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(Read November 20 , 1903.) 

When we search the cemeteries of old Peru, we find by the side 
of every mummy a number of objects which are useful for him. 
His pious hands have within ready reach whatever is needed for his 
eternal voyage. Drink being indispensable in a country of so 
much dryness as Peru, good care was taken to place convenient to 
his hands a quantity of water or wine vessels to appease thirst. 

These clay vessels have human form and give rise to our admira¬ 
tion, just as do the statuettes of the Egyptian tombs or the earthen 
Cnites found in those of Tanagras among the Greeks. 

Historians agree in recognizing in these Egyptian and Grecian 
images the doable or duplicate or soul which survives the departed. 
Death was definite only if these statuettes disappeared. 

The belief in a soul, very widespread among every people, 
existed in Peru. And to satisfy it these people found it convenient 
to transform the drinking vessel into a soul, that is to say, an image 
resembling the deceased. Beside?, these little potteries had reality 
pleasing to the artist. The varieties of them are great, representing 
the child, the woman, the old man, the fat, the lean, the noble and 
the poor man, with every expression of physiognomy, as sorrow, 
joy, anger, etc. Occasionally the figures have pendants on the 
ears or the nasal septum perforated for the introduction of a ring. 
This last character of figure is in the Museum of the Trocadero, 

Some of these potteries show signs of diseases. I have seen one 
representing a double hare-lip. Syphilitic and lupoid (wolf- 
cancer) lesions are very frequently shown on the faces, especially 
the nose and upper lip. We know that these diseases existed 
in America long before the time of Columbus, and some eminent 
scientists have made the mistake to believe that because the former 
disease was very widespread, so common that the old Mexicans had 
deified it by incarnation into a god (Nanahuatl), that it was carried 
first to Europe by returning Spaniards. But this is a great mistake, 
for Virchow shows that this disease had existed in Europe certainly 
as early as 1472. And Raymond, of Paris, who dug up the bones of 




the “ Madeleines of France, as the cemeteries of the old leper 
asylums of the middle ages are called, found unmistakable evi¬ 
dences of its presence as early as the eleventh, twelfth and thir¬ 
teenth centuries. Evidently many persons afflicted with that 
destructive disease were thought to be lepers and were locked up to 
die with them. In ancient Mexico this disease was considered as 
that of the nobles, the great, a sort of “ King’s evil.” The origin 
of it in America has been thought by the same scientists to be by a 
migration of those ancient races from Asia. This is also a great 
mistake. For had that disease come from Asia, leprosy would 
have come with it. Now there was no leprosy in those ancient 
races until Spaniards, Portuguese and negroes had inoculated 
them with the germs. Syphilis originally in America was the 
disease of the ancient llama, the pack-animal of Incans and 

When the ice age had retreated northward and the rivers and 
valleys of South America became flooded, man emigrated in two 
ways, in latitude with his beloved and necessary reindeer north¬ 
ward with the snow, and in altitude with his beloved and necessary 
llama to escape the floods. This animal was a part of his house¬ 
hold—his horse by day and his blanket by night, for its alpaca 
wool kept him warm on Andean heights. Thus man contracted 
the disease which belonged to the llama. 

As to the origin of lupus (wolf-cancer), which is also represented 
frequently on the “ huacos pots” of the mummy-graves, it came 
from the birds, especially parrots, of the Andes. Lupus is skin- 
consumption. Its germ is the bacillus of Koch. Insects would 
feed on the parrots dead of aviary tuberculosis and then inoculate 
human beings. Thus there would be local contamination, skin- 
tuberculosis, which quickly became systemic. As soon as the 
lungs of man became affected, his sputum acted as a means of pro¬ 
pagating the disease in his family and village. 

Amputation of the feet is also a common representation on these 
potteries and it is real, with flaps covering the ends of bones. But 
never is a hand shown as amputated. 

Noses and upper lips are represented as clean cut off, evidently by 
a surgeon of skill, to cure wolf-cancer of those parts. This surgical 
procedure must have been quite commonly practiced in those pre- 
Columbian days. 

In the guano beds of the Chincha Islands, as Mantegazza tells 


us in his L'Amour dans Vhumanite , there have been found some 
wooden figures bearing about the neck a serpent which was believed 
to devour the body. These images were idols , and this representa¬ 
tion was the expression, as I defined it, of the disease, syphilis, 
before those ancients of Peru had a word for it in their language. 
The serpent is represented in the act of devouring a certain part of 
the body in a series of the figures preserved in the Museum of the 
Trocadero. There is also one of these figures in the American 
Museum in New York. 

Here are five of these Peruvian vessels, presented to the Museum 
of Paris by Mr. Drouillon and derived from Moche. All show in 
diverse degree some destructive lesions of the upper lip and of the 

Figure i. Peruvian Vase from Moche Figure 2. Limited destruction of the 
(Museum of the Trocadero). The upper lip. 

extremity of the nose is destroyed. 

In the first the extremity of the nose (septum and wings) is 
destroyed. There is no other alteration. The rest of the nose 
and the upper lip are intact. 

The second subject has undergone a limited destruction of the 
middle of the upper lip. A portion, in the form of an obtuse angle 
with its summit bordering on the septum, has disappeared, throwing 
into view the gums and teeth which remain intact. The borders of 
the lesion are clean, and appear cicatrized ; the nose seems pointed, 
and the two wings are strongly spread out. 

1903. J 


38 L 

Figure 3. The upper lip is eaten Figure 4. Cicatrization following ne- 
avvay. Crosis of the upper jaw. 

The third subject expresses an alteration most grave. The upper 
lip is devoured, likewise the nose, uncovering the gums, which are 
red and bleeding. 

The teeth are complete, but the end of the nose has disappeared ; 
this is of abnormal shortness and appears too high. 

The fourth pottery is even more interesting. There has been ne¬ 
crosis and loss of the superior maxilla, which has undergone a retrac¬ 
tion over the inferior. A cicatricial tissue has formed, tight and 
inextensible, which leaves the teeth uncovered and obstructs the 
entrance of the nostrils. The lower eyelid of the right eye, held by 
the cicatricial tissue, leaves uncovered the ocular globe, while that of 
the left eye is normal. 

The last pottery of this series represents a mother, who holds her 
infant in her arms. In her case also there exists a loss of the upper 
jaw. But here the nose is destroyed at its root ; the extremity, irr- 
tact, is turned up. This form of nose has been well described by 
Fournier, the syphilographer of France. 

Similar potteries are not rare. They exist likewise in the Mu¬ 
seum de la Plata, Argentina, South America. A beautiful collec¬ 
tion of photographs of this last Museum is on exhibition at the 



Trocadero. You can see there a subject who has lost his nose in 
like manner ; a person whose face is covered with soft tissue, which 
is drawn tight, and reminds one of sclerous tissue. The mouth is 
puckered and reduced to a very small aperture, the lips have lost 

Figure 5. Nose lost at the root. 

their apparent elasticity, as if they could neither be opened nor 
closed, and the teeth remain uncovered. Certain subjects of lupus 
to-day offer this very aspect. 

In America, I have for many years made a very minute examina¬ 
tion of all such potteries, mostly derived from Chancan or Chim- 
bote, Peru. Some of them were buried with the mummies of 
Ancon, the oldest cemetery of Peru, where most of the thermal 
springs were located. Here surely would congregate, before death, 
the diseased of those ancient races, and many must have died 
there on the very spot. However, it has been impossible to locate 
the exact mummy to which each piece of pottery belongs, through 
the fault of the explorer.' I have also examined all the Ancon 
mummies in the United States, and caused to be examined by the 
eminent anthropologist, Dr. Emile Schmidt, all those of the Leip¬ 
zig Museum, where is to be found the finest collection of American 
objects in the whole of Europe. The Leipzig authorities in col¬ 
lecting specimens even killed a Guayaquis Indian in South 
America to obtain his skull ! Their agent recently paid in Lima 
as high as one hundred dollars in gold for one of these little pot- 




teries, which I was myself trying to get possession of. There is not 
a pottery with deformed face now in Peru which can be bought. 
Leipzig has the market for them cornered. The finest collection 
of these pots, however, can never be obtained, as it belongs to a 
woman who will not sell. She has a thousand specimens, of which 
she has promised me photographs. 

I also had Dr. A. Bastian, Director of the Royal Museums of Ber¬ 
lin, go over his collection of mummies and pots in Dr. Edward Seler’s 
American Department, for evidence of pre-Columbian diseases. 
But in none of all the mummies I examined, or caused to be exam¬ 
ined, was there found even a trace of the disease which M. Virchow 
claimed was represented on some of the huacos potteries. M. 
Virchow argued against me for five years in the Berlin Anthropo¬ 
logical Society. He believed himself able to recognize on those 
potteries signs of leprosy. In these discussions Dr. Leopold 
Gluck, of Sarijivo, Bosnia, and Dr. Armauer Hansen, of Bergen, 
Norway, stood with me in concluding that they did not represent 
leprosy, for the hands and feet were never shown to be diseased, as 
would have been the case with lepers. I finally proved to the sat¬ 
isfaction and recorded acceptance of the anthropological world that 
those representations were really only what is shown still further by 
the evidence of these five Trocadero potteries which I reproduce 
here, and that is, that syphilis and lupus occurred together in the 
same individual. This opinion has been now concurred in by the 
authorities of the Smithsonian, of the Museum de la Plata of South 
America and by the Spanish authorities, because on these potteries, 
as on the others which have been critically examined, there is 
shown the upper lip retracted or destroyed, a character which is 
seldom if ever seen in leprosy; the faces, too, of these pots never 
present tubercles, tubers or the appearance called leontiasis (/ion- 
face), which belongs to tubercular leprosy, and which surely would 
have delighted the old Peruvian artists to depict in clay ; but, most 
important of all, the hands of all the pottery subjects are always 
represented intact and perfect, while in lepers they are so often mu¬ 
tilated. Those artists of old Peru conscientiously would never have 
neglected the horrible appearance of tuberculation of the face or 
the clubbed and clawed hands of a leper. It would have pleased 
them beyond measure to picture such deformations on the anthro¬ 
pomorphous image supposed to represent the soul of the individual 
buried. Those little gems of human representation were true im- 


ages of the departed, and they would not have made them false. 
Amputation of hands was never represented on a pot, because arti¬ 
ficial hands were necessary to carry the drinking water to the lips. 
On not one single pot anywhere in the whole Museum world^is 
there represented a mutilated hand or a tuberculated face. This 
in itself is conclusive evidence that leprosy was not pre-Columbian 
in America. 

These potteries of the Trocadero offer more perfect signs yet in 
favor of syphilis and of lupus representations; those multiple 
lesions of the nose are characteristic of syphilis, or of syphilis and 
lupus combined. 

If there is any doubt of it, it is not in favor of leprosy but of 
lupus, as is shown in the subject Fig. 4. Even this subject derived 
from the Museum de la Plata, with retraction of the skin of the 
face, might equally be afflicted by lupus. 

A last argument is furnished us by an examination of the thou¬ 
sands of pre-Columbian bones of American graves. Not one offers 
a leprous lesion, as we find them represented in the graves of the 
cemeteries of the “Madeleines’ 7 of France, where are found the 
little bones of leper hands as if melted away to a fine thread, but 
never so in ancient American graves. Quite a number of the Amer¬ 
ican bones from ancient American graves, undoubtedly pre-Colum¬ 
bian, on the contrary, are syphilitic. 

We all must admire the dexterity of those old,'Peruvian artists, 
who have given us such good representations of the ulcerative 
lesions of these diseases. 

Besides the evidences of an “eating disease” on the faces of 
these clay vessels of the graves of Old Peru, there are a number 
which appear as if the nose and upper lip had been cleanly cut off 
with a knife. 

Here is a photograph of one such, which Prof. Bastian, of the 
Royal Museum of Berlin, kindly sent me (Fig. 6). There are 
others with this same exhibit in the Bandelier Collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Mr. Wilhelm Von den Steinen, to whom the original of this pot 
belongs, says: “ It is from Chimbote. The tip of the nose and the 
upper lip are destroyed, the cheeks ‘ flown out ’ and furrowed with 
wrinkles or scars.” I submitted this photograph, after Prof. Bastian 
had sent it to me, to Dr. Hansen, of Bergen, Norway (the discoverer 
of the leper-bacillus), and he replied that “ it did not present signs 




of leprosy.” “ There are no tubercles on it,” he said, “ and no 
phenomena of anesthesia.” 

This photograph has always appeared to me as if the person it 
represents might have been mutilated by a surgeon’s knife for 

Figure 6. 

Dr. Ugaz, the best authority in Peru to-day on this last-named 
disease, concludes an interesting article, “ Etiologia topografia y 
tratamiento de la Uta (lupus),” as follows: “ Uta (gallico, llaga, 
Ilianya, tiacarana, Qquespo Spondyle) of Peru is bacillary tuber¬ 
culosis, generally localized in the uncovered parts of the skin 
(tuberculo-derma), and its only treatment is endermic and surgical .” 
My own conclusion is that this Uta, gallico, llaga, etc. = pre- 
Columbian lupus (with or without complication with syphilis), is 
the disease represented on the huacos potteries, for some of those 
specimens represent the effects of the surgical treatment of that dis¬ 
ease, the cutting off of nose and upper lip. 

It is highly probable that some of the deformations of those 
ancient Peruvian figures were intended to represent lupus and 
syphilis combined and not leprosy. For, as I said, Ancon, the 
pre-Columbian graveyard of Old Peru, was also the place of baths 
where the “ luposos and sarnosos ” congregated for curative treat¬ 

Had Ancon been a resort for lepers, somewhere in an European 
or American Museum we should be able to discover a mummy show¬ 
ing loss of fingers or toes, for most lepers are thus mutilated. But, 


quite to the contrary, no such disfigurement of pre-Columbian 
remains up to this time has been found in any Museum of the 
world. I have searched all over for such and without success. 
Moreover, had there been lepers in pre-Columbian Peru, they surely 
would have gone to those baths along with the luposos and syphili¬ 
tics. Only the syphilitics could have been cured, while the luposos 
and lepers, being incurable without surgery, would have died there. 
Thus the absence of leper remains from the graves of Ancon is 
double proof that leprosy did not exist in pre-Columbian Peru. 

In determining in some of these representations of diseases on 
these ancient potteries what disease each one is, it must not be over¬ 
looked that even in the living subject the diagnosis between 
leprosy, syphilis and lupus is sometimes most confusing to a physi¬ 
cian and even to a trained leprologist. This is especially true 
when the patients belong to degenerate or dying-out races. How 
much greater then must the difficulty be to determine the identity 
of one of these diseases whose representation was carved on the 
face of a small clay image by an artist who was not a medical man. 
We must observe, moreover, that in the representation of a disease 
on the clay figure of a man, intended to record what belonged to 
the corpse, and to be forever buried with it as its “double.” or 
soul, the failure to show in that clay figure a mutilation of fingers or 
toes or tuberculation of face, the most usual deformities of leprosy, 
should indicate to us that the disease which the handicraftsman had 
illustrated was not leprosy at all but some other disease. 

There is a specimen of ancient Peruvian pottery in the Royal 
Museums for Ethnology in Berlin which I have figured in the 
American Journal of Cutaneous Diseases. These photographs orig¬ 
inally were given to me by Prof. Bastian, of the Berlin Museum. 
It is the figure of a man, apparently a dwarf, whose skin is covered 
with tuberculous lumps. The question is, What does it represent ? 
And, more especially, does it afford any proof of the existence of 
either syphilis or leprosy in ancient Peru? It is quite clear that 
the artist has copied from seme living subject, and we have at any 
rate offered for our inspection a very early delineation of the dis¬ 
ease. This pottery is probably a thousand years old. 

Jonathan Hutchinson, F.R.S., of London, to whom I submitted 
the photograph, argued with me that there is no reason to consider 
the disease leprosy, for the man is scratching very vigorously and 
clearly has no anesthesia of the skin, which would belong' to him 




had he leprosy. His head is thrown back. Nor in the tuberose 
form of leprosy are the tubercles ever so freely developed on the 
trunk as is here shown. Mr. Hutchinson believed that the figure 
represented Molluscum fibrosus, a disease of skin which does not 
exist in Latin America to-day; and had it existed there in pre- 
Columbian time, would it not be found in Peru to-day? Besides 
these objections to Mr Hutchinson’s diagnosis there is the upper lip 
shown to be eaten away, as is so common in the other Peruvian 
potteries. Molluscum is not essentially pruriginous, but scabies or 
pediculosis might have been present to account for the itching. To 
my mind, it is another instance of lupus representation. 

% I have also nine representations of the grave potteries of old Peru. 
The first is indentical with a huacos pot in the Field Columbian 
Museum, Chicago, a photograph of which was kindly sent me by 
Dr. Dorsey, and which I published in my article, “ No Evidence in 
America of Pre-Columbian Leprosy,” in the Canadian Medical 
and Surgical Journal , March, 1899 The 4th, 7th and 9th are 
identical with those of the Bandelier Collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History, which I published, with permission, in 
the Journal oj the American Medical Association, in an article en¬ 
titled “Pre-Columbian Leprosy,” April, May and June, 1895, 
and in the Verhandlungen oj the Berlin Leper Conference. The 2d, 
3d, 5th, 6th and 8th of these images are representants of lupus and 
syphilis in their deformations. It should be noticed, as we pro¬ 
ceed, that in every case the fingers are represented normally. 

As to the question of pre-Columbian origin of these vases, those 
must be regarded as certainly pre-Columbian which have been found 
with a certain gold ornamentation, the gold brow feather, the 
exclusive ornament of the Inca family. I have seen these “ brow 
feathers” in the collections in the Ethnological Museum known as 
the Bassler, formerly belonging to Herr Kratzer, of Lima, and also in 
the new collection of Mr. Kratzer. Besides some of the images 
were buried with diseased bones, notably one sent up by Mr- 
Bandelier, the explorer, from Lake Titicaca, of Peru, to the 
American Museum of New York, which was dug up along with 
a pre-Columbian Pachacamac syphilitically diseased skull. I 
took a photograph of this skull to accompany my contribution to 
the Berlin Leper Conference (article entitled “ The Question of 
Pre-Columbian Leprosy in America, and Photographs of Three Pre- 
Columbian Skulls”). Dr. Patron, of Lima, and Dr. Manuel A. 


Muniz, of the same city of Peru, have studied the subject of these 
potteries, so far as they relate to leprosy. Dr. Patron says, “ Lep¬ 
rosy has remained an unknown thing to the native born of Peru, as 
is evidenced by the lack of a word for leprosy in the Kechuan 
and Aymaran languages.” When leprosy appeared with the invad¬ 
ing Spaniards and negroes, a phrase became necessary to be added 
to the language. Bertolini, in his dictionary of Aymara, gives for 
leprosy the word “ Caracha,” which means “ itch.” And Gonzales 
Holguin, in his book on the Ketchua language, defines “ Liutlasca 
Caracha ” as “ itch.” 

Dr. Muniz wrote me that “ the first introduction of African 
negroes into Peru was in 1536.” “The first negro was with the 
thirteen of the Isle of the Cock before the conquest of Peru. There 
were maroon negroes in Peru in that same year. The king granted 
to Pizarro the privilege of importing negroes.” These Spaniards 
and negroes introduced leprosy to Peru. Dr. Patron thinks that 
the diseases which can produce mutilations like those seen on the 
pottery are syphilis, boils, verruga-Peruana, or Peruvian warts, a 
disease with fever and peculiar to Peru (this is described by 
Odriozala, Paris, 1898, as Maladie de Carrion, for Dr. Carrion, a 
pupil who died from self-inoculation of it to determine its specific 
characters), and “Uta” (lupus). The word “ Uta ” means “to 
eat away,” and would naturally be applied to a disease which 
destroys the tissues. The disease is called variously in different 
localities: Gallico (“French Disease ”=the Spanish name of 
syphilis when it first appeared in Spain) ; llaga, Ilianya, Tiac— 
Arana and Qquespo. All the best authorities attribute this disease 
to the sting of insects, or by deposition of their eggs beneath the 
skin. Insects are especially attracted to the mouths and noses of 
sleeping persons, and those parts especially would be most liable to 
be inoculated by such a disease as lupus, which has for its germ the 
tubercle-bacillus of Koch, for aviary tuberculosis in Peru existed 
long before human tuberculosis was known. The Indians 
of the Peruvian Sierras are extraordinarily susceptible to lung 
tuberculosis directly they are transferred to the coasts, while in 
altitudinal Andes this phase of this pre-Columbian disease does not 
appear. Dr. Patron’s great remedy to-day for Peruvian lupus is 
cauterization with the Paquelin battery. In other words, all 
authorities agree on the cure of it by no other means than the 
knife or by burning it out. 


Mr. Bandelier, of the American Museum, in reply to my ques¬ 
tion whether the Peruvian images labeled Chancan and Chimbote, 
which he had sent up, were to be considered pre- or post-Columbian, 
said that some of them were and some were not. 

The question of the pre-Columbianism of these pots, which 
arose when I brought them to the attention of the Berlin Leper 
Conference, was afterwards thoroughly discussed in the Berliner 
Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte (see 
Zeiischrifl , 1897, 1898 and 1899), by eminent Americanists , such 
as Polakowsky, of Berlin ; A. Stiibel, of Dresden ; Reiss, of Ber¬ 
lin ; Dr. E. W. Middendorf, Dr. Edward Seler, of Berlin ; Dr. 
Marcus Jiminez de la Espada, of Madrid; Dr. A. Bastian, the 
Director of the Royal Museums of Berlin; Prof. Virchow, Presi¬ 
dent of the Society; Dr. Carrasquilla, of Bogota; Dr. Lenz and 
Dr. Lehman-Nitsche, of La Plata Museum, and Von den Steinen, 
etc. I brought before these eminent and learned gentlemen all the 
evidence furnished me by Mr. Bandelier and the anthropologists of 
America. Mr. Bandelier had written me that all his "finds ” were 

Figure 7. 

pre-Columbian, and especially described a huacos pot represent¬ 
ing a human amputated foot, which I had described in my original 
paper. The fact that it was a diseased foot would indicate that it 
had not been amputated as a punishment "for crime, 1 ’ as Dr. 



Carrasquilla, of Colombia, South America, had thought. That it 
is a disease representation is shown by the toes of the clay figure 
being elevated from the ground, as if the sole of the foot was 
greatly swollen. This Pachacamac foot-pot was dug up from a 
grave twelve feet deep; not a bead nor a piece of glass or copper was 
ever found in that pre-Columbian burial-ground. This is an indica¬ 
tion of pre-Columbianism. Moreover, this pot, which I reproduce 
here, shows the bone protruding and the flesh cut away, just as 
would appear on a foot that had been amputated, for the flesh flaps 
must be thus provided to cover the stump of the leg. Mr. Bande- 
lier wrote me as follows of this peculiarity of the figure : “ I think 
that the figures represented without feet ought to be considered as 
amputated , so that they have nothing to do with the question of 
leprosy or syphilis.” 

Certainly a people that could trephine a skull as admirably as 
these same Incas, as is shown by one photographic specimen sent 
me from Peru (which I here reproduce for purpose of illustration), 
could just as well amputate with the stone knife a foot properly (see 
“ Pre-Columbian Surgery/’ Ashmead, Uuiv. Med . Mag ., 1896). 

Figure 8. Trepanation of the Incan Epoch (Squier’s skull). 

This Fig. 8 shows a trepanation of the Incan epoch : A cranium 
of Yucay. Nelaton and Broca determined that it belonged to the 


indigenous race and that it was ante-mortem. Broca concluded that 
such an operation was performed for extravasation of blood in the 
cranium from a number of causes—wounds, punctured fracture, 
violent inflammation, suppuration, delirium, coma, etc.—just as is 
done by our surgeons to-day. 

I have also pictures of ten huacos potteries of La Plata Museum, 
Argentina, which Dr. Lehoian-Nitsche submitted to me. As will 
be seen also by a reference to those of the Bandelier Collection of 
the American Museum, New York, while amputation of the feet is 
often represented, in not one single pot is there a hand amputated. 
Dr. Polakowsky raised the point that if these amputations were due to 
disease there should be representations of amputated hands as well 
as feet. But he overlooked the important fact that then the soul 
of the departed could not reach out his hand for the wine or water- 
bottles which are necessary for his future life in the grave or for his 
four days of journey to Paradise. The whole intent of putting 
these little bottles in the grave with the corpse is to keep death 
from becoming definite. A handless soul representation would 
destroy their religious belief. Therefore, even if the hand of the 
corpse was amputated, they would put on the image they buried 
with that corpse, good hands to help the individual in the other 

Dr. Carrasquilla was of opinion that these amputation represen¬ 
tations do not treat of disease at all, but of punished criminals ; 
that for little faults they cut off the nose and upper lip, and when 
they punished relapsers ” they amputated also the feet, for the 
purpose of hindering them from committing new crimes or to keep 
them from running away. 

Dr. Carrasquilla promised to send documentary proofs of this 
belief of his, but they were found to be totally insufficient to prove 
his point. Dr. William Von den Steinen has consulted all the lit¬ 
erature of South America, like, for example, the works of Cieza 
de Leon, of Garcilasode le Vega, and he has not been able to find 
indications of mutilations that prove that the representations on the 
clay figures have been produced by punishments which had been 
applied to the individuals. He believes that they refer to the rep¬ 
resentations of a disease. Mr. Stiibel participated in the same 
belief. Mr. Bastian and Mr. Middendorf thought that they treated 
simply of punishments applied to criminals. Mr. Seler believed 
that leprosy had existed in pre-Columbian Mexico , because of the 


well-known word “ teococolitzli,” which was applied to leprosy and 
to skin diseases generally / Mr. Jiminez de la Espada gave the 
question a new turn, that he did not believe that leprosy nor ele¬ 
phantiasis (its variety) had been of pre-Spanish origin in Peru ; 
there were no documentary proofs known to him which supported 
such opinion, and he was not in accord with the opinion of Carras- 
quilla, Bastian and Middendorf, who thought they treated of 
criminals and beggars. He claimed that they did not apply muti¬ 
lations of the body as punishment, unless death was intended to 
follow them, and that there were no beggars at all among the 
Incans, due to their social order so perfect. According to his 
judgment, these vessels, or better said these votive figures, repre¬ 
sented a disease special to Peru, an endemic variety of tuberculo¬ 
sis (“ llaga ” or “ hutta=uta”). Mr. Espada knew only one note 
in the old literature which refers to mutilations of the lips and the 
nose. “ The reyezuelos 6 Caracas of the Isle of Puna mutilated 
in this way their eunuchs, for the purpose of making them unattrac¬ 
tive to the concubines.” Zarate relates it (Histoire de la decou- 
verte et de la Conquete du Perou , translated from the Spanish of 
Augustin de Zarate by S. D. C.; first Vol., Paris, by the Com- 
pagnee des Libraries, M.D.CC.XLII, with the privilege of the 
King, page 25) : “Le Seigneur de cette isle (de Puna) 6tait fort 
crainte et fort respecte par ses sujets, et si jaloux que tous ceux qui 
etoient commis a la garde de ses femmes, et meme tous les domes- 
tiques de sa maison, etoient eunuques; et on coupoit non seule- 
ment les parties qui servent a la generation mais pour les defigurer 
on leur coupoit aussi le nez. M Oviedo says that the lips also were 
sometimes amputated. Herrera mentions no mutilation. Nor do 
Rivero and Tschudi (AntigtiedadesJ>eruanas, Vienna, 1851). Bas¬ 
tian (Pie Culturlande des A lies America , Berlin, 1878, Tom. 1, 
p. 593) says the same as Oviedo, that “ they also amputated the' 
nose and lips, so that they would not present a seductive appear¬ 

Prof. Virchow formulated his judgment, saying that he neither 
believed that they treated of punished criminals, because it was not 
related in the literature. Besides there exists statues of wood 1 of 
prisoners, derived from the Isla Chincha (Guana isles;; two are 
well preserved, one great and the other small. The great one 
is on foot, the little one is represented as a truncated body. On 

1 (See Virchow, Verhandlungen , 1S73.) 



both figures the arms are held arranged behind, like a person who 
listens tranquilly. The large idol has a cord round the neck, which 
is tied in front by a coarse knot. One of the ends of the cord goes 
down to the stomach. The nose in both takes the form of an 
eagle’s beak. David Forbes says these wooden idols represent 
prisoners holding a cord or a serpent to the neck. Forbes 
and H. B. Frank suppose that they have thus symbolized syphilis, 
a disease original to the mountains of Peru and characteristic of 
the alpaca or llama, an animal which transmitted it to man by 
unnatural vice. Neither of these idols nor those described by 
Weiner represent mutilated nose and lips. Therefore all prisoners 
were not punished by amputation of nose and lips. (See rich col¬ 
lection in La Plata Museum.) 

Polakowsky divides all these vessels into groups : i. Clay figures 
representing mutilation of nose, of pathologic origin; 2. Those 
where it is doubtful whether they treat of disease or of surgical 

Polakowsky does not think they treat of punished criminals, be¬ 
cause he has searched for data in the literature and failed to find 
such. He lived twenty-five years in South America. Von den 
Steinen found in the Royal Museum of Berlin representant vases of 
heads and entire bodies, one of them stretched on his belly, the 
other on the knees or with the legs crossed. All had mutilations 
of the point of the nose and the greater part of the upper lip. In 
four of the pieces the feet were lacking, on the others the lower 
part of the body was covered with a cloth which enveloped it from 
the hips, in a manner which made one think they also had lost the 

Now in ceramics too: First, we have types undoubtedly of pris¬ 
oners, representing a person on foot with hands behind and bound 
with a cord, but no other indication to show that it treats of a pris¬ 
oner. Secondly, a prisoner on his knees, halting, or sitting with the 
feet crossed. Moreover, he has a cord tied around his neck. A 
third represents the serpent eating a certain part of his body (penis), 
while his hands are tied behind his back. But in none of these clay 
figures which represent undoubtedly prisoners, was there mutilation 
of any part of the face or of the body. The testimony of the 
huacos potteries, therefore, is to the effect that the Old Incans did not 
mutilate their prisoners by amputation of the feet. Moreover, in 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XLII. 174 . AA. PRINTED JAN. 30 , 1904 . 


these ceramics whenever amputation of feet is represented (for the 
flaps are shown) there is evidence of disease in the face. 

Does there exist such a disease of the face, which would also 
affect the feet to require amputation of them and both equally? 
Yes ! I believe that the amputated feet of the huacos potteries 
have relation with the mutilations represented on the face. 

Mr. Ambrosetti (. Nota de Arquelogia Calchaqii Instituto Geogra- 
phico-Argentina, tomo xvii) thinks that the stumps are due to the 
imperfect work of the artist, like in Calchaque idols, whose feet are 
are not moulded in form at all. But then there are images 
shown stretched on the belly, apparently intended to be shown in 
a helpless condition ! I have seen one representing a person who 
was dressing his stump with a cup of medicine, the stump thrown 
across the opposite leg; and besides there are the flaps shown and 
also that foot specimen itself, like a foot that had been cut off. 
Some of these amputated figures are represented with the hand ex¬ 
tended for alms ; some hold a stick to creep or hobble with on their 
knees, with their feet cut off. 

In the images of the La Plata Museum, shown among the ten 
which I print in this article, it can be seen by the originals (for 
all the kneeling figures are without feet, the ends of their limbs show¬ 
ing flap-stumps as if amputated, which cannot be seen by a front 
view) that in no case is amputation represented without the image 
showing a diseased face. Now the ancient Incans cut off the hands 
and ears of prisoners, but not the feet. Yet this mutilation of 
hands and ears is not shown by a single specimen of pottery that 
I have seen, and besides I believe that they never buried a clay soul- 
figure with such a criminal. They wanted him to die. The pot 
buried with him would keep him alive. 

In a report of the Viceroy, Dr. Martin Henriquez, of the year 
1582, which mentions the manner of government of Peru, the cus¬ 
toms and usages of the Incas, and where it is said in a general way 
that amputation of limbs was a punishment of criminals, he goes 
on to say : “ But in my opinion such amputations were no simple 
bodily punishment which left the sufferer alive, but a kind of capi¬ 
tal execution like hanging, or other like.’' The text, which is here 
translated literally, says : “ Executions were public and very crude. 
Some were precipitated from rocks (of Andean precipices), others 
had their limbs amputated, etc.’ 7 

Von den Steinen says : “As to the mutilations of the legs, whether 

1903. J 


it be amputation or disease we have no case made out. In all 
Peruvian vases where feet are represented they are easy to be recog¬ 
nized as such. The accuracy in the rendering goes even so far 
that in some representations of persons with tucked-under legs the 
form of the feet is expressed on the bottom of the vase. That 
the Old Peruvians liked to find in their vessels the forms of persons 
affected with remarkable manifestations of disease is shown also in 
the Berlin collection, by the large number of them blind, one- 
eyed, with lop-sided jaws, etc. As to the finding places of these 
vases, they are unfortunately not safely established, the greatest part 
has the indication of Chimbote, and besides there is Trujillo and 

I point out, in conclusion, here that the influence of cold of the 
Andean heights might have had to do with the necessity of ampu¬ 
tation of feet. There was a great deal of barefoot walking in 
Incan climates, while the hands would be better clad. We must 
renounce, however, the giving of a positive judgment as to the 
mutilations of the feet of Old Peruvians. So far no other explana¬ 
tion has been found but a pathological one. 

Prof. Bandelier wrote me from Lake Titicaca, where he was 
engaged in explorations for the American Museum: “All the 
Pachacamac remains, a few specimens perhaps excepted, which I 
cannot now remember, belong to the so-called Yunca (hot country) 
or coast Indian type of artifacts, and they are certainly anterior in 
date to 1532. I do not wish to be understood to say that all the 
Pachacamac finds to be made, or made previously, are not post- 
Columbian ; but the site where I caused the excavations to be made 
and the depth at which the objects were taken out, point to the 
conclusion that my finds are indeed pre-Columbian, or at least with 
very few exceptions only. The human foot alone and in appear¬ 
ance amputated is not rare among coast pottery, and the Museum 
must have another one sent by me from Lambayeque, with its 
sandal perfectly normal as well as handsomely ornamented. I 
remember having r seen other specimens of the same description. 
But none of them were deformed as the Pachacamac foot is. 

“ The deformed faces on the pottery are generally regarded as 
representations of syphilis, and I never heard leprosy mentioned in 
connection with them.” 

This is what I read of the ancient languages of Old Peruvians as 
written in their graves : There was never a migration of these dis- 



[Dec. IS, 

eases from Asia, nor did their religious beliefs about the soul emanate 
from Asia. The surgery of ancient America was not of Asiatic deri¬ 
vation. The civilization or culture-growth of ancient Peruvians 
was purely an American institution which had developed from 
preexisting savages on this hemisphere. 

New York, 333 W. 23d St. 

Stated Meeting , December 18, 1903. 

President Smith in the Chair. 

The list of donations to the Library was laid on the table, 
and thanks were ordered for them. 

The decease of the following members was announced: 

Rev. Henry Clay Trumbull, D.D., at Philadelphia, on 
December 8, set. 73. 

Dr. Gustave Schlegel, at Leyden. 

Mr. Rosengarten presented a communication on “The 
Earl of Crawford's MS. History in the Library of the Ameri¬ 
can Philosophical Society.' ; 

Dr. Leonard Pearson was introduced by the President, and 
presented a paper on “The Animal Industries of the United 
States .' 9 

The President delivered his “Annual Address."