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Captain Myles 
Standish: his 
lost lands and 

Thomas Cruddas 

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Published by the University of Manchester at 
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (H. M. McKsgkmib, ILA., Seontary), 

39, Paternoster Row, London, E.G. 4. 
Fourth Avenue and Thirtieth Street, Nsw York. 
336, Hornby Road, Bombay. 
6, Old Court House Street, Calcutta. 
167, Mount Roftdy Madkas. 

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Ffom m PmiKMitg tU PfymotUh. 

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It, Lime Grovr^ Oxf^'Ku Koap. 

LoKDON, New York, t m»at, btc, 




Captain Myles Standish 


A New Investigation. 

*• : * • 


Viem of St. John the 2Huin§, 

Coppuil^ Lancashire. 

12, Limb Gkove, Oxford Road. 

London, Nbw York, Boh bat^ btc. 


UtftvBRsiTY OF Manchester Publications. 

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HE ancestral homes of the Men of the Mayflower 
are centres of interest both to Americans and 

The following pages record some recent researches 
into "the mystery of Myles Standish." New light is 
thrown on the problem of his lost lands, and of his descent. 
Some old traditions are challenged ; the squires of Dux- 
buxy and the rectors of Chorley are deared of the charges 
oftoi brought against them. 

May every other misunderstanding, whether small or 
great, between Old England and New England be as 
easily dissipated, and Anglo-American friendship wax 
firm and strong. 

The author is indebted to Professor James Tait for 
much guidance and help, and to H. M. McKechnie, Esq., 
M.A., Secretary of the Manchester University Press, 

for the valuable assistance he has given. 

Cordial thanks are tendered to Mrs. Tempest and to 
H. N. W. Standish, Esq., for the use of the Standish 
Deeds and Papers ; to Dr. William Earrer for the loan of 
the Towneley Manuscripts ; and also to Mr. D. Halton for 
permission to use photographs. 

Harold Sunmer, Esq., O.O.B.E.^ has given generous 
aid towards the cost of publication. 

Last, but not least, the writer is indebted to J. M. Ains- 
cough, Esq., J. P., his friend and helper in many an anti* 
quarian quest 






The Character and Career of Captain Standish . t 


The Mystery of Myus Standish . . . . q 

The Standishes of Ormskirk and of Man 



The Captain's Descent from Standish of Standish 
AND His Connection with Duxbury 


Longfellow's " Courtship of Miles Standish " 




Standish Hall .... ... 




Deeds relating to the Lost Lands 


Appendix — Later Standishes of Ormskirk 



Arbbr, Edward, The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623 ; 
4W M4 ^ th§ms§kf$s, iMr frumds, and fJMr mmm^s. 1897. 

Bradford, William. History of tk§ PUmotk PkaUaHm, 
Ed. J. A. Doyle, 1896. 

HuBMOto, WkLUAM, (r^Mfvf HUlory of Nm Emgkmd» 
Second editioB, 1848. 

MacKenmal, Alexandbs, Homes and Haunts of the Fiigrim 
Fathers. 1899. 

BlASBPtSLD, JoRif . Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers. Every- 
man's Library, igiy. This contains works by N. Morton, 
Cushman, Wmslow, and others. In this book it 18 briefly 
referred to as Filgnm Fathers, 


Morton, Nathaniel, New England's MmiumaU, Fifth 
edition, 1826, and vanoas editions. 

Nbw EtrGLAKD Historic Gbmbaxxksical Socibtt'b Pubu- 


Pilgrim Fathers. See Mase&eld. 

Usher, Rolamd» Tho POgrimt and Umr History, 1918. 

Young, Alexander. ChrofUdOi of tko PUgrim FeUkm, 
Second edition, x344* 

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List of Iliustrations. 

Mylbs Stanoisb, from a painting at Plymouth, Mass. 


Map (Fiom Gamdca's Bntanmat 1695 editioa) . facing t 

Chorlbt Rbgistbs, Fage 39, with tlie aUeged mutila^ 

tion, and the preceding page. . 18 

Cbokut Chueck in 1859 on 23 

Monument to Captain Mylbs Stanoish at Dux- 
bury, Mass. facing 54 

DuxBVRY Hall in 1846 . . . . . »• 70 

Standish Church and Stan dish Hall . , *• 76 

Thb Gratb of Mylss Stanoish at Duxbury, Mass. 92 

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Part of the County Palatine of Lancaster. 

From Cmmdm*$ Bri to iw rfa , BdUhn of 169s (mAwmI). 

The above map, scale about 6] miles to the inch, shews the places men- 
tioned in the will of Captain Myles Standish, except Mawdesley which 
adjoins Bispham. Onnskirk is a town accessible from Wigan or Southpert ; 
it pottMtM an intarMtiac mneieat Church. At Buneongh are th« tcaatj 
mfiiB of the old Abbey. Crotlon, Mawdeslej, Newbnrgh end WriKhtiogtoa 
are country places. At Standish Church are many interesting memoruJs; 
and at Chorley Church the motiunients of the Standisiies of Duzbury. 
The above map shews Tim Fde (now Duxbury Perk) on Ibe wrong aide of 
the river, but the accompanjinc name it on the correct, south, side. The 
1637 edition gives the name as "The Pole of Duzbury." It was aerer ia the 
parish of Chorley. at toiBe hsve Bappoaad» b«i wtt alwajrt in tba ancient 
parith of Standish. 

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The Character and Career of 
Captain Standish. 

IT has recently been said concerning the PUgrun Fathers 
that they leave no impression of personality on the 
mind. "Not one of them had compelling personal 
genins, or marked talent for the work in hand." 

Mr. John Masefield's statement is perhaps a necessary 
correcdve to excessive hero-worship, but so blunt s^n 
estimate is apt to be misleading. The men who crossed the 
Atlantic in 1620, seeking a large measure of freedom in 
worship, were not great in genius as poets and artists are ; 
but they were surely great in character and endurance. 
Moreover, they had the physical and mental gifts which 
enabled them to become the founders of a new common- 

The chronicles are somewhat meagre. We know com- 
paratively little of the tragedy and comedy of the early 
settlement. But what we do know forbids us to think 
that the Pilgrims were lacking in personality, and that 
they were in temperament dull and drab as the hoddeur 
grey they wore. 

Captain Myles Standish stands somewhat apart from 
the other Men of the Mayflower. But he is usually counted 
among the Pilgrims; and if Mr. Masefield includes him 
in the summary judgment just quoted, and contends that 
the Captain of Pljnnouth leaves upon us no impression of 
personahty, Longfellow and Lowell thought differently. 
The romanticists deUght in him ; tradition gathers round 
him. It is not so with a mere lay figure. Even if we take 
away all that we owe to the literary redactors, and envisage 

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years he was assistant governor, and was treasurer of the 
colony, 1644-T649. 

One other reference reveals him to have been a gallant 
English gentleman in his attitude to the native Indian 
women. "So the Captam returned to the plantation, 
where he released the women, and would not take their 
beaver coats from them, nor sufCer the least discourtesy 
to be offered tliem.*** 

We cannot iairly say, then, that the Captain of Plymouth 
leaves upon us "no impression of personality." Casual 
imiuiry may lead us, like Pecksuot, to deem him a little 
man ; but a careful reading of the chronicles will reveal 
to us his strength and gentleness. We shall find him, to 
echo the words which Longfellow puts into the mouth of 
the friendly Indian, Big enough to lay us speechless 
before him."* 

The statements made by Nathaniel Morton, to the 
effect that Standish was bcMrn in Lancashire, went to the 
Netherlands, was a soldier there, and became acquainted 
with the church at Leyden, embrace all that is definitely 
known about him before 1620. 

His descendants about two centuries after his death 
claimed that they had seen a commission appointing him 
to a lieutenancy in Her Majesty's forces on the Continent* 
which gave the date of his birth as X5S4. If this commission 
is extant, it should yield other useful information, but its 
whereabouts cannot be ascertained. 

Myles would be about 19 years old when Queen Elizabeth 
died, March 24, 1602-3 ; so that he was a very youthful 

Markham in his account of " The Fighting Veres " 
mentions Myles among their soldiers, but probably on the 
evidence of Longfellow's poem, for he gives no reference 
to Myles from military documents of that period. 

^Pilmm Faihers, 329; cf, Heary V. at Harfleur, GestaHenrici F. 

Eng. Hist. Soc., 217. 

*Cf, PUgfim Fathers, 327. 

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The present writer has vainly searched several volumes 
of the State Papers, Holland, in the Public Record Office^ 
for any mention of him. Vol. 60 gives an account of the 
Battle of Newport by Sir Francis Vere, January 22, 1600-1, 
and there are also Usts of officers returning home on leave, 
etc. In the volume of loose papers dated about 1602, paper 
nimiber 225 gives names of all the captains in the Low 
Counties, but Myles Standish is not included. 

According to Professor Usher, Standish was sent by the 
Merchant Adventurers with the Pilgrims in the Mayflower, 
as their salaried servant. No doubt the Merchants re- 
garded liim as a sort of insurance policy ; they paid his 
stipend in order that he might defend the euugrauts and 
teach them to defend themselves. 

Being deflected from their intended destination (the 
lands of the Virginian Company) the Pilgrims cast anchor 
on November 11, 1620, in the bay of Cape Cod. Standish 
acted as commander of the exploring parties. It is stated 
that he was the only one of the colonists who had ever 
fished or fired a gun. It is pretty certain that but for Ids 
foresight the explorers would have been exterminated on 
the field of the First Encounter, December 8, 1620, when 
a surprise attack was made upon them by the Indians.^ 

On December 19, the settlers selected a site for their 
colony to winch they gave the name New Plymouth. 
Here it was that Myles Standish endeared himself to the 
sick by his skill and care in the terrible sufferings of the 
first winter. 

On February 17, 1620-1, Standish was chosen, or con- 
firmed, in the office of captain, and given command in 
mihtary matters.* 

Oi cdl his exploits, the rcbcue of Weston's colony at 
Weymouth in March, 1622-3, is perhaps the most notable. 
A great plot had been arranged by the Indians to kill 
Weston and his companions, and then assail the white 
people at Plymouth. Standish set off for Weymouth 

* Usher's Pilgrims, 75, 79. 

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with only eight men, and on his arrival was mocked by 
the unfriendly chiefs, Pecksuot and Wituwamat. Dis- 
playing marvellous calmness and courage, he bided his 
time, enticed the ringleaders away from the others and 
slew them. The combat took place in a lodge, not out- 
of-doors as Longfellow depicts it. Winsiow^s Relation 
gives the incident with much detail.^ 

A visit to England was paid by Captain Standish in the' 
sununer of 1625. He went to London to seek the help of 
the Council of New England in settling diffrrenccs between 
the colonists and the Merchant Adventurers of London. 
He accomplished very little on account of the plague, 
and returned in April, 1626, to New Plymouth. Later in 
the same year many of the London Adventurers were 
bought out. Myles Standish and seven other leading 
planters, with four London friends, undertook to raise part 
of the money needed, in return for a monopoly of the loreign 

In 1628, trouble arose between the Pl5anouth settlers and 
Thomas Morton's colony at Merry Mount, near Boston. 
Captain Standish went to arrest Morton who had sold 
guns to the Indians. Morton and iiis friends threatened 
a desperate resistance, and he put up his gun to shoot 
Standish. But the latter stepping forward, pushed away the 
gun and took him prisoner. Like the hostile Indians, 
Morton taunted Standish with his small stature, calling him 
"Captain Shrimp;" but once again the cool darnig of 
the Captain triumphed, and Morton was sent to England 
for trial. « 

Among other adversaries of the colonists were some 
French traders, who in 1635 seized a fort on the Penobscot, 
belonging to the Plymouth settlers. Captain Standish 
was sent to dispossess them, but was not successfol. He 
was foiled by the navigatiiig captain of the ship in 
which he sailed and by the men, who fired oft all the 
shot at long range. 

* Pilgrim Fathers^ 267. 
93 ; U^thar, 140. 

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Believing that Plymouth was not the best site, Myles 
Standish and some others removed in 1632 to a new settle- 
ment on tlie north side oi Plymoutii Bay, and to this the 
name Duxbury was given. 

In 1653, when war with the Dutch appeared Hkely, 
60 men of the colony were impressed, and Captain Standish, 
though in his 70th >'ear, was called to command them. 
This was within three years of his death. Happily the 
disputants did not come to blows. 

The offices in the colony held by Captain Standish have 
already been mentioned. He died at Duxbury on October 
3, 1656. Nathaniel Morton says in connection with the 
Captain's death, "He growmg ancient, became sick of the 
stone, or strangury, wliereof, after his siilfering of much 
dolorous pain, he fell asleep in the Lord and was honourably 
buried at Duxbury." 

A copy of his will with the inventory attached is among 
the court records at Plymouth. ^ This wiU, dated March 
7, 1655-6, mentions his second wife Barbara, his sons 
Alexander, Myles, Josias, Charles, and his deceased daughter 
Lora. The clause relating to liis lands in Lancasiiire 
win be discussed later. 

Captain Standish left buildings and land worth £140, 
and ^£358 7s. in personalty. He had five horses and colts, 
four oxen, 10 cows and calves, 11 sheep and 14 swine. 
His arms and amour comprised a fowling piece, three 
muskets, lour carbines, two small gims, a swofd, a catlass 
and three belts. Among the remaining articles were 
sach loxnries as leather-beds and scent bottles, and such 
practical things as spinning wheels, beer casks and a malt 
mill. His books are discussed on pages 85-97. 

His second wife, Barbara, came out to the colony on the 
ship Anne in the year 1623. She was called Mrs. Standish 
in the grant oi lands in t£at same year. In 1627 they had 
three children, Charles, Alexander and John. There is 
a tradition that Rose, the first wife, was related to Barbara, 
the second ; some say she was a sister, others say a cousin. 

^'Mayflotm D§9cmuUmi, III., 155-^55- 

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There is also a dillerence of opinion as to whetlier the 
maiden surname of Rose and Barbara was Standish, or 
some other name now unknown.* 

The descendants of Captain Standish are numerous in 
America. According to Beiknap, Dr. W'heelock, a president 
of Dartmouth College, and Dr. Kirkland, a president of 
Harvard, are to be numbered among them. 

The alleged portrait of Myles Standish at Pilgrim Hall, Ply- 
mouth, is not |)r()\ ed to be authentic. It purports to repre- 
sent him in i(j2 5 , and i n his 38th year, thus implying a diilerent 
date for his birtli than 1584, the year usually accepted.* 

A monument to his memory consisting of a granite 
shaft no feet high, surmounted by a bronze hgure of the 
Captain, has been erected at Duxbury, in America. The 
comer stone was laid in 1872. 

Something has already been s^d about his character 
and importance. He was, as Mr. Goodwin has expressed 
in an eloquent estimate in "The Pilgrim Republic/' 
** the man of men whom the Pilgrims most needed." 

" There can be no doubt/' says'Professor Usher, '* that 
if Bradford was the great figure in civil affairs, Standish 
was the dominant iifiuence in deaUng with the Indians. 
Winslow to be sure did much, but Standish obtained a 
better knowledge of the Indian dialects, and was in addition 
a much more active and resourceful man. The romanticists 
and poets have dealt hardly with him, almost to the undoing 

of his place in history He was admirably weU- 

idaced however in the colony, and the more one studies 
Pilgrim annals the larger he bulks, the greater his ability 
seems, and the more important his services. His high 
personal courage, his resourcefulness, his great physi^ 
endurance, his fiery temper, all made hun the leader 
needed to complement the more peaceful and contemplative 

^Belknap, Am, Biog., II., 310; Morton, 1826 ed., 262. 
^Mass. Hist. Soc, XV., 324. C. K. Bolton, Portraits of the 
Founders, Boston, 1919, v€l. ii. 
*Tk§ Pifgrinu, 126. 

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The Mystery of Myles Standish. 

ALTHOI^GH Captain Standish played such a leading 
part in the settlement of New Plymouth, there 
has always been a certain obscurity as to his 
presence among the Pilgrims, and also in regard to his 
birth and English connections. A threefold mystery is 
attached to his name There is the problem of his religion, 
the problem of his pedigree, and the problem of his lost 

First as to his religious behefs, he seems never to have 
joined the church of the Pilgrims.* Their comrade in 
adventure was not in entire sympathy with their separatist 
tenets. Why then did he accompany them ? If Professor 
Usher's statement can be substantiated, that Myles was 
in the service of the Merchant Adventurers who financed 
the undertaking, this su|) plies a motive for his going in the 
Mayflower. There may have been subsidiary motives as 
well. His fellow-colonists speak of him as a rehgious 
man. This n;ay be deduced also from the nim:iber of 
religious books in his hbrary, and also from the tone of his 
will. He asks his supervisors to do the office of Christian 
love to his wife and children and be helpful to them by 
Christian counsel. Though they may not be able to 
rep.iy it "* I Doe not Doubt but the Lord will." 

The fact that Myles Standish never belonged to the 
Pilgrims' Church has been elaborated by Dr. John Gilmary 
Shea^ to prove that he was a Romanist. But aij^ honest 
Roman Catholic could not have taken the oath required 
of soldiers serving in the English forces in the Netherlands. 
The oath contained the following clauses : " I, A.6., do 

1 Hubbard, 63. Diet. Nat. Bwg. 
*Mag. of Amer* Hisi., i., 390. 

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sweare and promise to do all true loyal and fruitful service 
unto the Queen's Majesty of England, &c., and further 
will defend and maintaine the reformed Christian religion 
so farre as becometh a true and loyall captain, officer or 
souldier, &c., abjuring and without decept denying the 
pope with all his hereticall doctrines and opinions."^ 

Again, the records of the Colony show that he was present 
at the Puritan services in attendance on the governor. 
Would a devout Roman CathoUc have been able to do 
this, and would the Pilgrims have put him in office if he 
had not been a Protestant ? On the whole we incline to 
the opinion that he was neither Separatist nor Romanist, 
but, hke the great maiority of his fellow-country people, an 
English Churchman content with the compromise re- 
presented by the reformed Church. ^ 

Passing to the problem of the Captain's descent, there 
is ^^eneral concurrence with the statement of Morton tiiat 
Myies was born in Lancashire. But to which branch of 
the Standish family did he belong ? The claim that he 
made in his will suggests a connection with the parent 
stock at Standish Hall. After making allusion to some 
lands of which he had been defrauded (a matter which will 
be discussc l in detail a little later), he says that his great- 
grandfather was a second or younger brother from the 
house of Standish of Standish. On the other hand, when 
Captain Standish removed from Plymouth to a new settle- 
ment, he or his friends called this settlement Duxbury. 
This appears to connect Myles with another branch of the 
Standish family, seated at Duxbiuy Park in Lancashire, 
and quite distinct from " Standish of Standish." The 
discrepancy is not easy to overcome. It is true that 
the Duxhury Park f anuly was derived from the Standish 
Hatt stock. But the two branches were distinct from the 
opening of the fourteenth century, long before Myles 
Standish's great-grandfather was bom. 

* State Papers, Holland, P.K.O., bundle without date about 
1602, loose paper 98. 
' See also pp. 42, 89. 

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Perhaps the Captain used " great-grandfather " in a 
vagiie sense as equivalent to remote ancestor ? But he was 
claiming property, and a vague statement is somewhat 

Another suggestion is that, as Duxburv is situated in 
the ancient parish of Standish, the Captain used the 
words " of Standish " in the parochial sense, which 
would include Duxbury. But when the phrase Standish 
of Standish is used, it is more natural to understand the 
place-name as denoting the township or manor, and as 
differentiating this Standish family from other Standish 

The mystery deepens when we examine the pedigrees, 
deeds, and papers belonging to these two families, and find 
in the records of neither branch any mention of a Myles> 

No evidence as to the Captain's descent is deducible 
from the names he gave to his children. " Lora " is 
found in the Standish Hall branch in 1398.* "Alexander " 
is a name found in both the major branches of the family. 
Nor would Myles's religious position, even if clearly estab- 
lished, give dehnite guidance. The Duxbury Standishes 
were Protestants, but not Separatists. Those at the 
Hall temporised a good deal until about 1652, when they 
more definitely adhered to the Roman Cathohc position.' 
So far, investigators have failed to prove a hne of descent 
for Myles from either branch of the family. 

The earliest definite reference to the English estates of 
Captain Myles Standish is contained in the concluding 
paragraph of his last will and testament, which is dated 
March 7, 1655 [1655-6] and was exhibited bef(»re the 
Conrt at Plymouth, May 4, 1657, and reads as follows : 

1 By a slip oi the pen, the editor of Vol. XXVI., Lane, and Ckes, 
Ru, soe,, has written " BfUfls Standidi " initead of the Alexaader 
who married Maigaret Clifton, p. 60. 

* Mrs. Tempest, Standish Dcwda^ 1x5. 
'C41/. 0/ Com. Cmiip*t IV., 2574. 

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9 I give unto my son & heire apareat Allexander Standish all my 
lands as heire apparent by lawfoll Decent in Ormistick Bonconge 

Wrightington Maudsley Newburrow Crawston and the He of man 
and given to mce as right heire by lawfiill Decent but Surruptuously 
Detained irom mee my great G(rau)diather being a 2^^^ or younger 
brother from the house of Standish o! Standlsh.^ 

These lost lands are apparently referred to again in the 
last will of his eldest son, Alexander Standish, dated 
February 21, 1701-2 and proved August 10, 1702. 
The will suggests that he was taking steps towards the 
recovery of the English estate which his father claimed, 
for it says : 

Also my will is That whatsoever Estate Either in New England 
or in old which I have Committed into y* hands of Robert oroiard 
to Recover in England by letters of Attorney from under my hand 
and Seal And John Rogers of Boston in New England by a letter 
of Attorney from under my iiand & seal lie Kecovered alter my 
decease my will is that my wife have her third part ft y Remainder 
to he divided Equally befeweene Thomas Standish Ichabod Standish 
A desire Standish.* 

The efforts at recovery were evidently unsuccessful. 
No record has yet been found of the steps taken; and 
nothing more is heard of the matter for about a century. 
But Captain Standish's statements were referred to by 
several early writers. Nathaniel Morton, in his " New 
Englands Memoriall," printed in 1669, about thirteen 
years after the Captain's death, repeated more briefly the 
claims made in the will;' and the Rev. WilUam Hubbard, 
who also wrote before the close of the seventeenth century, 
says that Captain Standish " was allied to the noble house 
of Standish in Lancashire, inheriting some of the virtues 
of that honourable family, as well as the name."* Morton 
emphasises the social status of the Captain, and also the 
extent of his lost property. *' He wa:. a Gentlemiin, born in 
Lancashire, and was Heir- Apparent unto a great Instate of 
Lands and Livings, surreptitiously detained from him, his 

^Mayflower Descendani, III., X53-i55< Speltasin theCourt Records, 
* lb,, XII., X0X-I02. As in the Court Records. 
^Pilgnm Fathers, lyi, 
• ^Gm. Hist, Eng,, znd ecL, 1848, p. 556. 

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great Grandfather being a Second or Younger Brother 
from the House of Standtsh."^ 

Remarkably Httle attention has been paid to the locality 
or lie of the lands mentioned in the will. While the 
statement as to lineage would seem to connect Myles with 
the Standish Hall family, and the American Duxbury 
suggests some undiscovered link between him and the 
Duxbury Standishes, investigators have not appreciated 
the fact that the t;:3tate which Myles claimed lay somewhat 
distant both from Standish and from Duxbury. Some 
have arrived at the unjustifiable conclusion that the lands 
mentioned formed the estate of the Duxbury Standishes. 
The result of ignorini< the locality of the lands has been 
rashly to connect Myles Standish s statement that he was 
disinherited with the naming of liis settlement in the 
Colony. Thus the mistaken idea has arisen that he was 
right heir to the Duxbury estates, but lost them through 
the fraud of others. Myles did not make such a cianu 
in his will ; but he made other statements resdly incon- 
sistent with this view. This claim to "the Duxbury estates 
appears to have been first set up by an Association of the 
Captain's descendants in America about the year 1846. 
It was given publicity in Winsor's '* History of Duxbury " 
(1849), and unfortunately adopted by Longfellow in ''The 
Court^p of Miles Stan^sh." The popularity of his poem 
gave the story a wide circulation. 

Leaving the Duxbury myth for later discussion, let us 
ask whose the lands mentioned by the Captain really 
were, i.e., to what branch of the family did they belong? 
So far only two Standish households in Lancashire have 
been mentioned, but were there no others? In addition 
to the two chief families, Standishes were found in aU parts 
of the county in the time of Myles. And some of these 
other homesteads were by no means unimportant. The 
heads of these scatt^ed Standish families were in some 
cases gentlemen or even esquires. For instance, the 

^N&m Eng. Mem., facaunile edition. 

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Standishes oi Burgh Hall (in Chorley and Duxbury), and 
those of West Derby were entitled to use heraldic arms. 

In dealing with the lost lands of Captain Standish, three 
staten^ents will be made, and if possible, substantiated. 
First, he did not cLiim any part of the estate belonging 
the family at Standish Hall. Secondly, the lost lands had 
no connection with the family at Duxbury Manor House. 
Thirdly, they iornied the estate of the Standish family 
of Ormskirk. 

The family of Standish of Standish (the parent stock), 
as the name denotes, had their chief estate in the township 
or townships of Standish with Langtree. Ralph Standish, 
who died in 1538, held the manor of Standish and 22 houses 
there, and also three mills, 200 acres ot arable land, 100 
acres of meadow, 200 acres of pasture, 100 acres of wood, 
and 200 acres of heath and mocN:.^ 

By the time of Edward Standish, who died in z6io, 
the estate was somewhat reduced; but his inquisition 
post mortem mentions some 330 acres in Standish.* Now 
Capt. Myles did not daim a single acre in this viU, which 
was the very headquarters of the Standish Hall stock. 
Similarly, they held very extensively in Shevington, from 
early times claiming a fourth part of the manor; the 
Edward just mentioned had seven houses and land there. 
Very early also they obtained a house and land in Wigan. 
The aforesaid Ralph acquired extensive property in 
Duxbury and CoppuU. None of these estates are refened 
to in the Captain s will. Again, lands in other parts of 
Lancashire, such as Chadderton, Glodwick, and Rochdale, 
were from time to time added by marriage to the Standish 
possessions ; but not an inch of these dowry lands was 
mentioned by Capt. Myles. This indicates that he made no 
claim to the chief part of the estate held by the manorial 
lords of Standish. 

There are, however, two places named in the Captain's ' 
will in whi ch the parent stock had a small estate, viz., 

^ Lanes. Inquis. P.M., Vol. 8, No. ax. 
VoL 80, Na 7. 

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Onnskirk and Wrightington, and othm where ihey had 
a temporaiy interest. 

The feunily of Standish of Standish had only one tenement 
in the parish of Onnskirk, and the history of this tenement 
seems fairly clear. Kuerden records that Henry le 
Waleys gave William de Standish " my burgage in Orms- 
kirk bounded."^ Henry was rector both of Standish auad 
(at one time) of Anghton near Ormskirk, and the grant 
must have been made early in the f oorteentii century. 
Burgage was a tenure in ancient towns at a fixed yearly 
rent, a sort of town socage. The burgage at Ormskirk 
is mentioned among the Standish possessions from time 
to time. Alexander de Standish held it at the time of his 
death in 1445. It is referred to in a Standish settlement 
about five years later. ^ Ralph Standish, who died in 1538, 
held a cottage, etc., in Ormskirk of the King in burgage, 
and the clear annual value was estimated at i2d. In tite 
inquisition after the death of Ralph, who died under age 
in 1546, the holding is described as a cottage in Ormskirk 
of the value of I2d., held of the King in free burgage as of 
the late monastery of Burscough. The Standishes of 
Standish are mentioned as tenants in the various rentals 
of Burscough Priory. Edward, who succeeded the Ralph 
last mentioned, appears to have sold this property. For 
in two and three Philip and Mary [1555 -15 56] Edward 
Standish of Standish granted Peter Stanley a tenement 
in Commonficld in Ormskirk.* The inquisition after the 
death of Edward (x6io) does not mention any possessions 
in Ormskirk. 

The Standishes of Standish, then, had formerly a cottage 
in Ormskirk, but that must not mislead us into concluding 
that Myles was claiming any part of their estates. 

Burscough is mentioned once in their deeds. There 
is a settlement of lands in Burscough and Lathom by 
Catherine, widow of Richard de Burscough on Richard 

» Kuerden Fol. MS., p. xo. No. 44. 

« lb., p. 13, No. 53. 

• Kuerden MS., II., 3716. 





her son with remainder to Alice, daughter of Gilbert de 
Standish. This was in 1423-4. If the lands in reversion 
had ever come to the Standishes they woold have been 
mentioned in the inquisitions.^ 

Wrighiingion. In this township the Standish family 
had a small estate — ^f onr acres of land, and two of pasture 
in 1546. 

As for CrasUm and Mawdesky, several younger branches 
had land there. The Standish Hall stock had some interest 
in the manors of Croston and Mawdesley, perhaps as 
trustees for the Fleming family, in the early part of the 
fifteenth century. Ralph Standish, Esq., remitted his 
rights to Sir Thomas Fleming in 1416.2 Again, in 1507, 
Ralph Standish of Standish was guardian of Thomas A s h ton, 
heir of the moiety of the two manors mentioned (Raines 
MSS. 25, p. 288). No doubt this accounts for the mention 
of Ralph Standish's tenants in Croston and Mawdesley 
in 1515.^ But this interest of the Standish Hall family in 
Croston and Mawdesley was fugitive; it ceased about 
1 5 1 8, and does not appear in the inquisitions. The Standish 
Hall family had no estate in the Isle of Man. 

By the time of the Edward Standish, mentioned 
above, who died in 1610, the Standishes of Standish had 
an interest in only one of the places mentioned in Captain 
Standish's will, viz. : Wrightington. We may therefore 
conclude that Myles was not laying claim to any part of 
their estate. 

The holdings of the Standishes of Duxbury may now be 
examined It is with this branch that Captain Myles has 
been commonly but, as it seems to the author, erroneously 
identified by the majority of writers. They acquired the 
manor of Duxbury from the family of that name, early 
in the fourteenth century, in a romantic way. Henry de 

1 Earwaker, Standish Deeds, CXVII. 

• Towneley MS., DD., 1748, 1772 ; BB., 94. 

» Duchy Lane. Depositions, Vol. 8, K. 2, P.R.O. 

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Duxbury^ had taken part in the rebellion of Adam Banastre 
and was imprisoned at Lancaster, but was suftered to go 
about the town. He granted a rent from his lands to 
Hugh de Standish, who undertook to aid in his dehvery.' 
This concession paved the way for further surrenders. 
The connection of Hugh with the parent stock at Standish 
is not quite clear, but there is evidence that his grandparents 
were members of the Standish family. His father, whose 
surname he sometimes used, was Robert de Haydock, 
rector of Standish.^ The chief estate of the Standishes 
of Duxbury from very early times was in Duxbur^\ Heapey, 
and Bradley (in Standish with Langtree). They also 
held in Heath Charnock, Crosby, and elsewhere. Alexander 
Standish of Duxbury, who died in 1622, had about 432 
acres of various lands in Duxbury, and about 3j3 acres 
in Heath Charnock. He lu ld extensively m Heapey and 
Anglezark.* These place:; are not named in the Captain's 
will. In the places that are named in the will the Standishes 
of Duxbury appear not to have had any tenements. This 
again would seem to prove that, of whatever estates Capt. 
Myles was defrauded, they were not the property of Standish 
of Duxbury ; and, thmfore, presumably, he was not 
on Ms father's side a member of this particular branch of 
the Standishes. 

The Claim to Duxbury. 

The present writer has ventured to describe as a myth 
the claim made by some that Myles was right heir to the 
Duxbury estates. In doing so he does not reflect upon 
the character of those who formulated this extraordinary 
story. No doubt they were sincere; but they were 

A A Captain Duxbery or Duxborohe fought in the Low Countries, 
and fell at the Battle of Newport in 1601 ; State Papers, Holland, 
Vol. 60, 199. The surname Duxbury is stiU extant. 

'Assise Roll 425, m. Cf, also V.C.H. Lanes., Vol. II, p. 198. 

* Kuerden MS. II., 145b. 

^Lanc. Inquis. P.M.| Vd. 24, No. 56. Lane, and Ches, Hi$$. 
Sec., Vol, 17, p. 397. 

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hast \ , and came to rash conclusions. Let us glance at 
the alleged myth when full-grown and in all its glory. 

On August 17, 1871, a piece of ground on Captain's 
Hill in the New Enelnnd Duxbniy was consecrated as the 
future site of the iniptjsing monument to Standish which 
now rises high on that headland. Gen. Horace Binney 
Sargent was the orator of the day, and in the course of his 
tribute to the famous Pilgrim captain he declared : "To 
defeat the title of his line to lands in England, the rent-roll 
of which is half a million per animni, the hand of fraud is 
supposed to have defaced, the page that contained the 
parish record of his birth.*** 

W' e will now go back and trace the myth to its humble 

1 IiL following is an account of an attempt on the part 
of the descendants of Captain Myles Standish to investigate 
his claim to estates in England. This attempt was the 
outcome of several similar endeavours about twenty years 
before. Mr. Winsor «ays : 

" In the fall of 1846, an association was formed among the de- 
scendants of Capt. Standish for the purpose of making in\ estigations, 
and upwards of $3,000 were furnished to their agent, I. W. R. 
Bromley, Esq., who started on his mission in November of that year, 
and retamed in October of tlie following year, without however 
accomplishing the dbject of hk leardi. I have been favored with 
the pcnisal of some of his correspondence with the Corresponding 
Secretary of the Association, and some brief minutes which I have 
gleaned from them iuay not be uninteresting. ihe property, to 
which it was his object to prove the right of Capt. Standuh, com* 
pris^ large tracts of rich farming lands, including several valuable 
coal mines, and produces a yearly income of / 100, 000 or more. 
From a commission, which was found, appointing Standish to a 
lieutenancy in Her Majesty's forces on the continent, the date of 
his birth was found, as also from incidents of his life in New England, 
which have now become a portion of her history, and from other 
data in the possession of his descendants, which all led to the con- 
clusion that the year 1684 {sic, 1584J must have been that of his 
birth. The fansuy seats are situated near the village of Chorl^ 
in Lancashire, and the records of this parish were Ihoranglhlsr 
Investigated from the year 1549 to 1652. And here in connection 

^Myks Standish, with aocoont of Consecration of Monument 
Ground, Boston, 1871, p. 24. 

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Photo : H'lttoiulrff, ('«;»/»»// 
ClIOitl.KY ('liniCII Hl-.dlSTKIl. 

(Page 3n, with tlic all«'!,'i'tl ittiitilatinii, Hiid the preceding paur). 



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comes an incident in the reaearches of Mr. Bromley, which deserves 

particular attention, and causes the fair conclusion, that Stnndish 
was the true and rightful heir to the estates, and that they w ere 
txxiiy ' surreptitiously detained ' from him, and are now enjoyed 
by those, to whom they do not justly Mong. The records were aU 
readily deciphered, with the exception of the years 1584 and 1585, 
the very dates, about which time Standish is supposed to have been 
born; and the parchment leaf which contained the registers of 
the birtbs ol these years -was wholly illegible, and their appearance 
was such, that the conclusion was at once established, that it had 
been done purposely v^ith pumice stone or otherwise, to destroy 
the legal evidence of the parentage of Standish, and his consequent 
title to the estates tiiereabout. The mutilaLion u£ these pages is 
supposed to have been accomplished, when about twenty years 
before, similar inquiries were made by the family in America. The 
rector of the parish, when afterwards requested by the investigator 
to certify that the pages were gone, at once suspected his design of 
discovering the title to the property, and taJdnp; advantage of the 
rigor of &e law (as he had entered as an antiquarian researcher 
merel}-), compelled him to pay the sum of about £1$, or suffer 
imprisonment. .... And thus it will be seen that on account 
of the destruction oi aii legal proof, the property must remain forever 
hopelessly irrecoverable. * 

Winsor's " History of Duxbtiry," from which this account 
is taken, was published in 1849, very soon after Mr. Brom- 
ley's unsuccessful investigations in England. In Goodwin's 
" The Pilgrim Republic/' Boston, 1888, p. 452, the story 
appears in part as follows : " It was found that . . . the 
lealJ for 1584-5, in the Chorley parish-register, had been 
pumiced so carefully as to leave no trace of the writings 
though the record is otherwise complete from 1549 
1652. This defaced page is not even now open to inspection 
.... the rector, finding him (Broml^) searclung for 
Standish's birth, arrested him under some ancient law, and 
enforced on him a fine of about £75, with the alternative 
of imprisonment ; and he even refined to certify that the 
register is iU^ble at that point The incumbent of 
Chorley seems to act as watch-dog for a patron who doubts 
the soundness of his titles." 

The defect in the Renter is a fact ; but the suggestion 
of fraudulent erasure is remarkable. Why delete the 

* Winsor's Duxbury, Boston, 1849, pp. 96-97. 

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record of several months to blot out one entry ? The 
method would be far from economical. Besides, no person 
has ever testified to having seen the baptismal entry in the 
Chorley register before the alleged defacement ; there is no 
proof that it ever was there. The state of the Chorley 
register is not accurately described in these reports. 
The top of page 39 has been torn oR, and in otiier 

Sarts of the same page the writing cannot be deciphered ; 
ut page 39 contains a portion only of the entries for 1584, 
the alleged date of Captain Myles's birth. The two 
pages immediately preceding contain baptbmal entries for 
the early part of we year, down to and including May 
8, and these are quite readable. Nor is the torn page 
" wholly illegible/' In the entries thereon for May, Jime 
and July no names of persons can be read. In July and 
August fragments can he deciphered, while from September 
23 to the end of the year almost all is distinguishable, 
^though all of the record for 1585 (pages 39 and 40) is 
not legible, enough can be deciphered to show that no 
' baptism of a boy named Myles Standish is entered under 
that year. It is inaccurate to say, as Goodwin does, that 
" the record is otherwise complete from 1549 1652." 
There are many gaps in the register, the most serious being 
the lack of any entries for the years 1553-1556 inclusive 
and 1 599-161 1 inclusive. 

As to the alleged erasure, it is fair to point out that the 
appearance of the page makes various impressions on 
dmerent observers. Dr, Myles Standish of Boston states 
that in 1912 it was plain to him that the defect in the 
register was due to an erasure. On the other hand. Alder- 
man Fletcher Moss, who visited Chorley about six years 
earlier, says " The church registers I carefully examined 
for any record of the baptism of Myles (about 1584), but 
could not find his name. The old books are much faded, 
stained with damp and much thumbing, but are not 
wilfully mutilated."^ 

^Pilgrimages to Old Homes, III. (1906), p. 78. 

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In 1910 the Register was transcribed and printed by the 
Lancashire Parish Register Society. The transcribers, 
who are careful to note any tampering with the text, make 
no mention of erasure on page 39. They do, however, 
say, Top of this page torn off, and handwriting not 
decipherable in other parts." In the preface is the state- 
ment : " Some portions of the Register have also suffered 
from mice and damp at a remote period and many pages 
have presented great difficulties to the transcribers." 

The old Register has now been cleverly restored (the 
torn pages having been mended with new parclinicut), and 
splendidly bound; but many other pages present the 
same appearance as page 39, a state of affairs which may 
be due to the book V)eing used while in a damp condition, 
rather than to " the hand of fraud." 

In the accusations against the Rev. J. S. Master, we see 
the myth growing under our eyes. I)r. Myles blandish 
testifies that Bromley, the agent of the Association, merely 
claimed that he was threatened by the rector with a fine. 

But Winsor, in the account just quoted, says that 
Bromley was compelled to pay the sum of about £15 or 
suffer imprisonment Goodwin improves on this by 
stating that the Rector actually arrested Bromley und^ 
some ancient law, and enforced on him a fine of about 
I'jS^ with the alternative of imprisonment. 

Mr. Goodwin does not discriminate between doUars and 
sovereigns. Not only do seventy-five dollars become 
seventy-five pounds in the light of bis imagination ; he 
suggests a scene in a magistrate's court. Arrested — 
enforced a fine— alternative of imprisonment! What 
really happened, no doubt, was someddng like this : 

An American gentleman calls upon tiie rector of Chorley. 
The visitor poses as an antiquarian, and the cleigyman, 
not honoured with many visitors from lands so far away, 
is pleased to humour him. He is taken to the church, 
inspects the saintly relics given by Sir Roland Standish» 
scrutinises the Standish pew, and the time-worn Register, 
liight he be allowed to make a few notes from the old book, 

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such a curiosity, you know — nothing like this in America? 

Much flattered, the incunabent agrees. 

The visitor is left alone for a time. The rector paces 
np and down, inside, outside, converses with a friend or 
two, returns to the vestry. There sits the stranc^^er, 
absorbed, engrossed ; his few notes have become many 
pages of lurid and indi^^nant description. And why ? 
The fatal page (so lie imagines) has been pumiced. He is 
no longer in the mood lor plausible pleasantries. Nor is 
the rector, whose feet are cold and whose luncheon is 
waiting. The irate Bromley demands an explanation of 
the unreadable page, and in so doine divnle^es his real 
errand. The equally irate rector expostulates agamst the 
deception practised upon him. We fancy that we can 
hear him teUing Broniley that he, Bromley, is neither an 
antiquarian nor a gentleman. "And do you know, sir, that 
an incumbent is entitled to a customary fee of one shiUing 
for the first year, and sixpence for each subsequent ^ ear 
that a register is searched ? And as you say you have 
examined it from 1549 ^^52, and as baptisms, marriages 
and burials count separately, the amotmt due, sir, will be 
about £7 15s." 

This imaginary account probably diliers very little from 
what actually toolv place. The lack of candour on 
Broniley s part would explain the change in the incum- 
bent's demeanour when he discovered the visitor's real 
errand. And he was no tyrant in asking for the customary 
fees. Most clergymen will gladly show their old Register 
to an antiquarian caller. But if he is pursuing a claim to 
a gold-mine, or even to a lead-mine, die cleric will want 
his small commission.^ 

Another reason for the cautious attitude of Mr. Master. 
The mere mention of the Duxbuxy estates would stir up 
memories of old trouble and vistas of future trouble. 

Certain disturbances had taken place in 1813-14 which 
would still be remembered and spoken about in Chorley. 

^ For caBtomaxy fees see FbiUimore, Pidigm fForA, p. 3S. 

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Even the new rector niight ha\ e heard of them. For, 
although instituted as incumbent of the old Parish Church 
as recently as August 27, 1846, the Rev. James Streyns- 
ham Master had formerly been curate of St George's, 
Chorley.^ After the death of the last baronet in 181 2, 
one Thomas Standish, a weaver or collier, with his friends 
took possession of Duxbury Hall. Though he was evicted 
by a troop ol dragoons, tried and imprisoned, popular 
sympatiiy was on his side and long afterwards demonstra- 
tions were made in his favour He revived his claim in 
1825, and other claimants appeared in 1835. These 
disputes may help to account for the discouragement Mr. 
Bromlev received when he confessed that he was consulting 
the fhorluy Register in behalf of the descendants of Captain 
St indish. But wliati ver view be taken ot liie attitude 
ot Mr. Master, it must be remembered that Myles did not 
mention Duxbiir^^ in his will, nor claim any part of the 
Duxbury Park estates. It will now be shown that he 
claimed something else wliich the Standishes of the Park 
never possessed. 

^ He was liceoBed in 1826, Chester Diooosan Registty. 

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The Standishes of Ormskirk and of 


THE third statement set forth above, now to be 
substantiated, is that the lands which Captain 
Myles Standish referred to in his will constituted 
the estate of a Standish family once resident in Ormskirk. 

In the year 1912, the present writer, while turning over 
the pages of a manuscript volume in the Chetham library 
at Manchester, in a search for something else, came upon 
this item in a calendar of deeds : 

Rentale Margarete Standysshe, vidue, p' an. integrum, A.D. 1529. 
Ormskirk, Borscoghe, CrostOD, Mawdistey, Wiyghtiiigtoii, New- 

burghe. ... * 

There flashed at once into the writer's mind the identity 
of tliese townships or hamlets with the places named in 
the will of Captain Myles Standish ; and further search 
led to the discovery, not easily and all at once, but gradually 
and ironi various sources, of about thirty transcribed 
deeds and a host of other references, all pertaining to the 
estate of a line of Standishes descended from tlie stock at 
Standish Hall, but -a.:, far back as the hftLcntii century 
quite distinct from the parent house. These deeds do not 
mention Myles Standish ; but in the mind of the writer 
they leave no doubt that, in so far as circumstantial 
evidence can give certainty, Captain Myles Standish 
belonged to a branch of the Standishes that was settled 
from 1440, if not earUer, at Ormskirk, in the hundred of 
West Derby. The six places in Lancashire to which 
Captain Myles refers in his will were the places in which 

^ Hocope MSS.» Vol. 3, p. 42. See a later chapter for other deeds. 

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the Standishes of this branch held land, and they seem to 
have held nowhere else. A clinching bit of evidence is 
found in the fact that some members of this branch settled 
in the Isle of Man. 

From the deeds mentioned, and from other som-ces, it is 
now possible to give an account of this f amUy and their 

The earliest member of the family definitely described 
as of Ormskirk is the William Standish of Ormskirk, 
gentleman, mentioned in lawsuits in 1444 and 1446. 

A little earlier a certain Huan Standish is found. Huan 
is practically tlir same as Ewan or Evan (Vanus), so these 
two men, Wiiiiam and Hiian, may be the father and son 
mentioned in a deed of 1481.^ 

It should be noted, however, that a Van Standish was 
surety for a Ime to be paid by Robert Barton of West 
Derby as early as 1429 (Pal. of Lane. Plea Roll, 2, m. 38). 
Huan Standish was a witness at Ormskirk on tlie Feast of 
the Puriiication of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 15 Henry VI. 
[February 2, 1430-7].^ Ewan Standish was witness to 
an oath in Ormskirk church in 1446.* 

Before passing on it may be interesting to record some 
of the activities of the aforesaid William Standish. 

In 1444, there was a lawsuit between the Charnock and 
Dalton families. Henry Charnock sued a number of people 
for waylaying and maltreating him at Charnock Richard, 
the township where he resided and was lord of a moiety of 
the manor. The defendants m the case were Richard 
Dalton, Vicar of Croston, Thomas Dalton of Croston, 
gentleman, William Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman, and 
others belonging to Croston, Newburgh, Lathom and 
Burscough.* The case shows that WiUiam Standish 

1 Deeds, No. i. Below p. 99. 
*TowBley MSS., DD. 210, 241. 

*Hisi, Soc, Ltmc. and Ches,, VoL 14, N.S. Sdaiabddk Beeda^ 
Na i6s. 

^ FbL Laac. Flea R. 6» m. ifr ; see m. 5 and m. a? for oontimiatioii. 

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associated with the Daltons, who were among the smaller 
gentry of the county. 

Two years later, William was involved in another suit, 
William Gerard was plaintiff against Roger Gerard of Ince, 

gentleman, William Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman, 
and others belonging to Wigan, Haigh, and Standish, for 
taking away a horse and otlier possessions from Ince. 
This looks like a horse-stealing case, but may have been 
a distraint for debt. 

We have then a William Standish of Ormskirk and an 
Evan Standish contemporaries in 1446. A third member 
of the family, Hugh (Hugo), was prominent in the locality 
somewhat later. Hugh Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman, 
was accused of breaking into the closes of Henry Atherton, 
who had lands in Bickerstaile, Burscough, Ormskirk, etc. 
The case was tried in Lent, 16 Edward IV. [1476-7]. ^ 
Hugh Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman, was also accused 
Avith Elizabeth Fletcher, widow, and WiUiam Fletcher, of 
having disseised James Ormskirk. He was tried in Lent, 
23 Edward IV. [1483]. ^ He appears to have varied these 
lively proceedings with acts of piety ; for Thomas, Earl 
of Derby, and others founded a chantry at the altar of 
Our Lady in Ormskirk church, at some time during the 
latter half of the fifteenth century, and among the founders 
appears the name of Hugh Standish. The chantry was 
endowed with lands in Aughton and Ormskirk.* 

The first reference to the family estate occurs in 1481, 
when only two places, Ormskirk and Newburgli, are 
mentioned. The messuages, lands, tenements, rents, and 
services there were on May 20, 21 Edward IV. [1481] , in 
possession of the Hugh already referred to ; and a certain 
Evan (Vanus) Standish of Warrington, son of WiUiam 
Standish, deceased, released to Hugh all his right and claim 
to them. Hamlet Atherton, Esq., Geoffrey Hulme, Gilbert 

* Plea R. 9, m, 16. 

* Plea K. 44. 

* Fl«8i R. 57, m. 15^. 

* Vahr Eeeles. Rec Com. V, p. 223. 

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Gerard, and others were witnesses to this quitclaim deed.^ 
It mny perhaps be conjectured that Hugh was a younger 
son of WilUam Standish, and that his elder brother Huan 
or Evan renounced his rights because he had left the 

Twenty years afterwards the family estate was held by 
Gilbert Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman. By a deed 
dated at Ormskirk June ii, 17 Henry VII. [1502], the 
estate, now described as messuages, cottages, lands, and 
tentniints, with appurtenances, was settled on Gilbert 
for iUe, with remainder to Robert Standish, his son and 
heir, and the heirs of the said Robert and Margaret Croft, 
daughter and heir of Robert Croft. Ormskirk and New- 
burgh are still the only two places named where lands are 
held. This settlement, probably made in connection with 
Robert's marriage to Margaret, was witnessed by Sir Henry 
Haisall, Knight, Thomas Heskcth, Esq., Thomas Atherton, 
Esq., and others. Peter Gerard and Richard Hulme, 
clerks, were feoffees.* 

The prior and canons of Burscough had estates in the 
district, and from the Priory rentals we learn that the 
Standish fainily of Ormskiik held land for which a quit* 
rent was paid to the canons, and, after the dissolution, to 
the Crown. Some accounts are still preserved in the 
Public Record Office, and those already examined furnish 
interesting particulars. 

In 1512, Robert Standish (evidently Gilbert's son), was 
in possession of the Standish of Ormskirk estates. The 
Burscough Priory Rental for that year, which continued 
in use for some time, with emendations written in as 
occasion arose, is still extant.* The free tenants paid to 
the Prior, as has been said, small quit-rents or rents of 
assize, and frequently sublet their holdings. In Burscough 

^ Deeds, No. i, p. 99. 

• Deeds, No. 2, p. 99 

* Duchy of Lane. Rentals, etc., boncUe 4, No. 7 aad No. 8. 

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at this date Robert Standish was a free tenant, and paid 
sixpence quit-rent for a tenement. His sub-tenant was 
Richard Fereman (Ferryman), who paid the quit-rent on 
Robert's behalf. Among the tenants at will in Burscough 
appears also a certain Matilda Standish, who cannot be 
identified. She paid two shillings rent for her holding, 
and was apparently succeeded in her tenancy by a certain 
John Lathnni in fa\'onr of whom her name is crossed out 
in tlie rental. It should be noted, however, that her 
name re-appears as "Mowde Standish " in the rental for 
1522. So possibly Lathom was a sub-tenant. 

In the new rental of Burscough Priory made in 1524, the 
Standish of Ormskirlc tenements were still in the possession 
of Robert Standish or had just passed from his hands. 
The Bxirscough Hst gives him as before paying 6d. quit- 
rent by his sub-tenant Richard Ferreman. But in the 
Orniskirlc list the widow {telic/a) of Robert Standish pays 
a free rent of seven shilhngs and ninepence. This is an 
amount that recurs in later rentals.^ 

We may deduce from this rental that Robert, son of 
Gilbert, had died about this time ; and, possibly, that his 
heir was a minor and that the land was held in his mother's 

The brief abstract of a rental of the lands of Margaret 
Standish, Robert's widow, shows that in 1529 the 
estate was located not only in Ormskirk, liurscougli, and 
Newburgh, as formerly, but in Croston, Mawdesley, and 
Wrightington as well. We may perhaps surmise that the 
lands in these latter townships came from the Croft family 
by Margaret's marriage with Robert Standish. No details 
are given in the rental, but only the total sum, which is, 
"except. Ub'o redd., " £3. 12s. lod.* The sum is not a 
very large one, even afiowiag for the different vahie of 
modem money. We have no means of deciding whether 

^ Duchy Rental, b. 5, No. 16 ; both in this and later rentals the 
tenement of Ralph Standish of Standish in Ormskirk is mentioned ; 
the rent was i2d.» and tiie snb-tenant Peter Standlah. 

• Deeds, No. 3, p. 100, 

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it represents the rent^ of the whole estate, or only of the 
third part usually held by the widow. But for the first 
time all the Lancashire townships mpntioned by Captain 
Myles Standish in lus will are named in conjunction with 
the family of Standish of Ormskirk 

In the next mention made of the 1 imily estates we find 
a Thomas Standish, heir of Robert Standish, in possession. 

The account of the profits of Burscough Priory for 
^535-^). the first year after the dissolution, when the 
Priory and its appurtenances were taken into the King's 
hands (in which condition they remained for ten years), 
has been preserved. ^ 

The fullest account of the possessions of the Standish 
of Ormskirk family appears in this statement. Among 
the assize or quit-rents of the free tenants we find under 
the head of Ormskirk : — 

7s. 9d. from the free rent of Thomas Standyshe, heir of 
Robert Standysshe, for land etc. in Ormskirk, in the tenure 
of Richard Colynson. 

1 2d. from the free rent of the same Thomas for his land 
there lately Maggotes Egeacre in the tenure oi the same 
Richard Colynson. 

3s. from the free rent of the same Thomas for Mercers- 

gd. from the free rent of the same Thomas for land called 

Then further on, in the list of tenants in Burscough, 
the sixpence free rent is mentioned " of the heir of Robert 
Standi^e" for land in Burscough in the tenure of Richard 

This most interesting return gives us the names of two 
sub-tenants of the Standishes of Ormskirk, one in Ormskirk, 
Richard Colynson, and one in Burscough, as before, Richard 
Feryman. We have also three field-names or titles of 
tenements in Ormskirk given, Maggotes Egeacre, M3rt- 
tonsland and Mercersf elde. The k^t appears later in a 
deed of sa le. The first means perhaps "Margaret's 

^ Duchy of LaoGB. Mina. Aocis., b. 156, No. 2198. 

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Edgeacre." The widow of Robert Standish (and presum- 
ably the mother of Thomas) was called Margaret. Edge- 
acre is a name which occurs in many deeds relating to 
the district. There were more Edgeacres than one ; an 
Edgeacre in Burscough was according to this same bailiff's 
account in the tenure of Sir James Stanley. No doubt 
the land called by that name lay in both Ormskirk and 
Bm"scough, and was divided into two or more tenements. 
Lands called Edgeacres were at a very early date granted to 
the prior of Burscough.^ The importance of field-names 
is very great, as they often enable us to identif}^ lands 
which have changed owners. Hie Mercersfelde, or 
Merchant's Field, mentioned above among the possessions 
of Thomas Standish in 1536, was sold in 1572 by Hugh 
Standish, gentleman, his son and heir, to Wilfiam Stopford 
of Bispham.^ The other field-names given may yet 
furnish useful clues. 


In ^539i Thomas Standish is still found in pc^session of 
the estate, and his wife Jane or Joan is mentioned. On 
July 18, 1539, Thomas Standish of Ormskiric: mortgaged 
or sold for £10 a messuage and lands in Wiightington, of 
the clear v^ue of i6s. over all manner of charges which 
Jane, wife of the said Thomas, had in the same tenement. 
Nevertheless, if Thomas or his heirs should wish to buy 
back the premises, they might do so on due warning and 
repayment within ten years. George Nelson, the pur- 
chaser, entered into a bond to keep true to these indentures. 
Four years afterwards a messuage in Wrightington in 
mortgage was surrendered to Thomas Standish of Ormskirk 
by George Nelson. The tenants had been William Hesketh 
and Alice Robinson.* 

On July 7, 32 Henry VIII. [1540], a family settlement 
was made, the record of which is perhaps the most im- 

1 V.C.H. Laiwa., III., 26aii. 

* Deeds, No. ^5, p. I06. 

3 Deeds, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, pp. 100-102. 

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portant deed yet discovered, for it names not only Thomas 
Standish of Ormskirk, but his two brothers, John and 
Huan, and in addition his own daughter Anne. In 
the feoffment Thomas gave his messuages, lands, tenements, 
rents, reversions, services, and all hereditaments whatsoever 
in Ormskirk, Burscough, Wrightington, Newburgh, Maw- 
desley, and Croston, or elsewhere in the County of Lan- 
caster, to trustees, the first of whom was the rector of 
Aughton. The estate was for the use of Thomas himself 
ior his life, and afterwards during five years for the 
use of Anne his daughter, provided always that if John, 
the brother of Thomas, or anyone else who was next heir 
to Thomas, paid Anne £20, the trustees were to hold the 
estate for the use of John or the next heir. After the 
five years, the estate was to be held for the use of the 
right heir of Thomas legitimately begotten ; in default, 
for the use of John, the brother already mentioned, and 
his legitimate heirs ; in default, for the use of Huan, brother 
of the aforesaid Thomas, and the heirs of Huan. This 
settlement was sealed by Thomas Standish. Those who 
afterwards sold the estate may have infringed this trust, 
and it is very probable that Capt. Myles Standish claimed 
lands by virtue of the remainders in this very deed.^ 

In 1543, a person appeared on the scene who was destined 
to have a fateful influence on the fortunes of Standish of 
Ormskirk. This was a gentleman named William Stopford, 
sometimes described as of Merton, or Martin in Burscough, 
and later as of Bispham (the Bispham near Burscough), 
a township in Croston parish. He was at one time secretary 
to the Earl of Derby, and is probably the William Stopford 
who farmed Eccleston rectory in Leyland hundred, and 
whose gravestone, dated 1584, may be seen in Eccleston 
churchyard. He was evidently a man of wealth and 
influence, and he seems to have acquired in parcels part, 
and perhaps all, of the estate of the Standishes of Ormskirk. 
The transfer began in the time of the Thomas Standish 
already me ntioned. 

1 Deeds, No. 7, p. lox. 

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On May 10, 35 Henry VIII. [1543], Thomas Standish, for 
divers considerations and £10, sold to William Stopford oi 
Merton all his messuages in Wrightington, lately in the 
tennre of William Hesketh, Alice Robinson, and Robert 
Finch. An annual rent of 7s. was to be paid to Thomas 
and his heirs at Pentecost and at the Feast of St. Martin, 
in equal portions. Thomas appointed Richard Mason of 
Latharn and Richard Prescot as attorneys to deliver pos- 
session, and was bound in £60 to Stopford to keep the 
covenant made. ^ Tt was probably this annual rent of 
7s. from holdings in Wrightmgton that Thomas Standish 
of Ormskirk granted to William Stopford for the sum of 
£5. 3S. 4d. on April 24, 37 Henry VTII. [1545].* 

Ill fortune was evidently dogt^imr the steps of Thomas 
Standish. He was parting with his estate, and moreover, 
if deed No. 14 refers to him, he was imhappy in his domestic 
life. In 1558 (1548 is crossed out in Piccope s transcript), 
this latter trouble reached its culmination ; for on November 
20 in that year John Hanson, M.A., .\rchdeacon of Rich- 
mond, pronounced sentence of divorce between Thomas 
Standish of Ormskirk parish and Jane (Joanna) Stanley, 
otherwise Standish, of the same parish. The reason 
given for the divorce was that Thomas was not nine years 
old and Jane not eleven years old when they were married.* 

This document is difficult to understand ; surely it 
must be, in some way, an erroneous summary of the case. 
Child-marriages of the kind were often dissoh ed wlien the 
parties grew up and refused to ratifv the arrangements 
of their parents , but a case of this kind, where tiiey had 
lived together (apparently) for nearly twenty years, and 
where there was issue, the Hugh afterwards mentioned, 
strikes one as suspicious. 

TTie Act Book and the Deposition Book of the Ecclesias- 
tical Court at Chester have been searched without result 
far the div orce named in No. 14. We can hardly think 

* Deeds, Nos. 10, 11, p. 102. 

* Deeds, Nos. 12, 13, p. 103. 
' Deeds, No. 14, p. 103. 

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that the reason given for dissolving a juvenile and un- 
ratified marriage would be adduced, or would be deenxed 
sufficient, in regard to the divorce of those who had co- 
habited for a long period. So perhaps the Thomas of the 

divorce was not Thomas the father of Hugh, but a relative ; 
and, if so, it would follow that the Joan of the divorce was 
not Hugh's mother Joan. Or is the allied divorce. No. 

14, a forgery ? 

A contemporaiy of Thomas Standish of Ormskirk, 
gentleman, and perhaps a " poor relation," is mentioned 
in a deed belonging to Mr. James Bromley, of The Home- 
stead, Lathom. It appears thus in his library catalogue : 

'* 14 Oct. 3 and 4 Philip and Mary, 1557.^ Indenture of 
lease between Peter Stanley of Biconstath, Esq., and 
Edward Standishe of Ormeskyke, * corviser ' [shoemaker], 
and Jane his wife, of londe, medow, and pasture in Ormes- 
kyke called Awaynes Feld for 21 years. Rent : eightpence 
payable half-yearly. Witnesses : William Pyle of Lyvepoll, 
Robert Byckerstythe of Byckerstathe, Thomas Jackson, 
and Edward Standish of Ormskirk. i monogram seaL 
I missing." 

The divorce is the last we hear of Thomas Standish. 
There is another gap in the records, but in the course of 
time his son and successor Hugh Standish is found in 
possession of the estates. On November 20, 9 I'dizabeth 
[1566], Hugh Standish, late of Wigan, gentleman, son and 
heir of Thomas Standish of Ormskirk, surrenders his 
right and claim to a messuage in Wrightington, in the 
tenure of Margaret Hesketh, widow, and Robert Hesketh, 
to William Stopford of Bispham.* This refers to the land 
sold by his father, and we may infer that Thomas had 
recently died and had been succeeded by Hugh. Jane 

* The date slsnnld be 1556. The abstract would suggest that 
there were two |>eopIe (::alled Edward Standish, the lessee and a 
witness. Neither can be at present identi&ed, but the name occurs 
among the Usaxx Standuhes, p. 40. 

* Deeds, Ko. 15, p. 103. 

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(Joanna) Standish, widow of Thomas Standish, late of 
Onoskirk, appears again on Atigust 10, 1569, when-ehe 
quitclauns to her son Hugh (Hugo) all right and claim 
ttiat ever she had in all messuages, burgages, lands, and 
tenements in Ormskirk, Burscough, Newburgh, or else- 
where in the county. A few days afterwards, August 
X4« i5^f Hugh granted to his mother Jane for life an 
annuity of 40s. out of all his messuages, burgages, lands, 
and tenements in Ormskirk.^ 

Hugh now began a series of transactions with William 
Stopford in which the estate of Standish of Omtskirk 
seems to have been bartered away. By a final concord 
made at Lancast^ on Monday in me fourth week of Lent, 
12 Elizabeth [March 6, 1569-70], he sold or nxortgaged to 
William Stopford and Roger Sonkey, for £40, 3 mes- 
suages, 4 cottages, 4 orchards, 26 acres of land, 5 acres 
of pasture, 4 acres of meadow, 40 acres of moor, and 8 
acres of turbary in Wrightington, Newburgh, Ormskirk, 
and Burscough. Hugh granted them to William and Roger 
and to the heirs of William. * About a year later, on 
February 12, 13 Elizabeth [1570-1], we find Hugh Standish 
of Ormskirk, gentleman, leasing land in Ormskirk for 
twenty-one years to William Helton of Birchley, Esq.' 
On March 8, 13 Elizabeth [1570 i], Hugh Standish, son of 
Thomas Standish, deceased, granted for /66 13s. 4d. to 
William Stopford of Bispham all those messuages, lands, 
tenements, rents, services, and hereditaments whatsoever, 
which were his in Ormskirk. * On June 13, 13 Elizabeth 
[1571], Hugh was boimd in an immense sum for those 
days, £200, to William Stopford, to keep covenants speci- 
, fied in indentmes relatine^ to Hugh's land " in the town 
of Ormskirk."^ A final concord was also made between 
them on th e Monday after the Feast of St. Bartholomew 

I Deeds, Nos. 16, 17, p. 104. 

* Deed3» No. 18, p. 104. 
3 Deeds, No. 19, p. 104. 

* Deeds, No. 20, p. 105. 
s Deeds, No. 21, p. 105. 

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13 Elizabeth [August 27, 1571], concermng tenements in 
(hmskirk. Hugh granted to WiUiam 6 messuages there 
and 4 cottages, 10 tofts, 6 gardens, 6 orchards, 12 acres 
of land, 4 acres of meadow, 10 acres of pasture, x acre 
of wood, and 5 acres of moor. But William regranted 
to Hugh for life part of the said tenements, viz., 4 mes- 
suages, 2 tofts, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 6 acres of land, 2 
acres of meadow, and 4 acres of pasture.' 
' William Stopford now made it his care to secure the 
consent and quitclaim of those interested in the estate of 
Standish of Onnskirk in respect to these bargains with 
Hugh. The most interesting release is that given by 
Jolm Standish of the Isle of Man, This is highly important, 
since it shows that at least one member of the family of 
Standish of Ormskirk settled in the Isle of Man • thus 
making more probable the view taken by the writer that 
Captain Myles Standish belonged to this branch. 

In a deed dated 1572, John Standish of the Isle of Man, 
for divers considerations and sums of money paid him by 
William Stopford of Bispham, releases to the latter ail 
his rights in ail those messuages, lands, and tenements 
which lately were in the possession of Robert Standish, 
late of Ormskirk, and all those messuages, lands, and tene- 
ments which William Stopford has by the gift and feoff- 
ment of Hu,G:h Standish, late of Ormskirk, son and heir of 
Thomas deceased. The lands, etc., were in the vills or 
hamlets of Ormskirk and Wrightington.' Another deed 
which ib dated April 20, 1572, is either a dupHcate different- 
ly abstracted or a release from another John Standish 
hving in the Isle of Man. There were at least two persons 
of this name hving in the island somewhat later, as we shall 
see presently. In this second release the lands, etc., are de- 
scribed as lately in the possession of Thomas Standish, 
late of Ormskirk, gentleman, and as lying in the vills of 
Ormskirk, Wrightington, Parbold, Croston, and Mawdesley. 
Parbold is perhaps a mistake for Newburgh. Another 

• Deeds, No. 22, p. 105. 
' Deeds, J^^o. 23, p. io6« 

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place, " Kerschagh," appears in the marginal heading, and 
may be an error for Burscough.^ In this deed John 
Standish is described as a gentleman. 

On October 3, 14 Elizabeth [1572], Hugh Standish sold 
to William Stopford the Mersers Field in Ormskirk.^ This 
field has already been mentioned in 1536. A further 
grant and concession is dated January 29, 18 Elizabeth 
[1575-6] ; in this deed Omoskirk only is mentioned, but 
the bargaining away of the family interest there would 
seem to be comprehensive and absolute. Hugh Standish, 
late of Wigan, gentleman (the reversion to the old descrip- 
tion is noteworthy), grants to WiUiam Stopford of Bispham, 
gentleman, all and singular those messuages, lands, tene- 
ments, rents, services, and whatsoever hereditaments he 
holds in the vill of Ormskirk. He also concedes any 
claim that he has in the premises for the term of his hfe 
or for a term of years. He makes Roger Sonky and 
Reginald Mason attorneys to deliver possession.' 

The Jane or Joan Standish, widow of Thomas, now 
appears on the scene again, but under a difierent name. 
She has evidently married again, and been left a widow a 
second tiine. She also has been persuaded by Stopford 
to renounce any daun to the estate he has purchased. 
The quitclaim deed, which is dated May 3, 18 Elizabeth 
[i576]» is in English ; and by it Joan Scott of Wigan, 
widow, who stands endowed of the third part of all the 
messuages, etc., within the town of Ormskirk that were the 
possessions of Thomas Standish, sometime her husband, 
or of Hugh Standish her son, grants, for certain sums of 
money, unto William StO]^ford of Bispham and his heirs 
for ever aU her estate, right, and demand in the said 

Yet another person gave up all daim to the estate in 
Ormskirk. The deed leaves us to guess whether his 

* Deeds, No. 24, p. 106. 
> Deeds, No. 25, p. 106. 

• Deeds, No. 26, p. 107. 
4 JOeeds, No. 27, p. 107. 

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interest had come through his wife, and if so, who she was. 
On September 12, 19 Ehzabeth [1577], a certain Richard 
Mosse of Omiskirk granted to William Stopford all right 
and claim that ever he had in all the messuages, lands, etc., 
in Ormskirk that were lately the possessions of Hugh 
Standish or of Thomas Standish liis father. ^ 

Thus, long before the birth of Captain Myles Standish, a 
great part, at any rate, of the estate of the Standish family 
of Ormskirk had been alienated. It is unlikely, however, 
that Hugh parted with the whole of his estate. The 
parish registers of Ormskirk show that descendants of 
•Hugh remained in the locality for a long time. A Hugh 
Standish is prominent in the registers ; and, if he be the 
one mentioned above, he must have been young when 
(about 1566) he inherited the estate and began bartering 
it away. Several children of Hugh were baptised at 
Ormskirk, Ann in 1591, Edith in 1592, Jane in 1595, and 
one without name in 1599. A child of Hugh was buried 
in 1600. Hugh Standish himself was buried December 10, 
1606, in the high chancel, an honor commonly reserved for 
benefactors. It wiU be recalled that his ancestor had 
contributed to the founding of a chantry. A Grace 
Standish was buried in the high chancel in 1620. Many 
other Standishes are named in the registers.* 

One might naturally expect to find in the Ormskiik 
rasters the baptismal record of Myles Standish, but it 
is not there. The registers, however, are defective, like those 
of Chorley. But Capt. Myles was probably not a son of the 
Hugh who sold the estates ; for this Hugh does not appear 
to have held lands in the Isle of Man, and his successor at 
Ormskirk seems to have been a Henry Standish. Nor 
did Thomas, Hugh's father, claim any Manx estate. 

The Standishes of the Isle of Man. 

Now if Myles Standish was not a descendant of Thomas 
Standish, th e father of Hugh, attention is naturally directed 
A Deeds, Na 28. p. 107. 

* See Appendix, " Later Standiehee at Onuldrk,'* p. 109. 

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to the two brothers of Thomas mentioned in the latter's 
settlement of 1540, namely, John and Huan. 

Of John nothing definite is known. Huan settled in 
the Isle of Man. As Myles Standish claimed the estate of 
the Ormskirk Standishes and also land in Man, he was 
probably a descendant of Huan, son ol Robert Standish. 
It is a remarkable fact that " Hiiyn Standish " was a 
landowner in Man. In 1540, at the time of the dissolution 
of the monasteries, he held a tenement in Sulby, consisting 
of lands belon^^^ing to Rushen Abl^ey. He paid to tiie 
Abbey a rent of 24s., as the Computus shows. The 
Standish estate in this locality, afterwards known as 
Ellanbane, continued to be held by the Standishes until 
the eighteenth century. The name "Ewan" recurs in 
their pedigree. 

There was considerable traffic between Lancashire and 
the Isle of Man owing to the connection of the Stanleys, 
Eaxls of Derby, with both. They had lai^e estates near 
OrmsIdrk» and they were " Kings " of Man. It has been 
shown that the Standishes of Ormskirk were allied to one 
branch of the Stanley family, Thomas Standish having 
married Joanna Stanley. The interest of the Earls of 
Derby in the Isle of Man led to the appointment of Lanca* 
shire men to various offices in the island. We find Lanca- 
shire gentry owning land in Man, and vice versa Manx people 
having Lancashire property. For instance, the Christians 
of Milntown, ancestors of lUiam Dhone, in 1540 had an 
interest in lands in Parbold and Wrightington. Mr. 
Cubbon, who gives this information, points out that two 
of the signatories to a Standish of Ormskirk deed in 1502, 
Sir Henry Halsall and Thomas Hesketh, were connected 
with Man. Halsall was the Steward of Thomas, Earl of 
Derby, and Hesketh was his lordship's Receiver. General 
Halsail's family had land at Ballaaalla, which still b^us 
their name. 

Mr. Cubbon also contributes the interesting discovery 
that William Stopforth who, by fair means or foul, obtained 
the Standish of Ormskirk estates, was in the Isle of Man in 

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1561 ; and as Secretary and Commissioner of Edward, 
Earl of Derby, signed the " Book of Orders " at Castle- 
town in that year. 

These facts indicate the close connection between Man 
and western Lancashire, and explain the migration to the 
island of some of the Standishes of Ormskirk. 

Owing to the difficulties of research in the Isle of Man, 
it has not been possible to draw up a full account of the 
Manx Standishes. But the items tliat have been collected 
indicate that there was more than one branch there in the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

In the Manx Manorial Rolls, under the year I5ii« there 
appear, below the heading Cottages in Castletown/^ an 
Edward Standysh, who paid 2S. 4d. for one room, and also 
a Peter Standysh. Both names occur at Ormskirk some* 
what later. ^ 

The Manx historian, Mr A. W. Moore, says that a branch 
of the Standishes of Standish Hall in Lancashire had 
settled in the Isle of Man, first at Pulrose in Braddan, 
and then at Ellanbane in Lezayre, since the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, where they hdd a quantity <S 
intack property in adc&tion to Ellanbane. Mr. Moore 
gives no evidence to shew that they came from Standish 
Hall. He adds that there is still a curragh (lough) called 
Standish's Curragh.* 

The Standish family of Ellanbane which, as indicated, 
more probably descended from the Standishes of Ormskirk, 
appears to have been founded by Huan, the younger 
brother of Thomas Standish of Ormskirk, the son of 
Robert and Margaret Standish, and grandson of Gilbert. 

Huan Standi^ vras succeeded by a John Standish, no 
doubt the same John who released the Ormskirk estates 
to William Stopford in 1572. It is possible that he was 
Kuan's brother John, mentioned in the settlement of 1540; 
but perhaps more Ukely that he was a son or grandson 
of Huan. 

1 See pages 29, 34. 

*ManM Wartki$$, 190X, p. 205, 

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John Standish was coroner of the Sheading called Kirk 
Clmst in Lezayre in 1579 » same year was sued 

by the minister of Lezayre parish for withholding tithe. 
He was a Member of the House of Keys in 1593 and suc- 
ceeding years. Two years later, John Standish the elder 
and John Standish the younger were fined for beating 
Christopher Garrett or Gerrard, and ordered to pay him 
4s. 8d. in consideration of his hurt and broken head. ^ 

In 1607, John Standish held land, formerly belonging 
Rushen Abbey, in Kirk Christ, Lezayre. He paid 8s. 6d. 
rent, a much smaller sum than that fonneriy paid by 
Huan Standish. 

Perhaps John died about this time; for in a rental of 
the same year William Standish is given as tenant, and he 
pays a fine of £5 in two portions. William also occurs in 
a list of those who have compounded in Lezayre, where 
Ins fine is stated as £6, and his rent Ss. 6d. In succeeding 
years, William regularly appears as tenant in Sulby, 
parish of Kirk Christ, Lezayre.* 

There is a very carious deed dated August 20, 1609, and enrolled 
ill 1629. Gilbert Standidi, fiiU l»rother to John Standish, late 
deceased, granted to " my loving cosen," William Standish, tho 
younger, Gilbert's right to all his goods, edifices, ^sements, com- 
mons, and chattels, in return for two little crofts of 8d rent lying 
near Wiiliam's ground. Gnibert reserved the right, to bestow or 
bequeath the 8d< rent npon whomsoever he pleased. 

William, in turn, covenanted to give, unto my grandfather 
his brother," two days mowing of hay in Close Nappan, the one for 
his life, and the othet at the disposition of his last will. 

The deed is between two men : " we have both parties written 
our names." But alter Gilbert's mark, and before that of William^ 
there comes anoQier signature, " Christian Standish alias Lane my 
sign. "3 

The grandfather's brother is not mentioned by name. Is he to 
be identified with Gilbert ? or with tills other signatory ? Christian 
seems to have been a Inninine name in the island, if so here, it 
would seem more natural to conclude that Christiaa was Gilbert's 

A Particulars from " Liber Cancellar* " in Rolls Office, Douglas, 
s Details from " Liber Monaster* " in Record Office, Douglas, 
* " Liber Cancellar'." 

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Th e people mentioned in this deed were contemporaries ol Myies 
Standi^, and were probably closely related to him. 

In 1630, John Standidi of Kirk Cliriat in fhe Ayre, daimed the 
moiety of certain parcels of intack in the possession of William 
Standish, his brother. The brothers were joint executors of the 
last will of John Standish, their father, who had held on lease from 
the lotd. Comnunionen appointed in the case decided that it was 
against the lord's interest to divide the lands. They were to be 
given to William ; but in respect of the great poverty of John, his 
wife, and their small children, William w^as ordered to give John the 
cottage wherein he dwelt and tiie tenant right in a moiety of one- 
half-doae in Sulby, called Cloee Moor, d 8a 6d. rent, witii the corn 
crop standing on tiie one half. John waa to pay 5oa» half the fine 
for the same, and a rent of 4s. 3d. 

John was to assign to William for ever his title to certain intacks 
in the fells, called Eaiyartan, of 6s. rent, which he had lately re- 
covered by jury firom ms said 1irotfaer.«> 

The two brothers, William and John, sons of John 
Standish, were prominent during the first half of the seven- 
teenth century. Close Moor is frequently mentioned in 
their deeds. 

As the question of the rehgion of Myles Standish has been 
keenly discussed, it is noteworthy that several members 
of this branch of the family were ciexgy of the Church of 
England. About 1600, M/illiam Stanmsh the older was 
vicar of Andreas, Isle of Man. A John Standish, son of 
William, was vicar of Lezayre about 1640.^ 

The Manx Standishes continued to bear a part in local 
government; William Standish was a Member of the 
House of Keys, 1629, ^ succeeding years. One of 
the name, described as WilHam Standi of EUanbane^ 
gave depositions concerning the execution of Capt William 
Christian in 1662.' This WilEam Standish appears to 
have taken sides against the Countess of Derby. A John 
Standish, probably his son, was a member of the House of 
Keys in 1651 and took an active part in the rising on the 
Island when the Manxmen declared for the Parliament. 

^ " Uber CanceUar*," 16x7-33, p. 21. 

* Manx Society Vols. See also p. 9. 

* Jb,, Vd. 26, p. i8. 

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He was probably lieutenant or cornet in the Lezayre 
militia. He was present at the capture of Peel Castle 

under Capt. Radcliffe, and took a flag of truce there with 
the ostensible object of parleying with Major Woods, the 
commandant. His real purpose was to speak with the 
garrison m the Manx tongue, and to secure their defL^tioa 
in the night assault during which the castle was taken. 

Wdhain appears to have been succeeded by his son 
John, who was also, as already mentioned, a member of 
the House of Keys. John died about 1672. His daughter, 
Christian Standish, married Captain William Christian, 
who died about 1709. The Ellanbane estate came to lier 
descendants, who were known as the Standish Christians. 
Mr. Standish Christian of Ellanbane was M.H.K. in 1768. 
The grounds of Ellanbane are picturesque, and the chief 
house pleasantly situated. The estate has passed out of 
the ownership of the Christian family. 

Both Mr. Moore and Mr. Cubbon speak of the entire 
disappearance of the family in Man. Mr. Cubbon remarks 
on the persistence of the name in sayings still current, in 
Lezayre parish, such as " Juan beg Standish," *' Standish's 
Meadow," "As bony as Standish's old mare."*- 

There is a tradition in Man that Kose and Barbara, 

the successive wives of Myles StancUsh, were members 

of a Standish family settled on tlie island. The story 

probably came from America, Winsor's History of 

Duxbury, p. 97, describing the efforts made by Mr. Bromley 

in 1846-7 adds : 

"As it was said that the Captidn manied bis fifsfc tvife in tiie Uto 
of Man, this island was visited with hopes ol discovering there his 
marriage registered, but without SQOcess^ 88 no records of a date- 
early enough were to be found." 

Moore alludes to the belief that the wives came from 

Lezayre, and that their maiden name was Standish. As 

the Lezayre Standishes were thought to be a branch 

from Standish Hall, and Myles claimed to belong to the 

^ isU o/Man Bsmmitmy 27th Jane, 1914. 

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Standishes of Standish, Moore was of the opinioii that 
Myles and his Manx wives were probably cousins, but 
states that a diligent search in the Manx manorial records 
has failed to discover the names of Rose, Barbara, Myles, 

or Alexander. 

For the information that the Captain's wives were 
connected with the Isle of Man, Moore quotes among his 
authorities, information from Belknap (orig. ed. Boston, 
1794) per Mr. Frowde ; and the Rev, W. Ball Wright. 

He has a somewhat unreliable authority, namely Abbott's 
ti Puritan Captain/' for the statement that Barbara, 
who is said to have been Rose's sister, was " left an orphan 
in England " when the Mayflower sailed. The Ency. Brit., 
in the article on Myles Standish, also says that Barbara 
was the sister of Rose. Other informants, American 
correspondents, in letters to the present writer, speak 
of Barbara, who was, it is said, the mother of all the Cap- 
tain's children, as the cousin, not the sister, of Rose. 

If he married his deceased wife's sister, he could hardly 
have spoken of Alexander as his heire apparent by law- 
full Decent." The 99th Canon of 1603 declared marriages 
within the degrees prohibited unlawful and void from 
the beginning. But the marriage of cousins was not 

Moore remarks that there are no Manx Church Registers 
early enough to contain Rose's marriage (said to be about 
161 9). The Ballaugh Register begins in 1598, but at 
first contains onlv baptisms and burials. Neither a Rose 
nor a Barbara is mentioned under the hrst category. 

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The aptain s Descent from Standish 

of Standish, 


Having examined Myles Standish's assertion as to his lost 
estate, and ascertained the branch oi the family to which he 
belonged, let us revert to the second claim set up in his will, 
and to the question of his descent. This statement that 
his great-grandfather was a second or younger brother 
from the house of Standish of Standish is tantalisingly 
vague. " Second or younger '* may be equivalents or 
alternatives ; and w^hy does Myles not give the name of 
his father, grandfather, or great-grandfather ? 

It has already been pointed out that strictly " Standish 
of Standish " excludes Duxbury. Some, however, con- 
sider that Myles meant Standish of Standish parish, 
including Duxbniy. W'hether Standish be used in the 
manorial or parochial sense, can a claim of descent from 
either of the two major families be harmonised with 
Myles's other claim to lands which were in fact the pos- 
sessions of the Standish family of Ormskirk? 

If " great-grandfather " means only remote ancestor 
there is not much dif&culty, as the Ormsldrk branch was 
no doubt founded from Doxbury or from Standish HalL 

But if Myles means literaUy tiiat he was a descendant 
In the fooru generation of a Standish of the Hall or the 
Park great difficulties appear. 

American writers have sometimes erred in ima^^ining 
that there was but one Standish family in Lanca^ure, or 
at most two. 

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The question inevitably arises, did Capt. Myles share 
in this general confiision ? 

The answer to this depends on the response we give to 
another question, namely, did he believe hinaself in his 
will to be clainung the chief estates of the main branch 
of the fanuly ? or, on the otha* hand, was he intelligently 
claiming the lands belonging to a younger branch ? 

He connects the loss of his lanc^ with his pedigree by 
adding " my great-grandfather being a second or younger 
brother from the house of Standish of Standish/* 

A first reading suggests that he is claiming the estates 
of Standish of Standish. If there is no other meaning 
possible, tlien we must conclude that Myles was not well- 
informed about the matter, for investigation shows that 
these lost lands were not the estates of Standish of Standish. 

Another interpretaton of the words of the will is to 
take the Captain's statement as a claim, not to the chief 
estates of the main bnmch, but to the possessions of a 
younger son, creator or rcf^ledfiher of a younger branch. 

As the representatives of a younger brother inherit 
the chief estates only by default, and no default in the 
elder brother's line is mentioned in the will, snch an 
intefpretation is quite permissible. 

Again, very slight acquaintance with Lancashire 
would suffice to show that the estates of Standish of 
Standish were at Standish, and those of the Duxbuiy 
Standi^es were at Duxbury. The very titles of the families 
might reasonably lead to such an mference. But the 
Captain did not daim lands in either of these places 

Myles is said to have been a native of the county. Be- 
sides, the fact that he names seven places in Lancashire 
and uses such a phrase as " the house of Standish of 
Standish " restrains us from thinking that he imagined 
there was but one family, the name of which was Standish 
of Standish, the homestead of which was at Duxbury, 
and the lands of which were at Ormskirk. 

If we are to hannonlse his claim of descent from one of 
the two major Standish families with his alleged title to 

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tlie Ormskirk lands, we must understand him to mean 
that his father's grandfather came from Standish Hall 
or Duxbury, and became entitled by partition, purchase, 
or in some other way, to an estate elsewhere, not the 
chief inheritance. 

We are met by the difficulty that a Standish of Ormskirk 
family was already established in the middle of the fifteenth 
century. If Myies was born in 1584, it is barely possible, 
but extremely unlikely, that his grandfather's father 
could have been an adult in 1444, and therefore born as 
early as 1424. If it were nt all feasible, then we might 
conclude that Wilham Standish of Ormskirk, presumably 
tlic founder of the family there, was the ancestor Myles 
had in mind, and was a son of the squire of Standish in 
1424 or thereabouts. 

But this would leave a long period, 1424-1584, to be 
covered by four new generatioiis. It would require that 
the average age of the great-grandfather, grandfather, 
and father ol Myles when their respective sons were bom 
^oold be about 53. If the first ancestor named was bom 
about 1424 and was 53 when the grandfather was bom, 
this would bring us to the year 1477. Add 53 to this 
and we get 1530 as the possible date of the birth of Myles 
Standi^'s father, who woold then be about 54 when 
Myles was bom in 1584. 

It is unlikely that William Standish, an adult in 1444, 
was the great-grandfather of Myles. But the branch at 
Ormskirk may have died out after its first foundation, and 
received a second founder in a scion from the Standi^ 
Hall stock, who was both the great-grandfather of Myles» 
and also the rightful owner of the Ormskirk estate 

We cannot draw the Standish of Ormsldrk pedigree 
in nnbroken succession from the William Standish just 
mentioned; so that such a renewal of the Ormskirk 
branch may have taken place. Similar renewals occur 
from time to time in the history of the Standishes of 
Shevington. But it must be confessed that there is no 
evidence of such a change in the Ormskirk succession. 

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The heraldic visitations do not give the origin of the 
Ormskirk branch. 

In the Fleetwood of Penwortham pedigree in Flower's 
Visitation of Lancashire (Chet. Soc. LXXXI. p. 59) it 
is stated that William Fleetwood, of Heskin, married 
Helen, daughter of Robert (Gilbert) Standish, ** a yonger 
Sonne descended ovvte of the house of Standishe." The date 
of the Visitation is 1567, when William's son was in pos- 
session of the Penwortham estate, and was married and 
had a family of seven children Uving. The later \'isita- 
tion by St. George in 1613 describes "Ellen" wife of 
William Fleetwood as daughter of Robert Standish, a 
younger brother of Standish. 

These pedigrees were often carelessly drawn, and the 
reference may possibly relate to the Ormsklik branch, in 
which there was a Robert, son of Gilbert, who married 
about the year 1500. 

This doubtful allusion to the Standishes of Ormskirk 
is the only one brought to light in the heraldic visitations. 
Enquiry was made at the CoU^e of Anns in 1915, and the 
information elicited that no pedigree of the Standishes 
of Ormskirk and no grant of arms to them is recorded at 
the ColUge. Nevertheless they may have borne the arms 
of one of the older Standish families. 

The difficulty in reconciling the Captain's bdi^ that 
he was descended from the Standishes of Standi^ with 
the fact that he was claimant to the lands of another 
Standish family may possibly be met by the hypothesis 
that the junior branch at Ormskirk was founded or renewed 
by a younger son from Standish or Duxbury. There is 
no dehnite proof of this, and perhaps we cannot altogether 
exclude the supposition that there was some vagueness, or 
confusion in his statements. 

Another problem consists of the Captain's connection 
with Duxbury. The new settlement to which Myles 
Standish and others removed in 1631 received the name 
Duxbury ; and, as has been indicated^ this was felt by 

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raany to estabiisli a connection with the Standishes of 
Duxbury in T ancasliire, if indeed it did not amount 
to a claim of close relationship. 

But ns to the conclusions to be drawn from the nan^e 
there is a great dilTcrc nce of opinion among American writers. 

One of the first to refer to the matter is an anonymous 
writer,^ who as early as 1793 wrote: "The probable 
etymolojTA^ fof the name of the New England town] is 
Dux and borough, or burrow, as it was then written. It 
being a grant to the Captain or Leader, it was called his 
borough." This same anonymous writer, though he 
records that " Capt. Standish . . . . was born in Lanca- 
shire in England, and was heir apparent to a threat estate," 
adds to his explanation of the name of the town the signifi- 
cant footnote : "Many towns in Plymouth Colony are 
called after places in England, from wliich the lir^^t settlers 
came. Though there is a town of this name in England, 
it is said, that no persons, who first came to Plymouth, 
were from that place/* 

Later autliors trace some comiection with the Lancabhire 

The late Justin Winsor wrote: *' It [the town of Dux- 
bury] received the name of Duxbury out of respect to 
Captain Standish, from Duxbury Hall, the seat of the 
Standish family in England i"^ but that this was merely 
Mr. Winsor's personal opiBion^ unsupported by evidence, 
may be inferred firom ano&er statement by him, that 
' this " undoubtedly is the origin of the name of the New 
England town/' and by his expression of dissent from the 
opinion of the writer quoted above. 

Again, Mr. William Henry Whitmore, in his " Essay on 
the Origin of the Names of Towns in Massachusetts/'* 
says that Duxbury was named " in compliment to the 
Standishes of Duxbury Hall; to which family Miles 
Standish pr obably claimed relationship/' But although 

i^Mass, His, Soe, Coll,, Vol. 2, p. 4. 
* Duxbury, p. iz, la. 

I Boston, X873, p, 17, reprinted from Mass, Hist* Soe^, XII. 

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Capt. Myles was one of the leading men in the new settle- 
ment, and was a member of a committee to fix boundaries 
between Plymoutli and Duxbury, it does not necessarily 
follow that Duxbury in England wa:, ins birthplace or the 
home of his family. It may of course be objected, why 
should the name of the residence of a branch of the family 
with which he had no near connection be chosen, when, 
if he was one of the Ormskirk branch, there were plenty of 
other names associated with his own lands that he might 
have been expected to prefer. 

This is no doubt (iifficulty. We do not know the 
reason of Iiis prelei ence. We cannot explain why Onnskirk 
was not chosen, or Standish, the village which in his will 
he seems to imply was the home of his ancestors, as the 
name of his new settlement in America. 

We are thrown back on the several suggestions already 
made, viz., error, etymology, compliment, among which we 
most choose, or propoand somettiing more feasible. We 
may take up the position that Myles had some connection 
with the English Duxbury still undetermined. Though 
nether a member of the Duxbury Standishes, nor a claimant 
to any part of their property, he may have been linked with 
the townsh^ in some other way. 

^ Was his mother a Standish of Duxbury ? This is im- 
probable, for no alliance between them and the 
Ormskirk Standishes is mentioned in their deeds and 
papers. Was she a member of some other family in the 
township, the family of Anglezark for instance, or that 
named Ehixbury ? A Captain Duxbury, as already stated, 
fought in Flanders about the same time as Myles Standish. 
If there was a link of this sort, Duxbury may have been 
Myles's birthplace, though his inheritance lay elsewhere. 

Nor is this possibility ruled out, even if we interpret 
the " Standish of Standish " phrase in his will strictly 
rather than parochially. It is often overlooked that the 
Standishes of the Ped or Park did not own the whole of 
Duxbury. There was in fact another house in the town- 
ship called Duxbury Hall. It was the residence of a family 

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bearing the surname, Duxbury, and they sold it in 1524, 
not to the Standishes of Duxbury Manor, but, strangely 
enough, to the Standishes of Standish, who held it as a 
dower house under the very nose of their relatives and 
rivals. Israel had a city in Philistia.* This is mentioned 
to shew how claims seemingly divergent and contradictory 
might possibly be reconciled. And also to indicate the 
intricacy of the whole question, and the need of local 
knowledge. Standishes of Standish sometimes resided 
in Duxbury, but in a house of their own ; and Duxbury 
Standishes dwelt in Standish-with-Langtree in Bradley 
Hall which belonged to themselves. 

The results of the researches recorded al)Ove may be 
compressed into a few sentences. The lands which Captain 
Myles Standish claimed in his will formed the estates of 
the Standish family of Ormskirk ; and it is natural to con- 
clude that he was a member of this family, or of a branch 
of it which had estates in the Isle of Man. 

He was perhaps a grandson of Huan, son of Robert 
Standish of Ormskirk. Huan was in all probability the 
same as the Huyn Standish y/rho held land in the IsLe d 
Man in 1540, and either he or a son of his may have returned 
to Lancashire, where, according to Nathaniel Morton, 
Myles was bom. 

Myles claimed descent from Standish of Standish, and 
the meaning of his statement probably is that the branch 
to which he belonged was founded or refoonded by a 
younger son from Standish Hall 

The name Duxbury given to the settlement in Plymouth 
Colony where Captain Standish lived raises a very real 
difficulty. If it was not bestowed through error, and 
therefore an invalid claim; and if etymology, spiritual 
affinity or complimentary reasons do not^ sufficiently 
account for it, then Myles had some comiection with the 
Lancashire Duxbury still undiscovered. He was not, 
however the heir to the Duxbury estates, and did not 
claim them or any part of them. 

X£aiwaker, Sta$idish Detds, 272, 273, 291, 292, 364. Seep. 63. 

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It is possible, though there is no evidence, that he was 
born in Duxbury, Lancashire And if so, this need not 
invalidate his claim to be descended irom Standish of 

Tentative Pedigree. 

William Si am dish of Ormskirk, 1444 

Hugh Standish of Ormskirk. 1437-1483 

GiLBBRT Standish of Omskiik, 1502 


Robert Standish of Ormskirk, —Maxgaret Croft 

Thomas Standish s Joanna John Standish, Hoan Standish 

of Ormskirk, 

Hugh Standish 
of Ormskirk, 

1540 of the Isle 

of Man. 1540 

from whom probably 

Cavt. Mylbs Standish 


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Longfellow^s " G)urtship of Miles 



LONGFELLOW has drawTi a portrait of Myles Stan- 
dish, which some regard wath sorrow and even with 
anger. And why ? Because it shews a hero with 
weaknesses that excite laughter. 

Standish, brave in battle, is shy in love, the more so 
because, having his russet beard already flaked with 
snow, he is fond of the youthful PrisciUa. He is so inexpert 
that he woos by deputy, forgetting all about his favourite 
maxim " Serve yourself, would you be well served." 
And when he is rejected, and the deputy, his friend John 
Alden chosen, the Captain goes off like a hand-grenade, 
and calls John a second Brutus. 

Such a subject might indeed be treated ludicrously, but 
this is not LongfeUow's way, at least in the opinion of the 
present writer. 

Others have thought differently. " It is dangerous 
to laugh at a hero," says Dr. Mackennal, m " Homes and 
Haunts of the Pilgrim Fathers," " the valet's depreciation 
clings. The difference between Bradford and Longfellow 
is simply this— and in its result it is much — Bradford 
gives us a heroic character with some amusing defects ; 
Longfellow paints a humourous person of innate nobility. 
As was inevitable, the humour has thrown the nobility 
into the shade." 

Surely this contrast is forced, and tiie conchisum liardly 
just. Bradford writes in prose not poetry ; he certainly 
pourtra^rs Standish as a noble character. But where does 
he mention his anmsing defects ? 

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Longfellow's purpose is difierent ; his touch is light { 
he deals with one episode only, a tmditional one in the 
Captain's career. 

But can we honestly say Longfellow's portrait is that 
of " a humourous person," even ^oogh we add ** of innate 

No doubt there is room for variety of opinion: but 
heroes are ncme the less noble, certainly none the less 
credible, because they have their human imperfections. 

The " Courtship " is a charming poem, and a serious 
one. It has its laughable incidents, but it has also its 
great moments. And the humour is Puritan humour. 
The element of fun is kept under, and respect for the 
Captain's character is not lost siglit of. 

Longfellow was commemorating his own ancestors, 
Alden and Priscilla, but he does not exalt them overmuch 
at the Captain's expense. The title was to have been 
"Priscilla," as the poet's diary shews, but the Captain 
could not be crowded out ; he is the most arresting figure 
in the piece. 

One little laugh Priscilla allows herself at the soldier's 
expense, " He is a little chimney, and heated hot in a 
moment."*' But the jest is immediately checked by Alden, 
and never repeated. She does indeed say that he is 
" old and rough," and calls him " our terrible Captain." 
Alden's praise, however, is felt to be the poet's own verdict 
on the character of Captain Standish : — 

" He was a man of honour, of noble and generous nature ; 
Though he was rough, he was kindly ; she knew how during 
the winter 

He had attended the sick, with a hand as gentle n.^ woman's ; 
Somewhat hasty and hot, he could not deny it, and headstrong, 
Stern as a soldier might be, but hearty, and placable aiwam 
Not to be laughed at and acomed^ because he was little of 

For lie was great of heart; magnsnimous, courtly, courageoos.'' 

> This desoiptlon of Standish, " a Btde chimn^ soon fifed," is 
torn Hubbard's Hisiory of New England, 

^ kj i^uo uy Googl 


DrxiuuY, U.S.A. 

J Google 

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If Longfellow reveals Standish as liable to human 
weakness, it must be noted that he did not make John 
and Priscilla perfect. 

As for John, when the Captain exploded he should 
have used more tact. He knew the Captain's nature, 
and anticipated a stormy scene when he should relate 
PnsciUa's refusal and retort. And yet, when the Captain 
stormed, he could only remain sullen. Was his pride 
hurt because Standish likened him to Brutus ? lie had 
called himself harder names than that while he wandered 
alone by the sea. 

Yet he saw his friend " go forth to danger, perhaps to 
death, and he spake not ! " 

Moreover his quixotic plan of leaving in the Mayflower 
soon cooled at the sif-,^ht ol I^riseilla. He stayed, not to 
deiend lier (a second thought, and a pretty excuse, indeed !), 
but because she just looked at him as he stood near the 
boat with one foot placed on the gunwale. 

As for Priscilla, was she not a little bit fcHvard, in seeking 
an mterview with Alden so soon after her famous "Why, 
don't you speak lor yourself ?" ^ 

There seem$ to have been a sort of compact between 
them, not to marry while the Captain fdt his " betrayal " 
so grievously. But this compact was a verv brittle tlu^ead. 
It broke at the first rumour of the Captain s death. They 
did not wait for a burial certificate to be produced ; but 
speeded the wedding with the Puritan equivalent for a 
q>ecial licence. 

We do not blame Longfdlow for touching upon these 
little failings; but mention them merely to insist that 
he was not singling out Myles to make sport with him. 
We imagine the poet's attitude to all those glorious pionears 
was — ^How human they all were I 

The poet's great compliment to Myles occurs in the 
wedding scene at the end. The Captain comes out of 
the ordeal of his one defeat with dignity. He turns up 
unexpectedly at the marriage of John and Priscilla, for- 
giving and asking forgiveness, saluting the bride after the 

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manner of old-fashioned gentry in England, making jests 
at himself for forgetting his favourite adage, and for 
expwxting to gather cherries at Christmas. 

Then the people crowd around liim, rejoicing to behold 
again the sun-burnt face of their Captain whom they 
had mourned as dead. Their joy and his popularity are 
so great, tliat, wonderful to relate, even the bride and 
bridegroom are forgotten 1 What finer proof could tlicre 
be of the respect and love with which the poet regaxded 
his hero ? 

In prose as well as verse Longfellow expresses his esteem 
for Standish. In the preface to Kent and Co.'s edition, 
1858, he says, Another lady, known to us only by the 
name of Barbara, consoled him for this m<Ktificatbn by 
accepting the hand of one of the greatest and noblest men 
whom Providence raised up to fight the battle of liberty 
in the Old World, and to lay the social foundation of the 

Some have even blamed Longfellow for originating the 
story of the Captain's proposal Mr. McKnight ascribes 
it to *' poetic licence." 

But It is evident that, as Longfellow himself states, 
he used a current tradition. The earliest reference to it 
appears in the Rev. Timothy Alden's " Collection of 
^jnerican Epitaphs and Inscriptions " publi^ed in 1812- 
14, vol. III. p. 265. 

From this source it was quoted by Davis in a note to 
the second edition of Morton's New England's Memorial, 
published in Boston, 1826, p. 263. He calls it an amusing 
traditionary anecdote. Davis's note was copied in a 
shortened form in later editions of Morton and thus obtained 
wide publicity. This abbreviated form, current when 
Longfellow wrote, is as follows : 

" There is a traditionary anecdote relative to Capt. Standish 
and his friend John Aiden. The lady who had gained the afiections 
of the Captain is said to have been Priscilla MulUns. John Aldea 
was sent to make proposals hi hehalf of Standish. The messenger, 
though a pilgrim, was then 3'niing and comely, and the lady ex- 
pressed her preference by the question, ' Prithee, John, why do 

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you not speak for yoorself ?" The Captain's hope was blasted, 
and the frank overture soon ended in the marriage of John Aiden 
and Pri5;rilla Mullins, from whom it is said, are descended all of the 
name of Aiden in the United States 

The story may have no basis in fact, but it is not in- 
credible. In the article on Myles Standish, in the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, iith edition, it is suggested 
that there was no time for the episode, inasmuch as 
Stanciish's second mfe, Barbara, must have been sum- 
moned to Plymouth a year beiore the inarria|;e oi John 
Aiden to Priscilla Mullins. 

No doubt Longfellow leaves Barbara out of account, 
and the Captain s second marriage may have preceded 
the wedding of John and Priscilla. 

Nevertheless in the interval between the death of Rose 
(1621) and the arrival of Barbara (1623), there was time 
for a passing luiatuation such as the tradition mentions. 

The embellishment of the tradition by the statement 
that the Captain never forgave his friend to the day of 
his death is rightly dismissed by Davis in the note referred 
to above. Standish and Aiden both removed to Duxbury 
where they were near neighbours, and their children 

The poet's family interest in the subject-matter is 
indicated in his letter to Charles Sumner, dated July 10, 
1858. " I mote you about my new poem. ' Miks Standish/ 
founded on the well-known adventure of voy maternal 
ancestor, John Aiden. The heroine's name is Priscilla; 
and so you have the chief characters, and the chief in* 
ctdent before you-^aking it for granted that you remember 
the traditional anecdote."* 

The poet's diary shews that he wrote the first scene in 
tiie Courtship, which he originally intended to be a drama, 
on December 2, 1856. 

Long before this, writers had begun to connect Myles 
with the E nglish Duxbury, and sometimes confounded 

* Pilgrim Fathers, 172. 

^ Preface to Ulostrated editioa of the poem, published by Sampeoa 
Low, p. 9* 

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the Standish Hall branch of the Standish family with the 
Duxbury Park branch. A picture in one illustrated 
edition of the Courtship gives Duxlnirv Park and calls 
it Standish Hall. Davis in his notes to Morton,^ dissents 
from an older wTiter who in 1793 said that Duxbury in 
America was probably so nanaed because it signified 
Captain's town. " The compliment was well merited, 
but it is doubtful whether among such a people it would 
have been proposed or admitted." Davis, quoting from 
a MS., refers to Duxbury as tlie name of the family ^'^^ in 
England. Why should he think " such a people " would 
not compliment their leader, but would allow a compliment 
to ancestral property ? 

Again, Alexander Young said From hb giving the 
name of Duxbury to the town where he settled .... 
I have no doubt Miles was a descendant of this aacient and 
warlike stock."* And he notes as he writes this (1840, 
December 7), that the death of Frank Hall Standish of 
Duxbury, England, appears in the journals. 

Another allusion of a somewhat incoherent kind, con- 
necting Myles with the Duxbuiy estates, appears in a 
footnote to the 1855 edition of Morton's "New England's 
Memorial," published at Boston. "Standish's descen- 
dants are very numerous in the Old Coknrv and elsewhere. 
It is said, Ehixborough have a manor in Englimd as their 
right of inheritance, and has for a long time been held in 
abeyance for the heirs at law. • 

Moreover it is increasingly clear that the association 
of the descendants of Capt. Standish, formed in 1846 
to investigate their right to estates in England, had spread 
abroad their hasty conclusions long before Longfellow 
began to write on the subject. See page 18. 

There can be little doubt that Longfellow had heard 
of the casual researches at Chorley. The Courtship was 

* 1826 ed., p. 263. 

* Chrovicles, 2nd ed., p. 123. 
^ Filgrim FeUhfirs, i^zn. 


finished and printed in 1858, and in an edition of tluft> 
and other poems, published by Kent and Co. in the same 
year, there is a woodcut of Chorley Church for frontispiece, 
• shewing the Standish arms on the exterior. Under the 
wood-cut i? printed " Chorley Old Church, Lancashire. 
The burial place of the Standishes." The preface, evidently 
by Longfellow, begins: "This poem rests on a basis of 
historical truth," and after mentioning notable members 
of the Standish family states: "Miles Standish, the hera 
of this poem, was the descendant of a younger brother of 
this valiant race." The claim to the Duxbur}^ estates 
is not mentioned in the preface nor in the poem. But 
by the picture of Chorley Church, as well as by the tracing 
of Myles Standish 's descent to the Duxbury Standishes 
in the poem, in close connection with his mention of Stan- 
dish as " heu unto vast estates, of which he was basely 
defrauded," LongfeUow helped to root in the public 
mmd a closer connection between Myles and the English 
Duxbury than is warranted by the claims made by the 
Captain in his wiU. 

We have alread}- sought to show that the view taken 
by those who regard Myles as right heir of the Duxbury 
estates is untenable (see page 51). 

The arguments need not be rq)eated here, but briefly 
it may be noted that Myles dU not claim Duxbury in the 
vfim, while the lands he did claim have been id^tified as 
the estate of another branch. The bestowal of the name 
Duxbury on his New England town must be explained ia 
some o&er way. Perhaps it was a compliment to one 
major line of Standishes, with the secondary reason that 
the word itself signifies "Captain's town." Or some 
other link between Myles and the English Duxbury existed^ 
and remains undiscovered. 

A Superseded Pedigree. 

When Longfellow makes Alden say that Myles could 
trace his pedigree ** plainly," he used the most unfortunate 
word in the poem. Why did he not say " proudly " > 

^ kj ui^Lo uy Google 


Prottd daims of long descent are quite reconcilable with 
vague genoklogies. But ** plainly " to trace his pedigree 
bade to famous ancestors was probably what Myles could 
not do, however strong and true his conviction that he 
derived d^ent from Standish of Standish. Longfellow 
makes him able to draw his family tree " back to Hugh 
Standish, of Duxbury Hall, in Lancashire, England, who 
was the son of Ralph and the grandson of Thurston de 

This was the Standish pedigree current when Long- 
fellow wote, and was supposed to account for the origin 
of the two leading branches of the family.^ Thurstan 
de Standish, it was believed, lived m the reign of Henry III., 
and was the first known Standish. Raipii was supposed 
to be his son. The two sons of Ralph were considered to 
be the progenitors of the two major branches, his eldest 
surM\ iiig son Jordan being the continuator of the stock 
at Standish Hall, and a younger son Hugh the originator 
of the Diixbury branch. 

The worst oi pedigrees is that they are apt to change as 
new material is discovered. A deed supposed to be dated 
6 Henry III., which mentioned a Thurstan de Standish, 
has been re-examined, and the date is found to be 6 Henry 
VI. This brings Thurstan down to 1428, and puts him 
out of the early pedigree altogether. 

Ralph, the father of Hugh and Jordan, was lord of 
Standish in 1246, but this lin^h was not the founder of 
the Duxbury Standishes, for lie died before 1288 ; whereas 
Hugh de Standish of Duxbury, the founder of that branch, 
was living much later, and was a son of Robert de Haydock, 
rector of Standish. It has not yet been determined how 
this Hugh, the ^xst Standish of Duxbury, was related to 
the Standidies of Standish. Possibly his mother was 
one of thenu 

Young's CkrmichSt quoting Burke's Commomrs, 

* Earwaker Standish Deeds, I., Dr. Fatrer's COCTected copy, and 
Cochirsand ChgHuiary, VoL II., 51411. 

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The progenitors in the corrected pedigree are as follows : 
the first three merabers of the Standish of Standish family 
are Ralph, living 1206, Alexander his son, Ralph, son of 
Alexander ; the three earliest known members of the 
Standish of Duxbury line are Hugh de Standish (de Hay- 
dock), living 1300, William his son, Richard, William's 

Vast Estates. 

John Alden, pleading his friend's cause with Prisciila, 
describes the Captain as Heir unto vast estates, of which 
he was basely defrauded.** Longfellow is echoing the 
words of Morton, who sa^^s " He was a Gentleman, born in 
Lancashire, and was Heir- Apparent unto a great Estate 
of Lands and Livings, surreptitiously detained from him." 
Thus Morton expands the statement in the Captain's will. 

The " vastness " of the Duxbury estate, if that is in- 
tended by the poet, seems to have had a peculiar fascination 
lor some minds. The association formed in 1846 a 
recover the estate for the Captain's descendants were 
enthusiastic on the subject. " The property .... 
comprises large tracts of rich farming lands, including 
several eoal mines, and produces a yearly income of £100,000 
or more." We may playfully compare this spirit with 
that of the original Pilgrims, who in 1617 rejected the idea 
that they should emigrate to Guiana, the first place 
suggested, because it was supposed to contain gold, and 
gold might be a temptation.* 

Another echo of the "vast estates'* was heard on 
August 17, 1871, when ground was consecrated in the 
New England Duxbury for the Standish monument. 
General Sargent, the orator of the day, ^oke of the hand 
of fraud having defaced a parish register in order to d^eat 
the Caj>ta]n's title to lands in England, " the rent-roU of 
which IS half a million per annom. " Thus does the precious 

2 Vict. Co, Hist, Lanes,, VI., 193, and Author's USS. 
*PilgHm Faik§rs, p« 9. 



metal, tabooed by our fathers, become the totem of their 

John Alden evidently thought PnsciUa susceptible to 
the charms of heraldry : so, in praising the Captain, he 
recited sonorously that Myles 

" Still bore the family arms, and had for his crest a 
cock argent, 

Combed and wattled gules, and all the rest of the 


Longfellow is here carrying out the identification of 
Myles with the Duxbury branch. He gives the crest 
'Correctly, but why omit the arms, unless he could not as 
readily express them in his hexameters? The arms are 
"Azure, tluree standing dishes, argent " ; and Alden, as a 
deputy wooer, might have made nice play with the family 
motto "Constant en tout/' 

If the poet had preferred to connect Myles with the 
older famuy, thus f<Mlowing oat the claim of descent from 
Standish of Standish contained in the Captain's will, he 
would have given the crest as " An owl with a rat in its 
•daws, proper." 

The arms of the older line, " Sable, three standing dishes 
argent," differ from those of the Duxbctry branch only in 
the colour of the shield. The Standish of Standish motto 
is " Je desire/' 

Wlien Longfellow speaks of a pedigree that went back 
to Hiigh Standish of Duxbury Hall he is guilty of an 
•anachronism. The manor house was not called by that 
name until the eighteenth century at the earUest ; it was 
.anciently known as The Peel. The word signifies a fortthed 
house or stronghold, and Chaucer uses it. " God save the 
lady of this pel ** occurs in House oj Fame. ^ 

Thomas Standish of the Peel is mentioned in 1508. 
The map accompanying the 1637 edition of Camden's 
Britannia sho\v5 ** The Pele of Duxbury," and the map of 
the i6q5 ed ition still calls the house " The Pele." The 

1^ m., aao. 


name Duxbiuy Hall was, however, used early in the nine- 
teenth century ; the place is now more commonly described 

as Duxbury Park. 

Strange to say — and this has already been noted (page 51) 
— there was another old house which in the seventeenth 
century was known as Duxbury Hal). It was the property 
of an Alexander Duxbury, and never belonged to the 
Duxbury Standishes. Curiously enough, though in 
Duxbury township, it was acquired in 1524 by Ralph 
Standish of Standish.^ 

The Ancestor who slew Wat Tyler. 

In his paroxysni of rage at the failure of John Alden's 

mission the Captain is made to exclaim : 

" One oi my ancestors ran bis sword through the heart of Wat 

Who shall prevent me from running my own through the heart 
of a traitor ? 

YoDiB is the greater treason, for yours is a treason to friendship?" 

It would seem unlikely that Longfellow is here echoing 
any New England tradition as to what Captain Standish 
may have claimed in regard to some famous ancestor. 
The poet probably got his information from Young's 
" Chronicles."* Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that 
Standish had amcffig his books a copy of the Chronicle 
of England." Several of the old chroniclers state that a 
member of the Standish family defended King Richard 
against Wat Tyler ; they differ as to his Christian name, 
and therefore it is lucky for Longfellow that he left it vague. 

Research has enabled the present \witer to identify the 
ancestor in (juestion. It was Ralph, a younger son of ' 
John de Standish, lord of the manor of Standish, who 
helped to slay Wat Tyler at Smithheld in 1381. He was 
an esquire of the King at the time, and was knighted for 
his service on this occasion, receiving several annuities and 
also the wardenship of Scarborough Castle. 

^ Earwaker, Standish Deeds, 272, 273, 291, 292. 
' Op, dt., I25if. 

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Captain Standish was, according to Pastor Robinson, 

of " a warm temper. 

Twice at least Lon^' fellow explains this as a racial 
characteristic of the Stanclishcs. Under the taunts of the 
Indians at Weymouth Myies displayed a caimness com- 
mended by the chroniclers. The savages themselves, 
however, skilled observers, saw the fire in his eyes. And 
at the npe moment there was an outbreak : 

" All the hot blood of his race, oi Sir Hugh and oi Xhurstoa de 
' Standish, 

Bofled and beat in his heart, and swelled in ^e veins of his 

Again, at the wedding and the reconcUiation, he excused 
his former anger against Alden by saying : 
" Mine is the same bot blood that leaped in tbe veins of Hugh 


Possibly the poet is drawing his bow at a venture. There 
was plenty of hot blood about in ancient days, and it was 
pretty safe to attribute it to any of t he old families. Never- 
theless, the poet was truer to fact than he knew. The 
temperature of the Standishes was generally a little above 
normal. The various branches supplied numerous soldiers, 
and the parent stock had standing feuds with their neigh- 
bours, the Lanetrees and the Langtons. 

One affray took place at Wigan on Black Monday, 1479, 
between the Standishes on the one side and i^angtons and 
Gerards on the other, the latter party having to pay 
monetar}^ compensation to the former for the " grett 
offence and hurte ** and " blocly stroks " they had suffered.* 

In fact, the history of the family, especiaUy during the 
• French Wars, the Revoiution, and the Jacobite pericxl, is 
a history of hot blood. 

The Puritan branch at Duxbury was not exempt 'from 
this trait. Colonel Richard Standish, of the Civil War 
period, could shew it even to his own party when his will 
was crossed. An incident is related of him in 1651, when 

^Pilgrim Fathers, 327. 

' Earwaker Standish Deeds, 162, 167. 

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he counted out certain dues to a parliamentarian agent, 
then swept back into his own pocket part of the money, 
saying it was owing to him, and defied the commissary to 
send any " rascals ** to distrain his goods. ^ 

When Longfellow painted the portraits of his Pilgrims 
he did indeed dip his brush into the glowing colours of 
imagination, but he also used the more sober and neutral 
shades found in " the chronicles of wasted time." His 
details as to the Captain's home, dress, arms, books, 
appearance, temper, gentkness, may nearly all be traced to 
some recoid or tradition. The afiusums to Barriffe and 
Caesar axe suggested by the inventory of the soldier's 
goods, taken after his death.' 

Jdm Alden's siinuniog-up of the traits in Staadish's 
cluiracter is gleaned from the pages of Bradford and Morton. 

The re-fiUing of the rattlesniake's skin (the act of the 
Governor, not of Standish) is described by Winslow and 
by Morton. 

The " brazen howitzer planted high on the roof of the 
church " is also from the Chronicles. 

The fight with Pecksaot, his sinister parable of the knives^ 
the Captain's calmness under the taunts of the Indians, 
and his victory over the boaster, axe in Winslow's " Rela- 
tion ** ; as is also the setting-i^ on the meeting-house 
fort of the head of Wituwamat, an mcident which, according 
to Longfellow, excited the horror Priscilla.' 

If there is one book more than another to which Long- 
fellow stands indebted it is Young's Chronicles." Much 
of his material was derived from the tesct and notes of 
this compilation 

It is easy enough to find anachronisms in the poem, the 
action of which is supposed to begin in the Spring and end 
in the Autumn of 1621. By poetic licence many things 
which happ ened later in the real history of the colony 

«* Cal. Com. Comp.^ I., 396. 

* Mayflower Descendant, III,, 155, 

* Pilgrim Fathers, 277, 49; 53 5 3«5-33<*» 

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are iiK^luded in this short space. The Puritans would 
hardly have called their meeting-house a church, and 
moreover it was not built until 1622.* 

It is unlikely that Standish was an old man at 37, with 
his beard " flaked with patches of snow." The poet*s 
account of his expedition against the Indians of Weymouth 
18 taken from Winslow's RelaUon. It took place in March* 
. X623, not in the year 1621 ; the Captain and his men went 
in a boat there, and not on foot. The fight with the 
dbiefs did not take place in the open.* 

Ptiscilla's weddiiig was not in the autumn of 1621. tmt 
oocmred about thm years later ; and in the meantime 
Barbara, who married the Captain, arrived in the cdUmy 
in 1623.* 

"Raghom, the snow-white buU that had fallen to Alden's 
allotment," was not given to him in time for the wedding. 
According to Bradford, the first cattle came in 1624, and 
at first belonged to the whole colony. They were not 
distributed until 1627. 

Other discrqMtncies have akeady been mentioned. But 
it is surely too much to say that Longfellow has " marred 
his poem by inaccuracies and anachronisms which detract 
from its vraisemblance.'** ^> h8 

The poem is full of local colour. Phrases from the pil- 
grim chronicles skilfully interwoven create an atmosphere 
fairly true and consistent. 

The poet deals with episodes in a free manner, but 
never assumes the same measure of licence as Sir Walter 
Scott, who in Peveril of the Peak " makes the Countess 
of Derby, really a Huguenot, mto a strict Roman Catholic. 

In the main he is faithful to the records ; and if we find 
him mistaken in some of his references to the Lancashire 
Standishcs, it is because he was misled by authorities 
whom he imagined he could trust. 

^Pilgrim Fathers, 55. 

^Pilgrim Fathers, 58, 277. 

* Myles Standish io Ency. Brit. 

^ Myles Standish, Diet. Nat. Biog, 

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Duxbury Park. 

FOR the daughter of the gods, divmdy fair, '^many 
drew swords and died." So Tennyson phrases it ; 
bat estates as well as fair ladies may havejmany^suitors. 
Duxbury is the very Helen ol Lancashire halls, with a 
long list of militant claimants. 

The casual visitor, who can without responsibility 
enjoy its charms, and who knows that ownership implies 
maintenance, may consider that the stately house with 
its emerald lawns is like Meredith's ladylove " sweeter 
unpossessed." But many have deemed otherwise. 

Comparatively speaking, all went merry as a marriage 
bell until Sir Frank Standish died in 1812, and the male 
line and the baronetcy lapsed. Then appUcants came from 
the north and the south, from the east and the west. On 
both sides of the Atlantic to-day, th«:e are those who think 
that, if justice was done, they would be ensconced in 
power and state at Duxbury. 

About a mile and a half south of Chorley stands the 
mansion, surrounded by a well-wooded park. To the 
west of the house the little River Yarrow goes gurgling 
along its leafy valley j and the age-long mill, mentioned 
in 1346, and working until recently, is not far away. 

The Hall faces east, and is a spacious building some 
80 feet in length, with a Doric portico ; while north and 
south wings run backward 90 feet or more. The walls 
were faced with large blocks of ashlar gritstone in 1828 ; 
but even behind tlm covering they are substantial. At 
the entrance they are three feet thick ; and there are huge 
stones which would probably belong to an ancient building. 

Part of the present house dates back to the sixteenth 
century, if not earlier. Work oi that peiiod is to be seen 

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in the cellars, which were probal^ly the ground floor of the old 
hall : for they ha\ e hre-places and muUioned windows, 
now bricked up, below the ground level ; while outside 
there is a stone drain lo feet below the present surface. 

The white marble staircase in the Hall is very handsome 
and imposing. It is circular in shape, with a diameter of 
36 feet 6 inches, and is on the cantilever principle. This 
stair is probably about 200 years old in workmanship Tf 
introduced in 1828 by Frank Hall Standish, who tilled the 
house with ^irt treasures, it may have been transferred 
from elsewhere. The walls of the stair are decorated with 
pamtings of the Seasons. 

An interesting stone panel, perhaps once affixed to the 
exterior of the house, has been brought inside, and care- 
fully preserv'ed by the resident owner of the estate, P. S. 
Ma\ hew, Esq. This panel bears the arms of Standish of 
Duxbury m six quarters, impaling Wingfield of Lethering- 
ham, surmounted by the crests of these families and the 
date 1623 > 2Lnd has reference to the marriage of Thomas 
Standish of Duxbury, afterwards M.P. for Preston, with 
Anne Wingfield. 

The front windows of the house command fine views 
of the Angiezark moors and uplands. At this time the 
house contained some valuable paintings, including Murillo's 
"Ecce Homo.'i 

Such is the fair paradise after which so many peris 
have longed. 

Sir Frank Standish having died intestate and without 
issue in 181 2, Mr. Baker, of Ellesmere Hall, near Durham, 
took possession of the Duxbury estates in the name of his 
ward, Frank Hall, who was then a boy of thirteen. 

A certain Thomas Standish of Blackrod, a weaver, 
claimed to be the right heir, and assumed the title of Sir 
Thomas. The present writer has had tlie loan of a very 
elaborate pedigree, illustrated with coats of arms, which 
was used by the claimant. It shows that Thomas Standish, 

^ Twycnm, MomHohs, Lanes., I., 45. 



baptised at Blackrod, 1763, is the " undoubted heir male " 
by the will of Alexander Standish of Ehixbiiry (died 1622), 
who married a daughter of Sir Ralph Ashton, ol Whalley 

Aided by about a hundred collier friends, Thomas 
Standish went to T>ixbury Park on June 4, 1813, and 
dispossessed the resident bailiff. The Preston constables, 
who were sent for, proving too weak to drive out the 
invaders, a troop of horse soldiers came from Manchester 
the next day and took the garrison prisoners. Thomas 
Standish and some of his leading friends were indicted for 
riot, and sentenced to a year's imprisonment at Lancaster 

For some time afterwards, however, his syn^pathisers 

made demonstrations in the park, and visited the inn at 

Yarrow Bridge to drink to his better fortune. These 

carousals were known as Duxbury Races and Yarrow 

Bridge Fair, and some local laureate set the following 

verse to a popular tune : — ► 

" From Dl^gan the constables bmre did repair 
To Dnxbury Races and Yarrow Bridge Fair ; 
To keep our true landlord our efforts did fail ; 
They carried Sir Thomas to Lancaster JaiL 

But we'll fetch him back ; 

He nolbing riiall lack. 
And in spite m the lawyers and Master Frank HaU, 
He shall ride in his carriage to Diixbuiy HalL" 

Three weeks after the siege, another party of Queen's 
Bays had to come to Chorley for the fiuther safety of 
Duxbury Park ; and they remained in the vicinity from 
June until September. On September 5 in the follownng 
year, 181 4, the Orange Society from Wigan went to Chorley 
to meet Thomas Standish on his release from Lancaster 
Castle A 

Some eleven years later, a Thomas Standish, probably 
the same, but a wiser and a sadder man, essayed the inter- 
vention of the law rather than the arbitrament of force. 

^Preston Guardian, June 15th, 190X ; Manchester City Nmu, 
May 6tb, XS85 ; Oid Wigan, Wigan Obaemr Office^ Na 286. 



He served ejectments on the tenants and was under 
terms to try the issue. In objection to the biH of claim 
filed by him, an answer was put in on April 2, 1825, by 
Mr. Frank Hall Standisii, who had his case prepared and 
witnesses in readiness. Thomas Standish claimed to be 
a descendant of a direct line, but very remotely. After 
having brought his case into Court, he was obliged to 
abandon it from insufficiency of proof. 

On giving up his case, Thomas Standish informed the 
claimants next to be dealt with (Messrs. Jackson, Iremonger 
and Carr) of their rights, and told them they were in fact 
the rightiful descendants.^ 

Nearly 20 years after Mr. Frank Hall entered into 
possession, a Mr. Jackson put forward his claini, based 
upon his descent from Anne, daughter of Richard Standish, 
of Duxbiuy, who in 1673 married Stephen Radley. 

" Mr. Jackson made hB entries and issued his ^ectments, 
but in consequence bi an informality in the proceedings 
they were advised to be abandoned." 

Ihe Mr. Jackson mentioned above joined with others 
in submitting a case to counsel in 1835, intending to bring 
ihe questiontoissueby Writ of Ri^t ^ould counsel think 
tiiere were fair hopes of success. Mr. Jackson claimed 
that the estate descended to him, and two other female 
branches of the descendants of Anne (Standish) Radley. 

Cdonel William Iremonger was also associated with 
Mr. Jackson; he claimed descent by his mother, Ann 
Dusseaux, who married Joshua Iremonger, this Ann being 
a great-granddaughter of Anne (Standish) Radley. 

The tihtrd male claimant who joined forces with these 
others was Mr. Standish Carr. He was descended from 
Margaret Standish, daughter of the first Sir Thomas 
Standish, of Duxbury, which Sir Thomas died in 1746. 
His daughter Margaret married, first, in 1727, a William 
Wombwell, of Womb well, co. York, Esq., who died and 
was buried at Dar&eld^ July 21, 1733. Margaret, his 

^ Dr. Farrer's Standish of Duxbury papers. 

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widow, was married at Fnckley with Clayton, co. York, 
on December 5, 1734, to Anthony Hall, of Kirkby. 

Margaret's daughter, Anne Hall, married the Rev. 
Ralph Carr, grandfather of Mr. Standish Carr, the claimant. 

The case of these associated claimants against Frank 
Hall (who had meanwhile delivered a pedigree into the 
College of Arms and by Royal Licence assumed the name 
of Standish) was, that although he might be descended 
from the Anthony Hall who married Margaret Wombwell, 
formerly Standish, yet he was the offspring of Anthony 
by a former union, and therefore was not of the Standish 

They did not doubt that the first Anthony had another 
son of the same name by Margaret, but contended that 
this Anthony went to sea and died unmarried. 

These claims were under discussion when Frank Hall 
Standish died in 1840 ; and Mr. Standish Carr, one of the 
above-mentioned claimants, was finally adjudged to be his 
rightful successor, taking the surname Standish in Ueu of 
his family name. 

It is remarkable that Mr. Standish Carr disputed the 
right of Mr. Frank Hall Standish while the latter Uved, 
but aUowed him and his branch the place they had claimed 
in the family pedigrees published after 1840. 

In view of the complaints made by later di^tants 
that Chorley Re^sUx was de^ed to defeat the title ol the 
rightful heir, it is interestiq^ to read that the associated 
claimants ol 1835 mad^ a similar assertion about the Stan- 
dish Register. In connection with the baptism of Thomas, 
son ol Sir Richard and Margaret Standish, ol Duxbury, at 
Standish Church, on January 16, they say : It 

is a cnrious circumstance tt^t this register 1ms been cut 
out ol the Standish books^ and was lound among the 
returns from that parish to Chester [Diocesan Registry]." 

The next scene in the drama was the visit of Mr. Bromley 
to Chorley in 1846, on behalf of the American descendants 
of Captain Myles Standish. This has already been described 
at length on pages 18-22. 

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But it was wTitten in the book of fate that twice within 
a century Duxbury Park should be the scene of a siege and 
re-capture. In September, 1891, a part of the estate was 
offered for sale at Chorley- The Carrs, as we have seen, 
had claimed against the Halls ; and now claimants, pur- 
porting to represent the Halls, were ready to dispute with 
the Carrs. Mr. William Hall, of Wigan, claiming some 
connection with Frank Hall Standish, who died in 1840, 
protested against the sale, and stated that he would press 
his claim to the property. The trustees at that time were 
Cctoid Paulet, Mr. Clarence G. Sinclair, Mr. James, a 
London solicitor, and Mr. G. Felix Standish Sinclair. 
Mr. Tames stated that the property had been held 50 years 
by the then owners^ and that was a sufficient guarantee 
of title. 

Mr. Han, however, with his solicitor, Mr. C. S. Yates, of 
Liverpool, accompanied by ten men, went to the Park, 
which had not been occupied for about ten years, and took 

possession on September 28th. The tenante of the estate, 
led by the steward, surrounded the Hall; and the clainmt's 
party barricaded themselves in the present biiliaid room. 
After a stiff fight, they were ^ected, and legal proceedings 

Even yet, occasionally, the smouldering fires of old 
memories and old desires are stirred, and there is a little 
smoke. About nine years ago the present writer saw 
affixed to the door of the parish church of Standish, a 
printed notice stating that the Duxbury estates were about 
to be taken into possession by the gentleman who published 
the notice. There are other stories which cannot be 
published without betraying confidence. One claimant 
of whom we have heard, who lived in London, carried all 
the papers appertaining to the subject in his hat, and 
would not let anybody see them. 

On these varied claims one does not pretend to adjudi- 
cate, lest one should be accused of those servile motives 
which Mr^ Goodwin attributed to the rector of Chorley.^ 

^ Page 19. 



Let it suffice to say that if the fair mansion were parcelled 
among aU its suitors, not one stone would be left upon 

another : while if the ancient demesne were similarly 
divided, there would hardly be allocated tO each applicant 
^ace enough lor a garden of herbs. 


Standish Hall. 

THE ancient home of the Standishes, however laddng 
in architectural unity, has a certain picturesque 
beauty. The very commingling of styles is 
reminiscent of the passing centuries and the changing 
fortunes of the family. 

The most attractive feature in its a{>|)earance is the old 
black and white sixteenth century portion, with its quatre- 
foil ornamentation. The windows here have diamond- 
shaped panes ; the upper window is of great length, having 
no less than nineteen lights. This middle wing was 
probably built about 1575, for a deed of Edward Standish 
of this date makes mention of his new mansion house. 

South of the half-timber wing stands the private chapel, 
a seventeenth century brick building decorated with a 
turret and a clock. On the other side of the old part is 
a brick wing, probably of the same date as the chapel, 
and west of this wing a later section which is now the 
principal part of the house, A spout-head here bears the 
date 1748 and the initials of Ralph Standish and his stx:ond 
wife, Mary, indicating the time of some reconstruction. 
Further west still is an eigliteenth century addition of one 
storey only, on which there is a spout-head with the date 
1822 and the initials of Charles Standish. 

Inside, some fine panelling and wainscoting still remain, 
and several interesting doors ; the great hall, however, 
originally 36 feet by 17 feet, is now quite altered and 
modernised, being used as a billiai'd room. One bedroom, 
fully panelled in oak, has a iine fireplace including a large 
plaster shield with the Standish arms, in ten quarters, 
and crest. There are two ^lendid carved oak mantel- 
pieces, brought from Borwick Hall, near Camforth, by 

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WilHam Standish, who married Cecilia Bindloss, of Ber- 
wick. One of these mantels is in the <dd drawing room, 
to the right of tiie entrance. It contains a shield of the 
Stuart sovereigns, including the arms of France ; and the 
other panel has the arms of Bindloss of Berwick impaling 
ntctfts with the date 1603. The second mantel is m the 
study and shows the royal anns differently blazoned* and 
the coat of Bindloss impaliiig Dalton. The reprehensible 
custom of removing oak carving has resulted in loss as 
well as gain to Standish Hall, for &ere is a door at Towndcy 
Hall, P>iirnley, evidently taken from Standish, bearing the 
initials of Ralph and Alice Hanington Standish and the 
date 1530. 

The chapel, long disused, is faUing into decay» though 
the classic altar-piece with Tuscan colunms bears witness 
to its former ornamentation. There is an old balustraded 
gallery at the west end. A window from a room fonnerly 
used by the priest looks down into the chapel. On the 
south wall are two pieces of moulded oak of old date, but 
a spout-head bears the initials of Ralph and Mary Standish 
and the date 1742. The chapel was dedicated to St. 
Marie of the Annunciation, and was used by the Roman 
Catholics until their new church was built in 1884. 

There was originally a moat encircling Standish Hall. 
It is mentioned in 161 1, and is said to have been Med 
up in 1780.* 

Standish Hall was the jwent home of several famous 
families of the Standishes, such as those who settled at 
Duxbury Park, at Arley, Burgh, and Scholes This remote 
homestead among the woods by the waters of the Douglas 
is the birthplace of a name that has crossed the narrow 
and the broad seas. From beneath its rooftree have come 
men who have taken high office in church and State, 
bishop and canon, knight and sheriff, some wielding a 
BMghty sword and some the mightier pen. 

^V.CH* Lanes., VI., 46a. 
* Mannwr, Mid-Lanes., 177. 

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I'ltolo : DaXlun, Charley. 
Si.VXDISII ClIlUlll (IW.'J). 

t, * W • If 


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*^Stanii$k Deeds, Eaiwakcr, Sa, 34, 40. 
« L. offtf C. IZtooi^ Society t Vol. 35, p. 118. 


, has become 

head of this 
, where once 
Jlack Prince, 

•f Plymouth, 
it more sure 
dying, as his 
rly cradle of 
f Standish. 
me of which 
t of the word 

for park or 
h/' meaning 

first part cS 
)ossibly ima 
place? The 
:he land.^ 
? Probably 
extended into 
vasteof wood 
boundary of 
lish Wood at 

iervant going 
ed in a close 
le said HalL 
)rse until he 
d but for the 
faster Ralph 
tandish when 

Hall became 
of Jacobite 
.leteyG.Q. 1488. 

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sympathies. Its remoteness from busy towns and accessi- 
bility by lonely lanes made it an ideal rendezvous for 
plotters. There was a great feasting of the Jacobite 
gentry at tiie Hall at Christmas, 1689, bat among the 
guests there was a traitor.^ 

In April, 1690, Roger Kenyon was told by a Men^* 
" There is a story of a plot in Lancashire .... dis- 
covered by one Dodswortfa. a papist Mr. Standish of 
Standish's house, was beset, bat I hear he escaped."* 

It q»eaks modi for the daring, if mistaken, loyalty of 
William Standish to the Stoart cause, Uiat even after this 
" scare/' the secret collecting of arms and munitions went 
on. Carriers alleged that they had taken kettle-drums, 
pistols, etc., to Standish Hall. One man had unloaded 
his horses in the inner courts and pitched the packs in the 
parlour, where they were opened and the arms divided, 
Mr. Standish, Mr. Molineux and Sir Rowland Stanley 
each taking his share* Another carrier had a pack-horse 
accidentally thrown down in Wigan Lane, wluch led to 
boxes belonging to Mr. Standish being opened and pistols 
discovered.* This carrier went with his master to the 
Hall in the dead of night with two kettle-drunas '* whelved " 
round his head as he sat on horseback on a sack of pistols. 
The rattling of the drums so terrified the horse that the 
rider was tlirown and cut his head, but when he dchvered 
the pistols and drums at the HaU he was rewarded with a 
shilling and some drink.* 

Men were made ready as well as munitions. It was 
said that John Sharp, servant to Mr. Standish, was em- 
ployed to enlist men for King James's service at Standish 
town and other places, giving them eacli one shiiiing 
" listing money " and promising them half-a-crown a day. 
Of&ces in the Jacobite army were liberally xnromised, and 

^CheihaM Soe., Old SeiiM^ VoL XXVin., pp. zxl, jdiit 

* Kenyrm MSS., p. 23B. 

^Chetham Soc^ Old Seiies, LXI., 93, 

XXVIII., 73. 
^CIMam SoG., Vol XXVIIL, 107. 

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a quarrel as to the places of quarter-master and corporal 
in a troop of horse to be raised by Mr. Standish caused 
one Laurence Brandon, to miss his dinner at Standish 
Hall, where he had been invited by the servants, one May 
day in 1691, and " rather to dine in the town of Standidi. 
But the company were compensated afterwards when 
'* the yoang lord of Standish " called them from the Hall 
kitdien into a parlour, made them drink, and gave them 
a brave speech about their rightful King who was bamshed. 
Thus was young Ralph fore^iadowing in 1691 the part he 
was to play in 17x5. Taking a horseman's naked sword* 
and bending the blade thereof by way of trial, he diewed 
it to the company and told them they should be furnished 
with no worse than that ; and at their taking leave of him 
he gave them a word by which they should know one 
another, which was, " Go thy way, old Tiipl " We for- 
bear to ask who old Trip " was. It was a playful touch, 
adding a spice of fun to this de^>erate adventure. But 
we may be sure that their eyes shone when they saw the 
sharp edge and the pliant temper of that awful symbol, 
the naked sword; and how the glasses dinked as they 
drank to the King across the water ! ^ 

These warlike doings appear to have been the talk of 
the neighbourhood, and spies and informers were abroad. 
A second time Standish Hall was surrounded and searched. 
One July day in 1691, tiie thunder of hoofs was heard on 
the drive ; the sun glinted on the armour and bright 
colours of horsemen speeding past the trees, and a gay 
cavalcade drew rein at the Hall door. Captain Baker, 
accompanied by King s Messengers and a dozen troopers 
of the Dutch Horse, with tlieir bhie cloaks and big pistols, 
demanded admittance in the name of the King, and pro- 
ceeded to search the house. William Standish and his 
son, Ralph, had evidently absconded ; but the lady (Cecilia, 
wife of William Standish, the daughter of Sir Robert 
Bindloss, of Borwick) received them, if the Captain's story 
can be beU eved, with outspoken defiance. Thirty-nine 

^ Chatham Soc,, XXVIU., iiz, 113, 

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saddles, mostly for cavalry, were part of his haul ; also 
belts for carbines. There was a treasonable docun^ent 
discovered in a bed-chamber upstairs, afterwards described 
in Parliament as fit to be burned." Captain Baker 
accused the lady of a lack of candour (perhaps owing to 
her agitation). When he came into the lady's chamber, 
the lady said he had come too late for she had been in- 
formed of his coming. When he put aside the hanging by 
the chimney, she declared on her honour there was nothing 
there on the hricka But he pat in his hands, and palled 
out a matter of ten yellow swords, blades and scabbards, 
such as soldiers wear. The Chapd at the Hall was robbed 
without the Captain's orders, and a chalice taken. A 
silver-hilted sword was carried off also, and a f owUng^iece. 
This the Captain returned, because the lady said it was 
her son's. ^ The booty was not large; the hiding-places 
kept their secret well. When the famous trial of the 
Jacobite gentry took place at Manchester in 1694, William 
Standish was not with them. He had escaped, some say 
to France, but it is jirobable that he was hiding in Standish. 
A royal proclamation was issued in 1695, threatening all 
who helped to conceal him, and offering .£500 as a reward 
for his apprehensioo.^ 

Was there really a plot of which Standish Hall was the 
rendezvous ? The Jacobite gentry, tried in 1694, protested 
that they were the victims of a sham plot " forged by 
persons for interest and design." Many have taken their 
part;* much ink has been spilt and much pity wasted. 
John Lunt and John Taafe, the informers, may have lt>een 
unprincipled rogues, but their chief contention was true. 
Poor W omball, the carrier of Wigan Lane, may have 
combined a little perjury with his whipping of packhorses, 
as his enernies alleged ; nevertheless, when he said he had 
carried arms to Standish Hall, it was probably the plain 
truth. Sta ndish Hall has revealed its secret, as the sea 

^ Chetham Soc, XXVIII., 40 ; LXI., 14. K^yon M$S^ 35a, 377. 

* Copy in Wigan Library. 

*C/. Chatham Soc,, XXVIIL, LXI., Introductions. 

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gives up her dead. There was a plot, and the Hall was its 
nurser\^ When the Old Coppy Wall at Standish was 
taken down in 1757, a bundle of papers was found proving 
that the Lancashire Jacobites were in correspondence with 
the banished king, and were taking active steps to bring 
him back again. The contents ol the papers remind us 
forcibly of John Lunt's claim that he had been sent by the 
Jacobite gentry at Standish Hall " to acquaint King 
James of their forv^'ardness."'^ One of the papers that 
came to light was a Declaration of Loyalty addressed to 
Kir^ James, signed on the back by J. Parker, Ra. Wid- 
drington, Willm. Standish and others. Having seriously 
dehberated upon a matter of so high a nature among 
themselves, and having given to each other all the assurances 
that the faith of men is capable of, they resolve that 
nothing shall be wanting " to put matters in such a readi- 
ness as may prove useful to your Majesty whenever a 
service is demanded. ' ' The King has already been informed 
of their numbers by Colonel Townley, but that estimate 
will be rather exceeded than diminished ** whenever the 
happy occasion shall offer." They have taken care that 
no anns shall be wanting and pray that it may be suddenly 
in His Majesty's power to make an experiment ol their 

Another document was a note from King James approv- 
ing of what Colonel Parker, brigadier of his army, had done 
in order to form regiments of horse and dragoons, and 
persuading them to provide aims. He returns thanks to 
his 103^ subjects, the gentlemen concerned, and desires 
them to send one of their number to whom he will deliver 
conunissions. Their messenger must have a warrant from 
the rest to prove his authority, and it must be so contrived 
that it may do no hurt, though it should, as God forbid* 

Among the hidden papers were some in cypher, with 
directions as to troops, also blank commissions from 
Jam» IL, dated June 8, 1692, for a Regiment of Horse, 

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I Colonel, 2 Lieutenant -Colonels, 2 Captains, 5 Lieutenants, 
7 Cornets, and for a Regiment of Dragoons, i Lieutenant- 
Colonel, I Major, 6 Captains, 6 Lieutenants, 6 Cornets.^ 

We are told that " pity for the accused and hatred of the 
prosecutors " were the prevailing sentiments at the trial 
of the Jacobite gentry.* Hot blood has had time to cool, 
but even yet there may be various views concerning the 
loyalty and prudence of the Lancashire Jacobites. As to 
their coura^^e, however, there can be but one opinion. 
They risked their hves and their lands for the cause they 
loved. And having almost lost both, some of them were 
ready again to make the grand venture. 

The young lord of Standish, who had tested the naked 
sword before his new recruits, succeeded to the estates in 
1705. Years passed hy, and after long waiting came 
** the happy occasion." It was not so happy after all. 
Ralph Standish joined the Jacobites at Preston in 17 15, 
and the story of the fight or fiasco there is wdl known. 
He was bfoaght through Standish a prisoner, and no doubt 
looked wistfully at the woods encircling the home he might 
ne\'er see again. When they paused at Wigm he wrote a 
beautiful and tender letter to his mother, at Borwick, the 
lady of Captain Baker's account, who luid seen the Hall 
searched in 1694. 

The powerful influence of the Howards, his wife's family, 
secured his escape from death, but Standish Hall and the 
estates were confiscated by the Crown. Ultimately^ 
they were purchased lor the Standish family. 

The following demesne fields are mentioned in 2507 : 
the High, Little and Lower Earley (? Berley), Passemeadow 
Key, the Elnop, Park Meadow, Gait's Field, the Greens, 
Horse Close, Hard Field, Little and Great Highfidd, the 
Two Launds, and the Park. 

^Standish Deeds and Papers, Mrs. Tempest. These are historical 
documents, and so iar as is known thsy have not been mentioned 

in print before. 

« Chstham 5oc., VoL LXl.. Part IL, p. xv. 

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In 1755 the demesne fields were : Fearny Lawns, Rushby 
Lawns, (ransy Lawns, Wood Meadows, Fold Meadow, MiU 
Meadow, Great and Little Copy, Berley Plain, Elmip, 
Parsnip Meadow, Hi£?lier and Lower Berley, Great, Middle 
and Little Berchinlee, Great Berley Wood, Fold, Woodyard 
Clough, Nursery, Old Orchard. The Kitchen Garden, the 
Mill and Woods (in Rigby's possession) are also mentioned. 

The following demesne fields were let with New House 
(now Strickland House) : Brickkiln Hey, Sheepcote 
Highfield, Long Highfield, Calf House Meadow, Horse 
Close Cop High Field, Close at the top, Well Meadow and 

Charles Standish was the last of the family to occupy the 
Hall. He left it in 1824 ; Thomas Darwell, a mayor of 
Wlgan, became tenant. John Hill, barrister, was there 
in 1840 ; John Lord in 1848. John Taylor, a later tenant, 
was followed by Nathaniel Eckcarsley, J. P., vvho was there 

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A Pilgrim Library : the Books of 

Myles Standish. 

CAN we judge a man by his books? Not very 
safely; for his entire library may have been a 
legacy or a gift, never tised by its owner. But 
that would be an extreme case. As we read the list of 
books among the possessions of Captain Myles Standish 
we feel at once that some of them comport very naturally 
with his character and career. So Longfellow thought, 
and his fancy delighted to dwell on the books of the Captain 
of Plymouth : 

" Fixed to the opposite wall was a shelf of books, and among them 
I^ominent three, distinguished alike for bulk and for binding; 
Barifle's ArtiUery Guide, and the Commeotaries of Caesar; 
And, as if guarded by these, between them was standing 
the Bible." 

One dares to believe that in this case some at least <tf 
bis books reveal the man ; and the mind that found joy 
and inspiration in them was not a narrow mind. The very 
first mentioned volume on the list of the Captain's books 
strikes an Elizabethan note, " The History of the World." 
It may be a Puritan library, but it was no narrow type of 
Puritanism that could explore universal history, and share 
the fascination that fell on Orosius, Alfred and Raleigh. 

It is a soldier's library. Here is the book that teaches 
drill and discipline. And even the volumes that represent 
pure literature have a military flavour. Homer, Caesar, 
perhaps even the Bible, charmed the reader most when he 
found in them the clash of arms. T.ongfellow imaeines him 
hesitating which he should choose for his consolation and 
comfort : 



" Whether the wara o| the Hebrewa, the iamooi r^«ni^'CFFf of 

the Romans, 

Or the Artillery praelice, designed for beUigereiit Chriftiaoa. 
Finally down from its shelf he dragged the ponderous Roman, 
Seated himsdf at the window, and opcmea the book, and in 


Tnmed o*er the well-worn leaves, where thumb-marks thick 
on the margin, 

like the trample of leet, prodained the battle was botteit" 

There is a distinct love of history reflected from these 
bookshelves, wide as the world and reaching out to peoples 
of strange race and faith, such as the Turks, yet dwelling 
most tenderly on the homeland and carried right up to 
contemporary heroes, leaders, caiises and conflicts. The 
spell of Glonana, the Virgin Queen, was felt by one who 
had fought at her command, and received his commission 
from her hand. Again, Gustavus Adolphus was one of his 
heroes, and among his books he treasured the portrait and 
the life-story of the Swedish leader. 

More than half the books in the list relate to religion. 
Some, such as Calvin and Hall, represent systematic 
theology ; others are devotional ; a good number are 
controversial ; in some, no doubt, all these elements meet. 

Controversy belonged to the times ; and poflsibly Myles, 
with lus martial spirit, delighted in the resounding whacks 
d ^e polemics wected against the Roman Church, and 
also agaoDst the Church of England, reformed, but as some 
bought, not sufficiently reformed. In the debate between 
conformity and noncoiiiormity, Standish's library suggests 
that he was ready to hear both sides. So far as the titles 
can be idoitified it seems fair to say that there is a pre- 
ponderance of authors moderate in opinion, and that 
conformity is well represented. There is one bitter book, 
" Johnson against Hearing/' But the library of Standish 
is sufficient to show that he did not imbibe its spirit. At 
any rate he was not " against reading " either the champions 
of the Church of England or their opponents. His library, 
like his life, reflects the spirit, all too rare, of toleration. 
It must not be forgotten that he was content to live and 

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work with men whose faith he did not hold, at any rate in 
the same form. 

The books which appear to deal with farming, medicine 
and law, remind us what a many-sided man he was, and 
how in those early pioneering days every man had to be 
his own lawyer and doctor. 

On the " parcels of old books, divers subjects," so 
sunuBanly dismissed by the executors, fancy fondly dwells. 
Some of those foUos and quartos would now be worth 
their weight in gold We Uke to think that among those 
unnamed tomes Shakespeare and Hakluyt were repre- 

Matthew Arnold rashly said that the Pilgrims would 
have been intolerable company for Shakespeare and Virgil 
This one of Uiem, at least, did not find Homer " intolerable 


The following list of his books, with the value of thenu 
was compiled by his executors and attested by his daughter, 
Barbara, in 1657. Several transcripts have been collated, 
and the spdling modernised. The numbers are affixed 
here as a guide to the notes which follow. Following the 
item in the inventory which enumerates one sword* one 
cutlass, three belts, we have 

^ I. 

(x) Th^niistory of tbe World, a&d (2) The Toridah 

History ... ^ ... ... ... ... f lo O 

(3) ;A Chronicle of England, and (4) The Country Farmer O 8 O 
(5)^Tbei History of Queen Elizabeth, (6) The State of 

Europe ... ... ••• 1 zo o 

(7); Doctor HaU'a (or Hales) Works^ (8) Calvin's Ia> 

stitutions ... ... ... ..• i 4 O 

(9) Wilcocks' Works, and (10) Mayor's I O O 

(11) Roger's Seven Treatise, and (12) The French 

Academy ••• *** ' ••• o 12 o 

(13) Three Old Bibles ... o 14 o 

(14) Caesar's Commentaries, (15) Barifie's Artillery ... o XO o 
(16) Preston's Sermons, (17) Burroughs' Christian Con- 
tentment, (i8) Gospel Conversation, (19) Passions 

of the Bfind» (20) The Physician's Ptactice, (21) 
Burroughs' Earthly Afrndedness, (22) Burroughs' 



(33) Ball on Faitb, (24) Brmsley's Watch, (25) Dod on 
the Lord'a Sapptt, (26) Spaiko a^jauut Heresy, 

(27) Davenport s Apology O 15 O 

(a8) A Reply to Doctor Cotton on Baptism, (29) The 

German HLstuiy, (30) The Sweden Intelligencer, 

(31) Reason (or Reaaooa) Diacoaaed o so o 

(3a) One Testament, (33) One Psalm Book, (34) Nature 

and Grace in Conflict, (35) A Law Book, (36) The 

Mean in Mourning, (37) Allegations agaix^ B.P. 

ol Durham, (38) JobiiaQn against Heioing 060 
(39) Wilaon'a Dicttonaxy, (40) Homer's Iliad, (41) A 

Commentary on James Ball's Catechism o 12 o 

A Parcel of Old Books of Divcts Subjects, in quarto ... o 14 o 
Another Paiceil in octavo... ... ... ... ... 040 

Another transcription^ makes the group ending vrith 
Davenport's " Apology " worth los., and the Parcel of 
octavo books, 5s., total £11 9s. 

(t) " History of the World." There were se\ cral works 
with a similar title ; but one would like to think that the 
book Captain Standish had was that uTitten by Sir Walter 
Raleigh [i 552-161 8] and his friends during his last imprison- 
ment. Raleigh's fame in the colonisation of \^irginia and 
the conquest of Guiana might well render hirn a hero in the 
eyes of one who had a kindred zest for adventure. 

(2) The Turkish History is probably " The Mahumetane, 
or Turkish Historie, translated from the French-Italian by 
R. Carr," London, 1600, 4to.* 

(3) ** A Chronicle oi England " is a somewhat indefinite 
description. Lord Berners' translation of Froissart first 
appeared 1523-25. Raphael HoUnshed's '* Chronicles of 
England, Scotland and Ireland " were pubUshed in 1578. 

Both these works mentioned the exploits ol several 
members of the Standish family, and Captain Myles would 
be likely to prize a cbronide that made reference to dis- 
tinguished ancestors. Some of the allusions to the Stan* 

J^Sec New Eng. Hist. Gen. Soc. Regisier I., 54; V 356; also 

The Mayflower Descefulant, III., 153, 

* Lowndes : Bibliog. Manual. 

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dishes in Froissart and llolinshcd were embodied in the 
pedigrees current in the tune of Longfellow, and suggested 
to the poet the words which he puts into the mouth of 
Myles Standish : 

One of my ancestors ran his sword through the heart 
of Wat Tyler." 
{4) " The Country Farmer." Probably "The Country 
Farme " translated in 1616 by the versatile writer Gervase 
Markham, who, hke Standish, was a soldier under the 
Veres. 1 

(5) " History of Queen Elizabeth." This was probably 
a translation of the History of her reign, written in Latin 
by William Camden, the antiquary, and first published in 
1615. Thomas Brown's translation appeared in 1629. 
There is another version in English in the Bodleian, dated 
1630, Darcie's " Annales " were also based on Camden. 
These works are now very valuable. ^ 

(6) " State of Europe." Sir Edwin Sandys [1561-1629] 
wrote his " Europae Speculum " in 1599. It was publish^ 
in 1605 as *'A Relation of the State of Religion, &c." An 
edition was published at the Hague in 1629. Though 
fairly tolerant, it is described as Protestant in tendency ; 
and is said to have converted from Romanism, Henry 
Wriothesley, the third Earl of Southampton. Sand3rs 
was actively interested in colonies, and had correq^ondence 
with Robinson and Brewster.* 

(7) Doctor Hall's Works (another transcript has Hales). 
Joseph Hall [1574-1656] was Bishop of Exeter, 1627, and 
of Norwich, 1641. Thb eminent controversialist was 
strongly opposed both to the Brownists and Presbyterians 
The presence of his books in Standish's library is note* 
worthy. The Captain was not a member of the Pilgrim 
Church ; possibly his opinions were nearer those of Bishop 
Hall tluui those of Pastor Robinson. Hall was one of 
King James 's representatives at the Synod of Dort, 1627 ; 

^Lowndes : BibHog, Manual, Markham : The Fighting Vw§s, 
^iMHCiMfB Libraries, Chet. Soc., p. 132. 
^Did. Na$. Bieg.; Lanes, Libraries. 

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and, though Calvinist, advocated charity towards Ar- 
menians. He was a powerful chanipion of Hturgies 
and of episcopacy. His " Episcopacy by Divine Right 
Asserted," appeared in 1640. In his " Hard Measure " he 
gives an account of his arrest and ill-treatment by the 
Parliamentarians. Though clever in satire, he was gentle 
and patient in temper. Fuller describes our Enghsh 
Seneca as " Not ill at controversies, more happy at com- 
ments ; very good in his characters, better in his sermons, 
best of all in his meditations." Foho editions of IJall's 
works appeared in 1621 and in subsequent years. 

(8) Calvin's " Institutes." The " Institutes of the 
Christia.!! Rehgion," 1536, published when John Calvin, 
the reformer, was stiU a young man, was translated and 
issued in many editions. 

(9) The Works of Wilcox. Thomas Wilcox [1549 ?-i6o8] 
was a Puritan divine who lived in London. He was 
imprisoned for his criticisni of the Ftaycr Bool(. His 
Works were issued in 1624. 

(10) Mayor's Works. John Mayer, D.D. [15 S3 1664] 
wrote "An Antidote against Popery," 1625. He 
ccMmplained that the bishops hindered the publication ol 
his " Commentary on the Bible/' which was issued, how* 
ever, in 1653, in five volumes^ fdio. There were copies 
of this work both at Turton Chapd and Walmsley Chapel, 
Lancashire, in 1659. Mayer was rector of Raydon, near 
Hadldgh, at his death. 

(11) Rogers' "Seven Treatises." A popular Puritan 
book by Richard Rogers [1550 ?-i6i8], minister of Weather- 
field, in Essex ; *' a zealous, faithful and profitable labourer 
in the vineyard of the Lord," according to Brook's '* Lives 
of the Puritans." He was not wholly conformable, and 
was deprived for a time, but afterwards restored. The 
*' Seven Treatises containing such directions as is gathered 
out of the HoUe Scriptures/' were published in 1603, and 
there were several editions and epitomes printed. A folio 
copy in 165 8 cost 5s. 1^ 

^Dicl. Nai, Biog,; Old LibrafUs of LancaAif§, 3S, 66. 

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(12) " French Academy." The title is, to us, somewhat 
misleading, as the book is a moral and philosophical 
treatise. The translation was made by Thomas Bowes, 
and was pubhshed in London, 1586, quarto ; second part» 
1594, quarto. 

The full title is " The French Academic, wherein is 
discoursed the institution of maners, and whatsoever els 
concerneth the good and happie life of all estates and call- 
ings, by precepts of doctrine, and examples of the lives of 
ancient sages and famous men. By Peter de ia Primaudaye, 
Es(4uire, Lord of the said place, and of Barree, one of the 
orrUnane gentlemen of the King's chamber, dedicated to 
the most Christian King Henrie the third, and newley 
translated into Enghsh by T. B."^ 

(13) Three old Bibles 

At the Centenary of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, Mr. Choate, then American Ambassador, said, 
** The Pilgrim Fathers carried their only possession of 
lastmg value to the New England from the shores of Old 
England. That wonderful possession was King James's 
Bible. Upon it the uew State was founded." 

He gave a description of one of the few copies remaining 
which had belonged to the Pilgrims. " Dogs-eared " was 
a mild term to express its condition, for its leaves were 
absolutely v. orn away by constant use. 

The Genevan Bible [1560] was a great favourite with 
the Puritans. 

(14) Caesar's " Commentaries.*' In Canto I of the 
** Courtship " Longfellow takes it for granted that Captain 
StdAdish's copy dT the Comaientaries of Cesar would be 
the English translation by Arthur Gdiding. This seems 
probable. Golding was a voluminous translator, both 
mm the Classics and fronk Calvin and Beza. His edition 
of the Commentaries appeared in 1565. 

Longfellow makes the Captain quote from "Com- 
mentaries»" Book II., c. 10, the story how the Roman 

^ Halkett and Laing, Die$, Anon, Lit,, Did, Nai, Biog.^ afticto 
on Thomas Bowca. 

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leader turned a retreat into a victory by putting himsdf 
at the head of the troops. This was to iUustrate the 
principle " If yon wish a thing to be well done» you must 
do it yourself/' 

(15) Barriffe's "Artillery." Longfellow's reference to 
this book has already been mentioned. The volume had 
a lengthy title, " Militarie Discifdine; or the Young 
Artillery Man, Wherein is Discoursed and Shown the 
Postures, both of Musket and Pike, the exactest way, &c 
Together with the Exercise of the Foot in their Motiow^ 
wiSi much variety: As also, diverse and several Forms 
for the Imbattelin| small or great Bodies demonstrated by 
the nnaaiber of a single Company with their Reducements. 
Very necessary for all such as are Studious in the Art 
Military. Whereunto is also added the Postures and 
Beneficiall Use of the Ha If- Pike joyned with the Musket. 
With the way to draw up the Swedish Brigade." By Col. 
Wii^itTm Barriffe. The 4th edition was published in 1643. 

Significant of his Puritan principles, Barriffe placed this 
text on his title-page : " Psalmes 144 : i. ' Blessed be 
the Lord my Strength which teacheth my hands to warre 
and my fingers to fight.'" 

(16) Preston's Sermons. An edition of the works of 
Dr John Preston [1587-1628], a popular Puritan divine, 
was published in London in 1615. Fuller called him the 
greatest pulpit -monger in England in man's memory. 

The generous Manchester merchant, Humphrey Chetham, 
who provided in his will, dated 1651, for the foundation of 
five libraries, wished them to consist of godly EngUsh 
books, such as Calvin's, Preston's and Perkins' works. 

(17, 18, 21, 22) Burroughs* " Christian Contentment," 
&c. JeremisJi Burroughs [1599-1646] at one time assisted 
Calamy as minister at Bury St. Edmunds. He was sus- 
pended from the rectory of Tivetshall for refusing to read 
the Book of Sports. In 1637 became teacher of a 
Congregationalist Church at Rotterdam. He was well 
known for the moderation of his views, and was hardly a 
separatist. Baxter said if all independents had been like 








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Burroughs, all episcopalians like Ussher, and aU presby- 
terians like Stephen Marsliall, the breaches of the church 
would soon have been healed. " The Rare Jewel of 
• Christian Contentment " was published in 1O48 ; his 
" Gospel-Conversation " in the same year ; " Earthly 
Mindedness . . ."in 1656. His " Discovery " has not 
been identified by the present writer. Was it a book by 
Stephen or William Borough, the navigators ? William 
Borough published a " Discours " on th^ compass in 1581. 
Or is the entry an error for Henry Barrowe's " Brief 
Discovery of the False Church/' 1501 ? 

(19) " The Passions of the Minde in generall/' by Th. W. 
[Thomas Wright], was published in London, 1601. It was 
dedicated to Hmry Wriothesley, the third Earl of South* 
ampton, in the hope that the Earl may be " delivered from 
inordinate passions." It included some verses of com- 
mendation by B. L, possibly Ben Jonson. 

Of the author, Thomas Wright, little is known ; there 
were several d the same name, often confused with one 
another. It may be remembered that Southampton was 
not only the patron of Shakespeare and of literature 
generally, but interested in colonisation. He aided 
Weymouth's e3qpedition to Virginia, 1605, and four years 
later became a member of the Virginia Company's Council 

(20) " The Physician's Practice" 

George Herbert [about 1632] recommends to the country 
parson : "And let Femelius be the Physick Author, for 
he writes briefly, neatly and judiciously; e^>ecially let 
his Method of Phisick be diligently perused, as being the 
practicall part and of most use." 

(23) Ball on Faith. John Ball [1585-1640] was the 
Puritan curate of Whitmore, Staffordshire, deprived 
because of his opinions. His " Treatise of F'aith," 1632, 
was very popular. The scholarly work of Bail gained him 
the good word of Fuller, Wood and Baxter. 

(24) Brinsley's " Watch." John Brinsley the elder 
[i6oo-i665],was a schoolmaster and minister at Yarmouth, 
and " not wholly conformable/' A seventh edition oi 

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"The True Watch and Rule of Life" was published in 
1615 111 two parts, and other parts followed in successive 
years. A copy, which had cost ^s. 6d, was in the Man- 
chester Church Library in 1665. Brinslev married a sister 
of the Bishop Hall mentioned above under No. 7. 

(25) Dod "On the Lord's Supper." John Dod [1549 ^" 
1645] was the Puritan incumbent of Hanwell, Oxfordshire. 
It is said that he preached at Canibncige against excessive 
drinking, and was " ragged " by the students, who com- 
pelled him to deUver a sermon on Malt. He began, " Be- 
loved, I am a little man, come at a short warning, to deliver 
a brief discourse upon a small subject," and took the 
letters of the word Malt to suggest the divisions of his 
address. " Ten Sermons . . . for the worthy receiving 
of the Lord's Supper," by Dod and R. C. (Richard Cleaver), 
were published in 1633. 

(26) Spark e " Against Heresy." Thomas Sparke [1548- 
1616], D.D. Oxford, 1581, was a Puritan divine, but a 
conformist. His "Answere to Mr. John de Aibine's notable 
Discourse against Heresies " appeared in 1591. 

(27) " Davenport's Apology." This was published at 
Rotterdam in 1636. It was entitled " An apologeticall 
reply to a work csJled : An answer to ih& ui^ust complaint 
of W. B." 

The Rev. John Davenport was an ordained clerg3rmen, 
praised at one time by Laud. He went abroad on account 
of Puritan opinions, and became co-pastor with John 
Paget of the English Church at Amsterdam. He objected 
to the baptism of children not proved to be of Christian 
parents, and quarrelled with Paget, whom he accused of 
^ tyranny and heresy. He returned to England ini635» but 
went to New Haven in 1639.' 

(28) "A Reply to Dr. Cotton on Baptism." The English 
and American Puritan divine, John Cotton 

was vic^ of Boston, Lines., and emigrated to Boston^ 

^Dict» Nai, Biog,; Brit, Mus, E, Eng. Books to 1640, p. 451. 




America, in 1633. His " Grounds and Ends of the Baptisme 
of the Children of the Faithfull " was published in 1647.^ 

(29) '* The German History would be some portion ol 
the work next mentioned. 

(30) ** The Sweden Intelligencer " is a book which 
reveals Captain Standish's interest in the career of the 
great soldier, Gustavus Adolphus [1594-1632], King of 
Sweden and hero of the Thirty Years' War. " The Swedish 
Intelligencer — The Truest Information of the Waxs of 
Gustavus Adolphus " was pubhshed in sections. 

Parts I. to IV., London, Nathaniel Butter, 1632-33, 4to, 
contained a portrait of Gustavus Adolphus. Part V., 
entitled " The Continuation of the German History/' 
1632, had an account of the King's funeral. Part VI. 
was called " History of the present Waires of Germany /' 
1634. Part VII., 1635, '*The Gennan History Con- 

(31) " Reason Discossed " is also transcribed as ''Reasons 
Discussed." It was probably an answer to some contro- 
versial work such as Johnson's " Certayne reasons/' etc. 
No. 3a 

(33) *' Psalm Book." This was probabW *' The Booke 
of P^dms, en^ished both in prose and Metre by Henry 
Ainsworth, Amsterdam, 1612." In Canto III of the 
''Courtship/' Loiigfdlow describes PrisdDa's copy as 

" Rough-hewn, angular notes, like stones in the wall of 
a chmchyaid. 
Darkened and orarhung by the running vine of the 


The Bay Psalm-Book, and other Psalters in use in the 
New England settlements are described in A. M. Earle's 
" Sabbath in Puritan New England." Henry Ainsworth 
[i 571-1622] was one of the most scholarly of the Brownist 
teachers. He settled in Amsterdam, and attained some 

1 Diet, Nai. Bi0g. SupphmMi, Vol. II. 

* For a fuller account, and a note w to the vahl* ol the workt 
see Lowndes' Bib, Man,, 2555. 

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eminence as a student of Hebrew. He is said to have 
worked as a bookseller's porter, living upon " nincpence 
In the weeke with roots boyled. " With Francis Johnson, 
who will be mentioned later, he was co-pastor of the Puritan 
Church at Amsterdam. 

(34) Nature and Grace in Conflict " (not identified). 

(35) "A Law Book." mchsnA Dalton's ''County 
Justice " (1618) and the "Abridgments of the Statutes'' 
were recommended to the decgy in 1632, as useful law 

(36) *' The Mean in Mourning " (not identified). 

(37) "A]lei|atiQns against B. P. of Duifaam.'* Evidently 
a controversial work. 

In the British Museum there Is "A Discharge of Five 
Imputations of Mis-aUegations falsdy charged upon the 
Bi^op of Duresme by an English Baron " (Arundell of 
Wardour). This was published in London, 1633. Possibly 
it is the very book of wliich Captain Standish had a copy, 
the title being abbreviated by the executors. According to 
the " Dictionary of National Biography " it was written 
Thomas Morton, then Bishop of Durham. The iuq)utations 
appeared in MS. only.* 

(38) Johnson's "Against Hearing ** was one of the most 
bigoted of separatist books. The full title was " Certayne 
reasons and arguments proving that it is not lawful! to 
heare or to have any spintuall communion with the present 
Ministerie of the Church of England." It was published 
in 1604. 

Francis Johnson [1562 161 8] was in 1589 a preacher to 
English Merchants in Gasthuis Kerk, Middleburg in 
Zealand ; later he was pastor at Amsterdam. An extra- 
ordinary quarrel arose concerning the dress worn by his 
wife, a rich and fashionable lady, who is said to have had 
her bodice fastened to her petticoat with laces, as men 

^ George Herbert's " Country Parson/' «d. Balmer^ i.» 274. For 
list of legal works of that date see Lowndes, Bibliog. Man., II., 1323. 

* British Museum Catalogue. For the suggested identification 
the Author is indebted to the Rev. Alexander Gordon. 




fastened thdr doublets and hose. This was aJl^ed to be 
contraiy to Deat xxii., 5, and other Scriptures. She also 
wore a tqpish " bonnet ; and was blamed because " men 
called her a boandng girl" Heiuy Ainsworth was co- 
pastor of the Chmch at Amsterdam with Johnson, and they 
quanelled about the powers of the church and pastorate. ^ 
{39) " Wilson's Dictionary/' Another misleading title. 
" The Christian Dictionarie," published in London, 1612, 
was one of the earliest attempts at an English concordance 
of the Bible. It attained six editions before 1656. Thomas 
Wilson [1563-1622], the author, was rector of St. George 
the Martyr, Canterbury; a man of Puritan tendencies, 
but a conformist. 

(40) Homer's Iliad." This was very probably a trans- 
lation by the dramatist, George Chapman [1559-1634]. 
There were various editions; Ben Jonson's copy, dated 
1598, is in the British Museum. We wonder whether 
Captain Standish's emotions on first looking into Chap- 
man's Homer," were at all like thc^e of Keats some two 
centuries later. Keats could only ima^^ine how the dis- 
coverer of the Pacific felt ; Standish knew by experience 
what it was to stand " silent upon a peak " and survey a 
new world. 

(41) "A Commentary on James Ball's Catechism." 
James Ball is unknown. John Ball, mentioned already 
(23), was the author of a Short Catechism. 

^JJtct. Nai. Btog. Dexter's Congregaitonaiism. B.M, Catalogue. 

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Deeds Relatiug to the Lost Lands. 

The Latin copies or abstracts of most of these deeds 
relating to the lands of the blandishes of Omiskirk, Co. 
Lancaster, collected and numbered by the Author, were 
printed by the Author in the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register for October, 1914 ; the old 
q>elling of surnames and place-names is retained. 


Grant from Evan or Ewan (Vanus) Standish of Weryiig- 
ton, son and heir of the late WiUiam Standish, to Hugh 
Standish of Ormeskirk and his heirs of all my right and claim 
to all those messuages, lands, tenements, rents, and ser- 
vices, which the said Hugh has in bis possession in the vUls 
of Onnesldrke and Newburgh. Witniises : Hamlet Ather- 
ton, esquire, Geofib^ Hiilm» Gilbert Gerrard and others. 
Dated May 20, 2Z Edward IV. [1481.] (Towneley BfSS., 
DD. 60. Kueiden BISS.» V6L 2. fo* 1446. Piccope MSS.» 
Vol. 3, p. 20, Na 6a) 


Grant from Peter Gerard and Richard Hnlio^ clerks, 
to Gilbert Standisli dt Qraddrk, gentleiQan» of aU their 
messuages, cottages, lands^ and tenements hi Onneddik 
and Newborig^ of wfaidi they were lately enf eo£M by the 
said Gilbert. He is to hold for life of the chief lords of the 
fee, and afterwards the messuages, &c., are to be held by 
R<j>ert Standish, Gilbert's son and heir, and by the heirs 
between him« Robert, and Margaret Croft, daughter and 
heir of Robert Croft, legitimately b^otten. If Robert 
has no heir, then by the right heirs of the said Gilbert f(>r 
ever. Witnesses: Henry Hallsale, knight, ThoidisV: 

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Hesketh and Thomas AthertoD, esquires, and others. 
Dated at Onneskirke, June ii, 17 Henry VII. [1502.] 
Dated May 20, 21 Edward IV. [1481.] (Towneley MSS,. 
(Townd^ MSS.» DD. 254. Kuerdmi MSS., Vol 2, fo. 


Rental of Margaret Standysshe, widow, for a whole 
year, a.d. 1529, Ormskirk, Borscoghe, Croston, Mawdisley, 
Wryghtington, Newburghe: total, except free renta- 
ls I2S. lod. (Piccope MSS.« Vol 3, p. 42, No. 114.) 


Grant from Thomas Standissh of Ormeskirk in co. Lane, 
gentleman, for fio, of which he acknowledges the receipt, 
to George Nelson, of Croston. of a messuage in Wrighting- 
ton, with the lands, rents and services belonging to it, the 
premises being worth i6s. annually. George and his heirs 
are to hold them of the chief lords of the fee. Thomas 

Standisshe monover appoints Gilbert Nelson and 

Morecroft his attorneys to gi\e (reorge Nelson full and 
peaceable seisin according to this charter. Witnesses : 
Henry Standanought, Peter Prescot, chaplains, James 
Assheton, yeoman, and others. Dated at Wrighttington, 
July 14, 31 Henry Vlll. [1539.] (British Museum Addi- 
tional MS., 32104, No. 1341.) 


Indenture, in English, made the eighteenth day of July, 
31 Henry VIII. [1539], between Thomas Standishe of 
Ormskirk and George Ndson. Thomas has sold to George 
for £10 a messuage, land, and meadow in Wrightington 
of the dear [annual] value of-i6 shillings over aU manner 
of charges &c. which Jane wife unto the said Thomas hatih 
in the said mese or tenement." Nevertheless if Thomas 
Standish or his heirs wish to bu^ back again the said 
tenement, they may do so, after giving due warning and 
. mating repayment at any time within ten years. (Towneley 
:Ml0B^.» GG. 1238. Duplicates: lb,, GG. 1326 RR. 992.) 

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Bond by which George Ndson of Croston in co. Lane,, 
yeoman, is bound to Thomas Standish of Ormiskerke in 
zoo marks, Dated July i8» 31 Henry VIIL [1539.] 
condition is that George Ndson perform the covenants 
in a pair of indentures of the same date between the above- 
named parties. Then the bond is to be void, otherwise in 
effect (Towneiey MSS., RR. 993, Duplicate : GO. 1397.) 


Grant horn Thomas Standish of Ormskirk, gentleman, to 
Brian Morecroft, clerk, rector of the parish church of 
Aghton, WilUam Laithewaite of Onneskirke, Hector 
Morecroft of Ormeskirke, and William Morecroft of Alte- 
grange, of all his messuages, lands, tenements, rents, 
reversions, and services and all hereditaments whatsoever 
inOrmeskirk, Burscogh, Wnghtington, Newburgh, Mawdes- 
ley and Croston, or elsewhere in co. Lane. They are to 
hold for the use of the said Thomas for his life ; afterwards 
for the use of Anne, daughter of Thomas for hve years. 
Provided always that if John the brother of Thomas, or 
anyone else who is next heir to Thomas, pay Anne £20, 
the feoffees are to hold the estate for the use of John, or 
Thomas's next heir. After the five years, they are to 
hold for the use of the right heir of Thomas legitimately 
begotten ; in default for the use of John his brother and 
John's Intimate heirs ; in default for the use of Huan, 
another brother of Thomas, and Huan's heirs. Remainder 
to the right heirs of Thomas. Dated July 7, 3a Henry 
VIIL [1540 ] (Towneiey MSS., DD. 2x1, collated with 
BB. 1480, which is either a duplicate or a confinoation.) 


Grant from Geocge Nelson of Croston, yeoman, to Thomas 
Standish of Onneschurch (for £10 paid to George by 
Thomas), of a messuage in Wri^tington with lands and 
tenements, held in mortgage by charter of the said Thomas, 
and latdy in the tenure ol William Hesketh and Alice 

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Robinson. George appomts Thomas Botill of Lathum 
his attcMmey to deliver sdsin. Dated May 7, 35 Henry 
VIIL [1543 ] (Towneley MSS., GG. 1279. A probable 
daplicate RR 1028 adds prat " (meadow) alter tene- 
ments, but is dated in error 25H.&) 


Release from George Nelson of Croston, yeoman, to 
Thomas Standish of Ormeskirke, gentleman, on the date 
of these presents, of full possession of a messuage in Wright- 
ington with all lands and tenements appertaining, in the 
tenure <rf William Hesketh and Alice Robinson. George 
surrenders all right that ever he had in the premises, and 
acknowledges himseM and heirs excluded from any action 
at law. Dated May 9, 35 Henry VHI. [1543.] (British 
Museum Additional MS.« 32104, No. 525.) 


Grant from Thomas Standishe [of Ormeskirke, gentle- 
man], to William Stopiorth of Merton, for divers reasons, 
and for £10 paid him by the said William, of ail my 
messuages, lands, tenements [rents and services], which I 
have in Wrightington in the parish of Eccleston, lately in 
the tenure of William Hesketh, Alice Robinson and Robert 
Finche. To hold to William in perpetuity of the chief 
lords of the fee, rendering to Thomas and his heirs an- 
imally 7s. rent at Pentecost and St Martin in equal per- 
ti<ms. Thomas attorns Richard Masoon of Lathom and 
Richard Frescot [of Newbmgh] to ddiver possession. 
Dated May 10, 35 Henry VIII. [i54j ] (Towndey MSS., 
GG. Z203. I)iq>licates : RR. 987 and Additional MS. 
32104, No. 1366, from which the words in brackets are 


Bond by which Thomas Standishe of Ormskirke, gentle- 
man, is bound to William Stopforthe of Merton in £60. 
Dated May 10, 35 Henry VIII. [1543.] (Condition not 
stated. Towneley MSS., BB. 1396.) 

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Grant from Thomas Standislie of Ormiskirk, gentleman, 
^or £5 3s. 4d., to William Stopford of Merton, of a certain 
annual rent of 7s., issuing out of a tenement and lands 
adjacent in Wrightington. Thomas releases to WiUiam 
and his heirs all right and claim in the said rent. Dated 
at Om^iskirk, April 24, 37 Henry VIIL [1545.] (Towneley 
MSB., DD. 367 ; c/ GG. 1203, above.) 

Bond by which Thomas Standish of Ormskirk, gentle- 
man, is bound to William Stopforth of Merton in £40. 
Dated April 24, 37 Henry VIIL [1545.] The condition 
is that whereas Thomas Standish has sold to William 
Stopford a certain annual rent of 7s. issuing from a tenement 
and lands in Wrightington, if William and his heirs peace- 
ably hold this rent unmolested by the said Thomas, then 
this obligation shall be void. (Additional MS. 32104, 
No. 1380.) 

Jobn Hanson, M.A., Archdeacon of Richmond, divorces 
Thomas Standishe of Ormskirk parish and Jane (Joanna) 
Stuil^ alias Standishe of the same parish. Dated Novem- 
ber 20, 1558 [1548 has been crossed ouf], Thomas wa3 not 
9 years old, and Jane not 11, when th^ were married. 
(Piccope MSS.» Vol. 3, p. 42, No. 117.) 


Release from Hugh Standish, lately of Wigan, gentleman, 
son and heir of Thomas [Standish] lately d[ Ormskirk, 
deceased, to William Stopford of Bispham, gentleman, 
and his heirs, of all the right and claim that ever he had to 
a messuage with appurtenances in Wrightington in the 
tenure of Margaret Hesketh, widow, and Robert Hesketh. 
Hugh, acknowledges himself and his heirs excluded from 
any action at law. Dated November 20, 9 Elizabeth 
[1556]. (Towneley MSS., DD. 371.) 

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Quitclaim from Jane (Joanna) Standish, widow of 
Thpmas Standish, lately of Ormskirk, to Hugh Standish 
her son, of all the right she had or has in all messuages, 
burgages, lands and tenements in Ormskirk, Burscough and 
Newburgh or elsewhere in co. Lane. Jane (Johanna) 
acknowledges herself and heirs excluded from any action 
at law. Dated August lo, ii Elizabeth, 1569. (Towneley 
MSS., DD. 405.) 


Grant from Hugh Standish, lately of Wigan, gentleman, 
mi and hdr of Thomas Standish, lately of Ormeskirke, to 
Jane (Johanna) Stan^sh, widow, my mother, dt an annuity 
or annual rent of 40$^ oat of all my messuages, burgages, 
lands, and tenements in Ormesklrk» for the term St her 
natmal life. Dated August 14, 11 Elizabeth [1569]. 
(Towneley MSS., DD. 215 ) 


Final Concord made at Lancaster on Monday, 4*** week 
in Lent, 12 Elizabeth [March 6, 1569-70], between William 
Stopford, gentleman, and Roger Sonkey, plaintiffs, and 
Hugh Standish, gentleman, deforciant, of 3 messuages, 
4 cottages, 4 orchards, 26 acres of land, 5 acres of pasture, 
4 acres of meadow, 40 acres of moor, and 8 acres of turbary 
in Wrightington, Newburgh, Ormskirk, and Burscough. 
Plea of covenant. Hugh granted them to William and 
Roger and the heirs of WilUam* Plaintiffs paid to Hugh 
Standish £40. (Pal. of Lane. Feet of Fines, bundle 32, 
m. 112. Townd^ MSS., GG. 1402, RR. 942.) 

Febniary 12, 13 Elizabeth [i 570-1], Hugh Standish oi 
Ormskirk, gentleman, leases to William Heiton of Birchley, 
esq., land in Ormskirk for twenty-one years. (Piccope 
MSS., Vol. 3, Hesketh Deeds, No. 137.) 

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Grant from Hugh Standishe of Ormeschurche, gentle- 
man, son of Thomas Standisiie, deceased, for £66 13s. 4d., 
to William Stopfcarde of Bispham, gentleman, of all my 
messuages, lands, tenements, rents and services and 
hereditaments whatsoever, with all appurtenances, in 
Ormeschurche ; William and his heirs to hold them for 
ever of the chief lords. Hugh attorns Arthur Finch and 
Evan Blakelaighe to give full and peaceable possession. 
Dated March 8, 13 Elizabeth [1570-1]. (Towneley MSS.. 
DD. 365, Kuerden MSS., Vol. 2, fo. 1446.) 


Bond from Hugh Standishe, son of Thomas Standishe, 
late of Ormeschurch, deceaised, to William Stopford of 
Bispham in £200, to be paid to WiUiam or his heirs. Dated 
(June 13], 13 Elizabeth [1571]. The condttioii is that 
Hugh Standiih and his heirs perfonn the covenants con* 
tained in a pair of indentures between Hugh and William 
concerning land of the said Hugh in the town of Ormes- 
church. (Towneley MSS., GG. 1200. Duplicate: RR. 988, 
with marginal note " 2196/' which may rdate to Deed No. 
22, and d«iote that this deed No. 21 is tiiebond accompany* 
ing the fine. 


On the Monday after St. Bartholomew, 13 Elizabeth 
(August 27, 1571], a final concord was made at Lancaster 
between Hugh Standish, gentleman, and William Stopford 
concerning 6 messuages, 4 cottages* 10 tofts, 6 gaidens, 
6 orchards^ 12 acres of land, 4 acres of meadow, 
10 acres of meadow, i acre of wood, and 5 acres ol 
moor in Orm^drk. Hugh granted them to William* 
but the latter r^granted to Hugh Standish for life 4 mes- 
suages, 2 tofts, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 6 acres of land, 
2 acres of meadow, and 4 acres of pasture, part of the said 
tenements. (Pa! of Lane. Feet of Fines, bundle 33, 
m. 25. Towneley MSS., DD. 219. Kuerden, Vol 2, fo. 

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Release from Jchn Standishe ci the Isle of Man (Insula 
de Mane) lor divers good causes and consideratiofis and 
divers sums of money to William Stopford of Bis];)an [sic] 
on bdialf of himself and his heirs for ever of all his right, 
status and title in all those messuages, lands and tenements 
which were lately in the possession of Robert Standish, 
lately of Ormeschurch, and all those messuages, lands and 
tenements which William has by gift and grant of Hugh 
Standish, late of Ormeschurch, son and heir of Thomas 
who is dead, in Ormeschurch and Wrightington. Dated 
14 Elizabeth, 1572. (Towneley MSS., GG. 1222.) 


Rdease from John de Standish d the Isle of Man(Insiile 
de Mann), gentleman* to William Stopfcid of his whde 
right in all the messoages, lands and tenements which 
lat^ were the possessions of Thomas Standish, late of 
Onnldcexfce, gentleman, lying in the villa of Oimisfceike 
and Wrightington, Paiboild, Croston, Mandisley and 
Ormischurch. Dated April 20, 14 Elizabeth [1572]. 
(Towneley IfSS., RR. 1045 ; a delicate or confirmation 
of deed No. 23.) 

Grant, in En^Ush, of the Mercer's Fidd, by Hi]§^ 
Standish to William Stopford : 

" This Indenture made ye third day of October in ye 14^^ yeare 

oi Eliz. [1372] "Ret^vccrte Hugh Standish gent sonne and heire of 
Thomas Standish late of Ormskirk of ye one p'ty and William 
Stopford of Bispham gent oi ye other p ty Witneaseth y^ the said 
Hudli Standish for and in Comdderation of ye some of foorty five 
•hilUngs to him paid hath therefore given and granted unto the 
said William Stopford and his heir^ all yt one closure or p'ceU of 
Land called ye Misers feild in Ormiskirke ye Ai>ptirtenaaces 
To have and to bold to the said William Stopford his heirs and 
assigns for eu' In ^^^tnes whereof ye p'ties aloresaid have put 
tbeir seales." (Town. MSS.» DD. 402. Knnrden MSB., vol 2, 
to, X44b.) 

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Grant from Hugh Standish, lately of Wigan, gentleman, 
soil and heir of Thomas Standish, to William Stopforth 
of Bispham, gentleman, of all my messuages, lands, tene- 
mentSi rents and ser\-ice5 and hereditaments whatsoever 
with appurtenances within the town of Ormskirk, and also 
what claim I have in the said premises for term of life or 
term of years. William and his heirs are to hold them 
for ever of the chief lords. Hugh Standish attorns Roger 
Sonkey and Reginald Mason to give full and peaceable 
possession. Dated January 29, 18 Elizabeth [i575-6], 
(Towneley MSS., DD. 403.) 


Grant, in English, by Joan or Jane Scott of her third 
part of estates in Ormskirk : 

** To all men, etc. Joane Scott of Wigan widowe sendeth greete- 
ing whereas the said Joane dothe stand endowed of ye third parte 
oi all ye messuages lands tenem'' rents and hereditamt w^in ye 
Towae of Onueddrke yt were ye poaeearions of Thomas Standiali 
■ometyme her husband or ol Hn^ Standish her somie Know ye 
me ye said Jane Scott for certaine Sumes of money To have 
granted unto William Stopporthe of Bispham gent and to his heires 
tor ever all and singular yt her estate right and demand she 
hath of and in tiie nid premisses So yt neither I the said Joane 
nor my heirs . . . any right clayme or demand in or to ye said 
premisses but are from all right utterly excluded for ever. In 
Witnes whereof 1 the said Joane have put my Scale Datedye third 
day of May in ye i8''> year of Elizabeth [1576]." (tWneley 
HSS., DD. 236.) 


Release from Richard Mosse of OnQ&kirk, in return 
for divers sums ot money to William Stqpford Bispham, 
gentleman, of all the right and claim that he had or has in 
all the messuages, lands, tenements, rents, services and 
hereditaments with appiirtenances within Ormskirk which 
lately were the possessions of Hugh Standish or Thomas 
Standish his father. Richard Moss acknowledges him$df 
and his heirs excluded from any action at law. DdAed 
September 12, 19 Elizabeth [1577]. (Towndey MSS., DD. 

Digitized by Google 


Later mention of Standishes at 


For convenience the reierences in the oldest OrmBkirk KenUter 
mtj be grouped togethor : 

Anne Standishe fi Hugh — April 12, 1591. 
Eideth Standishe fi Hugh — ^I^larch 3, 1592/3. 
Jane Standishe fi Hugh — October 11, 1595. 
— Standtsbe fl Hugh— Augnit 31, 1599. 

Alia Standishe— May 25, 1564. 
Jaine Standishe — August 9, 1577. 
A Chyid oi Hugh Standish — March 27, 1600. 
Hugh Standishe bar. in the high chancell December 10, 1606. 
Grace Standidi in the high chancell Mardi 29, 1620. 

In thia tut Regiater, the boptiania end Match 29, z6a6, Hie 

burials April 6, 1626, the marriages February, 1625-6. 

The entries given above are proof that Hugh Standish, presumably 
the owner and vendor of the lands, about 1577, continued to reside 
in Omuidrk. A further proof of thia ia a deed by which Peter 
' Stanley leases land in Bickerstaffe to Randle Holme and bis 
sons. One of the witnesses 13 Hugh Standyshe of Orrnskirk. The 
deed is dated July 23, 1585. This deed belongs to Mr. Jamea 
Bromley of Lathom. 

Olher StandiAea are mentioned in the locality, bat one cannot 
be sure that they are connected closely witii thoae who held the 
estates which Myles Standish claimed. 

An Elizabeth Standish died at Skelmersdale, a chapelry in the 
pariah ci Ormakirk, about 1604. The tettera 01 administratioa of 
ner gooda were grafted to Edward Standish of West Derby, Co. 
Lancaster, gentleman, her brother. Thia docnmont ia at Gfausater 

Diocesan Registry. 

The next Standish found in the iocaUty of Ormakirk is Henry 
Standish, whoae dkildren named re^ectively Catiierine, M^illkm, 
Ellen, Hugh, and Margaret were baptised at Ormskirk on various 
dates during the period x632-i643. The name ol hie wile ia not 



We c&nnoi tell who Henry was, he enters upon the stage of 
iMunao ftfiidrB Vk% MekliiMdec wtOioat knoim pMBit. lOt 
baptism is not recorded in the Ormtkirk Registers, tboogh th^ 
go back (juite far enough to record the christening of one who was 
a parent in 1632, unless indeed be is the child Hugh Standish of 
unknown nam* who waa baptiaad In 1599. He may possibly ba 
a migrant ; a Henrie Staadiu of unkaown parantaga waa baptisad 
at Wigan, about March, 1594. 

It is unlikely that he is the Henr^', son of Hugh Standish, who 
waa buried at Grmskirk on April 6, 1601, as the parentage oi an 
old man would probably not be gtven. 

Henry disappears frooi view, and aoon anolhw Hugli Staadldi 
makes his appearance. 

It seems likely that he was the son of the Heofy just mentioned, 
lor Hugh, son of Henry Standish, was baptised at Ormaklrk, October 
28, 1640. At HalsaU Church on April 11, 1676, Hugh StandMi 
of Ormiskirk, was married to Margaret Bhind^ of Snape. 

Various children of Hugh Standish, whose wife is not named, 
were baptised at Ormskirk during the period X679-X686, and some 
of his children are meoAkmed in the list of buriads about the same 
time* one (nnnamad) being intenad idge. 

Hugh StaadUk died In 1700, and hia nOl was pravad Movember 
12, the same year, by executors named therein. 

The following is an abstracted copy from Ch^er Probate Registry. 

Will of Hugh Standish of Ormskirk, butcher, dated April 22, 
1700— As to my messuages^ tenements, lands, with such personal! 
estate as tlia Lord in mercy hath lent me, I deviee aU that my 
Messuage and Tenement wherein I now live and which I hoold 1^ 
lease under Mr. Thomas Hawett with the Reversion and Inheritance 
of the Cottage wherein Ann Cape now lives and of one close (formerly 
two doees) which I purchased from John Cannce unto my Daughter 
Dorathea Chargeable as is herda hereafter expressed. That ia to say^ 
it is my v.t1I that she shall pay to Richard Pcmberton or Margery 
my daughter, if he be dead, money to make up what he has already 
had from me to £40. To the use ot my three children Eilen, Margaret 
and Katharine aob. each yeaily, to ba employed to their bringing up 
until they attain 21, then my daughter Dorathea shall pay uato 
each of them /30 apiece. I beaueath to my sigter Ann the cottage 
and tenement wherein John Gsulamore lives for her life, and after> 
wards my estate therein to my daughter Margaret, ];>rovided that 
j| my daughter Dorathea die without issue my said Messuage, 
Cottage etc. 9ha.ll descend to Richard Pemberton and his heirs by 
Margery his wife, in default of such issue, after decease of Margery, 
to my right heirs under payment of £zo apiece to my daughters 
tJien tivuig if there be two or more, If one only, ^£40. To Dorathea 
the cupboard, the firegrate &c., ftc. To executors, Thomas Barton 
and Simon Smith» both of Ormskirk, yeomen, my iriendSb £2 aa. eadi. 



Residue (except a tnlt fvlddi I give to Thomas Tatlock) divided 
among my three children Ellen, Margrett and Kstharina. 

Hugh Standisb signed with his initials as letters or mark. The 
will was \\n.tnessed by Heiiry Blundell and Richard Houghton. 

It is remaritabie that this is the otdy wiii oi the Ormskirk Stan- 
didict wliidi can be diiocvered. 

It seems clear from tt« will that Hugh Standish had five daughters 
One of these, Margery, was the wife of Richard Pemberton. The 
Ormskirk Register shews that he was of Halsall and married Margeiy 
Standish of Ormsldik on December 4, 1697. Hugh had four otber 
daughters, Dorolhea, Ellen, Maigaret and Catherine, the throe 
last-named being under age in 1700. He had other children whose 
burials are noted in the register. A Dorothy Standish, evidently 
not the same as Hugh's daughter Dorothea, was buiied at Ormskurk, 
January 24, 1681. 

Market Standish, perhaps one of 
Roger Webster at Ormskirk, October 15, 1706. 

It is curious that among the later references to meoJtjeis of the 
Standish family settled at Ormskirk, we should find a member of 
the Duxbury branch. 

In the w-ill of Eleanor Bunbury of Holcroft, widow, dated 
November 21, 171 1, we find mention of her grandchild Frances 
Standish and her grandson Charles Standish. Frances Standish, 
d Onnakirk, spinster, was on Hay 7, 171 3, grand-dani^htar nad 
administratrix of Henry Bunbury of Holcroft, gentleman.^ 

The Frances Standish referred to is no doubt the daughter of 
Sir Richard Standish of Duxbury, first baronet ; she was baptised 
at Standish in 1686, and buiied at Charley in 1760. Sir Richard 
married Margaret Hdcroft and obtained estates in Holcroft. Hcorjr 
and Eleanor Bunbury took part in a settlement of these estates 
in 1709.* Their description of Frances aa grandchild IS not quite 
clear. Her brother Charles, mentioned above, died in £dinbur0l 
in 1738, mbm adminifttatiott was granled to his iiitar Fnacm^ 
then living at PrestiML^ 

» Piccope, MS., XXII., 216. 

• Vict. Co. Hist. Lanes., IV., 161. 

* Dr. Farrer's Standish of Duxbury Papers. 

uiyui^ed by Google 


Ainsworth, Henry 
Alden, John . 

Ball, John . 
Barrifie, William 
Bowes, Thomas . 
Bradford, William ^ 
Bradley Hall . . 
Brewster, William . 
Brinsley, John . 
Bromley, Mr. L W. R. 
Burroughs, Jeremiah 

Caesar, Julius 
Calvin, John 
Chorley . 
Chorley Register 
Christian family . 
Cotton, Dr. John 

Courtship of Miles 
Standish " . 



95i 97 

• 91 

• 51 

• 93 

. 92 

. 91 
. 90 

59i "I 

39i 43 
. 94 

• 24 

Davenport, John 

Deeds relating to the Lost 

Lands .... 99-107 


Dod, John 94 

Duxbury family. . I7» 50, 5i 
Duxbury, Lancashire 

xu, 10^ 12, 48-52. 58^ 62^ 67-73 
Duxbury, U.S.A. 10, 18, 49, 58 

Gustavus Adolphus 


Hall, Dr. Joseph ... 89 

Heraldry 48. 62 

Herbert, George. . . 96 
Homer 87. 97 

Johnson, Francis ... 96 

Lancashire Plot . . . 77-82 
Longfellow, W. . . 53-66 
Man, Isle of . . . 12^ 36-44 
Map xii 

Markham, Sir Clements R. 

Markham, Gervase . 
Masefield, Mr. John. . 

. 89 



INDEX— CoM/iniMti. 


Master, Rev. J. S. . . 19-34 

Mayer, Dr. J qo 

Morton, Nathaniel 

Morton, Thomas .... 6 

Ormskirk, Standishes of 

12, 25-44> 92^11 

Pedigrees. . . 48, 5^1 59» 60 

Preston, Dr. John ... 92 

Priscilla 53-66 

Raleigh, Sir Walter 

Robinson, John . 
Rogers, Richard. 



Sandys, Sir Edwin ... 89 
Sparke, Thomas . 94 

Stopford, William 

32-39* 102-107 
Standish Family — 


. 2i II. 15 

. . . . i5 

Anne . 

32, loi, 109 


Catherine . 

109, III 

Charles. . 

. . 2i ^ "I 

Christian . 

. . . 41i43 

Dorothy . 

no. III 

Edith . . 


14i 15, 16, 34, 40 

Elizabeth . 

Ellen Lii 

Evan, Owen, see Huan. 
Frances ..... in 

Sir Frank ^ 

Frank Hall . 70 

Gilbert. . . 16, 28, 41^ 99 

Grace 109 

Henry .... 109. 1 10 

26, 27, 28, 32, 39-44. 51a 51± 

99. IQl 


IZi 22i 28, 34-38. 09, 103-iir 

Ichabod u 

Jane or Joan 
31-37. 102^ 103^ 104, A 07, 



ail 361 19, 40-43, loi, 106 

Josias 2 

Lora 7, ti 


2^ 28, 29, 31^ 21» 29i iQO» 


Margery m 

Maud 2^ 

Myles, Dr 20 

Myles (son) .... 7 

Myles u 

Peter . . . . . 29^ 40 
Ralph . 14, 15, 16, 63, 79, §2 
Richard . . 64, 71, in 
Robert. . . . 28-30, 99 

Roland 21 

Rose . . . 2i 22 ^ 40-44 

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INDEX— ConHnued. 




26, 27, 28. 41 


111 30-34, 68, 69^ 

Standish HaU 

Standish, Myl 
Books of 
Career . 
Death . 
Lost Lands of 
Monument to 

A2i 7^ 78-82. 

99, 109 

. . 75-83 

lOt 39. 45-52 
18, 28, 50^ 52 

. 85-97 
. . 1^ 

. 2i " 
• • Z 

12-17, 26-39 
. 8^18.^. 

Portrait of .... 8 

Religious position of 

9ilL 42, 8q 
WiU of ... 2, 12, 82 
Wives .... 8^ 40-44 

Tyler, Wat 63 

Usher, Professor R.. . 5^ 8, 9 

Vere, Sir Francis . . .5, 89 

Wigan . 14, 17, 6^ 107, no 
Wilcox, Thomas. ... 90 
Wilson, Thomas. ... 97 
Wright, Thomas ... 91 
Wriothesley, Henry. . 8^^ 91 

MAY 2 4 1921 

Ffinted by Norbury, Natsio & Co. Ltd., ^aneh*it$r & London. 

' d by Google 

Digiti/oa by Goo^lc