crispin abbot of West- 
minster, he speaks of his principal poem, the legend of St. 
Malchus, and as Gilbert himself died in 1117^ we may 
perhaps conclude that that poem was composed at least 
from three to five years before that date, in which case 
Reginald must be considered as having flourished about 
A.D. 11 J 2.t We have no information on the date of his 

We have abundant proofs that Reginald had studied 
with attention the classic poets of ancient Rome; his 
Latinity is not incorrect, and he writes with much facility 
and spirit, although he has the taste of a barbarous age. He 

* In his poem ad Fagiam castellumf Reginald says, — 
Fagia, dum yivam, te lando meam genitivam 
Terram, dam fnero, grates tibi solvere qunero. 
Fagia, favisti, genuistii perdocuisti 
Olim me puerum falso discernere vernm. 
t He addresses one of his poems to Domino stio Americo Fagiensi. 
X This approximate date is farther supported by the circumstances that 
the MSS. contain some verses addressed to Reginald, and complimenting 
him on his life of Malchus, by Thomas archbishop of York, who was made 
archbishop in 1109> and died in 1114« 

78 REGINALD OF CANTERBURY. [Flourished in 1112. 

uses the rhyming hexameters which were termed Leonine 
verse^ and tasks his ingenidty to produce a continual varia- 
tion of rhymes^ and of modes of attaching them together. 
His principal work is a long poem on the legendary his- 
tory of an eaatem saint named Malchus, who lived in the 
fourth century» The following description of the cave of 
Malchus will be sufficient to convey a notion of tiie style 
of tMs long verbose composition.^ 

Hac sab rape specoB fait oUm lomiae cttcos. 
Antram semlratom, Yastanif penetrabile, matomi 
Solii inaeoeifiim radUiy oaUgine pressam. 
QiUB tamen irrorat loea fout sol ilia Taporat. 
Janoa dBtarnSf viz hoc rabet igne laceraae. 
Sed te lndiiioOy lapidem com janaa dico. 
CardOf foras, ailitas» lapis est non arte politos. 
Poites petra dabat, sibi ^oos natora creabat. 
Intrantiqae tamen dabat arctam petra foramen. 
At neqoMS teeto te siatere, eorpore recto ; 
Ni qaadrapes ibist non hac irrvmpere qoibis. 
Hone aditam terras panra potes obice petrse 
Clandercy nee fares tanc magni pendere cares. 

Some of Reginald's smaller poems^ more especially the 
one in praise of Fagia, give us a better opinion of the 
poefs taste, as will be seen in the following lines from the 
last mentioned poem, written in cross-rhymed Leonines, 
which are best understood by being divided. 

Fagia, si loquerer 

lixigais, et millia nossem 
Plectra, prias morerer 

qoam aingola scribeie possem. 
Fagiai dnm calidis 

sol carribas oocidet undis 
Cerolese Thetidis, 

hastes mnonme retondis. 

* A brief analysis of this poemi with some extracts, and the two poems of 
Reginald to Fagia and Aimeric, are given in Sir Alexander Croke's Essay on 
the Origin^ F^ogressi and Decline of Rhyming Latin Verse, pp. 63—89. 

Died 1134.] brkulph bivsop of Rochester. 79 

FagUf donee aper 

tSivtiM, et flvnunA piicU , 
Et Ylrgolta caper 

repetuity tn ontoave disoli* 
PagUr doneo apes 

CTtisttiii, jaTcnemque puella, 
Esnrlenaqae dapea 

amatf ardea viBoere baDa« 

The poems of Reginald of Canterbury are preserved in 
manuscript in the British Museum^* and at Oicford.f 


Ernulph was a native of Beauvais^ where he was 
bom about the year 1040. In his youth he studied under 
Lanfranc at Becj and subsequently^ on his return to 
Beauvais, he became a monk in the monastery of St. 
Lucian^ where he taught grammar. Dissatisfied with the 
behaviour of the monks of his house, about 1070, he 
wrote to Anselm and Lanfranc, to ask their advice on the 
steps he should pursue, and, at the invitation of the 
latter, he came to England and entered the priory of Can- 
terbury. He there continued to teach grammar, and, after 
the accession of Anselm to the archbishopric, was raised to 
the office of prior. In 1107 Emulph was made abbot of 
Peterborough, and in 1114 he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Rochester.]: One of his most important 
works as bishop was the collecting of the various early 
charters, &c. of his see into a volume, which is still pre* 

• MS. Cotlon. Veapaa. B. in. 

t Bibl. Bodl. MS. Land. No. 40. 

t V. Malmab. de Geat. Pontif. p. 834, and the Hiat. Lit. de Fr. torn, z, 


80 EADMEB. [Died about 1124. 

served and known by the title of the Texttis Rqffensis. 
Besides the charters of the church, this volume con- 
tains a valuable collection of the Anglo-Saxon and early 
Anglo-Norman laws, and some other small documents 
of historical importance. It has furnished materials 
to the different printed collections of English laws 
and constitutions; a few articles of its contents were 
given in the Anglia Sacra; and finally the whole was 
printed by Hearne. There are also preserved two long 
letters from Ernulph to Walkelin bishop of Winchester 
and Lambert abbot of St. Bertin; the first relating to 
adulterous marriages, the other to the sacrament of the 
altar and some other theological questions. Bishop 
Ernulph died on the 15th of March, 1 124, at the age of 


Anglia Sacra. (Edited by H. Wharton,) para prima. Lond. 1691. fol. pp. 
329 — 34. Eraulfi Episcopi Roifensis Collectanea de Rebus Ecclesin 
Roffensis, from the Teztas Roffensis. 

Teztas Roffensis. Accedunt, Professionum antiquomm Anglie Episcopo- 
rum Formulse, de canonica obedientia archiepiscopis Cantuariensibus 

preestanda, &c £ Codicibos MSS. descripsit ediditque Tho. 

Heamios. Oxonii, 1730, 8yo. 

Lucas D'Achery, Spicilegium siyc Collectio veterum aliquot Scriptorum. 
Tomus III. Farisiis, 1723, fol. pp. 464 — 471. Emulfi monachi Bene- 
dictini, postea Roffensis episcopi, Epistola ad Walchelinum episcopum 
Wentanum. pp. 471—474, Ejusdem Epistola ad Lambertum. These 
Epistles appeared in the second volume of the earlier edition of the 
Spicilegium, pp. 410 and 431. 


Eadmer appears to have been born of an English 
family ; he is said to have been placed at an early age in 
the monastery at Canterbury^ where he became a chanter^ 

Died 1124.] eadmer. 81 

and where he obtained the friendship and patronage of 
Anselm after his elevation to the archbishopric. He 
accompanied the primate in all his troubles and wander- 
ings, of which he composed the history after Anselm's 
death. To him also was entrusted the direction of 
Anselm's funeral. He appears to have enjoyed the 
favour of Anselm's successor, archbishop Radulph, whom 
also he accompanied to Rome in 1119. On his return 
to England, in 1120, he was elected bishop of St. Andrew's 
in Scotland, but for some reason or other he returned to 
Canterbury the year following.* The day of his death 
is known to have been the 13 th of January ; the year is 
less certain, but it is supposed to have been 1124. 

As a writer, Eadmer appears under three characters, 
those of a historian, of a compiler of lives of saints, and 
of a theologian. His principal historical work, the His^ 
toria Novorum, or history of his own times, in six books, 
is the most valuable work we possess relating to the 
events of the reign of William Rufus, and of the earlier 
part of that of Henry I. It ends with the close of 
the archiepiscopate of Radulph, who died in 1122, but 
a portion of it appears to have been written before the 
death of Ansehn, and is even said to have been revised 
by Anselm himself. The life of Anselm, in two booksj 
forms a necessary supplement to this history. The 
Historia Novorum was first printed by Selden: it ap- 
pears to have been very popidar in the twelfth century, 
and is spoken of in high terms of praise by William of 

Eadmer compiled lives of several Anglo-Saxon saints 
connected with the see of Canterbury, such as Odo, 
Bregwin, and Dunstan, and Peter first abbot of St. 

* Wharton, AngUa Sacra, vol. ii. p. 13. 

8^ BABXBR. [DiedllU. 

Augustine's^ and of Oswald and Wilfrid archbishops ol 
York. Thiese have been printed by Wharton and others» 
He is said also to hare written a Kfe of Aldhebn, but 
this is, perhaps, an error arising from the misreading of 
Aldhehn instead of Ansdm. An early manuscript (per- 
haps contemporary) in the Kbrary of Corpus Christi 
College^ Cambridge,* contains nearly all tiie works known 
to have been written by Eadmer, and more especially the 
lives, but no life of Aldhelm occurs amongst them. 

Eadmer's theological and miscellaneous writings are 
bri^, and without importance. The manuscript just 
alluded to contains his verses on St. Dunstan ; a hymn 
on St. Edward the king and martyr; a tract on the 
assertion of the monks of Glastonbury that they possessed 
the body of Dunstan ; a tract entitled Scrotum de ardi^ 
naiione beoH GrefforU Angbyntm a^sioli; on the Ex- 
eellence of the Virgin Mary] Scriptum ie beatitutHne 
vUiB peremMy deiumptum es semume kabito ah Anaelmo 
Cemtuar. in C€Bnobh CluniaeenH ; on the Conception of the 
Virgin Mary ; SentenHa de memoria sanctorum quo» vene- 
raris; Scriptum Eadmeri peceatoria ad eommovendam mper 
Be misericordtam beaH Petri janitoris regni ccelestie; a 
discourse on the relics of St. Owen and other saints, 
freserved at Canterbury; and a tract bearing the title 
hmpida qwedam divinuB dUtpemationis eonsideratio edita 
ab Eadmero magna peccatore de beoHssvmo Gabriele arch^ 
angelo. Gerberon, in his e(^on, restored to Eadmet 
two works which had been attributed to Anselm, ^^ On 
the Four Virtues which were in the blessed Vii^,** and 
^ Oft the Similitudes of St. Anselm.^' T%e latter con- 
tains the oral sayings of Anselm. Some of Eadmer's 
epistles are preserved in MS. Cotton. Otho, A. xii. A few 

• MS. C. C. C. C. No. 371. 

Dkd 1124.] BADKEB. 8S 

other tracts «re ftttributed to Eadmer by Bale, which^ if 
they ever existed^ appear now to be lost. 

Eadmer's account o£ hia jo«ira«y with A&adboi from 
Lyons to Rome^ in the Vita Ansebniy will serve as a 
specimen of his style and manner of writing. 

Cnm autem liOgdiiniun veniaaet, et ab archiepucopo ciTitatis ipsius glo- 
riose SQBoephis fiiuaet, post dies paucos mtesis Uteris consiUum a domino 
papa de n^gpotio sao quaesivit» et quia partim imbecillitate sm corporis, par- 
tim afiis pluribos causis prsepeditos ultra Lnj^aaum progredi nequaquam 
posset, ei suggessit. Ita ergo Lugduni resedit, reditnm nuntiorom saorum 
Ibi ezpectans. Post tempus Roma nuntii redeunt* et qaoniam omni snb- 
lata excuiatione eiun ad se papa properare prieceperit, referant. Ille nes- 
cins mors pontiixcalibus jussia obaudit, yife se periculis mortem pro Deo 
mm Veritas tradit. Hlnc Secnsiam Tenimus, et nos abbati loci iUius prn- 
sentavimas. Eramus quippe monachi tres, dominas videlicet et pater An- 
selmusy dominas Balduinus» et ego qui heec scribo frater Eadmeros, qoi 
ita ibamos quasi pares essemos, nullo indicio qais coi prsestaret coram aliis 
ostendentes. Ab abbate igitur qui vel nnde essemos interrogati, panels 
respondimos. Et audito qnosdam ex nobis Beccensis coenobii monachos 
esse, sdflcitatns est : Fratres, obsecro vos, vivit ille adbuc, ille Dei et om- 
nium bonoTum amicus Anselmus, scilicet coenobii ipsius abbas, vir in omni 
reBgione probatus et acoeptns ? Balduinus ad biec : Ille, ait, ad archiepis- 
copatum in aliud regnum raptus est. At ille, Audivi ; sed nunc quseso qua- 
liter est ? valet ? Equidem ex eo tempore, ait, quo functus est pontificatu, 
non viifi eum Becci : didtur tamen bene valere ubi est. Tunc abbas : Et 
ut valeat oro. Hec de se Anselmus dici audiens, confestim tecta cuculae 
sute capitio capite, demisso vultu sedebat. Nolebamus enim agnosci, ne 
forte pnecurrente fama de adventu tanti viri cuivis periculo nostra incuria 
fieremus obnoxH. Celebratis dehinc in coenobio sancti Micbaelis archangeli, 
quod in monte situm Clusa vocatur, Passionis ac Resurrectionis Dominic» 
solenniis, in iter reversi Romam festinavimus. Mirum dicta. Pauci atque 
ignoti per loca peregrina ibamus» neminem agnoseantes, nemini qui vel unde 
essemus innotescentes, et ecce solus Anselmi aspectus in admirationem sui 
populos excitabat, eumque esse virum vitie designabat. Unde cum jam hos* 
pitati etiam intef eos» quorum insidias metuebamus, fuissemus ; nonnun- 
quitt fill «am muliiribiis ho^iitiuiitt intnure» «t ut homlnem vMere ejusqoe 
mererentur benedictione potiri, obnixe pvecabantor. 


fratris Ediaeri Angli de Vita D. Aaaelmi Archiepiscopi Cantuariansis» 
lib. II. nunquam antehac editi. Antverpise, 1551, 12mo. It was 
aftenrardfl inierted in the editions of Anselm's works. 


84 STEPHEN HARDING. [Died 1134. 

Eadmeri Monaclii CantnarienBis Historic Novorum siye sui Saecoli. libri 
VI. Res gestas (quibuB ipse non modo spectator diligens sed comes 
etiam et actor plemnqne interfuit) sub GuUelmis I. et II. et Hen- 
rico I. Anglise regibus, ab anno nempe salatis MLXVI. ad MCXXII. 
potissimum complex!. In Lucem ex Bibliotheca Cottoniana emisit 
Joannes Seldenus, et notas porro adjecit et spicileginm. Londini, 
1623. fol. 

Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedict!. Sseculum III. pars. i. fol. Paris, 
1672, pp. 196-238, The Life of Wilfrid. Seec. V. fol. Paris, 1685, 
pp. 288-296, The Life of Odo (ascribed wrongly to Osbem). 

Ansehni Opera, ed. Gerberon. fol. Paris, 1675. The works of Eadmer as a 

Anglia Sacra, sive CoUectio Historiarum antiquitus scriptarum de Archie- 
piscopis et Episcopis Angli», a prima Fidel Christianec susceptione ad 
annum MDXL. Pars Secunda, 1691. Edited by Henry Wharton, 
pp. 78-^87, Osberni (verius Eadmeri) liber de Vita S. Odonis archie- 
piscopi Cantuar. pp. 181 — 183, Eadmeri librorum de Vita S. Anselmi 
que desunt in editis. pp. 184 — 190, Eadmeri Liber de Vita S. Breg- 
wyni. pp. 191— 210, Eadmeri liber de Vita S. Oswald!, pp. 211— 221, 
Eadmeri liber de Vita S. Dunstani. pp. 222—226, Eadmeri epistola 
ad monachos Glastonienses de Corpore S. Dunstani. p. 238, Ead- 
meri epistola ad monachos Wigomienses de electione episcopi. 

Eadmeri Cantuariensis Monacbi Ordinis S. Benedict! Opera: labore ac 
studio Monachorum Congregationis S. Mauri restituta et emendata. fol. 
Paris, 1721. As a supplement to the works of Anselm. This collec- 
tion contains the Vita Anselmi ; Historia Novorum (¥rith Selden*8 
notes) ; De Ezcellentia Virginia Mar!» liber ; De Quatuor Virtutibns 
quee fuerunt in Beata Maria ; De Beatitudine Coelestis Patris liber ; 
De Sancti Anselmi similitadinibus liber. 


Stephen^ whose patronymic Harding shows him to 
have belonged to a purely Anglo-Saxon family, was, as we 
are informed by William of Malmsbury, of obscure birth. 
At an early age he was entered as a monk in the Bene- 
dictine abbey of Shirburn ; but, as he grew up, he became 
weary of a monastic life, and, quitting Shirburn, he visited 
Scotland and Frjince, and in this latter country applied 

Died 1134.] Stephen hardino. 85 

himself for some time to literary studies. It seems 
that here his earlier ascetic feelings returned ; he went 
with a fellow student on a pilgrimage to Rome^ and^ 
on his return thence^ he resumed the monastic habit in 
the abbey of Moleme in France. Dissatisfied with the 
conduct of his fellow monks in this establishment, he 
accompanied a small party to the desert of Citeauz, where 
in 1098 they laid the foundation of a monastery and of 
an order which soon became numerous and powerful 
under the name of Cistercians.* 

Stephen Harding is generally considered as the prin- 
cipal founder of the order. In 1109 or 1110 he became 
the third abbot of Citeaux, and in 1113 Bernard of Clair- 
vaux and others^ who were afterwards the most distin- 
guished ornaments of the order, placed themselves under 
him. In 1133, when very aged and weak, Stephen re- 
signed his office, and he is said to have died on the l7th 
of April in the year following. 

The only writings of Stephen Harding are some ordi- 
nances and sermons relating to his order, which have 
little connection with the literature of England. They 
have been printed separately or in the collections relating 
to the Cistercians.t The Charta Caritatis, a code of re- 
gulations for the order, is believed to be entirely his 
composition. But the work which gave him the greatest 
claim to literary distinction, was a revision of the Latin 
text of the Bible by comparison with the Hebrew, 

* W. Malmsb. de Gest. Reg. lib. IV. p. 127. See the article oa Ste- 
phen Harding in the Hist. Lit. de Fr. torn. xi. p. 213 ; and on the fonnda- 
dation of the order, P. Heliot, Hist, des Ordr. Relig. 

t The Charta Caritati» is printed in the Menologiom Cisterc. Antwerp, 
1635 ; and in the Annales Cisterc. of Manriquez. An Exordium partmm 
eui ordinia was inserted in the Bibliotheca Cisterciensis, Paris, 1660. A 
sermon attributed to Stephen Harding is also printed by Manriquez, and 
another, by Bernard de Brito, Chron. Cist. lib. i. c. 22. Two of his letters 
will be found among those of St. Bernard. See Tanner. 

86 PHILIP OE THAUN. IFlourisked 1120. 

which he is said to have had interpreted to him by some 
Jews. The original manuscript of this work shears to 
have been preserved in the library of Citeaux down to the 
time of the French reyolulion.* Stephea is said to have 
undertaken this task in 11 09. 


Philip de Thaw is the first writttr in the Anglo- 
Nenaim branob of the languages d^ved from tiie Latisi 
ol whom wa huve any distinct infonnation, and he is, 
p^haps, the earliest port in the langue ^M of whom 
th«» are any remains. His name appears to have been 
derived from the manor of Than or Thaun near Caen in 
Normandy, and the Abb^ de la Hue believed that he had 
traced the family of the poet in that neighbourhood* It 
is certain, however, that Philip himself lived and wrote in 
England, an4 that some branches of his femiiy sit least 
were established here. At the commencement of one of 
ffiis works, he tells us that he wrote in honour of Adelaide 
of Louvaine, queen of Henry I.f which would lead us to 
believe that he was pati^onised by that princess, who came 
to England in 1 1 2 1 . The other poem of Philip de Thaun, 
the Livre de$ Cremture», i^ dedicated to his unde Humphrey 
de Thaun, whom he describes as the ebaplain of Yhun, 
Yun, or Ydun, seneschal of the king.J The Abb^ de la 

* Hist. Lit. de France, ikid. 

t See the Popular Treati^ on Science, p. 74. 

X A sun uncle renveiet, que amender la deiet, 
Si rien i ad mesdit ne en fait ne en escrit» 
A Unfirei de Thaun, le chapelein Yhun (al. Yun, Ydun) 
£ seneschal lu rei, icho tus dl par mei. 

ib. p. 30. 

Flouri$hed 1120.'] philip bb thaun. 87 

Rue iffts of opinion that the person designated by this 
name was Hugh Bigot, afterwards created earl of Norfolk ; 
bat, from researches I have made since the publication 
of my edition of the text, I feel much more indined to 
bdieye tiiat he was Eudo,* commonly known by t^e tide 
of Dapifer, another name for seneschal^t which office he 
had received from the Conqueror, and continued to enjoy 
during the reigns of his two sons, WilUam Rufus and 
Henry I. till his death on Ae last day of February, 
1120« Eudo Dapifer was the friend of Gundulf bishop 
of Rochester, ajftd of sereral of the more distinguished 
ecclesiafltics ef his time, and is best known as the founder 
of the abbey of St. John at Colchester. We are thus 
enabled to fix with exactitude the time at whidi Philip 
de Thaun flourished ; for one of the two poems by which 
he is known must have been written before the year 1120, 
and the other after 1121. 

These two poems are chiefly interesting as valuable 
documents of the Anglo-Norman language. As poetical 
compositions they have littie merit, and deserve no higher 
character than that of rhyming prose. They are written 
in lines of twelve syllables, the middle of each line rhyming 
with the end. The first of these poems, entitled the Livre 
des Creatures, is a treatise on astronomy as far as it was 
cultivated by the priesthood as a means of calculating the 
moveable times and seasons observed by the Church. 
The author appears not as an original writer, but as a 
mere compiler and translator from the older treatises on 

* It appears that Tun, or Sun^ was the common form in French and 
Anglo-Norman for Endo ; WiUiam of Newbury says of a person of that 
name, Sudo is dicebatur . . . . ita dementatns, nt qunm sermone GalUco 
Eun diceretor, &c. W. Newbr. De Rebus AngUcIs, lib. i. c. 19. 

t Eudoniy qui erat mtjor domus regis, quern nos vulgariter senescallum 
vel dapiferum Yocamus. Historia Fnndat. Abbat. S. Johan. CoLeonU printed 
in the Monasticon, yoI. IY. p. 607» last Edit. 

88 PHILIP DE THAUN. [Fhurished 1120. 

the Compotus of Bede^ Helperic^ Turchil^ and Gerland. 
He informs us that he composed this book for the use of 
the priests of his time, and from the terms in which he 
speaks of them we may conclude that many of them were 
not able to study this science in the Latin of the origi- 
nal writers. The second poem of Philip de Thaun, his 
Bestiary^ is also translated and compiled from Latin 
originals. It is a book of natural liistory as that subject 
was then treated, consisting of brief, often fabulous, de- 
scriptions of animals, with long moralisations^ in which 
the different characteristics of the animals are interpreted 
to represent symbolically the mysteries and doctrines of 
the Church. This mode of considering objects of animated 
nature was very popular during the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. The authorities which Philip de Thaun cites 
most frequently are two Latin tracts, which he calls 
Physiologus and Bestiarius ; but, as several different 
treatises on the same subject were published under each 
of those names, it is not quite certain to which of them 
he refers. The account of the unicorn ( here called 
mono8ceros)y one of the shortest chapters^ will best convey 
to the reader an idea of the language and style used by 
Philip de Thaun in his poems^ as well as of the manner 
in which he treats natural history. 

Monosceros est beste, nn com ad en la teste, 
Fur geo ad si & nuiii de buc ad fa9i]iir 
Par pucele est prise, or oez en quel guise. 
Quant horn le Tolt cacer e prendre *] enginner, 
Si yent horn al forest u sis repairs est ; 
lA met une pucele hors de sein sa mamele, 
£ par odurement monosceros la sent ; 
Dune vent k la pucele, e si baiset sa mamele, 
En sun devant se dort, issi vent a sa mort ; 
li horn survent atant, ki Pocit en dormant, 
U trestut vif le prent, si fait puis sun talent. 
Grant choBe Bignefie, ne larel ne V vus die. 

Flourished 1124.] rooer infans. S9 

Monosceros Gnu est, en Franceis un com est : 

Beste de tel baiUie Jhesu Crist signefie ; 

Un deu est e serat e fad e parmaindrat ; 

En la yirgine se mist, e pur horn cham i prist, 

£ pur -virginited pur mustrer casteed ; 

A Tirgine se pamt e vii^gine le concent, 

Yirgine est e serat e tu2 jurz parmaindrat. 

Or oez brefment le signefiement. 

Ceste beste en vert^ nns signefie D^ ; 

La virgine signefie sacez Sancte Marie ; 

Par sa mamele entent sancte eglise ensement ; 

£ puis par le baiser yeo deit signefier, 

Qae horn quant il se dort en semblance est de mort : 

D^s cum bom dormi, ki en la cruiz mort sufri, 

£ sa destmctiun nostre redemptiun, 

£ sun trayeillement nostre reposement, 

Si decent D^s diable par semblant cuYenable ; 

Anme e cors sunt un, issi fud D^s "3 horn, 

£ 960 signefie beste de tel baillie. 

Several manuscripts of the Livre des Creatures of Philip 
de Thaun have been preserved, but only one copy of the 
Bestiary is known to exist. Both have been printed. 


Popular Treatises on Science written daring the Middle Ages, in Anglo- 
Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and English. £dited by Thomas Wright. 8yo. 
London, 1841. pp. 20 — 73, li Livre des Creatures, by Philip de Thaun* 
pp. 74 — 131, The Bestiary of Philip de Thaun* Each accompanied 
with a literal translation in English. 


RoGER^ who for some reason or other (perhaps for his 
precocity of learning) obtained the appellation of Infans^ 
and to whom Leland without any reason has given the 
name of Yonge, appears to have been distinguished as 
a mathematician of the old school at the era when the 
Arabian sciences were beginning to be introduced. The 
only work he is known to have written is a treatise on 

90 RO«BR IKFAVft. [JbttKifaif IIM. 

the Compotus^* in which he appears to hare enlarged 
and improved on the labours of his predecessors. Tanner^ 
following Wood, has fallen into an error with regard to 
the date at which he lived, and appears to have con- 
founded him with Roger of Hereford. He tells us him- 
self that his treatise on the Compotiis was published in 
1124.t He says in his prefiace that at the time he com- 
posed this work^ he had been occupied Mveral years in 
teaching,]: and he complains of the enrj and jealousy to 
which he was exposed. The chief authorities he quotes 
are Gerland and Helpoic, whom he £requ«n4iy corrects. 
He informs us that at the time he wrote tiiis book he was 
a young man. In the preface, of which the following is 
a portion, he gives us some aceount of his uotiTes for the 
compilation of a treatise on the Compotus» 

Cum non At hamanie beneyolentue rem ploribus sed, qaod mAgis eflt, sin- 
gulis necessariam infra terminos faoilitatu includere, de compoto, quamyia 
diffidllimam sit tantie rei a Tiris sammis sRpe et diligenter tractatas aUquid 
novi adderoi fed et prsiumptuomm Tideatur jurenem tot emim scripta re* 
tractare, odultomm tamen petltionibuB qnoa ad hoc Inijiia acieiktla iirntaTit 
exoellentia Boribere compeQor. Hoc namqoe, ut asterit Timflras PUtonia, 
In benefido ocalomm seminariiim tothis extitit pfailoaopbin, qase primo con- 
aiderata mirabili motuum ac temporam Tarlatione «e ereztt ad liberrimaa 
humaniB nature excellentiaa, sermonem videlicet ac rationem exomandas ; 
aermonem quidem scientia recte loqnendi yel scribendi ad inteUigentiam, 
argute vero disserendi ad fidem, ornate decorandi ad pennaaonem ; aed et 
rationem ipsami ut sicut cuncta numero, pondere, et mensora conaiatunt, 
ita horom triom acientiia ad remm natnram hnrestigandom et superioram 
et inferiorum penrexit. Necnon et ipsa theologia, qoie eat de creatoria cog- 


* The only copy known to exist is in the Bodleian library, MS. Digby, 
No. 40, fol. 21, t».f where It ocmuneaeea wUSk the robric 0a a hand of «he 
thirteenth oentury), FneMo magiatri Rogaii Inlantia in Compotnm. 

t MS, Digby, No. 40, foL 50, r». 

X Sed et otinm quod mlhi contingit pro ivgimlne scholaram qolbmi jam 
plnribns annis deeudati, et pro deatrictione rel fhrnOtaria qned non fodle 
felinquit me immomoren toiy malebam in gtudendo mihi qutm aliis con* 

ffomi$M 1 in.] nwAMWM. »1 

nitioiw, Imhms liU tanqiian <le exiadu «rtiu» «stfMoiMa iiMun elii;lt por- 
tionem, non solam libi sed omni vitip tarn commimi qnam ttndioMe maxiinft 
necessitatem. Hanc tamen tant» excellenti« gdentiam atftrologi, natnrft 

flutes, eompotamqna ab ilia certitadiae mnltiini diicrepare xeperientoif 
falaam ab omni pbilosophica disciplina aljiciendam arbitnudtar. Sed et 
eoBpotiatiB iirter attanqmm intealina pnelia oomiiioyeBltea»iiatiinaBBTidgarem 
^oaoi^Qlw» • ata nbtilitata diaoiepantBrnt mutpa^m asBswni 9fimamm 
HQam xitionia wrftatem fuequeotem algioiiiiit, flontra ▼nlgarpa natnntoi 
a sennbua amotam aoliqne rationi patentem vaiiaiii ixianemqae acientiamy 
fVMi DM ocAi ^nMt mc «uis Mdivity qipdlMit. 


A POET of this name^ belonging to the earlier half of 
the twelfth century^ l^aa left a small collection of light 
pieces in Latin rhjnmi, whiek «to preserved in a ma- 
nuscript now in the BibHoth^que Royale at Paris* 
Different allusions in tiiese poemt^ and I3ie names of the 
friends to whom some of them are addressed, or who are 
commemorated in them, afford the strongest reasons for 
believing their author to have been an £qglishman. He 
appears to have left his native land in order to become a 
disciple of Abelard, who also is the subject of one of his 
poems. It was addressed to that philosopher on the oc- 
oasion of Us temponry retirement from his school about 
Ae year 1125, and is the only one of them the date of 
which we are able to fix. There can be little doubt that 
ail these pocans were written in nranee. 

The poems of Hilarius consist of three scriptural dramas, 
and a nimiber of shorter pieces addressed to his friends 
of both sexes. They are aU written in rhyming verse, in 
a style more or less playful, and some of Aem are inter- 
spersed with lines of French* The dramas, the subjects 

92 HiLARius. [Flourished 1125. 

of which are a miracle of St. Nicholas^ the raising of 
Lazarus, and the history of Daniel, are the first rude out* 
lines of the mysteries and miracle plays of a later age, 
and on that account possess considerable interest. The 
smaller poems are chiefly addressed to religious persons, 
and are of a serious character, although one or two appear 
to be nothing less than love songs. The style is that of 
most similar productions. The following lines from the 
poem in praise of Caliastrum (Chalautre-la-Petite, in the 
diocese of Sens) exhibits Hilarius in his best vein. 

Regam aulas atque palatia 
Cleriooram eequant hospitia ; 
Sunt nimiram loca regalia, 
Non eremi yastse mapalia. 

Vinetumqiie multam et fertile 
VinQm confert firmam et nobUe ; 
Nee Falenuun est comparabile, 
Nee gostavit SilenuB simile. 

Fontis quoqne sasnrrans riyulns, 
Per quern alte yidetur calculus» 
Pegasaeo nimimm semulus, 
Voluptatls accedit cumulus. 

Fdns sincerus, fons indeficiens» 
Fons per solem siccari nesciensy 
Ad quern tendat doctrlnam sitiensy 
Inde bibat, et erit sapiens. 

The first stanzas of the poem to Peter Abelard will 
show the manner in which Hilarius mixes French with 
his Latin ; he alleges the indiscretion of a servant as the 
cause of the misunderstanding between Abelard and his 

lingua seryi, lingua perfidift, 
Rizae motus, semen discordise, 
Quam sit prava sentimus hodie, 
Subjacendo gravi sententise. 

Tort a vers not U mestrei. 

Flourished 1125.] hilariub. 93 

Lingua servi, nostnun discidimn, 
In no8 Petri commoTit odium. 
Quam meretur ultorem gladium. 
Quia nostrum extinxit studium ! 
Ibrt a veri no9 li mestre. 

In the foUowing lines from the same piece, Hilarius 
speaks of himself in a manner which would lead us to 
believe that at this time he was not a young man. 

Heu i quam crudelia est iste nundus 
Dicens, ** Fratres, exite citius : 
Habitetur vobis Quinciacus ; 
Alioquin non leget monachuB," 
Tort a vert nos U mestre. 

Quid, Hilari, quid ergo dubitas ? 
Cur non abis et villam habitaa ? 
Sed te tenet diei brevitas, 
Iter longum, et tua grayitas. 

Tort a vert not li mettre. 

Ex diyerso multi conyenimus, 
Quo logices fons erat plurimus ; 
Sed discedat summus et minimus , 
Nam negatur quod hie quaesiyimus. 
Tort a vert not U mettre. 

We may cite as another specimen of the lyric talents of 
Hilarius a few lines from a poem addressed to an English 
lady named Rosea. 

Aye, splendor puellarum, 

generosa domina. 
Gemma micana, sidua clarum, 

speciosa femina, 
Que prseceliis, et non parum, 

mulierum agmina, 
Bonum ingens, bonum ramm, 

mea lege carmina. 

Credo mihi» cum natura 

te primo composidt, 
Ad probandum sua jura 

te mundo proposuit. 
Dotes multas, bona plura 

tibi quidem tribuit ; 
Et quid posset sua cura 

prudenter ezhibuit. 

94 ATHELAS9 09 BATH. [FlomrMed 

Te protect 


Nomen taiim «gnat rosami 

€k O0C6 VlI]JIIIlttt« 

The manuscript containing the only i^opy known of the 
poems of Hilarius remained long buried in the obscurity 
of private libraries. It was «aed by Duchesne, in 1616, 
and by Mabillon in 1713^ stffcer which it was entirely lost 
sight of till it was offered for sale at Paris in the library 
of M. de Rosny in 183.7> and bought £or the Bibliotheque 
Royale. Duchesne published the poem on Abelard in his 
edition of the works of the great scholastic writer. 

Hilarii Vemu et Lndi. L«tate Paxiiionuii» 1838^ ISno. Edited by M. 


Athelard'^ is the greatest name in English science 
before Robert GrossetSte and Rogwr Bacon. His name 
would lead us to beliere that he was of Saxon blood. 
He was bom probably in the latter part of the eleyenth 
century, and first quitted England to study in the schools 
of Tours and Laon. In the lattev fdaee h6 opened a 
school^ and had among other disciples his nephew, to 
whom he appears to have he&x affectionately attached. 
But Athelard's love of knowledge was unsatisfied with 

• In the Latin MSS. he U caUe4 Adelardoe, d Mag the letter which in 
Latin afforded the nearest appreatUMttoii to^ llio Mfund of the English iS, 

111(^1120.] AVHBZ.ABD OF UATMs M 

ibe state of icieiiee in Fraacey and he left kia aohook and 
crossed Hhe Alps to Salerno^ from whence he proceeded 
to Gieece and Asia Muxor^* and it is refy probable 
that he went to stadj anwng the Arabs i» the East. 
Bagdad and Egypt weve then the seats of Arabia» learnings 
On his armat in his natire country after a» absence 
of seven yeaars, the thione^ he tells ns^ was ocevpied 
by Henry I. ; f and one of the first books he published 
after his avrrral^ being dedicated to Wilham bishop of 
Syracuse, must have been written before 1116« the date 
of that prdate's death. This tract, which bears some 
resemUance to the Judgment of Hercules by the Ghiecian 
Phniicus, and which is entitled De eodem ei diveraoy is an 
allegery, in which Athelard justifies his passion for the 
sdences; he introduces Philosophy and Philocosmia (or the 
love of wordly enjoyment) as i^peanng to him on the banks 
of the Loire in the form of two women, when he was a 
student at Tours, and disputing for the possession of his 
afteetions^ until he threw himself hito the arms of Philoso- 
phy, drdve away her rival with disgrace, and entered on the 
path, of learning with that ardour which induced him 
subsequently to seek instruction even among the distant 
Arabs. It appears that after his return from his travels 
he opened a school, probably in France or Normandy, 
where he taught the Arabian sciences. These were still 
new in the west of Europe, and were decried by many, 
and among others as it seems by Athelard's nephew. 
Athelard wrote one of his most popular works, the QtkSi- 
tiones Naturalesy to oppose this prejudice, and to give a 

* Athelsrd de Bodem et Direrso, sub ilney dted by Jonrdaiiiy lUcherdkfli 
critiques sur les TraductioDS d'Arfstote, p. 300. 

t Cum in Angliam nuper redierim Henrico Willelmi AngUs imperante, 
qnvni fl patrnt gmss studii diu ue eKceperanit occursus aniconm eC jocun- 
dus mflii ftiie et commodus. Dedicst. Nfttnral. Cbuest. MS. Cotton. Galba, 
E. lY. fol. 214. 

96 ATHELARD OF BATH* [Flourished 

specimen of the doctrines on natural history which he had 
brought home. He reminds his nephew how, seven years 
before, when he had dismissed him (then a mere youth) 
with his other disciples, it had been agreed between them 
that he would himself go and seek the learning of the 
Arabs, and that his nephew should in the meantime make 
himself master of all the science which could be found 
among the Franks.* In reply, the nephew is made to 
express a distaste for his uncle's Saracenic doctrines, and 
for the extravagant terms in which he spoke of their 
superiority over the old studies of the western schools.f 
Athelard then proceeds to defend his opinions on this 
subject, and provokes his nephew to propose what were 
considered some of the most difficult questions in natural 
hi8tory4 In the following passage taken from the sixth 
chapter of this treatise, which will serve as a specimen of 
his style, Athelard describes briefly the principle of the 
school of natural philosophy which he was founding, and 
which was more perfectly developed at a later period by 
the great lord Bacon. 

iV. De istis qnee paerilia sunt, TerisimiUa magiB quain necessaria dizisti. 
Quare ad ipsam animalium naturam ascendamoB ; ibi enim, ut animus mihi 
prsesagit, scrupulum tibi innectam. jf. De animalibus difficilis est mea 
tecum discertio. Ego enim aliud a magistris Arabicis ratione duoe didici, tu 

* Meministi nepos quod septennio jam transacto, cum te in Gallicis studiis 
pene puerum juxta Laudisdonum una cum cseteris auditoribus meis dimise- 
rim, id inter nos convenisse, ut Arabum studia ego pro posse meo scrutarer, 
tu vero Gallicarum sententiarum inconstantiam non minus adquireres. MS. 
Cotton, ib. 

f Quia cum Saracenorum sententias te ssepe exponentem auditor tan- 
tum notayerim earumque non paucee satis fuiiles mihi Tideantur. . . . Quippe 
et illos impudice eztollis, et nostros detractionis modo inscitia invidiose 

X Hoc tamen Titato incommodo, ne quis me ignota proferentem ex mea id 
sententia facere, Terum Arabicorum studiorum sensa putet proponere • . • « 
Quare caumun Arabum nou meam agam. 

1110 — 1120.] ATHELARD OF BATH* 97 

vera aliud anctoritatU pictara captns capistriun BequeiiB. Quid enim aliud 
auctoritas dicenda est, quam capiatrain ? Ut brata quippe animalia capistro 
qnolibet ducuntnr, nee qao aut quare dncuntar discemunt, restemque qua 
tenentur solum sequuntur, sic non paucos yestrum bestiali credulitate captos 
ligatosque auctoritas scriptonun ia periculum ducit. Unde et quidam nomea 
auctoritatis sibi usurpantes nimia scribendi licentiausi sunt, adeo utpro 
yens falsa bestialibus yiris insinuare non dubitayerint. Cur enim chartas 
non impleas, cur et a ter|;o non scribasy cum tales fere bujus temporia audi- 
tores habeas, qui nuUam sibi judicii rationem exigant, tituli tantum no^ 
mine yetusti confidant ? Non enim intelligunt ideo rationem singulis datam 
esse, ut inter yemm et fidsum ea prima judioe discematur. Nisi enim ratio 
judex nniyersalis esse deberet, frustra singulis data esset. Sufficeret enim 
prsescriptorum scriptura data esse unidico yelpluribus, cseteri eorum institu- 
tiB et auctoritatibus essent contenti. Amplius, ipsi qui auctores yocantur 
non aliunde primam fidem apud minores adept! sunt, nisi quia rationem 
secuti sunt, quam quicunque sentiunt yelnegligunt, meritocRci habendi sunt. 
Neque enim id ad yiyum reseco, ut auctoritas me judice spernenda sit ; id 
autem assero, quod prius ratio inquirenda sit, ea inyenta auctoritas si adjacet 
demum subdenda est. Ipsa yero sola nee fidem pbilosopho facere potest, nee 
ad hoc adducenda est. Unde et logic! locum ab auctoritate probabilem non 
necessarium esse consenserunt. Qnare si quid aliud a me amplius audire 
desideras, rationem refer et recipe. Non enim ego ille sum quem pelUs pic- 
tura pascere possit. Omnis quippe litera meretriz est, nunc ad hos nunc ad 
illos affectus ezposita. N, Sit sane ut postulas, cum mihi rationabiliter 
opponere facile sit, neque Arabum tuorum auctoritates sequi tutum sit. 
Stet igitur inter me et te ratio sola judex, ut sit. 

The manner in which Athelard speaks of the reception 
of the Arabian sciences seems to show that they were 
then quite new among the Christians of the West^ and to 
contradict the opinion founded on a legend preserved by 
William of Malmsbury, that they had been introduced 
long before by Qerbert. We know nothing more of 
Athelard's personal history.^ His celebrity was great in 
after times^ and in the thirteenth century Vincent of 
Beauvais gives him the title of Philosophtis Anglorum. 
Aihelard's writings appear to have enjoyed a great popu- 

* The date of Athelard^s death is unknown. Mr. Hunter is inclined to 
think he may be the Adelardus de Bada mentioned in the pipe roll as redd- 
ing in England in 1130. This is, howeyer, at the least yery doubtful ; the 
name was yery common in England, and I think it hardly probable that our 
Athelard would haye been resident here at that time» 

VOL. 1« H 


We may dmde them into two dasses; OTiginat 
works and translations from the Arabic. Among the 
former avcy 

1. The treatise De eodem et dSverm abeady mentioned^ 
o£ which the only copy known to exist is preserved in a 
znanucript la the KUiotheqne Royate at Pari».* It is 
written in the form of a letter to his nephew^ and def- 
eated to William bishop of Syracuse. 

2. Tanner mentions a tract with the somewhat sfmilar 
title of De sic et non sic, which he says commenced with 
the words^ Memimsti ew quo incepmus* 

3. The Queestiones Natitrales, of which there are many 
manuscripts existing under a great variety of titles. This 
treatise was printed apparently as early as the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is written^ as already intimated^ in the form of a 
dialogue between Athelard and his nephew, and is dedi- 
cated to Richard \nshop of Bayeioc (1 108— 113d). In this 
tract Athelard gives his opinions on various physical ques- 
tions concerning animala, man, and the elements. At the 
conclusion he promises a treatise on higher philosophical 
subjects, De initio et initiis, 

4. Reguhe Abaci. This tract, on a subject which since 
the time of Gerbert had employed the pens of a multitude 
of mathematicians, was perhaps one of Athelard's earliest 
writings. It is preserved in a MS. of the Library of 
Leyden, where it is preceded by a short preface con- 
taining Athelard's name,t &nd without the preface or 

* No. 2389. An analyai» of this trettne is giTen bjr JottEdain, Tlecherch« 
critiques sur les TraductioiiB d'Aristote, pp. 285^300. 

t MS. Scaliger, No. I. The prefkce is at foUows :— AdeAtrdos phi- 
losophoram assecla ultinms H. buo salutem. Cum inter nonnulla fercula 
philoflophise mensc apposita noftfa dextrorsiun solitariig diflcambentibusy 
prozimi conviTK de parte secnnda tnpHciter ramerent, et me de qnadrifidA 
lance paoca ori tao instillante omnia ibtidins, qoippe qoK ab afik sepoafta 
et hactenns intemptata tibi Tideres, Pytagorivm antidotnm ante prselibasti. 
Perhaps H should be If (nepoti soo). The trsct itietf b^gfan with the 

1110^1120.} ATHELABD OF BATH. 99 

name in a nuumacript in the Bibliotii^que Royale at 

5. A treatise on the Astrolabe^ evide&ily taken from 
Aiabam «riteni. A copy ia preserved in the Bikiah Mu- 
»eiun.t Ldand, vho sometimes qpeaks rather extraTa>- 
gantly of the style of the medieval writers^ ealls this ^' U- 
belh» argntiun, numeroBura^ rotundnm.^ It is certainly 
the one of Athelard's works which kaat merits that cha- 

& ProUenuUa* Leland mentiens a work of Athelard's 
under this title which he had seen in the library of the 
Franciscans at Londcm^, but whidi had afterwards dia* 

7. De^ sepiem artibu9 liieralibus. Tanner^ on the autho- 
rity of Boston of Bury^ mentions a work of Athekrd'a 
bearing tiiia title, wxittai pardy in prooe and pertly in 
verse, and eoDamencing with the words, Sapemmera est 

8. A treatise on the Ckm^tns^ mentumed by Tani^r 
as having farmeriy been in the library of the Earl a( 

9. Tanner states that atract is indicated in the old table 
of contents of a manuscript in the ICing'a Library under 
the title Liber magistri Adelardi Bathjoniends qui iicttiar 
Mappm daviatkiy but the tract itself had been torn out.t 

words, Pytagorici vero hoc opus oomposuenmty et ea quae magistro sno Og- 
tagora docente audieranti &e«. 
• MS. Bibl. Boyale, Fonda de Sk Victor, No. 533. 
f MS. Anmdely No. 377» fol. 69, t». 

X Athelard's worVs appear to have been peculiarly nnfortuiate in acci- 
dente of tUi kind. I ant soformcd by M. Chaslea, thai the old tahle of 
contents of a MS. in the library of Avranches contains the following titles 
of tracts which haye been torn ont : — 

Astronomioonun prtestigiomm Thebidis secundnm Ptolomenm et Her- 
metem per Adelardum Batfaomensem ex Arabico translatns Hber unns. 
Isagoga minor Japharis mathematici in astronomiam per Adelardnm 
BaUionienBcm ex Arabico sompta, liber unns. 


100 ATHELARD OF BATH. [Flourished 1110-20. 

The most important of Athelard's translations from the 
Arabic was, — 

1. The Elements of Euclid. This became the text book 
of all succeeding mathematicians. The manuscripts of 
Athelard's Euclid are numerous. It was afterwards pub- 
lished with a commentary under the name of Campanus, 
and printed at Venice as early as 1482. Mr. HaUiwell 
has mentioned some reasons for believing that the com- 
mentary also was in reality the work of Athelard** Dn 
Dee possessed a manuscript which contained translations 
of Euclid's Optics and Catoptrics under the name of Athe- 
lard.f Athelard also translated the following works, — 

2. The laagoge minor Jafaris mathematici in Astrono^ 
miam^ There is a copy of this work in the Bodleian 

3. Ezich Elkauresmiy hoc est, tabula Chatvaresmica ex 
Arabico traduct<e. A translation of the Kharismian tables. 
There is a copy of this also in the Bodleian library.§ 
Leland mentions a work translated from the Arabic by 
Athelard under the title Erith Elcharetmi, which Bale 
and Boston of Bury give more correctly Ezich-Jafarim or 
Ezich-Jafaris I it appears to be a corruption of Zydj 
Djafar, and was probably only another name for the 
Kharismian tables. 

4. The Prtestigia astronomica Thebidis^ which formerly 
existed in a manuscript of the library of Avranches, indi- 
cated in a note on the preceding page. 

Perhaps some other tracts of Athelard exist in manu- 
scripts as yet unexamined; or pass as anonymous treatises. 
M. Jourdain was inclined to attribute to him a piece en- 

* See Halliwell's Rara Mathematica, p. 57» where an account is g;iven 
of the principal MSS. of Athelard's Euclid, 
t Dr. Dee's Diary, edited by HalUwell, p. 67. 
I MS. Digby, No. 68, fol. 121. 
§ MS. Hatton, No. US. 

Died after 1129."] simeon of Durham. 101 

titled Liber imbrium secundum Indos^ preserved in the 
Biblioth^que Royale at Paris.* 


Sequitar tabula btius Ubelli. . • . . • Incipit prologns Adelardi Bathonienni 
in soas questiones naturales perdifficiles. At the end, Ezpliciunt qaes- 
tiones natnrales Adelardi Bachonienais. Lana deo et virgini, AMEN. 
Qui petit occnltas rerum ag^oscere causaa Me yideat, quia sum IseTis 
ezplanator earum. 4to. without other title, or the name of place or 
date, but printed in an early shaped Gothic type. There are two dif- 
ferent editiona answering to this description, the one evidently a reprint 
of the other. They are both in the British Museum. 

Martene and Durand, Thesaurus Notus Anecdotorum. Tomus I. Lntet. 
Paris, 1717, fol. col. S91. The preface to the Naturales Qosestiones. 

Jourdain, B«cherches Critiques sur Page etTorigine des Traductions Latines 
d'Aristote. Paris, 1819. Syo. pp. 494 — 497. The dedication and 
commencement of Athelard's treatise De eodem et diverso* 


All that we know of Simeon is that be was a monk of 
the monastery of Durham^ where he held the ofBce of 
precentor. His history of the kings of England closes with 
the year 1129, soon after which date it is probable that he 
died. He appears to have been a man of no original talent, 
for he is not only said to have published Turgof s History 
of Durham under his own name, but a large portion of 
his own history of the kings of England is a literal copy of 
the Chronicle of Florence of Worcester. Simeon's compi- 
lation is however valuable for many details of northern 
history, taken from sources which are no longer known. 
It is difficult to describe the peculiar style of such a com- 
piler as this, who makes so free with the property of others. 
The following observations on the death of the Scottish 
king Malcolm, in 1093, are perhaps his own. 

Rex Scottorum Malcholmus et primogenitus filios egos Eadwardus cum 
moltis aliis in Northymbrisi die festivitatis sancti Bricii, a militibus Rod- 

* MSS. Bibl. Roy. Nos. 7316 and 7399. 

102 «IMEON OF DURHAM. [Died (^€r 1129. 

berti Norflmnbronim comitu oecisi faat. In cajus morte jostitia jndicaiitiB 
Dei aperte consideraturi ut yidelicet In ilia pronnda cum mi» interiret, 
qaam ssepe ipse Tastare avaritia Btimtilante consaevit ; quinquies namque illam 
atroci depopulatione attrivit, et miseroB indigenas in seiritutem redigendoB 
abduxit captivoB. Semel Eadwardo regnante, qnando Tosti comes Eboracen- 
«M profectos Honam fioM^t. Itenm r e gpante WfllielmOi t^riando etiam 
Clivelandam depopvlatofl erft. Tertio regnaiite eodem rege WIQielmo usque 
Tfuam progreesuB, post emdts honmnim at concremationeB locormn multa 
c«m pneda levertitur. Quarto regnante Willicflmo jumore, cum suis copiis 
inllDitiB uaqoe Ceatftraaa, mem longe a Donelmo «tarn, per^emt, animo in- 
tendesB uUerhiB progretfi ; sed adunate contra eum militari maun non multa 
ascAu ipso oitins rerertitiir. Chunto cum omui quo potuH ezercitu in ulti- 
mam deductunu deselalloBem Korthymbriam inrasit, 'sed juxta flumen Alne 
perimitw com primegoBMo auo Eadwardo, quern hnredem regni post Be 
diflpoMMvat. ExerdtuB lUins tcI gladlis confodituTy vel qui gkdios ftigerunt 
ifwad a tA a ae flvBinumy quK tone plu^ras UemalibuB plus soBto concreverant, 
•btoipti sunt. Corpus vero teffSf eum suorum nulius remaneret qui terra 
illud cooperirab, dncez Indigeids carroimpositttmin TynemnHie aepcJIierunt. 
Sicque factum est ut ubi multos vita et rebus et libertate privaverat, ibidem 
ipse Dei judicio yitam simul cum rebus amitteret. Cujus morte cognita, 
regina Scottorum Maigareta tauta affaofta «st tdaHtia, ut subito magnam 
incideret infirmitatem. Nee mora, presb3rteris ad se accersitisi ecclesiam in- 
travlt, Aiaque peeoata sua 4i«AfBBsa, oko ae perungi ceelefltique aiumii viatico 
fecit, Deum assiduis et precibus intentissimis ezorans, ut in bac «rumnoia 
yita diutius illam vivere non permitteret. Nee multo tardins exaudita est. 
Nam post tres ^es ocdnonis eegis, flduta camis TincuHs, utcredlturai 
gandia tnuDaint setemc salntifl. Qnippe dnm TiTeret jaBtitise, paeia, et 
caritatis xniltrlx extflit devota, frequens in orationibns corpus ««igiliis et 
Jejuniis /uaceraTit, ecclesias et monasteria ditavit, servos et ancillas Dei 
dUndt et bonorant, esuiientibuB panem irangebat, nudos restiebat, omnibus 
f)ere^nis ad se venientibus bospitia, yeatimeiiita, et a]iiBentapriBb^bat,<et 
Deum tota mente diligebat. Qna mortua Dufenaldum regis Malcbolmi 
fratrem -Scdtta sibi in regem degerunt, et omnes Anglos qui de curia regis 
cftttte i B it, de Sootia expuleriBt. 

Twywden, who gaT« an «dition of Simeon's edition of 
Tnrgot, and of hie Hstory of the Smglish Idngs^ also printed 
a letter fvom Simeon to Hugh dean of York, containing an 
Accoont of the «rchbiflhops of that «ee. 



Historise Anglicanse Scriptores X ... ex Vetustis ManuscripUs nunc pri- 
mumtnlucem editi. (by Twysden) Londini, 1652, fol. colL 1^58, 
Simeoms, monacbi Dunelmensisy Historia de Dunelmensi £cclesia«— 
coll. 75«»82, Epifttola Simeoxuf moDaehi • • . nd Hugonem decanum 

Died lill4.'\ qilbert^ bishop of london. lOt 

EWnoenson 4e arohiepiiociiif Eborad. — coll. 85—8(6, fibDeonis 
Doiielmeiiaia fiutoria de gestis regom Anglomn. 

Symeonifl monachi Danhelmensis libellns de ezordio atqae procursu Dvn- 
hdnoiinfl cocnflUB* Ou pncmiCtilur rcvcimcH. Tin xhointB nad cnidita 
dtflquisitio, im qvaprabatur nonTaiipotiim, sed Symoonan ftusae venua 
hnjuB libelli «uctorem. E oodice MS. perantiquo in Bibliotbeea pnb- 
lica Episcopomm Dnnbelmensium deflcripsit ediditque Thomas Bedford. 
A^eoedunt) prater alia, ex codiee Hifftorie Dmihelmenmum episcopo- 
nun Ck>iitiiiiiafio : et libellM de iajvata Texatioae Willelmi I. epiaoopi^ 
nimc primam editos. Londini, 1 733. 8to. 

Collectioii of Historians edited by order of tbe Record Commission, vol. 1. 
pp. €45—688, 6i»6onis Dcnehncasis Hktoria de Gestis Begom Anglo- 
nun, ab A.D. VCXVl. adnique A.D. DCCCC.LYII. 


This prelate, who from the diversity of his learning 
obtained the title of Gflbertus Universalis^ is said to 
have been a native of Bretagne.*^ He appears among 
the clergy of Auxerre as early as the year 1 110, when his 
name occurs as one of the witneBses to a deed of the abbey 
of Fleury, with the title of magister, which seems to show 
that he then directed the schools of Auxerre, as we know 
he did those of Nevers when he was called to the bishopric 
of London in 1 127.t We know little further of his history, 
except that he died at an advanced age on the other side 
of the Alps, in his way to Rome, llie date of Grilbert's 
death appears to be somewhat doubtful ; Wharton % places 
it on the 10th of Atigust, 1134; but tbe oontinuator of 
Florence of Worcester gives 1138 as the year of his decease, 
and an authority quoted by Iceland fixes it in 1139.§ 

* Ridiard of Poitien, ap. Martene, Ampl. Col. toI. t. col. 1179* 

t Hiat. Lit. de F^rance, torn. si. p. 936. 

X De Epiic London, p. 51. 

% Conf. Tanner, Biblioth. p. 318, and Godwin* de Epise^ 

104 AiLMER. [Z)ierfll37. 


Even the character of bishop Gilbert is diflFerently 
represented, St. Bernard, who corresponded with him, 
speaks in the highest terms of his exemplary poverty and 
of his charity ; * while Henry of Huntingdon, who was 
also his contemporary, charges him with avarice and extor- 
tion, and says that a vast sum was found in his treasury 
after his death, which was seized by the king, because he 
died without a testament. The old writers are, however, 
imanimous with regard to his great learning. The au- 
thor just cited declares that there was not his equal in 
science on this side of Rome.f Yet the only writings 
attributed to him are a gloss on the whole Bible, said to 
have been composed while he resided at Auxerre, which 
the writers of the Histoire Litteraire de France speak of 
as being extant in the last century ; and glosses on some 
detached books of Scripture, viz. the Lamentations, the 
Psalter, and the Song of Solomon. 


AiLMBR, Aelmer, or Ealmer (the name is differently 
spelt) was one of the most remarkable ascetic writers of 
the reign of Henry I. All we know of his personal 
history at present appears to be that he was made prior 

* Epist. S* Bemardi, Ep. xziv. 

t Quid memorem Gislebertum cognomine Uniyenalemi episcopum Lun- 
doniensem ? Non fuit ad usque Romam par ei scientia. Artibus erat era- 
ditisaimus, theoria singularU et unicua ; fama igitur Celebris et splendidus. 
Quapropter dum scholas regeret in Nivernis Gallis, ad summum Lundoniee 
Bacerdotium yocatus est, et exoratus accessit. Qui magna ezpectatione bus- 
ceptus, coepit ayaritife crimine deservire : multa perquirens, pauca largiens. 
Moriens siquidem nihil divisit. Sed infinitam thesauri copiam rex Hen- 
ricus in ejus delitiis invenit. Ocrese etiam eptscopi auro et argento refertse 
in fiscum regium allata: sunt. Unde yir summse scientise ab omni populo 
habitus est pro stultissimo. Henr. Hunt. Epi«t. ad Walteram, ap. Wharton, 
Angl. Sac. p. 698* 


of Canterbury in 1128^ and that he died on the 11th of 
May, 1137* Few of his writings are now preserved, 
unless they lie concealed in some of the cathedral libraries. 
A manuscript in the Cottonian library, now nearly de- 
stroyed by the fire^f contained his epistles to different 
monks of his house or neighbourhood ; and another copy 
is preserved in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge4 
His other works were, a book of sermons or homilies, and a 
treatise in five books, De exerciiiis spiritualis vita, both 
which works were seen by Leland in the monastery of St. 
Augustine at Canterbury ; and different treatises, entitled, 
De bono vita claustralis, Recordationes beneficiorum Dei, 
Contra hi^us mundi miserias, De inquisitione Dei, and De 
absentia vultus Dei, enumerated by Bale, who gives the 
first words of each. 

Minor Writers op the reign of Henrt I. 

Radulph bishop of Rochester, and afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, whom John of Bromton calls 
Radulph de Turbine,§ is known as the author of a col- 
lection of homilies still extant. || We learn from William 
of Malmsbury,1i that he had been first a monk, and after- 
wards successively subprior, prior, and abbot of S^es, in 
Normandy, from whence he was driven by the tyranny of 
Robert de Belesme. On his arrival in England he lived 
as a guest in different abbeys, and in the household of 

* See Wharton, Angl. Sacr. vol. i. p. 137. 

t Otho A. XII. 

X MS. Gale, Trio. CoU. Cant. O. 10, 16. 

§ See Anglia Sacra, vol. i. p. 763. 

II In a MS. in the Bodleian library, MS. Land, D. 49. 

\ Vf. Malmsb. de Pontif. lib. i. p. 230, who gives a detailed account of 
hia epifcopate. It is not probable that, aa Tanner seems to have supposed, 
he was the same person aa the Radulph monk of Caen, who accompanied 
Lanfiranc to England, and was made abbot of Battle, 

106 vi€»oi«A«9 FBIO& or woiucEansaL. 

archUshop Ansdm, idth wIknh he liad been oa temui 
of mtanaey in hisifovdi, until the death of bishop Giutdvif 
in IIO85 iviien Aneelm obteiiied for lum the Tjishopne <if 
Bochestor, whence^ mx. yean «fterwards^ fae was dectod to 
sveceed his patron as «xvhbwhop of CanteriMuy» He died 
on the 20tii of October, 1122, Williun of Malmsbnrp 
who was his contemporary, bears witness to bis piety, his 
learning, and his liberality.* Ser^ral letters «of this prelate, 
dhiefly relating to Eadmer, are printed in the ConeHki of 
Wilkins.t Much of his time was occnpied in llie disputes 
with l%unrtan of Yoik conemning the primacy, 

Nicholas piior of Worcester is only known to us as the 
writer of two tracts or letters addressed to Eadmer, on 
the claims of the archbishops of York to primacy over the 
Scotish bishopric of St. Andrew's, and on the mother of 
king Edward the Confessor.| Nicholas was of Anglo- 
Saxon blood, and had been baptised by bishop Wulstan^ 
whose &v0«r be enjoyed undl that prelate's deaths After 
having reeeiTed his ^rlier lessons in litranrture from Wvir 
Stan's own lips, Nicholas was sent to Canterbury to profit 
by Hie teaching of Lanf rane, where probably he became 
aoquainted with Eadmer* fie was made prior of W(n*ce8- 
ter under bishop Tlieulph, who aucoeeded Sumpson in tiie 
see of Worceeter in 1115* Nicholas died on the 24dt of 
June, 1184. WilHam of Makaebury, to whom we owe all 
our informatioB coaaoermng Nidiobs, frequently dtes his 
oral testimony in his life of Wulstan^ and describes him as 

* Religione impar nnllii peritia ikenunua nafpaifica poUau^ aflhfailitate 
certe facile omnium Drimafl, qui fortunariHn amptitncUne niiul plug ju;%m- 
sierity nisi at plus beffefacere poBaet quibiu vdlet. W. liahnsb. ib« p. 83S. 

t Wilkina, CodcU. toL i. pp. 394—396. 

t PreseiTed in MS. Corp. Chr. CoUoga» Camhridgey No. 371» arts. 3 
and 4. The one relating to the primacy of the bighops of Tork ia printed 
in the Anglia Sacra» toL ii*pp. 334—^6« 


a nami whose seal for learning had done nmcli towards 
introducing a taste for letters among the monks of 

OfiOTPRBTj ^ftj aooordix^ to some^ Stephen^i' dean of 
Ijandflff^ Was brolifeer of Uraanifs^ who had been made 
bishop isf LAndaff in HOT? at tiie age of tiurty-two. He 
was preaental; the translation of the vemaiAs of St. Dabri- 
«nis in liflfd. He is known chiefly by alife of Ae Wehh 
«aint TeliavHS or Teilo ; batfsvaidtohaTeahoeoffipiled, 
at the ivfoei* of his brolftm, the Register ^ lihe Chnreh 
^ Laadaff, whidi hem been iwea^ pmbfiidied. 

J^glUSMMu (Bditod bf H. Wkaitas.) Bus «aetata. LMia.l€»l,M. 
pp. 663-^66. Vita S. TeUavi epiaoopi IjandaTeniify «authore Galfrido 
afias atephano LandavenBi. 

Tb/t Ubsr Trasiwrwida, l^yk'Nk^y'^ te-asslefAyfegiflter of lifae Cathedna 
«hwrdi of TilmJaff; «he UbnuiBa of Ufoaipnk, aadaf 
Jeans College, Oxford : with an English Translation and ezplanatorf 
noteSi l>y the "Rey. W. J. Rees. Published for Che Welsh MSS. Society. 
lAnidowBryy ISSO. 6^. 

Contonporarjr with Oeafeey «of landad^ U^ed another 
writer of the aame olaas, Bbvbdsct monk of fit Peter's at 
GckNioester^ to whom we owe a life ef fit. Dufatkhuu As 
in daat wvnk he deaerihes the traaslatm^ libe vemsnis of 
DubriesM^ whsA took place in lldQ, it «s «apposed HMt 
htt Shfe of Ihdmciiis was pdiUished «hoiliy trftor thaft 
date iX but we have no other information respeeling hiai. 

Ani^Ua 8aeia« (fifited ^\ff fionry Wfaaiton.) IPars aeciinda. liond. 16.91^ 

• W. Mahnsb. de Vit. S. Wnlstani, lib. iii. c. 17, ap. Wharton, Angl. 

t iBthettftetoUBbookdiiMa.Ootlon. Vatpa8.A.iitir.heisBpokea«C 
as 6a]frido> i. e. Stephano, Urbani Landavensis qnBcopi firatri. 
4 WhuftSB» 4Ae^ Sacra, voU IL p. scvtt. (Fnefiit.) 


fol. pp. 644 — 661. Vita S. Dubricii Archiepiscopi Urbis Legionum. 
Authore Benedicto monacbo Claudiocestrensi. 

Another literary Welsh bishop of this period^ although 
by birth a Scotchman, was David of Bangor. It appears 
that he left his native country in search of learning, and 
settled at Wurzburg, in Germany, where he attracted the 
attention of the emperor Henry V., who made him one of 
his chaplains. Henry, having succeeded his father in 1 106, 
continued his hostilities against the pope, and, invading 
Italy in 1111, made the sovereign pontiff his captive, and 
forced him to concede his demands relating to the German 
churches. David was employed by the emperor to write 
the history of this expedition, in which William of Malms- 
bury informs us that he exhibited too much partiality for 
his imperial patron;* a circumstance which probably 
has hindered it from being preserved, for neither this nor 
any other of his writings are now known to be extant. 
On his return to his native island, David was made bishop 
of Bangor in 1 120. He is mentioned by the continuator of 
Florence of Worcester as being alive in 1125, after which 
we have no information relating to him. Bale, with- 
out any apparent authority, attributes to him three other 
works under the titles, Magiatratuum insignia^ lib. i., Apo- 
loffium ad Caaarem, lib. i., De Regno Scottorum^ lib. i. 
Dempster states incorrectly that there were some of his 
works amongst the manuscripts of Corpus Christi college, 

We may add to the foregoing list of minor writers Giii- 
BERT archdeacon of Buckingham, to which office he was 

* Sediter illudad Romam.... David Scottus Bancornensis epUcoput 
expoBuit, magis in regis gratiam quam historicum deceret acclivus. W. 
Malmsb. de Hist. Reg. lib. v. p. 166. 

t See Tanner, and the continuator of Florence of Woroester, ad an. Uj^. 


appointed by Robert bishop of Lincohi^ who died in the 
beginning of 1123. He was succeeded, probably on his 
death, by Roger, who was made bishop of Chester in 1129* 
Gilbert is only known to us through Henry of Huntingdony 
who says that he had written in verse and in prose.* 

Early in the reign of Henry I. Geoffrey, a Norman 
scholar of the University of Paris, was invited to England 
by Richard abbot of St. Alban's, to superintend the school 
of Dunstable. He there composed a play of St. Katharine 
{ludum 8. KcUherifue), written without doubt in Latin, 
which was acted by his scholars, and he borrowed copes 
from the sacrist of St. Alban's to dress the characters.f 
This is the earliest mention of a dramatic piece acted in 
England. In 1119, Geoffrey was elected abbot of St. 
Alban's. He died in 1146. 

Two archbishops of York during this reign enjoyed 
some literary reputation. Thomas of Bayeux, the nephew 
of the first archbishop Thomas, after being one of the 
king's chaplains, was made archbishop of York in 1 109^ 
and died in 1114. He is said to have imitated his uncle in 
composing hymns for the pubUc service of the church, and 
Bale also attributes to him an Offidarium ^'usdem ecclesia. 

Thurstan, his successor, was one of the few English 
clergy of that age who were elevated to dignities in the 
church. He had been previously a canon of St. Paul's 
and one of the king's chaplains. On his election he re- 
vived the old dispute concerning the primacy, and after 
much trouble was consecrated by the pope in 1119, with- 

* Bachingeham prseposait Alaredam parvum, cui successit Gislebertus, 
yeraibus et prosa et habitn curialissimus, quibus saccessit Rogerus jam Ces- 
trensis episcopus effectus. Henr. Hunt. Epist. ad Walteram, ap. Angl. 
Sac. Tol. ii. p. 696. Tanner enters Gilbert in hia Bibliotheca under the 
name Doreadiua {GUberttuJ. 

t Mattb. Paris, Vit. Abbat. p. 56. Conf. Warton, Hist, of English Poetry, 
vol. i. p. cxii. 

110 TBirMTAll. WSPHBN* 

ont htfniig taken the oath of subadaaion to the see of 
Cantexburj. But the kbig and archhidiop of Caatei- 
bury weie with diffienltj eompdled by die threats ol 
the pope lo allow Um to take poaBCKsum of hiaaee.* Oa 
the 2Ist of Juwarj 1140, Thuntan lesigned the and^ 
bjahiiipiic^ and letiicd to the aUbej of Ponftefract^ where 
be Aed on Ibe 5th ol February fottowing. He wrote a 
long epntle to WilUam archbifdiop of Cantesfaury, on the 
oaigin of Fountains abbey^ whidi k printed iot the Mo» 
naaticon. Hie CamtiiHHo 4e deUtis ekriearmn d^fimei^- 
rwm was prmted by WiUdnekt Bale attributes to hi» two 
other works, De 9Uo pnmaiM wl CmlMtum jMjpafn^ lihw L 
and Contra Junkrem AMsdmum^ Ub. i, which perhaps 
never existed. 

Stephen, abbot first of Whsdiy and afterwards ol St. 
Mary^s at York, has left e short history of the fbnndation 
of the htst-mentioBed abbey, iriuch is printed in the M(»ia»* 
ticoD, under the name of Sbnon of WarwhdL Thewzitere 
of the Literary History of FrsnoehaJtre slated good reaaau 
lor beheving that this man was a native of Britany or 
Normandy : he was the friend of Ahui, sen of Ehido^ duke 
of Britany. He went to Whiitby in 1078^ and, being 
driven thence with his monks by the persecutions of WU- 
Ham de I%rcy, he established himself at York in 1088, and 
remained there till his death in 1112. He wes in fevonr 
with WilKam the Conquer<nr and Wililiam Rufus, and the 
latter was a patron of his abbey of York4 

* See W. Malmsb. de Gest. Pontif. p. 275, and Godwin de Epucopii. 
OrdericuB Yittlis, p. 858. 
t Condi. Mag. Brit, et Hib. voL i. p. 412. 
t See the HiaU lit. de Fr. torn. x. p. 16. 


SacsiON ui.*— Ths KBunr of Sranix». 


Oadebicu» was bori^ as he infonns u%* on &e I7tb 
of Febroary^ 1075^ at the vUlage of Attingeaham. (now 
AtGbaitt)^ on tiie banks of the Sevens about three milea 
from Shrewsbury. His father Odeleriua was a married 
priest, and quitted his Dative city of Orieans to accom- 
pany Roger de Montgomery to England^ who presented him 
to the chuordi of Shrewsbury. The child was bqptissed by 
OrdericuSy the priest of Attingesham, from whom he re^ 
ceived hia name. At the age of five yeaia he waa eur- 
trusted to the care of another pnest named Seward, to be 
mstrocted in the rudiments of learning» and remained 
with him tiU Ids teoth yeaar, when he waa trawfiened to 
ibe care of a monk of the name of Raynald^ who carried 
him to N<«nandy in 1085, for the purpose of dedi- 
cating him to a mcmastie life in the abbey of Ouche 
(Uticum) or St. Evroult in the diocese of lisieux* He 
soon made rapid advances in the favour of his abbot Mai- 
neriu8> and of all the brotherhood; his education waa 
entrusted to the subprior, John ; and iu 108fi he received 
the tonsnre and the monastic habit, on which occasion he 
changed his name of Qrderifeus for that of Yitalis» the 
saint on whose festival he became a monk. He was 
ordained a sub-deaoom at the age of sisUeen, and dea- 
con two years later. Fifteen years afterwards, in his 
thirty-tliird year, a. b. 1107^ he was made a priest. A 

« At tfa» btginmps of the fifOk book of bw Uitory. AU ow matoiali for 
the life of Ordericns are found in his own writings. 

112 ORDERICtTS VITALIS, [Bom 1075. 

considerable portion of his life appears to have been 
spent in collecting materials for his History^ and it seems 
that he visited England several times with this object.^ 
All that we know relating to his death is that it must 
have occurred subsequently to 1143^ as events of that 
year are mentioned in his writings. 

The thirteen books of the Ecclesiastical History^ as he 
has entitled it^ of Ordericus YitaUs, (for he is generally 
cited by both names^) exhibit many marks of having been 
composed at different periods, and also of having been 
retouched subsequently to their first publication. The first 
two books form in themselves a complete work^ consisting 
of a chronicle from the birth of Christ to his own time^ in 
which Ordericus dwells chiefly on the history of the church. 
This portion of the history, which was commenced, as 
he tells us, at the desire of his abbot Roger^ and there- 
fore previous to the year 1123 (when he resigned), is dedi- 
cated to his successor, abbot Guarin, who died in 1 137 ; it 
was probably completed in 1136, at which date the second 
book concludes. Yet before the last paragraph we find 
an account of events which happened in 1138 and 1139, 
and under the date 1136 is an allusion to the captivity 
of king Stephen in 1141 . These, as weU as the concluding 
paragraphs of a chronology of the popes, brought down 
to the year 1 142, must have been added to the original 
compilation at a later period. 

It is clear that the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth books, 
also formed originally a distinct work. They contain the 
history of the wars of the Normans in England, France, 
and Apulia, down to the death of William the Conqueror, 

* He speaks, on one occasion, of having examined an historical book at 
Worcester. Unum eonim [codicum] Wigomse vidi in Anglia. lib. iii. tub 
fine. He also visited Croyland, of the history of which he gives some 

Died a/ier 114S.] ordericus vitaus. 113 

with that of most of the Norman bishoprics and monas- 
teries. These three books were also dedicated to the 
abbot Guarin. It is probable that they were published 
before any other portion of the work ; for at the begin- 
ning of the fifth book Orderic speaks of having written 
previously no more than two books (the third and fourth 
of his work as it now stands)^ and calls that he was 
then commencing the third.* At the end of the fourth 
book the author teUs us that he was obliged to discon- 
tinue his work by the approaching rigours of winter ; and 
at the commencement of the fifth book he states that he 
had then been a monk forty-two years, which, by com- 
parison with the other dates he gives us connected with 
his own life, proves that he wrote that book in the year 
1128. The sixth book appears to have been written, or 
at least completed, about the year 1135. 

The third part of the work, consisting of the remaining 
seven books, continues the history from the death of 
William the Conqueror to a.d. 1141. It commences with 
a brief chronology of the kings of France to the time of 
William^s death. This part of the work appears to have 
been composed at different periods, perhaps in fragments, 
which were afterwards joined together and revised. The 
ninth book appears, by internal evidence, to have been 
written in 1129. In the tenth book, which ends with the 
year 1101, we find allusions connected with the year 
1133. The twelfth book was written in 1138, for Orderi- 
cus states there that Hugh de Montfort had been in prison 
fourteen years at the time he wrote it, and we know that 
that nobleman was committed to prison in 1 1 24, In the 

* Jam duos opitalante Deo libellos edidi, quiboB de raparatione sedia 
nostne et de tribus abbatibus nostris. . . . Amodo tertium ab anno in- 
carnationis Dominicae M°lxx**v'' libellum exordiar. Ord. Vit. Hist. Eccl. 
lib. y. S 1. 


114 ORDKRICUS YITALIS. [Bom 1075* 

same book Ordericns applies a prophecy of Merlin, and 
quotes it in the words of Geoffrey of Monmouth ; this 
must haTe been added after the publication of Geoffrey's 
▼crsion of Meiiin's prophecies, which appeared some time 
before the same writer's History of the Britons. 

On the whole, the thirteen books of Ordmcus VitaHs 
form one of the most raluable of our old historical works. 
The eaiiier part of his compilation is nearly all taken from 
the.common authorities for ecclesiastical history, which, as 
well as the works of the historians of his own time and of 
the ages which immediately preceded it, he seems to hare 
sought and used with great diligence ; but he is rich in 
original information on the history of Normandy and 
England, during the period which followed the accession of 
William the Conqueror to the English throne. The 
greatest faults of Ordericus as a writer are his want of 
system and method, and his frequent episodes and in- 
terruptions. He is also often inaccurate, even in the 
events of his own time, in dates and in minor details ; 
and in more than one instance he gives different dates for 
the same event in different parts of his book, an error 
into which he was liable to fall by his desultory manner 
of writing. His Latinity, without possessing any great 
excellency, is that of a man of learning and education. 
The following is his account of the coronation of William 
the Conqueror. 

Deniqne anno ab incarnatione Domini Mlxvii^ [i. e. 1066'!^] indictione v*. 
in die natalis Domini, Angli Landoni» ad ordinandnm regem oooTenenrnty 
et Normannorum tnrme circa monasterium in annia et equia (ne qnid doU 
et seditionis oriretur) prasaidio dispoaitae fuerunt. Adelredus itaque archie- 
piaoopna in basilica Sancti Petri apostolomm principis, quae Westmonas- 
terinm nuncupatur, ubi Eduardus rex venerabiliter humatna quiesdt, in 
prttsentia prsaolum et abbatum, procemmqae totina regni AttMonia, Gnil- 

1 '^" I II.. ..I.. . .1 .. ■■ I M . ■!. ..I ..^ I. ■ «.I ■ I II 

* A«eording to the style of computation uaed by Orderiena, Cfariatmas 
Day was the first day of the year 1067. 

Died after lUS.] ordericus vitalis. 115 

lermQitt dncem Nonn&tmomm in regem Anglonun conMcniTit, et cUadema 
r^nm capiti ejus imposuif . Interea, instigaiite Satana, qm bonis omnibua 
contrarius est, importana res ntrique populo, et portenhxm fatnne calami- 
tatisi ez improviso exortiun est. Nam dum Adelredus prsesul alloqueretur 
Anglos, et Goisfredus Constantiniensw Normannos» an concederent Gnil- 
lelmum regnare super se, et universi consensum hilarem protestarentor una 
▼006, non nnius ItngusB locutione, armati milites; qui extrinsecns erant pro 
raonim tnitionei mox ut Tocirerationem gandentis in eccleaia populi et ignotse 
lingntt strepitnm andierant, rem sinistrara arbitrati, flamraam tedibns im- 
prndenter injecerunt. Currente festinanter per domos incendio, plebs quae 
in ecclesia Isetabatur perturbata, et multitudo virorum ac mulierum divers» 
dignitatis et qualitatis infortunio perurgente celeritur basilicam egressa est. 
Soli preesules et pauci clerici cum monachis nimium trepidantes ante aram 
perstiterunt, et officium consecrationis super regem vehementer trementem rix 
peregerunt, aliique pene omnes ad ignem nimis furentem cucurrerunt, quidam 
nt vim foci viriliter oocarent, et piures ut in tanta perturbatione sibi prndas 
diriperent. Angli factionem tarn insperatae rei dimetientes nimis irati sunt, 
et postea Normannoa semper suspectos habuerunt, et infidos sibi dqudicantes 
ultionis tempus de eis optaverunt. 

Dr. Lappenberg, who has given a particular and detailed 
account of the historical work of Ordericus^ and of the 
sources of his information,^ observes that it appears to 
have been very little known in the Middle Ages. Cam- 
den, in his Collection of Historical Writers, printed from 
a manuscript at Caen an anonymous piece, under the title 
De WiUielmo Conquestare Fragmentumy which is nothing 
more than a portion of the seventh book of Ordericus 
Vitalis. The entire work was first printed in the collection 
of Duchesne in 1619; but no person had undertaken a 
separate edition before the very excellent one now in 
progress of publication by M. Le Prevost. 

Historise Normannomm Scriptores Antiqui. • • • Ex MSS. Codd. omnia 
fere nunc primum edidit Andreas Duchesnius Turonensis. Lutetiee 
Parisiomro, 1619. fol. pp. 321 — 925. Orderici Vitalis Angligense, 
coenobii Uticensis monacbi, Historiae Ecclesiasticfe fibii xiii. 

Orderici Vitalis Angligens, coenobii Uticensis monacbi, Historiae Ecelesl- 
astice libii tredecim ; ex veteris codicis Uticensis coUatione emendavit, 

* Gkschichte von England, vol. ii. pp. 378 — 393. 


116 EGBERT DB RETINES, [FfowmAerf 1143. 

et suas animadvereiones adjecit Augustus le PreYOst. Tomus Primus. 
Parisiis, 1838. Tomus Secundus. ib. 1840. In the coarse of publication 
by the Society de THistoire de France. 


Orderic Vital, Histoire de Normandie. 4 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1825 — 1827. 
Translated by M. Louis Dubois, and forming the twenty^fifth and fol- 
lowing volumes of the ' Collection dcs M^moires ' published under the 
direction of M. Guizot. 


The first Englishman after Athelard, as far as we can 
discover, who travelled among the Arabs to indulge his 
ardour in the pursuit of science was Robert de Retines.* 
Leland tells us, but without stating any authority, that he 
studied first in England, and that he afterwards travelled 
through France, Italy, Dalmatia, and Greece, into Asia, 
where he made himself master of the Arabic language, 
' and then returned to Spain. At present we have no 
authority extant for supposing that he obtained his know- 
ledge of Arabic elsewhere than in the latter country, where 
be formed a close friendship with another zealous scholar, 
Hermann the Dalmatian, and they appear to have studied 
the Arabian sciences together at Evora. Peter the Vene- 
rable, abbot of Cluny, began about this time to show his 
religious zeal against the doctrines of Mohammed, and 
determined to visit Spain in order to obtain more exact 

* In the MSS. the name is sometimes spelt Ketines, perhaps by a mere 
error of the scribe. He seems to liave been confounded with a Robert 
Ketene, or de Ketene, who lived more than a century later. Some modem 
writers have, wiUioutany reason, called him Robert of Reading : I believe 
they are wrong in supposing his name to have any connection with that 

Flourished 1143.1 Robert de retines. 117 

information on the religious opinions of the Arabs ; he 
found our two philosophers studying ' astrology* at Evora, 
and by offers of a great reward he prevailed upon them to 
quit for a time their favourite pursuits in order to trans- 
late the Koran.* This work they completed to his satis- 
faction in the year 1143,t at which time, or immediately 
after, as we learn from the abbot Peter's letter, Robert 
was made archdeacon of Pampeluna. We know no- 
thing more of his history. Pits states, apparently from 
mere conjecture, that he died at Pampeluna in 1 143. The 
date is probably quite incorrect. In the preface to the 
translation of Ptolemy's Planisphere by Hermann, and 
which was probably written some time after the publica- 
tion of the translation of the Koran, Hermann speaks of 
his friend Robert, and in a manner which would almost 
lead us to believe that he had some share in this work 
Although the translation of the Koran was the joint 

* Interpretantibns scilicet viris utriusque lingois peritis, Roberto Rete- 
nensi de Anglia, qui nnnc Papilonensis ecclesie archidiaconvs est, Her- 
manno quoque Dalmata, acntissimi et literati iDgenii Scholastico ; quos in 
Hispania drca Hibemm astrologicse arti studentes inyeni, eosque ad luec 
faciendam multo pretio conduzi. — Peter's Letter to Bernard of Clairvanz, 
introductory to the Sumrna, or brief treatise, on the Mohammedan religion» 
which he had caused to be translated by Peter of Toledo and a monk of 
Cluny, also called Peter. M. Jonrdain, Recherches Critiques sur les Tra-^ 
ductions d'Aristote, p. 101, has fallen into an error in supposing that 
Peter had any share in the translation of the Koran. 

t We learn this from the conclusion of the book, — Dlustri gloriosoque 
yiro Petro Cluniacensi abbate prsecipiente, tuus Angligena Robertus Rete» 
nensis librum istum transtulit, anno Domini Mczliii, Anno Alezandri 
Mcccciii, anno Alhigere Dzzxvii, anno Persarum quingentesimo undecimo. 

t Tuam itaque Tirtutem quasi propositum intuentes speculum, ego et 
unicus atque illustris socius Rodbertus Retenensis, nequitise displicere licet 
plurimum possit, perpetuum habemus propositum, cum, ut Tullius meminiti 
misera sit fortuna cni nemo inviderat. MS. Reg. Paris. No. 7377, b. 
This preface, which is not found in the printed editions, is addressed tO 
his ' preceptor Theodoricns,' probably a Spaniard in whose school the two 
friends pursued their studies. 

118 ROBERT DB RBTiNBs. [Flourished 11^» 

work of Robert and Hermann, the pre&tory epistle is 
written in the name of the former only. Robert de Re* 
tines gives the following account of the sentiments with 
which it was midertaken. The work itself is a tolerably 
literal translation from the Arabic. 

Unde qnanqiuin te velat alumnwm et luBredem aqpieiatue cohon Mpiea* 
tmm circumflaa oonstipet, suas maniu tuis nutibiu benigne conferens ; 
quonun conTentu me minime dignum adhac sentio : yestrum tamen rnnnuB- 
culiim, pateom pneiignatiuii pandens, saltern semd boh obliqae tuna penpi* 
caz intaitm, qasBSO dignetur aapioere. Qoanqaam enim in effragili faldtam 
ingeniolo plara pneceasenrnt incommodai turn hinc eloqnii penuria, illinc 
acientUe tenuitas, tain id quod ad nil agendum est efficacins, seoordise vide- 
licet negligentiaeque mater desperado mnltiplez ob translationifl nostras Wlem 
et dissolttbilem ac incompaginatam materiam, pro sui modo prorsns, Aiabico 
tantum semoto velaminei tuBC magestati prtebendam, non minus tamen 
obnize tuum obsequium aggressus sum : confisus nil effectn quassari, quo 
tnum TOtum igne divino plenom adspirat. Liapides igitur et ligna, ut twim 
delude pulcberrimum et commodissimum sedificium coagmentatum et indis- 
solubile surgat, nil excerpens, nil sensibiliter nisi propter intelligentiam 
tantum alterans, attuli, Machometique fumum, ad ipsius tuis foUibus ez- 
tinctum, et puteum ad iUius exhaustumi tuo vase, ignisque yestri tuo yenti- 
labro fomentum atque fervorem, nostrique fontis eductu tuo discnrsum, 
patefeci. Jus igitur exigit, ut hostium castrum, imo caveam delendo, 
puteum exsiccando, cum tu sis dextra mundi pars optinuti cos religioids 
acutissima, charitatis manus largiflua, tuorum munimen corrobores, tela 
diligenter acuas, fontemque suum fortius emanare, suseque cbaritatis yallum 
protensius atque capacius efficias. 

In the Bodleian library* there is a manuscript entitled 
TVanslatio Chronica Saracenorumy by Robert de Retines, 
with a dedicatory epistle to Peter abbot of Cluny. It is 
the same work which is printed anonymously in the col- 
lection of Bibliander (p. 213) from an imperfect manu- 
script, without the preface, under the title Incipif Chronica 

Jourdan, in his Researches on the Latin Translations of 
Aristotle^t states his opinion that Robert de Retines was the 
same person as the Robertus Castrensis to whom Mangett 
attributes the Latin version of Morien De Compositione 

* MS. Seld. Sup. 31. f Bechercbes Critiques, p. 104* 

t Bibl. Cbym. Car. 1, p. 519. 

Plaurished l\4S.] Robert de retines. 119 

AlchimuBy said to have been made in 1 182. But it is hardly 
probable that Robert de Retines should have been so 
young in 1143 as to be stiH an active writer forty years 

Tanner attribxites to Robert de Retines a tra<:;t con- 
tained in several manuscripts at Oxford^ entitled Judida 
Jiteobi Alkindi Asfrologi tx translatume Roberii Angliciy 
toirhieh he affixes the date 1272. This date is certainly 
meorrect if it be the work of Robert de Retines, which 
appears not improbable from the drcumstance that a copy 
of the same tract occurs in a manuscript of the beginning 
of the fourteenth (or perhaps of the thirteenth) century in 
the British Museum* with the title, Incipiunt Judida 
AlkifuH Astrology Rodberti de Ketene translation Its 
subject is purely astrological, the object being to reduce 
to a system which admits of calculation the supposed in- 
fluences of the planets on the elements, on mankind, and 
on private actions and political events. 


Machmnetis Sarracenoram principis vita ac doctrina omnia, qun et Isma* 
helitamm lex, et Alcoranom dicitur, ex Arabica lingua ante CCCC annos 
iA LatiDam Translata. . . . Item Philippi Melancthonis, viri doctiss. 
pnemonitio ad lectorem, &c. fol. The copy in the British Mnaettm 
haa the lower part of the title torn off, bat it appears to be the edition 
printed at Basil, by Brylinger, for J. Oporinns, in 1543. 

Fabridua mentions a sepsirate edit, of the Koran, printed at Zurich. 1543. 
He probably refers to a tract entitled, Alcorani Epitome, Roberto 
Ketenense interprete, published with Mahometis Abdallse filii Theologia, 
dialogo ezplicata, Hennanno Nellingaunense interprete, in that year. 

Machumetis ejusque suooesBorum vitte, doctrina, ac ipse Alcoran, quae D.- 
Petrus, abbas Clan, ex Arabica lingua in Lat. transferri ourovit, earn 
Phil. Melanchtonis preemonitione, &c. [Tiguri,] 1550. fol. 

* MS. Cotton, Appendix VI. fol. 109, r°. Robert may be the translator 
of some of the other tracts of Alkindi, two of. which were printed under the 

title, — Astroru Indices'! q^JlL. Me plnriis imbribus et Tetis : ac aeris 

mntatioe. Venetiis Anno Dni 1507* Ex offidna Petri Liechtenstein. 4to* 
black letter* 

120 [Time of 


The earliest known romance in the Anglo-Norman lan- 
guage is the Chanson de Roland of the trouvere Turold. 
The conjectures of the abbd de la Rue concerning the 
family and date of this writer are so extremely vague and 
unsupported by evidence, that they do not deserve to be 
repeated. The only information relating to Turold which 
can be gleaned from his poem is his name, which occurs 
in the concluding line ;* and the name Thorold, Torold, 
Turold, was so common in the eleventh and twelfth cen- 
turies, that it would be vain, with no further evidence, to 
attempt to trace his family connections. There can be 
little doubt that he flourished in England ; the manuscript 
from which his poem has been printed appears to be as 
old as the latter half of the twelfth century, and the lan- 
guage induces us to believe that he flourished about the 
time of king Stephen. 

The poem of Turold begins somewhat abruptly, and 
describes the same disastrous battle of Roncevaux which 
had already been made popular in the Latin story pub- 
lished under the name of bishop Turpin, and which has 
been so often celebrated in the poetry of subsequent ages. 
Although the language is nearly the same as that of Philip 
de Thaun, its style diflfers entirely from that of any Anglo- 
Norman poem which we can safely attribute to a remoter 
date. Instead of the rhyming treatise on science, or the 
scarcely less prosaic narratives of miracles of saints, we 
recognise here a poem which was undoubtedly intended to 
be recited with the accompaniment of the minstrel's harp; 

* Ci fait la geste que Taroldus declinet* 

Chanson de Rolandi p. \h^. 

Stephen.] turold. 121 

and, although devoid of the artificial ornaments of more 
refined poetry, the story marches on with a kind of lofty 
I grandeur which was well calculated to move the hearts of 

the hearers for whom it was intended, and which even to 
a modern reader is not without its charms. The primitive 
form of the language has also a certain degree of dignity 
which was lost in its subsequent transformations. The 
form of the verse has some peculiarities ; it is one of the 
oldest poems, in which, instead of rhyming couplets, we 
have a continuous series of lines, varying in number, 
bound together by one final rhyme, and this rhyme rests 
upon the last or last two vowels, entirely independent of 
the consonants. This kind of assonance, rather than 
rhyme, is I believe found in no other work of the trou- 
veres, although it occurs in the dialects of the south 
(Spanish and Proven9al) and even in Latin poems of the 
tenth and eleventh centuries.* The following passage of 
the poem, taken almost at random, will best illustrate 
these observations : it describes the occupations of the 
court of Charlemagne on the arrival of the Moorish am- 

Li empereres se fait e balz e liez, 
Cordres a prise eles mnrs peceiez, 
Od ses cadables lea tors en abatied, 
Mult grant eschech en unt si chevaler 
D'or e d*argent e de gnamemenz chers. 
£n la citet n'en ad rem^ paien 
' Ne seit ocis u devient chrestien. 

Li empereres est en nn grant verger, 
Eosembr od loi Rollans e Oliver, 
Sansnn 11 dux, e Anseis li tiers, 
Gefreid d^Anjon le rei gnnfannner ; 
E si i furent e Gerin e Gerers. 

* For an example of this assonant rhyme in Latin, cloeely resembling 
that of Turold, see the poem on St. Nicholas, printed in the Reliquin Anti- 
qnse, vol. ii. p. 199* 

122 TUROLD. [Time of 

Lk (l cist fdrenty dea altres i out Men 9 
De dnlce France i ad quinze millien. 
Sur palies blancs siedent cil oeralerst 
As tibl«s jnent pur eli eslMnBier, 
£ as eschces li plus saxve e li Teill, 
E escremissent cil bachder leger. 
DesQS m poUy deles qh ^[lenteri 
Ua fi^eitoed i nnt fUt tat d'or mer : 
Li siet li reis qui dnlce France tient, 
Blanche ad la barbe e tut flurit le chef, 
6ent ad le eon e la cmtenanoe fier. 
S'est ki V demaadet, ne I'estoet enfle%ner ; 
£ li message descendirent i pied. 
Si 1' salnerent par amor e par bien. 

As in most of the early romances, the largest portion of 
the poem of Tnrold consists of battle scenes, descriptions 
most suitable to the taste of a warlike age, which are told 
with somewhat of Homeric vigour. In relating the disas- 
ters of the war, the poet introduces pathetic traits which 
sometimes possess considerable beauty. The following 
incident forms part of the narrative of the death of the 
hero Roland. 

Halt rant li put e nralt halt lea arbrea, 

Quatre pemms i ad luisant de marbre. 

Snr I'erbe verte li qnens Rollans se paamet ; 

Uns Sarrarins tute veie Pe^gnardet, 

Si se feinst mort, si gist entre lea aitros» 

Del sane Inat aim eora e aim Tiaage, 

Met sei en piea e da cure s^aatet ; 

Bels Alt e fora e de grant vassdage : 

Par snn oigoill enmeiioet mortal rage, 

RoUant saisit e aun oora e aes armea, 

£ dist on mot : '' Venent eat li nite Carlea . 

Iceste esp^ porterai en Aiabo/* 

£n eel tireres li qnens a'apar9at alqnes. 

Co sent Rollans qne s'esp^ li tolt, 
Uverit les oilz, si li ad dit un mot : 
*' Men esdentre I tn n*ies mie des nos.*' 
Hent I'olifan, qne unques perdre ne Tolty 
Si rfiert en I'elme Id gemmet fdt k or, 
Fndaaet I'aoor e la teste e lea oa, 
Amadous lea oili del chef U ad mia fon, 

SiephenJ] evbbard and hbi^ys of winohb8tbr. 123 

Jus i 868 pies si V ad trestornet mort, 

Apr^s li dit : ** Calvert paien, cum fiu unkes si 08 

Que me saisis ne i dreit ne 2l tort ? 

Ne V omt hvaae no t'en dioget pur toL 

Fendiu en est mis oliftois eL gros, 

Ca joz en est li cristals e li ors." 

The only manuscript of Turold^s poem^ in its origmal 
f onn^ known to exist at the period when it was printed by 
M. Michel^ is preserved in the Bodleian Library. Copies 
of the same text^ modernized and containing many yaria- 
tions, but without the name of Turold, are found in map- 
nuscripts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.* 


La Chanson de Roland, ou de Roncevauz^ da xii" si^cle, pnbli^ poor la 
premiive ftns, d'apr^ le Manuscrit de la Blblioth^ne Bodl^ienne k 
Oxford, par FtaDcisque Michel. Svo. Pans, 1837. 


Ths account which the abb^ de la Rue gives of the 
trouTere Everard is extremely incorrect. All that we 
know of this poet is that he wrote a metrical translation 
into Anglo-Norman of the Disticha of Dionysius Cato^ 
the popular book of morality in the Middle Ages, and that 
he was a monk. In one of the manuscripts of this trans- 

* SeYeral such MSS. are described in M. Michel's Introduction to his 
edition of the poem of Torold, and in prof. Keller's reoent pnblioataoiiy 
BomYart : Beitn^e sur mitteUdterlicher Dichtungaus Italienisolien Biblio* 
theken. Svo. Mannheim, 1844, pp. 12, 28. See also on the subject of this 
poem, M. Monin's Dissertation sur le Roman de RoDoevauz. The earliest 
of the foreign manuscripts (dating from the commencement of tiie thirteenth 
century) is preserved in the Royal Library at Paris, fonds de Colbert» No* 
7337^., and, as I am informed by M. Pau^n Paris, resembles closely the text 
of the Oxford MS., except that it is much more correctly written and more 


lation its author is called Avrard. Tanner, on the autho- 
rity of Dempster (who is not generally deserving of much 
credit) mentions a Scottish monk of the name of Everar- 
dus^ canon of Kirkham in Yorkshire (founded in 1121)^ 
and subsequently first abbot of Holme Cultram in Cum- 
berland (founded in 1150), to whom he attributes Lives (in 
Latin) of St. Adamnanus^ St. Cumeneus Albus^ and St. 
Walthenus. M. de la Rue^ without any reason^ identifies 
these two Everards ; and^ which is much less excusable^ 
states that Everard in his translation of Cato tells us that 
he was canon of Kirkham^ although all that the writer says 
of himself is that he was a monk. There is every reason for 
believing that Everard of Kirkham, of whose writings (if 
they ever existed) nothing remains, was a different person 
from the Everard of whom we are now speaking. At the 
same time the language he uses, and the age of the manu- 
scripts, induce us to believe that they may have been con- 
temporary, and that the translator of Cato lived perhaps 
not later than the reign of Stephen. 

The translation of Everard appears to have enjoyed 
some popularity ; and it was subsequently retouched or 
altered by other persons, and made the foundation of other 
works. This practise of pirating literary property was not 
uncommon in the Middle Ages. In a manuscript in the 
British Museum,* we have an Anglo-Norman metrical 
version of the Disticha of Cato, written by Helys (or He- 
lias) of Winchester, who also, by the title of dans {do- 
minus J which he gives himself, must have been an eccle- 
siastic or a monk.t Helys translates the first book of 

* MS. Harl. No. 4388. There is another copy in MS. CoL Corp. Chr. 
Cambridgei No. 405. M. de la Rne places Helys of Winchester Tery erro« 
neonsly in the thirteenth century, 
t In the prologue, MS. Harl. No. 4388, fol. 115, v^ ;— 

Ki Tolt saveir la faitement 
Ke Katun i\ sun fiz prent, 

Stephen.^ evebabd and hblys of Winchester. 12S 

Cato in the same measure as that adopted by Everard^ 
whom he frequently copies with slight variations through 
several lines, whilst at other times he changes his original 
entirely, but in such a manner that we easily see that he 
had the version of Everard before his eyes. Many of the 
variations are mere differences in the readings of manu* 
scripts. In the second book Helys gives a translation 
differing both in words and measure from that of his pro- 
totype, to which however he returns again in the third and 
fourth books. The respective translations of the first six 
lines of the first book will serve as a specimen of the 
manner in which Helys has changed the version of Eve- 
rard when he differs most from it. 

Tramlaiion of Everard, Translation of Helys of Winchester, 

Si DevLs est animus^ nobis ut carmina dicunt, 
Hie tibi pracipue sit pura menie colendus. 

Si Deus H cativer De purpense pure. 

Est tel purpenseri Cum dit I'escripture) 

cum dient chescun, Deu devum cultiver, 

Lk seit ton curage Lui deis-tu meimement 

Perm en sun estage, Acuragiement 

sanz nul flichisun. servir et honurer. 

Plus viyila semper, nee somno deditus esto ; 
Nam diutuma qtiies vitiis alimenta ministrat. 

Tat tens garde vus Purvei tuteveis 

Ke Yus esveillez plus Ke tu trop ne seies 

ke ne prengez summe ; al dormir desirus ; 

Kar par grant dormir Repos et trop dormir 

Sout suvent chair Fait home devenir 

en vices meint hume. malveis e perecusi 

S'en Latin ne 1* set entendre, 
Ci le pot en Romanz aprendre, 
Cum Helis de Guincestre, 
Ki D^s mettet k sa destr^. 
La translatat si faitement, etc. 

And in the concluding lines of the poem : — 

Ki 's translata l* entent tut altresi, 
Danz Helys, dunt Jesus ait merci I 


TroMlation qfJBverard, TrtuulaHim of HtlyM of WmeKetttr, 

Virtuiem primam eueputa compeseere lin^tMm ; 
Proximut ille Deo ett qui »cii ratione taeere. 

La Yerta premere La premere vertu 

Ki kid seit ciiere, Est, Men le nchei-tai 

est kage refreoer ; ta laoge refranar ; 

A Den est prochein, Deu pot k gr6 seryir, 

Ki par reaim certein Ki set e Tolt taisir, 

set taiiir e parler. e par leteiin parler« 

In the following passi^es^ taken a little farther on in the 
first book, the two versions become more closely iden- 
tical: — 

Omtt&m ti leni», He ui ru eapoituiati etio : 
Ten^oribu9 moree sapiem »iM crimine muM. 

Red e suef seez, Paisibles et saef iras 

Selung go ke ta veies Salunc 90 ke verras 

ke les dkMea i vont ; qoe ka choaes a^en Yitnt ; 

Li sages, sana bleamer Li sages sens blaamer 

Ses mure set atemprer Ses mors set atanprer 

selunc que choses sunt. snlmic les tens que sunt. 

Nil temere uxori de eervie erede guerenti ; 
Sape etetUm mulier quern eonjux dUigit odii. 

Ne creies folement Ta fsemme * foleaMnt 

Ta femme quant auTent Ne crdre, de ta gent 

de tea aeijanz se claime ; si ele ae claimet s 

Kar suTent eschet Kar surent avient 

Que la dame het Ke femme en baar tient 

ceus ke H sires aime. ke si sires aime. 

Cum moneat aliquemf ?iee se velit ille moneri, 

Si tibi eit earns, noli desittere c<Bptis, 
Si de ses folies Si de ses folies 

Acun de tons chasties, Alkun chasties, 

e il ne r Yoillie entendre, ki ne 1' voile entendre, 

* I eonsider the oecorrence of the « diphtiiong in tids mannseript, and in 
those of Philip de Thaun, GnerBes do Pont de St. Mazence, and one or two 
others, a proof of their being written in the twelfth century ; I account for 
them by supposing the MSS. to have been written by scribes who were 
in the custom of writing Latin, and who, when writing que, femme, &c. 
wrote as though it were the Latin qum, ftemina, 8tc. And even in Latin 
MSS. the <e went out of use towards the end of the twelfth eentury : — 1 
never met with a MS. containing it which could be attributed by any stretch 
of probability to a later date than the reign of John, excepting, of course, 
manuscripts written after the fifteenth century. 

tSiephenJ] cybrard^nd hblts of winchsitsb. 127 

TVwMiMMi ^ M m rar d. Tyantlaiion ^f BOy» ^ Whtekmier. 
Ne Ml p«r ^ cesser. Par teat ae P deis Is iswr » 

Parqvel qve Taies cher. Si tu 1' ts aldies cher, 

mevs de tent plu reprendre. msis dire en nprendre. 

Bjn§iuum muntu cum dat tibi pauper muieuMf 
jiedpiio plaeide, plene et laudare memmtQ, 

Quant un petit dun S*avieat k'vn petit dm 

Te met k baundon Te mette it bandon 

le ton povre ami, li ton povres ands^ 

Receif le bonement> Receif le boaeieati 

E plenerement E loenges Pen read, 

t*en lo par tnt de li. e g^ranz grez et merdi. 

J^mtfsm nm d u m mm U ntiimra ereariif 
PaupertatU onu$ patietUer ftrre menuuio, 

dnant el mnnd venis, Ne t^esmaie pnr perte» 

PoTffSS e chaitift Safre te porerto, 

e an et d<dent, et par bon Toleir, 

La charge de poverte, Si te ddt sayenir 

De meseise e de perte, Ke D^s to fist venir 

•ofre bonemeirt. el mnnd sens «feir. 

The opening lines of the second book will serre to show 
the style of Helys of Winchester when he writes inde- 
pendently of his predecessor : — 

niluris fifbrU velU cognoteere culfus, 
FXry^teM Uffito, Quod «t moffe ntme Ubonu 
Herbarum vtre«, Maeer has tibi earmme dieet. 
Si Ronuma etqfU vel Punica nogeere bella, 
iMeamtm qutenUf qmi Martiipralia dieei. 
Si quid amort Ubet «t/ dUetre amort UgtudOf 
Nttsonem petiio. 

Si ta Tons saver Talent de terre gainier 
Terre cnltirer, pur qnei tn aies fis, 

ke bl4 ne ftdie nde, Vlrgfles t'en set adrescer, 
Yirg^ie lises, si tn lis ses escris. 

£ saver pnrrez £ tn herbe vols saveir 

ases de gnainerie. la force et la rertn. 

Si Yoaa fWdea Danz Maeres t*en dirrat 
estre, e saver ben le veir, qnant Tanras purven 

duner les mescines, Si de Romains n AlMcans 
Maere, ke ne ment, bataille vols saveir, 

Les granz vertnz t'aprent Bien les te dirrat danz Lncans, 

d' erbes e de radnes* si tn liz & leisir. 


lYanalation of Everard, JYanslation of Helys of Winchester, 

Si YOQS ke ta ne failles E cil ki volt sayeir d'amur, 

De saver les batailles e aprendre k amer, 

d'Aufrike e de Rume, Ovide Tamerus autur 

Lucan aprenez, li estuverat recorder. 

Kar iloc truverez 

de guerre meinte sume* 
Si Yous saver d'amurs, 
Cum volent li plusurs, 

Use les Ovides, 
E tost saveras amer, 
E pus desamer, 

meuz ke ta ne quides. 

There can be no doubt that Everard was the original 
writer, and that Helys was the copyist, because Everard's 
translation is uniformly written, whereas the prologue and 
translation of the second book of the other are altogether 
in a diflferent style from the rest. 

In the British Museum there is another Anglo-Nor- 
man version of Cato, in a manuscript of the earlier part of 
the fourteenth century,* which also is written in the same 
measure as that of Everard j and I am inclined to think 
that the author took Everard for his model, but he has dis- 
guised what he has borrowed much more effectually than 
Helys of Winchester. 

The best copy of the poem of Everard is found in a 
manuscript in the British Musuem (MS. Arundel, No. 292, 
which, when examined by M. de la Rue, was in the library 
of the Royal Society). An inferior copy is preserved in 
a manuscript in the Royal Library at Paris (fonds Notre 
Dame, No. 277)j from which it has been printed by M. 
Le Roux de Lincy. The manuscript cited by M. de la 
Rue as fonds Notre Dame No. 5, is the same as the one 
just mentioned, but his reference is incorrect. 

M. de la Rue attributes to Everard, I think incorrectly, 

• MS. Harl. No. 4(i57. 


a smaller poem in the Arundel manuscript^ (a short me« 
trical discourse on the Passion^) merely because it is 
contained in the same volume, and is written in the 
same kind of verse as the translation of Cato. We meet 
not unfrequently with similar poems, which might be 
attributed to the same writer with as much justice, for, 
although contained in one manuscript, the two poems 
are separated by a number of small pieces in different 
languages and by different authors. A similar poem has 
been published by M* Jubinal;* and another will be 
found in the manuscript in the Harleian Library ,t which 
has already been cited as containing a translation of Cato 
in the same structure of verse as that of Everard, which 
it immediately precedes. 


he Livre des ProYerbes Frangaisi par Le Roux de Lincy. ISmo. Paris, 1842. 
Tome Second, pp. 359—375. Everard's Translation of the pistichs 
of Cato. 


Samson db Nantbuil is another of the Anglo-Nor- 
man trouveres whom we know only by his writings. It is 
probable, from the character of his work, that he was an 
ecclesiastic. We are enabled to fix the date at which 
Samson flourished, for he informs us that he was attached 
to the household, or court, of Adelaide de Conde, at whose 

* Un Sermon en yers, public poor la premiere fois, par Achille Jabinal, 
d'apr^s le Manuscrit de la Bibliotbdqne da Roi. 8to. Pisris, 1834. 
t MS. Harl. No. 4657. 



request he composed the only work which bears his name^ 
a metrical Anglo-Norman translation of^ and gloss upon^ 
the Proverbs of Solomon.* This lady was the wife of 
Osbert de Cond^^ lord of Homcastle^ in Lincolnshire^ and 
lived during the reigns of Henry I. and Stephen. Horn- 
castle was one of the numerous castles which were 
destroyed in the beginning of the reign of Henry II. In 
1148; Adelaide de Cond^^ with her son Roger de Cond^^ 
gave several donations to the priory of Rufford.f Samson 
de Nanteuil may therefore be considered as belonging to 
the reign of Stephen. 

Only one manuscript of the translation of the Proverbs 
by this trouvere is known to exists and it has never been 
printed. It possesses very little interest, and hardly de- 
serves to be dragged from its obscurity. The translator 
takes the Latin text phrase by phrase, giving first a nearly 
literal translation, and then a gloss. The following lines 
will serve as an example (taken from the MS. fol. 5, r^.) 

* Ki ben en volt estere enqneranz, 

Entendet dune k ceat Romanz, 

Que al loenge Dame-De 

£ i B*enor at translate 

Sanson de Nantuil, ki sovient 

De M dame quHl aime et creleat, 

Ki mainte feiz Ten out preid, 

Que li desdatrast eel trailed. 

Le num de ceste damme eacrist 

Cil ki translation fist, 

Aelii de Cund^ Tapele 

Noble damme enaeigne 6 bele. 

Ne quident pas li losengier 

Qu*ot ens se ToUle acompaigner, 

Kar trestat oil de la contrte 

Unt ben oi sa rennm^. fol. 2, r^. 
t Hftii is stated hj M. de la Rue, without ginng his authority. 
t MS. Harl. No. 4388, of the twelfth century. 

Btepken*'] ovisoard db BBAiTLnn. ISI 

Enpr^B li dit, fix, n'aflsentir 
Ab pecchanx, all te Tont blandir, 
N*«iof nwn de lor aldter, 
Kar anuire ne tat meiter. 

CoBjeetnre fait cQ qui I'ereie, 
Que pere et mere li chaiteiei 
Pur 960 que li meret quenchir 
Tot Palaiter et le blandir 
Des peeheoft» ki loaengler 
Le Tolent de mal comeuoer. 
Alaiter par tent I enfant, 
Ki d'naer pain est non poant. 
li peehenr oelni alaiteat» 
Qne par vantanee i mal rehaitent. 
De ploa te met en sorqnidance» 
Qne ne pot areir defeif anoe ; 
Par yantaneei I'en Telt toner 
A perdre 90 qne deit garder. 
Apr^ li tient male hnere enprendre. 
Com enliuit ki ne Mit entendre 
De faire 90 qne Tarn li dit, 
Ne ne set s'est perte n profit. 
De tel alaiter de pechled 
Flidt li pere al fia ram ddret. 
Si n'avnna eel reepit en main, 
Que l*am snelt dire del yilain, 
Ki ne ereit anm pere et aa mere, 
Noiele oratt male et amare. 


This writer has been hitherto known only by a poem 
of some length which in the manuscript is entitled the 
Sermon of Ouiscard de Beaulieu.* He tells us that he 
had passed his youth in secular enjoyments, until, dis* 

* Id fine le flermim Gniichart de Beanlln. MS. Harl. No. 4388, 
tol. 99, ▼•. 


132 ouiscABD DE BEAULIEU. [Reign of 

gusted with the vanities of the worlds he had retired to a 
monastery 5 and his ^^ sermon'^ is a long satire against the 
vices of the age. 

A contemporary (or nearly contemporary) writer has 
however preserved an interesting account of Guiscard de 
Beanlieu, not hitherto noticed. Walter Mapes informs 
us that Guiscard was a man of wealthy distinguished 
for his valour; that in his old age he had surren- 
dered his estates to his son Imbert, and not only as- 
sumed the habit of a monk of the order of Cluny^ but be- 
came a poet in his own language^ the French or Anglo- 
Norman^ and was distinguished as ^^ the Homer of the 
laity/* * Subsequently, when his son, by the violence of 
his enemies and his own want of courage, had been ex- 
pelled from his paternal possessions, Guiscard returned 
for a time to the world, assumed his arms, reinstated 
him, and then retired again to the cloister, where he re- 
mained till his death.t From the manner in wliich he is 
here spoken of, we ought probably to consider Guiscard 
as living in the reign of Stephen, and dying early in that 
of Henry II. 

The abb^ de la Rue supposed that our trouvere took 
his name from the circumstance of his being a monk in 
the priory of Beaulieu in Bedfordshire, founded early in the 
twelfth century as a dependent on the great abbey of St. 
Alban's. This was not, however, a house of Cluniac 
monks: and from the account just cited from Walter 
Mapes I am inclined to think that he must have belonged 
to some other abbey, and that Beaulieu was the family 

* Collectifl Tuibus se subito poetam penensiti 8uo qnomodoi lingua 8C. 
Gallica pnetonsos effulgens, laicoram Homerus fait By laicorum Home^ 
rutf I presume that Mapes means he became bj the language of his writings 
the poet of the laity, who could not understand those who wrote in Latin. 

t Walter Mapes, De Nugis Curialium, Distinct, i. cap. 13. 

Stephefi.] GUiscARD de beaulieu. 133 

name. The words of the writer just mentioned would 
lead us to believe that Guischard had written more than 
one poem. The Sermon is, however, all that is now known 
of his compositions. It is preserved in a manuscript of 
the twelfth century in the British Museum,* and (in a 
mutilated form) in a manuscript of the Royal Library at 
Paris,t from which last copy an edition was published by 
M. Jubinal. 

The Sermon of Guiscard de Beaulieu is written in the 
same kind of versification which characterises most of the 
earlier metrical romances, and of which we have had an 
example in the Chanson de Roland, the assonance of 
Turold being however exchanged for more perfect rhymes* 
The style bears marks of much greater poetical talent than 
is observed in the poems of Everard and Samson de Nan- 
teuil, and frequently exhibits considerable elegance and 
energy of expression. We select the following lines,]: 
both as a fair specimen of the whole, and as preserving a 
curious trait of the religious belief of the age. 

ChasoonB heom coTient ke biei\ se seit parreiK ; 

Kar il i ad dons complaingnz ki mult nmt fien et dun : 

L'lm est Tangle dea dels, et I'altre des perdus. 

Dirrai yus de cbascon com deit estre cremuz ; 

E 11 bona escriz noz biena et toz noz yertoz, 

Et li mala noz pechez lea granz et lez menuz. 

Entre ena nen ad j& paia, tat tena aont iraacns : 

L'on volt noitre damage, bien en aeez aeurz, 

Et Vautre eat curioa coment il foat vencuzi 

Co est par bona ovrea deit eatre confimdez. 

A celu TOB tenez dunt aerrez meintennz, 

Devant Deu yus merrat, U serrez bien venoz. 

Quant li bona est saula et Faltre est mal peoz. 

Quant il est veatiiz, li colverz eat tnt muz. 

♦ MS. Harl. No. 4388. 

t BibUoth^ue Royale, No. 1856 (indicated by M. de la Rue as No* 
t MS, Harl. No. 4388, fol. 94, t**. 


L'mi Tolt bout Testimeni, gunemens «gwh 

DeBtrert bien enaeelez, et palefrai tiwdiUi 

Escuz peint i or, esp^ esmiilnzy 

E mantaalfl tralnaiis de grant palles tesduz t 

Duao 8«rnit pur m9 tv amei eC conxui 

Ki sivre le yoldrett celui aerrat ses-druz ; 

Jk eertes kl I'cremit derant Deu n'ert rexa, 

De eeU dit tuaiptan 4 be» prof rant perdu. 

Bon conaeil en dinrai, le jo en ere crenx» 

Trestnt doner k poyres, k meseals, et k mnz, 

Et faire pnnz snr ewes, dnnt tust meintenna 

EgUeea et nraaten U D^ jii«t «onviw. 

Ki ren done pur Den, mnlt par i ad ben yendv ; 

Quant mester aurat, trestut li ert renduz. 

CU ki beM iiit pur B'thne^ ii fei ral rend «do». 


Le Sennon de Qviebtrd de Boeidieii, pvbli^ poor b preni^ fm d'aprte le 

Manuscrit unique de la Bibliothdque du Roi. 8to, lettrea Gotbiquei. 
PariB, 1834. [Edited by M. Achille Jubinal.] 


William of Malmaburjr desenres to be oonsidered as 
one of the most remarkable writers of the twelfth cen- 
tury ; yet we know little of his personal history, and that 
little we have to deduce from the allusions in his own 
writings. He tells us that^ his father having destined him 
for the church, he apent all his youth in dose application 
to books, and made himself well acquainted with the 
principal branches of learning, but that history was his 
favourite study. He began by obtaining with his own 
money the principal writers of foreign history, and then, 
turning to the annals of his own country, and finding them 
imperfectly handed down by other writers, he was led to 
collect the materials for a new work, in which some of the 

in 1140.] WthhIAU OF MALH8BURY. }35 

defects of his predecessors were to be supplied.* He was 
librarian and precentor of his notonastery^f and would 
have been elected abbot, if he had not resigned his claims 
in favour of his competitor, abbot John,| who was elected 
in 1140, and died the same year* 

This is the only incident in William's life of which we 
possess the exact date. In the prologue to the fourth 
book (d his History of the English Kings, he speaks of 
William Rufus and Henry I. as kings o/ his own time, § to 
distinguish them from William the Conqueror, and says 
that thenceforth he shall have to speak of what came 
within his own knowledge. He must therefore have lived 
in the time of the second William, and we may place his 
birth in the latter part of the eleventh century. In an- 
other of his works, the Commentary on Jeremiah, pro- 
bably written soon after Henry^s death, he says that he 
had seen an ostrich in England in the time of king Henry. || 
He states that when he wrote the work just alluded to 
he was forty years old, and that he had written on his- 
tory when younger.lf This is no doubt an allusion to his 

* Prologua, lib. ii. Hist. Reg. Angl. In the prologae to lib. iii. he tells 
us that one of his parents was Norman, the other English, ntrinsqne gentis 
sangaiaem traho. 

t He gives himself the first of these titles In the introduction to his His- 
torin NoTellsB. 

X So Leland informs us, on the authority of his Itinerary of Abbot Johtti 
now lost. § Nostri temporis regum. 

II Qualem in Anglia yidimus tempore regis Henrici eztraneorum mon- 
strorum appetentissimi. Expos. Thren. Hierem. MS. Bodl. No. 868, 
quoted by Sharpe. 

f Otim «urn historiis lasi, viridioribus annis remmque Istiti» congruebat 
rerum jocunditas ; nunc astas progressior et fortuna deterior alind dioendi 
genus expostulant. Quadragenarius sum hodie. Pnef. in Expos. Thren* 
Hierem. This was probably written in the midst of some family griefs : 
from the manner in which he speaks of his being forced to be a schohur, I 
think it probable that William was a younger son of a rich and at least 
knightly family, and that it was his father who was a Norman, and his 
mother a Saxon. 

136 WILLIAM OF MALMSBURY. [Flourished 

five books of the History of the EngUsh Kings, of which 
the first three were published separately, and followed by 
the other two ; and these last, as appears evidently by the 
manner in which the author addresses Robert earl of Glou- 
cester at the end, were published during the life of 
Henry I.* He wrote the life of Wulstan before 1140, 
for it is addressed to Guarin prior of Worcester, who died 
in that year. It is probable that William's next work, 
after the Commentary on Jeremiah, was the Gesta Ponti- 
ficumy or History of the English Bishops. In the prologue 
to this work he speaks of his history of the English kings as 
having been written formerly ; t but his reluctance to speak 
of his contemporaries deprives us of the means of fixing 
its exact date. As, however, he speaks of the death of 
Thurstan archbishop of York, which occurred on the 5 th of 
February 1140, and mentions Robert de Betun bishop of 
Hereford as still alive, the book must have been written 
between 1140 and 1148, in which latter year Robert de 
Betun died. He says in this work that he was then occu- 
pied in writing the lives of some of the native saints, X 
alluding probably to the lives of Dunstan, Patrick, In- 
dract, and others. The HistoruB NovelUSy or modem his- 
tories, dedicated to Robert earl of Gloucester, must have 
been written between 1142, at the end of which year they 
conclude, and 1 147, when the earl died. We cannot doubt 
that William of Malmsbury was alive in this latter year, 
because Geoffrey of Monmouth, who, as is shown in the 

* De militise porro vestrs indoBtria qiiis haesitat, cum earn exceUentissi- 
mils pater in vobU sutpiciat ? Cum enim aliqui motus in Normannia nuH' 
eianturf vot pramittitt et virtute yestra profligentur suspecta» sagacitate 
redintegretur concordia : cum redit in regnunif vos reducitf ut titis eifori» 
tuteUpt domi latitia, omamenio ubigue. 

t Nee puto a ratione dividere» ut qui quondam regum Anglonim gesta 
perstrinxi, nunc Anglorum pontificum nomina transcurram. 

X In indigenanim saactorum miraculifl manus occupatas habeo. 

in 1140.] WILLIAM OF MALMSBURY. 137 

article dedicated to him, wrote in that year, speaks of 
him and of Henry of Huntingdon as being then still occu- 
pied in writing on English history.* His latest work 
with which we are acquainted was, probably, the History 
of Glastonbury, in which he speaks of having formerly 
written the life of Dunstan in two books, the life of St. 
Patrick, the Miracles of Benignus, and the Martyrdom of 
Indractus. He speaks of the election of Henry of Blois to 
the abbacy of Glastonbury (in 1126) and to the bishopric 
of Winchester not long after \ (in 1129) in a manner which 
would lead us to believe that it was written some years 
after the latter event ; and he addresses the book to Henry 
bishop of Lincoln, who, if the name be not a mistake of 
the scribes (for no Henry bishop of Lincoln is mentioned 
in this century), must have been a successor of Robert de 
Chesney, who died in 1147. We have no means what- 
ever of fixing the date of WiUiam^s death. 

William of Malmsbury was the first English writer 
after the time of Bede who attempted successfully to 
raise history above the dry and undigested details of a 
chronicle. He boasts, and not without reason, of his in- 
dustry in coUecting materials. J We cannot discover that 
he used any written authorities for the earlier portion of 
his history except such as are well known; but he lived 

* RegeB vero Sazonmn Guillelmo Malmesberiensi et HeDiico Hontendo- 
nensi (permitto) : quos de regibus Britonum tacere jubeo, cum non habeant 
Ulum librum BritaDnici sermonis, quern Gualterus Oxenefordensis Archi- 
diaconus ex Britannia advexit, quern de historia eorum veracitas aditum in 
honore preedictorum principum hoc modo in Latinam sermonem transferre 
curavi. Galfr. Monumet. Hist. Britonum, in epilog. 

f Qui etiam Episcopus Wintoniensis non multo post factns est. W. 
Malmsb. de Antiq. Giaston. Sub fine. 

X Cseternm in utramvis partem prssentium non magnipendo judicium, 
habiturus ut spero apud posteros, post decessum amoris et livoris, si non 
eloquentie tituluro, saltem industriee testimonium. Prolog, in lib. i. De 
Gest. Reg. Angl. 


at a period when a vast number of valuable traditions and 
legends of the Saxon times still existed, and he foita-< 
nately had the taste to collect many of them and preserve 
them in his work. On this account, next to the Saxon 
Chronicle, he is the most valuable authority for Anglo- 
Saxon history. In his annals of the Norman period^ and 
of his own time, he is judicious, and, as far as could bf 
expected, imprejudiced : and his constant reluctance to 
treat of the period at which he was writing shows his 
desire to be unbiassed and impartiaL He was evidently a 
good scholar, and had read much« His Latin is not inoor*- 
rect, and his style is much more pleasing than that of any 
previous writer of English history. This circumstance con* 
tributed much towards procuring for his book the great 
popularity which it afterwards enjoyed. It is difficult to 
give any sufficient idea of the style of a writer like Wil- 
liam of Malmsbury in a small compass : but we quote his 
reflections on the battle of Hastings as the best specimen 
that can be given : — 

lUa fail: dies fittalis Anglic^ fonettom acidium didcit palriiR, pro hoto- 
nun dominonim commutatio&e. Jam eiiim pridem morilMU Anglonun ia- 
BoeTerat, qai yarii admodum pro temporibas fuere. Nam prirnU adventas 
Boi azmis vnltn et g6atu barbarico» nan bellico, rita fimatioo Tivebant; 
sed postmodiun Chriati fide anacepta, paulatim et per ijioreme»ta temporia, 
pro otio quod actitabant exercitiam armorum in secundis ponentes, omnem 
in rdigione operam insiimpsere. Taceo de panperibus, qnoa fortunarom 
tenuitas pleramqae continet ne cancellos justitiB transgrediantur : pmter- 
mitto gradunm ecdeaiaaticoram Tirol, quoa nonnunqaam profeaaionia con- 
toitiui, sed et infamias metoa a vero deviare non sinit. De regibua dioo, 
qui pro ampUtudine mm poteatatis Ucenter indnlgere Tolaptatibua posaent ; 
quorum qnidam in patria, quidam RornK, mutato habitu csleste luorati anat 
regnum, beatam nacti commeroium, multi specie tenna tota vita mnndum 
amplexi, ut thesauros egenia effund^ent, monaateriils dividerent. Quid 
dicam de tot epiacopiB, heremitiay abbatibua ? Nonne tota insula indlgena- 
rum tantis rellquiis fu]gurat, ut vix atiquem vicum iniignem prsetereaa* obi 
novi sancti nomen non audiaa. Quam multonun etiam periit memoria, pro 
Bcriptorum inopia! Verumtamen Uteraram et religionis atudia eetate proce- 
dente obsolererunt, non panda ante adventum Normannomm annis. Clerioi 
Uteratura tumultoaria contenti, viz sacramentorum verba bidbutiebaat : atn- 

in 1140«] WILUAM 09 MALK6BURT. 139 

pori et miracajo trat cftttris qmi grammatical noiiet. Monachi nbtiUbns 
indumentis et indiifeFenti genere ciborum regcdam Ittdificabant. Optimatea 
gals et Teneri dediti, ecdesiam more Christiano mane non adibant : led in 
o M tai» et Mtr «xorioa am]ilexM matatfcDanDB ■okmnia et miaiaram a fea- 
tmante preabjtero anribiu tantnm libabant. YvUgoM in medio ezpoaitwa 
prteda erat potentioribuB, ut Tel eonim substantiia ezhaustiB, vel etiam cor- 
perlbui In longinqnai terras dlstraetis, acerroa tfaesanrorum congererent, 
qvan^Mun mi^ ingcnltim «t ilU genti oommeaiatioubui qqam optfibw 
inhiare. Iliad erat a natora abhorrena, quod molti anciUaa snaa ex ae gra^ 
▼Idas, ubi libidini latisfecissent, ant ad publicum prostibulum ant ad «ter- 
iram ohaaqoiwa «wdlcabBnt. Pelabatar in oommnne ab onmiboa» in hoc 
Btadio noctea peitnde «t diea perpetnaiitihnii partia et abjeetis domibna 
totos fomptaa abaamebant; Francis et Normannis absimiles, qai amplis et 
snperbis cdiftcHa modlcaa expensaa agoiit. Sequebantor vitia ebrietatia 
soda, quae ffavrvn aniaNa eJwimtnait. Blue Aietnm est, nt aaagia temeii* 
t^te at furore pnecipiti qoam acientia militari WaUialmo congresajl, «no pro« 
lio et ipso perfiacili, serritati se patriamque pessnmdederint. Nihil enim 
temeiitabe lerina, sed qnlcqvld cam impeta inchoat, cito desinit ^el compes- 
citor. Ad sammam, tanc erant Angli veatibua ad asediam genn eoEpedltl, 
crines tonsii barbaa raai» armiUia aureia brachia onerati, pictoratia atipna- 
tiboa catem inaigniti ; in dbla orgentes crapulam, in potibus irritantea Tomi- 
cam. Et hsc qnidem extrema fictoribas suis participanmt, de caeterls in 
aornm moraa tranaanntaa. Sad hiso mala de oaonibva generalitcr Anglis 
dicta intelligi nolim. Scio dericos mnltos tunc temporis simplici vita semif 
tam sanctitatiB trlYisse : sdo moltoa laicos omnis generis et conditionis in 
1mm aadem genta Deo plaeidaM^ ftMaaaat ab hae relalioDe inridia; non 
eonotos pariter b«c InroMt cahimnia. Vemm aicot in tranqoiUltatB maloa 
com bonis fovet plerumque Dd serenitasi ita in captiTitate bonoa com 
malla nonnnnqnam ^nsdem conatringit sereritas. Porro Normanni (at de 
da qn«Miae diem) arant tunc ct aont adhnc vaatibos ad invidiam coltl, dbia 
dtra oUam nimietatem delicati: gens militise assueta, et sine bello pane 
yiyere nesda, in hostem impigre procurrere ; et ubi vires non sncoessissenty 
non mlnna dolo^et peennk corrampere. Domi ingentia aedificia (at dizi) 
modaratos awnptiia moliiii paribna iimdara» anperiorea prmtergftdi YaUa» 
aubjectoa ipsi yelUcantea ab alienis tutari: dominis fideles» mozqna leyi 
oiTenaa infidda. Cam ftito ponderare perfidiam, cum nummo mutare sen- 
tantiaaa. Cvtannn omniom gentiam benigniasimi adyenaa seqnali secum 
honore colunt ; matrimonia qnoqna cum aubdltis jungont. Bdigioaia no»- 
mam in Anglia nsquequaque emortuam adventu suo susdtarunt* Videas 
nbique in yilHs ecclesias, in yicis et orblbus monasteria novo eediftcandi 
genere comrargere : reoenti ritn patriam ilorsre> ita at sibi perisse diem qui- 
que opulentua ezistimeti quam non aliqua prseclara magnificanCia illnatrat. 

William of Malmsbury was a prolific writer, and most of 
the works which proce^ed from his pen are preserved. 
They are. 

140 WILLIAM OF MALMSBURY. [Flourished 

1. The History of the Kings fHistoria Reguin Anglo- 
rum), extending from the first entry of the Saxons to the 
year 1120, in five books, of which there have been several 
editions. The manuscripts of this work are numerous. 

2. The HistoruB Novella, in two books, including the 
history of the period from 1126 to 1143. This likewise 
has been printed more than once. 

3. Four books of the histories of the English bishops, 
De Gestis Pontificum Anghrum, also printed. 

4. The History of Glastonbury, 2)e-4«^ijwt/a/i5i« Glas- 
tofdensis Ecclesia, of which there are two editions. 

5. The life of Aldhelm, also twice printed, which is 
generally considered as the fifth book of the History of 
the English Bishops. 

6. The life of Wulstan, printed by Wharton in the An- 
glia Sacra. 

7. The life of Dunstan, preserved in a manuscript in 
the Bodleian Library (MS. Rawlinson, No. 263). 

8. Four books of Commentaries on the book of Lamen- 
tations, also preserved in the Bodleian Library, MS. Bod- 
ley, No. 868 ; and formerly in a manuscript in the Qot- 
tonian Library, Tiberius A. xii. which perished in the 

9. The Miracles of St. Andrew, DeMiractMs S. Andrea, 
preserved in MS. Cotton. Nero, E. i. fol. 51, v®.; and in 
another volume in the same collection, Tiberius, D. iii., 
now nearly destroyed. It is stated in the prologue to be 
an abridgement of an older and larger work. 

10. An abridgement of the treatise of Amalarius on the 
offices of the church, Abbreviatio Amalarii de Ecclesiasticis 
Officiis, preserved in a manuscript in the archiepiscopal 
library at Lambeth, No. 380. 

11. An epitome of the history of Aimon of Fleury, 


Epitome HisioruB Aimonis FUynacefma, preserved in the 
Bodleian Library, MS. Selden, Arch, B. 16. 

12. The martyrdom of Indractus^ an Irish saint, also 
preserved in the Bodleian library^ MS. Digby, No. 112. 

13. A life of St. Patrick, extracts from which are given 
by Leland,* but the book itself, as well as those which 
follow, appears to be now lost. 

14. The life of St. Benignus, which the author mentions 
in his history of Glastonbury. 

15. A collection of miracles of the Virgin Mary, which 
was seen by Leland.t 

16. An account of the journey of abbot John towards 
Rome, Itinerarium Johannis ahbaiis Meldunensia versus 
Romamy of which Leland also saw a copy.^ 

17« A Latin poem, in fifteen books, entitled De Serie 
Evangelistaruniy of which Leland found a copy in the 
library of Malmsbury. § 

18. Another metrical work on the miracles of St. 

Bale gives the titles of one or two other works pre- 
tended to be written by William of Malmsbury, but there 
is no other authority for them. He is believed to be the 
writer of the marginal notes to a volume in Baliol college, 
Oxford, which contains Eutropius, Paulus Diaconus, 
Jornandes, Aimon (abbreviated), and Orosius. || 

* CoUectan. vol. ii. p. 336. 

t CoUectan. toL It. p. 155. 

: CoUectan. vol. iii. p. 272 (ed. 1774). 

§ Leland, CoUectan. vol. iii. p. 364, 

II See Tanner, BibUoth. p. 360. It appears that in the Lambeth Library, 
MS. No. 3S4, there is a manuscript of some of the works of Anselm in 
WiUiam of Malmsbury's hand-writing, with the foUowing lines prefixed : 

Dispatat Anselmus pnesnl Cantorburiensis, 
Scribit WiUelmns monachns Malmesberiensis : 
Ambos gratifice complectere, lector amice. 

142 WILLIAM OF MALMBBtTRT. lHoUfished 1140. 


Remra Brftannicanun, id est Angliae, Scoti», yicinarainqae inialtfnm ac 
regioniimy scriptores Tetostlores ac pnecipul. By Hleronymui Comme- 
linu. Logdimi, 1587. fol. pp. 881*-S48. De GMtia Anglomm libri 
tres, inoerto auctore. A mutilated copj of the three first books of 
William of Malmsbiuy. 

Remm ADgUcanim Scriptores post Bedam pnecipui, ex TehtstlBBimts eodid* 
bus mannscriptis nunc primum in luoem editL Bdited by Savile« 
Lond. 1596. fol.— Franoofurti, 1601. fol. pp. 6—174. l^nUiehni mo- 
nachi Malmsburiensis de Gestis Regum Anglorum, libri V. — ^pp. 174 — 
195. Histori» Novelise, lib. II.->pp. 195—994. De Qestis POntifteum 
Anglorum» libri IV. 

Determinatio Fr. Joannis Parisiensis PrsedicatoriSi de Modo Ezistendi Cor- 
pus Christ! in Sacramento Altaris. Londini, 1686. 8to. pp. 83 — 84. 
Bzcerptam ex Abbreviatione Amalaril per WUlelmum ICabneaburi- 

Historiae Britannicae, Saxonicae» Anglo- Danicae* Scriptores XV. exVetustis 
Codd. MSS. editi Opera Thomae Oale. Oxon. 1691. fol. (The third 
Tol. of Gale's Collection), pp. 891 — 335, WiUialmus MalmeiBburieiisis 
de Antiquitate Glastoniensis Eoclesiae.-.- pp. 337 — 381« Wilhelmi 
Malmesburiensb Liber V. de Pontlficibus. (The life of Aldhelm, not 
printed in Savile*s edition.) 

Aqglia Sacra, sive Collectio Historiarum, antiquitos scriptarwiii de Aichie- 
piscopis et Episcopis Anglise, a prima Fldei Christianse susceptione ad 
annum MDXL. Pars secunda. Londini, 1691. fol. pp. 1—49, 
Liber quintns Wilhelmi Malmesberiensis de PontiAdbus Anglonim i seu 
Vita AUhelmi Scirebumensis Episoopi.— pp. 239— S70, Will Malms* 
beriensis de Vita Wlstani. 

Adami de Domerham Historia de Rebus G^estis Glastoniensibns.... primus 
In lucem protulit Tho. Heamius. Qui et, praeter alia« • . • Guilielmi 
Malmesburiensis Ubrum de Antiquitate Ecclesiie Glastoniensis. . . pras- 
misit. Oxonii, 1737. 8to. Vol. I, pp. 1— 13S. William of Makns- 
bury's History of Glastonbury. 

Willelmi MalmesbiriensiB Monachi Gesta Regum Anglorum, atque Historia 
Novella. Ad fidem codicum manuscriptorum recensuit Thomas Puffus 
Hardy. Londini : 1840. 3 vols. 8yo. Published by the English His- 
torical Society. 


The History of the Kings of England and the Modem History of William of 
Malmesbury. Translated from the Latin by the Rer. John Sharpe. 
London, 1815. 4to. 



One of the most remarkable writers of the twelfth cen« 
tury> both for the popular reputation which he has since 
contiaaed to enjoy, and the influence he exercised over 
subsequent historians, was Geoffrey of Monmouth. He 
appears to have been a native of the town from which he 
takes his name ; probably he was a monk of the Bene- 
dictine abbey there, and he was subsequently archdeacon 
of the church. He was patronised by Robert earl of Glou« 
cester, natural son of king Henry L, and by Alexander 
bishop of Lincoln, both of them celebrated for their encou- 
ragement of learned men. He was the friend of Walter 
Calenius archdeacon of Oxford,* also a patron of learning, 
who, after a visit to Britany, had brought home with 
him some books in the Breton language, containing histo- 
ries (or rather romances) then current in that country, 
which he requested Geoffrey of Monmouth to translatcf 
Geofirey appears to have enjoyed the reputation of being 
well acquainted with the Breton language ; and before he 
had proceeded far in his undertaking he was obliged to 
lay it aside in order to gratify the wish of Alexander 
bishop of Lincoln to possess a latin version of the prophe- 

* Walter Caleoiiis miut have been made archdeaoon of Oxford when 
young, and appears to hare held that dignity during many years, ainoe, ac- 
cording to the anthcritiea cited by Tanner, we find him described by this 
title in the 11th Hen. I. (1110 or 1111), in 1138, and in 1147. There 14»- 
pears no reason for placing him in the list of English writers. 

t Talia mibi et de taHbus multotiens oogitanti, obtaUt WaHenis Oxene- 
fordensis archidiaconos, vir in oratoria arte atque in ezoticis historiis emdt- 
tos, qvendam Britannid sermonis librom Tetustissimam, qui a Bmto primo 
rege Britonnm nsqne ad Cadyaladrum filiom Cadvalonis actus omninm con- 
tinue et ez ordine perpulcris orationibus proponebat, &c. 

144 OEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH. [Died 1154. 

cies of Merlin.* When he had completed his other work, 
which he dedicated to the earl of Gloucester, he inserted 
in it the prophecies of Merlin, which form the seventh 
book. The terms in which he speaks of Alexander bishop 
of Lincoln in the prologue to this seventh book f prove 
beyond a doubt that that prelate was then dead, so that 
we are enabled to fix the date of the publication of Geoff- 
rey's history in the autumn of the year 1147, for bishop 
Alexander died abroad in August, and earl Robert died 
at the end of October of the same year. It was partly 
perhaps the reputation of this book which procured its au- 
thor the bishopric of St. Asaph in the February of 1152, 
which he enjoyed but a very brief period, for there seems 
little reason to doubt that Geoffrey died in 1154.:|: Geoff- 
rey's ^^ History " soon became extensively popular, and 
within no long time after its publication the celebrity 
which he had given to the legendary king Arthur obtained 
for him the title of Galfridm Arturus.^ 

It is impossible to consider Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
History of the British Kings in any other light than as a 
tissue of fables. Its author was either deceived by his 
materials, or he wished to deceive his readers. It is certain 
that, if he did not intentionally deceive, we must under- 
stand, by tramlatint/ the Breton book, that he meant only 

* Nondum autem ad hnnc locum historue perveneram, com, de Merlino 
divulgato roinore, compellebant me undique contemporanei mei prophetias 
ipsiofl edere, maxime autem Alexander LlncolDieiuiB epiacopus, vir summ» 
religionls et pradentite. 

t Non erat alter in clero aive in populo cui tot famularentor nobiles, quos 
ipsius mansueta pietaa et benigna largitaa in obsequium ejus allieiebat. 

X Henry Wharton, De Episcopis AssaTenB., p. 305, 306. The Godefri- 
dus bishop of St. Asaph, whom Godwin has confounded with Geoffrey, was 
certainly another person who subsequently held the see. 

§ Gaufridus hie dictus est, agnomen habens Arturi ; pro eo quod fabulas 
dc Arturo, &c. Guil. Neubrig. Hist, prohem. — HistoriaBritonum a Galfrido 
Arthuro tractata. Girald. Cambr. lib. i, c. 5. 

1716^11540 GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH. 145 

working up the materials furnished by it into his history ; 
for some parts of the latter work are mere compilations 
by himself from the old writers on British affidrs then com- 
monly referred to. The question as to the nature of the 
book which Geoffirey obtained from Walter archdeacon of 
Oxford is by no means so easy of solution. It is probable 
that at that time the Bretons^ like all nations at a certain 
period of their history^ possessed a mythic genealogy of their 
princes^ commencing with a long list of heroes (or demigods) 
and continued down to their great fabulous hero Arthur^ 
in the same manner as the Anglo-Saxon mythic genealogy 
is brought down to Woden^ and that Geofirey of Mon- 
mouth mistook this for veracious history» and supposed 
that it concerned the Britons of our island. If a writer of 
the twelfth century had treated in the same manner the 
mythic genealogy of the Anglo-Saxons^ with the romantic 
legends relating to it then in existence» he would have 
made a work precisely similar to the History of the British 
Eangs. The legends of the British kings appear to have 
been brought over from Bretagne, and not to have had 
their origin among the Welsh ; for we not only find no 
traces of them before the Norman conquest» when multi- 
tudes of Bretons came in with the invaders» but^ although 
we begin to observe traces of the legends relating to Arthur 
and Merlin before Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote, yet even 
the Welsh of that time appear to have rejected his narra- 
tive as fabulous. Giraldus Cambrensis» who wrote in the 
same century as Geoffirey of Monmouth» tells us of a 
Welshman who had the faculty of seeing evil spirits» and 
who gave an unerring judgment on the truth or falsity of 
books placed before him or in his hands» by the freedom 
with which the evil spirits approached them: ^^Once/* 
says Giraldus, " when he was much tormented by the evil 
spirits, he placed the Gospel of St. John in his bosom, 

VOL. II, I* 

146 OBOFFBBY or MONKOUTH. [DUd 115^. 

when they immediately vanished from his sight, flying 
away like birds ; afterwards he laid the gospel aside, and 
for the sake of experiment took the History of the Britons, 
by GaUridos Arthurus, in its place, when they returned 
and covered not only his body, but the book in his bosom, 
&r more thickly and more troublesome than usuaL^'* 
A contemporary of Giraldus, William of Newbury, also 
indicates the common opinion of the falseness of this 
history, and treats its author with remarkable rudeness^f 

In spite of the judgment of the sober historians of the 
age in which it was published, Oeoffirey's history became 
extensively popular, and there are few other works of 
which so great a number of copies exist in manuscript. 
He had, unknowingly perhaps, wandered from the domain 
of history into that of romance, which was more agreeable 
to the taste of his time. His book was soon translated 
into Anglo-Norman, into English, and even into Welsh, 
and each tuccessive translator added to his original from 
other legends or from his own imagination. Within a 
century after its first publication it was generally adopted 
by writers on English history, and during several centuries 
only one or two rare instances occur of persons who ven- 

* Ginld. Cambr. Itmer. Cambri», lib. I, c, 5, 

t Quidam nostris temporibus . . . Gaofridos hie dictus est, agnomen habens 
Arturi, pro eo quod fabulas de Arturo ex prisda Britonnm figmentfa sumptaa, 
et ex proprio auctaa. per auperductDm Imtim aermonia coloreniy boneato 
biator» nomine palliayit , , • Pneterea in Ubro wo, quem Britonam Histo- 
riam vocat, qqam petulanter et impudenter fere per omnia mentiatur, nemo 
nisi yetemm hiatoriaram ignanxs, com in Ubrum ilium inciditi ambtgere 
iloitar • . • Omtto quanta de gestia Britoouip anta Julii Cieaaria imperinm 
et adyentum homo ille confident, vel ab aliia conficta tanquam autentica, 
scripserit. Omitto quiecunque in landibua Britonum contra fidem hiatorice 
yeritada delirayit, &c. — Wil. Neabrig. De rebua AngUciai prooem. It la 
hardlf naceaiary to refer to the numerona attempts which haye been made 
to defend Geoffrey and his history : they are chiefly remarkable for their want 
of critical discrimination. The introduction to Thomson's translation may 
be taken ai a apecimen. 

Died 1154.] 6B0VPRBT ow monmouth. 147 

tared to speak Bgainst its veracity. The beautifdl stories 
with which it abounds became the foundation of a consi- 
derable portion of the national literature, and its author 
has thus obtained a place among the classical writers of 
our island* The first part of the history of king Lear 
will serve as a specimen of Geoffrey's style^ which is not 
superior to that of the common writers of his age. 

OdflQte isitsr Iktif Baldodo erigitar Leir ejusdam fiUua in regem, qui 
gBxaginU annis patriam Tiriliter rexit. ^dificaTit autem super fluYiom 
Soram ciTitatem quae Britonum lingua Kaerleir, Sazonice Lelrcestre nnncn- 
patur. Cni ncgatn maaooliBi loma prole, nate lunt flliae treg roeatsB Oono- 
riUa, Bagana, Cordeilla. Qui eaa miro amore sed maximo minimamy Cordeil- 
1am yidelicet, diligebat. Comque in senectutem yergere coepiaset, cogitayit 
regnnm snnm ipaia ditidere, eoqne talibos mantis dare qui easdem cum regno 
haberent. Sed nt icirei qoso illarom r^gni potiore parte dignior esset, adivit 
singulas sciscitana qnse ipsom ploa diligeret. Interrogante ergo illo, Gono- 
rilla prima respondente nnmina coeli testata est patrem sibi plus cord! esse 
qnam animam qua degebat t oui pater, ''Quoniam seneetutem meam Tittt 
tnm prvpofuisti, te, charissinia filia, maritabo juveni qoemcunque elegeris, 
cum tertia parte Britanniae."' Deinde Ragana, quee secunda erat, exemplo 
sororis suae benerolentiam patris allicere yolens, Jnrejurando respondit se 
nnllatanus conceptum ezprimere posse, nisi quod ipsum super oranes crea* 
tnraa diligerat. Credulus ergo pater eadem dignitate quam primogenitae pro- 
miserat, cum tertia yidelicet parte regni eam maritandam ducit. At Cor- 
deiUa ultima cum intellexisset cum praedictamm adulationibus acquievisse, 
tentare ilium cupieus aliter respondere pergit ; ** Est uspiam, mi pater, tilia 
quae patrem suum plusquam patrem dillgere praesumat i Non reor equidem 
uUam esse quae hoc fateri audeat, nisi jooosis verbia Teritatem celare nitatur : 
nempe ego dilezi te semper ut patrem, nee adhne a proposito diver ter, etai a 
me magis eztorquere insistis < audi in te mei amoris quantitatem, et quem 
adversus te jugiter habeo, et interrogationibus tuia iinem impone, etenim 
quantum babes tantum ndes tantumque te diligo/' Porro pater iratus eam 
ex abundantia stomachi dixisse yehementer indignans, quae respondens 
erat manifestare non distulit ; ^ Quia in tantum senectutem patris tui spre- 
yisti, ut yel eo amore quo me sorores tnae diligunt dedignata es diligere, ego 
et te dedignabor, nee «squam in regno meo cum tuis sororibus partem 
babebis : non dico tamen, cum filia mea sis, quin alicui (ai ilium fortuna 
obtulerit) utcunque maritem ; iUud autem affirmo, quod nnnquam eo honore 
quo sorores tuas te maritare laborabo, quippe cum te hucusque plusquam 
caeteras dilexerim, tn yero me minus quam reliquae diligas.*' Nee mora, con- 
silio procerum regni dedit prtedictas puellas duas duobus ducibus, Comubiae 
yidelicet et Albaniie, com medietatse tantum insules dum Ipse viyeret, post 


148 OEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH. [Died 1154. 

obitum autem ejus totam monarchiam Britaniu» eudem habendam con* 

It has been already observed that the prophecies of 
Merlin formed originally a distinct work from the His- 
tory of the Britons: we frequently find it separate in 
early manuscripts^ and in the thirteenth century it was 
made the subject of a learned commentary by Alanus de 
Insulis^ which contains some valuable notices of English 
history. Another life of Merlin, written in very superior 
Latin verse, has also been long attributed to Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, but apparently without sufficient reason. In 
this poem the subject is treated in a manner so entirely 
different from the prose account of MerUn by Geoffrey, 
and it is written with so much more spirit and genius, that 
we can hardly doubt its being the composition of another 
person. None of the allusions of the writer of the poem to 
himself agree with the person of Geoffrey of Monmouth. 
He speaks of himself as a well known poet ; he addresses 
his poem to Robert bishop of Lincoln, *^the glory of 
prelates,'^ and complains of the neglect with which he had 
been treated by his predecessor. 

Fatidici vatia rabiem musamque jocosam 
Merlini cantare paro : tn corrige cannen* 
Gloria pontificam, calamos moderando, Roberte I 
ScimuB enim quia te perfadit Dectare sacro 
PhiloBophia snoi fecitque per omnia doctom, 
Ut docnmenta dares, dux et praeceptor in orbe. 
Ei^o meis coeptis fayeas, vatemqae tueri 
Auapicio meliore velis, qnam fecerit alter 
Coi modo succedis, merito promotuB honori : 
Sic etenim mores, sic yita probata genusque, 
Utilitasque loci, cleros populusque petebant; 
Unde modo felix Lincolnia fertur ad astra. 
Ergo te cuperem complecti carmine digno : 
Sed noD snfficioi licet Orpheus et Camerinus 
Kt Macer et Marius, magnique Rabirius oris, 
Ore meo canerent, Musis comitantibus, omnes. 


Ad YOB| consnetse mecum cantare Camoente, 
Propositum cantemus opus, cytharunque sonate. 

Robert de Cheineto^ the only Robert to whom Geoffirey 
could have dedicated the poem^ had not the slightest claim 
to any of the epithets here bestowed on Robert bishop of 
Lincoln^ whose predecessor Alexander was the historian's 
patron and friend ; while the description applies so ex- 
actly to the great philosopher of the thirteenth century, 
Robert Orostdte, that we can hardly hesitate in attributing 
the metrical life of Merlin to some poet who sought his 
patronage. The error appears to have arisen from the 
following lines found at the end of the poem in the only 
perfect manuscript now extant, and probably composed 
toward the end of the thirteenth century by some writer 
who, finding it without any name of its author, was led by 
its subject to attribute it to Geofirey of Monmouth : — 

Duzimua ad metam caimen : yoa ergo, Britanni, 
Laurea serta date Gaofrido de Monumeta. 
£st etenim Tester : nam quondam pralia Teatra 
Vettronimque ducum cednit, aeripaitque libellum 
Quem nunc Gesta vocant Britonnm celebrata per orbem. 

Another work has been attributed with still less reason 
to Geofirey of Monmouth. It is extant in two manu- 
scripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge,* and is entitled Compendium Gaufredi de Corpore 
Christi et Sacramento EucharistuB. But its author ap- 
pears to have been a Frenchman, who was in his youth a 
disciple of Abelard, until he deserted his school to range 
himself under the scholastic banner of St. Bernard ; it is 
in fact a well-known treatise of Geofirey of Auxerre. Bale 
gives several other titles of books pretended to have been 
written by Geoffrey of Monmouth, which are so evidently 
the ofilspring of his own imagination that they deserve no 
further consideration. 

• No. 177| art. 44, and No. 331, art. 8. 

150 GBOFVRBT OF MONMOUTH. [Died 11 64* 


Brit&nie vtrinsq) reg;a 8t pricipu Origo & Gesta iniigiiia ab Galfrido Mone- 
matenfti «z afitiqiiiflBiiiiit Britaimici seilnoiiui mofntiftientig in Lstinam 
wrmoBem S iradnota & ab Aacensio o«n & impSdio auigiatn I«OBle 
Cauellati in luoem edita : proatant in eiuadem «edibaB. 4to. Id. Jul. 

Britamd» Ttrinaqi Begfl «t Prln«ipiim Origo & gaatft ilkrignlA ab GiUrldo 
Monemntenai ex antiqviaaimia Britannid aermonia aonvmentia in 
Tiatinnin traducta : & ab Aacenaio nmua majore accuratione impreaia. 
Vgentmdantnr in einsdem eedibus. 4 to. Id. Septem. 1517. 

Renun Britannicanuni in est Angliae, Sootiaef ti<iinar«lD<|M HiaulanHn ae 
regionnm, Soriptorea yetnatioreB ac prtBcipvi* Fol. Heidelberg, (Com- 
melin.) 1587. pp. 1 — S^t Galfiredi MonumetenBia Historiie Regom 

Prophetia Anglicamii Merlini Ambrosii Britaani, oi incnbo olim («t bond- 

num fama eat) ante annoB mille ducentoB circiter in Anglia nati, Yati- 

dnia et Pnedictiones ; a Galfredo Monumetensi Latine convense : una 

cum Beptem libria ejrplanationum. . • . Alani de InBolia, &c. Franoofilftli 

1603. Small 8to< 

Propbetia ADglicana et Roman», hoe est, Merlini Ambroaii Britanni, ex 
incubo olim ante annos mille ducentos in Anglia nati, Vaticinia, a Gal- 
fredo Monumetenai Latine eonsoripta, una cum Septem librit Explana- 
tionum. . . . Alani de Inaulia, &e. Francof)Brti« 1608« Sro. 

Gaofiridi Arthur! Monenatheaaia Arcbldiatfoni, postaa Tero eplaoopi Aaa- 
phenBifl, de Vita et Vatioiniia MerllBi Calidonil carmen herokum. Lon- 
dini, 1830. 4to. Edited by W. H. Blaek, for the Roabtrghe Club. 

Galfridi de Monemuta Vita Merlini. Vie de Merlin attribu^ k Geoifiroy de 
Monmouth, auivie dcB Proph^tieB de ce Barde, tir^ du iv* Uvre de 
PHlstolre des Bretons ; publics, d*aprd8 lea Manuaerita de Londres, 
par Franoisqua Michel et Thmnaa Wright. Parkiis, 1837. 8to« 

Galfridi Monumetenaia Hiatoria Britonum, nunc primum in Anglia ex noyem 
codicibuB MSStis. edita, ab I. A. Giles, e C.C.C. Ozon. 8to. (M th€ 


The British History, translated into English from the Latin of Jeifrey of 
Monmouth. With a large Preface concerning the authority of the 
History. By Aiuron Thompson^ lato of Ctoeen'a Cdkge, Ozon. 8to« 
London, 1718. 

The British History of Geoffrey of Monmouth. In twelTO books. Trana- 
lated from the Latin, by A. Thompson, Esq. A new edition, rerised 
and oorreetod, by J. A. Giles, LL.Di 8to. London, 1843. 



Geoffrey GAiMARWas a distdnguiahed trouv^re of the 
reign of Stephen. All we know of bis personal history is 
that he was attached to the household of Constance^ the 
wife of Ralph Fitz Gilbert^ at whose request he composed 
his history of England in Anglo-Norman verse. He was 
the first who published an Anglo-Norman version of the 
History of the British Kings by Geoffrey of Monmouth. 
He gives an account of the materials he used in the fol- 
lowing lines, which have been strangely misunderstood 
and misinterpreted by the abbe de la Rue, who beheved 
that he translated his history of the British kings from a 
Welsh book independently of the history of Geoffrey. 

Ici Toil del rei finer. 
Ceste estorie fist translater 
DatM Cuatance 1« gentil ; 
Gaimar i mist Mars e Averil 
E tuz lea dusze mais, 
Ainz k'il oust translatt^ des reis. 
U purchaoa maint eaamplaire, 
Liverea EnglAia e par gramaire, 
£ en Romanz e en Latin, 
Alnz k*en pnst traire i la fin. 
Si aa dame ne U aidaat^ 
Jk k nul jor ne Pacheyast. 
Ele enveiad k Helmeslac 
Par le Urere Walter Espac. 
Robart 11 quens de Gloncettre 
Fist translater icele geste 
Solum les lireres as Waleis 
K'll aToient des Bretons reis ; 
Walter Espec le demandat, 
li quens Robert li enveiat ; 
Puis le prestat Walter Bspec 
A Raid le llf Gilebert. 

152 GAiMAR AND DAVID. [Flourished 

Dame Ciutaiice I'enpruntat 

De son seignur, k'ele mult amat. 

Geffrai Oaimar eel liyere escrit, 

Le translata e f^s i mist 

Ke li Waleia oiirent leiss^, 

K*il aveit ainz purchase, 

U fust k dreit u fust k tort, 

li bon livere de Oxeford, 

Ki fust Walter rarcediaen 

Si en amendat son livere bien. 

E de Testorie de Wincestre 

Fust amende ceste geste ; 

De Wassingburc un livere Engleis, 

U il trovad escrit des reis 

E de tuz les empemrs 

Ke de Rome fnrent seignurs, 

E de Engleterre ourent treu, 

Des reis ki d*els ourent tenu, 

De lur Ties e de lur plaix, 

Des ayentures e des faiz, 

Coment chescons maintint la terre, 

Quel ama pes, e liquel guerre ; 

De tut le plus pout 9i trover» 

Ki en cest livere volt esgarder. 

It appears very evidently from this recital that the only 
history of the British kings used by Gaimar was the then 
recently published work of Geoffrey of Monmouth. He 
says that Robert earl of Gloucester had caused it to be 
translated from the ^^ Welsh" book^ a mistake in the de- 
scription of the original^ into which he very easily fell, 
considering the dubious import of the Latin Britanrdcus 
at that time. Walter Espec, a Yorkshire baron well known 
for his munificent liberality, obtained a copy of this book^ 
immediately after it was completed^ from earl Robert 
himself. Subsequently^ after long seeking for it^ Gaimar 
heard of this copy in the possession of Walter Espec^ and 
his patroness^ through the means of her husband, obtained 
the loan of it. He repeats that the original of this was 
the " Welsh*' (i. e. Breton) book of Oxford, belonging to 
. Walter the archdeacon^ information which he gleaned from 

in 1148.] QAIMAR AND DAVID. 153 

GeoflFrey's preface. Gaimar then tells us that he trans- 
lated and transferred the facts of the British History into 
his own book^ " and thereby improved his book very 
much.'* His history was also improved by the Win- 
chester History, as well as by an English book of Wassin- 
burgh, where he found the histories of the emperors of 
Rome to whom England was tributary, and of the kings 
who held of them ; perhaps Alfred's Orosius, or a copy 
of the Saxon Chronicle. It it not easy to say where M. 
de la Rue learnt that Gaimar had Geoffrey's translation of 
the Breton book of Walter Calenius and also a translation 
of a Welsh book of the same history, and that he cor- 
rected the one by the other. 

The History of the British kings formed only a portion 
of Gaimar's history, which was continued through the 
Anglo-Saxon period and the reigns of the two first princes 
of the Norman dynasty ; and he declares at the conclusion 
his intention at a future period of writing a separate history 
of the reign of Henry I.* The portion translated from 
Geofirey of Monmouth appears to have been so entirely 
eclipsed by the later and probably more ample ver- 
sion of Wace, that it seems now to be lost; and the 
only part extant is the Anglo-Saxon history with the con- 
clusion, preserved in four manuscriptsf as a continuation 
of the Brut of Wace. Gaimar's history is chiefly valuable 
for the attention which he paid to the traditions and 
legends of his time, several of which appear in his story, 
such as the romance of Havelok, and the story of Here- 

* Ore dit Gaimar, s'il ad guaranty 
Del rei Henri dirrat avant, 
Ke 8'il en volt an poi parler, 
E de sa Tie translater, 
Tela mil choaes en purrad dire 
Ke unkea Davit ne fist eacrivere, &c. 
t MS. Reg. 13 A. XXI. and three mannacripts in the College of Arms 
and in the libraries of Durham and lancoln Cathedrali • 


1 54 OAiii AR AND DAVID. [FhuHshed ] 148« 

ward. His style is^ on the whole^ more pleAsing than ihAt 
of Waoe« We are enabled to fix with tolerable precisioii 
the period at which he wrote his history by the persons to 
whom he alludes. M. de la Rue was wrong in supposing 
that it must have been finished before the death of Robert 
earl of Gloucester ; on the contrary it is more than pro-' 
bable that it was begun subsequently to that event* But 
ai^ Walter Espec died in 1153| and, as Gaimar mentions 
Adelaide of Louvaine as still living, who died in 1151| 
there can be no doubt that our poet wrote between 1147 
and 1151« 

Gaimar speaks of a contemporary Anglo-Norman poet 
named David, who had written by order of Adelaide of 
Louvaine a metrical history of the reign of Henry I.^ which 
Gaimar blames as barren in details and in historical in- 
terest; and he advises him to revise and enlarge his Work. 
Tet he says that queen Adelaide held it in great esteemi 
and that his patroness the lady Constance had given a 
mark of silver to have a transcript, which she frequently 
read '^ in her chamber.^^* We have no other informntion 
relating to this trouvdre or his works* 


The andeiit English romance of Havdlok the Dane ; acoompaBied by the 
French text : with an Introduction, Notei, and a Glossary, by Frede- 
rick Madden, Esq. . . . I^rinted for the Roxbnrghe Club. London, 1838. 
4to. pp. 149—180. The portion of Gtimar whkh relates to the story 
of Havelok. 

Chroniques Anglo-Normandes. Recueil d'Extraits et d'Eorits relatifs k 
THistoife de Normondie et de FAngleterre pendant, les ici* et Sen* 
sitelet ; public. • par Fmnoisqve Michel. Tome premier. Sto. Rodeil^ 
1835. The latter portion of Gaimar's History, commencing with the 
Norman conquest. 

Collection of Historians edited by order of the Record Commission, vol. 1. 
pp. 764 — 829) L'Estorie dee Engles solum la Translation maistre Gef- 
frei Gaimar. The portion of the history prerions to the Conquest, with 
the concluding lines of the poem in which the author speaks of himself 
and his undertaking* 

* SeethtconilttdinglineBof Gaimar'sHbtory* 



This author derives his chief importance from the dia» 
pute which has arisen whether he preceded or came aftef 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. Historians and hibliographers 
have all fixed at too early a date the period when Alfred of 
Beverley compiled his history* All that we know of his 
life is derived from his own writings. It is probable that he 
was bom about the beginning of the twelfth centuryi for 
he states at the commencement of his book that the oolony 
of Flemings had been planted in the neighbourhood of Ross 
on the borders of Wales^ by E^ing Henry h, in bis time, an 
event which is considered to have taken place about a«d. 
1105. He tells us that in the days of ^^his silence/' 
when the diocese of York laboured under an interdict, and 
the clergy were not allowed to perform their ecclesiastical 
duties,* he tried to occupy his forced leisure, and turn 
away his thoughts from the vexations with which he was 
encompassed to the study of history, and from this cir- 
cumstance he derived his taste for historical researches. 
There cannot be the least doubt that Alfred refers to the 
troubles which arose in the diocese of York from the 
rivalry of the two archbishops, Henry and William, sup- 
ported scnreraUy by the contending parties in the dvil cdn- 
irolsiotis 6f the reigti of Stephen.f This dispute, which 

* 111 diebtts iflentH tttmtti, (qvoaido fiOii poteramud reddere 0e6 qiife Dei 
erant, et talnen eogebaniiii' tedder« CiMari qnte CsesarlK efant, qtiod propter 
pnesentem ezcommunicatoram miiltitndinem secundum LondoniensiB oOncilli 
dc cr etum A diriiili oeiiabamiu» et regii^ elaeti<mibiu aMictl titam ttedlosam 
agebamiu, gfsstfaate Oppressione qaa, ezptilaiB ad regis edictmn de sedibtlA 
nds eeelesUe nottne «SolimmiB, din graTiterque Ycxatoi sum. — AlA*. BererL 
ia prolog* p« S* 

t See Qodwin. 4e Epiwopii. 

156 ALFRED OF BEVERLEY. IFlowrished 

began in 1141 or 1142^ causing the diocese to be placed 
under an interdict^ only ended with the death of arch- 
bishop WiUiam, who was poisoned, as it is said, by his clergy 
in 1154. While occupied with his historical researches, it 
appears that the history of GeoflBrey of Monmouth was 
published, and began to create a great sensation. Alfred, 
hearing people talk of British kings of whom he was en- 
tirely ignorant, and ashamed to be obliged continually to 
confess that he knew nothing about them, became anxious 
to obtain a sight of the new history, and with much diffi- 
culty succeeded. He perused it with avidity, and, charmed 
with the novelty of its contents, he would have made a 
transcript of it for himself, if he had been allowed sufficient 
time and had possessed money enough to buy the materials 
at once ; but this not being the case, he determined to 
make an abridgment of it.^ Alfred, like Gaimar, does 
not mention the name of Geoffirey of Monmouth as the 
author of the book he abridged, but he quotes it by 
the title which Geoffi-ey gave to it, Histaria Britonufn,f 
and no one who has read over the two books can doubt 
for a moment that Geoffiey's history was the original, for 
Alfred often transfers Geoffirey^s words to his own book. 
It appears quite clear, from the manner in which Alfred 
speaks, that all that was known about this history origi- 
nated in the work of Geoffirey, and that it was quite new 

* Queesivi historiam, et ea yix inventai lectioni ejus intentissime stndiom 
adhibui. Dumque rerum antiquarum nova lectione delectarer, mox mihi 
anlmoB ad earn transcribendam scatebat, aed temporis opportunitas et mar- 
supii facuUas non suppetebat. Ut autem desiderio gliscenti aliqua ex parte 
satisfacerem. . . . de prtefata historia quaedam deflorare studoi. — Alf. Bev. in 
Prolog, ut supra. 

t He sometimes refers his readers to the Hiitoria Britonum for the 
details of the more interesting storiesi as in that of Lear, — Qualiter autem 
vcrgente eo in senium, ipse a duabus Aliabus spretus et ab earum maritis sit 

pulsatus, qualiterque junior filia eum susceperit, &c Historia 9ritonum 

plenius docet. — ^Alfr. Beverl. p. 14. 

1140—1150.] ALFRED OP BEVERLEY. 157 

even to historians^ and on that account had excited much 

Alfred goes on to inform us that^ having abridged the 
history of the Britons^ he determined to abridge other 
historians^ so as to continue his book through the Saxon 
and Norman times. We trace as having gone through 
this process, among others, Bede^ Florence of Worcester, 
and the northern writer, Simeon of Durham, which his- 
torian appears to have been the last he used, for Alfred's 
history closes in the same year with that of Simeon, 
A.D. 1129, the 29th year of Henry I. Many writers, be- 
lieving that he continued his history to the end of his life, 
have fixed upon that year as the date of his death, which 
probably did not take place till the reign of Henry II.* 
We only know that he was a monk of Beverley ; the titles 
in the earlier manuscripts are unanimous that he was 
treasurer of that church, or, as one manuscript called him, 
sacristan, which was but another name for the same office. 
Some modem writers have advanced the opinion, directly 
opposed to the historical evidence, that the title of trea- 
surer was given him only as a literary honour, because 
his book is a treasure of history, which it certainly is not. 
His historical notices are extremely brief, and his style is 
that of the ordinary writers of his age : the following lines 
include the period from the battle of Hastings to king 
William's departure for Normandy. 

Anno igitur M^lzvi ab incamaUone Domini dux Normannomm Willielmus, 
occiflo in bello rege Haroldo, ab Hastinga moyens, Tastatis provinciis, venit 
ad Wertham, nbi Aldredus archiepiaoopas, Wlstanua Wigorniensia episco-*. 
pu8> WalteruB Herefordensis episcopuS) clito EdganUi comitea Edwinua et 

* He appears also to have used Henry of Huntingdoni from whom his 
account of the four wonders of Britain in his prologue as it now stands, and 
the verses beginning with the words, *' Anglia terra ferax/' with which John 
Withamstede says the book commenced, were taken. 


HordMJtts, «t de Loadoua qoiq^g^ maliore*, cum mnltU td «am yaiitraiitf 
et datis obBidibus illi deditionem fecerant, fidelitatemque juravenmt. Inde 
cum ezerdtu Lundoniain adiit, et in die Natalia Domini ab Aldredo Ebora- 
oanii irelii«pii0opo, quia Stigtndua Cantiuiienaif arehitpiioopHB a papa 
calwmniatm eratpaUiam non siucepiaie canonicei apnd Weitinaiifatcriim in 
regem consecratas est bonorifice : priaa, ut idem arcbiepiscopns ezi^ebat ab 
eo, ante altare Sancti Petri coram clero et populo jarejnrando promittens, 
m VOU0 iaodM Dei meXmua ac reotom eamm defendflra, et «wnetam popo» 
lum sibi «ubjectiun jiute nc r^ali profidentia rcgere^ r^ctam legem statofira, 
tenere, rapinas injustaqne penitna interdioere. Post hec in Qoadrai^efima 
m WillieiinaB Nonnanniam repetiit. 

Bale has increased the number of works attributed to 
Alfred of Beverley^ by making three different titlas out of 
his one known historical epitome. He is said to have 
written a life of John of Beverley j but we know with more 
certainty that he was the author of a work on the rights 
and privileges of his churchy which he is said in the title 
to have translated from English into Latin^ and which 
was preserved in the Cottonian library^ but the volume 
containing it unfortunately perished in the fire.* 


Alnredi BeTeriaoensis Annalea, sive Historia de Gestis Regum Britanaiie» 
Libria IX. e oodice penFetiisto....De8crfpBit edlditque Tbo. HearaEua. 
OxoDii, 1716« 8yo. 


OsBEBN^ monk of Gloucester, who is only known to us 
through his writings, holds a high place among the theolo* 
gical writers of the twelfth century. Leiand passes a warm 

* MS, Cotton. OthOf C. xvi. Libertates Eccleaie S. Job. Bevarlae. cum 
privikfiia apostoUcifl et epiacopalibua, quae magister Aluredai sacrista cjna. 
dem eccLeais de Anglico in Latinum transtnlit* Prine. Jhcuna per 
ordinem, • 

1150.] OIBXBN OF OLOUeMTB». 159 

aulogium on his style And learning, which is not altogether 
onmerited* As one of his works is dedicated to Gilbert 
bishop Qt Hereford^ who held that see from 1149 to il62y 
and he had no doubt lived in the society of that prelate 
while he was abbot of Oloucester, from which office he 
was promoted to the episcopacy, Osbem may be conr- 
sidered as haying flourished in 1150. We have no further 
information relating to his life* 

Osbem's Latinity is good for the age, and his style, 
considering the subject, is easy and agreeable. His diar 
logues, which form properly one work, are a kind of 
commentary on the five books of the Pentateuch ; his 
friend Nicholas, probably a monk of the same house, is 
made to raise objections to different points in the sacred 
text, which Osbern, in reply, explains and defends* The 
following extract from the dialogue on the book of Genesis 
will serve to show the nature of this work : — 

NieoL Sana sunt ista, et animo mazime imprimenda. Sed com Bcriptam 
Bit» Qui yivit in Ktemnm erevnt omnia mtmlf qnare Moyves divisis tempori- 
bus afiserit omnia create f Plurimnm ftiteor diasonare Tidetor, cum una 
Boriptora simul omnia, alia separatim et divise testatur create. 

OtbeimMt, Rttdam illam et infbrmem reram matftriam simnl Dent eraavit, 
it «, nt eBMBt qooddam umverBitatig pjrimordium do nihilo conaistere Cecity 
qu8B n^c a Deo adeo Jnformis fuit ut a formoso factpre sine forma omnino for- 
maretur ; sed iccirco maxime didtur quasi informiter create, vel quia nee dnm 
hanc IbrmoBam in qna rerom ordinatio consiatit reoepit vaiiuBtatem» vel qui» 
in ipsa craationis pennixtiooe sic foit omnium pariter eia eiientia, nt non^ 
dum fades singulorum appareret distincte. Non enim in iUa creatione iste 
hodie iHa in erastino pvius quKdam, qondam prodierunt poaterius ; sed ite 
potins fimvl, «C iuiivwM>rum in u»a permfxti4»nA adaBcet «ooereatio» et omnia 
in his per substentiam seminalem condite essent, quae in sno nondum 
ordine distincte apparebant. Nee mora hanc secute est aut terditas, quia 
•flicaz animi impariiim qnam celerem protoUt renun effeotum, quB etiam 
a4eo in meU«B profMit, ut qui prioa ex pofasntia divini opificts existenti» 
naturam assumpsit, protinns ex ejusdem beneficio formse et decoris oma- 
tum assumeret, et sic, secundum prophetem, fecit Dans quiB faete sunt, 
cum omnia priaa in rerum proceBserunt creationem, deiiide sa manilbstius 
ostenderunt in creationis distinctionem. 

Osbem also wrote a commentary on the book of Judges^ 

160 LAURENCE OF DURHAM. [Died 1154. 

in six books^ dedicated to Gilbert bishop of Hereford ; 
and four treatises on the Incarnation^ Nativity, Passion^ 
and Resurrection^ of Christy which appear to compose one 
continued work. 

All the works above mentioned are contained in one 
very handsome manuscript on vellum in the British Mu- 
seum^* which Leland^ who saw it at Gloucester^ believed 
to be Osbem's original copy. We are not aware that 
any other copy of Osbern's writings is known to exist, 
and none of them have been printed. Leland mentions 
another work by Osbern, dedicated to the abbot Hamelin, 
and entitled Panormia^ which Bale attributes to Osbern of 
Canterbury. In the time of Leland a manuscript of this 
work was preserved in the abbey at Gloucester^ but it 
appears to be now lost. 



The most remarkable writer of Latin verse during the 
reign of Stephen was Laurence^ a monk of Durham, where 
he first held the office of precentor, and was then taken 
to court in the capacity of a chaplain, and enjoyed the 
favour of the king.f He was made prior of Durham 
about the year 1149. An old historian of the see of 
Durham describes him as ^^ a man of great discretion and 
honest conversation, skilled in the law, endowed with 
eloquence, well grounded in the divine institutes, and not 
needing to beg counsel of others in adversity.^'J This 

* MS. Reg. 6 D. IX. 

f See the Prologue to his Hypognosticon, and Wharton, Anglia Sacra, 

vol. i. p. 787. 

X Rogero priori successit Laurentius, vir magnic discretionis et honestse 
vonversationis, in jure peritus^ cloquentio pneditus, divinis institutis suffi- 

Died 1154.] laurbnge of Durham. 161 

writer informs us that Laurence died in 1154, prior of 
Durham;* so that Leland must be in error, when he 
states that he was made abbot of Westminster by Henry I, 
We learn from another annalist of the see of Durham 
that Laurence, having in 1153 accompanied Hugh the 
elect bishop to Rome, was attacked by sickness in his 
way back and died in France, and that his body was 
brought to Durham to be buried.t 

The most important work of Laurence of Durham 
is a scriptural history in nine books, written in Latin 
elegiacs, under the title of Hypognosticon. In the first 
six books Laurence versifies the principal events of the 
Old Testament, sometimes paraphrasing the language of 
the Bible, and at others adding reflections, moralisations, 
and explanations of his own. Thus, speaking of the 
children of Adam, he tells us that the sons of Seth were 
diligent inquirers into the natures of things. 

Ceetera posteritas Seth quid facit? Ilia qaid, inquam, 

Stirps agit hie, cui nil preeter honesta placet ? 
Cai comes est virtUB, cai lex natora creatrix, 

Cui dux est ratio, cui deos ars et amor ; 
Cui studium causas inquirere» quail ter iguem 

Temperat ethereum duplicis algor aquse ; 
Quis coeli motus, quibus astra recursibus ipsi 

Obvia dbcurrunt, quidve per istud agunt ; 
Ut sol nocte diem vel mutat lumine noctem, 

Utque calore suo res animare solet ; 
Quod luQ» sit opus, quis splendor, et ejus in orbem 

Cornua quid ducat, quidve resolvat item ; 
Quid sit et unde mat nix, grando, fulmen, et imber ; 

Quse Yis Tentorum, quisve sit ortus eis; 
Quae nature feras, yis herbas, commoda fruges. 

Gratia commendet semina, nosse student. 

cienter instructus, nee habens opus ab aliis mendicare consilium in adTenis. 
Annals of Durham, MS. Cotton. Claudius D. ly. fol. 77, t^. 

* Anno Domini Millesimo .cliiij.*^ post mortem Laurentii creatus est 
Absolon in priorem Dunelmensem. MS. Cotton. Claud. D. iv. fol. 79, v\ 

t Wharton, Anglia Sacra, loc. cit. 



Talibu ecce ftudent ; ]api« tamen orU tolupUs 
Et male vexat eos, et probat esse reos. 

In the following description of the sobriety of ante- 
diluvian manners, Laurence seems to identify the world 
before the flood with the golden age of the Grecian poets: 

Hactenus ant&qois patribns non esus in nsu 

Gamis erat, nee adhno vina bibebat bomo. 
Vestis ei teitura rndis, domiis antrai cibasque 

Panis, fons potus, res pecos, anna manus. 
Cultior esca tamen tunc crada legumina, glandes, 

Poma, mel, et potus lac pretiosus «rat. 
Ipsiufl In domibas paries, fimdamina, tectum» 

Virga sequazy solidus cespes, anindo rudis. 
Tunc illi vires sine marte taert ▼iriles, 

Et sine flagitio vita qnieta fuit. 
Ut tamen in venerem prorsus rniti irruit unda, 

Perdens saeva pares crimine morte pari. 

After relating Solomon^s lapse to idolatry, Laurence 
runs into a long dissertation on the power and effects of 
love, and similar digressions arise from other subjects. 
The seventh book is devoted to the praise of the Virgin 
Mary ; the eighth tells briefly the principal events of the 
gospel history; and the ninth is chiefly occupied with 
the enumeration of saints and martyrs, among whom St. 
Cuthbert, the patron of Durham^ holds a prominent place. 
It appears that this poem was commenced at Durham, 
when its author was precentor, and that he had only 
reached the end of the first book when he was called to 
court. He still, however, persisted in his favourite studies, 
and in the opening lines of the second book he describes 
and laments the change in his position. 

Hactenus ipse meus musis studiosus adhaesi, 

£t lusi yario carmina ssepe stilo ; 
Lusit et exactum calamo spatiante libellum 

Mens mea more pari cietera posse putans. 
Jam vero quid agam ? raptum slbi curia onris 

Implicate et sibi dans me mihi tolUt atroz. 

Died 1154,] laurencb of Durham. 163 

Pondera pro meCris meditarier urgeor, «ra 

SepiuB in manibiu qnam bona scripta fereni. 
Ssepias inTigUo quot mille talenta minntlB 

Constent, qnam pedibu quot mihi Tersns eat* 
Si tamen interdum P6gaaea via recta tubopto» 

Ant montam capitum tempto tenere daum, 
Has mea meni et eas admitfeere nescia curas 

Insimal, hinc alias moz rerocata Tenit ; 
£t yelut apprensa polehra spado virgine, triste 

Sospiimt, tristis pectora, sic et ego. 
Ant vice me pueri plorando yindico, coeptnm 

Nam tamen hoc calamus noster omittet opus ? 
Non ita. Namqne licet nequeam quicquid toIo, saltern 

Hoc Yolo quod possum , dictaque prodet opus. 
Et sic pro claustro mihi curia, proque Dunelmo 

Angtia, pro requie sepe tumultus erit. 

And again at the beginning of the ninth book, when 
declaiming against the vice of idleness, he draws the fol- 
lowing comparison between his own tastes and occupa- 
tions and the pursuits of the courtiers amidst whom he 

Qsec ego dam recoloi pro viribus otia vito, 

Tito quod fnvitat prorans ad omne malum. 
Et quid ago ? non arma fero, non moenia pono» 

Ad lucre non sudo, semina nulla sero. 
Sed mlsns et carmen amo ; neque curia caram 

Hanc in Pieridum tollere nostra potest. 
Feryeat ecce licet levis alea, tessera certet, 

Turgeat acer eques, verba superba volent ; 
Et seri licet inde senes sua seria tractent, 

Hinc instet yariis leta juventa jocis. 
In strepitu studio plerumque vacare laborOi 

Hinc quasi non videam stulta videre queo. 
Hinc licet ad nostras sermo strepat impius aures, 

Sepe licet tangat non tamen intrat eas. 
Pierides mihi sunt equitesi sed et alea nobis 

Nostra Thalia, stilus tessera grata mihi. 
Accipiter mihi s«pe liber, versum vice nisi 

Tracto, pro canibus carmina sKpe sequor ; 
Pro phalen pluteum, calamum jaculi vice porto, 

Arena et arma meus dam Tacat est calamus. 
Qui licet exhibeat neque fulmina Quintiliani, 

Nee iluvios PlauU, seu Ciceronis opes, 


Ifi-i LAURENCE OP DURHAM. [Ofcrf 1154. 

Et lioet huDc superet brevitate Salustius apta, 

Eanius ingenio, pondere Varro suoi 
Sic tamen interdum brevis esse laborat, ut idem 

Non nimis obscurus sit brevitate sua ; 
Ne nimis enervis sectetur leviay captans 

Grandia, ne nimium turgeat nsque studet. 
Utqne frequenter eo procul otia peilo, repello 

Tsedia, sic etiam crimina pello simul. 
Et si non aliis, mihi sic mea carmina prosnnt ; 

£t quia sic prosunt, me quoque jure juvant. 

These extracts will be sufficient to show that Laurence 
wrote Latin verse with considerable elegance and facility, 
for the time at which he lived. There are two good 
manuscripts of the Hypognosticon in the British Mu- 
seum^* and it is found in other libraries. 

Next to the Hypognosticon, the most important work 
of Laurence of Durham is a Consolation on the death of 
a friend (Consolatio pro morte amid), consisting of a dia- 
logue in prose intermixed with short poems in various 
metres. It is, in fact, an imitation of the work of Boe- 
thius De Consolatione Fhilosophia. The versification in 
this work is more pleasing than that of the Hypognosti- 
con, because the writer appears less fettered by his sub- 
ject. The following lines may serve as a specimen : 

Optantem vetitis currere curribus, 
Inferrique locis exitialibus, 
Phaetontem temeris nititur ausibus 

Absterrere suus pater. 
Sed flecti refugit mens temeraria, 
Ignavumqne putat coepta relinquere, 
Nee voti cupidus quam gravis exitus 

Ipsum subsequitur videt. 

* MS. Cotton. Vespas. D. xi. and MS. Reg. 4 A. vi. One of the early 
transcribers of this poem, named GalienuSi composed some rhyming verses 
forming a brief table of contents of the nine books, and givfes the following 
account of their author (MS. Cotton. Claudius D. iv. fol. 77, v°.) — 

Utque palam pateat quis sit Laurentius iste, 

Initium breviter tanti reserabo sophistse ; 

Hoc sacra Dunelmi domus est decorata priore, 

Hujus adomatur studio studiique labore. 

Died 1154.'] laurencb of Durham. 165 

Foeliz si vel eos ipse relinqaeret 
Dissoasos, yel iter carperet a patre 
Ostensum, sed et h«c iUaque devoTenSi 

Luctus causa patri pent. 
O quos alterins yisa pericula, 
Aat audita, docent nolle nocentia, 
Dignos laude pato : tu quoque laudibas 

Dignus si sapias eris. 

This work precedes the Hypognosticon in the Cottonian 
manuscript^ at the end of which are several short pieces 
resembling rhetorical exercises in prose^ entitled, Oratio 
Laurentii pro Laurentio, Oratio Laureniii pro naufroffia, 
Oratio Laureniii pro juvenibua compeditisy Invectio Laur 
rentii in Malgerum, Oratio Laurentii pro Milone. The 
Annals of Durham above quoted recite the titles of all the 
preceding works of Laurence of Durham, and add to them 
a Rythm on Christ and his disciples (Rythmus /actus de 
Christo et disciptdis suisj, and a poem on the city and 
bishopric of Durham, by way of dialogue between Lau- 
rence and Peter.* He wrote also in prose a life of St. 
Bridget, dedicated to Ethelred, one of the officers of the 
king's household {dispensator domus regiai)^ and therefore 
probably while he was residing at court. This is the only 
work of Laurence of Durham which has been printed. 
Bale, Leland, and Leyser, ascribe to him other works, 
some of which are merely titles made out of the ninth book 
of the Hypognosticon, and some the works of another 
writer of the same name.f 

* Scripsit etiam metrice de civitate et episcopatu Dunelmi per modum 
dialogi inter Laarentium et Petmm. MS. Cotton. Claud. D. iy. fol. 77» ^» 

f In the catalogue of the books of Durham in the twelfth century, among 
those printed by the Surtees Society, p. 8, we find a list of the Libri Lau» 
rentii pHori», from which it would appear that his private library was not 
very eztensiTe, as it is there made to consist only of seven books, four of 
which are glosses on the Psalter, the Epistles of St Paul, and Isaiah, and the 
other three the Sermons of Bernard of Clairvaujc, a book entitled Venariwp 
and Tullius de Amicitia* 

166 CARADOO OF LANCARVAN. [Died about IIB4. 


Acta Sanctorum Februarii. Tomua I. Antrerpia, 1658, fol. pp. 172-166. 
Vita S. Brigid» Virg. auctore lAvrentio DHiietneiiti, ex MS. Salman- 


This writer was a contemporary of Geoffirey of Mon* 
mouth, from whom we learn that he was occupied in com* 
piling a history of the Welsh princes from the death of Cad* 
wallader to the middle of the twelfth century.* This work, 
which there can be no doubt was written in Latin, appears 
to be now lost ; except in a pretended Welsh version, 
which has again been translated into English, and printed 
with a continuation. How far this translation is a faithful 
representative of Caradoc's history, we cannot determine 
without the original text. Pits states that in his time 
there was a copy of the original in the library of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. 

Caradoc also wrote a short life of Gildas, which is 
extant. This tract appears to be a mere legend. The 
modem editor supposes that it was wrongly ascribed to 
Caradoc; but we have given reasons for believing the con* 
trary in the first volume of the present work.f Bale 
states further that Caradoc wrote commentaries on Merlin, 
and a book De situ orbis. Caradoc's history is said to have 
been brought down to the year 1154, about which time he 
is generally supposed to have died, 

* Regea autem illorum qui ab iUo tempore in Gnaliia auceeiaenuit Karadoeo 
Lancarranensi contemporaneo meo in materia scribendi pemitto. Geoifrer 
of Monmouth, Hist. Briton, cap. ult. 

t See vol. i. Anglo- Saxon period, p. 119, note. 

Ji^4 qfter llii.] BBNRY OP HUNTINGDON* 167 


QikUui de £xcidio Brltanniae. recens. Joi. SteTenson. Lond. 1838. 870. pp. 
JXf-r-yaXi, Y\tk 8. GUd», a«etore (at fertiur) Caiadoce LanoairmBenii. 


TUq hiatorie of CambrUi now palled Wales : a part of the «aoat famous 
Yland of Brytaine, written in the Brytiah language aboue two hundreth 
yearea paat: tranalated into English by H. Lhoyd, Gentleman : Correctedi 
aqfrneoted, and continued out of Records and beat approoned Antkora» 
by Danid Powel, Doctor in divinitie. 4to, LondoUf 1584. 

The History of Wales : comprehending the Lives and Succeasion of the 
Princes of Walea. from Cadwalader the last King, to Lhewelyn the last 
Prinoe, of Britiah Blood, With a short Aeeoupt of the Affaira of 
Walea, under the Kinga of England. Written originally in Britiah, by 
Caradoc of Lhancarran; and formerly published in English by Dr. 
Pttwel. Now newly augmentod and improved by W. Wynne, A.M. Lon- 
don, 1697. 8vo. 

Another edition, or a reprint of thia edition, waa published in 1709, 8vo. 

The History of Walea, written originally in Britiah, by Caradoc of Lhan- 
carvan» Bnglished by Dr. PoweU, and augmented by W. Wynne, . . . 
to which ia added, A De&cription of Walea, by Sir John Price, A new 
edition, greatly improved and enlarged. London, 1774. 8vo. 

The History of Walea. Written originally in British by Caradoc of Llan- 
fWFvaii; tranalated into Engliah by Dr. Powell; augmented by W. 
Wynne ; reviaed and corrected, and a collection of Topographical Noticea 
attached thereto, by Richard Llwyd, gent, of Llannerch-Brockwel, in 
tiie county of Montgomery. Shrewabury, 183S. 8vo. 


Henry of Huntingdon is another distinguished writer 
whose personal history is only known from a few scattered 
allusions in his own works.* He informs us that his father, 
who, like the father of Ordericus Vitalis, was, a married 
priest or clerk, was named Nicholas ;t and that at a very 

* Bven John Capgrare, in the middle of the fifteenth century, who Intro* 
duoea Henry of Huntingdon into hia book De illuatribua Henricia, could 
find no other information relating to him. 

t I have only the authority of LeUnd for the name, and of Cave for the 

168 HBNRY OP HUNTINGDON. [Died after ll64. 

early age he was introduced into the household of Robert, 
bishop of Lincoln,* where he was educated in company 
with the sons of princes and nobles, and that to his firiend- 
fihip and protection he owed all his advancement in life. 
Robert Bloet was bishop of Lincoln during thirty years, 
from 1092 to 1122. Henry appears to have been ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Huntingdon and Hertfordshire 
shortly before the death of that prelate.f The date of his 
death is not known, but it probably occurred soon after 

Henry, who takes the name by which he is commonly 
known from his archdeaconry, appears to have been early 
connected with th^ abbey of Ramsey, two of the abbots 
of which, Alduin and Reginald, he names as his literary 
friends and preceptors, and he honours with the same 
title Albinus canon of Lincoln, j: Another of his most inti- 
mate friends was named Walter, whom Leland supposed 
to have been Walter abbot of Ramsey, though, according 
to others, he was Walter Calenius, archdeacon of Oxford, 
which last opinion appears to be countenanced in some 
degree by the epithet of consors which he applies to him.§ 
It was to this person, as he himself states, that he ad- 
dressed his poetical writings, the work of his youth. 

circnmstance of his being a married priest, but I suppose they took their 
informatioD from the inedited portion of his works. 

* Cum puerulus, cum adoletcens, cum juvenis, Roberti pnesulis nostri 
gloriam conspicerem. Epist. ad Walterum, ap. Wharton, Angl. Sac. vol. ii. 
p. 694. 

t lb. p. 696. 

X Leland, de Scrip. Brit. vol. i. p. 197, from the eighth (inedited) book 
of Henry's work. 

§ In the letter addressed to Walter he speaks of Walter Calenius in the 
third person, yet in the manner he might be expected to speak of a friend. 
Ozenfordic quidem prseposuit Alfredum, cui successit Walterus superlative 
rethoricus. Epist. ad Walter, ap. Wharton, p. 696. Leyser, Hist. Poet. 
Med. 8vo. p. 427, calls him Walter bishop of Winchester, which is an evi- 
dent mistake. 

Died a/ier 1154,^ henry op Huntingdon. 169 

Henry of Huntingdon's poetry is superior to the general 
standard of medieval Latin verse. It is somewhat mis- 
cellaneous^ consisting of metrical treatises on herbs, gems, 
spices, &c. of hymns, of amatory poetry, and of epigrams. 
Leland quotes the following elegant lines from the invo- 
cation to his poem on herbs, which is founded on the 
older treatise of Macer : — 

Vatum mag^e parensi herbanim Phoebe repertor, 
Vosque, quibus resonant Tempe jocosa, deie, 

Si mihi serta prins hedera florente parastis, 
Ecce meos flores, serta paratCi fero. 

There is a copy of his epigrams in the British Mu- 
seum ;* they are written in diflferent metres, and some of 
them are in rhyme. Martial appears to have been his 
model. In the following he attacks a slanderous critic, — 

De Zoilo, 

Hominis esse yelim pr«clari| Zoilus inquiti 

Et famB ingentis, yincnla ferte, furit. 
Hec mensura tuie est elatio certa niinsBi 

Ex libra quantum celsus es, imus eris. 
Die ubi prseteriti sunt plausus, laus, honor, anni ? 

Poene causa peris, poena perennis erit. 

In the foUowing epigram he speaks of lore in very 
gingUng rhimes : 

De Amore, 

Qui teneromm vulnus amorum non rereretur, 
Innumerorum tela dolorum perpetuetnr. 

The next is addressed to himself : — 

In aeipsum. 

Sunt, yates Henrice, tibi versus bene culti, 
£t bene culta domus, et bene cultns ager. 

• MS. Reg. 13 C. II. 

170 HBNBY OF HUNTINGDON. [Dtedf «//a* 11S4. 

£t bene sunt thalami, bene sunt pomeria eulta^ 

Hortus centimodis cnltibuB ecce nitet. 
O jam oulta tibi bene lunti led tu male oultvt ) 

Se quiconque caret, die mkd, die, quid habet ? 

These playful productions were the amusement of his 
youth. In his maturer years he applied himself to more 
serious subjects. In 1135,* he wrote a book entitled De 
Summitatibus Rerum, in the beginning of which he treats 
on the subject which then engrossed the attention of the 
western church, the end of the world, which was believed 
to be near at hand. At a later period he was urged by 
Alexander bishop of Lincoln, whose friendship he enjoyed, 
to write a history of England, compiled from different 
writers, commencing with Bede. This he completed in 
seven books, ending with the death of Henry I. But he 
subsequently wrote a continuation, in one book, embracing 
the reign of Stephen, and ending with the year 1154. 
One of his last writings was probably the letter already 
alluded to, addressed to his friend Walter, De Mundi Con- 
temptu; in it he recounts to his friend the number of 
rich, and powerful, and learned men whom they b^id seen 
sink successively into the grave. As he mentions William 
archbishop of York, then alive, as being the successor of 
archbishop Henry, this letter must have been wiitten 
between October 1153, when Henry died, and June 1154, 
when William was poisoned. At the commencement he 
speaks of himself and his friend as being both far advanced 
in age, and near their time of quitting the vanities of this 
world, and at the conclusion of the epistle he states that 
he had already received the news of Walter's death, and 
that the conclusion of his letter must be an epitaph.t If 

* Hie est annus qui comprehendit scriptorem, annus scilicet zzxt. regni 
gloriosi et inyictissimi regis Henrici, annus Ixiz. ab adventu Normannorum* 
t Epist. ad Walternnii p. 701. 

Died after IIB4.] rsnry of Huntingdon. 171 

the Walter thus spoken of be Walter Calenius^ we are by 
this letter enabled to fix the period of his death. 

The last literary labour of Henry's old age appears to have 
been to ooUect together aU his writings, and arrange them 
into one series, whioh he divided into twelve books. There 
are two manuscripts of this book in the archiepiscopal 
library at Lambeth. The first seven books contain the 
English History to the death of Henry L The eighth 
book contains the history of the reign of Stephen ; in 
some manuscripts this is transposed, and forms the tenth 
book. The ninth book begins with the tract De Summiia^ 
tibue Rerumy which forms the prologue, and is followed by 
a lett^ to king Henry containing chronological taUes of 
the kings and emperors of the Jews, Assyrians, Persians, 
Maeedonians, and Romans ; a letter to Warin the Breton 
on the series of British kings given by Geoffirey of Mon- 
moutbj which he had omitted in his history, and which 
he now took from a copy of Geoffrey's book which he 
found at Bee f^ and the letter to Walter, De Contempiu 
Mutuky before mentioned. The tenth book, De Sanctie 
AngluB et de MiracuHe eorum, he compiled from Bede and 
some other writers. The eleventh book contains the 
epigrams ; and the twelfth his other metrical pieces. It 
has been observed by Wharton that Bale and Pitsius 
have made more than twenty titles of books out of this 
work, giving sometimes even the title of an epigram as that 
of a separate book. 

A large portion of the earliest part of -Henry^s History 
is compiled and translated from the Saxon chronicle ; he 
even translates the metrical parts, and in some instances 

* Geoffrey of Monmouth had reflected upon Henry of Huntingdon for his 
knowing nothing of the British kingi, in the conelnsion of his Historia 
Britonnm. See the note to p. 137, of the present Tolume. The first seven 
books of Henry's history were therefore published before the appearance of 
that of Gaoifray of Monmouth. 

172 HENRY OF HUNTINGDON. [Died after 1154. 

incorrectly, which shows that so early as the reign of Ste- 
phen the language of Anglo-Saxon poetry was becoming 
obsolete. He gives us some valuable notices of Anglo- 
Saxon history, which appear to be taken from old songs, 
and from tradition. Lappenberg has justly remarked 
that he differs in one respect from all the other monkish 
historians, who set no bounds to their zeal in raising the 
character of Dunstan, while Henry of Huntingdon bestows 
remarkable praise on king Eadwy. This perhaps may be 
attributed to his love of the popular songs of his country. 
He frequently quotes from Latin historical poets who are 
no longer extant, and sometimes inserts verses of his own. 
In the history of the Anglo-Norman period he tells us 
that he wrote down what he had heard from those who 
were witnesses or who had the means of learning the truth, 
or what he had seen himself, and this part of his history 
is valuable for its originality. His dates are frequently 
confused. As a specimen of Henry's style we give his 
account of the events of the ninth year of the reign of 
Stephen, which we are led to select because it is a passage 
in which he speaks from his own observation. 

Nono rex Stephanns anno Lincoliam obsedit, ubi cum mnnitioDem contra 
oastellam, quod yi obtinebat consul Cestrensis, conatrueret, operatores sui 
ab hostibus prsefocati sunt fere octoginta. Re igitur imperfecta rex confusus 
abscessit. Anno autem ipso consul Gaufridus de Magnavilla regem Talidis- 
sime vexavit, et in omnibus valde gloriosus effnlsit. Mense autem Augusti 
miraculum justitia sua dignum Dei splendor exhibuit. Duos namque qui 
monachia ayulsis ecclesias Dei converterant in castella similiter peccantes 
simili poena mulctavit. Robertus namque Marmiun, vir bellicosus, hoc in 
ecclesia de Coyentre penrersus exegerat. Porro Gaufridus de MagnariUa 
(ut diximus) in ecclesia Ramesiensi scelus idem patraverat. Insurgens 
igitur Robertus Marmiun in hostes inter iogentes suorum cuneos coram ipso 
monasterio solus interfectus est, et excommunicatus morte depascitur teterna. 
Similiter Gaufridus consul inter acies suorum confertas, a quodam yilissimo 
pedite solus sagitta percussus est, et ipse valnus ridensi post dies tamen ex 
ipso Tulnere excommunicatus occubuit. Ecce Dei laudabilis omnibus seculis 
prndicanda ejusdem sceleris eadem vindicta. Dum autem ecclesia ilia pro 
castello teneretor, ebuUivit sanguis e parietibus ecclesite et claustri adjacentis, 

Died after 1154:.] william de conches, 17S 

indignationem divinam manifestansy Bceleratoram exterminationem denun- 
cians. Quod multi qaidem, et ego ipse oculie meis inspezi. Quia igitur 
improbi dicebant Deum dormire, excitatus est Deus, et in hoc signo et in 
significato. Eodem quippe anno et Ernulfus fiUus consuIiSi qui post mortem 
patris ecclesiam incastellatam retinebat, captus est, et per hoc ezulatus ; 
et prinoeps militum suorum in hospitio suo ab equo corruens effnso cerebro 
expiravit. Princeps autem peditum suoram, Reimeras nomine, cujus officinm 
fuerat ecdesias frangere vel incendere, dum mare cum uxore sua transiret 
(nt multi perhibuerunt) navis immobilis facta est. Quod monstrum nautis 
stupentibus, sorte data reicausam inquirentibus, sors cecidit super Reimerum; 
quod cum ille nimirum totis contradiceret nisibus, secundo et tertio sors 
jactata in eum devenit. Positus igitur in scapha est, et uxor ejus et pecunia 
scelastissime acquisita, et statim navis cursu velocissimo ut prius fecerat 
peUgus sulcat, scapha vero cum nequissimis subita Toragine circumducta 
in sternum absorpta est. Eodem anno, Celestino papa defuncto, Lucius 


Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam preecipui. Edited by Henry 
Savile. Loud. 15.96. fol. Francofurti, 1601, fol. pp. 295—399. Henrici 
archidiaconi Huntindoniensis Historiarum libri octo. 

Anglia Sacra (Edited by H. Wharton) pars secunda. Lond. 1691. fol. pp. 
694— -702. Henrici archidiaconi Huntingdoniensis epistola ad Wal- 
terum de Mundi Contemptu, sive de episcopis et viris illastribus sui 

Lucas d*Achery, Spicilegium, sive collectio veterum aliquot Scriptorum qui 
in Gallie Bibliothecis delituerant, Tomus III. Parisiis, 1723, fol. pp. 
503<^507. Henrici Huntindonensis archidiaconi Lincolnensis exemplar 
tertiee epistolse de contemptu muDdi per ea qu» ipsi vidimus hoc est. 
In the first edition it was printed in tom. viii. p. 178. 

Collection of Historians edited by order of the Record Commission, vol. i. 
pp. 689—763, Henrici archidiaconi Huntindunensis Historis Aoglorum, 
libri octo, ab anno scilicet A.C. lx. adusque A.D. m.c.liy. Books 
1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. 


This writer's claims to a place in our volume are very 
slight. He is said to'^have been born at the little town of 


Conches in Normandy, about the year 1080 * It is cer- 
tain that he was a native of Normandy, and that he taught 
with considerable success at Pbris, but there appears no 
authority beyond Tanner and Bale for stating that he 
studied in England, Among his disciples were the cele- 
brated John of SaUsbury, who must have attended his 
school subsequently to 1136, and Henry count of Anjou, 
afterwards Henry IL of England, who can hardly have 
been his scholar before 1144. It appears from Alberic 
des Troisfontaines that he was still alive in 1154. 

William de Conches appears to have been chiefly cele- 
brated as a grammarian, for John of Salisbury, his dis- 
ciple, mentions him more than once with the title of gram" 
maticus ;\ yet nearly aU his works relate to natural philoso- 
phy! The writer just quoted informs us that William 
was a great opponent of the Cornificiens, a sect of his 
time who decried the use of method in treating of philo- 
sophy. His most popular work was written in the form 
of a dialogue between himself and his princely scholar 
count Henry, to whom it is dedicated in a short preface* 
Many copies of this tract, which generally bears the 
simple title of Phihsophia, are preserved.^ In the preface 
the author complains of the degraded state of the schools 
and of the church, and of the double neglect of learning 
and justice. 

Quod igitur omnes fere contemporanei nostri sine his duobut officium 
docendi aggrediuntur, causa est quare minus sibi credatur. Discipuli etiam 
culpa non carent, qui relicta Pitagoricse doctrinse formai qua constitutum 
erat discipulum yij. annis audireet credere, octavo demum anno interrogare, 
ex quo scholas intrant antequam sedeant interrogant, imOt quod deterius 

* Hist. Lit. de France, vol. xii» p. 455. The English bibliographers have 
very erroneously considered his name as a Latin translation of Shelley, 

t John of Salisbury speaks of him in the Metalog. lib. i. c. 5, lib. ii. 
c. 10, and lib. iii. o. 10. 

t A good copy of it will be found in the British Museum, MS. Arundel, 
No. 377r fol. 104. 

Djetf «^er 1154.] williah dx conohes. 175 

att, jadiomt ; iini«s Tero anni fpacio neg^geater stndetitet, totam sapientiam 
sibi ceBsisse putantes, arreptis ab ea pannicoliB, Teato gamditatia et saperbise 
pleni, poftdere remm Taooi abeunt, et cum a eoia parentibiu et ab aliis 
andiantur, in Tirbia eonmi parum aut nUiil utUitatia perpenditnr) atatimque 
quod a magistris acceperint hoc solum creditar, «nde magiatri auctoritaa 
ttinuitiir. Prfelati etlam aed maxima epiaoopi non aimt extra cttlpam, qui 
quae sua sunt boa qutt Jhetu Christi quttrentea, ut sine omni conditions 
bona ecclesiaram detrahunt, sapientes et nobiles ab ecclesiis suis ezcludunt, 
et, ne locus vacuus remaneat, insipientes ignobiles umbras clericorum non 
clericos includunt. Inde fit ut qui in scientia si studerent proficere possent, 
intelligentes se nihil inde aliud quam odium et invidiam adquirere, episcopos 
divitem archam non divitem aoimnm qusrere» diversum iter vits ingredi- 
entes, Incris et qusestibus inhiant. 

He proceeds to state that he places his hopes of re- 
formation in Henry and his children. One of the earliest 
works of William de Conches appears to have been his 
treatise De dementis philosophice^ in four books^ which was 
inserted by mistake among the works of Bede in the old 
printed editions. In this book he begins with the creation 
of the Universe, and treats nearly the whole range of 
natural philosophy with so much freedom of opinion that 
it gave great offence to the clergy, and was violently 
attacked by Guillaume de S. Thierry.* In a subsequent 
tract, entitled Dragmaticon phihsopkiay William retracted 
his errors, which he lays to the charge of his youth when 
' he composed the obnoxious work. His other works are 
a treatise on the nature of man, entitled Secunda philo^ 
sophia^ and another on cosmography, entitled Tertia 
philoBophia; and one or two other similar books. He 
also wrote a commentary on Boethius De Comolatione, 
of which there is a copy in the library of Jesus College, 

Tanner saentiona a work by William de Conches, entitled Opui historicum 

* A detailed abstract of this work is given in the Hist Lit. de Fr. as 
cited above, 
t There is a copy of this in a MS. in the Royal Library at Paris. 

176 HUGO CANDIDAS. [Died ofier 1155. 

de operibw nx dierum, printed in fol. about the year 1473, of which a 

copy wag in Baliol College, Oxford. 
De naturis saperioribus et inferioribus. An edition of a work of William 

de Conches under this title was printed about the year 1474. 
Dragmaticon Philosophi». Strasburg, 1566. 8yo. 
Yenerabilis Bedse Opera. The treatise De Elementis Philosophise is inserted 

in the second volume of the editions of Basil and Cologne. 


Hugo, known as one of the best of our early local his- 
torians, has left us but few notices of his own life, and we 
know nothing of him from other sources. It is even un- 
certain why he received the epithet of Candidas : some 
asserting that it was the candour of his manners, or the 
veracity of his history, which obtained for him that appel- 
lative, while others attribute it to the paleness of his face. 
It is but a vulgar error to call him Hugh Whyte, as Leland 
has done. Hugo, with his brother Remaldus, was placed in 
the abbey of Peterborough at a tender age. He tells us that 
he was a child there under abbot Ernulph^ who ruled that 
house from 1 107 to 11 14. Both appear to have been Nor- 
mans. Hugo was present at the fire which burnt the church 
in 1 1 1 7; and was one of the witnesses when the right arm of 
St. Oswald was shown to Alexander bishop of Lincoln, which, 
according to Hugo^s own calculation, occurred in 1130. In 
the time of abbot Martin he was appointed subprior, and 
he died early in the abbacy of William de Waterville, who 
was elected in 1155, and deposed in 1175.* Hugo's his- 
tory of the monastery of Peterborough is preserved in a 
volume in the archives of the cathedral, known by the title 
of Liber Swaffham. It commences with the foundation of 
the monastery, and ends after the election of William de 

* A more detailed dissertation on the different points of Hugo's personal 
history will be found in the preface to Gunton's History of Peterborough. 

Died after 1155. "] hugo candidus. 177 

Waterville, which event probably its author did not long 
survive. He has preserved a few interesting historical 
notices which are not found elsewhere ; but his style has 
nothing to distinguish it from that of the common mo- 
nastic chronicles. He appears to have used local autho- 
rities^ some of which are lost ] but there can be no doubt 
he took many of his details from the Peterborough copy of 
the Saxon Chronicle^ and in one instance at least he 
has mistranslated a Saxon word in his original.^ That he 
was not a good English etymologist will appear by the 
following account of the site of his monastery : 

Burch vero in regione Gynrionim est fandatus, quia ibi incipit eadem palui 
in oriental! parte, quse per milliaria sexaginta vel ampUus durat. Est autem 
eadem palus hominibus permaxime necessariai quia ibi accipiuntur ligna et 
fltipula ad ignem, et foenum ad pabula jumentorum, et coopertorium ad domos 
cooperiendaa, et plurima alia necessaria et utilia ; et est ferax avium et piscosa. 
Sunt enim ibi diversi amnes, et plurimee aqus, et maxima stagna piscina ; 
estque regio in hiis rebus abundantissima. Idem autem Burch in optimo 
loco est constructus ; quia in una parte palude et aquis optimis, in alia vero 
terrisi sylvis, pratis, et pascuis plurimis faonoratur ; estque ex omni parte 
formosus, et per terram accessibilis, prater ad orientalem plagam, per quam 
nisi navigio non venitur. Praeterfluit etiam juxta monasterium amnis Nen 

* The passage referred to is the account of the marvels seen on the arrival 
of abbot Henry, thus related in the Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 1127. Sva rad- 
lice swa Henri abbat l>8er com. . )>a son )>«r eefter ^a ssegon ^ hserdon fela 
men feole huntes hunten. ha hnntes wseron swarte i micele "j ladlice, i here 
hundes ealle swarte *] brad-egede *;) ladlice ; i hi ridone on swarte hors *) on 
swarte bwces. )>e8 wees segen on the selve der-fald in ]>a. tune on Burch, i 
on ealle )>a wudes )>a weron fram >a selve tune to Stanforde ; *] )>e muneces 
herdon )>a horn blawen j» hi blewen on nihtes. Sot^feste men heom kepten 
on nihtes, seidon >e8 ]>e heom J>uhte j) \>kt mihte wel ben abuton twenti ot$e 
J>ritti horn blaweres. Hugo's account is clearly taken from this : — Eodem 
anno cum venisset ad abbatiam visa sunt et audita monstra per totam quadra- 
gesimam, et hoc noctibus» et per sylvas et per plana a monasterio usque ad 
Stanford. Nam visi sunt quasi venatores cum comibus et canibus, sed omnes 
nigerrimi erant, et equi eorum et canes, et aliqui quasi haedos equitantes, et 
oculos grandes habebant. Et erant quasi viginti aut triginta simul. Hoc 
non est falsum, quia plurimi veracissimi homines videnmt et audierunt cor- 
nua. Hugo has translated bucees by hados instead of cervos t an easy mistake 
for a Norman, who had in his mind the word bouca. It is very similar to 
his rendering crttland by cruda terra, instead of terra corvorum, 


178 GEOFVBBY OF BURTON. [Reign of 

in aufltrali parte, quo transmeato libemm babet ire quo quiaque Tult oontinao. 
In hujus amnis medio est locus quasi qusedam Yorago, qui tarn profundus et 
frigidus est, ut in media festate, cum solis calor camino videtnr esse fenren- 
tior, nuUus natantium ejus ima adire poaait, nee tamen nnquam in hyeme 
gelatur. Est enim ibi fons, ut dicunt, unde ebullit aqua. Huno locum Me> 
desuuelle antiqui appellarunti a quo primi fundatores ipsius monasterii, 
quia juxta monasterinm est, Medeshamstede vocaverunt. Nam sicut Ely a 
oopia anguillarum quse in paludibns et in aquis capinntur, et Thomeya prop- 
ter spineta ibi succrescentia, et Crulandia propter crudam terram, sunt dictas, 
ita Medesbamstede ab illo loco, sicut diximus, nuncupabatur. Sed restau- 
ratores ipsius, sicut inA'a dicemus, eum melius Burch Toeayerunt. Hunc 
igitur locum ?identes primi fiiudatores ipsius tarn egregium. tarn perspicnum, 
tarn amoenum, tarn aptum, atque fertilissimum et jocundissimum, omni- 
busque rebus uberrimum et formosissimum, et quasi paradisum in terris sibi 
a Deo oblatum, monasterium ibi fundarerunt. 

An abridged translation of Hugo^s history into Anglo- 
Norman verse has been preserved, and will be found in 
Sparke^s collection, where Hugo's own work is printed. 
It has been supposed, on very slight grounds, that Hugo 
or his brother Remaldus wrote the contemporary part of 
the Peterborough copy of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 


Historic Anglicansa Scriptores varii, e Codicibus Manuscriptis nunc primum 
editi (by Josepb Sparke). Londini, 1723, fol. Historic Coenobii ^ 
Burgensis Scriptores Tarii. pp. 1—94, Hugonis Candidi Coenobii Bur- 
gensis Historia. 


Among the minor biographers, or rather writers of 
saints' legends, of this reign, were Geoffrey of Burton 
and Robert of Salop. The former is said to have been first 
a monk of Winchester, of which he was made prior in 1 ill, 
and from whence he was removed in 1114 to be made 
abbot of Burton-upon-Trent. He held this office till his 

Siiphen.'] ROBBBT of salop. 179 

death j which happened on the 2nd of August, 1151.* The 
only work which it seems certain that abbot GeoflFrey 
wrote was a life of St Modwen, the patron saint of his 
house, for which, as he stated in his preface, he had pro- 
cured the materials from Ireland. The life of St. Modwen, 
in a manuscript of the twelfth century in the Cottonian 
Library, (Cleop. A. 11.) bears in an old hand the title. 
Vita Modwennm virginis HibemictB^ per Gulielmum Edys 
Surtanensem manachum, A later hand attributes it to 
Geoffrey ; but it is distinctly stated in the text to have 
been written by an Irishman named Concubranus, of whom 
nothing further is known. The book itself is of little value ; 
no copy appears now to exist with Geofirey's preface. 
Perhaps he only procured a copy of the book of Concu- 
branus from Ireland, and added a preface to it for the use 
of his English monks. 

We are totally ignorant of the personal history of Ro- 
bert OF Salop. He composed a life of St. Winifred, which 
he dedicated to Guarin, abbot of Worcester, who appears 
to have died in 1140. A copy of this book, which con- 
tains some curious legendary history, exists in MS. Cotton. 
Claudius A.v., and has been printed. Bale represents this 
writer as flourishing in 1140. He can hardly be, as Tanner 
seems to suspect, the Robert of Salop who was bishop of 
Bangor in 1210. 

The life of St. Winifred is said to have been printed in 1633i but perhaps 
it has been confounded with the English translation printed in 1635. 

The admirable life of Saint Wenefiride, Virgin, Martyr, Abbesse. Written 
in Latin above 500 years ago, by Robert, Monke and Prionr of Shrews- 
bury, of the Yen. Order of S. Benedict. Devided into two bookes. 
And now translated into English, out of a very ancient and authenticall 

* See Tanner, and Wharton, Angl. Sac. vol. i. p. 324. 



manuscripti for the edification and comfort of Catholikes. By J. F. 
of the Society of Jesus. Permissu Superiorii, M.DC. XXXV. 12»^ 
This volume was reprinted in 1712, and this new Edition republished 
with obsenrations by Bishop Fleetwood, in his <* Life and Miracles of 
St. Wenefrede, together with her Litanies, and some historical obsenra. 
tions made thereon.*' 8to. London, 1713. 

About this time lived a monk named Nicholas^ said 
to have been prior (not abbot) of St. Alban's^ and to have 
written a treatise De Conceptione Vtrginia. Tanner sup- 
posed he was the same person as Nicholas prior of Wal- 
lingford (a cell to St. Alban^s), who is known as the writer 
of a book on the life and miracles of St. Edmund the 
martyr^ which, however, is not extant. Among the manu- 
scripts of the monastery of Peterborough there was an 
*' Epistle of Nicholas, prior of St. Alban's, to Maurice the 
monk.^'* Bale states that he flourished in 1140. 

William op Ribvaux, a monk of Rushford, com- 
piled about this time a history of England, which he 
dedicated to Ailred, abbot of Rievauz, and which is 
mentioned by Higden in his introduction to the Poly- 
chronicon. Bale says that he died in 1146; while Pits 
places his death in 1160. 

Richard of Worcester, a Latin poet of this age, who 
appears to have been a monk of Winchester, is known to 
us only by the following lines on the death of Henry I. 
preserved in a nearly contemporary manuscript.t 

Rieardi Uuigomenns. 

Clenis pastore, monachus patre, plebs monitorei 
Proh dolor ! urbs Wenta solito yiduatur honore. 
Nam tua dam viguit terris, Henrice, potestas, 
Uuintonie fraus nulla fait, regna^it honestas. 

* Sec Ganton, Hist, of Peterb. p. 201. 

t MS. Reg. 6 A. vi. fol. 109, t<». in the British Maseum. 

Stephen.] richard of Worcester. 181 

Nanc pro morte toa flet ciyis, plorat arator» 

JuBtitise cultor, cum milite juris amator. 

Deflet NormanniUi cnm Francigena, Cenomannisi 

Sed magis est Anglis et erit dolor omnibus annis. 

Lex Ciceronem, jusque Catonem, fiwque Varonem, 

Flangite tarn dignum, sapientemi tamque benignum. 

Nobilitas, mores, pradentia, lausi et honores, 

Flete vinim magnnm, fortem, mitem yelut agnnm. 

Moribas omatom, yirtatom flore beatnm, 

Eztitit et monim decus et diadema bonomm. 

Clara stirpe satusi specnlo Tit» deooratus» 

Prsecluis in sensn, preclaros divite oensu ; 

Yir pius ac mitis, florescens ntpote Titis 

Qose non marescit, nt adhnc bona funa patescit. 

Lande Tirens clara, qnia Christns mentis in ara 

Affuit in vita dum nobilis hie coenobita. 

Non in eo fuerat crimen sed mens Salomonis ; 

Non mens perfidies torvi sed posse Neronis ; 

Non Paridis mala fama fait sed forma vennsta ; 

Hectoris et yirtus, oratio pro grege jnsta. 

Ergo jure dolet Uointoma, nam sna jura 

Nunc in morte viri tam magni sunt pexitura. 

Si prece yel pretio magno redimi potuisset, 

Hsec sibi continuo pia concio nostra dedisset. 

Omnibus Henrico coenobitis semper amico 

Sit prece justorum requies super aatra polommy 

Pastor ut indenmis maneat sine fine peremiis. 


Section IV. — ^Thb Rbion of Hsnbt II. 


One of the most distinguished literary men of the be- 
ginning of the reign of Henry II, was Robert, named in 
Latin Robertus Pullus,* which would be the translation 
of Robert le Poule, or Robert the chicken. We have no 
information as to the place of his birth» but there can be 
little doubt that he studied in Paris, from whence he 
came to Exeter, probably early in the reign of Stephen. 
From Exeter he removed to Oxford, where he lectured on 
the Scriptures, which had fallen into neglect in the schools, 
and preached on Sundays to the people during five years.f 
One of his hearers was the celebrated John of Salisbury. 
In 1141, or soon after, he was invited to Rome by pope 
Innocent II., wher« in 1144 he was made a cardinal by 
Celestine II., and he Was subsequently made chancellor 
of the church of Rome by Lucius II. (pope from 1144 to 
to 1145). He is stated to have been likewise archdeacon 
of Rochester. The date of his death is quite uncertain ; 
Tanner says he flourished in 1150, and he belongs per- 
haps with more propriety to the reign of Stephen than to 
that of Henry II. 

Robert's principal work was a sort of compendium of 

• Tanner and Leland call him Polenius, Polenos, PoUas, Pulcy, Pollen, 
Bullen. Pullua is the only form for which there is good authority. 

t For these facts we have the authority of an anonymous continuator of 
Bede. Venit magister Robertus cognomento PuUns de civitate Exonia Oze- 
fordam, ibique scripturas divinas, quae per idem tempus in Anglia obsolue- 
ranti prse echolaaticis quippe neglectie fiierant, per quinquennium legit, 
omnique die dominico verbum Dei populo prsedicayit, ex ciyus doctrina 
plurimi profecenmt. 

Flourished in 1150.] robbrt le poulb. 183 

the doctrines and practice of the churchy in eight books^ 
published under the title of BententioB, or lAbri Senteip' 
tiarumy or Sententue de THniiate. There is a good copy 
of this book in the British Museum. It exhibits great 
learning in the theology of that age. The following ac- 
count of Elijah and Enoch, taken from the twelfth chapter 
of the eighth book, will serve as a specimen of Robert's 
style, and is illustrative of a curious legend prevalent 
during the Middle Ages. 

Helias et Enoc, alter post diluyium alter ante, in paradUum assumpti snnti 
ezpectantes ut quemadmodum Johannes Salvatoris antecessit et demonstra- 
Yit adventam ita et ipsi jadicis adventum sno preeconata circa finem mnndi 
anAYintieikty qnatennf omnee prime contra Antiehristi conflictom postmodnm 
contra judicium piwparati festinent. Hi duo quoniam absque cibi et potus 
sOBtentationey tamen neque esuiunt neque atiunt, imo quoniam eos nulla 
omnino mcklestiaattingitf multo melius creduntur habere quam nos, multoque 
minus quam habituri sunt. Habent nimirum felicitatem tanto loco condig- 
nam, sed sperant in coelo longe pretiosiorem. Hi juzta praedicationem 
Chriati triennio panloque amplius verbo Dei insistentes creduntur reducturi 
corda filiomm ad patres, id est, Judeeorum ad fidem patriarcharum, et con • 
firmaturi et prsemunituri ecclesiam Dei contra jam jamque venturam mundi 
immntatlonem. Nimirum tunc Judnos post longam captivitatero ab undique 
ad terram suam traditio est redituros, nisi verbum fidei audient atquo susd- 
pient, ubi ab Antichristo, ibidem sedem regni usurpaturo, tormenta tanquam 
boni athlete Christi fbrtiter sustinebunt. Interim autem male habebit gens 

ilia, miserieordiam tandem consecutura Inter primes autem Helyas 

et Enoc peracto officii suo curriculo ab Antichristo, tanquam rationibus snis 
incommodi, interficientur, et in plateia jacentes sepellri prohibebuntur, ne 
qua Adncia sit resurrectionis quam prsedioaverant, ne qua illorum imitatio sit 
aut in dootrin« aut in vita. Quos miseros uniyersi cernant. Post mortem 
autem illorum, quae futura circa initium sestimatur regni Antiehristi, in sua 
pace circa tres annos et dimidium, subjugate prius sibi variis modis mundo, 
r^naturfts pntatur. 

Twenty sermons by this writer are preserved in a manu- 
script at Lambeth ; a comment on some parts of the book 
of Psalms follows the Senteniue in the manuscript in the 

* MS. Reg. 10 B. V. Incipiunt Sententise magistri Roberti PuUi, sanctae 
Romanes ecelesise pretbyteri, cardinalis, et cancellarii. There was an early 
MS. of this work in the library of the abbey of S. Germain-des-Pres at Paris, 
from which some extracts were printed by Jo. Morinns, De Disciplina Poeni- 
tentiiBy p« 44* 


British Museum ; and he is said to have written also a 
commentary on the Apocalypse^ a treatise on the con- 
tempt of the world, and another on the sayings of the 
learned men (super doctorum diciisj. 

Robert! Polli Sententice, edited by Hugo Mathoat, Paris, 1655, fol. 


Two successive priors of Hexham, in Northumberland, 
distinguished themselves as writers during the earlier part 
of the reign of Henry II. Richard of Hexham is said to 
have been made prior of his house in 1143, which is all 
we know of his personal history. He compiled a short 
history of the last two years of the reign of Henry I. and 
of the more remarkable events of that of Stephen, especi- 
ally of the celebrated battle of the Standard, which was 
then a memorable event in the history of his native dis- 
trict. His other work is a history of the church of Hex- 
ham^ from its foundation to the time of archbishop Thurs- 
tan. Tanner also attributes to Richard of Hexham a 
history of the reign of Henry II. commencing with the 
words. Anno igitur Bom, incamat, Mclvi^, and a brief 
chronicle from the beginning of the world to the time of 
the emperor Henry V. The only reason, however, for 
attributing to him the last-mentioned tract appears to be 
the circumstance of its following one of his writings in 
the manuscript from which Twysden printed them. 

John of Hexham occurs as abbot in 1170. He wrote 
a continuation of the history of Simeon of Durham from 


1130 to 1154. The other two books attributed to him by 
Bale^ De Signis et Cometis, and Descriptio belli Scotici, 
are only parts of his continuation of Simeon. Bale also 
ascribes to prior John Condones aliquot. 

The works of these two writers are of small extent^ and 
have little merits except so far as they contain some histo- 
rical notices peculiar to themselves. Their style is that 
of the ordinary Latin writers of the age in which they 
lived, as will be seen by the following passage of John of 
Hexham's continuation of Simeon of Durham, describing 
the remarkable natural phenomena which had been ob- 
served on the 2nd of August, 1133. 

Cum igitur rex prsedictuB Henricus circa maris litns transfretandi causa 
moraretuT; vento perssepe ad transiretaiidum existente secundo, tandem die 
prsefato circa meridiem cum ad mare transiturus perrezisset» suorum» ut 
mos est regibus, constipatus militum turmis, subitoin aere nubes apparuit, 
quK tamen ejusdem quantitatis per universam Angliam non companiit. In 
quibusdam enim locis quasi dies obscurus videbatur, in quibusdam vero 
tantae obscuritatis erat ut lumine candelfe ad quodlibet agendum ipsa pro- 
tecti homines indigerent. Unde rex latusque regium ambientes et alii quam- 
plures mirantesy et in coelum oculos levantes, solem ad instar novee lunee 
lucere conspexerunt, qui tamen non diu se uno modo habebat, nam aliquando 
latior, aliquando subtilior, quandoque incurvior, quandoque erectior, nunc 
solito modo firmusi modo movens et admodnm vivi argenti motus et liquidus 
videbatur. Asserunt quidam ecclipsim solis factam fuisse ; quod si Yemm 
est, tunc sol erat in capite draconis et luna in cauda, rel sol in cauda et 
luna in capite in y. signo, id est leone, in xvii. gradu ipsius signi. Erat 
autem tunc luna in xxvii. Eodem etiam die et eadem hora stelle plurimse 
appamere. Kecnon die eodem cum naves ad praedicti regis transitnm 
parate in litore anchoris firmarentur, mari pacatissimo yentoque modico 
persistente, cujusdam nayis magns anchor» a terra quasi yi aliqua ayulsse 
sunt, nayisque commota nultis mirantibus eamque tenere nitentibns nee 
yalentibus, sibi proximam nayim commoyit, et sic octo naves vi ignota com- 
motue sunt, ut nulla illarum illsesa remansisset. 


Historite Anglicanse Scriptores X. . . . ex vetustis manuscriptis nunc primum 
in lucem editi. [by Twysden] coll. 257-282, Incipit Historia Jo- 
hannis prioris Hagustaldensis ecclesiae xxv. annorum. coll. 285-308, 
Ricardus prior Hagustaldensis, de statu et episcopis Hagustaldensis 
ecclesi». coll. 309*330, Incipit Historia piae memoriae Ricardi prioris 
Hagustaldensis ecclesiee de Gestis regis Stephani et de BeUo Standardii, 



Leland and Wood call this writer Roberttu Canutui, 
but it does not appear on what authority. He names 
himself o/ Cricklade, of which place he was probably a 
native, and he says that he was prior of Oxford.* Wood 
states that he was made prior of St. Frideswide's in II4I9 
and pretends that he was rector of the schools. He occurs 
in a document as prior of St. Frideswide's at Oxford in 
1159. He enjoyed the favour of Henry II., for whose 
use he compiled an abridgment of the Natural History of 
Pliny the Elder, which he comprised in nine books. A 
copy of this work is preserved in the British Museum^f 
with the following dedication to the king, which will 
serve as an example of his style : 

Tibi» illiiitriBiime rex Anglonun Henriee, ego tvns founalui Rodbertot 
hoc opua dedicavi, quod de NaturalU HiatoriB Plinii Seoundi liboria triginte 
Mptem qoaei ex immenso pelago ingenioU mei sagena extrazi» rqptttMM meevaa 
incongnium Talde fore de tot et tantarum regioDum dominma et reetorem 
ignorare partes orbia cujaa non minima parti domlnaris. Siqvidem tiotam 
est quia cum sis in belUcis negotiis inTictisaimus, parto otio non minus es 
in litterali scieatia studiosus. In hoc igitur opusculo cognosces, ti kgert 
dignabem, fluxus et refluxua oceani circumgirantis et irrumpantis terram, 
diTenitates populorum et mores eorum, ferociaa bestiarum et impetui 
ferarum, naturae animalium et Tolucrum, pisdumque et reptiMum, «t alia 
mira quae duce natura vel contra naturam iiunt in coelo sursum, sire in 
terra deorsum, in singulis quoque dementis. Fostremo arborusa el her- 
barum Tires, et caetera quae ex animantibus ad morborum remedia pertinent» 
lapidum quoque plurimorum gemmammque nomina et Tirtutee. GapituU 
Ycro singulorum librorum prsnotavi, ut cum tibi placuerit, quidpiam horum 
ad menaoriam reducere, sive aliis manifestare, prsenotato numero dtius 
oocurrat. Sains et sanitat tibi proTeniat bic et in «ternum. Amen. 

* Studiosis et praedpue claustralibus et scbolaaticis Rodbertus Krike- 
landensis prior Oxinefordias non superbe sapere sed tramitem disdplinie 
humiliter percurrere. Proaem. in Deflorat. Plin. 

t MS. Reg. 15 C. XrV. 

2>ferfll66.] AILRBD OF RIBYAUZ. 187 

The other works of this writer are, ft treatise De eon^ 
nubio Jacob, dedicated to a person (apparently an abbot) 
named Laurence | another treatise in four books entitied 
the Mirror of Faitii (Speculum FideiJ ; and fortyM>ne 
homilies *' on the last part of Ezeohiel^ where pope Ghre-* 
gory ended/' dedicated to a canon or prior named 
Reginald. A manuscript of the first of these works is 
preserved in Baliol College^ Oxford ; and one of the last in 
Pembroke Hall^ Cambridge* Various commentaries on 
different parts of the Holy Scriptures are also ascribed to 
Robert of Criokladei by Bale and others^ but they are of 
doubtful authority. 


Th£ name of this eminent writer^ which was properly 
Ethelred^ is variously spelt in old manuscripts Ailred^ 
Aelred^ Alred^ Ealred^ Alured^ &c. Ailred^* the most 
usual form^ appears to be merely a north-coimtry abbre- 
viation of Ethelred. He was bom in 1109, and was edu- 
cated in company with Henry son of David king of Scotland^ 
whose friendship^ as well as that of his father, he continued 
long to enjoy, and tiie latter woidd have raised him to a 
bishopric, but he preferred entering himself as a Cistercian 
monk in the abbey of Rievaux in the north riding of ^ 
Yorkshire* Here his virtues and abilitiee were soon ac- 
knowledged by his fellow-monks, and he was made master 
of the novices. His monkish biographer tells us that his 

* The nsue is tprtt thiu in the eariy catelogve of the lihrary of the abbey 
of Rieranx, printed in the Reliquise Antiquae, toI. ii. p. 18. An eariy 
«nonyiiKraf life of Ailred if printed in Gapgrare» and reprinted in the Acta 
Sanctorum Jannariiy toI. i. p. 749. 

188 AILRED OF RIEVAU^X, [5or«1109. 

extraordinary sanctity was exhibited by miracles which he 
performed almost in his childhood. 

After remaining some time at Rievaux, Ailred was re- 
moved to be made abbot of the monastery of Revesby in 
Lincolnshire^ which was a more recent foundation of the 
Cistercian order.* It is probable that he did not long hold 
this office^ for he was chosen abbot of Rieyaux in 1146^t 
in the reign of king Stephen^ and he appears to have 
long enjoyed the favour of Henry II., to whom he dedi- 
cated one of his writings before Henry's accession to the 
English throne. In 1156, according to John of Peterbo- 
rough, Ailred wrote his " Epitaph of the kings of Scot- 
land,*' X a work which appears now to be lost. In 1162 he 
exerted his influence with the king so as to be chiefly instru- 
mental in procuring a reconciUation between him and the 
pope.§ It was probably about this time that he attended 
the chapter of his order at Citeaux. Reginald of Durham, 
who received the story from Ailred's mouth, |i informs us 
that he employed himself on the way to Citeaux in com- 
posing a rythmical prose in honour of St. Cuthbert, whom 
he respected above all the other saints ; but he laid aside 
his unfinished work on his arrival, and he appears to have 

* There u no reason for doubting this fact : the anonymous biographer. 
Act. Sanct. p. 749, distinctly states that he was abbot of Revesby, preyious 
to being elected abbot of Rievanx, and John of Peterborough, as quoted in the 
note below, makes the same assertion. The list of the earlier abbots of 
Reyesby is very imperfect. 

t See John of Hexham, ap. Decern Scriptores, col. 274. 

X Sanctus Alredus abbas Rievallensis ex abbate Revesbyensi Epitaphium 
regum Scotorum scripsit. Chron. Joh. abbatis S. Petri de Burgo, Ed. 
Sparke, p. 78. 

§ Rex Henricus honorifice recepit papam Alexandrum versus GaUias 
venientem, inductus ad ejus obedientiam per literas Amulphi episoopi Luxo- 
viensis, et maxime viva voce sancti Alredi abbatis Ryevallioe. Chron. Jo. ab. 
S. Petr. p. 79. 

II Hsec dominus Rievallensis nobis quam sspius retuUt^ qui veridicus 
testis et relator de hia subsistit. Reg. Ponelm. p, 177. 

Died 1166.'] ailbbd of rievaux. 189 

forgotten it entirely during his journey to the coasts on 
his return in company with the other EngUsh abbots of 
his order. They found the sea raging with tempest^ which 
kept them in anxious suspense during fifteen days^ when 
at length Ailred suddenly bethought him of his prose in 
honour of his favourite saint, which he recommenced, and 
the sea became calm and propitious the moment it was 
finished. " Christ,^* says Reginald, ^^ willed thus to de- 
clare the power of St. Cuthbert, when he chose to calm 
the troubled sea for the prayer of none other of the saints 
to whose help they committed themselves,*' An anec- 
dote like this, more than any other circumstance, exhibits 
the weak superstition which obscured Ailred*s piety. His 
rules for the government and behaviour of nuns furnish a 
singular picture of the austerity of his disposition, for he 
there condemns the indulgence of the most innocent 
afiiections which are natural to their sex, as in the following 
passage where he forbids the society of little children : 

Paeris et puellis nullum ad te concedas accessum. Sunt queedam inclusae 
quee in docendis puellis occupantur, et cellam suam vertunt in scholam : ilia 
sedet ad feneatram, iste in portion resident, ilia intuetur singulas, et inter 
puellares motus nunc irascitur, nunc ridet, nunc minatur, nunc percutit, 
nunc blanditur, nunc osculatur, nunc flentem vocat pro verbere propius, 
palpat faciem, atringit collum, et in amplezum mens nunc liliam vocat, nunc 
amicam. Qualiter inter heec memoria Dei, ubi ssecularia et carnalia, etsi non 
perficiantur, moventur tamen, et quasi sub oculis depingiintur ? 

Reginald of Durham tells us that at this time Ailred was 
enfeebled by disease ; and we know from another source 
that during the last ten years of his life he suffered from 
the combined evils of the stone and the gout.* Yet these 
appear to have placed little restraint upon his activity. 
In 1163 he was present in the abbey of Westminster at 
the translation of the relics of Edward the Confessor, pro- 

* Licet enim calculo et artbritica passione ante obitum per decennium 
Texatas fuisset. Vita ap. Capgrave. 

190 AiLRBD OF RtEYAtrx. [Bom 1109. 

cured by abbot Laurence and celebrated by Thomas 
Becket ; and on that occasion he oflfered the Life of king 
Edward (one of the most celebrated of his works) and a 
homily in his praise on the text Nemo accendit htcemam.^ 
In the following year, a. d. 1164, Ailred made an exour* 
sion to the south-west of Scotland, for the purpose of 
ciyilizing the half-savage Pictish population of Galloway^ 
and visited Kirdcudbright on the 20th of March, the fes- 
tival of his favourite saintf Ailred died on the 12th of 
January, 1166, at the age of fifty-seven 4 He was canon- 
ised in 1191.§ In Leland's time his tomb was still shown 
in the church of Rievaux, adorned sumptuously with gold 
and silver. 

Ailred obtained the honour of canonisation by the ex- 
treme austerity of his life. He raised the reputation and 
increased the riches of his abbey of Rievaux, which at his 
death consisted of a hundred and eighty monks and fifty 
lay-brethren. His early biographer tells us that he read 
much, and that he was particularly attached to the works 
of St. Augustine, whose style and sentiments he seems to 
have aimed at imitating. Ailred's writings exhibit no 
great share of learning or literary taste; but, amid his 
superstitious weakness, there is a warmth and earnestness 
of piety which we find in few of his contemporaries. The 

• Translatio sancti Edwardi regis et confeasoris, procurata per Laorentiuin 
ex priore Dunelmensi Westmonaaterii abbatem, oelebrata est per sanctnm 
Thomam archiepiscopum Cantaariensem. Sanctos Alredus abbas huic 
translationi interfuit, offerens Vitam regis et Ocoeliam super Nemo accendit 
lucemam, etc. ad laudem ejusdem sancti mirifice dictatam. Chron. Jo. ab» 
S. Petri de Burgo, ap. Sparke, p. 79. 

t Vita M\r. ap. Capgrave, where will be found a striking picture of the 
barbarous manners of the people of Galloway. The dates and some inci- 
dents of the journey are given by Reginald of Durham, p. 178. 

t Vita ap. Capgrave, in the Acte SS. Januarii, vol. i. p. 751. Chron. 
JoU. abb. S. Petri, p. 80, and Tanner. 

§ Chron. Jo. ab. S. Petri de Burgo, p. 87. 

Died 1166.] ailbbd op ribvaux. 191 

following passage is taken from the seventh chapter of the 
Compendium Speculi Charitatis : 

Quid eiiSm snayiuSf quid glorioaini, quam mnndi contemptn mnndo se 
cemere cekiorem ? Ac in bonn conscientle yertioe consistentem, totum 
mundum habere sub pedibus? nihil videre quod appetat, nnllam quern 
metnat, nallnm cni invideat ; nihil, quod possit ab alio anfferri, ttram esse ; 
nihil, quod ab alio sibi possit inferrii malum esse ; dumque in illam haeredi- 
tatem ineorraptibilem, et incontaminatam, et immarcescibilemy conserratam 
in coelifl dirigit mentis obtutam, SKCulares diyitias quasi corniptibiles, car- 
nales illecebras quasi contaminatas» omnes mundipompas quasi marcescibiles, 
quadam mentis nobilitate contemnerei et in iUud propheticum ezultare : 
omnia caro foenumi et omnia gloria ejus tanquam flos foeni ; ezsiecatum est 
foenum et ceddet flos, verbum autem Domini manet in etemum ? Quidrogo 
dulcius, quidTe tranqulllius, quam turbidis carnis motibus non agitari, car- 
nalium incentiTorum inoendiis non aduri, ad nullum illecebrosum moveri 
aspectum ; sed tepescentem rore pudidtin carnem spiritui habere substratam, 
non jam ad carnales Toluptates illectricem, sed ad spiritualia ezercitia obe- 
dientissimam adjutricem ? Quid tandem divin» tranquillitati tam prozimum, 
quam illatis oontumeliis non moveri, nullo supplicio» nuUaTe persecutione 
terreri, unam mentis et in prosperis et in adTersis habere constantiam ; ini- 
mieum et amicum eodem oculo intueri ; ad ejus se simllitudinem conformare 
qui facit solem suum oriri super bonos et malos, et pluit super justos et 
injustos? H«o simul omnia in cantata, et non niai in caritate simul omnia ; 
ac proinde in ilia vera tranquillitas, ^era suayitas ; quia ipsa est jugum Do- 
mini, quam si Domino invitante tulerimus, inveniemus requiem animabus 
nostris, quia jugum Domini suave est et onus leve» Proinde cnterse yirtutes 
sunt nobis aut quasi fesso vehiculum, aut quasi yiatori viaticum, aut quasi 
Incema caligantibus, aut quasi arma pugnantibus ; at caritas, quae, licet ut 
alia Yirtutes sint, sit oportet in omnibus, specialius tamen ipsa et requies 
fatigato, et yiatori mansio, et plena lux pervenienti, et perfeota corona 

As a historical writer, Ailred has little importance in 
comparison even with the ordinary chroniclers of his age, 
for he too generally prefers improbable legends to sober 
truth. We may give as an example the following account 
of the legendary consecration of the church of Westmin- 
ster by the apostle St. Peter, taken from the life of Ed- 
ward the Confessor ; it will serve, with the passages already 
quoted, as a specimen of Ailred's style and language : 

Nocte autem dedicationem ejusdem ecclesin precedente, piscatori cuidam 
Thamesia fluvii, qui idem monasterium praterfluit, ulteriori ripa in habitu 

192 AILRED OF RIEVAUX. [Bom 1109. 

peregrino B. Petrus apparens, promissa mercede, transponi se ab eodem et 
petiit et promeruit. Egressus autem de navicula, ecclesiam piscatore cer- 
nente ingreditur, et ecce subito lux coelestis emicult, miroque spleadore illus- 
traDs omnia noctem conyertit in diem. Adfuit cum apostolo multitado 
civium supemorum ingredientiam, melodiaque coelestis insonuit, indicibilis 
odoris fragrantia nares peifandebat. Peractis autem omnibus quae ad ecclesise 
dedicationem spectant solemniis, redit ad piscatorem piscium piscator egre- 
gius hominum ; quem dum diyini luminis fulgore perterritum et alienatum 
pene sensibus repexisset, blanda consolatione reddit hominem sibi, animum 
rationi. Ingredientes cymbam simul uterque piscator, ait Petnu : Num- 
quid pnlmentarium non habes ? Et ille, Inconsaetsci inquit, luds perfusione 
stupidus et ezpectatione tui detentus, nihil cepi, sed promissam a te mer- 
cedem securus ezpectayi. Ad haec apostolus ait : Laxa nunc retia in cap- 
turam. Paruit tmperanti piscator, et mox implevit rete piscium maxima 
multitudo. Omnes erant ejusdem generis pisces, preeter unum mine 
enormitatis esocium. Quibus ad ripam extractis, dixit apostolus : Hunc qui 
prse cieteris pretio et magnitudine prsecellit, Mellito ex mea parte defer 
piscem episcopo. Pro nautica vero mercede csetera tibi toUe. Hujus generis 
copia abundabiB in vita tna, et longo tempore post te progenies tua : tantum 
ne ultra piscari audeatis in celebritate dominica. Ego sum Petrus qui 
loquor tecum, qui cum meis concivibus constructam in meo nomine basili- 
cam dedicavi, episcopalemque benedictionem mese sanctificationis auctoritate 
prseveni. Die ergo pontifici quae vidisti et audisti, tuoque sermoni signa 
parietibus impressa testimonium perhibebunt • • • • His dictis confestim ab 
oculis ejus disparuit. 

Ailred's historical writings are not very numerous. They 
consist of, — 

1. The Life of Edward the Confessor, which has been 
frequently printed. 

2. An account of the battle of the Standard, printed by 

3. A work entitled in the old catalogue of Rievaux, De 
generositate et moribus et morte regis Davidy which also 
has been printed by Twysden, who gives it the title, 
Genealogia regum Anglorum, This book, dedicated to 
Henry II. before his accession to the throne, begins with 
an account of David king of Scotland, which is followed 
by a brief history of the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman 
kings. The old bibliographers have made more than one 
book out of this tract. 

Died 1166.] ailred of rievaux. 193 

4. The Life of St. Margaret^ queen of Scotland, which 
is only preserved in an abridged form. 

5. The Story of a nun of Watton in Yorkshire, who was 
seduced and afterwards repented. This tract is printed 
in Twysden. 

6. 7- The early catalogue of the Library of Rievaux, 
printed in the Reliquiae Antique,* enumerates among 
Ailred's writings a Vita Sancti Nimani Episcopi, and a 
treatise De Miraculis Hagtistaldensis Ecclesia. The life 
of St. Ninianus was formerly in MS. Cotton. Tiberius D. 
III. now nearly destroyed. The miracles of the church 
of Hexham are preserved in the Bodleian Library .f John 
of Peterborough, under the date 1153, observes, ^' Here 
ends the chronicle of Ailred.*' J 

Ailred's theological writings are more numerous, and 
consist of, 

8. Thirty-three homilies or sermons De Onere Baby- 
lonisy on the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
chapters of Isaiah, addressed to Gilbert bishop of London, 
and therefore written after 1161. 

9. The Speculum CharitatiSy or mirror of divine love. 

10. A Compendium Speculi Charitatis. 

1 1 . A dialogue De Spirituali AmuAtia, the plan of which 
arose from the perusal of the treatise De Amiciiia of 

12. A tract on the words of the Evangelist, cum /actus 
esset Jesus annorum duodecimo which is sometimes entitled 
De duodecimo anno Christi. This work and the four pre- 
ceding were collected and printed at Douai early in the 
seventeenth century by Richard Gibbons, a Jesuit, and 
were reprinted in the Bibliotheca Patrum. 

* Vol. ii. p. 188. 

t MS. Laud, F. 15. 

X Hie finit chronica Alredi. Chron. Jo. ab. S. Petri, p. 77. 


194 AILRBD OF RIfiVAUZ. [Bom 1109, 

IS. Liber de Inslituiione Inclusarum^or the Rule of Nuns. 
This, being found without the name of the authot, was 
printed among the Workii of St. Augustine, but it was given 
linder Ailred's name in the collection of monastic rules pub" 
lished by Lucas Holstenius. It is enumerated among Ail- 
red's works in the early catalogue of the Rieraux Library. 

14. Ailred wrote a considerable number of homilies 
and sermons^ some of Mrhich have been printed. Thirty* 
two of his sermons are intermixed with those of St. 
Bernard in a manuscript at Lambeth^* and twenty-five 
inedited sermons of the same writer were printed in the 
Bibliotheca Cisterciensium. 

15. A latge collection of epistles by Ailred appear to 
be entirely lost. 

16i His dialogue De Natura Aninue is preserved in the 
Bodleian Library, MS. Bodl. Mus. 52.t 

17. The old catalogue of Rievaux mentions a Work by 
Ailt^ed entitled Fasciculus Frondium. 

TitleiS of other works ascribed to Ailred are given by 
Tanner, from Bale and others, most of which appear to 
be elthei* titles of single homilies, or given Wifongly under 
his name. His rythmical prose In honour of St. Cuthbert, 
a« well as his " Epitaph on the Kings of Scotland '* is 
lost3 unless the latter be the prosaic Chronicon Itythtnicum 
printed at the end of the Chronicon of Mailros, in the 
tftdition by Mr. Stevenson. Among the manuscripts of 
Gains College, Cambridge, according to Tanner, there is 
a Version of the Life of St. Edward in Leonine Latin 
ESlegifeics, ascribed to Ailred, and commencing with the 
line,— ' 

Cam tibi, Lanrenti, cogot parere jubenti. 

• See Wharton, Auctuar. Hist. Dogm. Usserii, p. 403. 
t A good modem transcript of this work, from what MS. is not stated, is 
contained in the British Museum, MS. Lansdowne, No. 209, fol. 1. 

Died 1166.] ailred op rievaux. 195 

On account of this poem, Leyser. admits Ailred into his 
list of medieval Latin poets. 


De probatifl Sanctomm HiBtoriiB . . . Per F. Laurentiam Surium Carthu- 
siannm. Tomus Primus. Coloni» Agrippinse, 1570. fol. pp. 127 — 138, 
£d7ardi regis Vita, authore Alredo Rhieyallo Anglo, moDacho et abba. 
Tomus Tertins» 1572. pp. 577 — 581, Vita S. Margaretse reginse Scotiae, 
quam qaidem S. Adelredus abbas primo conscripsiti sed hsec, quam dos 
edimus, ab alio quodam incerto authore, ex illo breyius descripta est. 
Vitn Sanctorum ex probatis authoribus, &c. (the enlarged edition of 
Surius). Tom. i. Col. Agrip. 1617, pp. 62—78. Ailred's life of St. 
Edward. Tom. III. lb. 1618. mens. Jnn. pp. 167^170. The abridged 
life of St. Margaret. 

Opera Diyi Aelredi RhioTaliensis quondam in Anglia ex ordine Cisterciensi 
abbatis, et D. Bemardi contemporalis : omnia ope et studio R. P. 
Richardi Gibboni Societatis Jeau Theologi, ex vetustis MSS. nunc 
primum in Incem producta, Variisque Lectionibus, Marginalibus Cita- 
tionibus, et Indicibus illustrata. Duaci, 1631. 4to. This volume con- 
tains the Sermonea de Onere Babylonis, the Compendium Speculi 
Charitatifl, the Speculum Charitatis, the treatise de Spirituali Amicitia, 
and the Traotatus super ETangeliuiD« cum factua esset Jesus annorum 
duodecim. The first edition of this collection was published in 1616. 

Magna fiibliotheca Veterum Patrum . . . Tomus Decimus Tertius. Colonise 
Agrippin«, 1618. fol. pp. 1 — 154. The works of Ailred reprinted from 
the Douai edition of Richard Gibbon, with the addition of a fragment 
from the tract De rebus (/. regibus) Anglise. 

Sancti Bemardi Claravallensis abbatis primi . . . Opera Omnia, Luteti» 
Parisiorum, 1640. coll. 82 — 91* Dominica infra octaTam Epiphanis, 
Homilia de Puero Jesu duodeni : incorrectly ascribed to St. Bernard* 

Acta Sanctorum • . . collegit, digessit, notis illustravit Joannes Bollandus 
. . . JanoArius. AntTBrpi», 1643. tom. i. fol. pp. 292 — 302. Vita 
S. Edwardi Confes* regis Angl. auctore Sancto Ealredo. 

Historise Anglicanse Scriptorea X ex vetustis manuscriptis, nunc 

primum in lucem editi. (By Sir Roger Twysden.) Londini, 1652. fol. 
coll. 337—346, Incipit Descriptio Viri Venerabilis Ethelredi abbatis 
Rierallensii, de hello inter regem ScotisB et baronea AngUe apud 
Standardum juxta Alvertonam. Coll. 347 — 370, Ailredi abbatis Rievallis 
genealogii^ regum Anglorum. Coll. 369—414, Vita Sancti Edwardi regis 
et confessoris. Coll. 415->-422, Ailredus abbas Rievallis de Sanctimonial! 
de Wattun. 

Combesis, Bibliotheca Patrum Condonat fol. Paris, 1662, indicated by 
Tanner, contains the Homilies of Ailred of Rievaux. 

Maxima Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum . . . Tomus Vigesimustertius. Lug- 
duni, 1677, fol. pp. 1—165. The works of Ailred reprinted from tha 
Magna Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum» tom. 13. 

O 2 

196 R^soTNALD OF DURHAM. [Flouris/ied 

Twenty-iiTe inedited sermons of Ailred were printed in the Bibliotheca 
Cisterciensiam, vol. v. p. 162. 

SdDcti Bernardi Abbatis primi Clars-ValleDsis vol amen II. continens duos 
poBteriores tomos V. et V I. . . . Post Horstium den no recognita, repur- 
gata, et inmeliorem ordinem digesta, tertiis curis D. Jobannis Mabiilon, 
nova Editio. Parisiis, 1719. fol. coll. 568—574, Sermo ^Iredi abbatis 
Rievallensis in Anglia Ord. Cisterciensis, in Adventu Domini» de 
Undecim oneribus IsaiK. Coll. 590^603, Tractatus ^Iredi abb. 
Rievallis, de Jesu puero duodenni. 

Lucse Holstenii Yaticanae Basilicae canonic! et Bibliothece prsefecti Codex 
Regularnm monasticarum et canonicarum. Tomus I. Augostie Vin- 
delicorum, 1759. fol. pp. 420 — 440. Beati ^Iredi abbatis Rievallensis 
Regala sive Institutio Inclusarum ad Sororem. The first edition of this 
work appeared in 1663. 


This writer was a monk of Durham, and, from the 
circumstance of his being sometimes called Reginald of 
Coldingham, it is probable that he was either a native 
of that place, or had received there his monastic instruc- 
tion in the cell dependent on the monastery of Durham, 
All we know of him further is that he was the friend of 
Ailred of Rievaux, to whom he dedicated his book on 
the miracles of St. Cuthbert. In this work he speaks of 
the year 1165 as occurring in his own time; and he 
alludes elsewhere to events which happened so late as 
1173, but these were probably added to the original work, 
which is dedicated to Aih-ed, who died in 1166. 

Reginald's work on the miracles of St. Cuthbert has 
been printed by the Surtees Society. It is written in the 
ordinary Latinity of his age, but the style is less dis- 
agreeable than that of most works of a similar kind, and, 
though distinguished by an extraordinary degree of credu- 
lity, it is a rich store of information on the manners and 

in 1165.] REGINALD OP DURHAM. 197 

history of the North of England in the twelfth century. 
One of these miracles furnishes the following description 
of a party of fishermen overtaken by a storm^ which will 
serve as a specimen of the manner in which Reginald 
embellishes his narrative. 

Nautee qaidam, dum pacata eequora aligero sulcarent remigiOi omnia pros- 
pera sapra qood optare potuerant habuere, pro destinato sui propositi desi- 
derio. Nihil eis difficultatis occurrerat ; nihil quod alicajus offendicidi im- 
pedimentum generare pnevalebat. Qui quandoqne jocando laxabant retia in 
capturam, et piscantes contrahabant predse mnltitadinem copiosam. Nego- 
ciandi qnidem opus noverant, et tamen piscatorise artia peritiam pro libito 
exercebant. Nam dam sereni aeria dementia dabat spatiandi locam sive 
Incri cujuslibet emolumentum, utraque exercebant pro tempore, et qussrebant 
victai necessaria pro aenim et temporum moderata dispensatione. Tempore 
igitur isto secum ntraque conduxerant ; quia retibus et mercibos hac -vice 
onerata naTi abundabant. Nempe siquid piscandi laboribus adqaiaissent, 
tam ad esna sui cibaria quam ad yendendi commercia secum deportare 
potoissent. Ad vicinas siquidem regiones vel semotas quandoqae nayigabant 
pro Tendendia negotiationibusy sire pro mercimoniis comparandis : nonnun- 
quam vero* sicut et modo, marinis immorantea fluctibus, piscandi gratia in« 
sistebant. Sabito ergo mare tnrbinibus agitur, fluctibus inquietia pertnr- 
batur, et tempestatum fariis inquietioa agitatur. Flnctns navim lateraliter 
impellont et rejiciunt ; nunc proram in aera extoUantes erignnt ; nunc ad 
maris infima in praecipitio diducunt ; modo puppis suprema absorbentes 
alluunt, nunc undarum spumantium pocula infundunt. Frigoris tamen 
asperitas tanta inhorruerat quod algentia membra nulla arte calefacere prse- 
yalebant. Vela tandem nimiis temptationum flabris dissilierant : malus ex 
medio confractus concrepuerat, et turbinibus dissipatce tabulamm jnncturse 
jam pene dissolut» parebant. Manus etiam in remigiis retinendis jam 
defeceranty undisque cum nimio ponderis impetu supercadentibuSf de yiribua 
lascescientium remigia ipsa ex parte detraxerant, partemque residuam ipai 
renitentes detrivendo confregerant. Nauta insuper armaturam regiminis, 
qua navis disponi debuerat, amisit ; et navis sine gubemaculi destituta 
solamine, quocunque impetus fluctuum jactaverat dissiliebat. Tunc omnia 
spes vitse ablata fuerat, nullusque nisi mortis solius exitum de eis aliquomodo 
sperare valebat. 

Reginald of Durham is said also to have written^ at the 
instigation of Ailred of Rievaux, and dedicated to Hugh 
de Pudsey;, bishop of Durham, the life and miracles of 
St. Godric of Finchale, a copy of which is in the Bodleian 
Library.* His other works, preserved in the same col- 

• MS. Laud, E. 47. 

198 HUGH ABBOT OF B^ABiNQ. [Died 1164f 

lection^* are the Lives and Miracles of St Oswald^ ad- 
dressed to Henry subprior of Durham^ and of St. £bba« 


Reginald! Monachi Dnnelmensis LibelluB de admirandii Beati Cnthberd 
Virtutibus quee novellis patrattt sunt tempori)»WI« 8to. Lonclpn, 1835, 
(Edited by the ReT. James Raine.) 


Hugh abbot of Reading belongs as a writer to Nor- 
mandy more than to our island^ and we ought perhaps to 
have placed him at an earlier date. He was a native of 
France^ had studied at Laon^ and took the monastic hi^bit 
at Cluny.t Ordericus Vitalis speaks of him in a manner 
which would lead us to believe that he was a native of 
Amiens.l lie resided in England during part of the reign 
of Henry I.^ whose favour he appears to have enjoyed ; 
and by whom he was made successively prior of St. Pan- 
eras at Lewes^ first abbot of Reading on the 15 th of 
April, 1123, and archbishop of Rouen in 1130. We 
learn, from a letter which he wrote to the pope,§ that 
he attended the death-bed of king Henry I. Arch- 
bishop Hugh died on the 10th of November, 1164.|| The 

• MS. Fairfax, (Bibl. Bodl.) No. 6. 

f At the conclusion of his dedicatory epistle, which precedes his seven 
books of Dialogues, addressed to Mathew bishop of Alby, he says, Nos 
enim et una generis consanguinitas et ejusdem professionis in Christo junxit 
Bocietas, quos Francia genuit, quos Laudnnense solum educavit et docuit, 
quos veste Christi Cluniacus induit. 

X Orderius Vitalis, Hist. Eccl. lib. xii, sub fine. 

§ Preserred by W. Malmsb. Hist. Noyell. lib. i, p. 178. Martene, who 
printed this letter in his AmpUssima Collectio, states erroneously that it 
related to king Stephen. 

II See further on this prelate, the Gallia Christiana, vol. i. p. 580, the 
Monaaticon, voL YI. p. 30, and Tanner. 

J)i€d 1164.] HUGQ ABBOT OF READING. 199 

work by which he is chiefly known is a treatise on theo- 
logy in seven books^ written in the form of dialogue, which 
exhibits much profundity of thought and metaphysical 
learning. From a comparison of the manuscripts, Martene, 
who published this treatise, was led to believe that it was 
originally written while its author was abbot of Reading, 
and that it was revised at a subsequent period of his lifa* 
The following extract will give some notion of the manner 
in which he treats the theological questions which are 
discussed in it, 

Ini, Tu4 piihi responsio placet, Sed quomodo Dens ubique est ? An 
p«r singiila rermn magni^ vel minima diffusiu partitiuve est ? 

Resp. Scire debes quia Deus, cum ubique est, non mole corporea vel 
magnitudine spatiosa per ctincta diffusus est. Non est enim minor in parte 
qnam in toto, nee in toto quam in parte major ; sicut immortalitas quae in 
Christo pnecessit, et nobis in fine promittitur» non erit in aliqna parte cor- 
poris majus vel minus. Quantitas sane corporis in partibus suis amplioribus 
amplioF est, in brevioribus minor. Qnalit^ verp corporis, quK dicitur im- 
mortalitas, tanta erit in majoribus quanta in minoribus subjecti corporis 
partibus. Dispar erit in membrorum magnitudine quantitas ; sed par erit 
in disparibus qualitas, dum una per totum erit sanitas vel immortalitas. Sed 
diffemnti mode qaalitas hseo erit in oorpore subjecto, et Dens in omni ereate. 
Si ei^im sua qnalitatibus snbject» toleris, qualitates nusqnam erunt, et ideo 
nee erunt. Quemadmodum si corpora spatiis locorum auferas, corpora 
nusquam erunt ; et quia nusquam erunt, nee ipsa erunt. At vero Deus inest 
quidem rebus, et simul omnibus totus, et in singulis totus, manens quidem 
ubique in se ipso totus. In se ipso dixi : quia cum omne cui inest, sine 
ipso esse non possit, ipse non egens aliquo, tanquam non possit esse sine 
illo, perfectus et beatua manet in se ipso solo. . ■ 

Martene has printed a life of St. Adjutor by this writer, 
and two tracts on Memory and on the Catholic faith. He 
was also the author of a tract on the heresies which rose 
in Britany in his days ; and there was formerly in the 
library of Christ^s Church, Canterbury, a letter of Hugh 
abbot of Reading to the bishop of Anjou on the deposi- 
tion or excommunication of priests, and another letter on 
the soul fDe Anima). Pits mentions other letters to 
pope Celestine IL and to Peter of Blois. 

200 ROBERT DE MELUN. [Died ifl 


Martene, Thesaurus Noyus Anecdotorum, Tomus Quintus. Lutetise Paris- 
iorum, 1717. fol. coll. 891 — 1008, Hugonis archiepiscopi Rotomagen- 
sb Dialogorum, seu Queestionum Theologicarum, Libri VII. Ex duobus 
MSS. uno Colbertiao, altero Rothomagensi domini Grebovaldi. 
Coll. 1011 — 101 8| Vita Sancti Adjutoris monachi Tironensis, auctore 
Hugone arcblepiscopo Rotomagensi hujus nominis tertio. 

Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentonim Historicomm, Dogmaticorum, 
Moralium, amplissima coUectio. Tomus IX. Prodiit nunc primum 
studio et opera domni Edmundi Martene et domni Ursini Durand. 
Parisiis, 1733. fol. coll. 1185 — 1212, Tractatus de Memoria, complectens 
tres libroB in laudem memoris, auctore Hugone Rothomagensi arcble- 
piscopo. Coll. 1211 — 1236, Hugo Rothomagensis archiepiscopus, Super 
fide catholica, et oratione dominica. Col. 1236, Epistola Hugonis 
archiepiscopi Rothomagensis, ad Innocentium papam II., de obitu 
Stephani regis Anglorum. 


Robert de Melun was a native of England, who, 
having been a disciple of Abelard, avoided those doctrines 
of his master which were offensive to the church, and 
opened a school at Paris, where he taught with great 
reputation. But he subsequently removed his school to 
Melun, where he continued long to teach, and from this 
circumstance he obtained his name.* He remained in 
France from about 1130 to 1160. Among his scholars 
were John of Salisbury, John of Cornwall, and Thomas 
Becket. By the influence of the latter, Robert de Melun, 
who had returned to England soon after the date last 
mentioned, was made bishop of Hereford on the 22nd of 
May, 1163. It appears that he was then advanced in 
years, and he died on the 28th of February, 1167. 

* See Joh. Sarisb. Metalogicns, lib. iL c. 10. Magistro Roberto Mela- 
densi, ut cognofnine desigaetur quod meroit in scholanun regimine ; natione 
siquidem Angligena eat. 

11670 ROBERT DE MELUN. 201 

Robert de Melun was one of the most distinguished 
metaphysicians of his age, and has been praised, perhaps 
more than he deserves, for the elegance of his diction. 
After quitting the school of Abelard, he became one of 
the leaders of the realists, and his disciples formed a sect 
which was long known by the name of Robertines. They 
established their school on the summit of the mountain 
of St. Genevieve, and appear in the sequel to have shown 
a leaning towards nominalism. Godefroi of St. Victor, who 
wrote a curious rhyming poem on the philosophical sects 
of his day, of which extracts are given in the Histoire 
Xitteraire de France,* speaks of the Robertines with con- 
siderable asperity. 

Heerent saxi vertice tarbee Robertin», 
Sazese doritise vel adamantins, 
Qnos nee rigat pluvia neque ros doctrinee : 
Vetant amnis aditum scopulorum minte. 

Ipsi falsum litigant nihil sequi vere ; 
Quamvis tamen ipsimet post hos abiere 
Qui de solo nomine fingunt mille fere : 
Igitur pro nihilo licet hos censere. 

Tlie work by which Robert de Melun was chiefly known 
is a profound metaphysical treatise on the nature of God, 
angels, and man, of the soul, of man^s state and position 
before and after the fall, and of his redemption. It bears 
sometimes the simple title of SententuBy and at others is 
entitled Summa Sententiarumy or Summa Theohgue. 
There was a good manuscript in the library of St. Victor 
at Paris, from which Du Boulay printed very extensive 
extracts ;t and a good copy of the latter part, and an 
abridgment of the whole, are preserved in the British 

* Hist. Lit. de Fr. vol. xv. p. 83. An article on Robert de Melun will 
be found in the same work, vol. ziii. p. 371* 
t Bolieitfi Hist. Univ. Parifl, yol. ii. pp. 585—^28. 

202 BOBS AT PB Mi;LyN, \piedin 1167« 

Museum** The following brief chapter will convey to 
the rei^der some notion of the style ^nd cbftnicter of hi« 
work } it is taken from the first division or book of tb9 
Museum MS.| which appeitrs to have be^n the twelfth of 
the whole work : 

c. zxv. QtfO(f homo nihil hahet commune eum gpiritibu» caUsfibuSf «t 
iwium eti corpu» «r miima ei a^me een^ponium. 

9i oBim ipmm corpus, quod hominein erap obloqnvatar, ntioBalo esfi 
et sapieptum ethiiicomm et chriftianoram orthodoxorum omniB distlnctio 
quam de hominis natnris faciunt vana et falsa esse comprobatur. Aiunt 
eiiim homineio nataraiq oorpoream eum animalibus irradonalibus habere 
oQmmunem, wd naturam incorpoream oum spiiitibus eoeleatibus. Q,vm 
distinctio vaua et fedsa ei^t, si homo tantum corpus est. ^am si bomo 
tantum corpus est, et ipse id solum est quod cum animalibus brutis com- 
mune habet. Hoc autem si unum est, quod esse oportet si tantum corpus 
est homo, vana et cassa distinctio est quam constat ab omnibus de sub- 
stantiis hominis fieri. Omnes enim hominem unam lui partem, id est cor- 
poream substantiam, cum brutis animalibus dieunt habere communem, 
alteram vero sui partem cum spiritibus oeeleatibua, id egt animam, habet 
indifferentem. Quare enim hujuspiodi distinetio fiacta sit de substantiis 
hominis nulla causa esse videtur, cum et ipse homo ejus solum sit naturae 
cujus iUa ejus pars est quam cum brutis animalibus habet communem. Quod 
namque totum cum parte habet commune non toti attribuendum sic est, 
ut a parte tollatur, nee quod pars cum toto babet commune, parti sic est con- 
ferendum, quod a toto removeatur. £t ideo si compositum ex anima et cor- 
pore corpus est, pro nihilo distinctio facta est, quae hominem quandam partem 
8ui dicit habere communem cum brutis animalibus, aliam yero cum spiritibus 
ooelestibns. Nam non solum quandam sui partem, id est corpus, quod cum 
anima oo^junotum ipsum homiuem constituent, oum brutia auimalibua habet 
communem, quia etiam ipsum copipositum ex anima et corpore si ipsum 
corpus est, in quantum corpus est cum brutis animaUbus communis natarse 
est. Et ideo distinctio de partibus hominis facta est oasaa et Tana, si ex 
corpore et anima compositum solum est corpus. 

Du Boulay ascribed wrongly to this prelate a Poenitential 
which was preserved in a manuscript in the library of St 
Victor. Robert de Melun has been frequently confounded 
with Robert Losinga^ and sometimes with Robert Foliot^ 
bishops of Hereford, 

* The portion of the work Itself In MS. Reg. 7 C. 11. and the abridgement 
in MS. Reg. 7 F. XIII. 



All we know of this writer ia that he waa ft monk of 
Ramsey^ that he waa a learned theologian and gram- 
marian, and that his works were long treasured up in hia 
abbey, of which he was remembered as a bright ornament 
aa late aa the time of Leland. He ia said to hare flou- 
rished in 1168. Wood pretenda that he atudied in the 
univeraity of Oxford. The titlea of his worka, preserved 
in the bibliographical catalogue of Boston of Bury, were 
DUtinciUmM Theoloffica, in one book; two volumes of 
Homilies; one of Commentaries on the Song of Solo- 
mon ; EupkrasHea, or expositions of some of the more 
diflicult passages of the Holy Scriptures, in a hundred 
chapters i a work entitled Liber Partium ; and interpreta- 
tions of Scripture names. The Euphrastiea is still extant 
in a manuscript in the Bodleian Library,* apparently the 
same which Leland saw at Ramsey. 



The life of this remarkable man belongs rather to poll* 
tical than to literary history ; he appears to have exercised 
but little direct influence on the literature of his country^ 
and his only claim to a place among English writers seems 
to rest upon a collection of his letters chiefly relating to 

* MS. Bodl. Super A. 1, «t. 44. 

204 THOMAS BECKBT. [Died 1170. 

the political aiFairs in which he was engaged^ which are 
said to have been first arranged^ with a great number of 
letters by other persons^ in four books, by John of Salis- 
bury. The father of Becket was a merchant of London, 
who had married a Saracen damsel, and their connection 
was the subject of an interesting story or legend. Thomas 
was bom in London in 1119; he received his first educa- 
tion from the prior of Merton, and afterwards studied 
at Paris. Theobald archbishop of Canterbury sent 
him subsequently to Bologna, to study the canon law. 
By the friendship of this prelate, and afterwards of king 
Henry II., he went through a series of rapid promotions 
until he was elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1162. 
His subsequent disputes with his former benefactor, and 
the circumstances which led to his murder on the 29th of 
December, 1 1 70, are detailed in every history of England. 
He was canonized in 1173. 

The only writing attributed to Thomas of Canterbury, 
besides his epistles, is a Latin hymn to the Yii'gin, com- 
mencing with the words Gaude flore virginaliy which is 
fomid in manuscripts. His epistles are written in a good 
style, and are strongly characteristic of the violence of 
character which marked his political history. The follow- 
ing is the commencement of a letter to Robert Foliot 
bishop of Hereford, one of the prelates who remained 
firm to the party of the king : 

Si litene nostrse fratemitatis tase excitavere soUicitudinem, utinam nee 
affectu desidem reperissemy nee eirca officii suscepti effectum minus vigilem. 
Elegl ego abjectus esse anathema pro omnibus vobis, opprobrium hominum 
et abjectio plebis, ne Tiderem mala sanctorum, et dissimularem injuriam 
gentis nostrsBi ezpectaos si quis forte ex omnibus Yobis zelans legem Dei, 
ecclesise libertatem saltem affectans, exiret post me et yeniret, et non dare- 
mus comua peccatoribus. Et ecce tu, quern credebam mihi a Domino 
datum esse, ut mecum »dificares, eyeUeres, et plantares, propinas mihi sti- 
mulum in ruinam, solatium in desolationem, prtedicans humiiiationem, immo 
dqectioDem, aimanciftiia bonum cum undique sit turbatio» in pemiciem 

Died after 1171.] wage. 206 

ecclesise et clericorum. £t cum deberes aninii Tacillantis formare constan- 
tiam, sustinere mecum congressum ad defendendum patrimonium crucifixii 
et reprimendos et expugnandos hostes eccIesisBy instillare auribus meis, 
inspirare animo meo. ut ob&ecrarem instantius, argaerem arctius, et incre- 
parem durius. Qaod si me non audierit, ezclamare certe debueras oontr^i 
me : Exsurge, quare obdormis ? Exere gladium beati Petri, vindica san- 
guinem servorum Cbristi, qui effusas est, injurias ecdesise, que in nobis et 
nostris fiant tota die. Exciditne a memoria tna, quantis sim afflictoa 
iDJuriis, quibus contumeliis affectus, cum in persona mea contra omnem 
autboritatem, contra omnem juris formam, itemm judicaretur Christns ante 
tribunal principis ? Non revoco certe ad animum proprise personse inju- 
riam, etsi ecclesi». Attende diligentius, arctius in corde repone, quid 
ageretur ante exitum meum, quid in exitu, quid postea, quid etiam agatur 
singulis diebus in terra ilia circa Dei ecclesiam et ejus ministros. Qua 
animi conscientia dissimulare potes tu, de quo sperabatur, quod esses 
redempturus Israel, a servitute liberaturus ecclesiam ? Et nunc qui tanto 
tempore tacuisti, doleo super te, frater, till mi primogenite. Timeo ne suc- 
cedat tibiy qui toUat tua primogenita, et auferat primogeniti benedictionem : 
quod absit a te. 


Epistolse et Vita Divi Tbomae martyris et archlepiscopi Cantuariensis. Nee 
non Epistolae Alexandri III. Pontificis, Gallise Regis Ludorid Septimi, 
Anglise Regis Henrici II., aliarumque plurium sublimium ex utroque 
foro personaram : concernentes Sacerdotii et Imperii concordiam : in 
lucem productie ex MS. Vaticano : opera et studio F. Cbrlstiani Lupi, 
Iprensis. Bruxellis, 1682. 4to. 

Tanner mentions a previous edition of the Epistolae with the Life (the 
Quadrilogus), printed at London in 149«^. 


Wage was one of the most remarkable Anglo-Norman 
poets of the twelfth century, and (partly from accidental 
circumstances) he has obtained a much greater reputation 
in modern times than any of the others. Some errors 
have arisen from not observing that the name is merely 

206 WAOB. [Died 

the vernacular form of the Latin Eustaciu^, and from pre- 
suming him to be related to other persons of the same 
name mentioned in early documents."*^ All> indeed^ that 
we know of Wace*s personal history is derived (as in the 
case of so many other eminent men of letters or Bcience) 
from the account he gives of himself in his own writings. 
He tells us that he was bom in the isle of Jersey^ that 
when a child he was carried to Caen^ where he was 
put to school, that he afterwards studied during a length 
of time in France, and that, after his retium^ he resided 
long at Caen, and employed himself in writing in Romans 
(or in the French language). Subsequently, as his repu- 
tation as a poet increased^ King Henry IL gave him a pre* 
bend at Baieux.f In other places Wace informs us that 
he had seen the three king Henries, Henry I., his grand- 
son Henry II., and the son of Henry II., who was crowned 
while his father was alive, and that he was a reading clerk 
fckrc lisantj in the time of all these three kings.J We 
must, therefore, place his birth early in the twelfth century. 
He informs us, at the end of his Roman de Brut, that that 
poem was completed in the year 1155,§ immediately after 
the accession of Henry IL to the throne. The poem, at- 
tributed to Wace, entitled the Ascending Chronicle, states 

* Our poet has been called Robert Wace, and Matthew Wace, and 
Richard Wace. The first of these names arose out of a singular misappre- 
hension of the language of the poet, who tells us, at the end of his life of St. 
Nicholas, that he composed that poem at the request of Robert son of Tiout, 
or Fitz-Tiout : 

A Toes Robert le fitz Tiout, 
Qui taint Nicholas mult amout. 

Which Httet, in his Origines de Caen, read as though it had been Robert h 
fit toutt or, Robert made it all^ and applied it to the poet himself. 

t Roman de Rou, ed. Pluquet, toI. ii. p. 95. 

X Roman de Rou, ed. Pluquet, vol. i. p. 272, and voL ii. p. 408. 

§ Roman de Brut, ed. Le Roux de Lincy, vol. ii. p. 298. 

diftef 1171.] WACB. 807 

that Watse composed the Aoman de Rou in 11 GO; but 
this cannot be strictly tttie^ foir he alludes to the translation 
of the body of duke tUchard II. to the abbey of Fesdatnp^^ 
which took place in 1161^ and the young prince Henry, of 
whose coronation he speaks, was crowned in the year 1170« 
It is therefore more probable that the Roman de Rou 
was completed about the year 1171« He appears to have 
ended his task in disgust, because king Henry had ordered 
another poet, Benoit, to write the history of the Normans ) 
and Wace seems at this time to have been advanced in 
years and fallen into neglect. He complains that the king 
had made him promises which he had not fulfilledf. We 
have no information relative to the date of his death, but 
he probably did not long outlive the completion of his 
most celebrated poem. Wace appears to have passed 
nearly his whole life in Normandy ; he belongs to English 
literature chiefly by the subjects of his principal poems, 
though his use of English words, and various allusions 
contained in his writings, would lead us to believe that he 
was not a stranger to our island. 

Wace^s first great undertaking was a translation into 
Anglo-Norman verse of the newly published British 
History of Geofirey of Monmouth, under the title of lA 
Romans de Bruty which extends to upwards of fifteen 
thousand lines. In this poem Wace sometimes translates 
his original very closely, at others he paraphrases it with 
considerable amplification 85 and here and there he adds an 
incident taken from his own imagination or from popular 

* Roman de Ron, vol. i. p. 370» 

t Li reis jadia maint bien me fist» 
Mult me dana, plus me pramist ; 
E se il tot dun^ m'^ust 
Go k'il me pramiit, mielx me fVist : 
Ne r poiz aveir, ne plout al rei, 
Mail n'eat mie remez en mei. 

208 WAGE. IDied 

traditions and legends which he gathered in Britany. In 
this respect chiefly Wace's translation is of value, because 
he was certainly acquainted with the legendary lore of the 
country from which the original materials of Geoffrey's 
history are said to have been brought. In some of his 
poetical amplifications, Wace rises much above the arid 
style of the mere metrical chronicler. There is vigour in 
the following picture of the wrestling between Corineus 
and the giant Gogmagog : 

Bras k bras sunt al lniter pris, 
Bras ont desus et desos mis. 
Es-les-TOUB ensamble jost^s, 
Pis contre pis, 1^ contre l^s ; 
Par derier les dos s'embrachierent, 
Et par air los mains lachierent. 
Dont yeissi^ tor contre tor, 
Vigor metre contre vigor, 
£t pi^ avant et pi^s ariere, 
Et engin de mainte maniere. 
Tornent de 91V tornent de U, 
Chescun fu fors, si s'aira ; 
Des poitrines s'entrebotoient. 
Et des gambes loins s'afor^oient, 
A la foie s'asambloient 
Si que tot droit k mont estoient ; 
Dont les T^ist-on bien sner, 
Et des n^s froncher et sofler ; 
Faces noircir, iels roellier, 
Sorcils lever, sorcils baissier, 
Dens treskigner, color mner, 
Testes froier, testes hurter. 
Bouter et sacher et empaindre, 
Lever, soufascher, et estraindre, 
Baissier, et derchier, et esmer, 
Et gambes faire et tost tomer. 
A la hance i ot maint tor fait, 
Et sofascid et k mont trait ; 
Cascuns voloit Paltre soprendre, 
Et se penoit de Ini desfendre. 

The Roman de Rou (or of Rollo) contains nearly seven- 
teen thousand lines. It comprises a history of the Nor- 

aftet 1171.] WACE. 209 

mans from their first settlement in Normandy to the 
battle of Tinchebray in 1106^ and is divided into two 
parts. The first part commences in the same short metre 
in which the Roman de Brut is written ; but when Wace 
comes to the invasion of Rollo he suddenly adopts the 
long metre^ with many consecutive rhymes, of the early 
romances, and continues to use it during the rest of this 
part of the poem, i. e. down to the reign of duke Richard 
I. The following character of duke Richard is given as a 
specimen of this part of the work : 

Richart sont en Daneiz [e] en Normant parler ; 
Li poil aveit anqes rons, le tIs apert e der ; 
L'altrui sont e li 8uen bien prendre e doner ; 
Une chartre sout lire, e li parz deviser, 
Li pere Pout bien fet duire e dontriner. 
De tables e d'eschez sout oompaignon mater ; 
Bien sout paistre nn oisel e livrer e porter ; 
En bois sout oointement e bereer e yener ; 
As talevas se sont bien conyrxr e moler, 
Mestre pi6 destre avant e entre d'els dobler ; 
Talons sout remuer e retraire e noxer, 
Saillir deverz senestre e treget tost geter : 
C*est un colp damageuz ki ne s'en seit garder» 
Mez Ten ne s'i deit mie lungement demorer. 

With the second part, Wace returns to the shorter 
metre, which is continued through the rest of the poem. 
In the earlier portion of his history of the Normans, 
Wace compiles chiefly from William of Jumieges and 
Dudo of St. Quentin, adding from time to time curious 
details, of the sources of which we are ignorant. His 
knowledge of the local legends of Normandy and Britany, 
to which he seems to have been attached, gives him his 
greatest importance in the eye of the historian.* Thus, 

* I think the editor of the Roman de Brut, in giying Wace the credit of 
wishing to discriminate between the true and the false in the British History 
(Analyse, p. 33), has misunderstood the lines — 

Les teces Artnr tous dirai, 

Noiant ne tous en mentirai. It 


210 WACE. [Died 

for some incidents of the history of William Longue» 
esp^e^ he refers to the authority of the people of F^eatnp, 
and at the same time he tells us that in his childhood he 
had heard the jogleurs or minstrels chaunt episodes of 
ike history of the Normans : 

Entende cil ki m'ot, si me (kce esoolter ; 

Jo ne die mie fable, ne jo ne yoil fabler ; 

TeitiBttigne m'en pot cil de Fesoam porter. 

La gette est grande, lunge» e grieve k tramUter, 

Mez Ten me porreit bien mon engien aviver. 

Mult m*e8t douz U trayail, quant jo kuid cunqneater ; 

Li Normans e lor gestes m'eaCnet avant mener* 

A jngleora oi en m'effanoe chanter 

Ke Willame jadia fiat Oamont eaaorber, &c. 

And^ when he digresses to speak of the wonders of the 
forest of Brecheliant in Britany^ he tells us that he had 
visited the spot in search of the marvellous^ but in vain : 

hk alai-jo merveiUefl querre, 
Vis la forest e vis la terre ; 
MerveiUes quis, maiz ne*s trovai ; 
Fol m*ea revins, fol i alai» 
Fol i alai, fol m*en revina, 
Folic quisy por fol me tins. 

The manner, however, in which he here speaks of himself 
seems to absolve him from too much credulity. In the 
part of his history subsequent to the Norman invasion of 
England, Wace becomes so valuable an authority that we 
have reason to regret that he did not continue his history 
down to the time at which he wrote. As a poet, he is 
more remarkable for naivete of description than for lofti- 
ness of sentiment or beauty of style* 

In addition to the two great poems already described, 
three other pieces bearing the name of Wace are preserved. 

It is the mere usual assertion of the truth of the hiatory, in which the poet 
of course believed. 

after 1171.^ waob. 211 

two at least of which are certainly of his composition. 
These are^ 

A metrical life of St. Nicholas, which is found in several 
manuscripts, both in England and on the continent. 

A poem on the establishment of the Festival of the 
Conception of our Lady, (which was formerly known as 
the Feste aux Normans^ by an abbot of Ramsey in the 
reign of William the Conqueror. 

A metrical genealogy of the dukes of Normandy, intitled 
La CTironique Ascendante des Dues de Normandiej which M. 
Michel, in his Introduction to the edition of Benoit, con- 
jectures to have been written by another person, about 
twenty years after the time of Wace, under that poet's 
name.* Indeed it appears to give a wrong date to the 
composition of the Roman de Rou.f 

All these poems have been printed. We have no rea- 
son for believing that Wace wrote anything else ; and it 
was only by misunderstanding a passage of the Roman de 
Rou, in which its author speaks in general terms, that 
the abb^ de la Rue was led to attribute to him '^ a crowd 
of romances '^X as well as lais and serventois.§ 


Mimoiret de la Soeiit^ des Antiquaires de la Normandie, torn. i. Rouen, 
1825. 8yo. second part, pp. 444->447. The Chroniqtt^ Aicendanti 
de9 Duct de Normandie, edited by M. Plaquet. 

Le Roman de Ron et des Dues de Noimandie, par Robert Wace, poite 
Normand da xii* si^le ; pnbli^ ponr la premiere foisi d*aprd8 les manu- 

* Michel, Introduction to Benoit, p. zy. 

t It is jnst possible that, as M. de la Rue thinka, the first part of the 
Roman de Rou was written in 1160, and the second part at a sabseqnent 
period, althongh his chief argument for this supposition, that Wace wrote 
the second part in rivalry to Benoit, is not sound. 

\ Cette fonle de romans. M. de la Roe, Des TrouT^res, &c. toI. ii. p. 149. 

( M. de la Rue, ib. p. 180. 



scrits de France et d'Angleterre ; avec des notes pour seryir k rintellL- 
gence du texte, par Fr^^ric Pluqaet. Rouen, 1897. 2 volt. 8to.* 

An edition of the Life of St. Nicholas has been printed for the Soci^t6 des 
Bibliophiles Fran^ais, by M. de Monmerqu^. 

Le Roman de Brut, par Wace, po^te da zii". Si^cle ; public pour la pre- 
miere fois d'apr^s les manuscrits des Biblioth^ques de Paris, ayec un 
Commentaire et des Notes, par Le Roux de Lincy. Tom. I. Rouen, 
1836. Tom. 11. ib. 1838. 8vo. With a Description des Mannscrita, 
published separately. 

L*£tablissement de la F^te de La Concepcion Notre-Dame dite la FSte auz 
Normands, par Wace, trouvdre Anglo>Normand du zii*. si^de, public 
pour la premiere fois d*aprds les manuscrits de la Biblioth^ue du Roi, 
par MM. 6. Mancel et G. S. Trebutien. Caen, 1842. 8vo. 



The first of these writers, who is known by a Latin me- 
trical life of St. Alban and St. Amphibalus, in two books, 
is called by some Robert ; but we have the direct testimony 
of John de Whethamstede,t and of an apparently trust- 
worthy writer of the abbey of St. Alban^s in the fourteenth 
century, (who enumerates him among the worthies of that 
house, and who tells us that his poetry was equal to that of 
Virgil,) that his name was Radulph.^ Radulph de Dunsta- 
ble was a monk of St. Alban's about the middle of the 
twelfth century, as it is supposed, for there are consider- 
able difficulties in fixing his exact date. Bale and others 
placed his death in 1151, but they confound him with the 

* This book should be accompanied with the Observaiiont philotogiquti 
et grammaticaUt sur le Roman de Ron by M. Raynouard, 8vo. 1829. M. 
Pluquet has published in 8yo. 18S4, h Notice eur la Vie et Its Berite de 
Robert Waee, 

t Jo. Whethamstede, Granar. cited by Tanner. 

X Radalphus de Dunstaplia non impar Maroni floruit, qui scripsit metrice 
vitas sanctorum Albani et Amphibali. MS. Cotton. Claud. E. iv. fol. 
339, v'. Tanner has entered this writer as three persons under the three 
heads, Dunstable (Robertits de); Radulphus fani Jibani wonaehut: and 
Radulphue de Dunetaplia, 

11?0.] WILLIAM OP 8T. ALBAN^S. 213 

abbot Radulph de Gubiun. He wrote his life of St. Alban 
at the request of another monk of the same house, named 
William, who had written on the same subject in prose, 
and who died before Radulph had completed the first book 
of his metrical work. A copy of William's prose life of 
St. Alban is preserved in the Cottonian Library.* Bale 
says that this writer flourished in 1170, which appears to 
have been nothing more than a conjecture. The book is 
dedicated to Simon, who was abbot of St. Alban's from 1167 
to 1188, and who is represented as a patron of literature ; 
but in a manner which would seem to indicate that it had 
been written some time previous to his being raised to that 
dignity. William states that his book was merely a trans- 
lation from an English life of the saint, perhaps frota one 
of the Anglo-Saxon homilies, with the exception of one 
circumstance taken from the History of the Britons by 
Geoflrey of Monmouth. This preface is brief, and will 
serve as a specimen of this author's style : 

Reyerendo patri et Domino karissimo Symoni Willelmiu ia Domino salu- 
tem. Cum liber Anglico sermone conscriptns, passionem beati martyris 
Albani continensi ad Testram notitiam penreniaset, ut earn verbis Latinis 
exprimerem prBcepistia. Ego vero Tobis non obedire nefas eziatimansy 
dicto pami, non tamen ex aliqua prsesomptione, sed ne contemni jubentis 
auctoritas yideretur. Qood opus nomini testro credidi consecrandum, non 
inveniens cni magis oris mei primitias offerrem qnam Domini sacerdoti. 
Siquid minus Latino forte sonnerit apad doctas aures, interpretem novum 
obedientia, quge Tiribus pleramqne majora prsesnmit, excusabit Sciendum 
aatem quod hnic operi beati clerici nomen adjecerim, quod non in libro 
quem transfero, sed in historia quam Gaufridus Arturus de Britannico in 
Latinum se yertisse testatur, inyeni. Sed ne yerborum prolixitas homini 
displiceat occupato, restat nunc qualiter auctori operis sui prsefationem diri* 
gat audiatnr. 

In the manuscript this life is followed by an account of 
the posthumous miracles of the two saints, and by a history 
of the discovery of their bodies in 1178, which appear, 

* MS. Cotton. Faustina, B. iv. According to Tanner, there is another 
MS. of this work in the library of Magdalen College» Oxford. 

214 RADULPH Ds DUV8TABL8. [Flourished 1170. 

by their difference of style, to have been written by ano* 
ther (a later) author. We may probably place WiUiam'a 
deathi and the composition of the poem by Radulph de 
Dunstable, in, or soon after, the year 1170. 

Ralph's poem is contained in two manuscripts in the 
British Museum, the earliest of which* is less complete 
than the later eopy.t Leland calls this writer poeta non 
etmtemnendus ; and his work tersum, canarumy et rotundwn 
opus; but his verses hardly support the eulogy given him 
by the anonymous writer of the fourteenth century quoted 
above. In the following }Hrologue be addresses his poem 
to the monk William : — 

Albani oelebren ooelo tenriiqua tiittapkvm 

Raminftt incoUo carmine Clio nidis. 
Ardoa res poscit pectus studiumqae Maronis : 

Nob Maro sum fateor, sed neqae Godrus ego. 
Non acie mentis, non «rtis Inoeo cnltn, 

Ut metrioe martyr martyris esse queam. 
Martyris interpres me martyris ire poetam 

Tqi Willelme, mihi dux stimnlasqne dea | 
Quern de barbarie veteri noTitate Latina 

EvolTis, Terstt me recitare Tolens. 
Qui cnpis Amphibali fortis sublime tropbKum, 

Quod socias prosa, me sociare metro. 
Allegans quod eos fidei ichola foedere piimo, 

Et nunc consorti nectat honore polus. 
Me plus discipulo doctorem carmine pulsat 

Jungere, quod jungat me tibi pignns idem. 
Hoc me compellit ad quod petis et magis urget 

Quolibet imperio, quod piuf orat amor. 
Sis igitur clipeusi plus auso, panpere vena, 

^acidc Chiron non mihi tendo chelim. 

This poem is not a mere translation from William's 
prose, as Radulph adds circumstances not found in the 
original, and considerably amplifies the text. In the first 
book he introduces Amphibalus discoursing at some length 
on the scripture history, commencing with the creation 

* MS. Cotton. JnttttSy D. iii. 
t MS. CottOB, Cliradiuf, B. it. 

HimrkAed 1170.'] john of Cornwall. 215 

and ending widi the passion of Christ. The following 
description of paradise will serve as a further specimen of 
the style of this poem : — 

lUe locvB thaiamns raqmei* regia pacu, 

Theca voluptatis, Ijetitiseqae sinos. 
Tatus et assidausy spectabilis atqae salnber, 

Temperie, forma, fertilitate, sita ; 
Quern sic eoua vertex levat ut nisi dactu 

Iliac divino scandere nemo quest. 
Fractifer» semper nova dant ibi germina virM, 

Qaas Tsga qaadrifidi semita fontis alit. 
lUic se yeris spectantes mutuo nati 

Alternant vultos conficiuntque suos. 
Nil illic tonitru nnbes» nil turbine yenti, 

Nil SBstas lestu, nil nive bruma potest. 

There appears no reason for attributing to Radulph de 
Dunstable the anonymous poems which follow in the 
earlier manuscript of his Life of St. Alban, from which 
they diflfer entirely in style and character. 


John of Cornwall^ so named probably from the district 
in which he was born^ is said by Leland to have studied 
at Rome, and elsewhere in Italy, but Leland gives no au- 
thority for this statement ; it appears more certain that 
he had been a disciple of Peter Lombard and Robert de 
Melun, in France. We know nothing further of the per- 
sonal history of John of Cornwall. He is generally con- 
sidered as haying flourished in 11 70. His most remark- 
able work, written to controvert some theological doctrines 
of Peter Lombard, Abelard, and others, relating to the hu- 
manity of Christ, belongs to one of the prominent contro- 
versies of his time ; it generally bears the title of Eulo- 
gium, and is addressed to Pope Alexander III. It has 
been supposed that this book was published in 1169 or 

216 JOHN* OF CORNWALL. [Flourished 11^ 0. 

1170.* Peter Lombard replied to this attack with consi- 
derable asperity, although the doctrines against which it 
was directed had been formally condemned in the council 
of Tours in 1163. The Eulogium of John of Cornwall is 
not uncommon in manuscripts : the following passage of 
the Prologue shows the spirit in which it was written : 

In TnroneDsi concilio quod dadum convocatis plerisqae omnibos tain 
Anglicanse quam Gallicanae pnelatis ecclesiK autoritate vestra celebratum est 
et praesentia illustratam, dogma quonimdam asserentiam quod Christos no a 
est aliqois homo, et quod Christus secundum quod homo non est quid, dis- 
pntando ventilari coopit. Utra yero pars dispute ntium in pugna verborum 
pnevaluerit nescio, sed tarn iniquam et fidei ChristiaDse inimicam falsitatem 
in tali ac tanto Christi auditorio nuUis credo fuisse veritatis aut victoriK 
titulis insignitam. Noluit tamen tam dives et copiosa mansuetudinis vestrse 
dementia assertionem illam statim canonica ferire censura, ne ejus auctores 
et defensores, qui forte non pertinacia sed ignorantia deliquerant, Tel ipsa 
condemnatio pravitatis tantum invoWeret, vel perpetuam eis iufamis notam 
impingeret. Ex eadem vero mansuetudine vestra multo postmodum temporis 
sustentationis elapso, etiam quadam epistola decretali, quae super arroga- 
tionem pravae illius doctrinse ad Tenerabilem Guillelmum tunc Senonensem 
hodie Remensem archiepiscopum legitur directa, nequaquam exprimitur 
anathemate percussos vel etiam percellendos esse, qui errore ilium tenere 
sen docere prsssumerent. Quoniam itaque iniiniti scholares hoc calice 
debriati et in fiirorem versi usque in hodiemum diem patientia vestra con- 
tumaciter abutuntur, qui nequaquam misericordise yestrae piam dispensati- 
onem laudant, sed impium dogma velut catholicum prasdicant ; fiat tandem 
iUud Prosperi quod in Decretis legitur. 

John of Cornwall had previously written a shorter tract 
on the same subject, which has been erroneously inserted 
among the works of Hugo de St. Victor under the title 
Apologia de ChrisH incarnatione. 

Another treatise by this writer, who appears to have 
enjoyed considerable reputation as a theologian, is found 
in a manuscript at Cambridge^f with the title Summa 
magistri Johannis Cornubiemis qualiter fiat sacranietitum 
altaris per virtutem sancta cruets, et de septem canonibus 
vel ordinibus missa. The old bibliographers have made 
three separate books of this title, and attribute to the same 

• Hist. Lit. de Pr. torn. xiv. p. 197. 

t MS. CoU. Corp. Chr. Cambridge, No. 459. 

Flourished lllOJ] oervasr op Chichester. 217 

writer one or two other works, for the titles of which there 
appears to be no authority. 


Thesaurus Notus Anecdotorum, Tomus Qointus. Prodit nunc primum 
stadio et opera domni Edmundi Martene et domni Ursini Durand. 
Lutetue Parisiorum, 1717, fol. coll. 1655 — 1702. Eologiom magistri 
Johannia Comubiensis ad Alexandrum papam III. qaod Christas sit 
aliquis homo. According to Fabriciasy the Eulogium of John of Corn- 
wall was also printed among the works of Hugo de St. Victor, toI. III. 
p. 399. 


Gervase, who probably took his cognomen from the 
place of his birtli^ was one of the learned men collected 
together by Thomas Becket^ of whom he was a staunch 
partizan^ although he did not follow him in his exile. We 
are informed that he was then young ;* so that Bale and 
Pits place him somewhat too early when they say he 
flourished about A. D. 1160. The work by which Gervase 
is chiefly known is a " commentary on the prophecy of Ma- 
lachi^ on the duties of the priesthood/' in thirteen books^ 
of which there is a good manuscript in the British Mu- 
seum.t In the following rhyming verses, prefixed to the 
book in this manuscript, he informs us that he had also 
written a life of Thomas Becket, as the model of a good 
priest, and that he was then advanced in years : 

Vernta Gervarii. 
Proxima confectom senio me fata vocabant, 
Nee tamen a stadio manus affectusqne vacabant. 

— — I 1 I t.- ■— ■— M — ■ • — — — ~ ■ 1 m -t^M- - J I J _ 

* The tract entitled Catalogus Eruditorum Beati Thorn» Martyris, printed 
at the end of the Qnadrilogus, gives ns the following account of Gervase : — 
Post hnnc Genrasios, similiter sicat nationci at cognomine Cicestrensis, 
juvenis certe tunc sicnt in moribosi et in literamm scientia oommendabilis. 
Venim nee iste, cum nee Tocaretnr, patriam egressns est. 

t MS. Reg. 3B.X. Super Malachiam prophetami de ordinis sacerdotalis 

^^^^r . 

Ex hinc aggrediens OM«l|g ^nflj^o^lam, 
Ethiciu ezplicai peiploca libl9lClAC^*e ; 
In quo JQfltiti» Tarios diasemuiQ flom, 
Atque aacerdotam diatortoa dingo mores ; 
Cone penrigilia pastoribua bnpiimo formam, 
Ordinia et juris sectandam profero nonnam. 
Hia Yultus ruttlos Yirtutum pingo figuris. 
His facies faedas vitiomm sculpo litoris. 
Presbyter aut prsesnl qoa se Tirtnte decoret, 
Quid doceat, celebret, quid agat, quid sedalos or«t, 
Quo zelo reprobos feriat, jostos adamajido 
Confoyeat, deno temoque yolumine pando. 

Ad nora post animo laadam precoma flezOf 
Pontificis TbomB yitam meritumqiie retexo ; 
Meque coegit amor cui yiyo yiyus adhssi, 
Martyiis interitum gladiis describen cmd, 
Qnem yelut appositam prselatis inspicieadam» 
Pastoris ligidi formam describo tenendam ; 
Aaperitaa Ttstia, solidse conatantiA mcntia, 
Ezilii damnum, feritas contampta potentis, 
Lictomm gladiis ceryix oblata cmentia, 
In gremio matris yirtus erecta cadentisi 
Bzoussnm oerebnim saBgnisqne per atris mm«Mr 
Copia signorumt languorum miUa sanans» 
Omnia pastori fiunt exempla regendi, 
Ne cadat a cora cogente metn moriendi. 
Attendaa igitur» paator» mea scripta legendo» 
Ut qnalem doceo sis talis oyila regendo. 

licland Bpeak» of having seen a book of Homilies^ and 
a commentary on the Psalma of David^ by Gervase of 
Chichester i a homily on the sanctity of the sacerdotal 
order^ and- another in praise of St, John the Baptisty 
follow his commentary on Malachi in the manuscript in 
the British Museum. 


RooBR OF Hbebford was a mathematiciaii of oon« 
siderable note^ but we are quite ignorant of his personal 

1170.] ROGER 09 SBRKFORD. 219 

history. Such of his writings as are preserved do not 
appear to possess much importance. They are found 
chiefly in the Bodleian Library at Oxford,* under the 
tides TTieorica Planetarum ; De Quatuor Partibus JudtcH 
Astronomue in four books ; De Ortu et Occa9t( Signorum ; 
De Rebus Metallicis, Leland mentions another work by 
Roger, entitled CoUectaneum Afinorum Omnium Plane^ 
tarum, written, as he informs us, at Hereford in 1170. 
A manuscript in the British Museum contains an astro- 
nomical table by Roger of Hereford, with a brief intro- 
duction, in which it is stated to have been composed ''for 
midnight at Hereford, in the year of our Lord 1178, after 
the eclipse which happened at Hereford in the same 
year.^^t It is clear from these notices that Roger lived 
and made his observations at Hereford ; and he appears 
to have been a follower of the Arabian sciences, for in the 
introduction to the table just mentioned he apologises for 
using the Christian year and the Roman months, '* because 
the years and months of the Arabs are difficult to our 
people, who are not accustomed to use them.'':^ Bale 
further ascribes to Roger of Hereford a work entitled 
Eucpositionea JElphidii, which is, perhaps, merely the trea- 
tise of Alphidius, De Creatione Metallorum, found by 
Leland in the same manuscript which contained the tract 
of Roger of Hereford, De Rebus Metallicis. 

* The references to them will be found in Tanner, who has followed 
Leland in makinf two separata artides of Rogeri uder the titles Ro^enu 
HenqfbrtenM and Bogtrut Herrfordm, 

t Compositi a magistro Rogero snper annos Domini ad mediam noctem 
HerefordiR anno ab incamatione Domini M^. c*. Izx^. viij*. post ediprim 
quae contigit Herefordi» eodem anno. MS. Arundel, No. 377, fol. 86, t^. 

X Maluimus enim htec qnam annos Arabum et eorom menses propter 
difficultatem sequi» eo quod innsitati sint H»ud nottnutei. MS* Anind, ib« 

220 ALFRED. [Flourished 1170. 


Alfred^ who by some writers is named the Philosopher, 
is enumerated by Roger Bacon among those who had 
translated the Arabian books of science into Latin.* Pits, 
partly on the authority of Boston of Bury^ tells us that 
he wandered in search of learning through France and 
Italy^ and that at Rome he was received into the family 
of Cardinal Ottoboni, who made him his chaplain, and 
brought him to England when he was sent as legate by 
pope Urban IV. to make peace between Henry III. and 
his barons. This however cannot be correct, for one of 
Alfred^s principal works, the translation (from the Arabic) 
of Aristotle's treatise, De Vegetabilibus et Plantis^ is dedi- 
dicated to Roger of Hereford, whose contemporary he 
must have been. In the manuscripts of this book, pre- 
served in the Bibliotheque Royale at Paris, the author is 
sometimes named simply Magister Alfredus, and at others 
Alfredus de SarcheLf M. Jourdain states reasons for be- 
lieving that this work was translated in Spain. Pits men- 
tions the titles of several other books attributed to him, 
most of which are still extant : they are 

1. De MtisicUf of which he gives as the first words. 
Licet mihi inter meditandum. 

2. In Boethium de Consolatione PhilosophuBy in five 
books, not now known to exist. 

3. In Meteor a Aristotelis, This is preserved in a ma- 

* Alii vero, qui infinita in Latinum conyerterant, ut Gerardus Cremo- 
nensisy Michael Scottus, Aloredus Anglicus, HennannuB Alemannus. Bacon, 
de Utilitate Linguarum, cited by Joardain. 

t See Jourdain, Recherches critiques sur les Traductions d'Aristote^ 
p. 106. 

Flourished W^ 4.] Jordan fantosme. 221 

nuscript in the Royal Library at Paris, where the author's 
name is corruptly spelt Alphiohia. 

4. De Rerum Natura. M. Jourdain believes this to be 
the treatis De Causia Elementorum, which is found in most 
of the manuscripts joined to the translation of Aristotle 
De FegetabilUmSy and clearly resembles it in style. 

5. De Motu Cordis. M. Jourdain thinks this may be 
the same as a short treatise, evidently translated from the 
Arabic, which is found under the same title in a MS. in 
the Royal Library at Paris, MS. Lat. No. 6443. 

6. Leland mentions a treatise by this writer (or some 
person of the same name) De Educatione Accipitrutn, Per- 
haps the Aluredus Anglicus mentioned by Boston of Bury 
as cardinal Ottoboni's chaplain, and as the author of the 
treatise on music and the commentary on Boethius, was a 
different person from the philosopher. 


Jordan Fantosme, if we may judge from his book, was 
an Anglo-Norman, and not, as it has been supposed, an 
Italian. He appears to have been spiritual chancellor of 
the diocese of Winchester, under bishop Henry de Blois. 
On the 10th of April, 1160, Richard de Anesly, engaged 
in a protracted law- suit, found Jordan with the bishop at 
Fareham near Portsmouth.* Jordan Fantosme was pre- 
sent in the north of England, when that district was in- 
vaded by the Scots under William the Lion in 1173 and 
1174; and he subsequently wrote an account of this war 

* Et inveni episcopum apud Ferham juzta Portesmue, et inde mecum re- 
duxi magistrum Jordanum Fantafima et Nicholaum de Chandos, qui testifi- 
carent Yiva voce quod episcopus ante testilicaverat per breve suum. Palgrave, 
liise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, vol. i. part S^ p. lxxviii« 

322 JORDAN FANTOSMS. IFhufiihed 

in Anglo-Norman verse. About this period we find him 
described as a master in the schools at Winchester^ and 
as enjoying an absolute jurisdiction over them^ which had 
been infringed by another ^ clerk ' of Winchester named 
John ; who had opened a school at Winchester without 
having obtained a licence from him. The cause between 
them was tried before the celebrated John of Salisbury^ 
who decided in favour of Jordan Fantosme, and enjoined 
his opponent to close his school on pain of excommunica- 
tion.* We have no information as to the date of Jordan's 

Jordan's historical poem is extant in two manuscripts, 
preserved in the cathedral libraries of Durham and Lin- 
coln« It commences with the dissension between Henry 
II. and his son in 11 73^ and ends with the defeat and 
capture of William the Lion king of Scotland in 1174. 
It is not long, extending only to 2,071 lines ; but, as a 
historical document, it is full of interest, and, as a literary 
composition, it is equal to the best production of the 
Anglo-Norman trouvdres of his age. It is composed in 
the same long lines, with a multitude of consecutive 
rhymes, which distinguish the older metrical romances, 
and of which we have had examples in Guischard de 
Beaulieu and Thorold. The naive manner in which Jor- 
dan Fantosme relates the events of the war, is especially 
pleasing ; as our readers may judge by the following de- 
scription of the arrival of the messengers who brought to 
king Henry the first intelligence of the final defeat of the 
Scots and capture of their king : 

Id reii etteit entr^ en aa chambre demeine, 

Quant le message Tint ; snfFert ot molt grant peine : 

* This information is given in a letter of John of Salisbury, Epist. zix. 
p. 94, which is printed in the preftice to M. Michel's edition of the poem, 
p. zzKvii* 

1174,] JOBDON »ANT68ME. 223 

II n*ot bea ne mangi6 treb jon de la semeine, 
Ne gnmeiUi^ del oil par lanoyele oerteiiie; 
M^s de jon e de nuiz d'errer Be peine : 
II ad fait mult que sage, il aorad bone estreinOi 

li reia iert acnt^ e on poi tunellla, 
Un yadlet k sea pies, ki snef lea grata ; 
N'i «at noiae ne ori» ne nnla n'i parla, 
Harpe ne Tiele nul d'ure n'i anna, 
Ouant li mla Tint al ub e snef apela. 
E dk U ohamberieni : <• Ki eatea-vni U?" 
" Meaaagier aui, aania ; or Tenes ploa en 9k. 
Dan Randulf de Glannle deaqne d m'enyeia 
P«r porler one le rei, kar grant meatier en a." 
fi dit H ohaBBberlena : '* Par matin aett TaCdra/' 
« Par ma fei I" d^at U m^a, ** ains i parlerai en eire. 
Mun seignar ad el oner e dolnr e contraire : 
ft me laiaaiex «ntreTi ehamberleng debonaire." 
E dit li chamberlena : '* Ne I'oaereie paa faire. 
li reia est endormiz : ariere tub estnt traire." 

A $0 qn'fl parolent s'est li reia eBTeilliez, 
B oid 4 o«l na oiiar, ** Oyrea! oTrtt 1" 
** Ki eat «o ?*' diBt U reia, << & dire me sachiex." 
** Sire," diat li chamberlens, ''ore endreit le sanrei. 
MeaBage eat de 9I1 nort, tr^ Men le eannlBaies, 
Hnmo Bandnlf de Olanvile $ Brian eat apelas." 
« Par ma fei V* diat li reia, ** ore Bni mult treapenaei : 
11 ad meatier d*aTe, 9aenz yenir le laisaiez.** 
Li aMMAgier entrad. Id mult Aid enaeigniet, 
£ aalua le rei, cam ji oTr purres : 
" Sire rei, Deu yu8 aalt qui maint en Trinitex, 

Vostre cora en ayant, e puia tus yos priyez t** 

« a • • 

A tant eat li meaaage k aun ostel al£, 

A mangier e k beiyre en ad ik grant plenty. 

B li reia eat ai ties la nnit e ai haiti^, 

Qn'il yint aa ckeyalien, ai*8 ad tns eayeilli^ : 

Baruns, eayeilliez-yua : bor yua fud anniti6. 

Tele cbose ai oTe dunt jo yua frai haiti^ : 

Pria eat li reia d'Eacocey 90 m*ad Tem dit pur yerti» 

Ore aiss me yint noyele, quant dui estre culchi£.*' 


Chronicle of the War between the Engliah and the Scota in 1173 and 1174, 
by Jordan Fantoame. Now fint publiahed, with a translation, an intro- 
d«ction, notes, and an appendix, by Franciaqae Michel. 8yo. Lou* 
don, 1840. (Published by the Surtees Society.) 

224 ODO OF KENT. [Flourished 


Odo of Kent was one of the intimate friends of 
Thomas Becket^ and of John of Salisbury^ and is men- 
tioned with expressions of great esteem by the latter 
writer.* He appears first in history in 11/2, as prior of 
Canterbury, when he distinguished himself by a protracted 
resistance to the attempts of the crown to usurp the right 
of electing the archbishop.f In 1175, he was made abbot 
of Battle,:!: and in the time of Leland a handsome marble 
tomb marked the place of his burial in the abbey church. 
He died on the 20th or 21st of January^ but the year 
appears to be doubtful; some placing his death in 1176, 
while better authorities appear to fix it in 1199 or 1200, 
at which date he must have been an old man.§ As a 
writer, however, Odo belongs to the reign of Henry II. 
A letter from him to a person named Adam, whom he had 
sent to France to study philosophy, but who had retired 
from the world to enter the monastery of Igny, has been 
printed by Mabillon,|| and does not convey a very favour- 
able opinion of his judgment. It would be difiicult to 
clear entirely the writings of Odo of Kent from the con- 
fusion in which they have been involved by ascribing to 
him books written by other persons of the name of Odo ; 

* See the EutheticuSf 11. 1675| et seqq. 

t Gervase Dorob. ap. Decern Script, col. 1432. Rad. de Diceto, ib. 
col. 568. 

X Had. de Dicet. col. 588. An account of the circumstances attending 
this promotion is given in the last edition of the Monasticon, vol. iii. p. 235. 

§ See Tanner, p. 559. The Monasticon , loc. cit. and Wharton, Angl. 
Sac. vol. I. p. 138. 

II Analecta, torn. I. p. 349. Epistola ad Adamum Igniacensem quendam 
fratrem novitiam, 

in 1175.] ODO OF KENT^ AND OTHERS. 225 

but they seem to have consisted chiefly of commentaries 
on the Holy Scriptures^ and of sermons. In a manu- 
script of the fourteenth century in the British Museum 
some monastic compiler has arranged in one series the 
homilies of John of Abbeville, Odo of Kent^ and Roger of 
Salisbury, on the Sunday Gospels throughout the year,* 
without indicating which belonged to each particular 
writer, and they resemble each other so much in style 
and manner that it does not seem possible to distinguish 
them. They all present one characteristic which is much 
less common in the writers of sermons at an early date, 
the frequent illustration of the subject by short stories or 
fables, some of which are totally irrelevant. The follow- 
ing example is taken at random :t 

Qnidam reZ| ut dicitur, gloriam mundi diligens, fecit paTimentum aula 
suee, sedilla, ac parietes cortinis pretiosis cooperiri, mensam vero mappa 
aureisque vaaia et argenteis fecit ornari. Sapiens autem quidam, cum inter 
cooYivas esset inyitatus, et ad mensam regis sederit, circumspexit nndique 
ubi competentius posset spuere. Et cum videret omnia loca omamentis 
cooperta, conspuit in barbam regis. In quern statim servi regis circum- 
stantes manns injecerunt. Rex autem non sine ratione sapientem hoc fecisse 
autumans, sevitiam serrientium repressit; et sedatis omnibus quBsitnm 
est a philosopbo cur hoc Yel sic fecissit. Quibus ille respondit ; Cortinas, 
inquit, et vasa pretiosa intuens, non yidi locum meliorem quam barbam regis 
pinguedine ciborum perunctam^ et ideo in illam conspueram. Sic et tn, si 
stndiose corpus tuum adornaveris in prasenti, cum hiis omnibus in morte 
spoliatus fueris, dsmones fsetido sputo et calido in faciem tuam conspuent 
in inferno. Ne ergo glorieris, homo, in pulcritudine aliqtta, cum lilia agri 
pulcriora te sint, nee in fortitudine tua, cum asinus fortior te sit; nam 
majus onus fert asinus ad molendinum quam homo fortissimus. 

Leland mentions Odo's Epistles, his book de Moribus 


* MS. Arundel, No. 331, in 2 vols. Homeliae magistri Jobannis de 
Abbatisvilla, magistri etiam Odonis de Cantia, et magistri Rogeri de Saris- 
biria. At the end, Expliciunt morales expositiones magistri Jobannis de 
Abbatisvilla, magistri etiam Odonis de Cantia, et magistri Rogeri de Saris- 
biria, in unum compactee super Evangelia dominicalia per totum annum. 
Manuscripts of the sermons of Odo of Kent, separate from the others, 
appear to be preserved at Oxford. 

t MS. Arund. No, 331, vol. 11. fol. 50, r». 

22^ Qoo QW KVNTi ANO OTQEBit [FJourUhed 

Eeokria9tici9i and his treatise in three books 4^ V%tii9 ^ 
Virtuiibua AnimtBy the latter of which he believes was dedi- 
cated to Thomas Becket. Some letters printed in the 
Spicilegium of D'Acherius under the name of Odo are 
supposed to belong to Odo of Kent. 

Contemporary with Odo of Kent lived Odo de C|- 
BiNOTON, a writer whose history is involved in obscurity, 
but who is known as the author of a curious collection of 
Esopean fables, with moralizations, which were much used 
by the Romish preachers in subsequent ages. The ear- 
liest manuscript of this book appears to be one preserved 
in the Arundel library in the British Museum i * later 
copies are generally much enlarged. The name is variously 
spelt, Ciringtonia, Syrentona, Ceritona, &c. Some mo- 
dern writers have called him Odo de Shirton. The fol- 
lowing fable will give a notion of the character of the 
book, which is written in a very unpolished style : 

J>e icrabone et usare nut, 

Scrabo volans per patriam transiTit per palcherrimas arbores florentes, et 
per pomeria etrosas et lilia, in locis amoeDissimis, tandem projecit se in ster- 
qailinium ubi erant stercora eqaoram, et invenlt ibi nxorem suam, qnse qun- 
sivit node veniret. Et ait scrabo» Circuivi terrain et transYolayi earn : ridi 
floreg amigdalarum et liliorum et rosarum, sed nunquam vidi ita locum 
amoenum sicat iste, demonstrato sterquilinio. ^ Sic pleriqne clerici, mona- 
cbi, laici, audiunt yitas patrum, transeunt per lilias conTallium, per rosas 
martyram, per Tiolas confessorum, sed nunquam videtur eia ita placidum et 
ita amoenum sicut meretrix, sicut taberna, sicut ezercitium cantuumi quod 
eet sterquilinium foetid um et congregatio peccatorum. Ideo dicitur in Eccle» 
aiaatico ix. Omnia mulier quae est fornicaria, sicut stercus in via conculca- 
bitur. Maledictus et in naturali talis scrabo, talis impius, cui plus sapit 
stereos peccati quam Christus, loca diaboii quam ecclesia Dei, stercora 
arundlnum quee exciecant oculos eorum quam Titas et exempla sanctorum. 

This book has sometimes been attributed to Odo of 
Kent ; and, if the sermons mentioned above be really the 
work of that writer, the similarity of style between (he 

* MS. Arundel, No. 292, fol. 18. Nanationei msgifltri d€ Ciringtoiua. 


febles introdaoed in them and those of Odo de Curing- 
ton would lead us to suspect that they were the same 

KoGBB ov Salisbury^ whose sermons are mixed in 
the Arundel manuscript with those of Odo of Kant^ is said 
to have flourished in 1160, but we know nothing of his 
personal history, Iieland^ in his CoUectaneait mentions 
his Commentary on the Psalter ; and a work ascribed to 
him, or some other person of the /same name, with the 
title Verborum sifftdftcationes super librum sententiarum, 
was formerly in the library of the church of Peter- 


Daniel de Merlai is supposed by the old biblio- 
graphers to have been bom at Morley, in Norfolk $ and he 
seems by his own account of himself to have been a native 
of the diocese of Norwich, In the preface to his treatise 
De naturis iitferiarum et superiorum, Daniel informs us that 
he quitted his native country to pursue his studies at Paris, 
but that, soon disgusted with the unprofitable studies of the 
schools in that city, he went thence to Toledo, then the 
chief seat of learning among the Spanish Arabs. After re- 
maining some time at Toledo, he yielded to the pressing so- 

* A forther acooaat of the fftblet of Odo dp Ciriiigton wiU be found in 
Doace'8 lUiutratioBs of Shakespeare; Douoe calls him *^ Tutor in theology 
to the celebrated John of Salisbury," thns taking for granted that he was Odo 
of Kent. Several of the fables of Odo de Cirington haTO been printed in 
** A Selection of Latin Stories from Manuscripts of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries,*' edited by the writer of the present volumei pp. 50— 
53, 55, 57, 58, 80. 

t VoL III. p. 9. 


228 DANIEL DE MSRLAi. [Flourished 

licitations of bis friends at home^ and returned to England 
with a ^' costly multitude of books/* Finding, however, 
that science was neglected in his native land, he was pre- 
paring again to travel in search of it, when be met with 
John bishop of Norwich, who appears to have persuaded 
him to settle in England, and to whom he dedicated his 
book. The following extract from Daniel's preface con- 
tains all that we know of his personal history : 

Cam dadam ab Anglia me caasa stadii excepissemi et Parisias aliqnandiu 
moram fedssem, videbam quosdam bestialea in scholia gravi auctoritate 
•edes occnpare, habentes coram ae scamna duo vel tiia et descriptos codices 
importabiles aureis Itteris Ulpiani traditiones repnesentantesi necnoa et 
tenentes stilos plambeos in manibusi cum quibus asteriscos et obelos in 
libris snis quadam reverentia depingebant; qui dam propter inscientiam 
•nam locum statuae tenerent, tamen volebant sola tacitumitate Tideri sa- 
pientes, sed tales cum aliquid dicere conabantur infantissimos repperiebam. 
Cum hoc, inquam, in hunc modum se habere deprehenderem, ne et ego 
simile damnum incurrerem, artes quae scripturas illuminant non in transitu 
salutandas Tel sub oompendio pnetereundas mecum sollicita deliberatione 
tractabam ; sed quoniam doctrina Arabum, quae in quadruyio fere tota ex- 
istit, maxime his diebus apud Toletum celebratar, iliac at sapientiores 
mundi philosophos audirem festinanter properavi. Vocatus Tcro tandem ab 
amicis et invitatus ut ab Hyspania redirem, cum pretiosa multitudine libro- 
rum in Angliam veni ; cumque nuntiatum esset mihi quod in partibus illis 
disciplinse liberales silentium haberent, et pro Ticio et Seio penitus Aristo- 
tiles et Plato oblivioni darentur, Tchementer iodolaii et tamen ne ego solus 
inter Romanes Grecus remanerem, ubi hujusmodi studium florere didiceram 
iter arripui, sed in ipso itinere obtiam habui dominum meum ac patrem 
spiritualem Johannem Noruuicensem episcopum, qui me honorifice, ut 
eum decebat, recipiens, valde meo congratulabatur adventui. Cum itaque, 
ut fit in primo amicorum conventUi a domino episcopo de mirabilibua et 
diaciplinis Tholetanis satis qunsitum esset, ad ultimum de motibus supers 
coelestium corporum scrutabundus inqairens, ad astronomiam sermonem 

It appears that this conversation gave rise to the work 
by which chiefly Daniel de Merlai is known. In the first 
of the t^o books into which it is divided, he treats of the 
creation and nature of matter and of the world. On these 
subjects he quotes frequently the Arabian and Grecian 
philosophers, the latter probably through th^ Arabians. 








1175.] DANIEL DE MERLAI. 229 

The following passage^ in which he pursues his argument 
on the priority of matter to creation, will convey a notion 
of his manner of writing : 

Estque materise vetltum, ne seipsam componat, ant sibi formam imponat. 
QivM cam ita se habeant, neceue eat habere genitorem omne genifcumy om- 
neqae compositum composltorem, discementem inter genera et species 
omuium rerum. Compositor yero talis non nisi genitor nniyersitatis Deua 
esse potest, qui sua sapientia semel et simnl unde singula provenirent dnas 
quantum ad distinctionem primordiales, inferiorum videlicet et superiorum 
materias, ex nihilo creavit, easque ut datam legem rate conditionis inyiola* 
tam servarent, in ipsa creatione »temo cujusdam divini spiraculi flatu ani- 
mavit. Hanc enim legem natnram appello, que unicuique rei corporess 
secundum subject! proprietatem, motum, vel quietem disponit. Ista Tcro 
quia sine ratione nihil facit, ab anima consilium capit, ita tamen quod 
neutra sine altera aliquid operetur. Heec sunt duo instrumenta magni arti- 
ficis, que sicut a magtstro didicerunt in his inferioribus omne compositum 
quadam harmonia componunt, et iterum quadam dissonantia dissolynnt, et 
tamen hoc totum artifici ascribituri quia ab artifice hoc originis ducatum 
sumpserunt. Licet enim aliquis faber suis instrumentis operetur, non tamen 
instrumentornm sed artificis opus dicitur. Sic quamvis Deus hiis duobus 
instrumentis ex jam prsejacente materia formam mundo prseataverit, non 
tamen mundus opus naturae sed opus Dei recte nominatur. Verbi gratia, 
licet natura, cujus est officium humanam homini imprimere liguram, in 
utero matemo umbram informet, concayet, et disponat, tamen homo propter 
partem digniorem opus Dei et est et yocatur. Sic et belua, et ayis, et 

In the second book he proceeds to treat of the nature 
and movements of the celestial bodies, and of the influ- 
ence of the planets ; and he gives the following illustra- 
tion of the power exercised by the moon upon the earth. 

Extra muros etenim civitatis Tholeli juxta Tagum in eminentiori quodam 
loco exuberant duo fontes antiqua paganorum soUertJa excogitati, ad quos 
dum per subterraneas yias aqua artificial! dnctu discurrit, tandem per duo 
stricta foramina erumpens a geminis umis lapideis est recepta, quas gens 
Tholetana yulgari yocabulo conchas yocat. Cum yero luna plene su! drcui- 
tus orbe apparet, pnedictse conch» usque ad summum impletae inyeniuntur, 
ita quod nee etiam gutta aqu» exeat, nee majorem copiam alterius aquae sine 
effusione sufficiant retinere. Si quia xero quoad mundus stabit aquas inde 
hauriret, semper in plenilunio conchas abundant! aqua impletas inyeniret. 
Cum autem luna in parte lumine curtatur, ita quod se semiplenam ostendat» 
aqua in se retrahitur, et ultra medietatem concharum non excrescit. Nee 
enim siquis tunc totum fluyium Tag! successiye pnedictis urceolis infunderet, 
ecLS impleret, yd saltern in eis aquam augmentaret. Aqua quidem in gustu 

230 JOHN OF BALI8BUBT. [Died 1180. 

■alia repperitur, lioet mare ad miniu per eez dietaa diitat a Tholeta Ex 
altera yero parte ciyitatifl Bunt et alii gemini fontea dulcia aqme conaimili 
artificio elaboratii qoi similiter secundnm augmentnm et decrementom lane 
angmentantar et decreacunt» et hii quidem fontea manant sub pede cajnadam 
preciosee mpia, aapra qvam mira arte fabricatum est atnpendam Gbliene 

Notwithstanding Daniel de Merlai's boast of the supe- 
riority of his Arabian philosophy» towards the conclusion 
of his book he runs into the- most puerile superstitions of 
the astrologers relating to the influence of the planetary 
positions on men's births, and other events. 

We have no other indication of the age at which this 
writer flourished than the fact of his acquaintance with 
John of Oxford, who was bishop of Norwich from 1175 
to 1200; and if we assume (which is not itaprobable) 
that Daniel returned to England soon after John was made 
bishop, the former date may be taken as that at which 
he flourished. A good copy of the treatise, which has 
furnished the foregoing extracts, is preserved in the British 
Museum (MS. Arundel, No. 3775 fol. 88, r®). There arc 
no traces of any other work of the same writer, though 
Bale attributes to him a treatise in one book, De principiis 


John oi? Salisbury is perhaps the most celebrated 
writer of the reign of Henry 11. He was probably bom 
in the city from which he took his name, about the year 
1120.* In an interesting account of his own studies, 

^ The year of hia birth haa been aUted to be 1110, for which there la no 
authoritjTi and which ia inconaiatent with hia own atatement that he waa 
odmodum adolHcem ia 1136. It baa alfo b«en aaierted that bii fcmilf 

Died 1160.'] john of Salisbury. 231 

which he gires in the second book of the Metahgicusy he 
tells ns that when a mere youth he went to Paris, the year 
after the death of Henry I, (i. e. 1186), and that he there 
attended the lectures of Abelard on the mountain of St# 
Genevi^e. After the departure of that philosopher, John 
attended the schools of Alberic and of Robert de Meluti, 
who, like Abelard^ taught chiefly dialectics. He neit 
studied grammar, t. e. the writers of antiquity, three years 
in the school of William de Conches, during which period 
he informs us that he read much and profitably. Sub- 
sequently, in the school of Bernard FEveque, he resumed 
his former course of studies, and entered upon the q^ia^ 
driviumy or circle of mathematical and physical sciences, 
in which he had been initiated under the German Hardei- 
yinus, but for which he seems to have had little taste. 
About this time, or soon after, he also recommenced under 
Peter Helias the study of rhetoric, which he had before 
read rather superficially under a teacher named Theodoric. 
His poverty at this period compelled John of Salisbury 
to seek support by instructing young noblemen,* which 
did not hinder him from continuing his studies with dili- 
gence, and he contracted an intimate friendship with his 
countryman Adam du Petit Pont, who had especially 
attached himself to the doctrines of Aristotle. William 
de Soissons had then recently opened a school, and pro- 
mulgated new philosophical opinions, which John of 
Salisbury eagerly followed for a while, but he finally re- 

name was Petitt on the supposition that the word parvum in the following 
passage from his 192nd letter is intended for a pun, of which the evidence is 
certainly ftir from conclnsire — Sed quantum est hoc quod me totum, id est 
hominem parrnm nomine, facnltate minorem, minimum merito Tobis deber! 
proilteor ? Nam totnm istud pro merito pamm est. 

* Et quia nobilium liberos, qui mihi amicorum et cognatorum auxiliis 
destitttto, paupertati mese, solatiante Deo» alimenta prsestabant, instruendoi 

232 JOHN OF SALISBURY. [Died 1180, 

jected them as unsatisfactory, and left this new master in 
order to open a srchool for himself. He still attended the 
lectures of Gilbert, supposed to be Gilbert de la Porree 
fPorretanusJy who, quitting Paris in 1142, appears to have 
been succeeded first by Robert le Poule,* and next by 
Simon de Poissy ; these, as John of Salisbury informs us, 
were his instructors in theology only.t In his 267th 
Epistle he seems to intimate that he had also studied 
theology under Odo of Kent. 

In this manner, John of Salisbury tells us, he spent 
about twelve years. His account is somewhat confused, 
but it appears hardly to bear the explanation recently 
hazarded by professor Petersen, in his edition of the 
Entheticus,]: that a portion of this period was spent in 
England, and that he studied at Oxford. His teaching 
seems to have been attended with no great success; and, 
unable longer to struggle with the indigence in which it 
left him, he sought a shelter in the abbey of Mo&tier-la- 
Celle, in the diocese of Troyes, where he was received in 
the quality of clerc or chaplain of the abbot, Peter de 
Celles, who became during the remainder of his life his 
constant friend and patron.§ His letters contain many 
allusions to his obligations to Peter de Celles, and strong 
expressions of his gratitude. About the year 1151, after 
he had remained three years in the abbey, he returned to 
England, with letters from Peter de Celles and St. Bernard 
recommending him to Theobald archbishop of Canterbury, 
who appointed him his secretary, John soon gained the 
confidence of his new master, and through him became 

* The history of thia person is involved in considerable confusion, but I 
think he must have been teaching in Paris at the time John of Salisbury 
attended his lectures. See the account of him at p. 1 83 of the present volume. 

t Jo. Sarisb. Metalog. lib. ii. c. 10. 

t Pp. 73—77. 

f Jo. Sarisb, Epist. 85. Hist. Lit. de Fr. torn. xiv. p. 93. 

Died 1180.] john of Salisbury. 233 

acquainted with Thomas Beckct^ at that time chancellor 
of England^ who presented him to the king and employed 
him in various important missions. He informs us in 
the MetalogicuSy written about the year 1160, that he had 
passed the Alps ten times, been twice in Apulia, treated 
various afiairs at Rome for his masters and friends, and 
frequently travelled into various parts of England and 
France.* In the course of these negociations he obtained 
the friendship of pope Adrian IV. (who was an English- 
man), and he brought from Rome the bull by which that 
pontiff authorized the English monarch to conquer Ire- 
land and reduce it to conformity with the Romish church. 
He appears however to have lost the king's favour, for a 
period, in 1160, and to have been obliged to retire to the 

When Thomas Becket was made archbishop of Canter- 
bury John of Salisbury was continued in the office of 
secretary, which he had held under his predecessor Theo- 
bald, who had named him to be one of the executors of his 
will.f He soon became distinguished as one of the 
stanchest partizans of the new archbishop in his oppo- 
sition to the crown, and thus became an especial object of 
the king's aversion. Peter de Blois % calls him the eye 
and arm of the archbishop. He had preceded Becket in 
his flight into France, where, deprived of all he had in 
England, he again suffered under the pressure of poverty, 
and it is evident that he was urging his friends in England 
to exert themselves to make his peace with the court in 
order that he might be enabled to return. The terms 
offered were that he should promise no longer to give the 
archbishop his outward support, and that he should swear 

* Johan. Sarisb. Metalog. lib. iii. prolog, 
f Wharton, Anglia Sacra, toI. it. p. zi. 
X Epist. zxi. 

234 JOHN OF sALiflBURT. [Died llBO. 

that he had done nothing contrary to the king's dignity 
during his exile. The pope forbade him to take the oath^ 
under the pretence that he would not allow the acts which 
he had done in obedience to the church to be brought 
into question ; and he refased himself openly to desert 
his patron.* He says that although he had always been 
faithful to the archbishop he often disapproved of his in- 
discreet zeal— ^^ It is known to the Inspector of hearts 
and the Judge of words and works^ that I blamed the 
archbishop more frequently and with more asperity than 
any other mortal^ for the things in which from the first 
he appeared to hare provoked indiscreetly by his zeal 
the king and court to bitterness^ when out of regard to 
the place and time and persons many things might hare 
been allowed/' f He concludes by promising that if he 
might be allowed to return in peace without the two con- 
ditions just mentioned^ he would *^ be in future a cour- 
tier '* fero de catero curialUJ. In one or two other in- 
stances^ when apparently influenced by the desire of re- 
turning from his exile^ he speaks thus disapprovingly of 
Becket's violence ; yet at other times he himself exhibits 
equal bitterness and animosity^ and not only speaks con- 
tinually of the king and his courtiers in the most abusive 
terms^ but lavishes on the English clergy, many of whom 
had sided with the king, the most tevolting epithets^* 
aacrUegi, adult eriy prtBdoneSy Jkifre$. 

* Si enim ezigeretar a me at abnegarem arcliiepiscopam meumi quod 
niillas laonim fecit adhae, nee aliqdit de tdta Anglia, abiit ut aoquiescam 
tante tarpitadini primus aut Qltimus. Bpist. 150, addrelaed to tlie bUhop 
of Exeter. 

t Novit enim cordium Inspectdr et rerborum Judex et oj^rum, quod 
BKpius et asperiuB quam aliquia mortalium corripuerim dominum arcbiepiB- 
oopum de bis in quibus ab initio dominum regem et suoi zelo quodam ia- 
consultiufl yisus eit ad amaritudinem provocastfey cum pro loco et tempore 
et peraonia multa fuerint dispensanda. lb. 

Died 1190.'] john of Salisbury. 235 

During his exile, John of Satisbury was actively em- 
ployed in the cause of his patron, and made more than one 
journey to Rome. Filled with joy at the reconciliation 
of the archbishop and the king iii 1170, he was one of the 
first to hasten baek to his natire country ;* but he con- 
tinued to support Beoket in all his proceedings, and in 
the closing catastrophe he is said to have been destined 
to the same fate^ had he not escaped by a mistake of 
the assassins, who took another person for him, after 
Becket's death* John of Salisbury continued attached to 
the new archbishop, Richard, whose cause he espoused 
with seal when the court was opposed to his election. 

In 1176, John of Salisbury was made bishop of Char- 
tres, a dignity which he owed chiefly to his signal zeal in 
the cause of Thomas Becket, in testimony of which he 
sometimes wrote at the head of his charters, Johanne$ 
dMna dignatiane ei tnerUiB 8. Thomes Carnotensis ecclesuB 
mnister kumilii.f He was consecrated in the month of 
August, by Maurice archbishop of P^s. He lived to 
enjoy this dignity only four years, dying at Chartres on 
the 25th of October 1180.^ He was succeeded by his 
old firiend Peter de Celles. It appears that while bishop 
of Chartres John was accused of having been rendered 
proud and arrogant by his advancement. 

As a writer, John of Salisbury is estimable for his great 
erudition, and for the general correctness of his style. We 
learn from his own writings that his favourite pursuits 
were grammar and rhetoric, ». e. the study of the ancient 
writers, and he quotes several who are no longer extant. 
His style is however sometimes confused. He seems to 
have had little taste for scientific studies ; and he appears 

* See Epist. S79 and 280. 
f Hist. lit. de Fr. torn. ziv. p. 96. 

X Snffideat reatons ftnr adopting thii date instead of 118 1 are giren in 
th« Hift« lit. de Fr. ton. lir. p« 97. 

236 JOHN OP SALISBURY. [Died 1180. 

less as a philosopher himself than as a critic of the 
systems of the various sects of antiquity^ as well as of those 
of the age in which he lived. He avows a strong leaning 
towards the doctrines of the Peripatetics. 

John of Salisbury appears to have been chiefly occupied 
in literary labours during the period when he was secre- 
tary to archbishop Theobald, and they seem all to 
have had the same object, to expose the corruptions of 
the age, and show the humanizing influence of philosophy 
and scholastic studies. The PolycraticuSy one of the most 
celebrated productions of the middle ages, which appears 
to have been written partly in England and partly during 
a mission into Italy, is said to have been completed in 
1156,^ although it must have been re-touched in some 
parts during the subsequent years. The full title of this 
work is Polycraticiis de nugia curialium et vestigiis philo- 
sophorum ; by vestigia phUosophorum he means that por- 
tion of the doctrines of the philosophers which was 
worthy to be followed and adopted, and the nugm were 
the vain occupations and pursuits by which the larger 
portion of mankind was then influenced. In a poetical 
introduction bearing the title of EutheticuSy addressed to 
Thomas Becket, then chancellor of England, the author 
says that these nugcB or vain pursuits occupied and per^ 
vaded almost every class of his contemporaries. 

Omnia, si nescis, loca sunt plenissima nugis, 

Quanim tota eohors est inimica tibi. 
Ecclesia nugse regnant, et principis aula ; 

In claustro regnant, pontificisque domo. 
In nngis clerus, in nugis militis nsus, 

In nugis juvenes, totaqae turba senum ; 
Rusticus in nugis, in nugis sezus uterque, 

Servus et iogenuus, dives, egenus in his. 

* MCLVI. Johannes Salisbiriensis scripsit Polyoraticum suam. Chron. 
Jo. Abbatis S. Petri de Burgo, ap. Sparke, p. 78. 

Died IISO.} john of Salisbury. 237 

In the first chapter of this work its author points out 
the dangers attendant upon honours and riches^ and the 
moral intoxication to which they lead. The poisoning 
seductions which accompany prosperity are the greatest 
enemies to truth and virtue. He states briefly the duties 
which are imposed on us by nature, reason, justice, &c., 
and then proceeds to treat at length on the pleasures and 
vanities which were allowed to take their place. At the 
head of the list stand the pleasures of the chase, which in 
the time of John of Salisbury was a great source of ex- 
travagance and luxury to the great, and no less an instru- 
ment of oppression and injustice towards the lower classes 
of society. He next treats of the use and abuse of dice ; of 
music and musical instruments, and of different classes of 
actors and minstrels, or jogelours. Of these he observes, 
after speaking of the minstrelsy of Nero, — 

Eniii vero adhnc aliqui pro parte imitantur, etsi foeditate ilHus nemo dig- 
netnr inTolvi ; cum gratiam soam bistrionibos et mimis multi prosUtuant, 
et in exbibenda malitia coram ceeca quadam et contemptibili munlficentia 
non tarn mirabiles quam miserabiles faciunt Bumptua. lUa tamen tetas (at 
sic interim dicam) bonestiores babait bistriones: si tamen aliquo modo 
bonestum est, quod omni bomine libero comprobator indignom. Nee tamen 
bistrionem assero turpiter in arte sua versari, etsi indabitanter turpe sit esse 
bistrionem. Et qnidem bistriones erant, qui gestu corporis arteque ver- 
borum et modulatione vocis factas aut fictas bistorias sub aspectu publico 
referebant, quos apud Plautum inTeois et Meoandrum, et quibus ars nostri 
Tcrentii innotescit. Porro comicis et traglcis abeuntibus, cum omnia levitaa 
occupaverit, clientes eorum, comoedi videlicet et tragoedi, exterminati sunt. 
Sed eos in serviU conditione dnntazat plerumqne reperies. Quis vero eoram 
usus extiteriti poetica docens aperit : 

Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare, poetae, 

Aut jucunda simul et idonea dicere vitse. 

At nostra setas, prolapsa ad fabulas et qusevis inania, non modo aures et 
cor prostituit vanitati» sed oculorum et aurium voluptate suam mulcet de- 
sidiami luxuriam accendit, conquireus undique fomenta vitiorum. Nonne 
piger desidiam instruit et somnos provocat instrumentorum suavitate ; aut 
vocum modulis, bilaritate canentium ; aut fabulantium gratia ; sive, quod 
turpius est, ebrietate vel crapula ? Artem utique elegantiorem docuit Flaccusi 

ter uncti 

Transnanto Tyberim, somnQ quibus est opus alto. 

998 lOHM or IALI8BVRT. [ZNedf 1180. 

Ait qnoque «onobnator» Dolow eit souuras operanti, sit^ panim sWe 
multum comedat. Exercitatio siquidem paiit et alit qnietis gratianiy qms 
otii continoatione et quodam inerti» siue marcore perimitiir. Utique in 
det ideriia eat ommi otioaiii, c«m et otioaitas inimica sit anisuB et de domi* 
pilio ejus omnia atndia Tirtatis eliminet. Cl^mat ethicosi 

Cernis nt igvavum comunpant otia corpoa, 
Et capiant Titium m moyeantur aquR. 

Qaod ? inquifl. Audi. Disces si eidem credideria. 

Qttttritnr ^gisthus qnare sit factus adulter ; 
Cansa est in promptn, desidiosos erat. 

literatissimi ergo yiri eonailiuni est, at hostis te semper inveniat ocen- 
patnm, quo Tariis tantationibiia ejos ooeapationom tnarom clypeoa tarn lUi- 
oiter qnam pmdenter opponas. Vitanda est, inqnit etMcns, improba siren 
desidu». At earn noatris prorogant histriones. Ezoccnpatis etenim menti- 
bus snrrepunt taediSi seseque non snstinerent, si non alicijas roloptatia 
solatio mnlcerentv. Admiasg aunt ergo tpecticvla et infinita tjrodnia 
vanitatii, qnibus qni omnino otiari non possnnt perniciosiaa occupantnr. 
Satins enim fnerat otiari, qnam torpiter occnpari. Hinc mimi, salii, Tel 
saUares, balatrones, «miliani, gladiatores, palaatiitK, gignadii, piaatigia- 
tores, malefici qnoqne mnlti, et tota jocnlatomm aoena proeedit. 

The foregoing extract affords a fidr speoimen of John 
of Salisbury's general style. He proceeds in the sequel 
to declaim on the vanity of magic^ soothsaying, sorcery^ 
and the observance of signs, omens, and dreams. The 
subject of omens and dreams is continued through the 
second book* It is there shown that all prognostications 
and signs of future events are not to be despised, and 
many examples are cited, more especially that of the de- 
struction of Jerusalem by Titus, the history of which 
event, taken chiefly from Josephus, occupies several chap- 
ters. From the consideration of prognostications the 
author proceeds to the interpretation of dreams, and the 
science of astrology, and to some theological questions 
arising out of this part of his subject. The third book of 
the Polycraticus is much more brief, and, commencing 
with the consideration of man's nature and position in 
society and of the wickedness of pride and avarice, is 
chiefly devoted to the subject of flatterers and parasites. 

ZHftf 1180.] JOBV OV SAtlSBUBT. 239 

It ends with ft chapter on tyrants^ a subject which is con- 
tinued in the fourth book*. John of Salisbury openly 
preaches the doctrine that a tyrant is the enemy of so- 
cietyi and that it is the duty of individuals to slay him, 
but he reserves to the ecclesiastical body alone the right 
of judging vho might be worthy of the name, and of 
giving the order for his destruction. This dangerous doo» 
trine, which the church of Rome has ever been too eager 
to promulgate and to act upon, is nowhere stated with 
more boldness than in the present work, and is the more 
remarkable because it comes so directly from the pen of 
the lealous partisan of Thomas Becket. A king, he says, 
is but a servant of the priesthood, and inferior to the 

Hnao «rgo gUdium de mana aodesitt aodpit piincepiy com ipit tamen 
gladiiun sengvinia omnino aoo habeat. Habet tamen el iatiim: aed eo 
Qtitiir per principis manunii cui coercendorum corporam contulit poteatateniy 
Bpiritnaliam sibi in pontificibna autoritate reserrata. Est ergo princeps 
lacerdotii qnidem minUtar, et qui saeromm ofleionun illam partem ezercet 
qntt aaoerdotii manibns Tidetnr indigna. Saeramm namqne legum omne 
officinm religioanm et pium est ; illud tamen inferios, quod in poenis crimi- 
nnm eiercetur, et qnandam carnificix repraesentare Tidetnr imaginem. Unde 
at ConatantinuB Romanomm fideliaatmna imperator, cnm aaoerdotom con- 
cilinm Niceam conyocasset, nee primum locam tenere ausua est» nee ae 
presbyteromm immiscere consessibus» sed sedem novissimam occupaTit. 
Sententiaa Tero qnas ab eia approbates audivit, ita yeneratna est ac al eaa de 
diyin* m^eatatia aenaiaaet emanaaae jndidQ. 8ed et Ubelloa inacriptionnm, 
quoa adinyicem conceptoa sacerdotnm crimina continentes imperatori por- 
rexeranty suacepit qnidem cbiusosqne reposnit in sinn sno. Cnm antem 
eosdem ad oharitatem et eoncordiam rerooaaaet, dixit aibi, tanqnam homini 
et qni jndidp anbjaceret aacerdotnm, iUicitnm eaae Deorum examinare canaaa, 
qni non poaannt niai a aolo Deo jndicari ; libelloaqne qnoa receperat non 
inspeetos dedit incendio, fratmm yeritna crimina yel conyitia pnblicare, et 
Cham reprobi filii maledictionem incvrrere qni patria yerenda non tezit. 
Unde et in acriptia Nicolai Bomani pontificia idem dixiaae narratnr, Vera 
si propriia oculis vidissem sacerdotem Dei, ant aliqnem eomm qni monachico 
faabitn circnmamicti annt, peccantemi chlamydem meam expUcarem et 
cooperirem earn ne ab aliquo videretnr. 

In other respects our author gives good counsel to 
princes on their duties towards their subjects and the 

240 JOHN OF SALISBURY. [Died 1180. 

state. In the fifth book he continues to treat of the 
regal dignity, and on its moral obligations. The sixth 
1)ook treats chiefly on the armed portion of the commu- 
nity, or the knights, of its duties and privileges, and 
of the corruptions which pervaded that and aU other 
classes of society in his time, with interesting allusions to 
contemporary history. In the twenty-fourth chapter of this 
book, John of Salisbury relates a conversation which he 
had with pope Adrian lY. on the causes of the corruptions 
of the church, when on a friendly visit to that pontiff at 
Beneventum. The seventh and eighth books of the Poly" 
ci^aticus are both long. The author now proceeds to dis- 
cuss the tenets of the ancient philosophers on the subject 
of virtue, and confesses his preference for those of the 
Academics. He then describes the vices most prevalent 
at courts and most dangerous to the state, deplores men's 
errors, and shows virtue to be the true road to happiness. 
He contrasts true glory with false glory, avarice with 
liberality, the love of power with the love of liberty, glut- 
tony with temperance, incontinence with chastity ; and, 
finally, he returns to the subject of tyranny, and to the 
duty of slaying tyrants. 

A metrical treatise by John of Salisbury, entitled. En- 
iheiictts de dogmatephilosophorumy of which a good edition 
has been recently published by professor Petersen of Ham- 
burgh, gives us a favourable opinion of the author's skill 
in versification, and resembles closely in its object the 
Polycraticusy except that it commences by comparing the 
doctrines of the philosophers, and ends with lamenting 
the vices of the court and of the age. Professor Petersen 
adduces reasons for believing that this poem was written 
in 1160; and, like the former work, it was dedicated to 
the chancellor, Thomas Becket. It is valuable because, 
while in the Polycraticus John of Salisbury attacks the 

Died IISC] john of Salisbury. 241 

vices and errors of his age in general^ he here holds up to 
obloquy those of individuals ; but the satire is rendered 
obscure by the circumstance of his having concealed the 
real objects of his aspersion under fictitious names. In 
the following lines he describes the doctrines of Epicurus : 

SobrioB ezaudit leges Epiennu» et idem 

Ebrios est reneri snbditos atqae golee. 
Hie faber incadem, qaam circiimYallat inani» 

Figit in incerto, cetera casus agit. 
Conflat in immensum corpuscula casus acenrum, 

Ut fiat mundi maximus iste globus ; 
Fixaque sint elementa locis sub lege perenni, 

Utque vices peragant tempora certa suas. 
Hsec quoque secta docet, animam cum came perire, 

Et fhistra leges juatitiamque coli. 
Flatibns assimulat subtilia corpora mentes, 

Mentiturque piis prsemia nulla darL 
Quid deceat, nescit ; Venus, alea, somnusi odores, 

Crassa culina, jocus, otia, vina jurant. 
Istis addantur plausus, faUacia, nugae, 

Et quicquid mimus, histrio, scurra probant. 

The following extract will serve to show the manner in 
which the courtiers of Henry II. are treated in this poem. 
It is uncertain who was intended by the appellation of 

Exigit a cunctia munuscula Sporus, at ilia 

Si dederis, perdes ; nil dabis, hostis eris. 
Si sit amicus, obest ; si non sit, qunrit obesse ; 

Quidquid agas, oberit, aut volet ease nocens. 
Rem fortasse tuam poteris servare, sed ejus 

A vitiis animum non reyocare potes. 
Munus amicitise speciem producit, at ipsam 

Rem gignit virtus vera, probatque fides. 
Augetur tamen obsequiis, sumitque vigorem, 

Nam probitas meritis prsmia digna refert. 

At the time when this poem was composed^ its author 
seems to have been in disfavour with the king^ which will 
perhaps account for the bitterness of his satire. About the 
same time he is supposed to have written the Metahgkw, 


Hi JOHN 09 SALIBBVltT. [Died II8O1 

which is hardly inferior in importance to the Pob/cratieui* 
The object of this work was to vindicate the philosophical 
studies of the schools against the sneers and outcries of 
ignorant people^ and more especially against a self*-suffi- 
cient sect whom he calls Comificians. It ends with a long 
lamentation on the miseries of the age. This work, which 
consists of six books, contains valuable materials for the 
history of scholastic philosophy during the twelfth century, 
and furnishes portraits of the leaders of the different sects, 
by one who had lived and studied in their society. 

Next in importance to the works just described are the 
letters of John of Salisbury, of which a considerable 
number are preserved. Upwards of three hundred were 
printed at Paris by Jean Masson in 1611; and others 
have been since printed among the letters of Thomas 
Becket, and in other publications. These letters are of 
the greatest importance for the history of the period 
during which John of Salisbury held the office of secretary 
to the archbishops of Canterbury. 

In 1163, Thomas Becket, then archbishop of Canter- 
bury, was taking steps to obtain the canonization of his 
predecessor, Anselm, and with this object he employed 
John of Salisbury to write an abridged life of that prelate, 
which was presented to the pope at the council of Tours, 
in the month of May. Becket's disputes with his sovereign 
hindered the further prosecution of this object ; but the life 
of Anselm is preserved, and has been printed by Wharton. 

John of Salisbury also wrote a life of Thomas Becket, 
which has been supposed to be preserved only in the 
abridgment inserted in the Quadriloffusy or life by four 
authorities, compiled in the fourteenth century by order 
of pope Gregory XI. There is a MS. life of Becket, pur- 
porting to be by John of Salisbury, in the Bodleian 
library, M8« Laud. F. 14. 

Died IIBO.'] jrOH^ of salisburt* 243 

Commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul are also at- 
tributed to John of Salisbury, which are preserved in manu- 
script, but are found under the names of different writers* 
A Poenitentiale said to have been compiled by him occurs 
in the Bodleian Library. . To his poetical compositions, 
we may add a metrical version of tiie fable of the mem- 
bers which conspired against the stomach, commencing 
with the lines : 

Concilinm celebrant humani corporis artus 
Inter M| de ae plnrima verba serunt. 

The titles of several other books, ascribed to John of 
Salisbury by the older bibliographers, are either made from 
different Subjects treated In the Polycraticus, or fcTunded 
in errors of other kinds. 


Hie liber Ititolatnr de nng* CQria]i& & veatigiifi pb'or* cni' Johanneft Salea- 
beriensis CamotSsis epus fait actor, fol. Supposed to have been printed 
at Cologne or Brussels about the year 1475. At the end is the poem 
De metnbris corporis qnomodo adversus stomachnm conspirareraut. 

Johanis SaresberiSsis Policraticns de' nngis cnrialifi et vestigijs ph*or* con- 
tines libros octo (at the head of the first page). At the end, lohannis 
Saresberiensis, policraticus de nngis curialium & restigijs phllosophomm, 
in octo partitns libros partiales : finitur cnranit imprimi honestus vir 
Constantinus fradin biblippola Anno d*Qi M.ecccc. & .xiij. Eztrema 
manns apposita fuit code anno .zrij. Kalendas Maij. 

Policratici contenta, festiufl opus : & omni statu! delectabile lectu : quod in- 
titulatnr Policratica, Denugis curialiu etvestiglis philosopho' Joanis Sa- 
lesberiensis doctissimi sane Sc eloquBtissiml riri, exemplar vnde ezcusum 
est emedatissimu et annotationib' marginalib^ adiutd : prestate et emis- 
sions p.cnrate gravissimo doctissimoq* patre confessore regis .... Venale 
in rico sancti Jacobi in Sole aureo : et in lilio aureo apnd beniuolos 
mercatores magr'm Bertholdu Rebolt. & JoanS pamu. At the end» 
% Pinit opus preclaru Policratici De nugis curlalifl> & restigiis philoso- 
phorn : cui' loanes SalesberiSsis actor fiiit. In Sole aureo rici sancti 
lacobi. Impressum Parrhisi' opera et expSsis maglstri Bertholdi Rem- 
bolt, & loanis parui. Anno domini M.n.ziii. Die vero zxr. Maij. 4to. 

The writer of the article on John of Salisbury in the Histoire Litt^raire de 
France has stated erroneously that the Metalogicus was joined with this 

R 2 

244 JOHN OF SALISBURY. [Died 1180. 

JoannU SaresberiensU Policraticas : sive de nugis cnrialiom, et Testigiis 
philosophorum, Libri octo. Lugduni BaUTorum, ex officina Plantini- 
ana. 1595. 870. 
Joannis Saresberienda Metalogicus. £ codice MS. Academie Cantabrigi 
ensis, nunc primum editus. Parinia, apud Uadrianum Beys, Yik 
Jacobea. 1610. 8to. 
The Epiitlea of John of Salisbury printed with those of Grerbert and Stephen 

of Tournay, by Masson, 4to. Paris, 1611. 
Magna Bibliotbeca Vetenun Patrum, et Antiquorum Scriptornm Ecclesias- 
tioorum, Tomus Decimusqulntus, sive Supplementum, Tel Appendix. 
Colonise Agrippinse, 162S. fol. pp. 338-498, Joannis Saresberiensis 
Policraticus : sive de nugis curialium, et vestigiis philosophorum, libri 
octo. — pp. 498 — 612, EpistolK Joannis Saresberiensis episcopi Camo- 
tenais, studio et industria Papyrii Massoni in lucem editae. 
An edition of the Metalogicus is said to have been printed at Leyden, in 
1630, but this is perhaps an error, as the edition of 1639» printed at the 
same place, is stated in the title to be the second. 
According to Fabricius, the portion of the Commentary on the Epistles of 
St. Paul which relates to the Epistle to the CoUossians was printed 
in 1630. 
Joannis Saresberiensis Policraticus, sive de nugis curialium, et Testigiis phi- 
losophorum, libri octo. Lugduni Batayorum, ex officina Joannis Maire. 
1639. 8vo. To this edition is added, Joan. Saresberiensis Metalogi- 
cus, e codice manuscripto Academite Cantabrigiensis. Editio altera, 
priore accuratior et emendatior. 
The Commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul, attributed to John of Salis- 
bury, are said to have been printed at Amsterdam, 4to. 1646. 
The Eutheticus (or metrical introduction to the Polycraticus) and the poem 
De membris conspirantibus, were printed with a poem by Fulbert of 
Chartres, by Andreas Rivinus, Lips. 1655, 8to. 
Johannis Saresberiensis Policraticus, with the Metalogicus, Amsterdam, 

1664, small 8vo. 
Maxima Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum. Tomus Vigesimus Tertius. Lug- 
duni, 1677» fol. pp. 243 — 409. Johannis Sariabiriensis Policraticus, sive 
de nugis curialium et yestigiis philosophorum, libri octo. — pp. 410 — 535. 
Epistolae Joannis Sarisberiensis episcopi Carnotensis. 
Epistolae et Vita divi Thomae Martyris et Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis . . 
opera et studio F. C. Lupi. Bruxellis, 1682, 4to. Ninety- three letters of 
John of Salisbury are printed in this volume. 
Anglia Sacra, sive CoUectio Historiarum antiquitus scriptarum de archi- 
eplscopis et episcopis Anglise. (by Henry Wharton.) Pars Secunda. Lon- 
dini, 1691 , fol. pp. 151 — 176. Vita S. Anselmi archiepiscopi Cantuariensis, 
authore Johanne Sjirisburiensi episcopo Camotensi. 
Martene, Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum, Tomus Primus. Lutet. Paris. 
1717, fol. coll. 596, 597, 602, 604. A charter and three previously 
inedited letters of John of Salisbury. 


Jo. Alb. Fabricii Bibliotheca Latina Mediae et Infimse leUtis. Patavu, 1754, 
torn. iv. p. 296. Joannls Saresberiensis de Membris ConspLrantibiu. 

Recaeil des HUtoriens des Gaoles et de la France. Tome seizl^me. Par 
Michel-Jean-Joseph Brial. A Paris, 1814. fol. pp. 438—625, Joannis 
SaresberieQsis, qui fait Camotensis episcopus, epistolee cvi. 

Johannis Saresberiensis Entheticos, de Dogmate PhilosopKorum, nunc 
primum editus et commentariis instmctus a Christiano Petersen. Ham- 
burg!, 1843. 8yo. 


A French translation of the Polycraticus, by Meserai, under the title, Va- 
nit^ de la Conr, par Jean de Sarisb^ry, is said to have been printed at 
Paris in 1640, 4to. but no copy appears now to be known to exist. 


This celebrated teacher in the university of Paris was 
an Englishman by birth^ as we learn from the writings of 
his friend^ John of Salisbury. He studied at Paris under 
Matthew of Angers and Peter Lombard^ and he after- 
wards opened a school near the Petit Pont, from which 
he took his name. He taught chiefly grammar and legic^ 
and was so warm an advocate of the method of Aristotle 
that he was sometimes designated by the name of Adam 
the Peripatetic. John of Salisbury accuses him of having 
introduced a refined subtilty of reasoning which degene- 
rated into a system of quibbling. Adam was subsequently 
made a canon of Ndtre Dame^ after which he taught only 
theology. We know few dates or facts in the life of this 
eminent scholar ; but he was at the council of Paris under 
pope Eugene III. in 1147, when the opinions of Gilbert 
de la Porree were condemned; and he went to the Lateran 
council in 1179 to defend his old teacher, Peter Lombard. 
Previous to this latter date he had settled in England, 

246 6IRARD LA PUCELLB» {Died 1 184. 

and in 1176 he was made bishop of St. Asaph's. He died 
in 1180. 

No fragment of the writings of Adam da Petit Pont is 
preserved. John of Salisbury speaks of him as a man of 
great learning, and mentions his book entitled Ar^ DU~ 
serendi, which he says was written in a confused and in- 
tricate style. Pits and Bale ascribe to him four books of 
commentaries on Peter Lombard^ and some other works^ 
which are, perhaps, mere suppositions of those inaccurate 


GiBARD LA PucELLE (in Latin Girardus Puella) was 
one of the most celebrated professors of the university of 
P^s in the latter half of the twelfth century .f Roger of 
Croyland^ one of the earlier writers of the life of HThomas 
Becket, states that he was an Englishman ;| and he ap- 
pears to have entered the church at an early age. He is 
said to have taught at Paris, with occasional and long in- 
terruptions^ from 1160 to 1 177^ and he enjoyed the espe- 
cial esteem of the French king^ which however he lost by 
suddenly quitting Paris to establish himself at Cologne^ 
then the seat of a schism in the church raised by the 
archbishop, Rainold. The church was much scandalised 
by the public secession of an ecclesiastic of so much 

* Compare on tliis writeri John of Salifburyi Metelog. lib. li. c. 10, 
Ub. iii. c. 3y and lib. iv. c. 3, and the Entheticiu, p. 8» 3, with Piof. Peter- 
sen's notes» with the article in the Hist. Lit. de France, torn. xiv. p. 189. 

f We know his personal history chiefly from some letters in the coUeetioB 
of those of Thomas Becket. See the article in the Hist. Lit. de Fr. to». 
xIt. p. 301. 

% Koi^er, CroUaad, in QuadiUog. cited byTamier. 

Died 1184.] gibabd la pucellb. 247 

celebrity as Girard^ and^ although he declared that he had 
not joined the party of the schismatics, every effort was 
made to withdraw him from intercourse with them. He 
at length, partly by the intervention of Becket, obtained 
permission to settle in England ; but his stay there was 
short, for he almost immediately returned to Cologne, 
and accepted a benefice from the schismatic archbishop. 
For this act, which amounted to an avowal of his appro- 
bation of the schismatics, Girard was excommunicated by 
the pope ; yet Becket and his other friends again inter* 
fered, and he was prevailed upon to make a public decla- 
ration that he condemned the schism, and to resign all 
the benefices he had received at Cologne, on condition of 
being absolved from the sentence of excommunication 
and being permitted to return to his school at Paris. He 
appears to have quickly regained the favour of the pope 
(Alexander III.) who in 1 1 76 granted in his favour a bull 
which gave ecclesiastical professors in the schools the 
privilege of non-residence on their church benefices, and 
a letter of the same pontiff, dated the 15th of March, 1178, 
confirms to him the benefices which he had previously 
received of the schismatics of Cologne. In 1177, at the 
invitation of Richard archbishop of Canterbury, he came 
again to England, and remained attached to that prelate^s 
household until 1182 or 1183, when he was made bishop 
of Coventry, or, as the see was then sometimes called, 
Chester, the two sees being then joined in one. He died 
at Coventry on the 13th of January, 1184, and was buried 
in his cathedral. 

All the early historians who mention Girard la Pucelle 
agree in extolling his great learning and eloquence, and 
Roger of Croyland distinctly speaks of his writings ; yet 
we have now no other trace of their existence, and if the 
writer of the notice of Girard in the Histoire Litt^raire 


de France be correct in ascribing to bim tbe lS3rd letter 
of tbe collection of epistles of Tbomas of Canterbury^ 
(publisbed under tbe name of Jobn of Salisbury), it is tbe 
only document extant wbicb came from bis pen. 


Bartholomew of Exeter was one of tbe most 
learned tbeologians of tbe reign of Henry II. He appears to 
bave been a native of Brittany,* and be probably studied 
at Paris. We bear of bim first as arcbdeacon of Exeter, 
of wbicb see be was cbosen bisbop in 1160. Tbe king 
seems to bave been opposed to bis nomination, until ap- 
peased by Tbeobald arcbbisbop of Canterbury. We learn 
from tbe writers of tbe time tbat Bartbolomew was remark- 
able for bis great piety. He was tbe prelate in wbom 
Tbomas of Canterbury and Jobn of Salisbury placed 
tbeir entire confidence, and to wbom during tbeir exile 
tbey sent aU tbeir instructions ; yet be appears to bave 
acted witb so mucb prudence tbat be never compromised 
bimself witb tbe court, and, after Becket^s deatb, tbe 
king employed bim as bis cbief adviser in ecclesiastical 
affairs. His deatb is stated by Roger Hovedenf to 
bave occurred in 1184; by tbe Wincbester annalist tit 
is placed in 1 1 86 j and Walter Mapes in bis work de Ntngis 
Curialiuniy written apparently at tbe end of tbe year 1187, 
speaksof bim as still alive and occupied in literary pursuits, 
althougb advanced in years.§ 

* See Jo. Salisb. Epist. 169. 
t Roger Hoveden, Annal. p. 633. 
X Annel. Winton. ap. Wharton, Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 30^. 
I Bartholomcoa Ezoniensis episcopal, vir senex et facundos, hoc tem- 
pore Kribit. W» Map. de Nug. Curial. Dist. i, c. \% 

Died 1186,1 Bartholomew bishop of exeter. 249 

Giraldus Cambrensis speaks of Bartholomew of Exeter 
as one of the great luminaries of his country ;* yet his 
writings^ most of which appear to be lost, were of no great 
importance. The work by which his name is best known 
is a penitential, compiled, it may be supposed, chiefly for 
the use of his own diocese. Several copies of this work 
are preserved ; t it consists entirely of extracts from pre- 
vious works of the same description, and from the canons 
and constitutions of the church. His Dialogue against 
the Jews, which was dedicated to his friend Baldwin 
bishop of Worcester, is preserved in a manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library. Four letters of Baldwin bishop of 
Exeter are found among the Epistles of John of Salis- 
bury, j: Leland ascribes to him a treatise De Prcsdeatina" 
Hone et Libera Arbitrio, which is perhaps the same as that 
mentioned by Tanner under the title De Fatalitate et Fato 
as being dedicated to Baldwin bishop of Worcester, and 
which appears to be preserved in a manuscript in Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. Bale and Pits give the titles of 
other works, some 6f which are certainly not by this 
Bartholomew. The chief of these are a book of sermons 
said to have commenced with the words, Tollite jugum 
meum 9upeT vos, and a discourse on the death of Thomas 
Becket, beginning with the words. Secundum multitudinem 

* Girald. Cambren. ap. Wharton. Ang. Sac. vol. ii. p. 425. 

t There ia one in the BritUh Museum, MS. Cottont Faustina A. viif . 

X Epp. 991, 295, 297, 298. 

it50 [Flouriihed 


John d« H AUTVViiiLfi wa9 oae of the mo»t remarkable 
l4^ paets of the twelfth century ; yet we know «o little 
pf hU personal hiatory that eyen hU name has been the 
subject of mmj doubts. The old bibliographers call him 
Hanwill, AnnieviUanus^ and Hantvillensis ; and the writers 
of the Histoire litteraire de France give him the name of 
Hantville^ and suppose that he was a native of the hamlet 
of Anville, near Evreux. There can be no doubt how- 
ever from the authority of the manuscripts that the name 
should be Hauville or Hauteville, One of the manu-» 
scripts in the British Museum calls him Johannes de Al« 
villa ;^ another calls him Johannes de Hawilla ;t and a 
third saya he was of '^ Auville beside Rouen. '^t ^^ 
name John de Eigham^ which has also been given to this 
writer^ originated in an «rror of some person who mistook 
the name of a possessor of the manuscript in which the 
poem of John de Hauteville is contained^ for that of the 
attthor.§ This poem is a singular satire on the man*> 
ners of tiie age, and is dedicated to Walter de Coiltaaeee, 
who is described as then exchanging the bishopric of 
Lincoln for the archbishopric of Rouen, a circumstance 
which fixes the date of the composition of the poem to 

* MS. Harl. No. 4066, Incipit Architrenius ma§^tri JobABnli de AItIUa. 

f MS. Cotton. Vespafl. B. xiii. Magister Johannes de HaTTilla compo« 
suit ifltnm libnim de peregrino JohanniSi et eundem libram nominant Ar* 

X MS. Reg. 15. C. v. latum libram fecit Johannes de Auoilla juzta Ro- 
themagum ezistente ducatn Normanniae sub rege Anglico. 

§ MS. Cotton. Vespas. B. xiii. liber fratris Johannis de Eighom (ovi 
Erghom) in qno Bubscripta continentur. A list of the contents of the 
Tolnme follows. 

in 1184.] /OHN DB HAUTBVILLB. 351 

the year 1184, Beyeral allusions in the poem would lead 
us to belieye that its author had passed a part of his life 
in Eingland : but there appears to be no evidence for die 
assertions of former biographers that John de HauteriUe 
was educated in this island, or tiiat he was a monk of SU 

The only poem known to have been written by John 
de Hauteville bears for title the name of its hero, Archi- 
trenius, a personage who is introduced lamenting perpe- 
tually oyer the mismes and vices of mankind. The 
Latinity and versification are oftMi respectable, and some- 
times approach to purity and elegance ; but its author 
falls into the common vice of the medieval poets, of dwel- 
ling BO long on his images and descriptions that they become 
extremely tedious. In the greater number of manuscripts, 
the poem is prefaced by a brief prologue or argument in 
prose, stating the plan of the work. The poem itself, 
which commences witii these lines, — 

VeMcatur Athoe, dubio mare ponte ligatar, 
Remus arat collefli pedibus Bubsternitor unda, 

opens with some general observations on the vice of sloth, 
and on others which arise out of it, frovtx which the writer 
suddenly turns to address Walter de Coiitances, to whom 
the book is dedicated — 

O ctgofi studio, quo remige, nayigat «sta 

Mnndanoque mari tamidis exempta proeeSit 

Linconise sedes, o quem non pneterit «qui 

CalculoBi cvjas momm redolentia coelum 

Spondet, et cbk neqak Tirtos aitissima mijor, 

IndiTisa miaor, cajus se nomen et astria 

Inserit, et famse litao circmnsonat orbem. 

O quem Rotomagi sedes vidnata maritnm 

Sperat et aspirat, solidisqne amplexibus ardet 

Astrinzisse yiram, fragrantis odorlbus uti 

Momm deUdis, yiitiitis aromate, sponsi 

Pectore, quod Fhceibiim rtivlet, quod NMtora pbgoty ket 

252 JOHN DB HAUTEViLLE. \_Fiouri8hed 

When the poet has concluded his eulogy of the new 
archbishop^ Architrenius is first introduced^ as a youth 
just arrived at years of maturity; he passes in review the 
various circumstances of his life, and laments that so litde 
of it has been devoted to virtue. He breaks into loud 
complaints against Nature, who has made him weak and 
liable to temptations, and he determines to set out on 
foot in search of her, and beg her assistance to enable him 
to contend with them. On his way he first arrives at the 
palace of Venus, where he finds the goddess surrounded 
with young damsels, whose hearts she inflames. The de- 
scription of one of the companions of Venus, who ex- 
celled in beauty all the rest, occupies the latter part of 
the first book and the earlier portion of the second, 
each particular member or part of the body forming 
the subject of a separate chapter. The description of 
Cupid and of his dress, which follows, is alike long and 
tedious. Architrenius, pursuing his pilgrimage, arrives 
at the abode of gluttony, and the poet indulges in severe 
satire on the prevalence of this vice in his days. The 
questions which chiefly attracted the attention of gour- 
mands, and the eagerness with which they were discussed, 
are told in some elegant lines : 

Inter yentricolas yenatar qaaBstio» piece 
Quis colitnr meliore lacuSi quis fertilis aer 
AlidboB, quse terra feras producat edales ; 
Quos assare cibos, qnos elixare» palati 
Luxuries discincta velit, quK fercola molU 
Jure natent, qun sicca gule trudantur avemo ; 
Qua juris jactura meri redimatur in unda, 
Qnot capiat factura modos, quo foedere nodet 
Appositos miztnra cibos, quo frixa paratu 
Ezacuant gustus, que corpora cnra nepotum 
Dictet aromatico panis mandare supulchro, 
Quse novitas adjecta cibis epulonis acutum 
Commendet studium ; nam quevis prima voluptas 
Delitiaji noYitate capit ; nam gratia rebus 

in 1184.] JOHN DE HAUTE VILLB. 253 

Frompta novis, prednmque veniti pracepsque bonorum 
Gloria, temporibus recipit fragmenta favoria. 
Quidque dapes varise prosunt, possintne cadentem 
Erexisse famenii nam prona paratibus iisdem 
Occurrit facies, recipit fomenta dbomm 
Alternata fames, diyersaque fercula guatus 
Invitant, similesqiie creant fastidia mensae. 

The wines are a subject of no less anxious discussion than 
the meats^ and were the cause of still greater excesses^ in 
which the natives of our island are more especially accused 
of indulging. The following lines describe an English 
drinking party in the twelfth century : — 

Consedere duces, et Bacchi stante corona 
Surgit ad os paterae dominas septemplicis Ajax 
Anglicns, et calice similis contendit Ulixes. 
Hsec ibi fanduntur Baccho prseconia, tales 
Multiplicat plansns plebes devota refertis 
Incnbuisse cipbis, erroris prodiga, mente 
Saucia langnenti, rationis dedita sacrum 
Extinxisse jubar, rapido submersa Lyeo. 
Ergo vacante cipbo distincto gutture uuetheil 
Ingeminant, uuesheii. Labor est plus perdere vini 
Quam sitis, exbaurire merum studiosius ardent 
Quam exbaurire sitim ; commendatiTa Lyei 
Est sitis, et candens calices iterare palatum 
Imperiosa jubet, ad Bacchi munera dextros 
Blandius invitat ; pluris sunt pocnla, pluris 
Ariditate sitis, Bacchusque ad vota perustse 
Candentisque guise recipit crementa favoris. 

The author turns from the picture of gluttony to the praise 
of sobriety, and describes the frugal table of Philemon and 
Baucis. Architrenius meanwhile pursues his way, and at 
the end of the second book he arrives at Paris, which was 
then, by the celebrity of its university, looked upon as 
the centre of learning in Europe. The third book is al- 
most entirely occupied with the miseries and sufferings of 
the scholars, and affords an interesting picture of scho- 
lastic life at this early period. The poet describes the 
poverty and personal appearance of the students : — 

S54 sonif Dfe HAVTCViLLi. [Fhuti^hid 

Non colviise eomiuii stadio delectet aitttitit 
Pectinifly ernmtiqae Viam moftastriisfle dapiUo $ 
Langnenti stomacho ulttdi noH sentit e^ftas 
CultuB delidtui) disflvada llbidiaia odit 
Pectinia arte coli» formsB oofltenta reniuto 
Quam natura dedit } ifaajor depeltore pngiiat 
Sollicitudo fameiti} gtatiorcin g^tla eryoiiiiDi 
Qnse Thietim ore bibens animo bibit ebria Phoebom. 

He dwells on the meanness of their dress^ on their bad 
lodgings^ spare nourishment^ and hard beds^ on the base- 
ness of those who served them^ the excessive htbour re- 
quired to become master of the seven arts ) he pictures 
them, after having spent a great part of the night in study, 
roused from their sleep before daylight to attend the lec- 
tures of the masters, treated there with continual rude- 
ness, and finally, after having surmounted all the difficul- 
ties of their path, obliged to see the rewards and honours 
for which they were striving distributed with unjust par- 
tiality on those who have least deserved them — 

Pnemla quie Davus recipit meraiaset Homern*. 

The labours and toils of the schools end in pride and 
vanity, by which the philosophers of the ttvelfth century 
too often made themselves remarkable; while the rich and 
great squandered their wealth on base jogelours and min- 
strels, instead of applying it to the encouragement of true 
learning and merit. Architrenius turns from this scene, 
and, at the beginning of the fourth book, arrives at the 
mount of ambition, which is covered with beautiful gar- 
dens and flowers, and watered by a limpid stream which 
runs from the top over shining pebbles of gold and silver. 
At the summit he beheld a vast and stately palace. The 
poet now proceeds to treat of the evils which spring from 
ambition, and gives a long and interesting description of 
the manners and corruptions of the court. Not far from 
the mountain of ambition he found the hill of presump- 

In 1184.] iOftfr Dtt ttAtTtlBVILL>4 iSB 

tion {eottis prasuthpHofM) tehich is desciibdd ftt tiie be- 
ginning of th6 fifth book. Its inhabitants wete chiefly 
ecclesiastics^ doctors or masters^ and monks, and he is led 
to ft bitter satire on the manners of the clergy. Hie scho- 
lastic profesiiors Were ihore often presumptuous than 
leanifed f— 

Hie TolgiiB cathedrM rapta ddtate magistri 
Inailiti et Tactut de mojestate tamorem 
CoDdpit, impnbii et ttiento ct luente Tlrentlf 
Crndiia adhac sacoo juyenem soUdosqiie virilM 
PneYeniens calmosi nee ihaturata aenecte 
t^dpid lamro noii expectaaae reretor. 
Hoa ego pfntereo tactoa dne nomine» roaque 
Pnrterit ignotua insania nota magiater. 
O rabies sedisse Rabi, dtilciqae MinervK 
Intomrfase tuba, nondtna patientlbiti annia. 
Hie in philoaopboa auaa eat aftrire flagdlo 
Mortis alumna famea, animoqne potentia Phoebi 
Pignora panperiea corarom umberat Hydra. 

In his zeal against this vice the poet complains of the 
presumption of old age^ which had dared to whiten the 
looks of good king Henry* 

Hie nbi delegit smnmam pnesnmptio iedem, 
Inserpit festina oomia, erispatqne aenecta 
Henrici fadem» quern flaya Britannia regem 
Jactat, eoqne dace titulia Normannia ridet, 
tit bdli et pads» totamqne snpermeat orbem^ 
Indole qnam' belli nunqnam fregere tnmnltna, 
Dedididtque Tiram gladio matnra juYentnai 
Hia vemare genia setemnm debolt svl. 

Architrenius, ever lamenting and weeping over the vani- 
ties of the world, turns away from the prospect^ and beholds 
a hideous monster, whose head extends to the skies. This 
was cupidity, a vice on which the poet proceeds to mo- 
ralise, attacking more especially the avarice and greediness 
of the prelates of his days. The wanderer is interrupted 
in his reflections by the noise of a terrible combat be* 
tween the prodigals and the misers {inter largos et avaros) ; 

256 JOHN DE HAUTEViLLE. [Flourished 

and he here enters into details taken from the fabulous 
British History of Geoffrey of Monmouth, or from popular 
romances. In the sixth book he is suddenly carried to 
distant Thule, where he finds the ancient Grecian philo- 
losophers, who are introduced declaiming against the vices 
of mankind, and their declamations continue through the 
seventh and part of the eighth books. Architrenius 
listens, and continues his lamentations, until suddenly 
lifting up his eyes he beholds before him a beautiful 
woman, in the midst of a flowery plain, surrounded by nu- 
merous attendants. Learning that this lady was Nature, 
he throws himself at her feet : but before listening to his. 
prayer she delivers a long discourse on natural philosophy, 
which is continued to the middle of the ninth, or last, 
book. Architrenius then tells his griefs and misfortunes, 
and relates what he has seen in his wanderings. Dame 
Nature takes pity on his sufferings, consoles him by giving 
him a beautiful wife named Moderation, and ends with a 
chapter of good counsel on his conjugal duties. 

This poem appears, by the numerous manuscripts still 
extant, to have been extremely popular during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It was made the 
subject of learned commentaries. But we have no 
traces] of any other work by the same author. There is 
no reason for attributing to John de Hauteville the me- 
trical treatise De Epistolarum Compositione which follows 
the Architrenius in a manuscript at Oxford ;* and the old 
bibliographers seem to have had no authority for ascribing 
to him the poem De Rebus Occultis, or the ^^Epigrammata, 
episiolasj etpoemata/^ mentioned by Bale. 


An edition of the Architrenius was printed by Jodocus Badius Assenaius, in 
small 4to. Paria, 1517| hot is so extremely rare that we have not been 
able to obtain sight of a copy. 

« MS. Digby, No. 64. 

Flourished 1185.] 257 


JocELiN^ distinguished as a writer of biographies^ chiefly 
of saints^ was a monk of Fumess abbey in Lancashire, 
Tanner seems to think that he was a Welchman. It ap- 
pears from the prologue to his life of St. Patrick^ which 
he compiled at the request of Thomas archbishop of 
Armagh and Malachias (another Irish prelate) and John 
de Curcy the conqueror of Ulster, that he flourished 
about the year 1185. This life is a mere compilation from 
the vulgar legends relating to the saint which were then 
current in Ireland, and has no historical value, as may be 
judged from the following example ; 

De tripliei pettUentia de Hibemiaper taneium Patrieium ^ffitgata, 

SanctiBsimuB Patricius pestilentiae tripliei eliminandsB sumtnam operam 
et diligentiam adhibaiti et torn lalutari docfcrina, tarn ferveotiuims ora- 
tio&is obtenta, Hibemiam bujus grassantis veneni ezsortem ezhibuit. ; Ipse 
Damque pastor pnestantissimiis mana Domini Jesu baculam bajulavit, ejus- 
que elevatione comminatoria omnia yenenata animantia, angelico snffultus 
suifragio, ez nniversis Hibernise partibus in nnum congregavit. Deinde 
omnia usqne ad editissimnm insulse promontorium in fogam compulit, quod 
scilicet Crttaehan-ailge dicebatur tunc, nunc vero Cruach-pkadruig dicitur^ 
ibique totam turbam pestiferam de prieropta mentis crepidine, in Tirtate 
prseeepti, pnecipiti lapsn oceano absorbendam depnlit. O signnm insigne I 
O miraculum magniiicam, a mundi ezordio inexpertnm, nunc tribubus» 
populis, et Unguis compertnm, cunctis fere nationibns notorium, specialiter 
Hiberni» incolis pernecessarium ! Hnic tarn miracnloso tamqae peratili 
spectacoio nnmerosns populus intererati quorum pars plurima ad signa 
▼idenda, qusedam ad verba Titse percipienda nndique confluzerat. Convertit 
deinde faciem suam versus Manniam et cssteras insulas, quas fide Cbristi et 
sacramentis imbuit, et benedizit, ac precum suarum obtentu reptUium 
yenenatorum omnes iilas tantum ezpertes fecit et reddidit. 

Jocelin was also the author of a life of St. Kentigem, 
first bishop of Glasgow, which is dedicated to Jocelin, 
bishop of the same see from 1174 to 1199, and is preserved 

VOL. II. s 

258 BENOiT DE SAINTE-MAUR. [Fhurtshed 

in a manuscript in the British Museum (MS. Cotton. 
Vitellius, C. viii.) ; of a life of St. Helen, an abridgment of 
which is cited by Tanner as being found in a manuscript 
in the Bodleian Library ; and of a life of David king of 
Scotland, extracts from which will be found in the sixth 
book of Fordun^s Scotichronicon. As it is recorded that 
bishop Jocelin amplified his see, and enlarged and adorned 
his church of St Kentigem, in 1181, we may conjecture 
that the Life of St. Kentigem was composed on that occa* 
sion.^ Stowe, in his Survey of London, mentions a history 
of the bishops of the Britons fDe Britonum episcopisj by 
Jocelin of Fumess.f 

Florilegium Insuls sanctonimi seu Vitee et Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae . . . 
Omnia . . • collegit, et pnblicabat Thomas Metsinghamus. ParisiiB, 
16^1 fol. pp. 1—85, Jocelini monachi de Fomesio Vita Sancti Patricii. 


There are strong reasons for believing that this trouv^re 
was a native of the little town of Sainte-Maur in the dis- 
trict of Tours, and that he was a monk or clerk of the 
monastery of Marmoutier in that place4 We know nothing 
more of his personal history than that he was patronised 
by Henry II. by whose direction he composed his metrical 
history of the dukes of Normandy, a circumstance which 

* JocelinuB episcopna sedem episcopalem dilatavit, et lancti Kentegemi 
ecclesiam gloriose magnlficavit. Chronica de Mailroa, ed. Steyenson, p. 91. 

t Stowe'8 London, p. 177 (Ed. 1842). 

X This information is deduced chiefly from the cirenmstance of a fine MS. 
of the Chronicle of the Dukes of Normandy haying been recently discovered 
at Tours, which had belonged to the abbey of Marmoutier. See the ap- 
pendix to the third yolume of M. Michel's edition of Benoit. 


excited the jealousy of a rival poet, Wace.* As he ap« 
pears to have been younger than the author of the Roman 
de Rou, we may suppose that Benoit de Sainte-Maur 
flourished about the year 1180. 

The earliest of Benoifs two great poems was, probably, 
his metrical romance of the History of Troy, a subject of 
great interest in the middle ages, because most of the 
western nations, pretended to trace their origin to the 
dispersion of the Trojans. The poem of Benoit is chiefly 
a paraphrase of the suppositious history of the Phrygian 
Dares, with some additions from the similar work pub- 
lished under the name of Dictys ; but the Anglo-Norman 
trouvere, faithful to the taste of his age, has turned the 
Grecian and Trojan heroes into medieval knights and 
barons. At the commencement of his poem Benoit quotes 
the authority of Salomon, that men ought not to conceal 
their knowledge from the world, as an excuse for his un- 
dertaking to translate this history from the Latin, in which 
it was hidden from the unlearned. He then gives us an 
account of the original authorities, founded on the preface 
to the pseudo-Dares. Homer, he says, was a marvel- 
lously learned clerk, but he lived more than a hundred 
years after the events he describes, and his want of veracity 
is sufiiciently evident. The people of Athens fell into a 
great " contention** regarding him, and would have con- 
demned his book because he made the gods fight with 
mortals; but Homer had so much personal influence, 
that his book was finally received as authority, t 

Omen, qui clen fa mervillonsy 
Et sages et escuintious, 

* See before» p. SOT» of the preseDt volume. 

f There is a complete MS. of the Roman de Troye in the Harleian 
Collection, No. 4482, from which onr extracta are taken. Long extracts 
fh>m a MS. in the library of St. Mark at Yenioe, are printed by Keller, 
in his RomTart, p. 86. 


260 BENOIT DE SAINTB-MAUR. [Flourished 

EBcrit de la destraction, 
Del grant siege, de roquoisoD) 
Par col Troie fa desert^e, 
Conqaes puis ne fa habitue ; 
Maia ne dit pas ses Uyres voir. 
Qaer bien sayons de fit poar Toir 
Qull ne fa pais de cent ans nez, 
Qe 11 grans os fa assamblez ; 
N'est merveille s'il 1 failli, 
Car ains verity n*en oi. 
Quant il en ot son livre fait, 
Et i Athenes Tot retrait, 
Si ot estrange contenson ; 
Dampner le vorrent par raison, 
Ponr ce qu'ot fait les damrediex 
Combatre o les bommes mortez. 
Tenu li fu k desaerie, 
Et ^ merveille et k folie, 
Qae les dieas o bommes bumains 
Faisoit combatre as Troyens. 
Et qaant son livre reciterent, 
Poar itant si le refoserent. 
Mais tant fa Omers de grant pris, 
Qoe tant fist pais, si com je lis, 
Qae les Uvres fa receas, 
Et en aactoriteit tenas. 

Benoit goes on to inform us that in the time of the 
Romans lived Sallust^ a very rich and learned man, who 
had a nephew named Cornelius. Cornelius was sent to 
study at Athens ; and there, seeking for books of " gram- 
mar" in a cupboard, he found a copy of the original work 
written in Greek by Dares. 

.T. jour qaeroit en an aumaire 
Pour traire livres de gramaire, 
Tant i a quia et triboul^, 
Qu'entre les aatres a trouvd 
L*estoire que Daires ot escrite. 
En Grace langne faite et dite. 
Cis Daires dont yus 9i oez 
Fa k Troies noorris et nez. 

Dares, he states, had been present at the siege of 
Troy, and was an eye-witness of all he related. His book 


had long been forgotten^ when it was discovered by Cor- 
nelius, who lost no time in translating it into Latin. 
Benoit de Sainte-Maur translated it from Cornelius's 
Latin version into French. 

Ceste hystoire n'est pas us^e, 
Ne en gaires de lieus trov^e ; 
Jk retraite ne fhst encore, 
Mais Beneois de Sainte More 
L'a commencie et faite et dite, 
£t k 808 mains Ta toate escrite, 
l9i taiUie, 19! oavr^, 
19! escrite, iqfi pos^e, 
Et plus ne mains n'i a mestier ; 
Ci wet Pestoire commencier. 

The Romance of Troy contains nearly thirty thousand 
lines. It is a heavy and dull poem, and possesses little 
interest at the present day ; although it abounds in those 
repeated descriptions of warfare which constituted the 
great beauty of such productions in the twelfth century. 
Almost the only passage approaching to any degree of 
poetical elegance is the description of Spring, in the ac- 
count of the departure of the Argonauts for the conquest 
of the golden fleece, which has been quoted by M» de la 
Rue — 

Qnant vint el tens quHyers derire, 
Que Perbe vers point en la rive ; 
Lorsque fiorissent li ramel ; 
E dolcement chantent oiseli 
Merle, manvisi e loriol, 
£ estomel e rossignol, 
La blanche flor pent en I'espine, 
E reverdoie la gandine, 
Qnant 11 tens est dobt et soueat, 
Lor sortirent del port les nez. 

The Romance of Troy was so much admired at the 
time of its publication, that its author was requested by 
Henry II. to undertake a metrical chronicle of the dukes 


of Normandy^ which also has been presenred.* That 
Benoit received many benefits from this monarch is evi- 
dent from the eagerness with which he seizes every oppor- 
tunity of introducing his praise into his work ; he speaks 
of him as 

-^^" le bon rei Henri secimd, 
Flon det princes de tot le mnnd, 
Ki fail rant dignes de memoire» 
E ki Deni dnnt force e vietoire, 
LoDse Tie, proiperit^, 
Senz aisse e mm ayereit^ I 
Saintisme e bone seit aa fins I 

And in another place he thus expresses the hope that 
his writuig may be agreeable to the king — 

Or dunge Dens par sa du^or 
Qa'al plaiflir leit de mon seignor, 
Del bon rei Henri fis Mahent, 
Que ai benlgne cum il aeut 
Seit al oir e al entendre 1 
N'eat paa de mes pours la mendre 
Que de meaifire e de mesfaire 
Chose qui ne li dele plaire. 

The metrical chronicle of the dukes of Normandy by 
Benoit, which extends to thirty thousand lines, begins 
with a brief sketch of the cosmographical doctrines of the 
age, which leads to the account of the origin of the Nor- 
mans and their first piratical voyages, and the history is 
continued to the death of Henry I. The larger portion 
is a mere paraphrase of the Latin histories by Dudo of 
St. Quentins and William of Jumi^ges, with some slight 
additions of matter not found in those authorities ; but it 

* The MS. from which the text of Benoit's Chronicle of the Dukes of 
Normandy has been printed, is presenred in the British Museum, MS. Harl. 
No. 1717. A second manuscript has since been found in the library of the 
city of Tours, in France. In the introduction to the first Tohime M. Michel 
had stated hU opinion that the author of the Chronicle was not the same 
person as the author of the Romance of Troy, which, howerer, he has been 
induced to retract by the drcnmstances connected with the second MS. 

1180.] BSNOIT BE 8AINTB-1IAUB. 263 

is inferior as a historical document and as a literary com- 
position to the similar work of Wace, which appears from 
the first to have enjoyed a greater degree of popularity. 
Among the few narratives peculiar to Benoit is that of 
the love of duke Robert and Harlette, the mother of 
William the Conqueror, which is told with much sim- 
plicity and elegance. The following description of Har- 
lette is a favourable specimen of the poet's style : 

A Faldse esteit sojomanz 
Li bont dux Robert U Norakanz ; 
Mult U ert le lens covenables 
E beaus e saiiiB e delitables, 
C*e8teit uni de ses grans deporz 
Qu'od danzeles, ce sui reoorz. 
Un jor qu'il yeneit de cbacier 
En chobi une en un gravier» 
Denz le missel d'un fontenil^ 
Oh en blanchisseit un cheinsil 
Od autres filles de borgeis, 
Dunt ayeit od li plus de treis, 
Tirez ayeit ses dras ensus, 
Si cum puceles unt en us, 
Par enyeisure e par geu 
Peeres quant sunt en itel leu. 
Beaus fa li jorz e li tens chauz ; 
Ce que ne coyri sis blianz 
Des piez e des jambes parurenty 
Qui si tr^s-beaus e si blans fiirent 
Que ce fu bien au duo ayis 
Que neifs ert pale e flors de lis 
Ayers la soe grant blancheor : 
MeryeHles i toma s*amor. 

Fille ert d*un borzeis la puode, 
Sage e corteise e proz e bele, 
Bloie, od bel front e od beaus oilz 
Ob ja ne fitst troyez orguilz, 
Mais benignitez e franchise ; 
Si n'en fn nule mieuz aprise. 
£ s' ayeit la color plus fine 
Que flors de rose ne d'espine, 
N^ bien seant, boche e menton $ 
Biens n'ont plus ayenant fa9on» 

264 BENOIT DE 8AINTE-MAUB* [FlouHshed 

Ne plus bel col ne plas beaos braz. 
Iteu parole tob en fu, 
Que gente fa e blanche e graue 
Eiasi que lea beautez treapaase 
Dea aatrea totea dea regn^, 
Pol Tona ai dit de sa beauts 
A ce qui 'n ert, ce sachez bien. 

The following lines desciiptdve of Spring, from the 
account of RoUo's departure from England, may be 
compared with the similar passage of the Romance of 

Quant U irtn fu treapaasezi 
Vint 11 dolz tena e U eates, 
Venta Tanre auere e quoie, 
Chanta li merlea e 11 treie, 
Boia reverdirent e prael, 
E gent florirent 11 ramel, 
Parut la roae bnen olanz, 
E altrea llors de maint aemblanx. 

The two poems described above are the only works 
known to have been written by Benoit de Sainte-Maur. 
Tyrwhitt ascribed to him a life of Thomas Becket in 
Anglo-Norman verse^ and the abb^ de la Rue believed 
him to be the author of a song on the crusade in the same 
language, found at the end of the Harleian MS. containing 
his chronicle. The life of St. Thomas is evidently the 
work of a later writer of the name of Benoit^ as M. de la 
Rue has observed. The song was written by a knight 
on his way to oin the crusade, who speaks of his lady 
whom he had left behind him, and could not therefore 
have been written by a monk of Marmoutier. 


Collection de Documents in^dits sur I'Histoire de France public par ordre 
du roi. — Chronique dea dues de Normandie, par Benoit, trouv^re Anglo- 
Normand du xii*. si^de» public pour la premitire fois d'apr^a un manu- 
scrit du Mus^e Britannique, par Frandsque Michel. Tome I. Paris, 
1836. Tome II. Paris, 1838. Tome III. Paris, 1844. 4to. 



We have very little information relating to this writer, 
who was successively sub-prior and prior of Lanthony.* 
We learn from Giraldus Cambrensis that he was attached 
to study^ and negligent of the affairs of his monastery, 
and that he died of a paralytic stroke.f As he is witness, 
as prior, to a charter of David bishop of St. David^s, j: he 
must have been chosen to that office before the year 
1 176, when that prelate died. From the manner in which 
Giraldus speaks of him, Clement appears to have died 
about the end of the reign of Henry II., or early in that 
of Richard I. Osbert of Stoke, his contemporary, speaks 
of him as one of the most illustrious men of his age for 
learning and piety.§ 

The work by which Clement was best known was a 
harmony of the Gospels, with a commentary selected from 
the writings of the fathers. To the text he gave the title 
of Series Collecta, and to the accompanying exposition 
that of Collectarium. Several manuscripts of this work 
are preserved, || and it was so much admired that towards 
the end of the fourteenth century an English version was 

* Wharton, Anglia Sacra, torn. ii. p. 32S. 

t Girald. Camb. Itin. Cambrieey lib. i. cap. 3. 

X See Tanner, v. Clemen» Lanthonieiui», 

§ Venerabilis prior Lanhoudenensis, Clemens nomine et opere, vir sin-» 
gularis religionis et elimate scientie, preeclarus sno illuzit tempore inter 
illustres yiros Anglise. Osbert. de translatione reliq. D. Eadbnrgte, ap. 

II The MS. from which our extract is made is preserved in the public 
library of the University of Cambridge, where it stands under the shelf-mark 
Dd, 1, 17. The work is there entitled, Incipit concordia quatuor Evau- 
gelistamm, historire ordo Evangelicfe, et Evangeliorum manuale breTiarium, 



made^ supposed to be the work of one of the followers of 
Wycliffe, of which also several copies are extant.* The 
following extract from the preface will give some idea of 
the objects of the writer, and, at the same time, furnish 
a specimen of the style of the original and of the English 
translation : 


Clemens Lantoniensis ecclesie 
preBbjter n. paoem ntnmque. Ha- 
ju operii, fill carisaixne, caiuam 
requirifl et fructum. Quaeris etiam 
qna fretua autoritate quatuor Evan- 
gellatamm narrationea In nnam con- 
traxerim. Qnaeris et tituli et ordinis 
rationem. Prima igitur duo, caoaa 
scilicet et fnictns, licet circa idem 
yersentor, aliqua tamen distinctionis 
ratione dividi possnnt. Causa enim 
est nt pne ocuUs habeam que ab 
nnoqnoqne quatuor ETangelistanun 
sunt dicta, quae prtetennissa, quae 
prseoccnpata, que etiam commemo- 
rata. Non enim omnes omnia dicunt, 
et quae dicunt non omnia secundum 
ordinem natnralem loco suo dicunt, 
sed quae pobterius facta praeoccupant, 
et que ante facta, postea commemo- 
rant. Unusquisque tamen Evange- 
listarumi ut ait beatus Augustinus, 
sic contezit narrationem suam ut 
tanquam nihil praetermittentis series 
digesta yideatur. Tacitis enim quae 
non yult dicere, sic ea quae yult dicere 
illis quae dicebat adjuugit, ut ipsa 
continuo sequi yideantur. Sed cum 
alter ea didt quae alter tacuit, dili- 

Tke prolog on oon book mood (^ 
foure ff09peUeris, 

Clement, a preest of the chirobe 
of Lantony, gaderid alle the sen- 
tensis of foure gospeleleris into o 
story. Thre profytis ben of this 
trayel. The firste, for a man may 
liaye redily what tliinges ben seyd of 
ech gospeler by hym silf, and whiche 
thingis ben lefte out, and whiche 
ben before ocupied, and whiche hen 
remembrid ; for not alle gospeleris 
seyen alle thingis, and the thingis 
whiche the! seyen, the! seyen not 
alle thingis by kyndely ordre in her 
place, but thei bifore ocupien tho 
thingis that ben don aftirward, and 
thei remembren aftirward the thingis 
that ben don bifore. Tho thingis 
whiche ech gospeler seith by hym silf, 
ben sette forth withouten onyabreg- 
ginge ; tho thingis whiche tweyne, 
either thre, either foure gospeleris 
seien, ben sette oonys, and natheless 
what eyere thing ech of hem settith 
to withouten othere is set forth 
opinly. The secunde profyte is this, 
that this trayeyle schewith acordinge 
of foure gospeleris. The thridde pro- 
fyte is this, that this trayel declarith 

* There are seireral MSS. of the English yersion in the British Museum. 
Our extract is made from MS. Reg. 17 D. VIII. At the end is the follow- 
ing rubric : Here eendith oon of foure, that is o book of alle foure gospeleris 
gaderid schortly into oo story, by Clement of Lantony. Blessid be the holy 
IVynit^. Amen. 




the ordre of thlngla don, that h'erby 
esier entringe of undintondinge be 
opyn into the ordre of the gospels, 
and that the reioun of ordenatmce of 
the gospeli be clerer. • . . Clement 
settith in the begynnynge of a 
chapitre what gospeler seith the first 
ientence, and at ech sentenee of 
another gospeler he settith the name 
of that gospeler, )he for o word. 
So that in many placis of his book 
the names of the gospeleris oeiqrien 
mnche more space than the sentencis 
don. Therfore leste this ofte re- 
henringe and medlinge of the names 
of the gospeleris among the sentence 
schulde make the sentence dark and 
combre simple mennes wyttys, I 
sette in the bygynnynge of a chapitre 
alle the gospelleris that tretyn that 
chapitre, and in what place of the 

genter ordo consideratvfl indioat 
locmn nbi ea potaerit a quo prteter- 
missa sunt transilire, at ea quae 
dicere intenderat ita snperioribus 
copnlaret, tanqnamipsa nnllis inter- 
positis sequerentur. Fructns antem 
hnjns operis triplex est; primus 
quod brevitatis compendium prc- 
stat, ea tamen quae singnli dicunt 
nulla breTitate contracta sunt, quK 
▼ero duo Tel tres yel omnes itera 
abbreriatione res tr i c ta sunt, semel 
enim posita sunt,addito tamen quic- 
quid quilibet eorem pneter cseteros 
apponit. Secundus quia concordiam 
quatuor Evangelistarum demonstrate 
nee tamen alium alii confert quo 
dissidentes vel concordes appareant, 
sed loca quasi contraria et sibi re- 
pugnantia simul ponit, ut ex hoc 
diligent! inquisitori non esse dissi- 
dentia innotescat. Tertius, quia 
ordinem remm gestarum dedarat, 
ut in seriem ipsorum Eyangeliomm 
per banc distinctionem facilior in- 
telligentise aditus pateat, et evan- 
gelicsB ordinationis ratio clarius elu- 

cescat Ratio tituli ex supra- 

dictis patet ; ordo autem necessitatis 
est, aut commoditatis, aut rationis. 
Necessitas cogit, [commoditas aptat, 
ratio narrationis ordinem non de- 

It is said that the work was left incomplete by Clement 
of Lanthony^ and that it was finished at a much later 
period by William of Nottingham.* The two parts seem 
to have been considered as separate works; and the 
simple series of the harmony of the Gospels is often found 
without the commentary. It is so found in the English 

Clement of Lanthony was the author of several other 
works. His treatise on the wings of the cherubim is 

* See Tanner, Bibl. r. Clemetu LanihonieniU. 


found in numerous manuscripts in the libraries of Oxford 
and Cambridge. His commentary on the Acts of the 
Aposdes is preserved in the British Museum (MS. Reg. 
2 D. v.) He also published commentaries on the canonical 
epistles, which are presenred in the archiepiscopal library at 
Lambeth. Clement's gloss on the Psalter, and his treatise 
De arte fidei catholiae are extant in the Bodleian Li- 
brary, and in the libraries of Trinity and Magdalene col- 
leges^ Oxford. Bale also ascribes to this writer, EpistoUe 
ad diversos, Lecture scfiolastica, and a treatise De orbibus 


Another very productive theological writer of this 
period was Robert of BridUngton, who, from being con- 
stantly occupied in writing, was commonly known by the 
name of Robert the Scribe. He was fourth prior of the 
monastery of Bridlington, and in Leland's time his monu- 
ment might still be seen in the cloister, before the entrance 
to the chapter house, with the inscription, RobertuSy cog^ 
nomento Scriba^ qttarttts prior. His writings were chiefly 
commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, several of which 
are still extant in manuscript. Leland found in the library 
of the priory of Bridlington, where they were then care- 
fully preserved, prior Robert's Commentaries on the books 
of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, 
the twelve Prophets, the Psalter, the Gospels of St. Mat- 
thew and St. John, the Epistles of St Paul, and the 
Apocalypse, with a Dialogue de corpore et sanguine Domini 
and a treatise de ecclesia caikolica. Bale adds to these, 
Commentaries on the Song of Solomon, and on the creed 
of St. Athanasius and the Lord's Prayer, a treatise de 
operibus sex dierum^ and a book of sermons. 

1180.] HEREBERT OF BOSH AM. 269 


Herebert of BosHAM was probably a native of the 
town of that name in Sussex.^ He is said to have studied 
in France^ and to have returned to his native country at 
the solicitation of Thomas Becket^ whom he afterwards fol- 
lowed in all his fortunes^ and to whom he appears to have 
performed the duties of a secretary. At a later period he 
collected into a volume the letters which he had written, 
both in the name of his patron and in his own.f It has 
been stated^ but apparently without reason, that Herebert 
was one of the witnesses of Becket's death. We have no 
information as to the time at which he died ; but he com- 
piled a life of his patron^ probably towards the year 1188. 
This life was one of the four biographies which^ in an 
abridged form, entered into the composition of the Qua- 
drUogus. Bale attributes to Herebert de Bosham other 
books^ entitled Defensorium Anrue (which, he says, com- 
menced with the words Errorum veterum inventoresj ; De 
suisperegrinationibus ; Glossa in PsaUerium ; and a Com- 
mentary on the Epistles of St. Paul. Some of these were 
perhaps the works of other writers of the name of Here- 
bert. The commentary on the Psalms is preserved in a 
manuscript in the Bodleian Library. Herebert de Bosham 
appears to have been confounded with another ecclesiastic 

* Herebert U enamerated as a maa of learning and reputation in the 
Catalogus emditomm B. Thomse Martyris, and he is there distinctly stated 
to have been an Englishman. 

t A copy is presenred among Archbishop Parker's MSS. in Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, No. 123 ; it is entitled in Nasmith's Catalogue, 
Epislola Herberti de BosMtn tarn in persona Thoma Beckei quam in sua 
adpapam ei alios episeopoSf et responsiones ad iihs. 


of the same (or a similar) name, who retired to Rome, and 
was made by the pope archbishop of Benevento, and after- 
wards, in 1178, a cardinal. 


Gilbert Foliot was one of the most remarkable men 
of his age, and is praised by many of his contemporaries 
for his learning and piety, as well as for his eloquence and 
skill in secular afiairs. He was descended of a powerful 
family which came in with William the conqueror, and, 
after having been (as it is said) archdeacon of Middlesex, 
he became a monk of Cluny. In 1139, by the influence 
of his kinsman Milo constable of Gloucester and of Robert 
de Betun bishop of Hereford, he was made abbot of 
Gloucester; in 1148 he was advanced to the bishopric of 
Hereford; and in 1163 he was, at the especial desire of 
the king, made bishop of London.* In the disputes be- 
tween the king and Becket, Gilbert bishop of London 
distinguished himself by his faithful adherence to the 
former. At the end of the year 11 64 he went to Rome to 
plead Henry's cause. On his return the king appointed 
him receiver of the rents of the confiscated property of 
the church, and employed him as his chief adviser in eccle- 
siastical matters. As might be expected, he became one 
of the most prominent objects of the hatred of the party of 
Becket ; and in the letters of the archbishop and John of 
Salisbury he is loaded with epithets of the coarsest abuse. 
Becket himself did not scruple to designate him as *^ the 
forerunner of Antichrist and the exciter of all the king's 

* Henry Wharton, de London. EpUcopis, where there ia a long article 
on thia prelate. Conf. Godwin, de Epiac. and the article in Tanner'a Bib- 
liotheca. Bale states erroneously that Gilbert was abbot of Leicester. 

1188.] GILBBRT FOLIOT. 271 

malice/' — Anfichristi praambulum et totius malituB regis 
incentorem.* His enemies accused Gilbert of aspiring to 
the archbishopric ; and they reproach him with his pre- 
sumption in asserting that the see of London owed no 
submission to that of Canterbury, and in refusing to obey 
Becket's orders* In the coimcil held at London in 1169, 
Gilbert Foliot appealed from the archbishop to the pope, 
for which act of contumacy he was solemnly excommu- 
nicated by Becket ; but he repaired to Rome in person, 
and obtained his absolution in 11 70. He had no sooner 
been delivered from this sentence than, before the end of 
the last mentioned year, Becket excommunicated him a 
second time ; and on this occasion the sentence was con- 
firmed by the pope, who suspended him from his func- 
tions. The bishop of London remained under the sen- 
tence until after Beckef s death, and the hatred of Becket's 
party was carried so far that they accused him of having 
been accessory to the murder. When the pope's legates at 
length absolved him at Gisors in the beginning of August 
1171^ he was obUged to pledge himself that he had not 
by deed or word procured the death of the archbishop. 
Some of his contemporaries invented a story, which is 
preserved by Matthew Paris, how he was one night re- 
clining on his couch, reflecting on a long consultation 
which he had just had with the king on Becket's affairs, 
when a strange voice uttered in his hearing the following 
rhymes, — 

O GUberte Fotiot, 
Dam reTolvis tot et tot, 
Deus tans est Astarot. 

It is added that the bishop replied without hesitation, 
MentiriSj damon, Deus meus est Deus Sabaoth, Gilbert 
died on the 18th of February, 1187, which probably 

* Bpist. S. ThomiB, lib. iii. ep. 59. 


means 1187-8 ; for Walter Mapes^ in his treatise De nugi» 
curuUiumy written apparently at the end of 1187^ speaks 
of him as still alive^ though very aged and almost blind^ 
and states that he was employing bis latter years in lite- 
rary occupations.* 

By the terms in which Mapes speaks of his skill in 
Latin^ French, and English^ we might be led to suppose 
that Bishop Gilbert had written in the three languages. 
Such of his works as are known to us were^ however^ all 
written in Latin, and appear to have been composed in 
the earlier period of his life. His commentary In cantica 
canticorum is dedicated to Robert de Betun, bishop of 
Hereford ; and his letters^ of which a considerable number 
are preserved, belong to the period when he was abbot of 
Gloucester. These epistles, of which a few are preserved 
in a manuscript in Hereford Cathedral, and a larger num- 
ber (between forty and fifty) in a manuscript in the 
British Museum,t are addressed to Theobald archbishop 
of Canterbury, the bishops of Worcester, Winchester, 
Landaff, Salisbury, and Ely, several successive popes, and 
other ecclesiastics, and relate chiefly to the state of the 
border of Wales, and to violences offered to the church 
during the troubled reign of Stephen. They are thus of 
considerable historical interest. The following, addressed 
to the bishop of Worcester, may serve as an example : — 

Patii 8U0 domino Simoni Wigorn. Dei gratia episcopo frater G. ecde- 
aiee beati Petri Glooestrise dictus abbas, cum pietate frnctus operari 
jttstitiee. Compellit me caritaa et debita vobis suadet obedientia, ut quod 

* Gillebertua Filiot nunc Lnndinensis episcopns, yir trium peritiasimns 
linguarum, Latinae, Gallicse, AnglicKi et lucidissime disertas in singulis, 
in hoc senio suo, quo lumiois fere defectum incurrit, cum paucos modi- 
cos et luculentos feoerit tractatus, quasi poenitentiam perditK vacationis 
agens. W. Map. de Nug. Curial. Distinc. i. c. 13. 

t MS. Reg. 8 A. XXI. 

1188.] GILBERT FOLIOT. 273 

ad honorem ▼estrum consenrandom vel aliquatenns ampliandnm spectare 
cognovero, hoc yobU cum opportannm faerit et prsBsenB suggeram et 
absens scripto commoneam. Instant prope tempore pericnloaa et dies 
mali supervenerant nobis, in quibus mana inimici hominig super seminata 
zisania messem bonam pene suflfocare pnevalent ant comprimere. Nee 
tamen gentilitas est in qna snmns, sed omni gentilitate pejor inbumana 
crndelitas, cui totom quod libet licet, totnm vilait quod honestum est» nil 
amplectens desiderio quod christianse simpUcitati et sacris legibus obviare 
non constet. Nempe ut audita taceamus, vidimus ante acta bebdomada 
ecclesiam sanctse Dei genetricis apud Slobtres mirabili modo diruptam, 
tectum ejus manu sacrilega convulsum, in parietibus ejus nunquam «edificata 
propugnacula inmissos satellites impietatis deseirire promptissimos. Yidi- 
mus, inquam, et doluimus, locum sanctuarii sine honore, ecclesiam Del tur- 
piter contaminatam et ausu temerario in domieilium Satan» commutatam. 
Hujus etiam occasione malitiie qtudam ilios expugnare adorsi sunt. Istis 
itaque in ecclesiam ipsam lapides, tela, faces jacientibus, aliis resistentibus, 
non sine sanguinis effusione et multa hominum lesione biduum ibi misera- 
bile confectum est. Scimus adhuc lupos intra parietes ejusdem ecclesise 
in ipso ovili Domini latitantes, et in gregem Domini simplicem et inno- 
cuum laniantes, aliter fugari non posse, quam si bonus pastor adveniens eos 
sonitu buccinse et latratu canum terreat, dissipet, et disperdat. Hortor 
itaque patemitatem vestram consulendo vobis caritate qua debeo, ut cum 
honestioribus et eruditioribus clericis vestris locum flagitii festinanter adeatis, 
et commissam vobis ecclesiam primo purgari deinde redintegrari faciatis. 
Vel si monitionem vestram manus sacrilega minus auderet, actores et adju- 
tores sceleris scientibus et Tidentibus ipsis gladio Domini feriatis, ut dum 
in future condlio bujuscemodi tractabuntur excessns, honor sit vobis coram 
simul discumbentibus opposuisse tos murum pro domo Israeli et illatas sibi 
contumelias repulisse yiriliter aut vindicasse. Vale. 

In another letter^ addressed to the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, in which he excuses himself from attending a 
council at London, he speaks of an invasion of the border 
by the Welsh, and of his own losses : — 

Patri 800 et domino Cant. Dei gratia archiepiscopo et totius Anglise prl- 
mati T. frater G. Gloucestrin dictns abbas humilem ex caritate non ficta 
obedientiam. Rogamus benevolentiam vestram in Cbristo, dilecte pater, 
ut excusationem quam ad prsesens necessitate prtetendimus, ipsi suscipiatis 
et de mandate vestro siquid minus agimus, paterna hoc nobis caritate 
remittatis. Absit enim ut quid audeam in prsesentia yestra confingere, qui 
summum mihi solamen sestimem una vobiscum dies hujus incolatus individua 
Titse conjunctione transigere. Sed his qui circa nos sunt satis superque 
notum est, quomodo noper irruerint Goalenses in nos, et quod trans Sabri- 
nam fluyium potissimum habebamus totum fere usque in ipsas Goallifls pro- 


274 ROBERT FOLiOT. [Died 1186. 

fimditates abegernnt. Unde necesae est milii hao ipsa dondnica qua Lon- 
donitt conyenieretis coUoqulo regnm Gualenaiiim interease in Glamorgan, 
▼el plnaqoam trecent marcarum dampnum irrecnperatorie sostinere. Quia 
ergo in tota terra cordis yestri ad plenum dominatur caritas, dabitia filio 
exoranti hane yeniam, ut patema licentia ad pnssens urgenti et instant! pin* 
rlmnm ecdesiiB nostr» neoessitati deseryiam. Val. domnvs et pater mens 

A much larger collection of Gilbert Poliot's letters is 
preserved in the Bodleian Library, of which an edition is 
promised by Dr. Giles. The other works attributed to 
Gilbert are chiefly letters and writings relating to the 
disputes between the king and Becket. Some of these 
are printed among the Epistoke 8. ThotMBj and one will 
be found in the Concilia of Wilkins. Gilbert Foliot has 
been often confounded with Gilbertus Universalis, and 
with other Gilberts whose works have been wrongly as- 
cribed to him. 

Robert Foliot, probably a kinsman of Gilbert, who 
was also bishop of Hereford, has frequently been con- 
founded with Robert de Melun. We first hear of him 
as archdeacon of Oxford. He is said to have been a 
friend of Becket, and to have been made by his influence 
bishop of Hereford, to which see he was consecrated on 
the 6th of October 1174. He died at Hereford on the 
9th of May 1186, and was buried in the cathedral. The 
only work which he is known to have written is a treatise 
De sacramentis Veterii Testamenti, which Leland saw 
in the library of the abbey of Bury St. Edmund^s, 
and which Tanner mentions as being preserved in the 
Lumley Library. The Excerpta ex chronicis Mariani 
Scoti, attributed to Robert Foliot, was the work of an 
earlier Robert, bishop of Hereford.* He is also said to 
have composed a volume of sermons.f 

* See before, p. 20» of the present yolame. 

t The sources of all we know of thif writer are indicated in the BibUo' 
tkica of Turner, 

Died 1190,] RANVLPH db glanville. 275 


The commeatery m Caniiea Cdnticorum of Gilbert Foliot was printed by 
Patrick Jnnios, 4to. London, 1638. 


Banulfh db Glanyille, one of the most illustrious 
statesmen of the reign of Henry 11.^ is known in literary 
history as the presumed author of the first treatise on 
English law. He is said to have been born at Stratford 
in SuflFolk,* He founded the abbey of Butteley, in Suf- 
folkj in 1171 ; but his influence appears to have lain 
chiefly in the North of England, where, after the death of 
Conan, earl of Richmond, in 11 71, Ranulph held the 
castle and honour of Bichmond, in Yorkshire, in fee of 
the king, and as governor of Richmond Castle he joined 
actively with the other barons of the North in opposing 
the invasion of the Scots under William the Lion, in 
1173 and 1174. In the battle of Alnwick in 11 7^^ it was 
Ranulph de Glanville who captured the Scotish king, 
and he carried his royal prisoner to king Henry in Nor- 
mandy, In 1175 he was made sherifl* of Yorkshire, an 
ofiice which he held many years. In the year following he 
was made a judge of the king's court ; and, the king having 
in the same year divided the kingdom into six circuits, 
and appointed three justices itinerant for each, Ranulph 
de Glanville was appointed one of those for the Northern 
circuit.t In 1179, England being divided into four similar 
drcuits, he was named one of the six justices itinerant 
for the Northern division.^ In 1180 he was appointed 

* So» at leasti it \e stated in the preface to the Englifh tnmslation of 
t Roger HoTedea» Aaaal. p. 549. 
t Roger HoYeden^ Annal. p. 591. 

T 2 

276 RANULPH DB OLANVILLE. [Died 1190. 

chief justiciary of England,* which under the Norman 
kings was the highest office under the crown, not only the 
chief administration of the laws, but the command of the 
armies, and the government of the realm during the ab- 
sence of the king, being lodged in his hands. It appears 
that Ranulph gained this high degree of royal favour not 
only by his great abilities as a statesman^ and his pro- 
found acquaintance with the laws, but by the firmness 
which he shewed in supporting the royal prerogative 
against the encroachments of the church. Yet in 1184 
he fell into some degree of odium for an alleged act of 
tyrannical injustice, which involved him in a dispute with 
the bishop of Worcester.t In 1 186 he took the cross, with 
some other of the great barons in England ; and in the year 
following he was employed on an embassy to the French 
court, and was active in negotiating the peace of Oisors. j; 
Ranulph de Glanville held the office of chief justiciary until 
king Henry's death, and he continued to enjoy the royal 
favour after the accession of Richard I. We learn from 
William of Newbury, that he was at table with the new 
king at the time of the sanguinary insurrection against the 
Jews in London, which happened soon after his corona- 
tion ; and that he was immediately sent in the hopes that 
his known prudence and authority would be most efficient 
in allaying the tumult.§ He was now advanced in years 
{grand(BVU8)y and is said to have been dissatisfied with 
some of the measures of the youthful court. The same 
year (1190), he resigned his offices, and determined 

* Hoveden, ib. p. 600. 

t See Hoveden, ib. pp. 622, 623. 

\ Hoveden, ib. pp. 629 and 633. 

§ Mittitur a latere regis Ranulplius de GlanTilla, regni procurator, vir 
potens et pmdens, cum aliis seque uobilibus, ut yel flecteret Tel fraenaret 
attdaces. Will, Neubr. Hist. lib. iv. c. 1. 

J>tVrfll90.] RANULPH D£ GLANVILLE. 277 

to join thp crusade which had been proclaimed in the 
preceding year. He went in company with archbishop 
Baldwin and Hubert bishop of Salisbury, embarked at 
Marseilles, and arrived in Syria to take an active part in 
the siege of Acres, where he was killed, being one of the 
first men of distinction who fell in the christian cause.* 

Ranulph de Glanville appears to have zealously occupied 
himself in compiling and digesting, as well as enforcing, 
the English laws, which were then in a confused state. 
It is somewhat singular that Roger Hoveden (who was 
Ranulph^s contemporary), after stating his appointment to 
the office of chief justiciary, adds, that ** by his wisdom 
were compiled the under-written laws which we call 
English*' (cujvs sapientia conditce sunt leges subscripice quas 
Anglicanas vocamusj, and then gives the Latin text of the 
laws of William the Conqueror. Probably the Annalist 
means no more than that Ranulph de Glanville repub- 
lished and enforced more strictly the observance of the 
older code of Anglo-Norman laws. He is said also to 
have been the author of the act of Novel Disseisin. 
But his great fame among lawyers has arisen from 
the treatise De legVms et consuetudinitms regni Anfflite, 
which has been repeatedly published under his name, and 
which was probably compiled at least by his directions. 
There is no distinct authority for attributing it to him ; 
yet the arguments which have been brought forward 
against his claims (such as that no one but an eccle- 
siastic could have written in Latin) are altogether devoid 
of force ; and it is distinctly stated to have been published 
during the time when he held the administration of the 
laws, in the title which it bears in the earliest manuscripts. 
It is certain that it was a treatise of the highest authority ; 

* W. Neabrig. lib. ir. c. 4. Roger HoTeden, Anna]* pp. 668 and 685* 

276 BANULPH DB OLANVILLB. [Died 1190. 

it was copied and republished, in a mutilated fonn, in 
Scotland, in the work commonly known by the title of 
Regiam Mqfesiatem ; and it is the groundwork of the later 
treatise of Bracton. The treatise of Banolph de Olan- 
yille forms a regular system of English jurisprudence, 
confined in general to such matters as came within the 
jurisdiction of the king's court, or curia regii. It is 
divided into fourteen books, of which the first three com- 
prise the proceedings in a writ of right for the recovery of 
land. The first details the various forms of proceeding, 
until the two parties appear in court ; the second and 
third books describe the proceedings after the cause 
has been brought into court, and treat of the duel, the 
grand assise, &c. The writer's observations on the ad- 
vantages of the grand assize (lib. ii. c. 7) will serve as an 
example of the style of the book — 

Est autem magna assisa regale qaoddam beneficium, dementia prindpis 
de consilio procenim populis indultum, quo yitn hominnm et status inte- 
gritati tarn salubriter consulitnr, nt in Jure quod quia in libera soli tene* 
mento possidet retinendo, duelli casum dedinare possnnt homines ambiguum. 
Ac per hoc contigit insperatae et prsematurse mortis ultimum eyadere sup- 
plicium, yel saltem perennis Infami» opprobrium, illius infesti et inyere- 
cundi terbi quod in ore yicti turpiter sonat eonsecutiyum. Ex «quitate 
autem maxima prodita est legaUs ista institutio. Jus enim, quod post 
multas et longas dilationes yix evincitur per duellum, per beneficium istius 
constitutionis commodius et accderatius expeditur. Asrisa enim ipsa tot 
non expectat essonia quot duellum, ut ex sequentibus liquebit. Ac per hoc 
et laboribus hominum parcitur, et sumptibus pauperum. Prseterea, quanto 
magis ponderat in judiciis plnriam idoneorum testium fides quam unius tan- 
tum, tanto majori sequitate nititur iita constitutio quam dueUum. Com 
enim ex unius jurati testimonio procedat duellum, duodecim ad minus lega- 
lium hominum exigat ista constitutio juramenta. Peryenitur autem ad 
assisam ipsam hoc ordine. Quare is qui se in assisam posuit ab initio per* 
quiret breye de pace habenda, ne de cKtero ab adyersario ponator in plad- 
tum per breye, quo prius inter eos placitum fnit de tenemento unde tenens 
posuit se in assisam. 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth books are respectively occu- 
pied with questions relating to advowson, villenage, and 

Died 1190.] ranulph db glanvills* 279 

dower. The seventh treats of various questions relating 
to inheritance^ such as alienation^ descents, succession^ 
wardship, and testaments. The eighth book treats of 
final concords, and of records in general ; the ninth, of 
homage, relief, fealty, services, and purprestures and re- 
moval of boundaries ; and the tenth, of debts and matters 
of contract. The eleventh treats of attorneys, whose duty 
it is to represent their principals in court. Having 
finished the subject of actions originally commencing in 
the curia regis, the writer proceeds in the twelfth book 
to treat of writs of right when brought in a lord's court, 
and of the manner of removing them thence into the 
county court and curia regis. The thirteenth book treats 
of assises and disseisins ; and the fourteenth is occupied 
with the discussion of the doctrine of pleas of the crown, 
of concealment of treasure trove, homicide, arson, robbery^ 
rape, forgery, &c. 


Tractatufl de l^gibas et coDBuetudinibiu r^gni Anglie, tempore Regis Henrid 
secundi compositus, losticie gubernacala tenente illnstri Tiro Ranulpho 
de Glanuilla iuria regni et antiquanmi coiuraetadinil eo tempore peri* 
tiesimo. Bt illas solu legee continet et consuetadineB secundam quae 
placitatur in Caria Regis ad scaccarium et coram lusticiis ybicnnque 
faerint. Hole adiectae sunt a quodam legam studioso adnotationes ali- 
quot morginalet non inutilee. On the last leaf, Londini in «dibns 
Richardi Totteli. 1^. Supposed to have been printed about 1554, at the 
suggestion or under the direction of Sir William Sanford, judge of the 
common pleas. 

Tractatus de Legibus, &c. Qui nunc imprimitur post 50 annos a priori et 
prima Impressione, quia in pluribus concordat cum antiquo libro 
Legum Scotis Tocato Regiam Maiestatem precipuse in locis hoc signo 
notatis*. Cum diuersis manuscriptis nuper ezaminatis. . .InsBdibus 
Thoma Wight, 1604. ISmo. London. 

This edition was reprinted, with the omission of the preface, in 1673. 

Trait^s sur les Coutumes Anglo-Normandes, publics en Angleterre, depuis 
le onsieme jusqu*an quatorei^me Sitele. . . . Par M. Houard, Avocat an 
Parlement. Tome Premier. A Rouen, 1776, 4to. pp. 373 — 581. 
Tractatus de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Regni Anglic, tempore Regis 
Henrici II. compositus, Justicie Gubemacula tenente illustri yiro 
Ranulpho de GlanviUa» &c» 


Tractatus de Legibus, &c. Cum MSS. Harl. Cott. Bodl. et Mill. oollatuB. 
Londini, 1780, 8vo. Edited by John Rayner ; but the collations and 
correciion« of the text were by ^J. £. Wilmot, son of Sir Gardley 


A Translation of GianTille, by John Beames, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, Bar- 
rister-at-Law. To which are added notes. London, 1812. 8yo. 


Two monks of Ely distinguished themselves among the 
local historians who lived in the twelfth century. Thomas 
of Ely is only known by his writings. In his life of 
St. Etheldreda^ he states that his father was a man of 
learning, and^ as he mentions bishop Geoffrey^ who was 
elected to the see of Ely in 1174, he must have lived after 
that date. Richard of Ely appears to have been distin- 
guished above his fellow monks by his talents. We find 
that he was employed on a mission to the pope for the 
interests of his monastery between 1149 and 1154, and 
he appears as subprior of Ely in a document written in 
1173.* In 1177 he was elected prior, and he died some- 
time before 1195^ when the office of prior was occupied 
by another person. 

Thomas of Ely wrote the history of his monastery from 
its first foundation to the year 1107, divided into two parts 
or books, the first of which, consisting chiefly of the life 
of St. Etheldreda, ended with the reign of Edgar, a. d. 970. 
This history is also found in an abridged form, in which 
the words of the original are strictly preserved, and which 

* See Wharton, Angl. Sac. vol. i. pnef. p. xlr. 

Henry IL] thomas and richard of ely. 281 

is supposed to have been the work of the original author. 
It is from this epitome that portions have been printed by 
Mabillon, Gale^ and Henry Wharton. Both texts are 
found not uncommonly in manuscripts. The chief value 
of this history consists in the old local traditions which it 
has preserved. Thomas states that the life of Etheldreda 
was translated from an English (t. e. Anglo-Saxon) bio- 
graphy. He also compiled a history of the translation 
and a collection of the posthumous miracles of the same 
saint^ which^ like all the early collections of this kind^ is 
curious for the light it throws on the manners of the times. 
A good copy of the whole of Thomas's writings is preserved 
in the Cottonian Library (Domitian^ A xv.). 

Richard of Ely continued Thomas's History from the 
year 1107 to 1169. Boston of Bury mentions numerous 
sermons {settnones quamplures) by Richard prior of Ely, 
the first of which commenced with the words Ascendet 
ricut virffulium coram» Bale also ascribes to him car^ 
mina diveraa et epvftohB /amiliares. The continuation of 
Thomas's History, printed by Wharton, is not Richard's 
own work, but a compilation from it. 

The following extracts will furnish a specimen of the 
style of these two writers, and of the ordinary compilers 
of local histories in their time. The first is an account 
(probably taken from local tradition) of the martyrdom of 
the first abbot, Brihtnoth, in 981, by queen Alfrida, the 
mother of Ethelred, the king then reigning, taken from 
lliomas's History. 

Qnodam die oontigit abbatem Bridnodum ad curiam regis Edelredi pro 
ecclesiK negotiis profidsci. Cis (xeldesdune per silvam quae Nova Foresta 
▼ocatur ibati ubi, at fertur, ad usus nature remotiora loca repetiit ; cavens, 
ut erat homo simplex et magnie yerecundiie, undique circumspexit; reginam 
forte sub quadam arbore offendit nomine Aelstritham» suis veneficiis yacan- 
tern. Quo yiso, non absque luctu et pavore ingenti in talibus se perceptam 
ingemuit : peritisttma yero in arte» mechanica, at fertuTi habebatar. Sed 


vir Domini, ex hixjuscemodi rebus tnrbfttas nimium, qnantociai inde reoes- 
sit, et ad regis curiam deyeniens, magnifice susceptus, ecclesise suae nego- 
tia citiuB adimplerit. Itaque munificentia regis perfonctus et ezhilaratuf, 
ad sua redire Tiam repetiTit, et ne reginam licet abhorrens declinaret, ad 
ejus descendit aulam, quam fortuito ab omnibus vacuam penitus inyenit ; 
tameu celeriter reginse innotuit illins adyentus. lUa vero petiyit ut cum 
festinatione ad illam solus Teniret^ et quod cum eo de salute animse suae non- 
nulla secrete tractare habuit mandayit. Cui ingresso plures enormitateslas- 
civise nimis favorabiliter et inyerecunde locuta est, precibus et promissis 
ilium yelttti sanctum Joseph mulier impudica si posset incontinentite sibi 
nodis alliceret, «stimans fraude maligna sanctum Dei in scelere secum com- 
misceri, quoniam per ilium metuerat detegi a malitia quam illam exercere 
invenit. Ille viribus et verbis obstat, negat, et abhorret. Unde in furorem 
commota, evocatis ex suo nequam famulatu ancillis, et quia conceplt dolorem 
peperit iniquitatem, beatum yirum neci tradere jussit, nolens eum supenti* 
tern quern fore'dubitayit suorum aliquando scelerum proditorem. Excogitat 
quomodo ilium extinguat, corpore a vulnere reserrato immune, non appa- 
rente Isesione. Admonet eas muoronum capulos in Igne ferrere, et sub 
asoellis sancti abbatis imprimi usqui dum spiritum excutiat» Quo hcto 
clamavit intrinsicus, velut tali infortunio pave&cta. Unde ministri abbatis 
et qui cum illo yenerant adcurrunt monacbi, eum subita morte prayentum 
ab eis audiunt, et ingemiscunt. 

The second extract^ taken from Richard's History, de* 
scribes the miserable condition to which the country round 
the monastery was reduced when the monks of Ely had 
incurred the anger of king Stephen. 

Propterea rex Stephanus ira grayiter accensus omnia hsec reputayit ab 
episcopo Nigello machlnari, et jussit eyestigio posaessiones ecdeslse a suis 
undequaque distrahi in yindictam odiorum ejus. Succisa igitur monachls 
rerum facultate suarum, nimis «gre compelluutur in ecclesia, maxime cibo- 
rum inedia, unde non babentes stipendia yictuum, gementes et anxii, reli- 
quias thesaurorum quae paryo in loco residuas erant, yii. de octo feretris, 
argentum quod inyeniunt et aurum sumpserunt ; quae deinceps minime sunt 
reformata. Oppresserat enim fames omnem regionem, et segra seges yictum 
omnem negayerat. Per yiginti milliaria seu triginta non bos, non aratrum 
est inyentus, qui particulam terrae excoleret. Vix paryissimus tunc modius 
emi poterat ducentis denariis. Tantaque hominum clades de inopia pania 
secuta est, ut per yicos et plateas centeni et milleni ad instar uteris inflati 
exanimes jacerent. Fens et ? olatilibus cadayera inhumata relinquebantur. 
Nam multo retro tempore talis tribulatio non fuit in cunctis terrarum reg* 
nis. Potentes per circuituq[L late vastando milites ex rapina conducunt, 
yiUas oombunint, captiyos de longe ducentes miserabiliter tractabant, pios 
aUigabant in compedibiu et nobiies in manicifl ferreis. Furit itaque nbiM 

Hewry //•] osrvasb of tilbury. 283 

yesana ; inTicta iKtator malituu Non sexm non pareimt letati ; mille mortifl 
species infemnty ut ab afflictis pecunias excntiant. Fit clamor dirna plan- 
ge&tium, inhormit luetos ubiqni moetentinmi et constat foissa oompletiun 
quod nanciator in ApooalTpsi Joannia : Qn«rent homines mori et ftagiet 
mors ab eis. 


Acta Sanctorum Ordinia S. Benedactl in sttonlonnn olassefl distribnta* dis- 
culum ii. LutetiK Parisiomm, 1691. fol. pp. 738—774. Vita S. 
Ethildrit» virginis et reginte, abbatissce Bliensis prime. Auctore 
Thoma Eliensi monaoho» qui sttcalo xii. Tiiit. The first ix>ok of Tho- 
mas's Ely History* 

Historise Britannicse, Saxonicse, Anglo- Danicse, Scriptores zr. Ez Tetostis 
codd. MSS. editi opera Thomse Gale, Th. Pr. Ozohift, 1091» fbl. 
pp. 489. Bz seoundo llbro Historise Elyensia. The second book 
of Thomas's History» with some omissions explained in Gale's preface. 

Anglia Sacra, sive CoUectio Historiarum, &c. (by Henry Wharton). 
Pars Prima, Londini, 1691. pp. zzziz — ^zlii. The prologue and eom- 
mencement of Thomas's History of Ely. pp» 593—614. Thomn mona- 
chi EUensis Historia Bliensis [the abridged edition] . pp. 615 — 630. 
Richardi prioris Bliensis Continnatio fiistoriae Bliensis ab anno 
MCVII. ad annum MCLXIX. p. 6BS. Thornn monadii Bliensis 
Fragmentnm de dignitate abbatis EUeiuii* 



Gbbvask OF TiLBURT is one of the most amusing 
writers of this period. He is said to hare been a kinsman 
of king Henry II. of England, but there appears to be 
no authority for this statement. He was probably bom 
at Tilbury in Essex, but the date is unknown. He appears 
to have studied in the foreign schools ; and he rose so high 
in the favour of the German emperor Otho IV. that that 
monarch made him marshall of the kingdom of Aries. 
Otho himself, who was elected emperor in 1198, was de- 
scended from king Henry's mother, the empress Matilda, 


I « 

284 GERVA8B OF TILBURY. {ReiffHo/ 

and was in constant intercourse with the English court. 
The Otia Jmperialia, the only work Geryase is known 
with any certainty to have written, was compiled in the 
reign of king John, and was dedicated to the emperor 
Otho ; but the author speaks from his own remembrance 
of events which occurred at the death of the young king 
Henry (the son of Henry II,), in 1183.* 

The title which Gervase gave to his book appears to 
signify that it was intended for the amusement of the 
emperor's leisure hours. It is divided into three ctecisi- 
ones, or books, the contents of which are of a somewhat 
miscellaneous nature. It exhibits extensive reading and 
considerable learning, and its author appears to have shared 
largely in the taste then prevalent for collecting popular 
legends, a circumstance which renders his work especially 
valuable for the history of the popular superstitions of the 
Middle Ages. In the first book Gervase treats of the crea- 
tion of the world, of the elements, of paradise, of natural 
phenomena, and of various matters connected with these 
subjects ; — of fauns and satyrs (i. e. fairies and spirits sup- 
posed to haunt the woods), of the sons and immediate 
descendants of Adam, of the origin and history of music, 
of Seth, Enoch, Methusalem, &c. and of the Deluge. In 
the second book he treats of the division of the sons of 
Noah, of the four empires, and of the threefold division 
of the earth, which is followed by a detailed geographical 
description of each country and of its singularities. The 
author then proceeds to give a succinct historical account 
of the Israelites, of the kings of Latium, of the destruc- 
tion of Troy, of the kingdoms of the Romans, Jews, 
Medes, Macedonians, Egyptians, and Persians, of the 
empire of the Romans and the origin of the Goths and 
Lombards, of the Britons (in which he follows Geoffrey 

* Otia Imper. Decis. ii. c. SO. 

Henry IIJ] qervase op tilbury. 285 

of Monmouth)^ of the Francs^ of the Roman emperors 
subsequent to Charlemain^ of the succession of the kings 
of France, and of the Norman kings of England ; which is 
followed by a detailed description of the Holy Land, and 
shorter descriptions of Egypt, Europe in general, and 
Cisalpine Gaul in particular. The remaining chapters of 
the second book treat of the origin of provinces and states, 
of the settlement of the immediate descendants of Noah, 
and of the six ages of the world. The third book treats 
of wonders of every description, natural and artificial, and 
abounds in curious popular legends relating chiefly to 
England and to the district of Aries. As examples we 
may quote a legend of St. Ceesarius of Aries, and an ac- 
count of a class of hobgoblins, a belief in which formed part 
of the popular mythology of England in the twelfth cen- 

De venio quern in chiroiheea amcltait iancttu. 

Quia vero ventornm ac montium fecimus mentionem, asserentes montes 
plnrimos omnibus vetitis esse altiores, illud quoque annectimas» valles esse 
sic montiom contiguitate conclusas» quod ad iUas nuDquam aura perrenit. 
Ecce in rftgno Arelatensip episcopatu Yasconensi, castrum Divionis Colonia 
inhabitatum. Hoc in vallci circumquaque montibus circumsepta, positum est> 
in quod [eo quod ventus nee levissimus subintraverat usque ad tempora 
Caroli M. sterilis semper vallb extiterat, omnique humano commodo pror- 
sus inutilis. Verum infoecunditatem ipsius comperiens archiepiscopus Are- 
latensisy sanctissimus vir, miracnlis preeclarus, Ciesarius, mare civitati suae 
subjacens adiit, et chirothecam suam vento marino repletam strinzit. Acce- 
dens itaque ad vallem, inutilem tunc habitam, in nomine Christi chirothe* 
cam plenam vento scopulo cuidam injecit, ventumque perpetuum jussit 
emittere. Sicque factum est, quod statim rupit facto foramine per sclssuratn 
ezhaustum ventum semper eructuat, quem pontianum vulgns nominat, quasi 
a pouto illuc yirtute divina translatum. Hie, inquami impetuosus terminos 
cujusdam subterfluentis aquse non transgreditur» omnia foecundat, omnia 
salubrat, et dum pnetereuntes a fronte salutat, eos altiore flatus algore fla- 
gellat, quos vallis confinium egressos quasi prohibitus ne datas sibi metas 
excedat non approzimat. 

The second extract relates to a superstition which still 
exists in some of the more secluded parts of our island. 

286 0BRVA8B OF TILBURT. IBeiffH of 

De Neptftnis «toe PorhttUtf qui homines ilhtdunt, 

Sicnt inter homines mlrabilia qusedam natura prodncit, ita spirituB in 
oorp<iri]nui aereii qn» aMumont ez divina permistione Indibria svi faeinnt. 
Ecce enim in AngUa dBmonea quoadam habet, dsmones inquam, neacio 
dizerim an secretaa et ignotn generationia effii^iea, quos QBUJlNeptunos AngU 
Portunoi nominant. Istia insitum est, quod simpUcitatem fortunatomm 
oolonomm amplectontnrp et cum noetonuui propter domesticaa operas 
agnnt Tigilias, snbito clausis jannis ad ignem calefiunt, et ranuncnlas ez 
shin projectas pninis impositas comedunt, senili Tnltu, facie cormgata, sta- 
tora posillii dimidinm poUicis non habentes. Fsnnicalls consertis indnim- 
tor, et si quid gestandam in domo fiierit ant onerosi opens agendom, ad 
operandum se jungnnt, citius hnmana facilitate ezpediunt. Id illis insitum 
est, nt obsequi possint, et obesse non possint. Vemm unicum qnasi modu- 
lum nocendi habent. Cnm enim inter ambignas noctis tenebras Angli soli- 
tarii quandoqne eqnitant, Portunus nonnunquam invisns eqnitanti se oopnlati 
et cum diutius comitatur euntem, tandem loris arreptis equnm in lutum ad 
manum dndt, in quo dum infizus volutatur, Portunus eziens cachinnum 
fkoiti et hiQusoemodi lodibrlo hnmanam simpUcitatem deridet. 

As the author of the Otia Imperialiay Gervase of Til- 
bury belongs rather to the reign of John than to that of 
Henry II. But tradition has ascribed to him a treatise 
in form of a dialogue on the Exchequer and its officers, 
which the author says was begun in the 23rd of Henry IL 
(A.D. Il77)> and which appears from internal eyidence to 
have been completed about the end of the following year. 
The writer of this book must have lived early in the 
reign of Henry II. for it appears from his own statements 
that he had seen Robert earl of Leicester, the chief 
justice, who died in 1168 ; that he had conversed with 
Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, who is said to 
have died in 1171 ; and that he had supplied the place 
in the Exchequer of Nigellus bishop of Ely, who died in 
1169, during the temporary absence of that prelate. 

Madox, who published the Dialogus de Scaccario in his 
History and Antiquities of the Exchequer, has attempted to 
prove that Gervase of Tilbury was not the author of that 
treatise. His chief arguments are, that we have no reason 
for believing that Gervase ever was a clerk of the Exche- 

Henry //.] richabd' bishop of lonbon. 287 

quer ; that the author appears to have been an ecclesiastic^ 
which could not have been the case with the person who 
was appointed to so decidedly a lay office as that of 
marshal of Aries ; and that Gervase^ if he were (as is pre- 
tended) grandson of Henry IL could not at the time the 
book was written be of a sufficient age to be identified 
with this writer. These negative arguments^ however, 
seem to us to have no great weight. There appears to 
be no proof of the affinity between Oervase of Tilbury 
and Henry IL and the former may have been a young 
man in the 23rd year of that monarch's reign, and still 
have written a work in the reign of John at no very ad- 
vanced age. The author of the Otia Imperialia must have 
been a derk, and his book has quite as much appearance 
of having been written by an ecclesiastic as the Dialogue 
on the Exchequer. We do not know enough of his his- 
tory to be able to state that he never held a place in that 
office. An argument of much greater weight is furnished 
by the Red Book of the Exchequer, written in the reign 
of Henry III. which contains a copy of the treatise alluded 
to. The writer of that document, as quoted by Madox, 
appears to ascribe this book distinctly to Richard bishop 
of London.* Richard was a son of Nigellus bishop of 
Ely; he held the dignities of a canon of London, archdea- 
con of Ely, and dean of Lincoln, and is said to have pur- 
chased the office of high treasurer in 1169, which he filled 
so much to the satisfaction of the king during the whole 
of his reign that before he died he obtained for him the 
bishopric of London, to which he was consecrated on 
the 31st of December 1189. He died on the 10th of 
September 1198. It must be observed, however, that 
there is nothing in the book itself to induce us to believe 
that its author held the high office of treasurer» 

* Madox, Hiflt. of Ezcheq. vol. ii. pp. 345, 346 (seooad edition). 


The Dialogue on the Exchequer is divided into two 
books. The author tells us that when he was sitting in 
the room of a chamber which looked upon the river 
Thames, in the 23rd year of the reign of Henry II., he 
heard a voice which said to him, *^ Master, knowest thou 
not that in science or treasure which is hidden there is no 
utility ?'"* This voice turns out to be that of a fellow 
clerk, who urges him to commit to writing his great 
knowledge of the a£Fiairs of the Exchequer. He expresses 
his reluctance to this undertaking, and among other rea- 
sons he represents that it would be impossible to treat 
the subject otherwise than in rude language with barba- 
rous words.f He is, however, finally persuaded, and pro- 
ceeds to describe the nature of the Exchequer, and the 
meaning of the word. The passage in which he defines 
the name, and gives his opinion of its derivation, will 
serve as a specimen of the style of this book, which it 
must be confessed differs considerably from that of the 
Otia Imperialia of Gervase of Tilbury. 

Diseipultu, Quid est scaccariam ? 

Magister. Scaccariam tabula est quadrangula que longitudinis quasi 
decern pedum, latitudiois quiuque, ad mod urn mensse circumsedentibus 
apposita undique habet limbum altitndinis quasi quatuor digitorumi ne 
quid appositum ezcidat. Superponitur autem scaccario superiori pannus 
in termino Paschce emptus, non quilibet, sed niger yirgis distinctus, dis- 
tantibus a se virgis vel pedis vel palmoe extent» spatio. In spatiis autem 
calculi sunt juxta ordines suos de quibus alias dicetur. Licet autem tabula 
talis scaccarium dicatur, transmutatur tamen hoc nomen ut ipsa quoque 
curia que consedente scaccario est scaccarium dicatur ; adeo ut si quando- 
que per sententiam aliquid de communi cousilio fuerit constitutum, dicatur 
factum ad scaccarium iUius vel illius anni. Quod autem hodie dicitur ad 
scaccarium I olim dicebatur ad taleas. 

* Anno xxiij. regni regis Henrici secundi, cum sederem ad fenestram 8pe« 
culse quie est juxta fluvium Tamensem, factum est verbum hominis in im- 
petu loquentis ad me, dicens, Magister, non legisti quod in scientia vel 
thesauro abscondito nulla sit utilitas ? 

t De hiis rebus quas petis impossibile est nisi rusticano sermone et com- 
munibua loqui yerbis. 

Henry IL'] oervase of tilbury. 289 

D. Qu» est ratio hujas nominis ? 

If. Nulla mibi Yerior ad prflesens occurrit, quam quod scaccarii Insilis 
similem habet formam. 

2>. Numquid antiquorum prudentia pro sola forma sic nominavit, cum et 
simili ratione possit Tabularium appellari ? 

M. Merito te scmpulosum dizi. Est et alia, sed occultior. Sicut enim 
in scaccario Insili quidam ordines Sunt pugnatorum, et certis legibus yel li- 
mitibuB prooedont vel subsistnnt, pnesidentibns aliis et aliis prtecedentibus, 
sic iu hoc quidam prsesidenti quidam assident ex officio, et non est cui- 
quam liberum leges constitutas ezcedere ; quod erit ex consequentibus mani- 
festum. Item sicut in lusili pugna committitur inter reges, sic in hoc inter 
duos principaliter conflictns est et pugna committitor, tbesaurarium scilicet 
et Yicecomitem qui assidet ad compotum, rcsidentibus aliis tanquam jadi- 
dbus ut Tideant et judicent. 

The writer proceeds to treat of the different offices and 
officers of the exchequer^ and of their duties, privileges^ 
and dignities^ of the assay of money, scutage, prosecution 
of murder, of danegeld, forests, essarts, of hides, hun- 
dreds, and counties. In the second book he treats in suc- 
cessive order of summonses, of the duties of sheriffs, of 
purprestures and escheats^ of the rents {censusj of forests^ 
of pleas and conventions, of enforcing payments, &c. 

The author of this treatise tells us that he had written 
a history of the affairs of the reign of Henry II., to 
which he had given the title of Tricolumnits, because it 
was arranged in three columns, the first containing the 
affairs of the church, the second the political history of 
Henry's reign, and the third miscellaneous matters and 
judgments of the courts of law.^ This work appears to 
be entirely lost. 

Bale, as usual, attributes to Gervase of Tilbury a num- 
ber of writings, most of which are nothing more than 

* Libellus quidem est a nobis utcunque tempore juventutis editas de tri- 
partita regni Angli» bistoria sub illustri Anglorum rege Henrico secundo, 
quem quia per tres columnas per universum digessimus, diximus TYieolum' 
num. In prima quidem de ecclesie Anglicanse negotiis plurimis, et de 
nonnuUis rescnptis sedis apostolicoe ; in secunda vero de insignibus prsdicti 
regis gestifly quae iidem bumanam excedunt; in tertia vero de pluribus 


290 . OBRVASE OF TiLBUHT. [JSRmrj^. /Ii 

chapters of the Otia Imperialia. The only one of which 
there can be any doubt, is described by the old biblio- 
grapher as lUustratianes Galfredi, lib. iv. commencing^ he 
teUs us^ with the words^ Descripiio quantiiatis et mtdt. 


HistorUe Franeonim icriptores. . . . opera ad itudio ftlti post pttrem Frtft- 
dflci Duchesne. Tomiu III. Lutete ParisioniBi, 1641 » M,pp. 363— 
379. Fragmentam de Regibas Francomm et Angloratt, ex Libro de 
Mirabilibns Mandi, qui alias Solatium Imperatorls, ieti Otia Imperi- 
alia, nominator. Auctore Gervasio TtUeberiensi mareaeallo regal 

Gervasii Tilberiensis, Arelatensis quondam regni maresohalUy De Imperio 
Romano, et Gottorum, Lombardorum, Brittonum, Francorum, Anglo- 
rumque regnis, Commentatio, ex ipsius Otlis ImperiaUbus ad Otto- 
nem IV. Imperatorem, cum aliis, quae aTersa monstrat paginay nunc 
primum edita a Joachimo Joanne Madero. Helmestadii, 1673, 4to« 

Scriptores Renim Brunsvicensium illustrationi in8ervientes....cura Gode- 
fridi Guilielmi Leibnitii. Hanoverse, 1707, foL pp. 881—1004, Gerraiii 
Tilberiensis Otia Imperialia ad Ottonem IV. Imperatorem ex MSStis. 

Scriptorum Bmnsvicensia illustrantiam tomus secundus. . . . cura Godefridi 
Guilielmi Leibnitii. Hanoverse, 1710, fol. pp. 751—784. Emenda- 
tiones et supplementa Otiorum Imperialium GerrasU Tilberiensiiy 
tomo prime editorum ex MSStis. 

Antiquus Dialogus de Scaccario, Genrasio de Tilbury vulgo adscriptus, £ 
duobus vetustis Codd. MSS. Nigro et Rubra, in Scaccario regie aaser- 
yatis. Nunc primum editus. Dialogum recensuit, Lectionas Variantes 
Notasque adjecit, ac Dissertationem Epistolarem prsemisit, Thomas 
Madox. Londonise, 1711, fol. An Appendix to the first edition of 
Madox's History and Antiquities of the Exchequer. 

The History and Antiquities of the Exchequer of the Kings of England.... 
By Thomas Madox, Esq. The Second Edition. London, 1769, 4to. 
Tol. ii. pp. 339 — 452. Antiquus Dialogus de Scaccario, &c. The same 
title throughout as in the previous edition. 


The Ancient Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, published from two 
manuscript volumes, called the Black Book and the Red Book. Pub- 
lished originally in Latin, by Tho. Madox, Esq. Historiographer. Now 
carefully translated into English, by a gentleman of the Inner Temple. 
London, 1758, 4to. 

negotiis tam publicis quam familiaribus, necnon curiee et judlciis agitur. 
Hie si forte in manus tuas inciderit, cave ne se effugiat ; utilis enim poterit 
futuris esse temporibus et jocundus his qui de regni statu sub pnedicto 
principe solliciti fuerint. Dialog, de Scacc. p. 369 (second ed.) 

Died 1190.] Baldwin arohbp. op Canterbury* 291 


Archbishop Baldwin is best known in history as the 
preacher of the third crusade. He is said to have been 
born of poor parents in the city of Exeter, where he 
gained his living by exercising the profession of school- 
master^ until, having taken holy orders, and having 
attracted notice by his literary acquirements and by his 
piety, he was raised to the dignity of archideacon, which 
however he resigned in order to become a monk in 
the Cistercian abbey of Ford in Devonshire. We learn 
from his friend Giraldus that he here so far outshone 
his brethren in the virtues requisite for the monastic life, 
that within a year after he had assumed the habit he was 
elected abbot.* A few years afterwards he was promoted 
to the bishopric of Worcester, to which he was consecrated 
in llSO.t In 1184, he rendered himself remarkable by 
his spirited opposition to the powerful Ranulph de Glan- 
ville, in protecting from his vengeance a knight named 
Gilbert de Plumptun.t In 1184, after the death of arch- 
bishop Richard, the right of election to the primacy be- 
came a subject of obstinate contention between the monks 
of Canterbury and the bishops of the province, and, the 
king having interfered in vain, both parties carried their 
claims before the pope. After a great expenditure of 
money and time, the bishops obtained the right of voting 

♦ Giraldus Cambr. Itmerar. Camb. lib. ii. c. 14. Genraa. Dorob. Act. 
Pontif. col. 1675. Cfodwin, de Epiaoopia. 
t Wliarton, Angl. Sac. vol. i. p. 447. 
X Roger Horeden, p. 623. 

u 2 


in the election^ and the king appointed a time and place 
for the election. But the monks were still obstinate^ and 
refused to attend, whereupon the bishops proceeded to 
choose Baldwin bishop of Worcester, and the king con- 
firmed their election. With some difficulty the king at 
last persuaded the monks to comply, and Baldwin was 
consecrated archbishop of Canterbury on the 19th of May 
1 1 85. The monks were, however, never sincerely recon- 
ciled to him, and he was engaged in constant disputes with 
them during the remainder of his life.* In 1 1 88, after 
the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in the latter part of 
the preceding year, archbishop Baldwin took the cross, 
and travelled over the kingdom to preach a general crusade. 
He was accompanied by Oiraldus Cambrensis, and in part 
of his route by Ranulph de Glanville, and his success was 
so great that in Wales alone he raised about three thousand 
men.f The advanced age of king Henry, and other cir- 
cumstances, rendered the archbishop's exertions on this 
occasion useless, but on the accession of Richard I. he 
again entered with zeal into the project of a crusade. In 
1189, soon after king Henry's death, Baldwin consecrated 
at once four bishops, Godfrey of Winchester, William of 
Ely, Hubert of Salisbury, and Richard of London ; and 
within a few days after, by the award of the pope, a final 
reconciliation was effected between him and his monks, 
on the condition that on one side the prior whom the 
archbishop had appointed against the will of the monks 
should be deposed, and the chapel which he had built in 
the suburb of Canterbury should be demolished, while on 
the other side the monks should promise to be obedient 
in future to the mandates of the archbishop. The arch- 

* An account of these disputes will be found in Oervase of Dover, coU. 
1676^1678, and in Godwin, 
t Giraldus Cambrensis, Itin. C^mb. lib. i. c. }. and lib. ii, c. 13. 

Died 1190.] Baldwin archbp. of canterbury. 293 

bishop thereupon chose another prior with the consent of 
the monks, but they deposed him as soon as they received 
intelligence of Baldwin's death.* Soon after his disputes 
with the monks were thus appeased, archbishop Baldwin 
quitted England and embarked at Marseilles for Syria, 
where he arrived when the Christians engaged in the siege 
of Acre were disheartened by the want of provision and 
the desolations of pestilence, and his last days were occu- 
pied in administering help and comfort to the sufferers.f 
He himself died before the end of the year 1190.:!: 

Giraldus describes archbishop Baldwin as a man of a 
darkish complexion, of an open and handsome countenance, 
of mean stature, and in body rather slender than corpident. 
He was modest and sober in his living, a man of few words, 
and slow to anger. But Giraldus adds (which seems in- 
consistent with his unflinching opposition to the monks 
of Canterbury,) that he wanted vigour and severity of 
character, and that on account of his mildness and remis- 
ness in enforcing discipline, he was better fitted to be a 
simple monk than an abbot or a bishop ; and he assures 
us that his negligence in this respect was so well known, 
that on one occasion the pope wrote him a letter in which 
he addressed him ironically as monacho /erventissimoy ab- 
bait calidoy episcopo tepido^ archiepiscopo remisso. 

Baldwin appears to have spent much of his time in 
literary pursuits. His principal works now extant are a 
treatise de commendatione fidei; another, de sacramento 
altaris, which was written while he was abbot of Ford, 
and dedicated to Bartholomew bishop of Exeter ; and six-* 
teen tracts on various religious subjects. All these books 
have been printed. They are written in a style which 

* Roger HoTcdeD, Annal. p. 661 . 

t Giraldtti Cambrensis, Itin. Camb. lib. ii. c. 14. 

t Roger Hoveden, Annal. p. 685. 


shows their author to have been a man of deep reading. 
The following extract from die second of the short tracts, 
entitled De corruptis morUms cJeri et pojpuli, contains some 
reflections on the manners of his age, and exhibits the 
expectation so prevalent in the twelfth century that the 
world was approaching to its end. 

Signa qnoque, qnse diem jndicii prseventura sunt, presentibns morib«i 
nostril oonfignrabantur, et qaalia Tisibiliter fiitara flunt, talia Bpiritoaliter in 
nobis jam apparent. Scriptum est : Sol convertetur in tenebrasy et lona in 
sangninemy anteqnam yeniat dies Domini magnus et terribilis. Quod in fir- 
mamento sunt sol et luna, hoc in ecclesia Dei sunt ordo rectomm et yita 
snbditonun : ecclesiastica quoqne anthoritas, et s«cnlaris potestas. I/uia 
sole inferior est, et a se non Inceti sed a sole. Sic et yita subditonun infe- 
rior est quam yita prselatomm» per quos accendi debent et illominari. Ad 
eos qnippe dictum est : Vos estis lux mnndi. In lis autem rectoribns, qui 
ignorant et errant, qui cnci sunt et duces csooram, sol oonyertitnr in tene- 
bras ; ideoque in yita subditorom luna conyertitur in sangninem, in sangoi- 
nem yidelicet corruptionis et cmdelitatLs. Ecce enim refrigescit cbaritas 
mnltomm, et abnndat iniqnitas. Ascendit sanguis de lacn usque ad frtenos 
equorum, usque ad rectores populoram, et sangftts sangninem tetigit. Non 
inyeniunt laid in nobis quod debeant imitari ; inyeniunt quod yolunt per- 
sequi. Persequuntur nos calumniis, persequuntur injuriis, persequuntnr nos 
damnifl, declarationibus, opprobriis ; tandem persequuntur et gladiis. Nu- 
per enim furor persequentium in capite nos yulnerayit ; qui Christi Domini 
beatissimum Thomam prsesulem nostrum, ob insignem ecclesiasticse Uber- 
tatis defensionem, usque ad mortem persecuti sunt. Et si yerum est, quod 
causa rei fama sparsit, et multorum oonscientia metuit, yita nostra indisd- 
plinata tanti mali seminarium fuit, tantique odii fomitem ministrayit. Non 
enim existimayit nos homo sicut ministros dei et dispensatores mytteriorum 
Dei ; sed judicium Dei portabit, quicunque est ille. 

A Posnitential by this prelate is preserved, with some 
other tracts, in a manuscript in the archiepiscopal library 
at Lambeth.* The old bibliographers ascribe to him, in 
addition to the works already mentioned, commentaries on 
the books of Eangs ; on the sacraments of the churdi ; a 
collection of thirty-three sermons ; a collection of epistles; 
and other books with the titles, De orthodoxcR fidei dog- 
nuitibm; De sectia htereticorum ; De unitate cTuxaritatis ; 

* See Wharton. Auctuar. Hist. Dogmat. J. Usserii» pp. 407—409. 

Reign of Henry IL] Walter mapes. 295 

De sacerdotio Joannis Hyrcani; Super eruditione Criraldi ; 
De amore ; Contra Henricum fVintoniensem ; Commendatio 
virginitaiis; Carmen devotionis; De cruce; De angeli nuncio; 
Mythohgia; De utUitate et virtute sermonie dei vivi. 
Several of his tracts and sermons are preserved in a MS. 
at Lambeth. Some of the books mentioned in the above 
list are of very doubtfal authority. 


The treatise De Sacramento Altaris is said by Tanner to have been printed 

at Cambridge in 1591, 8vo. and in 1531, 4to. 
BibliothecsB Patmm Cisterdensiiun. • . . tomns quintus. . . • Lahore et studio 

F. Bertrandi Fissier. Bono-fonte, Anno Domini, 166S, fbl. pp. 

I — 159. Baldaini, ex abbate Fordensi ordinis Cisterc. Cantuariensis 

archiepiscopi, opera. The sixteen tracts and the treatises De commen- 

daitione fidei and De sacramento altaris. 


Walter Mapes, or more correctly Map,* was one of 
the most remarkable of the literary men at the court of 
Henry II. He was a native of the borders of Wales, 
probably of Gloucestershire or Herefordshire ; t and his 
parents, he tells us, had rendered important services to 
king Henry both before and after his accession to the 
throne.J Mapes studied in the University of Paris, 
where, as he informs us, he was witness to many of the 
tumults between the scholars and the townsmen;§ and he 

* He gives himself this name in the last chapter of his treatise De Nvgis 
Curialiumt and it is so spelt in all the most authentic docmnents. The 
other has been adopted more popularly in modern times. 

t He calls himself a Marcher (qui marchio sum Walensihus. De Nug. 
Cur. Distinc. ii.» c. S3), and calls the Welshmen his countrymen (Compa- 
triotse nostri, Distinc. ii. c. 20). He tells so many Herefordshire legends in 
this book, that we may be led to suppose him of that county. He calls 
England nuiternostraf Distinc. iv. c. 1. 

% De Nug. Cur. Distinc. v. c. 6. 

$ De Nug. Cur. Distinc. y. c. 5. 

296 WALTER MAPES. [ReiffH of 

tells us in another part of his work that he had attended 
the school of Girard la Pucelle,* which was probably in 
or soon after 11 60, when that eminent teacher is said to 
have commenced lecturing there. Soon after this he ap- 
pears to have been at the court and in the favour of the 
English king. He was familiar in the household of 
Thomas Becket^ and repeats conversations he had with 
that remarkable man, before he was made archbishop 
of Canterbury,t which event occurred in 1162. In 
11789 Walter Mapes presided at the assize at Glouces- 
ter as one of the judges ambulant,^ and he can hardly 
then have been less than thirty years of age. In the same 
year he was with the court at Limoges, and had the care 
of providing for Peter archbishop of Tarentabe ; § and he 
appears to have accompanied the king during his war 
against his sons.|| The next event of his life of which he 
gives us any notice was a mission to the court of Louis 
le Jeune, king of France, with whom he lived a short time 
on intimate terms ; and soon after this he was sent by 
the English king to attend the council which had been 
called by pope Alexander III. at Rome, and in his way 
was hospitably entertained at the court of Henry the 
Liberal, count of Champagne.1[ At this council Mapes 
was held in so much consideration that he was deputed 
to examine and argue with those deputies of the then rising 
sect of the Waldenses, who had been sent to Rome to 

* De Nag. Cur. Distinc. ii, c. 7. Vidi Parisiua Lucam HuDgarum in 
schola magistri Girardi Puellse. 

t De Nug. Cur. ii. 23. 

t Madox, Hist. Excheq. vol. i. p. 701. from the Mag. Rot. 19 H. II. 
Giraldua Cambrensis informs us that Mapes frequently acted with the judges 

S De Nug. Curial. Distinc. ii, c. 3. 

II De Nug. Cur. Distinc. iy. c. 1. 

^ De Nug. Cur, Distinc. y. c, 5* 

Henry //.] walteb mapes. 297 

obtain the papal authority for preaching and reading the 
Scriptures in the vernacular tongue.* This council was 
probably the Lateran council held in the year 1179. 

Walter Mapes informs us that he was the personal 
enemy of the king's illegitimate son Geofirey^ afterwards 
archbishop of York^ but that his own great influence with 
his sovereign shielded him from his resentment ; Mapes 
had resisted several of Geofirey's acts of extortion and 
injustice^ and had smswered his threats with cutting 
sneers. When Geofirey was elected to the see of Lin- 
coln, about the year 1176, Mapes was appointed to suc- 
ceed him as canon of St. Paul's^f and with this appoint- 
ment he also held that of precentor of Lincoln.^ He 
likewise held many other smaller ecclesiastical preferments, 
among which was the parsonage of Westbury in Glou- 

Mapes appears to have had a special employment in the 
court of the young king Henry, after he had been crowned 
by his father, until his untimely death in 1182, and he 
shows great afiection for the memory of that prince, and 
speaks leniently of his errors. || It appears by the anec- 
dotes related by himself and by Giraldus Cambrensis that 
he accompanied king Henry II. in nearly all his pro- 
gresses. He was with him in Anjou soon after the elec- 
tion of Geofirey to the archbishopric of York, in 1183.1[ 
In 1196 Mapes was appointed archdeacon of Oxford;** 
from which date we lose sight of him entirely. 

* The account of his interview with the Waldenses is given in the De 
Nag. Car. Diatinc. i. c. 31. 

t De Nug. Car. Distinc. v. c. 6. 

t In a charter of Ralph de DicetOi given in Tanner, Mapes is described as 
Ltncolniensis Ecclesiae precentor et noster concanonicus. 

§ Giraldas Cambrensis, Spec. Eccles. in the Appendix to the Introduction 
to the Latin Poems commonly aHribated to Walter Mapes, pp. xzxi, andzzxiv. 

II De Nug. Cor. Distinc. iv. c. 1. 

^ De Nog. Cur. Distinc. v. c. 6. 

•* De cantorc Lincolniensi Waltero Map in Oxenefordensem archidia* 

298 WALTER MAPES. [Beiffn o/ 

We owe these few details of the life of Walter 
Mapes chiefly to his own treatise De Nugis Curialium. 
He was evidently a man^ not only of much learning 
and extensive readings but of great taste for lighter 
literature. His mind appears to have been stored with 
legends and anecdotes^ and he was universally admired 
for his ready wit and humour. He speaks of himself 
as enjo3^ng the reputation of a poet,* but he gives us 
no clue to the character of the compositions by which 
he had entitled himself to this name. His Latin is very 
unequal ; but we are perhaps not entirely competent to 
pronounce judgment in this respect^ as the text in tibe 
unique manuscript of his prose Latin work which has come 
down to us is extremely corrupt. His style is in general 
not pure ; he often becomes wearisome by his attempts 
at embellishment, and his writings are too much inter- 
spersed with puns and jests. His knowledge of the 
world was evidently extensive, and his observations on 
men and politics are judicious and acute. He sometimes 
rises above the prejudices of his age, as in his account of 
Arnold of Brescia in his book De Nugis Curialium, whilst 
at other times he is influenced by the weakest feelings of 
superstition, as in what he says of the miracles of Peter 
archbishop of Tarentaise and of the monk Gregory of Glou- 
cester in the same work. Mapes is distinguished by the 
same love of the popular legends of his country which 
was so remarkable in his friend Giraldus Cambrensis. 
His sketch of the history of the Anglo-Norman kings 
down to his own time, with which his treatise De Nugis 
Curialium closes, is invaluable. 

conum tranglatione facto. Rad. do Dioet. col. 695, Conf. joh. Bromtoiii 
Chron. col. 1271. 
* Conf. De Nog. Curial. Difitinc. i. c. 10, Distinc. W. e. S, mdDistinc. 

T. 0. 1. 


Heiiry I/.] Walter mapeb. 299 

The earliest work that we can trace firom the pen of 
this writer is a playful treatise against marriage^ in Latin 
prose. Mapes says that he once found one of his in- 
timate friends in the court in a state of great melancholy^ 
and, on questioning him, he discovered that he was not 
only in love but that he was actually going to marry. 
Mapes expostulated with his friend on what he looked 
upon as a rash action ; but finding no favourable hearing, 
he wrote him this tract in the form of an Epistle, address- 
ing his friend by the feigned name of Rufinuiy and appro- 
priating to himself that of Valerius. He takes as his text 
the line, 

Loqni probibeor, et tacere hon possmn, 

and enforces his arguments by examples taken from an- 
cient fable and history, and from the Old Testament. 
Mapes tells us that this work was much admired when it 
was made public, and that copies of it were speedily 
spread abroad, but that, it being published anonymously, 
there were some who would have deprived him of the 
honour of being its author.* In fact, this treatise is still 
rather common in manuscripts, under the title Dissuasio 
Valerii ad Rufinum phUosqphum de dv>cenda meore. He 
subsequently acknowledged the authorship of this Epistle, 
and inserted it in his larger work De Nugis Curiodium. 

This latter work is imfortunately preserved in only one 
manuscript (in the Bodleian Library at Oxford), and that 
a very incorrect one. It is divided into five books, or, as 
as he calls them, Distinctiones, and forms a singular med- 
ley of various subjects. Mapes tells us that it was written 
at the court by snatches (raptimj, at different times and 

* Seimas banc [Epiatolam] plaovisse mnltifli avide rapitoTt traiucribitiir 
intentei plena joconditate legitor ; meam tamen eaae quidam sed de plebe 
ttegaat. De Nug. Ciffial. Dutinci i?. e. 5. 

300 WALTER MAPES. [Reign of 

under different circumstances; and this is sufficiently 
evident, not only from the repetition of the same story in 
different parts of the book, (as those of king Herla, of 
the Cluniae monk who quitted his monastery to re-^mbark 
in worldly affairs, and of Edric the Wild,) but from the 
indications of several different dates as the period of com- 
posing different portions of the work. It appears from 
the 15th chapter of the first Distinction, that the author 
was writing that part of the book when the news arrived 
of the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, which must there- 
fore have been the latter part of the year 1187; in the 
11th chapter of the fourth Distinction, Mapes tells us that 
Pope Lucius had just succeeded pope Alexander IIL, and 
that the year before this in which he was writing Lucius 
had been bishop of Ostia, so that it must have been 
written early in 1182, yet at the beginning of the same 
Distinction he says that he is writing on St. Bama- 
bas's Day (the 11th of June,) the same day on which the 
young king Henry died in 1182, evidently looking back 
to that event as being some time past; and in the sixth 
chapter of the fifth Distinction he speaks in one place of 
the death of king Henry IL, which occarred in 1189, a 
little after which he alludes to events which occurred when 
Richard I. and Philip of France were in the Holy Land, 
and immediately afterwards speaks of Henry IL as being 
alive ; so that the work is evidently a number of scraps 
collected together and revised and augmented at different 
times by its author. It appears that Mapes had become 
disgusted with the intrigues and jealousies of the court ; and 
that while in this state of mind one of his friends named 
Geoffrey requested him to write a poem, the subject of 
which was to be " The sayings and doings which had not 
yet been committed to writing.^' Mapes, in answer, pro- 
ceeds to compile a work in prose, in which his object 

Henry /!•] waltrr mapes. SOI 

seems to have been to show that it was impossible for 
any one involved in the troubles of a court to apply 
himself to poetry with success ; but as he proceeds he 
seems to have lost sight of his primary object, and goes on 
stringing together stories and legends which have no inti- 
mate connection with the general subject. In the first 
book he begins by comparing the English court to the 
infernal regions^ drawing comparisons with the fabled 
labours of Tantalus^ Sisyphus, &c., after which he pro- 
ceeds to relate some legends and stories relating to 
the follies and crimes of courts, which are followed by 
monastic stories, a bitter lamentation over the taking of 
Jerusalem, accounts of the origin of the different orders of 
monks and of the Templars and Hospitallers, with some 
severe reflections on their growing corruptions, and a long 
and very violent attack on his especial enemies the Cis- 
tercians. Next we have interesting accounts of different 
sects of heretics which had sprung up in the twelfth 
century, and the first Distinction ends with the story of 
three remarkable hermits. The second Distinction begins 
with tales relating to pious monks and hermits and 
their supposed miracles, which are followed by some 
anecdotes of the manners of the Welsh, and subsequently 
by a carious collection of fairy legends. The five chapters 
of the third Distinction consist of a series of stories of a 
very romantic nature. The fourth distinction opens with 
the Epistle of Valerius to Rufinus, already noticed, which 
is followed by another series of tales and legends, many 
of them of great interest, from their connection with 
popular manners or with historical personages. Tlie fifth 
Distinction contains a few historical traditions relating 
to earl Godwin and Cnut the Dane, followed by a sketch 
of the history of the English court from the reign of 
William Rufus to that of Henry II., which occupies the 

S02 WALTBR MAPX8* IReiffH qf 

larger portion of this division of the work* The two 
following stories relating to the manners of the Welsh 
will give a notion of the general character of this singular 

De hoapitalitate Waiensium, 

Contra hunc morem contigit vir qiiidain iUaram partiam hospitem sua- 
oepit, ipaoqne relicto domiy sumpta lanceamane facto in agenda sua peirezity 
6t pernoctavit aliaa, et secundo mane reyersna non inrento quem qnserebat 
hospite quserit ab nzore quo deveniBset. At ilia, '' Jacebat dilncnlo, et 
aperto contra se hostio visaque tempestate maxima ventorum et niyium, ait, 
DeuB bone I quam pericnlosa procella ! et ego respondi» Modo fadt bonnm 
perhendinare ignayo Tiro in domo sapientis. Turn ille com magno gemita 
ait, Pessima foemina, non perhendino ; et exiliit cum lancea, nee potui enm 
reyocare.** Vir se delusum dicens ipsam sua tranafodit lancea^ et cum 
qulatu flebili yeittgiis inhaesit hospitia, diuque secutua lupnm inyenit ocd- 
aum, et post ilium circa aemitam preoedentis octo, et demum lanceam 
fractam, post hec ipsum a longe sedentem yidit, unumque aed maximum 
lupum ipai de proximo insilientem quem sequebatur. Tum ille properans 
abegit lupum, pedibusque hoapitia sui proyolutua yeniam sibi de uxoris 
delicto petit, enarrans ab ilia ultionem. Ille miser omnino exammis fere 
lupum yidens expectantem quid fieret, ** Hoc,** inquit, " tibi pacto mes te 
mortis immunem concedo, ut te bine dnm quid mihi yirium et yitae auper- 
est amoyeas, quatinus in incurau lupi qui mihi tarn improbe quasi ad- 
hssrere yidetur ipsum interficere possim. ' ' Secessit igitur in partem rogatus, 
et lupus in yulneratum imiit, et ab ipso lancea transfixus est quam ei com- 
modayerat qui astabat. Seminecem igitur domum secom referena hospitem 
hospes, panlo post mortuum sepeliyit. Hsec fuit odii prima causa inter 
generationes yiyi et mortui, et ultionis mutuie usque in hodiemum diem. 
Cumque parentes yiyi sine culpa sint, sine yituperio non sunt, ob causam 
facte suapicionis et proyerbium uxoris inyid». Et quia de Walenaibus sermo 
coepit, yeniat in medium judicium diu inter eos quteaitum et tarde pro- 

De Luelino rege WalenH, 

Rex Walliae Luelinus, yir infidus ut fere omnes decessores ejus et poster!, 
nxorem habebat pulcberrimam, quam yehementius amabat quam amaretur 
ab ipsa, unde se totum armayit in insidias castitatis illius, et suspiciosiasima 
xelotipia decoctua nihil aliud agebat quam ut non tangeretur ab alio. Per- 
yenit ad eum forte juyenem iUarum partium elegantissimum, fiemia, nobilitate 
morum, generis, et formae, statuque rerum et personae felicissimum, somni* 
asse quod cum ipaa rem habuisset. Delusum se dicit rex, et quaai de re 
yeraciter acta stomachatur, dolet, et dolo oomprehendit innoxium, et si non 
obstet reyerentia parentum et timor ultionis ipsum cruciatibus affliget ad 
mortem. Ut moria est yadem se offert pro jnyene tota cognatioi et cayere 

Henry IL"] waltsr mateu. SOS 

jmlieio lUti. Ipse negat et judidnm itatdm fieri petit. Repulei de repulia 
quemntory et dam tenetur in vinculiB Tindictam difFerant. Multi ad judidom 
8»pe conyeniunt tun jossu principisi turn alterius inyitatione partis, et in 
omni oontractn defectl plnrea inToeant nndeqnaqae pnidentes. Tandem 
nnnm consnlnnt quern fama fiunebant pnecipunm, et res non minus, quibut 
ille, ** Judicia terrae nostra sequi oportet, et quae statuerunt patres pracepta 
longaque consuetudine firmata sunt, ntdla possimus ratione destmere. 
Sequamur eo0| et antequam in contrarium decreta ducent publioa nihil 
noTUm proferamus. Ab antiquissimis promulgatum est institutis, ut qui regis 
Wallin reginam adulterio deturpaverit, mille solutis regi yaccis cetera in- 
demnis liber abibit. De uzoribus similiter principum et magnatum quorum- 
cunque secundum singulomm dignitates constituta est poena sub certo 
numero. Iste accusatur de somnio concubitus cum regina, nee infieiatur de 
▼eritate criminis confessa. Certum est quod mille vaccs darentur. De 
somnio damns judicium, quod juTcnis hie mille vaocas in conspectu regis 
super ripam stagai de Behthenio statuat in ordine, sole luoente, ut sint 
umbrae singularum in aqua, et sint umbrae regis, yaccae yero cujus ante, cum 
sit somnium yeritatis umbra.*' Approbata est ab omnibus sententia haee et 
ezeeutioni mandata, licet objurgante Luelino. 

Walter Mapes was distinguished as a writer in the 
Anglo-Norman language^ as well as in Latin. It is to him 
we owe a large portion of the cycle of the romances of the 
Round Table in the earliest form in which they are known. 
This first series of these romances consists of the Roman 
de St Graal, or the history of the Graal before its pre- 
tended arrival in Britain, brought by Joseph of Arima- 
thea ; of the Roman de Merlin ; of the Roman de Lance- 
lot du Lac ; of the Quite du Saint Graaly which is a sequel 
to the adventures of Lancelot ; and of the death of King 
Arthur, forming the Roman de la Mort Arthtis. The 
three latter were the work of Mapes, as we learn from the 
concluding paragraph of the Mort Arthus; * and from a 
later writer of another branch of the series, Helie de 
Borron, who completed the Roman de Tristan in the reign 

* The passage stands .thus in a yery good MS. of these romances in the 
British Museum, in three yolumes, MSS. Addit. Nos. 10,872-3-4.— Si se 
taist ore maistre Gautiers Map de I'estoire de LAncelot, car ben Ta toute 
mente k fin selonc les choses que en ayindrent, et define ensi sen liyre si 
ontr^ement que apr^ che n'en poroit nus raconter chose qn'il ne mentist. 

304 WALTER MAPES. [Rciffn of 

of Henry III.* These authorities appear to intimate 
that Mapes translated his romances from a Latin original, 
which is distinctly stated in some of the jnanuscripts ; t 
but we have no other evidence of the existence of euch an 
original^ and it is probable that a great part of the inci- 
dents of the story was the work of the writer's own imagi- 
nation^ the whole being founded on popular legends then 
floating about. The love of legendary stories which cha- 
racterises the treatise De Nuffis Curialinm, is very con- 
sistent with the fact that Walter Mapes was the author of 
the French Lancelot and its sequel, but it is singular that 
the writer of the latter should not, among the numerous 
legends and romances in the other work, make the slightest 
allusion to any incident of the romantic cycle of king 

The manuscripts containing this series of prose Ro- 
mances are rather numerous ; but they are mostly of the 
latter half of the thirteenth and beginning of the four- 
teenth centuries, and no copy appears to be known which 
can be attributed to the age in which their authors lived. 
From this circumstance, and the fact that most of those 
now existing were written in France, the manuscripts 
cannot be considered as representing accurately the lan- 
guage in which they were originally written. Their style 
is not unlike that of some of the longer stories in the 
treatise De Nugis Curialium. The following incident from 
the earlier part of the QuSte du Saint Graal^ taken from 

* £t meiBinement je croi bien toachier BOr les livres que maistres Gautiers 
Maup fist, qui fit lou propre livre de moDsoingneur Lancelot don Lac. 
Panlin Paris, Les Manuscrits Fran9ois de la Biblioth^ne du Roi, torn. i. 
p. 139. 

t Cy fine le livre de messire Lancelot du Lac, lequel translata maistre 
Gautier Map. Paulin Paris, ib. p. 147. The notion that Walter Mapes 
was the author of the supposed Latin text, instead of the translation, appears 
to be a mere misapprehension. 

Henry IL] WALTfift mapbs- S05 

the manuscript of the British Museum, indicated in the 
note to the preceding page, written at the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, may serve as a specimen of the 
text and language furnished by the manuscripts in gene- 

Bnsi fu tottte la cort trouble por Pamor de eels qui partir s'en devoient, 
et quant lea tables ftirent ost^es par les cambres et el palais, et les dames 
furent assambl^ od les cheTalers, lors comenga li deals noviaz« Car chas- 
cnne dame et damoisele, fust espos^e ou amie, dist al cheraler qu'ele ama 
qu*ele iroit o lui en la queste du Saint Graal, et si 1 ot de tels laiens qui 
ben si acordassent, se ne fust un iriez bom qui laiens entra, vestus de robe 
de religion, apr^s souper, £t quant il fu venus devant le roi, si parla si 
haut que ben le porent tuit oir, et dist, '' O^s, seignor cbevaler, qui av^s 
jnr^ la queste du Saint Graal, ce yus mande Nascijens par moi, que nus 
ne maint en ceste queste dame ne damolsele qu'il n'en chie en peeie mortel, 
ne que nus n'i entre qu'il ne soit confes ou aille k confesse ; car nus 
en si haut service ne doit entrer, comme est li commencemens des grans 
secr^s des privaut^s nostre seignor, que 11 bans maistres monstrera aperte- 
ment al boineur^ cbevaler qu'il a esleu i estre son seijant entre les autret 
cheyalers terriens, a qui il monstrera les grans merveilles del Saint Graal, et 
li fera yeoir ce que cuers mortels ne poroit penser ne langue terriene dire." 

Par ceste parole ne mena nus d'aus dame ne damoisele avoec lui, et li rois 
fist le preudome berbergier bel et ricbement, et 11 demanda grant partie de 
son estre. Mais il li en dist petit. Car il pensoit k autre chose que al roi. 
La roine vint k Galaad, si s'asist daUs lui, et li commencbe idemander dont 
il est, et de quel pats, et de quel gent. £t il li en dist grant partie, comme 
cU qui ass^s en savoit. Mais de ce qu'il fu fiex Lancelot n*i ot il mot parl^. 
Et ne porquant as paroles que la roine i aprist, conut ele ben qull estoit 
iiez Lancelot, et qu'il avoit este engenres en la fiUe an roi Pelles, si com ele 
avoit oi dire maintes fois. 

Besides the writings above mentioned, tradition has 
ascribed to Walter Mapes a considerable quantity of 
rhyming Latin verse of a satirical character, which occurs 
frequently in old manuscripts, and upon which hb repu- 
tation in modern times chiefly rests. The treatise De 
Nvffis Curialium contains ample evidence of Mapes'si 
opposition to some of the corruptions of the court of 
Rome, and of his hostility to the monkish orders in gene- 
ral, and more especially to the Cistercians. A long chap-* 
ter of the book just quoted is filled with anecdotes of the 


806 WALTJBR HAPBS. [Rdgn of 

rapacity of the Cistercian monks both in England and 
abroad^ and Giraldus Cambrengis has preserred several 
of his oral remarks against the same order** Giraldus 
informs us that this hostility arose from the unjust en- 
croachments of the Cistercian monks of Newenham in 
Gloucestershire on the possessions of his own church of 
Westbury j and he tells us that when on several occasions 
he was one of the judges itinerant, and as such obliged to 
take the oath of administering justice faithfully to every 
one, he was accustomed to add ^^ excepting Jews and 
Cistercian monks/' The same writer tells us a ludicrous 
anecdote of an attempt of the Cistercians to persuade him 
on a bad of sickness to enter their order. In a manuscript 
in the Ashmolean Library at Oxford is preserved a short 
poem by a canon of St. Frideswithe's named Bothewald^ 
in defence of the Cistercians against the attacks of the 
satirical archdeacon^f in the rubric of which it is stated 
that Mapes wrote against the order, both in his youth 
and in his old age, in prose and verse, and Bothewald 
quotes the following apparently as a line of Mapes's 

LaDcea Longini, gres albas, ordo nefandus. 

It is also remarkable that Mapes speaks of himself on 
several occasions as enjoying the reputation of being a 
poet. On the other htind the poetry which has in modem 
times been attributed to Walter Mapes is not written in 
hexameters, like the line here given, and is not directed 
against the Cistercians. It consists of general satires 
against the corruptions of the court and church of Rome 
and the manners of the clergy, and appears most com- 

* Giraldus Cambrensisi Speculum Ecclesise, printed in the appendix to 
the Introduction to The liatin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, 
p. xtxi, et seq. 

t Printed lb. p. zxxy. 

Hinry TL] waltbb uapes. 807 

movlj under the name of Oolias or . Gk)liatdtt8| whidh 
then signified a person of loose life who said all he 
thought without the foar of any one* If any of this Goli- 
ardic poetry was written by Mdpes^ the S<Screcy of the 
authorship was so well kept in his lifetime^ that Giraldus 
speaks against them and their supposed author Oolias 
with great harshness in a chapter of the same book in 
which he dwells with so much warmth on his friend 
Mapes's praise^* and he cites, as an example, some lines of 
one of the poems which has been most constantly attri* 
buted to this writer^ the Can/essio GoUm» A large portion 
of this poetry is certainly not the work of Mapes ; indeed 
it can hardly be dated earlier than the reign of Henry III. 
It is not necessary here to do more than refer to the list 
in Leyser^t and to the collection printed under the title 
of The Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter 
Mapes. The poem which we hate the strongest reason for 
beliering Mapes to have written is entitled jipocalypsU 
GoUm qriiccpi* It occurs very frequently iti manuscripts 
<rf the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries^ and became 
remarkably popular at the period of the reformation^ when 
it was printed by Flaoius Illyrious^ and reprinted in seve- 
ral other works. This poem is found in manuscripts in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries under the name of 
Mapes, so that we can hardly tenture to reject it TliC 
writer is supposed to fall into a trance, during which 
the vices of the di£ferent orders of the Roman clergy are 
revealed to him. He sees four Animals full of eyes, and 
furnished with wings, resembling respectively a lion, a 
calf, an eagle, and a man* These are explained to signify 

* lb. p. zzxriil. 

t Folycarpi Leyieri HUtorU Poetantm et Poemftlam Mtdii ^Ti, p. 776. 

X 2 

ftOS WALTER MAPE«« [Reifffl o/ 

the pope and the three grades of bishops^ archdeacons 
and dean8« 

Est leo pontifez t ommiu, qui devont ; 

qui Ubras sitieos libros impignorat ; 

marcAin respiciens, Marcum dedecorat ; 

In avminis naTigans, in nummis anchorat. 
Eat ille Titolaa praeaal, qui pneviua 

in loco pascu» pnecurrit citias, 

roditqae niminana quod novit melius , 

et saginatos est bonis alteiius. 
Est aquila» que sic alis innititur, 

archidiaconus, qui pnedo dicitur ; 

qui videt a longe pnedam quam sequitur, 

et cum circumvolat ex rapto vivitar. 
Est quod induitur humana facie, 

decanus tacitse plenus versutise, 

qui fraudes operit forma justitias» 

piumque simpUci mentitnr specie, 
Ista sunt quatuor alas habentia, 

quia circumYolant rerum negotia ; 

plena sunt oculis, eo quod praevia 

lucra respicinnt, et subsequentia. 

He goes on to expose the faults of the lower branches of the 
clergy in the same unsparing manner^ but more in detail, 
pointing out their luxurious mode of living, their incontir 
nence^ avarice, and injustice ; and he closes with the monks. 

Quisque de monacbo fit diemoniacus, 

et cuique monacLo congarrit monachus, 

ut pica picae, ut psittaco psittacus, 

cui dat ingenium magister stomachus. 
Hiis mola dentium tumorem fauciumi 

lagena gutturis ventris diluvium, 

oris aculeus dat flammas litium, 

et fratrum malleus calorem noxium. 
Cum inter fabulas et Bacchi pocula 

modum et regulam suspendit crapula, 

dicunt quod dicitur favor a fabnla, 

modus a modio, a gula regula. 
£t sic lit ordinis crebra transgressio, 

fraudes, peijuria, livor, detractio, 

mentis esuries, rerum distractio, 

ventris ingluvies, renum concuseio. 

Henry If.] walteh mapes« SO&^ 

This is the general style of the poetry attributed to 
Mapes, though ,the metres differ. The bibliographers of 
the sixteenth century fell into the error of ascribing to 
him all the rhyming Latin poems of this kind they found, 
and they are our only authority for placing his name to 
any one of these poems except the one just described* 
One of the most remarkable is entitled Confessio Golue; 
the hero is introduced making a mock confession of his 
three vices^ the love of women^ the love of dicci and the 
love of wine. Of the third he says, — 

Tertio capitulo memoro tabernam : 

illam ziiiUo tempore sprevi, neqne spernaiUy 

donee sanctoi angelos Yenientes cemam» 

cantantes pro mortoo requiem setemam. 
Meum est propoattum in taberna mori : 

•vinnm sit appositnm morientis ori, 

ut dicant cam renerint angelomm chori, 

" DeuB sit propitius huic potatori.'' 

Some one at a very late period (perhaps after the inven- 
tion of printing) took the second of these quartains with 
some lines which follow, and arranged them as a drinking 
song ; and this led succeeding writers into great mistakes 
as to the history and character of Walter Mapes, who bas 
been termed " the jovial archdeacon *' and ^^ the Anacreon 
of his age/^ with various other inappropriate titles. There 
is no known circumstance connected with him which could 
authorise us to look upon him in any other light than as 
a learned and elegant scholar, a man of good sense, high 
cliaracter, and strict morality. The confessions in the 
poem alluded to refer merely to the pretended author 
Golias, whose name stands at the head. He speaks 
of himself only as a poet whose chief haunts are the 

Loca vitant pnblica quidam poetarum, 
et secretas eligunt eedes latebraram t 

310 ROBERT PK BORRON. [Reign qf 

fodant, ipiUnti Tigllaiit, nee laborant param, 

et yix tandem reddere possnnt opoa danim. 
JejuDant et abstinent poetarum chor!» 

Iltea Titant publisas et tnmultnt fori { 

ft Qt carmen faoiant ^ood non poaiit moHt 

morinntnr atndio, snbditi laboii. 
Unlcoiqiie proprium dat nature mnnns t 

ego nnnqnam potui loribere jejwuia i 
* m9 jejmiiim Tincere posaet pner unna i 

flitim et jqonium odi tanquam fdnns. 
UBievlque proprinm dat nature donnm : 

0go Teriuf liwiena bibo ▼innm bonnm, 

et qnod habent meliw do|U canponHn i 

tale Tinnm generet copia aennonam. 


The Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, ooUected and 
edited by Thomas Wright, London» printed for the Camden Society, 
1841. 4to. 

Gualteri Mapes de Nugls Cvrialium Dlstinctiones quinque. Edited from a 
manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, by Thomas Wright, 
London» printed for the Cemden Sodety. 4to. fin M«/)rMt«) 


Besides Walter Mapes^ two other writers of the reign 
of Henry the Second^ employed themselves in compiling 
the French prose romances of the Round Table. Their 
works are preserved, but concerning their personal his- 
tory we are almost entirely in the dark. To one of these 
writers^ named Robeht de Borron, we owe the Roman 
du Saint Graal and the Roman de Merlin^ which form the 
first portion of the series completed by Walter Mapes, All 
we know of him is that he was the kinsman of Helie de 
Borron^ wHo at a somewhat later period completed the prose 

Henry IL] luces db gast. Sll 

romance of Tristan, and who tells us that he was " begot- 
ten of the blood of the gentle paladins of Barres, who 
have always been commanders and lords of Outres in 
Romenie, which is now called France.'^* Robert pub- 
lished his romances anonymously; and among the 
reasons which he gives at the commencement of the 
St* Graal for concealing his name, one is, the fear that 
some might think worse of the book on account of the 
humble merits of the compiler* He gives as another 
reason, his fear that people might not believe the history, 
if they knew that it had been revealed to an humble indi- 
vidual : so that this writer at least does not pretend to 
have translated from any other source. 

LucBs OB Oast was the author of the first part of the 
Romance of Tristan, which forms a portion of the same 
series. The name is differently spelt. Cast, Gant, and 
Gad, in different manuscripts, and in the brief account 
he gives of himself he says that this castle, of which he 
was lord, was situated in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Salisbury, and that he was an Englishman by birth.f He 
pretends to have translated his romance from the Latin ; 
but this was probably a mere common-place assertion of 
the early romance writers, to give an air of greater authority 
to their narratives. The style and language of the writ- 
ings of Luce de Gast and Robert de Borron resemble 
those of the romances of Walter Mapes, and it is not 
necessary to give a further specimen. The manuscripts 
of the Roman de Trietan are rare in England, but there 
is a considerable number in the Royal Library at Paris. 

* Paulin Paris, Lea Maantcrits FranQoiSi vol. i. p. 139. 

t lb. p. 128, 133, 136, 139. M. de la Rue, who haa pat a forced tcaA 
false conBtraction oa the words, sappoies him to hare been lord of Cast ia 

312 MINOR WKITERS. [RelffU o/ 



The reign of Henry II. produced a considerable number 
of writers whose works are of minor importance, either 
from their brevity or from their literary character. In 
this class we may place one or two writers of Latin verse^ 
such as Seblo, who from a canon of Tork became a 
monk of Fountains abbey^ which he afterwards changed 
for that of Kirkstall, in Yorkshire. Hugh of Kirkstall, 
writing about the year 1220^ speaks of him (if it be the 
same person) as being still alive^ and about a hundred 
years old. He wrote a Latin song or chaunt upon the 
celebrated battle of the standard in the reign of Stephen, 
which is printed in the Decem Scriptores, edited by 
Twysden, and commences with the following lines, 

David Ule manu fortis, sceptnim tenens SGoticom, 
Armatoram multa manu regnum intrat Anglicnnii 
Sed cum Tysan contra snam transit infortuniumi 
Qneni invadit tU evasit Stephani Standardium. 

He is said to have written a similar chant on the death 
of Snmerled, king of Man, in 1164, beginning with the 
words, David rege mortis lege clauso ; and three metrical 
treatises, De dictionibus univocisy De dictionibtts dissilalns^ 
and De dictionibus €BquivociSy are likewise attributed to 
him. Another poet of the same name, who is said to . 
have flourished about the year 1160, was a monk of 
Dover, and is said to have written on similar subjects, 
De differeniiis nominum et verborum and De proverbiiSy as 
well as a commentary on the Pentateuch. To one of these 
Serbs, are attributed some Latin verses on the transitory 

Henry IL] minor WRiTfiRS; 313 

character of worldly things^ which are thus introduced in a 
manuscript in the British Museum (MS, Cotton. Julius 
A. XI. fol. 112, r".) 

Hoe qtuB de mundi eonlemptu ver^ificator 
IllusirU Serlo nmt earmina digna notari. 
Mnndiu abit, res nota quidem, res usque notanda, 

Kota tibi mundi sit nota, mundus abit. 
Mnndus abit, non mundus, id est, hsec macbina mundi 

DicOy sed mundi gloria, mundus abit. 
Mnndus abit, tria sunt, fuit, est, erit, hoec tria mundum 

Mota movent, clamant b»c tria mundus abit, &c. 

A writer named Serlo, of the same age, perhaps one of 
those just named, was the author of a Latin poem against 
the corruptions of the monks, preserved in manuscripts of 
the Bodleian Library. There were, however, several 
writers of this name, foreign and English, whose history 
is very confused.* 

A Latin poet named Daniel Church is only known 
by the account of him which Bale found in a chronicle he 
discovered at London ; he was there described as a skilful 
writer in prose and verse, and is said to have held an 
o£Elce in the household of Henry II. Bale attributes to 
him a Latin poem entitled UrbanuSy a treatise on polite- 
ness of behaviour. A poem under this title, and answer- 
ing to Balers description, is preserved anonymously in 
several manuscripts, t 

Thomas, a native of Beverley in Yorkshire, and a 

* See Tanner, and an article at tbc beginning of tbe fourteenth Tolume of 
the Hist. Lit. de France. It may be observed, that Mr. Stevenson, in his 
notes to the Chronicle of Lanercost, has printed some of tbe poems of 
Godfrey of Winchester under the name of Serlo. 

t One in Trin. Coll. Dublin; another in Worcester Cathedral; and 
others elsewhere. See also our article on Henry I, 

314 MINOA WBITBBI. [iM^ ^Zf 

monk of the abbey of Fresmont, in the diocese of Beaa« 
vu8^ in Picardy, wrote in verte and prose a life of 
St. Margaret of Jerusalem^ a large portion of whidi 
was printed by Manriquez in his Annates Cistercienses^ 
under the year 1187) and some following years. Thomas 
IS said to have flourished about the year 1 170.* 

A poet named Gualo, frequently with the appellations 
Britannus and Brito, occurs as the writer of a few satirical 
rhymes against the corruptions of the monks, which occur 
rather frequently in manuscripts, and were printed anony- 
mously by Flacius Illyricus.t This poem begins with the 

Sacrilegif monachis emptoribus ecdesianun, 
Compotnl satlrftm, carmen per taeeula claram $ 
Quam quia vir magnus corroborat Hago Diennsi 
Noster amicna earn legat Otto SuessionensiB. 

Bale says that he flourished in 1170, but the date ap- 
pears to be somewhat doubtfuL 

Anoliher Latin poet who appears to have lived during 
the reign of Stephen, and the earlier part of that of Henry 
IL, was Hugo SoTi«VAOiNA, or Sotavagina, who is 
styled in a manuscript in the Cottonian Library, in which 
some fragments of his poetry are contained, chanter and 
archdeacon of the church of St. Peter at Tork4 Richard 
of Hexham quotes two lines of a poem of " Hugo Sote* 
vagina archdeacon of York,'' on the battle of the standard. § 
The poem preserved in the Cottonian manuscript is a 

* See Leyser, Hist. Poet, et Poem. Med. My. p. 435. 

t Flacina Illyricnsy p. 489, under the title, In monaehoi eanmn iaiyri* 
cum» Tanner statea that Gualo ia mentioned in the Poljcraticiu of John of 

I Versufl Hugonis Sotavaginn cantoris et archidlaconi eccL lancti Petri 
Eborad. MS. Cotton. Yitel. A. kli. fol. 130, f. 

$ Rio. Hagvst. in the Decern Scriptdres, col. 3S1« 

Henry IIJ] minor wi^itsm» S15 

declamation, in Latin elegiacs which are not inelegant for 
the time, on the degeneracy of his age, and commences 

Phllosophiii qttidtm qtiiMitiu qnid tit amietM» 

PanQfi piio» mflditwiSi lU ail, alter e^. 
Alteratri eed Qemo potest modo dicere Tcre, 

Sum velat alter tn, ta Tclut alter ego. 

This is followed in the manuscript by a rhyming poem 
against the corruptions of the Cluniac monks ; and then we 
have another short poem, much in the same style as the 
other^ and probably by the same author^ as he states his 
name to be Hugo, These lines are addressed to a priest 
named William^ whom Hugo blames for his levity of 
character; — 

Hugo laeerdoti WiUeliDO, quK tria roce 

Re minime diatanti ordine digna sno. 
Utile nil jugto, nil justum distat honesto, 

Sed trIa rant «imm, qui bene perepiciet. 

A chaplain of Henry II., named Walter, who is 
sometimes known by the title of Gualterus Atifflicw, 
was distinguished as a grammarian. Having been sent by 
Henry as an instructor to his son-in-law William king of 
Sicily, the latter made him archbishop of Palermo^ in 
which town he died in 1177» Pits attributes to him a 
book on the Rudiments of the Latin tongue.'*^ 

Among the writers on science (or, at least, on numbers) 
during this reign> may be mentioned Odd, abbot of 
Muremund, said to have flourished about the year 
1180^ whose treatise De analecticis Temarii^ or on the 
mysteries of the number three, is preserved in a manu« 

* See tanner. 

316 MINOR WRITERS. {Rdgn of 

script in the Cottonian Library,* and appears by internal 
evidence to have been written soon after the death of 
Bernard of Clairvaux. Bale attributes some other works to 
him, but, as it would appear, incorrectly. William the 
Clerk {Gulielmus Clericus)^ was an astronomer of some 
eminence, and is said by Hoveden to have been astrologer 
to John constable of Chester. He wrote a prognostic 
founded on the conjunction of the planets in the year 
1185, but this appears to be his only claim to the title of 
an author.f 

The minor theological writers of this reign are nume- 
rous, but many of them possess very little merit or im- 
portance. Many of the names admitted into the lists of 
medieval writers, can claim that honour only for some 
brief and unadorned narrative of events in which they 
were concerned, or of the pretended miracles of Uie saint 
who founded or presided over the monastic house to 
which they belonged. 

A monk of Fountains named Richard, who was a 
native of York, lived at the beginning of Henry's reign, 
and was the author of a book of Homilies. He left Eng- 
land to settle at Clairvaux, of which house he was after- 
wards chosen abbot, and where he formed an intimacy 
with St. Bernard. He was recalled to England by Henry 
archbishop of York, who consecrated him second abbot 
of Fountains. He is frequently called Richard the 
Sacristan, as having held that office either at Clairvaux or 
at Fountains. Hugh of Kirkstall, in his history of Foun- 
tains abbey, calls him Richard Fastolf, and describes 
him as preecentor in the abbey of Clairvaux. His Homilies 
appear to be no longer extant. A treatise De Harmonia, 

» MS, Cotton. Vespas. B. xxvi. f Rog. HoTeden. Anna!, p. 625t 

Henty IL] minor writers. SI 7 

or De Musica, has been attributed to this writer, but per- 
haps he is confounded with another person bearing a 
similar name.* 

A canon of St. Osyth's in Essex, contemporary with 
Richard j wrote a life of St. Osyth. He is named Albe- 
Bicus PB Vere, and is said to have belonged to the 
poble family of that; name; Dugdale makes him the 
second son of the second Alberic de Vere earl of Oxford, 
who died early in the reign of Stephen. A life of St. 
Osyth, printed in the collection of Surius,t is supposed 
to be the work of Alberic ; but its brevity renders it more 
probable that it is a mere abridgment of it. Bale and 
Pits also attribute to him a history of his monastery (which 
Tanner supposes to have been only a part of the life of 
St. Osyth^) and a treatise on the Eucharist. 

Another biographer of this period was William de 
Wycumb^ prior of Lanthony^ and chaplain of Robert de 
Betun bishop of Hereford. After that prelate's death, 
which occurred in 1149^ William wrote a sketch of his 
life, which is printed in the second volume of the Anglia 
Sacra. It is found with two different prefaces^ one ad- 
(Iressed to Henry of Blois bishop of Winchester, the other 
to Reginald prior of Wenlock. We learn from an early 
history of Lanthony, that prior William wrote a narra- 
tive of the acts of violence and injustice perpetrated against 
his monastery by Milo constable of Gloucester, which 
gave great offence to Milo's son Roger, who eventually 
joined with the monks of Lanthony, to whom his harsh* 
ness and severity had made him obnoxious, in ejecting 
him from his office. William is said to have passed 

* Tanneri in v. Riehardum AngHeum. 

t SuriM» De prob. vit. Sanct. torn. iv. Oct. 7. 

S18 MINOR WRITBM. [R9lgn ^ 

the remainder of his life in retirement at Frome. He 
flourished about the year 1160. 

Thomas of Monmouth^ who appears to have been a 
monk of Norwioh^ and who flourished about the same 
time^ wrote a life of St^ William, a ehild said to have been 
erucified by the Jews of Norwich^ as well as a iUifflttiVi 
of miracles pretended to have been ^rformed at his tomb. 
This book appears to be lost : it was dedioitid to WiUiim 
bishop of Norwich (11S1-*1175}* 

NioaoLASi a monk of Durham^ wrote in the same age i 
life of St. Godric the hermit, with whom he was personally 
acquainted. There is a life and miracles of St« Qodrie in 
MS. Harl. No« 323, Which may be the Work of the monk 


OsBBKT OP Clarx, wbo beloHgs more prop^ly to 
the reign of Stephen, is known as a writer of Epistles, 
which are preserred in a manuscript in the library of Tri^ 
nity College, Cambridge (MS. Gale, 0. 10, IG). He tells 
us himself that he was a native of the town of Clare * 
(Stoke Clare in Suffolk) } and We learn from his letters that 
he was a monk, and subsequently prior of Westminster* 
He was sent to Rome on the business of his house more 
than once : on one occasion he carried thither the com-» 
plaints of his convent, which had been violently deprived 
of some of its possessions } and on another he went on an 
unsuccessful mission from the king to obtain leave to 
establish a great festival in honour of Edwatd the Con^ 
fessor, whose body had been exhumed in Westminster 

* Frater Osbertua muuicipio quod Clara dicitar oriundus. Ep. 9.— 
Frater Osbertua de Clara. Ep. 18. — Mtmioipii Clarensis indigena. Ep. 34. 

HmirylL] uitfon writbrs. 819 

Abbey* * It appears that he wrote in commemoration of 
this occurrence a life of king Edward^ not now known to 
be extant* Subsequently to this he fell into some dis^ 
grace in his monastery^ and into disfavour with king Ste- 
phen^ and suffered a temporary banishment from his 
native oountry«t His offence is not very clearly inti* 
mated; but we learn from other letters that he was 
involved in debt, and it seems probable that he was perse- 
cuted by Jews who had lent him money4 Different oir« 
cumstances lead us to conjecture that he died early in the 
reign of Henry II. His letters^ forty in number^ are not 
of much interest. Two of theA ore treatises in praise of 
virginity^ addressed to Adelis^ abbess of Barkings and on 
the conception of the Virgin> addressed to Warine, prior 
of Worcester. Among them we find also a curious poem 
in rhyming Latin on the accession of Henry II. to the 
throne^ beginning — 

Dm SUutrU Normonnomm. 

Osbert was also the author of a life of St. Ethelbert the 
fnartyr^ of which there is a manuscript in Corpus Christi 
College^ Cambridge ; a life of St^ Edburgha, from which 
Lelandhas given extracts in his Collectanea ;§ and a collec- 
tion of miracles of St. Edmund the martyr^ preserved in 
the Bodleian Library. A life of Dunstan, printed by 
Surius^ has been erroneously ascribed to this Writer* 

Adalbert^ monk of Spalding, who also flourished 
about the year 1160^ obtaified some celebrity as a labo- 
rious compiler from the works of St. Gregory* This com- 
pilation^ to which he gave the title of Speculum de statu 

* Epp. 1 and 6. 

t Peccatb auis exigentlbni ia Anglorum regao proscriptns. Ep. 16. In 
terra aliena peregrinns et hoapca. Ep. IB. 
% Epp. 34, S7» etc. $ Lelsad. Collectaa. vol. z. p« 337« 

S20 MINOR WRITERS. [Reifffl of 

hominisy is printed in the Thesaurus Anecdotorum of 
Martene and Durand. Bale attributes to the same writer 
a book of Homilies. 

Radulf^ a monk of Westminster abbey, in which he 
held the office of almoner, was distinguished in the earlier 
part of the reign of Henry II. as a popular preacher. 
He enjoyed the friendship of Laurence abbot of West- 
minster, at whose request he collected his sermons into 
a volume, which was completed under his successor abbot 
Walter, to whom he dedicated them. The old biblio- 
graphers attribute also to Radulf a series of homilies on 
the New Testament, and a treatise entitled De peccatore. 

Walter Daniel, monk of Rievauz, is known to us 
through Leland, who saw a number of his theological 
writings in the library of Rievaux abbey a little before its 
suppression. He gives as their titles. Centum Senteniim ; 
Centum HomiluB, beginning with the words Adventus 
Domini; a volume of Epistles, beginning with the words 
Mandasti mihi ; De virginitate Maria, beginning Crebris 
me Gualterum ; an exposition upon the text Missus est 
angelus Gabriel; De honesta virgims formula, beginning 
In primis hujus ; two books De onere jumentorum austri, 
beginning with the word Animadvertens ; De vera amicUia, 
in five books ; De concepiione beatm Maria, contra Nico- 
laum monachumJ^ Leland speaks of him as the friend of 
Ailred^ and states that he flourished in 1 1 70, and that he 
died and was buried at Rievaux. 

Samson, a monk of Canterbury, wrote at this time a 

* These works are not found in the catalogue of the Rievaux library printed 
in the Reliquiie AntiquiSi vol. il. p. 180; but the Psalierium magUtri 
Walteri gtosainm there mentioned (p. 186) may refer to this writer. 

Henry ILI minor writers. S2L 

collection of Homilies^ of which Leland saw a copy at 

Robert of Glastonbury, of which place he was a 
monk, and finally abbot, after haying been some time 
prior of Winchester, wrote a narrative of the acts of Wil- 
liam and Henry bishops of Winchester, which is printed 
in Wharton's Anglia Sacra. He was chosen abbot of 
Glastonbury in 1171* 

About this time also lived Henry of Saltrby, the 
author of a fabulous history of the visit of a knight named 
Owen to St. Patrick's Purgatory, a tract which soon ob- 
tained extensive popularity, and of which a great number 
of manuscript copies are still extant. Henry was a monk of 
the Benedictine abbey of Saltrey in Huntingdonshire, and 
received his story from Gilbert abbot of Louth, who is 
said by some to have also published a written account of 
the extraordinary visions of his hero Owen.* 

Laurence abbot of Westminster claims a place among 
our list of minor theological writers. Previous to his 
election to govern the abbey of Westminster, Laurence 
had been successively archdeacon of Durham and a Bene- 
dictine monk in the abbey of St. Alban's. His sermons 
for the different times and festivals of the year are said to 
be still preserved in Balliol college, Oxford. He has been 
frequentiy confounded with Laurence of Durham. Lau- 
rence abbot of Westminster died in 1176, and was buried 
in the northern part of the cloisters.f 

* So Wendover, sab an. 1153i «eems to say, bat it i« perbaps an error» 
founded on a mitanderstanding of Henry of Saltrey't own wordf • 
f See Tanner, f* Lmtrrniiha Wntm* 


S3S MiNOii WRiTXM* i^Mgn^ 

Adau, a Soot, who is laid to hare died about the year 
1 1 80^ wrote a numerous collection of sermons, a comment- 
ary on the rule of St. Augustine, a treatise on the triple 
tabernacle of Moses, and a book De tr^iei genere wnr 
ten^loHania, which were printed at Antwerp in 1659. 
Ftat of them had been previously printed at Ptois in 

Roger of Fordb, in Devonshire, was also a minor 
writer of this period. He wrote a narrative of the martyr- 
dom of the eleven thousand villus, which was preserved 
in MS. Cotton. Otho A* xii. now no longer in esdst» 
enoe. His account of the Revelations of St. Elizabeth of 
Flanders, dedicated to Baldwin abbot of Forde (afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury), is extant in the library of St. 
John's eollege, Oxford. Roger also composed a Latin poem 
in praise of the Virgin Mary, which appears to be lost. 

Walter, monk of St. Alban's, of which abbey be is 
to have been librarian and precentor, flourished about the 
year 1180. A chronicle of English aflfairs, and a book 
De Uteri$ teckM^ are ascribed to him, but they are not 
known to be now extant. 

Philip, prior of St. Frideswithe's at Oxford, who 
flourished about 1180, or soon after, wrote a narrative of 
the miracles of the patron saint of his house subsequent to 
the translation of her remains, of which there is a copy 
among the Digby manuscripts in the Bodleian Library. 

The last of the minor writers of this reign to whom we shall 
give a place is Adam, elected abbot of Evesham, in 116 K 

* Tanner. 

Henry IL] minor writers. 323 

He was one of the persons who brought the pallium from 
Rome to Thomas Becket in 1162.* He died in Nov. 
1191. Leland found in the library of Evesham abbey a 
collection of Epistles by this writer^ as weU as two treatises 
with the respective titles Exhortatio ad saeras virgines 
Godestovenna ccmobiu and De miraculo ewharistue ad 

* Ralph de Dicet. col. 534. 

T 2 


Section V. — Reigns of Richard I. anb John. 

We have seen, under Stephen and Henry II., the heavier 
Latin literature of the Anglo-Norman theological writers 
giving way gradually to a class of lighter productions, a 
change which became more decisive when the throne was 
occupied by the heroic gallantry of Richard, who himself 
held a distinguished place among the vernacular poets of 
that age. Richard had passed much of his life in the 
softer clime of the trobadors, with whom his name is as- 
sociated as a writer ; but, although he is said to have ex- 
celled in writing love-songs, his favourite compositions 
appear to have belonged to a class more consonant with 
his own restless disposition. These were termed Hrventes^ 
and were satirical or declamatory personal attacks in verse 
arising out of momentary feuds or long cherished enmities. 
A few fragments of this monarch's poetry are still pre- 
served in scattered manuscripts, and some of them have 
been printed. The earliest mention of Richard's talents 
in this style of composition is found in the history of his 
expedition to Syria, written by Geoffrey Vinsauf, who 
tells us that, when the crusaders had relinquished 
the design of marching to Jerusalem, great dissensions 
arose between the French and the English, and Henry 
duke of Burgundy wrote an abusive song against King 
Richard, which was industriously spread among the sol- 
diers and sung publicly ; in revenge of which the king 
composed a simUar poem to abuse the other party.* 

* The wordi of Vinsauf are carious. £t super hiec omnia Henricoj dux 
Boifondiie arrogantiRnequain spiritus instiiictu, yel selo forte daotusliToria 

Died 1199,] RICHARD ggbur de lion, 325 

On his return from the Holy Land^ Richard^ as is well 
known^ fell into the power of his enemy the archduke of 
Austria^ who retained him a considerable period in close 
confinement. In his prison he wrote a rirvente against 
his own barons^ whom he charged with negligence or 
lukewarmness in their efforts to deliver him^ beginning 
with the line,— 

Ja nnlB horn pres non dira sa razon. 

This piece is found in several manuscripts, differing 
considerably in them all, and sometimes written in the 
dialect of the trobadors, at others in that of the trouveres.* 
According to an old story (the authenticity of which there 
appears to be reason for doubting), it was the king's min* 
strel, named Blondel, who discovered the place of Rich- 
ard's imprisonment, the former making himself known to 
the captive by singing a song of his own composition, 
which was only known to Blondel and himself.f 

The last incident we know of the literary history of king 
Richard relates to his war with the king of France. The 
dauphin of Auvergne and his cousin the count Guy had, 
at Richard's instigation, revolted against Philippe Au- 
guste; but the English king, having made a separate 

inconTenientisy plvrimnm cantionia institiiit verba compoaita publice canti* 
tari, verba quidem pudenda nee proferendum in pnblicam, si qna superesset 

ea componentibns verecondia Postqnam hnc inyidiosaadinventio passim 

per ezereitnm freqnentaretur, rex nimiam super eo commotnsy consimili 
tantom arbitratus est infligendam yindictam talione. Cantavit igitar et ipse 
nonnulla de ipsis, sed non plurimnm laboravit in adinyentionem, quia super- 
abundans suppetebat materia, quid enim siqna responderet verba ad tot 
fictitia et objecta opprobria. Galf. Vinos. Iter Uierosol. lib. vi. c. 8, ap. 
Gale. It may be observed that the abb^ de la Rue's reference, ** De nova 
poetria, p. 409/' is quite erroneous. 

* The best text of this Sirvente In Provencal wiU be found in Raynouard, 
Choix, torn. iv. p. 430. The northern version is printed in M. Le Ronx de 
Lincy's Recueil de Chants Historiques, torn. i. p. 56. 

t The best authority for this story is the Chronique de RainSi written 
in the Uurtoentb centary» edited by Mt Louis Paris, p. 53« 

326 BICHARO C<SUK Dfi LION. [ZXcrf 1199. 

truce^ they were left at Philippe's mercy, and, in a moment 
of irritation at Richard's neglect, they entered into alliance 
with his enemy. When, at the end of the truce, the dau- 
phin and count Guy refused to join the standard of king 
Richard, he sent them a bitter sirvente, accusing them of 
faithlessness, avarice, and cowardice. The following are 
the two first stanzas of this poem, which is preserred in 
two manuscripts in the Royal Library at Paris.* 

Dalfin, jeuB Toill deresnier, 
Voa e le oomte Gviob» 
QiM ftm dB eotto «eitoii 
Yob feifltet bon guerrier. 
E T08 jonstes ou moi ; 
B m*eB foitMtM liel fol 
Com b' Aeagrii i Rainart : 
Et sembl^s dou poil lUurt. 

VoB me laifltes iddier 
For treive do guierdon ; 
E car imriaB qu^i CUiioii 
Non a aigeat ni deaier. 
Et Tos Tolets riche roi, 
Bon d'armea, qui Toa port foi. 
Et jo ittia ekiehe, coarC, 
Si Foa Tireta de Tantre part. 

The dauphin wrote a sirvente in reply, in which he de- 
nied the charges made against him and his cousin^and 
accused Richard of being the author of all the troubles and 
discord in which they were engaged. The sirvente just 
quoted appears to have been written at the beginning of 
October 1198 ; king Richard died only a few months after, 
on the 6th of April, 1199. His death was a subject of 
especial grief to the poets of the day, and several of their 
metrical lamentations on the occasion are extant.t 

* The whole is printed in M. Le Ronz de limcf, Clttnts Hiatoriqie% 
Tol. i. p. 6$. See ako RayBovard» Choix, ton. ▼. p. 490. 

t A UOlad on Richaid^a deatb, ia Vrwm^tX amd in Noftben Fkeaek» U 
printed in Le Roox de lamcf, loc. ck. p. 71. Hm two ant atanna of 
another copy are printed by Keller (RooiTarty p. 4S5) from a ICS. in the 
Vatican. See also Gcoffi^ ^^ualf, Noti Poetr* sp. Leyveri pt Wt» 

Died 1199.] eichabd cobue db lion. 327 

The following song^ which has been published as that 
which served as the means of making known the place of 
king Richard's imprisonment^ appears to be of somewhat 
doubtful authenticity, 

DomnAy Tottra bentas» 
E las bellas faiaaosyl 
Ell bclfl ollt anoroi. 
Els gna oor ben taiiiatst 
0on aien empresenata 
De Toatra amor que mi lia 
tt M trop atfuiaU. 
Ja de Toa non portnl. 
Que major honorai, 
Sol en Yotre demati 
Q»e ftntra dea Maaa 
Tot can de tos Tolzia. 

The following more authentic fragment of one of 
Richard^s loreniongs was communicated by M« Baynouard 
to the Annuaire Historique for the year 1837^ from a MS» 
disGorered at Aix. 

Ja df iOf pea DO m partiva» 
S'U plagaef qulen a loi aerria, 
£t sivala d*aitant m'enrequia 
Que dieiaea que ma dona era ; 
Qii'en ren ala bob wj mon yoktf 
Jor ni nueliy ne matin ni aer^ 
Ni ala mon cor non desira* 

Genaer dona el mont no ni mira^ 
Guai' e blanca coma ermiay 
Plua freaca que rosa ni lia ; 
Een ab non m*ea deaeapera* 
Dieuat ai poray Ton rezer 
Qu'ieu josta leia puesca jazer ; 
Ben ai dregy maa trop mi tinu 

A. few other scraps of the compositions of this celebrated 
monarch are scattared oter different manuscript ooUee* 
tions. It is ^Bfficttlt to decide whether as a poet he ought 
to be classed exohuiTsly with ih» tarobftdors or with ths 



The writings of the Anglo-Norman trouve^es become 
much more numerous in this reign than in the preceding, 
and furnish us with several names which, as their exact 
dates are in general uncertain, we may here place toge- 
ther. The first of these, named Guernes, who belongs 
more properly to the reign of Henry II., was a native of 
the town of Pont de St. Maxence in Picardy.* He lived 
afterwards as a monk at Canterbury, and there composed 
a life of Thomas Becket in Anglo-Norman verse. He 
informs us that he commenced this work the year after the 
primate was slain, A.D. 1 1 72^ &nd that he completed it in the 
fifth year after that event, or 117^^ it having thus occupied 
him three years. We learn nothing further of his personal 
history, and he is not known as the author of any other 
work. The best manuscript of the poem of Guernes du 
Pont de St. Maxence is preserved in the British Museum, 
MS. Harl. No. 270, which is nearly if not quite contem- 
porary with the author. A considerable fragment of ano- 
ther copy, written apparently about the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, is found in the same repository. MS. 
Cotton. Domit. A. xi. Another MS., imperfect at the 
beginning, is in the library of Wolfenbiittel, from which it 
was printed by Immanuel Bekker. We believe there is a 

* The abb^ de la Rae has, as usual, given a rery inaccurate account of 
this poet, whom he calls Geiraise, following the later copy in MS. Cotton. 
Domit. A. XI. He seems to have taken very hasty notes of the MS., and to 
have filled up the outline from his imagination. In the latter part of hit 
poem (p. 160, ed. Bekker), Guernes speaks of himself as— » 

Guernea li ders, de Pont de Saiat MeMOoe nes» 


fourfih copy in the Royal Library at Paris. The poet's 
account of himself is contained chiefly in the concluding 
lines of the poemj which we quote as a specimen of the 
language of the Harleian Manuscript. 

Guernes li clerc de Punt fine qi sun sermon 
Del martyr seint Thomu e de ea paistony 
£ meinte feii le lis li la tnmbe al baron. 
Mil n*i mis un snl mot se la Terit^ nnn. 
De noz meffaiz nus face li plus Dte vetr pardon. 

Ainc m^ si bon Romans ne fa fet ne troves» 
A Cantorbire fa e faiz e amendes ; 
N'i ai mis on sol mot ki ne seit yerites. 
Li Ters est d'ane rime en cine clauses cnples, 
£ bons est mis Isn^^nages e en France fai nes. 

L*an secnnd qoe li saint fa en Tigiise ocds 
Cnmencai cest Romans, e mnlt m'en entremis ; 
Des prices saint Thomas la verity apris. 
Meintefeiz en ostai 900 qne ains i escris. 
Par oster la men^nngCi al qaint an fin i mis. 

Ceo sacent tut cil ki ceste vie orront, 
Qne pore verity par tut oir pnrmnt. 
£ ceo sacent tnt cil ki del saint traiti^ nnt, 
U Romans a JLatinf e cest chemin ne Tont, 
U el dient qae jeo, k'encontre verity sont. 

This poem is especiaUy valuable in a philological point 
of yiew, because we know the exact date at which it was 
written. It is historically important as the earliest of the 
lives of Becket. Ouemes teUs us in the preceding extract 
that he had collected his materials from Becket's friends 
and acquaintance, that he had repeatedly and carefully 
corrected it, and that he had read it many times at the 
martyr's tomb. His narrative is very clear and vigorous, 
and furnishes valuable information not found in the same 
detail in the other biographers; but, in common with 
them all, he is prejudiced in favour of his hero. In de« 
scribing the messengers sent by king Henry to the king of 
France and the pope, he gives the following account of 
Gilbert Foliot^ which we quote from Bekker's text : 


b wlwmwgeviat Oikbirt Fol&ot 
Des lettres lont Mes, e fenri Astaxot : 
Mais puis arint tel jar que SI t*eii tint pvr sot, 
CcM6 ttMsootrc Ic iUttt Bttfliiiic cot psfift nil Ml mot* 
De SodomecitflMm, e nit Is* traMi Lot. 

A litde farther on Guemes gi^es us a very amusing de- 
scription of the appeannoe of these meftengem before the 
pope: — 

L trcwcsqtK I Yiot ^[u crBTVCinc ttt nustKi 

wit u raS| 1 6VW(£Ufi 1 Ifnlt d6 WiTMCStPCi 

E 11 qaena d'Anmdd, e Rldun d'ltMestre, 
Johanz d'Oxenelbrd, l^eresqne d*BzecMtre, 
Hae de Gandetile, Hylalres de Cicestre. 

CU de Sslitt Waleii» Rettab, i est Temur ; 
Henris H Ax Qerold, qol ert des team dm ; 
GKlctot Potiot, qui ne s*l flst pas nms ; 
£ des autres plusurs e Jovenes e dutniix. 
Tels i paria purquant qui fx pur fol temtt. 

Devint la pape estofeat U meesagier real: 
Alquant dlselent Men, ptuisur diaeieDt ma! ; 
Li alqaant en Latia, tel ben tel anomaly 
Tel qui ftst personel del terbe impenonil, 
Sioguler e plnrd aveit tut pnr igal. 

Tds i ont des prdaz parla si egvement, 
Que la pape li dlst, *' Fratre, tempreement : 
Car Bieadire de hd m ««fferaft Ment.** 
XdBT panlei n'ai pas tafees fi ea pwaeat, 
Mais de 90 que nnt reqnis dinai mun escient* 
_ • 

The faittory is eontintied after Beckefs deaths to gire 
a particolar account of the pilgrimage of Hemy IL to 
Beckefe aihrine in 1174« 

Leben des h. Thomas von Canterbury, AltfraiuOsiMlii hentv|^ben Toa 
Immannei Bekker. Berlifif 1838, 8to« 

tUc^ //«] BOZUN^ Om BOSON. S81 



A trouvere of this name, of whose history we are en- 
tirely ignorant^ was the author of nine short metrical lives 
of female saints, preserved in a MS. of the British Mu- 
seum^ MS. Cotton. Domit. A* xi, and perhaps of a short 
piece written in the same style^ entitled Le Evangel trans^ 
late de Latin en Franceys, which immediately precedes 
them in the same vohime. The author's name is men- 
tioned at the conclusions of the lives of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen (fol. 95, r^)— 

M^ jeo pri Marie k dulce, 
Ke sa bont^ point ne grouce 
De ayder Bozun en son mester, 
Ki sa yie Toolt tranalaterf 
Ke gent la pnssent plus amer, 
E del Hre merit arer. 

and of St Agnes, — 

Jeo pri Angtt^, de Dieu clieriey 
K'ele nas seit en aye, 
£ k'ele prie pur JSoztm, 
Ki ad descrit sa passiun. 

The style of these poems appears to be that of the end of 
the twelfth century, though the manuscript was written at 
a later date. The abb€ de la Rue supposes this writer to 
be the same Boson who, according to Tanner, was an 
Englishman, the nephew and secretary of pope Adrian IV.^ 
made cardinal in 1153, and who died in 1181. But the 
name of Boson was too oommon at this period to allow 
much force to this supposition. The following account oi 
part of the conversation between St Margaret and the 
demon will serve as a specimen of Bosuu^s style:*-* 

* MS. Cotton. M. ^t !*• 

SS2 HERMAN. [Reiffn Qf 

Et U puoele ait k U, 

" Par quel estes 8i entonr 

A cristiens de fere dolour ? " 

" De nature commpa 

Vers cristiens jeo su esma. 

Peyse k nous k*il sernint dimes 

En la joye ke ons perdimes ; 

Pur $eo ne avams autre feste, 

Fori k cristiens fere moleste. 

li roy yaylant e li os, 

Salomon, areit enclos 

Sans nombre de nostre oompanye 

En vn vessel tntte sa yye ; 

Aprte sa mort les genz quiderent 

Trover tresor, e le debriserent, 

Nos compaynons eschaperentf 

E meynt homme pns greverent.'* 

E Mergarete li ad demand^, 

** Ke est Yostre nonn, vus bmoH ?'' 

** BeltiBoo," dit-il, " sa nom^e, 

Ki meynte alme ay encombr^ ; 

Ki grever ne pose en veylantp 

Jeo les g^ye en dormant, 

E nom^ement eels ke ne unt 

De la croice le siogne en front*** 

La pacele danc le comanda 

En desert, e oonjnra, 

Ke de cele cure en avant 

Homme ne grevat, femmsi na enfent* 


Herman is another Anglo-Norman religious poet who 
appears to belong more properly to the reign of Henry II. 
His works are found scattered in manuscripts partly in 
England and partly in France, and for the latter we must 
depend upon the description given by the Abbe de la Rue, 
The first is a Life of Tobit, written, as he tells us himself^ 
at the request of William prior of Kenilworth^^- 

Bie, IL} HERMAN. 8S3 

Car jeo tom toA tel choie dijre» 
Qui mult est de bone matire : 
Le prior Gmllame me prie, 
De I'igUse Sainte Marie 
De Keneilleworth en Ardenne, 
Qui porte le pint haute penne 
De charity que nnUe igliae 
De tat le realme k dense, 
Qae jeo mis en Romans la Tie 
De celtti qui ot nom Tobie. 

It is a poem of about fourteen hundred lines^ com- 
mencing with an account of the creation and of the fall of 
Adam. The author here introduces Truth and Jasticej 
Mercy and Peace, in the presence of God, the two former 
pleading against man as guilty of disobedience, whilst the 
other two solicit his pardon, which they obtain through 
the promise of a Redeemer. 

The second poem attributed to this writer by the abb^ 
de la Rue is entitled Lesjoies de Notre Dame, a very com- 
mon subject among the medieval poets. The author, in 
describing the birth of Christ, gives a curious account of 
ancient Rome, of its temples, theatres, palaces, and innu- 
merable statues ; and he thanks God that in our island, (of 
which he was evidently a native,) during the times of pa- 
ganism, they celebrated a festival on the night between the 
twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth days of December, as being 
the first of nights, which they called Modreniest, and which 
he seems to consider as prophetically shadowing forth the 
night of Christ's birth. 

The third work described by M. de la Rue is a disser- 
tation in verse on the three words smoke, rain, and woman^ 
which, according to Solomon, drive a man from his house ; 
and it appears from the poem that it was composed at the 
suggestion of Alexander bishop of Lincoln, who died in 

S34 BBBMAN. lIMgn qf 

Treis moft ^ui me aoiit saohftigiMy 
Dont jea ma mi ftrc^ attigMSt 
Vns dirai, le w plMt entandrtp 
£t TessamUU «t boa i ^^raadro* 
MntU^ m*a Te? eq«e Aliatndri, 
Qui a«taikt €om la Mkmaadra 
Aime le fen et la chalor, 
Aime cortaine et valor, 
Qae treix obotM el iiMde aoat 
Qui a home mult fraat mal foaty 
£t le chaoent de sa meson, 
Clii*il De piiet en nnle seson 
Maindre ^ ele ne demorer, 
A force Ten covient aler. 

The poem, extending to upwards of eight hundred lineij 
is a moralization on these words. 

The fourth poem enumerated by M. de la Rue is a 
fabulous history of the preaching and miracles of the 
Magdalen at Marseilles, 

These four poems are contained in a manuscript in the 
Royal Library at Paris, cited by M. de la Rue, as No, 
2560 : they were evidently written by an Englishman ; but 
we have no means of ascertaining for what reasons they 
are attributed to the writer who is the subject of the 
present article. We are equally ignorant whether in the 
manuscript they contain the name of Herman or of Wil- 
liam, for M. de la Rue calls our poet Guillaume Herman. 

The only work by Herman with which we have met, is 
a poem of seven or eight thousand lines on the history of 
the Virgin Mary, written in a different measure and style 
from the foregoing poems, and filled with medieval fictions. 
The versification of this poem resembles, in metre and in 
the repetitions of the same rhyme, that of the Sermon of 
Guiscard de Beaulieu and of the earlier metrical romances. 
It commences with the creation of the world and the fall 
of Lucifer — 

Comenx de sapience est la cremor de Dien, 
Ki fiat dd et terre, eye et feu, en teu fibren. 

fiiCf Hi] HSRICAK* 885 

AiigelM Ut eC arclungiles, nmlt Im inifi tn bri ton ; 
Nag tniyfun en escrit en Ijitin et de Ebren, 
Partie trebachA aval en enfemal fen» 
teaot tt YoMreat fegner et loiir I# regno k Dien. 

And at the end «re the following lines^— 

Or* ir«U IL td parler» Id ai ftoi la dvu^oA t 
Jeo ai i non Hermane» nen nbliez mnn nam» 
Jeo Tofly ma bele dame» qne atena ma raison, 
Preatre nd ordlnes, tia aera rai et tie homy 
Ore iai ton oomandi fin^ ai k cb«n90n« 

This poem is found in MS. Harl. No. 222. An abridg- 
ment from it occurs in MS. Cotton, Domit. A» xi, foL 80^^ 
v^, ending with the two lines^ — 

Ma daaae, ^ ton bonnr Ui a j $eo obangemi ) 

Jeo ay k noon Cbermani i ne ublies mye mon noniu 

The Utter part of Herman's poem is also found in MS. 
Harl, No. 5234^ where the lines quoted abore stand as 

Ore voil k tai parler ki ai fait le cban^on ; 

Jo ai k nam Tbomaa, ne abliez pas man nam ; 

Vna pri, ma bale amle, entendex ma relson, 

Preitre aol ordenA, tl aerfii an! et tl hnm, 

Ore ai fbt ton oommandement, flni ay ma chann^nn. 

In the Parisian manuscript quoted by M, de la Rue^ the 
lines appear thus,— 

Jeo ai i nom GoiHame, n'obliez |>a8 mon notti 
Preatre ani orden£, tia aers et tia hom. 
Ore ai fait ton comanti rim^ ai ma chanaon. 

It is evidentj therefore, that different persons copied out 
portions of Herman's poem, and placed their own names 
to them ; and the Abb^ de la Rue is altogether in error in 
supposing» from the occurrence here of the name Ouil- 
laume, that the author's real name was GuiUaume 

S36 HERMAN. [Reign ijf 

In a manuscript in the Royal Library at Paris,* we 
find a long French poetical narrative of some of the prin- 
cipal events of Scriptural history, mixed with a great 
quantity of apochryphal matter, written by a poet of the 
name of Herman: it is entitled Genesis. The writer^ 
who was a priest, tells us that on a Christmas day he had 
seized a brand to beat one of his clerks, and, not per- 
ceiving that it was hot, burnt his own hand. The wound 
festered, and he had nearly lost all hope of recovery, 
when he dreamt that the Virgin appeared to him and 
promised an immediate cure, if he would undertake to 
translate into French verse the portions of Scripture 
which she pointed out to him. He said that he had 
never tried the craft of poetry, but she urged him to make 
the attempt and promised him her assistance. Herman 
'soon afterwards recovered his health, and in gratitude he 
wrote the poem of which we are speaking. In this poem 
Herman tells us that he was a priest, and that he was^a 
native of Valenciennes — 

Signer, or escoUs, entendds ma raison : 

Je ne tos di pas fable, ne ne tos di cannon : 

Clers sni, povres de sens, si sui moult poTres hon, 

N68 sni de Valencienes, Herman m*aplele on. 

De persone Dez care ne prend 8*e8t grande ou non ; 

On a aoyent grant aise en petite maison ; 

De petite fontaine tot aon saol boit-on. 

Tot oe di-je por voir, je auli moult petit hon, 

Canones sni et prestre par grant election. 

If this be the same Herman who wrote the poems 
described above, it is probable that he quitted his native 
country to settle in England or Normandy, for it is to be 
observed that most of his poems are found in manuscripts 
written in our island. The writer of the article on Herman 

» MS. Bibl. Reg. Paris, No. 7534. 

Mid,'] H8RMAN. 337 

in the Histoire Litt^raire de France^* who describes this 
poem^ thinks that its author lived in the thirteenth cen- 
tury^ and it is not improbable that there were more than 
one poet of the name. In a manuscript of the Genesis> 
which was in the possession of M. Leroux de Lincy^ the 
scribe has inserted in the middle of the poem a remarkably 
wild and incoherent poetical legend^ in a different measure 
of verse^ relating to the Virgin^s parentage^t but there 
appears no good reason for attributing it to the same 

Saint Palaye^ as cited in the Histoire Litteraire de 
France^ gives a list of several other works attributed to 
Herman^ but it does not appear on what grounds. The 
abb^ de la Rue attributes also to Herman^ without stating 
any reasons for this appropriation, a poem on the Sibyls, 
commencing with the lines, — 

n Airent dis Sibiles, 
Gentils dames nobiles, 
Ki orent en lor vie 
Eiprit de prophetic, 
£t Buncioieiit k la gent 
De leur avenement. 

And he says that it is stated in this poem that the em- 
press Matilda, who had recommended the subject to the 
author, died during the time he was occupied in composing 
itj( which would fix it to the year 1167* But unfor^ 
tunately little dependence can be placed on the state- 
ments of M. de la Rue, unless they have been compared 
with the sources from which they are said to be derived. 

* Hist* Lit. de France, torn, xviii. p. 830. 

t An abstract of this legend will be found in the Hist. Lit* as jiut quoted, 
and in M. Leronz de Lincy's Livre des L^gendes, p. 24. 


8S8 BUGH^ me rovland. [Rmf^ ^f 


AoecNNliiig to M. de U Rik^ Hugh de Butlaiui «IwiAk tt 
CradenhiU in ComwaiL He appeiurs to ihAve liFed to^ 
wArds tbe end <rf the tvelftb eemtury, for^ in eiLcunng his 
iiwn fictions by cfaaigyig Welter Mi^>ee with tbe uiae 
fault, he speaks of the latter as his contemporary, so tbat 
be muet have written soon after Mapes had poblisbed the 
vomaoeet of the Bound Table. 

Ne mettes mie toot sur md, 
8wl A0 lai fM it mtnllr Vmi, 
W«U«r H«p «iet bs«ii m part. 
En mendre afaire mut «\iTeiit 
XJn bien rainable hom mesprent ; 
NeparqvaDi, i U mti» «vtovto, 
Ne quif pat ke aiU de w wente. 

Hugh de Rutland plapea tbe ecene of his stories in 
Italy, and introduces eome of the celebrated names of 
ancient fable under a very strange medieval garb. His 
best known poem is the Romanee of ipomedon^ pre* 
sffirved In the British Museum (MS. Cotton. Vespas. A« 
Tir. fol. S75 r^, and extending to upwards of ten thon- 
sand lines.* Like the other writers of t^e same class, Hugh 
prstends that his book is trsnslated froqi the Latin,— 

Moult me menrail de oee clere lagea 
Ky enteadeot piiieiin iaagagee, 

K*U ont lesi^ oeste estorie, 
Ke nos ne out en memorie. 
Ne di pas q*il bien ne dit, 
CU qi en Latin Tad deicHt; 

* An early English metrical version of this romance is printed in Webei's 
Metrieal RomanceSi toI. ii. p. 281. 

Ke* t.} BUOH* Ml Hm'LAND. M9 

Mis plus i «d Ml ke feHres, 
Si li lAttn s'Mt imMBfcMf 
Gairet b*1 emt 
Por ^ea-Tofl Are ea 

Si enteodrwkt derc Mt lai. 
Hoe de HoMlande bus dit, 
Kf «HlMtosifi sMidiiHfW 
Xf d« MJA v«l BamMs Ibh*» 
Ne loi delt I'em & mtl retif re 
S^fl m po€t tu dee mIv gaHer» 
00 Men iKt I» iMt Iprner. 

The andior'f ntina ipytri 9gt» At ih« esd of tbt 

poem : — 

Ceste estoire tim ai desdoie, 
Hue s'en test e se repose» 
Que de Rotelende dit, 
B Tus rnustre per cest eserit, 
Ke unkes pie eel lene m fat mes, 
Ne cheraler ne derc lettres, 
Ki del tet eeni faire san h$m 
Amest cam fist Ipomedon. 

Mtffi^f ibJtt tti furt Btffnunt 
Par «est Hae de RoteUnde 
De par le Dea de amor enmuM, 
D4» «• Mte le«lM»t «Mr 
Shu trictoie • sens ^«ser» dtc 

IpMisdo0» Aooording to tlbe romanos, was tbs soa of 
Hennogmefl^ kaig of ApuUa: he beoomet enainoiijred of 
tbe daugbtar of the duke ot Calabria» and after many cii^ 
Tabtooa adventuvea wins ber for bia wife. After tbe pub» 
licatioo of this romaAee, Hugh de RuUaod composed e 
seeondf entitled tbe romanee of firodieailaiM», wbicb forma 
a eoBtiniaatiOo of tbe praoeding* Tbe author tdla na» that 
be tboai^t it sbamefttl to remain idle, aad be theielovabad 
no sooner completed his first work tfaan be befui tbe new 
one — 

Hoe de BMUoAe dit, 
Qal traiter revolt ecet eicrit ; 
CU 4«! raJtoB et bien eotent^ 
Ke doit reposer longaemeiit, 

Z 2 

340 THOMAS. [JSejyn of 

Aim jon et noU et tax temi 
Set ovres montrer et son leni ; 
Kar por repos ne por pareice 
Ne TcndFa jji horn 2l haltesce. 

Ipomedon has two sons^ Danaus and Prothesilaus^ who 
share his estates after his death; but the latter is deprived 
of his portion by his brother. The marvellous adventures 
of Prothesilaus, before he recovers his heritage^ form the 
subject of this second romance^ of which a manuscript is 
jpreserved in the Royal Library at Paris^ and which^ ac- 
cording to M. de la Rue^ extends to nearly eleven thou- 
sand lines. 


Another writer of Romances of this age is known only 
by the name of Thomas, and has been the object of con- 
siderable discussion. We are totally ignorant of his his- 
tory, but he was the. author of two of the most remarkable 
monimients of our earlier literature^ the romance of Horn 
and that of Tristan. The most perfect copy of the 
romance of Horn is preserved in a manuscript in the 
public library of the University of Cambridge (Pf. 6. 17), 
which however unfortunately wants a leaf or two both at 
the beginning and at the end. The two other manuscripts 
are mere fragments^ one in the Harleian Library (No. 
527)> which contains the conclusion, the other in the Col- 
lection of the late Mr. Douce, now in the Bodleian library 
at Oxford. The author's name is found in the following 
lines in the body of the poem, — 

Seignun, oiavez le yeni del parchemini 
Cam le ben Aalnf est yeDnz & la fin ; 
Mestre Thomas ne toU qo*il seit mis \, declin, 
K'il ne die de Horn le vaiUant orphelin. 

Tlic.L] THOMAS. 341 

and again at tlie conclusion^ — 

Tomas n'en dirrat plus : in auiem chanterat. 

The writer of the French romance of King Waldef, now in 
the library of Sir Thomas Fhillipps^ composed in the 
thirteenth century^ distinctly states that the Romance of 
Horn had been translated from an English original^ which 
was previously suspected from several circumstances con- 
nected with it. A short romance of Hom^ in English 
verse^ certainly as old as the thirteenth century, is stiU 
preserved in three manuscripts, and was printed from one 
of them by Ritson. It is not impossible that this, in an 
older form, may have been the groundwork of Thomases 
Anglo-Norman poem. The story is well known by this 
EngUsh version, ^d by a somewhat more modem one 
preserved in the celebrated Auchinlech MS. The Anglo- 
Norman romance of Horn is written in the same long 
lines, with a continuance of the same rhymes, which dis- 
tinguish many of the early metrical romances.* The 
account given by Horn of his own parentage, extracted 
from the Cambridge MS., will serve as a specimen. 

Mia pares ftid una ban, Taiflant horn dnrementf 
Aalnf ad k nvaa, ai ma geate ne ment ; 
En Suddene fd nez, si la teintlongement, 
ReU Silanf le trova, si 1' norrit bonement. 
Aprda fa konea, par Dea oomandement, 
Qu'il iert de geate real deacenda veirement. 
Newu fu Baderonfi de sa fille al'cors gent, 
Ooldebnrc ont k nnm i sun baptismement. 
Ne sai ai one oistes de reis td parlement ; 
Pnu e hard! forent, de bon contenement, 
Dea anmea ait merd li reis omnipotent. 

Qaant ^oe fad konen ke Aalof fdd Men a^, 
Qa*il la nefs fiaderoof le bon e Talos^^ 
Ki iert sor Aiemaans enperere dam^, 

* An analyais of this romance (from the Cambridge MS.) by the writer of 
the preaent Tolamey will be foond in the Foreign Qoarterly ReTiew, toL zri. 
pp. 133^141» 

Dune U ad reii Silavi par graal amar doft^ 
Use lUle qa*il out, le via out colnri, 
B «vve B i«M a^a ail i«a f«ga*, 
Diaeat dwat ioe ma di aai joa joiaa a lad. 

Of tfa« rooaaAce of Tristm^ by Tbomas^a few £nigmeAto 
only are pfcsan^ed* One of dieae, contained in a mami- 
serift beloAgMAg to Mr. Douce, and printed in M« Michelle 
CoUectio% Iiad already f vumiaLed the name of the anthov, 
wko jitit befcNTe refers to a atiU older anthority^ wbon he 

Qnaal ot afoU Kahfrdia 
Par cast plaie e par caat mai, 
ABT6UMI inatran vrwrerBai 
la lqiM«H« pw YMlt. 
Thosaaa 1^0 granter ma Tolt* 
fi ai Tolt par raiann nmatrar 
daa if9 aa pee p« eataer* . 

XjialaayVoLtf^f. 41. 

Anotlter fragment of Thomas'e t^tan, which hae been 
printed from a manuecript in a piirale eoHection hnt hae 
not yet been pnblished, contains the oondnsion of die 
poem } Hionias there apeaks of himself at the author, and 
dedicatee his poem to all true loters^ for irboae comfort and 
consolation he says tiial it was composed. 

Tamaa ftiie <^I aan ascrli : 
A ttts amaaa aalus 1 dit, ite. 

The Tristan of Thomas appears to hare been the ground* 
work of the greater part of what was written upon this 
hero in subsecjpMni tinMi. It ia most probable that the 
author was the Thomas ton Britanie^ from whose French 
poem Godfrey of Straaburg, iu the thirteenth century, 
professes to have translated die romance of Tristan into 
German verse.* An English metrical translation was 
made about the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the 

* See for fbvllMr Mmarka od tUa tabjaot the notaa to tlia laat aditioa of 
Warton'a Hiatory o^En^liih Poetry (1840), toI. i, pp.95-*US» 

tUe^ /.} THOMAS. S4S 

fottrteenlih eentary^ tlie writer of wbidi also refers to 
TbomM as lus origiiiel authority^ but he baa eridantly 
CsUen into the error of supposing the Thomas of the French 
romance to have been Thomas of Ercildoune, a name 
which happened to be then popular in certain metrical 
prophecies relating chiefly to the Scottish wars. 

I wu at Ertheldouii, 

With Tomaa spak j than ; 
Ther herd y rede in roane, 

Who Tristrem gat and bare, 
Who-was king with cronn, 

And who him fosterd jare. 
And who was bold baroun 

Aa thair eldera ware 
In |ere> 
Tomaa teQea in tonn 

TUt anreaftonn at thai war». 

This English romance is preserved in the Audrinlech MS. 
at EdSnburgh, and was pubKshed (not rery accurately) by 
Sir Walter Scott^ who had formed some rery wrong notions 
as to its history. 

The romance of Tristan by Thomas^ which does not 
appear to have been of great extent^ is written in a dif- 
ferent measure and style from the romance of Hom^ as will 
be seen by the folloiiring extract descriptiTC of the city of 
London in the twelfth century. 

Lnndrea est mnlt riche dt^, 
Melinr n*ad en cHstieiit^y 
Flos iraQhuita, ne laeli aaiit^ 
Mels gaoamie de gent preisfe* 
Mnlt aiment largesce e honnr, 
Conteinent se! par grant baldur* 
La recoYrer eat de Eng&eterre, 
Ayant dlloc ne Testnet qnerre, 
Al p^ del mnr U cnrt Tamisoi 
Fsr \k Tent la marehaadise 
De tntea lea [terres] tpi svnt, 
U marcheant cristien Tvnt. 
li hwae i sont de grant engini 

344 PHILIP DE REIMES. [Seiffn o/ 

M. de la Rue ascribes to this trouvere a poem on the death 
of the Virgin Mary, which however is notliing more than 
the poem on that subject by Herman, with the name of 
Thomas attached to it* 


The Poetical Romancea of Tristan, in French, in Anglo-Norman, and 
in Greek, composed in the zii. and xiii. centuries, edited by Francisque 
Michel. London, 1835, 2 vols. 12mo. 


The abb^ de la Rue supposes this trouvere to have been 
of one of the English families known by the name of de 
Reitnes, de Raimes, or de Rames {de RamisJ, who had 
extensive possessions in Essex, Su£folk, and Norfolk in 
the twelfth century, but we have no authentic informa- 
tion to enable us to identify him. He is the author of 
two metrical romances, the scene of one of which is lud 
in Scotland, that of the other in England. The first of 
these is entitled la Manekine ; its subject is a story very 
popular in different forms during the Middle Ages. The 
heroine is the daughter of a king of Hungary; being con- 
demned unjustly to be burnt, she is saved by the steward, 
who, placing the damsel in a boat with a sufficient supply 
of provisions, commits her to the mercy of the sea. She 
is carried by the waves to Scotland, the king of which 
country marries her. But she there becomes an object of 
hatred to her mother-in-law, and when, during the absence 
of the king, she is confined and letters are written to him 
announcing her safe delivery of a son, the queen-mother 

* See before, p. 335 of the preaent rolnme. 


substitutes others^ by means of which the young queen is 
adjudged to be burnt. The steward of Scotland also saves 
her, and she is again committed in a boat to the waves. 
The king, on his return^ discovers the treason of his mo- 
ther and the innocence of his wife^ wanders seven years in 
search of the latter, and at length discovers her at Rome, 
where her father also unexpectedly arrives, and the hh 
mance ends in a general reconciliation. 

In the introduction to this romance^ Philip speaks with 
diffidence of his own powers of versification^ and uses the 
term leonime, which has very much puzzled the writers on 
this subject, and of which the meaning is not clear» 

Et ae je ne sui leonime, 
Merreillier ne 8'en doit mie ; 
Car molt petit sal de dergie, 
Ne onqaes nuds rime ne fie ; 
MaiB ore m'en soi entremis 
Poar 9011 que rraie est la matere 
Dont je Toel ceste rime fere, 
N'il n'est mie drois c'on ae taiae 
De ramembrer ooae qui plaiae» 

It would appear by this that the Roman de la Manekine 
was our author's first metrical composition. He shows 
himself however in this poem superior to many of the 
trouv^res who were his contemporaries, and there are some 
touches of good poetry in his descriptions. He thus de<« 
scribes the month of May : — 

Ce ftt en la douce aaiaon, 
Que U rouaaignol ont raiaon 
De chanter pour le tana joli, 
Que 11 pr^ sont vert et flouri, 
Et 11 vergi^ cargi6 de fruit ; 
Que la bele rose eat en bruit, 
Dont lea damea font lea capiaus, 
Dont li amant font leur aviaua ; 
Que I'erbe vert eat revenue. 
Qui par la froidure eat perdue : 
Caacuna oiaiaua en aon latin 
Cante dovcement au matixi 

Pour la MifOB qii est noveto. 
Toute rieni adont te rerete, 
v|v0 M jon JuwiMnr vniwiw 
li «bmI Iti iaawei «•^▼•nti 
Qui en yrcr erent espanei. 
Ot keurent karoler eet gtfeei» 

▲TOec biflf onfc Robeson, 
£t Colinet et Jelianet ; 
Puv r en ^ont n bov M ini^et. 
Capianp ImI'40 MMBito Bsuera, 
Aiffiia qiie reviegnent aniere. 
Belei flont lea naia et li jour 
A ein» ^ SMfaititiieDt mmt. 

Philip's otiier Romance^ that of Blonde of Oxford tnd 
John of Dammartifty is written in the same style^ and is 
peculiarly interesting as a pietitre of tNOtmial manners in 
England in the twelfth century. John is a youth who 
leaves his father's household and hia natire country, to 
seek his fortune. He afiives in England, and enters the 
service of the earl of Oxford, of whose daughter Blonde 
he becomes enamoured* A considerable portion of the 
poem is occupied with their love adventures, and the 
dMtcnteifs into wfaidi they are led in their endeavour» to 
tfonceal Aem* At length the earl of Oxford affiances Us 
daughter to the eari of Olooeester, to escape wUdi inateh 
idle leaves koae with ber kver, and they fly to France. 
Thty ate vigorously poi s«ied by the earl of Oloueester» 
but, after various adventures^ a general recoBoiliatiofl. is 
effected by the interference of the French monarch, and 
Blonde is married to J<An, who is aiade count of Dam* 
martin. These two romances are preserved in a manu- 
script in the Royal Library at Paris. 

Koman de la Manekine, par Philippe de Reimeti • . . public par Pran- 
djqne MicheL Imprira^ A Paris pour le Bannatyne Club, mdcccxl. 4to. 

The Romance of Blonde of Oxford and Jehan of Dammartin, by Philippe 
de Reimes, edited by Le Rqux do Lincy, London : printed for the Camdoi 
Society, 4Co. 



Among the song-writen of tilif period we find two 
Englishmen, father and son, named Maurice and Peter de 
Craon, of a family which came into our iahod with William 
the Conqueror^ «d ww setded in LineoliHliire. Maurice 
de Craon, who had considerable estates in the county of 
Surrey, seems to bare been in fisTour at the court of 
Henry IL^ who made him in 1174 goremor of Aneems ; 
he appears the same year as one of the witnesses la Ihi 
act of p a ci fication between the king and his children^ and 
in ll77i he was appointed with the bishope of Maa#« 
Naate% and Perigueux, to judge any disputes which 
might arise oat of the treaty between Henry II. and king 
Louis of France. He died in 1216, and his son Peter bad 
thtti livery oi the estates in Surrey.* 

A manuscript ki the Royal Library at Paris oontuns 
two iKmgs by Maurice and Peter de Craon, The first 
stanca of the song by Maurice de Craon will glre the best 
aotien of its style of c<Hnpositioo. 

Alsatfsai M im lemise 

Del tans noavelt 
Que naiflt la flours en Vespinei 

Bt cnit oiSu 
Cnsntent pmal n usawne 

Sen e€ Del| 
I/Oiit ne fmmt smottrt fliie 

Xy «B trei doMT ttolf 
Qosr Je oe peni k HeDS d 
Ven U ft mei «wn ■'soUae. 

* Thete pArticnlars were collected by the sbb4 de U Ras* 

348 RENAUB DE HOILAND, IRetfffl of 

In the first stanza of the song attributed to Peter de 
Craon^ he speaks of having derived the faculty and privi- 
lege of singing of love from his ancestors, as though his 
father and himself were not the only poets of the family: — 

Fine amoun daimme en moi par hiretage 
Droit : a'eat raisona, quar bien et loianment 
L*oiit aenri de Creon» lor aage, 
Li bon aeignear, qui tindrent ligament 
Pria et Talour et tout enaeignement, 
S'en chanterent, et je tout enaement 
VueiU que de chant et d'amour lor letraie, 
Et del aeurplux me met en aa manaie 
De cuer, decora, et d'amour et de vie, 
Com i ma douce droite aeignourie. 

A manuscript in the Vatican also contains songs of 
Maurice de Craon,* but we do not know how many. 
Among them is a copy of the song last quoted, which is 
there attributed to Maurice and not to Peter. 

The above specimens wiU give a notion of the style of 
the numerous song-writers of this age« Most of them 
were natives of France, and appear to have had no intimate 
connection with this country; but a song recently disco- 
vered among some old documents of a totally different 
nature,t has made us acquainted with the name of Re- 
NAUD DE HoiLANDE, probably a native of that district of 
Lincolnshire, who perhaps lived at the end of the twelfth 
century. The following is the first stanza of the song 
attributed to this writer. 

Si toat c*amia entant a ben amer, 

Prant garde amonra, ai doit merchi «Yoir, 

Qui ae garde pora ik celi donner 

Qpi aenri I'a ai qu'il i doit paroir. 
Per <{0U ai-jon tel Yoloir 

* See Keller*8 Romyarti p. J259» 'where the aong alluded to ia printed 
at length from the Vatican MS. 

t Thia aong is printed in the Anecdota literariai by the writer of the 
present yolnme, p. 88i 

BiC^ L} BIHON J>n nEflNB. 349 

Que je ne yoel mis 

Que ma dame entt m*amie 

Est6 lors que je leri 

Pour autre tour, s'estre pooit enii. 


Chaniona de Maurice et de Pierre de Craoui poetei Anglo-Normandi du 
zii* nicle, public . • par G. S. Xrebutieo. Caen, 1843. Square 12">». 


We only know the age of this poet from the circum- 
stance of his having been the friend of Giraldus Cam* 
brensis, to whom he addressed some Latin epigrams. He 
is stated to have been a canon of Hereford cathedral. 
His name is attached in a rather singular manner to a 
French metrical abridgment of one of the most popular 
books of the middle ages^ the treatise De Consolatione of 
Boethius^ found in a manuscript in the British Museum.^ 
At the conclusion it is stated^ — 

Idl ke cete Romanse fit, 
Sun noun en cete Romanse mist, 
Mia eat en Tint primere Ten» 
Ceo poet ver ke est clera. 

And accordingly the initial letters of the first twenty 
lines (allowing for what appear to be misreadings of the 
scribe) make the words^ Simun du Fresne me^st, ^^ Simon 
du Fresne made me i'^ — 

iS'olaa dune et tolt ire 
/cest Romaniei ke od lire 
JfcTult porte en sei grant deport, 
Un eicriat eat de grant confort 
JVe deit home oonustre ben 
De Payer pur perdre ren, 

* MS. Reg, fiOB. XIT. fol. 68, y. 

SSO ntu<m Dtr tssticv. [^Mf* ^ 

De I'altre part pitr rea ke tcit 
Plni Joivt ettn b6 dnL 
i^ls eft ke p«r «d «rolr 
Ani wft Joier v 4otefr> 
An p<H de him Tit et rent, 
Li sages homme plet ne tent. 
ir«at «Mir foil dwee tvine, 
X he «!feir «itvr at pclM, 
Afnit le qvert od grant dolur, 
J? tnt le part a chef de tur. 
F^U est ke aveir desire, 
Jk ne sem sans martjre, 
Am <»a •• aem «ffi, 
Tknt li com penaer sore. 

A more coned manuscript is preserved in the collection of 
Mr. Douce in the Bodleian Library. The poem is there 
entitled the Romance of Dame Fortune. M. de la Bue 
appears to tis to have judged somewhat too partially of 
the style of this poenb 

Simon da Fresne alao wrote epigrama and short poema 
in Lfttinf a few of which are preserved in manuscripts at 
Lambeth palace and in the library of Corpus Cbriiti 
College, Cambridge. They appear to have been mostly 
written in defen^^ of Giraldua Cambrensis, against the 
attacks of some of Us poetjeal detmelors, such as Adam 
of Dore.* An epigram by Simon du Fresne, add^ressed 
to Giraldus, is preserved in MS. Cotton. Vkel. E. v., In 
wMch he spedcs of Ginddus as not lunrtng yet been 
made a bishop, which justifies us in plaeing this writer 
in the reign of Richard L 

• See Tanner, who follows Leland in entering this writer rather absurdly 
nnder the name of Simon /Uh$, In Latin his Prea«h name is translated D» 

Bk. L] Ht^nhLvn wmaxm. ^51 


Nigellu« Wiseker, as tbii writer i$ feMnlly called,* 
held the office of pneeentor in the ehurefa of Canterbury, 
and was one of the more remarkable Utenuy men of the 
end of the twelfth eentarjr# AltboHg^ a mmk himself he 
seems to have been opposed to the corruptions which 
characterized the monastic ordersj and which had crept 
into every part of the dluireii. He «as tli^intiflnate friend 
of William de Longcbamp bishop of Ely» so celebrated in 
the history of the reign of Richard h, whose cbiu:mcter ap- 
pears to have been blackened by the monkish historians 
because he was hostile to their orden The writings of 
NigeUus enjoyed a very extensive popularity in subse- 
quent timesy as we may judg^ by the numeicns mann* 
scripts of them still existing* 

The earliest productions of Nigellus now known a^ppear 
to be some short pieces of Latin rtm pivserved at 
the beginning of a manuscript in the Cottonian Library 
(MS. Cotton. Yespas. D. xix.) The first of these com- 
mences with a Csncifol play on has own name and on that of 
Honorius prior of Canterbury, «nd must therefore have 
been written between 1186, when he was elected to that 
office^ and 1189» when be died of the plague at Rome. 

la guMim^iie maam psrmMrU Ifte libeljai* 
Dicat, in sterna raqnieicat pac0 NJ|0bUii«. 
Si qnid in hoc modioo quod te JnTct Mae UMIo 
Contigerit, dtcas, lit loz Ktern» NifiUp^ 

* No early authority it adduced for the inmame of Wlreker, to ftr ai 
we are aware. JacobiitThomaUas pnbliahed a Dieputatio de Nifello Wirc- 
keroi lips. 1679. See Tanner. 

352 KIQBUUS WIRBKEB. [ReiffH o/ 

HnjuB qnuqnii em conspeetor forte libelU, 
Die ita, Christe Jhesu mUeri miserere Nigelli. 
Factorij memor esto tni tict panre libelle» 
Siepiiu et dices» ViTas sine fine, Nigelle. 
EcdesiflB Christi nobilitatis, Hooori» 
Non onus es, sed honos, decns et decor, aptus honor! ; 
Jure tibi quod babes dat honor de nomine nomen, 
Nomen honoris habes, cum nomine nominis omen. 
Nomen honoris habes, quo debes jure Tocari» 
Qao toa fscta magis qnam fata dedere bean» 
Nomen honoris habes, sed factis nomen honoras» 
Nominis inteipres de nomine fiusta eoloras ; 
Dumqoe stndes fieri popnli qnod diceris ore. 
Facta decent qnis es, quantos, qnam dignns honore. 
Non vacat hoc igitnr qnod Honorius ipse Tocaris, 
Bz re nomen habesi quod diceris esse proberis. 

In another of these short pieces^ Nigellus speaks of the 
death of Honorius. They are followed by a longer poem^ 
in good Latin elegiacs^ on the miracles of the Virgin^ 
which are perhaps to be attributed to the same author. 

Two other manuscripts in the Cottonian Library, Julius 
A. VII. (fol. 58, v«,) and Cleopatra B. iii. (fol. 112, r<>,) 
contain copies of a poem by the same Nigellus, which 
commences with the following description of Spring, no 
unfavourable specimen of this writer's metrical powers : — 

Fostquam tristis hyems sephyro spirante reoessit, 

Grandoi nives, plurias consultiere fugse, 
Terra parens florum vires rediriva resumpdt, 

Exeruitque caput ezhilarata suuffli 
Ver caput atque comes aestatis in otia cures 

Laxat, et ablato frigore flore nitet. 
Vemat fronde nemus, yestitur gramine tellus, 

Veris odoriferi spirat ubique vapor. 
Quioquid hyems hyemlsque graves rapuere minlstri, 

Redditit «statis gratia vere novo. 
Veris ad imperium surgens statione soluta, 

Clause sub itotivo carcere cedit hyems. 
Flante levi sephyro dum ver lascivit in herbasi 

^stas multiplici flore maritat humum. 
Temporis atque loci facie redeunte serensi 

Sidtibus et silvis redditur exul avis ; 


QittBqiie din silnit philomena lilentU solvit» 

Voce ana redimens verba negate sibL 
Ciqus ad ezemplam, sterili torpore remote, 

Morem temporibus qui gerk ipse sapit. 

It appears by the concluding lines^ that this poem was 
dedicated to William de Longdiamp, soon after he was 
raised to the chancellorship in 1190. The writer addresses 
his book in Leonines : — 

Si mihi credideris nulla ratione moreris, 

Perficies leviter hoc breritetis iter ; 
Nee timeas enses» quia sen statnant Elyensea 

Prelia, siye joci sint ibi more lod, 
Prssnle tutus erisi rite yotoque firneris, 

Legatnsque tibi non erit liostis ibi, 
Nee oanceUatusy sed ab ipso canonicatus 

Jure rererteris» sioque perennis eris. 

This short poem appears to be merely an introduction to 
a prose treatise on the corruptions in the church which 
follows it in the manuscript last mentioned^ anxi which is 
addressed likewise to the bishop of Ely.'^ In this treatise^ 
Nigellus speaks of the bishop in jbbe most flattering terms^ 
and addresses him as an enlighteued reformer of the abuses 
of the age. He describes the disorders which had crept 
into the church during tibe preceding reign^ and illus- 
trates his observations by anecdotes which add consider- 
ably to the value of the book, which has never been printed. 
The following extract will give the best notiou of the style 
in which it is written. 

Longe antem aliter alter! contigit. Reye Henrico in finibns VaHise cum 
ezerdtn agente, mmor subito ad ciuiam perlatus jsst qnod dericus quidam 
dives Talde diem .dausisaet eactremom. Habebat antem idem multas ecde- 
stas pretiosas, unam temen pretipsiorem inter alias. Quo andito, dericus 
quidam qui inter alios gratiam in oculis regis ampliorem invenisse gloriaba- 
tnr, surrezit yejodter et petiit a rege litteras ad abbatem quendam pro 

* It begins with the words, '* RcTerendo patri et domino Willelmo Dei 
ipratia ElieOsi epiMopo, apostolicss sedis legato» regni Anglue cancellario, 
Cantuariensis ecclesise fratmm minimus firater Nigellusi Teste monachus; 
y^te peccator, gradu presbyter sed indignus.*' 

yOL. ij. 2 A 

354 NioBLLUs wiRBKBR* [Reign of 

ecelei ia pnedicto. QaibiiB impetntiB, quia abbas ille ad qnem spectabat 
donatio octo dieram itinere diatabat a rege, feBtinavit ne alios pnecnrreret 
et apprehenderet braTinm, et pneriperet be&edictionem. Mutatis igitur 
non semel equitatnris et quibnsdam interfectia, ac socits itineris impotentio- 
ribns obitum relictis, bis iiij^' dietas fere duobos confedt. Sabstitit enim 
citra locam nbi abbas morabatnr .z. miliaribus, non quia roluntas progredi- 
eodi deficeret, sed virtus propria, comitum et equorum regionis ignotss error 
suspectus et noz pro parte jam exacta ulterius progredi probibebat. Fati- 
gatus autem ex itiaere, et tristior effectus audito quod eo die ecclesia alteri 
esset collata, acrius coepit aegrotari, yersusque ad parietem nee cibnm nee 
consolationem volnit acdpere ; nnde in crastino utroque homine, altero prae 
fktigatione, altero prae anzietate fmstrari deaiderii, defidente, abdormint in 
mortem. Delatusque est ad abbatiam, et abbati ante mortnus nuntiatus et 
ezpositus, quam ipse causam adventus sni ezponeret ; adbuc litterae regis 
fadentes pro mo recenti daudebantur sigillo, et jam mortuus claudebatnr 
sepulcro. Priusque scitum est quare non recederet, qu2im cur tam subito 
adveniret ; ante passus est ruinam, qukm petitio ejus pateretnr repulsam. 
Nondum abbas regiae petitioni abnuerat, et ipse de non petendo ulterius jam 
satisdabat. Si mortuus est pro ecclesia quam ita ambierat, non est causan* 
dus rezy qui pro clerioo suo scripsit, neque abbas qui rei nesdns nee concessit 
nee negavit. Imo ipse qui in deferenda abbati petitione regia et nimis 
moratus «t nimis festinavit ; sicque dum nimio hiatu anhelavit ad obtinendum 
non habita, prius babita perdidit qukm obtineret quod optavit. 

The most remarkable and most generally known of the 
writings of Nigellus is the Speculum StuUorum, a satire 
in Latin elegiacs on the follies of his age, directed 
more especially against the corruptions of the monastic 
orders. This poem enjoyed a very extensive popularity 
during the middle ages ; many copies are still preserved 
in manuscript, and it was frequently printed by the early 
printers, who however fell generally into the error of 
calling the author VigeUus. This poem is addressed to a 
iriend named William :— 

Susdpe panca tibi Teteris, Willehne, Nigdli 

Scripta, minus sapido nuper arata stylo : 
Hoc modicum novitatis opus tibi mitto legendum» 

Maxima pars animae dimidiumque meie. 

This person is also supposed to be William de Longchamp 
bishop of Ely, in which case it must have been composed 


at the latter end of the reign of Henry 11.^ before William 
was raised to the prelacy, as here and in the prose prologue 
which generally accompanies the poem* he is not ad- 
dressed as an ecclesiastic of rank. As the author applies 
to himself the term vetus, we may suppose that he was 
then advanced in years. The hero of this singular pro- 
duction is an ass named Brunellus, who is introduced dis- 
satisfied with his own condition^ and ambitious of possess- 
ing a longer tail. The ass, we are informed in the prose 
abstract, represents the monks in general, who were always 
longing after some new acquisition which was inconsis- 
tent with their profession. Brunellus consults a physician, 
Ghdienus, who represents to him the folly of his request, 
and states that in this particular king Louis of France 
was no less deficient than himself. 

In titnlo caudiB Franconim rez Lndoriciu 

Non tibi precellit, pontificesre sni« 
Finniter ergo tene quod babes, quia conditionem 

De facili posses damnificare tuam. 

Gahenus proceeds to tell a fable of two cows, who were 
caught by the tails in the ice during a sudden frost ; but 
at last he ^ves him a receipt to make his tail grow longer, 
and sends him to Salemum to obtain the ingredients. 
Brunellus is there cheated by a merchant of London, and 
on his way home falls into other misfortunes, in the course 
of which he loses a part of his tail, and drowns a Cistercian 
monk who had plotted against his life. Ashamed to return 
to his native town without having profited by his journey, 
he determines to visit the schools to study, and with 
this object he proceeds to Paris. On the way he makes 
acquaintance with another traveller, named Gerhardus, 
who is repairing to Paris with the same object, and who 

* Dilecto sibi in Christo et semper diligendo fratri Guilbelmo snus Nigel» 
luB salntem in sammo et Tero salutari. 

2 a2 

356 NIGBLLU8 WIRBKBR. [ReiffH o/ 

tells him the story of a priest's son and a cock, as an ex- 
ample of the danger of provoking vengefiil sentiments even 
in those who are weaker than ourselves. At length they 
arrive at Paris, and Bninellus associates himself with the 
scholars of the English nation. 

Talia jam pariter gradientes plum referre&t, 

Fariaiiis subeunt, hospitiiimque petunt. 
Corpora fessa quies recreat, tenuisque dieta, 

Damna recompenaant menaa caUxqne frequens. 
Oaaa, catem, nerros, quae Td labor ant Yia longa 

Qnaaaarat, refoTent balnea, cnra, qnies. 
Bmnelluaqne sibi mimiit, crinesque totonditi 

Induit et tunica se meliore sua. 
Fexiis et ablntna, tandem progresfos in nibem» 

Intrat in ecdesiam, vota preoeaque fiunt. 
Inde acholaa adiena, aecmn deliberat ntrum 

Ezpediant potius ista yel ilia aibi. 
Et quia aubtilea eenan considenit Anglos, 

Plnribns ex cansis se sociavit eis. 
Moiibna egregii, verbo Toltaqiie lamgd, 

Ingenio pollent consilioqne Tigent. 
0ona pluimt popnlis, et detestantor avaras ; 

Fercola moltiplicant, et sine lege bibnnt 
W^theil et drincheil, nee non persona seconda» 

Hkc tria snnt yitia qiue oomitantar eis. 
His tribus ezoeptis, nihil est qnod in his reprehendaa ; 

Hkc tria si toUas, ccetera cmicta plaoent. 

Brunellus proves himself an unapt scholar, and quits 
Paris in despair, but at length he determines on enter- 
ing one of the monastic orders. He then successively 
reviews their several characters, and condemns them all. 
The duties of the templars and hospitallers are too full of 
danger and hardship; the monks of Cluny, the Cistercians, 
those of Orandmont, the Carthusians, &c. are all objected 
to for their vices or their absurdity. The secular canons 
are charged with reckless profligacy. 

Hi nihil ezdpiunt, nee dieont despidendum, 
Qnicqnid in obseqnio corporis esse potest. 

Hind prvdpue tamen institnere tenendum 
Omnibus in tota poeteritate sua, 


Lex Tetus «t luasit, ne quiUbet abaqoe m ik, 

£t quod qiuiqne guas point habere dues. 
Hi rant qm nmndam cum flore cadente tenentes, 

Ne cito maroeaeat i«pe rigare stadent. 
Hi rant qui facinnt qaicqnid petulantia camia 

Imperat, at vitiia ait Tia pronaania. 
Totna inerrorem mnndiia, pneeontibiia istia, 

Dndtar, hi pneeont pnedpiteaqne raont. 

The nuns are described as being equally faulty with the 

Corpore aeipentea, riicnea tocc^ draconea 
Pectore, Snaanna amigmate, oorde Paria. 

And we are further informed that — 

Nnnquam rizantnr, niai com locoa exigit, ant rea ; 

Sed neqne pereatinnt, ait nisi canaa gratia. 
Harum aont qmedam aterilea, qnaedam parientea, 

Yirgineoqne tamen nomine eoncta tegnnt. 
Qjam paatonOia bacnli dotatnr honore, 

Ilia qnidem melina fertilinaqne parit. 
Viz etiam qnsTia aterilia repeiitor in iHia, 

Donee eis aetaa talia poaae negat. 

Dissatisfied with all the existing monastic orders, Brunei- 
lus resolves to form a new sect for himself, in which he 
joins the more agreeable characteristics of the others. 
In the midst of his reflections, he meets his old adviser, 
Oalienus, tells him at some length his observations on the 
different ranks and orders of the clergy and on the various 
classes of society, and advises him to enter his new order. 
But in the midst of his speculations Brunellus suddenly 
falls into the hands of his master, from whom he had 
escaped when he visited Salemum, and he is compelled to 
end his days in the degraded position for which he was 
originally formed. Thus concludes the Speculum Stulto^ 
rum, a severe satire on the condition of society in the age 
when it was written. 
Several other tracts are ascribed to Nigellus by the old 


bibliographers, some of which appear to be only different 
titles of the same work. The poem in the Cottonian MS. 
beginning with the words. Si mihi credideriSy Unguam co- 
hibej is nothing more than John of Salisbury's poetical 
introduction to the PolycraUcus, entitled in some editions 
Eutheticus. The Distinctiones super Novum et vetus TeS" 
tamentumy the Excerptiones ex Guarnerio Gregoriano super 
moralia Job, the Glosses in Joharmemy which are given 
under his name by Leland and Bale, appear to be lost 


The first edition of the ^/fteulum Stultorttm was printed in folio« without 

date, and is now very rare. 
Speculam stnltomm. The second leaf begins, Incipit epistola Teteris yigeUi 

ad Vnilhelmum amicnm sanm, &c. Ends, Elzplidt specnlom stoltonim. 

With an epigram in six lines. 4to. black letter, without place or date, 

(BHt, Mui,) 
Another edition, without date or name of place, in black letter, was printed 

in the fifteenth centary. 
Liber qui Ititulatur Bruoellus in speculo stultorum. Narratio Galiem de 

bruneta et bicomi. Narratio de gallo et querimon^s galline. Brunellns 

9uertit se ad sing'los status holm. At the end, — BrunelU in speculo 

stultorum Finis adest felidtur In imperial! feliciq; ciuitate Coloniensi 

Anno dominice incamatidis mlllesimo quadringentesimo nonageaimo 

nono die ultima February. 4to. {Brit Mtu.) 
An edition in small 4to, was printed at Paris, J. Petit, 1506. 
Nigaldi Wiroker, anglici bardi, Speculum Stultorum. Parisiis, 1601. 
Bninellus Vigelli, & Vetola Ovidii. Sen : opuscula duo Auctorum Incerto- 

rum : Prius quidem Vigelli, qui fertur, Speculum Stultorum ; Posterina 

vero Libri tres de Vetola, Ovidii, fslso sic dicti . • . Anno do lOCLXII. 

Wolfcrbyti. 8vo. 


Benedict appears to have been originally a monk of 
Canterbury. He held the office of chancellor to Becket's 
successor, archbishop Richard; in 1175 he was elected 

Died 1193.] benedict of Peterborough. 359 

prior of Canterbury, and in 1177 he was remored thence 
to be made abbot of Peterborough.* He died at the latter 
end of September, in the year ll93.t 

Benedict is known chiefly by a history, or rather a 
chronicle, of his own times, written in Latin in a plain 
style, commencing with 11 70, the year before the death of 
Becket, and ending with the year 1192, that which pre^ 
ceded his own death. It is the most valuable account left 
us of the events of this period, being compiled with labour 
and by a contemporary. Few monastic writers give so 
many official documents as are inserted in this history. It 
was transferred almost literally into the Annals of Roger 
de Hoveden. The following short extract will serve as a 
specimen of Benedict's latinity : 

De mgreuu Lodowiei regis in Normanniam. 

Similiter antem circa octabas apostolomm Petri et P^nli, Lodowicns rex 
Franciee com magno ezercita intravit Normanniamy et obaedit Vemolimn, et 
atadm fecit fieri machinas bellicaa, et cotidie circamqnaqtte fecenmt imoltam 
Id eo. Sed Hugo de Lasci et Hugo de Bellocampo, qui inde conatabularii 
eranty Tillam Yemolii Tiriliter et constanti animo defenderunt, cum militibus 
et aerrientibus qui intus erant ; nee regem Franci» nee machinas snaa time- 
bant. Nam rex Franciae cum auo maguo exercitu pamm proficiebat, quia 
jam per mensem ibi moram fecerat, et in nullo eis nocere potuit, nisi ex parte 
ilia ubi tentoria sua fixa fnerant. Ibi enim posit» erant machin» suse bellic». 
Erant quidem infra Vemolium tres burgi prster castellum, et unusquisque 
eorum separatus erat ab altero et interclnsus forti muro et fosso aqua pleno ; 
unus Tero illorum dicebatnr magnus burgus, et ibi extra murum fixa erant 
tentoria regis Frands et machina illins bellice. In fine autem iUius mensis, 
cum burgenses de burgo yidissent quod yictus et necessaria eis defecissent, 
nee haberent quid mandncassent, oompnlsi lame et inopia indudas triduanas 
oeperunt a rege Franciei ut libere irent et exirent ad regem Angli« propter 
succursum, et nisi infra sequens triduum ab eo succursum haberent, red- 
derent ei burgum ilium quem tenebant. 

An edition of this work was published, not so judiciously 
as could be desired, by Thomas Hearne, from a manu- 

* Qenras. ap. Wharton, A. Sac toI. i. p. 13d. 
t Annal. Job. ab. Burg. ap'. Sparke. 

560 RICHARD OF 0BVIZE8. [Reign qf 

script in the Haorleian Idbrarf^ ediated iritfi two manu- 
scripts in the Cottonian library (MSS. Cotton* Julius 
A. xi^ and Vitellius E. xvii)^ both of which are still pre- 
served^ although the latter has suffered much from the 
fire. An edition of the remaining works of this writer is 
promised by Dr. Giles. His life of Becket appears to be 
lost^ but an abridgement of it was printed by Surius^ 
Benedict was also the author of a collection of the miracles 
attributed to Becket^ distributed into five books, ci which 
Dr. cues has discovered a copy among the manuscripts 
in a continental library. Tanner states erroneously that 
Benedict was one of the authors of the Quadrilogus* L^ 
land* found in the library at Canterbury a treatise on the 
CompotuSj and a Ubellus de augmenio et decremento lunm 
ascribed to Benedicius mofMchtu, but it does not appear 
that this was Benedict of Peterborough. 


BenMfictttB abbas Petrobnrgensia de Vita et Gestu Henrid II. et Rkardi I. 
E codioe MS. in Bibliotbeca Harleiana deacripsit et none primiiBa 
edidit Thomaa Hearniua* Ozonii, MDcexzxv. 2 toI. 8to. 


Richard of Devizes^ so called probably from the pla(^ 
of his birth^ was a monk of the priory of St. Swithun at 
Winchester^ and the intimate friend of his prior^ Robert. 
The latter was remored in 1191 to be made prior of the 
Charterhouse at Witham, and Richard yisited him there^ 
but he soon returned to Winchester, and there, shortly 
afterwards^ wrote a history of the first years of the reign of 

* Ck>llectaii. toI iii. p. 189* 


Richard I^ beginning in IISS^ and ending with the king's 
departure from Palestine in 1 192. He dedicated this book 
to his friend prior Robert, in a short prologue from which 
we derive all that is known of the author. It is probably 
his only work, for there is no reason for ascribing to him 
the general chronicle which precedes it in a manuscript in 
the library of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, No. 339. 
The chronicle of Richard of Devizes is one of the earliest 
and mo9t authentic memorials of the period to which it 
relates, but it is written in an affected style, fiUed with 
passages from the classic writers. The following singular 
character by a Jew of the chief cities in England will 
serve as a specimen ; 

Valedixit Jadaeo rao ; cni Jadffivs, " Vade/' ait, ^* virfliter. Deas patmm 
mednim deducat te aicnt deaidero.*' Et, impoaitis manibna snper caput ejtia, 
ao ai eaaet hirciia emiaaarina, poat atridoraa qnosdam guttnria et taoitaa im- 
preeatioxiM, jam de pneda aecnniB, acyedt, ** ibrti animo eatOi obliTiacere 
popnliim tQum et terram toam, quia omnia terra forti patria est» 

Ut piadbua nqnor, 
Et Tolocri Tacuo quioqaid in orbe patet 

AngHam ingreaada ai Londoniaa Teneria, oeleriter pertranaibia ; multurn eninr 
mihi diaplidt ilia polia. Omne homlnum ^niia in iUam oonfluit ex omni 
natione que anb ooelo eat ; omnia gena ana vitia et saoa morea nrbi intnlit. 
Nemo in ea aine crimine yiyit ; non omnia in ea vicna non abnndat triatibna 
obioenia ; eo ibi qniaqnia mdior eat quo foerit nugor in toelere. Non ignoro 
qnem inatmo : habea anpra toam statem ferrorem ingenii, frigiditatem 
memorin, ex ntrinqne contrariia temperantiam rationla. Nihil de te mihi 
metoo, niai cnm male Tiyentibna commoreria ; ex convictn enim mores for- 
mantnr. Eato, esto, Londonias Teniea. Ecoe, prsedico tibi, qnicqnid in 
ringnUa, qvicquid in nniTeraia partibna mnndi mall Tel malitisB eat, in mat 
ilia ciTitate reperies. Lenonnm choroa non adeaa, ganearam gregibna non 
immiacearia ; vita tahim et tesseram, theatnun et tabeniam. Plnrea ibi quanf 
in tota Gallia thraaonea offendea, gnatfaonum autem infinitna est nnmems. 
Hiatrionea, acnrr»i glabrionea, ganmantes» palponea, pnsionea, molleai maa^ 
cnlarii, ambnbaie, pharmaoopolse, criaaaris, phitoniasse, Tnltoariae, noctivagv^ 
magi, mimi, mendici, balathronea, hoc genua omne» replerere domos. Ergo, 
ai nolueritia habitare oum tnrpibua, non habitabia Londonila ; non loquor in 
literatoa vel rdigiosos, aire Judaeoa ; quamvia et ex ipsa cohabitatione ma-^ 
lomm, minua eos ibi quam alibi crediderim esse perfectos. Nee eo pergit 


ontio, ut ntdlain te radpiaa chitatem, emu meo ooniilio njutpam tibi nt i 
in wbe manendum, refiert tamen in qua. Si igitor circa Cantuariam appn- 
lerifl, iter habebis perdere ; si yel per earn tranaieria. Tota est ilia perdi' 
toram collectio ad snnm nescio qnem nnper doficatamy qui ftierat Cantoari» 
arebipresbyter, quod paasim prae inopia pania et otio per plateas morinntiir 
ad 8oIem« Roreoestria et Cioestria vicnli sunt, et cor civitatea did debeant 
prater aedea flaminum mbll obtendnnt Qzonia yix snoa clericoa non dioo 
aatiaty sed avatentat. Exonia eodem turt refidt bominea et jnmenta. 
Batfaonia in imia TaUium in craaao nimia aere et yapore anlpbnreo poeita, imo 
deposita, est ad portaa inferi. Sed nee in arctois aedem tibi legeris nrbibnar 
Wigomia, Cestria, Herefordia, propter Walenaea vits prodigoa. Eboracam 
Scottia abnndatr foedia et infidia bominibna Tel homnncionibna. Elienaia^ 
pagua pntidua eat pro drcomfuiia palndiboa. In Dandmo, Northwico, 8i?e 
lincolnia, peipaneoa de potentiboa de toa conditione, noUnm penitua audiea 
Romane loqnentem. Apud BriatoUnm nemo eat qm non sit vel ftierit aapo- 
narina, et omnia Francna aaponarioa amat vt ttercorarioa. Poat nrbea» omne 
foram, villa, vd oppidnm, inoolaa babet mdea et ruaticoe. Omni inauper 
tempore pro talibua Conmbienaea habeto, qnalea in Franda uostri noatroa 
Flandrenaea baberi. Csetemm regio ipsa generaliter in rore coeli et in pingne* 
dine terra tota beatiaaima eat ; in nngnlia etiam loda aliqni boni aunt, aed 
multo minos in omnibus quam in una Wintonia.*' 


Cbronicon Bicardi DiTiaienaia de rebua geatia Ricardi Primi regia Angliae: 
Nunc primum typia mandatnm, curante Joaepho Sterenaon. Londini, 
M.DCco.xxxviii. 8to. Published hj the English Historical Sodety. 


The Chronicle of Richard of Derizea concerning the deeds of Richard the 
Firat, king of England. Alao, Richard of Cirenoeater'a Deacription of 
Britain. Tranalated and edited by J. A. Gilea» LL.D. London, 1841 . 8to. 


One of the best writers of the life of Thomas Becket was 
William Pitz-Stephen, a native of London, and a clerk in 
Becket's household, who placed so much confidence in 
him that he gave him important employments in his 


chancery, in his chapel, and in his court.* He farther 
informs us that he was present with the primate in the 
parliament at Northampton^ one of the most important 
events in the history of Becket's disputes with the 
king; and that he was a witness of his murder, as well as 
of many other of the events mentioned in his narrativcf 
It appears also, from a part of this life not contained in 
the printed text, that William Fitz-Stephen was excepted 
from the persecution which raged over the heads of Beckefs 
other friends at the time of his exile, in return for a me- 
trical prayer which he had once presented to the king in 
the chapel of Brehul {de BruhtUla), and which commenced 
with the lines — 

Rex canctomm saecnlomm, rex ards setherue, 
Rector poll, rector soli» regam rex altissime, 
Qui et maris dominarifl» contorbas et exdtaa, 
£t qnnm placet, stratum jacet, motnrn ejus mitigas. 
Tu creastii ta formasti, coelos, terras, maria ; 
Quae fecisti, condidisti, ta gubemas omnia. 
Omne bonum taam donum, omnipotentissime ; 
Concta grata tua data, dominonim domine. 

The whole of this prayer is inserted in the Life of Becket. 
This life, which appears to have been composed some time 
after the primate's death, is written in a calmer style 
(although by a partizan), and the narrative is more lucid, 
than most of the other lives of Becket. It was printed by 
Sparke, but from a very incomplete manuscript; a much 

* Ego WiUelmns filiiis Stephani ejnsdem domini mei condyis, 

dericas, et conyictor, ^ ad partem solicitadinis ejus oris ipsius invitatas allo- 
qiiio, ftii in canoellaria ejus dictator, in capella eo celebrante sabdiaoonns, 
sedente eo ad cognitionem cansamm epistolamm et instmmentomm qiue 
offerebantor lector, et aliquanim eo qnandoque jnbente cansarum patronus* 
Prolog, in Vit. Thomie. 

t Concilio Northamtonise habito, nbi maximum fait rerom momentum, 
cam ipso intertm ; passionem ejus Cantuarise inspexi ; cstera plorima, quse 
hie scribuntur, oculis vidl, auribus audivi, qundam a consdis dldid relato- 
ribns. lb. 


superior edition is now in preparation by Dr. Giles. It 
opens with a detailed account of the city of London^ and 
of the manners of its inhabitants, as the natire place both 
of its author and of Becket; this has been printed separ 
rately in Stowe's Survey of London, by Heame in his 
edition of Leland^s Itinerary, and, with a translation, by 
Dr. Pegge. As a specimen of William's Latinity, we give 
his account of the schools which existed in London in 
the twelfth century. 

In Londonift tres prindpala eodniae schoIaB celebres habent de priyikgio et 
antiqna digmtata. Fterdmqne tnnea fiiTore penonali alicigiui notonun ae- 
candam philosophiam pliireg ibi Bcholae admittuntar. Diebia foatia ad eoda-r 
aiaa fSsatiyaa magiatri eonventiia celebrant. Diapntant acbolarea^ qnidam de- 
monatratire, dialeotioe alii; hii rotant entfaymemafca, hii perfeetia meliua 
atontor ayUogianua. Qnidam ad oetentationem ezeroentor diapntationei qnn 
eat inter ooUnctantea; alii ad veritatem, qn» eatperapectionia gratia. SopfaiatK 
aimnlatorea agmine et innndatione Terbomm beati jndicantor; aiii paralogi- 
sant. Oratorea aliqni qoandoqne oratiombna rhetoricia aliqnid dicnnt opposite 
ad pennadendnm, curantes artia pneoepta aervarey et ex contingentibna nihil 
omittere. Pneil diTenamm acholamm veraibna inter ae oomizantor; ant 
de prindiriia artia grammaticfle, yel regalia praeteritonim vel anpinonun, con- 
tendnnt. Snnt alii qni in epigrammatibna, rytfamia, et metria, ntuntnr yetere 
ilia triyiali dicacitate ; licentia Feacennina aocioe, anppreaaia nominibna, libe- 
fiiia lacerant ; loedoriaa jacnlantnr et acommata ; aalibna Socratida aodonim 
tel forte majonun yitia tangnnt, yel mordadna dente rodunt Theonino 
andadbna ditfayrambia. Anditorea, 

mnltom ridere parati, 
Ingeminant tremnloa naao criapante eacliinnoe. 

Bale attributes to William Fitz-Stephen a book of visions 
seen after Becket's death, and another of his miracles, 
which were probably only the latter chapters of the life. 
Fitz-Stephen refers for his miracles to a lai^ volume of 
them, collected at Canterbury,* which he would hardly 
have done had he published a collection himself. A col- 
lection of miracles ascribed to Becket, published in the 

* Sed de miracnlia qua in Anglia aacerdotom et bononun yironun teati- 
monio dedaratiB, — et in capitolo Cantuarienaia eocleaiie pnblice redtatia, 
inagnna codex oonacriptna extat. Vit. S. Thorn» (in Dr. Gilea'a text). 


QuadriloffUf under the name of William of Canterbury^ 
has been supposed to be the work of Fitz-Stephen. 


Hutori» AngUean» Scriptores vara, a Codiciboa Mannacriptia xumc primom 
editi. Londlni, 1723, foL (by Sparke)— Vita Saacd llioiiue Arehifl- 
pisoqpi & Blaityria, a Willielmo filio StephanL 

Htz-Stephen'a Description of the City of London, nswlj trandated from the 
Latin original ; with a neoeasarj Commentary, a Diaaertation on the 
Audior, and a correct Edition of the Original, &c. By an Antiquary 
[Samuel Pegge, LL.D.] 177S. 4to. 


The life of Becket employed die pens of many writers 
during this period. One of diese was Alan abbot of 
Tewkesbury. He had been a monk of Christ's Churchy 
Canterbury, and in 1 179 was appointed prior of the church. 
In 1186, he was elected abbot of Tewkesbury. He died 
in 1202.* Alan wrote a supplement to John of Salisbury's 
life of Becket, containing a more detailed account than 
that writer had given of the transactions of the council 
of Clarendon. In a manuscript in the Bodleian library, 
the life and preface by John of Salisbury are introduced 
between the preface and work of Alan of Tewkesbury.f 
According to Pits, a manuscript at Louvain in his time 
contained sermons and letters by Alan of Tewkesbury. 
Two of his sermons are still preserved in a manuscript in 
the Bodleian library. A manuscript in the library of 
Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, No. 288, contains 
letters of Alan prior of Canterbury to king Henry, as well 
as to the king of France and others, chiefly relating to 

* See Tanner, and Wharton, Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 138. 

t There is another copy in the British Museum, MS. Addit. No. 11,506. 


the translation of Beckef s body ; with others addressed 
to archbishop Baldwin, relating to certain rights which 
the metropolitan see of Canterbury claimed over the see 
of Rochester. Pits also attributes to this writer Proble- 
nudum lib. %., which he appears not to have seen. 

RooER^monkofCroyland^andafterwardspriorof Freston 
in Lincolnshire, was also the author of a life of Becket, 
commenced in the last year of the reign of Richard I. 
and finished late in that of John. It was dedicated to 
Henry abbot of Croyland, and, according to Leland, was 
divided into six books. There are manuscripts of a life of 
Becket, supposed to be that of Roger of Croyland, in the 
Bodleian library, and in the library of University College, 
Oxford, but only in three books, except in the latter, where 
a fourth book is added, De gestis post martyrium. Roger 
of Croyland is believed to have written the second or 
revised copy of the life and letters of Becket, first pub- 
lished by John of Salisbury. 


Pbter of Blois was one of those foreign ecclesiastics 
who so frequently during the twelfth century obtained bene- 
fices in England, and earned their celebrity as writers in 
their adopted country. He was bom at Blois, of a noble 
family of lower Britany, and appears to have been edu- 
cated at Tours.'^ He tells us himself that from his child- 
hood he had passed his life either in the schools or in the 
courts of prince8.t He removed from Tours to Paris, 

* See Epist. ziL There ia a good article on Peter of Blois in the Hist, 
lit. de Fr. torn, xt, p. 341. 
t Ep. csudx. 

Died after 119&.] pbtbr op blois. 367 

where he appears to have studied under John of Salisbury, 
whom he mentions as one of his teachers,^ which would 
fix the date to between 1 140 and 1 150. He next went to 
Bologna, to study jurisprudence ; and he seems to have 
quitted that place about 1160 or 1161, when, on his way 
to Rome to do homage to pope Alexander III., he and 
his companions were robbed and beaten by the emissaries 
of the anti-pope Victor IV.f On his return, he applied 
himself to the study of theology at Paris,} and at the 
same time he taught children and younger students. 
About the year 1167, he accompanied Stephen du Perche 
into Sicily, to assist him in governing that island during 
the minority of William III. and regency of that prince's 
mother, queen Margaret, and was made keeper of the 
royal seal. Peter soon, however, became obnoxious to the 
Sicilians, and, in order to induce him to resign his office, 
several bishoprics were offered him, which he refused. 
At length, after he had held the royal seal about a year, 
he found himself compelled to leave Sicily, and he again 
commenced teaching at P&ris, where he appears to have 
gained a considerable reputation for his learning and 
literary acquirements.§ 

Peter of Blois was invited to England by king Henry II., 
and made chancellor to the archbishop of Canterbury; but 
we are ignorant of the date of this event It would ap- 
pear from one of his letters that he had been sent on a 
mission to Pftris by king Henry IL in 1173 ;|| but we 
know with more certainty that in the beginning of the 
year 1175 he returned from a mission to Rome with which 

• Ep. zzii. 

i* Spp* xxriy zhdii. 

t Ep. zxvi. 

§ Epp. Izzii, xc, czxxi. 

11 Ep. Izzi. 

368 PBTBR OF BLOI8. .[Died after 1198. 

he had been intrusted by the English monarch.* In 
1177 he was sent to Rome, in company with Girard la 
Puoelle, to defend the claims of the archbishop of Can* 
terbury against the abbey of St. Aogostine, in a quarrel 
which had arisen between them; but he was unsuccess{ul.t 
In 1 187> he was again sent to the pope, Urban III., then 
residing at Verona, to support the cause of archbishop 
Baldwin against his monks4 We hare no information of 
the date at which Peter was made aichdeacon of Bath, 
but it was probably towards the end of the reign of 
Henry II. He appears^ firom some reason or otiier^ to 
have been in disfavour with Richard I.^ but he was sup- 
ported by the firiendship of the bishops of Worcester and 
Durham, and after their deaths he obtained the favour of 
queen Eleanor, the widow of his patron king Henry II., 
who made him her secretary, an office which he held firom 
1 i91 until after 1195. He was a steady fiiend of WiUiam 
de Longchamp, bishop of Ely, to whom he wrote a letter 
of consolation on his disgrace,§ in which he predicts his 
restoration to his dignities on the return of the king. His 
attaehment to this prelate was perhaps the cause of some 
of his own misfortunes ; for we find him at this time ex- 
posed to the attacks of many enemies, who at length, by 
accusations which are now no longer known, caused him 
to be deprived of his dignity of archdeacon of Bath. In 
the following letter|| to two friends at court, he laments the 
treatment which he had experienced on this occasion, and 
compares with his present disgrace the favour he had 
enjoyed in the preceding reign. 

* See Hist. lit. de Fr. XV. p. 343. 

t Hist. W. Thorn, ap. Decern Scriptores, ool. 1821. 

X Genrai. Dorob. Hist coL 1498. 

% Ep. IzzxTii. 

II Ep. cxlix. 

Died after 1198.] pbtbr op blois. 3^ 

Ab amaritndine anima itteae et ab mcoDsolabiU dolore cordis mei totas ab- 
•orbeor, et utmam ornnea cataract» capitis mei floant in fletnm. Utinam 
maiiina pan cerebri atqae maxillamm totias miseii corporis mei liquescat 
in lachrymaa, at possim flere et plangere, qnod videre non possum^ A rege 
Henrico Tocatns in Angliam, et ab eo atqae filiis ejus ditatus largitioDibus 
efiosisi nee non ab archiepiscopis et episcopis et oniyersis magnatibos terrae 
omni veneratione nsqae ad malitiam hnjas temporis exaltatas, nanc occasione 
qoammdam littenuram, qnse et per tadtamitatem Teritatis et perexpreasioneni 
fidsitatiB obtent» sont a domino papa, cradellBsime drcamvento toto popnlo 
et clero tantae dvitatis, quorum curia et custodia mihi commtssa est, senex et 
emeritus a juvene, simplex et ▼aletudinarius ab ambitioso, mansuetus et inno- 
oens a Yerrato, et at tempermtias loqoar, taipi crimine diffamatus ab omni 
honore archidikoonatas mei violenter expellor. Porro lator prasentium tra- 
goediam istam vobis apertius explanabit: singultuosus enim dolor os meum 
syncopis et \eiwoBvfiia impediens, me loqui aut scribere non permittit. Da* 
tus Bom per astatiam malignantis in opprobrium et contemptum, nisi miseria 
mea yestram excitet misericordiam, et passiones mese yestrae compassionis 
affectum proyocayerint. Miseremini mei saltem yos amici mei, quos etsi 
meritorum meonim exigentia mihi amicos non fecit, tamen misenun hone 
amare compellat pia oompassio, qun yenire frequenter in oontractum amicitis 
consueyit. Nulli, nisi yobis duobns, in curia scribo: unicam enim post 
Deum in yobis spei me« ancboram fixi ; nee sum immemor yerbi quod yeri- 
tas in Eyangelio dicit : Super quacumque re dno ex yobis consenserint super 
terram, fiet illis. Ethnicas etiam dieit, 

Non caret effectu quod yoluere duo. 

Disgusted with his treatment in England, Peter of Blois 
was on the point of leaving his adopted country and re- 
turning to France, when he was made archdeacon of 
London by Gilbert Foliot. The revenues and power of 
the archdeaconry of London being then very small, the 
bishop exerted himself successfully to obtain from the 
pope the same privileges as those enjoyed by the other 
archdeacons, and he also gave Peter the deanery of 
Wolverhampton ; but this he soon resigned on account 
of the immoral conduct of the canons.* We know nothing 
of his subsequent life, but he is generally supposed to 
have died soon after 1198. f 

* Epp. cli. dii. 

t In the Close RoU of 14tli John (A.D. 1212) is the following entry 
relating to the ezecaton of Peter of Blois, but it does not appear how long 

VOL. II. 2 B 

S70 PETBB OP BLOI8. [DUd dfier 1198* 

The most important of the writings of Peter of Blois 
are his letters^ written in good Latin^ and collected to* 
gether at the express desire of King Henry 11. They 
are full of interesting notices relating to the history and 
to the manners of his times. In them he appears per- 
sonally as a man of irritable temper^ violent in bis 
resentments^ and vain of his own talents. We see^ 
evidently, that it was his ambition to be an universal 
scholar ; he prides himself on his facility and rapidity in 
composition and on the varied character of his reading, 
and he sneers at others for passing their lives in rumi- 
nating on one branch of science. * In a letter to a friend 
who bore the same name as himself, and whom he 
congratulates on this coincidence, he boasts of the popu- 
larity and durability of his writings, which, he says, would 
outlive the effects of flood or fire, and would neither be 
destroyed by sudden ruin or by the slow effects of time, f 
We learn from his letters that in his youth he had addicted 
himself to literature of a lighter character, and had com- 
posed love-songs, which, however, he had relinquished for 
more serious occupations on the approach of manhood.]: 
He rejoices in having converted his brother William from 

he had then heen dead. Rex Brieno de Insulis, &c. Pnecipimas tihi quod, 
sine dilatione hahere permittaa ezecntoribna magistri Petri Blesenais quondnm 
archidiaooDi London, plenam et Ubenm dispoaitiottem rernm et catallonun 
que haboit et habere debet in balliva tua. Testo domino P. Wint. epiacopo 
apnd Torrim London, xz, die Mali. — It appears from the Close Roll of the 
9th John (A.D. 1308) tl^at Peter of Bloisi canon of Ripon, had had his 
l^oods seized in the time of the interdict ; but this may haye been another 
person, as we liave already heard of one other Peter of Blois in this age. 

• See £p. xliii. 

t Nostra etiam scriptai qnss se diilhndant et pnblicant circamquaqne, nee 
innndatio, nee incendium, nee ruina, nee multiplex sseculomm ezcorsna 
poteift abolere. Ep. IzxTiL 

I Ego qnidem nugis et cantibns venereis qnandoque operam dedi, sed per 
gMitfam ejus qui me segregavit ab utero matrismese rejed hsec omnia a primo 
limine juventntis. Ep. IxxW. 

Died after 1198.] pbtsr of bloisu 371 

these vain studies;"*^ and nrgea the friend and name- 
sake to whom we hare just alluded to follow his example, 
and abstain from frivolous writings and jests^ {ab^tmere a 
ludicria et scurrUibus^) and the ^^ fabulous comments of the 
Gentiles/^ — ** What,'" he says, " have ygu to do with 
these false vanities and follies ? What concern have you, 
who ought to be an organ of truth, with the fabulous loves 
of the gods of the Gentiles ? '^t ^^ You have spent your 
days until old age in the fables of the Gentiles, in the 
studies of the philosophers, and finally in civil law, and, 
contrary to the wishes of all who loved you, you have 
endangered your soul by avoiding the sacred page of theo- 
^^Sy"t Yet at other times he speaks of his own love for 
the writers of antiquity; and he ends a letter to his 
nephew full of complaints on the vanities of the world, 
with a request that he would send him the songs and play- 
ful pieces which he had composed in his youth at Tours, 
in order that he might himself make transcripts of them.§ 
In another letter we learn that a monk named G. d'Aunai 
had complained to him of being exposed to and tormented 


* Illnd nobile iogenram fratris me& magvtri Gnillelmi, qnandoqae in 
scribendis comoediiB et tragoediit quadam oecnpatione servili degenenns, 
salutaribus monitis ab ilia peremptoria iranitate retraxi : qui in breri pne- 
eminens in exercitio doctrinae ceelastia frnctnosa prndicationiB instantia per- 
diti jactnram temporis pleniBsime reatanravit. 2k, I haYO printed one of 
the *' Comedies" of William of Blois. the Alda, in my ''Selection of Latin 
Stories,*' p. 192. 

t Te quidem in sammos eminentlK titolos scientia scholaram exhilarat : 
comque debuisses aliis esse Tirtutam fonna et specnlnm honestatis, per scnr- 
riles nugas et fabulosa commenta gentiliom faetos es multts iaqaeos in 
minam. Quid tibi ad yanitates et insanias (alsas ? Quid tibi ad deorum 
gentilinm fabolosos amores, qui debneras ease organnm veritatis ? Ep. Ixxri. 

t In fabolis paganonun, in philosophornm 'studiis, tandepi in jnre cirili 
dies tuos usque in senium ezpendisti, et contra omnium te diligentium 
Toluntatem sacram theologise paginam damnabiliter horruisti. lb. 

§ Mitte mihi Tersus et ludicra quae feci Turonis : et scias» cum apud um 
transcripta fuerint, eadem sine dilatione aliqua rehabebis. Ep. xii. 

2 b2 


372 PETER OF BLOI8. {Died after 1198. 

by the temptations of the fleshy and at ihe same time had 
asked for copies of some of the lighter compositions of 
his youth to amuse his leisure hours. Peter of Blois, in 
reply, represents to him that such writings would only in- 
crease the temptations of which he complained^ and, in- 
stead of them, sends him a pious song, the work of his 
more mature pen,* which is almost the only specimen 
remaining of his compositions of this class. It is long 
and dull, commencing thus : — 

CantiietM de hteta eamii et ipirittu. 

OUm mititeTeram 

pompis hiyus Bscnli, 
qoibus flores obtali 

mete jnyentiitis. 
Pedem tamea retoli 
Circa Titae ▼esperaniy 
Nunc dataros operam 
militise Tirtutii. 

This poem was written in 1193, and contains a series of 
reflections, arising out of the misfortunes of king Richard 
on his return from the Holy Land. In the body of the 
poem he says — 

Quia aqQam tao capiti, 

qnii dabR tibi laciTHias, 
Ut landea teipM indyti 

fraudesque duels eiprimas ? 

In regionea ultimai 
Plancta diacnrrat anzio 

Nostrique regis captio, 

qiue tot aflligit animaa. 

And after another stanza on the same subject, he con- 
tinues, — 

* Quod autem amatoria jnTentatis et adolescentis nostrB ludicra poatulaa 
ad solatium tcdiorum, oonsiliosum non arbitror» cum talia tentationes ezcitare' 
solaant et fovere. Omissis ergo lasdrioribus cantilenis, panca quae maturiore 
stylo oedni tibi mitto, si te forte relerent a tiedio et Kdificeot ad salutem. 
Ep. ItU. 

Died (ffter 1198.] pbtbr of blois. 373 

Flos reg^QiDy ducom, procenuii, 
Iter qaod erat libemm 

sensit inextricabile. 
Dam inddit in Cerbenim, 

qui flMsile 

detezit cor ignobile, 

▼as Deo detestabiley 
Vm scelenun. 
Dam cradfigit itemm 

Christam in Christi pagile. 
Judas Christam distrazerat, 

doz regem vendit AogliK» 
Sed crimen hoc exaggerat 

idolatra pecuniae. 

Nam impie 
Fkcem com rege finxerat, • 

Dum ei rez improperat» 
Quod fugerat, 

rdicta cradf ade» 

oedens in partem Syriae. 

No other documents throw so much light on the 
literary jealousies and feuds of the latter half of the 
twelfth century, as the letters of Peter of Blois, who him- 
self appears to have been by no means free from them. In 
one instance, while he was attached to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, a professor of grammar at Beauvais in 
Picardy, named Ralph, wrote him a letter attacking the 
manners and studies of the clergy who lived in the courts 
of princes and prelates. In his reply, Peter of Blois gives 
an interesting character of the learned men dependent on 
the archbishop: — ^'^ There are,'' he says, ^^in the house 
of my lord the archbishop of Canterbury, men deeply 
versed in literature, among whom is found all rectitude of 
justice, all prudence of foresight, every form of learning. 
These, after prayers and before eating, exercise themselves 
assiduously in the reading, arguing, and deciding of causes. 
All the knotty questions of the kingdom are referred to 
us; which being propounded among our fellows in the 
common auditory, each in his turn without strife or con- 
tention sharpens his mind to speak well, and puts forth 

374 PBTSR OF BLOiB. [Died after 1198. 

with his cunning whatever appears to him most advisa- 
ble and profitable-*'* In revenge for the too firee obser- 
vations of his correspondent; he sneers at the narrow 
compass of his grammar studies. ^' You have remained 
with the ass in the mire of a very dull intelligence. Pris- 
cian and TuUy, Lucan and Persius, these are your gods. 
I fear lest when you die it may be said to you in reproach. 
Where are your gods in whom you have put your trust T^'f 
The chief fault in the style of Peter of Blois is an 
affectation of far-fetched comparisons and allegories (which 
was a common failing in the writers of his day) and the 
heaping together of a multiplicity of citations from ancient 
authors^ for which he was remarkable even among his 
contemporaries. His letters are sometimes filled with 
verses from the Latin poets. In one,^ he defends him- 
self at some length against a\;ritic who had charged him 
with this latter fault ; and in the following lines, which 
are extracted from the letter alluded to, he quotes Terence 
once and Horace twice. 

Arguit «mnluBy et temeiitati adscribit, quod literas meas passim et vane 
^speraas in xtmxm colligo : quod formam dictandi pneacribo simplicibiu, quod 
public» utilitati rnunns devoti laboiia et offidum charitatii impendo. Ces- 
aet aemulus a Terbomm injuriia : nam ai pergit dicerc quae Tult, audiet qxm 
non Tult. Flenus sum rimarum, 

hac atque iliac perflno. 

* In domo domini mei Cantuariensis archiepiscopi viri litentisaimi sunty 
apud quos inyenitur omnia rectitudo justitiae, omnia cautela providentiie, 
omnis forma doctrinie. Isti post orationem, et ante comestionem, in lectione, 
in dispntatione, in causarum decisione, jugiter se ezerceant. Omnes quaes» 
tiones regni nodosae referuntur ad nos ; quae cum inter socios nostros in 
commune auditorium deducuntur, imusquisque secundum ordinem suum sine 
lite et obtrectatione ad bene dicendum mentem suum acnit, et quod ei con- 
ailiosius videtur et sanius de rena subtiliore producit. Ep. yi. 

f Vos in coeno crassioris intelligentiae cum asino remaoBistis. Priscianua 
et Tullius, Lucanus et Persius, isti sunt dii yestri. Vereor no in extremae 
necessitatis articulo vobis improperando dicatur, Ubi sunt dii tui in quibus 
habebas fiduciam ? lb. 

X Ep. xeii. 

Died qfier l\9H.'] pbtbr of bloib. 375 

Qai me oommorit, melios non tangere clamo, 
Flebit, et insignis toU cantabitvr urbe. 

Utinaiii ezperiatar inTidiu meus ingenii sui yiresi ac de flotcuUs sacri eloquii 
compilatU, simile componat opiuculum. Si tamen hoc attentaverit, quod 
modo leyiaaimmn putat, vereor ne multum sudet, frnstraque laboret» 

Infelix opeiia gumma, quia ponere totom 


Ladpere quidem poterit, ted ai dot! bominia facnltatem, ignomiaioae et infe- 
liciter consammabit. Quicquid canea oblatreDt, qoicquid grumiia&t sues» 
ego semper semnlabor acripta Tetemm : in his exit occnpatio mea ; nee me, si 
potero, sol ni^qnam inveoiet otiosam. Nos quasi nani super gigantum hume- 
ros sumus, quorum beneficio longius quam ipst specalamur, dum antiquorom 
tractatibus iuhserentes elegantiores eorum sententias, quaayetustaa abolererat,- 
hominumTe neglectus, quasi jam mortnos in quandam novitatem essentic 

In the following brief extract from another letter^'i^ he 
quotes Ovid^ Persius^ and one of the Epistles of Senec|y 
whom he speaks of as the wise man : it is an interesting 
passage, as describing the extreme attachment he felt 
towards his benefactor, king Henry IL 

Sdo, quia eoa qui in curia domini regit morantur, aut potius morinntnr, 
tpet r^gisB liberalitatia frequenter ezhilarat, qute quandoque in multot magni- 
fioe et munifioe ae eflTundit. Sperat autem unusquisque sibi erenturum» 
quod Tidet pluribut aliia ereniste. Sub istias expectationit dulcit et incerta 
tolatio tttdiosa delectant» grana levigantur, amara dulcescunt, nostrique 
martyret laboret, quamvia infirmi, expentaa etiam, quamvia avari, non 

Sic, ut non perdat, non oessat perdere lusor, 
Et revocat cupidas alea blanda menus. 
Videntur mihi in verbis et desideriis ilium Persii Tersare rersiculum. 
Jam dabitur, jam, jam ; donee deceptus et ezspes, 
Nee quicquam ftmdo suspirat nummua in imo. 

Porro jazta Sapientem, sera est in fando parsimonia. Illud in curia detesta- 
bile est, quia qui magis diligunt minus diliguntur. Imperiti enim et omnino 
inutiles elegantioribus benefidis ampllantur, divitiae accumulantur divitibus : 
nee est qui respidat ad inopem et mendicum. HelizKus imp]ebat vasa yacua, 
et plena implentur, ligna in syWas et aquae in maria deferuntur. Ego sane 
dispendia enormium expensarum, et super omnia jacturam perditi temporis, 
deplorarem : nisi, quia maximum laboris mei repute fructum, quod nostrum 
principem per gratiam Dei et suam semper habui propitium, mitem»affabilem, 
et benignum. Nunquam porrexi d preoes, quae non admiterit Uberaliter : 
prseparationem etiam cordis mei in pluribus ejus benignitas quandoque prse- 

*Ep. xir. 

376 PETER OF BLOI8. [Died after 1198 

▼enit. Diligebftin ipsam, et diligOy et lemper dOigam ex affecta : nee me 
diligat Deus, cum ab ipsios dilectione desistam. Gratia namqne «jus m« 
perpetno vindicaTit in anum : Buamqae semper erit, si quid cogito, si quid 
scribo, si quid sum, si quid valeo, ri quid possum. Hinc erat, quod quaodiu 
▼estra usus sum comitiva, quslibet dies, in qua domini regis alloquio non 
fruebar, mihi tristis et nubila yidebatur dies ; in qua vero suo me dignabatur 
alloquio, mibi tota tanquam dies imperialis in gaudio ducebatur. Confiden- 
tissime dioo, majoremque partem mundi testem babeo. in hac parte a tem- 
pore Carol! nullum fuisse principem adeo benignum, prudentem, largum, ct 

As a further example of the style of this celebrated 
writer, we may cite the following picture of a tempest at 
sea^ written^ during one of his missions^ to the archbishop 
of Canterbury.* 

Me nuper ad obedientiam Testne jussionis accinzeram, jamque lieentiatas 
et accepts Testra benedlctionis gratia reoedam, cum propter negotia qusdam 
easualiter tunc emergentia rerocastis me, ac firmiter injunxistis ut tos fre- 
quentioribus nuntiis certiorarem de statu meo et de his qjuse mihi in via 
contingerent. Descenderam ad mare et navem ascenderam» cumque jam 
exposuissemus vela Tentis et vitam pericnlis, ecce nix, grando, imber, ac spi- 
ritus procellarum coelos obduxerunt caligine, atque in terribiles aquarum 
montcs maris deformarere planitiem. Mirabiles ermt elationes maris, fluctus 
enim asoendebant in ccelos, et descendebant in abyssos, et anima mea in ipsis 
tabescebat. Omnes qui in naye erant moti sunt et tnrbati sunt sicut ebrius, 
et onmis sapientiaeorum devorata est. Hie qui gubemaculo pneerat et sede- 
bat in puppi, abjeeta arte et derelicta sede, navem fortuito commisit erentni. 
Uniyersi patiebantur spiritnm yertiginis, spiritum abominationis et nansese. 
Non erat qui manus aut oculos in caelum erigeret ; non erat qui ponrigeret 
Deo preces, qui satisfactioni aut pcenitentiK se offenet. Jacebant omnes des- 
tituti officio membrorum, aut animo constemati, et £tcti sunt yelut mortni. 
licet autem tunc aestiyale solstitium ad incrementum diei plurimumdenoctift 
spacio reddisset, nunquam tamen nox aliqua adAO longa yisa est mihi. Nam 
a meridie nox ista iocepit, qu« tempus alienum sibi quadam tyrannide pro- 
cellosa usurpans in suas tenebras lucem yertit O nox damnatissima, nee in 
toto anni circulo computanda, noz turbinis, nox irae, nox horroris et mortis. 

Besides the Epistles, which were collected into a large 
volume by the author at the request of Henry II., and his 
Sermons, the printed edition of the works of Peter of 
Blois contains seventeen tracts or opmcala^ none of them 
possessing any great importance at the present day. They 

* Ep, lii. 


Died after 1198.] petbr of blois. 377 

1. A treatise on the transfiguration of Christ. 

2. Oh the Conversion of St. Paul. 

3. A Compendium on Job ; he composed this at the 
king's desire, in order to inspire him with patience under 
some of his tribulations. 

4. An Exhortation to the crusade, entitled, De Jeroso^ 
lymitana peregrinatione accelerando. 

5. A treatise entitled Inatructiofideiy which is considered 
to be of doubtful authenticity. 

6. On the Sacramental Confession. 

7. On Penitence. 

8. De Institutione Ejriscqpi, a treatise on the duties of 
a bishop, addressed to John de Coutances, who was ap- 
pointed to the see of Worcester in 1196, so that this must« 
have been one of Peter's latest writings. 

9. An inyective against a writer who made an attack 
upon him. 

10« A tract, *^ against the perfidy of the Jews.'' 

11. On Christian friendship and charity towards God 
and our neighbour. 

12. On the utility of tribulations. 

13. A violent satire against the bishops of Aquitaine 
and the abuses in the church there, entitled Qtiales sunt. 
The writer of the article in the Histoire Litt^raire de 
France believes this to be the work of another author. 

14. A fragment of an Bpistola aurea de silentio servanda. 

15. A fragment of the book De prtBstigiis fortune. This 
work, which was the one on which he laboured most, was 
devoted to the history and encomium of his patron, king 
Henry II.* and is mentioned more than once in his letters. 
It unfortunately appears to be lost. 

16. A short tract on the division of the sacred writings 
and writers. 

17* A treatise on the Eucharist. 

* See Kp. Izxvii. 

378 PfiTfift OF B1.0IS. [Died after 1198. 

A few tracts by this writer, not printed in his works, 
may still be found in different collections. Dr. Giles 
has discovered about fifty inedited letters. Leland, in his 
Collectanea, has given some extracts from lives of Wilfred 
and Guthlac attributed to Peter of Blois. His Dialogue 
between King Henry and the abbot of Bonval is pre- 
served in a manuscript in the archiepiscopal library at 
Lambeth, No. cv. Other tracts are of more doubtful 
authenticity. The p^re Buss^, in his edition of the works 
of Peter of Blois (1600), printed under his name the Ser- 
mons of Petrus Comestor. 

The name of Peter of Blois has also been placed at the 
head of a continuation of the history of Croyland attri- 
.buted to Ingulf. If, as seems probable, the work ascribed 
to Ingulf be a forgery, the continuation must share in the 
same character ; and internal evidence appears to support 
us in looking upon the latter as supposititious. In the 
first place it is not probable that the monks of Croyland 
should have applied to a stranger to write the history of 
their house, and we can trace no connection between them 
and Peter of Blois. The work in question is prefaced by 
a letter from Henry de Longchamp (made abbot of Croy- 
land in 1191) to Peter, acquainting him with the desire 
of his monks that he would imdertake to continue the 
history of Ingulf, and Peter's reply acquiescing in their 
wishes. Neither this letter, nor the book itself, exhibit 
any of the pectdiarities of style found in the works of 
Peter of Blois. One of the most interesting passages in 
this work is the account of the school of abbot Joffrid at 
Cambridge in the early part of the twelfth century, where, 
as the writer of this history informs us, Joffirid lectured 
on the writings of the Arabian philosopher Averroes. Now 
Averroes himself flourished in the latter half of the same 
century, and died at Marocco in 1198. It is very im- 
probable therefore that Peter of Blois should have made 

Died after 1198.] pbtsb op blois. ' 379 

such a mistake as this passage implies \ or that he could 
himself hare been acquainted with the writings or even 
with the name of the Arabian philosopher* 

Incipiut epifltole Magistri petri. At the end, EzpUciut epittole maglBtri 
petii bleBensis bstboniensis archidyaooni. fol. Without date or place, 
but printed at BrosMli, aboat the year 1480, no doubt by; one of the 
communities of Fratm cfMimums vita established in or near that 

f Petri Blesends diyimurn ac humanarG litterar* Tiri admodfi copiosissimi in- 
signia opera in unCi Tolumc collecta & emendata authore J. M. doctore 
theologo subsequeti ordme habentur. Epistole. Sermones. Tractatns 
in librum Job. Contra perfidiam iudeormn. De confessione. De ami* 
citia Christiana. % Venundantnr ab Johanne paruo sub lilio aureo 
in Tia Jacobea. Cum priuilegio. At the end, ^ Petri Blesensis Batho- 
niesis archidiaconi Opera, diuersis in locis recoUecta, multi8q3 medis 
purgata Paris' felici auspido finS sumpsere : opera et industria magistri 
Andree boucard calcographi. Impensis autem Johannis petit illius 
Tniuersitatis biblippole iurati. Ex die zy. Octobris. m.cgccc. ziz. fol. 
The editor's name was Jacques Merlin. 

Opera Petri Blesensis, Bathoniensis quondam in AngUa archidiaconi, et apud 
Cantuariensem archiepisoopum canodlarii. Ope et studio Joannis 
Bussei Noviomagi, Sooietatis Jesu Theologi. Moguntise, cl9. Is. c. 4to. 

Hiis edition was reprinted in ihe twelfth volume of the Bibliotheca Patrum 
of Cologne. 

Paralipomena Opusculorum Petri Bleseiyis, et Joannis Trithemii, aliorumque, 
nuper in typographeo Moguntino editornm, a Joanne Busseo Societatis 
Jesu theologo .... Colonise Agrippinie, Anno m.dc.xxiv. 8to. It 
contains the tracts De Perfidia Judseorum, De Amicitia Christiana, and 
De Charitate Dei et Proximi. The first edition of this supplement to 
Buss^'s edition was published in 1608. 

Petri Blesensis Bathoniensis in Anglia archidiaconi Opera omnia ad fidem 
manuscriptorum codicum emendata, notis et variis monumentis illus- 
trata, Editio nova, in qua nonnuHa ejusdem auctoris opuscula hactenus 
inedita nunc primum prodeunt. . . • Parisiis, m.dc.lzvii. fol. Edited 
by Pierre de Gussanville. 

This edition was reprinted in the twenty-fourth volume of the Magna Bib- 
. liotheca Patrum of Lyons, pp. 911 — 1365. 

Rerum Anglicarum Scriptorum Veterum Tom. I. (Ed. Gale) Oxoniee, 
M.DC.LXXxiT. fol. pp. 108 — 130. Petri Blesensis continuatio ad 
Historiam Ingulphi. 

360 GIRAl^DUS CAMBRENSIS. [JBom 1146. 


GiBALDUs DE Barri^ OF, as he is more commonly 
entitled from the country of which he was a native^ 
Giraldus Cambrensis, was bom about the year 1146.* 
He was the fourth son of William de Barri^ a powerfdl 
Norman baron^ and by the maternal side he was near of 
kin to the princes of South Wales and to most of the 
powerful families of the principality. His taste for letters 
was exhibited when very young ; he tells us that when 
a child he used to amuse himself with drawing churches 
and monasteries in the sand, that his father called him 
playfidly his little bishop, and that he predicted his future 
progress in learning. These expectations, however, 
seemed to have little prospect of being fulfilled, until his 
uncle David FitzGterald, bishop of St. David's, undertook 
his education. He appears to have remained with this 
prelate until he had reached his twentieth year, when he 
repaired to Paris to pursue the higher branches of study,t 
and, after having attained « considerable reputation for 
literary attainments, he lectured there on rhetoric and 
polite literature. 

In 1172 Giraldus returned to England and obtained 
preferment in the church there and in Wales. Ob- 
serving great negligence in the ecclesiastical govern- 
ment in this latter country, he obtained from Richard, 
archbishop of Canterbury, in 1175, a commission to examine 
into and correct these abuses, and he proceeded in a 
vigorous and resolute manner in his attempts to reform 

* tlie principal materials for the life of GHraldos are found in his own 
work, D€ffe$ti9 iuU, of which Sir Richard Colt Hoare has given an ahstract 
in the Introdnction to his translation of the Itinerary of Wales. 

t De Gestis, lib. i. c. 3. 

Died 1223.] oiraldus cambrbnsis. 381 

the morals of the clergy, especially in forcing the married 
priests, who appear to have been then numerous, to sepa- 
rate from their wives or concubines. The archdeacon of 
Brecknock was obstinate in resisting the will of the doctor 
on this latter point, and, having been very negligent of 
his duties in other respects, he was deprived of his arch- 
deaconry, which the archbishop of Canterbury bestowed 
on Oiraldus, as a mark of his approbation of the effective 
manner in which he had executed his commission. The 
rigour with which Giraldus executed his new duties, and 
his boldness in asserting the rights of the church, led him 
into many disputes and gained him not a few enemies ; 
but his conduct was so far approved by the chapter of St. 
David's, that on the death of the bishop in 1176, they 
chose him to succeed in that see.* 

King Henry was dissatisfied with the choice made by 
the canons, and, when they persisted in defending it, he 
threatened angrily to seize their temporal possessions. 
It was at last referred by the king to the judgment of the 
archbishop and bishops of his province, and Giraldus 
himself informs us that the king stated to them that his 
only objection to him was the circumstance of his being 
a Welshman and nearly related to the Welsh princes and 
nobles. He said that the pride and pretensions of the 
Welsh would be increased by such an appointment, 
asserting that ^'it was neither neeessary nor expedient for 
the king or the archbishop, that too upright or active a 
man should be bishop of St. David's, lest either the crown 
of England or the see of Canterbury should receive detri- 
ment.''t Giraldus and the canons persisted no longer in 

* De Gestifl, lib. i. c. 3—9. 

t Nee regi nee archiepUcopo opus esse ant expe^itsoMf nimig probum aat 
gtrenamn, ne Yd Anglue eorona vel Canti» cathedra detrimentnm aentiat, in 
ccclesiK sancti David epiacopmn esae. De GeatiSi lib. i. c. 10, p. 476. 


their resistance to the king's will ; but^ being called into 
the royal chamber at Winchester, they elected the person 
he recommended to them, Peter de Leia prior of Wenlock. 

Giraldus, disappointed in his ambition, retomed to 
Paris, and devoted himself to the study of jmrisprudence, 
intending, as he expresses it, '^ to raise up the walls of the 
laws and canons on the foundation of arts and literature."* 
In the account he has given of his studies at this period, 
he speaks with pride of the fame he acquired by his elo- 
quent declamations in the schools, and boasts how the 
crowded audiences of doctors and scholars were never 
tired in listening to them, charmed by the sweetness of his 
voice, the beauty of his language, and the force of his 
arguments.f In II 7^ he was elected public professor of 
canon laws ; but he refused to accept this honourable office, 
and soon afterwards returned to England, taking his vay 
through Flanders, where he was present at a tournament 
held by the count Philip in the city of Arras. 

On reaching England he paid a visit to Canterbury, 
where he was hospitably received by the prior and monks 
of Christ's Church, and proceeded thence in company with 
a party of pilgrims to London. On his arrival he found 
the bishop of Winchester in his consistory court at 
Southwarky hearing a cause pleaded between the sister 
of Giraldus and her husband, who had sued for a divorce, 
but by his intermediation they were reconciled, and the 
cause dismissed. On his return to Wales, Giraldus found 
that the bishop of St. David's had quarrelled with his 
clergy, and that he had quitted his episcopal residence to 

* Super artimn et literatur» fandamentam legum et canonom parietes in 
altam erigere. 

t Tanta nempe verbonim dulcedine fderant et deliniti, at dicentia ab ore 
tanqnam penduli et auspeasi longo licet eloquio et prolixo, etc. De Gestis, 
lib. il. c. I. p. 477. 

Died 1223.] oiraldus gambrenbis. 383 

wait in an English convent until peace should be restored 
to his diocese. By the interest of the archbishop of 
Canterbury, Giraldus, who still retained his archdeaconry 
of Brecknock, was appointed administrator of the diocese 
in the absence of the bishop ; and he tells us that he ex- 
ecuted his office with the greatest prudence and modera- 
tion. But in the sequel the bishop interfered between 
Giraldus and the clergy of St. David's so violently and 
injudiciously that the former resigned his office, and 
threatened to carry his complaints before the pope. They 
were however at last reconciled by the exertions of their 
common friends.* 

Soon after these events^ in 1184^ King Henry, visiting 
the borders of Wales to repress the turbulence of the 
borderers^ heard of the great learning of Giraldus, and 
invited him to his court. He was subsequently sent 
to the border in the quality of a pacificator, and was 
present at Hereford at the conference between Rhys^ 
prince of South Wales, and the royal commissioners, 
archbishop Baldwin and Ranulph de Glanville.f The 
same year he accompanied the king to Normandy. Henry 
was so well satisfied with his services on these occa- 
sions that he appointed him his chaplain^ and made him 
repeated promises of high preferment ; which^ however, 
were never fulfilled, for he still expressed himself jealous 
of him as a native Welshman and a near kinsman of the 
Welsh princes. He was shortly afterwards appointed 
preceptor to prince John, whom, in 11 85^ he accompanied 
into Ireland in the capacity of secretary. During his stay 
there, two Irish bishoprics were o£Pered to him, but be 
declined them, as he tells us, on account of the corruptions 

* De Gestifl» lib. ii. c 5 to 7. 
t De QestU, lib. ii. c. 8, 9. 

384 OTRALDUS CAMBRENSI8. [Bom 1146. 

and disorders which Jie observed in the Irish church. In 
the middle of Lent 1186^ he delivered a public oration or 
sermon before the council in Dublin, in which he spoke 
on this subject with great freedom^ but its only result 
was to establish in that country his fame as an eloquent 

While in Ireland Oiraldus occupied himself diligently 
in collecting materials for a description of the country, 
and he remained there to complete his collections some 
time after the departure of prince John. Soon after the 
Ekister of 1186 he returned to Wales, and he devoted the 
remainder of that year to the composition of his Topogra- 
phy of Ireland, which was completed in 1187« This book 
is divided into three parts or distinctions (distinctiones), a 
term which seems to have been fashionable in his time^ as 
it is used by several other writers. These three parts, as 
soon as completed, Giraldus recited before a public 
audience of the university of Oxford, on three successive 
days, and on each day he gave a sumptuous feast ; on the 
first he entertained the poor people of the town, on the 
second the doctors and students of greatest celebrity, 
and on the third the other scholars and the burghers and 
soldiers of the place. He relates his doings on this occasion 
with much self-complacency, says that they were worthy 
of the classic ages of the poets of antiquity, and asserts that 
nothing like them had ever been witnessed in England.f 

* De GkstiB, lib. iL c. 14. It appears that one of hia chai^ges agamtt the 
Irish chnrch was that it had had no martjrs ; and that the bishop of CasheQ, 
who happened to be present, replied that this was true, for the native Irish 
were too pions to make martyrs of their clergy, bat that a people had now 
oome to settle in Ireland who not only knew how to make martyrs, bnt who 
put their knowledge into practice. Topog. Hibem. distinct, iii. c. 33. 

t Snmptnosaqnidem res et nobilis, quia renoyata sunt quodammodo auten- 
tica et antiqua in hoc fiu;to poetarum tempore, nee rem similem in Anglia 
factam yd prcsens etas vel ulla recolit antiquitas. De Gestis, lib. ii. c. 16. 

Died 1223.] giraldus cambrbnsis. 385 

The fame of this ostentatious exhibition increased the 
celebrity of Giraldus, and he continued to enjoy the royal 
favour. When in the latter part of the year 1187» on 
receiving intelligence of the capture of Jerusalem by 
Saladin, king Henry proclaimed a new crusade, and arch- 
bishop Baldwin was sent to preach it to the Welsh, 
he was accompanied by* Giraldus, who represents his 
own eloquence as one of the main causes of their suc- 
cess.* They were attended by Ranulph de Glanville, 
as far as Hereford, from whence the archbishop and 
the archdeacon proceeded to Radnor, where tbey arrived 
on Ash Wednesday, 1188.t Thence they passed through 
Hay and Brecknock, by Lanthony, to Abergavenny and 
Caerleon, and thence to Cardiff, Llandaff, Caermarthen, 
and to Haverfordwest» Here Giraldus assures us that 
the effects of his own eloquence were almost miraculous, 
for, although the only languages he made use of were 
Latin and French, of which the greater portion of his audi* 
tors were totally ignorant, yet they were so much affected 
by his discourse that even the most illiterate of the mul- 
titude burst into tears, and they hurried in crowds to take 
the cross.;^ The archbishop afterwards said that he never 
saw so many tears shed in one day as he had witnessed 
on this occasion at Haverford.§ The missionaries, after 
visiting Pembroke, proceeded to St. David's, and thence 

* The account of thiB expedition is given in the book De Gestit, lib. ii. o. 
17, 18, and in the Itinenuriiim Cambria. 

f Itiner. Cambr. lib. 1. c. 1. 

X Ubi pro mirando et quasi pro miracnlo ducebatnr a mnltis, qnod ad ver- 
bnm Domini ab arehidiacono probtam, cum tamen lingua Latina et Gallica 
loqueretuFf non minus illi qui neatram noTenmt linguam, qnam alii, ad 
lacrimarum o^nentiam moti fuerant, atque etiam ad cmcis signaculum cater* 
yatim accurremnt. Itiner. Cambr. lib. i. c. 11. Conf. De Grestis, lib. ii, c. 18. 

§ Unde et archiepiscopus plnries in illo itinere dicebat nusquam se tot 
lacrimas quantas apud Haverfordtam viderat nno die vidisse. De Gestis , 
lib. ii. c. 18. 

VOL. II. 2 C 


through Cardigan, Caernarvon, and Bangor, to the isle of 
Anglesey, and then returned to England through the wilds 
of Snowdon, and by Rhuddlan to Chester, from whence 
they proceeded into Powisland, and passed along the bor- 
der through Shrewsbury, Wenlock, and Leominster to 
Hereford, the point firom which they first entered Wales. 
Giraldus informs us that during their progress they en- 
listed for the crusade about three thousand Welshmen. 

In 1189, Giraldus, with archbishop Baldwin and Ra* 
nulph de GlanviUe, accompanied the king on his last 
expedition into France,* and the archdeacon appears to 
have been present at Henry's death at Fontevralt. He 
was immediately sent by earl Richard to England with 
letters to the grand justiciary (Ranulph de Glanville), and 
from thence into Wales to pacify his countrymen, who 
had shown an inclination to rebel on hearing of the king's 
decease. Giraldus enjoyed the confidence and esteem of 
the new king, but his zeal for the crusade appears to have 
cooled, for, when the time of the king's departure ap* 
proached, he and the bishop of St. David's, who had both 
taken the vow, obtained absolution on the plea of age and 
poverty ; which was only granted on the condition that 
they should repair the cathedral church of St. David's, 
and assist the crusaders with all the means in their power* 
When king Richard left England, he showed the estima- 
tion in which he held Giraldus, by appointing him a 
coadjutor with William de Longchamp bishop of Ely in 
the administration of the kingdom during his absence. 
Giraldus now began to hope that the high preferment 
withheld by king Henry would be conferred upon him 
by his successor, and he successively refused the bishopric 
of Bangor in 1190, and that of Llandaff in 1191, fearing, 

* De Gestis, lib. ii. c. 21. 

Died 1223.1 giraldus cababrbnsis. 387 

as it appears, that these might stand in the way of some^ 
thing better.. But he was again disappointed in his ex- 
pectations, and in disgust he determined to quit the 
courts and indulge his taste for literary retiretnent. For 
this purpose he had prepared^ tO' return to Paris ; but, 
being prevented by the sudden breaking out of wai^ be- 
tween tiie two countries, he went to Lincoln and there 
devoted himself to study under the chancellor of that 
diocese, William du Mont CDe MdnieJ, an eminent scholar 
whom he had known ih his earlier years at Paris.* Du- 
ring his i^esidence at Lincdln, Giraldus wrote several of 
his books, one of flie' first of which was his life of Qeoflrey 
archbishop of York, published in 1193. In 1 197 he wrote 
the work entitled Gemma eccleBiasiica, 

In 1198, Peter de L^ia bishop of St David's died, and 
a new prospect' was opened to Giraldus of obtaining what 
appears to have been long the object of his ambition — 
the vacant bishopric. He was elected by the chapter 
early in 1199 ; but the archbishop of Canterbury, alleging 
the same reasons as had formeriy been given by king 
Henry, refused to accept' the nomination. In the midst 
of this dispute king Richard died, and his successor John, 
although he seemed at first inclined to favour the choice 
of the canons, allowed himself to be persuaded by the 
arguments of his primatel Giraldus again left the court 
in vexation, paid a visit of three weeks to Ireland, and 
then repaired to St. David's. The chapter, compelled to 
proceed to a new election, again chose him for their pastor. 
The pertinacity of the canons involved them in a violent 
quarrel with the king, and Giraldus proceeded to Rome 
to plead their cause before the sovereign pontiff. He ar- 
rived there on the 30th of November, and was received 

"* De Gestis, lib. iii. e. 3. 


388 G1RALDU8 CAMBR£N8I8. [Bom 1146. 

by the pope with marks of personal esteem. In the May 
of the year 1200^ being appointed administi^tor of the 
temporal and spiritual concerns of the church of St. 
David's during the continuation of the disputes, he re- 
visited his native land, but in the middle of Lent 1201 he 
was again at Rome. He returned to England in the sum- 
mer of the same year, and was occupied with litigationa 
at home until the second of November, when he started 
a third time for Rome, and arrived there on the 4th of 
January, 1202. On the 15tii of April, 1203, the pope 
gave his definitive sentence, annulling the election of 
Giraldus. This controversy had excited much contentious 
feeling in Wales ; the clergy of St. David's, supported by 
the princes of North and South Wales, treated Giraldus 
as their bishop elect, and he seems to have taken that 
titie himself, which exposed him to the anger of king 
John, who proclaimed him an enemy to the crown, accused 
him of a design to stir up the Welsh to rebellion, and 
seized upon his lands.* 

In the August of 1203, Giraldus returned to England, 
and made his peace with the court ; and on the Iptii of 
November Geoffrey de Henelawe was elected bishop of 
St. David's. Giraldus resigned his archdeaconry in favour 
of one of his nephews, retaining his other preferments, 
for he was a canon of Hereford and rector of Chesterton 
in Oxfordshire. The rest of his life vnis spent almost 
e;ntirely in writing books, and in correcting those which 
he had already published. In 1204 and 1205, he wrote 
the Description of Wales, the Symbolum Ekciorumj the 
Speculum duorumy the Invectiones^ the legend of St. 
Remigius, and the book De gestis suis. In 1215, the see 
of St. David^s, the source of all his troubles, being again 

^ Tht account of this controversy is given at some length in the work De 
p€$ti9 iuis, lib. iii. c. 4, et 9eqq. 

Died 1223.] giraldus cambrenbis. 389 

TEcant, was offered to him, but under circumstances 
< which made him unwilling to accept it. In 1218, he 
wrote his dialogues on the rights of the church of St. 
' David^s. In 1220, he finished two of his most important 
works, the treatise De Principis Instructione and the 
* Speculum EcclesuBy Biid revised a second edition of the 
dialogues on the rights of the church of St David's. 
■From a docunlent quoted by Tanner, we learn that in 
'1225 the church of Chesterton in Oxfordshire was vacant 
^^ by the death of master G. de Barri," so that he died 
either in that year or towards the end of the year pre- 
ceding. He was buried in the cathedral of St. David's, 
where his monument is still preserved. 

The works of Giraldus Cambrensis are numerous, and 
they are all interesting for the light they throw on the 
historical events and on the political and religious condi- 
tion of the age in which he lived. They are not the me- 
ditations of the soUtary student, or the controversial dis- 
quisitions of the theologian ; but they reflect faithfully the 
thoughts and opinions of a man busy in all the intrigues 
and convulsions of the world around him, and are filled 
with minute and private anecdotes and stories of the 
people among whom he lived and with whom he acted. 
His style, though less ostentatiously learned than that 
of Peter of Blois, is that of a scholar and a man of exten- 
sive reading. His descriptions are generally marked by a 
clearness of narrative and a distinctness of conceptior 
which are not often found among the medieval writers; 
and, when he dwells on his own wrongs, or enters upon 
his own enmities, his style is distinguished by a warmth 
of eloquence which is peculiar to him. Though a bitter 
enemy of the monks, more particularly of the Cistercian 
order, and unsparing in his remarks on the avarice and 
corruption of the court of Rome, he appears throughout 

390 6IBALDVS CAMBRBNBiS. [Bom 1146. 

his writings credulous and superstitious. He occupies 
no small portion of the narratiye of his own actions in 
recounting his dreams^ and his descriptions of Wales and 
Ireland are thickly interspersed, not only with monkish le- 
gends, but with fairy tales, which renders him a valuable 
authority for the earlier history of our popular mythology. 
The account of the beavers which then frequented the 
river Tivy, in the neighbourhood of Cardigan, taken from 
the Itinerary of Wales, may be given as a fair spedmen 
of his descriptive language. 

Inter muTersos namquie Cambrin sea etiam Loegrie flvvios, wins hie 
castores habet. In Albania qnippe, at fertar, flavio similiter onico habentar, 
sed ran. De cujos bestin natora, qaaliter a sjlyis ad aquas materiam 
Yehanti quanto artifioio ez attracta materia mediip in flnptibns monimenta 
connectant, quam defeniionis artem contra yenatores in ooiadente pretend- 
ant, qoam in oriente, de caudis qaoqae piseeis pauca interserere non inutile 

Castores enim, at castra sibi in mediis fluvUs constmant, soi generis lern» 
pro rheda ateotes, a silvis ad aquas lignea robora miro yectune modo oon- 
trahunt et conducnnt. Qoidam enim ez his nature imperio senrire parati, 
ligna ab aliis precisa Tentrique supine impoaita qnatuor pedibus oom- 
plectentes, lignoqne in ore ez transyerso locato, deotibus ab aliis bine inde 
cohKrentibuSi retrogpradeque trahentibus, non absque intuentium admiratione 
simul cum oneribos attrafauntnr. Simili quoque nature artificio in scroblum 
purgatione, quas sibi pedibos in terram fodiendo scalpendoqne Qosfonnant, 
Qielote utuntar. In aliquo yero profundissimo fluyii angulo et pacifico, in 
castrorum constructione tanto artificio ligna connectunt, ut ne aque stilla 
de ikdli penetrando subintret, nee procelle yis labefactando concutiat, nee 
yiolentiam quamlibet prster humanam, et banc ferro munitam, reformident. 
Ez salicum etiam ramis in castrorum constructione ligna connectunt, 
soliisque yariis in altam quantum aqua ezcrescere solet, et ultra ostiis in- 
terius a solio in solium aptatis, machinam dJstinguunt, at juzta fluminis 
incrementa fluctuantes undas (cum yoluerint) ab alto despioere valeant. ESz 
salicibus autem, ut per annos crescendo salicum saltus, hispidum ezteriua 

silyescat arbustum tota interius arte latente Notandum quoque quod 

castores caudaa lud>ent latas, et son longas, in modum palme human» spissaa, 
quibus tanquam pro remigio natando fonguntur, cumque totum corpus reli- 
quum pilosum habeant, banc partem omni pilositate carentem in morem 
phoce marine planam habent et leyigatam ; unde et in Germania Arctoisqua 
regionibuSf ubi abundant bwtrs, caudis hujusmodi, plf^ium ut aiui^t naturam 
tarn sapore quam colore sortitis, yiri etiam magni et religiosi jejunionun tem*- 

Died 1223.] giraldus cambbbnsis. 891 

pore pro pisee Yesemitar. Vidatiir tamea, quod, jarig in toto quoad totnm» 
hoc ia parte quoad partem, nee pars a toto tanta generis diversitate distare 

As a historian^ Giraldus manifests continually the strong 
bias of his personal feelings ; and his praise and dispraise^ 
expressed with equal warmth, must be taken with caution. 
His resentment against king Henry II. and his family 
appears constantly in his later writings, and this feeling 
seems to have become more intense as he advanced in years. 
In one of the works of his old age, the treatise De institu- 
tione principisy he speaks as follows of the monarch whom 
Peter of Blois and others regarded as a pattern of wisdom 
and magnanimity. 

In primis etenim FraDconim reginam Alienoram domino suo Ludo^ico 
Francomm regi, sicut satis est notam, indebite subtraxit, sibique de facto 
conjugal! vincnlo copalayit : ex qua et prolem pradictam processu temporis 
omine infausto suscepit, per quam, ut dudmus, ob boc et alia delicta gra- 
vissimai quorum qutedam subsequenter enumerabimusi eum Dominus, quia 
▼ezatis dabit intellectum, humiliari voluit et ad pceoitentiam revocari, vel si 
obstinatus lUTentus fuerit, prole propria patrem i^ecti et came camifioem 
crucian. Fuerat enim et ab initio et usque ad finem nobilitatis oppressor, jus 
et injuriam fasque nefSasque pro comanodo pensans, justitise venditor et 
dilator, verbo yarius et versutus, nee solum terbi Temm etiam fidei trans- 
gressor et sacramenti ; adulter publieus, Deoque ingratus et indevotus, eccle- 
sie malleus et filius in pemiciem natus: unde et ad oumulum quoque 
nequitis perfidisque, sicut pater ejusdem in beatum Gerardum Sagiensem 
antistitem suo tempore crudiliter desiit, sic et iste longeque crudelius sua 
commaculans tempora, in gloriosum martyrem nostrum Thomam Can- 
tuariensem arcbiprnsulem, in malo patrizans, dessevire praesampdt. 

We have some remains of the Latin poetry of Giraldus^ 
which consisted chiefly of epigrams and short pieces. 
The earliest of his compositions was a treatise on chrono* 
graphy and cosmography in Latin elegiacs, which appears 
to be lost. The second part of the Symbolum electorum^ a 
collection of miscellaneous pieces, dedicated to king Richard^ 
is in Latin verse. In the following lines addressed to Henry 
II., extracted from this book, we observe none of the 

892 GIRALDUS OAltfBRKNSIfl. [Bom 1146. 

bitterness of feeling which characterises the passage in 
prose quoted above. Our extract is taken from a manu- 
script in Trinity College, Cambridge^ marked 0. 10. 16. 

Ad An^hrmm r^gtm Henrieum ieemndum^ 

Mens tibi tcribendo desudat, oorpns agendo, 

Certant obfleqtuis iUud et iHa soif • 
Sed neqne diacanoB Tasioa neqne oaimina cnnar 

Hinc opus hinc operam eora laborqne pent. 
Res pereont abenntqae dies, tn damna diemm 

Non reparas qnanqnam res reparare qneas. 
Sed quod nee remm nee te jaotoia diemm 

Movet, me gravins hoc mo?et ac remofet. 
Snnrint tibi totas homo, cui sola laboris 

Cruz pretiiun liiteor, pmnia magna cnioemu 
Serriift ergo cmd cruoe vir signatus, eiqne 

Reddere qui solus resqne diesqne potest. 
CiQiis nee clandi scit janna nee reserari 

Jndigne, Incri nescia sed meriti. 
Cai nihil eztorsit ant improbos ant simulatorr 

Cni virtoB minime vel tacitnma vacat. 
Coi neque palpo procax nee vir Ungaosos adhnsit. 

Cm neque vir duplex displicuisse nequit. 
Qui me detrazit yirtuti Ihror» apud quern 

Quilibet ex merito statre caditye suo. 
Qui meritum pensat, qui dignis digna rependit, 

Librans et moderans pondere cuncta tuo. 
Qui cum spondet adest, qui cum largitur abunde, 

Dat sine defectu rem, sine nocte diem. 

The following epigrams, from the same book and manu* 
script, and equally inedited, will serve as specimens of 
the Latin poetry both of Giraldus and of bis friend Walter 
Mapes : — 

JDe baculo cui empui natura curvaoerai, pedem an amutverai, Mtqn^ 

Versibus omatum bis senis acdpe munuSi 

Et de tot gemmis elege, Mqpe, duos. 
Dat camerum natura caput, finemque fiibrilts ; 

Ars facit armatum, fabrica fessa levat. 
Ars nodum, natura modum, firmans in acumen» 

Ferri descendnnt fessaque membra regunt ; 
Artis figmentum firmans natura recurvum 

Apponit recto, dat faber anna pedi. 

Died 1923.] oiraldus cambrbnsis. d9S 

Aitis opui geminat, jatfit ]iatara« seniqiie 
Prodiit hinc podium feasa focosque juvans. 

Me duo oomponunt an et natora, senilea 
Aitoa snstineoy fena focosqae rego : 

Pes 9gQ docre{»tiai offeniis virgat leramen 
Fesaisp obscnris orbitai fiirca focis. 


Vernbu imparibus reapondet amknu amico, 

fiia aenia totidem reddit agitqoe vicea. 
Munoa amicoa amat, et nftimera landat amicii 

Muneria at laudes landat amatque magia. 
Qnalibet ergo probana baeoU plus approbo landea, 

Et Yersva Undo venibna arte minor. 
Hoa dnm apecto placea, illoa dum specto places bis, 

Specto hoe atqne iUoe terqne qnaterqne places. 
Pracipni primi snnt, pmdpnique tecnndi, 

Sic qui prtecednnt qniqne eeqnentnr enmt. 
Eligo sic igitnr cunctos, et prsfero nnlloa, 

Eztollena titnlia aingnla qnnqne suis. 

Giraldus has left us a list of his own works, compiled 
after the completion of the treatise De instructione prin- 
cipisy and therefore at the time when he had nearly ended 
his literary labours. Most of these works are preserved, 
and they all merit publication. They are, — 

1. The chronography and cosmography, in Latin hexa- 
meters and pentameters, written, as he informs us, in his 
earlier years^ and in some parts '^ following the doctrines 
of the philosophers more than those of the theologians."* 
No work answering to this description is now known. 

2. The Topographia Hibemue, in three books^ dedicated 
to king Henry II. The first book describes the island^ 
and the animals peculiar to it ; the second treats of the 
wonders of Ireland, its stormy seas, extraordinary 
islands, fountains^ and lakes, with a multitude of strange 
legends and pretended miracles; the third, of the first 
peopling of the island and its earlier history, of the 

* Plua pbiiosophicum quam theologicum nonnnUis in locis dogma secuta. 

894 oiRALDus GAMBASNSfs. [Bom 1146b 

manners and vioes of its inhmbitaiitsy and of the state of 
the churchy with the history of its Icings down to the 
invasion of the Northmen. 

B. The EapupnaHo Hiberma, MPe Sktoria Vatidnalis, 
in one book, a narrative of the conquest of Ireland by the 
Normans, forming a sequel to tke preceding work. 

4. Legends of Sainta. These include Ae lives of St, 
David, St. Caradoc, St. Ethelbert the martyr, St Re- 
migius the first bishop of Lincoln, and St. Hugh bishop of 
the same see. Some of these lives have he&a. printed in 
Wharton^s Anglia Sacra; those of Hugh and Caradoc 
appear to be lost ; that of St. Ethelbert is preserved in a 
manuscript in the Cottonian Library, Vitdtios E. .vii. 

5. llie life of Geofirey archbishop of York, also printed 
by Wharton. It was compiled in 1193. 

6. The Symbolum Electorum, a small collection of let- 
ters and verses, distributed into two books, the first book 
in prose, the second in verse. A copy of this work ia 
preserved in a manuscript in the Library of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, mentioned above ; and there appears Jx> 
be another copy or portion of it in the Bodleian Library. 

7* A work entitled lAber InvecHormm^ which seems to 
have been an attack upon the enemies who conducted the 
accusations against him in the court of Rome. 

8. Speculum duorum cammoniiorium et consolatoriunij 
which appears to have been of the same character as the 
preceding. Neither of these books are now known to 

9. The Gemma Ecclesiastical in two parts, the first 
containing instructions for the clergy, relating to the 
observation of the "greater and more necessary sacra- 
inents,*'* and the second on the decency and continence 

* De deri circa MCFBmeiiU majora maj^ue neoessaria inetnictioae. 

Died IMS.'] gibaldus cambbsmbib. 895 

of the derioal orders. This work is pveserved in hubmi- 

10« The Itinecary of Cambria, in two books, dedioated 
to Stei^ifin erdibiidiep of Camtorbury. 

11. The Topograpkia Cambrue^ aluo zq two books, the 
first only of which, containing die description of Wales, or 
De LaudaUBbus Cambria, was printed in the early editions. 
The second, entitled De lUoMidabUibiu WaUu^ was first 
printed in the Anglia Sacra. The first edition of this 
work was dedicated to Hugh bishop of Lincoln, but an 
enlarged edition was subsequentiy dedicated, like the 
Itinerary, to Stephen ardibishop of Canterbury. At the 
end of the second book is a shorter list of the works of 
Oiraldus, with his retrtuAaiiones, He infonns us that he 
eompiled a map of Wales to accompany tiiis woik.* 
Such a map is described by Tanner as preceding the Topo- 
grapkia Cambrim in ^the Library at Westminster/^ {in 
Bibl. Westmonast.) 

12. A treatise, De fideifruetuftdeiqHe d^^fisetUj which is 

13. The treatise De princtpie imtrucHone, which has 
been printed with considerable omissions in the French 
colleetion of Historians commenced by Dom. Bouquet. 
It was written at the time when the English barons called 
orer prince Louis to assist them against king John, and 
its grand object appeara to be to extol the virtues and 
jnety of the reigning house of France at the expense of 
Heniy II. and his sons, who are spoken of in terms of the 

* Forro circiter id ipgam temporis> quo Cambrue descriptionem stylo 
pentrinxfanofl» Mappam ejnsdem ezpreswm, quatenus et natale solum son 
tantnm Uteris» sod «ttam protractkniibiis qmbasdam» et qvasi pictnris 
Tariis, non incompetentibiis ant indecentibus, nostra foret ad nngnem opera 
declaratnm, bren in locnlo arctoqne folio loca qnam plnrima oomplectentes, 
eademqne turn dilneide satis et distincte disponentes, noo absque stodioso 
kbore propalaTimns. 

396 GIRALDUS CAMBRBN818. [Bom 1146. 

greatest abhorrence. It is divided into three distinctions 
or books. 

14. The narrative De gestis Giraldi labariosia, a history 
of his own life^ and especially of his troubles in relation 
to the see of St. David's^ in three books. The only copy 
known is preserved in the Cottoniam MS. Tiberins B. 
XIII., from which it was printed by Wharton, but 
which is unfortunately mutilated of a very large portion, 
although the table of contents of the whole is pre- 

15. Dialogues de jure et statu Menevensis eccksuBy in 
seven distinctions, printed in the Anglia Sacra* 

16. The above complete Oiraldus's own list, but we 
must add to them the Speculum EccleauB, one of the latest 
and most remarkable of his literary productions. It is 
divided into four distinctions or books, of which the first 
three contain a long and bitter attack on the corruptions 
of the monks, full of scandalous anecdotes, and the fourth 
book is devoted to a consideration of the state of the 
court and church of Rome. The only copy known of this 
work is contained in the Cottonian Library (MS. Cotton. 
Tiber. B xiii.), and is unfortunately much mutilated by 
the fire which endangered the existence of that valuable 
collection. This work has not been printed. 

The old bibliographers add many titles to this list, but 
they are apparently mere errors and misappropriations of 
the works of others. In the Topographia Hibemiof, 
Ginddus refers to his metrical treatise De phUosophicis 
flosculis,* which perhaps was nothing more than the cAro- 
nographia et cosmographia mentioned above. It appears 
that he intended to publish Topographies or descriptions 

' * In libdlo tamen quern de philosophids floscuKi metrice conscripsimus, 
dilucida breTitate sunt hec explanata. Topogr. Hibern. Distinc, iii. c. 3, 

Died 1223.] giraldus «ambrbnsis. 397 

of England^* and of ScoUand^f but we can discover no 
reason for believing that he ever put this design into 
execution. No such works are now in existence. 


Itinerarinm Cambri»: sen laboriosK Balduini Cantoar. archiepiicopi per 
Walliam legationis, accurata descriptio, auctore Sil. Giraldo Cambrense. 
Cnm annotattonibus DaTidis Poveli sacne theologi» professoris. Lon- 
dini, 1585. 8?o. Joined with Ponticiui Virunnins. 

Anglica, Normannica, Cambrica, a veteribos scripta : . . . . Flerique nunc 
primum in lacem editi ex bibli«theca Gulielmi Camdeni. Francofdrti, 
1603. fol. pp. 692-~754. Topographia Hibernie ; live de Mirabilibiis 
Hibernise, authore SiWestro Giraldo Cambrenae. — )?p. 755 — 813. £x- 
pagnatio Hiberniaei bitc Historia yaticinalia SilTestris Giraldi Cam- 
brensis.— Pp. 818—878. Itinerariam Cambric.— Pp. 879-^91. Cam- 
bric Deacriptio, anctore Sil. Giraldo Cambrense. 

Anglia Sacra . . . Pars Secmida. Londini, 1691. fol. pp. 351 — 354, Vita 
Hugonia Nonant, Episcopi CoTentrenais et Lichfeldensia, ex Giraldi 
Cambrensia Speculo Ecdeaic. Pp. 373 — 640, Giraldi Cambrensii, 
archidiaconi et episcopi electi Menevensis, Vita Galfridi ardiiepiaoopi 
Eboracensis. Vits episcoporum Lincolniensium. Vita sex episco- 
pomm cotetaneorum. Epistola ad Stephanam Langton archiepiscopam, 
Cantuariensem. De libris a se scriptis. De Descriptione Walliae, liber 
secundus. Retractationes. De rebus a se gestis libri III. De jure et 
statu MeneveDsisEcclesiseDistinctiones VII. Vita S. Dayidis arcbiepis- 
oopi Menerensis. 

Itinerariam Cambric sen laboriosc Baldvini Cantnariensis archiepiscopi per 
Walliam legationis accurata descriptio, auctore SiW. Giraldo Cambrense. 
Cum Annotationibus Davidis Poweli. Londini, 1806. 4to. 

Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, tome dix-hnitidme. A 
Paris, 1822, fol. pp. ISl— 163. Ex Silvestris Giraldi Cambrensia de 
Instructione Principis libris tribus. 

Dramiation, L 

The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales, A.D.MC^XXXVIII. 
by Giraldus de Barri ; translated into English, and illustrated with 
views, annotations, and a life of Giraldus, by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 
Bart. F.R.S. F.S.A. London, 1806. 8 toIs. 4to. 

* Donee . . . Cambric quam pre manibus habemns descriptio et 
Brytannica Topographia in publicam notitiam emanaverint. Prcf. prin. 
in Cambr. Descrip. Cum notabilem illam Brittannic Topographiam 
enucleatius ezpedietur. Topogr. Hibem. Distinc. iii«, c. 21. 

t Cum de utriusque . terrc, Gwallic scilicet et Scotic situ et proprietate, 
deque utriusque gentis engine et natura tractabimusi plenins expUoabitur. 
Topogr. Hibem. Distinc. i., c. 21. 



We know little more o£ the personal history of Greoffrey 
de Vinsauf CGalfHdus de VinosalvoJ than that he was an 
Englishman, and that he appears to have resided for 
some time in Italy, and to have enjoyed the favour of 
pope Innocent III. He is frequently called Galfridus 
Anglicu^ Ghde has supposed him to be the same per- 
son as Walter de Constantiis,^ but without any sufficient 
groundis. Greoffrey de Yinsauf is known as the author of 
a metrical treatise m Latin on the art of poetry, which 
generally bears the tide of Nova Poetria, and the exten- 
sive popularity of which during the ages which followed 
its publication is evinced by the great number of copies 
still extant in manuscripts of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. It is however a heavy tiresome poem, and 
is only interesting as being the key to the general style of 
the Latin poetical writers of the thirteenth century, which 
was formed on the rules given in this work. A writer of 
the beginning of the fifteenth century seems to intimate 
that Geoffirey had been sent to Rome on a mission from 
King Richard I.f 

The Nova Poetria is dedicated to pope Innocent, the 
author's patron, and commences with an exaggerated en- 
comium of that ponti€f. We may perhaps conclude from 

* 6ale*8 Scriptoref » vol ii. prolog. 

t John of Bamboroughi Bnbprior ofTynmonth, who wrote an " Argu- 
ment*' to this book in 1438, in which it la stated — Causa efficiens [hujus 
operis] est magister Galfridus Anglicua ; causa finalis communis est et pri- 
tata ; communis est instruere lectorem in rhetorica, privata negotium 
Ricardi regis AngUe, qui culpa nobis ignota papam offenderat. — Tanner. 

Rie. /•] GBOFFEST DB TINdAVF. 399 

the following lines of 1ihe<dedioatK>ii that it was written at 
Rome: — 

-*«- Me transtolit An^a Bomam, 
Tanqvam de terris ad CGelum. Transtnlit ad yoi, 
De tenebria Telut ad lacem. ' 

The poem, or rather treatise, opens with some general 
observations and rules for poetical composition. 

Si quia habet fondare domum, xum currat ad actum 
Impetnota manna ; mtcinseca linea oordia 
Pnemetitiir opus, Beriemqne aab ordine certo 
Interior pnncribit homo, totamqae fignrat 
Ante manna oardia» qnom corporis at Btatua ejus, 
Et prina andietypaa, qnm. aanailia. Ipaa poesia 
Spectat in hoe speeiilo ; qusB.lex sit danda poetia. 
Non manna ad oaiamnm ■ pnacBpa, non lingua sit ardena 
Ad verbmns nentram manibns committe regandam. 
Fortun», aed mena diacrela pneambnla hdd, 
Ut melios fortnnetopna, anapcmdat eamm 
Offieinm, tracfeatqne din da tbemafta Boeunu 
Ciroinna interior, memaa prscireinet omna 
Materin ipatinm. Gertna preliminct ordot 
Unde prfBarripiat-cnTanm atilns, ant ubi gadea 
Figat, Opna totnm prndcm in paotoria arcem 
Contrabe, aitqne prina in pectore qnam sit in ore. 

These lines are a fair specimen of Geoffrey^s style. The 
following chapters treat in succession of the distribution of 
the work ; of the ordering and arrangement of it; of the 
exordium ; and of the method of treating the subject, and 
the different ways of amplification, which was looked 
upon as the most important branch of the art, and occu- 
pies a large portion of this metrical treatise. 

— Si vis bene dad, 
Te certo committe dnci. Subscripts reYolve. 
Ipsa stilnm dncent^ et utrimque decentia dicent. 
Formnla materise, qnssi qnsdam formula oerae, 
Primitus est duri tactna. Si sednla cura 
Igniat ingeninm, snbito moUescitad ignem 
Ingenii, sequiturque manum qnocnnque vocarit,. 
Ductilis ad quicquid hominis menus interioris 
Dudt, amplificet, vel curtet, si fticis amplnm. 

The rules and examples are sometimes good, but they 

400 GEOFPRBY DE VIN8AUF. [Reign of 

are as often in bad taste, and well calculated to produce 
the inflated and meretricious style of writing which too often 
distingiushed the writers of the succeeding age. Some of 
the examples refer to the historical events of the time, as 
in the famous lamentation for the death of king Richard^ 
who received his wound on a Friday, which day is thus 
apostrophised, — 

O Veneris lacrimosa dies ! o sidos amAnim ! 

Ilia dies tna nox fiiit, et Venus ilia Tenenom. 

Ilia dedit Tnlnns. Sed pessimns iUa diemm 

Primns ab nndeno, qni yitn Titricos» ipsnm 

Clansit. Uterqne dies homictda tjrnuinide mira 

Trajedt clansos exclnsam, tectos apertam, 

ProTidns Incantmn, miles monitas inermem, 

Et proprium regem. Qoid miles ? perfide miles 1 

PerfidisB miles, pndor orbis, et nnica soides 

Militis, miles msnnnm fiustnra soaram. 

Ansns es hoc in enm soelus ? hoc soelus ? istndes ansns ? 

O dolor ! O plus qoam dolor ! O mors 1 O tnumlenta 

Mors I Esses vtinam mors mortiuu Quid mendnisti 

Ansa neftts tantum ? Placnit tibi, toUere solem 

Et tenebris tenebrare solom. Sds quern n^nisti ? 

Ipse fiiit jabar in oculis, et dnloor in anre, 

Et stupor in mente. Scis impia quern rapuisti ? 

Ipse fuit dominns armornm, gloria regnm, 

DeUti« mundi. NU addere noverat ultra, 

Ipse fuit quicquid potuit, natura. Sed istud 

Causa fuit, quare rapuisti. Res pretiosas 

Eligisi et riles quasi dedignata relinquis. 

There is keen satire in Chaucer's allusion to this over- 
strained affectation of grief, — 

O Gaufride, dere maister soterain, 

That, whan thy worthy king Eichard was slain 

With shot, complainedest his deth so sore. 

Why ne had I now thy science and thy lore, 

Tke Friday for to ehiden, as did ye ? 

(For on a Friday sothly slain was he) 

Than wold I shew you how that I coud plaine 

For Chauntecleres drede and for his paine. 

Cant. T. I. 15,353. 

The following may be taken as another example of the 


beauties of style vrhich found favour in the* rhetorical 
school represented by Geoffrey de Vinsauf : — 

Vd si dicamns de tempore navibus apto :— 
Non objurgat aquas aquilOi neo inebriat auster 
Aera ; sed solis radius, quasi scopa lutosi 
Aeris, emandat coelum, vultuque sereQO 
Tempus adulatur pelago ; dandestina flatus 
Murmura stare freta faciunt, et currere vela. 

After explaining at length all the beauties^ and warning 
against what were then considered the vices, of composi- 
tion, the Nova Poetria concludes with three epilogues, the 
first of which is another extravagant^ we might even say 
impious, address to the pope, — 

Jam mare transcurri, gades in littore fixi, 

Et mihi te portum statno, qui, maxima rerom, 

Nee Deus es, nee homo, quasi neuter es inter utrnmqve, 

Quern Deus elegit socium. Socialiter egit 

Tecum partitas mundom. Sibi nduit uiius 

Omnia, sed voluit tibi terras, et sibi coelum. 

Quid potuit melius ? quid majns ? cui meliori ? 

Vel cui majori ? Dico minus. Imo vel sque 

Magno, vel simili. 

The second epilogue is addressed to the emperor, and 
is a petition for the liberation of king Richard^ so that 
we may suppose the book to have been originally com- 
posed in 1193, although not pubUshed till after Richard's 
death. This epilogue commences with the lines, — 

Imperialis apex, cui 8er?it poplite flexo 
Roma caput mundi. 

The third epilogue is addressed to an archbishop 
named William, whom some have supposed to have been 
no other than William de Longchamp bishop of Ely. 
This, however, appears to be a mere conjecture without 
foundation. It begins with the words, — 

Quod papse scripsi munus speciale libelli 
Aceipe,'flo8 regni. 

VOL. II. 2 D 

402 JOSEPH OF BXBTBR. [Reign qf 

The old bibliographers make separate works of these epi- 
logues, as well as of some portions of the Nova Poeiria, 
They also make Geoffrey de Vinsauf the author of a 
poem against the c(J)Tuptions.of the church, printed by 
Flacius Illyricus under the title Gaufredu9 de sUOu curia 
Ramana et de yus ironica rec(m$nendalioney which, how- 
ever, carries internal evidence of having been written as 
late as the middle of the thirteenth century. Other 
poems have been attributed to this writer, but it seems 
most probable that the Nova Poetria is the only work 
known of which he was the author. Leland found the 
name ^^ Galfridus Vinesave'^ inscribed on the last page of 
a treatise De rebus Micis, which was probably only a 
copy of the well-known poem entitled FloriJegus. 

Gale has published under the name of Geoffirey de 
^nsauf the Itinerarium Ricardi Anglorvm regie in Ter- 
ram Sanctum, which appears to belong more justly to 
Bichard the Canon. 


An edition is said io have been printed at Vienna, Bpjud Wolfimgnm Lasinm. 
Polycarpi Leyieri Histom Poetarum et Poematom Medii JRii decern, post 

annnm a nato Chriato cccc, aecnlomm. Halae Magdeb. 1721. 8to. pp. 

861^978. Galfridi de Vino SaWo Poetria Nora. 
GaJfridi de VinoealTO An Poetica ante qningentoa annoa oonacripta . • . 

edita ... a Polycarpo Leyiier. Helmatadii, anno mdccxziy. 8to. 


The best of our medieval Anglo-Latin poets was Jo- 
seph of Exeter, who, fortunately, wrote before the poetical 
rules of Geoffirey de Vinsauf were established in the 
schools. Leland learnt from one of his lost books that 
Joseph was a native of Exeter ; his patron was archbishop 
Baldwin, to whom he dedicates his poem De BeUo Trq/ano, 

Ric. /.] JOSEPH OP EXBTBR. 403 

which was finished when Henry IL was preparing for the 
crusade* Camden, who had the Antiochm before him^ 
states that Joseph accompanied king Richard to Syria. 
We know nothing of the time of his death ; Bale's state- 
ment that he flourished in 1210 is a mere guess^ and the 
supposition of Leland that he died in the reign of Henry 
III. arose from a mistake of the following passage of the 
poem of the Trojan War^ in which the third Henry, here 
compared with Hector, is the son of Henry II., crowned 
as Henry III. during his father's life, who died prema- 
turely in 1184. 

Tantos in HectoreaB audaz decreverat iras 
TertiuB Henriciu noster, qao rege BritanDus 
Major, quo dace NonnanniUy quo Francua alumno 
Ririt, et in bellia gens martia nacta priorem 
Non illi inyidit Bellonam, at Pallada nobis. 

Many parts of Joseph's poem, in five books, on the 
Trojan War, approach so near the pure taste of the classic 
ages, that it was printed at first, and passed through some 
editions^ under the name of Cornelius Nepos, until the 
collation of more perfect manuscripts restored it to its 
right author. Tet it seems to have been so little appre- 
dated at the time it was written that it is not alluded to 
in any of the books of the succeeding age, and it occurs 
very rarely in manuscripts. Warton ♦ and Leland f have 
pointed out some of the best passages of this poem, which 
opens with the following elegant exordium : — 

Diadam lacrymaa, concesaaqoe Pergama fktM, 
Pnelia bina ducam, bis adaetam cladiboi arbem 
In dneras, qaerimor ; flemosqae qaod Hereolis ira, 
Hesionea raptaa, Helense faga, fregerit aroem, 
Impolerit Phrygios» Danaas ezciverit arbes. 

* History of Bnglish Poetry, vol. i. pp. czzvii—cxzxii. ed. 1840. 
t Commentarii de Seriptoribns Britannicis, p. 836. 

2 d2 

404 JOSEPH OF BXBTBR. IReiffti of 

Joseph dedicates his work to archbishop Baldwin^ in 
the following no less finished lines, which were much mu« 
tilated in the early printed editions, and are defectiye in 
the latest reprints. 

Mire qoidem dicta, sed vere, advertite, pandam. 
Nun Tati Fhrygio Martem oertiaiimiig index 
Explicnit pneaena ocuhu, qaem fabula nesdt. 
Hone ubi combiberit avid» apes ardua mentis, 
Quos snperos in Tota Tocem ? mens conscia veri 
Proscripsit longe Indentem ficta poetam ; 
Chun te Cecropii mentita lioentia pagi, 
Et liedant figmenta, pater, quo preside floret 
Cantia, et in priacaa reapint libera leges. 
In nnmenun jam crescit honoa ; te tertia poscit 
Infdla ; jam meminit Wigomia, Cantia discity 
Romanus meditatar apex ; et nanfraga Petri 
Ductorem in mediis expectat cymba prooellis. 
In tamen ocdduo degis contentus ovili, 
Tertius a Thoma, Thomasqne secnndns et alter ; 
Sol oriens, rebus snccessor, moribus haeres. 
Felices quos non trahit ambitns 1 ardua nactus 
Non in se descendit honos ; non caeca potestas 
Quid possit fortuna videt : non perfida sentit 
Prosperitas, flevisse humilem, qui ridet in altis. 
Pardte, venales qoisqms venatur honores, 
Unde ruat tabulata struit. Fremit nltio noxaa 
Tunc greyior, qnum tarda venit : tunc plena timoris, 
Quum terrore caret : blanda nil sscYius ira, 
Qnum floret miseri feliz ii^uria Toti. 

At tn dissimilis longe, cui fronte serena 
Sanguinis egregii lucrum, paoemque litata 
Emptam anima pater ille pius, summumqne cacumen 
In tnnm renisse Telit, cui cederit ipse 
Prorsus, vel propriaa Uetus sociaret habenas. 

Hactenus hsec, tuque oro tuo da, maxime, vati 
Ire iter inoeptum, Trojamque aperire jaAentem : 
Te aacre assument acies, divinaque bella, 
ToBC dignnm majore tuba, tunc pectore toto 
Nitar et immensum mecum spai^re per orbem. 

Warton has remarked justly that the style of this poem is 
a mixture of Ovid, Statius, and Claudian, who in Joseph's 
time were the most popular writers of antiquity ; and he 


Ric. I.] JOSRPH OF RXKTEft. 405 

describes the diction as generally pure^ the periods rounds 
and the numbers harmonious. In matter, it is only a 
paraphrase of the fabulous history which was circulated 
during the middle ages under the name of Dares Phrygius. 
The last lines of the preceding extract are addressed to 
Henry II. who was at that time preparing to undertake 
a crusade against Saladin, and they are considered as 
implying a promise to make that expedition the subject of 
a future poem. The six books of the Trojan War were pro- 
bably the labour of a considerable space of time; and at the 
end, as the passage is given by Leland, the poet promises 
more distinctly a future work, in the following lines — 

Compendia veri 

Etf si quando auctor ranu, tamen altera sacne 
Tendo fila lyne plectro majore canenda. 
Antiochi nunc bella Tocanti nee dicere votum 
Chrifticolas ades, et nostne signa sibyllse, 
Quse yirtaSi qnee dona crncis, nee fnndit anhda 
Hos mihi circa pedes animi fidentis hiatum, 
Celsior et coelo venit impletunis Apollo. 
Tn quoque, magne pater, nostri fidncia ccepti, 
Altera et in pelago pandes mihi vela secundo. 
Hoc tibi hidet opus, saccedet serior setaa, 
Seria sucoedent aores meritnra pudicas. 
Si tans in nostros candor consenserit ansua, 
Hand metaam culids stimaloa fdcive snsnmun. 

The Antiocheis of Joseph of Exeter appears unfortunately 
to be lost. Leiand, after long search, met with a muti- 
lated copy among the dust of the monastic library of 
Abingdon.* Camden, who laments the entire loss of 
this work, has printed the only passage now known.f 
Warton informs us that *^ Mr. Wise, the late Rad- 
cliffe librarian^ told me that a manuscript of the Antio- 
cheis was in the library of the duke of Chandos at Ca- 
nons.'' It appears, however, that neither of these manu- 


* Oim ezcuterem polverei et blattas AbandnnenBis bibliothecK. 
t In hia Remains, p. 880. 

406 JOSEPp OF EXETER. [Bciffn o/Ric. L 

scripts can be traced, and their fate is unknown. In the 
following lines — ^the fragment of this poem preserved by 
Camden — Joseph celebrates the heroes of the fabulous 
British history. 

■ lorlyta fuliit 
Posteritai ducibus tantis, tot divef alomniB, 
Tot foecaodA Tins, premerent qui viribos orbem 
Et fama yeteres. Hinc Conitaotioua adeptut 
Imperium, Romam tenoit, Byzantion anzit 
Hinc Seno&om ductor captiva Brennins urbe 
Romnleas domuit flammiB Tictricibus aroea. 
Hinc et Scaeva satnsi pan non obscnra tamultas 
Civilia, magnum 8olu8 qui mole solnta 
Obsedit, meliorqne stetit pro Caeaare munu. 
Hinc celebri fato felici floruit ortu 
Flos rpgum Artburua, cnjus tameo acta stupori 
Non micuere minus : totus quod in sure voloptas, 
Et popolo plaudente favus. QuKCUoque priorum 
Inspice : PelUeum oonmiendat fama tyrannum, 
Pagina Caesareos loquitur Romana triumpbos ; 
Aldden domitis attollit gloria monstris ; 
Sed nee pinetum coryli, nee sydera solem 
Equant. Annales Graios Latiosque rerolTC, 
Prisca parem neacit, aequalem postera nullum 
Exbibitura dies. Reges supereminet omnes : 
Solus praeteritis melior, majorque futuris. 

We know not on what authority Leland attributes to 
Joseph of Exeter epigrams, and love-verses {NugiB ama-- 
toriai). He is also pretended to have written in Latin 
verse De institutione Cyriy beginning with the words Pnelia 
bina ducum canimus ; but this is perhaps a mere fabrica- 
tion, grounded on the second line of the exordium to the 
poem on the Trojan War. 


The first printed edition of the Poem de Bello Trojano appeared at BasQ, 
1541, 8yo. which was taken from a very bad manuscript. 

Daretis Phrygti vetustissimi scriptoris de bello Trojano, in quo ipse militayity 
libri sex, a Comelio Nepote in Latinum sermonem couTersi. Adjnnzi- 
mus Pindari Thebani Iliados Homeri Epitome, et Homeri Ilias a Nico- 
lao Valla et Vincentio Obsopoeo politissimo carmine reddita. Bosilise, 
1558, 8to. 

Bom 1136.] WILLIAM OF NBWBURY. 407 

Another edition waAjprinted At the same place in 1583« fol. joined with the 

Daretia Phrygii Poetanim et Hiatoricorom omninm primi de Bello Tro« 

jano libri aex, a Comelio Nepote Latino cannine donatL Antrerpie, 

1608. Sto. 
Joaephi lacani poetae elegantiaaimi de Bello Trojano libri aex, hactenoa Cor« 

nelii Nepotia nomine aliqnotiea editi, nunc antori reatitnti, et notia ez- 

plicati, qnibna alii plnrimi iUnatrantnr, a Samnele Dreaemio Dithmarao. 

Francofiirti, 1620. 4to. 
Tliia edition waa reprinted at theaame place and in the same form in 

Daietia Fhrygii poetanim et hiatoricorom omninm primi de Bello Trojano 

libri aez Latino carmine eleganter redditi a Comelio Nepote. Medto- 

lani, 1669. 12mo. 
Daretia Phrygii de Bello Trojano lib. tL Lat. carmine a Joaepho Exonienai 

redditi» reoogniti ac emendati cora et atadio J. Mori. Londini, 1675. 

Dictya Cretenaia et Darea Phrygina de Bello et Ezddio Trajse, in nanm 

aeremaaimi Delphini, cnm inteipretatione Annie Daoerue. Accednnt 

in hac nora editione Notae Variorum integrse ; nee non Joaephna laoa* 

nua, cam notia Sam. Dreaenui. AmateUedami, 170S. 4to. 
Dictya Cretenaia et Darea Phrygina de Bello Trojano, ex editione Sam. Ar- 

topoei, com notia et interpretatione in nanm Delphini, variia leett. notia 

▼arior. Accedont Joaephi lacani de Bello Trojano libri vL Londini» 

1825. 8to. 2 yola. (Valpy'a edition). 


One of the most valuable historians who flourished 
at this period was William of Newbury, a native of 
Bridlington, in Yorkshire, bom, as he infonns us, in 
the first year of the reign of king Stephen,* a^d. 1136, 
and educated in the monastery of Newbury, of which 
he became a canon. He is sometimes called Guliebnus 
Partms.f According to Cave, he died in the year 
1208. His patron was Roger, made abbot of the 

* Cnjna anno primo ego G. aervorum Chriati minimna . . . anm natna. 
Proem, in Hiat. anb fine, 
t Tanner, following Lelandi placea him under the head of Ptfyi [GWi- 


408 WILLIAH OF NEWBURY. [jBom 1136. 


neighbouring monastery of Byland in 1141, at whose 
request he compiled a commentary on the Song of Solo- 
mon^ which was preserved in the library of Newbury in 
the time of Leland. At a more advanced age he under- 
took to write the history of his own times^ of which 
several manuscripts have been preserved, and which has 
been repeatedly printed. In this work, which is certainly 
one of the best arranged histories produced at that period, 
William aspired with some success to rise above the ordi- 
nary chroniclers and annalists. In a preface of some 
length, he protests against the absurdity of the fabulous 
history of king Arthur, and the prophecies of MerUn, and 
treats very contemptuously the authority of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth. His own work is divided into five books, 
the first of which, after a brief notice of the Anglo-Norman 
history, includes the reign of Stephen; the second and 
third contain the history of the reign of Henry II., and 
the fourth and fifth are devoted to that of Richard I. down 
to the year 1197^ at which date its author concludes his 
labours. The language of this writer is correct, and less 
characterised by rhetorical pretension than that of most 
of his contemporaries. His authority is especially valu- 
able ; and he has preserved many personal anecdotes and 
some curious popular legends. The following character of 
king Henry II. is drawn with evident fidelity, and may 
be compared with what other writers cited in the present 
volume have said of that monarch. 

Sane idem rez et pluribas qnee personam ornant regiam fiiisse noscitnr 
virtatibus praeditns, et quibasdam nihilominus vitiis obnozius que christianum 
principem plarimum dedecorent. In libidinem pronior conjngalem modom 
ezcessit, formam quidem in hoc tenens ayitam, sed tamen avo hujus intempe- 
rantise palmam reliquit. Regina pro tempore snflScientMr nsos ad sobolem, 
ea desinente parere, sectando Yoluptatem spurios fecit. Venationis delicias 
seque ut avus plus justo diligens, in punieodis tamen pomtamm pro feris legum 
transgressoribua avo mitior fnit. Ille enim, ut suo loco dictum est, homici- 

Diedl20S.'] WILLIAM OF NBWBUHY. 409 

damm et fBriddanun in pnbUotB aniiAadTenionllms nulliim T4»1 parvum esse 
▼oMt distantiam. Hie autem hujoBinodi tranBgressores caroerall custodia 
rive eziHo ad tempsa ooercoit* Gentem perfidam «t Christianis inimicam, 
Jvdseos sciiioet foenerantei, propter laigiora quae ^ eonim percipiebat foene* 
rationibas commoda, phis jvato font ; in tantam ut in Christianos protervi 
et cervicosi existerent, plurimaqua eis gravamina irrogarent. Inexquirendis 
peonniifl paulo immoderatior fhit ; aed temporis lequentia supra modnm ez- 
cresceBB malitia jnatifioavit earn in hac parte, et deoentem modnm ab eo in- 
nnit ease Benratnm ; ezcepto eo quod Tacantes eptscopatas, nt provenientia 
perdperet commoda, din vacare voluit, et ecclesiaaticiB potins usibns ap- 

plicanda in fiscnm redegit Fait in illo regni liutidio tnend» et foveDd» 

paciB public» stndiosiBsimvB ; iaportando gladio ad yindictam malefactorum, 
quietem vero bonoium, Dei minister mnltom idoneus ; remm et libertatum 
ecdesiasticamm, sicnt post mortem ejus darnit, defensor et conservator prs- 
cipnus. Pupillomm, viduaram, pauperum, in shIb praeceptionibus mnltam 
cnram habnit, et lods pluribus insignes eleemosynas larga mann impendit, 
Yiros religiosos speclaliter honoravit, et res eorum tequo cum suis dominiis 
jare conservari praecepit. Antiquam inhumanam circa naufragos consuetu- 
dinem in ipsis regni sui initiis eximia pietate correzit, atque hujnsmodi homi- 
nibns ab eqnoreo discrimine liberatis, hnmanitatis officiam ezhiberi prsed- 
piens, graves in eos poenas sanxit qui forte iHis in aliqno molesti esse vd de 
rebus eorom quippiam usurpare praesumerent. Nullum grave regno Anglo- 
rum vd terris suis transmarinis onus unquam imposuit, usque ad illam novis- 
simam dedmationem, causa ezpeditionis lerosolymitanae, quae nimirum de- 
dmatio in aliis aequo fiebat regionibus. Tributum more aliorum principum 
sub cujuslibet necessitatis obteotu ecclesiis sive monasteriis nunquam indixit ; 
qaibus etiam ab angariis et exactionibus publicis religiose studio immunita- 
tem servavit Discrimen sanguinis et mortes hominum ezborresoens, armis 
quidem cum aliter non potuit, sed libentius pecunUs cum potuit, pacem 
quaerere studuit. His aliisque bonis personam omans regiam, multis tantum 
ad sola ejus mala oculos babentibus gratus non fuit. Ingrati homines et 
cmnrersi in animum piUvum propni mala prindpis aasidue carpebant ; bona 
vero nee audire sustinebanti quibos utique sequentis temporis sola vexatio 
jam dedit intellectum. 

The commentary on the Song of Solomon is not now 
known to exist. Hearne has printed at the end of his 
edition of the history three homilies ascribed to William 
of Newbury^ which are perhaps part of the sermones attri- 
buted to him by Bale. 


The first edition of the History appeared at Antwerp, in 8vo. 1567. Edited 
by GuUdmus Silvius, whidi was- reprinted in 1577f and in 1587 in the 


410 ROOBB DE HOTBDEN. {Died after 1201. 

Heiddberg oollection of English chronicleB. The test of time ediftioii» 

was very imperfect. 
Gnilielmi Neabrigensifl Angli, canoniei ed r^golam S. Angvetini, de Rebii» 

Anglids soi temporiB libri qmnque. Nunc prinnim aoodores zi. ct, 

pitnliB hacteniB detideFatiui, -et notie JoamuB Picardi BeUovad nqne 

cuionici ad 8. Victoria Pkriaieiisis. Pariiiia, 1610. 8?o. 
Goilielini NeabrigenaLi Hiatoria aiye Chronica Remm Anglicanmiy ISbrie 

qninqne .... Studio atque indoatrla Hionue Heamii. Aooedunt Ho- 

mili» tres eldem Gviliehno a yiria emditia adscriptK . . . Ozouk, e 

Theatro SheldoniBBO, 1719. 8yo. 3 toIb. 
RecaeU des Historiena dea Ganlea et de la France. Tome diz-hoitiime. A 

Paria, 1822, fol. pp. 1^58. £z GmUelmi Neubrigenaia libria qoiiiqii» 

de Rebna Aaglicia. 


Roger de Hovbdbn is on many accounts one of the 
most valuable historical writers of this age. He was 
probably bom at Hoveden^ or Howden, in Yorkshire; 
and we learn from his continuator^ Walter of Coventry,* 
that he was attached to the household of king Henry 11.^ 
who sent him to visit the abbey of Christ's Church in 
Norwich, and several other reUgious houses which were 
without . abbots, a mission which he performed to the 
king's satisfaction. We know nothing more of his per- 
sonal history, except that he finished his annals, the only 
work he appears to have composed, in the year 1201. 
The chief merit of Roger de Hoveden appears to be that 
of being a laborious compiler and copyist, with no very 
great share of originality ; but he has introduced a great 
number of copies of letters and other documents which 
are not found elsewhere, and are of great value to the 
historian. One of the chief writers from whom he compiled 
was Simeon of Durham. In the latter part of his annals 

* MS. Harl. 689 as quoted by Tanner. 

Died qfter 1201.] roger ds hovedbn. 411 

he has copied almost verbatim the history of Benedict 
of Peterborough. We can have little doubt that Roger^ 
and not Benedict, was the copyist^ for the former not only 
appears to have been the later writer of the two^ but in 
the years which coincide with those included in Benedict's 
work^ he gives an account of the place where the court 
kept its Christmas festivities^ and of the persons present, 
with some other of Benedict's peculiarities of arrangement, 
not found in other parts of the annals. As a specimen of 
the manner in which Roger has copied the style of Bene- 
dict, we give the passage from the annals corresponding 
to the extract previously given in the article on Benedict 
of Peterborough. 

Interim Lodowicus rex Francorom et rex Anglis filius obsedenrnt Vemo- 
lium; Bed Hugo de Lasci et Hugo de Bello CampOi qui inde constabularii 
erant, ▼Dlam Vemolii yiriliter et constaoti animo defendenmt. Attamen 
com rex Francise ibi per meosam moram fecuset, yix expugnavit partiunculam 
▼iHb iUiuB, ex parte ilia ubi machinse sue bellice posuerant. Erant quidem 
infra Vernolium trea bnrgi prseter casteUum ; et unuaquisque illonun separa- 
tu8 erat ab alterOi et interclusua forti muro et fossa aqua plena. Et unus 
iUorum dioebatur magnus bnrgus, ubi extra murum fixa erant tentoria regis 
Fraud» et machinae illius bellicsB. In fine autem illius mensisi cum bur- 
genses de burgo magno Tiderent, quod Tictus et necessaria eis defeclssent, 
nee haberent quid manducarent, compulsi fame et inopia inducias triduanas 
oeperunt a rege Francis eundi ad dominum suum regem Angli», propter suc- 
cursum ab eo babendum. Et nisi infra sequens triduum succursum baberent, 
redderent ei burgum ilium. Et statutus est eis dies peremptorins in Tigilia 
Sancti Laurentii. 


Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam prsedpui, ex vetustissimis codicibus 
manuscriptis nunc primum in lucem editi (edited by Savile). Franoo- 
fnrti, 1601. fol. pp. 401 — 8S9. Rogeri de Hoveden Annalium para prior 
et posterior. 

Receuil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France. Tome dix-septi^me. A 
Parb, 1818. fol. pp. 546 — 615. Ex Rogeri de Hoveden Annalium 
parte posteriori. 

412 JOHN OF BROHPTON. {Rcjlffn of 


Another history of this period^ which begins with the 
year 588, the date at which Geofirey of Monmouth's 
history concludes, and ends with th^ death of Richard I* 
in 1198, passes under the name of John of Brompton, who 
was abbot of Jervaux, in Yorkshire, in 1 193. Selden, and 
after him bishop Nicholson, were of opinion that it is not 
the work of the abbot of Jervaux, but that it was merely an 
, anonymous chronicle copied for the use of that abbey ; 
and there is still preserved in the library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge (MS. No. 96), a manuscript of this 
work ending with the colophon, — Liber monasterti Joreval- 
lensia ex procuratione domini Johannis Brompton abbatis 
ejusdem loci : si quia hunc librum alienaverit dehbitur de 
libro vit4B. This manuscript appears to be comparatively 
modern ; but an additional reason for believing that the 
chronicle was not written by a monk of the abbey of 
Jervaux is found in the circumstance that it contains no 
account of the foundation or history of that monastic 

This chronicle, like so many histories composed during 
the middle ages, is a mere compilation from other sources, 
and contains little or no original information. Under the 
year 1171 we find a long description of Ireland, abridged 
from the Topographia of Giraldus Cambrensis. In the 
year following this date the compiler abridges from Bene- 
dict of Peterborough, as will be seen from the following 
extract, corresponding with that given above from Roger 
de Hoveden. 

Similiter etiam circa octabas apostolorom Petri et Paali Ludowicos rex 
Francis cam ezercitu magao Normanniam intrans Vemolium obaedit, et 

Ric. /.] RAOULPH DE DICETO* 413 

madiiiiSs beUids statim Ikctif TiUam circimqiiaqiie ineultabftt coddle. Sed 
burgenaes et milites infra podti TiUam yiriliter defendenint. Nam rex Franciae 
qui jam per mensem cam exerdta auo ibi jacaerat, panim profidens, in nuUo 
da nocere potuit nisi ez parte ifla ubi erant tentoria sua fixa. In fine autem 
illias mensis victualibus in bnrgo defidentibns, bnrgenses fame etinopia 
compulsi inducias triduanas nt libere ezirent et pro succursa ad regem AngUse 
transirent a rege Frande petienmt, et nisi infra sequens tridunm ab eo suc- 
cnraum haberent slbi yiDam redderent quam tenebant. 


Historifls Anglicanse Scriptores X. (edited by Sir Roger Twysden). Londini, 
1652. fol. coll. 721^1284. Chronicon JohanmS Brompton abbotis 
Jorvalensisy ab anno Domini 588 quo ^. Angnstinns Tenit in .^ngliam 
usque mortem regis Ricardi I. scilicet annum Domini 1198. Nunc 
primum editum & MSS. codidbus fideliter coDatis. 


This historian is said to have travelled through a great 
part of Europe, and to have been made on his return 
archdeacon of Middlesex, about the year 1160. About 
11 64 he obtained the rectory of Aynho in Northampton- 
shire, which he resigned in 1190. He Was also rector of 
Finchingfield in Essex, in the time of Hubert, archbishop 
of Canterbury, and therefore subsequently to 1193. In 
1183 he had been made dean o{ London. It is not known 
when he died, but the old bibliographers are certainly 
wrong in stating that he flourished in 1210.* There is 
some confusion in the accounts of this writer's works, 
whi6h it seems difficult to correct. Two were published 
in Sir Roger Twysden's collection of historians, an abbre- 
viated history brought down to the year 1198, and a rather 
more difiuse history which, according to the writer's own 
statement, began in the year 1147and ended in 1193,though 

* See Tanner, in y. Dieeto, K manuscript quoted by Gale called bim 
Radulpbus de Diiseto, 

414 RADULPH DE DiCBTO. [R^iffn qf 

in the manuscripts it is generally continued to the year 
1199 or 1200. Gale published under the name of Radulph 
de Diceto a short abridgement of the fabulous British 
history^ which is supposed to be the same book that 
Wharton says he saw in the Norwich library. Some 
other historical tracts, relating chiefly to ecclesiastical 
affairs, are printed in the Anglia Sacra. A few letters by 
Radulph de Diceto are preserved among the Cottonian 
manuscripts : the old biographers give the titles of theo- 
logical works by this writer. 

The historical writings of Radulph de Diceto are chiefly 
valuable for the copious notices they contain relating to 
the affairs of the English church. He is not distinguished 
in any other way from the ordinary chroniclers of his age. 
The account of the siege of Vemeuil, in 1I73> will serve 
to compare his style with that of the historians who have 
been spoken of in the preceding articles. 

Ludoricos rex Francomm ad Nonnanniam penitoa devastandam inniime- 
rabtlem congrogavit exercitum octabia sancti Johaanu Baptiate. Anziliiriia 
«ndiqne concarrentibiui primo impetu itatoit ddere VemoHimi. Fbaa dr- 
emnqaaqae tentoriiay qnanam ex parte primoa experiretnr oonatna ndaaia 
exploratoiibiiB coepit mqnirera. Reportatnm eat caatram macocaaibile, atpote 
foantis drcumdatam, dnctmn moris, propognaculia obfirmatamy Tins belli- 
ooaia ebuUieDa, radiantiboa annia refertom» Tictnalibua multia abundaaa, et 
niai longa obsidio fame coarctaTerit multitadinem intoa obaeaaam, Fraud 
poterant inani labore oonaimdy vel atteri prorana irreparabiU jactara. Ad 
ramptua igitar exerdtu proTidendoa, rdatio neoeaearia domidlio cajuaque 
tranamittitar. Per totam Galliam fit deacriptio generalia. Nnllua immunltate 
gandebat. A aedente in aoUo luque ad laborantem in mola, yel in proatflralo 
dormientem, mannm extendere yidebantnr regii exactorea. Non aexoi, mm 
ordo, non dignitaa a mnneribua aordidia vacationem habebat. Persona for- 
tmuB iigaria miaerabilia ri vel agellnlom poasideret vel asinam nigebator 
oonferre. Hignaoemodi paaaim imprecabantnr expeditiioni, qui at exerdtoi 
necessaria miniatrarent, distrahere patrimonia cogebantor .... Intra aepta 
Vemolii bnignm qnoddam diyitibns mixtim et panperibns inbabitatam, alto 
dananm moro, ceitia diatinctom limitibna, proprio designatam Tocabnlo, 
Bnigoin viddioet Reginae, qnoniam a tempore obddionia panpenun et debi- 
linm intoa foerat mnltitndo condnaa, fame coepit periditari. Qnod com ad 


regU Franeomm notitiam perrenissety bnrgi portas nbi petiit aperiri, leg;Q 
proposita» quod si qnis intra tridiram prozimum anbreniret bnrgo ooncliuiBy 
quod imposaibile judicabat, ab omsi laeaioDe seirarentnr indempnea. 


Twysden, Hiatorite Anglicans Scriptorea X. Londini, 1653, fol. coll. 4S9 — 
710. Radulpbi de Dioeto decani Londonienaia Abbreviationes Chroni- 
comm et Ymagines Hiatorianun. Nunc primnm edits ez MSS. oodi- 
dboa fidelitercoUatia. 

Hiatoris Britannic», Saxonies, Anglo-Danics, Scriptorea XV. Ez yetnatia 
Codd. MSS. Editi opera Hioms Gale. Ozonis, 1691. fol. pp. 553 — 
562. Hiatoria compendioea de Regibos Britonum per Radnlphum 

Wbarton, AngUa Sacn. London. 1691. fol. torn. i. pp. 87 — 9» Indicnlum 
de sncceaaione arcbiepiacoporum Cantnar. et a qnibna apoatolicia pallia 
auacepemnt. — ^tom. ii. pp. 677 — 693, Hiatoria aedia Cantnar. 


Richard thb Canon is said to have been a monk of 
the priory of the Holy Trinity in London, about the 
year 1200. The late Mr. Petrie, who had the opportunity 
of comparing the manuscripts preserved at Cambridge 
and elsewhere, was of opinion that the history of the 
expedition of Richard I. to Syria, which Gale printed 
under the name of Geoffrey de Vinsauf, is the work of 
Richard the Canon. It had previously been printed 
anonymously in the Gesta Dei per Francos. Leland 
speaks of Richard as being the author of histories of this 
crusade in prose and verse, of which he had only seen the 
latter. The Itinerarium printed by Gale is in prose, but 
it is interspersed with quotations in verse, and seems to 
be the work of one who was in the habit of reading the 
classic writers of antiquity. It is a valuable contempo- 
rary document, and gives us a more detailed account of 
the expedition than any other chronicle. As a specimen 
of the style of this writer, we may cite one of the inci- 
dents which occurred at the siege of Acre. 

416 WALTER D£ COUTANGES. [Died 1207- 

Petrariarum hostiUvm, qoAnua f«lt in ciTitate copia, una fait incompara- 
bllia, et aagaltudiDe compactes machiiie et pro Toto torquentiam, inaeati- 
mabilis molia lapidea jacnlando efficax. Hajua nihil potait resiatere yehemen* 
tis. Incredibilia molia qnippe lapidea jacebat, emiasoa etiam lapidea procul 
impetoa egit. 

Omnia comminuit jactoa qusecunque feriret. 

Lapidea uilulamiaiiay qnotiea nuUo retardarentor obstaculo» unioa pedia Ion- 
gitudine agebantur in terram cadentes. NonnuUaa potrariarum noetramm 
percutifina in particnlaa diaperait, "hH carte inutileB effecit, macbinaa qnoqne 
aliaa plorea Tel ietu diaaolyit, -vel particalam qnam attigerat abacidit. Tanta 
niminim eimt vebementia jacalandi» et impetoa tarn pertinax, quod nihil tarn 
aolidum vel ita fiiit compactum cujuscnnqae materite Tel anbstantic, qnod 
poaaet inoolnme tam intelerabilia percnaanra austinere iiq'oriam. Hcc 
igitnr tatia in qnendam ex noatria hominem lapidem enormia mag^nitudinia 
dedit a tergo, aversa qnippe facie steterat nihil anapicans, aed nee natimana 
tam procul posae lapidem penreniase, aed nee hominem quidam vel in minimp 
lieaity imo nee loco movit, aed reailiena a tergo tanquam a monte feneo deci- 
dit hand procul inefficax. Qnem yir ille reapiciena plna habuit horroria ez 
yisui qnam doloris ex ictn. Qnia hoc, inquam, non aacriberet divins miaera- 
tioni ? quia hoc intelligens non penaaret magna opera Domini, cujoa pro se 
certantiboa aemper pneato eat dementia ? Ad cujua conunendandam ubique 
merito magnificentiam quid operatiua est aubjiciam. 


Hiatoria Anglicanse Scriptorea quinque ex Tetuatia codicibna MSS. nunc 
primum in lucem editi. vol. ii. Oxonis, 1687, fol. pp. 247—429, Iti- 
nerarinm regis Anglomm Richardi et aliorum in terram Hierosolymorum, 
aaetore Ganfrido Viniaauf. 


Walter de Coutances {de Constantiis or de Con- 
stantia) is stated by Giraldus Cambrensis^* and by John 
de Hauteville^ to have been a native of Cornwall^ and 
to have been descended of British blood. John of Salis- 
buryt calls him Walter de Insida, from which circmn- 

* Ginild. Cambr. ap. Angl. Sacr. vol. ii. p. 418. 
t Epist. 187. 

Died 12070 WALTfliI DB COUTANCBS. 41? 

stance the writer of the article on Walter de Coutances in 
the Histoire litt^raire de France* conjectures that he was 
a native of the Isle of Jersey, which then belonged to the 
diocese of Coutances in Normandy. We know nothing 
of his history until we find him in 1173 holding the high 
position of vice-chancellor of England, when we learn 
that he was also a canon of Rouen, f He was evidently 
in very high favour with the king, who, in 1177^ sent 
him in his quality as vice-chancellor with Ranulph de 
GlanviUe on a mission to the count of Flanders.j: In 
1180 he was sent with the bishop of Winchester on an 
embassy to the court of France.§ Among his other 
ecclesiastical dignities, he was a canon of Lincoln, and 
archdeacon of Oxford. 

It appears that the grand object of Walter's amlntion 
was the bishopric of lisieuz, and that he used every 
endeavour to persuade or force bishop Amulf to vacate it 
in his favour. Arnulf, in a letter addressed to Richard 
bishop of Winchester, II complains bitterly of the perse- 
cutions to which he was subjected through Walter's in- 
fluence at court ; and from another letterlf it appears that 
he had offered Amulf money to pay his debts on condition 
of his compelling the chapter to promise him their votes 
for the first vacancy. In 1183, when Gteoffrey, who had 
been bishop elect of Lincoln several years, was promoted 
to the archbishopric of York, the see of Lincoln was given 
to Walter de Coutances, who was immediately consecrated 
at Anjou by the archbishop of Canterbury.** In less than 

* Tom. ZTi. p. 536. 

t Rad. de Diceto, coL 568. 

X Roger de Hoveden, Annal. p. 561. 

I Rad. de Dioeto, col. 609. 

il Anra^hi Lexor. Epist ed. GUea, Ep. 107» page 266. 

% Amnlph. ib. Ep. 117- 

** Rad. de Diceto, col. 615. 

VOL. n. 2 b 

418 -WALTER Dfi COUTANCB8. [Died 1207« 

a year after this he was promoted to the metropolitan see 
of Rouen, a poorer benefice, but a higher dignity, than that 
which he left* 

From this period the name of the archbishop of Rouen 
occurs continually in connection with the political events 
of his age. In 1188 he took the cross, and engaged him- 
self to accompany king Henry II. in his intended cru- 
sade. On that monarches death he invested Richard with 
the dukedom of Normandy, and then hastened to England 
to assist at his coronation. After holding a provincial 
council at Rouen> he accompanied king Richard in his 
voyage to Syria^f and appears to have enjoyed the entire 
confidence of that monarch. When the king received 
intelligence of the troubles caused by the dissensions 
between William de Longchamp and his opponents, he 
sent the archbishop of Rouen back to England, with let- 
ters constituting him regent, with the offices of chief 

justice and ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ capacity 
of regent, calling a parliament at Oxford, on the arrival of 
intelligence of the captivity of Richard in his return from 
the Holy Land.§ Archbishop Walter was a stanch de- 
fender of the rights of the church ; and, at a period sub- 
sequent to that last mentioned, we find him obstinately 
opposed to the king, when the latter began to build the 
Ch&teau Gaillard at Andely^ which was a territory belong- 
ing to the church. His opposition was carried so fitr that 
he made a personal appeal to the pope^ who however 
justified the king, and the archbishop immediately ac- 
quiesced. || Walter died on the 16th of November, 1207« 

* W. Neubrig. Hist. lib. iii. c. 8. 

t Roger de Hoveden, Annal. p. 667. 

\ Roger de HoTeden, Annal. pp. 687» 706. Rad. de Dicet. col. 1231. 

§ Roger de Hoveden, p. 721. 

W Roger de Hoveden, Annal. p. 769. 


The only writings of this prelate now preserved are a 
few letters 8ca,ttered through the pages of contemporary 
annalists. But he is said to have written a history of the 
crusadC) which is not extant, and which^ if such a work 
ever existed, is a great loss to the historian. 
. Another writer, called by the old bibliographers Gu- 
liiBLMUS PjBREGRiNUS, is Said likewise to have written a 
history of king Richard's expedition against the Saracens» 
in Latin verse, which he dedicated to Hubert archbishop 
of Canterbury and Stephen de Tumham. But this also 
appears to be lost. 

Another history of king Richard and of his expedition 
to Syria is said to have been written by one Hugh db 
HovEDEN, and to have been preserved among the Digby 
manuscripts in the Bodleian Library. Tanner quotes the 
following lines from Robert of Gloucester (which are not 
found in Hearne's edition) — 

Bat who BO wole of his chevalrie knowe or wyte, 
Rede he in the oornycles that ben of htm wryte, 
That mayeter Hew bath of Howdane ]r>wroa|te. 

It seems, however, probable that Hugh de Hoveden is 
only an error for Roger de Hoveden the annalist. 


Gbbvasb was a monk of the priory of Christ's Churchy 
Canterbury^ where he appears to have held the office of 
sacristan^ but this is all we know of his history. He 
was present when Canterbury cathedral was burnt in 
1174^ and watched the progress of building the new 
church until the year 1184^ the date of the election of 
Baldwin to the archbishopric, when he wrote an account 

2 B 2 


of these erents under the title of T^aetaiuB de combu»^ 
Hone et reparaiiane Dorobomeneis eccleria. In another 
tract, which was probably written soon after the accession 
of archbishop Habert in 1193, Gervase gives a detailed 
account of the dissentions between archbishop Baldwin 
and his monks. His next work, a history of the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, terminating soon after the accession 
of Hubert, was probably also published during the reign 
of Richard !• His chronicle, of the reigns of Stephen, 
Henry II., and Richard I., ends with the death of the 
latter monarch in 1199, and, as Gervase states at the con- 
clusion that it was only the first part of a work of which 
the second was to be devoted to the reign of John, it ap* 
pears to have been compiled in the first years of the 
thirteenth century. The second part appears never to 
have been written. 

A manuscript in the library of Corpus Christi College^ 
Cambridge (No. 438), contains a historical treatise by 
Gervase of Canterbury, entitled Mappa Mundi, in two 
parts, the first of which appears to consist of a topogra- 
phical description of England as divided into counties, 
with lists of the bishops' sees and monasteries in each ; 
and the second, of lists of the archbishops ^^ of the whole 
world '^ and of their suffragans. The same volume con- 
tains a chronicle of England by Gervase, beginning with 
the fabulous ages and ending with the death of Richard I., 
the latter part of which is probably the same as the printed 

Gtervase is deserving of the character, given to him by 
bishop Nicolson, of a diligent and judicious historian. 
His writings show great care in collecting information^ 
and discrimination in using it ; and his chronicle of the 
reigns of Stephen, Henry, and Richard is one of the most 
valuable of the historical memorials of the twelfth century. 


The following extract from the prologue to this chronicle 
will serve as a specimen of the style of Gervase^ and at 
the same time show us his notions of the distinction 
between a chronicler and a historian : 

Sanctonun Tero oiHiodoxonim patmm glorioea et imitanda ezempU oon* 
tinentar in histoiiis vd aDnalibuSi quae alio nomine chronica nuncapantnr. 
In qnibiia mnlta quKrenti sednlo bene Tirendi repperinntnr ezempla, qnibna 
humana ignora^tia de tenebris edacitiir, et nt in bono proftdat edocetar. 
Historid antem et chnmici secondnm aliquid una eat intentio et materia^ aed 
divenas tractandi modna est et forma varia. Utrinaqne una eat intentio, 
quia uterque veritati intendit. Forma tractandi raria, quia hiatoricua diflfoae 
et deganter^incedit, chronicus yero rimplidter graditiir et breviter. Projidt 
historicua ampullaa et aeaquipedalia rerba; cbronicua' Tero dWeatrem 
muaam tenui meditatnr avena. Sedet hiatoricua mter magniloquoa et grandta 
verba aerentea, at duronicua aub panperia amida pauaat tngnrio ne ait pugna 
pro panpere tecto. Froprium eat historid veritati intendere, audientea vd 
legentea duld aermone et deganti demulcere, actna, morea, vitamque ipdua 
quem deacribit edooere, nihilque aliud comprdiendere niai quod hiatori» da 
ratione videtur competere. Chronicua autem annoa incamationia Domini 
annorumque menaea computat et kalendas, actua etiam regum et prindpum 
quae in ipna eveniunt breviter edocet, erentna etiam, portenta, vd miracula 
commemorat. Sunt autem plurimi qui chronicaa yel annalea acribentea 
limitea auoa excedunt, nam philacteria aua dilatare et fimbriaa magnificare 
ddectant. Dum enim chronicam compilare cupiunt, hiatorici more inoedunt, 
et quod breviter aermoneque hnmili de modo acribendi dicere debuerantt 
verbia ampulloais aggravare conantur. 


Hiatoris AngUcanae Scriptorea X. (Twyaden). Londini, 1652. fbl. coll. 
1285—1684. Oervaaii monachi Dorobemenaia dve Cantuarienaia. 
Tractatua de oombustione et reparatione Dorobomenaia ecdeaic : Ima« 
ginationea de discordiia inter monachoa Cantuariensea et ardiiepiacopum 
Baldewinum : Chronica de tempore regum Angliae Stephani, Hen. II. 
et Ricardi I. Vit« Dorobomenuum archiepiaooporum, 

A Report of the Prooeedinga of the Britiah Arehteobgical Aaaodatton ; at 
the firat General Meeting, held at Canterbury, in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1844. Edited by Alfred John Dunkin. London, 1845, 8vo. 
pp. 194 — S40. Genra^e'a account of the burning and repairing the 
church of Canterbury. 

422 RADULPH NIGER. [Reifffl o/ 


Radulph, better known by the Latin surname of 
Niger, is said by Tanner to have been born at Bury, in 
Suffolk ; and it appears from the inedited preface to one 
of his theological works that he studied at Paris under 
Girard la Pucelle. At the beginning of one of his theo- 
logical works he is entitled archdeacon of Gloucester. 
He was a violent partizan of Becket, and for his activity 
against the king he was driven into exile, in revenge for 
which he wrote a most calumnious account of the cha- 
racter of Henry II., after that monarch's death. As the 
chronicle to which this character is attached is very slight, 
and of no importance, we can only imagine that he wrote 
it for the purpose of publishing a libel. A continuator 
has brought it down in one MS. (MS. Cotton, Vespas. D. x.) 
to 1178, and in another (MS. Reg. 13 A. XII.) to 1206, 
A considerable portion of Radulph Niger's chronicle ap- 
pears to be merely abridged from William of Malmsbury. 

There is another chronicle, somewhat more diffuse, in 
MS. Cotton, Cleopat. C. x., also by Radulph Niger, who, 
at fol. 50, gives a list of his own writings in these words : 
Rodulphm Niger scripsit vij\ digesta super EptaHctim; 
scripsit ei Moralia Regumy et Epitomen Veteris Testamenti^ 
in Paralipomenony et Remediarium in Esdram; scripsit 
eiiam libmm de re mUitari et tribus viis peregrinationis 
SierosolymitawB, et libmm de quatuor festivitatibus beatte 
Maria virginis, et librum de interpretationibtis HebrcRorum 
nominum ; scripsit et luec Chronica. 

Most of the theological works indicated in this list were 
preserved among the manuscripts of Lincoln Cathedral. 

Ric. /•] RADULPH NIOBR. 42S- 

Radulph^s Chronicles occur not very unfrequently in 
manuscripts of the thirteenth century. The following is 
the latter part of his character of Henry 11.^ with the 
observations of the writer who continued the chronicle. 

Corroptns a Ricardo archiepiscopo monetam corrampi permisit, cormp- 
tores tandem saspendio decedere compelleiiB. ATibas cceli, piscibus flami- 
nam, bestiis terrse, immniiitateai dedit, et sata paapenim loca pascun fecit. 
Cansam fidei laes» et advocationiB ecclesiamm in curia decidi constituit. 
E^lectionis jus ita ddintvit quod toto sui regni spacio nee unus ex millibas 
canonice sit promotus. Vulgns inauditum maoibus et pedibua tnincavit. 
Comites et episcopos in servitatem fossandi et cceterornm operam Berrilium 
coegit. Tribntarius ezteria, in domeaticos pnedo, scutagiis, recognitionibua, 
et variia angariarum allavionibus fere omnes depreasit. Omne jus poli jure 
fori demutavit. Scripta autentica omnium enervavit. Libertatibua omn'um 
inaidiana qnaai e apecula, solotenna egit innoxiomm mnuicipia. Filias misere 
conditionia corruptaa et oppreaaaa copulana clariaaimis, haeredea omnes me- 
chanicos creavit. Serbia generoaaa copulana, pedane» conditionia fecit uni- 
▼eraoa. Hnreditatea retinuit, aut Tendidit, fortonam aemper in exitu prater 
dnofl annoa vitas ultimoa blandam expertoa. Ezin aacta ei inaolentia, nihil 
intemeratnm reliqait, nihil intactnm pneteriit, et totua in anro anrum eaurie- 
bat, aitiebat, anhelabat, et creacentem auri cnmulnm vincebat avaritia. Ora- 
torinm ingreaaua, pictnrae aut ansurro vacabat, horaa regulares quaai aconitum 
fogiebat. Preabyteroa innoxios oompeditos habnit in vincalta» nullam dis- 
tinctionem habena clerici vel matici, abbatia vel cerdonia, monachi yel peda- 
ciae. In cauaia diiTerendia cayilaciaaimoa, ut aaepe joa venderet. Episcopa- 
tua vacantea electione din auapendit, nt eia dintiua abuteretur, et cnm priua 
debeant clerici et monachi in epiacopos et abbatea canonice eligi quam con- 
aecrari vel benedici, hodie priua in Anglia conaecrantur et benedicuntur. 
Nnnquam enim elignntur, aed a laicia intmduntur. Inter eligentea aerena 
diaoordiaa, quod ei etiam inter filioa consuetiaaimnm, nt ^actionem propriam 
aliena malignitate obnuberet. Ethtec ei cauaa excidii prsecipua. 

Hucuaqne protraxit banc chronicam magiater Radulphus Niger, quiaccuaa- 
tua apud prsdictum principem et in exilium pulana, ob eipulaionis injuriam 
atrociora quam decuit de tanto ac tarn aereniasimo rege mordaci atilo con- 
acripait, magniticoa ejus actus quibua inaignis ubiqoe habebatur reticendo, 
atque prava ejus opera abaque alicujoa excuaationia palliatione replicando, 
cum pleraque de his quse commemoravit in pluribna articnlia aliquantulam 
admittant excuaalionem, ai geatorum ejua intentio justo libramine ponderetur, 
ai regise poteatatis lubrica libertas penaetur, quae fere cunctia potentibus dat 
licere quod Ubet, quorum Titiia facile favent inferiorea, proni ad imitandum, 
prompt! ad aduUndum, cnm et impunitaa praeatet audaciam, divitiae vero 
acuant et accendant culpam. 

k ^M." 

424 WILLIAM OF RAM8XY. [ReiffH o/ 


William of Ramsby is known as a writer of lives of 
English saints. He appears to have been a native of the 
place from which he took his name; and subsequently 
became a monk of Croyland. We know no more of his 
personal history, which, in fact^ is very obscure. One of 
his earliest works was perhaps the Life and Miracles of 
the Saxon Waltheof, who had been beheaded by William 
the Conqueror and buried at Croyland, of which place he 
had been a benefactor, and where popular love and super- 
stition afterwards venerated him as a saint. In the title 
to this tract the author is styled simply a monk of Croyland, 
and in subsequent parts of the tract the events are twice 
brought down to the year 1219, and the abbacy of Henry 
de Longchamp. William of Ramsey also wrote, in Latin 
verse, lives of St. Outhlac, king Edmund the Martyr, St. 
Birin, and St. Fredemund, once preserved in a manuscript 
in the Cottonian library (Vitellius, D. xiv.), which perished 
in the fire. Other copies appear, however, to be contained 
in a manuscript in the public library of the University of 
Cambridge. The life of Guthlac was dedicated to Henry 
de Longchamp, abbot of Croyland (a. d. 1191 — 1236); 
and that of St. Birin to Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Win- 
chester, and therefore after 1204. A Life of St. Neot is 
also ascribed to this writer, but it seems rather uncertain 
which of the lives of that saint, found anonymously in 
several manuscripts, ought to be assigned to him. His 
name is attached in a comparatively modem hand to the 
Life of St. Neot in a Cottonian manuscript (MS. Cotton. 

JRtC. /.] W1LI.IAM OF &AM8KY* ^5 

Claud. A^v.).* It is stated in a manuscript of the end 
of the fourteenth century, that William, monk of Ramsey, 
wrote thirty homilies on the Song of Solomon,t but it 
seems doubtful whether this be the same person or not. 

William^s life of Waltheof is only valuable as contain- 
ing a curious romantic legend, relating to the origin of 
Waltheof 's family. Otherwise it is neither remarkable 
for the style in which it is written nor important for the 
historical information it contains. Perhaps. the best ex- 
ample of the Latinity of this writer will be furnished by 
one of the miracles. 

Qwiit/er adoleteens eacuB in eodem loco prUiino oeuUtrum himM $U 


Sequent! qnoque tempore, id est xr. kalendas Jiinii» de viUa que eft 
super Bmneewaldy Ludiugton Tocitata, tributum monasterio sancti Benedicti 
prsbeute de Ramesia, crebrescente ubique ramore sanctitatis beati Waldevi, 
▼enit quidam adolesoens, nomine Radulfus, oculorum officio diu pri^atus. 
Monachns etenim Ulius ecclestse, nomine Godricus, una oum ductore sno ad 
tumbam sancti Waldevi ilium adduzit, eodem rogante attentius. Qui com ibi- 
dem in oratione prostratns permansisseti-non iUa sed subsequent! nocte, circa 
sonitum matutin» synaxeos, sopore levi jam inundatus et quasi semiyigilanSy 
vidit quendam egregia valde forma Timm de sepuiohro surgere, cattumque ab 
eo nigrum, qnem in coUo gerere sibi etecns ipse Yidebatur, eztractum longius 
prqjicere. Quod dum fieret, oonfestim expereotus qno tenebatur somno, 
miseratione divina vidit candelas et cereos circa idem sepulcbrum accensos. 
Facto igitur mane, ejnsdem ecelesiaB oonventns oomperto miraculo cni nihil 
est impossibile laudaverunt Dondnum, qui est soUmen et ezpectatio sancto- 
rum suorum. Idem autem juvenis de irilla qua renit testimonium multis 
illuminationi iUius perhibenttbus, pro adepta miraculi l«titia a fratribus adhuc 
reteutus, plane videns in eadem seryit eeclesia. 


Chroniques Anglo-Normandes . . . public par Franoisque Michel. Tome 
Second. Rouen, 1636. 8to. pp. 99—142. TiU et Passio Waldevi 
comitis. Miracula sancti Waldevi gloriosi martyris. 

* On the lives of St. Neot, see Oorham's History of St. Neot*s, voL i. 
pp. 247—970, and Whitaker*s Life of St. Neot, 8vo. Lond. 1809. 

t Gulielmus monacbus de Ramsey scripstt super Cantica CantiooruiiL 
omelias xxz. MS. Cotton. Claud. E. iv. fol. 353, v*>. 

420 WILLIAM THB CLERK. [Aei^m of 


This poet^ or trouvfere, was a native of Normandy ; 
he was a clerk^ although be wrote in Anglo-Norman 
instead of L^tin, and often chose profane subjects ; and be 
lived in the reign of king John. The poem by which he 
is best known, and whicb seems by the number of manu- 
scripts remaining to have been most popular,* is a metri- 
cal Bestiary, or treatise on Natural History as it was then 
taught, with moralizations giving a symbolical interpreta- 
tion and application of the properties and characteristics 
of the different animals described in it. The author tells 
us in the following opening lines that this work was 
written when Philippe Auguste held the crown of France 
and during the interdict to which England was subjected 
under king John, and complains of the corruption of 
manners which was then too prevalent in the court of 
England as well as in that of Rome. 

Qui ben comence e bein define, 
Co est verity seive e fine, 
En totes OTeraigoes en deit 
Estre loez, qui que ii seit. 
Livre de bone comenfaile, 
Qoi avera bone definale 
E bon dit e bone matyre, 
Vielt GttUlame en Romans dire. 
De bon Latin ob il le troeve 
Ceste oveiiagne fa fete noeve 
£1 tens qae Fhelipe tint France, 

* Our extracts are taken from MS. Reg. 16 E. VIII. Another copy of 
*the Beaiiaire DivinSf as it is commonly entitle J, is found in MS. Cotton» 
Vespas. A. VII. 


El tens de la grant meseatannce 
Que Engletere fu entreditef 
Si qQ*il n'i avoit mease dite, 
Ne cors xms en tere sacr^. 
De Tentredit ne lui agiie 
Que k eeste foiz plus en die.* 
For 90 que drieture meodie» 
E leaut6 est povre e basse. 
Tote eeste dMMe trespasse 
Guillame, que ferment s'en delt 
Qu'il n'ose dire goe que il yeil 
De la tricherie que eurt 
En l*une e en I'autre curt. 
Mab k plus halt dire se prent ; 
Kar en oest livre tos aprent 
Natures de bestes et mors, 
Non de tutes, meis de plasors, 
OU mult avera morality, 
E boa pas de dhdnit^, 
Oh l*em purra essample aprendre 
De bein fere e de bein apvendre. 
Rimes iert par consonancie : 
Li clers fud nez de Normendie 
Qui auctor est de cest Romaunx. 

The author begins his treatise with an account of the 
lion^ and next proceeds to describe in their order the 
principal beasts, birds, and fishes then known, including 
dome of a very doubtful character. The account of the 
syren will give the best notion of the style and character 
of the moralizations with which these descriptions are 

La sereine que si ben chante, 
E par son chant les gens enchantCy 
Done essample ii ceus chastier 
Que par cest monde deivent nijer. 
Nos qui par cest monde passom, 

* i. e. " it does not please him to say more at this time of the interdict." 
It is necessary to point this out» as the abb^ de la Rue, taking only half the 
sentence, has stated in his account of William that the poet disapproved of 
the Interdict itself. 

428 WILLIAM TUB CLSiuL. [Reign of 

Som«t deoeni par td son, 
Paur Teine glorie qui nos oodt^ 
De oest mond e le delit. 
Qnuit le delit ayom amon, 
La luxorie lese del con, 
La glatonie, le yreresce, 
L'aise del lit et la richesoe, 
Lais palefroiz, les chevals graa. 
La nobleoe dea riche drag. 
Tos jon noB traium cele part, 
De llL yenir nua est malt tart ; 
« Iloeqnes tant noB delitum, 

Que tot \ force nos i demonun. 
E done nos ocdt la sereine, 
C'est li malfex qui mal nus mainep 
Que tant nos ftdt plunger eg Tioes, 
Qu'il nos endot dedens ses lioes : 
Done nos asaut e cort surot 
Si nos occit e nos aoore, 
Ausi come lea sereinea fbnt 
Les mariners qui par mer yont. 
Meis il i ad meint mariner 
Qui se set ben garder et gaitier, 
Quant il vet aiglant par la mer 
Ses oreilles prent k estoper, 
Qu*il n*oie cant que le deceit { 
Tot ensement faire le deit 
Li horn qui passe par cest monde, &c. 

The abb^ de la Rue has stated erroneously that the 
trouvere William speaks from time to time of the his- 
torical events of his age in the moralizations of the Besti- 
ary ; in one instance only, when speaking of the fidelity of 
the turde dove, he breaks into the following reflections 
on the melancholy position of the church in England at 
the time he was writing : 

Quant Tautor qui rima cest liyre 
Dereit vjl entor escriyre, 
Mult eateit tristes e dolanx, 
Car jk ayeit est£ dos ans 
Seinte yglise si doleroae, 
E si mate e si pooruse, 
Que quidouent par folie 


Que fon M)poe l^B8t guerpie. 
Car ele ne font le chef lever ; 
Poi i entrout gent pur vier 
En trestot rygUaee d'Engletere. 
Mvlt erC la dnme en San gverre 
Pitf tot4e reehne k oel jor, 
E en peril e en dolor ; 
Car si enfant demeinement 
Li moreient tomeiementy 
Le phifl de la dMevalerie, 
Fins qn'en one mahomerie 
N'i entnaent k oel termine. 
Mult cateit eu grant discipline 
Tbmi e en dudtiTeisony 
N*avoit mds gent si petit non 
En tote Bretainge le grant 
One ne Inst false e mesereant, 
Par I'ayoir qae il gnanoient 
Des yglises qn*il gardoient, 
Erent li phis halt k derise 
Contre la pes de seinte yglise. 

At the conclusion of this poem^ William praises bis 
patron, named sire Ralph, but he gives us no particulars 
iMrhich could lead to the discovery who this sire Ralph 
was. The Hues in which his name occurs offer a singular 
example of philological flattery. 

Gnillame, qui ceet livre fist, 
En la deflnaiile tant dist 
De sire Raol sun sdgnnr, 
Par qai il Alt en cast labor, 
Qai li ad ben goerdoni, 
Pramis loi ad e bein dim^, 
Ben lai ad corenant tenn. 
A Raol est ben «vena ; 
Car 11 ad son non aempli, 
Ne Tad mie mis en abli. 
Tel est come son non derise ; 
E jo m'en lo de son senrise. 
Cest non Raol sone grant chose : 
Ore Tos enprendrai la glose. 
Treis stUi^bbes i ad saani plos, 
Le ra e le dul e l^fiu^ 
Le m est pris de raciOf 

430^ WILLIAM TBB CLBBK. [I^eigtt of . 

E le dui veint de duletdo, 
E le teirce sillabe/ir* 
Dist aatre taunt come/uliui. 
Si le non est k dreit glos^» 
^Uhu eirt en ml lea pos^ ; 
Dane tait/uUMM undiqwe 
Jtaeione duleedUte» 
Cert non Raol ert apin^ 
E de raison e de pite ; 
Flt^, dnlcori e reiaon, 
Ont en son qner Iklt meiaon. 

In his advanced years William composed another poem 
of a moral tendency^ entitled Le Besant de Dieu, of which 
a copy is preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. We 
can only describe this poem after the account of it given 
by M. de la Rue, who says that it was written in 1226. 
The term besani was applied in the middle ages to a coin ; 
and the poet, meditating on the actions of his past life, 
says that he has not turned his talents, the besant or coin 
entrusted to every man by his creator, to so good profit 
as God will expect from hinu Among his other sins, he 
confesses that he has too often employed his pen on pro-* 
fane subjects^ tales and fabUauz. 

GniUanme, una den qui fa Normani, 
Chu vereifia en Romans» 
Fablea et oonlea aoleit dire. 
En fole et en vaine maftira 
Pecha Borent, Dens 11 pardont ! 
Molt aima, lea delita M mond. 

As an act of contrition he determines to compose a work 
of greater utility. 

Pensa Goillaame qu'il fereit 
Vers consonans, oh Ven porroit 
Prendre essample et bone matire 
Del monde hair et despire, 
Et de nosti« aeignor servir 
Tant come Tome en a IdAr, 


He b^ins by describing the duties of kings and princes 
and their courtiers^ blames their love of war^ and exclaims 
against the ambition of the pope and the exactions of 
his legates. The besamts entrusted to the great and the 
powerful in church and state are the power^ dignities^ 
riches, science, and talents, which God has conferred upon 
them, and the poet shows how they are all abused. Wil- 
liam expresses strong disapprobation of the war against 
the Albigeois, undertaken by the French king at the insti-^ 
gation of the pope. Many of the French engaged in this 
crusade were, he says, more sinful than the people they 

Que dira Deus i, ces Franceis, 
Qui preisiea cbeTalera ont. 
Qui par derant croiier se font 
Solent contre oes Albigeia ? 
II i a ploson de oes Franceia 
Qai antretaat k blaamer sent 
Come soot cil aur qui il Tont. 

He blames the papal court as the cause of this unnatural 

Quant Franceis Tont sor Tolosains, 
Qa'il tiennent k Pablicaina» 
£t la legacie Romaine 
Lea i conduit et lea i maine, 
N'eat mie Men» ee m'eat avis; 
Bona et mala sont en tos paia ; 
£t por 9eo Telt Deua qu'on atende, 
Car mult U plaiat que bome amende. 

At the time he was concluding his poem, death had just 
carried off the French king, Louis YIIL, in the midst of 
his ambitious projects against the devoted Provenyals. 

Al contemple que Us ces vera, 
Avoit la mort jet^ envera 
Le rei de France Loeia, 
Qui ert laan de aon paia 
Por autrui terre purchaaaer ; 
• * Lea Proren^iau» cnida cbacer,. 

432 wiLi^iAii THE CL.BRK. IRdgn of 

Lea ToloMinf prendre et honir, 
£t quant il coida tut tenir 
Tnit giiaig;ner et tut aveuTy 
Si U ftilli tut eon eepeir. 
De France ne de Normandiey 
Ne de tute sa eeignearie, 
Ne dee grana terrei q'il teneit, 
On ftiflt i tort on ftiit \k dieit, 
N'ot que eiet pieds tant eolement, 
A tant rerint eon tenement. 

M. de la Rue states that this poem extends to 3,7^8 lines. 
William was also the author of a metrical romance 
belonging to the cycle of the round table^ entitled lA 
Momans des Aventures Fregua» The scene of this story is 
laid in Scotland i Fregus is the son of a peasant, ambitious 
of becoming a knight, an honour which he receives at the 
hands of king Arthur. He then sets out in search of 
adventurous exploits, defeats the Black Knight who had 
insulted the British monarch, and gains renown far and 
near. In the course of his adventures he obtains the love 
of a young lady of great beauty named Ghdlienne. The 
separation of the two lovers, and their adventures in search 
of each other, occupy the greater part of the poem. At 
the conclusion, the author makes us acquainted with his 
name, and there appears no reason for doubting that he 
was the same William who wrote the Bestiaire and the 
Besant de Dieu, 

GniUaumeali clera tnit k fin 
De ea matere et de sa tmeve ; 
Car en nule terre ne tmeve 
Nnl homme ki tant ait veica. 
Don chevalier an biel esca 
Plna en ayant conter ne saehe. 
Ichi mec la bonne et Testache, 
Et cbi est la fins dou Roumanch ; 
Soit pais et salus as escoutans 1 

We have seen that, in the Besant de DieUj Guillaume 
acknowledges having composed fabliaux and tales. One 

John."] WILLIAM t4ie clebk. 433. 

of these has been printed in the last edition of the collec- 
tion of Barbazan, under the title of Duprestre et d* Alison ^ 
the subject and manner of treating of which rank it among 
the most licentious of this class of medieval poetry» In 
the opening lines the author boasts of having composed 
many similar pieces* 

n 8ont mais tant de meneBtrez, 

Que ne sai k dire desquez 

Ge suiy par le con saint Huitace 1 

Gnillaumey qui Bovent le lasse 

En rimer et en fabloier, 

En a un fSut qui molt est elder, 

De la fille d'une borgoise 

Qui meint en la riviere d'Oise. 

The only other fabliau^ however, which is known to 
exist as the work of a trouvere of this name, is a short 
story of a different description from the one last mentioned: 
it is entitled De la male honte, and has also been printed 
in the collection of Barbazan. The author merely names 
himself William^ and makes no allusion to his country or 
profession. M. de la Rue attributes to William the Clerk 
a third fabliau, entitled La file h la bourffeoise^ but this 
is perhaps only another title for the fabliau Du presire et 
d^ Alison, founded on the words of the seventh line of the 
extract given above* 


Fabliaux et Contes des pontes Fran9oi8 des xi, xii, xiii, xiv, et xt si^cles. 

Publics par Barbazan. NouTelle Edition (By Meon). Tome troisi^me. 

Paris, 1808. 8vo. pp. 210 — 815. De la male honte.— Tome quatrieme. 

pp. 427—441. Du prestre et d'AUson, par Guillaume le Normand. 
Le Roman des Aventures de Fregus, par GuiUaume le derc, trouvere du 

treizl^me sitele. Public, pour la premiere fois, par Francisque Micbel, 

Edimbourgy imprim^ pourle Club d'Abbotsford. 1841, 4to. 

VOI-. H. 2 F 

434 TH0MA8 D% BAILLKVLt [Aei^ o/ 


Wfi can only repeat the account of this trottv^e given 
by M. de la Rue^ without being able to verify its aoctt^^ 
curacy ; for he has given a wrong referenee to the only MS* 
containing the poem attributed to him^ which he states 
to be in the British Museum, MS. Reg. 20 B. XVII. 
As far as we have been able to ascertain, there is no manu- 
script in the British Museum answering to the abbe de la 
Rue's description ; and we suspect that he intended to 
refer to some manuscript in the Royal Library at Paris, 
He supposes the author to be the same Thomas de Bail- 
leul who in 1205 received in fief one of the rents payable 
to the exchequer in London ; but he does not tell us in 
what way the name is attached to the poem in question, 
which he describes as '^ a tale, or rather a critique on the 
conduct of king John, who made so many vain efforts to 
repossess himself of Normandy." 

The poet, he says, begins his narrative with a charming 
description of spring ; he sings the mildness of the spring, 
the beauty of the roads, the elegance of the country 
damsels who pass along them, the poor man who rejoices 
to bask with his children in the sun, the joy of the 
shepherds, the lark which charms them with its song> the 
youth of the towns coming to respire the pure air of 
the country. He goes on to say that at this season, in 
the beginning of the month of May, near a town built by 
the Saracens in the marshes of Anesin, appear suddenly 
two powerful armies ; they approach each other, are on 
the point of engaging, and a sanguinary combat appears 
inevitable. On one side are the Persians, the Greeks, the 
Sicilians, the Lombards, the Toulousans^ the Gascons, 


the Limousins^ andthePoitevins; on the other the Africans^ 
the Esclavons, the Germans^ the Burgundians^ the Picards^ 
the Normans^ the French, and the Angevins. Counts 
palatine command the two hosts, which are composed of 
knights of the highest rank. M. de la Rue gives the 
following extract descriptive of the alarm of the women 
produced by the appearance of these two armies : 

£t les dames estoient haut el palais marbrin, 
Asnsei as fenefltres, d'ennuy le chief eticliii, 
Let dtttx Of rogardoient oil il ot grant tiutia 
De labours et de trompes de maint cors TYOrin, 
Dont cascone y ayoit son frere et sou oousln, 
On ton loyal ami qn'el aimolt de daar flu. 
S*elea fnrent doleatea, droit est par Baint Martin ! 
*' Lasse 1" dist la royne, *' maint enfant orfenin 
SerOnt de cette ^erre, ^1 a cruel destin, 
Aim na fut tel damage depuii k rol Pepin I '' 

The poet then desoribet the arrangement of the two 
armies^ the different weapons of the combatants^ and the 
courage which inflames them. But when we expect to 
see the battle begin^ the author suddenly ends hi» story 
with these lines s-*— 

Joti qui toua sattls estoie desotts un aubaspiBf 
Vis entre les deux os yenir un palerin, 
Qui toua les apaisa de plain banap de vin« 

So far the reference to the politics of the reign of king 
John is not very evident t but M. de la Rue tells us in 
conclusion, ** At the head of the poem appears a miniature, 
whire we see the two armies, and the pilgrim bet^'een 
them. As the chiefs who command them have their 
armorial bearings painted on their shields, we might by 
these heraldic signs discover with certainty the event on 
which the poet intended to throw ridicule. I only re- 
cognized the arms of the Bailleuls of Scotland, gueules 
with the shield hermine.'' * 

* D« la Rue, Eisais historlqties sur les Bardes» les Jotigleiirs^ tt \h 
TrouYdres Nomandfl et Anglo-Normands, torn. ill. pp. 41*«i44. 


436 ORM« [Reign of 


We meet with few traces of the use of the English 
language during the ^purely Anglo-Norman period, but 
there are one or two names of English poets of uncertain 
date, who perhaps wrote prior to the death of king John. 
The first of these was named Orm, or Ormin, of whom 
we know nothing further than that he had a brother 
named Walter, to whom he dedicates his book, a metrical 
harmony of the Gospels, written in English yerse with- 
out rhyme, in apparently a northern dialect. He informs 
us that he and his brother were both Augustine monks ; 
and that he had undertaken this harmony of the Gospels 
at his brother's request. The author excuses himself for 
inserting words which were not in the original in order 
sometimes to fill out the rhythm of his verse. — 

Ic hafe sett her o )>iB8 hoc I have placed here in this book 

amang Goddspellesi wordess, among the words of the Gospel, 

All )>urrh me seUfennf manig word Entirely through myself, many a word 

)>e rime swa to fillenn ; the rime so to complete ; 

Ace )>a shallt fiadenn )>att min word, But thou shalt find that my word, 

eggwhasr |>8er itt iss ekedd, in each place where it is added, 

Magg hellpenn )»a [»att redenn itt May help thotie that read it 

to sen and tannderrstanndenn to see and to understand 

All ^s te bettre hu >eggm birrl> All the better how it becomes them 

^ Goddspellunnderrstanndenn. • to understand the Gospel. ^ 

And forrH trowwe ic )>att te birr> And therefore I trow that it becomes 

wel >olenn mine wordess, to bear well my words, [thee 

Eggwhser ^eer )>u shallt finndenn WhereTer thou shalt find them 

amang Goddspelless wordess, among the words of the Gospel; 

Forr whase mott to Isewedd folic For whoever undertakes to unlearned 

people [Gospels, 

larspell off Goddspell teUenn, to make a discourse out of the 

He mott wel ekenn manig word He must rightly add many a word 

apiang Goddspelless wordess. among the words of the Goapel. 




A peculiarity will be observed in the frequent duplica- 
tion of the consonants at the end of a syllable, which 
gives a great importance to this manuscript in a philolo* 
gical point of view. The author, it appears, doubled the 
consonant after the short vowels in order to distinguish 
them from the long ones which were only followed by a 
single consonant, and he requests future scribes to copy 
his orthography without change. It may be stated that 
the MS. now preserved, which is in the Bodleian library, 
appears to be the author's autograph. 

And whase wilenn sball Hss boc 

eift o)»err 8i>e writenn» 
Himm bidde ioc )»att bett wnte ribht, 

8wa tnmm Ms bocbimmtscbe)>]>y 
All |»werrt utt affterr |>dtt itt iss 

uppo Has firrete bisne, 
Wi>> all swillc rime alls ber iss sett ; 

wi>^ alse fele wordess ; 
An4 tatt be loke wel )>att be 

An boc-staff write twiggess 
Eggwhser ]>ttr itt uppo Hm boo 

188 written o hatt wise ; 
Loke be wel >att bett write swa, 

forr be ne magg nobbt elless 
On Enngliflsb writenn rihbt te word, 

)»att wite be wel to 8o)»e. 

And wboerer sball wisb tbis book 

to write again another time» 
I pray bim tbat be write it correctly, 

as tbis book teacbes bim, 
AU tbrougfaont after wbat it ia 

in tbis first exemplar, 
Witb all 8ucb rime as here is placed, 

with as many words ; 
And that he look well that he 

write one letter twice 
Whererer it in this book 

is written in that manner ; 
Let bim look well tbat be write it so, 

for he may not otherwise 
In English write correctly the word. 

Let him well know that for truth. 

He wished his book to be entitled Ormulum. — 

Mm hoc is nemmned Omnnlom, 
forrM Het Ormm itt wrobbte : 

And itt ias wrobht off qna^jnigan, 
off Goddspell-bokes fowwre. 

Tbis book is called Ormnlumi 
becanse Orm wrote it i 

And it is made quadripartite, 
ont of four Gospel-books. 

The Ormulum deserves to be printed entire, as a most 
interesting and important monument of the history of our 
language. It has an early form of words, scarcely mixed with 
Norman, yet combined with a remarkable modernness of 
phraseology in parts, and of metre and rhythm generally» 
A leaf or two appear to have been torn from the end of 


the imnuB(^pt «in^e the old catidague of die Bodleian 
. iMnnscripte waa printed^ so that it ia now slightly 

AnslecU Aiislo^flaioiiioA ... By BaBjanmi T1iorp«, F.8.A. London, 1834, 
Sto. pp. 171^178« SxUicti from the Omralsm. 


The name of Nicholas de Guildford occurs in a poem^ 
of which copies are preserved among the manuseripts of 
the British Museum and of Jesus College^ Oxford^ in a 
way which would lead any one acquainted with the man- 
ner in which writers of the middle ages name themselves, 
to believe him to be the author. This poem consists of a 
pleading between an owl and a nightingale on thcdr re- 


spective merits and demerits, until the wren interferes, 
and it is agreed that Nicholas de Guildford shall be taken 
as arbitrator. Hie nightingale says,-— 

'* Bi-hote ich habbe, soth bit is "I have promised^ it is true, 

That maiiter Nichole, that is wis, That maeter Nicholu, whp ia wiee^ 

Bi-tuxen us deme schulde ; Shall judge between us ; 

An )ef ich wene that he wule ; If I think that he will ; 

Ah war mihte we hine finde ? " But where might we find him ?" 

The wranne sat in ore linde. The wren sat on a branch, 

*' Hwat, nn^te )e," cwath heo, *' his '* What, knew je not,»* sayi she, 

horn/ ''hieveiidenoe? 

He wnneth «t Forteshon, He dwells at Poiieihiin, 

At one tune ine Donete, At a town in Doreetihiiv, 

Bi thare see in ore ut-lete ; By the sea in an out-lf t ; 

Thar he demeth manie ri^te dom, There he judges many right jndg- 


An dttit and writ mani wiidom, And composes and writes much wis- 


An thurh his muthe and tharh his And through his mouth and throng 
honde his hand 

Hit 1$ the betere into Seotlonde." It is the better from thence to Scot- 


/<)AflO l«AVAICON. 410 

Of this Ntoholas Ae Guildford we know noihing ) b«t 
in another part of the poem mention is piade ofra kinf 
Henry, as being r«oently dead, which appears «ppUoablf 
only to H^nry II* $ so that the author probfibly lived in 
(he latter part of the twelfth and beginning of the thir* 
teenth centuries. 

That underwat the king Heori,' 
Jeans hla aoale do merci I 

A John de Guildford U said to be mentioped in tloit lui 

of the Jeeut College manuscript, and to haye be«i the 
author of a religigus poem in the same volumej and he &9# 
been supposed to have been the brother or % neiur rebtioii 
of Nieholas. 

The Owl and tto N«^litiQgi|«. f^dited by Joseph 9t|V(mfa« MmIm» 
1838, 4to. fxwU^ for ^1m Embuighe Club. 

The Owl aiM} tlie Vightivae : fW isrly English Hin llMkaM tS NAslif 
do GuUdford, wigi s«»« «hw^r poems from the mlm MiiKlipl- 
^«M by Tk»mf4 Wrisbt* London, 1843, 8t«. W^i tm IhS 


Layamon appears as the first translator into Etig)is|| 
of the British History published by Geoffrey of Mon» 
mouth, which he seems only to have known through the 
Anglo-Norman metrical version by Wace. Layamon tells 
us that he was a priest, that his father's name was I^eove* 
nath, and that his native place was Emley on the Severn. 
And^ from the terms in which he speaks of Henry 11., we 
feel inclined to think that he wrote either at the end of 
his reign^ or no long time after his death. 

An preost wes on leoden, There was a priest among people» 

Laiamoa wes i«hotea» was eifled Layamon, 

he wes LeoTwatSw sone, hf wa» tb« foa q( i4VW9K>ht 




liVe him beo Drihten, 
he wonede at Ernleje 
at te^elen are chirechen, 
uppen SeTaroe stawe. 

may God be jj^od to hun, 
he dwelt at Ernley 
in the domaia of a church 
upon the ScTem. 

He tells us that one day it came into his thoughts that he 
would write a book on the deeds of the inhabitants of 
Britain^ from their first arrival in the island. 

Lajamon gon liiSen 

wide jond ^as leode, 

and biwon H c^la boc 

N he to biane nom. 

He nom [»a Englisca boc 

)« makede aeint Beda ; 

an oher he nom on Latin, 

)>e makede aeinte Albin 

and J>e feire Austin 

H ftJluh broute hider in. 

Boc he nom he >ridde, 

leide ber amidden, 

N makede a Frenchis clerc 

Wace wes i-hoten, 

|>e wel con>e writen ; 

and he hoe )ef |>are se'Selen 


Ke wea Henries quenci 

^ he^es kinges. 

La^amon leide >eo8 boc, 

1« leaf wende, 

he heom leofliche biheold, 

li>e him beo drihten, 

fetheren he nom mid fingren, 

and fiede on boc felle, 

and 1« sohe word 

sette to-gadere, 

and )»a hre boc 

hrumde to are. 

Layamon trayelled 

far through the people, 

and obtained the noble book 

which he took for his exemplar. 

He took the English book 

which St. Bede made ; 

another he took in Latin, 

which was made by St. Albin, 

and the fair Austin 

who brought baptism hither. 

A third book he took, 

and laid it there amidst, 

which a French clerk made, 

was called Wace, 

who was very skilftd in writing 

and he offered it to the noble 


who was Henry's queen, 

the powerful king. 

Layamon laid this book, 

turned over the leaf, 

he looked at it with pleasure, 

may the Lord be good to him, 

he took pens with his fingers, 

and fell zealously on the book, 

and the true words 

set together, 

and the three books 

collected into one. 

It is now difficult to decide to what work Layamon refers 
as the book written by St. Albin and St. Austin. But 
his own work appears to be little more than a free trans- 
lation of Wace's Roman de Brut. It begins with the 
Siege of Troy, and the dispersion of the Trojan' adven«- 

John.'] ' LAYAMON. 441 

turers^ and is continaed through the fabulous period 
to Cadwallader^ the last of the British kings of the 
island. The language of Layamon belongs to the period 
of transition which is generally termed semi-Saxon^ in 
which the Saxon phraseology and grammatical construc- 
tion are still preserved, although the words are rapidly 
changing their forms and softening down their termina- 
tions. The versification is a mixture of the purer Saxon 
alliterative system with the rhyming verse which appears 
to have been brought in by the Normans, the alliterative 
lines being generally without rhyme, and the rhyming 
lines without alliteration. The above extracts will serve 
as a specimen of the alliteration of this poem, and we will 
only add a few lines as a specimen of the style of the 
rhyme, taken from the story of king Lear. 

Gornoille was switSe war, Gomoille was Tery cunning, 

Swa beolS wiimen wel i-liwcer» as women are eyerywhere, 

and sdde nne lesinge and said a falsehood 

heore fsedere >on king : to her father the king : 

** Leofe ftedere dare, " Beloved father, dear, 

sna biole ie Godes are, as I pray for God's mercy« 

swa helpe me Apollin, so help me Apollin, 

for mm i-lttfe is al on him, for my belief is all in him, 

Htt lerere Ho sert mo «ene that thou alone art more precious 

to me 

^ane Hs world al clane ; than all this world entire ; 

and jet ic )>e wille speken wit, and yet I will speake with thee, 

)>eou sert leoyere >ene mi lif, thou art dearer than my life, 

and Hs ich sucge H to seotSe, and this I say to thee for truth, 

Hi mith me wel i-leye." thou mayest entirely beliere me." 

Layamon's poem is of considerable extent, and is chiefly 
valuable as a monument of the language at a period the li- 
terary productions of which written in English are very rare. 
A perfect copy is preserved in the British Museum (MS. 
Cotton. Calig. A. ix.), which appears to have been written 
early in the thirteenth century. Of a second manuscript 
of Layamon in the same collection (MS. Cotton. Otho C. 

44^ STEPHBN nn ifAVOTON. [Died IMS. 

XIII.) a bundk of burnt leaves is all Aat remaias. This 
latter manuscript is also of the thirteen^ matarf, but 
more modem than, and in plaees abridged fipom» the other 


Anal^cta Anglo- Saxonica .... By Bei\iaioiu Thorpe. Londo^i 1834. 8to. 

pp. 143--170. The Hi«(0ry «f Ung Ldr aB4 kit dbvgfalwi. IV^the 

two teste 1^ J^eremap- 
A complete editioa of LajuaoUt from the two qiinuecrip^, is u^dfretood |o 

be in the press under the direction of the Sodetj of Antiquaries» to be 

edited bj Sir Frederiek Mad4eii. 


Stephen de Lanoton is better known as a historical 
than as a literary character. We are ignorant of the date 
or place of hb birth, but we know that he was sent at a» 
earl J age to study at Paris, where he became successirelj 
professor of htunanity and of theology^ obtained tibe 
title of doctor, was made oanon of Ndtre Dame, and wae 
finally raised to the dignity of chancellor of the uniyer- 
sity, of which he was long afterwards regarded as one of 
the brightest ornaments. A great part of his life iqipeaK 
to have been spent in Paris, and at the bej;inning of 
the thirteenth century his fame waa so great titmt 
pope Innocent III. invited him to Rome, and made him 
cardinal-priest of 3t ChrisogonuB^ In 1200 the see of 
Canterbury became vacant by the death of archbishop Hu* 
bert ; and the monks, in secret and without the knowledge 
of king John, chose their prior named Reginald to 
occupy his place, and he was sent to the pope for confir- 
mation. The king, learning what had taken place, forced 

f See Ihe Hiit. lit. 4c Vstm», ton. xviii. p. il. 

th^ mon1(« to m^ke a n#w electaon» and John de Gray, 
biahop of NorwiDh, was elected archbishop of Canterbury. 
The pope, after bearing botii sides, fuinuUed the two 
elections, and by his own authority gave the see to 8t»f 
phen de Iiangton, This was the primary oause of the long 
and obstinate dispute between king John and the court of 
Borne. During the interdict, the new archbbhop ap~ 
pointed by the pope remained in France, chiefly in the 
monastery of Pontigny, where he devoted himself to 
literary labours. 

In IS 13, king John made his submission to the pope^ 
and then Stephen de jAngton repaired to England with 
Qther bishops who had been eidled -, he was allowed to 
take possession of his see, and was appqjinted to absolre 
the king from the papal e:im>mmunication under which he 
laboured* Both the king and the pope were deoelred in 
their expectations from the new primate ; for from this 
moment he always appeared as the firm ally, and even as 
the foremost partisan, of the baronial party, and his name 
appears first among the witnesses to the great charter* 
When the pope condemned the charter, he ordered the 
archbishop of Canterbury to pronounce the sentence of 
excommunication against the barons who had extorted it, 
but the primate refused to obey* Innocent was already 
offended at Ijangton's boldness in protesting against the 
proceedings of his It^ate Nicholas ; and the papal com- 
missaries now suspended him from his see, and ordered 
him to repair to Bome to answer for his conduct. The 
pope confirmed this act, and only restored him to his rights 
on the condition of his not returning to England until 
the end of the troubles by which that country was then 
torn. He remained on the continent until after the acces- 
sion of Henry III. 

In 1219^ the archbishop translated the body of Tho- 

444 STEPHEN DE langtOn. [Died 122d, 

mas Becket ; and his lavish expenditure on the ceremo- 
nies of that occasion is said to have involved the see 
in debts^ of which it was not cleared imtil the fourth pri- 
mate in succession from himself.* In 1220, he crowned 
Henry III., that ceremony having been previously per- 
formed in an irregular manner. At Canterbury he was 
occupied in rebuilding his palace, completing his cathe- 
dral, and reforming his monks and clergy. In 1222, he 
held at Oxford a provincial council, the decrees of which^ 
composed by himself, are printed in the collections of 
Spelman and Wilkins. This meeting was rendered fa- 
mous by one of the earliest known instances of execution 
for heresy, which is not much to the archbishop's credit. 
An impostor who pretended to be Jesus Christ, and who 
showed scars on his hands, feet, and sides, which he said 
were those inflicted on him by the Jews, was condemned 
by the council, and put to death on a cross ; and a deacon 
of the church, condemned at the same time, was bumt.t 

In 1223, Stephen de Langton again placed himself at the 
head of the barons, to demand the confirmation and exe- 
cution of the great charter. He died on the 9th of July, 
1228, at Slindon in Sussex ; and his body was carried to 
Canterbury cathedral, and buried in the chapel of St. 
Michael, where his tomb is still seen* 

The works written by or attributed to Stephen de 
Langton are voluminous, but they consist chiefly of com- 
mentaries on the Scriptures, and, were it not for his poli- 
tical celebrity, he would not hold a very prominent place 
among the Anglo-Norman writers. A rather eariy manu- 
script in the Bodleian library sums up the literary labours 
of Stephen, by stating that " while at Paris he divided 
the bible into chapters and verses {quotavit), he WTote 

* Henry de Knihton, de event. Angl. ap. Dec* Script, col. 2490 • 
t Matth. ^estm. Flore« Hist. p. 112, &c. 

Died 1228.] stbphen de langton. 445 

expositions on the books of Kings^ composed a life of 
king Richard^ and left many other volumes the produce 
of his industry •'^'^ Stephen de Langton has been said 
to have been the author of the division of the books 
of the Old and New Testament into chapters and verses ; 
but others have disputed his claims^ and attributed 
this mode of division to a French scholar named Hugh 
de St. Cher.f The authority of the Oxford manuscript 
just quoted may^ however, be considered as giving some 
weight to Stephen's claims. 

The greatest portion of the works of Stephen de Langton 
consists of commentaries, not only on the books of Kings, 
but on nearly all the books of the Old Testament, dis- 
tinguished in general by their scholastic subtilties. It is 
hardly necessary to enumerate them all, or the other the* 
ological writings ascribed to this writer ; copies of most 
of them are found in the libraries of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, but they have never been printed. In the Harl. 
MS. No. 104, in the British Museum, there is a copy of 
Langton's Eafpositio libri duodedm prophetarum. 

The Life of Richard I., by Stephen de Langton, is not 
known to exist, but it is quoted by several of the early 
chroniclers. The old biographers have also attributed to 
Stephen Langton a history of Mohammed {de factU Ma-» 
humedis), but without any apparent authority. A life of 
Thomas Becket has likewise been wrongly attributed to him. 
His different synodic constitutions are printed, with some 
letters, in the collection by Wilkins. The letter to king 
John, with the monarches reply, will be found in the Spi- 

* A. D. Mcczxviii. MagiBter Stephaous de Langnetona archiepigcopus 
Cantoariensis obiit, qui Bibliam apud Parisium quotavit, libros Regum ez- 
posuiti Yitam regis Ricardi dictayit, multaqne alia industrite suae Yolumina 
port ae reliqait. MS. Bodl. 487. fol. 100.. 

t Hift. lit, de Fr. torn, xriii. p. 63, 

446 STEPHEN DB LAKOTON* [Died 1228. 

cilegium of D'Achery. Among bis other theological 
writings^ the most remarkable are the 8emume$ de Tem^ 
pare et de Sanctis^ which are preserved in manttsoript* 

Stephen de Langton also enjoyed some reputation as a 
Latin poet^ which appears to have rested chiefly on his 
Hexameron, a poem in hexameters on the six days of the 
Creation, seen by Leland^ but now lost^ unless it be oon-- 
cealed in some of the continental libraries. A poem by 
this prelate is preserved in the Lambeth library, under 
the title of Carmen de contemptu mundi» But perhaps 
the most singular of all Langton's writings is a bri^ ser- 
mon preserved in a manuscript in the British Museum 
(MS. Arundel, No. 292, fol. dd, ro), in which he takes 
a stanza of a French popular song, and gives a theological 
comment or moralkation on each phrase. This piece is 
such a singular production that it deserves to be given 
entire, as an early specimen of a very remarkable dasa of 

Senno magittri Siephani de Langeduna arckiepUcqpi CanU de eaneia 


Benedictlone appostollca 

braedieatnr gens eodMlMUca, 

fugiat a nobis fraua diabolica^ 

et maneat aemper fides catholica. 

Ille qui nattta ett ex atirpe Datitlca 

pefdnoat noa onmea ad bona et vera eantioa. 

Bele Aliz matin leva, 
sun core vesti e para, 
enz un verger e*en entra, 
einkjlureitee y trmoa, 
un ehapelet /et en a 

de roeefturie » 
pur Deu trahez mie en Ui, 

tut ki ne ameMnUe,' 

Legimui, quod de omnl terbo otioso.reddituri ramui Deo rationem in die 
jadldi. £t Ideo debemua errantes corrtgere, erroret feprimert, prtta ta 
bonis ezponere, vanitatem ad veritatem reducere. 

Com dioo bele Aliz, scitia quod tripudiutn primo ad tanltatem inventttm 

Died IMS.] ITlPHBy M LAKOTOK, 447 

Aiit. Sed in tripudio tria sant necessaria, scilicet vox sonora, nexoB bra« 
chiorum, strepitus pedum. Ut ergo possimoB Deo tripadiare haec tria in nobis 
habeamus, vocem sonoram, i. e. pnedicationem sanctam, gratam Deo et homi- 
nibus ; nexus bfMhiotmn, 1. 0. gittiltlam caritatenn) teSUcet dilectionem Dei 
•t proximi ; strepitus pedum» i. e. opera concordantia nostne pnedicationii ad 
imitationem domini nofttri Jhesti Chriitl, qui primo coepit bona facere et postea 
doom. Dettida Tldeanms qtut sit Bile Aiiz. Hno est ilia bih Aiit de qua 
sic dtoltur, ' ' SpeoioM sptdalis, preoiosa ut gemma, rutilans quasi Lucifer inter 
sidera,'* et alibii '' tota pulchra es arnica mea, et macula non est in te." 
(kite eii Ift ^k AHt^ ce9ie Hi iajlur, eaii eti U lUy de qua sic dicltur, '* sicut 
lilium iftldr spinaSf lie iniea mea inttr flUas." Et dieitur hoc aomen Alls, 
ab ai quod est sine» et Us litis, quasi sine lite, sine reprehensions, sine mun* 
dana feece. £t hiec est fegina justitiae, mater misericordiie. Ceste est la hele 
AttM, iieti eeti lajlmr^ oate at li Nt« Sequltnr Math m leva, eun e6re i^eeti 
•pata I UBde habemus, ** AdorU thalsmum tuum Syon/' Ista Ule Alh, i. e« 
beata virgo Maria, adomatit thalamum suum, i. e. mentis conscientiam, 
qtiando eoncepit regem ccelorum et dominum. Sequitur, Bn un verger s^en 
etUni, Iitalt/til/if)dsquailodioktur "Esttlrgo,tirga,tirgultum." Virgo 
unde habemus: Ecce viigo oondplet et pariet filium; virga: Bgredietur 
virga de radice Jesse ; virgultum c^jus fructum agnoyimus per annunciationem 
angeli dieentis : Benedicta tu In mulleribtu, et benedlcttts frnetus Tentris tul. 
Sfqnitat' dmk Jhtitta i trupM, W^nt^m florts iatenlt in tirgulto isto ista 
bele AlUt qui nee ardore arescunt» aec calore marcesount, nee Imbribus 
suffocantur. Quae sunt bii flores ? fides, spes, caritas, virginitas, humilitas. 
Quleiinque habebit hos flof M in se, habtbit coronam de lapide preoiosa. 
Saqttltur C% ikeipiM fit in a, i€ neeJtMrie, P4r le ehofeM, dsbenius 
inteUigere ooroaam auream, quam imposuit Deus supar caput ejus quando 
OoHstitnit earn r^ginam regfaiarttm. Seqttitur Pur Jku treez vu»enth,im» ke 
Nf «Met Mit. fttdbus diotttm est hoe, truz ma in Ih, vue ke ne umiz mii f 
httreticis, paganis, et falsis Christianis, qui non credunt Christi resurrectionem, 
et qui blasphemant eum. Talibus dictum est, treez vue en /d, vtw ke ne amez 
nUe, i. e. Ite maladloti In Ignem «temutt, qui prisparatus est diabolo et 
angelis ejus. Bittrifl enim, et iioii dtdlstis mlU mand«oat% ; sltivi, et non 
dedistis mihi blbtrt | nudoa lU, «t son ooop«raistis laa 1 bospes fui, et non 
suscepistis me ; inftnutts ftd, et noil tisitaitis m« | In oarcere fui, et non 
venistis ad me. Talibus dictum est hoc, treez vueenld, kine amez mie, i« e« 
Ite maledicti In ignem sstemum, qui prseparatus est diabolo et angelis ejus. 
Per pnsdteta plitdt, quod lata est bik Altz, de qua prndixfanua : est reghia jus- 
titi«0, fliater mis^eordi«, quis portavitregemcoslorum et dominum, qui eum 
patre et spiritn sancto Tivit et regnat Deos. Amen. 



This writer was^ it appears^ a native of Chichester, and 
he has been confounded by the writers of the Histoire 
Litt^raire de France * and others with Genrase of Chi- 
chester, the firiend of Thomas Becket. He was educated 
in France, where he entered the order of Pr6montr6, and 
became first prior, and then, at the beginning of the thir- 
teenth century, abbot of St. Just, in the diocese of Beau- 
vais. In 1205 he was abbot of Thenailles, near Vervins, 
in the diocese of Laons; and in February, 1210, he was 
further promoted to be abbot of Pr^montr^, and thus be- 
came the head of his order. In 1220 he was appointed to 
the vacant bishoprick of Seez, with the consent of Henry 
III. of England, and he was consecrated at Rome by the 
pope on the 18th of July. He occurs, as bishop of Seez, 
taking a part in various public transactions, until 1228, in 
which year, on the 10th or 20th of February, he died. 
He was interred in the church of the abbey of SiUy. He 
is said to have written his own epitaph in the following 
words : — 

Anglia me genuit» nutrivit Gallia ; sanctus 
Jiutiu, Tfaenoliunii PnemoDBtratnmqae dedere 
Abbatis nomen ; ted mitram Sagia ; tiunbam 
Hie locuB ; oretur ut detar spiritos astris. 

The only book which can be ascribed with any degree of 
certainty to this Gervase is a collection of letters, amount- 
ing in number to 137 in the more complete edition. 
Although an Englishman by birth, Gervase belongs as a 
writer rather to France than to this country, and his let- 
ters relate exclusively to the ecclesiastical affairs of the 

* Hist. lit. de Fr. torn. xyiu. pp. 41—49. 

Died 12170 Alexander neckam. 449 


Genrarii Epiftols. Mons, 1662. 4to. Some copies bear the impriot of 

Valenciennes y 1663. 
Monnmenta Saone Antiqnitatis. Edited by C. L. Hugo. Estival, 1735, 

foL tome I. pp. 1 — 1S4. 


Alexander Neckam^ sometimes called, from the 
place of his birth, Alexander de Sancio Albano, was one 
of the most remarkable scholars of the commencement of 
the thirteenth century. He was bom at St. Alban's, in 
September 1157» on the same night that king Richard I. 
was bom at Windsor; and it appears that Alexander's 
mother was chosen as the nurse of the royal child^ and 
that she suckled the prince with her right breast, and her 
own infant with the left.* He received his earlier edu- 
cation in his native town, and seems to have made rapid 
progress in learning, for it is stated that he was soon 
entrusted with the government of the school of Dun- 
stable (dependent on the abbey of St. Alban's), and we 
find him, so early as 1180, when he could be only 
twenty-three years of age, a distinguished professor in 
the university of Paris. He returned to England in 1187» 
and is said to have resumed his place in the school of 
Dunstable, which he held for one year, and then be- 
came desirous of entering one of the monastic orders. 
His wishes, we are told, were first directed to the abbey 
of St. Alban's, and he made an application couched in 
the following terms : — Si vis, veniatn ; ein autem, &c. ; 

* This anecdote is presenred in an extract, in one of James's MSS. in the 
Bodleian Library, taken from k manuscript formerly in the possession of the 
earl of Anmdel. — Mense Septembri natns est anno molyii. regi filins Ri- 
cardns nomine apad Windleshore : Eadem nocte natos est Alexander Necham 
apod sanctnm Albannm, cujus mater fovit Bicardam ex mamilla dextra, sed 
Alexandnim foTit ex mamilla sna sinistra. (See Tanner.) The name is often 
spelt Nequam^ and Neehamt in Latin MSS. 

VOL. 11. 2 G 

450 ALEXANDER NBCKAM. [Bom I15f . 

to which the abbot replied, si bonus esy venias ; si nequam, 
nequaquam. It is iiaid that Alexander Neckaiii> offended 
at the apparent pun upon his own name, immediately en- 
tered into a different monastic order, and became an Augus- 
tine canon in the monastery of Cirencester * There seems 
to be some room for doubt whether he was not afterwards 
for some time prior of St. Nicholas, at Exeter ; but we 
know with more certainty that in 1213 he was elected 
abbot of Cirencester.t According to the best authorities 
he died in 1217^ at Kemsey, in Worcestershire, and was 
buried at Worcester-J 

His name was frequently played upon by his contem- 
poraries, and a pun found its way even into the epitaph 
which is said to have been inscribed upon his tomb : — 

Eoliptim patitur sapientu, sol sepelitur ; 
Cui si par uniu, minus esset flebile fanus : 
Vir bene disertos et In omni mote faeetoi ; 
Dictns erat Nequamt vitam dnxit taanen «qiiam. 

Alexanttet Neckam appears under the character t)f It 
universal scholar : he had made proficiency in the whole 
circle of science, including the canon law, medicine, and 
theology* His language is distinguished by considerable 
elegance and purity of diction, and he was certainly one of 
the best Lditin poets of his age. In most of his writings 
he exhibits an evident propensity to grammatical studies, 
and a considerable portion of his works belong dirediy to 
'this class, although Roger Bacon speaks somewhat strongly 
of the errors in his grammatical doctrines.§ The titles of 
Neckam's chief grammatical treatises are, Isagogicum de 
Grammatical or an introduction to grammar; Ccrrogor- 

* This anecdote is gflTen by Boston of Bury, in Tanner. It Is veiy pFO- 
bably apochrypbal. 

+ Annal. Dnnstap. quoted in Tanner. 

t Ainial.Wigom. ap. Wharton» A. S. vol. i. p. 483. ,Annal. W«veri..p. 184. 

% Roger Bacon, as quoted by Tanner. 

Died 121T J] ALBKANDB& NBCKAM. * 451 

tioneB de tropis et figuris ; Repertorium voeabulorum ; Dis- 
iinctiones verborum ; De accentu in mediis syllabis. Some 
of these are preserved in the libraries of Oxford and 
Cambridge^ und are interesting as showing the form of 
teaching in the schools of the twelfth and thirteenth cen* 
turies* There is a copy of the first in the British Museum. 
Neckam was the author of the first of a class of tracts, 
common enough in later times^ for teaching the scholars 
to remember the Latin names of different articles, by con- 
necting them together in a descriptive narrative. Of this 
tract, whicl^ bears generally the title De tUerurilibus, there 
18 an imperfect copy in the British Museum (MS. Cotton. 
Titus D. xx), butTantter refers to other copies as existing 
in Caius College and Peterhouse libraries at Cambridge. 
It is not only a curious monument of the history of scho- 
lastic teaching, but it affords much information on the 
manners of the time. T%e author begins by describing 
die different apartments of a house from the kitefaen to 
the bedroom, the furniture, and the implements used in 
each, and the whole range of domestic economy, with 
enumerations of different lands of provisions^ articles of 
dress, &c. ; he goes in the same way through the different 
parts of a castle, with its stores, arms, and soldiers ; next 
we have farming, the different trades and professions, &c. 
The words are accompanied by an interlinear version in 
French, and each paragraph is followed by a grammatical 
commentary, which is evidently the composition of some 
later teacher of Neckam^fl school. We give as a spe- 
cimen of this work the paragraph on Carts and Carters, 
with the interlinear gloss and the commentary. 

caretter eqanm iraheBtem bigam cnvele 

Veredus veredarium ducturus, cucuUam habeat capu- 

ft*ogge maanch^ 

cio armatam grisio, et collobium habeat manubeatuo^ ut 

2 G 2 

452 " ALEXANDER NECKAM. [Bom 1157- 

averaplu isent aner rnnler 

manus cum libuerit exeant^ vel si agasonis vel mulionis 

agalyim ecchnrge 

officium explere velit, aculeo fruatur, aut flagello^ aut 

idem bater i. flexibili 

scorpione equos ceedat^ vel lenta virga aurem regat, unde 

carette capit de 90 

auriga nomen debito modo sortitur, vel eo quod aurem 
equi regat. 

Hie Teredus, di. Abatitur aatem hoc vocabiilo veredas ; est enim Teredns, 
Qt dicit Petnu Elyas, equus trahens bigam, et dicitar quad Yehens rhedam. 
Est autem rheda eharethte, nnde in Alexandriade 

SnBpirant plavstra Teredus. 

A qao bic veredariiiB, i. dnctor equi. Sed potest did quod auctor inspezit 
aliam originem hiqus nominis veredtUf quod derivatur a yereor, reris, eo 
quod veretur ruinam rhedse, et sic potest sumi productoria, a quo hie ran" 
darius pro equo ducto. Hkc cocullay Ise, a cucnllo, las, et eat vocalis deii- 
yatio. Libet, bat, libuit, a quo hnc libitina, sc. btre, per oontrarium eo 
quod minime libet, unde Horatiua, 

Dili quern Libitina aacrarat. 

Hie agaaoy ductor adnorum, ab ago, is, et asinus, ni. Hie mulio, onis, 
custos mulorum, a mulo, 8ec. 

The most elegant of Neckam's poems is one on the 
monastic character^ which appears to have been very po- 
pular, for it occurs frequently in manuscripts. It is 
given sometimes anonymously, and has been ascribed to 
Aldhelm, and to Anselm, though it evidently describes the 
manners of the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the 
thirteenth century .'i' The author begins by a simple ex- 
pression of what ought to constitute the monkish character: 

Quid deceat monachum, vel quails debeat esse, 

Qui jubet ut dicam porrigat ipse manum. 
Grez sanctus, monachi, vobis hsec scribimus, hee yos • 

Instruit, hsee yitae pagina pandit iter. 
Nee nos, dileoti fratres, contemnite, si quid 

Nostra pium, si quid nostra salubre monent. 

* Our extracts are given from MS. Reg. 8 A. XXI. This poem is printed 
in some editions of the works of Anselm. 

Died 12170 Alexander neckam. 453 

Saeptofl ingentes lux pellit parra tenebnw ; 

Rivuliu et duloes ntpt ministrat aquas. 
Non tonaura fadt monachum, non horrida vestis; 

Sed Tirtaa animi perpetausque rigor; 
Mens hmnilia, mniidi cont^mptast vita pvdica, 

Sanctaque sobrietas, hmc faciunt monachnm. 

The poet proceeds to warn the monastic orders against 
giving way to the love of pleasure^ to envy, ambition, and 
the other sins then too prevalent in society, and the poem 
becomes in the sequel a declamation against the corrupt 
manners of the age, and especially against the female 
sex. He thus describes the cares to which power and 
worldly honours subject those who possess them — 

O dilectores mandi falsique potentes, 

Ecquid terrenaa eue patatis opes ? 
Quid quoqae mnndaaoa quoa afficiatis honorea, 

Qoonun perpetuas est aolUcitado comes ? 
Omiiia pneoipitem formidant ardaa caamn, 

Et magnia semper vis aliena nocet. 
Ssepias alta ruit veDtorum flatibus arbor, 

Tata bunilis mirtus, tuta mirica manet. 
Bellica cum celsas subvertit machioa turres, 

Nil nocet ezigUBB pauperis ilia casae. 
Et rapit obstaotes fluyii violentia moles. 

Plana satis placido per manet ilia grada. 
Montes et scopolos saevi maris obmit unda, 

Ad placidum littua mitior onda Tenit. 
Aerias Alpes nivibus candescere scimos, 

Frigoribusque premi perpetuoqne gelu ; 
Illic et rabies ventorum plurima s«nt ; 

Temperiem gratam proxiioa vallis habet. 
Sic vobis nnnqoam desont adversa, potentes, 

Non est pax vobis alia nee alia qaies. 
O qaantos regnm patiantar corda tamoltas I 

Qaamqae procellosis motibos ipsa fremaat 1 
Inter regales epalas Tariosqae paratas 

Tabescnnt cans soUidtoqae meta. 

The following lines give us a curious picture of a lady's 
toilette in the twelfth century : — 

Foemina, fax Satfaanse, gemmis radiantibns, aaro, 
Vestibas, at possit perdere, compta venit 

Quod nature sibi sapiens dedit ilia reformat ; 
Quicquid et accepit dedecuisse putat. 


Fingit acu et fdeo Ihrentei raddit ooeUos, 

Sic ocokinun, mqiiit, gratia major erit. 
Est etiam tenens anres qun perforata ut nc 

Avt aamm aut cams pendeat ind6 lapia^ 
Altera jejunat mense» miooitqne cinorem, 

Ut prorstts quare pallcat ipsa fadt. 
Nam quae non pallet, sibi mstica qiueqae videtor ; 

Hie decet, hie color est yems amantis, ait. 
Htec quoqae dirersis sua sordibns inficit ora ; 

Sed quare melior qoaeritor arte color ? 
Arte supercilium rarescit, mrsus et arte 

In minimiim mammas coUigit ipsa suas. 
Arte qoidem videas nigros flavescere crines ; 

Nititur ipsa suo membra movere loco. 
Sic fragili pingit totas in corpore partes, 

Ut quicqnid nota est displicuisse pates. 

Among other poems of Neckam which appear to be lost, 
we have the titles Ad vtros religiosos (perhaps the one 
described above) ; De cotwersione MagdaUruB : &c. He 
translated into Latin elegiacs the fables of ^sop, six of 
which have been printed by M. Robert from an imperfect 
manuscript at Paris.* But the most important poem of 
this author is a treatise on science, written also in elegiac 
Terse, and comprised in ten distinctions, or books.f He 
begins by treating of the creation, then of the orders of 
angels, and proceeds to describe the stars, and thus sums 
up the different opinions concerning their substance : — 

Ad Stellas redeo, que sunt solatia noctiSi 

Delicias gaudet Tictis (?) habere suas. 
Lux, species, levitas, scintillans splendor et ardor, 

Quod sit in his virtus ignea, nonne probat ? 
Valgus et Empedocles, Socrates, Achademia, mensis. 

Quod stellarum sit ignis origo decent. 
Thalesque et liquidas ausus Maro dicere flammas, 

Quod sit eis mater Thetyos unda Tolunt. 
Summus Aristoteles longe secessit ab istis, 

Doctor Athenarum, duZ| caput, orbis honos. 

* Fables In^dites, Paris, 1625, torn. i. pp. 109, 124, 194, 205, S37, 260. 
t A copy of this poem, from which we quote, is in the British Museum^ 
MS. Reg- 8 E. IX, 

Died 19170 Alexander neckam. 455 

Qno^ otelQs iH origo poteas ea^enti^ qniata 
Censoit, ingenio oedere cnncta potans. 

The remainder of the first book relates to the planets^ and 
to the laws of the heavenly bodies. In the second book^ 
the author treats of the elements^ and especially of the 
air^ which leads^ him to describe the birds, as peculiarly 
appertaining to that element. The following is Neckam's 
poetical description of the parrot : — 

Psittace, te nutrit, te fertitis India gaudet 

Inter delicias connnmerare suas. 
Hiatrio nobilia es, nobis aTibxusque ferisqae 

Hindis, varios ezprimis ore sonoi. 
Risum mentiriSi hinnitum fingis, amaros 

Gandes jocunda voce referre sales. 
Intenso corpus omat natnra nitore, 

Lnmlnlbus color hie gratior esse solet. 
Puniceus colli torques mtilare virorem 

Cogit, at in signum nobilitatis adeet. 
Rostmm duritle prsestat, yertezqne flagella 

Cum tot sustineat, nonne fatetur idem ? 
Verba, minas, ictus, audit, formid