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FONTS EIGHT 
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USER'S GUIDE 


Arts & Letters Corporation • 4306 Sunbelt Drive • Addison, Texas 75001 








Table of Contents 


Chapter 1: Introduction .......t.,. I 

Font Catalog.1 

Not a Simple Subject.1 

Where Do Fonts Come From?.1 

What You Need to Know About Fonts and Your Computer.2 

About Overloading Your System.2 

Adobe Type Manager.3 

CD-ROM Drives.3 

System Fonts.3 

Video Cards.3 

Windows NT/2000/XP Pro Permissions.3 

Windows Print Spooler.3 

Bad Fonts.................,,.3 

Technical Support. 4 

Chapter 2: Font Manager.5 

Font Manager Interface.5 

Font Manager Preferences.6 

Viewing Fonts Installed on Your System.7 

Previewing and Installing Fonts.8 

Un-Installing Fonts.........„.......12 

Printing Font Specimen Sheets.12 

Font System Problems/Failures.12 

Advanced Font Management.13 

Chapter 3: A Brief Look at Type.15 

Movable Type.15 

Type Design.15 

Measurement... 15 

Fixed and Proportional Spacing.16 

Kerning.17 

Raster Typefaces.17 

Vector Typefaces. 17 

Books About Typography.18 


©2002 Arts & Letters Corporation 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 

































Chapter 1: Introduction 


The BOSS Font Manager is a utility for managing TrueType® and PostScript® Type 1 fonts on 
your computer system under Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000 or XP. 

Using the BOSS Font Manager you can view or preview all of your fonts at any size all the way 
up to 99 points. You can even preview uninstalled fonts directly from the font files on your hard 
drive, any network drive or CD-ROM. You can also print font specimen sheets. Make a catalog 
of all your fonts, or print out a grid, showing every character in each font (great for selecting the 
right key combinations to use for printing dingbat or wingding-type fonts). 


Font Catalog 

When looking for a particular font, the font names are generally of little use for identification 
purposes. A visual representation of the font is the only way to determine if a font suits your 
needs. 

Printing a catalog of all the fonts on the BOSS Fonts CD is a time consuming task so we have 
prepared a catalog of the fonts in .pdf format. You can print the catalog from the CD or down¬ 
load it from our web site. Go to the Arts & Letters program group and select Font Catalog or 
download it from our home page at www.arts-letters.com (under Reference Materials). 

The Font Catalog is composed of bitmaps rather than the actual font outlines to avoid the 
problems associated with printer spooling and limitations on the number of fonts that can be 
installed as discussed below. 

Text printed using the installed fonts will be sharp and clear vs. the aliased representation in the 
bitmaps. 

Not a Simple Subject 

The management and installation of fonts is not a simple subject. 

Unfortunately, many of the topics in this document use technical terms, which is unavoidable if 
we are to present a complete explanation of the material. 

Most of the questions we receive from users have to do with how they install fonts on their 
system. We have provided a step-by-step explanation in Chapter 2 - Previewing and Installing 
Fonts. You may wish to go directly to that section or review the information below for future 
reference. 

Where Do Fonts Come From? 

Many applications allow you to choose different typefaces with which to print documents (e.g., 
Windows Write, Word, PageMaker, Arts & Letters EXPRESS). Where do these fonts come from? 
Some, which ship with Windows and are called TrueType®, are in the Windows/System 
directory. Others, which can be added by the user, are known as Type 1, or PostScript fonts. 
These fonts reside in the PSfonts directory, and in a subdirectory of PSfonts, PFM. 

Both types of fonts reside on your hard drive, but they are not necessarily available for use. They 
must be “installed,” a process that lists them in your WIN.INI file, the file that Windows uses to 
configure its appearance and capabilities. A partial listing of the TrueType and PostScript fonts 
in your WIN.INI is shown below. 


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Chapter One — 2 


Fortunately, you needn’t worry about making these entries directly into the WIN.INI. The BOSS 
Font Manager installs and uninstalls fonts on the fly, from any directory accessible from your 
system, and creates the correct entries in your WIN.INI automatically. 


Arial (TrueType)=ARIAL.FOT 

Arial Bold (TrueType)=ARIALBD.FOT 

Arial Bold Italic (TrueType)=ARIALBI.FOT 

Arial Italic (TrueType)=ARIALI.FOT 

Times New Roman (TrueType)=TIMES.FOT 

Times New Roman Bold (TrueType)=TIMESBD.FOT 

Times New Roman Bold Italic (TrueType)=TIMESBI.FOT 

Times New Roman Italic (TrueType)=TIMESI.FOT 

Wingdings (TrueType)=WINGDING.FOT 


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What You Need to Know About Fonts and Your Computer 

Fonts are a critical aspect of your computer system as they govern the display and printing of 
most of the information you produce on your computer. Below are a few important aspects of 
managing the fonts on your system. 

About Overloading Your System: The most common cause of problems related to fonts is over¬ 
loading your system with too many fonts. One of the first indications that you have overloaded 
your system is the message "The files UNIN.TTR and UNIB.TTR could not be installed" that 
appears when you start the Font Manager. Either too many fonts have been installed or the 
TrueType Rasterizer Engine has stopped working for one of many reasons explained below. 

Windows limits the storage allocated to save font information thereby affecting the number of 
fonts your system can manage before it fails. The total storage required is the sum of all the font 
names plus the characters that make up the complete path name (including the file name). The 
total cannot exceed 64, which represents approximately 800 font files. If you, or some software 
that you installed, exceed this limit, you must fix your Windows font system. Follow the 
instructions below under Font System Problems/Failures. 

To help prevent this problem, the Font Manager will alert you if you attempt to install additional 
fonts and the number of fonts already installed on your system exceeds 700. 


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Chapter One — 3 


Adobe Type Manager: To install, manage and view PostScript fonts using the BOSS Font 
Manager, you must have ATM (Adobe Type Manager) version 2.5 or greater installed on your 
system. 

When installing PostScript font files, be advised that Adobe Type Manager uses "c:\psfonts" as 
the location for your ".pfb" files and "c:\psfonts\pfm" for the location of your ".pfm" files. 

These paths are used as the default paths by the BOSS Font Manager. However, both the .pfb 
files and the .pfm files can be saved in the same directory, for example C:\postscript. Keeping the 
.pfb and corresponding .pfm files together is preferred by many users. 

When working with PostScript fonts, the path information for the .pfb and .pfm is transparent to 
the user and the BOSS Font Manager uses whatever paths were specified in ATM (or ATM's 
default paths). You can permanently change the PFM/PBM folders using the Adobe Type 
Manager. The BOSS Font Manager will recognize the changes made in ATM and use them 
automatically. 

CD-ROM Drives: If you print specimen sheets directly from CD's (and you have an older, slow- 
speed CD-ROM drive), the speed of the printing process will be adversely affected by the data 
transfer rate. If you have room, you might consider moving your font files to a temporary 
directory on your hard disk, print them and delete the files. 

System Fonts: System Fonts cannot be uninstalled nor can they be added to the Print Specimen 
list of fonts to be printed. 

Video Cards: If you are using a video accelerator board and experience problems running Font 
Manager, or if Font Manager won't run at all then the source of the trouble may be your video 
driver! Try another driver. Maybe there's a more recent release from the manufacturer, or you can 
try any of Microsoft's drivers that come free with every copy of Windows. There is an interaction 
between the memory address of video drivers and printer drivers, so if you experience trouble 
you will need to adjust either one or both of your drivers. 

Publications that may be relevant include PSS ID number Q115596 entitled "Problems with 
TrueType Fonts and Diamond Video Drivers" and PSS ID number Q85286 entitled "Checklist for 
Troubleshooting TrueType Font Problems". Each of these papers should be available from 
Microsoft at no charge. 

Windows NT, 2000 and XP Permissions: To install and uninstall fonts, you must have write 
permissions and delete permissions for "INI" files and the Font Section of the Registry. Your 
system administrator can add them to your login user account (if you do not already have 
permission). 

While you cannot install fonts without the appropriate permissions, you can view and print fonts 
using the Font Manager in any of the three groups (levels of permissions) — Administrator, 
Power Users and Users. The only exception is Users under Windows 2000. 

Windows Print Spooler: One of the most common problems occurs when users try to print too 
many font specimen sheets with the Windows Print Spooler turned on. 

Unlike printing from a word processor (whose fonts are installed), the BOSS Font Manager 
prints fonts by first installing them in memory, printing them, and then uninstalling them. To 
print the specimen pages, the printing must occur in real time. If you are using a print spooler, by 
the time the spooler gets around to printing the font it may already have been uninstalled (and is 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter One — 4 


not present on your system). If the font has been uninstalled the printer will substitute a generic- 
font instead of the font you specified. 

To turn the print spooler off, click on the Windows Start Menu button, then select Settings, then 
Printers. Right-click on your printer's icon, then select Properties. Click on the Details tab, and 
then click on the Spool Settings button. Select the Print Directly To Printer option, then click on 
the OK button. This advice also applies for any other 3rd-party print spooling software . 

The Font Manager temporarily installs fonts that need to be printed, prints them, and un-installs 
them. Print spoolers run slower than the Font Manager. By the time the spooler starts printing 
the page, the fonts for that page have already been uninstalled resulting in duplicate specimen 
pages of one font. 

If your printer driver offers the option, select to print "TrueType as graphics". This will let you 
print many more fonts on a page. In addition, fonts printed using this are sharper. It is worth the 
time to turn this option on. Most printer drivers have this option. Moreover, if your driver has the 
option to print either "Raster" or "Vector" graphics then select "Raster" graphics for the best 
possible reproductions of your fonts. 


Bad Fonts: There is a documented Windows problem with certain "shareware" fonts that will 
crash the TrueType rasterizer engine and will require you to restart Windows under certain 
circumstances. This is not a Font Manager problem! This problem is fully documented in 
Microsoft's PSS ID number Q83448 errata sheet entitled "Error Message: Invalid TrueType Font 
Detected". The only solution for this behavior is to use quality fonts. 

Some fonts print small squares instead of correct characters. 

This problem may occur at any point size. It is a Microsoft TrueType problem and is described in 
their publication PSS ID number Q94715 entitled "Cannot Print Ornate, Complex TrueType 
Fonts". The cause of the problem is usually a bad or corrupt font. 

Technical Support: 

In the event that you need technical support or have questions about this product, please visit our 
web site at www.arts-letters.com or e-mail your request for technical support to support@arts- 
letters.com. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter 2: Font Manager 


Font Manager Interface 

The Font Manager interface is divided into three primary panels: Information, ViewPort, and 
Font Selection. 


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At the top of the interface, you'll see an Information Panel. The Information Panel displays the 
full name of the font selected, if it is proportional or fixed space, if it is TrueType® or 
PostScript®, if it is installed or not, and the full pathname (location) of the font file. 

The largest panel is the ViewPort. The ViewPort Panel shows a sample of the selected font. The 
first time the Font Manager is run, one of your fonts will be displayed in 48 points, ("points" are 
a unit of measure used by the typography industry - 72 points equal one inch). 

To the right of the ViewPort, is the Font Selection Panel . To select an installed font just click on 
the first drop-down list box and pick one of the font names. TrueType and PostScript fonts are 
easily identified by their respective icons. A sample of the font you selected is immediately 
displayed in the ViewPort. The Specify Font Folder button is used to select a directory 
containing font files you may wish to install. 

At the bottom of the screen, The Specimen Panel lets you specify either the complete character 
set or a specimen line to be displayed in the ViewPort. The Justify Panel lets you specify whether 
the display is Left, Right or Center Justified. The Font Size Panel lets you select the size of the 
characters displayed. 

To change the size of the font displayed in the ViewPort, use the adjustment knob in The Font 
Size Panel . To "turn the knob" you click on it and hold down the mouse button as you move your 
hand in a circle. While holding down the mouse button, you can get finer control by moving your 
hand in larger circles. The larger the imaginary circle is, the finer the point size adjustment. You 
can also just click on a point on the knob, which will then jump to a point size. You can get 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 































Chapter Two — 6 


"close enough" to the size you want this way, and use the fine adjustment control (up-down 
arrows) to make one-point size adjustments. 

While viewing fonts, you may encounter a corrupt font file, which causes the message Font Error 
to be displayed in the ViewPort instead of the actual font. This error can be caused by several 
problems, including: 

The font file itself is missing or not located where it was when the font was installed. 

The font file may not meet font specifications (poor design, corrupted data, etc.). 

If the Font Error message is displayed, uninstall the font (if it is installed) and remove the font 
file from your system (using Windows Explorer). 


Font Manager Preferences 

To display the Preferences Panel, click on the Preferences button to reveal several options, 
primarily associated with printing specimen sheets. Any changes made to the Preference options 
are saved when you click on OK. 


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The Specimen Line can be changed to view or print any line of text or string of characters. The 
default example makes use of a special code that Font Manager interprets. To include the font 
name in the specimen line, use the code "<F>" (without the quote marks). The letter-F can be 
either upper or lower case. 

Play Sounds lets you turn sound effects off while using the program. 

Show Balloon Help lets you turn on/off popup help whenever the mouse is idle over a control 
(including this one). You can also set the seconds to delay before help is displayed. 

Printed Specimen Sheet Style includes 1-column or 2-column (the number of fonts per sheet 
depends on the size of the font samples and the paper orientation), and the character map which 
prints a sample of every character in the font (maximum of three fonts per page). To include the 
date, time, or page numbers at the bottom of each sheet simply check the options you want. 

Font Size (Points) is used to set the size of the printed font samples. The Byline size is used to set 
the size of the descriptive information, which is printed just below each font sample. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 























Chapter Two — 7 


Page Settings let you set the starting page number. The starting page number is just a number - it 
is not the starting physical page number. Printing always begins with the first font in your print 
list. There are several reasons why you might want to begin printing with a page number other 
than "one". For example, maybe you ran out of paper or had to stop printing for another reason. 
In such a case, you can select just the fonts you want to begin printing with and then set the page 
number as the next number following the last printed page you already have. 

The margins can be set to move the image around the page, as you feel appropriate. The default 
settings offset the page so there is a wide margin on the left for 3-hole punching. 

Page Header and Footer lets you set whatever text you want to appear at the top and bottom of 
every printed page. To omit a header or footer, leave the field blank. 

Restore Original Fonts is a button provided in the event you change your mind after installing or 
uninstalling fonts and want to restore the fonts to the way they were before using the Font 
Manager. This provision works only if you haven't physically moved your font files to another 
location since the first time you ran Font Manager. If you have moved your fonts, erase the files 
with ".BFB" extensions in your Font Manager directory, and run Font Manager again - a new 
image of your installed fonts will be generated automatically. 

To exit Preferences, click on the OK button. 

Viewing Fonts Installed on Your System 

To view the fonts already installed on your system, click on the top-most drop-down menu. 



To select a font, click on any name in the list. However, the most efficient technique for 
reviewing the fonts in any of the drop-down menus is to use the arrow keys to scroll through the 
fonts in the list. A representation of each font will be displayed in the Viewport. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 






















Chapter Two — 8 


Previewing and Installing Fonts 

To preview or install fonts from external media, such as a CD-ROM, the CD must be in your CD- 
ROM Drive. 

If you are installing fonts from the BOSS Fonts CD, Snap 4,000 CD or Focus 4,000 CD, the fonts 
are located on the CD in the Fonts directory. In the Fonts directory you will find two sub¬ 
directories, TT for TrueType and PS for PostScript. 

To view the fonts you may want to install on your system, you must first select the directory on 
the CD where the fonts are located. To do so, click on the Specify Font Folder button located in 
the Control Panel at the bottom-right of the interface. The Select Font Folder dialog box will be 
displayed. 

The Specify Fonts dialog box defaults to your current Windows fonts directory. Change the path 
to that of your CD-ROM drive, which is where the new fonts are, and select the Fonts directory 
in the root of the CD. 



BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 





































Chapter Two — 9 


For the purpose of this exercise, assume that having reviewed the Font Catalog, you want to 
install the font family Carmine, a TrueType serif typeface. 

Carmine will be found in the directory C. Click on C. 

Scroll down the list to confirm that Carmine is present. Carmine is not a single font but a font 
family representing variations such as condensed, italic, extended, bold italic, etc. 



Generally, you will install an entire font family to ensure that all the variations are available in 
the application using the font. Note that there are 246 fonts in the C directory in this example. 

Click on OK to confirm that the directory containing Carmine is selected. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 










































Chapter Two — 10 


The second drop-down list box in the Font Selection Panel now contains the 246 font files in the 
C directory on the CD-ROM. The Font Manager reads the font information from the CD and 
displays it in the ViewPort. 

Using the down arrow key, scroll down to the first entry for Carmine (CARMI_B.TTF). A 

speciment line of the font is shown in the ViewPort. 

To install the font, click on the button Install this Font. Use the arrow key to display the next 
variation of Carmine and install it for a total of eight fonts. 


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BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 






























Chapter Two — 11 


When you click on Install Font, if the font file is located on a CD-ROM, diskette or on a network 
drive, a Font Install Advisory Panel will be displayed. 



From this panel, you can specify a directory on your local hard drive where the font file will be 
copied or you can elect to install from removable media. If the font is installed from removable 
media or a network drive, the media or network drive must be available whenever you use the 
font. Using a font from removable media saves disk space but the media must be available at all 
times. If the font file is read from a network and the files are subsequently moved or unavailable, 
you will not be able to use the font. 

The Font Manager was designed so you can install fonts while another application (such as a 
word processor) is running and the other open application will know the available fonts have 
changed. This convenient feature works with most applications, but some applications (those that 
do not follow proper Windows standards) may not know about font changes if they are already 
running. For these few applications, you will need to start them after you have made changes to 
your installed font list. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 


































Chapter Two — 12 


Un-lnstalling Fonts 

Select the installed font you want to uninstall by clicking on it (from the drop-down list box in 
the Font Selection Panel) . Click on the Un-install Font button and the font is immediately 
uninstalled. The font file is not deleted from your hard drive in case you want to re-install the font 
in the future. 

Printing Font Specimen Sheets 

The drop-down list box in the Fonts-To-Print Panel contains a list of fonts to print. To add the 
displayed font (in the ViewPort) to this list simply click on the Add To Print List button. To add 
all of the fonts in either the Installed or Un-Installed list boxes, first click on the list box you 
want (Installed list or Font Files list) so it is highlighted then click on the All To Print List 
button. If you want to print fonts from multiple directories, first select the directory you want 
using the Specify Font Folder button then repeat the steps above. Click on the Clear Print List 
button to empty the print font list, or you can select a font from the list then click on the Clear 
Print Item button to remove it from the print list. The Font Manager will prompt you when you 
click on Clear Print List so that you do not accidentally delete the list. 

The Print Font Specimens button lets you select the printer and paper orientation then begins 
printing your specimen sheets. Click on the Cancel button to stop printing before the job is 
finished. Before printing, you might want to check your settings in Preferences to make sure you 
have selected the correct sheet style, etc. 

Font System Problems/Failures 

Several provisions in the BOSS Font Manager protect your system in case of font management 
problems. Copies of your WIN.INI and ATM.INI files are stored in the Font Manager directory 
the first time Font Manager is run. This provides an automatic backup in the event that you ever 
need to restore your system to the way it was before using the Font Manager. 

The Font Manager also makes an image of your installed fonts. If you later need to revert to the 
fonts that were installed before adding or deleting fonts, click on the "Preferences" button and on 
the "Restore Fonts" button. This procedure will not work if you have physically moved your font 
files to another location since the first time you ran Font Manager. If you have moved your fonts, 
erase the files with ”.BFB" extensions in your Font Manager directory and run the Font Manager 
again to create a new image of your installed fonts for backup. The procedure is not available in 
case of the failure of Windows' Font System discussed below. 

Detecting Problems 

The BOSS Font Manager analyzes your Windows font system each time you start the program. If 
the Font Manager detects any problems with Windows' font system, an Advisory Alert Message 
is displayed (which refer you to the following paragraphs). 

What Causes the Windows Font System to Fail? 

The most common cause for this condition is over-loading your system with fonts. Windows has 
limits on the number of fonts a system can manage before it fails. The storage required is the 
total of the number of characters in the font name, plus the characters in the complete path name 
(including the file name) for all the installed fonts. The total cannot exceed 64K, which 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter Two — 13 


represents approximately 800 font files. If you, or some software that you installed, exceed this 
limit, you will need to fix your Windows font system. 

Here's How to Fix Your Font System: 

Below are two procedures for fixing your font system. 

1. Create a folder off your root directory and give it a name (for example, "C:\TTF"). 

2. Reduce the number of TrueType font files (file names which have the extension "TTF") in 
your Fonts Folder by moving font files to this new folder until your Fonts Folder contains 
800 or fewer font files. 

3. Exit Windows, and then restart Windows again in SAFE mode. Make sure your are in 
SAFE mode. Do not run any software. The purpose of this procedure is to force Windows 
to rebuild its font data and Registry information. 

4. Exit Windows again, then restart in NORMAL mode. Try the BOSS Font Manager again. 
If the program starts without error, your Fonts folder has been fixed. 


If the above procedure does not solve the problem: 

Check your Control Panel for TWEAKUI. If it is not there, load your Windows CD and 
right-click on the following file on the CD drive: 

\Tools\Reskit\Powertoy\Tweakui.inf 

Select the install option, which will place TWEAKUI in your Control Panel. If you can not 
find TWEAKUI, search your CD for it (or possibly do a search on the Internet). 

Run TWEAKUI. Click on the Repair tab, and then click on "Repair Fonts Folder". 
Windows will inform you that it will re-start. After re-starting, your Fonts Folder will be 
repaired and you will be able to run the Font Manager. 


What if All Else Fails? 

One of the two methods described above should work. However, in some situations, Microsoft's 
TWEAKUI will not fix the Fonts Folder. If you have followed all of the above steps, try 
repeating them a second time. If that does not fix the Fonts Folder, contact Microsoft and ask 
them for an alternate solution. 


Advanced Font Management 

If you are new to computers, you might want to defer reading this until a later time when you 
have more experience with font management. 

Before you can effectively manage your fonts you need to understand how fonts are handled in 
Windows. 

By default, fonts are kept in your \Windows\Fonts folder. There are two problems with this. First, 
every software package dumps fonts into this folder until it becomes sort of like a junk yard for 
files, making management almost impossible. Second, Windows tries to install every font file in 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter Two — 14 


your Fonts folder on start-up. So, if you have a thousand fonts in the folder then all of them get 
installed — what a waste of memory and resources! 


To take control you need to move your fonts to another folder. To a folder which you create and 
only you have control over. Leave only the original Windows fonts in the \Windows\Fonts folder. 

Here's a list of the fonts we recommend you keep in your \Windows\Fonts folder: 


Arial 

Arial Italic 
Arial Bold 
Arial Bold Italic 


Courier 
Courier Italic 
Courier Bold 
Courier Bold Italic 


Times New Roman Symbol 

Times New Roman Italic Wingdings 

Times New Roman Bold 
Times New Roman Bold Italic 


The advantage of this approach is that only the fonts you want installed are installed and, if some 
software package installs a lot of fonts in your \Windows\Fonts folder they will be easy to 
identify. If you want to keep them, move them to your folder, otherwise delete them. 


Step-by-step Instructions: 

1. Make a folder. Something like "c:\TTF" will work, for example. 

2. Copy (don't move) all TrueType font files from your \Windows\Fonts folder to your new 
folder. TrueType font files have a file extension of ".TTF". Only copy this type of file. Do not 
copy files that end in any other extension. For example, files that end in ".FON" are your 
Windows screen fonts and should never be moved, so don't copy them. 

3. Make a FontPack (explained in the Manager section) of some basic fonts from their new 
location. Maybe give the FontPack a name like Basic Fonts. 

4. Install the FontPack you just made replacing all other installed fonts. 

5. Restart Windows. Then before using any other software, go ahead and delete the TrueType 
font files from your \Windows\Fonts folder. You want to do this right after starting Windows 
because once a font is used by another software package then that font will not be able to be 
erased from your system for the rest of that Windows session. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter 3: A Brief Look at Type 


Movable Type 

Movable type, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century, has been called one of the 
great inventions of mankind: because of it, printed knowledge became accessible to more than 
just the learned few. It could be said without exaggeration that movable type is responsible for 
the so-called Information Age, our own age. 

Not surprisingly, early type was based exclusively on handwritten characters; it mimicked the 
strokes of a master scribe’s pen. 

Hark CrttarB 

Type evolved quickly, but many typefaces still show vestiges of their handwritten origins. The 
most obvious vestige is the serif, which appears in more than half the typefaces in existence 
today. The serif replicates the mark a pen might make as it lifted from paper at the end of a 
stroke. In addition, many of these serif typefaces have thick and thin strokes, such as would be 
produced by a pen. 

Aa Bb Cc 123 

Type Design 

Typefaces have been classified many different ways, but there are two traditional categories: serif 
and sans serif. As mentioned above, serif characters have horizontal strokes at the tops and 
bottoms of their verticals, and they often display thick and thin strokes. 

B B 1 1 

Serif Sans Serif Serif Sans Serif 
Sans serif characters have no serifs; it is that simple. 

Of the two, sans serif typefaces are the more recent design, but serif typefaces are still being 
created, and they do outnumber the sans serifs. 

Measurement 

Type is traditionally measured in points and picas, a system similar to inches and feet: 12 points 
equal one pica. The increments of pica measurement are very small (6 picas or 72 points equal 
one inch) and are thus very appropriate for measuring type. 

The point size of a given font is measured from the top of the font’s ascenders to the bottom of its 
descenders. A font’s cap height is the measure of the height of an uppercase (capital) letter; its x- 
height is the measure of a lowercase (small) letter. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



Chapter Three — 16 



The traditional measurement between lines of type, called leading (and pronounced tedding), is 
measured in points from baseline to baseline. (Some typesetting systems, such as Adobe 
PageMaker, allow you to choose from “Baseline,” “Top of Caps,” and “Proportional.") The 
baseline of a line of type runs parallel to the bottom of a font’s x-height. 


. . . Text Baselinr 

Line spacing in . 
traditiQnal_typ_ography__ 
is called “leading,” and 
is measured between 


baselines ,! 30 poin,s 


24-Point A&L Heritage 
on 30-Points of Leading 


Fixed and Proportional Spacing 

The spacing between characters in a font can be either fixed or proportional. Fixed spacing 
places every character in an invisible “cell” that is equal to the width of a capital “M” in that 
font. Typewriters and word processors generally use fixed spacing. Proportional spacing assigns 
each character a cell based upon the actual width of the character. 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 





Chapter Three — 17 



Kerning 

Kerning is a process that moves optically distant letter pairs closer together than their cells would 
normally allow. A proportional font need not be kerned to be readable; script fonts, for example, 
may not be kerned. However, kerning is a mark of typographic quality, and a well-made font will 
have kerning information built into it, so that all its optically distant letter pairs are affected. The 
fonts in the Arts & Letters BOSS Fonts package have been kerned, most with over 100 kerning 
pairs, and some with more than 400. Arts & Letters allows you further control of kerning pairs; 
you can specify from 0% (no kerning) to 100% (full kerning). 


NAVY Top 

Although the characters are spaced proportionally, the A - V 
and T - o pairs appear to be too far apart. 

NAVY Top 

With kerning set at 65%, the kerning pairs move closer. 


Raster Typefaces 

Raster typefaces are composed of bitmapped images of individual characters at different sizes. 
Each font file contains a pixel-by-pixel representation of each character. Because a separate file 
of images is required for each size, raster typefaces are available to the user in graduated steps: 8 
point, 10 point, 12 point, 14 point, 18 point, 24 point, etc. There are no steps between the sizes. 
Users can rescale the resultant images, but because the letterforms are bitmaps, jagged edges will 
become apparent. 

Because of the fixed size and scaling limitations, raster typefaces are not widely used. 

Vector Typefaces 

Vector typefaces are composed of either Bezier curve or quadratic curve descriptions of the 
outlines of font characters. Because of this, there is only one file for each font; the print 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 





Chapter Three — 18 


controller generates the correct image for whatever size the user specifies. Some vector fonts 
(such as those on the Arts & Letters BOSS Fonts CD-ROM) are designed with “hinting,” an 
automatic process whereby letterforms are subtly and automatically altered to produce an 
optimum appearance, no matter what size they are printed, whether 6 points or 600. Vector 
typefaces come in two varieties: PostScript Type 1 (which utilize cubic Bezier curves) and 
TrueType (which utilize quadratic curves). 

PostScript, a page-description language developed by Adobe, is the graphics industry standard 
for imaging text, graphics, and images. Because they are versatile and predictable, PostScript 
type fonts are also a standard in the graphic industry. Their font description files (.PFB and 
.PFM) are roughly half the size of TrueType files, which confers some storage advantage, but the 
Adobe Type Manager (ATM), a font handling program, is required in order to install and utilize 
PostScript fonts. 

TrueType fonts were originally developed by Apple to compete with PostScript fonts. TrueType 
font files (.FOT and .FON) are roughly twice the size of PostScript font files, which could cause 
storage concerns. (The larger size is due partly to the quadratic curves used by TrueType fonts 
requiring three points, as opposed to the two points used in Bezier curves.) On the other hand, 
because TrueType is supported by Microsoft Windows, no additional font-handling program, 
such as ATM, is required by the user. The “Fonts” dialog box, in the Windows Control panel, is 
all that is needed to install and use TrueType fonts. 

The fonts on the Arts & Letters Boss FONTS CD are provided in both PostScript and TrueType 
format, in order to give users the greatest flexibility. 

Books About Typography 

Typography is an art, and as such, it is quite beyond the scope of this booklet. There are a great 
many books about the subject of typography, and we have listed a few here. 

The History and Technique of Lettering, by Alexander Nesbitt (New York: Dover Publications, 
1957). 

The Alphabet and Elements of Lettering, by Frederic W. Goudy (New York: Dover Publications, 
1963). 

Better Type, by Betty Binns (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1989). 

First Principles of Typography, by Stanley Morrison (Cambridge: University Press, 1951). 

Typography, A Manual of Design, by Emil Ruder (Niederteufen, Switzerland: Arthur Niggli, 
Ltd., 1977). 

Designing with Type; A Basic Course in Typography, by James Craig and Susan E. Meyer (New 
York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1980). 

Manuale Typographicum, by Herman Zapf (Frankfurt, New York: Z-Presse, 1968). 

American Typography Today, by Rob Carter (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989). 

Homage to the Alphabet; A Typeface Sourcebook (Rockport, Massachusetts: Rockport 
Publishers, 1991). 


BOSS Fonts User’s Guide 



The most comprehensive book about 
Arts & Letters EXPRESS ever written 

This book is written for everyone, and is a great book for Arts & 
Letters enthusiasts both new and old. It will prove invaluable to all of 
you - for those of you who have been using the program since the mid 
1980's, as well as those who just joined on with the latest version. 

Easy to read and understand, the Official Guide to Arts & Letters 
contains "textbook" elements so it can be adapted for use by schools 
and curriculum developers. 

Every aspect of Arts & Letters is included; every tool is detailed, every 
menu is examined, and countless applications of the tools are offered. 

Included in the book are step-by-step instructions for performing all 
tasks and using all of the features of Arts & Letters Express. This 
includes items not found in the 


Help files, such as how to add fonts and clip art from third party applications, and how to import and 
export images between applications. 

There is a CD-ROM with ideas for teachers, projects for students, concepts for flyers, company 
documents, announcements, and much more. The reader can use the art files as templates for creating 
their own work. 

So for all of you out there who've been using Arts & Letters for years and years, this book is for you; 
you'll learn how to use the tools you have yet to try or don't quite understand. For those of you that are 
new to Arts & Letters - what a great time and place for you to get on board! 



About the Author 

Joli Ballew is a full-time writer and graphic artist and resides in the Dallas area. She has also worked as 
an educational content consultant, a network administrator, a high school algebra teacher, and a college 
instructor. After graduating from the Performing Arts Magnet in Dallas where she studied music and the 
arts, she attended college at the University of Texas at Arlington, and graduated with a B.A. in 
Mathematics and a minor in English. 

Currently Joli has three books available: Windows 2000 Professional Test Yourself from Syngress 
Media, and Windows 2000 Server On Site and Windows XP Professional - The Ultimate User's Guide 
both published by Paraglyph Press. Joli is working on two new books to be published in late 2002; The 
Complete Idiot's Guide to Photoshop Elements by Alpha books (co-authored with Greg Holden) and A 
Simple Guide to Photoshop 7.0, published by Pearson Education. 


About the Technical Editor 

Sam Andrew, Technical Editor for the book, combines real world experience in graphics with an 
understanding of education and curriculum development. 

Sam is the Curriculum Manager for Technology Education for Highlands High School in Pennsylvania 
and was instrumental in developing their Computer Graphic Design Specialist Program replacing a 
traditional Industrial Arts program. Highlands now has articulation agreements with six colleges and 
technical schools to which Highland graduates are able to go with advanced credit. Arts & Letters 
EXPRESS has been an integral part of the Highlands' curriculum for the past ten years. Sam is currently 
developing a Computer Graphic Design class for adults in the community. 










About the Publisher 

Wordware Publishing, Inc. is the leading computer book publisher for these subjects: Game 
Development, Game Production, Delphi, Kylix, LightWave, 3DS Max, DirectX, Search Engine 
Optimization, Sybase, AutoCAD LT, FileMaker, Peachtree, and Miva. 

At the retail level, Wordware sells through Waldenbooks, Barnes & Noble, Borders, and Amazon.com 
and Ingram and Baker & Taylor at the wholesale level. Wordware has distribution channels in Canada 
and throughout the world. 



WORDWARE 


Learn Arts & Letters Express 7 

by Joli Ballew 
ISBN 1-55622-969-0 
Price $39.95 


Order Now