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263 


STRONGYLE NEMATODES FROM CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN 
KANGAROOS AND WALLABIES 

By T. Harvey Johnston and P. M. Mawson, University of Adelaide 

[Read 11 August 1938] 

The senior author took the opportunity, whilst accompanying anthropological 
expeditions to Central Australia between 1928 and 1936, to examine for the 
presence of parasites many of the larger marsupials shot in order to supply meat 
for the aborigines assembled at the various camping places. Generally, only the 
stomach was searched because of the lack of time and the prevalence of very 
persistent muscid flics. In those cases where the intestine was examined, nema¬ 
todes were not found in it. This accounts for the absence of tricliostrongyles 
amongst the material studied. In spite of the long periods of dry weather and 
the low rainfall of the regions visited, the very heavy infestation of nearly all 
stomachs examined was remarkable. No doubt the scanty soil in the vicinity of 
the few springs and roekholes becomes heavily contaminated with eggs and 
larvae. The great number of different species and of individual worms to be 
found reminds one of similar conditions often encountered in the digestive tract 
of other herbivores such as the horse, ox, sheep, elephant, etc. 

The two main animals searched were the rock wallaby, Petrogalc lateralis 
Gould, which has a wide distribution in Central Australia and adjacent parts of 
South Australia, though restricted to the very rocky areas; and the euro. 
Macropus robustus Gould, occupying the less rocky parts of the hilly country in the 
same regions. The local subspecies was M. r. crubcsccns Sclatcr. Occasionally 
a kangaroo. Macropus rufus, Desm., was taken on the great plains. We have 
included in our examination some material from M. isabcllimts Gould, a species 
(or perhaps a subspecies of M. robustus) inhabiting a part of North-western 
Australia, the actual host specimens having died in Sydney Zoological Gardens, 
the material having been received through the kindness of the Director, Mr. 
A. S. Le Souef. 

The localities mentioned in this paper are Mount Liebig, now included in the 
northern portion of the Aboriginal Reserve in Central Australia; Cockatoo Creek, 
lying further to the northward; Ilcrmannsburg, in the Macdonnell Ranges; also 
the following localities in northern South Australia: Ernabella in the Musgrave 
Ranges, and Nepabunna in the northern Flinders Ranges. The types of all new 
species described in this paper have been deposited in the South Australian 
Museum. 

Hosts and Parasites Referred to in this Account 

Macro pus robustus crubcsccns Sclater. 

Labiostrongylus macropodis ; L. longispicularis Wood; L. grandis. 

Cloacina minor; C. parva; C. communis; C. frequens; C. macropodis ; 

C. dubia; C. australis; C. magna; C. curta. 


Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 62, (2), 23 December 193S 


F 



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Macropus isabcllinus Gould. 

Labiostrongylus longispicularis Wood. 

Macro pus ritfus Desmarest. 

Labiostrongylus longispicularis Wood. 

Cloacina minor; C. petrogalc; C. hydriformis; C. liebigi; C. inflata. 

Petrogale lateralis Gould. 

Pliaryngostrongyliis alpha; P. beta. 

Labiostrongylus longispicularis Wood; L. petrogale. 

Cloacina minor; C. parva; C. macropodis; C. petrogale; C. hydriformis; 

C. crnabclla; C. elegans. 

Unless otherwise indicated, all species of nematodes mentioned above are 
considered new. The absence of species of Macroposlrougylus and the abundance 
of species and individuals of the related genus Cloacina are noteworthy. 
Pliaryngostrongyliis was found only in rock wallabies (Petrogale). Labio- 
strongylus was represented in all host species examined. 

Of the species found in Macropus robustus, Cloacina minor, C. parva and 
C. communis were by far the most common; C. frequens and C. macropodis very 
common; C. australis, C. magiia and C. curia not uncommon; C. dubia was recog¬ 
nised only once; and a few Labiostrongyles were found in nearly all examinations. 
Only one stomach from Macropus rufus from Central Australia was searched, 
most of the parasites being species of Cloacina, but worms obtained many years 
ago from a red kangaroo from the western plains of New South Wales were 
identified as L. longispicularis, as also were worms from Macropus isabcllinus 
from North-western Australia. 

The commonest parasites of the stomach of Petrogale lateralis were Cloacina 
minor, C. parva, C. petrogale, C. hydriformis, Pliaryngostrongyliis alpha, P. beta, 
and Labiostrongylus petrogalc. C. ernabella was fairly common. The remainder 
w'ere much less frequently met with. 

All parasites described in this paper were collected from the stomach. 

Pharyngostrongylus alpha n. sp. 

Figs. 1-5 

Host—Petrogalc lateralis, Mount Liebig. 

Short, thin, 6-7 1 S mm. long in both sexes. Cuticle with very fine striations. 
Anterior end with six small rounded papillae, inwardly from these are six rounded 
inner lips surrounding narrow mouth, 5 fc diameter. A short passage, 7 /x long, 
with slightly chitinised walls, leads into a vestibule, 004 mm. long, 0'012 mm. 
wide, with strongly chitinised striated walls. Oesophagus differentiated as in 
succeeding species. Excretory pore behind nerve ring and lying at junction of the 
two oesophageal regions. Cervical papillae thread-like; about O'12 mm. from 
anterior end. Anterior end of intestine with thick sacculale walls. 





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Male —Ventral lobes of bursa quite separated from each other and almost so 
from the long lateral lobes; dorsal lobe well defined with slight median cleft. 
Inside wall of bursa with small rough papillae of various sizes, very small on 
dorsal and ventral lobes, largest near bursal edge, most abundant on lateral lobes. 
Ventral rays close together, parallel, passing into apex of ventral lobes; externo- 
lateral short like externo-dorsal, both forming projections on lateral wall of 
bursa; lateral rays run together to bursal edge in longest part of lobe; externo- 
dorsal arises separately; dorsal ray bifurcates just beyond half its length, each 
part giving rise to a short lateral branch, none of these branches reaching bursal 
edge. Genital cone, small, rounded; accessory cone with two finger-like processes 
on each side*; spicules 1*36 mm. long, straight, with striated alae extending for 



References to lettering—a.c.. accessory genital cone; b.p., prebursal papilla; b.r., chitinous 
ring in buccal capsule; c.p., cervical papilla; d.l., dorsal lip; d.r., dorsal ray; e.c., moulting 
cuticle; e.d.r., externo-dorsal ray; e.l.r., externo-latcral ray; e,p., excretory pore; gc., genital 
cone; i., intestine; l.c., leaf crown; 1.1., lateral lip; o., oesophagus, s.l., submedian lip, s.p., 
spicule; t.p., tail papilla; v.r., ventral ray. 

piers 1-5. Pharviu/oslrnngyhis alpha —1, head, autero-lateral; 2, anterior end, lateral view , 
” 3, bursa, vciitro-lateral; 4. head, lateral; 5, female, posterior end. Rigs. 6-8 
Pharyngostrongyliis beta —6, bursa, dorsal; 7, head, antero-lateral; 8, female, 

posterior end. " Figs. 1 and 7 to same scale; 6, 3 and 4; 2. 5 and 8. 

almost their whole length, tips curved ; gubernaculum heart-shaped when viewed 
dorsally. 

female —Uteri parallel, joining near vulva; vagina straight, rather short 
and, except in very young specimens, projects through vulva and sometimes is 
rolled back like a cuff. Anus 0'3 mm. and vulva 0-082 mm. from tip of thin tail. 





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This species differs from P. beta in the characters of the head, position of 
excretory pore, relative length of oesophagus and of spicules, and in total length 
of body. It resembles P. australis in many features, but differs in dimensions of 
vestibule and in possessing no leaf crown. Neither Wood nor Monnig noted the 
presence of an accessory genital cone, and the continuation of the dorsal ray noted 
by them was not observed in the present species. 

Pharyngostrongylus beta n. sp. 

Figs. 6-8 

Host—Pctrogale lateralis, Mount Liebig. 

Short, thin, more or less straight when preserved. Male, 3-9-5 mm.; female, 
7-8 mm. long. Cuticle very finely striated. Mouth collar with six small papillae,’ 
each with an antero-lateral projecting portion, bearing a delicate process 7 n long. 
Inwardly from the collar arises the smooth dome-like anterior extremity surround¬ 
ing the circular mouth. No leaf crown. Buccal capsule 18^ in diameter, 9 ^ in 
length, with chitinous ring at its base. Vestibule about O'04 mm. long in young 
specimens, with annulate chitinous wall. Oesophagus long, narrow, with longer 
anterior region and shorter narrower posterior portion widening into a bulb before 
joining intestine. Cervical papillae bristle-like, about 008 mm. (in young 
specimens) from anterior end. Excretory pore just anterior to junction of the 
two regions of oesophagus. Nerve-ring just in front of level of excretory pore. 

Male Inside of bursa with numerous, very small, papillae, fewer and smaller 
on dorsal lobe. All lobes separated by deep clefts; dorsal lobe with short median 
cleft. Externo-lateral and externo-dorsal rays give rise each to a lateral projec¬ 
tion on bursa. Medio- and postero-laterals extend almost to edge of bursa. 
Dorsal ray bifurcates just beyond half its length, each part giving off a shorter 
lateral branch; no part of dorsal ray reaches edge of bursa. Genital cone short; 
accessory cone with two finger-like projections. Spicules straight, L4 mm. long! 
with striated alae and curved tips. Gubernaculum not seen. 

Ft male Uteri parallel; vagina straight; distance from vulva to anus about 
equal to that from anus to tip of tail. Body narrows from level of vulva to form 
a thin tail. 

P. beta differs from all described species in the absence of a leaf crown 
and in the character of the head papillae. The anterior end suggests that of 
P. australis in general form, but the latter has a narrower vestibule and its anus 
and vulva are much nearer to each other. The oesophagus and dorsal ray of the 
bursa resemble those of P. brevis, but the new species differs from the latter in 
having longer spicules, papillae on the bursa and in the absence of a leaf crown. 

Labiostrongylus macropodis n. sp. 

Figs. 9-14 

Host—Macropus robustus, Mount Liebig, Cockatoo Creek. 

Males, 21-30 mm. long; females, 2T8-3L2 mm. Maximum breadth, IT mm. 
Long stout worms with anterior end prolonged into eight lip-like processes—four 




267 


of them large bilobed submedian, two rather shorter simple lateral, one short 
simple dorsal, and one short simple ventral. Each submedian with long conical 
papilla, each lateral with small rounded papilla. Buccal capsule O'08 mm. long, 
0-15 nun. wide, lined by cuticle. Oesophagus long, about one-fifth body length, 
straight. Anterior end of intestine surrounded by granular mass forming two 
pairs of lateral lobes. Nerve-ring at about 1 mm. from anterior end, and just in 
front of excretory pore. Cervical papillae not observed. 

Male —Spicules long thin striated, sometimes much curved, 9'4-11 • 1 mm. 
long, about 1-2-5 of body length. Bursa large, lobes well differentiated, ventral 
lobes separate. Ventral rays reach almost to bursal edge. Externo-lateral rays 



short, close to medio-laterals; medio- and postero-laterals long, reaching almost 
to bursal edge; cxterno-dorsal arises from same root as laterals, is thick, inter¬ 
mediate in length between medio- and externo-latcrals. Dorsal ray relatively 
narrow, dividing at about half length, each branch terminating in two short 
rounded processes reaching almost to bursal edge. 

Female —Uteri parallel, uniting at some distance from vulva; ovejectors 
O'8 mm. long; vagina 3 mm., narrow. Anus about midway (O'94 mm.) between 
vulva and tip of tail. Tail long, narrow, tapering, with rounded extremity. 

The species differs from L. labiostrongylus and L. longispkiilaris in dimen¬ 
sions, structure of the dorsal ray, and length of spicules. 






268 


Labiostroncylus longisficularis Wood 1929 
Figs. 15-17 

Wood’s unfigured account was based on a male specimen from Mccropus 
robustus var. woodzvardi , a race living in the Murchison district of Western 
Austialia. Our mateiial was taken from M. robustus var. crubcsccns, from 
Nepabunna, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia. 

Long stout worms; male, 4'4 cm.; female, 5'6 cm.; slightly tapering 
anteriorly. Six lips, four submedian, two lateral, submedian lips broadened, 
slightly bifurcated at tips and bending inwards over mouth; each submedian with 
short bristle just behind its midregion; each lateral with small rounded papilla 
near tip; no leaf crown. Buccal capsule O'115 mm. long in male, slightly longer 
than bioad, walls thinly chitinised, cavity as wide anteriorly as posteriorly. 
Oesophagus 8'7 mm. long in male, 9 mm. in female (1:5 and 1: 6 2 of body 
length respectively), narrow, without definite bulb, though wider near base than 
anteiioilj. Nerve cord about I'6 mm. from anterior end; excretory pore about 
2 mm. from head end. Cervical papillae not observed. 

Male Bursa stout, lobes definite, ventral lobes distinct from laterals and 
separated from each other vent rally. Ventral rays parallel, arising near laterals 
but soon bending ventrally to the corner of corresponding ventral lobe. Ventro¬ 
lateral ray short, bending outwards to form slight projection (5 g) on side of 
bursa. Medio- and postcro-laterals much longer, travel together, the correspond¬ 
ing part of the lateral lobe forming a horn-like projection when seen dorsally or 
ventrally. Fxteino-dorsal ray short, arises with laterals, and projects like the 
ventro-lateral. Dorsal lobe separated from lateral by deep fissure. Dorsal ray very 
stout, giving off a lateral branch on each side midway from its origin, the branch 
extending almost to bursal edge at lateral termination of dorsal lobe; main ray 
divides into two parallel branches. Dorsal lobe long, its posterior edge forming 
two or three lappets, the two outer (which contain the ends of the dorsal ray) 
rounded, between these may be a third more or less developed, sometimes con¬ 
taining an abortive median continuation of dorsal ray. Genital cone short, conical 
with small button-like papilla at tip. Accessory cone wider, not quite so long, 
with several elongate processes laterally. Spicules 17'8 mm. long (1 : 2'5 of body 
length), stout, fairly straight, striated, with striated alae. 

Female Uteri joint about o - 8 mm. from vulva; vagina narrow, coiled; anus 
1'4 mm. from tip of short narrow pointed tail; vulva 2'5 mm. from tip of tail. 

A male Labiostrongylus was found in the stomach of a rock wallaby, 
Pctrogale lateralis, from Mount Liebig, Central Australia, agreeing in its head 
characters with L. longispicularis. The position of the nerve cord was similar, 
but the excretory pore was posterior to the oesophagus instead of being near the 
nerve-ring, the oesophagus was about one-seventh of the body length, and the 
spicules 1 : 5 - 6 of body length instead of 1: 2'5. 4he specimen was only 24 mm. 
long. The bursa was asymmetrical and the dorsal ray differed somewhat from 
that described above. 




269 


As there was only one specimen available, wc deem it unwise to erect a new 
species for it. It seems to be most closely related to L. longispicularis. 

A number of specimens taken from Macropus rufus from western New 
South Wales and from M. isabcllinus (which is probably a variety of M. robustns) 
from North-western Australia (from Sydney Zoological Gardens) also belong 
to L. longispicularis. 

Labiostrongylus grandis n. sp. 

Figs. 18-20 

From Macropus robustns, Mount Liebig. Male, 4 to 4'5 cm.; female, 6'8 to 
7-5 crn. Very large worms, resembling L. longispicularis in general proportions. 
Maximum diameter of female, 2'5 mm. Anterior end with eight piolongations 
characteristic of genus; submedian bilobed; lateral lips larger than dorsal and 



Figs. 18-20. Labiostrongylus grandis -IS, male head, lateral; 19, anterior end, male, 
ventral; 20, junction of oesophagus and intestine. Figs. 21-22. Labiostrongylus 
petrogale —21, head, young female, submedian view; 22, bursa, flattened, posterior 
view. 

ventral, shorter than snbnicdians. ^Laterals, ventral and dorsal lips simple, conical. 
Submedian and lateral lips each with papilla, conical on submedians, small and 
rounded on laterals. Apparently small rounded papillae about 0'2 mm. from 
anterior end, two of them lateral and perhaps one ventral and one dorsal. Cervical 
papillae long, thread-like, arising from articular depression 11 mm. from anterior 
end. Buccal capsule shallow, O'12 mm. wide, with chitinised portion 0'08 mm. 
long; from tip of lips to floor of capsule O'15 mm. Nerve-ring 1*3 mm. and 
excretory pore 1'8 mm. from anterior end. Oesophagus long, straight, 
0-8-0-9 mm. (one-fifth body length) in male, one-sixth in case of female. 










270 


Male —Bursa with well-defined dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes; ventrals 
quite separated from each other and smaller than laterals. Ventral rays equal, 
parallel. Externo-laterals, laterals and externo-dorsals arise from same root, the 
first shortest, the other two reaching nearly to bursal edge. In posterior view of 
bursa externo-lateral and externo-dorsal rays appear to form projections on 
lateral walls. Dorsal ray stout, bifurcating at beginning of second half of its 
length, each branch subdividing at half its length into an inner club-shaped and 
an outer short ray, neither reaching bursal edge. Spicules 12-4 mm. long, 1 : 3'3 
of body length, fairly straight, striated, with alae extending nearly to the rounded 
tips. Accessory genital cone not observed. 

Female —Body narrows suddenly after vulva; tail long, thin, with rounded 
end bearing two small lateral subterminal papillae, 02 mm. from tip. Vulva 
2 - 6 mm. from posterior end. Uteri wide but narrowing greatly into ovcjectors 
just before the two join about 4 mm. from vulva; vagina narrow, twisted. Eggs, 
0‘145 by O'11 mm. 

The species differs from L. labiostrongylus in its spicules; from L longi- 
spicularis in its lips; and from other species in the structure of the dorsal ray. 

Labiostrongylus petrogale n. sp. 

Figs. 21-22 

From Petrogale lateralis, Mount Eiebig. Male up to 4'4 cm., female up to 
6 cm. Four submedian lip-like prolongations bilobed at distal end, almost meet¬ 
ing over buccal capsule. Lateral lips shorter, conical, with small rounded papilla 
near tip; submedian lips each with thin pointed papilla arising from slight bulbous 
cuticular enlargement. No dorsal or ventral lips. Buccal capsule with thick 
chilinous lining (O'11 mm. long) continuous at its base with lining of oesophagus; 
floor of capsule O'195 mm. from anterior end of lips. Oesophagus 6'66 mm. 
long in male, i.e., one-sixth body length, narrow, surrounded by mass of dark 
cells at junction with intestine. Cervical papillae thin, about midway between 
nerve-ring and anterior end. Nerve-ring and excretory pore at about level of 
end of first quarter of oesophagus. 

Male —Bursa large; ventral lobes separated from each other, distinctly 
marked off from laterals; dorsal lobe with short median cleft. Ventral rays long, 
parallel, reaching bursal edge. Externo-lateral shorter than laterals, which extend 
almost to edge and are cleft for nearly half length; externo-dorsal thick, arises 
with laterals, and longer than externo-laterals. Dorsal ray very thick, bifurcat¬ 
ing at two-thirds length, each branch giving off a lateral, all final branches 
slightly bulbous and extending almost to bursal edge. Genital cone long, conical; 
accessory cone with two short thick processes, each ending in one or two finger¬ 
like projections. Spicules about /'25 mm., i.c., one-fourth to one-sixth body 
length, curved, with striated alae along most of length. Gubcrnaculum present. 

Female —About 0'2 mm. in maximum diameter. Anus about midway 
between vulva and tip of tail; latter rather short, tapering, with rounded end 
terminating in button-like structure. Vagina long, narrow, twisted. 




271 


The species resembles L. longispicularis in its head region, hut differs in the 
length of spicules and the character of the dorsal ray. 

Cloacina Linstow (emend.) 

Linstow’s original diagnosis (1898, 287) indicated that the genus differed 
from all known nematode genera in having the vulva and anus united into a 
female cloaca. Railhet and Henry (Bull. Soc. Path, exot., 6, 1913, 506) stated 
that the two apertures were distinct and that the genus was synonymous with 
Zoniolaimus. York and Maplestone (1926) gave a much more satisfactory 
diagnosis based on Linstow’s account and figures of the type C. dahli, as also did 
Baylis and Daubney (1926). The original material came from Macropus brcnvni 
Ramsay, from Ralum, New Britain. The genus has been plaeed in Strongyhdac; 
Cloacininac; Cloacinidac; Trichoneminae; and amongst the Strongyloidea “in¬ 
sufficiently known.” 

Amongst onr material from Australian marsupials wc have found numerous 
species which we have been able to assign to Linstow s genus as amended by us. 
A revised diagnosis is now given. 

Trichoneminae —Mouth directed straight forwards. Mouth collai with 
6-8 lips, four of them submedian and two lateral, with in some cases a dorsal 
and a ventral; each submedian lip with a prominent papilla; on lateral lips usually 
an insignificant papilla. Buccal capsule cylindrical, broader than long, leaf crown 
of six elements arising from its internal surface and projecting through mouth 
opening. Oesophagus with more or less developed swelling at its posterior end. 

Male —Well developed bursa; ventral lobes joined in front; ventral rays cleft 
distally; externo-dorsal may or may not arise with laterals; medio- and postero- 
laterals lying side by side; dorsal ray bifurcates aftci an half to one-third of its 
length, and the two branches subdivide further back. Spieules usually long, thin, 
with striated alae. Gubernaculum present or absent. 

Female —Body tapering behind vulva; tail usually pointed; distance between 
vulva and anus usually about equal to that between anus and tip of tail. Uteii 
parallel. 

Parasites of the stomach of marsupials. Type C. dahli Linstow. 

The ehief distinctions between this genus and Macropostrongylus are the 
presence of lips and the relative sizes of the lateral and submedian papillae. 

Cloacina elegans n. sp. 

Figs. 23-27 

From Pctrogalc lateralis, Hermannsburg. Male 6'2 mm. long, O'5 mm. 
maximum breadth; female 6-11 mm. long, 0'6 mm. maximum breadth; rather 
thick body forming at least one eoil. Six very low lips; the two laterals each with 
minute rounded papilla; four submedians eaeh with conical papilla consisting of 
longer proximal and small button-like distal portion. Bueeal capsule with stout 
ehitinous ring, 0'014 mm. long, 0*025 mm. diameter, continuous with ehitinous 



272 


floor; six elements of leaf crown arise from base, extend inwardly and then for¬ 
wards to surround mouth aperture, free end of elements projecting beyond lips. 
Cervical papillae thread-like, about 0'1 mm. from head end; nerve-ring at 
O'17 mm., and excretory pore at 0'37 mm. from anterior end in female. Oeso¬ 
phagus short, O'52 mm. long, straight, anterior part slightly wider and extending 
beyond nerve-ring, bulb in region of excretory pore. Anterior end of intestine 
thickened, without lobes. 

Mule Spicules 2'2 mm., 1:3 of body length, not straight, with narrow 
striated alae extending along almost whole length, tips rounded. Gubernaculum 
heart-shaped in dorsal view. Bursa large, lobes distinct, laterals longest. Ventral 



rays thin, straight, almost reaching bursal edge; externo-lateral and externo- 
dorsal project slightly on lateral wall of bursa; laterals long, slender, almost reach¬ 
ing edge. Dorsal ray stout, soon dividing, each branch passing postero-laterally 
and then giving off a lateral ray extending outwards, then bending to run parallel 
with main branch; none of the dorsal branches reaching bursal edge. Genital 
cone fairly large; dorsal lip of cloaca without processes. 

Female —Body narrows suddenly in region of vagina; tail thin, pointed, 
bending dorsally. Uteri parallel; ovejectors 049 mm. long; vagina 2 '6 mm. long, 













273 


straight; vulva about 1-3 mm. in front of anus; anus about E3 nun. from tip of 
tail. Eggs 0035 by 0-16 mm. 

Cloacina hydriformis n. sp. 

Figs. 28-31 

From Petrogale lateralis, Mount Liebig; Hermannsburg; Ernabclla. 

Short; males, 4'4-5 4 l mm. long, 0'29 mm. broad; females, 5'8-6'5 mm. long, 
0‘36-'45 mm. broad. Four submedian bps each with long “two-jointed” papilla, 
projecting characteristically from head; two lateral lips. Buccal ring long, thin, 
with upper edge turned outwards; elements of leaf crown relatively thick, arising 
from base of capsule, with free ends bending inwards around mouth opening. 
Cuticle inflated in oesophageal region. Oesophagus O'26-0'4 mm. long, 1 : 12-17 
of body length, narrow, straight, with slight enlargement. Cervical papillae bristle¬ 
like, O'08 nun. from head end. Nerve ring at mid-oesophagus, about 0 4 2 mm. 
from anterior end. Excretory pore at posterior end of oesophagus, 0'45-'49 mm. 
from head end. 

Male —Spicules stout, short. E14-E4 mm., 1: 3'6-3'S of body length, with 
alac on second half of length and ending near tips, tips curved slightly. Guber- 
naculum more or less heart-shaped in dorsal or ventral view, larger (thicker) at 
anterior than at posterior end when viewed laterally. Small prebursal papillae 
at about 025 mm. in front of anterior edge of bursa. Bursa lobes hardly distinct, 
ventral lobes joined. Ventral rays long, thin, reaching bursal edge; externo- 
laterals short, projecting on side of bursa; laterals reaching bursal edge; externo- 
dorsals short, equal to cxtcrno-laterals; dorsal ray very short, bifurcating after 
half length, each branch giving off rather short lateral stem. Genital cone long, 
rounded. 

Female —Uteri parallel; ovejectors 0'4 nun. long; vagina short, straight; 
vulva 0 4 3- 4 36 mm. from posterior end. Tail narrows sharply beyond vulva and 
is bent back to make angle with body. Anus at 0'2 mm. from tip of tail. Eggs, 
0 1 17 by 0■ 08 mm. 

Specimens also assigned to this species were taken from the stomach of 
Macropus rufits from Mount Liebig. They agreed in all particulars except in 
having relatively shorter spicules which were only one-fifth body length. 

Cloacina frequens n. sp. 

Figs. 32-34 

Front Macropus robustus. Mount Liebig; Cockatoo Creek. 

Male, 6-1E5 mm. long, 0'4 mm. broad; female, 14 4 7-18 mm. long, 0*72 nun. 
broad. More or less straight, tapering towards ends, Six lips; four submedian 
each with a “two-jointed” papilla bent inwards over mouth in most specimens; 
lateral lips with very small papilla. Cuticle ridged behind anterior end. Buccal 
capsule with chitinous ring from which arises leaf crown of six elements; ring 
wider at top (0'055 mm.) than at base (0045 mm), and 0 4 013 mm. deep. Oeso¬ 
phagus continences at about 0 4 05 mm. from anterior end of lips, 09-1 4 13 mm. 



274 


long in male (1:7-10 of body length), 1'03-1'27 mm. long in female (1:13-17 
of body length) ; almost straight, narrow except for slight enlargement near 
posterior end. Nerve ring at second quarter of oesophagus length and 0'3- 
0'43 mm. from anterior end. Excretory pore in region of third quarter of 
oesophagus and 0'55-0'8 mm. from anterior end, distance varying with length of 
worm. Cervical papillae long, thread-like, about one-eleventh body length from 
anterior end in male, and one-twentieth in female. 

Male —Ventral lobes of bursa joined. Ventral ray long, thin; externo-lateral 
short; medio- and postero-laterals joined except at tips, latter ray slightly longer. 



Figs. 32-34. Cloacina frequens —32, head, female; 33, female, posterior end; 34, bursa, 
flattened, posterior view, Figs. 35-37. Cloacina austral!. 1 ; —35, head, female; 36, 
female, posterior end; 37, bursa, dorse-lateral. Figs. 32 and 35 to same scale; 
33 and 36. 

both extending almost to bursal edge; externo-dorsal short, stout, arising from 
same root as laterals; dorsal ray dividing into two, each branch bifurcating near 
distal end, no branch reaching edge. In many specimens each of the first two 
branches of the dorsal ray gives off a short narrow stem laterally, just before 
bifurcation. Spicules short, 0'86-'89 min., 1 : 7-13 of body length, tapering to 
tips, alae extending nearly to tips. Gubernaculum small, irregular; genital eone 
long; pair of accessory processes present. 








275 


Female —Uteri parallel; ovejectors 0*32 mm. long, uniting near vulva; vagina 
very short, 04 mm.; vulva 022 mm. in front of anus. Tail more or less straight, 
body tapering rapidly to vulva and ending in sharp point. Anus at about 0.27 mm. 
from tip. Eggs, OT7 by 0-08 mm. 

Cloacina australis n. sp. 

Figs. 35-37 

From Macropus robustus, Mount Liebig; Cockatoo Creek. 

Body rather long, curved, tapering towards anterior end; 10 mm. long, 
0-5 mm. broad in male; 9-5-11'5 mm. long, 0'6 rum. broad in female. Cuticle 
in vicinity of level of anterior end of oesophagus standing out from underlying 
tissue, and though seen in.all specimens the condition may be an artefact as it 
was more marked in some than in others. Head with 4 shallow wide submedian 
lips; perhaps a pair of narrower lateral lips between them; submedians each with 
large “two-jointed” papilla. Buccal capsule with chitinous ring 0-017 mm. long, 
0-04 mm. diameter (in female) ; distance from floor of cavity to tip of lips 
0-02 mm. Leaf crown of six elements arising from lower inner edge of ring 
and projecting inwards; outer edge oi each element: appearing to be continuous 
with corresponding lip; free end of each clement bent backwards. Nerve ring 
around oesophageal bulb and 0*32-0-4 mm. from anterior end. t ervieal papillae 
long, hair-like, 0'39 mm. from head end, each arising from button-like out¬ 
growth. Oesophagus 0-64--75 mm. long, narrow, straight in anterior half, then 
bulbous, fob owed by a constriction and then by a club-shaped end leading into the 
narrow intestine whose anterior end surrounds the end of the oesophagus; 
oesophagus 1 : 14-16 of body length. 

Male ■—Lateral lobes of bursa distinctly separated from dorsal and ventral 
lobes; ventrals joined to, but distinct from, each other; dorsal lobe with median 
cleft. Ventral rays long, reaching bursal edge; laterals long, not reaching edge; 
externo-lateral and externo-dorsal project on side of bursa; externo-dorsal arising 
separately. Dorsal ray subdivides near its base, each branch soon dividing into 
inner long thin branch and a lateral short thicker branch, neither reaching edge. 
Spicules long 4-4~4-8 mm. 1:2'1-2-3 oi body length, narrow, with striated alae, 
fairly straight. Genital cone well developed, conical; dorsally to it are two small 
projections which may be associated with an accessory genital cone. 

Female —Uteri long, parallel, uniting about 0 - 8 mm. from posterior end of 
body; vagina passing forwards, then turning back to vulva lying 0 - 3-Q-4 mm. from 
tip of tail. Tail straight, tapering; tip directed backwards. Anus 02 mm; 
from tip. 

Cloacina communis n. sp. 

Figs. 38-41 

From Macropus robustus. Mount Liebig ; Cockatoo Creek. 

Mate, 11 to 13 mm. long; female, 15-45 mm., generally 20-25 mm. long, 
stouter towards anterior end, tapering markedly in posterior third, with slight 



276 


prominence in region of vulva. Anterior end suddenly narrowed in buccal region. 
Six lips, four submedians each bearing elongate papilla with marked constriction, 
two laterals each with small conical papilla. Nerve ring O'32-0'42 mm., excretory- 
pore 1 -2-1 ‘4 mm., and cervical papillae 0'09-0'H mm., from anterior end. 
Maximum breadth 0'55-'63 mm. in male, 0'6-'7 in female. Buccal ring longer 
and wider than in most species of the genus; chitinous ring thin. 0'04 mm. 
diameter, 0'021 mm. long in male; leaf crown of six elements arising about halt- 
way along ring. Oesophagus 1 • 25 to l - 77 mm. long, O'07 mm. wide, length 
1: 7' 5-13 of body length, usually 1:8-9; first and second thirds slightly wider 
than last third which ends in a spherical bulb 0'22 mm. in diameter. Anterior 
end of intestine surrounded by mass of granular tissue arranged in paired lobes. 



Male —Spicules 3'47-4'13 mm. long, 1 :2-7-3*7 of body length, slender, with 
striated alae. Gubernaculum appearing in dorsal view as heart-shaped structure 
between spicules. Genital cone short, directed dorsally; rudimentary accessory 
cone formed of two button-like processes on dorsal lip of cloaca. Ventral lobes 
of bursa not clearly marked off from each other or from lateral lobes. Ventral 
rays long, reaching almost to bursal edge, cleft at tip. Externo-lateral short, 
thick; medio- and postero-laterals together, longer than externo-lateral, but not 










reaching bursal edge; externo-dorsal thiek, from same root as laterals, but 
shorter. Dorsal ray bi fureating after half its length, each braneh subdividing 
into two equal rays after half its length, none reaching edge of bursa. 

Female —Body narrowing rapidly beyond vulva; tail eonical, short, pointed. 
Intestine narrowed before reaching anus, latter 0'2 mm. from tip of tail. Uteri 
parallel, joining some distance before vulva; vagina long, narrow, nearly straight; 
vulva 0-IS mm. in front of anus. Ripe eggs, O' 17 by 0*08 mm. 

Cloacina magna n. sp. 

From Macro pus robust us, Coekatoo Creek. 

Male 10 nun., fairly stout; female 30 mm., anterior region stout, posterior 
much thinner and eurved. Anterior end with .six low lips; four of them sub¬ 
median, each with large papilla constricted into two parts; two laterals each with 
or without very small papilla. Buccal capsule very wide, with chitinous ring 
0-07 nun. diameter, 0'02 mm. long, bearing leaf erown passing anteriorly and 
bending inwards. Oesophagus long, narrow, F4 mm. in male (1:7 of body 
length). 2-02 mm. in female (1:15); anterior two-thirds wider, 0'08 mm. 
broad in male at anterior end. O'15 mm. wide at base where it widens into a bulb. 
Excretory pore at 0'9 nun. from anterior end, and just in front of oesophageal 
bulb; nerve ring at 0'26-'28 mm. from head end. 

Male —Bursa rather longer than usual, with ventral lobe distinet from laterals 
but not deeply separated from them. Ventral rays long, narrow, parallel not 
separated, reaching almost to bursal edge. Externo-dorsal arising from same 
root as laterals and of same length, none of these reaching bursal edge. Aledio- 
and postero-laterals separated for about half length. Dorsal ray divides after 
one-third length, eaeh braneh dividing into an inner and a rather shorter lateral, 
neither reaching bursal edge. Genital cone short, conieal. Spicules 3'7 mm., 
1 :2'8 of body length, fairly straight, with wide striated alac ending near tips. 

Female —Sudden narrowing beyond vulva; tail short, pointed, and strongly 
eurved. Anus 02 mm., and vulva 025 mm. in front of tip of tail. Vagina rather 
long, about 2'1 mm., ovejectors directed forwards, 055 mm. long, leading into 
parallel uteri. Eggs, O'17 by 0'08 mm 

The speeies elosely resembles Cloacina communis but differs in size, positions 
of nerve ring and excretory pore, relative sizes of spicules and oesophagus, and 
form of the anterior end. 

Cloacina petrogale n. sp. 

Figs. 42-46 

From Fctrogalc lateralis, Mount Liebig; Hermannsburg; Ernabella. 

Male 7 5-8 mm. long, 0'48 mm. broad; female 10-21 mm. long, 0*75 mm. 
broad; body tapering more markedly anteriorly in both sexes. Eight lips arise 
inside mouth collar, each of the four submedians with long “two-jointed” papilla, 
dorsal and ventral lips represented by very shallow bilobed folds. Buccal capsule 
surrounded by chitinous ring, 0'031 mm. long, 0'6 mm. diameter (in female) and 



278 


not reaching oesophagus; floor of capsule with thin chitinous plate. Leaf crown 
of six elements arising from about half-way up chitinous ring and bending 
inwards over mouth aperture and recurved at anterior edges. Cervical papillae 
0'08 mm. from anterior end in female. Nerve ring at 0'24 (male), -0 - 4 mm. 
(female) from anterior end; excretory pore near oesophageal bulb, 1'14 mm. 
from head end in male. Oesophagus 1-06-1'4 mm. long in male, l;6-7 of body 
length; l - 65-l - 7 in female, 1:6 of body length in young specimens, 1: 12 5 in 
large females; long, thin, with bulb at posterior end. Anterior end of intestine 
with distinct lobes. 

Male —Bursal lobes not deeply separated from each other; two ventral lobes 
united. Ventral rays long, cleft for almost half length, reaching nearly to bursal 
edge. Externo-ventral, ventrals and extcrno-dorsals arising from same root; first 
longest and almost reaching edge; ventrals long, stout, not reaching edge; externo- 
dorsal almost as long as externo-ventral. Dorsal ray divides after half its length, 
each branch bifurcating into more or less equal rays, none reaching bursal edge. 
Spicules 3'3-3'88 mm., 1:2-2 4 of body length, with alae striated almost to tips, 
curved in body. No gubernaculum. 

Female —Tail short, conical; vagina long, almost straight; uteri parallel; 
ovejectors about 045 mm. Anus at 03 mm. and vulva at 05 mm. front posterior 
end in large females. Eggs, 0T9 mm. by 0-08 mm. 

Cloacina macropodis n. sp. 

Figs. 47-50 

From Macropus robustus and Petrogale lateralis, Mount Liebig; Cockatoo 
Creek. 

Rather short slender worms tapering at each end. Male 7-7"55 mm. long, 
0-28 mm. maximum breadth; female 8'2-106 mm. long. 038 mm. maximum 
breadth. Two lateral lips; four submedian lips each with small conical papilla 
of two parts, larger basal portion and smaller conical tip. Buccal capsule broader 
than long, with chitinised ring around base, OOl mm. long, 0'026 mm. diameter 
at bottom, wider in anterior part. Leaf crown of six elements apparently. Nerve 
ring around middle of oesophagus, at 023 mm. in male and O'24-0'35 mm. in 
female from anterior end. Excretory pore just in front of posterior end of 
oesophagus and about 0'43 mm. from head end in female. Cervical papillae 
thread-like, at 0065 mm. from anterior end in female. Oesophagus 0'4-'54 in 
male (1: 14-19 of body length), 0'49-'58 in female (1: 17-18 of body length), 
narrow, widening at posterior end. 

Male —Lobes of bursa not separated by deep clefts; bursa longer dorsally 
than ventrallv. Ventral rays long, slender, almost reaching bursal edge; externo- 
lateral shorter, stouter; medio- and postero-laterals separated near tips, latter 
ray slightly longer; externo-dorsal arising apart from laterals, not reaching edge. 
Dorsal ray dividing soon after origin, each branch ending in short bifurcation, 
none reaching bursal edge. Variation in the final branches of the dorsal ray was 





279 


noticed, these being sometimes short and close together, at other times longer and 
more divergent. Spicules 2'83-3'87 nun. long, l:2-2'4 of body length, slender, 
with wide striated alae extending nearly to tips. Genital cone short, blunt; rudi¬ 
mentary accessory cone present. 

Female -—Long pointed tail, somewhat dorsally directed. Uteri parallel, 
uniting near vulva; vagina more or less bent; vulva 035-'4 mm. from tip of tail; 
anus at 0'25-'25 mm. from end of tail. Eggs, O'14 by'06 mm. 

Some specimens were found resembling closely those described above, but 
having the oesophagus and labial papillae relatively longer. 



Figs. 47-50. Cloacina macropodis —47, bursa, dorso-latcral; 48, female, posterior end; 

49, female head; 50, female, head, lateral. Figs. 51-54. Cloacina curta —51, head; 

52, female, head, lateral; 53, bursa, dorso-lateral; 54, female, posterior end. Figs. 

49, 51 to same scale; 47, 53; 50, 52. 

Cloacina curta n. sp. 

Figs. 51-54 

From Macropus robustus, Mount Liebig; Cockatoo Creek. 

Short, rather stout (especially females), slightly curved, tapering towards 
each end. Male, 6'5-7'4 mm. long; female, 7-7 • 12 mm. Cuticle .striated with 
striations 5/t apart anteriorly (in male). Four large submedian lips each with 
elongate papilla of two stout “joints”; two small bilobed lateral lips each with 
very small conical papilla. Larger papillae project OOl mm. and lateral papillae 
0-001 mm. from surface. Buccal capsule about as long as wide, with ehitinous 
ring 0'02 mm. in diameter surrounding lower part. Leaf crown with six elements 


G 









280 


arising from base of ring and projecting inwards. Cervical papillae hair-like, 
0'02 mm. long, on small button-like outgrowths, 0'08 mm. from anterior end of 
worm. Nerve ring 0'2-'25 mm. in male, 0'23-'28 in female from anterior end; 
excretory pore at 0'28 mm. from head end. Oesophagus 0'45-'5 mm. long, 
1: 13-16 of body length. 

Male —Three males which agreed in length, oesophagus, positions of nerve 
ring, excretory pore and cervical papillae, length of spicules, general shape of 
bursa and general arrangements of rays, were found to differ in regard to the 
dorsal ray which in two was asymmetrical and unlike, while in the third it was 
regular, as figured. Bursa lobes distinct but not deeply separated. Ventral rays 
joined, parallel, bending forward into ventral lobe; externo-lateral short; medio- 
and postero-laterals separate at tips, reaching nearly to bursal edge; externo- 
dorsal arising separately, not reaching edge, being more remote from it than end 
of externo-lateral is; externo-lateral shorter than externo-dorsal and bursa wdder 
in its vicinity. Dorsal ray bifurcating after about one-third length, in regular 
type each branch subdivides after the half length into two equal rays, none reach¬ 
ing bursal edge. Spicules 2-35-2'97 mm long, 1 : 2• 3-2• 9 of body length, curved, 
with striated alae terminating near tips, with spoon-like ends. Gubernaculum not 
seen. A pair of lateral prebursal papillae. 

Female —Uteri long, parallel; ovejector 045 mm. long; vagina wide, bending 
forwards for about O'5 mm. before passing back to vulva tying at 0'32 mm. from 
posterior end of worm and 0T2 mm. in front of anus. Body tapering suddenly 
from level of anus, 0'2 mm. from tip of short pointed tail. Eggs, 0T9 by '08 mm. 

Cloacina dubia n. sp. 

Figs. 55-57 

From Macropus robust us , Mount Liebig. 

Only one male and one female examined. The species is assigned to Cloacina 
only provisionally, since the head characters are not typical of that genus. Male 
8T mm. long, maximum breadth 0'38 mm., female 8'67 mm. long; slender, 
tapering towards each end. Cuticle with annulations 0'015 mm. apart. Six low- 
lips. No leaf crown. Buccal capsule with chitinous ring. Oesophagus 0'57- 
•58 mm. long, 1:14-15 of body length, posterior region sw-ollen. Nerve ring 
O'29 mm. from head end. 

Male —Spicules 3'42 mm., 1: 2'3 of body length, with narrow striated alae not 
reaching tip. Ventral lobes of bursa united. Ventral rays separated at tips; 
externo-lateral slender, shorter than other laterals; medio- and postero-laterals 
joined, the latter being longer and neither reaching bursal edge; externo-dorsal 
long, stout, arising separately, extending towards bursal edge as far as does 
externo-lateral; dorsal ray bifurcated near base, each branch giving off short 
lateral stem after two-thirds length, inner main branch incurved and not reaching 
edge of bursa. Genital cone short, blunt. 





281 


Female —Body narrows suddenly at level of vulva, ending in fine point bent 
dorsally. Ovaries in second quarter of body; uteri long, parallel; ovejectors 
0'45 mm. long; vagina 04 mm.; vulva 04 mm. from tip of tail; anus 0'2 mm. 
from posterior end. 



Cloacina ernabella n. sp. 

Figs. 58-62 

From Pcirogalc lateralis, Mount Liebig; Hermannsburg; Ernabella. 

Short, stout, males tapering at both ends, females narrowing more markedly 
from oesophageal region forwards. Male 8-4-B-6 mm. long, 034--.88 mm. in 
maximum breadth; female 13'4-14'7 mm. 0 58--66 in maximum breadth. Cuticle 
finely striate transversely; at anterior end inflated as far back as nerve ring. 
Mouth collar prolonged into six low lips, four submedian each with large “two- 
jointed” papilla whose upper “joint” is ovoid and rather larger than lower. Buccal 
capsule with ring 0• 011 mm. long, 0'035 mm. in diameter; floor 0'02 mm. from 
tip of lips; leaf crown of six elements arising from base of ring; elements bending 
inwards to surround mouth, with anterior ends bent outwardly. Cervical papillae 
thread-like, O'14-0'15 mm. from anterior end. Excretory pore posterior to 
oesophagus; l'l mm. from anterior end. Nerve ring at mid-oesophagus, 







282 


0-27--3 mm. from anterior end. Oesophagus rather long, 0-7-076 mm. in male 
(1:11-12 of body length), 0 - 9-'94 in female (1:15 of body length), narrow 
anteriorly, slight swelling in posterior third followed by bulb. Anterior end of 
intestine with several lobes. 

Male —Bursa with ventral lobes joined, lateral lobes distinct from ventral 
and dorsal lobes. Ventral rays long, parallel, separate for about two-thirds length; 
externo-lateral long, thin; laterals long, cleft for about half length; externo-dorsal 
arising from root of laterals, thin, rather shorter than laterals; dorsal ray wide, 
soon dividing into two branches, each sending out a lateral, rather shorter than 
main branch. No ray reaches bursal edge; laterals and ventrals longest. Spicules 
straight with wide alae almost to their curved tips; 1-8-1-85 mm. long, 1:4-6 of 
body length. Gubernaculum not chitinised but represented by large irregular 
mass of cells. Genital cone short, rounded; dorsal to opening at base of cone are 
two small conical structures probably representing an accessory cone. 

Female —Body narrows posterior to region of vagina, and very suddenly 
after vulva to form straight pointed tail. Uteri parallel, uniting near posterior 
end; ovejectors about 0 - 5 mm. long; vagina 11 mm. long, curving forwards 
before passing back to vulva. Vulva about 0-45 mm. from posterior end and 
O'15 mm. in front of anus. Eggs, 0-17 by 0-07 mm. 

Cloacina parva n. sp. 

Figs. 67-72 

From Macropits robustus, Mount Tdebig; Cockatoo Creek; Hermannsburg. 
1-rom Petrogale lateralis , Mount Liebig; Hermannsburg; Ernabella. 

Slender, short, size varying with age, male 5-10'6 mm. long, female 8-20 mm. 
Mouth collar with six rather large lips (four submedian, two laterals) and two 
smaller (a dorsal and a ventral) ; each submedian with short “two-jointed” papilla; 
each lateral with small conical papilla. Inwardly from lips six rounded lobes 
surrounding mouth. Buccal cavity narrow, O'04 mm. long in large specimens, 
with chitinous ring forming capsule 0-041 mm. diameter, 0-1 mm. long, thin 
anteriorly, with plain margin, thicker at base where leaf crown arises to pass 
forwards closely applied to inner surface of lobes surrounding mouth and project¬ 
ing beyond them. Oesophagus 0-45-0-65 mm. long, 1 : 10-16 of body length in 
male; 1 : 20 in female; with wider, more muscular anterior portion about O'15 mm. 
long, i.c., nearly half oesophageal length; posterior part with elongate bulb. 
Cervical papillae about 0 - 12 mm. from anterior end; nerve ring at about mid¬ 
oesophagus, 0-27--34 mm. from head end; excretory pore near base of oesophagus, 
0"46- - 52 mm. from anterior end. 

Male —Spicules 1-4-3-3 mm. long, 1 : 3-3 2 of body length; slender, with 
striated alae extending almost to curved tips. Genital cone small; gubernaculum 
present. Bursa large; dorsal, ventral and lateral lobes distinct. Ventral rays 
almost reach bursal edge; externo-lateral, lateral and externo-dorsal arise from 
same root and subequal. Dorsal ray bifurcating just after half-length, each part 
dividing into two equal branches at mid-length. 



283 


Female —Body narrowing behind vulva, tail pointed. Vagina commencing 
0'4 mm. above vulva, then passing forwards for about. 03 mm. before returning. 
Vulva 0-16--18 mm. in front of anus; latter O'16 mm. from tip of tail. 

Cloacina minor n. sp. 

Figs. 63-66 

From same hosts and from same localities as Cloacina parva. Also from 
Macropus rufus, Mount Liebig. 

Closely resembling C. parz'ci ■ in size, form and general anatomy but diffeiing 
in the following respects: buccal capsule longer, greater length from top of lips 



to floor of capsule, chitinous ring with iobed anterior end; anterior muscular part 
of oesophagus short, about twice length of buccal cavity; cervical papillae just 
in front of posterior end of muscular part of oesophagus; spicules 212-2’63 mm. 
long, 1 : 2'3-2-8 of body length; final branches of dorsal ray much shorter, outer 





















284 


branch of each pair short and stout, inner slender and rather longer. Males, 
about 6 mm. long, maximum breadth 0-24--31 mm.; female 15 mm., maximum 
breadth 057 mm.; oesophagus 05-056 mm. long, 1:10-12 of body length in 
male, 1: 29 in female; nerve cord at 0-25--3 mm. from head end; excretory pore at 
0-46--52 mm.; cervical papillae 0* 11--12 mm. Buccal capsule 0-048 mm. long 
in male, 0-056 mm. in female. Female: anus at 0'2 mm. and vulva at 0 - 4 mm. 
from posterior end. 

Commonly present along with the preceding species. 

Cloacina liebigi n. sp. 

Figs. 73-76 

From Macropus rufus, Mount Liebig. 

Fairly stout; male 14-/5-1/-6 mm. long, 0'55--64 mm. maximum breadth; 
female 23-24 mm. long, 0'6 mm. broad. Cuticle inflated behind head. Four sub- 



Figs. 73-76. Cloacina liebigi —73, female, anterior end, lateral; 74, female, head; 
75, bursa, dorso-lateral; 76, female, posterior end. 

median and two lateral lips, also shallow bilobed process dorsally and ventrally; 
submedian papillae “two-jointed.” slender. Nerve ring about 0-3 mm., and 
excretory pore at 0-65--8 mm. from anterior end. Cervical papillae at 0-19 mm. 
from head end. Buccal capsule 002 mm. diameter, walls thin, rather high; leaf 
crown of six elements arising from base. Oesophagus 0'55 mm. long in male 
(about 1:30 body length), 0-6 mm. in female (about 1:40 body length), with 















285 


slight swelling in mid-region immediately in front of nerve ring; gradually widen¬ 
ing behind nerve ring, widest just before junction with intestine; anterior end 
of intestine with thickened walls forming lobes. 

Male —Spicules 3'62-4-4 mm. long, 1: 4 of body length, slender, with striated 
alae extending almost to tip. Pair of prchursal papillae. Pobes of bursa not 
deeply separated from each other, ventral lobes united. Ventral rays parallel, 
reaching bursal edge; externo-lateral and externo-dorsal equal, long, slender, not 
reaching edge; laterals parallel, separate for most of length, almost reaching edge; 
externo-dorsal arising separately. Dorsal ray bifurcates at one-third length, each 
branch giving off at mid-length a shorter lateral before passing on almost to buisal 



edge. Genital cone long, rounded; with two rounded processes on dorsal lip 
of cloaca. 

Female —Body narrows suddenly in region of vagina; tail pointed. Uteri 
parallel; ovejectors 0'4 mm. long; vagina long, looped forwards; vulva at about 
0-4—-45 mm. from tip of tail; anus at 0'2 mm. from end of tail. Eggs, 01 by 
■07 nun. 

Cloacina inflata n. sp. 

Figs. 77-80 

From Macropus rufus, Mount Liebig. 

Male 6'7 mm.; female 9-10 mm. Cuticle inflated around anterior end. Two 
lateral lips; four submedian, each with two-jointed papilla with upper joint larger. 






286 


Luccal capsule shallow, with chitinous ring - O'01 mm. long, 0‘045 mm. diameter. 
Nerve ring at 0'27 mm. from head end and surrounding end of first third of 
oesophagus. Excretory pore and cervical papillae not observed. Oesophagus 
0-8 mm. in male (1:8-4 body length), 0-9 mm. in female (1 : 10-5 body length), 
with rather elongate terminal bulb in front of which is a slightly swollen region. 

Male Spicules very long, 4-6 mm. 1 : 1 '4 of body length. Lobes of bursa 
large, well defined. Ventral rays long, slender, not reaching bursal edge, separate 
for almost entire length; externo-laterals and externo-dorsals shorter, thicker; 
laterals long, not reaching edge. Dorsal ray bifurcating very soon, each branch 
dividing neat distal end into two short subetjual processes not reaching bursal 
edge. Genital cone long, rounded. 

Female —Body narrows suddenly behind anus; tail short, pointed, directed 
somewhat dorsally. Uteri parallel; vagina wide, straight; vulva 0-35 mm. from 
tip of tail; anus 0‘19 mm. from tip. Eggs large, thick-shelled, O'17 mm. by 
O'09 mm. 


DATA SHOWING RATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF 
TRUNK OF TREE FERN 

On 15th November, 1921, close to tbe foot of Mount Dandenong, Victoria, 
in company with Mr. A. G. Campbell, of Kilsyth, Victoria, I collected a young 
tree fern, Alsophylla australis, which I brought back and planted in my “brush 
house at Blackwood. The tree was found in swampy ground and bad a few- 
fronds of only slightly over 3 inches in length. 

In November, 1937. the following measurements of this specimen were 
obtained: 

Trunk: Circumference at ground level, 33 inches; at 3 feet above ground, 
28 inches; at one foot from crown, 2/ inches; height from base to crown, 
51 inches. 

Fronds: One of the larger ones, 7 feet 3 inches long; thus, when fully 
expanded, the expanse w-as nearly 14 feet. 

Average annual growth, 31- inches. 


14 July, 1938 


E. Ashby