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This One 

L543-8L8-AG9Z Copyrighted material 






Edited by 
E.J. Verwey 

Foreword by Nelson R. Mandela 

HSRC Publishers 

© Human Sciences Research Council, 1995 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, 
including photocopy, recording or any information storage and 
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. 

ISBN 0 7969 1648 9 
First edition 1995 

Published by: 

HSRC Publishers 
Private Bag x41 
0001 Pretoria 
Printed by: 

Promedia Printers and Publishers, 
VValtloo. Silverton 

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Picture credits i 

List of contributors iii 

Foreword v 

Introduction vi 

Abbreviations and legends viii 

Biographies 1 

Index 277 

Cumulative index to the first series of the Dictionary of Smith 
African biography, volumes I-V 279 

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Bantu education journal: (G. Nakene) 

J. Campbell, Travels in South Africa..., 1. London: Westley, 1822: (Moiloa II) 

Cape Archives Depot, Cape Town: (J.H. Davies) 

Cape Town Public Library: (Bust of M.E. Fincken) 

Central Archives, Pretoria: Theatre & Arts Collection: (H.O.W.R.E.F.J. Andresen; H.D. 

Department of Education and Training: (M.J. Madiba) 

Dept of Historical Papers, W. Cullen Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannes- 
burg: (B.J. Erasmus; R.M. Haldane) 

Die Afrikaner-pe none register, 1942. Johannesburg: Voortrekkerpers [1942?]: (L. Latsky; 
M.G. Sauer) 

K. C. Donaldson (ed.). The South African sporting encyclopaedia and who’s who. 1st ed. 

Johannesburg: Donaldson’s Publications, [1950?]: (J.D. Hefer) 

Fiat Lux: (C.M. Bassa; B. Bodasing; A.R. Singh) 

Garment worker. (H.E. Cornelius; P, Fisher; E.S. Sachs) 

Y. huskisson, The Bantu composen of Southern Africa. [Johannesburg]: SABC, 1969: (R.T. 
Caluza; A. A. Kumalo; B.J.P. Tyamzashe) 

Institute of Social and Economic Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown: (J.A.I. 

Mayibuye Centre, University of the Western Cape: (R.G. Baloyi; S.B. Biko; M. Blackburn; 
J.A. Calata; J.C.J. Cornelius; Y.M. Dadoo; H.R. First; J.T. Gumede; M.M. Kotane; 
J.A. (Alex) la Guma; A.M. Lembede; A.E. Letcle; M.M.M. Mabhida; Z.R. Mahabane; 
T.M. Mapikela; J.B. Marks; G.M. Naicker; M.P. Naicker; L.M. Ngoyi; J. Nkosi; 
P.P.D. Nokwe; R.M. Sobukwe; E. Weinberg) 

McGregor Museum, Kimberley: (M. Wilman) 

Metalworker. (R.F. Budd) 

National English Literary Museum, Grahamstown. (Photographer: S. Gray): (B.A. Head) 
National Parks Board, Pretoria: (H.C.C. Wolhuter) 

Pretoria News: (J.A.M. Hertzog) 

T.D.M. SKOTA (ed.). The African who’s who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. 
[Johannesburg: distributed by CNA, 1965]: (H.M. Butshingi; J. Dunjwa; D.S. Letanka; 
H.P. Madibane; A. Mangena; A.V. Mangena; C.M. Maxeke; H.I.B. Mbelle; S.M. 
Molema; J.S. Moroka; P.R. Mosaka; H.S. Msimang; T.L. Mvabaza; H.R. Ngcayiya; 
M.E. Sontonga; R.V.S. Thema; S.F. Zibi) 

Source and original photographer unknown. (Copies supplied by relatives, friends, colleagues 
or contxbutors.): (C. Berman; B.J. Caddy; S.J. Clow; E.P. Hellmann; J.J.R. Jolobe; 
A.C. Jordan; H.G. Kirk; E.B. Lekganyane; E.E. Lekganyane; J.M.E. Lekganyane; S.A. 
Long; H.E. Martins; J.N. Pokela; D.M. Sibeko; S.S. Tema) 

South African Library, Cape Town: (M.D. Barmania; J.F. Brock; A. Burns; M.H. Cillid; 
H. Cressy; A.J.D. de Villiers; A. Esau; W.L.I. Freund; B.W. Gerstman; J.S. Gomas; 

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T. Gutsche; C. Higgs; J.A. (Jimmy) la Guma; A.M. Moletsane; M.A. Pocock; A. 
Tempo; R. van tier Gucht; J. van der Poel; N. Waterboer) 

South African National Council for the Blind, Pretoria: (E. Franks) 

The South African woman's who’s who. Johannesburg: Biographies, [1938?]: (C.L. Letty; 
J.E. Wood) 

Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, Pretoria: (H.J. Aschenborn; O.K. 
Matsepe; E. Muller; D.J. Opperman; M.F.E. Sumner; C.R. Swart; B.J. Vorster; J.M.F. 

Topsport : (P,J. Fourie) 

Umscbenzi , 2(1), 1986: (A. Nzula) 

University of South Africa Library, Archives, Pretoria: (R.E. Arndt; A.W.G. Champion; 
Z.K. Matthews; P.A. Moore; J. Mpanza) 

w.h.k.. The arts in South Africa. Durban: Knox, [1934]: (D.R. Boxail; E.S. Mentz) 
a. wannenburoh. Forgotten frontiersmen. Cape Town: Struik, [1980?]: (Jager Afrikaner) 

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The original articles received by contributors are listed after the name of every 
contributor. Most of these articles were extensively edited by the HSRC and 
the original authors cannot be held responsible for the edited versions. 

Abbott, C.W. (H.G. Kirk) 

Adhikari, M. (H. Cressy; J.S. Gomas; J.A. (Jimmy) la Guma) 

Allen, V. le R. (M. Wilman) 

Asmall, R. (C.M. Bassa) 

Bergh, J.S. (J.J.T. Kekana) 

Boon, J.A. (H.J. Aschenbom) 

Brain, J.B. (B. Bodasing) 

Bredekamp, H.C. (A. Christian) 

Broodryk, M. (C. Kok II; N. Waterboer) 

Bull, E. (M.G. Sauer) 

Callinicos, L. (M. Gordon; J.B. Marks; E. Weinberg) 

Carruthers, E.J. (H.C.C. Wolhuter) 

Codd, C.L. (C.L. Letty) 

Coetzee, J.H. (A.M. Moletsane) 

Coetzer, P.W. (J.A.M. Hertzog; C.R. Swart) 

Cornwell, D.G.N. (J.A. (Alex) la Guma) 

Crafford, D.G.L. (E.E. Lekganyane; S.S. Tema) 

Cronjd, J.M. (A. Tempo) 

Cunningham, A.M. (R.F. Budd; B.J. Caddy; B.J. Erasmus) 

Daymond, M.J. (B.A. Head) 

De Graaff, G. (H.C.C. Wolhuter) 

De Villiers, A. (E. Muller) 

Douglas, G. (E. Franks) 

Emslie, A.L. (H.E. Martins) 

Fourie, D. (H.D. Strauss) 

Franke, V. (B.W. Gerstman) 

Goedhals, M.M. (J.A. Calata) 

Gordon, S. (E.P. Hellmann) 

Grobler, J.E.H. (R.G. Baloyi; Y.M. Dadoo; J.T. Gumede; A.M. Lembede; D.S. Letanka; 
A.E. Letele; Z.R. Mahabane; T.M. Mapikela; Z.K. Matthews; C.M. Maxeke; H.I.B. 
Mbelle; S.M. Molema; J.S. Moroka; P.R. Mosaka; H.S. Msimang; T.L. Mvabaza; 
G.M. Naicker; M.P. Naicker; H.R. Ngcayiya; L.M. Ngoyi; P.P.D. Nokwe; A. Nzula; 
J.N. Pokela; D.M. Sibeko) 

Harmsen, F. (M.F.E. Sumner; J.M.F. Welz) 

Harris, K.L. (S.A. Long) 

Heese, C.P. (M.H. Cillid) 

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Henning, C.G. (A.R. Singh) 

Henry, C.F. (R.E. Arndt) 

Hugo, B. (W.L.I. Freund) 

Huskisson, Y. (R.T. Caluza; A. A. Kumalo; M.E. Sontonga; BJ.P. Tyamzashe) 

Jacot Guillarmodt, A. (M.A. Pocock) 

Joubertt, A. A. (P.J. Fourie; J.D. Hefer) 

Kannemeyer, J.C. (D.J. Opperman) 

Kempff, K. (C. Higgs) 

Kirsch, R.E. (J.F. Brock) 

Laband, J.P.C. (S.J. Clow) 

Lucas, M.B. (C. Berman) 

Lukhaimane, E.K. (J.M.E. & E.B. Lekganyane) 

Malherbe, V.C. (Coree; B. Jantjes) 

Manaka, S.P. (M.J. Madiba; G. Nakene; R.V.S. Thema) 

Man son, A.H. (Moiloa II; S.F. Zibi) 

Mienie, J.H. (J.H. Davies) 

Mohlamme, J.S. (H.M. Butshingi; J. Dunjwa; J.J.R. Jolobe; A.C. Jordan; J. Mpanza; H.P. 

Madibane; A. Mangena; A.V. Mangena) 

Mouton, F.A. (A.W.G. Champion; J. Nkosi) 

Mundell, I. (J.E. Wood) 

Musiker, R. (T. Gutsche) 

Nasson, W.R. (A. Esau) 

Owen, D.R. (J.A.I. Agar-Hamilton) 

Pinnock, D.H. (H.R. First) 

Ross, S.I. (H.E. Martins) 

Saunders, C.C. (J. van der Poel) 

Scher, D.M. (M. Blackburn; P.A. Moore) 

Schoeman, K. (Kausob) 

Serudu, M.S. (O.K. Matsepe) 

Smit, B.F. (S.B. Biko; M.M. Kotane; M.M.M. Mabhida) 

Smith, B. (R.M. Haldane) 

Snijman, F.J. (A. J.D. de Villiers) 

Steenberg, E. (L. Latsky) 

Stegmann, G.F. (E.S. Mentz) 

Stoffberg, P. (Jager Afrikaner) 

Taylor, M.L. (R. van der Gucht) 

Terblanche, H.O. (B.J. Vorster) 

Van der Walt, P.J. (H.O.W.R.E.F.J. Andrcsen) 

Van Heyningen, E.B. (A. Bums) 

Verhoef, G. (P. Fisher; Z.K. Matthews; E.S. Sachs) 

Verwey, E.W. (C. Higgs) 

White, W.B. (M.D. Barmania) 

Witz, L. (J.C.J. & H.E. Cornelius) 

Wolpowitz, L. (D.R. Boxall; M.E. Fincken) 


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It is of great significance that this first volume in the series New dictionary of 
South African biography ( NDSAB ) will appear soon after the first democratically 
elected South African government assumes power. Through this series it will 
be possible to both record and commemorate the role of the many hitherto 
unacclaimed people whose past work and struggle have contributed so much to 
the future of our nation. 

Knowledge of our past deepens our wisdom to plan our future. But history 
is not created in books. It is a record of human endeavour. It is, therefore, vital 
that the lives of all the South Africans who have made some contribution to our 
rich heritage, whether they were politicians, educators, scientists or workers, 
be brought to the fore. In this way they become part of that most valuable of 
resources: information and collected wisdom which is fundamental to the 
empowerment of both the learned and the learner. 

Africa and its past are intensively researched in overseas countries. 
Numerous biographical dictionaries and encyclopaedias that cover Africa as a 
whole have been published. It would have been a sad reflection on the abilities 
and commitment of our historians and academics if a reference work of this 
nature were to have originated abroad. 

We as South Africans best know the background and subtleties of our 
people. It is therefore fitting that South Africans themselves should be the 
compilers and researchers of their own achievements and frustrations. 

A series such as this rescues unsung heroes from oblivion and restores them 
as role models for our future endeavours. At the same time through thorough 
research and the test of proven research methodology, it is possible to present 
their full humanity and save them from being mythologized. 

This series is the only biographical record on our continent that concentrates 
on the people of a single country. These are the people on whose shoulders we 

Nelson R. Mandela 

President of the Republic of South Africa 
September 1994 


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When the first volume of the Dictionary of South African biography ( DSAB ) was 
published in 1968, the then editor-in-chief Prof. W.J. de Kock gave the reason 
for the publication— a need for a work of reference presenting the life histories 
of people who have made a meaningful contribution to the course of South 
African history. At that time the objective of the editorial board was to publish 
a series of biographies of persons who died before the end of 1950, and to deal 
in a following series with persons who died later. Mainly for logistical reasons 
it was impossible to keep to the original planning. The third of the five volumes 
of the DSAB already included people who died after 1950, and by the time the 
last volume was published, people who died before the end of 1982 were being 
considered for inclusion. By moving the inclusion date forward from time to 
time, the series could be continued indefinitely— with the inherent danger of 
postponing important but demanding pre-1950 biographies in favour of more 
recent and less taxing ones. 

The decision to terminate the DSAB after the publication of Volume V in 
1987 (at that stage 4 518 biographies had been published) and to embark on the 
New dictionary of South African biography ( NDSAB ) was taken for two rea- 
sons— firstly, to adapt to changes in the external environment that seriously 
reduced the resources available for the continuation of the programme (in fact, 
threatened its very survival). Secondly, there was a need to reconsider the 
programme and correct some imbalances. The NDSAB is, however, complemen- 
tary to the former series. To assist the reader, a cumulative index to Volumes 
I to V of the DSAB is included in the NDSAB I. 

The most visible change is in the format. Compared to the average of 900 
biographies per volume of the DSAB, the first volume of the NDSAB carries 
only 129. The layout is also less formidable, and every biography has been 
illustrated except for those for which no photograph or illustration could be 
traced, or those for which the illustration material did exist but for which the 
owners set exorbitant demands. This latter constraint, incidentally, makes a 
mockery of the much-desired principle of free access to information. 

Readers who are familiar with the DSAB will also immediately notice the 
tendency to move away from leaders of the male-dominated white establishment 
towards extra-parliamentary political leaders who paved the way for broad 
democratic reform, leaders in all spheres of the marginalized communities, and 
women who significantly influenced an essentially male-dominated world. A 
special niche was reserved for people who received international acclaim, or 


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who were pioneers in some way or another. For reasons of historical balance a 
number of people in leadership positions from the pre-democratic era have 
also been included. Most of the biographies are approximately of equal length 
and a deliberate attempt was made to steer away from biographical detail, 
focusing rather on those aspects of a person’s life that constituted a significant 
contribution to history. The editor strove to maintain stylistic consistency. To 
avoid incorrect use, prefixes such as ‘ama-’ or ‘ba-’ were avoided. In some cases 
the orthography of the previous series was adhered to: the spelling of names 
such as ‘Sefuneio’ was retained. A special effort was made to remain consistent 
when repeatedly capturing the same events relative to different political figures. 
The danger of a boring style had to be braved for the sake of accuracy. 

Avid readers of the DSAB have waited patiently for this volume. On their 
behalf and that of the management of the Human Sciences Research Council, I 
would like to express our sincere appreciation to Elizabeth Verwey who, as 
editor, so ably guided this first volume of the New dictionary of South African 
biography through all its phases. 

On behalf of the editor I would like to thank the following persons for the 
role they played in producing this volume: 

• Mart van der Wcsthuizcn, Marie-Louise van Wyk and Annelizc Meintjics 
of the HSRC Computer Centre; 

• Buks Groenewald and Isabel Groesbeek of the HSRC Library; 

• Thys Licbenberg, Heinie Heydenrych, Lucie Moller and Tony Minnaar 
for professional support and advice, and those mentioned in the source 
list who gave information telephonically (often after much effort on their 
part to get the information); 

• Ina Stahmer and Margaret Whittle-Bennetts for assistance with the 
linguistic revision of the manuscript; 

• Jantje Bode for being a pillar of support throughout; 

• Relatives and friends of the persons included in the book as well as 
contributors to the NDSAB who lent photographs from their own collec- 

• Claudia Davidson of the HSRC Publishers for the sensitive guidance in 
the final stages of this publication. 

Arie Oberholster 
Executive Director 
Group: Social Dynamics 



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oj # 


fl. = floruit, used to indicate the period when the person flourished when the 
exact dates of birth and death could not be established 
c. = circa, used to indicate approximate dates 
l. = sine loco, place of publication not given 
t = used to indicate birth and death respectively 

(e.g., ♦Cairo, Egypt, 30 August 1895 — fGrahamstown, 16 June 1984) 
= following the name or surname of a person in the text of an article, the 
asterisk indicates that a biography on this person has been published 
either in one of the five volumes of the Dictionary of South African 
biography (e.g., J.C. Smuts*), or in volume one of the New dictionary 
of South African biography (e.g., Z.R. Mahabane*) 


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AFRIKANER, Jager (H6a-/arab/) (*Roode Zand (Tulbagh), c.l769-fVrede- 

berg, in the present-day Namibia, c. July 1822), 
chief of the Afrikaner-Oorlams and the son of Klaas 
Afrikaner. (‘Oorlams’ is derived from the Malay 
word ‘orang lama' meaning ‘old person’ but ‘one 
who is wise in the ways of the world’. The Oorlam 
Khoi were so called for their expertise in the hand- 
ling of horses and firearms. They spoke Cape Dutch 
and included escaped slaves.) 

Klaas apparently was an independent cattle 
farmer in the Witzenberg in the Tulbagh district 
where he became acquainted with an enterprising 
farmer Petrus Pienaar*. It is not clear what his rela- 
tionship with Pienaar was but he later moved with 
his relatives to Pienaar’s farm. 

Members of the Afrikaner household often accompanied Pienaar on his 
hunting trips and travels into the interior— there is evidence, however, that Pie- 
naar rustled cattle from tribes in the interior on these trips, in time they knew 
the interior up to the Orange River well. They became adept in the use of guns 
and horse-riding. 

In 1790 Klaas Afrikaner, his sons and a few other related Afrikaner families 
moved with Pienaar to the Hantam (a region on a high plateau in the Calvinia 
district) where he settled on the loan farm Groot Vlakte. Because of their 
shrewdness Pienaar included the Afrikaners on punitive expeditions against San 
cattle rustlers. However, there are allegations that these expeditions were in 
fact raids on Khoikhoi and Nama tribes in the interior. 

In 1795 Jager succeeded his father as chief. He was still in his early 
twenties and known for his bravery and competence. It would appear that the 
Afrikaners lost their independent status after 1793 and became herders on 
Pienaar's loan farm. As tension between the whites and the Khoikhoi increased, 
the Afrikaner-Oorlams also started resisting Pienaar’s master-servant attitude 
towards them. This came to a head with the killing of Pienaar in March 1796 
after a quarrel— possibly over wages or Pienaar’s alleged seduction of 
Afrikaner women. The Afrikaners fled to the Middle Orange River where they 
lived on the river islands. From their safe river hide-out Jager led raids on the 
tribes in the surrounding areas. Soon everyone in a radius of 400 km lived in 


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fear of him. His followers increased to more than 100 when some Nama and 
Korana joined him. In 1799 the acting governor of the Cape Colony, H. 
Dundas*, outlawed Jager after a raid into the Colony and the killing of a white 
farmer and rustling of his cattle. Because of Jager’s military expertise, the 
unwillingness of the cattle farmers to take part in punitive expeditions, and 
probably his elusiveness, he was left unpunished. 

As a safety measure against the raids of the Afrikaner-Oorlams, some of the 
Basters (or Bastaards— an eighteenth century term for frontiersmen of mixed 
race) amalgamated to form the Griqua. In this sense Jager was instrumental in 
bringing together the Griqua. 

In about 1 803 Jager and his followers left their hide-out at the Orange River 
and travelled a day’s journey on horseback to the north, where they settled at 
Blydeverwacht or Blyde Verwachting in the present-day Namibia. This marked 
the beginning of the migration of the Oorlams from the Cape Colony to 
Namibia, which led to the establishment of Cape Dutch as language in the 
region north of the Orange River. 

In January 1806 the brothers Albrecht, missionaries of the Berlin Mission- 
ary Society, moved into Jager’s territory. By this time Jager had apparently 
tired of his outlaw life which had to a great extent been forced on the Afrika- 
ners after the final showdown with Petrus Pienaar. Jager was envious of the 
respectability and stable communities of other leaders such as the Koks*. These 
leaders all had missionaries staying with them and Jager hoped to achieve some 
measure of respectability by also allowing missionaries into his territory. He 
therefore permitted the Albrechts to minister to them— the children received 
schooling and religious instruction while he and his brother Hendrik attended 
the services of the missionaries. When the missionaries moved to Warmbad (in 
Namibia) in October 1806, Jager followed them. However, the Bondelswarts 
who resided there, did not trust the Afrikaners and requested them to leave. 
The Afrikaners then settled at Afrikanerskraal, just east of Warmbad. 

This first attempt of Jager to live in peace and achieve some stability came 
to an end towards the end of 1810. In retaliation for the illegal sale of some of 
his cattle, Jager attacked and plundered the mission station of the London Mis- 
sionary Society at Pella. When he also threatened to attack Warmbad, the mis- 
sionaries returned to the Cape Colony. By the middle of 1811 Jager had 
resumed to his previous way of life — raiding and plundering. This lasted till the 
arrival of a German missionary, Johannes Ebner, at Afrikanerskraal on 10 June 
1815. Shortly afterwards, on 23 July 1815, Jager and his brothers Hendrik and 
Andreas were among the first eight people to be baptized. In deference to the 
missionary Christiaan Albrect, Jager accepted the name Christiaan and his 
brother Hendrik the name Dawid— though these name changes probably only 
occurred later, under the influence of Robert Moffat*. 

In January 1818 Robert Moffat of the London Missionary Society joined 
Ebner who shortly afterwards left Afrikanerskraal. Under Moffat’s influence 
Jager now also learnt to read and write, and encouraged education among his 
people. The Afrikaner-Oorlams ceased their periodic raids and engaged in 
hunting and trading. In February 1819 Jager and Moffat travelled to the Cape 
to request Governor Lord Charles Somerset* to set aside the outlawry. 


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Moffat now moved to Lattakoo (Dithakong) (about 66 km northeast of 
Kuruman) as he was assigned mission work among the Tswana, and in June 
1820 Jager took Moffat’s cattle and possessions to him at Lattakoo. This meant 
that the Afrikaner-Oorlams were without a missionary for the first time since 
their conversion, and that Jager had to act as political and church leader, as 
well as teacher. 

In July 1822 Klaas, Jager's father, died and a week later Jager himself died. 
Shortly before his death he named his second eldest son, Jonker Afrikaner*, as 
his successor. 

w. Paterson, A narrative of four journeys into the country of the Hottentots anti Caffraria 
in the years 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780. London, 1790; — I. Campbell, Travels in South 
Africa. London, 1815; — J.L. ebner, Reise nach SQd-Afrika und Darstellung meiner wdhrend 
acht Jahren daselbst als Missionair unter den Hottentotten gemachtten Erfahrungen; so wie 
einer kurzen Beschreibung meiner ganzen, bisherigen Lebensschicksale. Berlin, 1829; — R. 
moffat. Missionary labours and scenes in Southern Africa. London, 1842; — g.m. theal 
(ed.), Records of the Cape Colony. Vol. 4, 1801-1803. London, 1899; — O.M. THEAL (ed.). 
Records of the Cape Colony. Vol. 5, 1803-1806. London, 1899; — c. FREY, Jonker Afrika- 
ner and his time. Journal of the South West African Scientific Society, 1, 1925-1926; — H. 
vedder, Die voorgeskiedenis van Suidwes-Afrika. Windhoek, 1937; — J. PHILIP, Researches 
in South Africa. 2 vols. Reprint. New York, 1969; — a. wannenburgh, Forgotten fron- 
tiersmen. Cape Town, [1980?]; — E. BRadlow, Petrus Pienaar: ruffian or courageous pion- 
eer? Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library , 34(3), March 1980; — E. bradlow. 
The significance of arms and ammunition on the turn of the 18th century. Historia, 26(1), 
May 1981; — J. DU bruyn. The Oorlam Afrikaners: from dependence, ca. 1760-1823. Un- 
published paper. University of South Africa, 1981; — c.p. heese, Sendingonderwys in 
Suidwes-Afrika. Goodwood, [19-]. 

AGAR-HAMILTON, John August Ion (*Cairo, Egypt, 30 August 1895— 

tOrahamstown, 16 June 1984), historian and Angli- 
can priest. He was of Scottish descent and arrived 
with his parents, John August and Ada Agar-Hamil- 
ton, in South Africa in 1906. He was educated at 
Pretoria Boys' High School where he matriculated 
in 1911. After that he studied for a B.A. degree at 
the Transvaal University College (University of Pre- 
toria), graduating in 1914. All sources refer to 
Agar-Hamilton as having an M.A. degree but it is 
not clear which university he graduated from. Some 
sources indicate that he studied at the University of 
the Cape of Good Hope (University of South Afri- 
ca), while it is also known that he studied at Keble 
College at Oxford— though it is not clear when he left South Africa. Sources 
also differ as to what he studied at Oxford. It is possible that he held masters 
degrees from both the universities. 

Agar-Hamilton returned to South Africa in 1923 and was a senior lecturer 
in history at the University of Pretoria until 1940. In 1941 he was appointed 
officer-commanding military history records with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 


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After the Second World War he became editor-in-chief of the Union war his- 
tories, a position he held until the war histories were disbanded in 1959. He 
was ordained as an Anglican deacon in 1955 and served as a curate (probably 
nonstipendiary, i.e. part-time) at the St Alban’s Cathedral in Pretoria. In 1960 
Agar-Hamilton was appointed to the staff of the History Department at Rhodes 
University in Grahamstown and warden of Matthew's House, one of the uni- 
versity residences. In the same year he was ordained as an Anglican priest. On 
the death of Prof. Raymond Burrows in October 1960, Agar-Hamilton was 
appointed director of the Rhodes University Institute of Social and Economic 
Research, a post he held until his retirement in 1966. He became the first 
honorary Fellow of the institute and stayed on as warden of Matthew’s House. 
In recognition of his contribution to South African military and official history, 
Rhodes University conferred on Agar-Hamilton an honorary D.Litt. degree in 
April 1967. 

After his retirement from academic life, Agar-Hamilton served the Anglican 
Church as the editor of the church directory and yearbook from 1967 to 1969. 
From 1969 to 1979 he was a priest in the parish of Christ Church in Grahams- 
town. In 1980 he retired from the priesthood. 

Agar-Hamilton came under the influence of George Cory* and was 
convinced, early in his career, of the need for ‘scientific methods of research’. 
He also appears to have been an exponent of the early British and Settler his- 
toriographical school (Cory being a major proponent) suggesting that "... the 
history of this country only became interesting after the British came into it". 
Being pro-British, he tended to look on nineteenth century Afrikaner institu- 
tions as inferior to British institutions, doubting if it was possible for any type 
of government by the Voortrekkers (Afrikaners) to have existed north of the 
Vaal River between 1840 and 1850. He was opposed to Afrikaner Nationalism 
and wanted to articulate his opposition but believed that doing so was "... not 
as much as my job was worth*. 

The publication of his book entitled The native policy of the Voortrekkers: 
an essay in the history of the interior of South Africa, 1836-1858 (London, 
1928) created a great deal of interest. Many leading national newspapers, 
including the Pretoria News, The Cape Times, Die Burger and The Rand Daily 
Mail, ran articles on this publication. Agar-Hamilton disagreed with W.M. 
Macmillan’s* views on Dr John Philip* and acquitted the Transvaal govern- 
ment of practising slavery— two issues relevant in South African historiographi- 
cal debate at the time. He nevertheless blamed the Transvaal government for 
their shameless exploitation of and disregard for "... the fundamental rights of 
the native people". He stated that if the Transvaal government could not 
contain the criminal white elements in their area "... it clearly forfeited its right 
to be regarded as a civilised state". 

Though under the influence of Cory in his early writings, his attacks on the 
Afrikaners and defence of the indigenous populations suggest that, for most of 
his professional career, he was part of the liberal historiographical tradition. It 
has, however, been noted by some historians that the writing of the war 
histories prevented Agar-Hamilton from contributing to the further development 
of a Africanist methodology or conceptualization. 


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Agar-Hamilton was a prolific researcher and writer and published widely 
throughout his career. Apart from the publications listed in South African 
history and historians: a bibliography (1979) he also published Pretoria 
centenary album: Pretoria’s first centenary in illustration ; These men shaped 
your world (1961); and Border port: a study of East London (1970). Agar- 
Hamilton also contributed articles to the Dictionary of South African biography 
and the Standard encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. 

Agar-Hamilton is best known for his contribution to the Union war 
histories. In the citation for an honorary degree at Rhodes University the orator 
stated that he produced "... one of the best and most objective of all military 
histories— and the best of official histories". 

In addition to his research and writing, Agar-Hamilton also did a great deal 
of broadcasting both in South Africa and Britain. He was commissioned to do 
a series of talks to mark the Union jubilee in 1960. 

He was well liked by his peers and highly respected professionally. He 
never married. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Grahamstown: Estate no. 1663/84; — Cory Library for 
Historical Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown: Sir G.E. Cory collection: letters 
from Agar-Hamilton, MS 1433-MS 1434. MS 1877, MS 1912; W.A. Maxwell collection: 
MS 14 347; V.S. Forbes press cuttings: MS 17 202; J.A.I. Agar-Hamilton collection: 
unaccessioned; — university of the cape of good hope. The calendar. 1917-1918. Cape 
Town, 1917; — university of south Africa, The calendar. 1921-1929. Pretoria, 
1921-1929; — Die Burger , 26 May 1928; — Pretoria News, 14 June 1928; — The Cape 
Times, 2 July 1928; — The Heidelberg News , 3 August 1928; — South African church year 
book and clerical directory, 1957-8. Durban, [1958]; — Crockford's clerical directory: a 
reference book of the clergy of the Provinces of Canterbury and York and of other Anglican 
Provinces and Diocese, 1957/58-1959/60, 1963/64-1 965 /66\ 1969/70-1 975 /76\ 1980/82 ; - 
Evening Post, 13 February 1960; — The Daily Dispatch, 2 June 1961; — Rhodes 
UNIVERSITY, institute of social AND economic research. Annual reports, 1960-1983. 
Grahamstown, 1961-1984; — Obituaries: The Citizen, 20 June 1984; Suid-Afrikaanse oorsig, 
29 June 1984. 

ANDRESEN, Hans Olaf YValdemar Rudiger Emmerich Felix Januarius 

(Olaf) (‘Berlin, Germany, 14 January 1902— 
tKempton Park, 19 December 1985), composer, 
mainly of light music, was the son of Waldemar and 
Anna Andresen. 

Already as a child Andresen showed musical 
talent. He studied at the music conservatory of H. 
and P. Heller in Berlin and received tuition in 
violin, musical theory and composition. At the age 
of fourteen he made his debut as violinist. He inter- 
rupted his studies to take part in the First World 
War (1914-1918). In 1920 he started a world tour 
during which he gave performances, composed 
music and became acquainted with other musicians. 
His source of income, however, was his work as accountant— he wrote an 


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accountancy examination in California, United States of America. The last 
country he visited was South Africa. In 1926 he was back in Germany, but 
speedily returned to Venezuela where he was a member of a dance band. In 
1931 , during the depression, he returned to Germany, but left for South Africa 
in the same year. Here he covered long distances on foot since he could not 
afford travel expenses. He made a living as an insurance agent. Eventually he 
settled in Vryheid, Natal, where he met Marthel Dittrich, whom he was later 
to marry. 

At the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-1945) Andresen was 
interned in the Leeukop camp because of his German nationality. After eight 
months he escaped and the following eleven months he was on the run. During 
this time he composed 22 marches and battle songs for the Ossewa-B rand wag 
under the pseudonym Andries Cilliers. These compositions were published in 
1941 in Johannesburg as the Ossewa-Brandwagbundel. 

He and his fiancee, Marthel, fled to Lourengo Marques (Maputo) in 
Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) in 1942. Andresen was allowed to stay 
there, probably because he had a German passport, but Marthel was sent back 
to South Africa where she had to serve a prison sentence for her political 
affiliations. They were married in 1946 in Louren?o Marques, but could only 
return to Johannesburg in 1948, after the election victory of the National Party. 

In Johannesburg Andresen became a professional composer. He established 
his own printing and publishing company, the Melotoongolwe Musiekuitgewers 
(music publishers). Here he printed and distributed his own compositions and 
even cut and sold his own gramophone records for several years. 

Andresen composed nearly 400 works. This included three operettas in 
Afrikaans: Die heidenooientjie, Die drie astertjies and Die mieliefeetjie. He 
composed dancing music too, a symphony, and marches adapted for military 
orchestra by Charles Donne. Out of appreciation for his contribution to music 
Andresen was appointed honorary colonel of the Regiment East Rand of the 
South African Defence Force in 1969. Most of his compositions, however, 
were songs. In 1932 Andresen composed his most famous song, ‘Heidelied’. 
His inspiration for it stemmed from a hike in the Western Province. The band 
of Hendrik Susan* performed the song for the first time in 1949 and in that 
same year it was used during the inauguration of the Voortrekker Monument. 
It became renowned in New Jersey (USA), as well as in Luneburg (Germany) 
where the inhabitants invited Andresen and his wife in 1956 to visit the city 
during its millenary. During this visit the song was proclaimed Song of the 
Year. The South African Army used it in an adapted form as a march. It was 
also the theme song in the film Hoor my lied. In the film Krugermiljoene other 
well-known songs of Andresen were sung by G 6 Korsten, like ‘My hart verlang 
na die Boland’. Andresen wrote the words for most of his compositions 
himself, and since he had command of several languages, he published most of 
his songs in more than one language. 

Since 1964 Andresen’s health deteriorated; nevertheless, he continued 
composing. In 1978 he wrote his last composition, an Italian concerto for piano 
and violin. 

Andresen first married Johanna Beer. After he had divorced her, he married 


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Marthel (Martha) Dittrich. He was the father of a son and two daughters. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 791/86; — Radio Sound Archives, SABC, 
Johannesburg: Record of tribute to Olaf Andresen; — Agter tralies en doringdraad. Pretoria, 
1953; — Ster, 24 January 1975; — Afrikaanse kultuuralmanak. Johannesburg, 1980; — J.P. 
MALAN (ed.), South African music encyclopedia, I. Cape Town, 1979; — C. Mar£, Geliefde 
Olaf Andresen word 81 jaar oud! Kempton Express, 19 January 1983; — Obituary: Kempton 
Express, 7 January 1986; — Private information: Mrs Marthel Andresen (wife), Kempton 

ARNDT, Ruth Elizabeth (Toronto, Canada, 2 June 1890— tPretoria, 8 Sep- 
tember 1982), pre-school educationist, was the 
daughter of Francis Stephens Spence. 

She studied at the Victoria College of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto from 1909 to 1913 and obtained 
her B.A. degree in 1913. The following year she 
qualified as high school assistant and specialist in 
modems and history. From 1921 she studied at the 
Teachers College of Columbia University, New 
York, and in 1924 the Ph.D. degree in education 
was conferred on her for her thesis Theory of edu- 
cation as growth, as formulated by John Dewey. 
Until the middle of 1926, when she left for South 
Africa to marry a fellow student from Columbia 
University, E.H.D. Arndt, she was assistant professor in educational psycholo- 
gy at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. 

Arndt’s career in South Africa reflects the influence of two persons in 
particular. She idolized her father, a reformer who had devoted his life to 
public service and, secondly, she was imbued with the philosophy and teaching 
of John Dewey, professor in philosophy during her stay at Columbia Univer- 

Her professional career in South Africa began in 1929 when she held two 
relieving appointments at the Pretoria Normal College (Pretoria Teachers’ 
Training College). In the same year the Transvaal University College (Univer- 
sity of Pretoria) opened its Child Guidance Clinic, followed by the establish- 
ment of the School of Social Work. This progressive move and her close 
contact with the head of the clinic, Dr Marie te Water, gave her much 
satisfaction and encouragement. 

In 1930 she returned to Canada for more than a year to study nursery 
school education. A Laura Spellman (Rockefeller) Travelling Fellowship 
enabled her to visit the leading training centres in the USA and Canada. Back 
in South Africa she interested herself in providing facilities for pre-school 
education in Pretoria, and later virtually became the founder of the nursery 
school movement in South Africa. The long struggle to gain recognition for 
pre-school education from government departments and municipalities was 
ultimately won due to her persistence. Her broad theoretical and academic 
background ensured that pre-school teaching in South Africa had its roots in 


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sound educational principles. Arndt was a foundation member of the Nursery 
School Association of South Africa (Southern African Association for Early 
Childhood Education, later renamed the Southern African Association for Early 
Childhood Educare), and served as honorary secretary, chairperson, president 
and honorary life president. Her presidential addresses to the association 
delivered from 1940 to 1975, were published in 1977. 

One seldom finds in one person such a scholarly philosophic background, 
practical insight and tenacity. That there are today hundreds of institutions 
catering for the education of thousands of pre-school children of all races in 
South Africa is a tribute to her. In 1975 she received an honorary doctorate in 
education from the University of South Africa. The Good Hope Nursery School 
of which Arndt was a founder member was renamed the Ruth Arndt Early 
Learning Centre (a crfeche-cum-nursery school in Schubart Street, Pretoria) in 
living memory of this pioneer of infant care and education in South Africa. 

A son and a daughter were born of her marriage to E.H.D. Arndt, 
professor of economics at the University of Pretoria, vice-president of the 
Reserve Bank, a director of the Land Bank and chairperson of the Decimaliz- 
ation Board. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 13801/82; — Honoris causa: R.E. Arndt, 
Unisa, 1975; — Obituaries: Hoofstad, 9 September 1982; Pretoria News, 9 September 1982; 
Transvaler , 9 September 1982; — Tribute: Eulogy by P. Reilly, Chairman of the Southern 
African Association for Early Childhood Education, September 1982; Ruth Arndt Memorial 
lecture by J.R. van Heerden, President of the Southern African Association for Early 
Childhood Education, 1987. 

ASCHENBORN, Hans Jurgen (*Windhoek, South West Africa (Namibia), 19 

August 1920 — fPretoria, 3 October 1986), librarian, 
the son of Hans Anton Aschenbom*, an artist and 
author, and his wife Emmy Bredow. 

Aschenborn’s father decided to return to Ger- 
many in 1923 (some sources state 1921) for econ- 
omic reasons. Shortly after his father’s death in 
1931 , Aschenborn’s mother returned to South Africa 
with her children and settled on a farm called Bron- 
hoft in the Potgietersrus district. Aschenbom 
received his schooling at the Deutsche Schule in 
Windhoek, passing his Abitur (matriculation) in 
1939. He was interned from 1942 to 1945, during 
the Second World War (1939-1945), because of his 
German connections. After his release he was persuaded by Prof. P.C. 
Coetzee, who was the head of the library of the University of Pretoria at that 
time, to continue his studies instead of going to Germany to help with the 
reconstruction of that country after the war. Aschenbom studied through the 
University of South Africa (Unisa) and obtained a B.A. in 1950 and the Higher 
Diploma in Librarianship in 1952. In 1957 he obtained a M.A. degree and in 
1 966 a doctorate for a dissertation on De Staatsbibliotheek der Zuid-Afrikaan- 


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sche Pepubliek (The State Library of the Transvaal Republic) was conferred on 

A part-time student, Aschenbom was in the employ of the Merensky 
Library at the University of Pretoria from 1947 to 1949. In 1949 he joined the 
Transvaal Provincial Library service where he worked until 1951 when he 
returned to the Merensky Library. Concurrently, from 1953 to 1961, he was 
a lecturer in librarianship at the University of Pretoria. In 1959 he was 
appointed deputy director of the State Library and in 1965 became director— a 
post he held until his death. 

Some of the highlights in his career as director of the State Library were: 
the creation of the Unicat (a joint catalogue arranged according to the Interna- 
tional Standard Book Number (ISBN)); the computerization and microfilming 
of the Joint Catalogue of Books; the publishing and computerization of the 
SANB: South African national bibliography, the commencement of the micro- 
filming of South African newspapers; the creation of the Government Gazette 
index (GGI); and the publication of the RSANB: retrospective South African na- 
tional bibliography. Aschenborn was involved in the drafting of the Legal 
Deposit of Publications Act of 1982 and the National Libraries Act of 1985. 
Under the direction of Aschenborn, the State Library started an extensive 
publication programme which resulted in the reprint series (for example 
L long land’s Pretoria directory for 1899 and Verrichtinge van het Onderwijs- 
congress gehouden te Germiston [I899f) and the bibliographical series (such as 
German Africana and Bibliography of reprography). 

Aschenborn played a leading role in South African librarianship. He served 
on the National Library Advisory Council and later on the National Advisory 
Council for Libraries and Information Science. He played an active role in the 
South African Institute for Librarianship and Information Science (Sailis) as 
council member, chairperson of the Committee for Bibliographic Control and 
the Technical Standards Committee. Aschenborn was also involved in Sabinet 
(South African Bibliographic and Information Network), the Microfilm Associ- 
ation of the RSA (Marsa) and the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en 
Kuns (South African Academy for Arts and Science). 

Several of his scholarly articles which were published in local and overseas 
journals gained South African librarianship international recognition. Further- 
more, in his professional career he attended approximately 65 international 
conferences, including several of the International Federation for Library 
Associations and Institutions (IFLA). He played an important role in the 
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was chairperson of 
three working groups, namely the Working Group for Microfiche Standards, 
the Working Group for Microfilming of Newspapers and the Working Group 
on Book Production Statistics. He also was a member of the Conference of 
Directors of National Libraries. 

In 1967 the Canadian Council awarded Aschenborn the John Harvey Medal, 
and in 1975 he became honorary Fellow of the International Information 
Management Congress. In 1970 he received the socius membership of the 
South African Library Association (now Sailis) and in 1985 was awarded the 
Sailis Award for Bibliography. State President P.W. Botha awarded Aschen- 



born the Order for Meritorious Service Silver posthumously in 1988. 

In 1 956 Aschenbom moved to a smallholding near Kameeldrif, northeast of 
Pretoria, designing and building the house himself. Interested in art, especially 
typography and graphic art, he tried to have his father’s work reprinted. He 
was also a well-known breeder of arab horses. His motto was ‘Und immer 
siegt die Liebe’ (Love will always conquer). 

Aschenborn married Helga-Christa Hermenau on 17 April 1947. They had 
a son and three daughters. 

Obituaries: Pretoria News, 4 October 1986; Dr Hans Aschenbom oorlede. Sailis newsletter, 
6(11), November 1986; — j.a. boon, pj. lor * k.p. prinsloo, National libraries: some 
South African and international perspectives on challenges and opportunities: a tribute to 
H.J. Aschenbom at sixty-five. Pretoria, 1986; — Hans Jurgen Aschenbom: a tribute, 
1920-1986. Informal, 2(5/6) 1986; — Dr Hans Aschenbom posthumously awarded. Sailis 
newsletter, 8(7), July 1988. 


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BALOYI, Richard Granville (*Pietersburg district, c. 1 897— t Alexandra, in 

the present-day Sandton district, 5 October 1962), 
politician and businessman, a son of Marcus and 
Rosie Baloyi. Very little is known about his early 

Baloyi moved to Alexandra north of Johannes- 
burg in 1922. His first job was that of a taxi driver 
but in 1925 he became a taxi owner. In 1927 he 
purchased his first buses and shortly afterwards he 
and other bus owners founded the Alexandra Bus 
Owners’ Association. The buses travelled regularly 
between Johannesburg and Alexandra and met the 
demand for cheap transport. However, this brought 
them into competition with bus companies controlled 
by whites. By 1940 the Alexandra Bus Owners’ Association was forced out of 
the market by a combination of legislation to entrench the position of South 
African Railways and competition from the better funded white-owned 

Baloyi was often involved in disputes concerning bus fares to and from 
Alexandra Between 1939 and 1940 he apparently opposed the lowering of bus 
fares, though he claimed that he was fending for the inhabitants of Alexandra. 
When in August 1943 the bus fare was increased and the inhabitants of 
Alexandra started a general bus boycott, Baloyi was a member of the Emerg- 
ency Transport Committee who negotiated with the bus company for the 
lowering of the fare to the original. 

As community leader of Alexandra Baloyi also served on the local health 
committee. In the 1940s local white interests began to threaten the right to 
freehold in Sophiatown and Alexandra and by 1943 Baloyi was chairperson of 
the Alexandra Anti-Expropriation Committee— a committee trying to protect the 
interests of African entrepreneurs of Alexandra. On his letterhead Baloyi 
identified himself as the managing director of the Alexandra Land Industrial 
and Investment Company (an estate agency) and diffector of the Rustenburg Bus 
Service Pty Ltd. He was president of the Bantu Sports Club and a prominent 
member of the Bantu Methodist Church. 

Baloyi seems to have had a reputation as a controversial figure— as was the 
case with the bus fare dispute in 1939-1940. His controversial ity came to a 


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head in 1945 when it became known that he was a member of a deputation to 
Cape Town to discuss the possible incorporation of Alexandra into Johannes- 
burg with members of parliament. This was deemed an act of treason by the 
Alexandra inhabitants and at a mass meeting in the township the following 
resolution was accepted: "Mr R.G. Baloyi of this Township shall be no more 
a leader of any class of the African people of this Township until he dies." 

His political career started in about 1937 when he was elected to the Native 
Representative Council (NRC) and together with other NRC members 
contributed to reviving interest in the declining African National Congress 
(ANC). The councillors travelled widely and used their position to arouse 
interest in the ANC. Baloyi remained a councillor until 1942. In 1938 he was 
elected treasurer-general of the ANC. In the same year he was elected vice- 
president of the Non-European United Front which came into existence when 
the South African Communist Party (SACP), the National Liberation League, 
the ANC and other groups joined forces in an effort to establish a broad and 
powerful national movement co-ordinating all protest actions by blacks. The 
front, however, did not exist for very long— by 1942 the ANC withdrew its 
support, while coloured members preferred to establish their own organization. 

In May 1939 Baloyi was a member of the ANC deputation to Cape Town 
who met with the Minister of Native Affairs and the parliamentary representa- 
tives of the Africans. On this occasion Baloyi asked for one identification docu- 
ment— instead of several different passes as was the case then— and warned that 
the pass laws made criminals of the people. He also asked for the recognition 
of traditional chiefs. 

In 1943 he was a member of the Atlantic Charter Committee of the ANC 
which had to study and discuss problems arising out of the Atlantic Charter in 
so far as it related to Africa. (The charter had originally been drawn up by 
Great Britain and the United States of America in 1941 as a "blueprint for 
future peace and security” and emphasized the maintenance of human rights.) 
The committee had to draw up a statement on the charter "from the standpoint 
of the Africans within the Union of South Africa" (called the African Claims), 
and draft a Bill of Rights. From 1944 Baloyi was one of the leaders of the anti- 
pass campaign. In 1948 Baloyi was one of the ANC delegates to negotiations 
with the All-African Convention (a national organization originally founded in 
the 1930s to protest the downgrading of the African franchise). The ANC 
hoped to achieve closer unity between the two organizations and to overcome 
rivalry. These talks failed. In January 1949 riots broke out between Africans 
and Indians in Durban. This led to a meeting between representatives of the 
ANC (with Baloyi one of the delegates), the South African Indian Congress 
and other African and Indian leaders in Durban on 6 February 1949. 

Baloyi’s position within the ANC became increasingly controversial. At the 
ANC annual conference in December 1947 his financial report as treasurer- 
general was rejected because it had not been audited. The following year he did 
not attend the conference and an acting treasurer was appointed. At that stage 
he was regarded with suspicion because of his support for a National Party 
candidate for Senate— his membership of the Transvaal branch of the ANC was 
in fact suspended for three years. He appealed against the suspension and at the 


inhtpei r 


annual conference in December 1949 it was lifted. In view of this and the fact 
that he had neglected his duties as treasurer, he was not re-elected as treasurer- 
general. However, he was elected to the national executive committee, but his 
former prominent political role was largely over. 

From 1952 he increasingly identified with the National Minded Bloc in the 
ANC — a conservative faction predominantly consisting of relatively wealthy 
businessmen which opposed the co-operation of the ANC with the SACP and 
the alleged communist influence on the ANC. 

Baloyi was married to Elizabeth Baloyi and though his death certificate 
indicates that he had no children, he named a son as executor, and probably 
also had three daughters. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 503/63; — Library of the University of the Witwa- 
tersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — Busy Body RG, Drum , March 1953; — C.M. 
de villiers, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 
1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe. The rise of African 
Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — 
T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a 
g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in 
South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T, lodge. 
Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; — B. hirson. Yours for the 
Union: class and community struggles in South Africa, 1930-1947. Johannesburg, 1990. 

BARMANIA, Mahomed Dawood (^Pietermaritzburg, 21 April 1895— fCape 

Town, 10 February 1971), businessman, politician 
and community worker. He was the son of Dawood 
Barmania, owner of commercial and farming prop- 
erties in both Natal and Surat in the west Indian 
state of Gujarat— Gujarat being the region from 
which most of South Africa’s trader Indians orig- 

At the turn of the century, after having been in 
Natal for some fifteen years, Dawood Barmania 
returned to India with his family. Barmania later 
attended City College, Calcutta and the University 
of Calcutta where an M.A. degree in Economics 
was conferred on him. 

Soon after graduating he returned to South Africa to assist his brother in the 
management of his father’s firm of general dealers at Umzimkulu in Southern 
Natal. In 1930 he moved to Cape Town where, after a brief spell as a general 
dealer, he followed a career as business manager and later as financial adviser. 
He retired in 1969. 

Largely as a consequence of his level of education— unusually high by the 
standards of the time for Indians in South Africa— Barmania was held in 
considerable esteem by Cape Town’s small Indian community. As community 
leader it was a natural step for him to enter politics by joining, in the mid- 
1930s, the Cape Indian Congress. Soon afterwards he was elected to represent 


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the Cape Province on the executive of the South African Indian Congress 

As a Muslim businessman Barmania was a representative of a class which 
had long dominated the politics of the Indian community in South Africa. This 
domination can be dated back to the arrival of the indentured Indians who were 
predominantly Hindu, and the arrival of the trader Indians who were predomi- 
nantly Muslim. The tensions generated by the long-simmering differences 
between the business class and the predominantly Hindu Indian proletariat were 
finally brought to a head between 1943 and 1946. The issue which precipitated 
the confrontation was the nature of the strategy to be pursued in response to the 
proposals of J.C. Smuts’s* government to establish segregated Indian residen- 
tial areas in Natal and the Transvaal. Instead of rejecting these proposals 
outright, as the new and populist generation of Indian political leaders in South 
Africa did, Barmania aligned himself with the SAIC’s traditional policy of 
attempting to find a compromise solution without conceding the principle of 
segregation. The introduction by the government of the Asiatic Land Tenure 
and Indian Representation Bill in March 1946 signalled the failure of the 
SAIC’s strategy and, in so doing, totally undermined the credibility of the 
Congress leadership. 

The new Bill resulted in a storm of protest, locally and abroad. The SAIC 
published a booklet summarizing its objections to the Bill. A representative was 
granted leave to be heard at the bar of the Senate of the South African 
Parliament against the provisions of the Bill. As one of the joint secretaries of 
the SAIC, Barmania addressed the Senate for 50 minutes on 3 May 1946 to 
explain why the Congress rejected the Bill. In light of the national and interna- 
tional protest against the Bill, it can be surmised that the Senate only agreed to 
Barmania’s appearance at the bar in an attempt to soften international condem- 
nation of the Bill. The significance of Barmania’s Senate appearance, the only 
one by an Indian South African, and one of only two such appearances— the 
first appearance was in 1914 in protest against the deportation of labour 
leaders— lies therefore in the realm of novelty rather than substance. 

Having lost control of the SAIC in October 1946, the conservative Indian 
leadership, of whom Barmania remained a member, formed a rival body, the 
South African Indian Organization. However, the futility of negotiations with 
the government, especially after the National Party came to power in 1948, led 
to Barmania’s early retirement from national politics. 

Barmania nevertheless continued to play an active community role by 
serving in charitable organizations, the local Mosque committee and the local 
school board. His services were not limited to the Indian community alone, for 
in Cape Town, Indians, particularly those who were Muslim, integrated easily 
with the Malay and coloured population. Upon his death the Cape Town City 
Council named a road in Crawford after him in recognition of his community 

While in India Barmania married Ayesha Bibi. A son and two daughters 
were born of the marriage. After his first wife’s death he married Jadija 
Sirkhotte in Cape Town in 1939. Three daughters and two sons were born of 
this marriage. 


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Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: Estate no. 4901/71; — The South African Indian 
who's who and commercial directory, 1939. Pietermaritzburg, 1939; — B. pachai. The 
South African Indian question, 1860-1971. Cape Town, 1971; — w.p.l. van ZYL, Parlia- 
ment. In: Standard encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, 8. Cape Town, 1973; — w.b. white. 
The evolution of policy towards the Indians in Natal. M.A. thesis. University of Natal, 
1981; — S. bhana A B. pachai (eds), A documentary history of Indian South Africans. Cape 
Town, 1984; — Private information: Mr A.M. Barmania (son), Cape Town. 

BASSA, Cassim Mohammed (*India, 11 August 1925— tJohannesburg, 25 

March 1983), estate agent and community leader, 
was the eighth of nine children of Mohammed 
Bassa, a businessman, and his wife Fathima. Bas- 
sa’s father came to South Africa with his family in 
1927. Bassa was schooled in Durban and in 1944 
matriculated through the prestigious Sastri College. 
Though his father encouraged him to train as a 
medical doctor, Bassa preferred to work as a 
research assistant in the Department of Economics 
at the University of Natal. Research on the econ- 
omic circumstances of Indians in Natal awakened 
Bassa's interest in the history of Indian immigrants 
in South Africa and their struggle against racial dis- 
crimination. He became involved in political activities and joined the Natal 
Indian Congress in 1948. 

Bassa’s involvement in community work came very much by accident. He 
was requested by the Natal Indian Blind Society to collect and replace 
collection boxes in public places like factories and shops. His appointment as 
honorary secretary of the society followed in 1953. 

As community leader Bassa decided to restrain his personal feelings as a 
strong proponent of the movements against racism, and rather work within the 
political system of the day for the benefit of the larger community. In doing so, 
Bassa was often subjected to humiliation for being black. He was either not 
allowed to attend welfare meetings or was given observer status with not only 
no vote but no voice either. He continued to make representations in person, 
if allowed, or conveyed his views to a white colleague who would then 
represent his case. 

Though Bassa was involved in voluntary welfare work with all disabled 
people, his greatest impact was among the visually and hearing impaired. As 
president of the Natal Indian Blind and Deaf Society from 1966 until his death, 
Bassa was responsible for the expansion of the workshop for the Indian blind, 
the introduction of professional social work services and other related services 
to blind and deaf persons in Natal. He constantly campaigned at every level for 
a better dispensation with regard to pensions and grants for blind and deaf 
persons and for better subsidies for the workshops. 

He was chairperson of the boards of management of the following state- 
subsidized schools: New Horizon School for the Blind, Durban School for the 
Indian Deaf and the V.N. Naik School for the Deaf. He served as an invited 


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member on the Management Board of the Spes Nova School for Cerebral 
Palsied Children. When the Council for the Advancement of Special Education 
in South Africa was formed to represent all Indian special schools and training 
centres, Bassa was elected the first chairperson— a position he held until his 

Bassa was also involved in mainstream education and was grantee of the 
Orient Primary and Secondary Schools and the Anjuman Islam Primary School. 
Here again he was called upon to represent the Indian community in making 
representations for the improvement of community facilities. This he did 
successfully. At the time of his death he was also secretary of the Indian 
Centenary Scholarship Trust and joint secretary of the Orient Islamic Educa- 
tional Institute. 

At national level Bassa was a member of the executive committees of the 
South African National Council for the Blind and the South African National 
Council for the Deaf. These national bodies elected him chairperson for both 
the Division for Indian Blind and the Division for Indian Deaf. He served on 
several special committees in both the work of the blind and the deaf, as well 
as with the South African Welfare Council to which he was appointed by the 
Minister of Health and Welfare in terms of the National Welfare Act. He was 
a member of the Bureau for the Prevention of Blindness. 

Bassa attended three international assemblies as South African delegate: the 
World Council for the Welfare of the Blind in New Delhi, 1969, and in Sao 
Paulo in 1974, and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in 
Oxford, 1978. 

He was a keen sportsman and played a leading role in promoting sport. He 
excelled in cricket and table tennis and led a table tennis team to play in 
Germany in 1957. Bassa was elected president of the South African Table 
Tennis Board which was affiliated to the international body. His condemnation 
of apartheid in sport and activities in the South African Council of Sport 
(SACOS) led to the government withdrawing his passport for many years. 

Bassa received several awards for his services: the J.N. Reddy Community 
Award in 1975; a citation from the Durban City Council in 1977; and the 
R.W. Bowen Medal with citation from the South African Council for the Blind 
in 1979. 

Apart from his volunteer work he was a successful estate agent. He was 
married to Khatija (nee Paruk). Three children were bom of this marriage— two 
daughters and a son. He died in his sleep in a hotel in Johannesburg where he 
was attending a meeting of the South African National Council for the Deaf. 

v.H. vaughan, Fifty years of service, 1929-1979: the story of the South African National 
Council for the Blind. Pretoria, 1979; — Honoris causa: C.M. Bassa, South African Council 
for the Blind (R.W. Bowen Medal), 1979; — Obituary: The Natal Mercury, 26 March 1983; 
— The late Mr C.M. Bassa: a tribute. Fiat Lux, April 1983; — v.H. vaughan, The diamond 
years. 1979-1989: the story of the South African National Council for the Blind. Pretoria, 


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BERMAN, Charles (*Poreveys, Lithuania, 24 June 1903 — ("Johannesburg, 27 

April 1967), mine medical officer and expert on pri- 
mary liver cancer, was the son of Alchonan (Chone) 
Berman, a butcher, and his wife Rachel Leah Na- 

Berman’s parents came to Johannesburg when he 
was still a very young child. He matriculated from 
the Technical High School in Johannesburg in 1921. 
His father died while Berman was studying medicine 
at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannes- 
burg, so he had to help his mother run the family 
business while continuing his medical studies. 
Nevertheless, his work on encephalitis lethargica 
(sleeping sickness) was the winning entry in the 
British Medical Association’s essay competition for fmal-year medical students 
of the British Empire outside the British Isles. He graduated M.B., Ch.B. in 

In 1930 Berman was appointed full-time locum tenens at the hospital for 
Africans at City Deep, a mine belonging to the Comer House Group. He 
stayed with this group until his death, working later at Rose Deep, Consoli- 
dated Main Reef and Durban Roodepoort Deep where he was the senior 
medical officer. 

His work span encompassed what has been described as the golden years of 
mine medicine, for the medical services were then so organized that medical 
officers could do a great deal of research in the course of their daily duties. 
The subject of his M.D. thesis (1938) was primary carcinoma of the liver, 
about which very little had been written at that time. Although a rare condition 
in whites, Berman found that it was common in the African labourers on the 
mines, particularly among those from Mozambique. He concluded that, al- 
though there was a genetic factor, the root cause was environmental, probably 
nutritional. His research ensured that the condition could be detected early, the 
key to the effective management of this disease. He published a monograph in 
1951 and was soon recognized as a world expert on primary liver cancer. 
Many articles of his on this subject also appeared in a variety of journals. 

Berman attended many international congresses, and in 1959 spent nine 
months at the SIoan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research at the Memorial 
Hospital in New York as a visiting associate professor in experimental surgery. 
His work led to the establishment in 1965 of the Primary Liver Research Pro- 
ject, based at City Deep and run in conjunction with the University of the Wit- 
watersrand. He was president of the Mine Medical Officers’ Association of 
South Africa in 1964-1965. 

A quiet and unassuming man, Berman was very artistic and musical. He 
was a member of the Johannesburg Musical Society for 35 years and enter- 
tained many internationally known musicians in his home. He. collected paint- 
ings, and was able to restore damaged canvases. He was a foundation member 
of the Oxford Synagogue in Johannesburg. 

Berman married Fay Roytowski of Cape Town and had two sons. 


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Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 3607/67; — Obituaries: The Star, 28 April 1967; 
Jewish affairs, 22(5), May 1967; South African medical journal, 41(47), 23 December 1967; 
— a.p. Cartwright, Doctors of the mines. Cape Town, 1971; — E.w. geddes. The work 
of the Primary Liver Cancer Research Project: the differential diagnosis of primary malig- 
nant hepatoma in patients referred to the Liver Cancer Unit. Proceedings of the Mine Me- 
dical Officers' Association, 52(414), September-December 1972; — The Primary Liver 
Cancer Research Project. Proceedings of the Mine Medical Officers' Association, 53(416), 
May-August 1973. 

BIKO, Bantu Stephen (Steve) (*King William’s Town, 18 December 1946— 

fPretoria, 12 September 1977), Black Conscious- 
ness spokesperson, community worker and political 
activist, was the third child and second son of Mzin- 
gaye Matthew and Alice Duna (Mam)Cete Biko. 
(Some sources give his birthplace as Tarkastad and 
his mother's maiden name as Duma.) Biko came 
from a family of ordinary means: his father worked 
as a clerk and his mother did domestic work. His 
father died when Biko was four years old. There 
was no indication in his early childhood that he 
would assume a particular ideological stance. 

Biko attended the Brownlee Primary School for 
two years and the Charles Morgan Higher Primary 
School for four years. Both schools were in Ginsberg township near King Wil- 
liam’s Town. In 1963 he continued his education at Forbes Grant Secondary 
School in the township. During that year he went to Lovedale Institution at 
Alice in the Eastern Cape, where he was expelled after only three months, 
ostensibly because his brother, who was also at Lovedale, was arrested and 
imprisoned on charges of being a Poqo (the armed wing of the Pan-Africanist 
Congress) activist. In 1964, having missed a full year of studies after his 
dismissal from Lovedale, Biko went to boarding school at St Francis' College, 
a Roman Catholic institute at Mariannhill, Natal. He befriended a Catholic nun 
who discussed and explained at length all sorts of practices within the church. 
Biko also befriended a challenging Anglican priest, and pursued with interest 
questions of faith, his understanding of religion and his disappointment in the 
church. Thus, his secondary school training left him with a vested interest in 
Christianity (later reflected in thoughts on Black Theology) and an urge to 
strive towards an integrated, multiracial society. 

Matriculating at the end of 1965 Biko entered the medical school of the 
University of Natal (non-European section), Durban. He wanted to do law at 
university but there was a popular conception in the Eastern Cape that equated 
law with political activism, and that (under the circumstances Biko found 
himselD was to be discouraged. Medicine was the safe alternative for a good 
profession, and Biko won a scholarship to study it. Soon after entering the 
university Biko was elected to the Students’ Representative Council (SRC) of 
the medical school, and through it became involved with the multiracial Nation- 
al Union of South African Students (NUSAS). The members and leaders of 


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NUSAS were largely drawn from the liberal English-speaking universities. 
Until 1968 black students saw NUSAS as their only vehicle to change. 
Disillusionment began to grow as this organization seemed to confine itself to 
symbolic multiracial activities and verbal protests against the government, 
describing apartheid as the enemy and nonracialism as the solution. Although 
black students did participate, white spokespersons defined and expressed black 
grievances and goals. 

During these years Biko progressively identified with the concept of Black 
Consciousness. He encouraged black students to dissociate themselves from 
white and multiracial student organizations. Apartheid had to be destroyed but 
the methods advanced by the liberal whites were at fault. The mere existence 
of multiracial organizations posed a contradiction and embodied, ironically, 
white racism. The pivot of black support hinged on the psychological battle for 
the minds of black people. Biko advocated solidarity among blacks; they had 
to identify with themselves and with blackness. This identification constituted 
a mental emancipation which in itself was a precondition for political emanci- 
pation. It is this concept of Black Consciousness (awareness) that could be 
regarded as Biko’s most prominent contribution. 

In 1968 Biko and his allies formed the South African Students’ Organization 
(SASO), based on Biko’s ideology of Black Consciousness, rejecting all white- 
conceived evolutionary solutions and renewing the trend away from liberal 
principles of reconciliation and nonviolence. The new organization and its 
ideological underpinnings struck a responsive cord in black university students. 
At SASO’s formal inaugural conference in July 1969 Biko became its first 
president and the next year he was appointed publicity secretary. Due to the 
movement’s pragmatic and nontheoretical undertone, it also had a following 
among the ordinary and the semi-literate blacks. This contributed largely to the 
formation of the Black People’s Convention (BPC) in 1972— an organization to 
which Biko was elected honorary life president in 1977. 

He terminated his studies at the university in 1972 and began to work for 
the Black Community Programmes (BCP) in Durban— initiated by the South 
African Council of Churches in 1971— whose offices were on the same 
premises as SASO. These programmes were geared particularly towards the 
social upliftment, general literacy and economic self-reliance of black people. 
The director of BCP (Bennie Khoapa) committed himself to the field of 
community development, but relied on Biko for political direction. The 
government’s reaction to Black Consciousness came in March 1973 when eight 
leaders were banned and restricted to different magisterial districts; Biko was 
banned and restricted to King William’s Town. Here he founded the Eastern 
Cape branch of the BCP and worked as branch executive until an extra clause 
was inserted in his banning order at the end of 1975 prohibiting him from 
working for the BCP. Biko was an untiring collector of funds and was 
instrumental in founding the Zimele Trust Fund in the Eastern Cape in 1975. 
The trust had three objectives. Firstly, it provided emotional and material 
support to ex-political prisoners at the time of their release. Secondly, 
educational support in the form of bursaries was provided for their dependants. 
Thirdly, the economic restabilization of ex-political prisoners was encouraged 

by supporting the establishment of home industries and the Ginsberg Educa- 
tional Trust for black students. 

He made a high profile appearance in May 1976 when giving evidence at 
a trial of nine SASO-BPC members in Pretoria. During cross-examination Biko 
and his co-accused used the trial as a platform for expressing their political 
views and for speaking to their followers. He used history as his point of 
reference, and thereby highlighted the force and passion of Black Conscious- 
ness. Biko went further than using the dock as public platform: he challenged 
the very judicial process, and although he apparently did not expect the court 
to judge in his favour, he was satisfied that he was able to give an authoritative 
description of Black Consciousness. 

Following the Soweto riots in June 1976 and at a time of general mass 
demonstrations against apartheid and the government, Biko was arrested in 
August 1976 and detained for 101 days under section 6 of the Terrorism Act, 
1967. In March and July 1977 he was again arrested; in March he was 
detained and then released and in July released on bail. 

On 19 August 1977, driving back to the Eastern Cape from Cape Town, 
together with Peter C. Jones (an activist in the Western Cape region of BPC in 
1975-1976, who was requested by Biko to come and manage the King 
William’s Town office), he was stopped at a police roadblock near Grahams- 
town, outside his restricted area, and arrested. He was taken to Port Elizabeth 
and detained for questioning— during which he was seriously injured. On 11 
September he was taken to Pretoria for medical attention, but he died on 12 
September 1977. The cause of death was a brain haemorrhage. During the 
subsequent inquest into the cause of Biko’s death which started in November 
1977 details of the maltreatment of political prisoners were revealed. However, 
as the exact events could not be reconstructed the police were exonerated. 

Steve Biko was buried on 25 September 1977 beside the railroad near King 
William’s Town. Thousands of mourners from all over the country, including 
diplomats from thirteen Western countries, converged on the town for the 
funeral. Police action prevented many mourners from the Transvaal, Durban, 
Cape Town and other areas from reaching the funeral. 

Biko was described as a person of charm and personality. He was an orator 
of the highest quality whose perception and energy freed people psychological- 
ly to take their destiny into their own hands. At the same time he was 
described as sensitive and agonizing over many matters. Biko generally 
discouraged the cult of personality and tried to play a back-room role. Accord- 
ing to him the struggle for black liberation was to be led by many rather than 
a few. Biko's life is fairly well documented. Some of his speeches and thoughts 
were published; books, films (documentary and otherwise), stage plays and 
artifacts about him were made available; and annually the Biko Remembrance 
Day evokes a fairly widespread fervour. His name has been linked to such 
diverse causes as those of Black Consciousness and the Azanian Peoples' 
Organization (AZAPO) to the Pan- Africanist Congress and the African Nation- 
al Congress. The truth is that Biko's style and thoughts were such that no one 
organization could possibly contain them. 

In aid of the Black Renaissance Convention, SASO, BPC and BCP, Biko 


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published pamphlets and memoranda. He also contributed articles to Katatonia 
(mouthpiece of the Medical Students’ Council of the University of Natal, 
Durban) between 1968 and 1971, and The Daily Dispatch (under the pseudo- 
nym Tenjiwe Ntintso). 

In December 1970 he married Nontsikelelo (Ntsiki) Margaret Mashalaba 
from Umtata. They had two sons. He also had a relationship with Mamphela 
Ramphele, a fellow student and member of SASO, who became a follower of 
Black Consciousness and was the first medical officer at the Zanempilo 
Community Health Centre which was opened in King William’s Town in April 
1975. To a great extent Ramphele served as a sounding-board for his political 
ideas. Two children were born of the relationship: a daughter who died at two 
months, and a son born after Biko’s death in 1978. 

South African Police, [Pretoria]: Reports on S.B. Biko (12 September 1977-31 December 
1989); — [B.S. biko], Introduction. In: B.s. BIKO (ed.), Black viewpoint. Durban, 1972; — 
s. biko. Black Consciousness and the quest for a true humanity. In: M. mothlabi (ed.), Es- 
says on Black Theology. Johannesburg, 1972; — A. stubbs, Man of Ubuntu. South African 
outlook , 107(1275), 1977; — E. baartman, A free man. South African outlook, 107(1275), 
1977; — Who was he? South African outlook, 107(1275), 1977; — s. BIKO, / write what I 
like: a selection of his writings-, selected and edited by A. Stubbs. London, 1978; — M. 
Arnold (ed.), The testimony of Steve Biko. London, 1978; — H. Bernstein, No. 46 Steve 
Biko. London, 1978; — g.m. oerhart, Black power in South Africa: the evolution of an ide- 
ology. Berkeley, 1978; — D. woods, Biko. Harmondsworth, 1978; — B. HIRSON, Year of 
fire, year of ash. The Soweto revolt: roots of a revolution. London, 1979; — w. utting, The 
Biko row flares up again. The Sunday Times, 30 August 1981; — D. dube. The rise of 
Alania: the fall of South Africa. Lusaka, 1983; — D.M. TUTU, Hope and suffering: sermon 
and speeches. Johannesburg, 1983; — n.m. muendane, A curve in a South African spy ring. 
London, 1984; — T. DE jager. Die swartbewussynsfilosofie van Steve Biko. M.A. thesis. 
University of Pretoria, 1986; — s. biko, The black book: thoughts of Steve Biko. Johannes- 
burg, 1987; — D. clark, The words of Steve Biko. Amandla Press, September 1988; — F. 
MEU, South Africa belongs to us: a history of the ANC. Harare, 1988; — N.B. PITYANA et 
at. (eds), Bounds of possibility: the legacy of Steve Biko A. Black Consciousness. Cape 
Town, 1991; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

BLACKBURN, Molly (*Port Elizabeth, 12 November 1930— fHumansdorp, 

28 December 1985), political activist and civil rights 
campaigner, was the daughter of Elgar Bellhouse 
(Buller) and Gladys Kathleen Pagden. 

From an early age she was exposed to liberal 
politics through her father, a former chairperson of 
the Progressive Party in Port Elizabeth. She was 
educated at Collegiate School for Girls in Port 
Elizabeth and at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 
where she graduated with a B.A. degree. 

On a skiing trip in Europe she met Geoffrey 
Fletcher, whose Antwerp-based family specialized in 
maritime law. They married in 1954 but she found 
the role of a continental housewife an unsettling 
experience and in 1963 she and her three children returned to Port Elizabeth, 


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where she worked as a laboratory assistant. In April 1967 she married Gavin 
Blackburn, a medical doctor. They had four children. 

To see her eldest three children through university, Blackburn started 
working as an estate agent and eventually went into partnership with two other 
women. She withdrew from the partnership in 1981 after her entrance into 
public life. In that year she won the Provincial Council seat of Walmer, Port 
Elizabeth, for the Progressive Federal Party (PFP). 

In spite of her reservations about the council, which she felt dealt too exclu- 
sively with issues affecting the white community, she proved an extremely 
hard-working member with a highly conscientious devotion to duty. To her 
critics she defended her involvement with the government body on the grounds 
that it was not a creation of the new constitutional dispensation, which was 
being planned by the government, and hinted at her possible resignation from 
the PFP. 

Molly Blackburn’s exposure to the problems of South African life came 
through her involvement with the Black Sash Advice Office when it reopened 
in Port Elizabeth in 1982. Having resigned from the Black Sash in the mid- 
1960s because of its apparent inactivity, she now rejoined the movement. 
Through the advice office she came face-to-face with the grim reality of the 
region: the poverty, violence, political impotence and anger of the black 

As her reputation as a person who listened to problems grew, Blackburn 
was approached by numerous black groups to represent their interests— as was 
the case with the residents of the Lingelihle township near Cradock when 
Matthew Goniwe requested her in September 1983 to enquire officially into the 
structuring of rent, and to advise them on the procedures for forming a civic 

There were few whites in public life who were as trusted and respected in 
the black community as Blackburn. ‘Mama Molly’, as she was known, was a 
familiar sight at political rallies and funerals. It was Blackburn, together with 
Di Bishop, a colleague in the Cape Provincial Council and a member of the 
Black Sash, who first drew the attention of the council to the critical situation 
in areas such as Cradock where, in their judgment, the black community had 
been alienated by the insensitive actions of officialdom. As early as 1983 
Blackburn warned that the status of the police as law-enforcement officers was 
being undermined in these troubled communities. In an article in The Cape 
Times in May 1984 she warned that whites visiting black townships were no 
longer greeted by friendly waves, but by skinny arms raised in a clenched-fist 

Thanks largely to the efforts of Molly Blackburn and Di Bishop, supported 
by a number of PFP members of parliament, an initially reluctant National 
Party government agreed to the establishment of a commission of inquiry into 
the incident of police shootings at Langa township near Uitenhage on 21 March 
1985 (the Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Incident which Occurred 
on 21 March 1985 at Uitenhage, chairperson D.D.V. Kannemeyer). The 
Kannemeyer Commission report, arguably the most important inquiry since the 
investigation into the 1976 Soweto disturbances, was a tribute to Blackburn’s 


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determined campaign to establish the truth surrounding that tragic episode. 

The authorities in the Eastern Cape and the Cape Provincial Council, 
dominated by the National Party, rapidly came to regard Blackburn as a trouble 
maker. Her insistent questioning and criticism of police and development board 
action aroused their wrath. Even some of her political colleagues, schooled in 
traditional liberal opposition politics, resented her confrontationist approach. 
Her work was also not without risk. On a number of occasions she faced 
criminal charges as a result of her activities, as in July 1985 when she was 
arrested for attending a commemorative service for black leaders in Zwide, 
Port Elizabeth. Anonymous death threats, intimidation and harassment were a 
constant burden to bear. 

On 28 December 1985 Molly Blackburn, her sister, Judy Chalmers, Di 
Bishop and her husband Brian who was a leader in the Civil Rights League, 
were driving back to Port Elizabeth after a day spent in Bongolethu township, 
Oudtshoom. On a straight section of the road near Humansdorp the car, driven 
by Brian Bishop, was involved in a collision with another vehicle. Blackburn, 
Bishop and the driver of the other car were killed. Blackburn’s death stunned 
and saddened many South Africans from all race groups who shared her 
commitment to interracial justice and admired her courage in forging links 
across the colour bar. Her funeral was attended by an estimated 20 000 people, 
an indication of her remarkable relationship with the black communities with 
whom she worked so tirelessly. 

Dr G. Blackburn, Port Elizabeth: Molly Blackburn private collection; — Centre for African 
Studies Library, University of Cape Town: M. Blackburn newspaper file; — Obituary: The 
Cape Times, 30 December 1985; — K. spink. Black Sash: the beginnings of a bridge in 
South Africa. London, 1991. 

BODASING, Babu (*Gosheekigurh, Agra district of Northern India, c. 1853— 

fDurban, 15 November 1919), also known as Dulel 
Sing Boodhasing, colonial number 8726, was a 
prominent sugar cane farmer and landowner on the 
Natal north coast. The family belonged to the Raj- 
put or military caste. 

Bodasing arrived in Natal on the immigrant ship 
Enmore 1 which sailed from Calcutta on 1 August 
1874 and arrived at Port Natal on 1 September 
1874. He was the second son in a poor family of 
seven children and he became an indentured immi- 
grant for purely economic reasons. He gave the 
name of his mother, Kissonee Boodhasing, as his 
nearest relative. Nothing is known about his per- 
sonal appearance except that, like most of his generation of Indian indentured 
immigrants, he was short— his height is recorded as 5 foot 2 inches (about 
157,48 cm). How much schooling he had is not known, although he was 
literate and obviously had come from an agricultural background and under- 
stood both the value of land and how best to utilize it. 


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Immediately after his arrival he was indentured to the New Guelderiand 
estate at Groutville on the north coast. The estate, one of the largest in Natal, 
had been established by T.C. Colenbrander* but he was declared bankrupt in 
1 870; in 1 874 when Bodasing arrived it was in the hands of the Glasgow and 
Natal Sugar Company. However, by 1880 the estate was insolvent again and in 
1882 it was taken over by a Matthews, Ash and Stewart. This estate was 
exceptionally well equipped with milling equipment and machinery necessary 
to refine sugar for export. Bodasing was allocated to the sugar milling section 
and spent the entire period of his indenture there, first as a labourer and then, 
as his leadership qualities were recognized, as a sirdar (a title indicating rank 
or leadership). He thus had the opportunity to learn all aspects of the sugar 

Throughout his time as an indentured worker he saved every penny he 
could from his wages. In addition he kept back some of his rations each week 
and sold them to his fellow workers who had families to feed. With the money 
he accumulated he hired a piece of land adjoining the estate and, working in 
his spare time, planted it with mealies, ground nuts, tobacco and vegetables, 
selling the harvest to supplement the rations provided to indentured labourers. 
As a result of this industry and initiative he found himself in the position to 
buy land in the Nonoti district (in the vicinity of the Nonoti River to the north 
of Stanger) as soon as his contract expired. (The contract was for a five-year 
period. Thereafter the worker was given an option of serving another five years 
for a free passage back to India, or obtaining his freedom. It is assumed 
Bodasing did not renew his contract, but chose the last option.) 

From the outset he planted sugar cane. To raise the capital he entered into 
an equal partnership agreement with a Hollander named Frikson. Bodasing 
ploughed back all profits into the farm, buying more land as the opportunity 
arose. His next venture was in the vicinity of Dotana Beach near Stanger where 
he again planted sugar cane. Next he acquired land in the Groutville area not 
far from New Guelderiand. In bad times he was able to survive because he 
never overextended his resources and in good times he used his profits thriftily. 
By 1900 he owned several thousand acres under cane, and three acres at 
Tugela, used for stock farming. By this time he was undoubtedly the largest 
Indian landowner in Natal and the first independent Indian sugar farmer. He 
dreamed of opening his own sugar mill but died before he could do so. 

With his farming activities established, he began to buy property in Durban 
and in towns along the north coast, opening trading stores on several of the 
sites although his main investment was in residential property. He eventually 
built a large house on his New Guelderiand property which he named Delhi. 
Bodasing was aware of the value of education and began to interest himself in 
schools for Indian children and for his workers. The first school was opened 
for workers on his New Guelderiand farm. His sons continued his educational 
work after his death and in 1929 the school was moved to the original 
Bodasing farm house and named the New Guelderiand Government Aided 
Indian school. Bodasing was also ahead of his time in providing housing for his 
workers and taking an interest in their welfare. 

Bodasing was a staunch Hindu, interested in cultural activities relating to his 


people, and a firm believer in Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence. 

Bodasing apparently married a young Indian girl named Lukkia on board 
ship on the voyage from Calcutta. Her father was recorded as Subnath (colonial 
number 7490). Lukkia’s parents were of the Chhattri or warrior/land-owning 
caste of Northern India and as Chhattri is given as synonym for Rajput the 
bride was of a caste similar to Bodasing’s— an important fact in the India of the 
time. Nine children— five sons and four daughters— were bom of the marriage. 
Bodasing and his wife died in the same year, she in June and he in November. 
A note in the death register states that he was probably the wealthiest Indian- 
born man in Durban, with extensive property holdings in Stanger. 

Natal Archives, Pietermaritzburg: Indian Immigration Papers, 1.1; — Documentation 
Centre, University of Durban-Westville, Durban: Unpublished study on the Bodasing family 
by S.J. Bodasing; — Department of Home Affairs, Durban: Indian Shipping Lists, Calcutta 
vol. B; Indian Immigration (Colonial) Registers; Indian Death Register, 1919-1921; — The 
South African Indian who 's who anti commercial directory, 1938, 1939, 1960. Pietermaritz- 
burg, 1938, 1939, 1960; — R.F. osborn, Valiant harvest: the founding of the South African 
Sugar Association. Durban, 1964; — The Bodasings: pioneers in sugar. Fiat Lux, 16<9), 
November 1981; — Private information: Mr P. Bodasing (grandson). New Guelderland. 

BOXALL, Dorothy Ruth (*King William’s Town, 19 July 1 895— tJohannes- 

burg, 23 December 1951), music teacher and lec- 
turer, writer and organizer of orchestral activities 
for the youth, was a daughter of William Percival 
and Augusta Boxall. 

Boxall matriculated at Jeppe High School, Johan- 
nesburg, and won a scholarship to study music. 
From school she proceeded to the Johannesburg 
Training College to train as a teacher. After com- 
pleting the Diploma in Music as well as the UTLM, 
LTCL and FTCL diplomas, she enrolled for the 
B.Mus. degree at the University of the Witwaters- 
rand, Johannesburg. She studied under Prof. P.R. 
Kirby* who had started the Department of Music at 
the university in 1921 , and obtained the degree with distinction— thus becoming 
the first South African to obtain this degree at the University of the Witwaters- 

In 1926 Boxall joined the staff of Robert Pritchard’s studio as lecturer in 
music history, and then taught at Maude Harrison's conservatoire until 1930 
when she opened her own studio with Clarice Greenstone. In addition she 
taught at various schools on the Reef, including the girls’ high schools of 
Parktown and Jeppe, while she was also organizer of music at the Rosettenville 
Junior Government School. In 1934 she was appointed lecturer in music at the 
Johannesburg Normal College, a position she retained for seventeen years. 
Boxall twice won gold medals for solo piano playing and frequently gave 
recitals for the Johannesburg Musical Society. 

Boxall believed that music was essential in every child's education. 


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Maintaining that "everyone can sing" she encouraged children’s active 
participation in music through singing or performing on musical instruments. 
In working among children from all sections of the community she dedicated 
her life to promoting and encouraging talent among the less privileged. 

In her spare time she scored music for percussion bands. In 1932 she 
announced Saturday afternoon classes for children in percussion instruments 
and musical appreciation. However, it was not until 1945 that she realized her 
ambition to form a children’s orchestra. Recruited from her percussion bands 
the little orchestra rehearsed every Saturday morning in the Johannesburg 
Teacher’s Training College and in April 1946 the Young Citizen’s Orchestra 
gave its first concert. Early members of this orchestra included Alex Murray 
who became a member of one of London’s leading orchestras, Derek Ochse, 
senior lecturer at the University of the Orange Free State, and Peggy Haddon, 
senior lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand. 

Her love of choral work and her ambition to include less privileged children 
materialized in October of the same year when she directed a choir of 1 000 
children, accompanied by the children’s orchestra. In 1947 a mass choir sang 
under her direction at the Zoo Lake during the British royal family’s visit. 
Boxall was presented with a gold medal by Their Majesties for her educational 
work in music. By 1950 the Children’s Festival had become an annual event 
including not only the mass choir and the Young Citizen’s Orchestra, but also 
a percussion band, a recorder band and the percussion band of St Vincent’s 
School for the Deaf. 

Devoting all her spare time to outside activities connected with music, she 
served on the executive council of the Johannesburg Music Society; acted as 
adjudicator at both the then European and Coloured Eisteddfods; was a member 
of the Music Committee of the Teachers’ School Music Association; served on 
the Research and Education Committee of the South African Society of Music 
Teachers; and was twice chairwoman of the Witwatersrand University Musical 
Society. A regular contributor on music to Die boervrou, she also-had articles 
published in the South African music teacher , the Transvaal educational news, 
The Sunday Times and The Star. 

Her ultimate aim was to embrace all the arts in her movement. Accordingly 
in 1949 the Johannesburg Junior Orchestra and Theatre was launched. A year 
later, in 1950, this was followed by the first Annual Play Festival for schools 
and colleges. In co-operation with a Mr Woodhouse, organist of the St Mary’s 
Cathedral and later of the Mayfair Anglican Church, Boxall organized the first 
South African Carols by Candlelight at the Zoo Lake. In 1951, the year of her 
death, she established the Witwatersrand College of Music whose new 
approach to music teaching ensured that children learnt to play instruments for 
which they were psychologically suited. 

In her will Boxall left a trust for the Dorothy Boxall Bursary for Music to 
be awarded annually to a child in the Johannesburg municipality for teaching 
and training in music. Unfortunately this bursary was only awarded two or 
three times; since about 1960 no award has been made. 

The year after her death the Children’s Music Festival Society, the 
Transvaal School Music Association and the Johannesburg Junior Orchestra and 


Theatre merged to become the Dorothy Boxall Young People’s Music and 
Drama Movement. This group held a memorial concert for her in September 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 184/52; — W.H.K., The arts in South Africa. 
Durban, [1934]; — Obituaries: The Star, 24 December 1951; Transvaal educational news, 
January 1952; The South African music teacher, 42, June 1952; — J.P malan (ed.). South 
African music encyclopedia, I. Cape Town, 1979. 

BROCK, John Fleming (Jack) (*Port Elizabeth, 27 March 1905— tCape 

Town, 3 July 1983), scientist, physician and 
teacher, was educated at Grey School, Port Eliza- 
beth, and at the University of Cape Town (UCT). In 
1925 he proceeded to Oxford University, England, 
as a Rhodes Scholar. After qualifying as physician 
in 1931, Brock served at the London Hospital, Eng- 
land as intern, registrar and research assistant. 
While he was Leverhulme Research Fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians of London from 1932 
to 1934, he spent a year at the Thorndike Memorial 
Laboratory, Boston City Hospital, United States of 
America (USA), studying the relationship of iron 
deficiency to hypochromic anaemia. In 1934 he was 
appointed first medical assistant at the then Postgraduate Medical School and 
Hammersmith Hospital, London. After the D.M. degree of Oxford was 
conferred on him in 1935 he left for Cambridge as assistant director of 
research in medicine. 

In 1938, the year in which he became Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians (London), Brock was appointed professor of the practice of 
medicine at UCT and joint head of the Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur 
Hospital, a post in which he remained until 1953 when he became professor of 
medicine and head of the department. 

Brock excelled at research and administration. He first became involved in 
clinical nutrition in 1932, and his fundamental contributions regarding protein 
energy malnutrition and the relationship between diet and atherosclerosis were 
recognized throughout the world. He was a member of the South African 
Nutrition Council and its research committee, and a member of the National 
Advisory Committee on Nutrition and Research to the Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research (CSIR). In 1949 he became director of the CSIR/UCT 
Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, as well as a member of the nutrition panel of 
the World Health Organization (WHO). He was appointed as a WHO consul- 
tant in 1950, and his monograph with M. Autret entitled Kwashiorkor in Africa 
was published as a WHO special report in 1952. In 1959 he presented the 
Humphrey Davy Rolleston lectures to the Royal College of Physicians in 
London, and read a paper at the Tenth Anniversary Symposium of the Ciba 
Foundation, entitled Significant trends in medical research. In 1960 he was 
invited to contribute to the international symposium on Humanity and subsis- 


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tence organized by Nestis and chaired a panel on protein and amino acids at 
the Fifth International Nutrition Congress in Washington. In 1961 he was 
awarded the Silver Medal of the Medical Association of South Africa for 
distinguished research. A textbook entitled Recent advances in human nutrition 
which he edited was published in 1961. In 1962 he became chairperson of the 
WHO Expert Committee on the Medical Assessment of Nutritional Status. In 
1963 he was invited to the Ciba Foundation Symposium on the biological 
future of man and the Sixth International Nutrition Congress in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and was guest of honour at the Ciba Foundation Study Group on Diet 
and Bodily Constitution. In 1964 he attended, by invitation, the hundreth 
anniversary of the Boston City Hospital and the fortieth anniversary of the 
Thorndike Memorial Laboratory. In 1966 he was guest lecturer of the 
American College of Physicians, which elected him an honorary Fellow. In 
1967 he was visiting professor at the Department of Nutrition Sciences, at 
Berkeley University, California, USA. From 1959 to 1970 he was a Fellow of 

The development of the Department of Medicine at UCT reveals ample 
evidence of Brock’s skill as an administrator. On assuming the chair of 
medicine, he found himself in charge of an embryonic unit, which although its 
teaching and patient care were solid, was lacking in research and could not 
fully qualify as an academic department. Thirty-two years later he left a 
department which had established itself as a centre of excellence, not only for 
patient care and for teaching, but also recognized throughout the world for the 
high standard of its clinical and fundamental research. In 1938 the department 
was housed in a comer of what is now the third-year block, but by 1970 it 
occupied four floors of the Falmouth Building for which he himself had raised 
the funds. The number of staff members had increased markedly as had the 
number of publications. In 1938 there were less than five publications, while 
in 1970 there were 155. 

Brock served on the council of the College of Medicine of South Africa 
from 1956 to 1971, was president from 1965 to 1968 and was awarded a 
Fellowship of the college honoris causa in 1971. After 1970 he was made 
emeritus professor of medicine by UCT as well as honorary professor of the 
history and philosophy of medicine. He was awarded honorary D.Sc. degrees 
by the University of Natal and UCT. In 1971 he was Croonian Lecturer of the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. On 30 December 1972 the South 
African medical journal devoted an entire issue to him in recognition of the 
services he had rendered. 

He stressed the importance of study and critical judgement in all medical 
practice and education; the individual patient as a member of a family and a 
community; and finally compassion. 

In 1933 Brock married Ruth M. Lomberg of Somerset West. They had two 
sons and two daughters. His son David occupied the chair of genetics at the 
University of Edinburgh in Scotland. 

j.h. louw, In the shadow of Table Mountain. Cape Town, 1969; — Prof. Brock kry nog ’n 
toekenning. Hoofitad , 23 Maart 1971; — Prof. J.F. Brock. South African medical journal 


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46(52), 30 December 1972; — Obituary: The Argus, 4 July 1983; South African medical 
journal 64(7), 13 August 1983; — R. KIRSCH a c . KNOX, UCT Medical School at 75. Cape 
Town, 1987; — j.d.L. Hansen, John Fleming Brock. Journal of nutrition, 117, November 

BUDD, Raymond Francis (Ray) (*Mowbray, Cape Town, 9 June 1910— Ton- 

bridge Wells, London, England, 14 August 1974), 
trade unionist, was the only child of Robert Budd 
and his wife Ada Lea. His father, originally from 
England, was in the printing trade. Budd was edu- 
cated at Rondebosch High School and the Technical 
College, both in Cape Town. He served his appren- 
ticeship in Cape Town as a fitter at the Salt River 
Workshops of the South African Railways and also 
at Table Bay Harbour. 

Budd joined the Cape Town branch of the Amal- 
gamated Engineering Union (AEU) on 25 May 
1933, subsequently holding all branch offices except 
treasurer. He was a shop steward for seven years 
and took over from his father-in-law as honorary part-time district secretary of 
the Cape Town branch in 1943, a position he held until 1949 when he was 
elected as the first full-time chairperson of the South African Council of the 
union. He was re-elected to this position every three years thereafter until 26 
September 1960 when, under the new constitution whereby the AEU became 
a wholly South African union, he was appointed national chairperson, a posit- 
ion he held until his death. (Until 1960 the AEU was affiliated to the British 
AEU subject to the decisions of the executive council in England.) During the 
41 years of his association with the AEU Budd helped to build it into a power- 
ful organization. 

The AEU appointed Budd as their delegate to various joint trade union, 
mining and engineering committees. He served on the national executive 
committee and the standing committee of the Mechanics’ Unions’ joint 
executives; was vice-chairperson of the Mechanics’ Unions’ Joint Committee 
(Mines); served on the Mining Unions’ Joint Committee and the Explosives 
and Allied Industries Unions' Joint Committee; and as chairperson of the 
Federation of Mining Unions. He was also secretary of following three 

committees: the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Industry Unions' Joint Commit- 
tee, the Rand Water Board Unions’ Joint Committee, and the Electricity Supply 
Commission Unions’ Joint Committee. 

In the field of arbitration Budd was extensively co-opted and headed many 
teams that negotiated with employers' organizations. He served in various 
capacities in the National Industrial Council for the Iron, Steel, Engineering 
and Metallurgical Industry: as vice-chairperson of the executive cojnmittee, a 
member of the management, claims and investment committees, and as vice- 
president and president. 

The government made use of Budd’s talents on several apprenticeship com- 
mittees and on the National Apprenticeship Board and by appointing him to the 




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National Board for Sheltered Employment for Disabled Servicemen during the 
Second World War (1939-1945), the Commission of Enquiry into Compulsory 
Motor Vehicle Insurance in 1960, and the Economic Advisory Council to the 
Prime Minister. 

In the wider trade union arena, Budd was active in encouraging the co- 
operative organization of trade unions, first as president of the Cape Federation 
of Labour Unions (1946 to 1948), which became the Cape District Committee, 
and then the Western Province Local Committee of the South African Trades 
and Labour Council (SATLC). From 1949 to 1950 he was vice-president of 
SATLC and in 1954 served on the Unity Committee which endeavoured to 
oppose the Industrial Conciliation Bill put forward by the government over the 
issues of job reservation and the prohibition of mixed trade unions and the 
exclusion of black workers from the right to belong to a registered trade union. 
Although largely unsuccessful in these aims, the Unity Committee was able to 
form a new unified trade union body which became the Trade Union Council 
of South Africa (TUCSA). Budd served on TUCSA’s national executive 
committee, National Management Committee and Officers Committee, and as 
president from 1959 to 1961. In 1966 the AEU, a white trade union, disaffili- 
ated from TUCSA over job reservation and black membership and Budd was 
no longer closely associated with TUCSA. 

Budd’s trade union activities were not confined only to South Africa. He 
played an important part internationally. He represented the Mechanics’ 
Unions’ joint executives at the Metal Trades Committee of the International 
Labour Organization (ILO) held in Geneva in 1949, 1952, 1957 and 1960. At 
the 1957 session he was elected chairperson of the Workers’ Group on 
Automation Committee, and at the 1962 session as chairperson of the Workers’ 
Group that had to study any reactions by the government to previous decisions 
of the committee. He also served as an adviser to the Workers’ Delegate, South 
Africa at the 1952 session of the ILO. It was just after attending the twenty- 
third annual conference of the International Metalworkers Federation in 
Stockholm in 1974 that he fell ill in France, returned to London and died there 
in hospital. 

Budd was a man of high moral standards, illustrated by the fact that 
throughout his years as a full-time official of the AEU he refused to accept 
more than an artisan’s rate of pay. He was a reserved man but someone people 
turned to in times of trouble. Several factors made him a patient and skilful 
negotiator. These included his ability to see two sides of a question, his factual 
approach and his perfectionism which led him to prepare his case well. His 
hobbies were carpentry, gardening and wild life photography. 

On 5 November 1938 Budd married Eileen Mary Alexander. No children 
were born of the marriage. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 9053/74; — Library of the University of the Wit- 
watersrand, Johannesburg: Trade Union Council of South Africa Records; — a.m. cunnino- 
ham. Records of the Trade Union Council of South Africa. Part 2: 1955-1986. (The 
Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Historical and literary papers: Inventories of col- 
lections, 14); — i.l. walker & b. weinbren, 2000 casualties: a history of the trade unions 
and the labour movement in the Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1961; — Obituaries: 


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The Star, 15 August 1974; The Rarul Daily Mail, 16 August 1974; Metalworker, September 
1974; — r.m. imrie, A wealth of people: the story of the Trade Union Council of South 
Africa. Johannesburg, 1979; — Private information: Mrs E. Budd (wife), Johannesburg. 

BURNS, Abdol (*Cape Town, c. 1 838 — fCape Town, early June 1898, buried 

on 11 June 1898), Cape Muslim political leader, 
cab-driver, teacher. His father was probably a 
private soldier of Scottish origin and his mother of 
Cape Malay origin. It is not known whether he had 
brothers or sisters. Burns’s parents died when .he 
was a child and he was brought up by a Cape Dutch 
family who had employed his mother. Although he 
seems to have been a Muslim from birth, he was 
educated at St Stephen’s School, a Dutch Reformed 
Church mission institution. Later he was apprenticed 
to the saddlery trade. However, it is not clear if or 
for how long he practised this trade, because at 
some stage he was also a teacher before becoming a 
cab-driver— probably in the 1880s. 

Unlike many of his co-religionists, Bums was English-speaking and 
preferred pure Dutch to the ‘taaP (Cape Dutch or Afrikaans). He placed a high 
value on his British heritage and on education. He sent his children to church 
schools, two to the Catholic Marist Brothers’ College, and two to an English 
church school. The educational values which he espoused were derived from 
the Victorian social values of cleanliness and class, as he explained in his 
evidence to the Education Commission of 1891. Burns was also an active 
member of the Union Cricket Club, negotiating for land on Green Point 
common for Muslim cricketers. He was a supporter of the Empire League (or 
Imperial League, an association founded in Cape Town in September 1884 in 
opposition to the Afrikaner Bond and to show support for British expansionism 
in Southern Africa). 

Burns made his political debut in 1869 at a meeting organized by Prof. 
Roderick Noble* and Saul Solomon* to protest against the harsh amendments 
of the Masters and Servants Act. (This Act carried criminal sanctions for 
breach of contract or similar offences by a servant— a person employed for 
wages in agriculture, industry or domestic service.) He remained a supporter 
of Solomon, and Solomon’s newspaper. The Cape Argus, usually gave Burns 
a friendly mention, commenting in 1869 on the quality of his English and on 
his self-possession and intelligence. 

In the 1880s Burns apparently became increasingly involved in the affairs 
of the Cape Muslim community. He abandoned his career as a teacher to 
become a cab-driver. He began to describe himself as ‘Secretary to the Malay 
Community’ although he probably represented only a part of the community. 
This association with Muslim interests brought Burns into conflict with the 
Cape Town municipality and the colonial government. In 1882, during a major 
smallpox epidemic. Burns refused to allow his children to be removed to the 
isolation hospital, arguing before a Town Council meeting on 31 July 1882 that 


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religion was superior to the law. 

This standpoint led Burns to take a leading role in Muslim resistance to the 
closure of the Cape Town cemeteries in January 1886. (The Public Health Act 
of 1883 stipulated that burials in any cemetery or burial ground within the 
limits of any city, town or village should be discontinued; new cemeteries 
could only be established with consent of the governor of the Cape Colony. 
Between 1 884 and 1 885 several Government Notices regarding the closure of 
the cemeteries within the limits of the municipality of Cape Town were 
published.) Although other religious groups, particularly the Dutch Reformed 
Church, opposed the closure, only the Muslims resisted actively. On 17 
January 1886, after prolonged unsuccessful negotiations with the colonial 
government in which Bums played a prominent part, a riot occurred in Cape 
Town in which the police were attacked. Bums does not appear to have 
encouraged the riot, although he was probably present, but he was singled out 
as the chief offender and sentenced to two months’ hard labour and a £10 fine. 

Burns's political influence in the Muslim community waned after the 
cemetery riots— probably because the riots were unsuccessful and Bums had no 
permanent standing as religious leader in the Muslim community. He died in 
poverty in 1898 after he had been forced to sell his cab. 

During his lifetime and subsequently interpretations of Bums’s actions have 
been contradictory, some seeing him as a martyr while others have viewed his 
actions as wild or unrepresentative of Muslim interests. It is possible that these 
contradictions arose from his ambiguous position in colonial society in which 
the Victorian and liberal values which he had imbibed as a young man came 
into conflict with the fundamental beliefs of the Cape Muslim community in 
which religious practices clashed with modem sanitary reforms. In addition his 
position in Muslim society was tenuous since Bums lacked the status of a 
religious leader. His historical importance lies partly in. the way in which his 
life illustrated these paradoxes under colonialism. 

Burns married a Muslim woman in about 1867 in Somerset West. He had 
four children. 

Cape Archives, Cape Town: AG 2881-7, Preliminary examinations, 1.2.1886; G 9-1891, 
Report of the Education Commission ; — Obituary: The Cape Argus, 11 June 1898; - A. 
Davids, The mosques of Bo-Kaap: a social history of Islam at the Cape. Athlone, 1980; — 
a. Davids, The history of the Tana Baru: the case for the preservation of the Muslim cenuery 
/sic/ at the top of Longmarket Street. Cape Town, 1985; — M.A. bradlow, Islam, the 
colonial state and South African history : the 1886 cemetery rising. B.A. (Hons) thesis. 
University of Cape Town, 1985; — E.B. van heyningen. Public health and society in Cape 
Town, 1880-1910. Ph.D. thesis. University of Cape Town, 1990. 

BUTSHINGI, Makhwenkwe Harrison (*Engcobo, Transkei, 28 February 
1906— tOrlando West, Soweto, 28 February 1980), trade unionist and commu- 
nity leader. He was the second child of Valelo James Butshingi and his wife 
Angeline Nokwenjenje (nee Thuswa). Butshingi attended school at Cwecweni, 
situated between Engcobo and Idutywa in Transkei. He moved to Johannesburg 
in 1925 where he became an insurance company agent, and director of an 


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investment trust. However, by the 1940s he had 
become involved in trade unionism, although it is 
not known how or when this involvement came 

From 1941 to 1944 he was assistant secretary of 
the African Commercial and Distributive Workers 
Union which had a membership of 10 000. In 1944 
he was one of the delegates to represent the African 
Explosives Workers Union in a request for better 
conditions for the workers. From 1945 to 1953 he 
was a member of the Publishing and Newspaper 
Distributors African Workers Union. As secretary of the union he was involved 
in negotiations for improved wages and working conditions. An interim 
agreement was reached but the compensation granted to the Transvaal workers 
in 1947 were only valid until the end of June 1948. From June 1948 until his 
retirement from the union he remained involved in negotiations with the 

Butshingi was a very active member of the community and a keen athlete. 
He was president of the Dube Bowling Club and president of the South Africa 
African Cricket Board for an uninterrupted period from 1956 to 1970 when he 
relinquished the presidency of his own accord. He was a horse-racing enthusi- 
ast and spent some of his leisure time at the race course. 

He was involved in civic matters. He was a leader of the Orlando West 
Vigilance Association; a member of the defunct Urban Bantu Council before he 
became a Soweto City councillor; and vice-chairperson of the Joint Advisory 
Boards of Johannesburg. As a devout Christian he was an active member of the 
Bantu Methodist Church. He was also a member of the Church Connexional 
Trust Properties Committee, and of the synod of the Transvaal and Bechuana- 
land District Church. 

Butshingi died at his Orlando West home and was buried at the Avalon 
Cemetery on Saturday, 8 March 1980. He was survived by his second wife, 
Priscilla, and three children from his first marriage. 

Central Archives, Pretoria: ARB 4501, 1069-215; ARB 4783, 1183/12-47; ARB 4784, 
1183/12-47; — T.D.M. SKOTA (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated classified register 
and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. 
[Johannesburg, 1965]; — Obituary: Soweto news: the official journal of the Soweto Council, 
(3), 1980; — Private informaUon: Ms N.H. Butshingi (daughter), Soweto, Johannesburg; Mr 
W.J.P. Carr (ex-manager, Non-European Affairs Department of the City Council of Johan- 
nesburg), Johannesburg; Mrs E.B. Kwinana (friend), Orlando West, Soweto, Johannesburg; 
MrS.S. Mahlangu (ex-member, Pimville Advisory Board), Soweto, Johannesburg; MrS.P. 
Twala (assistant senior manager, Mofolo-Zondi Municipal Offices), Soweto, Johannesburg; 
Mr G. Xorile (friend), Orlando West, Soweto, Johannesburg. 


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CADDY, Beivjamin Jennings (Ben) (’“Ballarat, Australia, c. November 1881— 

(Johannesburg, 13 March 1955), trade unionist, was 
the second of the eleven children of James Caddy, 
a Comishman who emigrated with his parents to 
Australia in 1854. His mother was Mary Ann Jen- 
nings who married his father in 1866. 

Caddy was educated in Australia and came to 
South Africa in 1898 at the age of seventeen. Short- 
ly after his arrival the South African War of 1899 to 
1902 broke out and he served on the British side 
with the Western Province Mounted Rifles and later 
with the Johannesburg Mounted Rifles and the First 
Rand Rifles. 

A boilermaker by trade, Caddy joined the United 
Kingdom Boilermakers’ Society in 1904 and soon became actively involved, 
participating in the 1913 and 1914 general strikes. In 1916 he played a 
prominent part in helping to form the South African Boilermakers’, Iron and 
Steel Workers’, Shipbuilders’ and Welders’ Society, known in short as the 
Boilermakers’ Society. Two years later he was a delegate to the first trades 
union congress in Johannesburg and in 1920 he was elected general secretary 
of the Boilermakers’ Society. For the next 30 years, until he retired in 1950, 
he was to be closely associated with the society. 

In 1919 Caddy played a militant role as one of the Johannesburg municipal 
employees who seized control of the municipal services and formed a board of 
control to administer the town in the interests of the citizens. During the 1922 
strike he was present in the Trades Hall when it was raided by the police 
during the meeting of the Committee of Action and was arrested and 
imprisoned with other members of the committee. He was a member of the 
Transvaal Strike Legal Defence Committee, formed to provide legal defence 
for those indicted on the Witwatersrand for murder, treason, sedition and other 
felonies arising from the strike. 

Caddy served in many important committees and organizations. In 1924 he 
became a member of the Mining Industry Apprenticeship Committee and in 
1 929 he attended the International Labour Organization Conference in Geneva 
as adviser to W.H. (Bill) Andrews*, a prominent labour leader. Caddy helped 
to form the Mining Unions' Joint Committee and served as chairperson from 


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1939 to 1951. Other organizations which he helped to found were the South 
African Trade Union Assurance Society (later TRADUNA) of which he 
became vice-chairperson, and the South African Trade Union Building Society 
of which he became chairperson. He was South Africa's delegate to the 
International Labour Organization Metal Trade Committee's Conference in 
Stockholm and Geneva in 1947 and 1949, and in 1951 he became deputy 
chairperson of the Mine Employees’ Pension Fund. 

The South African government utilized his abilities on various boards and 
committees. Caddy strongly supported South Africa’s participation in the 
Second World War (1939-1945) and from 1940 to 1945 he served on the 
Munitions Production Committee. He also served on the Manpower Control 
Board from 1942 to 1945. Other governmental boards on which he served were 
the Demobilisation Board, the Unemployment Insurance Board, the Citrus 
Board and the Union Tender Board. He was equally active in the Engineering 
Industrial Council. 

In the wider trade union movement Caddy was associated with several trade 
union federations: the South African Industrial Federation, the South African 
Trades Union Congress, and the South African Trades and Labour Council. 
Perhaps his most important contribution to the trade union movement was in 
1954 when he helped to found the Trade Union Unity Committee and became 
its chairperson. This committee was formed in response to the government’s 
attempt to amend the Industrial Conciliation Act of 1924. The proposed bill 
would have divided trade unions racially, brought about job reservation, and 
prevented African workers from joining registered trade unions. He chaired 
both the first and the second unity conferences which resulted from these 
events. In October 1954 he was elected honorary life president of the South 
African Trades Union Council, later renamed Trade Union Council of South 
Africa (TUCSA), which grew out of the unity movement. His tenure as 
president was brief as he died a few months later. 

Caddy was regarded as the doyen of the trade union movement in South 
Africa and was honoured with the Coronation Medal in 1953. He had a 
likeable personality, no false pride and a strong sense of humour. In June 191 1 
Caddy married Catherine Timmins in England and two daughters were born of 
the marriage. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 2023/55; — a.m. CUNNINGHAM, Records of the 
Trade Union Council of South Africa. Part II: 1955-1986 (Library of the University of the 
Witwatersrand, Historical and literary papers: Inventories of collections, 14); — South 
African who's who, 1952; — Obituaries: The Star, 14 March 1955; South African mining 
and engineering journal, 19 March 1955; — LL. walker a b. weinbren, 2000 casualties: 
a history of the trade unions and the labour movement in the Union of South Africa. Johan- 
nesburg, 1961; — N. herd, 1922: the revolt on the Rand. Johannesburg, 1966; — m. 
horrell, South Africa's workers. Johannesburg, 1969; — r.m. IMRIE, A wealth of people: 
the story of the Trade Union Council of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1979; — Private infor- 
mation: Mrs J. Caddy (wife), Johannesburg; MrG. Steward (colleague), Johannesburg; Mrs 
L.M. Lowsby, Victoria, Australia. 


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CALATA, James Arthur (*Rabula, near Keiskammahoek, 22 June 1895— 

tCradock, 16 June 1983), Anglican clergyman and 
African National Congress (ANC) leader, was the 
son of a Ngqika peasant farmer, James Calata, and 
his wife Eliza, who practised as a midwife. The 
family was Christian: Calata’s father, who had 
received no formal education, was a Presbyterian, 
while his mother who had reached Standard 4 at 
school, was an Anglican. 

Calata was educated at St Matthew’s College 
(Assamoah Kwame St Matthew's High School) at 

Keiskammahoek and later taught at the same college 

* as well as in Port Elizabeth. In 1921 he was 
ordained to the diaconate and was assistant at St 
Stephen’s mission in Korsten outside Port Elizabeth until his ordination to the 
priesthood in 1926. He worked at St Ninian’s mission in Somerset East for two 
years and then went to St James’ mission in Cradock in 1928 where he served 
until his retirement in 1968. He lived in the township of Lingelihle outside 
Cradock until his death and was buried there. 

A slight figure, never robust in health, Calata was a formidable organizer. 
St James’ mission served the entire Cradock district, as well as parts of the 
districts of Hofmeyr and Middclburg (Cape Province). The work of the mission 

expanded under his direction. Apart from running the main station, Calata trav- 
elled to many outstations, supervised the work of 30 lay preachers, and until 
the passing of the Bantu Education Act (1953), supervised six day schools, in- 
cluding one with over 500 pupils at Cradock. He was a faithful and diligent 
priest, maintained strict moral discipline and rigorously examined Anglicans in 
the Cradock district in their knowledge of the catechism. 

Calata advocated increased African participation in leadership positions in 
the Church of the Province of South Africa (the Anglican Church). In 1943 he 
was nominated for the vacant Bishopric of the Diocese of St John’s (Transkei) 
but was not elected. He played a significant role in synods and missionary con- 
ferences in the Diocese of Grahamstown and also in provincial organizations. 
In 1960 Calata was appointed to the Council of the Anglican College of the 
Federal Theological Seminary. He was a canon of Grahamstown cathedral from 
1961 to 1970, and an honorary canon from 1959 to 1961 and again from 1970 
until his death. 

Calata's political activities were rooted in his Christian faith: he believed 
that Christianity could only grow among Africans when their political, social 
and economic disabilities were recognized and ameliorated. He was an African 
nationalist with respect for traditional African leaders and a desire for African 
unity. At the same time, his approach was essentially liberal. He believed that 
political goals would be achieved by moderate appeals to government officials 
and through interracial co-operation, hence his participation in the multiracial 
Joint Council of Europeans and Bantu in the 1920s and 1930s, and his support 
for Margaret Ballinger*, who represented the Cape Eastern District as one of 
the African representatives in the South African parliament from 1938 to 1960. 


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Calata joined the ANC in 1930 when he led the Cradock Vigilance Associ- 
ation to become a branch of the ANC. In the same year he was elected presi- 
dent of the Cape branch of the ANC— a position he held until 1949. He was in- 
strumental in establishing a branch of the ANC in Port Elizabeth, later a 
stronghold of the movement. From 1936 to 1949 he was secretary-general of 
the ANC. 

When Calata took over as secretary-general under Pixley Seme who was 
then president, the ANC was virtually moribund. His efforts contributed 
substantially to the revival of the organization under the following two presi- 
dents— Z.R. Mahabane* (1937-1940) and A.B. Xuma* (1940-1949). The revi- 
val was a slow and painstaking process, with the financial situation of the 
organization and provincial differences the biggest problems. Mahabane and 
Calata visited all the provinces and helped solve local problems in branches of 
the organization. This nationwide tour served to revive the organization and 
younger people were drawn into the ANC which led to the formation of the 
Congress Youth League in 1943. 

By 1948 speeches by ANC leaders had become increasingly more militant. 
An element, represented by Calata, expressed the opinion that a way should be 
found to co-operate with the new National Party government towards the 
promotion of the welfare of the Africans. However, as secretary-general of the 
ANC he co-signed the Programme of Action in 1949 though he found the pro- 
posals of the younger militants too extreme. In 1949 Calata declined re-election 
as secretary-general of the ANC, citing as reasons his long service, many re- 
sponsibilities and the fact that he believed a younger man should be appointed 
to the position. 

As he did not retire from active politics he was banned from attending any 
gatherings at the time of the 1952 Defiance Campaign. The prohibition on 
ministering at church services was later withdrawn, but his marriage licence 
and permit to buy communion wine were cancelled. In October 1956 he 
chaired the conference on the Tomlinson Report (Report of the Commission for 
the Socio-Economic Development of the Bantu Areas) organized by the 
Interdenominational African Ministers’ Federation (IDAMF). A few weeks 
later, in December 1956, he was one of the 156 leaders charged with treason 
and was briefly imprisoned after his arrest. In 1962 Calata received a sus- 
pended sentence in terms of the Unlawful Organizations Act for possession of 
two photographs of ANC leaders that were more than 20 years old. Between 
1963 and 1968 he was restricted to the Cradock district. 

Calata belonged to several other organizations. For over 20 years after 
1938, he was president of the St Ntsikana Memorial Association, an interde- 
nominational organization founded in 1909 to honour the Xhosa prophet 
Ntsikana* and his contribution to the expression of Christianity in an African 
idiom. Calata also served as president of the IDAMF; he was divisional 
commissioner of the Cape Midlands Division of the Pathfinders, the African 
branch of the Scout movement; and he played a leading role in the Cape 
African Parents Association, formed as a result of outbreaks of violence in 
Eastern Cape mission schools in the 1940s. 

James Calata married Milltha Mary in 1918. Milltha Mary Calata had 


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obtained a Standard 6 certificate from St Matthew’s, and was later leader of the 
Mother’s Union of Loyal African Women in Cradock. Three daughters were 
born of this marriage. Calata’s grandson, Fort Calata, was chairperson of the 
CRADOYA youth group in Cradock. Fort was one of the four United 
Democratic Front leaders of Cradock who were killed near Port Elizabeth in 
1985— the other three were Matthew Goniwe, Sparrow Mkhonto and Sicelo 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Calata collection; — Library 
of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Archives of the Church of the 
Province of Southern Africa; — M. BENSON, The African patriots: the story of the African 
National Congress of South Africa. Chicago, 1963; — T. Karis & o.M. carter (eds), From 
protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 
4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — Obituary: Eastern Province Herald , 18 June 1983; — P. 
walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 
1912-1952. Cape Town, 1987; — J. butler, R. ELPHICK * D. WELSH (eds). Democratic 
liberalism in South Africa: its history and prospect. Cape Town, 1987; — F. meli. South 
Africa belongs to us: a history of the ANC. Harare, 1988; — K. spink, Black Sash: the 
beginnings of a bridge in South Africa. London, 1991 ; — Private information: Ms N. Calata 
(daughter), Lingelihle, Cradock. 

CALUZA, Reuben Tholakele (Thola) (*Siyamu, Kwa Caluza, Edendale, near 
■ Pietermaritzburg, 14 November 1895— tDurban, 5 
" March 1969), Zulu composer, choirmaster, lecturer 
in choral music, and businessman, was the only 
child of Mordecai Caluza and his wife (nee Nxele). 
He was the grandson of John Mlungumnyama Calu- 
za, the first choir conductor at Edendale and prob- 
ably the first Zulu to teach and sing from staff nota- 
tion. Caluza’s great-grandfather, Reuben Tuyu Ca- 
luza, was the first Wesleyan convert in South Afri- 

Caluza received his primary schooling at Presby- 
terian schools at Edendale. Impressed by Ohlange 
Institute after attending a concert given by their 
choir and brass band, Caluza’s father entered him there as a boarder in 1909 
for his secondary education. After his schooling he stayed on to teach from 
1915 to 1930, interrupted in 1918 and 1920 when he attended Mariannhill 
Training College. 

While a pupil at Ohlange Institute he played the organ for the Ohlange 
kindergarten classes (1909) and the following year he trained a male voice 
quartet. At the age of seventeen, in 1912, he tried his hand at composition with 
‘Silusapho Lwase Africa’ (We are the children of Africa) and at 20, when Lin- 
gard Bophela left the institute, he took over as choir conductor. Renowned for 
their holiday fund-raising tours, the choir were in Johannesburg when they 
heard the popular ‘Nkosi Sikelel ’ iAfrika’ by Enoch Sontonga*, and included 
it thereafter in their tour repertoire and popularized it. 

With a choir at his disposal, Caluza started composing in earnest and a 


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series of real choral concert hits followed. The songs described Zulu life and 
dignitaries such as the witch doctor (‘Izizwe Ezimnyama’, ‘Kwamadala’ and 
‘Isangoma’) or poked fun at the Zulu men in their fashionable new trousers 
(Oxford bags). His song describing the busy streets of Durban (‘Ixegwana’) 
was sung by the Mariannhill College Choir at a concert in the Durban City 
Hall in 1921. Twenty-seven of these songs were published by Lovedale Press 
in Amagama Ohlange Lakwe Zulu (Book of Zulu Songs) which sold a record 
1 000 copies in six months. 

In 1930 Caluza took a group of four male and six female Zulu singers to 
England on invitation of His Master’s Voice Gramophone Company. At the 
company’s studios in Hayes, Middlesex, they recorded 150 songs: 45 of 
Caluza's compositions, 30 of his own Zulu folk song arrangements and 75 
traditional Zulu folk songs. The singers returned to South Africa but Caluza 
ventured on to Virginia in the United States of America where he took a four- 
year B.A. Music Education degree at Hampton Institute. The compositions 
submitted for his degree were two instrumental works: ‘Rondo for orchestra’ 
and ‘Reminiscences of Africa’. While there he formed a quartet of West 
African fellow students. Zulu folk songs were included in the folk song concert 
tour of the quartet. 

From Hampton Institute he proceeded to Columbia University in New York 
where he read for an M.A. degree in music education. He submitted two string 
quartets, one based on his own song ‘Ricksha’ and the other on the spiritual 
‘Go down Moses’. These instrumental works influenced his later choral works 
(such as ‘U Tokoloshe’) in their increased chromatic melodic movement and 
modulation into related keys. 

Caluza finally returned to Natal in 1936. When Albert Luthuli* left Adams 
College (Amanzimtoti Zulu Training College) at Amanzimtoti in that year, 
Caluza took over as head of music. Caluza remained there for ten years. He 
taught music, trained and conducted the choir, recorded with them and took 
them on annual concert tours of the country. Their repertoire included Zulu 
folk songs and his own compositions. 

Adams College was the centre for an annual winter agricultural show 
started by Mr and Mrs Hosken who were attached to Adams Mission. The 
highlight of this show was an interchoral competition at which the annual 
compositions of the two Zulu composers William Mseleku and Caluza, 
composed for the competition, were performed. Caluza’s compositions were 
strongly influenced by ragtime and humour. 

In 1947 Caluza left the college, disgruntled with his ‘graduate’ salary, and 
went into business. His Sizananjana Trading Store at Edendale became the head 
office for two similar stores, the Hhemuhhemu Trading Store at Pietermaritz- 
burg and the Nkumba Store at Bulwer. The Ngoya Bottle Store later also 
became part of the chain. Also in 1947 he bought a passenger bus which 
travelled between places like Underberg, Ondini, Lotheni, Ndawane and Sani 

When the University College of Zululand (Ngoya) was established in 1959 
he returned to academic life as part-time lecturer in choral music to initiate the 
course. He was there for some years until ill health, caused by diabetes, forced 


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him to retire. 

Caluza married a Miss Nxaba. They had no children of their own but 
adopted three sons. He died in the King Edward Hospital in Durban and was 
buried in Empangeni. 

Caluza left an indelible imprint on Zulu choral composition through his own 
works, his students, and his stalwart promotion of the Zulu folk song. His 
songs deplored the neglect of their families by Zulu men working in Johannes- 
burg, and decried anything that defied Zulu norms. A list of Caluza's composi- 
tions appears in South African music encyclopedia, I (infra). 

Natal Archives, Pietermaritzburg: 1/BLR 4/3/12, N2/4/3/33; — owayekhona, Ezase 
Nkumba: ibasi entsha yo Mnu. R.T. Caluza. Ilanga lose Natal, 3 May 1947; — Obituary: 
U-R.T. Caluza useshonile. Ilanga lose Natal ; — Ufihlwe yiningi uR.T. Caluza. Ilanga lose 
Natal, 22 March 1969; — Y. HUSKISSON, Bantu composers of Southern Africa. Johannesburg, 
1969; — j.p. malan (ed.). South African music encyclopedia, l. Cape Town, 1979; — Y. 
HUSKISSON, Bantu composers of Southern Africa: supplement. Pretoria, 1983; — S.M. DU 
RAND, From mission school to Bantu education: a history of Adams College. M.A. thesis. 
University of Natal, 1990; — Private information: Mr Emmanuel Caluza (cousin-brother), 
Edendale, Pietermaritzburg. 

CHAMPION, Allison Wessels George (*Sans Souci Mission Station at Non- 

yeke, near Groutville, Stanger district, 4 December 
1893— tChesterville, Durban, 28 September 1975), 
trade union leader, politician and businessman, was 
the youngest son of George Champion and his 
second wife, Nomazembe Cele, the daughter of an 
induna of the Cele people. Champion’s parents were 
Christian Zulus. The family name Champion was 
derived from an American missionary, the Rev. 
George Champion*, who adopted Champion’s father 
and educated him. The original family name was 

Champion (Jr) received his first education at the 
missionary schools at San Souci and Fairview. From 
1910 he continued with his high school career at Amanzimtoti Institute (later 
known as Adams College and then as Amanzimtoti Zulu Training College). 
However, in September 1913, prior to completing his Standard 7 year, he was 
expelled due to disciplinary problems. Apparently he expressed resentment at 
being taught by student teachers, and assaulted a boy who had humiliated him 
in front of other boys. Champion probably had eight or nine years of school- 
ing. He then joined the South African Police and in November 1913 began 
working as a policeman in Cleveland, a small town (now a suburb) between 
Jeppe in Johannesburg, and Germiston. After a year Champion was transferred 
to Dundee in Natal where he was a special branch investigator and acted as 
interpreter in the charge office of the Dundee Police Station. 

As policeman his most outstanding achievement was the formation of a 


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policemen’s union which worked for the equal treatment of African policemen. 
He ascribed his resignation from the force in 1916 to the fact that he was 
uncomfortable in a career where he sometimes had to witness the maltreatment 
of Africans and on occasion had to spy on his own people, as well as to his 
mother’s discouraging him from working against his own people. 

He returned to the Witwatersrand where he held a number of jobs. He 
worked in several stores; was a time-keeper assistant at the Roodepoort United 
Gold Mining Company; for a few months tried his luck as a diamond digger at 
the diggings near Taung; went into a butchery business with the assistance of 
Richard Mdima around 1918; and in 1920 started working at Crown Mines as 
a clerk. In the same year he was elected president of the newly formed 
Transvaal Native Mine Clerks Association which agitated for higher wages and 
the improvement of working conditions. He now became a prominent spokes- 
person for African workers; a member of the liberal Gamma Sigma Club, a 
social and debating society founded in 1918; a member of the multiracial Jo- 
hannesburg Joint Council of Europeans and Bantu after it was founded in 1921 ; 
and a member of the multiracial executive committee of the elite organization, 
the Bantu Men’s Social Centre, when it was founded in 1924. 

In 1925 Champion was persuaded by Clements Kadalie*, leader and 
founder of the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU) to accept the 
full-time position of secretary of the Transvaal branch of the union when the 
ICU moved its headquarters from Cape Town to Johannesburg. A few months 
later Champion was transferred to Natal where, under his dynamic leadership, 
the Durban branch of the ICU became the most powerful and enthusiastic 
branch of the union. During this period he built a reputation as an active 
opponent of the oppressive laws of the Durban municipal system. Between 

1925 and 1928 he successfully used the courts to challenge a number of laws 
such as the nine o’ clock curfew, the prohibitions on Africans renting rooms 
and engaging in trade in town, the ending of the system whereby Africans 
could be tried in batches for the same offences, and the ‘dipping* (devermina- 
tion) of African workers. Although these victories were short lived (the 
prohibitions were either reinstated or followed by others), they rendered 
Champion and the ICU visible and increasingly popular. 

Next to Kadalie Champion was the most influential person in the ICU. By 

1926 the ICU ideology turned away from communism. This can be attributed 
to the influence of liberals with whom leaders like Champion came into 
contact. Towards the end of 1926, with increasing tension between the 
Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party 
(SACP) after 1953) and the ICU, Champion played an important role in the 
split between the two organizations and the expulsion of union leaders who 
refused to resign from the CPSA. In 1927 Champion acted as national 
organizing secretary of the ICU during Kadalie’s visit to Europe. 

Kadalie increasingly feared Champion as a threat to his leadership and this 
contributed to Champion’s suspension from the union in April 1928 on account 
of alleged financial malpractices. The end result was that the Durban branch of 
the ICU and its Natal affiliates broke away to form the ICU yase Natal under 
the leadership of Champion. The involvement of Champion and the ICU yase 

Natal in the Durban beer boycott and the accompanying violence of 1929 to 
1930 is usually quoted as the reason for his expulsion from Natal under the 
Riotous Assemblies (Amendment) Act of 1930. However, Champion’s over- 
tures to the Zulu royal family and chiefs played a significant role in his 
banning order. He met the Zulu king Solomon KaDinuzulu* in August and 
September 1930. The state saw this as a threat since it was interpreted as a sign 
of approval of the ICU yase Natal by the most important traditional leader of 
the Zulus. Champion settled in Johannesburg and was only allowed to return to 
Durban after three years. While in Johannesburg and after his return to 
Durban, he was a key figure in the establishment of the freehold township of 
Clermont in the Pinetown magisterial district. By the time he returned- to 
Durban the ICU yase Natal had declined to a negligible organization although 
Champion continued to lead an organization of the same name in Durban for 
several years after 1933. 

Champion was an active member of the African National Congress (ANC). 
During the ANC presidency of J.T. Gumede* (1927-1930) Champion was a 
member of the executive. While Pixley Seme was president of the ANC 
(1930-1937) Champion lost his position in the congress but was re-elected to 
the executive in 1937 and remained a member until 1951. In the struggle 
against Gen. J.B.M. Hertzog's* segregation legislation of 1936 he also served 
on the executive of the All- African Convention. In 1942 Champion was elected 
to the Native Representative Council (NRC) and represented rural Natal until 
the council was dissolved in 1951. In this period he was one of the most 
outspoken NRC members against the South African racial policy. The rivalry 
between John Dube* and Champion for the leadership in Natal came to an end 
in 1945 when the latter was elected provincial president of the ANC with the 
aid of Henry Msimang* and Jordan Ngubane. A.B. Xuma* who was then 
president of the ANC, drew Champion into closer co-operation, even appoint- 
ing him acting president-general from 1945 to 1946 while Xuma was abroad. 
During this period - Champion exerted a conservative influence on the ANC. 
Through this conservatism and circumspection, as well as his Zulu particular- 
ism, but especially his authoritarian style, he brought upon himself the anger 
of the militant and influential ANC Youth League. Consequently the league 
played a prominent role in his defeat against A.J. Luthuli* (later president- 
general of the ANC) for the Natal presidency in 1951. 

After 1951 Champion concentrated on local advisory board politics, urban 
Bantu councils, and his numerous business affairs which included the running 
of a general store in Chesterville township in Durban and a mail order herb 
business. Many of his political initiatives in the late 1950s and early 1960s 
were aimed at securing the business interests of an emerging African middle 
class. He also became closely involved with prominent African entrepreneurs 
such as E.T. Tshabalala on the Witwatersrand. Champion was an influential 
and conservative figure who strove for the consolidation of Zulu nationalism; 
from 1935 he was virtually constantly involved in attempting to ally himself 
with the Zulu monarchy. He was a proponent of Zulu self-government in terms 
of the Promotion of Bantu Self Government Act of 1959. By 1961 he was 
serving on the Zulu king Cyprian KaDinuzulu’s* Urban Royal Council in 



Although Champion was regarded as militant during the 1920s and 1930s 
he was a pragmatist who held the opinion that Africans had to increase their 
struggle against white domination gradually and that they had to utilize all 
structures in this process. He furthermore believed that Africans must gain 
economic and money power and wield this to gain political power. Neverthe- 
less, the younger and more militant Africans condemned him as an opportunist 
and sympathizer with apartheid. It was, however, Champion’s complex 
personality which damaged his prestige most. He was a domineering, wily and 
fiery egoist who alienated people. He was often described as a ‘loner’, a 
difficult colleague who was at the same time unco-operative, quarrelsome and 
impulsive. Yet he always spoke out strongly against the tyranny, humiliation 
and discrimination that affected all blacks. His longevity meant that he was 
increasingly out of step with the times and political developments while his 
Zulu particularism strongly contrasted with the Africanism of the post- 1945 
period. Consequently little was left of his former prestige and influence at the 
time of his death. 

Among his numerous publications are the pamphlets The truth about the 
ICU (Durban, 1927?), Champion, Kadalie, Dube: three names (Durban, 
1928?), Mehlomadala: my experiences in the ICU (Durban, 1929) and Blood 
and tears: history of Durban native riots (Durban, 1929). In the 1960s he 
handled a column in the Ilanga lose Natal. Some of these articles were later 
published under the editorship of M.W. Swanson as The views of Mahlathi 
(Durban, 1982). 

Champion was married twice— in 1924 to Rhoda Dhlamini who died in 
1942 and in 1949 to Constance Gumede, the daughter of J.T. Gumede. From 
these marriages respectively six daughters and a son, and two daughters and a 
son were bom. 

Library of the University of South Africa, Pretoria: A.W.G. Champion, collection; — 
Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: A.W.G. Champion 
collection; — p. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African Na- 
tional Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — Obituary: The Zulu Voice (supplement to 
llange lose Natal), 4 October 1975; — T. karis a o.m. carter (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political 
profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — P.L. wickins, The Industrial and Commercial 
Workers’ Union of Africa. Cape Town, 1979; — M.w. swanson (ed.), The views of 
Mahlathi: writings of A. W.G. Champion, a black South African. Durban, 1982; — s. marks. 
The ambiguities of dependence in South Africa: class, nationalism, and state in twentieth- 
century Natal. Johannesburg, 1986; — H. Bradford, A taste of freedom: the ICU in rural 
South Africa, 1924-1930. Johannesburg, 1987; — P. la haussa, The message of warriors: 
the ICU, the labouring poor and the making of a popular political culture in Durban, 
1925-1930. In: P. BONNER et al. (eds), Holding their ground: class, locality and culture in 
19th and 20th century South Africa. Johannesburg, 1989; — s.M. DU RAND, From mission 
school to Bantu education: a history of Adams College. M.A. thesis. University of Natal. 
1990; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 


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CHRISTIAN, Africo (fl. c. 1737-1756), a Khoikhoi clan leader, probably of 
the Hessequa. Nothing is known of his early life, but by 1737 he was a wagon 
driver for the military cattle post of the Dutch East India Company at Zoete- 
melksvlei (Soetemelksvlei)— sometimes referred to as Zoetendalsvlei— on 
Zondereind River (River Sonderend or Riviersondereinde), called Kannakam- 
kanna by the Khoikhoi. 

In September 1737 Christian and a member of his clan, Kibido (or 
Kybbodo), transported the missionary Georg Schmidt* of the Moravian Church 
from the settlement at the Cape to the cattle post where Schmidt was to begin 
missionary work among the Khoikhoi. He immediately settled at Christian's 
dwelling-place at Hartebeestekraal (Oaks) approximately half an hour on foot 
from Zoetemelksvlei. According to Schmidt Christian was the only Khoikhoi 
in the region who had a permanent dwelling. Here Schmidt helped Christian 
with crop cultivation. Christian, who understood Dutch, served as interpreter 
for Schmidt. On 27 October 1737 Schmidt formally began teaching Christian, 
probably from a Dutch ABC Book. Christian’s example was soon followed by 
members of his clan. By November 1737 Schmidt reported that Christian had 
begun questioning him about aspects of the Christian faith. 

It would appear that Christian and his clan members soon identified with the 
missionary venture. In April 1738 they were persuaded by Schmidt to move 
further away from the cattle post which Schmidt considered to have a decadent 
influence. They now settled in a valley, Baviaanskloof, near Sergeants River. 
Here, at what would later become Genadendal, Christian built himself a clay 
hut, planted fruit trees, cultivated vegetables and wheat, and built more 
permanent kraals for his cattle. By 1739 he also possessed horses; Schmidt 
borrowed one on occasion to go about his task. 

With a few men from the valley, Christian was commissioned in August 
1739 to join the Botha commando for service on the northern border as conflict 
between the trekboers, Khoikhoi, San, bands of freebooters and deserters of the 
Dutch East India Company increased. In the vicinity of the present Niewoudt- 
ville one of Christian’s men was killed in a skirmish with the Khoikhoi. After 
his release from commando duties Christian apparently identified strongly with 
the colonial order and voluntarily participated in attempts to check Khoikhoi 
resistance in the Overberg. 

Christian’s relationship with Schmidt was not always harmonious, one of 
the reasons being Schmidt’s aversion to the use of alcohol and tobacco, and 
another reason possibly being the mistrust of the Europeans who tended to 
exploit the Khoikhoi. At the new settlement at Baviaanskloof Christian realized 
by April 1741 that Schmidt had a stronger hold over his former clan members 
than he himself did. This made Christian a more compliant follower of Schmidt 
and hastened Christian’s conversion to Christianity. On 2 April 1742 he 
became the first person to be christened at Baviaanskloof. The changing of his 
name from Africo to Christian that was effected there, points on the one hand 
to a break with the old and the acceptance of a new life and world-view; on the 
other hand it probably revered the founder of the Hermhutter religious 
community in Saxony, Germany, namely Christian David. 

The christening of Christian and four other Khoikhoi upset the colonists and 


church officials. On several occasions the Rev. F. lee Sueur* tested Christian 
and Willem Josua on their knowledge of the Christian faith. Their ability to 
read from the New Testament and their knowledge of the Bible surprised 
everybody. Schmidt was nevertheless prohibited from serving the sacraments, 
although he was allowed to continue his missionary work. This prohibition and 
Schmidt’s loneliness finally made him decide in October 1743 to return to 
Herrnhut in Germany. He left his estate and missionary flock in the care of 
Christian. By 1756 most of the original group had moved away with the 
exception of Christian and one Jonas. Both of them died about that time, 
probably from the smallpox epidemic that swept through the region. The 
missionary work at Baviaanskloof was only resumed in January 1793. 

Christian was married to Chamas. It is not known how many children he 
had though reference is made in Schmidt’s diary to several daughters and at 
least one son. When missionary work was resumed in 1793 a granddaughter of 
his was found to be among those who still cherished the memory of Georg 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

J.D. schreuder, Die opvoedkundige bedrywighede van die Morawiese Broederkerk onderdie 
kleurlinge in Suid-Afrika, 1737-1743; 1792-1950. D.Ed. thesis. Potchefstroom University for 
CHE, 1951; — b. krOger, The pear tree blossoms: the history of the Moravian Church in 
South Africa, 1737-1869. Genadendal, 1966; — H.C. bredekamp a j.l. hattingh (eds). Das 
Tagebuch und die Briefe von Georg Schmidt, dem ersten Missionar in SUdafrika, 1737-1744 
= Dagboek en briewe van George Schmidt, eerste sendeling in Suid-Afrika, 1737-1744. 
Bellville, 1981; — P.J. RABIE, 'n Sosictal-strukturele ontleding van gedragspatrone in 
Genadendal. D.Litt. et Phil, thesis. Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1984; — I. balie. Die 
geskiedenis van Genadendal, 1737-1988. Kaapstad & Johannesburg, 1988; — H.c. 
BREDEKAMP, Die verhouding tussen Africo Christian en George Schmidt, 1737-1744. 
Historia, 33(1), Mei 1988. 

CILLl£, Martha Helena (*Wellington, 22 April 1866— fSomerset West, 16 

March 1966), teacher and headmistress, was the 
daughter of Chari Daniel Cillid and his wife, 
Martha Helena Marais. G.G. Cillid*, one of the ten 
children in the family, became the first rector of the 
University of Stellenbosch, while another, P.J. 
Cillid*, made a valuable contribution to the develop- 
ment of fruit cultivation in South Africa. 

Cillid grew up on the farm Rhebokskloof and 
initially attended M.J. Stucki’s* school at Blauw- 
vallei. She subsequently attended the Wellington 
Huguenot Ladies’ Seminary, where she later also 
completed her training as a teacher. 

Her teaching career began at Blauwvallei in 
1888, when she temporarily stood in for someone else; in 1890 she held a 
similar post at this school. In 1891 she was appointed to teach Latin and Dutch 
at the Paarl Huguenot Ladies’ Seminary, a sister school of the Wellington 
Huguenot Ladies’ Seminary, which had been established on 25 February of the 


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previous year with Miss V.L. Pride as its first headmistress. During Miss 
Pride’s leave of absence in 1894 Cillid was appointed acting head. When Miss 
Pride returned Cillid became vice-headmistress of the school. On 1 April 1899 
she became the school’s first Afrikaans-speaking headmistress. 

Meanwhile consideration was being given to the possibility of placing the 
school under the administration of a board of trustees. However, since Cillid 
objected to the fact that the name of the school would be changed, this matter 
was not resolved until 1912, when the school property was transferred to a 
Paarl board of trustees on which Cillid also had a seat. At the same time she 
forwarded a proposal that the school be renamed the La Rochelle Girls’ High 
School. In September 1921 she retired from her position as headmistress, but 
continued to serve the school as head of the hostel until the end of 1923. 

Cillid’s greatest achievement was her contribution to the education of girls 
and to teacher training over a period of more than 30 years. In her charge the 
La Rochelle Girls' High School became one of the most reputable schools for 
girls in South Africa. It was also during her period of service as headmistress 
of this school that the training of teachers at Paarl became a reality. This 
training was initially provided separately at Paarl Girls’ High School and La 
Rochelle Girls’ High School in accordance with the pupil-teacher system until 
the Central Training School was established in 1913, mainly as a result of 
Cillid’s enthusiasm and foresight. She was one of the first committee members 
of the school — a position which she held for many years — and served on the 
local school board from the time of its inception in 1906 until her retirement. 
She also served her community in other spheres and was chairperson of the 
Noorder-Paarl branch of the Afrikaanse Christelike Vrouevereniging (Afrikaans 
Christian women’s society) for many years. 

Cillid spent her retirement at Stille Waters, Somerset West. She died shortly 
before her hundredth birthday. On her retirement in 1921 the school was 
presented with a painting of her, done in oils by George Crosland Robinson*. 
The school library, which she opened on her ninetieth birthday, bears her 

mj stucki, Die skool op Blauwvallei en my week aldaar. Stellenbosch, 1935; — J.a.s. 
oberholster, 'n Driekwart-eeu van Gods liefde: Noorder-Paarl 1875-1950 : 'n oorsig van 
die geskiedenis van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde gemeente. Paarl, 1950; — w.a. JOUBERT, 
Die Paarl, 1657-1952: sy ontstaan en groei. Paarl, 1952; — La Rochelle Paarl, 1860-1960. 
Paarl, 1960; — J.m.l. franck, Onderwys in die Paarl gedurende die 19de eeu, 1804-1905. 
D.Ed. thesis. University of Stellenbosch, 1964; — Obituary: Die Burger, 17 March 1966; 
— c.o. DE vries. Die Opleidingskollege Paarl, 1913-1963. Paarl, [196-]. 

CLOW, Sydney John (*Acton, Middlesex, England, 14 January 1883— fJo- 
hannesburg, 12 June 1970), a pioneer of the motor car industry, was the son 
of John Clow. 

Clow was educated at Kenmont Gardens, Chelsea, and while an apprentice 
and journeyman studied engineering part-time at the Science and Art School, 
South Kensington. In 1900 he came to South Africa to join his father in 
Queenstown, and was employed by the Cape Government Railways. During the 


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South African War (1899-1902) he served with the 
| Cape Colonial Forces. In 1905 he went to the 
Transvaal as an engineer on the New Comet Mine, 
and while there saw the trading potential of the 
motor car. 

In 1907 Clow returned to England to work and 
study for a year at Coventry where motor cars were 
being produced. In 1913 he founded Sydney Clow 
& Company Ltd in Johannesburg, importing cars 
for sale and repairing them. He held various fran- 
chises, but it was the distribution of Chrysler prod- 
ucts from 1924 which formed the basis of his business success. In 1932 he 
merged with the Atkinson-Oates organization and successfully weathered the 

Clow believed in "doing some good in the world", and the merger enabled 
him to become more involved with principally the labour affairs of the motor 
car industry. With unselfish devotion, integrity and wise leadership, and with 
a courteous manner concealing great firmness and tenacity, he was for nearly 
40 years a stable thread running through the motor car industry. He occupied 
every post of distinction it had to offer, including the presidency of both the 
South African Motor Trade Association and the South African Motor Industry 
Employers’ Association. 

He was especially interested in the industrial organization of the industry, 
harmonious labour relations and the improvement of working conditions, and 
played an important part in the 1930s in overcoming the resistance of some 
employers to a trade union. He was the first motor trader in the Transvaal to 
indenture his apprentices systematically, and strongly advocated the thorough 
training in South Africa of qualified artisans to meet the industry’s increasing 
demands. Clow was largely responsible for the establishment of the Transvaal 
Motor Engineering Apprenticeship Committee. When the government appointed 
him to the National Apprenticeship Board to represent industrial employers in 
1944, he became responsible for the system of indenturing and training 
apprentices for the motor car industry. His interest in technical training also led 
to his membership of the Witwatersrand Technical College from 1935 to 1966. 
Upon the formation of the National Apprenticeship Committee for the Motor 
Industry in 1953, he was appointed chairperson. In 1951 he became the first 
president of the National Industrial Council for the Motor Industry. 

During the Second World War (1939-1945) Clow joined the staff of the 
Director General of Supplies in May 1940, and between September 1943 and 
August 1945 served as deputy director of War Supplies in the Mechanical 
Transport Production Department. He succeeded in putting 34 000 army 
vehicles of 80 types into the field, and the government acknowledged his 
contribution to the war effort. He then served as national chairperson of the 
Demobilization Advisory Committee of the Motor Industry, and in June 1947 
Gen. J.C. Smuts* appointed him to the London Immigrants Selection Commit- 
tee to recruit skilled British artisans for the understaffed motor car industry. 
Clow had always interested himself in immigration, and was an executive 


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member of the 1820 Settlers’ Association (Transvaal area). 

It was a tribute to Clow that the motor car industry was reluctant to release 
him from his numerous offices, and he continued to serve until his late 
seventies. He received many honours, though he particularly valued the King 
George V Silver Jubilee Medal (1935) and the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation 
Medal (1953), both awarded on the recommendation of the South African 
government for service to the community. He was also elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of Arts in 1935. 

Despite his public service Clow was a modest man and disliked publicity. 
For relaxation he did gardening and collected paintings, mainly by South 
African artists. He was a keen soccer player in his youth. As a lover of horse- 
racing he was a member of the Johannesburg Turf Club since 1935, and head 
executive steward of the Jockey Club of South Africa (1954-1965), serving 
particularly on the Licensing Committee. His interest in the turf and the motor 
car industry led to his presidency of the Witwatersrand Agricultural Society 
(1951-1953). He was a familiar figure at the Rand Club, where he lunched 

In April 1918 Clow married Margaret Sanderson Butchart and had a son 
and a daughter. 

South African who's who, 1933-1958; — Who’s who of Southern Africa, 1959-1970; — The 
MTA bulletin, October 1951; — The South African Motor Trade Association bulletin, 33(1), 
January 1953; — The automobile, October 1957; — Evening Post Supplement, 21 October 
1961; — The Star, 6 March 1963; — The Automobile in Southern Africa, June 1963; — 
Obituaries: The Star, 12 June 1970; The Rand Daily Mail, 13 June 1970; — Private 
information: Mr S.J. Clow (son), Johannesburg, Sydney Clow collection. 

COREE (*probably Table Bay region, c.1580— tWestem Cape, 1626), Khoi- 
khoi leader, pioneer trader and the earliest indigene whose name is found in 
written records. He appears to have belonged to an important family among the 
Gorachouqua, a group of herders who lived as nomads in the vicinity of Table 
Bay. At the time of the Dutch settlement in 1652 the chief of the Gorachouqua 
was Chora (or Choro), which may also have been Coree’s true name. (Varia- 
tions in the spelling of Coree’s name include Xhord, Corey, Corie, Khori, 
Quore and Chora.) 

Ships passing the Cape towards the end of the sixteenth century traded 
livestock from the Khoikhoi for a little iron— in 1591 an ox could be traded for 
two knives. The iron was used for the tips of the Khoikhoi assegais. By 1610 
this flourishing trade suddenly stopped, probably because the iron market was 
glutted. Copper, used for the making of ornaments, came to be demanded 
instead. As copper was rated higher than iron the price of livestock rose 
sharply. The rising demands of the Khoikhoi caused problems for the sailors 
since copper was not readily available on the ships. 

Coree undoubtedly also traded with the passing sailors and in May 1613 he 
and another Khoikhoi were abducted and taken aboard the 300-ton Hector, an 
East Indiaman bound for England. The purpose of such abductions was to teach 
the men English, question them about the Cape, and impress them with the 


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advantages of European trade. The man abducted with Coree died on the 

Coree lodged in the London home of Sir Thomas Smythe, governor of the 
English East India Company. Smythe was prominent in England’s mercantile 
affairs. He had a hand in several chartered companies, invested his personal 
fortune in voyages of exploration, and served for a time as special emissary to 
the Russian tsar. Smythe evidently arranged for Coree to be well clothed, 
housed and fed, and presented him with armour and brass ornaments. He 
failed, however, to reconcile Coree to exile: "all this contented him not ... 
when he had learned a little of our language, he would daily lie upon the 
ground, and cry very often thus in broken English, ‘Coree home go, Souldania 
go, home go”'. (Souldania or Saldania was originally the area today known as 
Table Bay, though some maps indicate it as the region between the Olifants and 
Breede rivers.) 

In June 1614 Coree was returned to Table Bay. It was noted that the 
Khoikhoi who brought livestock to trade at once began to demand brass and the 
British suspected Coree of having told the Khoikhoi of the metal— an act they 
regarded as ingratitude after all the kindness they had shown him! Coree 
promptly disappeared and, on this occasion, was not seen again. Subsequently 
it was observed that he preferred the Khoikhoi dress of sheepskin to his 
English clothes. 

In October 1614 an English mariner complained that the Khoikhoi 
"demanded unreasonably for their Cattell, which we thought proceeded from 
Corie, who had been in England". A few months later Coree was friendly to 
another English crew, showing them his village which consisted of around 100 
"smale Cottages". He bartered a "great aboundance" of sheep and cattle for 
copper. By 1617 the attitude of the Khoikhoi had changed. It was alleged that 
the Dutch had frightened them by forcing their way into the country and 
seizing livestock. "Coree & his hellish crewe" withdrew and ships had 
difficulty getting any animals at all. 

A year after Coree had returned, a party of English convicts (‘Newgate 
men’) was set ashore and left at the Cape. Much speculation surrounds the 
relationship between Coree’s Khoikhoi and these men, few of whom survived. 
Evidently the Khoikhoi were at first alarmed to find that Europeans might settle 
among them. But, shortly after, Coree attempted to enlist these well-armed men 
as Gorachouqua allies in their wars— a strategy later adopted by other Khoikhoi 

The practice of enticing or forcing indigenes to visit European centres of 
trade was widespread, and other African examples have been documented. 
Coree was the first of three Khoikhoi who were selected for exposure to a 
distant market centre (the others were Herry* and Doman*). His status before 
his abduction is obscure but thereafter he appears to have been a leader and 
key actor in the livestock barter. In Richard Elphick’s words, it is "conceivable 
that his authority among Khoikhoi derived ... from his influence with Euro- 

European perceptions of the indigenes depended by and large upon the 
satisfaction they derived from the all-important barter with the Khoikhoi. When 


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results were disappointing, Coree was therefore targeted for blame. Despite 
evidence of other causes, he was regarded as the sole cause of the spoiled trade 
because he altered the Khoikhoi’s scale of values with regard to European 
goods and kept livestock suppliers away. Coree’s experience exemplifies* the 
difficulties faced by early indigene leaders who had to decide between coming 
up to the expectations of powerful outsiders and the interests of their own 

Coree had two or more wives and a number of children. On one occasion, 
it is said, he spoke of taking a son to England should he himself return. Coree 
is thought to have been killed in a clash with the Dutch in 1626 after refusing 
to give them food. 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

J. cope, King of the Hottentots. Cape Town, 1967; — R. raven-hart, Before van Rieheeck: 
callers at South Africa from 1488 to 1652. Cape Town, 1967; — R. ELPHICK, Khoikhoi and 
the founding of White South Africa. Johannesburg, 1985. 

CORNELIUS, Johanna Catharina Jacoba (*Lichtenburg, 27 February 

1912 — fJohannesburg, 21 June 1974). full-time or- 
ganizer and general secretary of the Garment Work- 
ers’ Union, and CORNELIUS, Hester Elizabeth 
(*Lichtenburg, 5 April 1907— tHoneydew, Johan- 
nesburg, IS August 
1978), national organizer 
and branch secretary of 
the Garment Workers’ 

Union, were two of the 
nine children of Pieter 
Johannes Cornelius and 
his wife Anna Debora 
Conradie (nee Moller). 
up on a smallholding in 
strong sense of Afrikaner 
nationalism pervaded the family. Their father and 
grandfather had fought on the Boer side in the South 
African War (1899-1902) and their mother had been held in a concentration 
camp. In the 1914 Afrikaner Rebellion their father joined the local commando 
and upon his return home he castigated the children for learning English in his 

Impoverishment in the rural areas in the late 1920s prompted Johanna and 
Hester to leave the farm and seek employment in Johannesburg. In November 
1930 they started working in a clothing factory, Johanna as a machinist and 
Hester as a table-hand. Apparently Hester was dismissed at some stage and 
returned to the farm for a few months until she found employment again. In 
Vrededorp the sisters shared a room with two other women, the Vogel sisters. 

When Johanna and Hester entered the clothing industry the white women 
workers, who constituted the overwhelming majority of the workers in the 


The sisters were brought 
the Western Transvaal. A 

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industry in the Transvaal, were being organized into the Garment Workers’ 
Union (GWU) by Emil Solomon (Solly) Sachs*. The sisters were very 
impressed with the way Sachs dealt with workers’ grievances and joined the 
trade union. Soon Johanna became fully involved in union activities and was 
arrested in September 1932 in Germiston during a general strike in the 
industry. Upon her release she addressed the crowd which had gathered outside 
the prison. Wearing her school blazer from Lichtenburg she called on the 
clothing workers to fight for a living wage and for freedom, as their forefathers 
had done in the Great Trek and the South African War. This casting of the na- 
tional sentiments of the Afrikaner in terms of a class struggle rather than a na- 
tional struggle was a dominant feature of the sisters’ approach to Afrikaner na- 
tionalism in the 1930s and 1940s. 

The GWU was defeated in the strike of 1932: the four largest factories 
delivered an ultimatum that unless striking workers returned to work they 
would be replaced. For fear of losing their jobs, most workers did return to 
work. Furthermore, the workers had to accept a ten percent wage reduction. 
However, in the years that followed a new, stronger union was born. Afrikaner 
workers in the clothing industry constituted the vast majority of the workforce, 
and some of them, like Johanna and Hester, assumed leadership positions under 
the tutelage of Sachs. Hester was elected to the union’s executive in 1934. 
Johanna, who spent a month in the Soviet Union in 1933 as trade union 
delegate, became full-time organizer in 1934 and the following year she was 
elected president for a two-year period. The union opened an office in 
Germiston which Hester managed. Through constituting a union that was 
controlled by and represented its members, the union successfully fought the 
clothing bosses, securing higher wages, shorter working hours (from 52 hours 
in 1928 to 40 hours in 1948) and a closed shop agreement in 1935. 

In 1938 the Nasionale Raad van Trustees (formed in 1936 by Albert 
Hertzog*, P.J. Meyer* and other Afrikaner nationalists set up by the Afrikaner 
Broederbond to counteract the influence of trade unionism) attempted to take 
over the leadership of the GWU. Johanna was accused of being a communist 
accomplice of Sachs, and of spending all her time organizing black workers. 
The strong organizational structure of the union and the visible attainment of 
material benefits enabled Johanna and Sachs to ward off the accusations. 

Hester played a major role in the defence of the union by organizing 
cultural activities which used Afrikaner symbols and experiences to convey 
class struggle. Both sisters wrote several plays, poems and songs in which the 
class struggle and the struggle of the workers were portrayed. In her play Die 
offerande (The sacrifice) Hester portrayed the conflict between rich and poor 
and extolled the virtues of the Soviet Union as a workers’ paradise and urged 
workers to overthrow the capitalist system in order to achieve such a paradise. 
The unfinished play Broers (Brothers) described the conflict and division in a 
family where two opposing ideologies, socialism and fascism, were repre- 
sented. The plays Eendrag (Unity) by Hester and Drie spioene (Three spies) by 
Johanna both dealt with the struggle of women workers in the factories. 

Hester and Johanna did not limit themselves to organizing clothing workers 
in the Transvaal. When the Transvaal GWU attempted to establish a more 



dynamic rival to what was considered the tame and ineffective Cape Province 
GWU, the Cornelius sisters were sent down to Cape Town in February 1936 
to lend their experience to the picket lines. They organized meetings, made 
speeches, flaunted the police and ensured that scabs were given a rough time. 
Hester was arrested three times during the strike. Although the strike was 
largely a failure and was called off in March, the solidarity and enthusiasm that 
it generated stirred up Cape Town’s workers and laid the foundations for 
further attempts at unionization in the city. 

The Cornelius sisters also imparted their organizational experience to 
workers in other sectors. Johanna was instrumental in founding the National 
Union of Cigarette and Tobacco Workers in 1938. In 1942 Hester assisted the 
sweetworkers who were on strike and for a time she was national secretary of 
the Sweetworkers’ Union. Johanna was on the executive of the Trade Union 
Council of South Africa (TUCSA) from its inception in 1955. The support the 
Cornelius sisters had among white workers did not, however, transform itself 
into political support. In the 1943 general election Johanna was a candidate for 
Sachs’s Independent Labour Party in Germiston. Hester assisted in the 
campaign and they hoped that the workers in the area would support Johanna, 
but she obtained only 202 votes in a constituency where there were approxi- 
mately 1 500 garment workers registered (2,6 percent of the votes cast). The 
seat was won by A.C. Payne of the Labour Party with 4 134 votes (52,8 
percent of votes cast). 

After Sachs was banned in 1952 and went into exile Johanna was elected 
general secretary, with a majority of 9 291 votes over her opponent. She kept 
this position until her death in 1974. In the 1960s Hester became GWU nation- 
al organizer and editor of the union magazine Garment worker /Saamtrek. 

These were difficult times for the GWU and the Cornelius sisters. Under 
Johanna’s leadership real wages fell and the GWU lost much of its militancy. 
Black workers entered the clothing industry and clothing bosses used the 
opportunity to pay lower wages. The black women workers were members of 
the GWU, albeit in a separate branch. This enabled the GWU to fight against 
undercutting. However, once the government prohibited racially mixed unions 
under the Native Labour Act (1953), their bargaining position was undermined. 
The GWU was forced to agree to two sets of wages: the B reduced scale for 
new employees (who were mainly black) and the A scale for seasoned workers. 
Lower wages in border industries near the so-called Bantustans, also frustrated 
the bargaining position of the union. 

The left-wing trade unions, who were part of the African National Congress 
(ANC) aligned South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), increasing- 
ly criticized Johanna and the GWU for accepting government promulgations 
and not showing more defiance. While this criticism is largely true, Johanna 
nonetheless displayed a strong sense of social justice and was at the forefront 
of the protest against the government’s attempts to introduce job reservation 
into the clothing industry. On 4 November 1957 she assisted in organizing a 
stayaway, forcing some 300 clothing factories to stay shut for the day. In the 
1960s the real wages of garment workers fell further. By the time Johanna died 
and Hester had resigned from the union (1974) some wages were close to 1928 


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With the death of Hester in 1978 the Garment worker/Saamtrek mourned 
the passing of the Cornelius era. It was an era which had started off with 
displays of militancy, strong organization and the securing of worker demands. 
It ended, however, with garment workers being among the worst paid of 
women workers in South Africa. 

Both sisters married, did not have children of their own, and both were 
divorced. Hester married John Peter de Freitas and Johanna married Fritz 
Heinz Fellner. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 3570/52; Estate no. 7464/74; Estate no. 10802/78; 
— Library of the Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria: Baptismal Registers: Ned. 
Herv. of Geref. Gemeente Lichtenburg, 1904-1920; — E.s. SACHS, Garment workers in 
action. Johannesburg, 1957; — i.L. walker a b. weinbren, 2000 casualties: a history of the 
trade unions and the labour movement in the Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1961 ; — 
Interview with J. Cornelius, supplied by S. Greenberg. Yale, [19747]; — Obituaries: 
Garment Worker/Saamtrek, 28 June 1974 & 5 July 1974; The Star, 21 June 1974; The Rand 
Daily Mail, 22 June 1974; Die Transvaler, 22 June 1974; Garment Worker/Saamtrek, 25 
August 1978; — H. bolton. Tribute to a fighter. South African labour bulletin, 1(3), June 
1974; — r.m. imrie, A wealth of people: the story of the Trade Union Council of South 
Africa. Johannesburg, 1979; — labour history group. Garment workers unite. Cape 
Town, 1983; — M. nicol, A history of garment and tailoring workers in Cape Town, 
, 1900-1937. Ph.D. thesis. University of Cape Town, 1984; — l. wrrz. Servant of the 
workers: Solly Sachs and the Garment Workers' Union, 1928-1952. M.A. thesis. University 
of the Witwatersrand, 1984; — E. BRINK, Plays, poetry and production: the literature of the 
garment workers. South African labour bulletin, 9(8), July 1984; — L. wrrz, A case of 
schizophrenia: the rise and fall of the Independent Labour Party. In: B. bozzoli (ed.), Class, 
community and conflict: South African perspectives. Johannesburg, 1987; — l. berger. 
Solidarity fragmented: garment workers of the Transvaal, 1930-1960. In: S. marks * s. 
trapido (eds). The politics of race, class and nationalism in twentieth century South Africa. 
London, 1987; — I. berger, Threads of solidarity: women in South African industry. 
1900-1980. London, 1992. 

CRESSY, Harold (*Rorkes Drift, 1 February 1889— fKimberley, 23 August 

1916), educationist and teacher, was one of five 
children born to Bernard and Mary Cressy of Mel- 
moth, Natal. Cressy received his primary education 
at a Roman Catholic mission school. In 1897, at the 
age of eight, Cressy was sent to school in Cape 
Town He displayed considerable leadership qual- 
ities during his youth and graduated from Zonne- 
bloem College in Cape Town in 1905 with the T.3 
certificate, the basic professional qualification for 

The following year (1906) Cressy took up the 
principalship of the Dutch Reformed Church 
mission school at Clanwilliam at the youthful age of 
seventeen. Cressy’s experience of the inequities of the Cape’s segregated 
education system in Clanwilliam instilled in him a lifelong commitment to 

. 53 

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improve the educational facilities available to the coloured community. While 
at Clanwilliam he obtained the matriculation certificate through part-time study 
in 1907 and the intermediate B.A. certificate the following year. 

Cressy was awarded a bursary by the education department to continue his 
studies at Rhodes University College, Grahamstown. Despite having accepted 
his written application the college refused him entry on account of his colour 
upon his arrival in Grahamstown in February 1909. Cressy’s subsequent 
application to Victoria College at Stellenbosch (University of Stellenbosch) was 
rejected on the same grounds. When his application was being considered by 
the South African College (University of Cape Town) in Cape Town, where it 
caused considerable controversy, Dr Abdullah Abdurahman*, president of the 
African Political Organization (APO), heard of the young man’s plight and 
used his influence as Cape Town city councillor to pressurize the college into 
enroling Cressy. 

Despite the ill health that dogged him for much of his adult life and the 
racial prejudice he endured as the only black student on the campus, Cressy 
graduated with a B.A. degree at the end of 1910. He immediately became 
somewhat of a celebrity among the coloured educated elite as the first of them 
to have obtained a bachelor’s degree. After completing his studies Cressy 
taught at the St Philip’s Primary School in Cape Town and became involved 
with the activities of the Cape Town branch of the APO. Despite being taken 
under the wing of Abdurahman as a young talent to be nurtured Cressy 
displayed little interest in the hurly-burly of protest politics and preferred to 
focus his energy on the improvement of coloured education. 

In 1912 he was appointed principal of the Trafalgar Second Class Public 
School. Established in 1910, Trafalgar was one of only two schools in South 
Africa to offer coloured education at secondary level. This appointment was an 
extraordinary accomplishment for one barely 22 years old. When he took up 
the post, Trafalgar was suffering such severe problems that the education 
department seriously considered closing it. Cressy tackled the problems with 
such resourcefulness that the school regained its erstwhile reputation. He was 
also at the forefront of the APO’s struggle to have the school provided with 
suitable accommodation. At the time Trafalgar was housed in a run-down 
cottage and rooms rented from a nearby church. After five years of petitioning 
the authorities, the city council was finally prevailed upon to donate a site, and 
the Cape School Board to vote £3 000 for a new building. 

Cressy continued to study privately and obtained the T.2 certificate, a 
higher qualification, as well as the School Music Certificate in 1912. In the 
meantime, feeling the need to foster coloured educational advancement at a 
more fundamental level, Cressy, with the encouragement of Abdurahman, took 
the lead in establishing a coloured teachers’ association, the Teachers’ League 
of South Africa (TLSA). He hoped that the League would be able to effect a 
thorough reform of coloured education and help to ameliorate the exceptionally 
poor service conditions under which the coloured teaching profession laboured. 
As the chief organizer within the founding group Cressy was elected president 
of the TLSA upon its inauguration in June 1913 and became the first editor of 
its organ, the Educational journal. 



Just as work started on the new building for his beloved Trafalgar School 
in mid-March 1916, Cressy fell victim to a severe bout of pneumonia. On 
medical advice he temporarily moved to Kimberley where he passed away 
unexpectedly on 23 August 1916 at the age of 27. 

Throughout his life Cressy had to swim against the current and his 
achievements were realized in the face of formidable obstacles. Hardly a more 
apt motto could therefore have been chosen for the school named in his 
honour: ‘Volenti nihil difficile’ (To those who are willing nothing is difficult). 

In September 1912 Cressy married Caroline Hartog and out of the marriage 
a daughter, Millicent, was bom. Cressy's widow died shortly after him in 
October 1918 in the Great Influenza Epidemic. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: vol. 6/9/831, file 21 10; vol. 13/1/2768, file 221; 
vol. 14/2/157, file 166; — APO, 11 February 1911; — Obituaries: Diamond Fields 
Advertiser, 26 August 1916; Education gazette, 31 August 1916; South African College 
magazine, September 1916; Educational journal, October 1916; — Die Bonier, Maart 1962; 
— M. ADHIKARI, Against the current: a biography of Harold Cressy, 1889-1916. Cape 
Town, 1990. 










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DADOO, Yusuf Mohamed (Mota) (*Krugersdorp, 5 September 1909— 

a tLondon, England, 19 September 1983), a medical 

doctor and politician, was the son of a retailer, 
Mohamed Mamoojee Dadoo, who emigrated from 
Kholvad in India to South Africa in the 1880s. 

He received his primary education at the Kru- 
gersdorp Coloured School and then proceeded to the 
Newtown Indian Government School in Johannes- 
burg. After matriculating at Aligarh College in India 
in 1927, Dadoo went to London, England, to study 
medicine. Within a few months he was arrested for 
participating in political demonstrations. In an 
attempt to curb his political activities, his father had 
him transferred to Edinburgh in Scotland, where he 
completed his studies. At this time he started reading Marxist literature, but 
only entered the political arena in real earnest when he returned to South 
Africa in 1936. Soon he was a leader of the opposition against the moderate 
leadership in the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) and by 1938 became a 
founder member and first secretary of the Non-European United Front 
(NEUF). From the start he attempted to establish a nonracial alliance against 
the government’s oppressive legislation. In 1939 he also became a member of 
the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party 
(SACP) after 1953). 

After the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-1945) the CPSA and 
NEUF actively opposed South Africa’s participation. Dadoo, as one of the 
spokespersons, described the war as "an imperialistic war, and therefore an 
unjust war". He was twice arrested for allegedly inciting the people against the 
government. With the entry of the USSR into the war in 1941 the CPSA felt 
that the character of the war had changed and that South Africa’s participation 
could be now justified. With Moses Kotane* Dadoo had to advocate this new 


During the 1940s Dadoo played a leading part in various political cam- 
paigns. He was involved with the bus boycott by Alexandra residents in 1944; 
the CPSA and African National Congress (ANC) national anti-pass campaign 
of 1944 to 1946; the African miners’ strike of 1946; and the passive resistance 
of the South African Indians that commenced in 1946. Dadoo was also elected 


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as president of the TIC and as the Transvaal leader of the Indian Passive 
Resistance Council in 1946. At this stage he was already chairperson of the Jo- 
hannesburg District Committee of the CPSA and a member of the Central 
Committee of the CPSA. 

Dadoo, Dr G.M. Naicker* (president of the Natal Indian Congress) and Dr 
A.B. Xuma* (president of the ANC) issued a joint statement, the so-called 
Doctors’ Pact, in March 1947 in which they stressed the co-operation of all 
blacks with a view to gaining political rights. Later in 1947 Dadoo and Naicker 
went to India to enlist support for South African Indians’ opposition to 
restrictive legislation. In 1948 Dadoo was elected president of the South 
African Indian Council (SAIC). Subsequently he went abroad again— this time 
to attend the session of the United Nations in France. 

Dadoo was actively involved with the country-wide resistance to the 
removal of the coloureds from the joint voters' role in the Cape Province in 
1951. In the same year he was elected as a member of the Joint Planning 
Council of the Defiance Campaign which was aimed at unfair legislation and 
which commenced in 1952. A month prior to this Dadoo and three other 
leaders were ordered by the authorities to resign from all organizations and 
they were banned from attending meetings. Dadoo ignored the ban and 
continued to address meetings, upon which he was arrested. He was released 
only to be rearrested in August 1952. He received a suspended prison sentence. 

Dadoo was increasingly subjected to restrictions in 1953. He was elected as 
a member of the newly founded Central Committee of the SACP. As a result 
of the restrictions imposed upon him he could not attend the Congress of the 
People in June 1955. Out of recognition for the role he played in establishing 
a multiracial alliance against apartheid the honorary title Isitwalandwe (a title 
once bestowed upon Xhosa heroes for exceptional courage and service and by 
the ANC upon a hero of the national liberation struggle) was bestowed on him 
in absentia at this meeting. 

With the declaration of a state of emergency and the banning of the ANC 
and the Pan-Africanist Congress by the government in April 1960, Dadoo 
escaped through Bechuanaland (Botswana) to London. At the request of the 
SACP and the SAIC Dadoo organized international support for and solidarity 
with the struggle against apartheid. Consequently he acted on a broad front, 
amongst others as representative of the ANC which he joined in 1969 after 
ANC membership had been opened for all races. In the same year he became 
vice-chairperson of the ANC’s Political-Military Council. In 1972 he was 
elected as national chairperson of the SACP. He was also a member of the 
presidential committee of the World Peace Council and received various orders 
and decorations, especially from East Block countries. 

Dadoo, whose popular nickname was Doc, was married thrice: first to lisa, 
then to Maryam and lastly to Winnie— the first two marriages ended in divorce. 
He had two daughters, one from lisa and one from Winnie. Dadoo died from 
cancer in a London hospital a few days after his seventy-fourth birthday. He 
was survived by his wife Winnie and his two daughters. His funeral in the 
Highgate Cemetery was accompanied by various speeches and political songs. 
In South Africa the government prohibited gatherings intended to honour 



Dadoo posthumously. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — Library 
of the University of South Africa, Pretoria: South African Political Materials: Carter-Karis 
microfilm; — R. segal, Political Africa: a who ‘s who of personalities and parties. London, 
1961 ; — E. ROUX, Time longer than rope: a history of the black man 's struggle for freedom 
in South Africa. 2nd ed. Madison, 1964; — P. walshe, The rise of African nationalism in 
South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. KARts A o.M. 
CARTER (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South 
Africa. 1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — Editorial: Yusuf Dadoo, 70th birthday. 
Sechaba, September 1979; — Dr Dadoo: the nation salutes you. Sechaba, September 1979; 
— T. lodge. Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; - I. * R. 
simons. Class and colour in South Africa, 1850-1950. London, 1983; — Landmarks in a 
life of struggle. The African communist, 96(First Quarter), 1984; — Tributes: The African 
communist, 96(First Quarter), 1984; — E.S. REDDY (comp.), Dr Yusuf Mohamed Dadoo: his 
speeches, articles and correspondence with Mahatma Gandhi, 1939-1983. Durban & 
Bellville, 1991; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

DAVIES, Joan Hoskyn i*Robben Island, 2 December 1909— tCape Town, 6 

January 1984), archivist and the first woman to 
become head of an archives depot, was one of the 
three children of Thomas Sidney Davies, who was 
a medical doctor on Robben Island at the time of 
her birth, and his wife Helen Low Davies. 

She attended the Robben Island Public School as 
well as schools in Sea Point and King William’s 
Town. After that she obtained the B.A. degree at 
Rhodes University, Grahamstown. Having taught 
English for two years at Kokstad she started work- 
ing as an assistant at the Cape Archives Depot in 
July 1935. There she was much influenced by the 
enthusiasm and dedication of Dr C. Graham Botha*, 
head of the South African Archives Service, and the man who laid the foun- 
dation for the preservation and care of the South African documentary heritage. 

After having obtained the M.A. degree with a dissertation entitled Palgrave 
in Damaraland which appeared in the Archives year book for South African 
history, 5(2), 1942 Davies was transferred to Pretoria in 1944 when the head 
office of the archives service was moved there. Initially she was attached to the 
Transvaal Archives Depot but in 1957 she was appointed as first head of the 
newly established Liaison Department of the archives service. 

This section was initially responsible for the selection of archives. How- 
ever, in 1960 it took over the function, previously performed by the Public 
Service Commission, of advising government departments about filing systems. 
The many challenges and problems created by the new function were overcome 
and the groundwork was done for what was to become one of the most 
important components of the archives service. 

In 1962 Davies became archivist for source research in England. Her brief 
was to locate nineteenth century documents, photographs and maps and arrange 


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to have them microfilmed. These were then to be made available for research 
in South Africa. The large collection of microfilms of British documents and 
other material which subsequently became available in South African archives 
depots is proof of the diligence with which she performed her functions. 

In 1966 Davies was appointed as head of the Cape Archives Depot, a post 
she held until her retirement in 1974. 

In addition to her official duties Davies played a prominent role in different 
societies. She was a member of the executive of the Society of Civil Servants 
from 1946 to 1959, a member of the society’s central women’s committee for 
eleven years and chairperson of that committee from 1957 to 1959. She was a 
founder member of the Society of Archivists and a member of its executive for 
a number of years. In Pretoria and in London she was an active member of the 
women’s society of the Church of the Province of South Africa. She also 
served as a committee member of the Pretoria Historical Society for a number 
of years. 

Davies was the first woman to be appointed as an archivist in South Africa 
since women were previously not promoted beyond the rank of archival 
assistant. She was also the first woman to become head of an archives depot. 

Her love of history and the dedication with which she performed her 
various responsibilities left a permanent legacy to the archives service and 
historical researchers alike. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: Estate no. 652/84; — J.H. MIENIE, Miss J.H. 
Davies. South African archives journal , 15, 1975; — Private information: Head, Transvaal 
Archives Depot, Pretoria; Manager-in-chief of the Society of Civil Servants, Pretoria. 

DE VILLIERS, Anna Johanna Dorothea (*Saxenburg, near Kuilsrivier, Stel- 
lenbosch district, 24 December 1900— fStellen- 
bosch, 1 November 1979), lexicographer, author 
and educationist. She was the eldest of the six 
daughters and two sons of George Jacob de Villiers 
and his wife Anna Johanna Jacoba Bester. 

She received her first teaching from a private 
tutor and after four years went to the Kuilsrivier 
Primary School where she stayed for three years. 
After that she attended the Bloemhof Girls’ High 
School in Stellenbosch where she matriculated in 
1918. Proceeding to the University of Stellenbosch, 
she obtained the B.A. degree in 1921, and the M.A. 
degree and the Higher Secondary Teachers’ 

Diploma in 1924. 

After graduating, she taught for eighteen months at Oudtshoorn. She was 
then appointed for six months to the staff of Die Afrikaanse woordeboek (Afri- 
kaans dictionary) (later called Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal) under the 
editorship of Prof. J.J. Smith*. In 1930 she entered the civil service as a trans- 
lator at the Department of Statistics in Pretoria. Simultaneously she started on 
the D.Litt. degree which she obtained in 1934 with a thesis entitled Die Hol- 


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landse Taalbeweging in Suid-Afrika (The Dutch language movement in South 

De Villiers subsequently accepted a post as lecturer in Afrikaans at the 
Pretoria Technical College. After that she was lecturer in social history at the 
University of Pretoria for a year. In 1940 she returned to the Cape when she 
was appointed principal of the Huguenot University College in Wellington, the 
first and only women to hold this position. She remained there until the college 
was closed down in 19S0. 

From 1951 until her retirement in 1966 De Villiers was a member of the 
editorial staff of the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal ( WAT) (Dictionary of 
the Afrikaans language) in Stellenbosch, and became the first woman to be 
appointed co-editor of the WAT. She was especially interested in words of 
socio-historical relevance and words from the various female milieus. 

De Villiers visited overseas countries on several occasions. In June 1948 
she was a delegate to the Congress of Universities of the Commonwealth in 
Britain. The following year (1949) she undertook postdoctoral studies at the 
universities of Gent and Leiden in the Netherlands. During an international 
language conference in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 1963 she presented a 
paper on place names used by the Voortrekkers. In 1967 she lectured on the 
WAT '\n Bucharest, Rumania. 

De Villiers served on the management body of the University of South 
Africa. She was also a member of several other organizations, inter alia the 
Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African Academy for 
Arts and Science) (since 1943), which she represented in the Afrikaans 
Language Monument Committee; the Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letter- 
kunde (Society for Dutch literature) in Leiden, the Netherlands; the Suid- 
Afrikaanse Taalbond; the Cape Town branch of the Simon van der Stel 
Foundation; and the Stellenbosch branch of the Afrikaanse Skrywerskring. De 
Villiers was a founder member of both the Stellenbosch Heemkring (conserva- 
tion society) and the Stellenbosch branch of the South African Association for 
University Women of which she was president for many years. 

She published several novels and historical books and articles. Her interest 
in cultural history was reflected in her literary material. Characterization and 
character development in her works were often dominated by detailed descrip- 
tions of the historical background. She nevertheless tried to capture the habits, 
customs, morals and spirit of the era, and especially the role of women. 
Examples of her novels are Sterker as die noodlot (Cape Town, 1930) which 
could be regarded as autobiographical and which described the problems of 
urbanization and professional women; Die wit kraai (Bloemfontein, 1938) 
related the experiences of the Voortrekker scout Hans Dons (Johan Hendrik de 
Lange*); and Hercule de Pris (Cape Town, 1947) which depicted the settle- 
ment of the French Huguenots at the Cape. 

Her short biographical sketches of South African women of historical 
importance were published, amongst others, in Vrouegallery (Cape Town, 
1972). Her radio talks on customs were also published in, for example 
Volksgebruike uit vervloi dae (Johannesburg, 1965). She also contributed to 
other publications, such as Dictionary of South African biography, and 


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published journal articles. A list of her most important publications appears in 
Snijman (infra). 

During her stay in London in 1948 she was awarded an honorary doctorate 
of law by the University of London. In 1971 during a visit to the United States 
of America (USA), the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachusetts 
made De Villiers an honorary alumna in appreciation for her work at the 
Huguenot University College. (The American seminary served as model for the 
original Huguenot Seminary established in 1874.) In the early 1970s the 
Afrikaanse Skrywerskring made her an honorary member as a tribute to her 
many contributions to the Afrikaans language and literature. 

After her retirement she remained in Stellenbosch, where she died and was 
buried. She was described as a happy but dynamic person who believed that the 
intellectual and moral level of a country was to a great extent determined by 
women. Her optimism was best reflected in the words of a character in one of 
her novels: "Life is too short to allow one to be unhappy". 

She never married. 

Biographical note: Dr Anna de Villiers. The blueslocking. 17(2), November 1948; — p.j. 
nienaber, Hier is ons skrywers! Biografiese sketse van Afrikaanse skrywers. 1. Johannes- 
burg, 1949; — Vroue in die hoer onderwys: (dr. Anna de Villiers], In: c.P. van der merwe 
& c.F. albertyn (reds). Die vrou. 2. Kaapstad, [1970?]; — o. dekker, Afrikaanse 
literaiuurgeskiedenis. Kaapstad, [1972]; — Honours and awards: [Dr Anna de Villiers]. The 
blueslocking, 30(11), April 1973; — Obituaries: Die Burger, 5 November 1979; Die 
Matieland, (3), Desember 1979; The bluestocking, 31(6), 1980; — Tributes: Hulle het die 
US onthou. Die Matieland, (3), Desember 1980; FJ. snuman, Anna Johanna Dorothea de 
Villiers ... Jaarboek de Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letierkunde le Leiden, 1982-1983. 

DUNJWA, Jeremiah (Jl. c. 1913-1930), interpreter, teacher and politician. He 

was bom in Beaufort West towards the end of the 
nineteenth century, and was educated at Healdtown 
Institution, a Methodist boarding school near Fort 
Beaufort in the Eastern Cape. He first worked as 
interpreter in the Cape Supreme Court before going 
to Johannesburg in 1904. In 1908 he joined the 
teaching staff of the Klipspruit government school 
(Pimville Primary School in Soweto), which at the 
time was the only government school for African 
people in the Transvaal. In 1913 Dunjwa joined the 
staff of the Abantu Batho newspaper and became its 
Xhosa editor. Whilst editor he visited the mines 
incognito to see for himself the conditions of the 
black miners underground. This enabled him to write first-hand reports in his 
newspaper about alleged atrocities perpetrated by white mine bosses against 
black miners underground. 

Through his involvement in civic matters he became an organizer and leader 
of the African people. He was a member of the South African Native National 
Congress (SANNC, since 1923 the African National Congress (ANC)). In 1919 


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he was an organizer of the anti-pass demonstrations on the Witwatersrand. 
Dunjwa was secretary of the Transvaal ANC, and in the early 1920s he was 
secretary-general of the ANC. 

Dunjwa was actively involved in the affairs of Pimville where he was a 
resident. In the early days of Pimville township— founded in 1904 as Klipspruit 
and renamed Pimville in 1934, after James Howard Pirn* who was deputy 
mayor of Johannesburg in 1903— the railway line from Johannesburg to the 
African residential areas south of Johannesburg went as far as Nancefield 
railway station. Dunjwa and other leading members of the community made 
representations to the government to have the railroad extended from the 
Nancefield railway station terminus to Pimville. After much prodding the 
request of the Pimville residents was acceded to and the railroad was extended 
from the Nancefield station to Pimville. This came as a great relief to them as 
they had to cover the distance between Pimville and Nancefield station on foot. 
Dunjwa was also an active member of the Pimville Advisory Board. 

Dunjwa was married to Emily Kaiyane. They had four sons and two daugh- 
ters. He died in Pimville, Soweto, in 1935. 

t.d.m. skota (ed.). The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]: — t. Karls a g.m. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history 
of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. I. Protest and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 
1972; — T. karis & G.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — Private information: Nobantu Dunjwa (daughter), Soweto. 


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ERASMUS, Rarend Jacobus (Ben) (*Vredefort, 29 December 191 8 — fJohan- 

nesburg, 22 December 1973), trade unionist, was 
the sixth child of Barend Jacobus Gerrit Wessel 
Erasmus and his wife Susara Catharina Elizabeth 
Horak. His father was a businessman and farmer 
and owned the first butchery in Parys. (Sources 
differ as to Erasmus’s place of birth.) 

Erasmus grew up on the Lichtenburg alluvial 
diamond diggings where he did some digging on his 
own account during his school holidays. He 
attended Zeerust High School where he was a 
prefect and captain of the school rugby team in his 
matric year (1936). However, the depression of the 
1930s forced him to leave school in that year and 

seek employment. 

In June 1936 Erasmus was employed by the Johannesburg Municipal 
Transport Service to scrub trams and buses. He progressed to the position of 
conductor and soon became involved with the affairs of the Johannesburg 
Municipal Transport Workers’ Union (JMTWU). He greatly admired the fight 
that Johannes Jacobus (Jan) Venter*, JMTWU president, put up for transport 
workers. On 23 June 1943 Erasmus was elected to the executive of the union, 
one of the youngest in the history of the union to be honoured in this way. In 
1946 he was made a senior trustee and in 1949 he became president when 
Venter became general secretary. Erasmus remained president for the next 20 
years until he stepped down in 1969 to become organizer for the JMTWU. 

On Venter’s death in 1953 Erasmus succeeded him as general secretary of 
the Johannesburg Municipal Workers’ Union (JMWU), a position he retained 
for 20 years. Over the years Erasmus achieved several gains for JMWU 
members. He obtained longer sick leave privileges at Arbitration Court 
proceedings and in 1956 he negotiated a 40 percent consolidation of cost of 
living allowance for all municipal employees. This was increased to 100 
percent in 1961. At the same time he negotiated a small increase in wages for 
transport workers. It was also due to him that staff buses were provided to take 
late-shift workers home. He won the right for JMTWU members to withdraw 
money to their credit in the provident fund after 25 years’ service, and 
contribution to the pension fund. Other gains were the right to accumulate for 

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an indefinite period sick leave to which they were entitled and to be paid out 
for a proportion of this on retirement. He persuaded the city council to raise 
wages and to allow the accumulation of up to 20 weeks’ leave after five years’ 
service. As chairperson of the Johannesburg Municipal Benefit Society he was 
able to look after members’ interests. 

In the general transport union arena Erasmus played an important part, 
being a member of the South African Council of Transport Workers (SACTW) 
from 1948, serving as treasurer for four years, vice-chairperson for five years, 
and being elected president in 1960. At the time of his death in 1973 Erasmus 
was still a member of the executive of SACTW. He was prominent in the 
wider trade union field, serving on the national executive committee of the 
South African Trades and Labour Council (SATLC) from 1949. When the 
SATLC dissolved in 1953, he was the acting treasurer. After that he served on 
the Unity Committee that led to the formation of the Trades Union Council of 
South Africa (TUCSA) in Durban in October 1954, was a member of its na- 
tional executive committee from its formation in 1954, was elected a trustee in 
1963 and served on the Officers’ Committee. In 1967 he was one of a 
delegation of six from TUCSA who met the Minister of Labour, Marais 
Viljoen, in an effort to persuade the government to recognize black trade 

Erasmus was a keen sportsman, being particularly interested in rugby, 
which had been a lifelong passion since his school days, and in gymnastics. He 
was a founder member of the Johannesburg Municipal Sports Club, later 
becoming vice-president of its gymnastics section, and helped to found the 
rugby section for which he played and of which he later became president. 
From 1945 he was actively involved in the Transvaal Rugby Football Union 
and at the time of his death was a member of the Special Tribunal, the body 
dealing with disciplinary measures at club and provincial level. 

Erasmus was a man of great energy and drive, a big man in both character 
and physique, with a cheerful and pleasant disposition. His unselfish fight for 
the underprivileged made him a much revered figure in the trade union 

In 1 943 Erasmus married Magdalena Pelser and they had two sons and one 
daughter. After they were divorced in 1964, he married Cynthia Francis 
Snyman in 1967 and they had one daughter. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 6387/74; — Library of the Human 
Sciences Research Council, Pretoria: Copies of baptismal registers of the Orange Free State 
Dutch Reformed congregations; — Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johan- 
nesburg: Trade Union Council of South Africa records; A.M. CUNNINGHAM, Records of the 
Trade Union Council of South Africa. Part U: 1955-1986 (Library of the University of the 
Witwatersrand, Historical and literary papers: Inventories of collections, 14); — l.L. walker 
a B. weinbren, 2000 casualties: a history of the trade unions and the labour movement in 
the Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1961; — Obituaries: The Rand Daily Mail, 24 
December 1973; The Star, 24 December 1973; Transport, 29(1), January/Februaiy 1974; — 
r.m. imrie, A wealth of people: the story of the Trade Union Council of South Africa, Johan- 
nesburg, 1979; — Private information: Mrs M. Erasmus (first wife), Pretoria; Mrs C. 
Erasmus (surviving spouse), Johannesburg; Mrs K. Erasmus (sister), Johannesburg. 


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ESAU, Abraham (*Kenhardt, Cape Colony, 12 September 1864 — tCalvinia, 

Cape Colony, 5 February 1901), artisan and martyr 
of the South African War (1899-1902), was the son 
of Adam Esau and his wife, Martha April. His 
parents lived and worked as labourers and servants 
in villages and on farms in several districts in the 
northwestern Cape Colony, including Kenhardt and 

During a lengthy period in the service of a 
paternalist English farmer in the 1870s, the coloured 
Esau family absorbed the colonial British culture, 
and developed a distinctly anglicized tone which 
differentiated them socially from other Dutch-Afri- 
kaans-speaking rural working-class people. Growing 
up in this milieu of social self-improvement, Abraham Esau was soon known 
locally as a young coloured who was strongly attached to his cultivated English 
(or ‘Englische’) cultural and political identity. 

After completing some Methodist mission schooling in Prieska, Esau first 
worked as a carpenter in Kenhardt and neighbouring localities. Towards the 
end of the 1880s he moved to Calvinia where, in addition to working as an 
independent blacksmith, he established himself as a haulier. Here, through his 
petty property ownership, his entitlement to the Cape Colony’s nonracial 
franchise, and his belief in the citizenship rights entrenched in Cape political 
liberalism, Esau came to embody the essential characteristics of the literate 
coloured artisanry of the later nineteenth century Cape Colony. Like many 
other Cape coloured and African people, he became an ardent devotee of the 
British imperial presence in South Africa. By the 1890s the enterprising, 
articulate and lively Esau had become a notable figure among the coloured 
population of Calvinia. 

It was as a result of the South African War that Esau entered history as an 
individual of stature. Armed hostilities between Britain and the Boer Republics 
rapidly became critical and decisive in his life. By 1900, the expansion of 
commando warfare into the Cape Colony was a growing menace to the lives, 
labour and possessions of black civilians. A siege atmosphere enveloped 
Calvinia, and its coloured inhabitants became intensely anti-Republican and 
pro-British. At the forefront of this mood was the energetic and influential 
Esau, who used his considerable abilities as an orator to rally the villagers 
against the Republican forces and to try to organize armed resistance. In 
September and October 1900, Esau and his associates tried to persuade the 
local resident magistrate, Peter Dreyer, to arm coloured civilians to enable 
them to defend themselves. This plea was refused because of official policy that 
the war was to be a conflict involving only whites. 

A dismayed and angry Esau, his life now wholly intertwined with the local 
struggles of the South African War, immediately sought means of aiding the 
British imperial cause. Journeying to Clanwilliam, he entered into a private 
spying arrangement with Lieutenant James Preston, the special military secret 
agent of the British Army’s Namaqualand Field Force. As trusted individual 


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Esau had little difficulty in recruiting a shadowy band of men and women 
followers. Based in Calvihia from November 1900, he organized his recruits 
into a secret and disciplined intelligence gathering body which supplied 
information through Preston to the Namaqualand Field Force Intelligence 
Department. As one who knew the Calvinia region and its people like the back 
of his hand, Esau worked as an inventive and effective intelligence agent, 
sifting through and storing reports on Boer rebel suspects brought in by his 
spies and informers. 

With the defence of Calvinia always a crucial consideration, he anticipated 
that in return for his loyal service, imperial forces would be ready to protect 
the settlement against any incursion by Boer guerrillas. His hope, however, 
proved futile. 

No one knew better than Esau himself that his pro-British scheming and 
intriguing was known and had earned him the enmity of surrounding alienated 
Boer colonists. Local Republican forces also regarded him as a troublesome 
coloured leader who opposed the Boer cause, while being a prominent British 
collaborator. Early in January 1901, an Orange Free State commando took 
Calvinia without ado and pacified its hostile population. Not surprisingly, Esau 
was singled out for retribution by the Boer commandant, Charles Niewoudt, 
who had issued an arrest warrant before the occupation. Esau was swiftly 
hunted down and imprisoned. His captors tried to force from him information 
about his intelligence network and resistance preparations, and demanded that 
he disown his British allegiance. Esau would not acquiesce. His intransigent 
character, freeborn mentality and absolute obsession with defending the local 
community as a British asset, made it unthinkable for him to betray his 

Esau’s brazen defiance clearly incensed the Niewoudt commando. As a 
standing challenge to the occupying Republican authority he had to be 
eliminated. Therefore, after being beaten by Niewoudt’s men, he was dragged 
to the outskirts of Calvinia where, on 5 February 1901 , he was shot dead by a 
Stephanus Strydom. Esau’s corpse was then brought back to the village where 
scores of mourners came to view the blacksmith who had stood up for them 
and paid with his life. After the commando's withdrawal the following day, he 
was buried with British Army honours. 

Although Esau’s killing was a fairly minor incident in the war, his life and 
wartime conduct became invested with the politically significant meaning of 
martyrdom. His death grew into a cause calibre, providing a symbol of 
coloured loyalty to the British colonial cause. Official recognition of Esau came 
from the British High Commissioner, Sir Alfred Milner*, Cape politicians, and 
from the Anglican Church in Calvinia, which commemorated him in the 
Abraham Esau Memorial Chapel. In contemporary Namaqualand he is still 
remembered as a martyr of the South African War in different oral traditions 
and folk memory. It was his impact in that war which gave historical import- 
ance to his life and achievements. 

Telegram from Sir Alfred Milner to the Secretary of State for War, Relating to the Reported 
Outrage on Esau at Calvinia: British parliamentary papers, Cd. 464, 1901; — The Cape 


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Times Weekly , 13 March 1901; — Lloyds Weekly Newspaper , 20 February 1901; — CJ. 
SCHEEPERS strydom, Kaapland en die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog. Kaapstad, 1937; — b. 
nasson. These natives think this war to be their own: reflections on blacks in the Cape 
Colony and the South African War, 1899-1902. In: The societies of Southern Africa in the 
1 9th and 20th centuries. Vol. II. London, 1981. (Institute of Commonwealth Studies. 
Collected seminar papers, no. 27); — p. Warwick, Black people and the South African War, 
1899-1902. Cambridge, 1983; — w.R. nasson a j.m.m. iohn, Abraham Esau: a Calvinia 
martyr in the Anglo-Boer War. Social dynamics, 11(1), 1985; — K. schoeman, Die dood 
van Abraham Esau: ooggetuieberigte uit die besette Calvinia, 1901 . Quarterly bulletin of the 
South African Library, 40(2), 1985; — I. ooldin, Making race: the politics and economics 
of coloured identity in South Africa. Cape Town, 1987; — B. nasson. The war of Abraham 
Esau, 1899-1901: martyrdom, myth and folk memory in Calvinia, South Africa. African 
affairs, 87(347), 1988; — B. nasson, Abraham Esau's war, 1899-1901: martyrdom, myth 
and folk memory in Calvinia, South Africa. In: R. samuel a p. Thompson (eds). The myths 
we live by. London & New York, 1990; — B. nasson, Abraham Esau's war: a black South 
African war in the Cape, 1899-1902. Cambridge & Cape Town, 1991. 


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F1NCKEN, Mary Eveline (*Hoyland, Yorkshire, England, 27 April 1882- 

fCape Town, 15 June 1955), singer (contralto), 
teacher of singing and educationist, was the eldest 
daughter of Christopher William Fincken and his 
wife. She was born of a musical family. Her grand- 
father and his sons were amateur organ builders and 
musicians; her father was a fine amateur organist. 
Her mother’s family included a number of singers in 
choral societies in northern England, one of her 
aunts being a singing teacher. 

She attended school at Sheffield and Manchester 
where she distinguished herself as a talented singer. 
At the age of seventeen, in 1899, she won a gold 
medal at an eisteddfod in Manchester and this made 
her decide on a singing career. In 1903 she was appointed assistant teacher at 
Gunnusbury High School in London. In the same year she won a scholarship 
to study singing at the Royal Academy of Music (RAM), obtaining the LRAM 
(Licentiate of the Royal Academy of Music) in 1905. In the same year she 
made her debut in a concert with the Queen’s Hall Orchestra conducted by 
Henry Wood. A series of engagements in London and other parts of England 
followed, including a performance as soloist in Elijah. She also obtained an 
appointment as singing mistress at Wentworth Hall, a ladies’ finishing school. 

The English climate was seriously affecting Fincken’s health, however, and 
she was advised to visit South Africa. She arrived in 1908 and eventually 
decided to settle here. Shortly after her arrival in 1908 she sang in the Cape 
Town City Hall. Later she also sang in other major centres in the interior, such 
as Bloemfontein which she visited in October and November 1911. 

In Cape Town Fincken was one of the first staff members of the South 
African College of Music. When the college was incorporated into the South 
African College (University of Cape Town) in 1912, she was appointed senior 
lecturer in singing. Among her distinguished pupils were Cecilia Wessels*, 
Jessie Sonnenberg and Albina Bini. 

She devoted herself increasingly to education, arranging music education 
tours under the aegis of the Education Department, and later also university 
extension courses in music which were coupled with concert tours to various 
Cape centres. From the proceeds of these concerts she established the first 


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overseas scholarships for students at the college. 

Closely linked to her educational work was the Melodic Society which she 
founded in 191 1 and of which she was the life president, as well as the Eveline 
Fincken Ladies’ Choir which she created and conducted. She was also a co- 
founder of the Women’s Business and Efficiency Club. In recognition of her 
advancement of a musical culture in South Africa, the RAM conferred on her 
an honorary ARAM (Associate of the Royal Academy of Music) in 1920. She 
was a member of the New Education Fellowship, as well as a member of the 
South African Society of Music Teachers for which she organized the music 
section during the World Conference in South Africa in 1932. 

When her health started failing Fincken retired from the college in 1935. 
Before returning to England she gave a farewell concert in the Cape Town City 
Hall. In London she opened two hostels, called the Clarendon Clubs, for 
overseas students. These hostels were, however, bombed during the Second 
World War (1939-1945). She returned to South Africa in 1943 and resumed 
teaching singing, revived her ladies’ choir and arranged concerts. 

She bequeathed her collection of music to the black section of the Cape 
Town Public Library. The South African Broadcasting Corporation paid tribute 
to her pioneering work as an artist of the microphone from 1924 when 
broadcasting started in the Cape. 

w.h.K., The arts in South Africa. Durban, [1934]; — South African Society of Music 
Teachers: members' directory. The South African music teacher , 41, December 1951; — 
The Eveline Fincken Vocal Library Foundation. The South African music teacher , 41, 
December 1951; — Obituaries: The Cape Argus, 15 June 1955; The Star, 15 June 1955; — 
In memoriam. The South African music teacher, 49, December 1955; — J.P. MALAN (ed.), 
South African music encyclopedia, 2. Cape Town, 1982. 

FIRST, Ileloise Ruth (*Johannesburg, 4 May 1925— tMaputo, Mozambique, 

17 August 1982), journalist, academic and political 
activist, was the daughter of Jewish immigrants 
Julius and Matilda First. Julius, a furniture manu- 
facturer, was born in Latvia and came to South 
Africa in 1906. He and his wife were founder 
members of the Communist Party of South Africa 
(CPSA, South African Communist Party (SACP) 
after 1953). Ruth and her brother, Ronald, grew up 
in a household in which intense political debate 
between people of all races and classes was always 

After matriculating from Jeppe High School for 
Girls, First attended the University of the Witwa- 
tersrand, Johannesburg, from 1942 to 1946, obtaining a B.A. (Social Studies) 
with firsts in sociology, anthropology, economic history and native administra- 
tion. Her fellow students included Nelson Mandela, Eduardo Mondlane 
(Mozambican freedom fighter and the first leader of FRELIMO), Joe Slovo, 
J.N. Singh (executive member of both the Natal and South African Indian 


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Congress), and Ismail Meer (a former secretary-general of the South African 
Indian Congress). First helped found the Federation of Progressive Students 
and served as secretary to the Young Communist League, the Progressive 
Youth Council and, for a short while, the Johannesburg branch of the CPSA. 

In 1947 First worked, briefly, for the Johannesburg City Council, but left 
because she could not agree with the actions of the council. She then became 
Johannesburg editor of the left-wing weekly newspaper, The Guardian. As a 
journalist she specialized in exposd reporting and her incisive articles about 
slave-like conditions on Bethal potato farms, the women’s anti-pass campaign, 
migrant labour, bus boycotts and slum conditions remain among the finest 
pieces of social and labour journalism of the 1950s. 

Having grown up in a political aware home. First’s political involvement 
never abated. Apart from the activities already mentioned, she did support 
work for the 1946 mineworkers’ strike, the Indian Passive Resistance campaign 
and protests surrounding the outlawing of communism in 1950. First was a 
Marxist with a wide internationalist perspective. She travelled to China, the 
USSR and countries in Africa, experiences which she documented and 
analyzed. She was central to debates within the Johannesburg Discussion Club 
which led to the formation of the underground SACP (of which First was a 
member) and to closer links between the SACP and the African National 
Congress (ANC). 

In 1953 First helped found the Congress of Democrats, the white wing of 
the Congress Alliance, and she took over as editor of Fighting talk, a journal 
supporting the alliance. She was on the drafting committee of the Freedom 
Charter, but was unable to attend the Congress of the People at Kliptown in 
1955 because of a banning order. In 1956 both First and her husband, Joe 
Slovo, were arrested and charged with treason. The trial lasted four years after 
which all 156 accused were acquitted. 

First considered herself to be primarily a labour reporter, and during the 
1950s she was producing up to fifteen stories a week. Despite this high work 
rate, her writing remained vivid, accurate and often controversial. Her 
investigative journalism was the basis of her longer pamphlets and, later, her 
books. The transition to more complex writing came easily. 

During the state of emergency following the Sharpeville shootings of March 
1960 First fled to Swaziland with her children, returning after the emergency 
was lifted six months later to continue as Johannesburg editor of New Age 
(successor to The Guardian). In the following two years she wrote South West 
Africa, a book which remains the most incisive history of early Namibia. 
During this time she helped to organize the first broadcasts of Radio Freedom 
from a mobile transmitter in Johannesburg. In 1963 First was detained 
following arrests of members of the underground ANC, the SACP and 
Umkhonto we Sizwe in Rivonia. In the trial which followed, political leaders 
such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Govan Mbeki were sentenced to 
life imprisonment. However, First was not among the accused. She was 
detained in solitary confinement under the notorious 90-day clause, during 
which she attempted suicide. Her father fled South Africa and soon after her 
release First also left with her children to join her husband, who had already 


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fled the country, in Britain. 

The family settled in North London and First threw herself into anti- 
apartheid politics, holding talks, seminars and public discussions in support of 
the ANC and SACP. Her book 117 days , an account of her arrest and 
interrogation in 1963, was made into a film with First acting as herself. 

During the 1960s First researched and edited Mandela’s No easy walk to 
freedom (1967), Mbeki’s The peasant’s revolt (1967) and Oginda Odinga’s Not 
yet uhuru (for which she was deported from Kenya). With Ronald Segal she 
edited South West Africa: travesty of trust (1967). From 1973 First lectured for 
six years at Durham University, England, on the sociology of underdevelop- 

In the 1970s she published The barrel of a gun: the politics of coups d’etat 
in Africa (1970), followed by Libya: the elusive revolution (1974), The 
Mozambican miner: a study in the export of labour (1977), and, with others, 
The South African connection: Western investment in apartheid (1972). It was 
during this time that she read contemporary feminist ideas, work which was to 
bear fruit in the beautifully crafted biography of Olive Schreiner which she 
wrote with Anne Scott (1980). Many of these works were landmarks in Marxist 
academic debate. 

In 1977 First was appointed professor and research director of the Centre 
for African Studies at the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, Mozam- 
bique. She began work on the lives of migrant labourers, particularly those 
who worked on the South African gold mines. The results of this study were 
published as Black gold: the Mozambican miner (1983). 

Following a UNESCO conference at the centre in 1982, First was killed by 
a letter bomb widely believed to have originated from military sources within 
South Africa. Until her death she remained a ‘listed’ communist and could not 
be quoted in South Africa. Her close friend, Ronald Segal, described her death 
as "the final act of censorship". Her funeral in Maputo was attended by 
presidents, members of parliament and ambassadors from 34 countries. 

In 1949 First married Joe Slovo, a lawyer and labour organizer and, like 
her, a communist. Throughout the 1950s their home in Roosevelt Park was an 
important centre for multiracial political gatherings. They had three daughters: 
Shawn (who was to script a film about her mother called A world apart), 
Gillian (who based her novel, Ties of blood, on her family) and Robyn. Their 
childhood was constantly unsettled by house searches and the banning and 
arrest of their parents by the police. 

Despite her public profile and wide contacts, First remained a private 
person. She had a brilliant intellect and did not suffer fools gladly. Her sharp 
criticism and her impatience with bluster earned her enemies and she was often 
feared in political debate. But she was not dogmatic. Her willingness to take up 
a position she considered to be just was not always welcomed within the ANC 
or SACP. Her shyness, her anxieties, her vulnerable abundance of generosity 
and love were unsuspected by those who only knew her as confident and 
commanding in a public context. With friends she was warm and sensitive. She 
loved good clothes (particularly Italian shoes) and was an excellent cook. 
However, contradictions between her politics and her role as a mother caused 



strains in her family which are evident in the later works of her daughters. 

Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, England: Ruth First Trust 
collection; — Cory Library for Historical Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown; — 
R. segal. Political Africa: a who’s who of personalities and parties. London, 1961; — T. 
karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa. 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — G. 
williams, Ruth First: a socialist and scholar. Lecture to the African Studies Centre, Boston 
University, November 1982; — w. kodesh, Ruth First and New Age. Sechaba, October 
1982; — Obituaries: The annual obituary (UK), 1982; Morning Star, 24 August 1982; New 
Society, 26 August 1982; Index on Censorship, (6), 1982; New Statesman, 27 August 1982; 
Sechaba, October 1982; Feminist Review, Spring 1983; This Magazine, December 1983; 
Hecate, 10(1), 1984; — G. MBEKI, Learning from Robben Island: the prison writings of 
Govan Mbeki. London, 1991; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. 
London, 1991; — d. pinnock, Ruth First: journalist of the left. (Forthcoming). 

FISHER, Percy (*Durham, England, 1891— tFordsburg, Johannesburg, 14 

March 1922), miner and strike leader, was the son 
of W. Fisher and his wife, Lily Maleham. Little is 
known about his background, education or training. 

Fisher arrived in Cape Town by ship on 1 Jan- 
uary 1912 at the age of 20. On reaching the Witwa- 
tersrand he found underground employment on the 
mines, where he soon became involved in trade 
union activities. From 1914 to 1922 he was a mem- 
ber of the South African Industrial Federation 

Early in the 1920s a spirit of defiance took root 
among the mineworkers, probably because of the 
activities of the trades representatives’ committees. 
As the leaders of these committees, Fisher and Ernest Shaw were responsible 
for instigating the 1920 lightning strike at the City Deep gold mine. Fisher was 
the secretary of the strike committee and Shaw was its chairperson. Fisher 
regarded the success of the strike as a victory for the leaders of the smaller 
unions over the central management of the SAIF and therefore decided to seek 
election as secretary of the South African Mineworkers’ Union (SAMWU). He 
was elected but was soon forced to resign because of irregularities during the 
election. His short period in office was marked by serious clashes with the 
executive of the SAMWU as a result of his preference for direct action rather 
than reconciliation councils and negotiations as a means of solving industrial 
disputes. His active attempts at undermining the authority of the union 
management continued even after the election was declared invalid. 

In January 1921 when a shift-boss, T. Langley, was transferred after 
complaints had been lodged against him, Fisher, Shaw and others formed a 
strike committee and called a strike. Fisher hoped that this would lead to a 
general strike involving all the gold mines on the Witwatersrand, which would 
force the SAMWU to take direct action. On 7 February 1921 miners at ten 
mines went on strike while Fisher and others held inflammatory meetings all 


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over the Witwatersrand. However, the SAMWU warned workers against 
unconstitutional actions and Fisher’s campaign gradually began to lose 
momentum. After succeeding in ending the strike, the SAMWU made an 
unsuccessful attempt at taking disciplinary action against Fisher. On 24 June 
1921 Fisher, supported by other persons with extremist views, established the 
Action Council of mineworkers in the Johannesburg City Hall for the purpose 
of keeping an eye on the activities of the SAMWU. Their manifesto clearly 
indicated their intention to replace the trade union organization with a commu- 
nist organization and to destroy the capitalist system. 

Following the announcement by the Chamber of Mines on 3 January 1922 
of its intention to decrease the white labour force by 2 000, Fisher felt 
convinced that the actual figure would be much higher and promptly began 
spreading a rumour to this effect. When the strike broke out, Fisher was 
regarded as the main leader of the revolutionary movement, and under his 
leadership it was the Action Council and not the SAIF that made the first 
move. On 10 January 1922 they held the only formal meeting of the entire 
strike in the Trades Hall and on this occasion joined forces with the SAIF. This 
was followed on 18 January 1922 by a public meeting of the Action Council 
outside the Johannesburg City Hall, on which occasion Fisher addressed the 

On the basis of instructions given to the Action Council at public meetings 
on 5 February 1922, Fisher and a number of other leaders met with members 
of parliament (MPs) of the National and the Labour parties the following day 
and requested them to seize control of the state, proclaim a republic and put an 
end to capitalist rule. However, the MPs were not prepared to take extraparlia- 
mentary action and Fisher and his supporters therefore decided to advance the 
strike more actively. 

During the first week of February Fisher visited the rural areas to garner 
support for the strike, and nearly clashed with the police when he addressed a 
meeting in Heilbron. Despite measures taken by the police, Fisher announced 
a march by strikers from Township Hotel to City Deep gold mine which was 
to take place on 8 February 1922. On the morning of the planned march 
Fisher, Shaw, H. Spendiff and other strikers were arrested. They appeared in 
court but were refused bail and were held in custody until 22 February 1922. 

By the beginning of March 1922 the strike had become so extensive that the 
official strike leaders in the enlarged executive of the SAIF started losing 
control of events. Pressurized by the Chamber of Mines they agreed to a vote 
among the miners to determine whether or not the strike should be called off. 
However, Fisher opposed this move and managed to gain the support of the 
Action Council and the strikers’ commandos in preventing it. On 3 March 1922 
Fisher and others, including Morris Kentridge*, hoped to make certain 
proposals to General J.C. Smuts* regarding the ending of the strike, but he 
refused to meet with them. As a result, the Action Council established an 
Action Committee. Fisher, who was the driving force behind this committee, 
was one of the strike leaders. On 6 March 1922 they forced the enlarged 
executive of the SAIF to call a general strike which was followed by a total 
collapse of law and order. Fisher was regarded as the main strategist; his 



ultimate aim was the overthrow of the government. 

Subsequent to the declaration of Martial Law on 10 March 1922 Fisher, 
who at that stage was known as ‘Fisher of Fordsburg’, organized and led strike 
commandos in Fordsburg, Langlaagte, Brixton and Ferreirasdorp. With 
Spendiff he turned the Central Hall of the Fordsburg market building into a 
fort. On 14 March 1922 the government forces gained the upper hand in 
Fordsburg after a number of bloody fights. The bodies of Fisher and Spendiff 
were found inside Central Hall. Both had died from bullet wounds, but it was 
never determined whether they had committed suicide or whether they had been 
fatally wounded during the fighting. 

As a leading figure during the strike, Fisher had a particular ability to incite 
the masses. He was considered an extremist as he maintained close links with 
the International Socialist League, predecessor of the Communist Party of 
South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953). 

Although Fisher was never married he did have a relationship with a 
woman— Christina Avelina Grainger — who was generally known as ‘Mrs 
Fisher’. She was his sole heir. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 48481; — The Star , 2 February 1923; — j.a.g. 
coetzee. Industrial relations in South Africa. Cape Town, 1976; — R.K. cope. Comrade 
Bill: the life and times ofW.H. Andrews, workers' leader. Cape Town, 1944; — l.L. walker 
& b.weinbren, 2 OOO casualties: a history of the trade unions and labour movement in the 
Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1961; — N. HERD, 1922: the revolt on the Hand. Jo- 
hannesburg, 1966; — m.a. Dll TOIT, South African trade unions: history, legislation, policy. 
Johannesburg, 1976; — A.G. oberholster, Die mynwerkerstaking 1922. Pretoria, 1982. 

FOURIE, Pierre Jacy (*Malvern, Johannesburg, 26 June 1943— fMaraisburg, 

21 June 1980), boxer, and the first white boxer to 
fight against a black opponent in South Africa, was 
the son of Petrus Fourie and his Welsh wife, Violet 

Fourie grew up in a poor environment and was 
only thirteen years old when his father died. The 
eldest son, Martin, who earned but a meagre 
income, took over the role of breadwinner of the 

As a youngster Fourie learnt in numerous street 
fights to defend himself with his fists. In 1965 he 
took up boxing under trainer and manager, Alan 
Toweel, and after a number of amateur fights joined 
the professional boxing ranks on 2 May 1966. He won his very first fight with 
a knockout in the first round. The partnership between Fourie and Toweel, one 
of the most successful in the history of South African boxing, continued 
throughout the eleven years of Fourie’s career as a boxer. 

In his 60 professional fights, Fourie distinguished himself as a hard but 
clean and scientific boxer rather than a rough fighter. He gained 52 victories, 
in most cases on points, one fight ended in a draw and he was beaten in seven 


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fights (of which four were for the world title). In the process he won two South 
African titles, those of middle and light heavyweight, eventually surrendering 
both titles without having been defeated. Fourie was knocked down only twice 
in his career: in 1972 by the Mexican, Amado Vasquez, for a count of eight, 
and during his last fight on 19 March 1977 when he was knocked out by the 
heavyweight, Gerrie Coetzee, the only time during his entire career. 

Fourie’s popularity and fame are mainly the result of his creditable and 
courageous performances in the altogether 60 rounds of his four fights for the 
light-heavyweight title of the World Boxing Association against the defending 
world champions. Bob Foster of the United States of America (USA) and 
Victor Galindez of Argentina. In each of these four fights over fifteen rounds, 
Fourie was beaten on points: by Foster on 21 August 1973 in Albuquerque 
(USA) and on 1 December 1973 in the Rand Stadium; by Galindez on 5 April 
1975 at Ellispark (Johannesburg) and on 13 September 1975 in the Rand 
Stadium. The second fight between Fourie and Foster on 1 December 1973 was 
the first between a white and black boxer in South Africa and constituted a 
breakthrough for the removal of racial discrimination in professional boxing. 
At the time the attendance figure of 37 4704 spectators, the gate money of 
approximately R500 000, and the guaranteed purse of 200 000 dollars to 
Foster, were world records for the light-heavyweight division. 

Fourie lived with his family on Albuquerque Ranch on the southern 
outskirts of Johannesburg. Out of the ring he was a gentle man for whom 
family, friends, the work on the farm and mechanical hobbies were of great 
importance. He died when his car struck a fence at Cecil Payne Park, 

Fourie married Julia Meintjes in 1962. A son and three daughters were born 
of the marriage. 

C. greyvenstein, Pierre Fourie: my life of violence. Topsport, November 1977-March 
1978; — Obituary: Beeld, 23 June 1980; — c. greyvenstein. The fighters. Cape Town, 
1981; — Private information: Mrs Julia Fourie (wife), Johannesburg. 

FRANKS, Esther (’•'Zurich, Switzerland, 17 May 1900— fPretoria, 22 June 

1972), physician and first woman ophthalmic sur- 
geon to practise in South Africa, and pioneer in the 
fight against blindness. She was one of six children, 
three of whom qualified in medicine. Her parents 
emigrated to South Africa from Russia via England 
and Switzerland. They landed at Port Elizabeth 
shortly after Franks was born and then moved to Jo- 
hannesburg where her father became a draper in 

Franks attended high school in Johannesburg and 
registered as a medical student at the University of 
the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in 1918. She was 
elected a member of the first Student Representative 


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Council of the university. In 1925 she was the second woman to graduate in 
medicine at the university, Susan Blake being the first only on account of the 
alphabet. Franks was the first woman ophthalmologist in South Africa. She 
received her postgraduate training in ophthalmology at the Johannesburg 
Hospital where she soon became intensely concerned about the social and 
ocular implications of trachoma. During her training she was daily exposed to 
many cases of this disease, as well as other causes of curable blindness. 

Within a few years she moved to Pretoria and with some friends she opened 
a small workshop for the blind beggars of that city in 1928. In the same year 
A.W. Blaxall, missionary secretary of the Anglican Church, started to co- 
ordinate the work of several small groups in different parts of the country into 
what was to become the South African National Council for the Blind 
(SANCB) in 1929. 

In the late 1930s Franks became involved with the wbrk of the SANCB. 
The welfare of blind persons and the many ramifications of welfare work 
among rural blacks became her main interest, although she ran a busy private 
practice in Pretoria and was honorary consultant at the Pretoria General 
Hospital (H.F. Verwoerd Hospital). In 1941 she and Blaxall carried out a small 
rural survey which confirmed what her brother, Dr Maurice Franks, had found 
in 1939: there were several aspects of eye disease in rural areas which could 
either be prevented or remedied if suitable medical care were available. During 
the Second World War (1939-1945) ophthalmic services were, however, being 
utilized in other directions, but after the war the urgency of local problems was 
exposed. A subsidiary of the SANCB was formed to provide medical eye 
services for the rural areas. Franks was elected to the first committee of this 
subsidiary, the Bureau for the Prevention of Blindness, as one of two 
ophthalmologists. In 1952, when the first mobile clinic of the bureau left 
Pretoria, with the blessing of Mrs Maria Malan, wife of Prime Minister Dr 
D.F. Malan*, Franks accompanied the unit. She was extremely dedicated and 
often operated continuously for eighteen hours a day. 

In 1971 Franks was awarded the R.W. Bowen medal of the SANCB for her 
pioneering work in the fight against blindness. Later that year she was 
adjudged Woman of the Year by the readers of the Johannesburg newspaper 
The Star for her outstanding work in restoring sight to thousands of rural 

Franks married Philip Lapin, a well-known Pretoria attorney, on 4 January 
1933. They had no children. She died of a heart attack and was survived by 
her husband. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 6006/72; — Personal papers of Esther 
Franks lent by her nephew Peter Franks; — Records of the South African National Council 
for the Blind: M. franks, In memoriam: Dr Esther Franks, 1900-1972; — The Star , 15 
October 1952; — R.W. Bowen Medal citation from the South African Council for the Blind, 
1971; — The Star, 29 January 1971, 12 November 1971 & 8 December 1971; — She gave 
them light. South African Digest, 7 January 1972; — Obituary: The Star, 22 June 1972; 
Imfama, 12(4), August 1972; South African medical journal, 46(34), 26 August 1972; — 
Private information: Medical Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. 


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Louisa Ida (Minna) (*Gliicksberg, Schleswig- 
Holstein, Germany, 17 March 1890— fBloemfon- 
tein, 6 December 1938), actress and teacher of 
elocution, was the youngest child of John Freund 
and Metha Mentzel, German immigrants who met in 
Philippolis and married and settled there in the late 
1870s. The family was on a visit to Schleswig- 
Holstein when Freund was born. 

She attended Milbum House, a school for 
‘young ladies’ in Claremont, Cape Town. After that 
she spent some years in Edinburgh, Scotland. Her 
schooling completed, she studied under Elsie Fog- 
erty at the Central School of Speech Training and 
Dramatic Art in London from 1909 to about 1911. 
While in London, she befriended Sybil Thorndike and Lewis Casson, who were 
to visit her in Bloemfontein some 22 years later while on tour with their the- 
atrical company. During her stay in London she appeared at the Albert Hall 
and the Lyceum Theatre (in the play Atalanta) with such notable actors and 
actresses as Lena Ashwell, F.R. Benson and Herbert Beerbohm Tree. 

On returning to South Africa in 1912 she was appointed as teacher of 
elocution at the South African College of Music in Cape Town— the first 
person in South Africa with the requisite qualifications for such a post— while 
also teaching at the Good Hope Seminary, St Cyprian’s School, the Wynberg 
Girls’ High School and the EUersley School for Girls. Shortly after Prof. W.H. 
Bell* became principal of the college in 1912, he appointed Freund as head of 
the Department of Speech Training. She organized the courses for teachers of 
elocution, assisted by Dolly de Marillac and others, and was at the centre of a 
lively group of amateur and professional actors and actresses who staged a 
variety of plays at regular intervals in Cape Town in the first quarter of the 
twentieth century. Among their productions were the fantasy Prunella, or, Love 
in a French garden and As you like it, the latter being performed in the garden 
of Kelvin Grove, a private residence at the time. (This could quite possibly 
have been the first open-air production of Shakespeare in Cape Town, a 
forerunner of the now regular Maynardville seasons.) A midsummer night’s 
dream was staged at the city hall with an orchestra conducted by Theo Wendt*. 

Freund trained the cast for the first production by W.H. Bell of Everyman 
in the old Stal Plein Hotel that originally housed the college. The stage was 
constructed from ordinary class-room platforms, and Everyman’s grave was 
arranged by parting two platforms, the actor playing Everyman having to 
crouch until the end of the performance to remain out of sight. The cast 
included Pauline de Wet (as Everyman), Gladys Lazarus (as Death), Johannes 
Fagan* and William J. Pickerill*. She also assisted Bell in producing his 
second play, Hippolytus, by Euripides. This company of ‘Dining Room 
Players’, as they became known, thereafter moved to the Hiddingh Hall. 

During the First World War (1914-1918) Freund organized and took part 
in various entertainments in aid of the war funds. After the war she undertook 
a concert tour with Criemhilt Hahn, an accomplished violinist, and Annice 


FREUND, Wilhelmina 

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Wright, a pianist. They provided the musical parts of the programme while 
Freund presented dramatic excerpts from As you like it and other Shakespear- 
ean plays. Their itinerary included Johannesburg, Bloemfontein and Kimberley, 
as well as such lesser towns of the Orange Free State (OFS) as Brandfort, 
Koffiefontein, Fauresmith and Philippoiis, no doubt because Freund’s parents, 
residents of Luckhoff for many years, were well known in these parts. 

After her wedding Freund presented programmes and readings in Bloemfon- 
tein for many years. One of her talks was on the concept of a state theatre, 
possibly the first time this topic was raised in a South African context. In her 
address she discussed the ‘talkies’ (cinema) and their influence on the legit- 
imate theatre and referred to a letter she had received from Sybil Thorndike, 
who mentioned a campaign to establish a state theatre in Britain and spoke 
about the concept of a ‘little theatre’. She saw Cape Town as the appropriate 
home for a state theatre in South Africa, but did not live to see the creation of 
the National Theatre Organization in 1950. 

In June 1927 she married Christiaan Lourens Botha*, judge president of the 
OFS. They had two daughters. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Bloemfontein: Estate no. 30440; — Central Archives, 
Pretoria: Theatre collection; — Obituaries: The Cape Argus, 6 December 1938; Die 
Volksblad, 6 Desember 1938; The Star, 7 December 1938; — J. packer, Pack and follow. 
London, 1950; — R. van der oucht. Elocution and speech-training. In: Standard 
encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, 4. Cape Town, 1971. 


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GERSTMAN, Blanche Wilhelminia (*Cape Town, 2 April 1910 — tCape 

Town, 11 August 1973), composer, double bass 
player, pianist, accompanist and lecturer. She was 
born of English parents but was brought up by 
foster parents whose name she adopted at the age of 

She commenced harmony lessons at the age of 
twelve with C.V.N.G. Hely-Hutchinson*. After she 
had matriculated at the Good Hope Seminary School 
in Cape Town, she was awarded a bursary which 
enabled her to study for a B.Mus. degree at the 
South African College of Music. Here she was 
coached in composition by Prof. W.H. Bell* and 
received piano tuition from Colin Taylor. 

At the early age of eighteen Gerstman composed her first significant work, 
Hellas, for female chorus, solo soprano and orchestra. It was performed at the 
Cape Town City Hall in 1928. In 1930 she received her Teacher’s Licentiate 
Diploma in Music, and in 1932 she became the first student to graduate with 
a B.Mus. degree from the University of Cape Town. 

In about 1936 she was appointed official pianist, accompanist and pro- 
gramme compiler to the South African Broadcasting Corporation. After about 
ten years of active broadcasting, Gerstman became a lecturer in harmony and 
counterpoint at the South African College of Music. 

With her return to the college she developed an active interest in the double 
bass. She became a proficient player and a popular principal performer on the 
double bass in the Cape Town Symphony Orchestra. In 1950 she left the 
university and accepted the position as principal double bass player in the 
orchestra. In the same year, however, she won a Performing Rights Society 
Scholarship of £300 to study musical composition for one year at the Royal 
Academy of Music in London, England, under Howard Ferguson. 

In 1951 she returned to Cape Town and in August that year she resumed 
her position as principal double bass player in the city orchestra. She remained 
there until 1961, when she was appointed lecturer in harmony and counterpoint 
in the Music Department of the University of Pretoria. In 1963 she resigned 
from this position and joined the Durban Civic Orchestra. She returned to Cape 


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Town and the South African College of Music as a part-time lecturer in har- 
mony and counterpoint in 1964. Eventually, in 1968, Gerstman resumed her 
position as double bass player in the Cape Town Municipal Orchestra. 

Gerstman’s compositions show various stylistic influences and a widely 
fluctuating standard of artistic achievement. She was characteristically warmly 
romantic with wilfully dissonant concessions to the twentieth century. Some of 
her works exhibited a convincing standard of technical finish. It might be of 
interest to quote her own view of the composer as a person of whom "the 
essential things ... are a high measure of intelligence, a sensitive and selective 
self-criticism, a feeling for beauty in all its aspects in nature or humanity, 
logic, balance, the whole gamut of emotions and, of course, a warm-hearted, 
all-enveloping love". 

The highlights of her compositions were some of her vocal and sacred 
works, with the Christmas season posing a great attraction for her. The poems 
she set to music were in German, English and Afrikaans— one of the Afrikaans 
poems she set to music twice, namely ‘Boodskap aan Maria’. She produced 
excellent orchestrations for ballet, such as Don Quichotte. Her compositions 
are listed in volume two of the South African music encyclopedia and in the 
International encyclopedia of women composers (both infra). 

Gerstman never married and was survived by a brother. 

d. de viluers, Blanche Gerstman: ons grootste Suid-Afrikaanse vrouekomponis. Huishou- 
ding, 1(2), Januarie 1947; — J. bouws, Suid-Afrikaanse komponiste van vandag en gister. 
Kaapstad, 1957; — j.p. malan, Blanche Gerstman. (Musiekpersoonlikhede). Res musicae, 
7(3), June 1961; — j.h. potgieter, ’n Analitiese oorsig van die Afrikaanse kunslied met 
klem op die werke van Nepgen, Gerstman, Van Wyk en Du Plessis. O.Mus. thesis. 
University of Pretoria, 1967; — J. bouws, Komponiste van Suid-Afrika. Stellenbosch, 1971; 
— Obituaries: Die Burger, 13 Augustus 1973; The Argus, 13 August 1973; Opus, 5(1), 
October/November 1973; — C.L. venter, Suid-Afrikaanse klaviermusiek: 'n kultuurhistoriese 
en srylanalitiese studie. D.Mus. thesis. Potchefstroom University for CHE, 1977; — j.p. 
malan (ed.). South African music encyclopedia, 2. Cape Town, 1982; — H. van der spuy, 
‘Nerina’, for piano solo (Blanche Gerstman), Musicus, 8(2), 1980; — A. I. COHEN, Interna- 
tional encyclopedia of women composers. New York & London, 1981; — M.D. nabarro, 
Blanche Gerstman and Rosa Nepgen. (South African composers, no. 5). Scenario, (53), June 

GOMAS, John Stephen (*Abbotsdale, Malmesbury district, 8 April 1901— 
tCape Town, 25 April 1979), trade unionist and political activist, was the only 
son of David Gomas and his wife Elizabeth Erasmus. Gomas spent the first ten 
years of his life at Abbotsdale, an Anglican mission station in the Malmesbury 
district. He was raised by his mother, his father having abandoned the family 
while Gomas was but a few years old. 

In 1911 his mother moved to Kimberley to improve their prospects for 
advancement. Gomas attended school, but three years later, with the outbreak 
of the First World War (1914-1918), he was forced to abandon his schooling 
to help support the family because the main breadwinner of the household had 
enlisted with the Cape Corps. After short stints of hawking fruit and vegetables 
and working as a shop assistant, Gomas entered an apprenticeship at a taylor’s 


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workshop in 1915. 

Here Gomas was introduced to the politics of 
labour by his employer, Myer Gordon, a Russian 
immigrant and socialist. Having imbibed Gordon’s 
political teachings about the contradictions of capi- 
talism and the exploitation of workers it is not sur- 
prising that Gomas was swept up in the social 
conflict and working-class political action that ac- 
companied the rapid industrialization attendant upon 
the outbreak of World War I (1914-1918). In 1919 
he joined the International Socialist League (ISL), 
the South African Native National Council (SANNC, African National 
Congress (ANC) after 1923), as well as the Industrial and Commercial 
Workers’ Union (ICU). Towards the end of that year Gomas also had his first 
taste of industrial action when tHe ISL established a branch of the Clothing 
Workers’ Industrial Union (CWIU) in Kimberley. In response to a call by this 
union, taylors at several firms, including those at Gordon’s, came out in a 
successful strike at the end of 1919. These experiences transformed the quiet, 
bookish youth into a rebel and vociferous champion of workers’ rights. 
Gomas’s rebelliousness spilled over into crime and he spent three months in jail 
during 1920 upon being convicted of burglary and attempting to escape from 

Wanting to make a fresh start, Elizabeth and her son moved to Cape Town 
upon his release from prison. Working privately from home as a taylor, Gomas 
was also active in the ICU, the ANC and the Taylors’ Industrial Union. 
Attracted by its militancy and mass appeal, he became a full-time organizer for 
the ICU in 1923 and was elected its provincial secretary for the Western Cape 
two years later. In addition, Gomas joined the Communist Party of South 
Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) in January 
1925 and was elected the organization’s Cape provincial secretary in December 
of that year. He subsequently did much to foster communism within the ranks 
of the ANC, especially after becoming its vice-president for the Western Cape 
in 1927. Moreover, Gomas was at the forefront of the CPSA’s endeavours to 
organize the fledgeling trade union movement among black workers during the 
latter half of the 1920s. Recognized as one of the most radical members of the 
organization, Gomas was expelled from the ICU in a purge of CPSA members 
in December 1926. During 1927 Gomas served a second three-months’ jail 
sentence after being convicted under the ‘racial hostility’ clause (no. 29) of the 
1927 Native Administration Act. This was his punishment for organizing and 
addressing a meeting at Paarl to protest the killing of an African and the 
wounding of another who fled when a white policeman demanded to see their 

After his expulsion from the ICU, Gomas worked indefatigably as organizer 
and recruiter for the CPSA. Although at first opposed to the CPSA’s so-called 
native republic policy because it contradicted orthodox Marxist doctrine, he 
was won over to it upon reflecting on the upsurge in segregationism in the 
preceding years and by the persuasion of James la Guma*, a close political ally 


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he had met in the ICU. This was an important turning point in Gomas’s 
ideological development for he was to become increasingly Africanist in his 
outlook, insisting that blacks themselves needed to take the initiative in their 
liberation. The idea of establishing a black republic as an interim step in the 
attainment of a communist society appealed to the pragmatist in Gomas because 
he felt it would harness the nationalist aspirations of blacks to the workers’ 
cause and because it justified his co-operation with the reformist ANC. In the 
process he progressively alienated the white leadership within the CPSA by 
accusing them of having a condescending attitude towards blacks and not doing 
enough to promote the emergence of black leaders within the movement. 

During the 1930s Gomas was involved in a number of protests and a wide 
range of radical political activity. Frustrated with the conservatism of the ANC 
leadership, Gomas together with other radicals such as Bransby Ndobc and 
Elliot Tonjeni, formed the Independent ANC (IANC) in 1930 with a view to 
conducting a more militant campaign against white supremacism. The IANC 
had considerable success in organizing workers in both urban and rural areas 
of the Western Cape before the initiative was crushed by the state. In the early 
1930s Gomas was also prominent in establishing and subsequently running the 
South African Garment Workers’ Union (SAGWU) based in Cape Town. One 
of Gomas’s more noteworthy escapades during this period occurred on 6 March 
1931, the ‘International Day of Struggle Against Unemployment’, when he and 
Eddie Roux*, a prominent member of the CPSA, smuggled pamphlets into the 
gallery of the House of Assembly that they showered down on the members of 
parliament sitting below. Suffering merely a rough ejection from the parliament 
buildings on this occasion, he paid a higher price for his bravado towards the 
latter part of that year when he spent yet another three-month spell in prison 
after being found guilty on a charge of public violence. The charge arose from 
Gomas’s robust attempts to prevent scabs from working during a strike that the 
SAGWU had organized in August 1931. Four years later Gomas once again 
served a prison sentence— this time for six months and with hard labour— for 
distributing pamphlets attacking the twenty-fifth anniversary celebrations of 
King George V’s reign in a manner the court ruled to have impaired the dignity 
of the monarch. 

Between 1933 and 1935 Gomas stayed in Johannesburg to help shore up the 
ailing central structures of the CPSA, returning to Cape Town towards the end 
of 1935. Gomas was also a founder member of the National Liberation League 
(NLL) inaugurated in Cape Town in December 1935. The NLL was a largely 
coloured body with the main aim of uniting blacks into a common front to 
oppose segregation. Gomas worked with enthusiasm to build up the NLL, in 
the process developing a close friendship with Z. (Cissie) Gool*. In the NLL 
tension between Gomas and white leaders within the CPSA were further 
exacerbated as a result of his Africanist leanings. By 1940 Gomas’s disenchant- 
ment with the CPSA was apparent as he started giving greater priority to black 
empowerment within the liberation movement than advancing the class struggle 

Of his varied political activities, trade unionism was closest to Gomas’s 
heart because he regarded it as the most effective means of organizing workers. 


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Besides the immediate benefit of improving living conditions Gomas saw it as 
a potent means of politicizing workers. He considered trade unionism to have 
great revolutionary potential if conducted in a disciplined manner by a 
revolutionary party. From the mid-1920s through to the mid-1940s Gomas was 
involved in the establishment and organization of a large number of trade 
unions in a wide variety of industries, most notably in collaboration with Ray 
Alexander and James la Guma. From 1939 onwards he also served for several 
years as full-time secretary to the Tin Workers’ Union (TWU), as well as the 
Chemical Workers’ Union (CWU). 

Gomas’s estrangement from the CPSA led him to join the Anti-CAD 
movement founded in 1943. This organization, representing the Trotskyist 
faction within the radical left and thus being archrivals of the ‘Stalinist’ CPSA, 
was formed to combat the United Party's segregationist initiative of establishing 
a separate Coloured Affairs Department. Gomas’s association with the Anti- 
CAD did not last long, however, because he remained a member of the CPSA 
and his activism and pragmatic approach to politics did not sit well with the 
purism and relative inertia of the Trotskyists. 

Despite his alienation from the CPSA Gomas retained his membership of 
the organization and publicly supported its initiatives until it was banned in 
1 950. In 1951 he became a founder member of the Franchise Action Commit- 
tee, a broadly based organization formed to oppose the National Party’s 
attempts to remove coloureds from the common voters’ roll. The two-year 
banning order he received in 1952 effectively ended Gomas’s active political 
career by consummating the growing isolation he had been experiencing over 
the previous decade. 

As he grew older Gomas became increasingly confirmed in his Africanist 
views. After his banning he became more convinced than ever that the SACP 
had been too accommodating of the racial prejudices of the white working 
classes and too dismissive of the revolutionary potential of the black petty 
bourgeoisie. It is therefore not surprising that he took to reading Africanist 
literature such as the works of George Padmore and C.L.R. James and 
welcomed the formation of the Pan- Africanist Congress (PAC). Gofnas even 
joined the PAC in 1959. Although he appears not to have played any signifi- 
cant role in the civil disobedience campaign launched by this organization in 
March 1960, he was nevertheless detained for three months during the ensuing 
state of emergency. 

The rest of Gomas’s life was spent in poverty and loneliness at his home in 
District Six. He was an embittered man who felt, with some justification, that 
he had been deserted by former political comrades who had pursued successful 
careers while he had sacrificed everything for the liberation movement. Gomas, 
however, resented his enforced political inactivity the most. State repression 
ensured that the 1960s was a quiescent period and Gomas’s health failed 
towards the end of that decade. He nevertheless did whatever he could to 
advance ‘the struggle’ and managed to gather around him a small group of 
youths to whom he imparted a political education and to whom he was 
affectionately known as ‘Boeta John’. After suffering two strokes Gomas spent 
the last seven years of his life partially paralysed and confined to a wheelchair. 


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Ever the champion of the labouring classes, Gomas was excited by the 1973 
Durban strikes and saw the Soweto uprising of 1976 as the start of the political 
revolution to which he had dedicated his life. 

In 1927 Gomas met and married Ruby Meyer. This marriage failed within 
six months, not least because of Gomas’s frequent absences from home and 
political commitments taking priority in his life. During his stay in Johannes- 
burg, Gomas met Mabel Hutton whom he married in early 1936 some months 
after his return to Cape Town. They were estranged within a year but were 
briefly reconciled before Mabel’s death in 1939. Once again Gomas appears to 
have sacrificed his family life for the liberation movement. Indeed, his long- 
suffering mother had to continue working because Gomas was not earning 
enough as full-time political organizer to maintain the household and Mabel’s 
ill health prevented her from making a contribution. In 1942 Gomas married 
Cornelia Brevis, a shop steward at the CWU and sixteen years his junior. 
Although three daughters were born of this marriage and it lasted till Gomas’s 
death, it was not a happy union. It was fraught with tension over Gomas’s 
neglect of his paternal duties and his anti-social behaviour towards family 
members. Frustrations and failures in his political work further exacerbated 
discord within the Gomas family. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: Estate no. 6974/79; — T. KARIS a G.M. CARTER 
(eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — P. wickens, The Industrial 
and Commercial Workers' Union of Africa. Cape Town, 1978; — Obituary: The Cape 
Times, 24 July 1979; — HJ. SIMONS A R.E. SIMONS, Class and colour in South Africa, 
1850-1950. London, 1983; — R.E. van der ross. The rise and decline of apartheid: a study 
of political movements among the coloured people of South Africa, 1880-1985. Cape Town, 
1986; — o. lewis, Between the wire and the wall: a history of South African 'coloured' 
politics. Cape Town, 1987; — D. musson, Johnny Gomas: voice of the working class. Cape 
Town, 1989. 

GORDON, Max (*Cape Town, 1 April 1910 — tCape Town, 10 May 1977), 
industrial chemist and trade unionist, was the son of an immigrant Lithuanian 
couple called Ritevsky. His father died young and he was subsequently adopted 
and his surname changed. Gordon obtained a B.Sc. degree at the University of 
Cape Town in 1932. During this time he became friendly with teachers in the 
Unity Movement and joined the Trotskyist-aligned Workers’ Party of South 

In 1935 Gordon became involved with the African labour movement on the 
Witwatersrand. At that time, black trade unions were unrecognized, small and 
weak; black workers’ wages, working hours, conditions and annual pay were 
unregulated. They could be dismissed at the whim of their employers. Under 
the Industrial Conciliation Act of 1924, Africans were excluded from bargain- 
ing rights or employees’ benefits as they were ‘pass-bearing Natives’. Disen- 
franchised and unskilled, black workers were extremely vulnerable, with no 
power except that of their labour. 

It was Gordon’s aim to help in developing a strong and vigorous labour 


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movement that would eventually be able to play a key role in emancipating all 
black people. When he arrived in Johannesburg, Gordon assumed leadership of 
the almost defunct African Laundry Workers’ Union. After the failure of an 
illegal strike in 1936 he decided to concentrate on using the industrial relations 
system itself to bring about improvements. 

Gordon called upon the registered unions to support him in a series of 
negotiations with the Wage Board for the fixing of minimum wages for black 
workers. Through his evidence at a number of hearings the wages of labourers 
in several industries increased significantly. With the new determinations in 
force, Gordon was also able to recover back-pay from employers found to have 
been underpaying or withholding overtime or notice pay. These successes 
resulted in the rapid growth of the trade unions. 

Perhaps because Gordon was one of the few organizers of black trade 
unions not aligned to the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South 
African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953), he was able to win the support 
of the liberal South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR). In January 
1938 he was given a grant of £10 per month by the Bantu Welfare Trust to 
enable him to continue his work full-time. Soon he had organized several trade 
unions on the Witwatersrand, including unions in the laundry, bakery, dairy, 
distributive and printing industries. He also established a large African General 
Workers’ Union. He attracted mass audiences at open-air Sunday meetings, and 
in this way attempted to start a mineworkers’ union. But in the face of 
implacable opposition by the Chamber of Mines the project foundered until 
1941 when J.B. Marks* and other CPSA-oriented unionists revived the African 
Mineworkers’ Union. 

By 1940 Gordon was the secretary of the Joint Committee of African Trade 
Unions, a union federation with a membership of between 16 000 and 20 000 
members. In the late 1930s, encouraged by their successes, African unions 
began to reiterate their demand for recognition. Fearing the political and 
economic consequences, the government refused to concede to this demand. 
Gordon was one of the trade union organizers who was seen as a threat. 

In 1941, during the Second World War (1939-1945), Gordon was arrested 
for his anti-war stance and interned for a year in the ‘anti-Nazi section’ of the 
Ganspan (Andalusia) internment camp near Warrenton. During his absence 
some of the trade unions suffered, particularly those which had established new 
branches, for example the Native Commercial Distributive Union in Pretoria. 

While Gordon was interned, an underlying tension in the union movement 
emerged. Gordon had achieved great success in the black labour movement and 
was rightly credited for his efforts. However, there were black trade unionists 
who resented implications by the SAIRR that the unions would collapse without 
white guidance. The joint committee split between those who remained loyal to 
Gordon and the four unions under Daniel Koza and Phillip Gosani, who opted 
for all-black control. 

During his internment Gordon did not receive support from the established 
labour movement. The South African Trades and Labour Council refused to 
intervene on his behalf. When Gordon was eventually released in 1 942 he did 
not attempt to contest the split in the joint committee. He proceeded instead to 


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Port Elizabeth to found six trade unions among coloured and African workers. 
He then received a further warning from the authorities that he would again be 
interned if he persisted in organizing black workers. Simultaneously the 
African trade unions in Johannesburg rejected Gordon as somebody "... not 
sincere in his efforts to help the African workers, but is only out for self”. 
Disheartened by the warnings and probably disillusioned at his rejection, 
Gordon left the labour movement permanently, living and working in London, 
England, for some years. At the time of his death he was working for a finance 
company in Cape Town, Gerber Goldschmidt. He was survived by his wife, 
Ethel, and a daughter, Kapinka. 

Gordon’s intervention in the labour movement was brief. His political 
affiliations towards Trotskyism contributed to his isolation within the broad 
labour movement, even among the left, who tended to be more Stalinist. But 
his key role in the formation of the Joint Committee of African Trade Unions 
and his tactics in building up successful trade unions in the face of enormous 
odds were significant, for he helped to provide the foundation of the black 
trade union movement that was to flourish during the war years and continue 
into the 1950s. 

M. STEIN, Max Gordon and African trade unionism on the Witwatersrand, 1935-1940. South 
African labour bulletin, 3(9), 1977; — B. hirson, Yours for the union: class anti community 
struggles in South Africa. Johannesburg, 1989; — N. mokgatle. The autobiography of an 
unknown South African. Cape Town, 1990; — Private information: Mrs Ethel Gordon 
(wife), Cape Town. 

GUMEDE, Josiah Tshangana (*?, c. 1870— t?, 1947), teacher, politician, 

businessman and journalist, sometimes incorrectly 
referred to as ‘James’. Gumede received his training 
at the Natives’ College in Grahamstown in the East- 
ern Cape. After having been a teacher in Somerset 
East for several years, he moved to Natal where he 
continued to teach until he resigned in order to 
become an advisor to chiefs in Natal and the Orange 
River Colony (Orange Free State). He was a good 
singer and pianist and was a member of a Zulu 
choir that toured Europe. After his return he 
became an estate agent and was employed at a legal 
practice in Pietermaritzburg. He owned land and 
was also a tradesman for some time. In 1906, on 
behalf of the Basuto chiefs of the Kholokoe (Kxolokwe or Ruluku) tribe in the 
Orange River Colony, he laid claims to territory in that colony. He led a 
delegation of the tribe to Britain in order to bargain for compensation. 

With John Dube* and others Gumede was a founder member of the Natal 
Natives’ Congress in 1900. For some time he served as its secretary and vice- 
president. He was a witness before the South African Native Affairs Commis- 
sion. This commission was appointed in 1903 with the objective of formulating 
a policy on African affairs. It was presided over by Sir Godfrey Lagden* and 


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toured the country taking evidence from interested parties. The final report was 
published in 1905 and clearly indicated that increasing segregation was 

In 1912 Gumede became a founder member of the South African Native 
National Congress (SANNC, since 1923 the African National Congress (ANC)) 
and contributed to the drafting of its 1919 constitution. He was also a member 
of the 1919 SANNC deputation to the Versailles Peace Conference which was 
held after World War I (1914-1918), and the British government. The deputa- 
tion, however, failed to ensure a better dispensation for South African blacks. 

During the 1920s there was sporadic discord in the Natal Natives’ Con- 
gress. This was the result of estrangement between Dube and Gumede because 
Dube attempted to keep the congress as independent as possible from the na- 
tional ANC whereas Gumede founded the separate Natal African Congress 
which officially affiliated with the ANC. In 1921 Gumede was appointed as 
full-time general organizer of the SANNC with the task to tour the country in 
search of financial support. 

Following the failure of the deputation to the British government in 1919, 
Africans had to concede in 1923 to the Natives (Urban Areas) Act which 
further curtailed them in the possession of land. From 1924 Gumede openly 
lamented the increase in segregatory measures. The Communist Party of South 
Africa (CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) increasing- 
ly shifted their attention to Gumede— and therefore to the ANC— after the 
communists had been expelled from the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ 
Union. Besides his pro-communist inclination Gumede’s support of the Afro- 
American leader, Marcus Garvey— who advocated racial separation and the 
emigration of Afro-Americans to Africa — was apparent in his speeches. It was 
probably under Gumede's influence that a resolution to request the United 
States of America to release Garvey who was imprisoned on charges of fraud, 
was passed during the July 1927 conference of the ANC. 

In 1927 Gumede accompanied James la Guma* of the CPS A to the first 
international conference of the League Against Imperialism in Brussels, 
Belgium. From there he visited the Soviet Union (USSR). Upon his return he 
praised the USSR as a country where racism was unknown. Contrary to his 
previous anti-Bolshevist stance he now pronounced that the white communists 
in South Africa were the only group who fully supported the blacks in their 
struggle for equal rights. These pro-communist pronouncements on his overseas 
travels were received without enthusiasm by the ANC national executive and 
the Convention of Bantu Chiefs held under the auspices of the ANC in April 
1927. Gumede, however, succeeded in having a proposal which condemned the 
ties between the CPSA and the ANC, withdrawn. 

Despite ANC criticism of the pro-communist tendencies that often surfaced 
in Gumede’s public rhetoric at that stage, he was elected as president-general 
of the ANC during its annual congress in July 1927, succeeding Z.R. Maha- 
bane*. Subsequently Gumede went abroad again and visited, amongst others, 
the USSR where he attended the tenth anniversary of the communist revolution 
of 1917. In 1929 he was elected as chairperson of the South African branch of 
the League Against Imperialism when it was founded by the CPSA. At the end 


of that year, when the CPSA launched the League of African Rights, he also 
became its president. 

Gumede’s three-year term as president-general of the ANC was character- 
ized by dispute and dissension— although it did introduce new strains of radical 
thought into the ANC. It was an unhappy chapter in the history of the 
organization. Activities virtually came to a halt. Moreover, antipathy towards 
Gumede’s fraternity with communism and his neglect in circulating information 
increased sharply. This came to a head when the anti-communist faction of the 
national executive committee of the ANC took a majority decision to resign en 
bloc and T. Mapikela* took over as acting president-general. At the annual 
ANC conference in April 1930 Pixley Seme succeeded Gumede as president- 
general. This ended Gumede’s role as prominent figure in South African 
politics. In recognition of his earlier services to the ANC he was, however, 
appointed as lifelong honorary president of the organization. 

Apart from his political activities he was also involved with journalism. At 
about the time of the First World War he was editor of Ilanga lose Natal and 
by the 1930s owner and editor of the ANC mouthpiece Abantu Bat ho. 

Gumede was described as a man seldom angered or harsh in judgement, 
who accepted criticism as the expression of opinion that people were entitled 
to. At the same time he was also described as someone lacking independent 
thought. He sold his store to pay for the debts incurred by the 1919 deputation 
and the legal cases during the anti-pass campaign of that year. 

Gumede was married to Lillian Mgqogqoza. Their son, Archibald Gumede, 
was an ANC defendant in the Treason Trial of 1956, while a daughter, 
Constance, married A.W.G. Champion*. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — T.D.M. 
skota (ed.), The African yearly register, being an illustrated national biographical 
dictionary (who's who) of black folks in Africa. Johannesburg, [1931]; — c.M. de villiers. 
Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. 
thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe. The rise of African Nationalism in South 
Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis a g.m. 
carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South 
Africa, 1882-1964. 1. Protest and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 1972; — T. karis a g.m. 
carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South 
Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; simons. 
Class and colour in South Africa, 1850-1950. London, 1983; — A. odendaal. Black protest 
politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town, 1984; — B. willan, Sol Plaatje: a biography. 
Johannesburg, 1984; — T.R.H. davenport. South Africa: a modem history. 3rd ed. updated 
& rev. London, 1987; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history, 2nd ed. London, 

GUTSCHE, Thelma (*Somerset West, 7 January 1915 — t Montagu, 5 Novem- 
ber 1984), authoress and biographer, was the second daughter of Dr Jesse 
Gutsche and Agnes Patricia Anne Gutsche (nee Mackintosh). Her father was 
works manager of African Explosives Works, Somerset West, and subsequently 
joint managing director of South African Paper and Pulp Industries. 

Gutsche received private tuition and studied at the University of Cape Town 


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(UCT) from 1930 to 1935, where she obtained the 
B.A. and M.A. degrees, majoring in ethics, logics 
and metaphysics. In 1947 she received her doctorate 
for a thesis entitled The history and social signi- 
ficance of motion pictures in South Africa, 
1895-1940. The thesis was published in 1972 due to 
a continuous demand by students. 

After serving as theatre and cinema critic and 
book reviewer for The forum magazine, Gutsche 
joined the State Bureau of Information as film 
adviser shortly after the outbreak of the Second 
World War (1939-1945). In 1947 she was appointed head of the Educational 
and Information Service of African Consolidated Films Ltd. The following year 
she also became joint director of Silver Leaf Books that published, amongst 
others, Face to face, the first collection of short stories by Nadine Gor- 
dimer— prominent South African author who won the 1991 Nobel Prize for 

In 1959 Gutsche resigned from African Consolidated Films to become self- 
employed, acting occasionally as historical consultant and serving on cultural 
and welfare organizations. She was president of the National Council of 
Women from 1955 to 1958, a founder member of the Simon van der Stel 
Foundation, and a trustee and honorary life president of the Friends of the Jo- 
hannesburg Art Gallery. From 1956 Gutsche was also a member of the 
Africana Museum Advisory Committee, Johannesburg, and from 1968 of the 
Photographic Foundation Board Advisory Committee of the Bensusan Museum 
of Photography, Johannesburg. She resigned from both committees in August 
1981 when she retired to Montagu. On her retirement she donated her archival 
material and private papers to the Strange Library of Africana of the Johannes- 
burg Public Library. Her extensive Africana collection was sold by auction. 

As a writer she made contributions to encyclopaedias, journals and 
newspapers and won the Central News Agency (CNA) prize in 1966 for her 
biography of Lady Florence Phillips, No ordinary woman. Among Gutsche’s 
other books are works of social history such as Old gold: the history of the 
Wanderers Club (1966); The changing social pattern of Johannesburg (1967); 
The microcosm (1968), a study of the Colesberg district of the Cape; A very 
smart medal: the story of the Witwatersrand Agricultural Society (1970); The 
Bishop’s lady (1970), a study of Sophia Wharton Gray*; and There was a man: 
the life and times of Arnold Theiler* (1979). 

In Montagu she founded the Long Street Group for the preservation of 
historic buildings. She never married. 

She is remembered for her scholarship, incisive wit, generosity and 
forthright manner. She was an ardent feminist and keen sportswoman, who was 
a member of the first tennis team of UCT. 

D. adey etal. (comps). Companion to South African English literature. Johannesburg, 1968; 
— T. GUTSCHE, Civilisation and the interrupted sex. 10th Bertha Solomon Memorial Lecture. 
National Council of Women of South Africa, 1979; — Helena Goosen ontmoet dr. Thelma 


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Gutsche. Suid-Afrikaanse oorsig, 12 Junie 1981; — Obituaries: Beeld, 7 November 1984; 
The Star, 7 November 1984; The Citizen, 8 November 1984; Die Burger, 9 November 1984; 
Kalender: Bylae tot Beeld, 10 November 1984; The Sunday Star, 1 1 November 1984; Beeld, 
14 November 1984; Africana notes and news, 26(5), March 1985; — Tributes: Die Burger, 
29 Desember 1968; The Argus, 4 September 1970 & 24 August 1979; Evening Post, 22 
April 1971; Weekend Post, 19 July 1980; The Star, 29 August 1985; Contrast, 8 November 


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IIALDANE, Richard Maxwell (Dick) (*Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, Eng- 
land, 27 October 1909— fCape Town, 2 January 
1971), trade union leader, was the third son of 
Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Maldwyn 
Makgill Haldane of the Royal Scots and assistant di- 
rector of the Special Intelligence Service, and his 
wife Mabel Constance Seymore of County Clare, 

Educated at Loretto School, Edinburgh, Haldane 
joined the Royal Bank of Scotland at Galashiels in 
1930. He resigned to join the Standard Bank of 
South Africa, arriving in Cape Town in July 1931 
and being posted to its Adderley Street branch. He 
became an inspector in 1934, and an officer in the 
bank's advance department two years later. 

Haldane first became aware of the existence of the South African Society of 
Bank Officials (SASBO) in 1937, joining immediately and showing instant 
rapport with trade unionism. He soon became chairperson of SASBO’s Cape 
Town committee. While associated with SASBO he contributed regularly to its 
monthly journal. South African banking magazine (later SASBO news) and to 
British trade union journals. 

In 1937 Haldane returned to Britain on leave and was invited to address 
several meetings of the International Federation of Bank Officials' Associ- 
ations, Bank Officers’ Guild (the British equivalent of SASBO) and a mass 
meeting in Edinburgh where bank employees of the Bank of Scotland were in 
dispute with their employers. On his return to South Africa he was transferred 
to the Standard Bank’s Gwelo (Gweru) branch in Southern Rhodesia (Zim- 
babwe). Here he joined SASBO’s Bulawayo committee, travelling a 320 km 
round trip from Gwelo after work to attend meetings. He was a member of the 
delegation at the Conciliation Board meeting in Salisbury (Harare) which 
sought an augmented grading award and an improved overtime agreement. His 
negotiating skills helped SASBO win significant concessions. 

In 1941 Haldane returned to Cape Town on promotion and in 1943 
succeeded F.R. Swan as general secretary of SASBO, a post he was to fill for 
21 years. The union was then in a delicate position. Founded in 1916 and 
recognized in 1919 at a time of conflict resulting in the first bank strike in the 


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British Empire in 1920, SASBO subsequently became submissive under Swan. 
Under Haldane’s leadership SASBO developed a strong general council, as well 
as an effective negotiating team which greatly advanced salaries and working 
conditions in Standard and Barclays (First National) banks, a lead most other 
institutions were compelled to follow. Haldane was responsible for the purchase 
of land in Braamfontein, Johannesburg, on which SASBO House was built. His 
devotion to the banking industry is shown by the fact that the bulk of his estate 
was left to set up the Richard Haldane Scholarship Fund to provide educational 
bursaries for the children of officers and pensioners of the Standard Bank. 

In the wider trade union area Haldane was to play an equally important 
part. His appointment as general secretary of SASBO coincided with the 
union’s decision to affiliate to the South African Trades and Labour Council 
(SATLC). He became a prominent figure in SATLC and its successor, the 
Trade Union Council of South Africa (TUCSA), serving on the national execu- 
tive committee and as vice-president of both bodies. In 1949 he chaired a 
multiunion unity conference and, in the same year, was South Africa’s 
workers’ delegate to the International Labour Organization (ILO) conference in 
Geneva, Switzerland, having also been sought by government to be its rep- 

In 1952, when the existence of trade unions was threatened by the Suppres- 
sion of Communism Act, Haldane chaired the multiunion conference that 
addressed this threat and headed the subsequent delegation that put the union’s 
case to Prime Minister Dr D.F. Malan*, and senior cabinet members. He was 
again a delegate to the ILO in 1961 and 1963 and in the latter year spent two 
months in the United States of America (USA) on a State Department’s Foreign 
Leadership Grant. During his 21 years in the labour movement he served as an 
advisor and arbitrator to many other unions, helped establish the Building 
Society Officials’ Association, and was for many years a director of the South 
African Trade Union Assurance Society Limited (TRADUNA) and the South 
African Trade Union Building Society. 

Haldane had a strong, well-balanced personality. His negotiating ability 
greatly enhanced the status and perquisites of SASBO and the other unions with 
which, through his vice-presidency of TUCSA, he was associated. In accepting 
the Award of Merit from TUCSA at its 1964 conference he urged his col- 
leagues to fight for the rights of disenfranchised South Africans. 

Despite his prominent public image Haldane was a very private person and 
little is known of his private life. On 28 September 1939 Haldane married Ruth 
Kathleen Hunt of Barkly East. The couple had no children. Both were keen 
aviarists. His wife predeceased him in October 1970. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Trade Union Council of 
South Africa records: Trade Union Council of South Africa Annual Conference Records, 
1954-1964; — South African banking magazine , 1943-1964; — I.L. walker * B. weinbren, 
2000 casualties: a history of the trade unions and the labour movement in the Union of South 
Africa. Johannesburg, 1961; — Burke’s landed gentry, 3. 18th ed. London, 1972; — r.m. 
imrie, A wealth of people: the story of the Trade Union Council of South Africa. Johannes- 
burg, 1979. 


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HEAD, Bessie Amelia (*Pietermaritzburg, 6 July 1 937 — fSerowe, Botswana, 

17 April 1986), novelist, short story writer and 
social historian, was the daughter of a white woman 
and a black man. According to Head her mother 
was Bessie Emery who had fallen pregnant after a 
relationship with a black stable-hand. Her mother 
was disowned by her parents and committed to the 
mental asylum in Pietermaritzburg where Head was 
born, and where her mother died in 1943. Some 
sources say that Head’s mother was the daughter of 
a wealthy Natal racehorse owner and her father a 
Zulu stable-hand. Head believed that her father was 
a stable-hand on the family’s Transvaal estate. She 
recorded that during her adolescence she was ab- 
ruptly told the harsh facts of her life— about her mother and father and that her 
foster parents had rejected her because she was too black. Some recent 
research suggests that the facts may not accord exactly with her beliefs about 
herself; nevertheless, she was always haunted by a need to account for her 
parentage as well as by the stigma of madness suffered by her mother. 

Head was raised in Durban, first by foster parents and then in an Anglican 
mission orphanage. She trained as a teacher and taught for four years in the 
Durban area. However, when she found that she did not enjoy teaching, she 
briefly worked for the Drum publication, the Golden City Post (later Post), on 
the Home Post Supplement. It is not known how long she worked there but her 
articles were published from May 1959 to April 1960. It was probably during 
1960 or 1961 that she moved to Johannesburg where she worked for the 
Golden City Post. 

She married journalist Harold Head in 1962 but the marriage soon broke 
up— though they were never divorced— and she decided to leave South Africa. 
She is known to have had a "very peripheral involvement in politics" which 
probably referred to her affiliations and friendships with left-wing activists such 
as Denis Brutus, and her husband who was also involved in so-called unity 
politics. She was once charged with subversive activities for assisting with the 
publication of a pamphlet which was subsequently banned; the charges against 
her were dropped. These ‘involvements’ resulted in her application for a 
passport being turned down. In March 1964 she left South Africa for Botswana 
on an exile permit, taking her only child, Howard, with her. 

After her arrival in Botswana, Head was a primary school teacher in 
Serowe for a while, but apparently it did not work out for her and within a 
year she was without a job. In 1966 she apparently moved to Francistown as 
a refugee, but it must be assumed that she moved back to Serowe because by 
1969 she was involved with the Swaneng Hill project on community farming 
and education at Serowe. The purpose of the project was to teach the commun- 
ity to grow vegetables economically and successfully in Botswana’s harsh and 
dry climate. When rain clouds gather (1969) dealt fairly extensively with 
agriculture in Botswana. The collector of treasures (1977), a collection of short 
stories, and Serowe: village of the rain wind (1981), a social history, both dealt 


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with the lives and position of rural women. Head was granted Botswana 
citizenship in 1979. 

Her writing career began in Johannesburg where she worked as a journalist, 
but, as she often said, it was only after she had left the country of her birth and 
had settled in Botswana, where she felt surrounded by a more stable, rooted 
way of life, that she could write fiction. In her writing she used her own 
experiences as a basis for fiction that both commented on South Africa and 
showed her vision for the future. Her special achievement as a novelist was the 
exploration of the inner consequences of being denied a viable, fulfilling 
identity. In her short stories and social histories she successfully combined a 
Western literary form with the traditional African role of storyteller and 
historian. In an interview in 1983 she said that the German author Bertolt 
Brecht and the English author D.H. Lawrence had the greatest influence on 

The autobiographical strain in her fiction, particularly in A question of 
power that was based on her own nervous breakdown, testified to the anguish 
that her personal history added to the social suffering consequent on South 
Africa’s official policy of racial segregation. After confronting her own deepest 
fears in this novel, she seemed to have found a further healing power in the 
social and historical researches into traditional life in Botswana which led to 
her last two books. 

Head published three novels, When rain clouds gather (1969), Maru (1971) 
and A question of power (1973); a collection of short stories, The collector of 
treasures (1977); and two volumes of a social history, Serowe: village of the 
rain wind (1981) and A bewitched crossroad (1984). In addition, there are 
several uncollected stories (of which some were published in 1993 as The 
cardinals with meditations and stories ), some early South African journalism 
and a few articles published in Botswana. At the time of her death she was 
reportedly writing a historical novel for which she was researching in the 
archives in Gaborone, as well as planning an autobiography. 

She suffered from hepatitis. 

National English Literary Museum, Grahamstown; — b. head. Some notes on novel writing. 
New classic, 5, 1978; — J. marquard, Bessie Head: exile and community in Southern 
Africa. London magazine, 18(7—12), 1978-1979; — B. HEAD, Social and political pressures 
that shape literature in South Africa. World literature written in English, 18, 1979; — L. 
nkosi, Southern Africa: protest and commitment. In: L. nkosi, Tasks and masks: themes and 
styles of African Literature. London, 1981; — Notes from a quiet backwater. Drum, 
February 1982; — B. head, A search for historical continuity and roots. In: M.J. daymond, 
J.U. Jacobs a M. LENTA, Momentum: on recent South African writing. Pietermaritzburg, 
1984; — c.H. Mackenzie, Allegiance in exile: aspects of the generic sequence in the 
writings of Bessie Head. M.A. thesis. University of Natal, 1984; — Obituaries: The Star, 13 
May 1986; Weekly Mail, 16 May to 22 May 1986; — s. Gardner a p.e. scott, Bessie 
Head: a bibliography. Grahamstown, 1986; — s. Gardner, Don't ask for the true story: a 
memoir of Bessie Head. Hecate, 12, 1986; — L. DE KOCK, Bessie Head. Stet, 5(1), 
Desember 1987; — C. CLAYTON, A world elsewhere: Bessie Head as historian. English in 
Africa, 15(1), 1988; — s. Gardner, Bessie Head: production under drought conditions. In: 
c. clayton (ed.). Women and writing in South Africa: a critical anthology. Marshalltown, 
1989; — C. MACKENZIE A c. clayton (eds), Between the lines: interviews with Bessie Head, 


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Sheila Roberts, Ellen Kuzwayo, Miriam Tlali. Grahamstown, 1989; — Makers of modern 
Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — s. gray, Bessie Head’s end. English 
in Africa, 18(2), 1991; — H. mackie, Bessie Head, a feminist model. The Sunday Times, 31 
October 1993. 

IIEFER, Johan Daniel (Bull) (*RuspIaas, Fauresmith, 25 December 1912— 

tJohannesburg, 3 July 1984), professional wrestling 
promoter, was the only child of Johan Daniel Hefer 
and his wife, Petronella Smit. 

After completing his schooling in Fauresmith, 
Hefer joined the South African Railways in Bloem- 
fontein and started wrestling as an amateur. From 
1931 to 1941 he was the amateur heavyweight 
wrestling champion. In 1936 he tried unsuccessfully 
in Johannesburg to be included in the Springbok 
team for the Olympic Games. In 1938 he settled in 
Windhoek, South West Africa (Namibia) where he 
gave body-building and fitness classes. After the 
Second World War (1939-1945) he opened a gym- 
nasium in Cape Town and in 1947 he started promoting professional wrestling 
as the Cape Town agent and co-promoter for Henri Irslinger of Johannesburg. 
This association lasted until Irslinger’s death in 1954. 

Hefer then settled in Johannesburg, where he was a promoter until his 
death. As co-promoter and promoter over a period of almost four decades, 
Hefer arranged hundreds of tournaments in southern Africa and undertook 
many journeys overseas to negotiate with wrestlers. 

Hefer promoted well-known wrestlers such as Gerrie de Jager, Percy Hall, 
Manie Maritz, Willie Liebenberg, Jan Wilkens and Manie van Zyl, as well as 
several wrestlers with imaginative pseudonyms such as Wild Man of the 
Kalahari, Red Rebel, Boerseun and Apollo. Many of his tournaments had an 
international atmosphere because he invited overseas wrestlers to South Africa. 
These wrestlers included Ali the Cruel Turk; the Greeks Tarzan Taborda, 
Andreas Lambratis and John Costas; the Portuguese Carlos Rocha; and the 
Americans Sampson Burke and Zoro the Great. 

Professional wrestling received a setback in 1959 as a result of restrictive 
legislation that prohibited most of the spectacular holds and antics that had 
accounted for the sport's popularity in the past. From 1965 Hefer was instru- 
mental in reviving interest in this sport by introducing Jan Wilkens to the 
public. In 1975 Hefer’s career reached a climax when he arranged a series of 
three fights between Wilkens and Don Leo Jonathan, the American holder of 
the world title. Wilkens won the series and Hefer continued as promoter of the 
world champion’s fights. 

Generally known as ‘Bull’ because of his powerful build, Hefer was good- 
natured and flamboyant, but also eccentric at times. With his husky voice and 
very seldom without his large pipe or long cigar, he was a popular figure in the 
wrestling world. The entertainment and excitement that his tournaments 
provided for thousands of wrestling enthusiasts gave him great satisfaction. He 


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died after suffering two strokes and was buried on his farm Wonderfontein in 
the Fauresmith district. 

Hefer married Ellen Sophia Wilhelmina Coertzen in 1935. They had a son 
and three daughters. 

a. a. JOUBERT, Wrestling. In: Standard encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. II. Cape Town, 
1975; — Obituaries: Beeld, 4 July 1984; The Otizen, 4 July 1984; Pretoria News, 4 July 
1984; — Private information: Mrs Ellen Hefer (wife), Johannesburg. 

HELLMANN, Ellen Phyllis (““Johannesburg, 25 August 1908— fJohannesburg, 

6 November 1982), social anthropologist and lead- 
ing executive member of the South African Institute 
of Race Relations (SAIRR). She was the daughter of 
Bernard Kaumheimer who emigrated from Bavaria, 
Germany, to South Africa in 1894, and Chlothilde 

Hellmann was educated at Barnato Park and the 
classical section of the Commercial High School. 
She then entered the University of the Witwaters- 
rand, Johannesburg, for a B.A. degree, planning to 
major in English and psychology. A clash of classes 
led to her taking social anthropology. This brought 
her into contact with the lecturer Winifred Hoern- 
Id*. Hoernld, who envisaged the scope and potentialities of research among 
urban Africans, influenced and trained Hellmann as she went from undergrad- 
uate to postgraduate studies. For the M.A. degree Hellmann focused on urban 
Africans in a slum yard near the centre of the city of Johannesburg— Rooiyard 
in New Doomfontein— thus becoming one of the first to apply the techniques 
of social anthropological research to urban groups in South Africa, and 
probably the first anthropologist to do research among urban Africans. Her 
daily visits to the slum over a period of a year resulted in the publication 
Rooiyard: a sociological survey of an urban native slum yard (1948; reprinted 
1969). In 1940 she became the first woman to obtain a D.Phil. degree at the 
University of the Witwatersrand, with the dissertation Early school leaving 
among African school children and the occupational opportunities open to the 
African juveniles— published as Problems of urban Bantu youth (1940). 

Research among urban Africans led to her desire to participate in efforts to 
change the conditions under which they lived. Hellmann therefore joined the 
multiracial Joint Council of Europeans and Bantu, serving first as secretary and 
later as chairperson. Her main contribution to South African public life was 
through the SAIRR with which she had been involved since its inception. She 
headed many of the various committees of the SAIRR, including the Research 
Committee and the General Purposes Committee (1967-1973). As chairperson 
of the Research Committee (1966-1977) her insistence on precision and 
excellence set the high standards for which the publications and annual Race 
relations survey became known. On behalf of the SAIRR Hellmann compiled 
and submitted evidence to government commissions, ranging from the 


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Commission for Socio-economic Development of the Native Areas of South 
Africa of 1955 (headed by F.R. Tomlinson), to the Commission of Inquiry into 
the Riots at Soweto and Elsewhere from 16th June 1976 to the 28th of 
February 1977 (chaired by P.M. Cillid). Hellmann was a leading executive 
member of the SAIRR (1952-1953), its president from 1954 to 1956, and 
subsequently elected an honorary life member. She was chairperson of the 
Isaacson Bursary Fund for Africans, that was linked to the SAIRR. 

During the Second World War (1939-1945) Heilman ran the coloured and 
Indian section of the Governor-General’s National War Fund in Johannesburg. 
For some years she lectured in sociology at the now defunct Jan Hofmeyr 
School of Social Work which trained Africans as social workers; she regarded 
this as one of her most rewarding undertakings. Hellmann was honorary 
treasurer of Entokozweni, the African family welfare centre in Alexandra. In 
addition, she was a founder member of the Progressive Party, serving on its 
executive from 1959 to 1971. She also held office in the Witwatersrand -branch 
of the South African Institute for International Affairs, the Johannesburg 
Soroptimist Club, Women for Peace, and many Jewish organizations in the 
Witwatersrand area, including the Board of Deputies. Hellmann’s involvement 
in these many organizations was no mere tokenism; in each she rigorously 
upheld her principles and opposed slipshod thinking. 

Hellmann edited and contributed a chapter to the Handbook on race 
relations in South Africa (1949; reprinted 1969). She wrote Sellgoods: a 
sociological survey of an African commercial labour force (1953); and Soweto: 
Johannesburg's African city (1969). In addition, she published over 50 articles 
and memoranda on urban Africans. 

She received an honorary doctorate in law from the University of the Wit- 
watersrand in 1968. In 1970 the Royal African Society (Great Britain) awarded 
Hellmann its gold medal for "dedicated service to Africa". In the citation she 
was described as an "... authority on race relations and in the forefront of the 
battle for African advancement". 

In March 1932 she married Joseph Michael Hellmann, an attorney, who 
died in March 1941. They had one daughter who is now living in Britain. In 
1948 she married Dr Bodo E.H. Koch, who examined Robert Sobukwe* by the 
time his lung illness had become noticeable. No children were born of this 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 15382/82; — Transvaal Archives, 
Pretoria; Estate no. 1087/41; — Honoris causa: E.P. Hellmann, University of the Witwa- 
tersrand, 1968; — The Rand Daily Mail , 20 November 1970; — The Star, 20 November 
1970, 9 December 1970; — Dr Hellmann’s proud record. Jewish affairs, 25(12), December 
1970; — [Dr Ellen Hellmann], Fair lady, 9(23), January 1971; — Notes on authors. South 
Africa international, 5(1), July 1974; — Honours and awards: [Dr Ellen Hellmann], The 
bluestocking, 31(5), 1979; — Obituaries: The Argus, 8 November 1982; The Star, 8 
November 1982; The Rand Daily Mail, 8 November 1982; Passing of Dr Ellen Hellmann. 
Jewish affairs, 37(12), December 1982; The bluestocking, 35(9), 1983; — Tributes: p. 
schwartz, A tribute to a fighter for justice. The Rand Daily Mail, 15 November 1982. 


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IIERTZOG, Johannes Albertus Munnik (Albert) (“Bloemfontein, 4 July 

1899— fPretoria, 5 November 1982), leader of the 
Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP), cabinet minister, 
member of parliament, advocate, and organizer of 
Afrikaans labour on the Witwatersrand. He was the 
eldest son of the South African Prime Minister Gen. 
James Barry Munnik Hertzog* and his wife Wilhel- 
mina Jacoba (Mynie) Neethling. 

As young boy Hertzog spent the South African 
War (1899-1902) with his mother in British concen- 
tration camps. He was educated at Grey College, 
Bloemfontein, after which he studied at the Uni- 
versity of Stellenbosch where he obtained the B.A. 
degree. He continued his studies at the University of 
Amsterdam in the Netherlands, New College at Oxford, England, and the 
University of Leiden in the Netherlands, where he was awarded the LL.D. 

In 1929 Hertzog started practising as an advocate in Pretoria. His first 
controversial public statement was made in 1931 when he blamed the English- 
speaking heads of government departments for the poverty that many Afrika- 
ners experienced during the depression of the 1930s. This led to a direct clash 
with his father who, as head of government, condemned his son’s pronounce- 
ment in public. When his father decided to lead the National Party (NP) to 
fusion with the United Party in 1933, Hertzog did not follow him. Two years 
later his father also made a sharp attack on the Afrikaner Broederbond (AB) of 
which Hertzog was an influential member. 

The success that the NP achieved on the Witwatersrand during the 1940s 
was largely the result of a fierce struggle by a group of young Afrikaners 
under the leadership of Hertzog. He was extremely concerned about the 
urbanized Afrikaner who had become alienated from his rural roots and 
occupied an inferior position in the mining industry. Already by the middle of 
the 1 930s the trade unions had some 1 80 000 members of whom the great 
majority were Afrikaners. Moreover, some 90 percent of the mineworkers on 
the Rand were Afrikaans. Nevertheless, the management of the trade unions 
was in the hands of English-speaking men. At one stage Hertzog was charged 
with libel because of alleged statements about the members of the management 
of the Mineworkers’ Union (MWU). The charge was later withdrawn. 

In 1936 Hertzog led the NP campaign to enlist the support of the Afrikaans 
workers in the MWU. In October of that year he was a founder member of the 
Nasionale Raad van Trustees (NRT) (National Board of Trustees) and became 
its first chairperson. The aim of the NRT was to organize the Afrikaner 
workers on the Rand into Christian national unions and thus win these workers 
for the Afrikaner cause. A trust that was set up to assist Afrikaner miners on 
the Witwatersrand, was also administered by the NTR. Less than two months 
later Hertzog was instrumental in the founding of the Afrikaner Bond van 
Mynwerkers (ABM) to specifically serve the Afrikaner mineworkers. However, 
it soon transpired that the ABM served as a front organization for the NTR; the 
expenses of the ABM members were carried by the NTR, including their 


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subscriptions. When the ABM met with too much opposition from the Gold 
Producers’ Committee and the Joint Committee of the Mining Union, it was 
replaced by the Hervormingsorganisasie (Reform Organization) within the 
MWU in October 1938, with Hertzog as its first chairperson. Its main aim was 
to reform the MWU legally from within into an Afrikaans Christian national 
union, thus preventing opposition. When Charles Harris, secretary of the 
MWU, was shot in cold blood in June 1939, there were rumours of a conspir- 
acy by the Hervormingsorganisasie, but the court found the murder to be the 
work of an individual. 

After the suspension in 1940 of MWU elections for the duration of the 
Second World War (1939-1945), the Hervormingsorganisasie concentrated on 
strengthening itself internally. It started an action programme that included 
training for mineworkers in unionism and the holding of social functions and 
house meetings. Hertzog, P.J. Meyer’" and H.F. Verwoerd* were prominent in 
this action. The Hervormingsorganisasie also continued its struggle against 
alleged unconstitutional actions by the MWU management and in 1940-1941 
gave evidence before a government commission in this regard. A subsequent 
commission revealed many irregularities within the MWU about the handling 
of constitutional, financial and administrative matters. All these actions 
culminated in a successful strike under the leadership of the Verenigde Myn- 
werkerskomitee (United Mineworkers’ Committee) early in 1947 and a 
resounding victory for this committee in the MWU elections in November 
1948. Thus the South African Mineworkers' Union became a Christian national 
trade union. These political manoeuvres on the Witwatersrand during the war 
years prepared the way for the NP victory at the polls in 1948. 

During the Second World War Hertzog defended many members of the 
Ossewa-Brandwag (OB) who had been accused of defeating the government’s 
war effort. In 1940 he was summoned to give evidence in court about a 
mineworkers’ strike. Despite the strict security legislation he refused to furnish 
certain information about the case. 

Hertzog participated in the founding of the Federation of Ratepayers' As- 
sociations in Pretoria in 1942 with the aim of reforming municipal government 
in the city. From 1944 to 1951 he also served as a member of the Pretoria City 

In the 1948 general election Hertzog was a central figure in the NP’s 
victory. He won the Ermelo seat for the party and was re-elected in 1953 with 
an enlarged majority. 

Hertzog’s election to parliament in 1948 marked the start of his active 
political career. He started his own unofficial study group among NP members. 
Initially it concentrated on labour, mineworkers’ and trade union affairs but 
gradually it widened its scope to include all political matters. In 1958 Hertzog 
was appointed as Minister of Posts and Telegraphs and of Health in the cabinet 
of Dr H.F. Verwoerd. He distinguished himself as an able administrator. 

After Verwoerd’s death in 1966, politics in South Africa became more fluid 
and Hertzog became involved in clashes with Prime Minister John Vorster* 
about policy aspects. By 1967 he had clearly emerged as leader of the 
conservative wing of the NP. This group started to react against what they 


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called the ‘liberal establishment’. Early in 1968 Hertzog was stripped of the 
portfolio of Posts and Telegraphs and retained only Health. The differences 
about policy matters continued and in August 1968 Vorster announced a cabinet 
reshuffle and Hertzog was omitted. 

So ended a decade as cabinet minister. His period in office was marked by 
several achievements. The Post Office received its own budget, the telephone 
service was modernized and extended, and an FM radio service was instituted. 
However, Hertzog had steadfastly opposed the institution of a television service 
for the country because he was convinced that it would corrupt the Afrikaner’s 

After his ousting from the cabinet Hertzog maintained silence in the House 
of Assembly for months. He responded only on 14 April 1969 when he deliver- 
ed a speech that became known as the ‘Calvinistic’ speech. He said that 
Calvinistic principles were an essential prerequisite for a leader in the South 
African situation. He asserted that the power of any leader who discarded these 
principles would collapse. He juxtaposed Afrikaans- and English-speaking 
South Africans, pointing out that the Afrikaner was anchored to his church and 
religion while the English speaker was inherently liberal. He apparently insinu- 
ated that Vorster did not conform to the requirements for a Calvinistic Afrika- 

The speech aggravated the polarization within the NP and an open break 
with the NP was inevitable. In the months that followed the gap between the 
Hertzog group and the NP widened. The former consisted of men like Jaap 
Marais, Cas Greyling, Willie Marais and Louis Stofberg. 

There were especially two matters about which the Hertzog group and the 
NP differed: the admission of mixed sport teams in South Africa and the 
acceptance of black diplomats in the Republic. Hertzog was particularly 
opposed to the inclusion of Maoris in touring New Zealand rugby teams and 
Basil D’Oliveira in the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) cricket team. He 
invoked Verwoerd’s sport policy and believed that the admission of mixed 
foreign teams in South Africa would systematically discredit the whole 
apartheid policy. 

The final confrontation between the NP leadership and Hertzog’s ultra-right 
group occurred at the Transvaal NP congress in September 1969. The break 
came when some members refused to endorse a motion about the sport policy. 
Hertzog and two other members of parliament, Louis Stofberg and Jaap 
Marais, were expelled from the NP. This led to the founding of the Herstigte 
(Reformed) National Party (HNP) on 25 October 1969. 

Hertzog was subsequently isolated by the Afrikaner establishment. In 
November 1969 his trusteeship of Dagbreek Trust was terminated and he was 
ousted as a member of the board of directors of Afrikaanse Pers Bpk (APB) 
and Vaderland-beleggings (Vaderland Investments). Thus his long connection 
with APB and Vaderland-beleggings ended. 

On 16 January 1970 the HNP started its own newspaper, Die Afrikaner. 
However, the party commanded little support. In the general election of 1970 
no fewer than 75 of the 77 HNP candidates lost their deposits and the party did 
not win one seat. Hertzog refused to admit that his party had suffered a 


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crushing blow and ascribed its poor performance to the fact that it had very 
little time to organize for the early election called by Vorster. 

Hertzog remained leader of the HNP until May 1977 when he was 
succeeded by Jaap Marais. The next year he broke his ties with the HNP, thus 
ending his formal political career. (Some sources contend that he was expelled 
by the HNP because of his apparent unwillingness to increase his financial 
backing to the party.) However, he continued to participate in right-wing white 
politics, occasionally acting as speaker. As founder of Aksie Red Blanke Suid- 
Afrika (ARBSA) (Movement to Save White South Africa) he was still a 
prominent figure on the right. His last public appearance was as speaker at an 
ARBSA meeting in Pretoria in September 1982. 

Hertzog has been called the father of the far-right movement in South 
Africa. Until his death he concentrated his efforts on co-ordinating and 
consolidating conservatives among the Afrikaners. To this end he participated 
in the founding of many Afrikaner organizations. These included Volkskas, 
Uniewinkels, Koopkrag, Pretoria Bank, the Ekonomiese Instituut (Economic 
Institute), and the Federation of Ratepayers’ Associations in Pretoria. He was 
the founder of the Afrikaner-Orde and served on the executive council of the 
AB for 20 years. Hertzog was also a co-founder of the Nasionale Raad van 
Trustees, the Pieter Neethling Fund and the Johanna Ziervogel Fund that were 
all aimed at promoting the interests of white workers. In addition he was a 
trustee of the Afrikaanse Persfonds (Press fund) and the Afrikaner Persraad 
(Press council) that furthered the interests of the Afrikaner in the press 

Hertzog was a colourful public personality, charming, very courteous with 
a kind and friendly disposition. He was a gentleman but had a strong will that 
often brought him into confrontation with others. After his break with the NP 
he often suffered derision and was the target of unruly behaviour at political 
meetings, yet he always responded with dignity and restraint. He was particu- 
larly fond of gardening and his collection of cycads was regarded as one of the 
largest collections of these plants in the world. 

Hertzog was married to Katherine Marjorie Whiteley, a descendant of the 
British settlers of 1820, whom he met at Oxford. She died on 25 February 
1970 and in 1977 he married Martha M. Viljoen (nee Duvenhage). No children 
were born from these marriages. 

Institute for Contemporary History, University of the Orange Free State. Bloemfontein: A. 
Hertzog collection, (PV 451); — REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. Debates of the House of 
Assembly 11969], [Printed in Cape Town], 1969; — L. NAUDfi, Dr. A. Hertzog, die 
Nasionale Party en die mynwerkers. Pretoria, 1969; — J.J. serfontein, Die verkrampte 
aanslag. Kaapstad, 1970; — E.A. VENTER, 400 leiers in Suid-Afrika oor vier eeue. 
Potchefstroom, 1980; — Who's who of Southern Africa, I982\ — Obituaries: Pretoria News, 
5 November 1982; Beeld, 6 November 1982; Die Transvaler, 6 November 1982; The 
Friend, 6 November 1982; The Sunday Times, 7 November 1982; Die Vaderland, 8 
November 1982; Die Patriot, 12 & 26 November 1982; — South Africa, 1983: official year 
book of the Republic of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1983; — o. geyser, Dr. Johannes 
Albertus Munnik Hertzog, 1899-1982. Tydskrif vir geesteswetenskappe , 23(3), September 
1983; — j.a. du pisani, Die politieke verdeeldheid in Afrikanergeledere 1966-1970 met 
spesifieke verwysing na die beleid en leierskap van B.J. Vorster. M.A. thesis. University of 



the Orange Free State, 1984; — j.a. du PiSANt, B.J. Vorster se nuwe sportbeleid as faktor 
in die verdccldheid binne die Nasionale Party wat gelei het tot die stigting van die Herstigte 
Nasionale Party. Journal for contemporary history, 9(2), December 1984; — J.A. DU PISANI, 
B.J. Vorster en Afrikanerverdeeldheid, 1966-1970: ’n oorsig en evaluering van die 
verlig/verkrampstryd. Journal for contemporary history, 11(2), August 1986; — HJ. van 
aswegen a L. DE kock, Afrikanermynwerkers en die Mynwerkersunie, 1936-1948. 
Historia, 32( 1 )— 32(2), Mei-November 1987; — j.a. DU pisani, John Vorster en die 
verlig/verkrampstryd: 'n studie van die politieke verdeeldheid in Afrikanergeledere. 
1966-1970. Bloemfontein, 1988. 

HIGGS, Cecil (*Thaba Nchu, 28 July 1900— fCape Town, 6 June 1986), 

painter, one of the five children (two sons and three 
daughters) of Clement Higgs and Florence Morgan. 
She grew up in the Thaba Nchu district near the 
Lesotho border and matriculated at the Wesleyan 
High School, Grahamstown, in 1918. In 1919 she 
spent a year at the Art School in Grahamstown. The 
following year she left for Europe and spent the 
next thirteen years studying at different institutions 
in Britain and Europe. 

In London Higgs attended classes at the Gold- 
smiths School of Art, the Royal Academy School 
and the Camden School of Art under Walter Sick- 
ert, from whom she learned much. During her stay 
in London she exhibited with the London Group and, in 1929, at the New 
English Art Club. In Paris she studied at the Acaddmie de la Grande Chau- 
midre under Andrd Lhote. She visited art museums and galleries, learning from 
the old and the new masters. The work of the Impressionists Bonnard, 
Cdzanne, Matisse, Picasso and particularly Braque, as well as the early work 
of Vuillard impressed and influenced her. However, she was also drawn to the 
work of Postimpressionists. 

Higgs returned to South Africa in 1933 and lived near Thaba Nchu and then 
at Richmond near Zastron. In 1935 she settled in Stellenbosch where she spent 
a productive decade of painting. During this time she met Wolf Kibel* (for 
whose work she had a particular affinity), Lippy Lipshitz* and John Drons- 
field*. After Kibel's death in 1938 she, Lipshitz and Dronsfield often exhibited 
together. The three were also members of the dynamic society of artists formed 
in 1938 and known as the New Group— who included artists like Jean Welz* 
and Gregoire Boonzaier. Their aim was to introduce modern styles of art to the 
South African public. Their work met with some hostility. At an exhibition of 
the New Group at the Carnegie Library of the University of Stellenbosch, a 
critic described Higgs’s work as "surely the ugliest ever exhibited here". Pink 
nude, in particular, offended not only some of the critics but also the university 
authorities who removed the painting from the exhibition. 

As a result of her long overseas study Higgs had mastered the techniques of 
drawing, painting, lithography, etching and wood-engraving. Back in South 
Africa she used wood-engraving for book cover designs and illustrations, for 


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example for Uys Krige’s Magdalena Relief and A.C. Bosnian's Nerina van 
Drakenstein. From the beginning, however, the outstanding painterly effects 
and sensitivity to colour were the most important characteristics of her work. 
Higgs’s work during the 1930s was figurative, showing certain influences of 
European Modernism in the simplification and faceting of shapes and composi- 
tion ( Two girls, 1935, drawing), and certain unorthodox painting methods, such 
as drawing into the wet paint with the handle of the brush ( Listening to music, 
1930s, oils). It was probably during this period that her interest in paint and 
painterly effects (as distinct from using paint as a descriptive means) started 
developing. Hints of this interest already occurred in Old couple (1940, oils) 
and Mother and child (1940, oils). Both works showed heavy impasto, some 
scuffing and unpainted patches of canvas. 

After a visit to Europe in 1938 Higgs settled in Cape Town, living along 
the Atlantic Coast from Green Point to Sea Point and Mouille Point. In 1964 
she moved to Vermont near Onrust. Gradually an all-embracing interest in the 
sea developed. Figure compositions and still lifes were painted less frequently 
and marine themes predominated, inaugurating the most significant develop- 
ment in her work. The colour, atmosphere and above all the hidden rhythms of 
the sea now replaced the human figure in her work. Still lifes became sensitive 
colour studies of abalone, lime-like rock textures, seaweed and everything to 
be found in and at the sea. 

She started exploring media and techniques to create unusual equivalents 
for, rather than mere copies of, her new environment. Until 1948 Higgs 
worked mainly in black-and-white, oil and now and then watercolours, but in 
that year she started using a mixture of watercolours, gouache, coloured ink, 
pastels and coloured crayons on paper. Marine still life (1949, mixed media), 
although still fairly linear and form orientated in part, showed textures created 
by the inherent possibilities of the media, rather than simulating textures of 
shell, rock and seaweed. By 1959 Higgs had solved her technical problems. 
Laminaria (1959, oils) showed all the characteristics of her mature style. 

An injury to her arm in 1971 compelled her to do work on paper and 
renewed her interest in the mixed media techniques. During the seventies she 
discovered the world as seen through a microscope. This led to a new 
development in her work which she called ‘close-ups', a series of paintings in 
her characteristic style of minutely observed light-reflecting matter seen under 
a microscope, such as a piece of a butterfly wing or a drop of liquid, which 
were turned into delicately coloured compositions. 

Higgs is regarded as one of South Africa’s foremost painters. She applied 
her thorough knowledge of her craft without pretension in lyrical semi-abstract 
renditions of her environment and the people around her. Although a coterie 
admired her work from the start it took many years before her work was 
generally accepted. It was only in 1963 that the Medal of Honour for Painting 
was awarded to her by the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns 
(South African Academy for Arts and Science). 

She exhibited almost yearly, initially taking part in many group exhibitions, 
the first in London in 1929 with the London Group. From 1939 she exhibited 
with the New Group in South Africa. In 1948 she took part in the overseas 



exhibition of South African art; in 1950 and 1958 in the Venetian Biennial; in 
1952 in the Van Riebeeck Three Centuries Exhibition; in 1953 in the Rhodes 
Centenary Exhibition; in 1956 in the first Quadrennial of South African art; in 
1957 and 1961 in the Sao Paulo Biennial; in 1960 in the second Quadrennial of 
South African art and the South African Graphic Exhibition in Yugoslavia; in 
1966 in the Republic Festival Exhibition in Pretoria; and in 1971 in the 
Republic Festival Exhibition in Cape Town. 

Her first solo exhibition took place in Stellenbosch in 1936. Others followed 
at Ashley’s Gallery in Cape Town in 1937; Johannesburg in 1947; and Cape 
Town and Johannesburg in 1967 to 1969. In 1975 a prestige retrospective 
exhibition was held at the South African National Gallery in Cape Town, the 
William Humphreys Gallery in Kimberley, the Durban Art Gallery and the 
Pretoria Art Museum. In 1980 a special birthday exhibition was held in Cape 

Higgs’s works have been included in a number of public collections, of 
which the most important are in the South African National Gallery in Cape 
Town, the Johannesburg Art Gallery, the Pretoria Art Museum, the William 
Humphreys Gallery in Kimberley, the Durban Art Gallery and the Tatham Art 
Gallery in Pietermaritzburg. 

Higgs was a slender woman who turned grey at an early age. She never 

a.c. bouman, Kuns in Suid-Afrika. Kaapstad, 1938; — A.c. Bouman, Drie belangwekkende 
kunstenaars. Die huisgenoot, 26(980), 3 Januarie 1941; — A.C. bouman. Die plek van Cecil 
Higgs in ons kunslewe. Brandwag, 5(290), 26 Julie 1942; — A.C. BOUMAN, Kuns en 
kunswaardering. Pretoria, 1942; — C. VAN HEYNINGEN, Cecil Higgs: painter. Trek, 7(16), 
January 1943; — w.E. serton, Cecil Higgs: 'n waardering. Die huisgenoot, 30(1276), 6 
September 1946; — Criticism of an exhibition. Trek, 2(5), 6 September 1946; — D. lewis, 
The naked eye. Cape Town, 1946; — v. Holloway, Beskeie kunstenares met ’n nuwe 
medium. Byvoegsel tot Die Burger, 28 Augustus 1948; — A.C. BOUMAN, Painters of South 
Africa. Cape Town, 1948; — E. read. The collectors' guide to South African artists. Johan- 
nesburg, 1953; — R. vooel, See is haar wonderwfireld. Naweekpos 4(35), Maart 1957; — 
c. EGLINGTON, Die bydrae van elf skilderesse tot die kuns in Suid-Afrika. Lantern, 12(1), 
September 1962; — F.L. ALEXANDER, Art in South Africa since 1900. Cape Town, 1962; — 
H. JEPPE, South African artists, 1900-1962. Johannesburg, 1963; — E. berman, Modem 
South African painting. In: G. palmer a m. spring (eds), South Africa today, 1966. Johan- 
nesburg, 1966; — REMBRANDT van run art foundation, Twentieth century South African 
art. Cape Town, 1966; — K. skawran, The shimmering world of Cecil Higgs. Lantern, 
15(4), June 1966; — c. egungton, Cecil Higgs. Artlook, (35), October 1969; — south 
African association of arts. Register of South African and South West African artists. 
Cape Town, 1969; — v. holloway, Jy vul my huis met rykdom. Die huisgenoot, 42(2497), 
6 Februarie 1970; — E. berman, Cecil Higgs. South African panorama, 16(6), June 1971; 

— L. herzberg, Cecil Higgs. Artlook, 5(7), July 1972; — F. harmsen, Art in South Africa. 
Special issue of Report from South Africa, July/August 1972; — v. holloway, Cecil Higgs. 
Kaapstad, 1974; — E. berman. Art and artists in South Africa. 2nd ed. Cape Town, 1983; 

— Obituaries: Kalender: Bylae tot Beeld, 18 Junie 1986; — Die Burger, 10 Junie 1986; — 
Private information: Mr A. Higgs (nephew), Hobhouse. 


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JANTJES, Britaiye (*Zuurveld, near the Fish River, c.1766— t?, c.1840), 
tanner, messenger and interpreter, was a Gona (or Gonaqua)— a Khoikhoi tribe 
who lived between the Sundays and Great Fish rivers. Jantjes understood the 
languages and the complex relationships between the Gonaqua, Gqunukhwebe, 
Xhosa and colonists on the eastern frontier. He probably participated in the 
Khoikhoi rebellion of 1799-1803. An early reference to him appeared in the 
hire register established by H.C.D. Maynier* to entice the rebels to return to 
service on the farms. On 22 September 1800 he agreed to work for one year 
for Field Comet C.J. van Rooyen, who farmed near the mouth of the 
Zwartkops River. 

Jantjes left Algoa Bay and entered the London Missionary Society (LMS) 
station at Bethelsdorp on 1 May 1806. He was a tanner by trade and acquired 
a wagon with which he could earn good money in nearby Uitenhage. At 
various times during the next 20 years he was a key witness when allegations 
of cruelty or corruption were levelled against frontier farmers and officials. He 
testified in at least ten of the cases that arose from Khoisan complaints reported 
between 1803 and 1813 by the LMS missionaries Dr J.T. van der Kemp* and 
James Read*. The one case involved a farmer’s unlawful detention of Jantjes’s 
child. He also gave evidence at the hearings into the alleged misconduct of 
Landdrost J.G. Cuyler* of Uitenhage between 1823 and 1824. 

Despite his background as one-time rebel and his readiness to become 
involved in contentious matters, early nineteenth-century records revealed a no 
more trusted intermediary on the eastern frontier than Jantjes. Cuyler engaged 
him to parley with the Xhosa chief Ndlambe* and with the Gqunukhwebe chief 
Chungwa*. He retrieved stolen weapons, delivered cash sums, set up meetings, 
collected and relayed news and, on occasion, claimed to have coaxed and 
advised still independent indigenous leaders to co-operate with the Cape 
Colony. He took an active part in Cuyler’s efforts to induce Hans Trompetter* 
and adherents of David Stuurman* to return from exile among the Xhosa and 
Gqunukhwebe, and live in the Colony. 

In 1813 Jantjes, with Cupido Kakkerlak*, Andries Pretorius and others 
assisted Rev. John Campbell* on his extensive tour beyond the borders of the 
Colony. On 28 July 1816 Jantjes was baptized by Read. 

When Lord Charles Somerset* and Ngqika* conferred at the Kat River on 
2 April 1817, Jantjes was one of the two Gona interpreters who were crucial 
to the exchange. Cuyler and Andries Stockenstrom* did the English-Dutch 


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translations, whereupon Jantjes translated from Dutch to Xhosa and back again. 
His interpretations were checked by two Xhosa-speaking colonists on Somer- 
set’s behalf, and by Hendrik Nootka, also a Gona, for Ngqika and the other 
chiefs. When the Fifth Frontier War (1818-1819) broke out, Jantjes was sent 
as interpreter with the Bethelsdorp levy of men which formed part of the 
colonial forces. 

Jantjes survived into old age. When Donald Moodie* interviewed him on 29 
December 1836 he estimated his age at 70 years. The interview dealt with the 
period when Jantjes was a boy and his father, Old Jantje, had to deal with the 
trekboers. It was Jantjes’s belief that Khoikhoi and Xhosa lived in peace till the 
arrival of the farmers, first to trade and then to settle, who drove many 
Khoikhoi from their kraals. 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

Cape Archives, Cape Town: GR15/43, A599(IH), 1/U1T 15/1 & 15/5; CO 4443 & 4444; 
— Brenthurst Library, Johannesburg: No. 4061/22(i); — LONDON missionary SOCIETY, 
Transactions of the Missionary Society, 5. London, 1824; — g.m. theal (ed.), Records of 
the Cape Colony. Vol. 11, Nov. 1815-May 1818. London, 1902; — g.m. theal (ed.), 
Records of the Cape Colony. Vol. 30, 1 January 18 to 24 February 1827. London, 1905; — 
J. Philip, Researches in South Africa, 1. Reprint. New York, 1969; — J. Campbell, Travels 
in South Africa. Reprint. Cape Town, 1974. (Africana collectanea, no. 47). 

JOLOBE, James James Ranisi (*Xhalanga district, Transkei, 25 July 1902— 

tTsolo, Transkei, 16 May 1976), Xhosa author and 
poet, and Presbyterian clergyman. He was the son 
of a Presbyterian Church of Scotland minister, 
James Jolobe (Sen.), who was bom of Fingo par- 
ents, and Emily Nobethu, daughter of Mokhohliso 
of the Thembu clan, who also had strong religious 

Jolobe received his primary school education in 
the Xhalanga district and in Matatiele, where his 
father was stationed as minister. He trained as a 
primary school teacher at St Matthew’s College 
(Assamoah Kwame St Matthew’s High School) at 
Keiskammahoek. In 1920 he started teaching at 
Masakala Primary School in the district of Matatiele. A few years afterwards 
he was transferred to Mabhobho and later to Lower Mvenyane in the Mount 
Frere district. Through private study he obtained the Junior Certificate. In 1926 
he studied for a Diploma in Theological Studies at the South African Native 
College (University of Fort Hare). After he had matriculated in 1927, he 
returned to the university in 1928 and completed the B.A. (Theology) degree 
in 1932. 

His first appointment as a minister of religion was at Estcourt in Natal, near 
the Tugela Basin. From Natal he was transferred to the Cape Province, first to 
Tarkastad, and then in 1933 to the New Brighton Presbyterian Church in Port 
Elizabeth. He remained there until 1937, when he was seconded by the 


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Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa to a tutorship at Lovedale Bible School 
at Alice in the Easter Cape in 1938— a position he retained until June 1949. He 
was then transferred to Lovedale Training College as lecturer and remained 
there until 1959. During this time he also served as minister at the following 
Presbyterian churches: John Knox Bokwe Church, Ntselamanzi at Alice, and 
Dorrington at Fort Beaufort. Simultaneously he was a chaplain at the Victoria 
Hospital in Alice. 

During the years he spent at Lovedale he was actively involved in the 
activities of many bodies, amongst others the Presbyterian Church of South 
Africa General Assembly’s committees for Relations with the Bantu Presby- 
terian Church, for Union Churches, and for African Mission Policy; the Kirk 
Session of the Lovedale Institution Churches; the Xhosa Language Committee; 
Lovedale Governing Council; the Senate of Lovedale Institution; the Health 
Society as honorary secretary and treasurer; and the Department of Education’s 
Xhosa Language and Literature Committee responsible for the revision of the 
Xhosa Orthography. 

After his resignation from Lovedale Training College in 1959 Jolobe 
returned to New Brighton Presbyterian Church which he served until his 
retirement in 1970. He served on the New Brighton Advisory Board and in the 
local school committees. 

Jolobe joined the Interdenominational African Ministers’ Association 
(IDAMASA) in Port Elizabeth in 1959. He became president of the Cape 
Midlands Region and in 1965, at the General Conference of IDAMASA in 
Durban, he was elected president-general for the period 1966-1969. In 
September 1973 he was inducted moderator of the Presbyterian Church of 
Southern Africa. After his retirement he still played a role at academic level, 
serving as assistant editor in the Xhosa Dictionary Project and from 1971 to 
1972 as member of the Fort Hare Advisory Council. 

Jolobe began writing as a student at St Matthew’s College, but it was at 
Fort Hare in 1931 that he seriously started writing. He was inspired by the 
works of Enoch Guma, William Wordsworth and Richard Scots. His first 
work, a novel called Uzagula with the ignorance and superstition entailed in 
witchcraft as its theme, earned him the May Esther Bedford Literature Prize in 
1940. His other well-known novel is Elwidini loThugela (1959), but he also 
published collections of poems, for example Umyezo. Jolobe translated from 
English to Xhosa including short stories, essays and popular children’s nursery 
rhymes. One of his earliest translations was Ukuphakama ukusuka ebukhobeni 
(Up from Slavery, 1951), an autobiography of Booker T. Washington. Two of 
his last projects were the Xhosa-English-Afrikaans dictionary in collaboration 
with Prof. J.H. Pahl of Fort Hare, and the new revised Incwadi yamaculo 
AmaXhosa. His literary involvement included Lovedale Press publications. He 
served as advisor and was on the editorial board of the South African outlook. 

Jolobe’s religious, political and philosophical poetry is regarded as thoughts 
for and of his time. Through his humorous poems he gave the reader an insight 
into the political situation, the fashions, the customs, the languages, nature and 
other facets of the era. He is acclaimed as a Xhosa Wordsworth. Apart from 
the Bedford Prize awarded him in 1940, he also received the Vilakazi 


Memorial Prize for Literature in 1952, won the first prize in a competition 
organized by the Afrikaanse Pers-Boekhandel in 1952, and was awarded the 
Margaret Wrong Prize and Medal for his contribution to literature in 1957. In 
July 1973 Lovedale Press presented him with two leather-bound volumes of his 
work in appreciation of his contribution to Xhosa literature, and in 1974 the 
University of Fort Hare awarded him an honorary doctorate in literature and 
philosophy (D.Lit. et Phil.). 

Jolobe married Jean Buthelwa Nongogo in Port Elizabeth in 1937. They had 
one son and two daughters. He died in St Lucy's Hospital in Tsolo and was 
buried in Umtata. 

J.H. JAHN. U. SCHILD * a. nordman, Who's who in African literature. Tubigen, 1972; — 
b.e.n. mahlasela, Jolobe, Xhosa poet and writer. Grahamstown, 1973. (Department of 
African Languages, Rhodes University. Working Paper, no. 3); — Obituaries: The Natal 
Mercury , 22 May 1976; The Daily Dispatch, 28 May 1976; In memoriam minutes. In: The 
Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa General Assembly, September 17-24, 1976; — G.T. 
sirayi, A study of some aspects of JJR Jolobe 's poetry. M.A. thesis. University of Fort 
Hare, 1985; — Private information: Rev. Moses N. Ramafikeng, Kagiso, Krugersdorp. 

JORDAN, Archibald Campbell Mzoliza (AC) (*Mbokothwana Mission, 

Tsolo district, Transkei, 30 October 1906— tMadi- 
son, Wisconsin, United States of America (USA), 
20 October 1968), Xhosa author and linguist, was 
the third and youngest son of the eight children of 
Elijah Jordan and his wife Fanny Makhosazana 
Mehlo. His father was a teacher and Anglican 
Church catechist and his family were descended 
from the Hlubi people who had made their home in 
the Tugela district. 

Jordan received his primary education at Mboko- 
thwana and then St Cuthbert’s Primary School at 
Tsolo. With the aid of an Andrew Smith bursary he 
went to Lovedale Institution at Alice in the Eastern 
Cape where he passed the Junior Certificate. In 1923 he went to St John’s 
College in Umtata, Transkei, to train as a teacher. He won a Transkei Bhunga 
merit bursary that enabled him to go to the South African Native College 
(University of Fort Hare) where he obtained a teacher’s diploma in 1932 and 
a B.A. degree in 1934. 

While at Fort Hare, Jordan immersed himself in a wide range of activities, 
including cricket, drama, music and debating. He also developed a great love 
for literature and became the leader of the Literary Society and editor of a 
literary magazine. The sane. 

After graduating in December 1934, Jordan went to teach at Bantu High 
School in Kroonstad, where he remained for ten years. During this time Jordan 
completed a dissertation on the phonetic and grammatical structure of Baca and 
was awarded an M.A. degree by the University of South Africa in 1944. 

On the retirement of Prof. D.D.T. Jabavu*, Jordan was appointed to the 


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Department of African Languages at Fort Hare in 1945. The following year he 
moved to the Cape Flats after being appointed a lecturer in the School of 
African Studies at the University of Cape Town, the first African to be 
appointed to such a post. In 1956 he was the first African to receive a Ph.D. 
at the University of Cape Town. The title of his thesis was A phonological and 
grammatical study of literary Xhosa for which he was awarded the much 
coveted Vilakazi Memorial Prize for Literature, bestowed annually by the 
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, for the most meritorious 
contribution to Nguni literature. 

Jordan was an outspoken critic of the National Party government’s Bantu 
Education policy. Consequently, when he was awarded a Carnegie Travel 
Grant to tour universities and colleges in the USA early in 1961, he was 
refused a passport. The refusal was deplored by English and Afrikaans medium 
universities alike. He was to leave in July but, without a passport and accom- 
panied by his one son, he finally reached London in October via Botswana and 
Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. At the beginning of 1962 he left for the USA, 
where he was to lecture at the University of California at Los Angeles. 
However, he experienced problems attaining a visa because he did not have a 
passport. Eventually Jordan and the rest of his family applied for and were 
issued with British passports. In 1963 Jordan was appointed professor in the 
Department of African Languages and Literature at the University of Wiscon- 

Jordan’s best-known work is probably iNgqumbo ye miNyanya (The wrath 
of the ancestors, 1940). It was acclaimed by many Xhosa readers as a 
masterpiece. Three books appeared posthumously: Kwezo Mphindo zeTsitsa 
(1970), Tales from Southern Africa (1973), and Towards an African literature: 
the emergence of literary form in Xhosa (1973). 

Jordan married Priscilla Phyllis Ntantla on 2 January 1940. The couple had 
two sons and two daughters. One of the sons, Pallo (meaning ‘destiny’), is a 
prominent member of the African National Congress. Jordan’s widow Phyllis, 
who is also a writer, lives in New York in the USA. 

R. segal, Political Africa: a who’s who of personalities and parties. London, 1961; — 
Obituaries: The Cape Times, 22 October 1968; Eastern Province Herald, 26 October 1968; 
— T. KAR1S & G.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — W.M. KWETANA, A reconsideration of the plot structure of A.C. Jordan’s Ingqumbo 
ye miNyanya. South African journal of African languages, 7(3), July 1987; — v. February, 
Hulle pad het myne gekruis. Die Suid-Afrikaan, 28, Augustus 1990; — m.a.b. ny amende. 
Who really cares if the ancestors are angry? A.C. Jordan’s The wrath of the ancestors 
(Ingqumbo ye miNyanya). South African journal of African languages, 11(4), November, 
1991; — Tribute: New Nation, 10 September 1987; — P. NT ANT ALA, A life's mosaic: the 
autobiography of Phyllis Ntantala. Bellville & Cape Town, 1992; — Private information: Dr 
Pallo Jordan (son), Johannesburg. 


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KAUSOB, Kausobson (*? — fSlypkiip, Vaal River, 6 July 1858), chief of a 
group of San that inhabited the area between the Modder, Riet and Vaal rivers 
(in the western Orange Free State) early in the nineteenth century. According 
to the anthropologist Stow (infra) his headquarters were beyond the Koe- 
doesberg along the Riet River, southwest of Kimberley, although Kausob 
himself cited the farm Soutpan as his home. His father was ‘Kausob de Oude' 
(Kausob the Elder), successor to the chiefs Windhond and Nqauy, but Kausob 
once said that his father was named Haroppe and his grandfather Cobus, while 
according to Stow he was the son of ’Twa’goup. The whites nicknamed him 
Skeelkobus because he was blind in one eye. His name is, however, cited 
differently in various sources: Kousopp, Kausop, Jacobus Kousop and 

A relative of Kausob, Decoie, a chief of mixed San and Korana descent, 
who was called Degoep or Dawid Danzer by the whites, sold the area known 
as Vanwyksvlei to D.S. Fourie in 1839. Whites settled there in increasing 
numbers. In 1845 Kausob objected to the sale since Vanwyksvlei was within 
his area of jurisdiction. A number of Korana under the leadership of Captain 
Jan Bloem Jr* investigated this complaint in the presence and possibly also 
under the influence of Fourie and a large group of whites, and Kausob’s claim 
was rejected. 

At this time British authority extended over Transorangia. Since tension was 
mounting between the various population groups around Vanwyksvlei the 
British Resident, H.D. Warden*, tried to eliminate friction. He awarded two 
tracts of land on the left bank of the Vaal River opposite its confluence with 
the Harts River, one to Bloem and the other to the followers of Danzer and the 
Korana chief Goliath Yzerbek. Because the local inhabitants still complained 
about raids by Kausob and his followers, Warden again visited the territory in 
the winter of 1850. While he was once more not prepared to acknowledge 
Kausob’s claim, he awarded him a piece of land between the two areas 
mentioned above. At this stage Kausob had a following of some 200 people. 

In 1854 Kausob sold the land in his reserve to farmers in exchange for, 
amongst other things, brandy and gunpowder. However, it was later alleged 
that this happened under pressure from the whites and Danzer. Moreover, as 
Kausob could neither read nor write, he most probably did not understand the 
implications of the transactions. In 1855 he lodged complaints in this regard 
with the government of the Orange Free State Republic (OFS) that had mean- 


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while come into existence, as well as against P.S. Fourie, son of D.S. Fourie, 
who had driven him from the farm Soutpan. In this he was supported by the 
former interpreter and teacher Richard Miles, a baptized Tswana who acted as 
agent for all the chiefs along the Vaal River and who had also clashed with 
whites over farms in the area that he owned. However, early in 1856 their 
complaints were dismissed and the correspondence on the matter ended. Some 
months later the first erven were sold at Vanwyksvlei and the town of Boshof 
developed here, thus formalizing the presence of whites in the area. 

During May and June 1858, while the OFS was engaged in war with the 
Basuto, Kausob launched a number of attacks on whites in the area. Several 
white men were wounded or killed, women and children were ill-treated or 
abducted, and farms were burnt and cattle raided. Kausob was helped in this by 
a group of about 300 men of varying descent. Goliath Yzerbek and Gascbone*, 
a Thlaping chief from across the Vaal River, were among his allies. Under- 
standably these events caused great concern among the white inhabitants of the 
OFS. A commando of 400 men— composed of 240 burgers, a number of 
Mfengu, and Danzcr’s people— under Field Commandant Hendrik Venter, 
assisted by J.G.M. Howell*, was called up and equipped with a canon. On 6 
July 1858 they surrounded Kausob’s followers near Slypklip on the Vaal River 
(to the north of Kimberley, just south of Windsorton) and forced them to 
surrender after a battle of three hours. Kausob, his brother Klaas and 129 of 
his followers, consisting of San, Khoikhoi, Korana and Griqua, were killed in 
the battle and 43 men and 50 women were captured. 

On 14 July the male prisoners were escorted by Mfengu under St P.O’S. 
O’Brien from Boshof to Bloemfontein to be tried. However, half an hour 
outside the town 30 armed whites stopped them and shot all the prisoners at 
what has since become known as Prisonierskoppie (Prisoners’ hill). This 
arbitrary deed apparently took place with the silent consent of Field Comman- 
dant Venter and caused much indignation on the part of President J.N. Boshof* 
and State Attorney A.B. Roberts*. J.J. Venter*, a member of the executive 
council, was subsequently instructed to investigate the matter. J.J. Raaff*, the 
bailiff of Bloemfontein, was ordered to arrest three inhabitants of the Boshof 
district but, as a result of local resistance, the strong feelings evoked by the 
matter and the inability of the young republic to enforce its authority, the 
matter was not taken any further. However, on President BoshoFs instructions 
the women and children from Kausob's group, who had been divided among 
the local farmers, were freed. 

As Kausob’s sustained protest against his alleged dispossession was 
documented, it serves as a valuable record of the vain attempts by an indigen- 
ous leader to assert his authority against the whites moving in. It was apparent- 
ly frustration about his powerlessness that eventually drove him to large-scale 
violence. It would therefore be wrong to merely regard him as a local robber 
and gangster. The extent of the support that he received from various indigen- 
ous groups also shows that he embodied sentiments that were real and widely 
felt. However, the conclusive way in which the resistance of Kausob as well as 
that of Gasebone of the Transvaal were suppressed and, more specifically, the 
murder of the prisoners in Kausob’s group, made a profound impression upon 



the indigenous people, and did much to discourage future resistance and to 
consolidate the position of the whites in the two republics. 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

The Friend, 1858 (passim ); — G.M. theal, History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, 3. 
London, 1904; — G.w. stow. The native races of South Africa. London, 1905; — J.H. 
malan. Die opkoms van ’n republiek. Bloemfontein, 1929; — Suid-Afrikaanse Argiefstukke: 
Notule van die Volks rood van die Oranje-Vrystaat. Vols 1-3, 1854-1858. Pretoria, 
1952-1960; — HJ. van aswegen. Die verhouding tussen blank en nie-blank in the Oranje- 
Vrystaat, 1854-1902. Archives yearbook of South African history, 34(1), 1971. 

KEKANA, Johannes Jane Tane (*Moletlane, near Zebediela, c.1840— 
tLeeuwkraal (Leeukraal, to the north of Hammanskraal), Pretoria district, 12 
April 1887), a chief of the Lebeio clan of the Ndebele and the son of Lebelo 
Seroto and his wife NaMahlangu, a member of the Ndzundza tribe. Van War- 
melo (infra) contends that Kekana was one of twins, but had not been killed at 
birth as the other twin, thus following the Nguni tradition. 

Shortly after the arrival of the Voortrekkers in the Transvaal, Lebelo broke 
away from the Ndebele in the area of the present-day Potgietersrus. Sources 
differ on the reasons for this move. According to Breutz (infra), Chief 
Maboyaboya favoured Lebelo although he was the son of the third hut (not the 
son of the chief wife). This endangered Lebelo’s life and he was advised to 
leave. Van Warmelo merely states that Lebelo’s elder brother succeeded as 
chief and then used Lebelo as a representative and messenger. Eventually he 
feared that Lebelo might become too powerful and therefore suggested that 
Lebelo leave. 

Lebelo and his followers moved southward from Moletlane and settled at 
Nokanapedi on Rhenostcrfontein in the vicinity of Rust de Winter, between the 
Elands and Enkeldoring rivers. They next moved further west and lived for 
some time east of the Apies River near Boschplaats (Bosplaas), north of 
Hammanskraal. In about 1860 they moved to the nearby farm Haakdoom- 
fontein on the Pienaars River, just north of Wallmannsthal. Upon Lebelo’s 
death (between 1870 and 1875) Kekana succeeded him as captain. 

Before Kekana became leader of his tribe, he apparently worked in the 
Cape Colony to get guns. There, seemingly, he acquired a measure of 
education and collected some tribesmen. This gave rise to his desire for more 
instruction for him and his tribe. Probably as a result of this desire he made 
various requests to the Transvaal government and the Berlin Missionary Society 
(BMS) between 1867 and 1869 to have a missionary stationed at his kraal. 
During this time he sometimes attended church services in the small Berlin 
missionary church in Pretoria. 

After the establishment of the Wallmannsthal missionary station (south of 
Hammanskraal, and 27 km northeast of Pretoria) in 1869 by F.C.C.A. Griin- 
berger* and C.P.G. Knothe*, missionaries of the BMS, Kekana and his people 
moved there. Here he learnt to write, was baptized, and initially showed his 
goodwill by, amongst other things, personally giving up polygamy. Eventually 
some of the Ndebele customs and Kekana’s status as captain came into conflict 


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with Christianity and he clashed publicly with Knothe. The increasing hostility 
can also be attributed to legislation (Act no. 9 of 1870) of the Transvaal 
Republic that not only restricted the movement of Africans, but enforced the 
carrying of a pass, and levied a tax on every hut. It furthermore stipulated that 
not more than five families may live in one location which meant that the 
whole tribe could no longer live at the mission station. Kekana therefore left 
Wallmannsthal in 1872 and eventually settled on the farm Leeuwkraal, a few 
kilometres northwest of Wallmannsthal. Leeuwkraal at that time belonged to 
one Erasmus; Kekana and his followers worked for him on the farm. (It was 
only during the chieftainship of his son Karel Seroto that the tribe bought the 
farm.) After a period of what the missionaries described as moral decline, and 
after Knothe’s departure from Wallmannsthal, Kekana restored his ties with the 
BMS in 1878. 

At Leeuwkraal Kekana tried to improve the education of his people, by 
inter alia appointing an African teacher and later obtaining the services of a 
teacher-evangelist. His desire for a small church at Leeuwkraal became reality 
in 1882. In 1884 Kekana was very dissatisfied when H.T. Wangemann*, direc- 
tor of the BMS, did not call at Leeuwkraal. After a meeting between them at 
Wallmannsthal, the dispute was settled. 

The Transvaal government obviously had a good relationship with Kekana 

and sometimes made use of his assistance. In April 1887 when Kekana became 
seriously ill, the government sent a doctor to Leeuwkraal at the request of his 
son. Kekana, however, died on 12 April 1887 and was buried at Wallmanns- 
thal. He was succeeded by his son Seroto Karel Kekana. 

Being a Christian, Kekana had only one wife who was either called Nontwa 
or Makgoboketsa. They had five sons and two daughters. 

In many respects Kekana can be regarded as a remarkable captain. He had 
considerably more education than the average African of his time, was known 
as a Christian and made a good impression on both the missionaries and the 
Boers. Although Kekana was a less important African captain in the Transvaal 
Republic, a study of him and his followers is of interest on account of their 
contact with white missionaries, farmers and the government. Valuable 
information has come to the fore regarding the pressure of Western and 
Christian values on an African tribe and their traditional views and customs, 
and also their reactions to the pressure. Despite the often one-sided approach, 
the documents of the missionaries of the BMS yielded detailed descriptions of 
this interaction. 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Series on Staatsekretaris (SS), Uitvoerende Raad (UR), 
Superintendent van Naturelle (SN) and Landdros van Pretoria; — Berliner Missionsberichte, 
1866-1882; — H.T. wangemann, Geschichte der Berliner Missionsgesellschaft uml ihrer 
Arbeiten in SOdafrica ... 4. Die Berliner Mission im Bassuto-Lande . Berlin, 1877; — H.T. 
wangemann, Ein zweites Reisejahr in Siid-Afrika ... Berlin, 1886; — F. JEPPE, De locale 
wetten der Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek, 1849-1885. Pretoria, 1887; — Transvaal native 
affairs department, Short history of the native tribes of the Transvaal. Pretoria, 1905; — 
great Britain, war office. The native tribes of the Transvaal. London, 1905; — nj. van 
warmelo, Transvaal Ndebele tests. Pretoria, 1930. (Department of Native Affairs. 


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Ethnological publications, no. 1); — n.j. van warmelo, A preliminary survey of the Bantu 
tribes of South Africa. Pretoria, 1935. (Department of Native Affairs. Ethnological 
publications, no. 5); — N.J. van warmelo. The Ndebele of J. Kekana. Pretoria, 1944. 
(Department of Native Affairs. Ethnological publications, no. 18). (Bound in one volume 
with nos 17-22); — T.s. van rooyen, Die kronieke van WaJlmannsthal. Pretoriana, 
3(2)-4(2), 1953-1954; — l.s. bergh, Die Berlynse Sendinggenootskap in Pretoria en 
omgewing, 1866-1881. M.A. thesis. University of South Africa, 1974; — p.-L. BREUTZ, A 
history of the Botswana and origin of Bophuthatswana. Ramsgate, 1989; — Private 
information: Mrs Ester Kekana (widow of Hans Kekana, great-grandson, and regent after 
her husband's death), Majaneng, Bophuthatswana (North-West Province). 

KIRK, Henrietta Georgina (Netta) (*Matatiele, 1 July 1892— fRustfontein, 

Kokstad district, 15 February 1975), cheesemaker, 
factory manager and technical supervisor in the 
cheesemaking industry, was one of the eight 
children— five daughters and three sons— of Adam 
and Henrietta Kirk, Irish immigrants who settled in 
East Griqualand. She was educated at Matatiele and 
Kokstad. While still a pupil at the Holy Cross 
Convent, Kokstad, she became an accomplished 
horsewoman and a powerful swimmer. In her early 
twenties she rescued a girl from very rough seas at 
Winklespruit at considerable risk to herself. For this 
deed she received the Gold Medal of the Royal 
Humane Society. 

She spent many school holidays at the Moxham farm in East Griqualand 
where cheese was made. At first she helped with this complex process that 
turned liquid, perishable milk into a solid, stable, palatable product. Gradually 
her interest in the process grew until she realized that she had found her 

After leaving school she was employed as cheesemaker by H.G. (Jack) 
Moxham, the son of her first employer. She first worked on his farm, and then 
in his factory near Kokstad which opened on 7 October 1914. At this time 
cattle received little or no supplementary feeding in winter so that milk 
production decreased greatly and cheese factories closed. In the winter of 1916 
Kirk spent three months gaining experience in New Zealand cheese factories 
before returning to her previous employment. 

In 1926 dairy farmers in the Peddie district of the Eastern Cape established 
a cheese factory and invited Kirk to become its manager. When she arrived at 
the ‘factory’ at Cross Roads near Peddie, she found an empty room about nine 
metres square. Her first task was to equip it. She managed to collect equip- 
ment, much of it second-hand and limited to the bare essentials. There was also 
no piped water; every drop had to be conveyed in milk cans on an ox-drawn 
Scotch cart. 

Kirk worked under extremely difficult conditions. Everything was done by 
hand, from emptying and washing the cans to stirring the curd in the vat— often 
for hours to allow the needed acidity to develop— to the moulding and handling 


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of the cheese. There were no pasteurizers— the first one was installed in the 
Cross Roads factory in October 1938— and the milk was often of appalling 
quality. She waged a constant battle with the farmers to get them to improve 
the quality. Amid all this she was a strict disciplinarian, demanding almost as 
much from her staff as she did from herself. Her name among the African staff 
was Monqonjo which conveyed the concept of ‘driving force’. However, when 
any of her African staff or their families were ill no one could be more 
sympathetic and she went to great lengths to help them. 

In 1932 a branch factory was opened on the farm Fort Montgomery near 
Breakfast Vlei. By this time Kirk had trained several assistant cheesemakers 
who worked under her supervision and direction. These two factories together 
soon handled about 22 500 litres of milk a day. In 1936 the cheese factory at 
Kroomie, which received some 13 500 litres of milk a day, was taken over and 
the group was reorganized as the Fort Montgomery Cheese Factory (Pty) Ltd. 
Later, smaller factories at Glenthom and Doornfontein were added. Under 
Kirk’s iron hand the company flourished and reached a production of over 
4 500 kg of cheese a day. 

Kirk’s association with the Fort Montgomery company lasted some 30 
years, during the last 20 years as technical supervisor of the group. She then 
lived in East London but visited each factory at least once a month to exercise 
control over the quality of the cheese, the condition of the factory and the 
neatness of the cheesemaker and his staff. 

Kirk did not only train the cheesemakers in the various factories of the 
group. A number of people came to her for training in the craft, in spite of the 
fact that many of them already had professional or academic qualifications in 
dairying. She set extremely high standards. 

She could also meet international competition. As early as 1919 Kirk 
received a first prize and a gold medal at the London Dairy Show in competi- 
tion with cheesemakers from all parts of the British Empire. At the British 
Empire Exhibition in Ontario, Canada, in 1938, she received the Diploma of 
Honour for her cheese. 

Kirk retired from the Fort Montgomery company in 1956, but is known to 
have been involved in cheesemaking in East Griqualand in 1966 when she was 
74 years old. On her retirement Kirk moved to a small farm, Harmony, near 

Kirk was a deeply caring person, very friendly to children and animals, and 
prepared to become personally involved, even to the extent of adopting three 
children— a boy, Noel, and two girls, Elizabeth and Jemma. When Elizabeth 
died, Kirk adopted her two daughters and brought them up. 

Over all the years she maintained contact with the Moxham family who 
frequently spent holidays at Harmony. In her early seventies she sold Harmony 
and from about 1964 stayed with her daughter, Jemma, in Port Elizabeth. On 
15 November 1969, at the age of 77, she married her former employer, Jack 
Moxham. She spent her last years quietly on the Moxham family farm 
Rustfontein in the Kokstad district. 

C.w. abbott, Miss Kirk: cheesemaker extraordinary. South African journal of dairy 



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technology , 5(2), 1973; — Obituaries: Kokstad Advertiser and East Griqualand Gazette, 20 
February 1975; Free Press Newspapers (Adelaide, C.P.). 5 March 1975; — Private 
information: Mr Jack Moxham (husband), Kokstad; Mr K.S. Moxham (brother-in-law), 
Kokstad; Mr A.M, Moxham (half-brother to Jack Moxham), Kokstad; Mrs Jemma Watt- 
Pringle (adopted daughter), Cedarville; Mr D. Reynolds (manager, Cross Roads factory); 
Mr L. Jaffe (director. Fort Montgomery Cheese Factory (Pty) Ltd). 

KOK, Corneli(u)s II (“probably Kamiesberg, ?— tCampbell, early in 1858), 
chief of the Griqua who settled at Campbell in Griqualand West during the first 
half of the nineteenth century. He was the second son of Comelis Kok 1“, and 
the grandson of Adam Kok 1*, the founder of the Griqua people. Kok was the 
younger brother of Adam Kok 11“, the Griqua chief of Philippolis. 

Little is known about the youth, education and marital status of Kok. It is 
also unknown whether he accompanied his father, brother and their followers 
when they originally crossed the Orange River and settled at a number of 
springs between Prieskasdrif and Danielskuil, with their headquarters at 
Klaarwater (renamed Griquatown in 1813). If it was the case, Kok must have 
accompanied his father when the latter temporarily handed over his power to 
Kok’s elder brother, Adam Kok II, and returned to Kamiesberg. By 1813 Kok 
and a group of followers found themselves south of the Orange River where 
Rev. John Campbell* visited them. With his father, Kok trekked to Griquatown 
in 1816. As a result of rows with missionaries who, in the meantime, had 
expanded their influence over a section of the heterogeneous inhabitants of the 
area, Kok’s father (like Barend Barends*) left Griquatown and settled at 
Campbell — formerly known as Knoffelvlei, then Grootfontein and by 1846 
known as Campbellsdorp. Kok and his brother Abraham followed their father 
there and were joined by the major part of the Koks’s original followers. 
Cornelis Kok I acted as independent captain until 1820 when he resigned and, 
since his eldest son Adam Kok II was absent, handed over power to Kok. 

In the meantime Adam Kok II in Griquatown had fallen into disfavour with 
the missionaries. After the election of Andries Waterboer* as captain there in 
1 820, he moved with his followers to Campbell in the same year. Although as 
eldest son he took over the chieftainship from Comelis Kok, he was evidently 
not keen to hold this position. Thus he did not stay at Campbell for very long, 
but chose a nomadic life as leader of a group known as the Bergenaars. 
Cornelis Kok again accepted the chiefs sceptre and was officially elected in 
1 824 as chief of Campbell in the place of his brother, a step acknowledged by 
the Cape government on the recommendation of its agent among the Griqua, J. 

Initially Kok maintained good relations with Waterboer and the other Griqua 
leaders. Quarrels among the various Griqua factions were temporarily settled 
when Kok, together with Waterboer, Barends and his brother Adam, partici- 
pated in the well-known battle of Dithakong, northeast of Kuruman, in 1823 
when a joint force of the Hlakwane, Fokeng and Phuting was defeated. In this 
way they freed their area from the devastation of the difaqane. 

Conflict arose between Waterboer and the Bergenaars, former followers of 
Kok’s brother Adam Kok II who had left Philippolis in the western 



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Transorangia shortly after having settled there. Kok reluctantly supported 
Waterboer. In 1824 he and Waterboer jointly beat the Bergenaars at 
Sleutelspoort near Fauresmith and took away many head of cattle. Kok’s 
followers, however, supported the Bergenaars and Campbell became virtually 
deserted. In order to save his chieftainship, Kok broke with Waterboer and thus 
started a conflict that continued for the rest of his life. This conflict first 
became evident in a struggle for land, which was temporarily resolved when 
Adam Kok II was called in as peacemaker and a border was established 
between Waterboer (Griquatown) and Kok (Campbell). This border simulta- 
neously served as a dividing line between the territories of Waterboer and 
Barend Barends with whom Kok had a good relationship. 

In the early 1830s the conflict intensified when Dr John Philip*, supported 
by Waterboer, attempted to replace Cornelis Kok and Adam Kok II, and place 
their territories and subjects under the jurisdiction of Waterboer. The Cape 
government, however, was not prepared to violate the agreements made with 
them. Kok himself barely paid attention to rumours in this regard. In fact, 
when Barends left Boetsap in the northeast, halfway between Barkly East and 
Taung, Kok took over command of that area and extended his power. 

Waterboer, however, had not forsaken his plans to eliminate Kok. Attempts 
to buy out Kok were unsuccessful, as was Waterboer’s strategy to accuse Kok 
of various misdeeds and bring him into disrepute with the Cape government. 

Kok also became involved in the struggle for the leadership of the Griqua 
faction at Philippolis that started after the death of Adam Kok II in 1836. This 
struggle gave Waterboer the opportunity to attempt to take action against him. 
Despite the interference of the missionaries there, Abraham Kok was preferred 
as chief above his brother Adam III. In July 1837 Abraham was, however, 
deprived of his chieftainship as a result of missionary involvement. Abraham 
and his followers fled to his uncle (Kok) at Campbell and a small-scale civil 
war evolved. Cornelis Kok and Jan Bloem*, the Korana leader, supported 
Abraham, while Waterboer took sides with the newly elected Adam Kok III. 
The struggle was of little avail, since Adam retained the leadership. It did, 
however, result in action against Kok, since at a combined meeting of the 
Griqua councils of Philippolis and Griquatown, it was decided to discharge Kok 
as a leader. According to an agreement on 9 November 1838 between Adam 
Kok III and Waterboer, Kok’s territory was divided between them along the 
Ramah-Davidsgraf-Platberg line. Kok’s followers would henceforth be under 
the jurisdiction of Waterboer. The dismissal was confirmed by the mission- 
aries, but since it was an arbitrary and illegal act, the Cape government did not 
ratify it. Kok himself slighted the dismissal and continued to be chief as before. 

A further bone of contention between Kok and Waterboer was the pos- 
session of land south of the Vaal River. In 1840 Kok and Jan Bloem concluded 
a treaty that determined a dividing line between their territories south of the 
Vaal River and the land occupied by the cattle farmers moving in from the 
south. Despite Waterboer’s claims to the territory west of the Ramah-Platberg 
line, in 1840 Kok and Jan Bloem started selling the land there to cattle farmers. 

With the British annexation of Transorangia in 1848 the British authorities 
once again recognized Kok as chief, but regarded the territory south of the 


Vaal River, which both Kok and Waterboer claimed, as part of the Orange 
River Sovereignty. Individual property rights of Griqua who occupied farms 
there were nevertheless recognized. As Kok’s followers sold their land they 
moved away and by 1850 his subjects numbered less than 200 families, almost 
all of them living north of the Vaal River. 

However, the struggle between Kok and Waterboer for the possession of the 
remaining land south of the Orange River continued. Even Waterboer’s death 
in 1852 did not end the struggle because it was continued by Waterboer's son, 
Nicholaas*. Attempts at arbitration were of no avail. After the Orange Free 
State Republic (OFS) had gained independence with the Bloemfontein Conven- 
tion in 1854, the new government acted as facilitator. Following negotiations 
with both parties, Adam Kok III was appointed as arbitrator. He pursued a 
middle course and divided the disputed area along the Vetberg line in 1855. 
This measure was acknowledged by the OFS Volksraad, because at that stage 
Cornells Kok and his subjects had already sold all their land to OFS farmers. 

Subsequently Kok ruled his followers at Campbell fairly peacefully. In 
1857, when he was already old and sickly, he handed over his chiefs sceptre 
and chieftainship of the Campbell land to his cousin Adam Kok III at Philip- 
polis. His followers supported him in this action. He died early in 1858. 

Although Kok did not play as important a role in the Griqua history as his 
father, brothers or the Waterbocrs, he was an eminent contemporary leader 
who occupied an important position in the struggles among the various Griqua 
factions. Because the Cape government recognized his position, he could hold 
his own against his opponents. He was highly regarded by white and black. 

No portrayal of him could be found. 

Cape Archives, Cape Town: Griqualand West Land Court Records, GLWLC 24; — British 
parliamentary papers , C.459-’71, C.508-’72, C.732-’73; — Appendix to the Votes and 
Proceedings of the House of Assembly, A. 39-71, G. 21-71, G. 15-72; — Cape Blue Books: 
Evidence taken at Bloemfontein before the commission appointed to investigate the claims of 
the South African Republic, Captain N. Waterboer, Chief of West Griqualand, and certain 
other native chiefs, to portions of the territory on the Vaal river now known as the Diamond 
Fields. Cape Town, 1871; — a.f. undley, Adamantia: the truth about the South African 
diamond fields. London, 1873; — D. arnot & j.m. orpen. The land question in Griqualand 
West. Cape Town, 1875; — J.a.I. agar-hamilton. The road to the north: South Africa, 
1852-1886. London, 1937; — j.j. oberholster. Die anneksasie van Griekwaland-Wes. 
Archives yearbook of South African history, 8, 1945; — SJ. HALFARD, The Griquas of 
Griqualarui: a historical narrative of the Griqua people. Cape Town, [1949]; — w.b. 
CAMPBELL, The South African frontier, 1865-1885: a study in expansion. Archives yearbook 
of South African history, 22(1), 1959; — R. DE v. pretorius. Die geskiedenis van die 
‘Vrystaatse Griekwas’. M.A. thesis. University of the Orange Free State, 1963; — M.c. 
legassick. The Griqua, the Sotho-Tswana, and the missionaries, 1780-1840: the politics of 
a frontier zone. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, 1969; — Kok, Adam. In: Standard 
encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, 6. Cape Town, 1972; — J.J. oberholster, Griquas. In: 
Standard encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, 5. Cape Town, 1972; — R. ross, Adam Kok's 
Griquas: a study in the development of stratification in South Africa. Cambridge, 1976; — 
suid-afrika. presidentsraad, Verslag van die Grondwetkomitee van die Presiderusraad oor 
die behoeftes en eise van die Griekwas. Cape Town, 1983. (P.R. 2/1983); — K. shilling- 
ton, The colonisation of the Southern Tswana. Johannesburg, 1985. 



KOTANE, Moses Mauane (Malume) (*Tamposstad, Rustenburg district, 9 

August 1905— fMoscow, USSR (Russia), 21 May 
1978), political functionary and compositor, was the 
second son among the eleven children of Samuel 
Segogwane and Siporah Mmadira Kotane, highly 
literate and prominent members of their community. 
Kotane’s parents were also involved in the local 
Lutheran Church, his father acting inter alia as a 
lay preacher. In 1918 Kotane went to work as a 
farmhand and then, at the age of fifteen, went to a 
local Setswana school— a Lutheran Bible school. In 
1921 he attended an English tribal school and left a 
year later after passing Standard 2. 

Starting to work at seventeen on the Witwa- 
tersrand, Kotane worked alternately as a photographer’s assistant, domestic 
servant, miner and bakery worker. He later enrolled at the communist-run 
night school and soon caught up the backlog in his general education. In 1928 
he joined the African National Congress (ANC) but found it an ineffectual 
organization. The same year he joined the African Bakers’ Union. The 
following year he joined the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South 
African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) and soon became the vice-chair- 
person of the trade union federation, as well as a member of the CPSA’s 
political bureau. 

In 1931 Kotane became a full-time CPSA functionary, a party then racked 
by internal conflict. Working both as a CPSA and a union organizer, he was, 
amongst other things, compositor of the communist newspaper Umsebenzi. 
Being one of the most promising young African members, the CPSA leadership 
decided to send him to study politics at the Lenin School in Moscow from 1931 
to 1932). Of this period Kotane later wrote the following: "It was at the Lenin 
School that I learnt how to think politically. They taught me the logical method 
of argument, political analysis. From that time onwards I was never at a loss 
when it came to summing up a situation." Kotane was heavily influenced by the 
teachings of Potekhin, Zusmanowich and the Hungarian, Sik. 

In 1935, because of Kotane’s ideological dispute with Lazar Bach, then 
chairperson of the CPSA (Kotane wanted to Africanize and nationalize the 
CPSA), he was suspended from the CPSA’s political bureau. He left Johannes- 
burg for Cape Town and in 1937 became involved in the publication of the 
paper The African Defender. During his stay in Cape Town he attempted to 
structure the ANC along Communist Party lines, in other words decision- 
making from the bottom and not from the top. 

The war years (1939-1945) marked Kotane’s rise in resistance politics. It 
started with him- being restored to his original post in the CPSA. On 29 
December 1 938 he was elected as general secretary of the CPS A— a position he 
eventually held for close to 40 years. Closer co-operation was sought with the 
ANC and this eventually culminated in a joint committee to draft a Bill of 
Rights (the so-called Atlantic Charter) and to launch a united attack on the pass 
laws. In 1946 Kotane was elected to the national executive of the ANC. 


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When the CPSA was banned in 1950, Kotane moved from Cape Town, 
which had been the CPSA’s headquarters, back to Johannesburg. Kotane was 
one of the first to be banned under the Suppression of Communism Act, but he 
ignored the ban to speak in support of the Defiance Campaign in June 1952. In 
December 1952 he was tried with other leaders of the Defiance Campaign and 
given a suspended sentence. 

Although one of the architects of the Congress Alliance, he was not present 
at the launching of the historic Congress of the People in Kliptown on 26 June 
1955. In 1955 he attended the conference of Third World leaders in Bandung, 
Indonesia, as an observer and remained abroad for the better part of that year, 
travelling widely in Asia and Eastern Europe. He met world leaders such as 
Nasser and Nehru. 

Charged with treason in December 1956, he remained a defendant in the 
Treason Trial until charges against him were dropped in November 1958. 
During the 1960 state of emergency he was detained for four months, and in 
late 1962 he was placed under 24-hour house arrest. In early 1963 he left for 
Tanzania, where he became the treasurer-general for the ANC in exile. During 
the consultative conference at Morogoro, Tanzania, in 1969 he was re-elected 
to the national executive of the ANC. 

In 1968 he suffered a stroke and was hospitalized in the Soviet Union. He 
never fully recovered and died in 1978. He was buried in Moscow. 

Largely self-taught, Kotane had an urge for self-improvement— even while 
in hospital he attempted to learn Swahili and Russian. As an author and orator 
Kotane spurned high-flown theories for the realities of practical politics. 
Although a strict disciplinarian, his followers fondly called him Malume 

He inherited a disjointed and divided CPSA but left it united and resolute. 
However, with the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, old Soviet 
records became available which claimed that a so-called Kotane faction 
orchestrated the division in order to take over the CPSA in 1939. Furthermore, 
these records claimed that this faction provided the trumped-up charges which 
led to the arrest, conviction and eventual death of Lazar Bach, and of Maurice 
and Paul Richter while they were visiting Russia. These events should, 
however, also be linked to the Africanization of the CPSA. In the period 
between the two world wars (1918-1939) Africans experienced communism as 
practised by the CPSA to a great extent as racist. For example, Emil Solomon 
(Solly) Sachs* ran segregated garment worker unions in the interwar years, and 
the CPSA newspaper was in favour of tribalism for the Africans. Under 
Kotane’s leadership the CPSA/SACP gained a reputation as one of the most 
Stalinist parties in the world, and under his reign prominent leaders such as Joe 
Slovo and Chris Hani rose. Kotane was one of the few who could bridge the 
gap between the SACP and the ANC and hold them together in the years of 
turmoil in South Africa. For this he received the ANC national award of 
lsitwalandwe (hero of the National Liberation Struggle— a title once bestowed 
upon Xhosa heroes for exceptional courage and service) and the Soviet Order 
of the Friendship of the Peoples. 

His was first married to Sophie Human. They had two sons. This marriage 

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ended in a divorce. Soon afterwards Kotane married Rebecca Selutle. Out of 
this wedlock two sons were bom. 

South African Police, [Pretoria]: Reports on Moses Kotane (1 January 1962-19 May 1978); 
— B. bunting, Moses Kotane, South African revolutionary. London, 1975; — T. kakis a 
g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in 
South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — Obituaries: 
Y.M. dadoo, Moses Kotane, [9 August 1905-19 May 1978]: a tribute. The African 
communist, 75(Fourth Quarter), 1978; Tributes: The African communist, 75(Fourth Quarter), 
1978; — H. JAFFE, A history of Africa. London, 1988; — F. meli. South Africa belongs to 
us: a history of the ANC. Harare, 1988; — h r. pike, A history of communism in South 
Africa. 2nd ed., rev. & enl. Germiston, 1988; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in 
history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — B. pottinger. Purged by Stalin: the three men who went 
to Moscow in 1937 and never returned. Sunday Times, 9 August 1992; — s. ellis a t. 
SECHaba, Comrades against apartheid: the ANC A the South African Communist Party in 
exile. London, 1992. 

KUMALO, Alfred Assegai (Mkhonto) (*Edendale, Pietermaritzburg, 4 Jan- 
uary 1879— tEdendale, Pietermaritzburg, 9 Decem- 
ber 1966), Zulu choirmaster and composer, was one 
of five children of very strict and religious Christian 
parents. Both his parents were musical and were 
members of the Edendale Church Choir. 

At the age of four his parents moved to Amajuba 
in the southeast of the Transvaal Republic where 
Kumalo herded cattle. Though forbidden by his 
parents to play with the local boys, Kumalo secretly 
did and so came into contact with traditional Zulu 
song, dance and dress. Kumalo received his first 
schooling at home from his mother, and then at 
school at Edendale. In 1891 he was admitted to the 
Nuttall Training Institution where he completed Standard 9 in 1893. 

In 1894 his family moved to the Witwatersrand, first to Krugersdorp and 
then in 1895 to Johannesburg, where Kumalo served for a while as an ox- 
wagon driver in his father’s business, ferrying goods from Natal to Johannes- 
burg. However, he also took other jobs, such as office-boy, interpreter and 
clerk. The following year he worked as a messenger at the Jubilee Gold 
Mining Company. After the rinderpest had wiped out the oxen of the business 
he had taken over from his father, he worked for the Goldsmith Alliance in 
1898. His stay on the Witwatersrand exposed him to a variety of Western 
musical instruments and influences which were later used in his compositions. 

At the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 he returned to 
Natal— mostly on foot, since the Natal Railway had been commandeered by the 
Transvaal Republic, but partly also in a whites-only railway truck in the 
company of an Englishman whom he had impressed with his musical skills. 

From 1900 Kumalo held a number of jobs in Pietermaritzburg. He worked 
as a clerk with the Pietermaritzburg Municipality Native Affairs Department; 
as a dairyman; and as an instructor in Zulu to the Borough Police — a position 


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he retained until 1910. In 1906 he joined the Natal Native Horse Regiment 
which took part in the suppression of the Bambatha* Rebellion. From 1912 to 
1916 he was a building contractor, first in Krugersdorp and then in Randfon- 
tein, erecting wood and corrugated iron buildings. With the scarcity of building 
material during World War I (1914-1918) he returned to Durban. He held 
various clerical positions in Durban until 1952. In 1954 he joined the Edendale 
Hospital staff as telephone operator, and remained there until his retirement in 

Kumalo showed a talent for music from an early age— for example in ditties 
when asking for bread or when beating out a rhythm on a tin drum. In 1903 he 
joined the Edendale Church Choir which performed in the Durban City Hall 
and, in 1908, in the Pietermaritzburg City Hall. In 1923 he formed the Zulu 
Male-voice Party in Durban which remained active until he left in 1952. He 
also led the close harmony group Kings of Harmony, winners of many 
trophies. Both these choirs performed traditional songs. In 1950 Kumalo was 
a member of the cast of the British film version of the novel Cry the beloved 
country by Alan Paton. 

Kumalo’s first attempt at composition was in 1899, the song ‘Sanibona’. 
The composition was destroyed in a fire in 1913, but he never rewrote it. By 
1920 he was composing in Zulu for young and old alike — choral, religious and 
secular works, mainly in ternary form. Five of these songs were widely 
acclaimed and are still regarded by all African choirs as among the best of the 
Zulu choral repertoire. 

After his retirement in 1961 he was often commissioned to write church 
music. In July 1966 he suffered a stroke from which he did not recover. He 
was married. 

Kumalo had a sparkling personality and a good command of English, even 
in old age. He was also a founder member and the first secretary of the Bantu 
Social Centre in Beatrice Street, Durban (YMCA). He served until 1949 as 
assistant superintendent and later superintendent. 

In 1967 Shuter and Shooter published 24 of his songs in Isingoma zika 
Kumalo. Kumalo’s compositions are listed in D.K. Rycroft and Y. Huskisson 
(both infra). 

y. huskisson, The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. [Johannesburg], 1969; — Y. 
huskisson, The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. Supplement, edited by J.P. Malan. 
Pretoria, 1983; — D.K. rycroft, Black South African music since the 1890s: some 
reminiscences of Alfred Assegai Kumalo (1879-1966). African music, 7(1), 1991. 


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LA GUMA, James Arnold (Jimmy) (^Bloemfontein, 23 August 1894— fCape 

Town, 29 July 1961), trade unionist and political 
activist, was the elder of two children born to an 
itinerant cobbler, Arnold, and his wife Jemima. 
While the domestic circumstances of the La Guma 
family, which was of French-Malagasy origin, are 
obscure during this period, it is known that La 

Guma was orphaned when he was but five years 
old. He and his sister, Marinette, were at first cared 
for by a washerwoman and later adopted by an 
uncle, James Mansefield, who lived in Parow on the 
outskirts of Cape Town. 

At the age of eight La Guma got his first job, 
working long hours at a Parow bakery. When his 
guardian moved to Cape Town a year or two later, he could attend school. 
While in Standard 2, he was forced to abandon his education to help support 
the household. After working as a messenger for a while, La Guma entered an 
apprenticeship as a leather worker in 1907. Being an avid reader and preferring 
to spend his pocket money at the second-hand bookstalls on the Grand Parade, 
he all the while advanced his own education. 

Even before he had reached his teens. La Guma had started identifying with 
the struggles of the labouring poor. He was deeply impressed by R. Tressall’s 
The ragged trousered philanthropists that recounted the life and struggles of the 
English working classes. Growing up in poverty in recession-hit Cape Town in 
the period following the South African War (1899-1902), La Guma was no 
stranger to the privations and discontent of the labouring classes. He got his 
first taste of spontaneous working-class political action when he participated in 
the so-called ‘hooligan riots’ that engulfed Cape Town for several days in 

In 1910 La Guma and two friends, responded to an advertisement for ‘Cape 
boy’ labour in German South West Africa (Namibia) out of a desire for 
adventure. At the age of sixteen La Guma thus found himself on the dock at 
Luderitz where he was indentured to a German cattle farmer for a few years. 
He subsequently worked for a while on the railways under harshly exploitative 
conditions. The outbreak of World War I (1914-1918), however, found him 
labouring on the diamond diggings around Kolmanskop. Because of poor 


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working conditions on the diamond fields, La Guma together with a few fellow 
diggers formed a workers’ committee in 1918 and organized a strike. This 
venture ended with striking workers being led from the diamond fields under 
armed guard. 

Blacklisted from working on the diggings, La Guma drifted through several 
jobs during the next three years. In 1919 he was arrested, but fined only one 
shilling by a sympathetic magistrate for his part in organizing a campaign 
against coloureds having to wear the ‘blik-pas*, a metal identity disk worn on 
the arm. Impressed with the aims and the militancy of Clements Kadalie’s* 
Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU), La Guma was instrumental 
in setting up an ICU branch at Luderitz the following year and was elected 
branch secretary. 

In 1921 La Guma returned to Cape Town at the request of Kadalie who 
recognized that the young man’s enthusiasm for the workers’ cause and his 
organizational ability would be an asset to the rapidly growing ICU. His first 
major assignment for the ICU was to revive its Port Elizabeth branch that had 
lapsed after police had suppressed an ICU demonstration in the city in October 
1920. Having proven his mettle as an organizer in Port Elizabeth, La Guma 
was elected assistant general secretary of the ICU in 1923 and returned to Cape 
Town. Here he helped establish an efficient administrative system for the 
organization and had a hand in setting up its official organ, the Worker’s 
Herald, published from April 1923 onwards. It was in the ICU of the early 
1920s that La Guma met John Gomas* who was to become a close associate 
throughout his active political career. 

La Guma joined the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South 
African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) in 1925 and was elected to its 
Central Committee in 1926. Being one of Kadalie’s closest lieutenants, he went 
to live in Johannesburg in the same year because the ICU had moved its 
headquarters there. However, he returned to Cape Town at the end of 1926 
after being expelled from the ICU in a purge of CPSA members. 

La Guma subsequently devoted his energies to the CPSA and the African 
National Congress (ANC). In 1927 he was elected secretary of the Cape Town 
branch of the ANC and the following year became the organization’s secretary 
for the Western Cape. In February 1927 he travelled to Brussels, Belgium, as 
CPSA delegate to the first international conference of the League Against 
Imperialism. After the conference La Guma was invited to tour Germany and 
give lectures. He surprised audiences with his fluency in the language. He went 
on to visit the Soviet Union (USSR) in the company of ANC president, J.T. 
Gumede*. Later that year he returned to the USSR at the invitation of the 
Soviet government to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution 

La Guma is reputed to have displayed Africanist leanings already in the 
early 1920s by expressing a desire for the emergence of a stronger black 
political leadership and being sceptical of the value of white workers to the 
revolutionary movement. He argued that white workers, realizing that their 
privilege rested on the exploitation of the black proletariat, could not be relied 
upon to support any revolutionary initiative. This tendency was greatly 


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strengthened by his experience at the Brussels conference and his visits to the 
USSR where he held discussions with Bukharin and other officials of Commu- 
nism International (Comintern) on strategies for achieving black liberation in 
South Africa. It is thus no surprise that he returned to South Africa an ardent 
exponent of the Comintern's new approach to the ‘colonial question’: establish- 
ing independent, democratic, 'native’ republics as a step towards the overthrow 
of capitalism in the colonial empires. La Guma adopted this controversial 
stance because he felt the empowerment of a black political leadership to be 
crucial to the success of communism in South Africa. He also argued that this 
strategy would win a mass base for the CPSA by harnessing the nationalist 
aspirations of blacks, especially within the petty bourgeoisie. 

In April 1928 La Guma moved to Johannesburg to take up the post of 
general secretary of the CPSA’s newly established Federation of Non-European 
Trade Unions. Unfortunately, the detrimental effect of the Highveld climate on 
his toddler son forced him to resign and return to Cape Town within a few 
months. Here he once again threw himself headlong into the hurly-burly of 
labour and protest politics. He was active in the Cape Town branch of the 
ANC and especially enjoyed helping run the ‘African Labour College’, an 
informal school set up by the CPSA to teach workers elementary literacy, some 
conventional school subjects as well as Marxist political doctrine. During this 
period La Guma and other activists, such as John Gomas and Ray Alexander, 
were involved in a wide range of trade union activity, especially in the tobacco, 
laundry, railway, harbour, canning and chemical industries. In 1929, while 
organizing protests by unemployed workers, La Guma was fined £10 for 
leading an illegal procession, and in 1931 he was fined £5 for his part in 
attempts by the South African Garment Workers’ Union to prevent scabs from 
working during one of the union’s strikes. 

Although a committed communist, La Guma fell foul of the CPSA 
hierarchy during this period because he was not prepared to toe the CPSA line 
strictly and because his Africanist sentiments alienated him from its largely 
white leadership. In 1929 La Guma was expelled from the CPSA for breach of 
discipline when he canvassed for an opponent of Douglas Wolton, CPSA 
chairperson, in the general elections of that year. Three months after being 
readmitted in 1931, La Guma was expelled a second time for ignoring a CPSA 
directive that he refuse aid from non-CPSA unions in a strike he was helping 
to organize. Heated clashes with Lazar Bach, one of the more doctrinaire 
members of the CPSA, over this and other issues did not promote his cause. 

After four years in the political wilderness, La Guma re-entered active 
politics as a founder member of the National Liberation League (NLL), a 
largely coloured political organization that sought to unite blacks in a common 
stand against segregation. He was elected secretary at its inaugural conference 
in 1935 and was editor of its newspaper, the Liberator , published for a few 
months during 1937. La Guma played a prominent role in the NLL’s anti- 
segregationist protests and is accredited with having composed the organiz- 
ation’s anthem, ‘Dark Folks Arise’. He was, however, expelled from the NLL 
in April 1939 largely as a result of his insistence that the organization restrict 
its leadership to blacks. Objecting especially to the prominent role that white 



CPSA leaders such as Sam Kahn and Harry Snitcher were allowed to play in 
the organization, he allowed his CPSA membership to lapse. In July 1939 La 
Guma, together with a small group of followers, formed the National Develop- 
ment League (NDL). The NDL, with its policy of fostering black economic 
independence under black political leadership, lasted but a few months. In 1939 
and again in 1940 La Guma stood unsuccessfully for election to the Cape Town 
City Council as the ‘Working Man’s Candidate’. 

Thoroughly disillusioned with politics and with the South African left wing 
La Guma, at the age of 46, understated his age in order to join the Indian 
Malay Corps in 1940. He rationalized this move by taking issue with the left- 
wing stance that the working class should wash its hands of the Second World 
War (1939-1945) as a matter strictly between the imperialist powers. He 
argued that the Second World War was an anti-Fascist war — in reality a 
continuation of the Spanish Civil War— and that socialists thus had a duty to 
volunteer. He spent seven years in the Corps, attained the rank of staff sergeant 
and saw service in East and North Africa. 

Upon being demobilized in 1947, La Guma rejoined the CPSA, was elected 
to its Central Committee and served in this capacity until the CPSA’s dissol- 
ution after the passage of the Suppression of Communism Act of 1950. In the 
meantime he was also involved in an abortive attempt to revive the African 
Political Organization and was unsuccessful in a third attempt at being elected 
to the Cape Town City Council in 1947. 

Disillusioned with the SACP’s apparently tame response to state repression 
and wanting to make up for years of neglect, La Guma spent most of the 1950s 
with his family. During these years of political isolation he was frustrated as he 
witnessed the inexorable advance of segregationist measures under apartheid 
laws. Indeed, he resigned his job as foreman at a Cape Town firm in protest at 
being demoted to make way for a white employee. 

La Guma re-entered protest politics in 1957 when his son Alex (J.A. la 
Guma*) was arrested on a charge of high treason in December 1956 for his 
role in the Congress of the People. He was elected president of the South 
African Coloured People’s Organization at its first national conference in 1957. 
With age and ill health catching up on him and his consequent irascibility not 
contributing to his popularity, La Guma decided once more to retire from 
active politics in 1959. He was nevertheless arrested with the declaration of a 
state of emergency that followed the Sharpcville shootings in 1960, and was 
detained for three months. La Guma’s health failed rapidly after this. Suffering 
a cerebral thrombosis a few months after his release from prison, he died a few 
months later of a fatal heart attack at Groote Schuur Hospital. 

In 1923 La Guma married a childhood sweetheart, Wilhelmina (Minnie) 
Alexander, the daughter of a carpenter who was active in the African Political 
Organization. In Minnie, La Guma found a lifelong companion who supported 
his political activities despite his frequent absences from home, the economic 
sacrifices and the personal risks involved. Of their marriage a son, Alexander, 
the celebrated novelist, and a daughter, Joan, were bom. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: Estate no. 3542/61; — Centre for African 


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Studies Library, University of Cape Town: Jimmy la Guma: a biography. An unpublished 
typescript attributed to Alex la Guma, based on notes by Jimmy la Guma; — Obituary: The 
Cape Times, 5 August 1961; — R. segal, Political Africa: a who's who of personalities and 
parties. London, 1961; — S.w. JOHNS, Marxism-Leninism in a multi-racial environment: the 
origin and early history of the Communist Party of South Africa, 1914-1932. Ph.D. thesis. 
Harvard University, 1965; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a 
documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 
1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — p. wickens, The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union 
of Africa. Cape Town, 1978; — HJ. SIMONS A R. SIMONS, Class and colour in South Africa, 
1850-1950. London, 1983; — R.E. van DER Ross, The rise and decline of apartheid: a study 
of political movements among the coloured people of South Africa, 1880-1985. Cape Town, 
1986; — G. lewis, Between the wire and the wall: a history of South African ' coloured ’ 
politics. Cape Town, 1987. 

LA GUMA, Justin Alexander (Alex) (*Cape Town, 20 February 1925— 

tHavana, Cuba, II October 1985), novelist, short 
story writer and political activist, was the son of 
James (Jimmy) la Guma*, a trade union organizer 
and prominent member of the Communist Party of 
South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist 
Party (SACP) after 1953), and his wife Wilhelmina 
Alexander. La Guma grew up in the coloured quar- 
ter of District Six in Cape Town and attended high 
school before making what he recalled as a "roman- 
tic* gesture of working-class solidarity by joining 
the Metal Box Company as a factory hand. He was 
dismissed from this job for his role in organizing a 
strike. Subsequently he worked as a clerk and 
bookkeeper before joining the Cape Town leftist weekly The Guardian 
(superseded by New Age) as a reporter. He continued working as a journalist 
until his banning under the Suppression of Communism Act in 1962 made this 

In 1948 La Guma followed his father’s example by joining the CPSA that 
was outlawed two years later by the National Party government’s Suppression 
of Communism Act. As a listed communist, La Guma was from that date an 
official enemy of the state. His active involvement in anti-apartheid politics 
nevertheless continued to grow. In 1954 he became a founder member and 
chairperson of the South African Coloured People’s Organization (SACPO), 
later renamed the Coloured People’s Congress and affiliated to the African Na- 
tional Congress (ANC). His attempt that same year to lead a SACPO delega- 
tion to the Kliptown Congress of the People (at which the ANC’s Freedom 
Charter was adopted) was thwarted by the police when he and his colleagues 
were detained in Beaufort West. La Guma was subsequently one of the 156 
accused in the Treason Trial of 1956-1960. After his acquittal he was on three 
occasions detained for suspected underground political activity, before being 
placed under house arrest in 1963. He and his family left South Africa on an 
exit permit in 1966. After working as an insurance Clerk, journalist and radio 
scriptwriter in London, he was posted to Havana, Cuba, in 1978 as chief 


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representative of the ANC in the Caribbean, a position he occupied until his 

La Guma started writing fiction in the mid-1950s while employed as a 
columnist and feature writer for New Age. A handful of short stories were 
followed by three novels written in South Africa: A walk in the night (1962), 
And a threefold cord (1964), and The stone country (1967). In exile he 
published a further two novels. In the fog of the season’s end (1972), and Time 
of the butcherbird (1979), several short stories, a travelogue, A Soviet journey 
(1978), and a number of essays on South African politics and culture. Among 
the several literary awards he received were the literary prize of the Afro- Asian 
Writers’ Association (1969), and the coveted French title of Chevalier des Arts 
et Lettres (1985). 

La Guma’s fiction related the suffering under oppression and the growth of 
revolutionary consciousness among the black, particularly coloured, South 
African community. Without an appropriate local literary tradition, he forged 
a terse, elegantly tough narrative style which was labelled ‘journalistic’ but 
which may have owed much more to late nineteenth-century Naturalism, 
mediated by American literary champions of the underdog like John Steinbeck 
and James T. Farrell. A loyal Stalinist, La Guma himself characterized his 
work as ‘socialist realism’, although ‘revolutionary romanticism’ (Gorky) was 
perhaps more apt, given La Guma’s tendency to sentimentalize the political 
aspirations of his working-class characters. 

La Guma’s novels gave fictional form to a rigorous Marxist analysis of the 
South African social formation, anticipating much later resistance writing by 
emphasizing the category of class rather than race. In the early writings his 
characters, lacking the means of collective self-representation, were doomed, 
by the identity conferred on them by the social order, to be little more than 
links in a chain of cause and effect, their consciousness radically determined by 
the material forces of a coercive political system. In later works La Guma 
evoked the dawning and consolidation of political awareness among the 
oppressed, as passive resentment was gradually transformed into a resolute 
commitment to armed struggle. 

Perhaps because La Guma was a more deliberate and accomplished crafts- 
man than other black South African protest writers, his didacticism was gener- 
ally unobtrusive. Critics used the metaphor of the camera to describe the 
detailed manner in which he evoked the textures of his presented worlds, but 
representation in La Guma was never purely documentary or objective. More- 
over, the sentiment of moral disgust which informed the act of seeing seemed 
sometimes in its intensity to have reached beyond the abjection of a particular 
social order to embrace the human condition itself. In his later work, presum- 
ably as a result of his long exile, the focus of the observing eye was consider- 
ably less sharp. 

La Guma’s reputation outside South Africa was high, and yet his writings 
were banned and virtually unknown within South Africa until the late 1980s. 
New assessments of his achievement are awaited as his work— its function as 
political protest now receding into history— is assimilated into the South 
African literary and critical tradition. 


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La Guma married Blanche Herman in 1954. Two sons were born of the 

J.H. JAHN. U. SCH1LD A A. NORDMAN, Who 's who in African literature. Tubigen, 1972; — c. 
cornwell, Protest in fiction: an approach to Alex la Guma. M.A. thesis. Rhodes 
University, 1979; — C.A. abrahams, Alex la Guma. Boston, 1985; — Alex la Guma. ALA 
bulletin, 11(2), Fall 1985; — ‘Arts and Africa: remembering Alex la Guma’. Transcript of 
BBC broadcast, 25 October 1985; — K. Parker, Alex’s walk to freedom. Third World book 
review, 2(1 &2), 1986; — v. magagi, From District Six to Cuba: Alex la Guma, South 
African novelist. Ingolovane, 1(1), 1988; — v. February, Skryweren vryheidstryder. Die 
Suid-Afrikaan, Februarie-Maart 1991; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd 
ed. London, 1991. 

LATSKY, Louise (Lulu) (’•‘Carnarvon, 22 October 1901— tStellenbosch, 8 

November 1980), author of children’s books, zool- 
ogist and the First woman to be awarded a doctorate 
at the University of Stellenbosch. She was the eldest 
daughter of Rev. C.H.E. Latsky, a minister in the 
Dutch Reformed Mission Church, and his wife 
Johanna Maria Sterrenberg. She obtained the B.Sc. 
degree with distinction in 1927 and the M.Sc. in 
1928. Latsky was then awarded the Webb Bursary 
which enabled her to continue with her doctorate in 
zoology which she obtained in 1 930. She was one of 
two women at that time to serve on the students' 

Latsky lectured in biology and zoology at the 
Potchefstroom University College (Potchefstroom University for Christian 
Higher Education) for a year— probably in 1931. However, poor health forced 
her to return to Stellenbosch where her father was a minister. 

Over the following decades Latsky compiled lectures for a correspondence 
course, but mostly did research in zoology, bacteriology and medicine. 
Towards the end of 1934 she started publishing under different pen-names in 
various magazines, amongst others in Die jongspan, Die huisgenoot, Die 
huisvrou and Brandwag. She was also the editor of a nature study series, 
Kennis vir almal, consisting of 78 booklets, eleven of which she wrote herself. 

Latsky also wrote fiction. A few adult works were published, of which Die 
martelgang and Sterker as die dood are examples. Some stories based on facts 
from Biblical history were intended for children and adults, but above all she 
became known as author of animal stories for children— published between the 
1930s and 1950s. A collection of these stories was published in book form. She 
wrote a total of 47 children’s books. 

Latsky’s most important aim with her stories was to convey to children 
natural and zoological facts in such a way that these could be assimilated 
effortlessly. Her popularity as a writer was proof that she succeeded. 

Latsky was described as a humble person who had others’ interests at heart. 
Despite being sickly and bedridden from her nineteenth year she never corn- 


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plained. She became blind during the last years of her life. 

She never married. 

Library of the Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria: Baptismal register, Carnarvon, 
1875-1907; — PJ. N1ENABER, Bibliografie van Afiikaanse boeke. Vols 1-3. Johannesburg, 
1943-1954; — P.J. NIENABER, Hier is ons skrywers! sketse van Afrikaanse 
skrywers. 1. Johannesburg, 1949; — Obituary: The Cape Argus, 10 November 1980; — L.O. 
latsky, Sterker as die dood: die geloof van Lulu Latsky, 22 Oktober 1901-8 November 
1980. Die Kerkbode, 4 Februarie 1981; — J. scannell, Geskiedenis van Nasionale Pers. 

LEKGANYANE, Engenas Barnabas (Thabakgone, Mamabolo area, Pe- 
tersburg district, c.1885— fMoria, Petersburg dis- 
trict, 31 May 1948), founder of the Zion Christian 
Church (ZCC), was one of the six children of Mat- 
seleng Barnabas Lekganyane and Sefora Raphela, 
daughter of Marobathota Raphela. He is sometimes 
also referred to as Enginasi or Ignatius. 

He received primary education to Standard 3 at 
the Matlhantlhe School in the area of Chief Mama- 
bolo in the Petersburg district. After leaving school 
he stayed at home and kept himself busy by shoot- 
ing doves which he often gave to his grandfather 
Raphela and to his uncle. He was a favourite among 
the old people who praised his good behaviour. 

Engenas suffered from what seemed to be an incurable eye disease for many 
years until 1912 when he told his parents that he has had a vision and heard a 
voice telling him to leave for Johannesburg where he would find many 
churches. He should join the one which baptized by threefold immersion in 
water; this would cure his eyes. 

In 1912 he was baptized by the brothers Elias and Joseph Mahlangu of the 
Zion Apostolic Church in South Africa (ZAC). As member of the ZAC he did 
mission work in the Mamabolo area, but could not baptize his converts because 
he had not yet been ordained. Baptism was performed by Rev. A. Mamabolo 
until the Mahlangu brothers ordained Engenas in 1918. 

Engenas differed with his fellow ministers on the validity of certain 
practices in the church: the wearing of long white clothes, growing of beards 
by the men, and taking off shoes before entering the church. It was, however, 
alleged that the main reason for this difference was a struggle for power in the 
ZAC. Consequently the relationship between Engenas and the Mahlangus 
deteriorated. Engenas was demoted to a lower rank and finally broke away 
from the ZAC. He then joined the Zion Apostolic Faith Mission (ZAFM) of 
Edward Motaung who was stationed in Basutoland (Lesotho), and soon became 
leader of the ZAFM in the Transvaal. 

By 1924 the schism between the leaders of the ZAFM and Engenas was 
clear. Not only had the ZAMF become too big to be controlled by Motaung 
from Basutoland, but the relationship between Engenas and Motaung suffered 


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when Engenas breached the constitution of the church by taking a second wife. 
These reasons were probably secondary to the leadership ambitions of the 
different regional bishops. Engenas felt the only option was to establish a new 
church. Probably with this in mind he went up to Mount Thabakgone in 1924 
to pray. There, according to tradition, God instructed him to start a church. 

Engenas thus ended his relationship with the ZAFM. The name for his new 
church had to be entirely new but the word ‘Zion’ had to be retained because 
Engenas believed that the word denoted the true and original church as found 
in the Old Testament. He eventually decided on the ‘Zion Christian Church’. 

He already had strong support among people who had been with him in the 
ZAFM. In 1925 a simple constitution, which was rarely used, was drawn up 
to accompany an application for state recognition. The constitution pointed out 
that the ZCC aimed at spreading the Woid of God in the whole world. The 
aims and objectives appeared to be like any other established Christian church. 
In reality traditional practices and different ways of faith healing often became 
more important than spiritual salvation. 

Engenas and his followers intended to settle at Thabakgone, his birth place, 
but because of a dispute with Chief Mamabolo they had to leave. The dispute 
was closely linked to a power struggle, with evidence clearly indicating that 
Engenas was vying for chieftainship. His followers were increasingly coming 
to him for counsel rather than going to Mamabolo. Eventually in 1 939 Engenas 
and his people left. He bought a farm at Mphahlele in the Pietersburg district 
but because the climate was too hot for him he left. In the 1940s he bought two 
farms, McClean and Kleinfontein, near Boyne, and this became the headquar- 
ters of his church. 

Engenas headed his church in the same way as a tribal chief. He appointed 
and ordained ministers who were responsible to him. He proclaimed new 
rituals, saw to it that they were followed and punished those who contravened 
the rituals. The members of the different councils of the church were appointed 
by him. Though they had specified duties and responsibilities, the final decision 
rested with Engenas. He was the head of the church, the chief prophet and the 
personality around which every activity of the church revolved. 

He used to preach about Jesus Christ and to refer to the Bible, but the Bible 
was rarely used because many of his followers were illiterate. Faith and divine 
healing played a major role in the ZCC. For faith healing Engenas introduced 
sanctified papers, copper wires, water and strings that were used as protective 
and healing objects. The prerequisite for the use of any healing method was the 
confession of sins and faith in God. Baptism and Holy Communion were both 
observed as sacraments in the ZCC. Baptism was by threefold immersion in the 
river. It was, however, taken as a gateway into the ZCC and not symbolic of 
a rebirth into the Kingdom of God. Holy Communion was served at Moria and 
other central places. 

By 1926 the ZCC had 926 members country-wide. In 1928 Engenas 
introduced the use of a badge for the purpose of identification. It also served 
as a token of faithfulness to the church and as a symbol of solidarity and 
oneness in the church. The badge itself served as protection against criminals 
in the urban areas and as a sign of trustworthiness. However, this led to misuse 


and by 1935 nonmembers (even criminals) were using the badge to their own 
advantage. (The different emblems on the badge— the dove and the star— were 
only introduced later by his sons.) Engenas also insisted that members should 
carry their baptismal cards for purposes of identification. 

Another unifying factor in the ZCC was polygamy which was seen as a 
God-created mode of life. ZCC adherents preferred polygamy to divorce and 
polygamists were offered ministerial positions. 

Engenas bought several other plots and farms in the area where trading 
stores and other business enterprises were opened. At the time of his death 
Engenas as well as the ZCC were financially in a very good position. 

From 1945 Engenas's health deteriorated, and he began to spend nearly all 
his time at home while his councillors fulfilled most of his duties. He only 
appeared in public during conferences. The crucial point for Engenas was the 
appointment of his successor, which the constitution stipulated was the 
responsibility of the ‘conference’ (ordained ministers and preachers). Since 
nobody consulted the constitution, the ZCC members believed that the appoint- 
ment of a successor was Engenas’s prerogative and that he would appoint his 
eldest son. Before his death he summoned his brothers, the elders and his advo- 
cate, P.W. Roos. He presented his fifth and favourite son Joseph to them as his 
successor and also as the future bishop. However, in May 1948 Engenas died 
without personally announcing his successor. He was laid to rest at his home 
in Moria on I June 1948, a date which has since been sanctified by the ZCC. 
He left a congregation of about 80 000 people. The fact that the new leader 
could not be announced before the one year mourning period had expired, 
caused much confusion and insecurity among the members. This delay and the 
death of the eldest son Barnabas in 1949 before the successor could be 
announced, probably contributed to the subsequent split in the church. 

Engenas was an ambitious and charismatic leader who attracted many 
people to the church. He was successful in using Christianity to establish a 
supra-ethnical tribe of Zionists. Through Engenas underprivileged people were 
afforded a place to learn Western modes of living; for example, they were 
advised to bank their money, to wear Western clothes, and to replace tradi- 
tional beer with coffee and tea. 

In 1918 Engenas married Salphina Rabodiba. Five sons and one daughter 
were born of this marriage. They were considered 
the rightful heirs. Engenas, however, was a polyga- 
mist who had two more wives, but the children 
from these relationships were not recognized by the 
ZCC, nor regarded as future leaders. They were 
only members of the brass band. During the split in 
the church after Engenas's death, the second wife 
was expelled but the third managed to remain 
because she was a member of the Lekganyane 

LEKGANYANE, Edward Engenas (*Tha- 
bakgone, Mamabolo area, Pietersburg district, 
c.1923— fMoria, Pietersburg district, 21 October 


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1967) (first known as Talane Reuben), leader of the 
Zion Christian Church (the Star) that gained sub- 
stantial support in urban areas, and his younger 
brother, LEKGANYANE, Joseph Engenas Ma- 
tlhakanye (*Thabakgone, Mamabolo area, Pieters- 
burg district, 21 January 1931— tWarmberg, Pie- 
tersburg district, 11 November 1972), leader of the 
St Engenas Zion Christian Church (the Dove) that 
had support in the rural areas. 

The brothers grew up on a family farm in Moria 
where they attended a private school, Edward up to 
Standard 5, and Joseph up to Standard 6. Through correspondence courses 
Edward obtained his Standard 6 certificate in 1959, and Joseph the Junior 
Certificate. As a young man Edward apparently clashed with his father and 
found a job in Natal. Joseph, however, became a personal driver to his father 
in 1946 and accompanied him to all official church gatherings and meetings. It 
was during this period that Joseph familiarized himself with the church ad- 

Upon the death of Engenas, the struggle between Edward and Joseph for 
the church leadership led to a split in the ZCC. Edward had already gained 
much support in the urban areas of especially Johannesburg where ZCC 
followers considered him as the future leader of the ZCC. Furthermore, they 
supported the traditional appointment of the eldest son as successor— which, 
following Barnabas’s death, was Edward. In this way, Edward became leader 
of the biggest group of his father’s followers. 

Edward laid out the Zion City Moria as headquarters of his church on the 
family farm and had the five-pointed Star of David with the letters ZCC affixed 
upon the original badge. From his headquarters he established congregations 
from Cape Town to Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and probably also visited 
countries like Bechuanaland (Botswana) and Tanganyika (Tanzania), having 
applied for a passport in 1958 and receiving it in 1959. In 1960 he visited 
Europe and North and South America. 

Thousands of people gathered at Moria during the yearly Easter celebrations 
of the ZCC. Edward led the procession as leader of a brass band and his 
sermon on Easter Sunday was the highlight of the celebrations which also 
included faith healing. The people believed they experienced something of the 
New Jerusalem where the Messiah builds his kingdom. Moreover, in the 
presence of the prophet (Edward) they could experience power, protection and 
peace. The power and blessing of the prophet were conveyed to his followers. 

Apart from church matters Edward was also involved in business enterprises 
and tribal politics at Moria. He purchased several properties and farms in the 
area. Through the mediation of S.S. Tema* he was allowed in 1963 to enrol 
for a three-year training course for evangelists at the Stofberg Theological 
School of the Dutch Reformed Church at Turfloop. He completed the course 
in 1966 and received a certificate. After the completion of his studies he 
attempted to renew the ZCC through a stronger Biblical approach but his 
untimely death thwarted the attempt. 


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Edward was described as fairly intelligent, diligent, agreeable and frank. He 
was a charismatic leader, a good organizer and he was idolized by his fol- 
lowers. Like his father he maintained a good relationship with the National 
Party government. The then Minister of Bantu Affairs, M.D.C. de W. Nel, 
was invited to Moria in 1965. On this occasion Edward declared that his 
church had no place for people who undermined the safety of South Africa. He 
also assured the government of his loyalty. Out of a small group of his father’s 
followers he built up the biggest independent African church of its kind in 
South Africa. His followers honoured him as chief (king), prophet and even 
messiah and saviour. He himself preferred the title of ‘bishop’. In 1954 he 
amended the constitution to make the bishopric the inheritance of the Lekgan- 
yane family. 

In the rural areas Joseph was considered as the rightful heir since he had 
been appointed by his father. Following Engenas’s instructions the ZCC elders 
of the church and Advocate P.W. Roos installed Joseph Lekganyane as the 
leader of the Zion Christian Church of Engenas on 15 September 1949. His 
following consisted of only about 6 000 members. He had inherited all the 
church property and, it was believed, his father’s power of preaching and the 
gift of faith healing. Joseph steadily built up his section of the church and in 
1965 decided to honour the founder of the church by adding his name to the 
name of the church. The church thus became known as the Saint Engenas Zion 
Christian Church (St Engenas ZCC) and a dove emblem was added to the 
original badge. Joseph also had a school office and a church building erected, 
hardly 2 km to the west of the City of Moria. Like the ZCC the followers of 
the St Engenas ZCC also gathered for Easter celebrations. 

Joseph survived the smallpox epidemic without hospitalization but his face 
was much scarred. He was a soft-spoken person with a good sense of humour. 
Under his leadership St Engenas ZCC grew and prospered. Though his church 
remained smaller than that of his brother Edward, he left a membership of 
about one million people when he died. 

Edward died suddenly of a heart attack at his home at Moria. His funeral 
was veiled in secrecy and was only attended by a small group of his followers. 
He was succeeded by his son Barnabas. Joseph also died at an early age, after 
having been seriously ill in 1967. He bestowed the leadership of the church 
upon his second son Engenas Joseph Lekganyane who became bishop in 1975. 

Edward married Evelyn in 1950. Two daughters and a son (Barnabas) were 
born of the marriage. Since the ZCC recognized polygamy, Edward apparently 
had at least 23 other wives, some of them living in Soweto and Durban. Joseph 
married Mothlago Flora Molopa in 1960. They had two sons and two daugh- 

Central Archives, Pretoria: BAO: 7264 P120/4/68; NTS: 1204 774/162, 1224 1017/162, 
1309 2542/162, 1476 839/214, 2757 1269/301; INL: 1/4/28 446/22/4/8; URU: 3179 3211; 
— Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 12394/72; — [St Engenas ZCC collection, 
Moria/Boyne]: Correspondence, ZCC Fl/1949; Church Registration of Branches, ZCC 
FA/1953-1960; legal church documents, ZCC FI 1/1949-1967; Zion Christian Church 
Constitution; St Engenas Zion Christian Church Constitution; P. lekganyane. Record book 
of birth and death of family members ; P. lekganyane, Family record book dated 


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1928-1955', — Lekganyane leaves for overseas: 6 OCX) to see him off. Zonk, July 1960; — 
K.c.P. OPPERMAN, Die ryk swart biskop. Die huisgenoot, 24 Januarie 1964; — H. HASEL- 
barth, The Zion Christian Church of Edward Lekganyane. In: j.h. becken. Our approach 
to the Independent Church Movement in South Africa. Mapumulo, 1965; — Obituaries: 
Bishop Lekganyane dies: ZCC in mourning. World, 23 October 1967; The Star, 15 
November 1972; — New ZCC head. World, 24 October 1967; — p. qoboza, Lekganyane's 
sister says ... Bishop’s death foretold by prophet. World, 24 October 1967; — Bishops's 
death: "no foul play". World, 25 October 1967; — o. D’MUSI, Eye witness tells of Bishop's 
last solemn journey to the grave. World, 26 October 1967; — Bishop Lekganyane: brother 
battling for his life. World, 27 October 1967; — Bishop Joseph still ill: improvement. 
World, 30 October 1967; — t.d.m. skota (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated 
classified register and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd 
ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — Mr Drum visits the Zion Christian Church. Drum, 
July 1954; — m.a. KRUGER, Die zee: 'n religieuse Bantoe-beweging in 'n tyd van 
ontwikkeling. Th.M. thesis. Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, 1971; 
— The secret wives of Bishop Lekganyane. Drum, May 1971; — J.H. van wyk, Die 
separatisme en inheemse kerklike bewegings onder die Bantoe van die Sothogroep. Vol. 2. 
Pretoria, 1973; — e.k. lukhaimane, The Zion Christian Church of Ignatius Engenas 
Lekganyane, 1924-1948: an African experiment with Christianity. M.A. thesis. University 
of the North, 1980; — Founder’s son Edward responsible for growth. Pretoria News, 19 
April 1985; — ZCC anniversary date questioned. Pretoria News, 19 April 1985; — S. 
motau, Church still surrounded by secrecy. Pretoria News, 19 April 1985; — J.H. van 
wyk, Die separatisme en religieuse bewegings onder die Sotho van die RSA. D.Phil. thesis. 
University of Pretoria, 1986. 

LEMBEDE, Anton (Anthony) Muziwakhe (*near Nkambathaweni, George- 

dale district, Natal, January 1914 — fJohannesburg, 
30 July 1947), teacher, lawyer, politician and prin- 
cipal architect of African nationalism in South 
Africa. He was a son of Martin Mbazwana Lem- 
bede of the Chunu (Cunu) tribe, and his wife Mar- 
tha Nora Luthuli, a teacher before her marriage. His 
parents worked as labourers for a white farmer. 
(Some sources refer to them as sharecroppers.) 
Although he apparently grew up in dire poverty, 
Lembede was proud of his heritage as a farm child. 
As he put it: "I am a peasant and I was born a 
peasant. I am one with the soil of Africa." His 
parents were members of the Roman Catholic 
Church and throughout his life Lembede remained a devoted Catholic. 

When Lembede was still small his parents moved to what was then known 
as the Isabelo Native Reserve so that their children could attend a Catholic 
mission school. Lembede’s mother gave him a basic education before he started 
his formal schooling. Lembede obtained a first-class pass in Standard 6, which 
won him a bursary to attend Adams College (Amanzimtoti Zulu Training 
College) in Amanzimtoti to train as a teacher. He studied there from 1933 and 
was an outstanding student who showed signs of a sharp intellect. In 1935 
Lembede qualified as a teacher. 

Lembede taught in Natal and the Orange Free State for six years. During 


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this time he devoted himself to learning various languages and could express 
himself in Zulu, Sotho, English, Afrikaans, German, Dutch and French. In 
between he studied privately until he passed matric in 1937 with a distinction 
in Latin. After that he enrolled with the University of South Africa for the 
B.A. degree. He obtained this in 1940, majoring in philosophy and Roman- 
Dutch law. In 1943 he also obtained the LL.B. degree from the same univer- 

In 1943 Lembede gave up teaching and settled in Johannesburg. He was 
accepted as an attorney’s clerk at the firm of the veteran politician, Pixley 
Seme. In 1945 Lembede qualified as an attorney and became Seme’s partner. 
In the same year he obtained the M.A. degree in philosophy from the Univer- 
sity of South Africa on The conception of God as expounded by, and as it 
emerges from the writings of philosophers from Descartes to the present day. 

When Lembede joined Seme’s firm in 1943 he immediately became 
politically active and joined the African National Congress (ANC). His 
resumed friendship with Jordan Ngubane, a school friend from Adams College, 
and Ashley Mda, whom he first met in 1938, contributed to this. These three 
plus other young black Johannesburgers (among them Nelson Mandela and 
Oliver Tambo who became prominent figures) established the African National 
Congress Youth League (CYL) early in 1944. In September of that year 
Lembede was chosen as its first president. Also in 1944 he was elected as 
assistant secretary of the Transvaal provincial branch of the ANC and in 1946 
became a member of its national executive committee. 

Lembede became known as the architect of African nationalism or African- 
ism in South Africa. It is in this regard that he exercised his greatest and most 
enduring influence. His ideological thoughts represented a pioneering attempt 
to articulate orthodox black nationalism. It was anti-capitalist because it 
advocated a weakly defined socialism as the ideal economic system for Africa. 
It was also anti-Marxist because Lembede associated Marxism with the ‘white’ 
Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party 
(SACP) after 1953). African nationalism became the ideology on which later 
orthodox black nationalists such as the founders of the Pan-Africanist Congress 
(PAC) and the Black Consciousness Movement would continue to build for the 
following four decades. 

Lembede’s views regarding the concept of African nationalism to a large 
extent enlarged upon the standpoints which had been propagated by R.V.S. 
Thema* since the 1930s. Lembede, however, conferred on African nationalism 
a more philosophical and militant tendency, as well as a definite Pan-Africanist 
content which rendered all the black people of Africa as objects of nationalism. 
Lembede’s love and idealism were coupled to a half mystical and somewhat 
nebulous Africa because, as he explained, "My soul yearns for the glory of an 
Africa that is gone, but I shall labour for the birth of a new Africa, free and 
great among the nations of the world”. 

Lembede was often described as a man with a strong and eccentric per- 
sonality, stubborn, arrogant and aggressive, with a sense of humour that won 
friends among simple people, yet a pride in being black that could obscure for 
him the virtues of someone of another colour. His nationalist ideas, for 


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instance, led to his unrelenting hostility towards communists in the ANC who 
were articulate opponents of Africanism. In spite of his manners, he was 
popular, honest and able. He drove himself to extremes in his pursuit of educa- 
tion and professional achievement, neglecting his health. 

He died from an undisclosed cause while he was preparing a doctoral thesis 
in law. His death could, however, have been linked to an intestinal malfunc- 
tioning for which he had to undergo a major operation. He was a teetotaller 
and unmarried. 

After his death Lembede soon became a legendary figure among members 
of the CYL. They held Lembede memorial services annually and established a 
Lembede Scholarship Fund in his honour. By the mid-1950s Lembede’s ideas 
had fallen out of favour in most of the CYL, but continued to form the basis of 
the ideology of the Africanist faction, which in 1958-1959 emerged as the 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection: — 
Obituaries: The Star, 2 August 1947; llanga lose Natal, 2 & 23 August 1947; The Star, 2 
August 1947; — Tribute: A.P. MDA, The late A.M. Lembede, M.A. (Phil.), LL.B. llanga 
lose Natal, 27 September 1947; — Drum, January 1954; — Contact, 16 July 1960; — M. 
benson, The African patriots: the story of the African National Congress of South Africa. 
Chicago, 1963; — T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated classified 
register and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. 
& enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — C.M. DE villiers, Die African National Congress en sy 
aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; 
— P. walshe, The rise of African nationalism in South Africa: the African National 
Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope 
and challenge. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: 
a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles. 
1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — G.M. GERHART, Black power in South Africa: the evolution 
of an ideology. Berkeley, 1978; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. 
London, 1991. 

LETANKA, Daniel Simon (*Saulspoort, Rustenburg district, 1 874 — ^Johan- 
nesburg, 1934), interpreter, journalist and politician. 
He was a Tswana by birth, and received his school- 
ing amongst others at the Natives’ College in Gra- 
hamstown in the Eastern Cape. As a talented musi- 
cian, and in the hope of continuing his studies over- 
seas, he returned to the Transvaal Republic and 
started a choir to hold concerts in the towns and 
settlements right across the Republic. The concerts 
were successful as performances but as a source of 
income this scheme failed. 

In 1902 Letanka was appointed as an interpreter 
in the Supreme Court in Pretoria. He also served at 
courts in Blaauwberg (or Blouberg, a settlement 



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near Petersburg) and Warmbaths. He resigned, however, in 1909 to join the 
newspaper business. In 1910 he started the weekly paper Motsoalle (The 
Friend) superseded by Moromoa (Messenger) in 1911. (It could not be 
established if a connection existed between this newspaper and the one with 
which Henry Msimang* was involved in c. 1917, i.e. Morumioa.) Letanka was 
the sole editor and publisher of this newspaper. At the request of Pixley Seme 
and with the financial backing of the Swazi Queen Regent, the newspaper 
amalgamated with the recently established Abantu Batho in 1912. Letanka 
became a director of the company which published Abantu Batho, as well as 
one of the four editors of the newspaper, and remained so until his death. 

In 1912 Letanka was a founder member of the South African Native Nation- 
al Congress (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) after 1923). From 
1916 he was vice-president of the Transvaal provincial branch of the SANNC 
for several years. Like most of the early leaders of the SANNC he was a 
moderate. He was a member of the committee which drafted the 1919 
constitution of the SANNC. Letanka was regarded as a man of great integrity 
and diligence and was especially successful in obtaining contributions from the 
tribal captains, which were necessary to finance the SANNC’s deputations and 
court cases. 

Directly after the founding of the SANNC Letanka was deeply involved in 
the protest against the bill that would affect African farming to such an extent 
that the African peasantry would be drawn into the labour force. After 
parliament had passed the Natives Land Act in 1913, the SANNC decided to 
take their grievance directly to the British king and public. An emergency 
committee of which Letanka was a member was chosen to collect funds to 
carry out this decision. Letanka was nonetheless not a member of the delega- 
tion which eventually went to Britain in 1914. However, immediately after the 
outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918) he was a member of the SANNC 
delegation to Pretoria which went to assure the government of SANNC support 
for the government’s war effort. 

In 1917 a dispute which threatened to leave the SANNC without leadership 
emerged between Seme and John Dube*. Letanka played a prominent role in 
choosing a new executive committee for the SANNC. A year later during the 
so-called Bucket Strike by the Johannesburg African sanitary workers he took 
the initiative to secure SANNC aid for the workers. Letanka and T.L. 
Mvabaza* were two of the five SANNC members arrested and charged with 
incitement. In their defence it was stated that they were in fact a moderating 
influence during the strike; the state dropped the case. 

By 1919 Letanka was manager of the African Club in Johannesburg. During 
the same year he was involved with the demonstrations that the SANNC had 
organized against the pass laws. Two years later he was again in the news. As 
a result of legislation passed by parliament in 1921, the provinces were pro- 
hibited, amongst others, from placing a direct tax on African people. The 
Transvaal government nevertheless imposed a personal tax of 50 shillings a 
year on each adult African man (Transvaal Poll Tax Ordinance of 1921). 
Letanka appealed against this on behalf of the Transvaal Native Congress and 
his appeal was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1922. 

In 1924 Letanka was appointed as Minister of Chiefs or secretary of the 
Council of Chiefs (or Upper House) of the ANC. It was especially through his 
assistance that three conferences of tribal chiefs were held during 1927 and 
1929 under the auspices of the ANC. In 1927, during the ANC's annual na- 
tional conference, he was chosen as a member of the national executive 
committee. After Seme had been elected president-general of the ANC in 1930, 
Letanka was re-elected secretary of the Upper House. 

At the end of his life Letanka was poverty-stricken, for he had to support 
himself and his wife, by whom he was survived, on his meagre salary from 
Abantu Batho. 

T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — c.m. de viluers, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwa- 
tersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe. The rise of 
African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 
1970; — T. karis a o.M. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 1. Protest and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 
1972; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — F. MELI, South Africa belongs to us: a history of the ANC. Harare, 1988. 

LETELE, Arthur Elias ("“Maseru, Basutoland (Lesotho), 2 October 1916 — 

fMaseru, 20 December 1965), a medical doctor and 
politician, was a son of Elias Letele, an inspector of 
schools, and his wife Catherine who was Xhosa by 
birth. As a child he emigrated to South Africa and 
grew up in Ladybrand in the Orange Free State. In 
1930 he went to Lovedale Institution at Alice in the 
Eastern Cape for his secondary schooling. From 
there he went to the South African Native College 
(University of Fort Hare) and then to the University 
of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, where he qual- 
ified as a medical doctor in 1946. The next year he 
became a general practitioner in Lovedale, but in 
1948 he moved to Kimberley. 

Letele’s political involvement started in 1944 when he joined the recently 
established African National Congress Youth League (CYL). Shortly after he 
had settled in Kimberley, he joined the local branch of the African National 
Congress (ANC) and was elected as treasurer. Until 1951 , however, he did not 
play a role in the country-wide political actions and rather concentrated on the 
local political scene. 

In September 1952 Letele became involved in the ANC’s Defiance 
Campaign when he persuaded a number of volunteers to join him in contraven- 
ing discriminatory laws. They were taken into custody and summoned to court 
where Letele was sentenced to a £3 fine or ten days’ imprisonment. He refused 
to pay the fine and went to goal— the first of four terms of imprisonment that 


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he served. In October 1952 when violence erupted in Kimberley Letele, after 
he had attended to many of the injured, was again taken into custody on a 
charge of inciting violence. He was found guilty and sentenced to nine months’ 
imprisonment, suspended for two years. In accordance with his bail conditions 
he was also prohibited from leaving Kimberley until August 1953. 

From the end of 1953, when Letele was elected to the ANC national 
executive committee at the ANC annual congress, he was intensely involved 
with national political issues. He was in favour of a democracy based on the 
American model, but was not hostile to communism. In 1955 during the 
Congress of the People campaign, he collected the demands of Kimberley’s 
African population for incorporation in the Freedom Charter. He attended the 
congress which was held in June 1955 at Kliptown near Johannesburg, and 
proposed the second clause of the charter, namely that all men should be equal 
before the law. 

Letele was elected as treasurer-general during the ANC annual congress at 
the end of 1955. A year later he became one of the 156 accused in the Treason 
Trial which lasted from 1956 to 1961. The charges against him were later 
withdrawn and he was discharged by the court. 

During the crisis which followed the Sharpeville shootings in March 1960, 
Letele burnt his pass publicly in Orlando outside Johannesburg. After that he 
went to Kimberley but was taken into custody after the announcement of the 
state of emergency. He was held at various places, including Bloemfontein and 
Kimberley, and was only released on 19 July 1960. He was, however, still 
subjected to certain restrictions such as the prohibition on taking part in or 
associating with any organization or attending any meeting or gathering without 
the permission of the magistrate of Kimberley. Perhaps the most important 
condition on which he was released, was that he had to leave South Africa 
within 30 days. 

Letele thus went into exile in Basutoland in 1961, but was periodically 
allowed to visit Kimberley to attend to business matters. He settled in Maseru 
where he started a medical practice, but remained an ANC leader. On only one 
occasion did he interfere in the politics of the land of his birth. On the eve of 
South Africa’s becoming a republic in 1961 , he and other ANC leaders tried to 
take over the leadership of the Basutoland Congress Party in order to support 
the ANC’s resistance to this step. 

Occasionally Letele represented the ANC abroad— at the time he had a 
British passport. In March 1961 he attended the third All-African People’s 
Conference in Cairo, Egypt. From there he travelled to Britain and Sweden, 
amongst others. During 1961 he also visited Nigeria and Tanzania and in 1963 
visited Britain, as well as the Soviet Union where he was a guest of the Afro- 
Asiatic Solidarity Committee. 

On 12 July 1948 Letele married Mary- Anne Nombulelo Grace Nkolombe 
in Cape Town. She was a Xhosa by birth, some six years his junior. Four sons 
and one daughter were born of the marriage. When Letele went into exile, his 
wife and children soon joined him. 

Library of the University of South Africa. Pretoria: South African Political Materials: 


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Carter-Karis microfilm; — c.M. de villiers, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite 
aandie Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — Obituary; 
Post, 26 December 1965; — T. karis & G.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a 
documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. Challenge and 
violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. karis & G.M. CARTER (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political 
profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — M. benson. South Africa: the struggle for a 
birthright. London, 1985; — Private information: Ms P.N. Letele (daughter), Maseru, 

LETTY, Cythna Lindenberg (*Standerton, 1 January 1895— fPretoria, 3 May 

1985), botanical artist, was the eldest of the five 
children of Walter Edward Letty of Greenwich, 
England, and the widow Josina Christina Linden- 
berg of Worcester, Cape Province. The latter also 
had six children from her earlier marriage to David 
Johannes de Vaal Leibbrandt. 

In 1899 the family moved to Estcourt, Natal, 
where Letty attended the first of thirteen schools, 
and in 1904 they moved back to Standerton. During 
her second stay in Standerton her mother, an able 
and talented woman, gave Letty her first lessons in 
painting veld flowers in watercolour. Apart from 
her mother’s guidance she received no formal art 


At the outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918), Letty’s father 
enlisted. He never returned to South Africa after 1918, but remained in France 
where he died. When he left, Josina Letty moved with her children to Pretoria. 
Letty thus spent her last year of schooling at the Girls’ High School in Pretoria 
in 1914, after which she worked for a short time as governess on a farm 
northeast of Pretoria. She then trained as a nurse for a year before moving to 
Cape Town where from 1920 to 1924 she assisted her brother-in-law who was 
a medical doctor. 

Returning to Pretoria in 1925, Letty received her first appointment in which 
she could exercise her artistic talent— at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Labora- 
tories. This was before the time of colour photography and her function was to 
record, in accurate detail, the post mortem appearance of various animal 
diseases and abnormalities. In 1927 she was transferred to the then Division of 
Plant Industry in the Department of Agriculture. She worked under Dr I.B. 
Pole Evans* in the National Herbarium, where she started to create her superb 
paintings of African plants that, for many years, were the mainstay of the 
journal Flowering plants of Africa. 

Letty resigned in 1938 to marry Oscar William Alric Forssman*. In 1945 
she returned to her post in the National Herbarium and continued working until 
her final retirement in 1968. During her service she completed over 740 plates 
for Flowering plants of Africa, as well as many illustrations in colour and in 
black and white for other publications of the Botanical Research Institute. One 


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of her great ambitions was realized when her book Wild flowers of the 
Transvaal appeared in 1962. It contained 145 colour plates and the text was 
written partly by herself but largely by other staff members of the Botanical 
Research Institute. The translation by Anna Rothmann, Veldblomme van 
Transvaal, was the first major illustrated botanical work in Afrikaans. 

Letty was widely regarded as the leading botanical artist in South Africa. 
When South Africa changed to the decimal system on 14 February 1961, three 
of her designs were accepted for the new series of coins: the 50c ( Strelitzia , 
Zantedeschia and Agapanthus, representing the orange, white and blue of the 
national flag), the 20c (Protea cynaroides and Protea repens ), and the 10c 
(Aloe aculeata). She also drew the design of Gloriosa virescens for the then 
Rhodesian (Zimbabwe) sixpence. 

In 1966 some of Letty ’s paintings were included in an international 
exhibition of botanical art held at the Hunt Botanical Institute, Pittsburgh, 
United States of America, and in 1970 she received the Grenfell Silver Medal 
from the Royal Horticultural Society for an exhibit in London, England, of her 
paintings of the Transvaal wild flowers. In 1974 the University of the Witwa- 
tersrand, Johannesburg, bestowed on her an honorary LL.D. degree in 
appreciation of the scientific advancement brought about by her craftsmanship 
and the joy it gave to many. In the same year the Johannesburg newspaper The 
Star named her ‘Woman of the Year’. She was made a Fellow of the American 
Cactus Society in 1978. and in 1981 the South African Association of Botanists 
awarded her their Certificate of Merit. 

For many years Letty had been interested in the classification of the South 
African Zantedeschia species (arum lilies) and in 1973 she published an 
authoritative treatise on the species in Bothalia, copiously illustrated with her 
own inimitable paintings. This was followed by two small books illustrated 
with line drawings: Trees of South Africa (1975) and More trees of South Africa 
(1976). In her eighty-sixth year she published 23 paintings of what she called 
"strange little flowers”, together with a selection of poems which she had jotted 
down over the years, under the title Children of the hours (1981). She stated 
that she could only put part of her love for flowers in her drawings and 
regarded poetry as an extension of her paintings. 

One son was born from Letty's marriage to Forssman which was dissolved 
in 1945. 

Letty is commemorated in the botanical names Aloe lettyae Reynolds and 
Crassula lettyae Phillips, while the Cythna Letty Nature Reserve in the 
mountains above Barberton was named in her honour by the Transvaal 
Provincial Administration. 

South African woman's who's who. Johannesburg, 1940; — C. LETTY, The flowers on the 
decimal coins. Editor's note. Bothalia, 8, May 1966, Supplement no. 1; — R. STEAD, Die 
kuns van Cythna Letty. Lantern, 18(1), September 1968; — M. MENDELSOHN, She's known 
around the world because of her love for flowers. The Star, 8 January, 1971; — a. SICHEL, 
Flowers were her childhood playmates. A profile of Cythna Letty, South Africa’s foremost 
botanical artist. Pretoria News, 10 August 1973; — Cythna Letty Forssman: the flowers that 
bloom in the veld. The Star, 4 November 1974; — Doctorate for the Lady of flowers who 
didn't get matric. The Daily News, 3 December 1974; — c.C.G. van der walt, Cythna 


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Letty. Fauna A flora , 28, January 1977; — L. DELLATOLA, The three races. South African 
panorama, September 1978; — Cythna Letty. South African panorama, April 1979; — 
Incredible Cythna and her ‘strange little flowers’. Pretoria News, 1 August 1979; — A. 
Chittenden, Ontmoet Cythna Letty, botaniese iilustreerder en ons kleurrykste veldblom- 
mens. Landbouweekblad, 26 Oktober 1979; — N. PILLMAN, Dr Cythna Letty. In: a. 
PIETERSE (red.), Vrou in haar eie wireld: 'n hand vol gruis. Pretoria, 1980; — M. GUNN A 
c.E. codd. Botanical exploration of Southern Africa. Cape Town, 1981; — M. Fairall, 
Cythna Letty is 86 years young. Sunday Tribune, 29 November 1981; — Die vrou met die 
handvol drome. Rooi rose, 7 April 1982; D. DE BEER, Dr Cythna Letty: her ‘exodus’ a loss 
for city. Pretoria News, 3 April 1984; — Obituaries: The Sunday Times, 5 May 1985; 
Pretoria News, 7 May 1985; Forum botanicum, 23(7&8), August 1985; Veld A flora, 
September 1985; Aloe, 2, 1985; Cactus A succulent journal (US), 57, 1985; Bothalia, 
16(1), May 1986; — house of assembly, department of education and culture 
administration, A selection of flower paintings from the journals of J osina Christina Letty. 
Pretoria, 1986. 

LONG, Samuel Alfred (Taffy) (*Abertillery, Monmouthshire, Wales, Britain, 

1891— tPretoria, 17 November 1922), soldier, min- 
er and trade unionist, executed for committing mur- 
der during the 1922 miners’ strike. 

Little is known of Long’s early life, other than 
that he ran away from home when he was ten years 
old and went coal mining in the forest of Dean, 
Wales. At the age of nineteen, Long joined the 
Royal Horse Artillery and Royal Field Artillery and 
left England. At the outbreak of the First World 
War (1914-1918), he was in India with the 29th 
Division which moved to the Dardanelles on active 
service. He was transferred to the Arabian desert 
and then to France in March 1916. Long was seri- 
ously wounded in November 1917 in Cambrai in France, and spent 1918 
recuperating in hospital in England. Because of his injuries he was discharged 
from the army on 13 September 1918 and was granted a military pension. Long 
had a good war record, held the rank of bombardier and was awarded the 
Mons Star. 

After travelling to Australia in 1919, Long came to South Africa in 
February 1920. He applied to join the Mounted Police in Pretoria, but was 
turned down because he could not speak Dutch. He was subsequently employed 
by Crown Mines on Number 5 shaft as a timberman and occasionally as a 
machine operator. Apart from being a paid-up member of the South African 
Mine Workers’ Union and attending the mine soccer club on an informal basis, 
Long did not appear to play a leading role at work or in his social circle. 

At the outbreak of the 1922 Rand strike Long was on leave, and did not 
return to work. As a resident of Fordsburg and a trade union member he was 
entitled to draw rations at Market Hall, the headquarters of the Mine Workers' 
Union. Long admitted to marching with the commandos before martial law was 
declared on 10 March 1922, but claimed that he never joined them. He volun- 
teered to combat looting, and sjamboked nine individuals who were allegedly 


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On 15 March 1922, after the defeat of Fordsburg, Long was arrested for 
the murder of Alwyn Petrus Marais, a Fordsburg shopkeeper. Marais had been 
found guilty by the Strike Committee of being a police informant and was sen- 
tenced to death. He was taken by a party of three to a back street and shot on 
11 March. He died in the Johannesburg hospital the next day. Long was later 
also charged with high treason and the possession of loot. 

A Special Criminal Court was formed for the trial of those charged during 
the 1922 revolt. The Transvaal Strike Legal Defence Committee was formed by 
the trade unions to provide free legal defence for the accused. Long's case was 
the only one to undergo two trials— each of which was also the longest of all 
the hearings— and to serve before the Appeal Court in Bloemfontein. 

During the first trial the defence disproved or discredited much of the evi- 
dence, and also gave testimony which implicated Percy Fisher* in the murder. 
After eight days of cross-examination, the three trial judges failed to come to 
a unanimous decision and declared that they had no option but to return no 
verdict. They stated that the case rested with the Crown. Another Special 
Criminal Court with three other judges was constituted for the specific purpose 
of trying Long. 

The second trial, which lasted from 4 to 20 October, began with the 
defence contesting the jurisdiction of the second court. This objection was 
eventually overruled by the Appeal Court in Bloemfontein on 6 November. On 
virtually the same evidence, the three new judges found Long guilty of murder 
and sentenced him to death. 

There was widespread public reaction to this verdict, particularly among 
members of the Labour Party and National Party, who claimed that this was 
yet another example of the Smuts-Hoggenheimer alliance against the worker. 
Subsequent mass protest and political meetings demanded a reprieve, while the 
Transvaal Strike Legal Defence Committee resolved that Long was innocent 
and declared that trial without a jury was a gross violation of the constitutional 
rights of all British subjects. 

On 17 November 1922, Long was hanged at the Central Prison in Pretoria, 
together with Herbert Hull and David Lewis, both strikers, who had been sen- 
tenced for the murder of Lt Rupert William Taylor. When they were brought 
from their cell, the three men sang the ‘Red Flag’— the official anthem of early 
socialists and communists in South Africa. Their remains were handed to their 
relatives to be buried under the auspices of the Industrial Federation. 

The funeral of Long, Hull and Lewis on 19 November at Brixton Cemetery 
in Johannesburg was attended by over 10 000 people. On the call of the Na- 
tional Executive of Trade Unions, they marched under the banners of the South 
African Mine Workers’ Union and the Communist Party of South Africa 
(CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953), and the ceremony 
commenced and concluded with the singing of the ‘Red Flag’. Though Angli- 
can, the church refused to bury Long and so the rites were read by a minister 
of the Methodist Church. Messrs H.W. Sampson* and J. Cowan, secretary of 
the Mine Workers’ Union, addressed the crowd. They averred that their de- 
ceased comrades had left a charge to those assembled to champion the workers’ 


cause. Subsequent labour histories heralded Long as one of South Africa’s 
greatest working-class martyrs. 

Long was survived by his eighteen-year-old wife, Maria Elizabeth (Ria) 
(born Hammergren), whom he had married on 30 July 1921, and their infant 
son, Samuel Thomas. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Special Criminal Court 18/21, 48; WLD 291/1927; — Brixton 
Cemetery, Johannesburg: Burial Records, 1910-1926; — University of the Witwatersrand 
Archives, Johannesburg: Anglican Church Records, 1921; — Obituaries: Die Burger, 20 & 
24 Oktober 1922, 17 November 1922; De Volkstem, 23 Oktober 1922; Pretoria News, 17 
November 1922; The Rand Daily Mail, 17 November 1922; The Cape Argus, 17 November 
1922; The Cape Times, 17 November 1922; The Diamond Fields Advertiser, 17 & 18 No- 
vember 1922; The Star, 17 & 20 November 1922; Die Volksblad, 20 November 1922; Onze 
Couraru, 20 & 23 November 1922; The Times, 20 November 1922; — Transvaal strike 
LEGAL defence COMMITTEE, The story of a crime. Johannesburg, 1924; — E. GITSHAM A J.F. 
trembath, A first account of labour organization in South Africa. Durban, 1926; — R.K. 
cope, Comrade Bill: the life and times ofW.H. Andrews, workers' leader. Cape Town, 
[1943?]; — I.L. walker A B. weinbren, 2 000 casualties: a history of the trade unions and 
the labour movement in the Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1961; — N. HERD, 1922: 
the revolt on the Rand. Johannesburg, 1966; — a.g. oberholster, Die mynwerkerstaking 
Witwatersrand, 1922. Pretoria, 1982; — J. lang, Bullion Johannesburg: men, mines and the 
challenge of conflict. Johannesburg, 1986. 



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MABIIIDA, Moses Mbheki Mncane (Baba) (Thornhill, Pietermaritzburg 

district, 14 October 1 923 — fMaputo, Mozambique, 
8 March 1986), trade unionist and political leader. 
He was one of the seven children of Stimela Mab- 
hida and Anna Nobuzi (nee Phakathi). Mabhida’s 
father was a farm worker and later a labourer at the 
Electricity Department of the Pietermaritzburg Mu- 
nicipality. As member of the Industrial and Com- 
mercial Workers’ Union (ICU) Mabhida’s father 
had a marked influence on his son’s political out- 
look. (Some sources give Mabhida’s date of death 
as 29 March 1986.) 

Mahhida started school in 1932 but his studies 
were constantly interrupted by periods during which 
he had to work as a herder. However, in 1933 he completed Standard 4 at a 
school in New England, near Pietermaritzburg. He then enrolled at the Buchan- 
an Street Intermediate School which subsequently amalgamated with another 
school at Slangspruit, near Pietermaritzburg. 

While at Slangspruit Mabhida met Harry Gwala (later to become a member 
of the 1991 national executive of the African National Congress (ANC)) who 
had a profound influence on him. Gwala introduced him to the ANC, the 
Independent Trade Union Movement (organizations Mabhida subsequently 
joined) and the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Com- 
munist Party (SACP) after 1953). Through Gwala Mabhida met trade unionists 
and became involved in the organization of a trade union in the distributive 
industry. Gwala also established classes for senior boys at Slangspruit where 
political issues— capitalism, private enterprise, socialism and public control of 
production and distribution— were discussed. It was also Gwala who introduced 
him to The Guardian — a newspaper sympathetic to the CPSA and published 
from 1937. 

Mabhida’s schooling did not go beyond Standard 7. He went to work as a 
waiter, then a railway worker and later as a shop worker. He joined the CPSA 
in December 1942 and started to play an active role in the ANC. In 1952 he 
was appointed assistant secretary of the Pietermaritzburg branch of the ANC. 

Throughout the 1940s and 1950s Mabhida’s main concern was to organize 
the workers. After the Defiance Campaign in 1952, he was asked by the then 


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clandestine SACP to work as a full-time trade unionist. He organized the 
Howick Rubber Workers’ Union and the Chemical Workers in Pieterma- 
ritzburg. Moving to Durban in 1954 he was instrumental in establishing unions 
for dairy workers, bakery workers, laundry men and workers in the transport 
sector. He was involved in the strikes by Durban stevedores which led to the 
introduction of weekly pay and a minimum wage. 

Mabhida played a major role in the preparation for the Congress of the 
People in 1955 where the Freedom Charter was adopted. During the same year 
the South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU) was established with 
Mabhida as one of its vice-presidents. In his inauguration speech he verbalized 
his lifelong ambition: "... [The] trade union movement can go forward only on 
the basis of unity and in a spirit of fraternity and solidarity among all 
workers". As chairperson of the local committee of SACTU, he built up the 
organization of the trade union movement in Natal. During this same period he 
became chairperson of the ANC working committee in Natal and chairperson 
of the Durban District Committee of the SACP. In this period of intense trade 
union and political activities, Mabhida was actively and militantly involved in 
every campaign. 

In February 1960, following a strike at the Hammarsdale clothing factory 
in Natal, a warrant was issued for Mabhida’s arrest. He was charged with 
incitement. After the Sharpeville shootings in March 1960, Mabhida partici- 
pated in the anti-pass campaign and burnt his own pass book. Following the 
declaration of the state of emergency, Mabhida was instructed by SACTU to 
leave South Africa to present SACTU’s case to the International Labour 
Organization (ILO) and to organize overseas support. On 16 April he escaped 
to Basutoland (Lesotho) never to return to South Africa. Apart from the ILO 
Mabhida also became actively involved in the World Federation of Trade 
Unions (WFTU). 

In 1962 Mabhida’s career turned from being essentially labour related and 
became politically inclined. After being re-elected to the ANC’s national execu- 
tive following the conference in Lobatse, Bechuanaland (Botswana) in October 
1962, he was requested by Oliver Tambo (the ANC president) to devote him- 
self to Umkhonto we Sizwe (the military wing of the ANC) as commander and 
commissar. After the Morogoro conference in Tanzania in 1969, he was to 
serve on the ANC’s Revolutionary Council. In 1979 he was elected as general 
secretary of the SACP (following the death of Moses Kotane*) and installed in 
that post in 1981. 

During his 26 years in exile Mabhida travelled extensively. He visited 
Lusaka, Luanda, Casablanca, Dar es Salaam, Havana, Moscow, Managua, 
London, Djakarta, Beijing, Rio de Janeiro, Prague and Washington. He was 
held in high esteem internationally, especially among trade unionists and 
socialists. On his sixtieth birthday he was awarded the Soviet Order of the 
People and the Order of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria First Class. 

Generally a self-educated man, Mabhida was steeped in the Marxist-Leninist 
ideology and tradition. He had the ability to translate difficult thoughts into 
digestible terms. His oration tended to be flowery, sometimes couched in 
religious terms: "The African is crucified on the cross of gold in the Transvaal 


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and on the mealie stalk in the Orange Free State". To a large extent Mabhida 
represented the unifying factor among the South African resistance movements. 
Amid the sometimes petty infights he was the prime example of the otherwise 
close alliance between SACTU, the SACP and the ANC. 

Mabhida was married to Linah. The couple had three children. He died of 
a heart attack. He was given a state funeral and was buried in the Hlanguena 
Cemetery, Maputo, Mozambique. 

South African Police, [Pretoria]: Reports on Moses Mabhida (1 January 1962-31 March 
1986); — M. mabhida, Apartheid: the curse of South Africa. London, 1962; — T. karis a 
g.m. CARTER (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in 
South Africa. 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles. 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — s. gastrow. 
Who '.v who in South African politics. Johannesburg, 1985; — T. lodge, Moses Mabhida, 
1923-1986. South African labour bulletin, 11(6), June/July 1986; — sacp central 
committee. Hambe kahle Moses Mabhida. The African communist, 106(Third Quarter), 
1986; — F. MELI, South Africa belongs to us: a history of the ANC. Harare, 1988; — Makers 
of modern Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

MADIBA, Moses Josiah (*Uitvlucht, Pietersburg district, 19 November 

1909— tSeshego, Pietersburg district, 2 January 
1985), educationist, first African chancellor of the 
University of the North, and author. He was one of 
the seven children of Jesaya Sekgoadi and Johanna 
Sebolaishi. Although Ndebele-speaking, Madiba 
preferred Northern Sotho as a communication me- 
dium. He received his primary education in the Pie- 
tersburg district at Ga-Madiba, Mashashane Luthe- 
ran School and Setotolwane. From 1926 to 1929 he 
studied for a teacher’s diploma at Kilnerton Insti- 
tution, a Methodist college in Pretoria. Through pri- 
vate and full-time study he later improved his quali- 
fications: Junior Certificate (1930), matric (1933), 
the B.A. degree (1941) with a Transvaal Education Department bursary, and 
the U.E.D. (1942)— the latter two qualifications from the South African Native 
College (University of Fort Hare). 

Madiba’s teaching career started in July 1929 when he was appointed prin- 
cipal at the Makapanspoort primary school in the Potgietersrus district. From 
April 1930 to June 1935 he was principal at the Kalkspruit Amalgamated 
School. This post he held until he became principal of the Kratzenstein Higher 
Primary School at Pietersburg for a year. In July 1936 he was appointed as 
supervisor of schools in the Pietersburg West Circuit, the highest post an 
African teacher could aspire to at that time. After a year he became principal 
of the Potgietersrus Bantu Secondary School. 

With the founding of the Pretoria Bantu Normal College in Atteridgeville, 
a postmatriculation teacher training college, Madiba became lecturer and 
warden in 1947. While warden, he introduced hostel committees consisting of 
senior male and female students in order to teach and promote group discipline 


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and a sense of responsibility among students. In 1948 Madiba returned to 
Potgietersrus as founder principal and superintendent of Mokopane Teachers’ 
Training Institution (Mokopane College of Education), a state-owned college 
that incorporated the Potgietersrus Bantu Secondary School. In 1957 Madiba 
was one of the first Africans to be appointed as a sub-inspector of Bantu 
Education. Two years later he was seconded back to Mokopane in order to 
reorganize the college. In 1961 he returned to his position as sub-inspector and 
in 1965 became Bantu Inspector of Schools. When the Department of Educa- 
tion and Culture of the Lebowa Government Service came into being in 1969 
he was appointed as its first education planner. 

Madiba was a protagonist of mother tongue instruction and of the mother 
tongue as medium of instruction in the primary school. Furthermore, he 
propagated the training of primary school teachers in the mother tongue as this 
would result in better training. This viewpoint led to severe criticism and 
political controversy, yet in pursuance of his conviction and his commitment to 
mother tongue instruction he developed the Northern Sotho language terminol- 
ogy that led the Department of Bantu Education language committees to 
compile Sotho terminologies in other subjects as well. He was also the author 
of several school textbooks, stories and novels in Northern Sotho. His books 
Thulo ya Polelo (1941), Tsiri (1942), Mahlontebe series (1952) and Nkotsana 
(1955) are still widely read in Northern Sotho schools. 

Madiba was the first secretary of the Maune branch of the Transvaal. 
African Teachers’ Association (TATA) in 1930. He was also secretary of the 
Northern Transvaal Teachers’ District Association of TATA, and served in 
several committees of this organization. In 1954 he was co-founder of the 
Transvaal Teachers’ Union (TTU) and became its educational advisor. He 
represented the TTU on the Advisory Board for Native Education in the 
Transvaal. In 1960 he was appointed first chairperson of the advisory council 
of the newly established University College of the North, a position he held 
until 1973. He served as chairperson of the university’s education committee as 
well, and on 13 May 1978 was installed as the first African chancellor of the 
University of the North. 

Madiba was a recipient of the British Council Visitor’s Grant. This enabled 
him to study primary and secondary teacher training in Britain, as well as the 
teaching of English to foreign students in 1964. He was a member of the 
government commission to Malawi, studying the youth in that country. In 1973 
he received an honorary D.Ed. from the Faculty of Education at the University 
of South Africa for meritorious services as linguist, author, educationist and 
community leader. 

Besides his numerous commitments in the field of education Madiba made 
room for community service. He was a lay preacher and elder in the Lutheran 
Church and president of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Synod, Transvaal. 
He was chairperson of the constitutional committee when the Northern and 
Southern Transvaal synods merged, and served from 1963 as first president of 
the new synod. 

He was also deputy chairperson of the Lebowa Legislative Assembly. In 
Mashashane a junior secondary school bears his name and at the University of 


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the North a dining hail and student residence are also named after him. 

He married Johanna Margaret Lcdwaba in 1936. The couple had two sons 
and five daughters. He died in his home after a short illness. 

Bantu education who's who: a Bantu educationist. Bantu education journal, 2(4), May 1956; 
— Honoris causa : M.J. Madiba, Unisa, 1973; — Editorial: Dr M.J. Madiba. Bantu 
education journal, 19, October 1973; — Citation at the installation of Moses Josiah Madiba 
as chancellor of the University of the North, 13 May 1978; — Obituaries: The Argus, 4 
January 1985; The Citizen, 4 January 1985; The Star, 4 January 1985; The Friend, 8 
January 1985; The Review, 11 January 1985; Educamus, 31(4), April 1985; — S. manaka, 
A tribute: Dr M.J. Madiba. Uninews, 10(1), April 1985. 

MADIBANE, Harry Percival (*Blaauwberg (Blouberg), Pietersburg district, 

1902— fPietersburg, 26 February 1981), educa- 
tionist, school principal and soccer administrator, 
was the son of Theophilus Madibane and his wife 
Dora. Madibane grew up at Bochum (a settlement 
northwest of Pietersburg, and some 10 km south of 
Blouberg). After primary education at Bochum he 
went to the Diocesan Training Institute (Setotolwane 
College of Education) near Pietersburg where he ob- 
tained a teaching diploma in the early 1920s. While 
teaching he continued his studies and matriculated. 

Madibane later came to Johannesburg and 
became the first principal of St Peter’s School at 
Crown Mines. His next position was that of princi- 
pal of St Cyprian’s Anglican School in Sophiatown. Through the intervention 
of Peter Raynes, priest-in-charge at St Cyprian’s, Madibane and G. Nakene* 
were allowed to enrol as students at the University of the Witwatersrand, Jo- 
hannesburg. In 1941 he completed the B.A. degree, and with Nakene became 
the first two Africans to receive the B.A. degree from this university. 

In 1936 W.W.M. Eiselen* was appointed chief inspector of Native 
Education in the Transvaal. He initiated the establishment of day secondary 
schools (i.e. nonresidential secondary schools) for African pupils in the 
Transvaal as an experiment. Two such schools were established in Johannes- 
burg. One was the Orlando High School where G. Nakene was principal in 
1939. The other school was built in Western Native Township, and was called 
the Johannesburg Bantu High School (sometimes called Western High). 
Madibane was appointed as its first principal in 1942 and held this position 
until 1963. 

In June 1963 the school was moved to Diepkloof as a result of the 
government’s forced removals. Madibane retired at the end of that year. In 
Diepkloof the school was renamed Madibane High School, a fitting tribute to 
a man who dedicated his whole life to education. 

Madibane was a strict disciplinarian according to those who knew him. 
Among his former students were many who became prominent in various 
fields, such as Archbishop Desmond Tutu; T.W. Khabule, a principal of 


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Orlando High School and of Pace Commercial College in Soweto; Dr G.G. 
Mbere, a gynaecologist; Prof. Alosi J.M. Moloi of the Department of African 
Languages and Literature at the University of California in Los Angeles in the 
United States of America; and Prof. P.C. Mokgokong, a former rector of the 
University of the North. 

Madibane took a keen interest in sports of all kinds, especially soccer. He 
was president of the Johannesburg Bantu Football Association for twelve years; 
vice-president of the Transvaal Football Association; and vice-president of the 
South African Bantu Football Association. Madibane was also a leading 
member of church organizations in Sophiatown, and later in Diepkloof. 

Madibane was married to Rita Rebecca Phahlane. They had two sons and 
two daughters. He was buried on his farm in Bochum in the Northern 
Transvaal on Saturday 7 March 1981. 

T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African who’s who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — Obituary: The Rand Daily Mail, 28 February 1981; — Private information: R. 
Madibane (son), Diepkloof, Soweto, Johannesburg; Dr P.R.S. Maphike, (ex-pupil, Johan- 
nesburg Bantu High School), Soweto, Johannesburg; W.M. Ribane (ex-pupil, Johannesburg 
Bantu High School), Diepkloof Extension, Soweto, Johannesburg; Canon J.B. Moloi (ex- 
pupil, Johannesburg Bantu High School), Diepkloof, Soweto, Johannesburg. 

MAIIABANE, Zaccheus Richard (*Thaba Nchu, Orange Free State, 15 

August 1881— tKroonstad, September 1971), a 
clergyman, teacher, interpreter, politician and 
president of the African National Congress (ANC). 
His parents were Christians and prosperous farmers. 
After his primary school education in Thaba Nchu 
he was sent to the Morija Mission Institute in Basu- 
toland (Lesotho) where he qualified as a teacher in 
1901 . He soon gave up teaching and became a court 
interpreter. In 1908 he began theological training at 
the Lessyton Theological School near Queenstown. 
He was ordained as a Methodist minister in 1914. 

Mahabane’s first congregation was at Bensonvale 
near Herschel. From there he was transferred to 
Cape Town where he quickly became politically active. In 1919 he was elected 
as president of the Cape provincial branch of the South African Native National 
Council (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) after 1923). He also 
became vice-president of the Cape Native Voters’ Convention. His first term 
as president-general of the ANC (1924-1927) was a quiet period in the history 
of the organization. 

Mahabane increasingly tried to attain black unity. With the coloured leader 
A. Abdurahman* he organized the so-called Non-European Unity Conferences 
between 1927 and 1934 where Africans, coloureds and Indians discussed their 
common grievances and ideals. 

By the end of the 1920s Mahabane was anxious about the growing black 


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following of the communist ideology and the pro-communist tendencies of his 
successor as ANC president-general, J.T. Gumede*. From 1929 to 1930 he 
was therefore instrumental in ousting Gumede from his leadership position. 
Simultaneously Mahabane was closely involved with black resistance to the so- 
called J.B.M. Hertzog* Draft Bills that, amongst others, were considering the 
removal of the Cape black voters from the common voters’ roll. In order to 
oppose Hertzog’s legislation, the All-African Convention (AAC) was formed 
in 1935, with Mahabane becoming one of the AAC leaders. At its first meeting 
in December 1935 he was elected to its executive committee and was part of 
the delegation that conveyed the A AC’s grievances and proposals to Hertzog in 
Cape Town. The resistance was in vain but the AAC continued to exist and 
Mahabane served as vice-president until 1955. 

Mahabane's second term as president-general of the ANC lasted from 1937 
until 1940. He was still involved with the ANC after that and as senior chap- 
lain was a member of the committee that had to investigate the revision of the 
ANC’s constitution. In 1943 he was made lifelong honorary president. During 
the 1940s he became increasingly involved with the AAC that— with Maha- 
bane’s assistance and together with certain coloured organizations— formed the 
basically Trotskyite Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM) in 1945. Maha- 
bane was its first chairperson and later president until his resignation in 1956. 
In October 1948 he was the AAC delegate at a meeting with the ANC where 
a vain attempt was made to end the dissension between the two organizations. 
He was not a participant in the Defiance Campaign of 1952. 

In October 1956 Mahabane attended the National Conference of Black 
Thinkers in Bloemfontein to discuss the Tomlinson Report ( Report of the 
Commission for the Socio-Economic Development of the Bantu Areas) organized 
by the Interdenominational African Ministers’ Federation (IDAMF). It was one 
of the most representative rallies of black people since the AAC meetings of 
the mid-thirties, and it rejected the commission’s findings. 

During the 1950s Mahabane increasingly applied himself to the problems of 
Christianity and its place in Africa. He put across his thoughts in this connec- 
tion at various conferences in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa. He played 
a prominent role in the development of the Methodist Church in South Africa 
and helped to draw up the church’s constitution and to define the equal status 
of all in the church. In addition he was one of the first three Africans to 
acquire an official position at the Methodist Church’s conference. At the 
interchurch level he also held a leading role in the IDAMF. In 1927 and 1937 
he attended international missionary conferences in Belgium where African 
affairs were discussed. 

Mahabane was described as a diplomatic, slow-speaking and calm man, who 
combined politics and Christian ethics to fight racism. He was keen to unite all 
blacks into one firm and positive political front. Through the ANC he 
constantly tried to educate Africans about their rights and made frequent 
representations against the colour bar. 

Mahabane lived and worked in Kroonstad for most of his long career. The 
colour bar in South Africa (Lovedale, 1923) was his only publication. He was 
married to Harriet Mantoro. The couple had three daughters and two sons. 


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Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — T. 
matshikiza, Masterpiece in bronze: long life, great times! Drum , May 1957; — z.r. 
mahabane, The good fight: selected speeches of Rev. Zaccheus R. Mahabane. [Evanston, 
111., 196-]; — E. Roux, Time longer than rope: a history of the black man's struggle for 
freedom in South Africa. 2nd ed. , Madison. 1964; — c.M. DE villiers. Die African National 
Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of 
Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African 
National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — Obituary: The Rand Daily Mail, 27 
September 1971 ; — t. karis A G.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary 
history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — T. 
lodge. Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; — JAR simons. 
Class and colour in South Africa, 1850-1950. London, 1983; — Makers of modem Africa: 
profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — Private information: Mrs M.M. Mothekhe 
(granddaughter), Old Location, Brandfort. 

MANGENA, Alfred (*Estcourt district, Natal, 1879— fUmtata, Cape Province 

(later Transkei), 1924), politician and first African 
in South Africa to qualify as attorney, was of Zizi 
origin. Very little is known about his early life 
except that he attended primary school in his home 
district and then left for Cape Town in 1900 to 
further his education at a private school at St Barna- 
bas Rectory. 

While in Cape Town Mangena first became 
involved with political matters through two court 
cases— one case concerning Africans accused of 
resisting health measures imposed during the out- 
break of a plague in 1901, and the other involving 
Africans resisting a relocation scheme from Cape 
Town to Dobeni township. Shortly afterwards he left for England, first 
completing his secondary schooling and then reading law at Lincoln’s Inn in 
London from October 1903 to July 1908. 

While still in England, the trial following the Bambatha* Rebellion of 1906 
started. Mangena petitioned the British government on behalf of the Africans 
who were facing court martial. Simultaneously he laid a charge against the 
governor of Natal, Sir Henry E. McCallum*, for allegedly declaring martial 
law illegally. In 1909 the Transvaal Native Congress requested Africans who 
were studying overseas to lobby on their behalf against the Act of Union (South 
Africa Act); thus Mangena and Pixley Seme were to liaise with the official 
deputation from South Africa led by W.P. Schreiner*, in the negotiations with 
the British government. Qualifying as attorney in the same year, he returned to 
South Africa in 1910. 

Back in South Africa, Mangena had to overcome racial policies that 
prevented him from practising his profession. With the aid of his attorney C. 
Clark he eventually gained admission to the Supreme Court and established a 
legal practice in Pretoria. His practice soon grew to a successful concern with 
a branch in Johannesburg, and counting Paramount Chief Dalinyebo* of 
Tembuland among his clients. Many of his cases were disputes between 


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Africans and whites, Mangena then facing the resistance of whites being cross- 
examined by an African. In 1916 Mangena and Seme formed a law partnership 
in Johannesburg. 

Mangena also became involved in political activities. In 1912 he was a 
founder member of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC, 
African National Congress (ANC) after 1923), being elected as one of the four 
vice-presidents. In 1913 he served on the SANNC deputation to the Minister of 
Native Affairs, J.W. Sauer*. The deputation petitioned the government about 
the 1913 Natives Land Act. 

With Sefako M. Makgatho he started the Native Advocate in Pretoria in 
1912, with A.K. Soga as editor. The newspaper lasted for about two years. 

Mangena married Anna Victoria Cobela Ntuli* of Natal in 1916. The 
couple apparently had no children. Having suffered ill health for a long time, 
Mangena died at the age of 45. Skota {infra) described him as a "fearless man 
[whose] life was in danger more than once because of his success". 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: TPD 8/4 123/1910, Application; — T.D.M. SKOTA (ed.). The 
African who 's who: an illustrated classified register and national biographical dictionary of 
the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — P. walshe, The 
rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. 
London, 1970; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary 
history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. I. Protest and hope, 1882-1934. 
Stanford, 1972; — T. karis a o.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary 
history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. 
Stanford, 1977; — a. odendaal, Black protest politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town, 
1984; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

MANGENA, Anna Victoria {ft. 1910-1961), first qualified African nurse in 

the Transvaal. She was a daughter of John Cobela 
Ntuli and his wife, and was born at Mapumulo Mis- 
sion Station (between Stanger and Kranskop), Natal, 
probably between 1885 and 1895. (Mangena appar- 
ently used her father’s name for a surname. In all 
her correspondence she is referred to as ‘Victoria 

Mangena received her schooling at the Inanda 
Seminary (or Lindley’s Seminary). Instead of fol- 
lowing the teaching profession which was about the 
only profession open to African youths at the time, 
she decided to become a nurse. She went to one of 
the few hospitals that did train Africans as nurses— 
Victoria Hospital, Lovedale in the Eastern Cape. She received her training 
under Dr Neil Macvicar* who was encouraging young African women to be 
trained as nurses. 

As soon as she had qualified in 1910, she came to the Transvaal where she 
worked at a number of places as the first qualified African nurse. At Klerks- 
dorp Hospital she worked for two years under Matron Helen Scott Russell as 


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so-called ‘native nurse’. At the end of June 1915 she left Klerksdorp and joined 
the staff of the Crown Mines Native Hospital in Johannesburg, working under 
Matron T. Silverman. She remained there for six months. Apparently she also 
did some private nursing besides her work at the hospital. 

In 1916 she married Alfred Mangena. At the time she was probably work- 
ing as a nurse in Pretoria. 

During the Great Influenza Epidemic of 1918, while she was still in Preto- 
ria, Mangena heard that the New Brighton Location Hospital in Port Elizabeth 
was understaffed. She applied for a vacancy as a nurse at New Brighton and 
assumed duties on 1 November 1920. Mangena was mainly responsible for dis- 
trict nursing while her colleague Dora Jacobs worked in the hospital. When the 
latter left in 1923 Mangena took charge of the hospital services. 

After her husband’s death in 1924 Mangena returned to Johannesburg and 
was employed by the city council as a nurse at Klipspruit township, near Jo- 
hannesburg. She worked for a number of years for the Johannesburg City 

She was a leading member of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Klipspruit, 
involving herself in community affairs. In her later life she did social service 
for the Public Utility Transport Corporation (PUTCO). 

Mangena died in Klipspruit, Johannesburg, in 1961. It is not known if she 
had any children. 

Central Archives, Pretoria: NTS, 2444, 11/291; — T.D.M. skota (ed.). The African who’s 
who: an illustrated classified register and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in 
the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]. 

MAPIKELA, Thomas Mtobi (*Hleunoeng, Basutoland (Lesotho), 21 Novem- 
ber 1869— ^Bloemfontein, 1945), businessman, poli- 
tician and speaker of the African National Congress 
(ANC). He was very young when he and his parents 
moved to Queenstown in what was then the Cape 
Colony. He attended school there before going to 
the Grahamstown Kaffir Institution (or the Natives’ 
College) where he qualified as a cabinet maker. In 
1892 he went to Bloemfontein and settled in the 
Waaihoek township as carpenter/builder contractor. 
Here he soon became a respected inhabitant and 
built himself an imposing double-storey house. 

In 1902 the Native Committee of the Bloemfon- 
tein district together with its leaders from Waaihoek 
came to the notice of the Bloemfontein authorities. Mapikela’s involvement 
with politics began in about May 1903 when the Bloemfontein Native Vigilance 
Committee (BNVC) superseded the Native Committee. By the following year 
the leaders of the BNVC had succeeded in forming a loose alliance with other 
similar organizations in the Orange River Colony (Orange Free State) to form 
the Orange River Colony Native Vigilance Association. It was, however, in 


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June 1906 that Mapikela became prominent as office bearer of the newly estab- 
lished Orange River Colony Native Association (later changed to ‘Congress’). 

Shortly before the Union of South Africa came into being Mapikela was 
closely involved with black protest against the colour bar in the draft constitu- 
tion of the National Convention. He played a leading role in convening the 
South Africa Native Convention (SANC) which was held in Waaihoek from 24 
to 26 March 1909 to discuss the draft constitution. In the same year he was a 
member of the SANC deputation to London, England, which failed to persuade 
the British parliament to reject the draft constitution with its colour bar. 

In 1911 Mapikela was involved in attempts to establish the SANC as a 
permanent body. In January 1912 these attempts materialized when the South 
African Native National Congress (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) 
after 1923) was established. Mapikela became its speaker— an office he held 
until 1940. From 1912 until his death he was also president of the Orange Free 
State branch of the SANNC besides being assistant treasurer of the SANNC 
and a co-drafter of the organization’s 1919 constitution. 

Mapikela was constantly involved in protests against pass legislation and 
other discriminatory measures. Before and after parliament’s acceptance of the 
Native Land Act of 1913 he untiringly raised objections to it; in 1912 he was 
a member of an SANNC delegation to the Minister of Native Affairs, H. 
Burton*, which protested unsuccessfully against the impending act. In 1914 he 
was a member of the SANNC deputation to Britain to attempt to persuade the 
British king and parliament to force the South African government to take this 
act into reconsideration. The deputation failed. Though he took part in the 
protest against the segregatory measures in the Native Urban Areas Act of 
1923, Mapikela supported the ANC resolution that it should assist the 
government in shaping its racial policy, and encouraged the establishment of 
local councils. Mapikela, who had already been elected as chairperson of the 
Native Advisory Council in Bloemfontein at its inception in 1920, therefore 
also served on the Location Advisory Boards Congress as treasurer for thirteen 
years. He was a member of the Bloemfontein branch of the multiracial Joint 
Council of Europeans and Bantu. 

Mapikela was a moderate leader par excellence. With other conservative 
ANC leaders he was concerned about the growing support among black people 
for the Communist Party of South Africa (CPS A, South African Communist 
Party (SACP) after 1953) in the 1920s. He was therefore instrumental in 
ousting J.T. Gumede*, who showed pro-communist tendencies, from the na- 
tional presidency of the ANC in 1929. The upshot was that Mapikela, as ANC 
speaker, became acting president-general until Pixley Seme took over as 
president-general in 1930. 

Mapikela also played a leading role during the general dissatisfaction 
amongst Africans with their position in South Africa and with the so-called 
J.B.M. Hcrtzog* Draft Bills— the Natives’ Trust and Land Bill that affected 
ownership of land outside the reserves, and the Representation of Natives Bill 
which dealt with the question of the removal of the Cape black voters from the 
common voters’ roll. Mapikela was one of the organizers of the All- African 
Convention (A AC) that was formed in 1935. At the first meeting in Bloemfon- 



tein in December 1935 he was one of the main speakers. Despite the A AC’s 
protest the Native Representation Act was accepted during the 1936 session of 
parliament. Moreover, in 1937 Mapikela was chosen as a member of the 
Native Representative Council (NRC) which was created as a result of the act. 
He remained a member of the NRC until his death. The ANC, working in 
collaboration with the Advisory Board Congress, continued its efforts to obtain 
concessions with regard to the Hertzog Bills and in June 1939 a large delega- 
tion— of which Mapikela was a member— was sent to Cape Town to interview 
the Minister of Native Affairs, H.A. Fagan. 

In 1943 he was a member of the Atlantic Charter Committee of the ANC 
which had to study and discuss problems arising out of the Atlantic Charter in 
so far as it related to Africa. (The charter had originally been drawn up by 
Great Britain and the United States of America in 1941 as a "blueprint for 
future peace and security" and emphasized the maintenance of human rights.) 
The committee had to draw up a statement on the charter "from the standpoint 
of the Africans within the Union of South Africa" (called the African Claims), 
and draft a Bill of Rights. 

In addition to his political activities Mapikela was active in his community 
in various other ways. His attempt to start a newspaper in Bloemfontein in 
1908 failed, but in 1910 he was involved with a syndicate that published the 
newspaper Tsala ea Becoana in Kimberley, with Solomon T. Plaatje* as the 
editor. All the shareholders in the newspaper were closely involved with the 
SANC. In 1911 Mapikela was involved with the Interdenominational Confer- 
ence of Native Races in Africa. During the same period he was one of the 
members of a promotion scheme which strove for the creation of a university 
college for Africans. This eventually led to the establishment of the University 
of Fort Hare. In 1928 he was chosen as chairperson of the provisional 
committee of the South African Non-White Athletics Union. 

Mapikela was married and had nine children. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — E. roux. 
Time longer than rope: a history of the black man ’s struggle for freedom in South Africa. 
2nd ed. Madison, 1964; — c.M. DE villiers, Die African National Congress en sy 
aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; 
— p. walshe. The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National 
Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis & g.m. carter (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 1. Protest 
and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 1972; — T. karis & o.m. carter (eds). From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope 
and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds). From protest 
to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. 
Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — I . A R. SIMONS, Class and colour in South 
Africa, 1850-1950. London, 1983; — a. odendaal. Black protest politics in South Africa 
to 1912. Cape Town, 1984; — c.J.P. lee roux. Die openbare lewe van T. Mapikela. 
Unpublished manuscript. Bloemfontein, 1988; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in 
history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 


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MARKS, John Beaver (*Ventersdorp, 21 March 1903— fMoscow, USSR 

(Russia), 1 August 1972), teacher, trade unionist 
and political activist, was the seventh child of an 
African railway worker, John Thelelwa Marks, and 
a midwife, Betty Esau, who was of white origin. He 
could have lived as a coloured which would have 
brought him material gain but he identified himself 
as an African. Though the Marks family spoke 
Afrikaans at home, the children preferred Tswana. 
After Marks had moved to Johannesburg, he also 
tried to learn other African languages like Xhosa. 

In 1921 Marks graduated from Kilnerton Institu- 
tion, a Methodist college in Pretoria. For the next 
ten years he taught in the Transvaal at Pilgrim’s 
Rest and Potchefstroom, and in the Orange Free State at Vredefort. While 
teaching in Potchefstroom he made contact with the Communist Party of South 
Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953), acting as 
interpreter at rallies. In 1928 Marks joined both the CPSA and the African Na- 
tional Congress (ANC). From 1930 to 1937 Marks was a member of the 
political bureau. During this time he was also seconded to help organize 
workers' councils of the CPSA— that campaigned for workers’ rights to jobs, 
houses and food— in the Cape, periodically having to travel to Cape Town. In 
1931, after he had been dismissed from his teaching post for his political 
activities, Marks became a full-time activist for the CPSA, contributing 
frequently to the CPSA newspaper The South African Worker. The CPSA later 
sponsored his further education in the Soviet Union where he studied at the 
Lenin School in Moscow, Russia. 

Upon returning to South Africa in 1932 Marks stood for parliament as the 
CPSA candidate representing the Germiston area. It was a stormy campaign 
aimed at demonstrating the injustice of the electoral system, but Marks was 
unsuccessful. A number of canvassers were arrested under the ‘racial hostility’ 
clause of the Native Amendment Act of 1927. 

In 1937 Marks led the Co-ordination Committee for the All- African 
Convention (AAC), following a CPSA policy decision to agree to revive the 
moribund ANC. He was, however, expelled from the CPSA for breach of 
discipline in that year, but was reinstated to the joint committee of the Johan- 
nesburg district two years later. 

In 1939 Marks was a member of the joint ANC and Location Advisory 
Boards deputation that met with the secretary of Native Affairs, Dr D.L. Smit, 
to express African grievances against the pass laws, the franchise, the Native 
Land Act of 1913 and poverty wages. The deputation went away empty- 
handed. In the 1940s Marks became active in labour organization. The Second 
World War (1939-1945) stimulated South Africa’s economy and blacks began 
to enter the factories in large numbers. In 1943 Marks was elected chairperson 
of the Council of Non-European Trade Unions (CNETU), a rapidly growing 
federation of 1 19 black trade unions, that by 1945 was able to claim a member- 
ship of 158 000. Also in 1943 Marks became president of the African Mine- 


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workers’ Union (AMWU), a branch of the CNETU. For the first time in South 
Africa’s history, industrial action led to a real wage strike by black workers. 
Prime Minister Gen. J.C. Smuts*, concerned at the growing militancy of the 
AMWU, passed War Measure no. 145 of 1942 which declared meetings of 
more than 20 to be illegal. 

In 1946, after a three-year-old government commission failed to bring about 
any meaningful rise in their wages, over 70 000 mineworkers went on strike. 
The strike was crushed in five days, while Marks and the entire committee of 
the CPS A Johannesburg District were arrested for sedition. The charges were 
eventually dropped. The strike had far-reaching consequences that led to the en 
masse resignation of the moderate Native Representative Council (NRC) and 
brought closer alliance between the CPSA and the ANC. 

With his reputation high, Marks was elected to the national executive 
committee of the ANC. Three years later Marks was elected president of the 
Transvaal branch of the ANC, in preference to C.S. Ramohane, a critic of the 
CPSA. In the same year, 1950, the CPSA was banned. It was later to re- 
emerge illegally as the SACP. In 1952 Marks was banned under the Sup- 
pression of Communism Act. He nevertheless took part in the Defiance 
Campaign and served a prison sentence for breaking a banning order. 

Throughout the 1950s Marks continued his clandestine political activism. In 
1962 he was elected chairperson of the SACP, a position he held until his 
death. In 1963 Marks was instructed to join the headquarters of the external 
mission in Tanzania. He left the country in the middle of the year, first visiting 
China and India before reaching Tanzania. It is also claimed that both he and 
Joe Slovo were among those who were tipped off about a possible raid on the 
SACP headquarters at Rivonia. The two then fled the country together, dis- 
guised as Anglican priests, Slovo going on to Israel or Europe and Marks to 

Marks formed part of many delegations to international conferences; for 
example, in 1969 he chaired the Morogoro conference in Tanzania, which took 
the critical decision to open ANC membership to all races. 

In 1971 Marks suffered a heart attack. He was treated in Moscow where he 
died the following year and was buried near Moses Kotane*. 

Marks married Gladys Lekgoate, a colleague teacher in Potchefstroom in 
January c.1931 . They had a son who died young, and a daughter. When Marks 
left the country his wife was teaching in Swaziland, and never saw her husband 
again. She was denied permission by the government to bury him in South 
Africa, and in about 1984 the ANC and the Defence and Aid Fund arranged 
for her to visit his grave. 

Marks was a leading figure in that small but significant number of ‘van- 
guardist’ Marxist-Leninists whose political training, discipline and commitment 
were geared towards influencing the course of the ANC. The ANC shifted 
from Africanism in the 1940s and early 1950s to an alliance with the SACP. 
This change was to play a crucial role in the nature of resistance during the 
underground years. 

The South African Worker/Umsehenzi, 1935-1937; — Inkululekn, 1941-1947; — The 


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Guardian , 1940-1947; — M.A. DU Torr, South African trade unions. Johannesburg, 1976; — 
I. slovo, J.B. Marks: communist, man of the people, fighter for freedom. African 
communist , 95, 1983; — H.R. pike, A history of communism in South Africa. 2nd ed., rev. 
& enl. Germiston, 1988; — Sixty five years in the frontline of struggle , London, [1986]; — 
Private information: Ray Simons (trade union colleague and executive member of the 
SACP); Mrs Gladys Marks (widow), Eldorado Park, Johannesburg; Mr Stephen Marks 
(nephew), Newclare, Johannesburg. 

MARTINS, Helen Elizabeth (*Nieu Bcthcsda, 23 December 1897— fGraaff- 

Reinet, 8 August 1976), outsider artist known for 
the Owl House in the Karoo village of Nieu Bethes- 
da, was the youngest of ten children (six survived 
infancy) born to Pieter Jakobus Martins and Hester 
Catharina Cornelia van der Merwe. Her father 
owned a smallholding and supplied the village with 

Martins attended the village school and then the 
Graaff-Reinet Teachers’ Training College. She 
obtained her teaching diploma in 1918 and taught 
for approximately two years in Wakkerstroom. On 
7 January 1920 she married Willem Johannes Pie- 
naar in Nieu Bethesda. He was a teacher from 
Volksrust who also originated from the Nieu Bethesda district. They were 
divorced within two years. The details of her life and whereabouts during the 
next few years are unclear. A nephew maintains that she toured with the drama 
company of Paul de Groot* and took part in at least two performances, while 
some articles claim that she worked as a waitress in Cape Town and Port 
Elizabeth. However, before her thirtieth birthday she had returned to Nieu 
Bethesda to nurse her ailing mother. 

Upon her mother’s death she stayed with her father, an eccentric and 
demanding man. He moved into an outroom and they lived largely separate 
lives. By the time Martins was 50 years old, her father had also died. When 
she was about 60, she married a Mr J.J.M. Niemand, a pensioner and furniture 
restorer in the village. The marriage lasted only about three months. 

Middle-aged and living alone in the house that she inherited from her 
parents, she gradually conceived the idea of altering and ultimately transform- 
ing it. The project increasingly became the focus of her life. Living on a 
pension, she poured all her meagre funds into it. Although highly inventive in 
her use of discarded materials such as bottles, it was necessary to buy cement 
and wire for building her sculptures, paints and adhesives for the interior glass 
walls, as well as many expensive custom-made mirrors. She also had labourers’ 
wages to pay. This was her chief expense. Although possessed with an idea, 
she never felt capable of realizing it with her own hands. Her major hands-on 
contribution was the laborious crushing of the glass. Short of money, she 
neglected her physical needs to the extent that concerned neighbours began 
supplying her with plates of food. 

Martins grew increasingly reclusive, withdrawing into the private world of 

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her creation. She felt misunderstood, the focus of village gossip and ridicule. 
She continued working until her death in August 1976. Depressed, and with 
declining health and eyesight, she swallowed caustic soda, dying in the Graaff- 
Reinet hospital three days later. 

The Owl House, as her house became known, evolved through a number of 
distinct phases as Martins’s vision grew in momentum and complexity. She 
initially altered the interior of the house, installing large windows of coloured 
glass. Her obsession with light then found expression in the unique manner in 
which she coated the interior with glittering crushed glass, creating surfaces 
that are visually enticing but dangerous to touch. She placed numerous candles 
and lamps inside the house. It is chiefly at night, in the light of their flickering 
flames, that the glass particles sparkle in the reflected light. Mirrors on the 
walls reflect light and suggest new illusionistic vistas of space. Many of these 
mirrors have the symbolic shapes of sources of light: suns, moons and stars. 

The interior was crammed with symbolic objects. Significant motifs were 
repeated— the owl, mermaid, dressing table and Mona Lisa were among these. 
Many have their counterparts in the L-shaped sculpture garden that flanks two 
sides of the house. 

Martins called the half-acre garden ‘A Camel Yard’. Processions of cement 
camels, mostly about three-quarters life-size, form part of this dense sculptural 
world, teeming with pilgrims, people, birds and other creatures. A major motif 
was the spiritual quest for salvation and enlightenment. Martins's religious 
sources were eclectic. Biblical figures mingle with a Buddha, a meditating 
Hindu and shrines built from beer bottles that she called her ‘Meccas’. The 
Rubdiydt of Omar Khayydm was a source of inspiration, as was the Bible and 
the work of William Blake. The sculpture is a mixture of literal transcriptions 
of source material, and original imagery such as the fantastical beast, half- 
camel and half-owl. 

It is for the transformation of her home and garden that Martins is regarded 
as an outsider artist of vision and ability. Outside of the mainstream of artistic 
output or recognition, outsider art is usually made by artistically untrained 
individuals who do not see themselves as artists nor create with the intention of 
exhibiting or selling. Like Martins, they often transform their immediate 
domestic environment, frequently using readily available but unconventional 
materials such as Martins’s bottles. The work springs from an inner compul- 
sion, and often commences, as in Martins’s case, in the later half of life. It is 
sometimes also termed ‘raw art’ or ‘art brut’. 

The Owl House was a collaborative venture. Martins’s vision was chan- 
nelled through the workmanship of others: chief among these were a Mr 
Hattingh, Piet van der Merwe, Jonas Adams, and especially Koos Malgas who 
worked for her for twelve years as a sculpture builder. This artistic division of 
conceptualization and labour raises some interesting issues. It challenges 
notions of the autonomous creative artist. It also necessitates the teasing out of 
respective individual contributions in order to clarify the meaning and signifi- 
cance of the work, and attribute credit where it is due. 

The Owl House is a challenging art work which has raised numerous 
debates. Its archetypical nature has attracted a growing body of academic 


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research. One approach is to examine the work in relation to its mythological 
content and the artist’s manipulation of a personalized mythology; another is to 
view it against a framework of alchemical symbolism. 

The Owl House, now a museum, was bought by the Nieu Bethesda 
municipality from Martins’s nephew, Herman Martins. In 1989 it received 
provisional National Monument status. In January 1991 the Friends of the Owl 
House, a charitable fund-raising body, installed Koos Malgas as its restorer, 
thanks to generous sponsorship, thus ensuring the survival of Martins's vision 
in the short term. 

A play based on Helen Martins’s life story, The road to Mecca, was written 
by playwright Athol) Fugard. It has also been made into a film. 

Library of the Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria: Baptismal & Marriage 
Registers: Dutch Reformed Church of Nieu Bethesda; — Near miracles ... and he can’t even 
write. Cape Herald, 9 November 1974; — J. vosloo, Die rustigheid se laaste leplek. Foto- 
Rapport, 22 Junie 1975; — Obituary: Graaff-Reinet Advertiser, 9 & 12 August 1976; — s. 
SHAPIRO, The great work. Weekend Argus Magazine, 17 June 1978; — J. WARNER, Die 
Uilhuis van Nieu-Bethesda. Landbouweekblad , 60(48), 1 Desember 1978; — R. BARRETT, 
The enigma of the Owl House. South African garden and home, December 1979; — B. 
fairbrother, Miss Helen’s fantasies keep dorp alive. The Sunday Times, 28 March 1982; 
— B. DE villiers, Unieke glaspaleis gaan op film vasgele word. Graaff-Reinet Advertiser, 
7 October 1982; — c. DU plessis. Secrets of Owl House. Weekend Magazine: Supplement 
to Weekend Argus , 30 October 1982; — D. barritt. The crazy lady of Owl House. Scope, 
1 1 November 1983; — b.a. marks, Uses of visual mythology in contemporary South African 
art. M.A. thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, 1987; — B. MACLENNAN, The Owl 
House: Helen Martins’ extraordinary vision. ADA: art, design, architecture, (5), 1988; — 
D. barritt, Moon lady of the Owl House. People, 2(16), 17-30 August 1988; — R. greig, 
Helen’s Mecca. Fair Lady, 23(15), 9 November 1988; — A.L. EMSUE, The Owl House as 
it once was: the significance of the loss of the live birds and the element of water from the 
art environment. Honours essay. University of South Africa, 1989; — s. FORD, Assem- 
blages: a tribute to Helen Martins. South African arts calendar, 15(2), 1990; — B. marks 
paton, Helen Martins (1898-1976): the mythology of the moon and female principle. Art, 
(3), February 1989; — s. osborne. You see weird flights of fancy at the Owl House. 
Saturday Star Weekend, 11 March 1989; — J. CULLUM, Threat to weird Karoo statues. 
Weekend Post, 8 July 1989; — a. EMSUE, House of the stream. Living, August 1989; — S. 
osborne, The Owl House. Getaway, 2(3), June 1990; — N. STEYN, The weird and 
wonderful village of Nieu Bethesda. Weekend Mail, 20-26 July 1990; — a. oberholzer, 
Die lig en die lewe van die Uilvrou, Miss Helen van Nieu-Bethesda. Prisma, 6(7), 
September 1991; — The Owl House. Restorica, Summer 1991; — A.L. EMSLIE, The Owl 
House. London, 1991; — s.l. Ross, The Owl House at Nieu Bethesda. In: B. jones & J. 
cameron-dow (eds). Landmarks: an exploration of the South African mosaic. Sloane Park, 
1991; — p. winter, Owl woman’s world of dreams. You, 4 April 1991; — M. van biuon, 
The Owl House. South African arts calendar, 16(2), 1991; — S.l. ROSS, The Owl House. 
Raw vision. Winter 1991/92; — Nieu Bethesda preservation plan. Weekend Post, 15 
February 1992; — C. milton, ‘The stuff of dreams ...* Archetypal reflections on aspects of 
The Owl House. Mantis, 4(2), Summer 1992; — S.l. ROSS, Raw vision— the inner image, 
Helen Martins and the Owl House. Mantis, 4(2), Summer 1992; — S.L Ross, Raw 
vision— the inner image: an examination of the life of Helen Elizabeth Martins leading to her 
creation the Owl House and the Camel Yard as outsider art, followed by a study of the 
concept of outsider art with representative examples of other such singular creations in 
various parts of the world, namely India, Europe and Southern Africa. Uncompleted D.Phil. 
thesis. Rhodes University; — Private information: Mr Herman E. Martins (nephew, and 


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former cabinet minister), Pretoria. 

MATSEPE, Oliver Kgadime (Phukubjane) (*Magagamatala (Brakfontein or 

Mmitse), Groblersdal district, 22 March 1932— 
tTafelkop, Groblersdal district, 4 October 1974), 
Northern Sotho novelist, was the son of Malua Mat- 
sepe, senior police sergeant, and the grandson of 
Chief Bloeu of the Kopa tribe. 

Although Matsepe came from a non-Christian 
family, he was educated at mission schools. From 
1942 to 1949 he received his primary school educa- 
tion at Phokoane United Christian School at Nebo. 
In 1945, however, his schooling was interrupted to 
enable him to attend circumcision school. From 
1950 he attended another mission school, BotSha- 
belo High School, Middelburg, Transvaal. Here he 
was baptized and received full membership of the Lutheran Church, also at- 
tending confirmation classes at BotShabelo. In 1955 he matriculated at Kilner- 
ton Institution, a Methodist college in Pretoria. 

For most of his working life Matsepe was employed as clerk and court 
interpreter for the Department of Bantu Administration and Development. He 
served in Soekmekaar, Groblersdal, Potgietersrus and Nebo. For a short while 
he left this occupation to run a general dealer’s business, but soon returned to 
his old work (1972) because it gave him more time to concentrate on his 
writing, confirmed by the fact that he wrote five novels and four volumes of 
poetry during the last two years of his life. 

At school Matsepe was a voracious reader. The works of especially William 
Shakespeare, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens influenced and inspired him. 
However, he also read the works of other authors, including Afrikaans authors. 

Although Matsepe expressed a diverse number of views on life in his 
various works, it would seem that they all converged to form one solid philos- 
ophy: man must love, trust and adore the living God who is the Creator of the 
universe. Religion thus played an important role in almost all of Matsepe’s 
works. Evidently the three mission schools which Matsepe attended, gave his 
religious outlook a sound foundation. Nevertheless, his traditional upbringing 
remained part of the milieu from which he received inspiration. For Matsepe, 
the Christian and traditional religions were complementary. Just as the 
Christians believe that to communicate with God, we must go through our Lord 
Jesus Christ, Matsepe believed that the traditionalists communicate with God 
through the gods (ancestral spirits). 

His career as clerk and court interpreter proved to serve as a source of 
inspiration. Moving from one magistrate’s court to the other, the difference 
between the Western court and the traditional Kgoro seemed to have helped 
him to find an environment for his literary acumen. One of the most outstand- 
ing characteristics of his prose fiction is the inclusion of a diversity of court 


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cases. It will not be too presumptuous to say that these cases show how much 
influence his places of work had on him. Unwary readers of Matsepe regard 
these cases as irrelevant material which merely enlarged the size of his novels, 
but Matsepe introduced these cases in his novels to show the vicissitudes of 
life, not only in the community that he recreated, but in any society, traditional 
or modern; to emphasize the importance of justice in the welfare of any 
community; to preserve for posterity the fine legal procedures used by 
traditional communities, thus showing a close relationship between the king and 
his subjects; to serve as relief scenes in the course of the narrative; and as a 
vehicle of character delineation: diverse cases were brought before different 
neighbouring rulers in order to assess their sense of judgement and wisdom. 
Throughout his novels Matsepe concentrated on the theme rather than on the 
creation of lifelike characters. 

His writing career began at Kilnerton Institution when he wrote his first 
literary work Sebatakgomo (1954), which created great expectations among the 
Northern Sotho reading public. It was only his last three novels which reflected 
a downward trend, because the skilful handling of the plot, character and 
theme, which manifested in the previous works, appears to have diminished. 

Matsepe’s poetry can be divided into four thematic fields, namely praise 
poetry, nature and natural phenomena, social and moral patterns, and religion. 

In his short lifespan Matsepe wrote nine novels and six volumes of poetry. 
It is not only the quantity of literary matter that makes him stand head and 
shoulders above other Northern Sotho authors, but also the quality of his work. 
That Matsepe was, to a greater or lesser degree, an innovator, is quite evident. 
His dynamic recourse to traditional life and thought was not to leave Northern 
Sotho poetry unimpressed. If it did not dictate a new approach to poetry and to 
literature as a whole, it at least opened new vistas for exploration and exploita- 
tion. On reading several later poets such as H.M. Lentsoane and S.N. Tseke, 
one is struck by the unmistakable Matsepeism that pervades their works. It is 
clear that Matsepe’s poetry ushered in an era in which poetry freely drew 
substance and/or expression from traditional life. The same holds with his 
prose works. Holding to his traditional views, Matsepe still acknowledged the 
existence of God and Christian ethics. His works give the reader an insight into 
the religious, traditional, natural and social situations, and at the same time 
preserved the social and cultural heritage of the people. These works had a 
profound impact on later writers, so much so that most of them began to base 
their works on traditional life. Among such writers are P. Lebopa, P.D. 
Sekhukhune, J.R.L. Rafapa and J.M. Moswane. 

The Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African 
Academy for Arts and Science) twice awarded Matsepe the S.E. Mqhayi Prize. 
In 1964 he received it for Kgorong ya moSate (At the king’s court) (1962), 
which is sometimes called the first full-length novel in Northern Sotho, and in 
1973 for Meyokgo ya bjcko (Tears of the brain) (1969). 

Matsepe was humble and reserved, and a traditionalist who believed in 
polygamy. He had two wives— Maselo Magampa and Gobakwang Morare. 
From the first marriage one daughter and three sons were bom. No children 
were born from the second marriage. 



Aanmoedigingsprys aan Matsepe toegeken. Bantu , 11(7), 1964; — d. ziervogel, Samuel 
Edward Mqhayiprys vir Bantoeletterkunde, 1964, toegeken aan O.K. Matsepe. Jaarboek 
Ivan die / Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns. (Nuwe Reeks), (4), 1964; — 
j.hjahn. u. schild a a. nordman. Who's who in African literature. Tubigen, 1972; — P.s. 
GROENEWALD, Samuel Edward Mqhayi-prys vir Bantoe letterkunde 1973, toegeken aan 
Oliver Kgadime Matsepe. Jaarboek Ivan die I Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en 
Kuns, 1973; — m.m. maishane, Tribute to O.K. Matsepe on the day of his burial. 
Molebowa, 12 October 1974; — p.h.d. mashabela, Theme and expression in Matsepe ‘s 
poetry. M. A. thesis. University of the North, 1979; — s.M. serudu, Character delineation 
in some novels of O.K. Matsepe. M.A. thesis. University of South Africa, 1979; — p.s. 
groenewald. The literature in Northern Sotho, 1960-1982. South African journal of 
African languages, 3(1), 1983; — S.M. SERUDU, The Novels of O.K. Matsepe: a literary 
study. D.Litt. et Phil, thesis. University of South Africa, 1984; — s.M. serudu, O.K. 
Matsepe's worldviews: an appraisal. South African journal of African languages, 10(2), 

MATTHEWS, Zachariah Keodirelang (‘Winter’s Rush, Barkly West district, 

20 October 1901 — fWashington, United Stated of 
America (USA), 12 May 1968), academic, politician 
and ambassador, was one of the children of a for- 
mer miner and cafe owner, Peter Motsielwa Mat- 
thews, and his wife Martha Mooketsi. Matthews 
grew up in Kimberley and attended missionary 
schools there, as well as in the Eastern Cape. After 
he had matriculated at Lovedale Institution at Alice 
in the Eastern Cape, he enrolled at the South Afri- 
can Native College (University of Fort Hare) where 
degree courses of the University of South Africa 
were offered. In 1924 he became the first African to 
obtain the B.A. degree from the University of South 


In 1925 he was appointed as first African principal of Adams College 
(Amanzimtoti Zulu Training College) in Amanzimtoti, Natal. He joined the 
Natal Bantu Teachers’ Association and in due course became its president. 
Apart from this he was involved with the Durban Joint Council of Europeans 
and Bantu. In his spare time he studied law through a correspondence course 
and in 1930 became the first African to obtain the LL.B. degree from the Uni- 
versity of South Africa. Subsequently he was admitted to the bar of the Trans- 
vaal division of the Supreme Court, but did not join the legal profession 
because he wanted to improve his academic qualifications abroad. In 1932 he 
obtained a scholarship to study under C. Loram’s* programme of Studies in 
Race Relations and Culture Contact at the Yale University in the USA and in 
1934 obtained the M.A. degree. After that he did a postgraduate course in 
social anthropology at the London School of Economics in England. 

Matthews returned to South Africa in 1935, initially to Adams College, but 
in January 1936 became a lecturer in social anthropology and native law at the 
South African Native College at Fort Hare. Later that year he also became a 
member of the Royal Commission of Enquiry into Higher Education for Blacks 


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in British East Africa and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. In 1945 he was promoted to 
professor and head of the Department of African Studies at the college. In the 
same year he was appointed by the Minister of Education to serve as represen- 
tative of the Native Representative Council (NRC) on the Union Advisory 
Council on Native Education. Time and again he was asked to testify before 
commissions of enquiry. Apart from the above activities he served in the 
executive committee of the South African Institute for Race Relations for nine 
years until he resigned in 1945. He was also a member of the Ciskei Mission- 
ary Council. 

On his return Matthews embarked on fieldwork to establish the effects of 
modern social and economic life on the traditional African way of life and the 
integration between the old and the new. However, the increasing demands of 
his teaching and political commitments prevented him from continuing his 
academic research after the beginning of the 1940s. 

After his return to South Africa Matthews became increasingly involved 
with politics. He immediately took part in protest actions against the removal 
of male African voters in the Cape Province from the electoral roll. With 
D.D.T. Jabavu* and others he organized the All- African Convention (A AC) in 
Bloemfontein in December 1935 and was elected to the AAC executive 
committee. He also joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1940 and 
soon assumed a leading role. He was elected to the NRC in 1942 and played 
a leading role in the disagreement between the government and the NRC until 
1950 when he resigned in protest against government policy. He was elected to 
the national executive committee of the ANC in 1943 and in the same year 
served as chairperson of the Atlantic Charter Committee of the ANC which had 
to study and discuss problems arising out of the Atlantic Charter in so far as it 
related to Africa. (The charter had originally been drawn up by Great Britain 
and the USA in 1941 as a "blueprint for future peace and security" and 
emphasized the maintenance of human rights.) The committee had to draw up 
a statement on the charter "from the standpoint of the Africans within the 
Union of South Africa" (called the African Claims), and draft a Bill of Rights. 
Matthews became treasurer of the Cape provincial branch of the ANC and in 
1949 succeeded James Calata* as president of that branch. Despite severe 
criticism by the ANC Youth League (CYL) for his waiting too long to resign 
from the NRC, the CYL was almost unanimous in requesting him in 1949 to 
become their candidate for the ANC presidency, but he was not prepared to 
make himself eligible. In the same year he assisted with the writing of the 1949 
Programme of Action of the ANC. 

In 1952 Matthews was involved in the preparations for the Defiance 
Campaign. For the full duration of the campaign he was, however, abroad as 
visiting professor at the Union Theological Seminary in New York, USA, 
giving lectures on Christian missions in Africa. Shortly after his return to South 
Africa in May 1953 he proposed that a national convention of ail South 
Africans be held during which a peace manifesto should be drafted. His 
proposal was generally met with approval by the ANC and several other 
organizations, and resulted in the Congress of the People of June 1955 during 
which the Freedom Charter was approved. Matthews, however, neither 


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attended the congress nor took part in the drafting of the charter. During the 
first half of 1955 relations between the students at Fort Hare and the college 
authorities deteriorated to such an extent that a commission of inquiry was 
appointed to investigate all aspects of life on the campus. The situation 
remained tense for the rest of 1955. In December 1955 he became acting prin- 
cipal of Fort Hare— a position he previously held for six months in 1954. 
Although he had not attended the Congress of the People, he was arrested in 
December 1956 as one of the 156 accused in the Treason Trial which lasted 
until 1961. 

In April 1959 Matthews and 60 co-accused were provisionally acquitted. 
(He was finally acquitted in March 1961.) He returned to Fort Hare and also 
continued his activities as president of the Cape branch of the ANC. In 
September of that year the Department of Bantu Education took over the 
administration of the University College of Fort Hare. This meant that all 
personnel were now civil servants and would not be allowed to belong to any 
political party or organization. Rather than resign from the ANC Matthews 
resigned from his position on the academic staff. Furthermore, he protested 
against the exclusion of Africans from the so-called white universities and 
demanded free, compulsory and government-funded education for Africans. He 
claimed that the education of the Department of Bantu Education was worse 
than no education. 

Matthews then started practising as attorney in Alice, but was hampered by 
government action against him. During the state of emergency that followed the 
Sharpeville shootings in 1960 and which coincided with the banning of the 
ANC, Matthews was detained for six months. In December 1960 he was 
involved with the interchurch conference at Cottesloe in Johannesburg which 
was organized by the World Council of Churches (WCC). He figured 
prominently in his criticism against the government in South Africa. He blamed 
them for not consulting with the real leaders of the Africans, but only with 
those the government had chosen as leaders. In September 1961 he was 
appointed by the WCC as Africa secretary of the Division of Inter-Church Aid, 
Refugee and World Services. He left South Africa and worked from Geneva, 
Switzerland. He resigned from the WCC in 1966— having in 1965 already 
notified Sir Seretse Khama of Botswana of his intention to retire to 
Botswana— and was appointed as Botswana’s first ambassador to the USA and 
as envoy to the United Nations. 

Matthews received two honorary doctorates of law, one in 1961 from 
Rhodes University, Grahamstown, and the other posthumously from the Uni- 
versity of Lincoln in the USA. 

A prolific writer, he produced an autobiography, Freedom for my people 
(which includes a list of his articles and contributions), as well as a series of 
articles on prominent African figures which was published as ‘Our Heritage’ in 
Imvo Zabantsundu. He was a modest man who followed his political convic- 
tions to gain what he felt were vital objectives. His religious beliefs were deep 
and genuine though he did not speak of them frequently. Although he did not 
have the charisma, humour, and popular appeal other politicians had, Matthews 
remained a reserved but good listener who, in difficult situations, would 


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formulate a resolution which conflicting parties could accept. 

Matthews married Frieda Bokwe in 1928. She was the daughter of the 
missionary John K. Bokwe* and held a social sciences degree from the South 
African Native College. Two sons and three daughters were born of the 
marriage. Matthews died in Washington, USA, and was buried in Gaborone, 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — a. 
sampson, The treason cage: the opposition on trial in South Africa. London, 1958; — C.M. 
de villiers, Die African National Congress en sy aJaiwiteile aan die Witwatersrand, 
1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — Obituaries: In memory of Z.K. 
Matthews. Mayibuye, 2(20), 20 May 1968; The Cape Argus, 13 May 1968; The Cape Times, 
13 & 14 May 1968; The Rand Daily Mail, 13 May 1968; The Daily Dispatch, 13 May 1968; 
— P. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National 
Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope 
and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest 
to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. 
Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds). From 
protest to challenge: a dtKumeniary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 
4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — Z.K. Matthews, Freedom for my 
people. Cape Town, 1981; — T. LODGE, Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannes- 
burg, 1983; — c. kros, "Deep rumblings": ZK Matthews and African education before 
1955. Perspectives in education, 12(1), 1990; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in 
history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

MAXEKE, Charlotte Makgomo (’"Fort Beaufort, Cape Colony, 7 April 

1874 — "("Johannesburg, 16 October 1939), teacher, 
social worker, politician and founder of the Bantu 
Women’s League of South Africa. The sources 
concerning her life contain a considerable number of 
discrepancies. Her maiden name was Manye. She 
grew up in a Christian milieu and received mis- 
sionary education in the Eastern Cape. She qualified 
as a teacher and went to teach in Kimberley. There 
she joined a choir that went on two overseas tours. 
The first was to the British Isles and the second to 
Canada and the United States of America (USA). 
While they were in New York Maxeke left the choir 
to enrol at the Wilberforce University in Cleveland, 
Ohio. This was an institute of the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
(AMEC), directed by Afro-Americans. There she acquired a B.A. degree 
(some sources contend a B.Sc. degree), the first African woman from South 
Africa to receive a baccalaureate degree. 

At Wilberforce Maxeke came under the influence of the AMEC and 
effected contact between that church and the founder of the Ethiopian Church 
in South Africa, Rev. M.M. Mokone. This led to the founding of the AMEC 
in South Africa. This episode in Maxeke’s life later earned her the unofficial 


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title of ‘Mother of the AMEC in South Africa’. 

Maxeke returned to South Africa in the service of the AMEC in 1901 or 
1905. In Johannesburg she became the organizer of the Women’s Mite 
Missionary Society. After that she went to the Pietersburg district where she 
became a teacher-evangelist. It was apparently there that she married Rev. 
M.M. Maxeke who was also a graduate of the Wilberforce University and a 
minister of the AMEC. (They probably married in 1903, though some sources 
contend that they married earlier.) The training college that they established in 
the Pietersburg district was not a success— presumably, as Skota (infra) argues, 
because "the standard of African education was very low". After they re- 
established the college at Evaton on the Witwatersrand it flourished as the well- 
known Wilberforce Institute. The Maxekes subsequently served as evangelist- 
teachers in Klerksdorp and then in Transkei. Their attempt to establish a 
training college in Transkei, however, was unsuccessful due to a lack of funds. 
The Maxekes returned to Johannesburg where they settled permanently. 

She remained active in missionary work and the AMEC elected her as 
president of the Women’s Missionary Society. In 1928 she attended a confer- 
ence of the AMEC in the USA. Maxeke became increasingly interested in the 
welfare of Africans and did welfare work on various levels. She was appointed 
as parole officer for juvenile delinquents in Johannesburg, the first African 
woman to obtain such an appointment. Maxeke also managed an employment 
agency for African women in Johannesburg. 

Maxeke was sporadically involved in multiracial activities. In 1921 she 
addressed the Women’s Reform Club of Pretoria, a white women’s organiz- 
ation that campaigned especially for voting rights for women. Later during the 
1920s she joined the Joint Council of Europeans and Bantu. She was apparently 
very pleased with the movement because in 1930 she suggested that similar 
‘Joint Service Boards’ between white and black women should be formed. 
Nothing came of it. By 1930 she had apparently retired, but she still acted as 
speaker, inter alia at the Conference of European and Bantu Christian Student 
Associations held at Fort Hare from 27 June to 3 July that year. On this 
occasion she delivered an address on the social conditions among African 
women and girls. 

Maxeke was known country-wide for her political activities. In 1918 she 
was the driving force behind the establishment of the Bantu Women’s League 
of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC, African National 
Congress (ANC) after 1923). As president of the Women’s League she led a 
delegation to Prime Minister Louis Botha* in 1918 to discuss the question of 
passes for women as proposed in an amendment of the pass laws. In 1919 she 
was prominent as leader of the women who demonstrated against the proposed 
amendments to the pass laws. The following year (1920) she gave evidence 
before the Inter-Departmental Committee of Enquiry into Passes. 

In June 1918 Maxeke was also involved in the upsurge of dissatisfaction 
amongst African workers on the Witwatersrand about their low wages. In 1920 
she was active in establishing the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union 
(ICU). In December 1935 the Bantu Women’s League, of which Maxeke was 
still president, was the only women’s organization invited to the first meeting 


of the All-African Convention (AAC) in Bloemfontein. Moreover, Maxeke was 
invited to be one of the speakers at the convention. During the AAC the 
women of various centres decided to join forces and formed the National 
Council of African Women. Maxeke was elected as first national president. 

Even before her death Maxeke was honoured as ‘Mother of Black Freedom 
in South Africa*. After her death she was lauded in reports, especially by the 
ANC. A nursery school at the ANC teaching centre in Tanzania was also 
named after her: the Charlotte Maxeke Children’s Centre. 

A son was born of her marriage to Marshall Maxeke. Her husband and her 
son predeceased her. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — G.A. 
GOLLOCK, Daughters of Africa. London, 1932; — Obituary: The Star, 20 October 1939; — 
T.D.M. skota (ed.). The African who’s who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — P. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National 
Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. I. Protest 
and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 1972; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds). From protest to 
challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope 
and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest 
to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. 
Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — M. benson. South Africa: the struggle for 
a birthright. London, 1985; — C. walker, Women and resistance in South Africa. 2nd ed. 
Cape Town, 1991 ; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991 . 

MBELLE, Horatio Isaiah Budlwana (Bud) (*Burgersdorp, Cape Colony, 24 

June 1870— fPretoria, 16 July 1947), interpreter, 
insurance agent, community leader, and politician. 
He grew up in the Herschel district in the Eastern 
Cape where Sotho and Nguni languages were 
spoken. He was educated at the Wesleyan Methodist 
Primary School and from 1886 to 1888 at Heald- 
town Institution, a Methodist boarding school near 
Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape, where he qual- 
ified as a teacher. For the next five years Mbelle 
taught at Herschel and Colesberg. In the meantime 
he continued studying and in 1892 became the first 
African to pass the Cape Civil Service Examination, 
passing Afrikaans, English, Sotho, Tswana, Xhosa 

Mbelle then became a court interpreter. His first position was at the 
Supreme Court at Grahamstown. In 1894 Mbelle became the interpreter for 
African languages at the Supreme Court of Griqualand West at Kimberley— a 
post which he held for more than 20 years. On occasion he also had to 
interpret for dignitaries such as the Earl of Athlone* and his wife, Princess 
Alice*, S.C. Buxton* (first Earl of Buxton), and even for the Prince of Wales 
during his visit in 1925. 


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In Kimberley Mbelle settled in the Malay camp, a multiracial township 
where he quickly played a leading role in community life. The upliftment of his 
fellow Africans was especially close to his heart. He was involved in the 
establishment of schools for Africans in Griqualand West and served on the 
school committee of Lyndhurst Road School in Kimberley for many years. In 
addition he was one of the members of a promotion scheme which strove for 
the creation of a university college for Africans. This eventually led to the 
establishment of the University of Fort Hare. 

Mbelle was a founder member of the South Africans’ Improvement Society 
and of the Kimberley branch of the Young Men’s Christian Association. He 
became known for the furtherance of music among African people and was a 
founder member and for many years director of the Philharmonic Society of 
the North-Western Cape. As a faithful churchgoer he became a circuit steward 
in the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Kimberley. Lastly he was a talented 
rugby and cricket player and he took the lead in the local African community 
sports activities. 

When Mbelle’s post as court interpreter was abolished at the end of 1915, 
he raised objections to this, but to no avail. Consequently he moved to Johan- 
nesburg where he became an insurance agent. 

Seen against the background of the many fields in which Mbelle played a 
role in Kimberley it is understandable that he would become involved in 
politics in due course. While in Kimberley he joined the South African Native 
National Congress (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) after 1923) and 
after moving to Johannesburg he became increasingly active and well known in 
politics. In 1917 he became general secretary of the SANNC. In this capacity 
he helped to articulate the grievances of his fellow Africans against discrimina- 
tory measures, even though he could be considered conservative and moderate 
in his actions. In 1919 he resigned his position in the SANNC as a result of its 
internal differences, inter alia about the delegation which was sent to Britain in 
1919 to protest against the colour bar in South Africa. Simultaneously Mbelle 
resigned as insurance agent, and returned to the civil service as interpreter at 
the head office of the Department of Native Affairs in Pretoria. He remained 
there until his retirement. 

In Pretoria he settled in the so-called Cape Location (Marabastad), where 
he quickly played a leading role in the local church, social and political life. 
He was a member of the Pretoria branch of the Joint Council of Europeans and 
Bantu and a founder member of the Pretoria Advisory Council for African 
affairs. In 1935 he was one of the speakers at the All-African Convention 
(A AC). 

Mbelle was a well-read and well-travelled person. He was the author of the 
Xhosa scholar's companion and took a great interest in the education of 
Africans. He was widely regarded as the best court interpreter of his day. 

He married Maria Johanna Smouse in 1897. Three daughters were born of 
the marriage; the eldest daughter was married to R.W. Msimang. Mbelle was 
a lifelong friend of Solomon T. Plaatje* who was married to his sister. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Mbelle collection; — 


Obituary: The Star, 21 July 1947; — griff, A short review of Bud Mbelle's life story. Imvo 
Zahantsundu, 16 & 23 August 1947; — Z.K. Matthews, Isaiah Bud-M’belle: a distinguished 
civil servant. (Our heritage series). Imvo Zahantsundu , 23 September 1961 ; — t.d.m. skota 
(ed.). The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national biographical 
dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — 
T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa. 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — P. 
walshe, The rise of African nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 
1912-1952. London, 1970; — B. willan, Sol Plaatje: a biography. Johannesburg, 1984. 

MENTZ, Esther Susanna (*Edenville, Orange Free State, 8 January 1911— 

tLafayette, Louisiana, United States of America 
(USA), 19 November 1986), soprano, stage and 
film actress, was the youngest of the eight child- 
ren— four sons and four daughters— of Thomas Igna- 
tius Mentz and his wife Maria Thalita Kumi Wes- 

After matriculating in Edenville, Mentz studied 
at the Conservatoire of Music at the University of 
Stellenbosch from 1929 to 1931, where she received 
singing instruction from Margaret Wandelt and took 
courses in pianoforte, organ and elocution. She ob- 
tained the University Licentiate in Music diploma in 
singing and the Licentiate of the College of Music 
elocution teachers’ diploma. In 1930 she made Afrikaans records for music 
companies and until 1934 she taught singing and was church organist in 
Franschhoek and Cape Town. 

From 1934 to 1937 Mentz studied singing and acting in Germany under the 
famous Berlin tutor Prof. Ernst Grenzebach. During her stay in Europe she 
often broadcast from Berlin, Hamburg, London and Brussels, often directly to 
South Africa. 

Multitalented with a beautiful voice and imposing stage personality, she was 
a pioneer in various cultural fields after her return to South Africa. She was 
also music critic for Die Vaderland. 

During the Johannesburg opera season of 1941 she made her debut as 
Micaela in Carmen under director John Connell*. Five years later she sang the 
title role in the same opera with great success during the first staging of this 
work in Afrikaans. The opera was translated by her husband Gideon Roos. In 
the first Afrikaans performance of Tales of Hoffmann she sang the roles of 
Giulietta and Antonia. She also sang Venus in Tannhduser, as well as title roles 
in several operettas such as The waltz dream, The merry widow and Gypsy 

Mentz was actively involved in several organizations that promoted interest 
in opera and the development of opera. She was a founder member of 
Alessandro (Alexander) Rota’s National Opera Association and remained a 
member until it was replaced by the Performing Arts Council of Transvaal 
(PACT). She then became a member of PACT’S Opera Committee. She was 


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also a member of the executive committee of the Johannesburg Music Society. 

As a sought after concert singer she performed in large centres as well as 
country towns. She had a preference for lieder and performed Afrikaans 
compositions locally and overseas. She discovered the talent of Emma Renzi 
(Emmerentia Scheepers) and gave her her first singing instruction. 

Mentz was an important pioneer of Afrikaans films. She was a star, with 
Gideon Roos and Jan Schutte, in the first film version of an Afrikaans novel, 
C.J. Langenhoven’s* Donker spore. This was followed by Pinkie se erfenis 
(1946), ’n Plan is 'n boerdery (1954), Vadertjie Lang been (1954), Mat ie land 
(1955) and Piet se tante (1959). In the theatre she excelled in amongst others 
Die kerkmuis, Eindeksamen and the comedy Nie vir geleerdes nie, which N.P. 
van Wyk Louw* wrote specially for the Union Festival of 1960. 

On 8 January 1938 Mentz married Gideon Daniel Roos, head of the South 
African Broadcasting Corporation. Two sons and a daughter were born of the 
marriage. She died while visiting her daughter in the USA. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 4113/87; — Dutch Reformed Church 
Archives, Bloemfontein: Copies of baptismal registers, Kroonstad, 191 1; — w.h.k., The arts 
in South Africa. Durban, [1934]; — Danza en Esther Mentz in Selbome-saal. Die 
Vaderland, 7 Februarie 1957; — Hoe standaard van die stad se fees steek nog vars in die 
geheue. Die Transvaler, 8 Februarie 1957; — a.p. SMrr, Gedenk-album van die Mentz- 
geslag, 1749-1949. [Stellenbosch, 1952?]; — SA sangers oorsee maak a) hoe beter 
vordering. Die Transvaler, 22 November 1963; — J.P. Malan (ed.), South African music 
encyclopedia, 3. Cape Town, 1984; — Obituaries: The Citizen, 26 November 1986; Bee Id, 
27 November 1986; — H. viuoen, Esther Mentz. (South African singers, no. 20). Scenario, 
(76), May 1987; — SJ.C. wessels, Die nageslag van Johannes Wessels. Pretoria, 1993. 

MOILOA II (Moilwa) (*Kaditshwene, in the present-day Marico district, 

c.1795— tDinokana, in the Zeerust district, 6 July 
1875), chief of the Moiloa clan of the Hurutshe 
from 1846 to 1875. He was a junior son of the third 
hut of the acting Chief Sebogodi I who was killed in 
a fight with the Ngwaketse in 1814 or 1815. After 
Sebogodi’s death Moiloa’s uncles succeeded as 
acting chiefs, first Diutlwileng until he died in 
1823, and after that Mokgathle until his death in 
1845. However, Moiloa had already been playing a 
leading role in tribal affairs since about 1840. 

The Rev. John Campbell* met Moiloa in 1820, 
describing him as "tall and well shaped, of a mild 
countenance, and about twenty-five years of age”. 
His "popularity", Campbell believed, would lead to his becoming chief though 
his senior brother of the second hut, Motlaadile, would have been next in 
succession after the rightful issue of the great wife, namely MenwS and his two 
sons Lentswe* and Gopane. 

In 1823 or 1824, two years after Campbell’s visit, the Hurutshe were driven 
away from their homeland in the Marico district and their twin capital was 



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destroyed during the raid of Sebetwane* (Sebetoana), victims of the difaqane. 
Although the Hurutshe were scattered, the majority moved to Mosega (a 
mission station southwest of Zeerust) with Mokgathle and Moiloa. However, 
in 1831 they were again driven out by Mzilikazi’s* Matabele, and for a period 
of three months fled further south to Modimong in the Taung district. In 1837 
the Voortrekker leader Andries Potgieter* requested the Hurutshe to help him 
in a retaliatory raid against the Matabele occupying the Marico. They con- 
sented and Moiloa led a contingent of 300 men. The Voortrekkers, being 
ignorant of the customary law of succession, therefore treated Moiloa as chief 
of the tribe. This contributed to the subsequent split between the heirs Mfinwe 
and his two sons Lentswe and Gopane, and Moiloa and his followers. 

Campbell’s prediction then proved true, for in 1846 Moiloa wrested the 
chieftainship from his brother (Mokgathle) and the sons of his uncle (Lentswe 
and Gopane). In 1874 he led the Hurutshe back to their region of origin. To do 
that he had to negotiate with the Voortrekker leader Andries Potgieter, who by 
then effectively controlled the western highveld area. 

Moiloa next set about restoring the political, economic and social founda- 
tions of the Hurutshe. He was allowed to occupy a location of 125 587 morgen 
(approximately 107 544 hectares). His capital at Dinokana (northwest of 
Zeerust) was blessed with a plentiful supply of water from large fountains. As 
vassals of the Transvaal Republic (before and after the Transvaal War of 
Independence of 1880-1881) Moiloa’s Hurutshe had to render tribute and 
labour to the Transvaal government. They also had to assist in military 
expeditions against Tswana communities living to the west. The first decade 
under white authority thus proved to be extremely difficult, and came to a head 
when a Boer commando raided the Kgatla (Khatla), Ngwaketse and Rolong, 
partly to force them to pay their levies to the Transvaal government. In 
addition the Transvaal government expelled the missionaries of the London 
Missionary Society, who on Moiloa's invitation had established a station among 
the Hurutshe. During the conflict Moiloa and his followers abandoned their 
location and fled to the west in August 1 852 to join the Ngwaketse, living at 
Lobatse in the present-day Botswana. In January 1853 J.W. (Jan) Viljoen* met 
Moiloa who explained to Viljoen that he, Moiloa, was considered a traitor 
because he was living among whites. He nevertheless reaffirmed his goodwill 
towards the Transvaal Republic. Though he would not promise to render labour 
to the white farmers, he undertook to see to it that his people help the farmers 
on condition that the Transvaal Republic refrained from acting as aggressor. 

Due partly to Moiloa's astute leadership the Hurutshe slowly asserted their 
independence from the Transvaal Republic. The Boers came to depend on 
Moiloa for labour, for access to hunting grounds to the northwest, for 
information regarding political affairs in the region and for protection against 
raids by Tswana tribes. Moiloa turned this dependence to his advantage: he 
secured a personal assurance from M.W. Pretorius*, president of the Transvaal 
Republic, that no land would be taken away from the Hurutshe; he negotiated 
with the authorities to have the compulsory labour system replaced with a less 
exacting direct tax; he asked for, and was granted, permission to allow 
missionaries of the Hermannsburg Missionary Society to settle among his 

people; and he established sounder relations with his Tswana neighbours, the 
Kwena and Ngwaketse. 

Moiloa was active also in reviving the economy of the Hurutshe. Productive 
growth was founded on irrigation, the introduction of new crops such as citrus, 
tobacco and wheat, and an increase in cattle holdings. In 1875 Moiloa’s people 
produced 1 600 lbs (about 727 kg) of wheat. Hunting was a common activity 
and products such as skins and ostrich feathers were traded in Dinokana which 
became an important trade centre. 

Moiloa also reconstructed Hurutshe social life. He reinstated initiation 
schools, allowed rainmakers to practise their skills, and he formed six new 
regiments during his rule. Though he did not convert to Christianity he allowed 
others to do so and never hindered the activities of the missionaries. The mis- 
sionary Thomas Jensen described him as "an excellent man, not only as a ruler 
but also in the way he aids the spread of Christianity”. This conciliatory policy 
towards both ‘traditionalists’ and Christians brought peace to his community. 

Moiloa became ill in July 1875. However, he refused to accept conversion 
despite the entreaties of his missionaries. Nevertheless, in a typical gesture of 
compromise he gave instructions to be laid in a coffin and not to be buried in 
the customary sitting position. He refused to nominate an heir, probably 
because he was theoretically only a regent. After his death his people divided, 
some supporting his son Sebogodi II, and others supporting Gopane, the son of 
Mokgathle. The latter faction moved away to Manoane some 20 km to the 

Moiloa reconstituted his people during a very troubled period by following 
an astute policy of compromise and negotiation. However, when circumstances 
allowed, he often resisted and challenged the authority of the Transvaal Repub- 
lic. Through shrewd political action he gained a measure of political inde- 
pendence and laid the material foundation of the Hurutshe people. 

He had seven wives and several children. 

J. CAMPBELL, Travels in South Africa ..., 1. London, 1822; — P.L. BREt/rz, The tribes of the 
Marico district. Pretoria, 1953. (Department of Native Affairs. Ethnological publications, 
no. 30); — I. schapera. The early history of the Khurutshe [sic]. Botswana notes and 
records, 2, 1969; — P.L. breutz, A history of the Botswana and origin of Bophuthatswana. 
Ramsgate, 1989; — A.H. mason. The Hurutshe in the Marico district of the Transvaal, 
1848-1914. Ph.D. thesis. University of Cape Town, 1990. 

MOLEMA, Seetsele Modiri (Silas Moliri) (*Mafeking (Mafikeng), c. 
February 1891— fMafeking, 13 August 1965), medical doctor, politician and 
author. He was the eldest son of Chief Silas Thelesho Molema of the Rolong, 
a Tswana tribe, and his first wife Molalanyana (Mamhula). Molema received 
his education in the Eastern Cape at Healdtown Institution, a Methodist 
boarding school near Fort Beaufort, and at Lovedale Institution at Alice where 
he matriculated. He then taught at Lyndhurst Road Public School in Kimberley. 
Shortly after the outbreak of World War I (1914-1918) his parents sent him to 
the University of Glasgow in Scotland where he qualified as medical doctor in 
1919. While he was there he also wrote and published an important historical 



and ethnographical work, The Bantu: past and 
present (Edinburgh, 1920). Having completed his 
studies he worked in Glasgow and Edinburgh for a 
time before returning to Mafeking in 1921. 

Molema wanted to take part in effecting the 
upliftment and wellbeing of Africans, inter alia 
through the training of as many African nurses as 
possible in order to provide medical care for the 
relatively large African population. On his return to 
South Africa he built up a very successful medical 
practice in Mafeking, with many of his patients 
coming from the white community— a fact that probably influenced his initial 
moderate political viewpoint. The first surgery he opened was for Indians and 
coloureds. Subsequently he opened a nursing home for all races but due to 
financial difficulties had to close it down. He also opened a branch of his 
practice in Johannesburg, but after a time handed this over to his brother who 
was also a doctor. 

Because Mafeking is far to the north, it was difficult for Molema to play an 
active role in political activities outside his immediate environment. Neverthe- 
less, he did not stay totally in the background. Having joined the African Na- 
tional Congress (ANC) shortly after his return from Scotland, he was already 
in 1925 the director of its Department of Research in African Science. It was, 
however, specifically the general African dissatisfaction with the so-called 
J.B.M. Hertzog* Draft Bills that caused him to become politically active. (The 
Natives’ Trust and Land Bill affected ownership of land outside the reserves 
and the Representation of Natives Bill dealt with the question of the removal of 
the Cape black voters from the common voters’ roll.) In opposition to 
Hertzog’s legislation, the All-African Convention (AAC) was formed in 1935 
and in December Molema attended its first meeting in Bloemfontein. He was 
also a member of the delegation which conveyed to the government the attitude 
of Africans regarding the draft bills. 

The increased political activity changed his original cautious and moderate 
stance. After his colleague Dr A.B. Xuma* had been chosen as president- 
general of the ANC, Molema became progressively involved with the ANC’s 
activities and took part in its reorganization. In 1943 he was a member of the 
Atlantic Charter Committee of the ANC which had to study and discuss 
problems arising out of the Atlantic Charter in so far as it related to Africa. 
(The charter had originally been drawn up by Great Britain and the United 
States of America in 1941 as a "blueprint for future peace and security" and 
emphasized the maintenance of human rights.) The committee had to draw up 
a statement on the charter "from the standpoint of the Africans within the 
Union of South Africa” (called the African Claims), and draft a Bill of Rights. 
However, Molema also openly criticized the administrative and financial laxity 
within the ANC. In a memorandum which he wrote in 1943, he contended that 
at that time the ANC compared very badly with the organization 30 years 
earlier. Furthermore, he was exceptionally critical of the arrangements of ANC 
meetings, including those for the national annual congresses. 


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In December 1949 Molema was elected treasurer-general of the ANC and 
re-elected in December 1952. During the 1949 annual congress he took part in 
the finalization of the Programme of Action. As treasurer-general he also 
served as director of the Liberation Fund which had to collect funds for the 
campaign on 26 June 1950 — National Day of Protest and Mourning. Molema 
himself donated £253 to the fund. 

In January 1952 he opened the conference of the South African Indian 
Congress and was bitter in his criticism of the treatment of all blacks in South 
Africa, and called for unity among blacks. During the Defiance Campaign later 
in the same year Molema was one of those arrested. However, he was not 
brought to trial and some sources contend that it could be attributed to his 
earlier moderate and conciliatory attitude. Nonetheless, in 1953 the government 
served him with banning orders, which brought Molema’s political career in 
South Africa to an end. 

Molema continued to live in Mafeking. Though no longer politically active, 
as a leader of the Rolong on either side of the South African border, he still 
played a role in the government of Bechuanaland (Botswana). Amongst others 
he served on the constitutional committee which helped put that country on the 
road to independence. 

Evaluations of Molema tend to be very critical. Some historians described 
him as "staid" and moderate, and that "... he was uninterested in, if not 
ignorant of ideologies". His successors were sometimes equally critical: A. 
Letele* who was appointed as treasurer-general of the ANC in 1955 "... found 
... Molema’s [accounts] in a terrible state”. Nevertheless, Molema made an 
important contribution to the formulation and implementation of new strategies 
to thwart government policies, especially at the time of the revival of the ANC 
in the 1940s. 

Besides his book already mentioned, Molema was the author of two books 
of a biographical nature: Chief Moroka (1951) and Montshiwa, 1815-1896: 
Barolong chief and patriot (1966). He also wrote a number of pamphlets. 
Before his death he was preparing the manuscript of the life and work of 
Solomon T. Plaatje*. He was an active churchgoer and a prominent member of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church. He was fond of music and he took part in 
choir performances. Although he was relatively well off, he maintained a 
modest lifestyle. 

Molema married Anna Moshoela in 1927. No children were born of this 
marriage. His second wife was Lucretia. The couple adopted a boy and a girl. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Kimberley: Estate no. 585/65; Library of the University of 
the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African 
who's who: an illustrated classified register and national biographical dictionary of the 
Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — c.M. de villiers. 
Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. 
thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — Obituary: The Star, 13 August 1965; — m. 
Jacobson (comp.). The Silas T. Molema and Solomon T. Plaatje papers. Johannesburg, 
1978. (Historical and literary papers: Inventories of collections); — T. Karis & G.M. carter 
(cds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 


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2nd ed. London, 1991. 

MOLETSANE, Abraham Makgothi (Molitsane, Makhothi) (*Maloti 'a 

Mohale, c.1788— tMakwais (Maboloka) Mountain 
near Mafeteng, Basutoland (Lesotho), 2 October 
1885), a chief of the Taung, was the fourth son of 
Mophethe, chief of the third family of the second 
branch of the Taung, and Molihamme. Molihamme 
apparently left her husband’s village, Motloang- 
tloang (Matloangtloang), near the Sand River in the 
Orange Free State (OFS) to avoid any mishaps 
during her pregnancy and went to Maloti ’a Mohale. 
Sources, however, are not clear about the exact 
location of Maloti 'a Mohale. In infancy Moletsane 
was sent to an outlying cattle post to be reared by 
the San herders of his father who presented him 
with a girdle ( moletsane ). Thus he came to be called ‘Moletsane’ instead of 
‘Makgothi’, his birth name. He was circumcised at Motloangtloang in 1803. 

Moletsane married Mpai Mamoretlo, the daughter of Mokhele (also called 
Rampai) who was the chief of the second family of the second branch of the 
Taung, and the cousin of Mophete. When Mokhele could not control his sons 
and enemies, he requested Moletsane to come to his assistance. With the 
permission of Mophete, Moletsane took over the leadership of Mokhele’s clan 
and punished Mokhele’s sons and enemies. 

Moletsane’s next step was the unification of the tribe. He brought all the 
smaller clans that had broken away, back into the tribe. A clan of independent 
San was also subjected. As a result of his successful actions against the 
different clans and an increase in power, Moletsane gained recognition and 
considerable influence at Motloangtloang. 

In 1822, during the difaqane, the Tldkwa (Tlokoa) of Mmanthatisi* 
(Manthatise or Mantatisi) who were living in and around the valley of the 
Wilge River in the OFS, were attacked by the Hlubi from across the Drakens- 
berg who were fleeing before a stronger tribe. The Tlfikwa, in turn, fell upon 
weaker tribes in the same area. By 1823 the Taung under Moletsane had fled 
before the Tldkwa to a place close to what is now Winburg in the OFS. 
However, Moletsane and his followers were forced to retreat over the Vaal 
River to the Molopo River where they hoped to find refuge with the Hurutshe 
tribe. The latter were, however, hostile because of recent attacks by Sefundld* 
(Sehunelo, Sifunelo or Sifinela), chief of the Seleka clan of the Rolong. This 
hostility resulted in a series of wars against them in which Moletsane’s Taung 
almost annihilated them. Subsequently Sebetwane* (Sebetoane or Sebitwane), 
chief of the Patsa (Patswa) clan of the Fokeng tribe and married to a sister of 
Moletsane’s wife Makhitsane, joined Moletsane. Together they attacked the 
Matabele under Mzilikazi*, as well as the Rolong. After the attack Moletsane 
and Sebetwane parted, Moletsane moving southwards across the Vaal River. 
On the way he was joined by many deserters and refugees. Fearing Mole- 


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tsane’s increasing power, Sefunelo attacked Moletsane who launched a counter- 
attack that destroyed the Wesleyan mission station at Matlwase (Makwassie) in 
April 1824. Sefunelo fled to the north and when Moletsane pursued him, he 
requested Griqua horsemen under Barend Barends* to help him. This led to the 
so-called Battle of the Chiefs in August 1824, in which both SefunSld’s brother 
and Moletsane’s father were killed. Many of the women were captured and 
maltreated, including Mpai Mamoretlo, Moletsane’s wife. Many Taung cattle 
were also captured. After the battle all parties left the area, the Taung moving 
back over the Vaal River. 

Moletsane’s previous military successes can be attributed to the Nguni 
fighting tactics and the short spear which his warriors used, but which were 
unknown to the Sotho. During the battle against the Barends contingent who 
were mounted and used guns, Moletsane had little chance of success. 

The mistrust and hostility between Sefunfilo and Moletsane continued for the 
next few years, Sefunelo requesting the Bergenaars on one occasion to help 
him against the Taung. 

In 1827 Moletsane went to live south of the Vaal River and from there led 
several raids on Mzilikazi. The following year he attempted to subjugate 
Mzilikazi with the help of Jan Bloem Jr*. However, they were defeated and 
Moletsane had to retreat even further southwards to escape the Matabele’s 
revenge. In 1829 he was defeated by the Matabele near what is today Brand- 
fort. Moletsane and some of his subjects escaped and sought refuge with Adam 
Kok II* in Philippolis, a mission station situated north of the Orange River. 
(There are, however, also indications that Griqua were responsible for destroy- 
ing Moletsane, stealing all the Taung cattle and forcing them to seek shelter 
with Kok.) The remainder of the Taung settled near a French missionary 
station Mekoatleng (near Clocolan), with the permission of Moshoeshoe I*. 

In 1836 Samuel Rolland* gave Moletsane and about 150 of his followers 
permission to live on the mission station Beersheba (north of Smithfield and 
south of Wilgebosch Spruit on the Caledon River). A year later Moletsane 
moved to Mekoatleng to reunite with his followers who had settled there, as 
well as those who were still across the Orange or Vaal rivers, and eventually 
migrated back to the old Taung territory at the Sand River. However, the 
whites who had moved into the area prevented him from settling there. He 
therefore remained at Mekoatleng, with the permission of Moshoeshoe. 

Moletsane became an ally of Moshoeshoe and played an important role as 
confidant and mainstay in the land conflict with the whites that followed. He 
seems to have retained freedom in his internal affairs but co-operated with 
Moshoeshoe in matters of foreign policy, such as the action taken by Moshoe- 
shoe against Sekonyela*. In 1851 Moletsane defeated the British forces under 
Maj. T. Donovan at Viervoet (Kononyana), He fought against the Boers at, 
amongst others, Mabolela in 1865, and carried out several attacks in the 
Winburg district before and during the Second Basuto War (1865-1866). 
According to the peace treaty signed after the latter war, Moletsane and his 
followers, as all the tribes, were supposed to move beyond the new boundaries. 
Moletsane, however, ignored this stipulation and remained at Mekoatleng. The 
increasing frustration experienced by the whites came to a head when a few of 


Moletsane’s followers killed two OFS burghers in what is today the Ladybrand 
district in about June 1867. When Moshoeshoe refused to extradite the guilty 
men, the Boers attacked. This started the Third Basuto War (1867-1868). 
Moletsane, however, surrendered in September 1867 and swore allegiance to 
the OFS. In February 1869 he was one of Moshoeshoe’s representatives at the 
Convention of Aliwal North where land disputes were discussed. Moletsane 
requested that the land he occupied around Mekoatieng be incorporated in 
Moshoeshoe’s territory. His request was ignored. Instead, he was informed that 
Mekoatieng and three other French missionary stations would be closed down, 
which forced him and his followers to move to Basutoland south of where 
Mafeteng now stands. He objected to being moved to Makwais (Maboloka) 
Mountain in Basutoland, but eventually agreed to settle there. During the Gun 
War (1880-1881)— a campaign which followed the refusal of the Basuto to 
surrender their arms — he sided with the ‘rebels’ who refused to hand in their 

Despite Moletsane’s initial threats to attack the Rolong and his breach of 
promises to the missionaries not to attack the Rolong, and despite the destruc- 
tion of the Wesleyan mission stations such as Matlwase (Makwassie), Mparane 
and Umpukane, Moletsane did finally become a Christian and was baptized in 

1870— it is probably at this time that he received the name Abraham. 

Moletsane was described as tall and of a light brown complexion. Although 

he was not a chief by right of birth, but became one by force of circumstances, 
he was described as an able and brave leader. He tried very hard to unify the 
Taung tribe not only before, but also during and after the difaqane. Mole- 
tsane’s importance as historical figure lies to some extent in his exceptional 
ability to organize and lead his followers. Furthermore, with his return to 
Basutoland and his alliance with Moshoeshoe, Moletsane and his followers 
helped to establish the character of the Southern Sotho paramountcy. 

It is said that Moletsane had about 33 wives and more than 1 15 children. 
His last wife was Sarah Mamae, who was to be his only wife after his 
conversion to Christianity and whom he married in church. He was succeeded 
by Mokhele, the son by his first wife Mpai Mamoretlo. 

g.m. theal, Basutoland records ... 3 vols. Cape Town, 1883; — g.w. stow, The native 
races of South Africa. London, 1905; — G. lagden. The Basutos. 2 vols. London, 1909; — 
jj.g. grobbelaar, Die Vrystaatse Republiek en die Basoetovraagstuk. Archives yearbook 
of South African history, 2(2), 1939; — G. tylden, The rise of the Basuto. Cape Town, 
1950; — I.C. MACGREGOR, Basuto traditions. Cape Town, 1957. (Willem Hiddingh Reprint 
Series, no. 12); — J.D. omer-cooper, The Zulu afiemath: a nineteenth-century revolution 
in Bantu Africa. London, 1966; — A.A. moletsane, An account of the autobiographical 
memoir. [Cape Town], 1967; — E. bradlow, The Cape government’s rule of Basutoland, 

1871- 1883. Archives yearbook of South African history, 31(2), 1968; — P. BECKER, Hill of 
destiny: the life and times of Moshesh, founder of the Basuto. London, 1969; — D.F. 
ellenberger. History of the Basuto, ancient and modem. New York, 1969; — p. Sanders, 
Moshoeshoe, chief of the Sotho. London, 1975; — l.m. Thompson, Survival in two worlds: 
Moshoeshoe of Lesotho, 1786-1870. Oxford, 1975; — w.F. LYE a C. MURRAY, Transform- 
ations on the Highveld: the Tswana and Southern Sotho. Cape Town, 1980. 

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MOORE, Philip Alan (*Peel, Isle of Man, United Kingdom, 24 November 

1891 — tJohannesburg, 26 November 1981), poli- 
tician, soldier, educator and financier, was the son 
of James and Catherine Moore. He was educated at 
the Clothworkers School on the Isle of Man and at 
Liverpool University where he obtained the B.Sc. 
degree. (The spelling of Moore’s first names 

In 1913 Moore emigrated to South Africa and 
joined the Transvaal Education Department (TED). 
At the outbreak of World War I (1914-1918) Moore 
joined the Fourth South African Horse, became a 
mounted soldier and later transferred to the Eighth 
South African Infantry. During the East African 
Campaign he was severely wounded and spent many months in hospital. 

After his recovery Moore returned to the TED and, on medical advice, 
chose to teach on the platteland. After spells of teaching at, amongst others, 
Lydenburg, Middelburg, Belfast and Lichtenburg, he was appointed Inspector 
of Education in 1926. Eight years later Moore resigned from the TED over a 
dispute concerning compulsory mother tongue trends in education. 

Moore thereafter joined a stock-broking firm. It was a fortuitous change, as 
the gold boom began shortly after his entrance into the financial world. He rose 
to the top of the stock-broking profession, becoming president of the Johannes- 
burg Stock Exchange in 1946. 

When the Second World War (1939-1945) broke out, Moore enlisted again 
and helped to establish Maintenance Command. He also served on the staff of 
the Military College and eventually became Officer Commanding of 75 Air 
School, Lyttelton, with the rank of major. For his part in training Greek pilots 
at Lyttelton he was awarded the Greek Order of George I With Swords. 

Moore had a lengthy and distinguished career in politics. In 1937 he fought 
a parliamentary by-election at Yeoville when the seat was relinquished by Sir 
Patrick Duncan*. Standing on a Dominion Party ticket, Moore lost by a mere 
76 votes to Maldwyn Edmund of the United Party (UP). In the 1938 general 
election Moore was defeated as a Dominion Party candidate in the Orange 
Grove constituency, losing to the UP’s Colin Bain-Marais. When the Dominion 
Party failed to draw closer to the UP after the outbreak of war and merge with 
it, Moore resigned and joined the UP. His fight for a parliamentary seat was 
finally rewarded when he was elected unopposed as UP member of parliament 
for Kensington in a by-election in 1 949. He was to retain this seat for the next 
21 years. 

Moore was an outstanding parliamentarian. His repartee and humour 
enlivened many a dreary debate, while his versatility and wisdom were 
acknowledged and admired on both sides of the House of Assembly. As a UP 
frontbencher Moore made many incisive speeches on finance, education, 
defence, posts and telegraphs, and other subjects. As chairperson of the UP 
Education Group and as a member of the Commission on the Separate 
University Education Bill (known as the Holloway Commission) Moore played 


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a major role in the Witwatersrand University Amendment Bill (the University 
of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, (Private) Act no. 15 of 1959), which inter 
alia enabled the university authorities to allow blacks to enrol as students. But 
it is for his dogged campaign for a switch to the decimal currency that Moore 
will be remembered. 

What was first a lonely campaign in the House of Assembly began with 
Moore’s private member’s motion in 1956 for the adoption of the decimal 
coinage system. He suggested that the principal monetary unit in the system be 
the rand— a word which existed in both English and Afrikaans. Moore’s motion 
was not accepted but he refused to give up. He continued with his campaign 
until, finally, the government introduced a decimal coinage bill of its own, and 
rands and cents eventually replaced the imperial system. 

Moore proposed the term ‘rand’ and also suggested the spelling and the 
pronunciation of the new currency. He was particularly concerned that the 
plural of ‘rand’ should be ‘rands’, as the plural of ‘pound’ had been ‘pounds’. 
The government took heed of Moore’s advice and when the South African Mint 
and Coinage Amendment Bill of 1966 appeared, the ‘s’ which had been omitted 
from all previously printed legislation, was included, much to Moore’s 
jubilation. Moore was therefore in a true sense the ‘father’ of the South African 
decimal system. 

A man of great eloquence and intellect, Moore retained an interest in public 
affairs to the end of his days. He was survived by two daughters and a son; his 
wife, formerly Miss Beyers of Stellenbosch, predeceased him in 1948 and his 
eldest son had been killed with the South African Air Force in Italy during 
World War II. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 16240/81; Library of the University of 
South Africa, Pretoria: P.A. Moore collection; — Obituary: The Argus, 30 November 1981. 

MOROKA, James Sebe (Thaba Nchu, Orange Free State (OFS), 16 March 

1892— tThaba Nchu, Bophuthatswana (OFS), 10 
November 1985), medical doctor, politician and 
landowner. He was a great-grandson of Chief Mo- 
roka of Thaba Nchu who assisted the Voortrekkers 
in the 1830s, and a member of the prominent land- 
holding Rolong family. 

Moroka attended the village school and com- 
pleted his primary education in 1909. Thereafter he 
went to Lovedale Institute at Alice in the Eastern 
Cape for secondary education. Subsequently he went 
to the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1911 
to study medicine and qualified in 1918. After his 
return to South Africa he established a flourishing 
practice in Thaba Nchu, with blacks and whites consulting him. Moroka also 
helped to provide the land for the Moroka Missionary Hospital (Moroka 
Community Hospital) in Thaba Nchu which was the only training hospital for 


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Africans in the OFS. In 1930 he studied surgery in Vienna, Austria. However, 
when he returned to South Africa he was prevented by the colour bar from 
using the only available operating facilities in the hospital in Bloemfontein. 

His political career started in the 1930s when he became involved with 
widespread black resistance against the so-called J.B.M. Hertzog* Draft 
Bills— the Natives’ Trust and Land Bill that affected ownership of land outside 
the reserves, and the Representation of Natives Bill that dealt with the removal 
of the Cape black voters from the common voters’ roll. In opposition to this 
legislation the All-African Convention (AAC) was formed and in December 
1935 Moroka attended the first meeting in Bloemfontein. He was elected as 
treasurer of the AAC as well as a member of the delegation which, in 1936, 
conveyed to the government the attitude of Africans regarding the draft bills. 
In spite of Moroka’s unyielding criticism of this legislation he made himself 
available for the Native Representative Council (NRC) which was formed as a 
result of this legislation. He was elected for two terms— 1942 and 1948. With 
this he distanced himself from the official AAC policy but according to his own 
testimony his aim was to show from within the NRC that it was a nonsensical 
institution. In 1946 he played a leading role in the NRC’s confrontation with 
the government which brought the council’s activities to an end although he 
only resigned his seat in 1950. 

In 1942 Moroka became involved with the African National Congress 
(ANC). In 1943 he was a member of the Atlantic Charter Committee of the 
ANC which had to study and discuss problems arising out of the Atlantic 
Charter in so far as it related to Africa. (The charter had originally been drawn 
up by Great Britain and the United States of America in 1941 as a "blueprint 
for ftiture peace and security" and emphasized the maintenance of human 
rights.) The committee had to draw up a statement on the charter "from the 
standpoint of the Africans within the Union of South Africa" (called the African 
Claims), and draft a Bill of Rights. In 1948 Moroka was the AAC representa- 
tive during reconciliatory talks between the AAC and the ANC. The talks 

In a surprising move— since Moroka was not a member of the ANC at the 
time— he was chosen as president-general of the ANC in December 1949. He 
was the candidate of the ANC Youth League (CYL), who hoped that he would 
be more effective than the previous president-general, A.B. Xuma*. Moroka 
found it difficult during his three-year term as ANC leader to exercise firm 
control over the organization, chiefly because he still lived in Thaba Nchu 
which was outside the central political arena of the Witwatersrand. He did, 
however, take the lead in establishing a hitherto unknown militant spirit in the 
ANC and did not hesitate to work with other militant organizations such as the 
Communist Party of South Africa (CPS A, South African Communist Party 
(SACP) after 1953) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) against 
government policy. 

Moroka’s lack of understanding of the political playing field in the 
Transvaal often led to blunders and criticism. Many of his actions were 
described as naive and short-sighted and even contributed to dissension within 
the ANC. In reaction to the banning of some of its members, the CPSA 


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arranged the Defend Free Speech Convention in March 1950. Moroka agreed 
to preside over the convention. Though he claimed that he did this in a private 
capacity and not as president-general of the ANC, he committed the ANC to 
the militant demands which were adopted, including the stayaway on 1 May. 

In February 1951 Moroka represented the ANC at the founding of the 
Franchise Action Council, chiefly a coloured organization that was formed to 
prevent the removal of coloured people from the Cape common voters’ roll. 
From July 1951 he was closely involved with preparations for the Defiance 
Campaign which was organized by the ANC and the SAIC. The campaign was 
an attempt by opponents of apartheid to overburden law enforcers by contra- 
vening ail discriminatory legislation, in the hope that the legislation might be 
abolished. Moroka was chairperson of the Joint Planning Board, he addressed 
numerous meetings and, in a letter, requested Prime Minister D.F. Malan* to 
revoke the laws involved. During the campaign itself he was taken into custody 
and charged with contraventions of the Suppression of Communism Act. In 
spite of the instruction of the organizers of the Defiance Campaign that 
offenders had to serve their prison sentence, Moroka, after being found guilty, 
put in a plea for mitigation of sentence and dissociated himself from his co- 
accused. This brought about the displeasure of his ANC colleagues and his 
ousting as leader of the ANC; in December 1952 he was not re-elected as 
president-general. With this his political career came to an end. 

At the time of his death he was married to Maggie, who helped him to 
develop the farms he had inherited and acquired from his relatives in Thaba 
Nchu. He also had extended business interests on the Witwatersrand, such as 
shops and an insurance company which he managed. He fathered ten children. 

Moroka was buried on his farm Mafane near Thaba Nchu. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — Republic 
of Bophuthatswana. Department of Internal Affairs, Births Marriages and Deaths: Death 
Register no. K/85/582; — T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African yearly register, being an 
illustrated national biographical dictionary (who's who) of black folks in Africa. Johannes- 
burg, [1931]; — l kuper, Passive resistance in South Africa. London, 1956; — c.m. de 
villiers. Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 
1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe, The rise of African 
Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — 
T. Karis & g.m. CARTER (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — 
T. karis a o.m. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. 
lodge. Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; — M. benson, South 
Africa: the struggle for a birthright. London, 1985; — Makers of modern Africa: profiles in 
history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — Private information: Gran Moroka (grandson), Selosesha. 

MOSAKA, Paul Ramotsoane (*Johannesburg, c. 191 1— fManzini, Swaziland, 
25 April 1963), politician, founder of the African Democratic Party (ADP), 
and an influential and notorious businessman. He received his early education 
in Johannesburg but his secondary education at Healdtown Institution, a 
Methodist boarding school near Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape. After that 


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he went to the South African Native College (Uni- 
versity of Fort Hare) at Fort Hare where he became 
the first Transvaal African to acquire the B.A. 
degree from a South African university. For some 
years he was a teacher at Healdtown and Thaba 
Nchu before he returned to Johannesburg to manage 
a business belonging to J.S. Moroka*. He also 
launched his own commercial undertakings, ituer 
alia retail businesses, an undertaker’s business and 
an insurance company. 

As a student Mosaka already showed an interest 
in politics when he took part in the Transvaal African Student’s Association. In 
1942 he became the youngest member elected to the Native Representative 
Council (NRC). During 1942, already sitting on the NRC, he made an 
impression with his powerful speeches and played a prominent role in the final 
break between the NRC and the government at the time of the African miners’ 
strike of August 1946. At the time his comparison of the NRC with a toy 
telephone created a big commotion. 

For Mosaka the period 1943-1946 bustled with political activity. In 1943 he 
was a member of the Atlantic Charter Committee of the ANC which had to 
study and discuss problems arising out of the Atlantic Charter in so far as it 
related to Africa. (The charter had originally been drawn up by Great Britain 
and the United States of America in 1941 as a "blueprint for future peace and 
security" and emphasized the maintenance of human rights.) The committee 
had to draw up a statement on the charter "from the standpoint of the Africans 
within the Union of South Africa" (called the African Claims), and draft a Bill 
of Rights. From 1943 to 1944 he was a member of the Emergency Transport 
Committee which gave assistance to the boycotters during the bus boycott by 
residents of the Alexandra township north of Johannesburg. Mosaka’s involve- 
ment with this led to his arrest. In 1944-1945 he took part in the rallies of the 
Campaign for Right and Justice, an organization in which whites played a 
leading role (chiefly English speakers with leftist views). During the same 
years he was involved with the Anti-Pass Campaign of the Communist Party of 
South Africa (CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) and 
the ANC. 

In 1943 Mosaka’s dynamic nature drove him to strike out his own political 
direction. He began to despair of the effectiveness of the relatively moderate 
ANC and on 26 September 1943, in conjunction with Senator Hyman Basner, 
established the ADP with the same goals as the ANC but committed to a more 
determined organization of ‘mass support’ and co-operation with progressive 
whites. Although Mosaka intended the ADP to become an organization 
affiliated to the ANC, A.B. Xuma* and many of the African nationalists 
interpreted Mosaka’s breaking away as a treacherous step, weakening the 
ANC. Mosaka was thus forced to go his own way. In 1944-1945 he and the 
ADP, as allies of James Mpanza*, took part in the squatter conflict southwest 
of Johannesburg. In October 1946 Mosaka was the delegate of the ADP (which 
at that time was disappearing from the political scene with the revival of the 


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ANC) at a meeting where a last unavailing attempt was made to end the 
discord between the ANC and the All-African Convention (AAC). This was the 
last time that Mosaka was involved in any important event in the mainstream 
of African politics in South Africa. 

From the 1950s Mosaka’s attention was increasingly focused on his 
flourishing business interests. His name was seldom heard in connection with 
political events. In 1955 he was one of the more conservative personalities who 
fiercely criticized the school boycott which the ANC staged against the 
institution of the Bantu Education Act of 1953. In October 1956 he attended the 
conference which was arranged by the Interdenominational African Ministers' 
Federation to discuss the Tomlinson Report ( Report of the Commission for the 
Socio-Economic Development of the Bantu Areas). The conference rejected the 
report unanimously. In December 1960 he was present at the consultative 
conference in Orlando, Johannesburg, which was arranged by ANC leaders in 
their personal capacity to discuss the circumstances of Africans in South Africa 
in view of the banning of the ANC and the Pan-Africanist Congress, and the 
forthcoming establishment of the Republic of South Africa. The conference 
decided to arrange an ‘all-in’ conference representative of African people at 
which a national convention representative of all South Africa’s people would 
be demanded. Mosaka was elected to the continuation committee which had to 
organize the ‘all-in’ conference. However, he did not attend any of the 
committee meetings and resigned in February 1961 on account of ill health— he 
suffered from diabetes. Nevertheless he was arrested in March 1961— the ‘All- 
in’ African Conference took place in Pietermaritzburg in March 1961 — together 
with the other committee members, but he successfully appealed against the 
prison sentence imposed upon him. 

At the end of his life, although his political role was played out, Mosaka 
was an economic leader of high standing in the African community. From 1955 
he was president of the Johannesburg Black Chamber of Commerce. He was 
also a member of the board of the Donaldson Trust and a member of the South 
African Institute of Race Relations. 

Mosaka married Miriam Francis Ncamziwe Mosaka (nee Piliso) in 1940. 
They had four children. He died while on a business trip to Swaziland. 

Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: Estate no. 3378/63; — Library of the University of the Wit- 
watersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — T.d.m. skota (ed.), The African who's who: 
an illustrated classified register and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the 
Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 1965]; — C.M. DE VILUERS, Die African Na- 
tional Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University 
of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe. The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African 
National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. karis a g.M. carter (eds), From 
protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 

2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — T. Karis a g.m. carter (eds). From 
protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 

3. Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), 
From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — M. bbnson, South Africa: 
the struggle for a birthright. London, 1985; — B. hirson, Yours for the Union: class and 
community struggles in South Africa, 1930-1947. Johannesburg, 1990. 


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MPANZA, James (Sofasonke) (*GeorgedaIe, today part of Cato Ridge, 15 

May 1889— fJohannesburg, 23 September 1970), 
politician and founder of the Sofasonke Party, and a 
crusader for better housing for Johannesburg’s Afri- 
cans, sometimes referred to as "the man who 
founded Soweto". He was the second son of Ventile 
Mbihlana Mpanza, a transport haulier who drove 
ox-wagons from town to town, and his wife Evelyn. 
Mpanza grew up with his two sisters— his brother 
having died in youth. He attended the local George- 
dale Primary School where he stayed on until Stan- 
dard 6. He trained as a teacher at Indaleni (Natal) 
where he passed a third-class teacher’s certificate 
examination. At the age of eighteen he started 
working as an interpreter and clerk in a solicitor’s office at Camperdown near 

In 1912 he was imprisoned for fraud, and in April 1915 sentenced to death 
for the murder of an Indian shopkeeper named Adam at Georgedale. While 
spending six months in the death cell in Pietermaritzburg, Mpanza fought for 
an appeal, arguing that he had not actually been seen at the scene of the crime. 
His sentence was then commuted to life imprisonment. 

Mpanza was moved from prison to prison, becoming a hardened trouble- 
some prisoner that attacked warders. It was in 1918 in the Cinderella Prison in 
Boksburg, where he was isolated for six months, that his life changed. He 
claimed to have had a Christian conversion, and he became a preacher to his 
fellow prisoners. In 1924, in the Pretoria Prison, he assumed the new role of 
author when he wrote his book Izimpi zendlela yomkrestu (translated in 1 936 as 
The battles of the Christian’s pathways). 

In 1925 the Prince of Wales paid an official visit to the Union of South 
Africa, and to mark the occasion amnesty was granted to many prisoners. 
Mpanza’s life imprisonment was commuted to fifteen years, but after thirteen 
years he was discharged on a two-year parole in 1927. He was placed with a 
Swiss mission in Pretoria. He also served as an evangelist under the Rev. P. 
Dourquin, preaching to that congregation at weekends for three years. By 1934 
he had moved to Johannesburg where he was a teacher, and then worked as a 
furniture salesman and a commercial photographer. 

Mpanza moved to Orlando township in the 1930s and in 1936 he was 
elected to the Orlando Advisory Board. 

With the increased urbanization of Africans during the Second World War 
(1939-1945) the housing shortage in Johannesburg became critical. Having 
failed to elicit sympathy from the Johannesburg City Council Mpanza decided 
to take dramatic steps to bring the housing problem to the attention of the 
authorities. In March 1944 he led thousands of Africans, overflowing from the 
slums of Orlando, to set up a shantytown on vacant municipal land in the area 
stretching from the present Orlando Stadium to Shanty Clinic. Mpanza’s slogan 
‘Sofasonke’ (We shall all die) became his nickname. The shantytown was 
called Sofasonke Township. 


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By the first week of April 1944, 8 000 people occupied the shantytown. By 
the end of 1946 its population had risen to 20 000, and Mpanza had proclaimed 
himself the unofficial ‘mayor’. Each family had to pay six shillings to join his 
squatter camp, and a further 2s 6d for a site. An additional 2s 6d per week was 
paid for the day-to-day administration of the camp. This was an imperium in 
imperio, where Mpanza even started his own police force which saw to law and 
order. Health and welfare services, however, were nonexistent. People lived in 
appalling conditions in the Sofasonke Township, and many children died as a 
result of lack of medical care. Mpanza's own son Dumisani was among the 

At this time Mpanza formed the Sofasonke Party which he built into a 
cultlike organization for contesting seats on the Orlando Advisory Board— and 
a party which more than 20 years after his death was still a force to be 
reckoned with within local municipal politics. Through his party Mpanza urged 
the Johannesburg City Council not to eject the squatter camps around Orlando 
but to find alternative accommodation for the squatters. 

Mpanza's crusade for better housing for Africans led to his deportation to 
Natal by government order in February 1946; he was ordered to leave for a 
farm at Ixopo in Natal within three days. He defied the order and a legal 
wrangle began. He was eventually placed under police escort on a train to 
Ixopo. His senior counsel made an urgent court application and while the train 
carrying him was in Standerton, near the Transvaal-Natal border, the Rand 
Supreme Court ordered the authorities to return him to Johannesburg immedi- 

In the same year Mpanza’s efforts were rewarded when the Johannesburg 
City Council began to embark on its massive housing scheme, which led to the 
birth of Soweto (South Western Townships). With this rehousing scheme his 
prominence waned somewhat although he remained a well-known leader. 
Mpanza was continuously re-elected as member of the Orlando East Advisory 
Board until the establishment of the Soweto Urban Bantu Council (UBC). He 
strongly supported the creation of the UBC in the early 1960s. 

Mpanza was described as a fearless and dynamic, if somewhat controver- 
sial, leader and a crusader for better housing for Johannesburg’s Africans. He 
welcomed Western civilization so long as it did not interfere with the African 
tradition. Mpanza was a horse-racing enthusiast and owned thoroughbreds in 
the Transvaal and the Orange Free State which had to be ridden by white 
jockeys because of the racial policy. 

He was also a man of discipline who conducted special courts— also called 
Parents Courts— in the backyard of his Orlando East home. These courts dealt 
with domestic cases such as assault of parents by their wayward children for 
which he administered corporal punishment, while serious cases were referred 
to the police. It would seem that the subsequent Makgotla (traditional courts) 
in Soweto were an adaption of Mpanza’s Parents Courts. 

In 1939 Mpanza married Julia Mngomezulu. Three sons and three daughters 
were born of the marriage. Mpanza died at his Orlando East home which is 
still the residence of the Mpanza family. He was given a rousing civic funeral 
service, and was buried at the Doornkop Cemetery. 


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Mpanza v. Rex, 1915 April 1, 19. Natal law reports, 36, 1915; — J. MPANZA, The battles 
of the Christian’s pathways. (S.I.), 1936; — M. benson. The African patriots. Chicago, 
1963; — T.D.M. skota (ed.), The African who’s who: an illustrated classified register and 
national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Jo- 
hannesburg, 1965]; — Obituaries: The Star, 5 October 1970; The Rand Daily Mail, 24 & 26 
September 1970; — T. karis & G.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary 
history of African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. 
Stanford, 1977; — The Daily News, 7 December 1978; — J. Johnson a p. magubane, 
Soweto speaks. Johannesburg, 1979; — k.j. FRENCH, James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party 
in the development of local politics in Soweto. M.A. thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, 
1983; — The Sowetan, 23 March 1983; — J.R.A. bailey, Profiles of Africa. Johannesburg, 
1983; — J. schadeberg (comp. & ed.), The fifties people of South Africa. [S.I.], 1987; — 
p. LA Hausse, Brewers, beerhalls and boycotts. Johannesburg, 1988; — reader's digest 
association south Africa, Illustrated history of South Africa: the real story. Cape Town, 
1988; — Weekly Mail, 27 May to 2 June 1988; — Private information: W.J.P. Carr (ex- 
manager, Non-European Affairs Department, City Council of Johannesburg), Johannesburg; 
Ms Queen Mpanza (daughter), Soweto, Johannesburg; Ms Elizabeth Mpanza (daughter), 
Soweto, Johannesburg. 

MSIMANG, Henry Selby (*Edendale, Pietermaritzburg, 13 December 

1 886— fEdendale, Pietermaritzburg, 29 March 
1982), interpreter, clerk, journalist, farm manager, 
and especially politician. He and his elder brother 
Richard Msimang were the children of the well- 
known African preacher who founded the Indepen- 
dent Methodist Church, Joel Msimang, and his wife 
Joanah Radebe. 

Msimang received his primary education at the 
Emakosini Primary School in Nhlangano, Swazi- 
land. Between 1903 and 1907 he studied first at Kil- 
nerton Institution, a Methodist college in Pretoria, 
then Edendale Institution at Edendale, and finally at 
Healdtown Institution, a Methodist boarding school 
near Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape. Though he was then a qualified 
teacher, he never taught. His career started in 1908 when he was appointed as 
interpreter in Germiston, Transvaal. He never stayed in any career for long but 
kept changing jobs and homes. Between 1908 and 1965 he had fifteen 
occupations and lived in ten towns or cities in three provinces (the Transvaal, 
the Orange Free State and Natal). From 1942, however, he settled in Edendale 
near Pietermaritzburg. 

His political career started in 1912 when he was a founder member of the 
South African Native National Congress (SANNC, African National Congress 
(ANC) after 1923). During the following 30 years he participated in a number 
of their meetings, deputations and other activities. For many years he under- 
took the labour portfolio of the congress, and was a prominent member of the 
committee established to raise funds to send a deputation to Britain to try to 
have the Natives Land Act of 1913 repealed. 

In Bloemfontein, in 1917, he was the editor of a newspaper Morumioa- 


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Inxusa (Messenger) (the title of the newspaper varied) which only existed for 
two years. (It could not be established if a connection existed between this 
newspaper and the one with which D.S. Letanka* was involved in 1911, i.e. 
Moromioa.) During his stay in Bloemfontein (1917-1922) his long relationship 
with the labour movement started when, as a labour organizer, he led a strike 
of municipal workers in Bloemfontein in 1917, for which he was arrested and 
detained. In 1919 he liaised with Clements Kadalie*, founder of the Industrial 
and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), about the organization of African 
workers. Together they planned the establishment of a national ICU and in 
1920 held a meeting in Bloemfontein with this in mind. Msimang was elected 
president of the national ICU. When Kadalie failed to be elected to the 
executive he withdrew with his supporters. This led to increasing animosity 
between Msimang and Kadalie, resulting in Msimang's resignation as president 
and distancing himself from the ICU until after Kadalie’s resignation in 1929. 
Msimang then rejoined and during the decline of the ICU he held the post of 
national propagandist. From 1928 to 1937 Msimang was a labour advisor in Jo- 

In 1922 Msimang returned to Johannesburg and became a member of the 
Joint Council for Europeans and Bantu. He was still involved in the activities 
of the SANNC/ANC and served on the national executive committee of the 
ANC during the terms of office of presidents J.T. Gumede* (1927-1930) and 
Pixley Seme (1930-1937). In 1932 he was a member of the so-called revival 
committee that wanted to strengthen the organization from within to prevent its 
stagnation. Three years later, during the first meeting of the All-African Con- 
vention (AAC) in Bloemfontein in December 1935, he was elected as secretary. 

In 1942 he returned to Natal and was elected provincial secretary of the 
Natal branch of the ANC, a position he retained until 1956. He was also a 
confidant of the Natal leader A.W.G. Champion*. In 1948 he became a 
member of the Native Representative Council (NRC) although at that time it 
was no longer an active body. In December of the same year he attended the 
discussions with the AAC as delegate of the ANC during an unsuccessful 
attempt to reconcile these two organizations. During the annual congress of the 
ANC of that year Msimang was elected to the committee which had to draw up 
the Programme of Action. Early in 1949 he represented the ANC in dis- 
cussions with prominent Indian leaders in an effort to reconcile Africans and 
Indians after bloody clashes between them in Durban and surrounding areas in 
January 1949. A year later Msimang and Champion’s political ways parted and 
Msimang lost his position in the ANC. However, when Albert Luthuli* 
defeated Champion as president of the ANC in 1951, Msimang was reinstated 
as provincial secretary. But he lost interest in the ANC and even before the 
Defiance Campaign of 1952 he resigned as provincial secretary in Natal. 

In 1953 Msimang became a founder member of the multiracial Liberal 
Party of South Africa. From 1956-1968 he served on the executive committee 
and in due course became the national vice-chairperson. His activities were, 
however, hampered in 1965 when the government forbade him to attend 
meetings for five years. 

Msimang was also interested and active in local politics and problems. For 

many years from 1942 he was secretary of the Edendale Advisory Board Local 
Health Commission. He was the founder of the Edendale Benevolent Society 
and served as its secretary from 1946 to 1952, and from 1967 as honorary life 
president. In 1973 he was elected secretary of the Edendale AmaKholwa Tribe. 
In 1975 Msimang became a member of the national council of the Inkatha 
yeNkululeko yeSizwe. From 1974 to 1975 he served on the executive commit- 
tee of the South African Institute of Race Relations. He was a Methodist and 
served in various committees of the church. 

Msimang was a prolific author. Apart from numerous newspaper articles, 
including series of articles in several newspapers, he published a pamphlet The 
crisis (Johannesburg, 1936) about the effect of the 1936 Land Act on Africans. 

He was married twice and had four sons and four daughters. His first wife 
was Mercy Mahlomola King whom he married in July 1913. She died in 
September 1951, and in August 1952 he married Miriam Primrose Oldjohn. 

Library of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg: Xuma collection; — T.D.M. 
skota (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965J; — c.m. DE villiers, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwa- 
tersrand. 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe. The rise of 
African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 
1970; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — D.S. DEANE, 
Black South Africans: a who's who. 57 profiles of Natal’s leading blacks. Cape Town, 1978; 
— s. keeble, (comp. & ed.), The black who’s who of Southern Africa today. Johannesburg, 
1979; — P.L. wickens. The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of Africa. Cape 
Town, 1979; — Tribute: Henry Selby Msimang. Natalia, (12), December 1982. 

MULLER, Elizabeth (Elise) (*Ceres, 11 March 1919 — fCape Town, 5 No- 
vember 1985), Afrikaans author and editorial head 
of a publisher, was the eldest of the six children of 
Rev. Cornelis Muller and his wife Christina Eliza- 
beth Maria du Toit. 

Muller matriculated at Calvinia and obtained the 
Primary Teacher's Certificate at the Paarl Training 
College in 1938. In 1939 she enrolled for the B.A. 
degree at the University of Stellenbosch. Early in 
her first year she became seriously ill with tuber- 
culosis and was forced to return to Calvinia where 
her mother took care of the invalid Muller for 
eleven years. 

The many years of retirement caused by her 
protracted illness acted as impetus for Muller to start writing. She started her 
career as author with a novel competition entry Ek, 'n Samaritaanse vrou 
(1941) and won the prize money of £100. This debut was followed by Die pad 
verder (1943), Maar die jare antwoord (1947) and a youth novel Skat van die 
Roggeveld (1950). 

It meant much to Muller during these years that she could earn money with 


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her writing— it gave her some independence. Although her early books received 
a fair degree of negative literary criticism, Muller proved her ability as 
narrator and as creator of a convincing milieu, as well as her knowledge of 
people. In all of these early works she showed her control of the sober 
descriptive word. 

In 1950 Muller decided to undergo a drastic operation in Cape Town: the 
removal of one lung. This operation saved her life. Her health improved sur- 
prisingly well and within a few months she was able to write again. She 
regularly wrote short stories and serials for the magazine Sarie Marais. The 
serials Die derde rit. Die eensames and Die wilde loot later appeared in book 

In 1956 a selection of Muller’s short stories was published by A. A. Bal- 
kema under the title Die vrou op die skuit, the manuscript having been rejected 
by two other publishers. In 1957 Die vrou op die skuit received the Hertzog 
prize for prose, awarded by the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en 
Kuns (South African Academy for Arts and Science). It was the first time that 
the Hertzog prize was awarded for short stories. The literary commission based 
its recommendation especially on the stories ‘Nag by die drif , ‘Kinders in die 
skemer’, ‘Twee gesigte’, ‘Die dieper dors’ and ‘Blommetjies vir Bella’. The 
commission was of the opinion that these were stories of special quality, care- 
fully constructed, testifying to great insight and subtly giving the reader insight 
into the hidden forces operating in every person; the stories spoke a universal 
language and counted among the best that Afrikaans prose could offer. Another 
attribute was the natural, sober and clear prose. 

After the surprising success with Die vrou op die skuit other publications 
followed: Van eensame mense (1956), Die wilde loot (1962), and Die derde rit 
(1978). The relation between the characters and their environment was of 
crucial importance in the development of the characters in Muller’s short 
stories and novels. The supreme example was the novel Van eensame mense in 
which the main character saw herself as the daughter of a hard, unrelenting 
region. The other characters in the novel also reflected the influence of the 
region on their lives. This novel was highly regarded because of the sober 
portrayal of the main character’s inner life. Van eensame mense was made into 
a television script and broadcast by the South African Broadcasting Corporation 
in 1978. 

Die wilde loot was on the one hand a study of human relations, especially 
the relationship between two sisters within a wider family context, and on the 
other hand an expose of human judgement and the difficult maturing of insight. 
Stylistically this novel was an outstanding example of Muller’s sober narration. 
It was also adapted for television and broadcast in 1979. 

J.C. Kannemeyer rediscovered Die derde rit, which was originally pub- 
lished as a serial in Sarie Marais, and through him it was subsequently pub- 
lished in book form. It was notable for its epic development, striking scenes, 
characterization and the relationships between the characters. 

Six years after the operation which helped her to lead a normal life again, 
Muller accepted a post as member of the editorial staff of the NG Kerkuitge- 
wers (Dutch Reformed Church publishers) and moved to Cape Town. She was 


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a deeply religious Christian and accepted this appointment as an order from 
God. For 22 years she was editorial head of NG Kerkuitgewers and this work 
was always more important to her than her own writing. She regarded it as her 
purpose in life to convey the gospel to the Afrikaans-speaking reader by means 
of the Christian book. Her fine judgement and writing experience enabled her 
to leave a permanent imprint on the Christian publications under her care. 

In 1978 she was compelled by poor health to retire as editorial head. Her 
last writing was a tribute to the publisher A. A. Balkema for the book Liber 
amicorum pro A. A. Balkema which was compiled and published by the Friends 
of the South African Library. In her tribute she related with appreciation that 
Balkema’s decision to publish her short stories had an immeasurable influence 
on her life. 

She spent the last years of her life in the Strand. 

There can be no doubt that Muller’s special narrative skill and the power of 
her sober prose made a decisive and permanent contribution to Afrikaans 

PJ. NIENABER, Die Hertzogprys vyftigjaar: 'n feesbundel. Kaapstad, 1965; — M. HEESE, Die 
wilde loot. Die vrou op die skuit. Kaapstad, 1976 (Blokboeke, 21); — T.T. CLOETE (red.), 
Die Afrikaanse literatuur sedert sestig. Kaapstad, 1980; — E.S. NEL, Die prosa van Elise 
Muller. M.A. thesis. University of Stellenbosch, 1981; — J.C. kannemeyer, Geskiedenis 
van die Afrikaanse literatuur, II. Pretoria, 1983; — Obituary: Die Burger , 6 November 
1985; — J.C. KANNEMEYER, Die Afrikaanse literatuur, 1652-1987. Kaapstad, 1988; — H. 
aucamp (samest.), Verhale en essays, 1942-1981. Kaapstad, 1989; — Private information: 
Personal interviews with Muller; Rev. W. van Zyl (colleague & manager of NG Kerkuitge- 
wers, Cape Town). 

MVABAZA, Thomas Levi (fl. 1910-1947), prominent journalist, businessman 

and politician. He was born at Peddie near Gra- 
hamstown and received his education at St 
Matthew’s College (Assamoah Kwame St Matthew’s 
High School) at Keiskammahoek and Zonnebloem 
College in Cape Town. After that he worked in Port 
Elizabeth before he moved to Johannesburg, where 
he and Saul Msane established an English-Xhosa 
weekly called Umlomo wa Bantu (Mouthpiece of the 
Nation) in 1910, and became its editors. They 
described its objective as "the unifying of all Afri- 
can tribes into one people, and to improve and 
expedite the education of the African children". In 
Johannesburg he also joined the Transvaal Native 


In 1911 Mvabaza attended some of the executive committee meetings of the 
South African Native Convention (SANC). The discussions dealt chiefly with 
a constitution for the SANC and the establishment of a national newspaper to 
serve as the SANC official mouthpiece. At one of those meetings Mvabaza was 
nominated to a committee which had to attempt to solve the organizational 


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discord between politically conscious Africans in the Transvaal. After reconcili- 
ation was achieved the Transvaal Native Congress (TNC) was formed. 

Mvabaza then became a prominent figure in the founding of the South 
African Native National Congress (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) 
after 1923) which superseded the SANC. In 1912 he attended the inaugural 
meeting of the SANNC in Bloemfontein, and delivered one of the speeches on 
the programme. After the meeting Umlomo wa Bantu and some of the other 
newspapers amalgamated to form Abantu Batho, which became the official 
mouthpiece of the SANNC. Mvabaza was the co-editor and later became 
managing director of the company which was formed to publish this newspa- 

During the first annual SANNC conference in March 1913 Mvabaza was 
elected to a deputation which left immediately for Cape Town to convey to the 
government the SANNC’s opposition to the draft bill of the Natives Land Act 
of 1913. The deputation could not convince the Minister of Native Affairs, 
Louis Botha* (who was also Prime Minister at the time), to accept their point 
of view. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918) Mva- 
baza was again a member of an SANNC deputation— this time to Pretoria to 
assure the government of the SANNC's support for the war effort. 

In June 1918, after the criminal prosecution of the Johannesburg African 
sanitary workers who took part in the so-called Bucket Strike, Mvabaza plus 
virtually all the prominent leaders of the TNC initiated a campaign for their 
release. Mvabaza and four other congress members were arrested for inciting 
the workers, but since the court found that they exerted a moderating influence 
on the strikers, the case against them was dropped. After that Mvabaza became 
involved in the upsurge of dissatisfaction among the Africans on the Witwaters- 
rand. He took the lead in the preparations for a general strike of African 
workers. He now came to the fore as one of the more radical leaders of the 
TNC. His pronouncements at meetings during this time show that he was 
influenced by the International Socialist League whose meetings he had 
attended since the end of 1917. In the end there was no strike, partly due to 
police action that forced workers to return to work, and partly because of the 
Great Influenza Epidemic of 1918 which led to the hospitalization and death of 
many South Africans. 

In 1919 Mvabaza was a member of the SANNC deputation to the Versailles 
Peace Conference and the British government. The aim was to obtain a better 
dispensation for Africans in South Africa. The deputation was unsuccessful. 
Before the end of 1919 Mvabaza was back in South Africa and actively 
involved in local politics. In 1921 he was elected as assistant treasurer of the 
TNC. Z.R. Mahabane*, who was president-general of the ANC from 1924 to 
1927, admitted Mvabaza to his ‘cabinet’ as Minister of Land and Locations. 
When Pixley Seme was appointed president-general of the ANC in 1930 he 
again appointed Mvabaza to his cabinet. In 1932 Mvabaza became a member 
of the ANC’s ‘revival committee’ which had to raise the ANC out of its 
lethargic state at that time. Under president-general D.D.T. Jabavu*, Mvabaza 
was again elected to the executive committee of the ANC in December 1936. 
In 1943 when the Transvaal ANC was reorganized, Mvabaza served on its 


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working committee. He also became a member of the National Anti-Pass 
Council during the anti-pass campaign of 1944-1946. 

During the 1930s Mvabaza took part in the protests against the so-called 
J.B.M. Hertzog* Draft Bills— the Natives’ Trust and Land Bill which affected 
ownership of land outside the reserves, and the Representation of Natives Bill 
which dealt with the removal of the Cape black voters from the common 
voters’ roll. Dissatisfaction culminated in the All-African Convention (AAC) in 
Bloemfontein in December 1935, with Mvabaza acting as one of the organ- 
izers. During the first meeting he was elected to the AAC executive committee. 

At the 1925 annual conference held in Johannesburg an ANC flag was 
proposed. Mvabaza suggested black for the African people, green for the land, 
and gold for the mineral riches. His proposal was unanimously adopted. 

In local politics he served on the Klipspruit Advisory Board and later on the 
Pimville Advisory Board (Klipspruit Township was founded in 1904 and 
renamed Pimville in 1934, after James Howard Pirn* who was deputy mayor 
of Johannesburg in 1903). Mvabaza also owned a shop in Klipspruit. 

Mvabaza and his wife Sina had two sons and a daughter. He died in 
Pimville, Johannesburg district, in 1955. 

State Archives, Pretoria: Archives of the Department of Native Affairs; — M. BENSON, The 
African patriots: the story of the African National Congress of South Africa. London, 1963; 
— t.d.m. skota (ed.), The African who 's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — C.M. de villiers. Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwa- 
tersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe, The rise of 
African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 
1970; — T. karis A g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 
1973; — T. Karis a g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — p. bonner. The Transvaal Native Congress, 1917-1920: the radicalisation of the 
black petty bourgeoisie on the Rand. In: s. marks a r. rathbone (eds)., Industrialisation 
and social change in South Africa: African class formation, culture and consciousness. 
1870-1930. London, 1982; — a. odendaal, Black protest politics in South Africa to 1912. 
Cape Town, 1984; — B. willan, Sol Plaatje: a biography. Johannesburg, 1984; — 
READER S DIGEST association south AFRICA, Illustrated history of South Africa: the real 
story. Cape Town, 1988. 


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NAICKER, Gangathura Mohambry (Monty) ("Durban, 30 September 

1910 — tDurban, 12 January 1978), a medical doctor 
and prominent politician. His grandfather came from 
India to South Africa as a contract labourer. He was 
the eldest son of Papiah Gangathura Naicker, a 
well-to-do businessman, and his wife Dhanalutch- 
mee Pillay. Naicker matriculated at the Marine 
College in 1927. In 1928 he left for the University 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, to study medicine. Naicker 
qualified as a medical doctor in 1934 and then 
returned to South Africa. 

In 1935 Naicker established a medical practice in 
Durban and in the same year he founded a Hindu 
Youth Movement which concentrated on the social 
and sporting activities of the youth. His medical practice attracted a large 
number of poor Indians. He became involved with their social and economic 
problems. In 1940 he joined the Liberal Study Group, a multiracial organ- 
ization, and was exposed to radical ideas. To a great extent this group laid the 
foundation of his later political direction. 

Naicker’s active political involvement started in 1941 when he became 
involved in the Indian trade union movement and associated himself with 
several strikes between 1941 and 1945. In 1943 he participated in Indian 
opposition to restrictions on their right to own land which were imposed by the 
Pegging Act (Trading and Occupation of Land (Transvaal and Natal) Restric- 
tion Act of 1943). The ensuing modifications to the act that the government 
agreed to did not satisfy Naicker. In 1944 he was a co-founder and first 
chairperson of the Anti-Segregation Council and joined in the increasing 
opposition to the moderate leadership of established Indian politicians such as 
A. I. Kajee* and P.R. Panther. By 1945 Naicker had built up a great Indian 
support for his programme of complete equality. When in October 1945 he and 
like-minded people gained the upper hand in the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), 
he was elected as president, an office which he held until 1963. Since 1946 he 
was an active participant in the Natal Indian Passive Resistance Campaign 
against the government's restrictive legislation, including the so-called Ghetto 
Act (Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act no. 28 of 1946) which 


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on the one hand restricted Indian land ownership and residence to specific areas 
in Natal, and on the other hand tried to soften the drastic effects by offering 
political representation to Indians through white members of parliament. 
Several times during the campaign his actions led to his arrest and imprison- 
ment. In 1947 he served a six months’ sentence for occupying land reserved 
for whites, and in 1948 he was again sentenced to six months' imprisonment 
for leading a group of resisters into the Transvaal at Volksrust. 

Naicker was in favour of co-operation between Indians and Africans against 
the prevailing government system. This led to the alliance between the African 
National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC), and 
the so-called Doctors' Pact of March 1947 in which the intention to co-operate 
was clearly spelled out, the signatories being Naicker, Dr Y.M. Dadoo* 
(president of the Transvaal Indian Congress) and Dr A.B. Xuma* (president of 
the ANC). Shortly afterwards he and Dadoo visited India to recruit support for 
the endeavours of the South African Indians, and received official recognition 
from Mahatma Gandhi*, Nehru and Jinnah. In September 1948 they were 
prevented from attending the United Nations session when their passports were 
confiscated by the government. In January 1949, a day after the beginning of 
the bloody clashes between Indians and Africans in Durban, he and A.W.G. 
Champion*, the president of the Natal ANC, made an appeal for peace and an 
end to violence. 

In September 1952 Naicker became involved with the Defiance Campaign 
when he and the new president of the Natal ANC, Albert Luthuli*, addressed 
a mass protest meeting in Durban. After the meeting Naicker and 20 black 
volunteers walked to the Berea railway station in Durban where they deliberate- 
ly went into the waiting room for whites, and were arrested. He served a 
month’s prison sentence for this infringement of the law. 

During the 1950s Naicker was president of the SAIC for at least two terms. 
In 1953 he was restricted and forbidden to attend gatherings. However, he 
remained president of both the SAIC and NIC in name. Naicker was one of the 
accused in the Treason Trial of 1956-1961 but the charges against him were 
withdrawn in 1958. Between 1956 and 1968 he was served with several 
banning orders, the last of which expired in 1973. These restrictions in effect 
brought an end to his political activities although he headed the Anti-SAIC in 
1977 and began a campaign against apartheid institutions created by the 
government. In 1966 he was forced to evacuate his house in Percy Osborne 
Road in Durban in terms of the Group Areas Act. 

Naicker married Mariemuthu Appavu of Port Elizabeth in 1936. She took 
part in the Passive Resistance Campaign and on occasion was also arrested and 
imprisoned. They , had a son and a daughter. His hobbies included reading, 
golf, snooker and table tennis. His Historical synopsis of Anti-Indian legislation 
in South Africa was published in 1945. In his political convictions and conduct 
he was a follower of Gandhi, and remained aloof from Marxist doctrine. 

The Souxh African Indian who's who and commercial directory, 1936-37. Pietermaritzburg, 
1935; — Treason Trial profile: Dr G.M. Naicker. Fighting talk, 11(4), May 1957; — T. 
karis * o.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 


politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — 
T. karis * g.m. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; 

— T. karis a o.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — Obituaries: The Star, 12 & 13 January 1978; The Rand Daily Mail, 13 January 
1978; The Natal Mercury, 13 January 1978; — Tributes: Our greatest Indian leader since 
Gandhiji. Sechaba, 12(Second Quarter), 1978; He cheated assassins: two attempts made to 
kill Dr Monty Naicker. Post (Natal), 18 January 1978; — Africa who’s who. London, 1981; 

— J. & r. simons, Class and colour in South Africa, 1850-1950. London, 1983; — M. 
benson. South Africa: the struggle for a birthright. London, 1985; — E.S. REDDY (comp.), 
Monty speaks: speeches of Dr G.M. (Monty) Naicker, 1945-1963. Durban & Bellville, 1991; 

— Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

NAICKER, Marimuthu Pragalathan (*Durban, 1920— tin an aeroplane over 

Europe, 29 April 1977), started his career as an 
uneducated labourer, but later became a journalist 
and politician. He was bom into a working-class 
family and grew up so poverty-stricken that he had 
to leave primary school to go and work in a factory. 
He matriculated, however, by means of extramural 
study. For a while he worked as a lorry driver, but 
became a full-time trade union organizer among 
workers in the sugar plantations in Natal while still 
in his early twenties. He was soon secretary of the 
Natal Sugar Workers’ Union. 

Naicker’s political career started in the 1940s. 
He helped to steer the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) 
in a militant direction, and from 194S until 19S2 he was vice-president of that 
organization. In 1946 he was secretary of the council which organized the 
Natal Indian Passive Resistance Campaign against the government’s restrictive 
legislation, including the so-called Ghetto Act (Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian 
Representation Act no. 28 of 1946) which on the one hand restricted Indian 
land ownership and residence to specific areas in Natal, and on the other hand 
tried to soften the drastic effects by offering political representation to Indians 
through white members of parliament. Twice during the campaign he was taken 
into custody. 

In the mean time Naicker was also active in the Communist Party of South 
Africa (CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953). By the 
middle of the 1 950s Naicker was the Natal manager and editor of New Age 
(successor to The Guardian, mouthpiece of the CPSA/SACP). 

In 1952 Naicker and M.B. Yengwa were joint secretaries of the Joint 
Action Council in Natal for the Defiance Campaign of the South African Indian 
Congress (SAIC) and the African National Congress (ANC). Shortly after- 
wards, under the Suppression of Communism Act, he was banned from further 
political activities and forced to resign from all political organizations. 
Nevertheless, he still acted as joint secretary of the Congress of the People 
campaign in Natal from 1954 to 1955. 


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He was one of the accused during the Treason Trial which lasted from 1956 
to 1961, but the charge against him was withdrawn in 1958. Two years later, 
during the state of emergency which followed the Sharpeville shootings in 
March 1960, he was placed in detention for four months. In 1963 he was 
arrested again and accused of furthering the aims of the ANC, and though not 
formally charged, detained for 90 days. In 1964 he was detained for 180 days, 
but again was not charged. 

After his release from prison, Naicker left South Africa in 1965 and soon 
joined the ANC in exile. He represented the ANC at international conferences 
and anti-apartheid campaigns in many countries, and was appointed as director 
of Publicity and Information in the London office of the ANC. Furthermore, 
he was the first editor of the ANC’s official newspaper, Sechaba. 

He was a member of the executive committee of the International Organiz- 
ation of Journalists (IOJ). Naicker was awarded the IOJ’s gold pin in 1971 , and 
the Julius Fucik medal for outstanding service to journalism in 1976. 

Naicker died of a heart attack during a flight between London and Berlin, 
and was cremated in London. He was survived by his wife Saro and their 

T. Karis A G.M. CARTER (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — 
Obituary: The Natal Mercury, 2 May 1977; Sechaba, 1 IfThird Quarter), 1977; — T. karis 
a G.M. CARTER (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics 
in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. Challenge and violence. 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. 
karis a G.M. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — 
M.P. Naicker: first editor of Sechaba. Sechaba, May 1987; — Makers of modem Africa: 
profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

NAKENE, Godfrey (*Ga-Ramokgopa, Pietersburg district, 24 June 1908— 

fKameelrivier, Groblersdal district, January 1983), 
educationist and school principal, was the son of a 
tribesman, Edwin Nakene and his wife . riam 
Omi. He grew up in a tribal milieu, but since his 
parents had embraced the Christian religion, they 
brought Nakene up under strict Christian principles. 

He passed Standard 6 at Ramoroko School. After 
that he went to Stofberg Gedenkskool (Stofberg 
Memorial School) near Viljoensdrif in the Orange 
Free State, a training college of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in Africa. However, before completing his 
primary teacher’s diploma, he left for Mariannhill, 
the Roman Catholic mission station in the Pinetown 
district. Here he completed both the primary and higher primary teacher’s 
courses in 1932. After that he attended the afternoon classes for private 
students organized by Mrs Edith Rheinallt Jones, a leading educationist at the 
Albert Street Methodist School in central Johannesburg, where he passed 


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matric in 1937. To pay for his tuition, Nakene often did garden and kitchen 
work for some of his tutors. 

Through the intervention of Peter Raynes, priest-in-charge at St Cyprian’s, 
Nakene and H.P. Madibane* were allowed to enrol as students at the Univer- 
sity of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Nakene and Madibane thus became 
the first two Africans to receive a B.A. degree from this university. In the 
1950s he obtained the University Education Diploma (U.E.D.) from the 
University of South Africa. 

To appreciate Nakene’s contribution to education and community affairs, his 
life must be put in the context of the period in which he lived and worked. 
There were very few professions that were open to Africans; other job 
opportunities were restricted and consequently teaching was the mark of an 
educated African. Moreover, very few African teachers could start teaching at 
the rank of principal, but Nakene's first appointment was as principal of the 
Dutch Reformed School in Johannesburg. 

In 1936 W.W.M. Eiselen* was appointed chief inspector of Native 
Education in the Transvaal. He initiated the establishment of day secondary 
schools (i.e. nonresidential secondary schools) for African pupils in the 
Transvaal as an experiment. Two such schools were established in Johannes- 
burg. Because of his achievements at the Dutch Reformed School, Nakene was 
an obvious choice to head one of the schools: Orlando High School. The other 
school was built in Western Native Township, the Johannesburg Bantu High 
School (sometimes called Western High), with Madibane appointed as prin- 

Nakene was a capable leader of a teaching team. He set for himself and his 
school high standards in both teaching and student performance, as he was 
highly gifted in motivating staff and students in the class room and in extra- 
mural activities. 

The urbanization of the African was at its height during and immediately 
after World War II (1939-1945). During his term of fifteen years as the 
principal of Orlando High School, Nakene experienced the ups and downs of 
African urban life. The many restrictive laws that regulated the lives of 
Africans in urban areas — such as influx control, job reservation, the Natives 
(Urban Areas) Act and the Bantu Education Act— led to much unrest and many 
protest actions. Nakene nevertheless led Orlando High School and its staff 
through turbulent times, undoubtedly because he was a devoted principal and 
community leader, one who enjoyed popularity among staff and students and 
support in the community. When he left Orlando, the school was renamed in 
his honour to Nakene High School. 

In 1955, when the position of sub-inspector was introduced as the highest 
position an African teacher could aspire to, Nakene was amongst the first 
Africans to be appointed. He was appointed to the Pretoria East Circuit, 
transferred to the East Rand Circuit and later to the Krugersdorp Circuit. In 
1969 he was promoted to circuit inspector in the Ramokgopa Circuit, his place 
of birth, an inspectoral circuit covering a wide area: Ga-Ramokgopa, Botlo- 
kwa, Ga-Dikgale, Ga-Mamabolo, Ga-Mothapo, Ga-Molepo, Ga-Mothiba, Ga- 
Sekgopo, Ga-Mamaila, as well as the entire Bolobedu. He thus spread his 


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influence over a large section of the Northern Transvaal until his retirement in 

Nakene was also active in community affairs. He was chairperson of the 
Orlando Lads' Hostel that played a significant role in the rehabilitation of way- 
ward youth in the urban environment. He was a member of the Moroka 
Advisory Board which literally controlled a big shantytown that mushroomed 
after World War II, covering a major part of the present-day Soweto. Nakene 
was also a member of the board of the Orlando Donaldson Community Centre, 
a social centre for the people of Orlando. 

For his outstanding contribution to education the University of the North 
awarded him an honorary doctorate in education posthumously in 1983. 

After retiring Nakene turned to his love for farming. On his farm in 
Kameelrivier in the Groblersdal district which he had purchased in September 
1954, he concentrated on cattle. 

Nakene was married to Miriam Pheladi (nee Mathabathe). A son and a 
daughter were born of the marriage. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 7035/85; — Bantu education who’s who: 
G. Nakene. Bantu education journal, 3(10), December 1957; — Honoris causa: G. Nakene, 
University of the North, 1983. 

NGCAYIYA, Henry Reed (*Fort Beaufort district, Cape Colony, 1860— fJo- 

hannesburg (?), 1928), teacher, interpreter, church 
leader and politician. He trained as a teacher at 
Healdtown Institution, a Methodist boarding school 
near Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape. Ngcayiya 
left the teaching profession after a few years, and 
became an interpreter in the magistrate’s court in 
Aliwal North. In the 1890s he was ordained as a 
minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
(AMEC), but after a split in the AMEC he joined 
the Ethiopian Church in South Africa and by 1910 
served as the secretary of that church. Later he held 
the post of president of the church for more than 
sixteen years. 

Ngcayiya’s political involvement started shortly after the South African War 
(1899-1902). In 1907 he served on the executive committee of the Orange 
River Colony Native Congress. Two years later, after he had moved to the 
Transvaal, he served on the executive committee and was secretary of the 
Transvaal Native Congress (TNC). In 1911 he was a nonofficial observer at 
meetings of the South African Native Convention (SANC) executive committee. 
During these meetings the establishment of an African political organization 
was discussed. This led to the foundation of a new country-wide congress. 
Ngcayiya attended the inaugural meeting of the South African Native National 
Congress (SANNC, African National Congress (ANC) after 1923) in Bloem- 
fontein on 8 January 1912 and was elected as assistant chaplain. 

At a mass meeting of African organizations in Cape Town in March 1918 



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the increasingly discriminatory legislation of the government was severely 
criticized. Ngcayiya attacked the discriminatory measures in the Urban Areas 
Bill of 1918. He said that the compulsory residential segregation was "indica- 
tive of a suspicion that Natives were suffering from some contagious disease 
against which the white race must be protected". 

Ngcayiya was not an official member of the 1919 SANNC deputation to the 
Versailles Peace Conference and the British government that tried to obtain a 
better dispensation for Africans in South Africa. However, as president of the 
Ethiopian Church of South Africa he joined the deputation as representative for 
Nyamanda, the eldest son of Lobengula*, to petition the land issues in 
Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and Nyamanda’s claim to his father’s throne. 

During the TNC congress in Pietersburg in 1921 Ngcayiya was elected 
chaplain of the Transvaal branch of the SANNC. Simultaneously he was 
elected to a special committee of the TNC that had to investigate the eviction 
of Africans from farms. The eviction resulted in families wandering around 
poverty-stricken, bringing their livestock along with them. 

Z.R. Mahabane*, president-general of the ANC (1924-1927), accepted 
Ngcayiya into his ‘cabinet’ as chaplain-general. When J.T. Gumede* succeeded 
Mahabane as president-general at the annual national congress of the ANC of 
1 927 Ngcayiya was elected to the national executive committee. 

He was known as a friendly, magnanimous and energetic person. He was 
married and his eldest son was a teacher in the United States of America. 

Central Archives, Pretoria: Archives of the Department of Native Affairs; — t.d.m. skota 
( ed.). The African yearly register, being an illustrated national biographical dictionary 
(who's who) of black folks in Africa. Johannesburg, (1931]; — c.M. DE viluers, Die African 
National Congress en sy aktiwiteite atm die Witwatersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. 
University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: 
the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London , 1970; — MX. DANEEL, Old and new in 
the Southern Shona independent churches. 1. Background and rise of the major mowments. 
The Hague, 1971; — j.g. storry, The shattered nation. Cape Town, 1974; — t. karis * 
g.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in 
South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — a. odendaal, 
Black protest politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town, 1984; — B. willan, Sol Plaatje: 
a biography. Johannesburg, 1984. 

NGOYI, Lilian Masediba (*Gamatlala, near Pretoria, 191 1—f Johannesburg, 
12 March 1980), a dressmaker, political activist and trade unionist, and 
women’s leader. She was the daughter of a Pedi mineworker who later became 
a packer in a shop. She grew up in poverty and her parents could only afford 
to let her attend Kilnerton Institution, a Methodist college in Pretoria, until she 
had passed Standard 6. For a time she was being trained as a nurse at the City 
Deep Mines Hospital, but did not enter this profession. After having been a 
domestic worker for a while, she became a machine operator in a clothes 
factory in 1945 and joined the Garment Workers’ Union (GWU). 

Ngoyi’s political career began in 1952 when she took part in a protest 
march against the banning of the general secretary of the GWU, Emil Solomon 
(Solly) Sachs*. In the same year she joined the Women's League of the African 


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National Congress (ANC) and took part in the Defi- 
ance Campaign. She was arrested during the cam- 
paign, but was released. Shortly after the campaign 
she was elected as president of die Women's League 
of the ANC. 

In April 1954 Ngoyi attended the first National 
Conference of Women, which could be regarded as 
the launching of the Federation of South African 
Women (FSAW). She was elected as one of the four 
vice-presidents, representing the Transvaal, and had 
to establish a regional committee for the Transvaal 
ANC Women’s League In 1955 she was elected to the executive committee of 
the Transvaal ANC. She was closely involved with the FSAW demonstration 
at the Union Buildings in Pretoria on 27 October 1955. At the end of 1955 she 
undertook her only overseas tour when she was the FSAW delegate at a 
conference of the International Democratic Federation of Women in Lausanne, 
Switzerland. She also visited the German Democratic Republic (East Ger- 
many), the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and Britain. 

After her return Ngoyi enthusiastically attended anti-pass campaigns. In 
January 1956 she addressed a large anti-pass rally in Port Elizabeth, and in 
April she was in the Winburg district where she persuaded large numbers of 
African women to burn their passes in public. Her anti-pass activities climaxed 
when she was one of the African women leaders to march to the Union 
Buildings in Pretoria on 9 August 1956. Approximately 20 000 women took 
part in the march, which made it one of the largest protest marches in South 
African history. Ngoyi’s leadership among women culminated in her election 
as national president of FSAW during its conference from 11-12 August 1956. 
The women’s march to the Union Buildings probably also raised the prestige 
of women within the ANC substantially — up to that time women had only been 
elected to the regional executive committees of the ANC— because in December 
1956 Ngoyi became the first woman to be elected to the national executive 
committee of the ANC. 

Following the Congress of the People at Kliptown in 1955, Ngoyi was one 
of the 156 ANC leaders who were arrested for high treason in December 1956. 
She was one of the last 30 accused in the Treason Trial of 1956-1961. This 
resulted in her political activities being hampered time and again. However, she 
took part in as many campaigns as possible. For example, during the unrest in 
the Marico district in 1957-1958 she secretly visited the area and addressed a 
rally of local women. 

During the 1960 state of emergency Ngoyi was detained for five months, 71 
days of which she spent in solitary confinement. During the third FSAW na- 
tional conference in Port Elizabeth in September 1961 she was re-elected as na- 
tional president. A month after the conference she was banned and for five 
years she was restricted to Orlando township where she lived in a three-roomed 
house in White City. In fact, from then until her death she was effectively 
banned permanently and was listed as a communist. She was forced to give up 
her job and tried to make a living from sewing at home. In spite of all the 


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setbacks she remained determined to win the political battle against apartheid. 

Ngoyi was charismatic and a good public speaker with a highly developed 
sense of the dramatic. Although she had a powerful personality, she tended to 
be highly emotional and therefore allowed herself to be disciplined by others. 
She had a large personal following among African women. 

She was married, but shortly after the birth of her two children she was 
divorced. (Some sources state that her husband, a van driver, died early.) 

a. sampson, The treason cage: the opposition on trial in South Africa. London, 1958; — T. 
KARIS A G.M. CARTER (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; 
— T. KARIS A G.M. carter (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — H. BERNSTEIN, For their triumphs and for their tears: conditions and resistance of 
women in apartheid South Africa. London, 1978; — T. LODGE, Black politics in South Africa 
since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; — M. Benson, South Africa: the struggle for a birthright. 
London, 1985; — F. baard, My spirit is not banned, as told to Barbie Schreiner. Harare, 
1986; — t. schadeberg (comp. & ed.). The fifties people of South Africa. [5./.], 1987; — 
c. walker, Women and resistance in South Africa. 2nd ed. Cape Town, 1991; — Makers 
of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

NKOSI, Johannes (*Natal, 3 September 1905 — fDurban, 19 December 1930), 

a martyr for the Communist Party of South Africa 
(CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) 
after 1953), was the son of Jacobina Nkosi (no 
details of his father could be traced). 

Nkosi spent his early years on the farm of Pixley 
Seme near Standerton and attended the St John’s 
Mission School at Blood River up to Standard 5. 
For a time he worked as farm labourer before 
moving to Johannesburg to become a domestic 
worker. He was soon involved with the 1919 anti- 
pass campaign of the South African Native National 
Congress (SANNC, African National Congress 
(ANC) after 1923) and became an organizer in the 
Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU). In 1926 he joined the 
CPSA, one of numerous Africans to be recruited for the CPSA through 
communist night schools in Johannesburg. He impressed the party leadership 
with his intelligence and dynamic personality. The CPSA policy to encourage 
African leadership, as well as the more aggressive CPSA propaganda for an 
independent ‘native republic’, led to Nkosi’s appointment as organizer in 
Durban in February 1929. 

Initially Nkosi and the CPSA kept a low profile and mainly organized 
public meetings for African dock workers. Nkosi simultaneously lectured at the 
communist night school. His other major activity was selling Umsebenzi, the 
mouthpiece of the CPSA. 

After the Durban beer riots of June 1929 in which the CPSA was not 
involved, circumstances apparently became more favourable for the CPSA due 


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to growing African militancy. During the riots the ICU yase Natal was the 
strongest black organization in Durban, but the moderation of its leader, 
A.W.G. Champion*, disillusioned many of its supporters. Consequently many 
Africans turned to the more militant Nkosi, who in his speeches propagated for 
instance the CPSA political programme which called for a ‘South African 
native republic’ and the burning of passbooks. (The pass-burning campaign was 
a central part of the programme of mass action formulated around the ‘native 
republic’ programme.) He furthermore openly stated that Africans should fight 
for their freedom. He was also well known to members of the ICU because he 
usually attended the Sunday meetings of the ICU to sell his newspaper, though 
he had to ask Champion for permission at every meeting. At that stage the 
union leadership in Durban had built up a strong Zulu populism. 

The deportation of Champion in October 1930 left a leadership vacuum in 
Durban, resulting in Africans siding in large numbers with Nkosi and the 
CPSA, their speeches finding resonance with local idioms of resistance. By 
December 1930, it is claimed, Nkosi had become the most influential African 
leader in Durban. However, his youth made him unacceptable to many of the 
older workers for whom age conferred a certain authority to political leader- 

Coupled with the growth of the Durban branch, the CPSA started a 
country-wide campaign to burn passbooks on 16 December 1930, the Day of 
the Covenant. It was nevertheless only in Durban that the campaign achieved 
anything approaching success. It was during the burning of passbooks in 
Durban that there was a bloody clash between Africans and the Durban city 
police— a mixed force of whites and Africans, armed with batons and 
revolvers, and knopkieries and assegais respectively. Nkosi and several other 
protestors were seriously injured. After an emergency operation Nkosi died on 
19 December of shock and haemorrhage of the cerebrum and the abdominal 
cavity. Rumours stated that he was struck down by a single bullet in the head, 
but an autopsy showed that his skull was fractured and that he had severe stab 
wounds over his body. 

Nkosi ’s death was one of the few overt proofs of communist activity in 
South Africa in an otherwise disappointing year for the CPSA. This created a 
martyr’s role for Nkosi, with an accompanying mythologizing of the story of 
his death and an honorary position as a revolutionary martyr in the black 
freedom struggle. His death is annually commemorated by the ANC and the 
SACP during their Heroes Day on 16 December. In July 1953 a memorial to 
Nkosi was unveiled at the Stellawood Cemetery in Durban. During the 1950s 
the South African Congress of Trade Unions undertook frequent pilgrimages to 
his grave to find inspiration for their fight against white oppression. 

Nkosi was apparently married to a certain Hetty. Further details of the 
marriage could not be obtained. 

Skull badly fractured. The Natal Advertiser, 17 December 1930; — Obituary: Another riot 
fatality: native Communist leader dies. The Natal Advertiser, 19 December 1930; — E. 
ROUX, Time longer than rope: a history of the black man 's struggle for freedom in South 
Africa. London, 1948; — T. karis a o.m. carter (eds), From protest to challenge. 4. 
Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — South African communist speaks: 


documents from the history of the South African Communist Party, 1915-1980. London, 
1981; — h.r. pike, A history of communism in South Africa. Germiston, 1985; — F.A. 
MOUTON, Die dood van Johannes Nkosi: rewolusionere martelaar. South African historical 
journal , 19, 1987; — p. la haussa, The message of warriors: the ICU, the labouring poor 
and the making of a popular political culture in Durban, 1925-1930. In: P. bonner et al. 
(eds). Holding their ground: class, locality and culture in 19th and 20th century South 
Africa. Johannesburg, 1989. 

NOKWE, Philemon Pearce Dumalisile (Duma) (*Evaton, Transvaal, 13 May 

1927— fLusaka, Zambia, 12 January 1978), first 
African advocate of the Supreme Court of Transvaal 
and politician. As a child he grew up in a working- 
class environment— his father was a shoemaker— and 
attended primary schools in Evaton. He matriculated 
at St Peter’s Secondary School in Johannesburg. 
(This was probably the Anglican school situated in 
Rosettenville, and not the school of the same name 
at Crown Mines.) Nokwe then proceeded to the 
South African Native College (University of Fort 
Hare) where he obtained the B.Sc. degree in 1949 
and a teacher's diploma a year later. In 1951 he 
started teaching in Krugersdorp at the secondary 

school for Africans. 

Nokwe became acquainted with politics early in his life. One of his teachers 
in Johannesburg was Oliver Tambo, a leader of the African National Congress 
Youth League (CYL), who probably influenced him. Nokwe was involved with 
the formation of a CYL branch at Fort Hare and after his return to the 
Transvaal he remained an active CYL member, becoming chairperson of the 
Orlando branch in 1952. The following year he was suspended from teaching 
because of his participation in the Defiance Campaign, but obtained a post at 
a private school. 

In the second half of 1953 he accompanied Walter Sisulu, the secretary- 
general of the African National Congress (ANC), on a five-month tour 
overseas. They visited Britain, the Netherlands, Israel, the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China and other socialist centres, including Bucharest in 
Rumania and Warsaw in Poland where they attended a youth festival and a 
youth congress respectively. After his return to South Africa he openly 
associated with the left wing of the ANC who co-operated with the South 
African Indian Congress and the South African Communist Party (SACP), 
including white communists. This increasingly led to antagonism from the 
Africanists in the ANC, especially P.K. Leballo, who believed in ‘Africa for 
the Africans’. This opposition to closer ties with Indians and whites crystallized 
in the election of Leballo as chairperson of the Orlando branch of the CYL in 
Nokwe’s place in March 1954. The tension between the Africanists and the 
CYL who tended towards multiracialism continued, and at the annual congress 
of the CYL Leballo's election as chairperson was not upheld. Nokwe was, 
however, elected as secretary-general of the national executive of the CYL, a 


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position he retained until 1958. In 1955 he was elected to the national executive 
committee of the ANC, as well as secretary of the working committee. In 1958 
he was elected as secretary-general of the ANC— a position he held until 1969. 
Within the ANC he was closely involved with the dissension between the 
Africanists and the supporters of the Freedom Charter— a document which he 
had to defend against criticism time and again. 

In 1954 Nokwe was restricted to Johannesburg for five years under the 
Suppression of Communism Act. The restriction was extended in 1959 for a 
further five years. Notwithstanding these banning orders Nokwe took part in 
resistance against the implementation of the Bantu Education Act (1953) in 
1955. V 

The bans served on him proved an obstacle in Nokwe’s professional career. 
Through extramural study Nokwe obtained the LL.B. degree at the University 
of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in 1955 and qualified as an advocate. The 
Group Areas Act (1950) and Natives (Urban Areas) Act, however, prevented 
him from occupying rooms in the same building as other Johannesburg 
barristers. Furthermore, the restrictions prevented him from travelling freely to 
attend to clients and prepare for cases. He was one of the last 30 accused in the 
Treason Trial which lasted from 1956 to 1961 and an unofficial member of the 
defense team. His own legal practice collapsed in this period. 

Nokwe was involved with the ANC’s economic boycott in 1959, as well as 
the planning of an anti-pass campaign for 1959 to 1960. During the traumatic 
period after the Sharpeville shootings on 21 March 1960 which led to the 
declaration of a state of emergency by the government on 30 March and the 
banning of the ANC and the Pan- Africanist Congress on 8 April, Nokwe was 
detained by the police for five months. After his release he was a convener of 
the Consultative Conference of African Leaders in Orlando in December 1960. 
Although he could not attend the conference because of a banning order, he 
was elected to the continuation committee to organize an all-in African 
conference. This took place in March 1961— although the unity at the confer- 
ence soon broke down and the ANC dominated it. In the same month he was 
rearrested and found guilty of furthering the interests of a banned organization 
under the Unlawful Organizations Act. A prison sentence was imposed upon 
him, but he appealed successfully against it. 

Nokwe left South Africa in 1963 and joined the ANC in exile. He was 
intensely involved with campaigns to recruit support for the ANC and with 
attempts to effect a comprehensive economic boycott against South Africa. Ill 
health forced him to resign his position as secretary-general of the ANC in 
1969. By 1974 he was again active in overseas opposition politics and at the 
United Nations advocated that South Africa be suspended from that body. In 
1975 he was appointed as deputy secretary-general as well as ANC director of 
international affairs. Periodically he broadcast over the ANC’s Radio Freedom. 

There was sometimes talk that Nokwe was a member of the SACP. He was 
a zealous author and produced a number of political articles for newspapers and 
magazines. He was described as "tough, witty, urbane ... one of the ANC’s 
ablest politicians". 

He died after a short illness and was buried in Lusaka. He was survived by 


his wife and children. 

R. seoal. Political Africa: a who's who of personalities anti parties. London, 1961; — c.M. 
DE VILLIERS, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Witwatersrand, 
1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — T. karis a G.M. carter (eds), 
From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 2. Hope and challenge, 1935-1952. Stanford, 1973; — T. karis a g.m. carter 
(eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 3. Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; — T. karis a g.m. 
carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South 
Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — Duma Nokwe: 
honourable son of Africa. Sechaba, 12(Second Quarter), 1978; — T. lodge, Black politics 
in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg, 1983; — M. BENSON, South Africa: the struggle 
for a birthright. London, 1985; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. 
London, 1991. 

NZULA, Albert (*Rouxville, Orange Free State, 16 November 1905 — fMos- 

cow, USSR (Russia), 14 January 1934), teacher and 
journalist, but during his short public career particu- 
larly well known as a leader in the Communist 
Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Com- 
munist Party (SACP) after 1953). He received his 
schooling at Bensonvale in Herschel, and at Love- 
dale Institution at Alice in the Eastern Cape where 
he qualified as a teacher. His first teaching post was 
at Aliwal North and simultaneously he acted as a 
court interpreter. He joined the local branch of the 
Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU) 
and was soon elected as secretary. 

In about 1927 Nzula moved to the Witwatersrand 
where he obtained a teaching post at the Wilberforce Institute in Evaton. His 
political involvement increased significantly shortly after this. He joined the 
African National Congress (ANC) in 1928 and in August of the same year 
came in contact with the CPSA when he attended a meeting in Evaton. In the 
same period he read Bishop W.M. Brown’s book, Communism and christian- 
ism: analyzed and contrasted from the view-point of Darwinism (1920), which 
was sympathetic to communism. The book made a lasting impression on Nzula. 
It convinced him "that every right-minded person aught to be a communist" 
(cited from a letter to The South African Worker on 24 September 1928). He 
claimed to be "prepared to do [his] little bit to enlighten [his] countrymen" and 
immediately joined the CPSA. 

Nzula next resigned from his teaching post at Evaton and settled in Johan- 
nesburg where he helped Charles Baker, a white communist, to run a night 
school. In February 1929 he delivered a lecture to the students of the night 
school on the so-called J.B.M. Hertzog* Draft Bills— the Natives’ Trust and 
Land Bill that affected ownership of land outside the reserves and the Repre- 
sentation of Natives Bill that dealt with the removal of the Cape black voters 
from the common voters’ roll. On the grounds of allegations that he incited his 


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students to hostility, he was sentenced to a month’s imprisonment. 

Nzula’s abilities as speaker and writer were quickly recognized. At the 
seventh annual conference of the CPSA that was held from December 1 928 to 
January 1929 Nzula was elected as organizing and assistant secretary. When 

D. J. Wolton left South Africa in July 1929, Nzula succeeded him as the first 
African general secretary of the CPSA and editor of the party newspaper The 
South African Worker. His election was connected with the CPSA’s Africani- 
zation policy towards the end of the 1920s. However, he held the post for less 
than a year, because at the end of 1929 he became general secretary of the 
communist-controlled Federation of Non-White Trade Unions. 

When the League of African Rights held its first conference in Johannes- 
burg in December 1929 Nzula was elected as co-secretary of this new organiz- 
ation that only existed for a couple of months. He was still a member of the 
ANC although very critical of the conservative leaders of the ANC. However, 
he attended the annual conference of the ANC in Bloemfontein in April 1930. 
The ideological differences between the conservatives and the communists in 
the ANC came to a head at that conference. Nzula could, however, do nothing 
to prevent the pro-communist J.T. Gumede* from being outvoted as president- 
general by the conservative Pixley Seme. Later that year Nzula energetically 
helped to organize the CPSA’s comprehensive anti-pass campaigns that culmi- 
nated in country-wide public pass-burning ceremonies on 16 December 1930. 

Nzula thereafter left South Africa to study further at the Lenin School in 
Moscow where he arrived in August 1931. In the USSR he also worked for 
Communism International (Comintern) and as a journalist submitted contribu- 
tions to The Negro Worker, an organ of Comintern. While in Moscow he 
contracted pneumonia and died. Some sources contend, however, that Joseph 
Stalin’s secret police murdered him, though no specific reasons are given. 

Nzula was a good public speaker and writer with considerable political 
capabilities. His weakness for alcohol, however, spoilt his outstanding abilities. 
He is sometimes credited for exposing the shortcomings of the white leadership 
of the CPSA and inspiring prominent African CPSA members to assert them- 
selves as leaders. 

No details of his private life could be traced. 

E. ROUX, Time longer than rope: a history of the black man’s struggle for freedom in South 
Africa. 2nd ed. Madison, 1964; — P. walshe, The rise of African Nationalism in South 
Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 1970; — T. Karis a g.m. 
carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South 
Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — South African 
communist speaks: documents from the history of the South African Communist Party, 
1915-1980. London, 1981; — 1 . A R. simons, Class and colour in South Africa, 1850-1950. 
London, 1983; — Pen pictures of South African communists. Umsebenzi, 2(1), 1986; — 
h.r. pike, A history of communism in South Africa. 2nd ed., rev. & enl. Germiston, 1988; 
— Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 


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OPPERMAN, Diederik Johannes (*Geduld no. 2, near Dannhauser, Dundee 

district, 29 September 1914 — tStellenbosch, 22 Sep- 
tember 1985), Afrikaans poet, dramatist and litter- 
ateur, was the eldest son of Diederik Johannes Op- 
perman and his wife Heila Susanna Magdalena 

Opperman spent his first years on the farm Sted- 
ham in the Black Umfolozi valley southeast of Vry- 
heid. Here, with Zulu boys, he came to know the 
game, birds and plants of the region and made clay 
oxen. His parents had a decisive influence on him. 
His father studied spiritualism and painted in his 
spare time. In one of his paintings he depicted a 
coal mine explosion near Newcastle, which later 
featured in his son’s poem ‘Dennebol’. During World War I (1914-1918) 
financial circumstances forced his father to leave the farm and work in various 
towns in Natal until 1925. 

Opperman initially attended school at Estcourt and Colenso where the 
medium of instruction was English. His high school career was interrupted 
when he and his brother had to farm on a smallholding to supplement the 
family income. 

While at high school at Vryheid (1931-1934)— after attempts in English at 
primary school— Opperman wrote his first poems in Afrikaans. At Vryheid he 
was influenced by his teachers, especially the principal, P.C. Schoonees*, a 
well-known prose expert and later dictionary compiler, who placed his library 
at Opperman’s disposal and introduced him to the critical reading of literature. 
During these years he wrote his first nature verses and love poems. In his 
matric year he handed in a story to Schoonees, entitled 'Die reenoffer’, which 
so impressed the principal that he advised Opperman to have it published. It 
appeared in Die huisgenoot of 7 September 1934. At the end of 1934 he passed 
matric, achieving the best results in the Hoer Taalbond examination in Natal, 
which enabled him to study at the Natal University College in Pietermaritz- 

While a student in Pietermaritzburg (1935-1939) he soon became close 
friends with two lecturers in Dutch, J.J. lee Roux* and G.S. Nienaber. Already 
in 1935 he submitted to Nienaber a collection of poems written at school and 



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in 1937 another collection, entitled Opwaartse drif. On Nienaber’s suggestion 
he submitted the latter manuscript to a publisher, but it was rejected. During 
these years his poems about the Black Umfolozi valley and city life, as well as 
his contemplative verse appeared in the Natal University College magazine, of 
which he was the editor-in-chief in 1938. Other poems appeared in Die 
Saamwerk, and he also wrote a regular column on books and art for Die 
Natalse Afrikaner. After an essay of his had been published in Die huisgenoot 
in 1938, he sent an increasing number of his poems to the magazine. 

After completing the B.A. degree and the Higher Teacher’s Diploma in 
1937 and 1938 respectively, he was awarded the M.A. cum laude in 1939 for 
a dissertation on Afrikaans literary criticism until 1922. Based on this he was 
awarded the Victoria bursary to continue his studies in the Netherlands, but the 
outbreak of the Second World War (1939-1945) prevented this. 

In 1940 he accepted a school teaching post at Voortrekker High School in 
Pietermaritzburg. He inter alia edited the school magazine, encouraged pupils 
with creative talent to submit their work to him, and he wrote the school song 
in 1944. During these years he wrote regular reviews and published a number 
of poems in Die huisgenoot. After being rejected for publication in 1943, 
Heilige beeste, a volume of poetry, appeared in May 1945. This debut 
collection elicited favourable reaction. Opperman broke with the themes of 
confession and religious struggle which characterized the early poetry of his 
immediate predecessors, the Dertiger poets (poets of the 1930s), N.P. van Wyk 
Louw* and his brother W.E.G. Louw*. Opperman’s imagery also lent a strong 
sensuous quality to experience. The thematic motives of the volume were the 
earthly, woman and the ‘Great Great Spirit*. 

In July 1945 Opperman accepted a post at Helpmekaar High School in Jo- 
hannesburg. He got to know the northern writers better during this time, 
although, with the exception of Elizabeth Eybers, he did not feel much affinity 
with them. In January 1946 he took up an editorial post with Die huisgenoot in 
Cape Town. Here he was to come into close contact with the publishing house 
of Nasionale Pers and the more stimulating group of authors in and around 
Cape Town. 

Besides Fred lee Roux, the editor of Die huisgenoot, Opperman became 
acquainted with authors such as I.W. van der Merwe (Boerneef)*, I.D. du 
Plessis* and Uys Krige. He also had close contact with the Dutch poet Jan 
Greshoff*. He regularly met N.P. van Wyk Louw, at that time lecturer in the 
Faculty of Education at the University of Cape Town (UCT), and had fruitful 
conversations with him. His friendship with Fred lee Roux lasted throughout 
his life. Opperman showed him all his poem manuscripts and had great 
appreciation for his literary judgement. 

Opperman’s work at Die huisgenoot brought him into contact with authors 
to whom he was able to give valuable advice. He often encouraged younger 
writers and this led to the publication of the anthology Stiebeuel / in which he 
and Fred lee Roux included work of poets who had not yet published in book 
form. He started selecting manuscripts for Nasionale Pers and was invited to 
compile a series of anthologies of poetry for them. 

In 1947 Heilige beeste was awarded the Hertzog prize for poetry by the 



Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (SAAWK) (South African 
Academy for Arts and Science). A second collection of poetry, Negester oor 
Ninevi, was published in 1947 and confirmed his poetic talent. In this 
collection the three basic motives of the debut volume were more closely 
integrated with the following conceptions: tension between heaven and earth, 
which was contained in the title; man’s task to set the divine free from the 
‘primeval morass’ through birth and allow God to appear in a perfect form; the 
eternal cycle of birth and death, the succession of generations and man having 
to give meaning to his ancestors; and approaching parenthood and the task 
awaiting the father in this regard. This volume was also enthusiastically 
received by the critics. 

In 1949 Opperman became a lecturer in the Department of Afrikaans and 
Dutch at UCT. In this position and later at the University of Stellenbosch (US) 
he influenced numerous students of literature. Among his UCT students were 
Roswitha Geggus (Schutte), Adam Small, Rialette Wiehahn, Edith Raidt and 
Breyten Breytenbach. In 1954 he was promoted to senior lecturer and during 
the years 1952 to 1959 he twice received a research award from the university. 

The years in Cape Town were Opperman’s most productive. In Joemaal 
van Jorik (1949), the story of Jorik can be interpreted as an allegory of the 
modern Afrikaner as he was shaped by national history as well as by 20 
centuries of world history. The narration spanned the birth of the Afrikaner 
nation through to a prophetic vision of a future republic. The life span of the 
individual in the poem can also be interpreted as a vision of mankind between 
Genesis and Revelations, between the origin of man and his apocalyptical end, 
from his emergence through the centuries, until his becoming part of the earth 
and finally returning to the water from which he came to ‘account’ for his life. 

In 1950 the volume Engel uit die klip appeared, in which the tension 
between the divine and the earthly featured once more, but now with the 
emphasis on the redemption motif. The main accent in the collection was on 
the task of the artist. This motif tied in with ideas of transformation, identifi- 
cation and redemption which refined Ovid’s idea of the taking on of other 

In 1951 the anthologies Junior verseboek. Senior verse boek and Groot 
verseboek appeared, and in 1954 Lied van die land. Opperman’s association 
with Nasionale Boekhandel became closer and virtually all poetry of this 
publishing house went through his hands. From 1950 to 1955 he was also 
editorial secretary of Standpunte. He transformed the journal by including 
besides Afrikaans and Dutch work also English contributions and nominating 
an English editor for this purpose; by regularly publishing chronicles on 
literature by literary historians; and by obtaining the co-operation of young 
poets and critics. 

In 1952 Opperman received the degree of D.Litt. from UCT for a study on 
the poetry of the thirties, published the following year as Digters van dertig. 

Opperman was proud of being an Afrikaner but was critical of the series of 
apartheid laws of the fifties and especially perturbed by the alienation of the 
coloureds which arose from that. He found it difficult to reconcile the 
limitations of Afrikaner nationalism with the artist’s desire for identification 



with others and aloofness from popular conceptions, including ideologies. 

After the appearance of Digters van dertig Opperman embarked on a new 
genre which had long interested him— the verse play. His first play, Periandros 
van Korinthe (1954), dealt with Periandros, the despotic ruler of Corinth in the 
sixth century before Christ. The drama received the W.A. Hofmeyr prize and 
in 1957 the Hertzog prize for drama. A second verse play, Vergelegen (1956), 
was based on the regime of W.A. van der Stel* at the Cape. His fourth volume 
of poetry, Blom en baaierd , also appeared in 1954. Although the tension 
between heaven and earth was still a dominant motif, many of the poems in the 
first part of the volume reflected the South African ‘colour’ reality, while 
suffering on a more universal level was investigated in the second half. There 
was also reflection on the task of the poet, while ‘Kroniek van Kristien’ took 
the motif of identification and redemption to a climax in Opperman’s work. 

In 1956 to 1957 he and his wife toured Europe, an experience which was 
later reflected in his poems. After his return to South Africa he compiled the 
anthologies Kleuterverseboek and Klein verseboek and in 1959 he brought his 
critical essays together in Wiggelstok. 

In the middle of 1959 Opperman became professor at US. When students in 
their second and third years were given the option to specialize in either 
literature or linguistics Opperman seized it as an opportunity to realize an ideal: 
to start a workshop or laboratory where he could advise students about their 
creative work, where students could learn by analysing one another’s work and 
where they could gradually develop into independent poets. Students who 
emerged from this literary laboratory as poets in their own right included Lina 
Spies, Fanie Olivier, Leon Strydom and Marlene van Niekerk. 

In 1962 Opperman became a director of the publishing firm Human & 
Rousseau. He acted as a selector of most of the firm’s literary publications and 
as planner of large projects such as the series Blokboeke oor die Afrikaanse en 
Nederlandse letterkunde of which he became the editor. This meant that he was 
advisor for and selector of new work of authors such as Etienne Leroux, Andrd 
P. Brink, Jan Rabie and Antjie Krog. He also took a strong stand against 
censorship of South African publications during the sixties and seventies. 

Opperman was twice honoured by fellow litterateurs by means of special 
birthday volumes. On his fiftieth birthday in 1964 he was presented with an 
anthology Kort reis na Carrara edited by A.P. Grovd, who also edited a 
collection of critical essays handed to him on his sixtieth birthday in 1974, 
entitled Dolosgooier van die woord. On the latter occasion he was also 
presented with a special anthology, Woord en wederwoord , edited by Merwe 
Scholtz, and another by Koos Human, Verse vir Opperman. 

He continued his prodigious productivity and published selections from the 
work of Gustav Preller* {Eerstelinge , 1961), H.A. Mulder* (Laaste opstelle, 
1961) and P.C. Schoonees ( Die tweede verdieping, 1962); together with Fred 
lee Roux a selection from the work of younger poets under the title Stiebeuel 
II (1965); and with C.J.M. Nienaber a selection of Dutch and Afrikaans poetry 
( Dubbelloop , 1966). Many of his own essays were published in Naaldekoker 
(1974) and Verspreide opstelle (1977). 

Shortly after his arrival at Stellenbosch the anthologies Astrak and D.J. 


Opperrnan: 'n keur uit sy gedigte appeared in 1960. Dolosse (1963) contained 
many sombre poems with a cheerless future vision. Many concentrated on the 
nature of the Afrikaner nation's doom, as well as that of Western civilization, 
and mankind in its degeneration. For this volume he was awarded the Central 
News Agency (CNA) and W.A. Hofmeyr prizes. Kuns-mis (1964) included a 
collection of poems which often commented satirically on conditions and in 
which pun, ambiguity and the like were often used. In Voilvry (1968), a verse 
play dealing with the history of Louis Tregardt’s* trek, he posed questions 
about the meaning of the Afrikaner nation. He was awarded the Hertzog prize 
for this drama in 1969. In 1968 he published, together with a number of co- 
workers, Gees van die wingerd which dealt with the wine culture from its 
origin and spread to South Africa, to its reflection in art and literature and the 
companionship and the use of wine. 

In 1976 Opperrnan became seriously ill with jaundice and eventually liver 
failure which caused him to go into comas. His recovery heralded a new joyful 
period in his life. On his seventy-fifth birthday he was presented with a special 
edition of Standpunte, a facsimile edition of the Joemaal van Jorik documents 
(Die galeie van Jorik), and a retrospective view of his work by J.C. Kanne- 
meyer, entitled Kroniek van klip en ster. His experience during his illness led 
to the stimulating new volume Komas uit ’n bamboesstok which was published 
in June 1979. The first impression of 2 000 copies were sold out within ten 
days and until June 1981 the volume was reprinted three times with a total 
impression of 8 580 copies. It was the most phenomenal sales figure achieved 
by any Afrikaans volume of poetry in such a short time. 

At the end of 1979 Opperrnan retired as professor but was appointed as 
special lecturer for the literary laboratory, a post he held for one year. A light 
stroke in August 1980 was followed by a serious one in June 1981. This left 
him partly paralysed and his speech seriously impaired. He died more than four 
years later. 

Opperrnan held honorary doctorates from the universities of Natal, 
Stellenbosch, Cape Town and Pretoria. In October 1983 he received the 
honorary membership of the SAAWK, in 1984 the Decoration for Meritorious 
Service from the State President, and in 1985 the Gustav Preller prize for 
Literary Criticism. 

In April 1942 Opperrnan married Marid van Reenen. They had three 

T.T. cloete, Trekkerswee en Joemaal van Jorik. Amsterdam, 1953; — E. van HEERDEN, 
Rekenskap: letterkundige opstelle. Kaapstad, 1963; — a.p. grovE, Fyn net van die woord: 
opstelle oor die pofsie. Kaapstad, 1963; — R. antonissen, Kern en tooi: kroniek van die 
Afrikaanse lettere, 1951-1960. Kaapstad, 1963; — P. DU p. grobler, Dirk Opperrnan: 50 
jaar. Lantern, 14(2), Desember 1964; — a.p. GROVfi, Oordeel en vooroordeel: letterkundige 
opstelle en kritiek. Kaapstad, 1965; — a.p. grovE, D.J. Opperrnan. Kaapstad, 1965. 
(Monografiee uit die Afrikaanse letterkunde, no. 9); — R. antonissen, Die Afrikaanse 
letterkunde van aanvang tot hede. Kaapstad, 1965; — E. UNDENBERG, Onsydige toets : 
letterkundige opstelle. Kaapstad, 1965; — R. antonissen, Spitsberaad: kroniek van die 
Afrikaanse lettere, 1961-1965. Kaapstad, 1966; — t.t. cloete, Kaneel: opstelle oor die 
letterkunde. Kaapstad, 1970; — a. dekker, Afrikaanse literatuurgeskiedenis. Kaapstad, 


spyrighted material 

[1973?]; — A.P. GROVE (red.), Woord en wederwoord. Pretoria, 1974; — cj.m. nienabhr, 
Oor literatuur: opstelle oor letterkunde en kritiek. 1. Pretoria, 1974; — M. SCHOLTZ, Herout 
van die Afrikaanse poisie en ander opstelle. Kaapstad, 1975; — dj. opperman, Verspreide 
opstelle. Kaapstad, 1977; — c.j.m. nienaber, Oor literatuur : opstelle oor letterkunde en 
kritiek. 2. Pretoria. 1977; — E. van HEERDEN, Digterlike diagnose. Kaapstad, 1977; — J.c. 
kannemeyer, Konfrontasies: letterkundige opstelle en kritiek. 1961-1975. Kaapstad, 1977; 

— M. scholtz, Die teken as teiken: opstelle oor beduidende Afrikaanse literatuur. Kaapstad, 
1978; — A.P. GROVE, Dagsoom. Kaapstad, 1978; — L. SPIES, Ontmoetings. Kaapstad, 1979; 

— 1 . du p. scholtz, Oor skilders en skrywers. Kaapstad, 1979; — E. lindenbero (red.), 
Inleiding tot die Afrikaanse letterkunde. Pretoria, 1980; — o.s. nienaber (red.), Perspektief 
en profiel: "n geskiedenis van die Afrikaanse letterkunde. Johannesburg, 1982; — J.c. 
kannemeyer, Geskiedenis van die Afrikaanse literatuur, 11. Pretoria, 1983; — Obituaries: 
Beeld, 23 & 24 September 1985; Die Burger, 23, 24 & 27 September 1985; Die Volksblad, 
23 September 1985; Oosterlig, 23 September 1985; The Argus, 23 & 24 September 1985; 
The Cape Times, 23 & 24 September 1985; The Star, 23 September 1985; Pretoria News, 
27 September 1985; Rapport, 29 September 1985; Transvaler, 3 Oktober 1985; — J.C. 
KANNEMEYER, D.J. Opperman: 'n biogrqfie. Kaapstad, 1986; T.T. CLOETE, Huldiging aan 
D.J. Opperman, 1913-1985. Tydskrif vir geesteswetenskappe, 26(1), Maart 1986. 


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POCOCK, Mary Agard (Mamie) (*Rondebosch, Cape Town, 31 December 

1886 — fGrahamstown, 20 July 1977), algologist and 
botanist, was the eldest child of William Frederick 
Henry Pocock and his wife, Elizabeth Lydia Da- 

Pocock’s interest in science was first stirred by 
her father's work as a druggist and pharmacist, but 
her schooldays, from 1899, in the English country- 
side at Bedford High School for Girls and Chelten- 
ham Ladies’ College developed her devotion to 
botany. From Cheltenham she obtained the Univer- 
sity of London B.Sc. in botany, geology and mathe- 
matics in 1908 and a teaching diploma in 1911. 
After teaching from 1909 to 1913 at Pate’s Gram- 
mar School in Cheltenham, she returned to South Africa to teach at Wynberg 
Girls’ High School in Cape Town for four years. 

Pocock subsequently left for Cambridge, England, for further studies, but 
as it did not award degrees to women at that stage, she obtained the B.Sc. 
(Hons) degree in 1921 from the University of London. Back in South Africa 
she lectured at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in 1923 and 
commenced a varied programme of assisting as relief lecturer at the botany 
departments of the Huguenot University College in Wellington and the 
University of Cape Town (UCT), as well as at Rhodes University (RU) in 
Grahamstown, where she was head of the department at one time. At RU she 
and Miss E. Archibald were instrumental in founding the University Herbarium 
in 1942. 

In 1925 Pocock and Dorothea F. Blee(c)k* undertook a venturesome six 
months’ safari on foot and by machila (a type of litter). They travelled from 
Livingstone in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) across to the railhead near Luanda 
in Angola. Her plant collections and watercolours have added much to the 
botanical knowledge of this area. From 1927 she studied the genus Volvax, a 
green colonial alga, and obtained the Ph.D. degree from the UCT in 1932 for 
a thesis on it. She was awarded a fellowship as International Residential 
Scholar at Crosby Hall in Britain. This enabled her to continue her research on 
freshwater algae in 1936 and 1937, studying under and working with eminent 
scholars. During August and September of that year she undertook an extended 


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tour of Europe. She visited botanists in Germany (Marburg, Tubigen and 
Freiburg im Breisgau), Czechoslovakia (Prague), Russia (Moscow, the 
university in Kharkov, and Kiev), and collected material for her studies in 
countries like Belgium and Poland. During her visit in Britain she delivered 
several lectures, amongst others at the Linnean Society of London at the 
beginning of 1937. 

During the Second World War (1939-1945) Pocock was a member of the 
South African Women’s Auxiliary Services. After the war, speedy air transport 
allowed her to visit many algological friends with whom she had kept up a 
lively, extensive correspondence. She collected seaweeds wherever she went 
and the collection she accumulated from travels to Australia, Brazil, Britain and 
Canada through to Zanzibar is perhaps the best in the Southern Hemisphere 
and is housed in the Albany Museum, Grahamstown. 

A Fellow of both the Linnean Society of London and the Royal Society of 
South Africa, Pocock attended several international botanical congresses and 
was elected a vice-president of the eleventh congress at Seattle in the United 
States of America (USA) in 1969. The Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research awarded her a study and travel grant for work in the USA and 
Australia. During the visit in the USA she met Dr M.S. Cave of Berkeley, 
California, and they jointly published studies on chromosomes of algae. Her 
publications numbered over 30 and they all dealt with algae— at first fresh- 
water, but later marine species. 

Pocock was a lively teacher, and her interests included gardening, history, 
photography, watercolour painting, sculpting and brass rubbing, examples of 
which are in the Albany Museum. She supported strongly the South African 
Association of University Women (SAAUW), was elected as first president of 
the Grahamstown branch in 1955 and was later made an honorary member. In 
1957 she received the Crisp medal and award of the Royal Society of South 
Africa. In her honour the Grahamstown branch of the SAAUW established, for 
women, a postgraduate bursary for scientific study, and in 1967 she was given 
an honorary D.Sc. degree by RU. She is commemorated in many plant names, 
including the algal genus Pocockiella, and algal species such as Codium 
pocockiae, Thamnophyllis pocockiae and Vanvoorstia pocockiae. 

For many years Pocock was an examiner for the Cape Matriculation Board, 
and later a moderator. She never married. 

Rhodes University Herbarium, Grahamstown: Archives; — Albany Museum Herbarium, 
Grahamstown: Pocock collection, s.c. troughton, Four years with the Pocock collection. 
Typescript report, 1969; — m.a. pocock, Report of International Residential Scholar at 
Crosby Hall, 1935-36. Fresh water algae. The bluestocking, 8(3), July 1938; — News of 
members: [Dr Pocock]. The bluestocking, 30(3), April 1965; — Honoris causa : Mary A. 
Pocock, Rhodes University, 1967; — a. jacot guillarmod, The bluestocking, 31(3), 1977; 
— Obituary: Grocott's Mail, 19 July 1977; The bluestocking, 31(4), 1978; — m.r.b. 
levyns, Insnar’d with flow’rs: the memoirs of a great South African botanist ; edited by 
J.E.P. Levyns. Kirstenbosch, 1977; — Private information: Mrs A. Evans (niece), 
Grahamstown; Dr J.V.L. Rennie (executor of Mary Pocock’s will), Grahamstown. 


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POKELA, John Nyati (*Herschel district, Cape Province, 1923 — tHarare, 

Zimbabwe, 30 June 1985), teacher and prominent 
political leader. Very little is known about his early 
or his private life. He received his training at 
Healdtown Institution, a Methodist boarding school 
near Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape— where he 
first met Robert Sobukwe*— and at the South Afri- 
can Native College (University of Fort Hare). He 
qualified as a teacher and for a while taught with 
Robert Sobukwe at Standerton. He remained a 
teacher until 1957 when he was expelled for his 
political activities. 

His political involvement started when he joined 
the Youth League (CYL) of the African National 
Congress (ANC). Pokela was especially influenced by Ashley Mda and 
Sobukwe. Both were orthodox African nationalists par excellence, and Pokela 
identified himself with the Africanist wing of the ANC. In 1952 for instance, 
as a member of the Bureau for African Nationalism in the Eastern Cape, he 
criticized the participation of non-blacks in the Defiance Campaign. After he 
had moved to the Transvaal he became a member of the secret Africanist 
Central Committee. After the Africanists had split from the ANC in 1958 he 
joined the recently established Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC). During the PAC 
annual congress in December 1959 he was a member of the resolution 
committee that formulated the historical decision to launch an anti-pass 
campaign. This campaign led to the Sharpeville shootings and the banning of 
the PAC in 1960. 

In 1963 Pokela left South Africa and joined the PAC in exile in Basutoland 
(Lesotho). He was speedily accepted by the PAC President’s Council and was 
appointed as acting secretary-general in the place of P.K. Leballo who became 
acting chairperson. Pokela was arrested in South Africa in 1966 but alleged 
that he had been abducted to South Africa by an agent of the South African 
Police. He was tried in Grahamstown on charges that he planned to murder 
whites in East London and that he had attacked a police station in King Wil- 
liam’s Town. He was sentenced to thirteen years’ imprisonment under the 
Sabotage Act, and seven years under the Suppression of Communism Act. He 
served his sentence on Robben Island. 

Pokela was released in May 1980 and restricted to Sterkspruit in the 
Herschel district of Transkei. In January 1981 he disappeared from his home 
and secretly arrived in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A month later, at the request 
of both the internal and external wings of the PAC, he took over the leadership 
of the organization. He also became chairperson of the internal PAC Unity 
Committee who had to solve outstanding questions after the suspension of 
Leballo. During 1982 there was still friction in the PAC, with one faction 
supporting Pokela and the other faction supporting Leballo. In due course 
Pokela succeeded in settling the internal differences in the PAC and was able 
to revive the organization. He was in favour of eventual unity with the ANC. 

As the PAC leader he addressed meetings and think-tanks right across the 


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world to explain his organization’s aims and ideas and to recruit support for 
their attacks against white domination in South Africa. He was still president 
when, on a visit to Zimbabwe, he became ill and died. Pokela was buried in 
Harare with full military honours by the Zimbabwean government. 

T. karis A G.M. CARTER (eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African 
politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 3. Challenge and violence, 1953-1964. Stanford, 1977; 
— T. karis * o.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4. Political prefiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 
1977; — o.M. oerhart, Black power in South Africa. Berkely, Ca., 1978; — Obituaries: 
The Star, 1 July 1985; Azania frontline, 11 September 1985; — s. gastrow. Who's who in 
South African politics. Cape Town, 1985; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 
2nd ed. London, 1991. 


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SACHS, Emil Solomon (Solly) (*Kamaai, Lithuania, White Russia, 11 No- 
vember 1900— tLondon, England, 30 July 1976), 
trade union leader, was the fourth of the five 
children of Abraham Saks (later changed to ‘Sachs’) 
and his wife, Hannah Rivkin. Sachs made up his 
own birthdate because, according to him, the correct 
date was not known. 

Until the age of three Sachs was physically weak 
and had not yet learnt to speak, but at the age of 
four his condition improved and he became a lively 
child. He attended the cheder, the school at which 
Jewish children are taught Hebrew, where he was 
noted for his knowledge of the Talmud and the Pen- 
tateuch. Soon he was the best pupil in Kamaai. 

In 1914 the Sachs family arrived in South Africa and settled in Ferreiras- 
dorp, Johannesburg. The local rabbi was so impressed with Sachs’s knowledge 
of the Talmud that he attempted to send him back to Kamaai, but this was pre- 
vented by the outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918). At school Sachs 
did not support the pro-British sentiments. 

After completing Standard 5 he left school and began working as an assis- 
tant in a shop for blacks. During this time he organized the shop assistants on 
the Rand into a trade union. At the time of its collapse in 1926 he was its 
honorary secretary. In the meantime he studied privately to pass matric. When 
he had earned enough money, he established a boarding house. 

His interest in politics increased and was characterized by a strong aversion 
to the National Party (NP); he was, however, drawn towards socialism. He es- 
tablished a group which studied the writings of, amongst others, Marx and 
Stalin, whom he admired greatly. In 1919 he had already joined the Communist 
Party of South Africa (CPSA, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 
1953), and in 1921 he was among the first to join the Communist Youth 
League. He studied engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johan- 
nesburg, in 1924, but went to the Soviet Union for six months during the 
following year to study world revolutionary movements. He also made an in- 
depth study of British trade unions. On returning to South Africa he registered 
at the University of the Witwatersrand to study law, English and economics. 

Trade unionism once again held Sachs’s interest. In 1926 he was elected to 


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the national executive committee of the South African Trades and Labour 
Council (SATLC). Through the Witwatersrand Middlemen Taylors’ Associ- 
ation, of which he became part-time secretary in March 1927, he in 1928 
became secretary of the Taylors’ Association which then had 1 750 members. 
Women workers were not represented on any union committees, and as Sachs 
always took the side of the underdog and consequently had great sympathy with 
the poor living and working conditions of the numerous Afrikaner girls from 
the rural areas who came to work in the garment industry on the Rand during 
the depression, he became secretary of the Garment Workers’ Union of South 
Africa (GWU) in November 1928. This union, under the guidance of Sachs 
who himself adhered to a militant trade union policy, became the most active 
and controversial trade union of its time. Sachs worked in close co-operation 
with Anna Scheepers and Johanna Cornelius*, who also held leading positions 
in the GWU. 

Sachs led several strikes, including two general strikes by the GWU in 1931 
and 1932. The latter was to protest a proposed wage decrease and caused much 
disruption. The Minister of Justice, Oswald Pirow*, had Sachs arrested and 
banned for twelve months. Gen. J.C. Smuts*, however, revoked this order 
when he succeeded Pirow six months later. 

After his banishment Sachs went overseas for several months. He was to be 
deported from Southampton, England, when he landed, but the British Trade 
Union Council intervened and the order was revoked. He then visited Germany 
and obtained the rights to show German and Russian films in South Africa. He 
and his brother Benny founded a film company which brought meritorious 
films to the South African circuit. 

Owing to his interest in industrial legislation Sachs, as a member of the 
SATLC, gave evidence before the Industrial Legislation Commission in 1935. 
Amongst other things the trade union movement was pressing for legislation to 
assist the unemployed and the first Unemployment Act followed in 1939 but 
did not cover the clothing and other industries. Sachs then succeeded in 
establishing a fund through the Industrial Council for the Clothing Industry 
(Transvaal), which operated until the new Unemployment Insurance Act of 
1946 covered the industry. In 1944 he was instrumental in getting the Industrial 
Council for the Clothing Industry to request a Supreme Court definition of 
‘employee’ in the Industrial Conciliation Act. The matter in question concerned 
the reference to pass-bearing persons who were excluded from the definition of 
‘employee’ and therefore could not be members of registered unions. As 
African women did not then carry such passes, it was held that they were 
employees and could be members of the union. The government then amended 
the law so as to exclude African women from the definition of ‘employee’. 
Sachs had already established the South African Clothing Workers’ Union in 
1928 which consisted of African men. That union did not want to admit 
African women, so Sachs then established a separate union for them. 

As a confirmed socialist Sachs found that his views were often strongly 
opposed by the CPSA. It was felt that his contribution to the party was 
negative and he was accused of sabotaging the revolutionary activities of the 
trade unions. In 1931 he was expelled from the party. Although he was furious 

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about his expulsion, he remained a loyal supporter of the Communist Interna- 
tional. Despite his expulsion Sachs was still labelled a communist. During the 
1948 election the NP emphasized the communist threat and especially the role 
of Sachs in the GWU. 

Sachs also took part in active politics. During the general election of 1943 
he stood as the Independent Party’s candidate in the Jeppe constituency. 
Although this was a workers’ constituency in which lived more than 1 500 
members of the GWU, Sachs only managed to obtain 475 votes. In 1946 he 
became a member of the South African Labour Party and in 1952 he was 
elected national treasurer. 

On 19 May 1952 C.R. Swart*, Minister of Justice, served two notices on 
Sachs in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act (1950). The first was an 
order to resign as an official of the GWU within 30 days. It also prohibited 
him from participating in the activities of various organizations. The second 
restricted his movements to the Transvaal and prohibited him from attending 
any meetings other than religious, recreational and social gatherings. The GWU 
consequently arranged a protest meeting for the following Saturday, 24 May 
1952, on the steps of the Johannesburg City Hall. Here Sachs addressed 15 000 
people. He was arrested and appeared in court the following Monday. The case 
was postponed and again he attempted to address a mass meeting of garment 
workers who had gone on strike in front of the city hall. He was rearrested and 
released on bail a day later. In July 1952 he was found guilty on two charges 
and sentenced to six months’ forced labour on each. His appeal against the 
sentence, which he argued himself, was dismissed on 2 September 1952, but 
the sentence was suspended for two years. 

Sachs consequently left South Africa on 30 January 1953 and settled in 
England. He stated that his position in South Africa had become untenable. The 
University of Manchester awarded him the Simon Senior Research Fellowship 
for a period of two years. Later the University of London offered him a 
research post for a year, but other than that he had no regular income. In the 
late 1950s the British Labour Party asked him to stand as their candidate for 
the Hallam constituency in Sheffield, but he was unsuccessful. 

In Britain Sachs continued his opposition to the South African government. 
He demonstrated outside South Africa House against the detention of his son, 
Albert (Albie), amid much publicity. In March 1961 he took part in the public 
protest against the government action at Sharpeville. He wrote several books 
about South Africa, namely The choice before South Africa (1952), The rebel's 
daughters (also called Garment workers in action) (1957), the history of the 
GWU, and together with L. Forman The South African treason trial (1959) and 
The anatomy of apartheid (1965). 

In 1926 Sachs married Ray Ginsberg who worked as a stenographer for 
Hjalmar Reitz*. They had two sons of whom Albert (Albie) was a lawyer for 
the defence of a number of persons who had been charged under the Sup- 
pression of Communism Act and other similar laws. Albert was also banned, 
and in 1988 narrowly escaped a car-bomb death in Maputo, Mozambique, 
where he lived. The marriage was dissolved in 1942. Sachs then married 
Dulcie Hartwell. They had a son and a foster son, and were divorced in 1951 . 


d material 

Trade union personalities. 5: E.S. Sachs. [S.I., 19-]; — The garment worker , March-April 
1949; May-June 1952; — The Friend, 21 May 1952; — The Star, 23 June 1952; 5 August 
1952; 2 September 1952; — B. Sachs, South African personalities and places. Johannesburg, 
1959; — The Rand Daily Mail, 15 June 1971; — L. GERBER, Frieruls and influence: the 
diplomacy of private enterprise. Cape Town, 1973; — Obituaries: The Star, 31 July 1976; 
The Times [London], 31 July 1976; The Cape Times, 3 August 1976; The Sunday Times, 8 
August 1976; — R.M. imrie, A wealth of people: the story of the Trade Union Council of 
South Africa. Johannesburg, 1979; — D. Harrison, The white tribe of Africa: South Africa 
in perspective. London, 1981; — Private information: Miss Dulcie Hartwell (ex-wife), Cape 
Town; Miss Anna Scheepers, (president. Garment Workers’ Union, 1958-1984), Johannes- 

SAUER, Magdalena Gertruide (Magda) (‘Kenilworth, Cape Town, 6 May 

1890— tClaremont, Cape Town, 10 October 1983), 
was the first woman in South Africa to practise as a 
qualified architect. 

The second child of Jacobus W. Sauer*, poli- 
tician and cabinet minister, and his wife Mary 
Cloete, she grew up partly in Kenilworth during 
parliamentary sessions and partly on the farm Uit- 
kyk in the Stellenbosch district. She matriculated 
from the Bloemhof Girls' High School in Stellen- 
bosch, winning the Queen Victoria Memorial Prize 
in 1906, and enrolled as a student at the South Afri- 
can College (University of Cape Town) in 1907. 
She graduated Bachelor of Arts (Science) in 1911, 
majoring in mathematics, physics and dynamics. 

Later she decided to take architecture and for a while worked as a trainee 
with Gordon Pilkington* in Durban. She realized, however, that a proper 
professional qualification was essential and went to England in the 1920s, 
where she studied at the Architectural Association’s School of Architecture in 
Bedford Square, London. She received a diploma and returned to practise in 
South Africa, registering with the Institute of South African Architects on 19 
December 1927. 

She practised mainly as a domestic architect but was keenly interested in the 
preservation and restoration of old buildings. Sauer, in conjunction with a 
colleague Reg de Smidt, was responsible for the restoration of a section of the 
Malay Quarter in the late 1940s. Her last assignment was the transformation of 
the Old Supreme Court in Adderley Street into the South African Cultural 
History Museum in the early 1960s. She managed to retain the character of the 
building while making certain adaptations to suit the needs of a museum. The 
building was proclaimed an historical monument in 1967. 

Her interest in art led to friendships with many of the early Cape Town 
artists, among them her cousin Harry Stratford Caldecott* and his wife 
Florence Zerffi*, P.A.W. (Nita) Spilhaus*, Pieter W.F. Wenning*, Wolf 
Kibel*, Maud Sumner*, Moses Kotler* and the cartoonist D.C. Boonzaaier*. 
She herself painted as a talented amateur. She was for many years the art critic 
for Die Burger and was a well-known and respected figure in Cape art circles. 


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Her parents, very much part of the Cape political milieu, kept open house 
and she met and knew most of the leading political figures of the day, 
including J.B.M. Hertzog*, J.X. Merriman*, J. Rose Innes* and Colonel 
F.H.P. Cresswell*. 

Later, through her brother Paul O. Sauer*, she became acquainted with the 
next generation of politicians and maintained an interest in current affairs and 
politics throughout her life. Her incisive mind and highly individual style made 
her a fascinating and informative companion or a formidable adversary. She 
was an expert bridge player and a knowledgeable gardener and kept up both 
these hobbies well into her eighties. 

She was married briefly to Trygve Stromsoe*, the Norwegian engineer 
responsible for building the Table Mountain Cableway. They had one daughter 
Karin Stromsoe, an artist and book illustrator. 

University of Cape Town, Jagger Library Manuscripts and Archives Section for Register of 
Students 1900-1910; List of Alumni 1916; — w. RrrcHlE, The history of the South African 
College, 2. Cape Town, 1918; — r.f.m immelman a g.d. quinn (eds), The preservation 
and restoration of historic buildings in South Africa: a symposium. Cape Town, 1968; — w. 
schneewind. Cultural History Museum, South African. In: Standard encyclopaedia of 
Southern Africa, 3. Cape Town, 1971; — Obituary: Die Burger, 10 Oktober 1983; — 
Private information: Miss Karin Stromsoe (daughter). Cape Town; Mr Hugh Floyd; The 
Institute of South African Architects. 

SIBEKO, David Maphgumzana (*Sophiatown, Johannesburg, 26 August 

1938— fDar es Salaam, Tanzania, 12 June 1979), 
insurance agent, journalist and politician. He 
received his schooling at the St Cyprian’s Anglican 
School in Sophiatown, and the Johannesburg Bantu 
High School (sometimes called Western High, and 
after 1963 Madibane High School). After leaving 
school he went to work for Drum, initially as 
switchboard operator, but later as a reporter. In 
1958 he became an insurance agent. (Some sources 
give his second name as ‘Pumzile’.) 

Sibeko joined the Pan- Africanist Congress (PAC) 
during the state of emergency after the banning of 
the organization in 1960. He soon became chair- 
person of the PAC in the Vaal River area and made a substantial contribution 
to the recruitment of members and the revival of PAC branches in Sharpeville, 
Vanderbijlpark, Sasolburg and Carletonville. 

In 1960 Sibeko returned to Drum as columnist, also reporting for Post 
( Golden City Post). In 1963 he was arrested in terms of the Sabotage Act and 
held in detention for seven months. After a two-week trial he was acquitted and 
released. Sibeko then left South Africa and joined the PAC in exile in 

Sibeko was subsequently sent to the People’s Republic of China on a course 
in revolutionary journalism. After six months (some sources mention three 


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months) he returned and became the PAC’s chief representative in East Africa. 
In addition he was the organization’s contact person with the Freedom Commit- 
tee of the Organization of African Unity. In 1968 Sibeko was appointed head 
of the PAC’s mission to Europe and the Americas. He was responsible for the 
establishment of new PAC offices in various countries. In 1974 Sibeko became 
the PAC’s permanent observer at the United Nations. In this capacity he was 
the first representative of a South African anti-apartheid movement to address 
the Security Council of the United Nations. During his stay in the United States 
of America he tirelessly attended the meetings of anti-apartheid groups and in 
speech after speech called for support for the South African blacks’ struggle 
against oppression. 

In 1975 Sibeko became a member of the PAC’s central committee and was 
appointed director of foreign affairs. He always acted in this capacity at 
international meetings. On 12 September 1978— exactly a year after the death 
of the Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko*— Sibeko took part in a ceremo- 
ny held by the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid to pay 
homage to Biko. Sibeko completely identified with Biko's opinions. In his 
homage to Biko he said that it was essential to free the black man from his 
inferiority complex. From then on he believed that no measure of sacrifice 
would be too great in the liberation struggle of the ‘people of Azania’, and that 
eventually they would triumph in the political struggle. The PAC’s use of force 
was defended thus by him: "To kill for our freedom is correct ... because 
reactionary violence must be answered with revolutionary violence. " 

Sibeko was closely involved with the removal of P.K. Leballo from the 
PAC leadership in 1979. He was a member of the triumvirate, known as the 
President’s Council, that shared the chairpersonship of the organization after 
the palace revolution. Mutual distrust within the PAC leadership was, however, 
the order of the day and Sibeko fell victim to this distrust when he was am- 
bushed and shot dead by assassins from his own group. He was buried in 
Gaborone, Botswana. 

He was survived by his wife Elizabeth and their four children. 

Obituaries: The Rand Daily Mail, 13 & 22 June, 2 July 1979; The Star, 13 June 1979; — 
Azania combat (various editions); — T. lodge. Black politics in South Africa since 1945. Jo- 
hannesburg, 1983; — J. schadeberg (comp. & ed.), The fifties people of South Africa. 
[5./.], 1987; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 

SINGH, Ansuyah Ratipul (^Durban, 12 June 1917— tDurban, 27 November 
1978), medical doctor and community worker, poet, dramatist and novelist. 
Singh was the eldest daughter of Latchmee and Chatrapul Ratipul Singh, an 
average middle-class Hindu couple. Her father served most of his working life 
at the firm of Malcomess in the accounts department. However, what distin- 
guished this family from so many other contemporary Indian families, was the 
fact that in an age when it was considered inappropriate to send girls to high 
school, the Singhs sent all three their daughters to the Durban Indian Girls’ 
School (Durban Girls’ Secondary School) in Dartnell Crescent— the first Indian 
high school for girls. Singh was among the first group of five Indian girls to 


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matriculate in South Africa in 1935. From 1936 she 
studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, where she qualified in 1944. After that 
she worked for two years in hospitals in London, 

On her return to South Africa Singh initially 
opened a private practice in Durban. In 1956 she 
became the first Indian woman graduate to be ap- 
pointed to the Natal Provincial Administration, 
serving jointly in the Department of Social, Prevent- 
ative and Family Medicine at the University of 
Natal’s Medical School and the Institute of Family and Community Health 
(Clairwood Hospital). In the same year she filled a position in the Department 
of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at the Medical School. In 1959 she was in 
charge of the antenatal clinic at the King Edward Hospital in Durban. In 19f>3 
she founded the Happy Valley Clinic where she and volunteers such as Mrs A. 
Nair worked in their spare time among the poor living in that area. 
Subsequently branches of the clinic were opened in Inanda and Phoenix. (All 
these clinics were eventually replaced by inter alia the Merebank Clinic and the 
clinic at the Phoenix Community Centre.) 

Singh continued with studies and research and in 1954 became the first 
Indian to be awarded a bursary by the Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research. During 1961-1962 she wrote the dissertation Epidemiological study 
of blood pressure in Indian women in South Africa for the Diploma in Public 
Health of the University of Natal. Other publications included: A survey of 
hospitals, clinics and social services for the Indian community of Durban 
(1960), and Emotional factors affecting foetal development which received wide 
acclaim in the United States of America. She was co-author of several articles, 
for example ‘Antenatal stress and the baby’s development’ in Archives of dis- 
ease in childhood of February 1961, and ‘Intracranial meningioma in a 13-year 
old male’ in the South African medical journal , December 1964. 

Singh also made a contribution to the arts. She was an accomplished pianist 
and particularly fond of Bach and Beethoven. Furthermore, she was a talented 
amateur actress and took part in many dramatic productions during the years 
1948 to 1958. These productions included Rabindranath Tagore plays such as 
Natir Puja, the latter being a highly demanding role requiring acting and 
dancing abilities. She also took a leading role in Sakuntald by K&lid&sa. 

She published several literary works with a social or political message and 
commentaries on the contemporary scene. In 1960, the year of the centenary 
celebrations of the arrival of the Indians in South Africa, she published a 
novel, Behold the earth mourns— said to be the first novel by an Indian author 
in South Africa. She also published two three-act plays— Cobwebs in the 
garden and A tomb for thy kingdom (both 1966). Over the years many of her 
poems were published in journals, and in 1970 an anthology of poems, short 
stories and essays was published under the title Summer moonbeams on the 

Singh lectured widely to students and the general public on topics ranging 


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from health and family planning, to the arts, and the role of women in the 
Indian community. 

It is known that she was involved in the Passive Resistance Movement after 
her return to South Africa in 1946, but the extent of her political activity is 
unknown. It should be born in mind that at the time most educated Indians 
were involved in some way or another in political activities, many being 

Near the Tongaat Town Hall there is a bronze statue of her as a dancing 
girl— from her role in Natir Puja. Two portraits of her were also commis- 

During the Second World War (1939-1945) Singh married Bronislav Sed- 
zimer, a Pole. One daughter, Urvashi, was born of the marriage. When Singh 
returned to South Africa in 1946 he did not accompany her and later in the 
same year the couple were divorced. In 1948 she married a lawyer, Ashwin 
Choudree, who had recently returned from the United Nations in New York 
where he represented the South African Indians and acted as advisor to the re- 
presentative of the Indian government. He predeceased Singh in 1969. Singh 
was survived by her sisters and her daughter who, like her mother, studied 
medicine in Britain and then settled in London. 

At home with Dr Ansuyah Singh. The South African Woman's Weekly (supplement to The 
Natal Mercury ), 19 November 1964; — A woman’s world: Dr Ansuyah Singh. Fiat lux, 
8(1), February 1973; — Obituaries: The Natal Mercury, 28 November 1978; The Natal Wit- 
ness, 28 November 1978; Post (Natal), 29 November-3 December 1978; — Private infor- 
mation: Mrs A. Nair (personal assistant), Durban. 

SOBUKWE, Robert Mangaliso (Wonder) (*Graaff-Reinet, 5 December 

1924 — tKimberley, 26 February 1978), Pan-Afri- 
canist Congress (PAC) leader, was the youngest of 
the seven children of Hubert Sobukwe and Angelina 
Gaziys. His father, who had completed seven years 
of schooling, first worked for the local municipality 
and then in a store as wool sorter, while his mother, 
who had no formal schooling, first worked as a 
cook in the local hospital and then as a domestic 
servant for a white family. Sobukwe’s father desired 
his children to achieve a higher level of education 
than he had. The importance of reading was stressed 
and both parents brought home books, either dis- 
carded by the local library or given them by their 
employers. Both parents were active in the local Methodist Church, and the 
children grew up in this environment. 

Once Sobukwe began to attend school, he showed outstanding ability and 
won a scholarship to Healdtown Institution, a Methodist boarding school near 
Fort Beaufort in the Eastern Cape, where he remained for seven years. Sobu- 
kwe’s academic record continued to be exemplary, while he also excelled in 


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sport, especially tennis and rugby. In August 1943 Sobukwe became seriously 
ill with tuberculosis and received treatment in Alice for the rest of that year. 
Early in 1944 he returned to Healdtown, continuing his studies and also be- 
coming the Eastern Province singles tennis champion for blacks. During this 
time his leadership abilities became apparent: he was a senior prefect and in his 
final year he was appointed head boy. 

In 1947, aided by funds from a scholarship and the principal of Healdtown, 
he entered the South African Native College (University of Fort Hare) from 
which he graduated in 1949. He studied native administration, a subject which 
acquainted him with the circumstances of his people. His interest in politics 
developed and he joined the African National Congress Youth League (CYL). 
He advanced the ideology of orthodox nationalism or Africanism which in- 
cluded the necessity for militancy, noncollaboration, African nationalism and 
"the liberation of Africa within our lifetime". In his final year (1949) he 
became president of the Students’ Representative Council (SRC) and led the 
Fort Hare CYL delegation at the annual conference of the African National 
Congress (ANC). At the conference he persuaded the assembly to adopt a 
policy of political boycotts unless blacks were represented on all governing 
bodies and all bodies created specially for blacks were abolished. He also sup- 
ported the Programme of Action adopted by the ANC in 1 949. His election as 
secretary of the CYL, a strongly united well-administered association built up 
in the 1940s, was a milestone in his emerging political career. 

At the farewell function for final-year students in 1949 Sobukwe criticized 
black adversaries of black unity, as well as all forms of white paternalism, 
including that of missionaries and professional liberals, and the regimentation 
of student thought by white authorities. When he refused to apologize, his 
bursaries from the church and the education department were withdrawn and a 
teaching appointment was cancelled. 

After graduating from Fort Hare, Sobukwe started teaching at Standerton in 
the Transvaal in 1950. One of his colleagues was J.N. Pokela*, later a leader 
in the PAC. In 1952, after speaking in support of the Defiance Campaign, he 
was temporarily dismissed from his teaching position. He made a brief attempt 
to establish himself as a coal merchant before he was reinstated at his school. 
In 1954 he joined the Department of Bantu Studies at the University of the 
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, as language assistant for Zulu. In 1959 Sobukwe 
was offered a lectureship in African languages at Rhodes University, Grahams- 
town, with pay and status equal to whites. Although it would have meant 
economic security, he could not meet the condition, namely that he should 
abstain from political activities. He therefore remained in his post as language 
assistant until 1960. 

During the years in Johannesburg, Sobukwe’s involvement in the African 
nationalist movement greatly increased. In 1957 he became editor of The 
Africanist. Although Sobukwe supported the 1949 Bloemfontein Programme of 
Action of the ANC, he and other younger members of the ANC were increas- 
ingly disenchanted with the movement. They felt that the ANC’s policies had 
been obscured by the increasing financial aid from and subsequent political 
influence of the South African Communist Party in the ANC. Furthermore, the 


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Africanists felt that the increasing multiracial character of the ANC retarded the 
development of black consciousness and aspirations. Sobukwe and his sup- 
porters therefore did not accept the 1955 Kliptown Freedom Charter, which 
became the basic policy of the ANC, on the grounds that it made too many 
concessions to the whites, by whom it was dominated. The Africanists also 
opposed co-operation with the South African Indian Congress, the South 
African Coloured People’s Organization, and the mainly white Congress of 
Democrats, and objected to the ANC’s lack of militancy. Their active 
opposition was translated into action when they left the ANC in 1958 and 
founded the PAC. The PAC was formally launched on 6 April 1959 and 
Sobukwe was elected as its first president. 

Sobukwe believed that it was essential for blacks to regain their self-respect 
and dignity. Only when other races respected them could blacks overcome 
racial discrimination. Sobukwe believed that blacks should liberate themselves. 
He therefore called on all the inhabitants of South Africa to commit themselves 
to Africa. He rejected all forms of white paternalism and colonialism, while 
stressing black self-regard and an African continental approach to the rest of 
the world. As a result of this philosophy, he was accused of racism. However, 
his political philosophy was never racist because he was committed to a 
nonracist and democratic society once the apartheid system had been destroyed. 
In order to promote the interests of the workers and the peasants in a nonracist 
and democratic society, he reached out towards socialism. 

Due to the increasing support for the PAC, Sobukwe decided to organize an 
anti-pass campaign. Sobukwe believed that the removal of the infamous pass 
laws would be a major step in achieving the PAC’s aims. As part of the 
campaign, mass anti-pass demonstrations were arranged for 21 March 1960. 
All blacks were urged to leave their passes at home and offer themselves for 
arrest at the nearest police station. While he himself led a group to the Orlando 
police station, the police fired on a group of protesters at Sharpeville and 67 
people were killed. Subsequently both the ANC and the PAC were banned. 
Sobukwe, who was indicted for incitement, was sentenced to three years’ hard 
labour which he served in various prisons until April 1961 when he was 
transferred to the Pretoria prison. Here he, amongst other things, sewed 
mailbags together with Nelson Mandela until the prison authorities decided that 
there should be no contact between the two men. 

Towards the end of 1962 Poqo (the armed wing of the PAC) launched 
several attacks in which whites were killed. This alarmed the government. 
Though there was no indication that Sobukwe was still in control of the PAC 
when Poqo was founded, the government assumed that he was still a danger. 
Consequently, just before Sobukwe’s release in May 1963, a law was passed 
that empowered the government to continue the detention of anybody found 
guilty of incitement. This law was re-enacted annually until 1968 and became 
known as the Sobukwe Clause. 

Sobukwe was transferred from the prison in Pretoria to Robben Island. He 
was isolated from the other prisoners in a fenced-in area that was heavily 
guarded. He was allowed newspapers and, with an unlimited supply of books 
available, Sobukwe obtained the External B.Sc. (Economics) from the 



University of London, England. He was, however, not allowed to talk to other 
prisoners although he could write one letter and receive two letters per week. 
He was allowed few visitors. 

On 25 April 1969 it was announced that Sobukwe was to be released 
conditionally and banned to Kimberley for five years. This order was renewed 
for another five years in 1974. Although the authorities refused him permission 
to attend the consecration of his brother as an Anglican bishop in Johannes- 
burg, Sobukwe, who had enrolled with the University of South Africa in 1970 
to study law, was allowed in 1971 to enrol as an articled clerk with a law firm 
in Kimberley. He finally qualified as a lawyer in January 1975, and on 13 June 
1975 was permitted to attend court. 

After his release from prison, Sobukwe was interested in leaving South 
Africa because he believed it would enable his family to live a normal life. In 
March 1970 he accepted a research and teaching scholarship at the University 
of Wisconsin in the United States of America (USA). The South African 
government turned down his application for a passport and exit permit. 

In May 1975 Sobukwe’s mother died and he was permitted to travel to 
Umtata where she had died, and to Graaff-Reinet to attend the funeral, on 
condition that he report to the police on arrival in and departure from Umtata 
and Graaff-Reinet, and be back in Kimberley the day after the funeral. While 
travelling through King William’s Town en route to Graaff-Reinet, Sobukwe 
visited Steve Biko* who was also under house arrest, but without police 
knowledge about the visit. Until Biko's death, they managed to exchange a 
number of messages. In 1975 Sobukwe was also visited by the American 
politician Andrew Young. Sobukwe made a great impression on Young who 
arranged to have Sobukwe’s two eldest children educated in the USA. The 
third child followed suit soon afterwards. In December 1975 Sobukwe was 
invited to visit Liberia to attend the presidential celebrations of President 
William Tolbert in Monrovia in January 1976. Because of problems to gain 
permission to leave the Kimberley magisterial district and attain a passport, he 
could not attend. 

In June 1977 Sobukwe started complaining about his health and was 
coughing badly. He was allowed to come to Johannesburg to be examined by 
Dr Bodo E.H. Koch, Ellen Hellmann’s* husband. His health deteriorated to 
such an extent that he was admitted to the Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape 
Town, for chest surgery in September 1977. After the removal of a cancerous 
lung, he was frequently readmitted to hospital, but the cancer spread rapidly 
and he died in a Kimberley hospital. 

Sobukwe married a nurse, Veronica Zodwa Mathe, whom he had met at 
Fort Hare, in Soweto on 6 June 1954. They had three sons and a daughter. 

Sobukwe was an impressive personality, with considerable political influ- 
ence internationally and locally. The University of Wisconsin and the Lincoln 
University in Pennsylvania, USA, awarded him an honorary doctorate. His or- 
ganizing abilities and oratory skills made him a great leader. Despite his im- 
prisonment and house arrest, he still had a powerful influence on South African 
politics. His philosophy of black awareness was one of the sources of inspira- 
tion for the Black Consciousness Movement under Steve Biko. 



R. segal, Political Africa: a who’s who of personalities and parties. London, 1961; — L. 
nkosi, Robert Sobukwe: an assessment. Africa Report , April 1962; — C.1M. legum. The 
bitter choice: eight South Africans' resistance to tyranny. Cleveland, 1968; — Sobukwe 
chances are nil. The Star, 24 December 1975; — Obituaries: The Argus, 27 February 1978; 
The Star, 27 & 28 February 1978; The Rand Daily Mail, 27 & 28 February 1978; Beeld, 28 
Februarie 1978; The Cape Times, 28 February 1978; South African outlook, August 1978; 

— g.m. gerhart. Black power in South Africa: the evolution of an ideology. London, 1978; 

— MR. LIPSCHUTZ A R.K. Rasmussen, Dictionary of African historical biography. 2nd ed., 
expanded & updated. Berkeley, Ca., 1989; — B. pogrund, Sobukwe and apartheid. 
Johannesburg, 1990; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; 

— T. molefe, Focus on Sobukwe. Sowetan, 25 February 1993; — Private information: Mrs 
Veronica Sobukwe (wife), Graaff-Reinet. 



SONTONGA, Mankayi Enoch (fl. C.1897-C.1902), composer of ‘Nkosi 

Sikelel' iAfrika’, choirmaster and teacher. Informa- 
tion on Sontonga is scarce and the sources differ. 
He was probably born at Lovedale Institution at 
Alice in the Eastern Cape, in about 1875, into the 
Mpinga clan of the Tembu people. After completing 
a teacher training course at Lovedale Training Col- 
lege, the Methodist Church sent him per transport 
wagon to Johannesburg to be an assistant at a newly 
founded Methodist Church school at Nancefield near 
Johannesburg. He started teaching in either 1897 or 
1899 and remained there till his death. 

A staunch Methodist and endowed with a good 
voice, he came to the fore in the music of the 
church as well as the school. He was responsible for forming the Nancefield 
Methodist Church Choir and began composing songs for this choir and for his 
school choir whose pupil-songsters formed the nucleus of the church choir. 
Sontonga acted as choirmaster and conductor for these choirs who sung his 
songs at concerts in the Johannesburg townships to boost church funds. The 
songs became immensely popular. 

Sontonga wrote his songs in tonic sol fa notation. He taught the songs by 
rote with the aid of a tuning fork. Unfortunately these notations were lent out 
to fellow teachers and choirmasters by his widow after his death, and disap- 
peared in the process. 

Sontonga is today remembered for his song ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika’ (God 
bless Africa). It is usually accepted that it was originally penned in outline as 
a hymn in 1897. It consisted of one verse in Xhosa, and was first performed in 
Johannesburg at the ordination of a Shangaan Methodist minister, the Rev. 
Boweni, in 1899. According to Skota (infra), Sontonga travelled to Durban 
with his choir where they performed his songs, including ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ 
iAfrika’, at a number of concerts. Here John Dube* of the Ohlanga Training 
Institute were so impressed by the songs that he asked for and was given per- 
mission to include them in his school choir’s repertoire. R.T. Caluza* first 
heard ‘Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika’ in 1915 when he was on tour with his choir in 


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Johannesburg, and included it after that in their repertoire and popularized it. 

The song was first recorded on 16 October 1923 by Solomon T. Plaatje* 
accompanied on the piano by Sylvia Colenso. The Xhosa poet S.E.K. Mqhayi* 
wrote a further seven verses. Lovedale Press published all these verses in 1927 
in pamphlet form, also including the song in 1929 in its Presbyterian Xhosa 
hymn book Ingwadi Yama-culo Ase-rabe. The song has since been translated 
into many languages and in recent years has been adopted as national anthem 
by the former Republic of Transkei, Tanzania, Zambia and since May 1994 by 
South Africa. 

The song made a strong impression on audiences since first being heard. 
Church gatherings and public meetings used it increasingly as a closing prayer. 
At the first meeting of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC, 
African National Congress (ANC) after 1923) on 8 January 1912, ‘Nkosi 
Sikelel’ iAfrika’ was sung immediately following the prayer. In 1925 the ANC 
officially adopted it as the closing anthem for its meetings. 

Sontonga died young. The sources differ about the year of his death— 1901, 
1902 or 1904. It is, however, generally accepted that he died in Johannesburg 
where he was working at the time. He was married to Dinah Mgqibisa, a 
daughter of a prominent minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. 
It is not known how many children they had, though Skota mentions a son. 

T.d.m. skota (ed.). The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed. , rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — Y. huskisson, The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. [Johannesburg], 1969; — 
J. jahn. U. schild a A. nordmann, Who's who in African literature. Tubigen, 1972; — Y. 
huskisson, The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. Supplement , edited by J.P. Malan. 
Pretoria, 1983; — J.P. malan (ed.), South African music encyclopedia, 4. Cape Town, 
1986; — Makers of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991 ; — a. klaas- 
te, South Africa’s hymn of peace. Reader's digest, June 1992; — T. COUZENS, Anthem has 
a solid claim to being national. The Sunday Times, 31 October 1993. 

STRAUSS, Helena Dorothea (*Terugkeer, Wepener district, 16 March 

1915 — fPretoria, 22 June 1981), singer, choir direc- 
tor and music teacher, was the youngest daughter of 
Jacob Johannes Strauss and his wife Helena Doro- 
thea Holtzhausen. 

Strauss received her schooling in Wepener. She 
then attended the University of Pretoria and the Pre- 
toria Normal College (Onderwyskollege Pretoria). 
In Pretoria Strauss received singing lessons from 
Gladys Newboult, a well-known music teacher. In 
1949, while on a visit in London, England, Strauss 
continued her singing lessons under Elena Gerhardt 
and Rudolphe Gaillard. 

While still at school, Strauss displayed a musical 
talent, performing at eisteddfods and singing in the church choir. As student 
she excelled in music and during holidays accompanied the Pro Arte student 


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group on concert tours. Later she sang in operettas by inter alia Bosnian de 
Kock* and Pierre Malan, and at concerts country-wide. It was during some of 
these concerts that she helped to introduce the songs of S. iee Roux Marais* to 
audiences. In the Transvaal she performed with the baritone Jan Schutte, 
accompanied by the pianist Anna Bender— later a concert pianist and official 
accompanist for the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC). Strauss 
also took part in a tribute concert for S. lee Roux Marais in 1954. 

Strauss’s first teaching position was at a two-teacher school at Makokskraal 
near Ventersdorp. To enable her to continue with her singing training, she 
moved to the Martha Human School at Hartbeespoort Dam in the early 1940s. 
From there she moved to the Generaal Jacques Pienaar Primary School in 
Capital Park, Pretoria. Here she and a colleague, Anna Bender started a 
children’s choir that was very successful. From 1947 it regularly performed for 
children’s radio programmes, and a recording by them was also used by the 
Belgium Radio Broadcasting. 

In 1951 Strauss became lecturer in singing and music at the Pretoria 
Normal College. She was promoted to head of the music department in 1964, 
a position she retained until her retirement in 1975. At the college she strove 
for the improvement of music at school, and the encouragement of young 
musicians. Well-known South African singers like the alto Ronelle Markgraff 
and the baritone Rudi Neitz were among her students. With a grant from the 
Transvaal Education Department she went on a study tour to Europe in 1963, 
visiting schools and universities in Germany and Austria. 

Strauss is perhaps best known for the Cantare Sanggroep (Cantare singers) 
of Pretoria which she founded in 1956, and of which she remained the 
conductor until her death. (Sources differ about the founding date and it is also 
given as 1957 and 1958.) The first major performance by this women’s choir 
was in 1958. This was followed by regular radio broadcasts and performances 
with the National Symphony Orchestra of the SABC. The standards of the 
choir increased to such an extent that it won a national choir competition 
arranged by the SABC in 1969. The Cantare Sanggroep also became the first 
choir to perform on South African television. 

Strauss requested young South African composers to compose for the 
Cantare singers. In 1977 a choir evening was held in the Musaion of the 
University of Pretoria with the programme consisting of compositions by South 
African composers only. 

On 21 March 1981 a tribute concert for Strauss was held at the Pretoria 
Normal College. On this occasion she conducted the Cantare Sanggroep for the 
last time. 

Strauss died a few months later in the H.F. Verwoerd Hospital in Pretoria 
and was buried in the Zandfontein Cemetery, Pretoria. She never married and 
was survived by two half-sisters, a half-brother, and a niece Helena Garner. 
The latter undertook much of the support and care Strauss needed in her later 

Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 8627/81; — Obituaries: Die Transvaler, 
24 Junie 1981; Die Vaderland, 29 Junie 1981; — J.P. MALAN (ed.), South African music 



■ighted r 

encyclopedia, 4. Cape Town, 1986; — Private information: Mrs Helena D. Gamer (niece), 

SUMNER, Maud Francis Eyston (*Johannesburg, 16 September 1902— tJo- 

sity, England, in 1922. Here she studied English literature because her father 
considered a career as an artist too uncertain. Upon completing her university 
course in 1925, she attended the Westminster School of Art in London for a 
few months. Her tutors were Frank Dobson and Bernard Meninsky. She did 
not, however, Find English art teaching satisfactory and, like several of her 
South African contemporaries (such as Cecil Higgs* and Ruth Everard*), 
gravitated in 1926 to Paris, France, where the art world was far more avant- 
garde and the schools more stimulating. 

She first went to work in the Atelier de Part Sacr6 (Studios of Religious 
Art) under Georges Desvalliers and Maurice Denis, and in 1934 she attended 
classes at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere. In 1932 encouraged by 
Maurice Denis who had been impressed by the aquarelle she had made during 
the winter vacation at her ancestral home Eathorpe in Warwickshire, she held 
her first solo exhibition in Paris at the Galerie Durel. Later that year she 
visited and exhibited in South Africa. Thus her early years set a routine of 
living, working and exhibiting in England, France and South Africa, which was 
to be followed throughout the rest of her life. 

From the outset of her career Sumner excelled in aquarelle. The paintings 
in this medium were assured, fluid and spontaneous evocations of emotionally 
charged landscapes, serene interiors, still lifes in which symbolic undertones 
may be perceived, and introspective portraits. Although an inevitable but 
gradual change of style is discernible in the watercolours, they were more 
consistent than the oils and, to the unspecialized eye, her early watercolours 
may appear to be little different from her later ones. 

Through the oils, on the other hand, Sumner’s development of technique, 
style and subject matter can be followed. It is above all in the oils that one 
finds a personal iconography that often has covert, and later overt, religious 

Sumner's earliest paintings (dating from the thirties) followed the late Im- 

hannesburg, 14 January 1985), painter, was a 
daughter of Alfred Bernard Sumner, an English 
immigrant from a prestigious old Warwickshire 

family, and his wife Maud Eyston, nee Smeeton. 
i The family was devoutly Catholic and this had a 

v Jr, 

lasting influence on the subject matter and spiritual 
contents of Sumner’s paintings. 

Sumner received her early education at home 
and her formal education at Roedean School, Johan- 
nesburg. Here she took art lessons from the art 
master A.E. Gyngell* who was also the curator of 
the Johannesburg Art Gallery in 1913. After matric- 
ulating at Roedean, Sumner went to Oxford Univer- 


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pressionist intimate style of the Nabis such as Maurice Denis, Eduard Vuillard 
and Pierre Bonnard, all greatly admired by Sumner. In South Africa these 
paintings were found to be ‘very French’, and for that reason Sumner was 
credited with having introduced South Africans to twentieth-century French art. 

In the 1940s, to a large extent influenced by Georges Braque, her composi- 
tions became more intellectual. The forms were almost ‘mathematically’ 
grouped, the shapes faceted and harnessed within a contrived network of lines, 
and the colours were brighter, the tones more extreme. Examples of this period 
include Still life with brown jug and compotier (1947) and The cracked bowl 
(1947). This, for Sumner, new aesthetic convention was developed in the 1950s 
and culminated in large, major paintings (some of them with religious themes) 
which are reminiscent of stained glass. 

Sumner learnt to make stained glass panels at the Central School of Art in 
London during the fifties. She designed windows which were executed under 
her supervision for the Abergele and Prestatyn churches in Wales, the Roman 
Catholic Onitsha Cathedral in Nigeria and a convent chapel in Germiston. 

In 1962 she completed another major religious commission: fourteen oil 
panels depicting the Stations of the Cross for St Mary’s Cathedral in- Cape 
Town. By that time the vigorous style and saturated colour of the forties and 
early fifties had been distilled to purity. Her broad planes, delicate colours and 
expansive compositions now proclaimed an awareness of mystical experience. 
This was not only a consequence of the artist’s profound religiosity, but also 
the result of visits to some of the world’s largest deserts. Even the ostensibly 
direct recordings of the Sahara (such as Red desert— Sahara, 1962), the Negev 
(such as Desert, Israel, 1964), and the Namib (for example Namib beach) are 
imbued with spirituality, and convey what Sumner particularly wanted them to 
express: space and silence. 

In 1971 the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South 
African Academy for Arts and Science) awarded Sumner the medal of honour 
for painting, and in 1977-1978 a large retrospective exhibition was mounted in 
Pretoria and Cape Town. 

Shortly hereafter, in 1978, Sumner fell seriously ill; she had a stroke while 
on a visit to Paris, France. Upon returning to South Africa she decided no 
longer to commute between three countries. She settled in Johannesburg and, 
in spite of failing health, she continued to paint. Towards the end of her life 
she donated works from her personal collection to every art museum in South 
Africa. The remainder, together with documentation about her art career, she 
bequeathed to the state. It is lodged in the Union Buildings, Pretoria. 

She never married. 

Five scrapbooks and box filled with press cuttings, invitation cards, catalogues and other 
documentation from 1932-1983, owned by the State Archives and Pretoria Art Museum; — 
Master of the Supreme Court, Pretoria: Estate no. 939/85; — Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: 
Estate nos 4713/49 & 2635/50; — c. eglington, Maud Sumner. Cape Town, [1968?]; — 
M. sumner, Recollections of Paris. Apollo, October 1975; — T. READ, Maud Sumner. 
Gallery, Summer 1981; — K. kempff. The Lord’s way to Calvary, told by Maud Sumner. 
Lantern, 33(2), April 1984; — Obituaries: The Star, 15 January 1985; The Cape Times, 16 
January 1985; Die Burger, 16 Januarie 1985; De arte, 32, April 1985; — F. harmsen. 


Maud Sumner and her muse. De arte, 42, September 1990. 

SWART, Charles Robberts (Blackie) (*Morgenzon, Winburg district, 5 De- 
cember 1894— tBloemfontein, 16 July 1982), states- 
man and politician, jurist, journalist, author, farmer, 
schoolteacher and part-time lecturer, was the son of 
Hermanus Bernardus Swart and Aletta Catharina 
Swart (nee Robberts). During the South African 
War (1899-1902) Swart’s father was captured and 
the young boy with his mother and the other 
children on their farm were held in the concentra- 
tion camp at Winburg for the duration of the war. 

Swart had an exceptionally sharp intellect. He 
matriculated in Winburg at the young age of thir- 
teen. At the age of fifteen he was appointed magis- 
trate’s clerk at Winburg, having been adjudged too 
young for acceptance as a university student. In 1910 he enrolled at the Grey 
University College (University of the Orange Free State), obtaining the B.A. 
degree in 1912. After his initial studies he was a schoolteacher at Ficksburg 
from 1914 to 1915. During the 1914 Rebellion Swart was arrested and impris- 
oned and appeared twice before the Military Council on a charge of espionage 
and planning to join the rebels. Although he was later freed and allowed to 
continue teaching, he was placed under house arrest. The cell where he was 
held has been declared a national monument. 

From 1915 to 1918 Swart was secretary of the examination board of the 
Orange Free State (OFS) Education Department. During these years he also 
continued his law studies, obtaining the LL.B. in 1918. In the same year he 
became judicial assistant to the Bloemfontein municipality. 

His love for the judicature and academic life came to the fore from 1919 to 
1948 when he practised as an advocate of the Supreme Court in Bloemfontein 
and lectured part-time in law at the Grey University College and in agricultural 
law at the Glen Agricultural College outside the city (1918-1921). 

From 1921 to 1922 he studied at the University of Columbia in the United 
States of America (USA) towards a diploma in journalism in the latter year. 
During his stay in the USA Swart led a bohemian life, sleeping on park ben- 
ches at night, singing songs like ‘Sonny Boy’ on street comers to earn money, 
and even acting in a film. 

In 1921 he represented Die Burger at the World Disarmament Conference 
in Washington, after which he undertook a study tour of the USA, Britain, the 
Netherlands and Belgium, visiting several universities. 

Swart’s interest in politics started early. He was a member of the National 
Party (NP) since its founding in 1914. In 1919 he became chief secretary of the 
party in the OFS. A year later he was the party's candidate for Bloemfontein 
West in the Provincial Council election. In 1923 he stood as NP candidate for 
Ladybrand in the parliamentary election and won the seat. He was to represent 
this seat for the next fifteen years until he lost it in the 1938 election. 


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In the House of Assembly he was chief whip of the party and took part in 
many important commissions. For instance, in 1927 he was a member of the 
select committee responsible for the drafting of the bill for the iron and steel 
industry; and between 1926 and 1933 he was first a member and then the 
chairperson of the select committee on matters relating to the railways and 
harbours. In the years before 1948 he became a close associate of E.H. (Eric) 
Louw*, later Minister of Foreign Affairs, and J.G. (Hans) Strijdom*, Prime 
Minister from 1934 to 1938. He often spoke in parliament on matters such as 
the constitutional status of the Union of South Africa, neutrality and secession. 
He was considered one of a group of able young NP leaders. 

Coalition and the resultant fusion between the NP under J.B.M. Hertzog* 
and the South African Party (SAP) under J.C. Smuts* were totally unaccept- 
able to Swart. In December 1933 he and other NP members declared that they 
would actively oppose fusion. When fusion nevertheless occurred in December 
1934 Swart joined the Gesuiwerde (Purified) National Party (GNP) under Dr 
D.F. Malan*. In 1935 Swart was elected to the Federal Council of the GNP 
and as OFS whip, after having become a member of the executive of the party 
in the OFS the previous year. 

In parliament Swart pleaded for the interests of the farming community. He 
emphasized the importance of an efficient agricultural rehabilitation scheme and 
urged the government to do something about the depopulation of the southwest- 
ern parts of the OFS. In 1935 and 1937 he introduced unsuccessful motions to 
have the right of appeal to the Privy Council in Britain abolished. 

Like most of his colleagues in parliament Swart was a member of the secret 
Afrikaner-Broederbond (AB). He joined the organization after the coalition, 
partly (as he stated in an interview in 1976) because the AB tried to save Afri- 
kaner unity. 

Swart also became a member of the Ossewa-B rand wag (OB) shortly after its 
founding in February 1939. He supported the OB desire to achieve Afrikaner 
unity and served on the Groot Raad (High or Supreme Council). However, 
with the OB’s increasingly reactionary policy and critical attitude towards par- 
liamentarianism, Swart resigned from the organization because it no longer 
measured up to his expectations. 

After his defeat in the election of 1938 Swart continued to play a prominent 
role in the OFS. After the break between Hertzog and Smuts in 1939 over the 
question of neutrality during the Second World War (1939-1945) he, together 
with men such as H.F. Verwoerd*, J.G. Strijdom and E.H. Louw, strongly 
opposed the reacceptance of Hertzog in the GNP. He played a major role in the 
negotiations of 1939-1940 with Hertzog and was a member of the GNP’s 
liaison committee that led to the formation of the Herenigde (Reunited) 
Nasionale Party (HNP, later NP). 

Relations between Swart and Hertzog soured in 1940 when rumours started 
doing the rounds that Hertzog had undertaken to proclaim a British republic in 
South Africa if Britain should lose the war against Germany. Hertzog held 
Swart responsible for circulating the rumours. Although Swart later denied 
before a commission that he had anything to do with the matter Hertzog there- 
after never greeted him and refused him an interview unless he publicly apolo- 


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gized for starting the rumour— which Swart refused to do. 

Early in 1940 the OFS congress of the HNP accepted the Federal Council’s 
programme of principles in preference to those of Hertzog. After Hertzog had 
left the hall, Swart was unanimously elected leader of the HNP in the OFS. 
The commission under chairpersonship of J.C. (Joon) van Rooy (the so-called 
Afrikaner Unity Committee) which investigated this split in Afrikaner ranks 
could not persuade Hertzog to give evidence before it with Swart. 

In 1941 Swart was once again elected as member of parliament, this time 
for the seat of Winburg. After the National Party (NP) had won the general 
election of 1948, Swart was appointed Minister of Justice in the cabinet of 
D.F. Malan. 

Swart has been described as a particularly able Minister of Justice. During 
his term of office until 1959 he was responsible for the following: the abolition 
of the right of appeal to the Privy Council in England; the reinstatement of 
Roman-Dutch law for testamentary bequest; the allocation of greater powers to 
the South African Police in combating crime; stricter measures against and pun- 
ishment for robbery and other acts of violence; the expansion of the courts of 
law and judicial procedure; the institution of regional magistrates; the consoli- 
dation of amendments in a series of acts; the introduction of legislation on 
marriage and the rights of women; the rehabilitation of criminals; the reinstitu- 
tion of the term ‘landdrost’ instead of ‘magistrate’; and the translation of acts 
from Dutch to Afrikaans; the translation of Roman-Dutch law books into Afri- 
kaans and English. He was also responsible for certain measures that were a 
result of the NP's racial policy: the Immorality Act and the acts regulating sep- 
arate amenities; the banning of the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, 
South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953); and the restriction of 
other organizations regarded as subversive. Swart was severely criticized for 
his share in the banning of Albert Luthuli* and other African National Con- 
gress (ANC) leaders. As Minister of Education Swart was responsible for the 
achievement of independent status by the universities of the OFS, Rhodes in 
Grahamstown, Natal and the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher 

From 1949 to 1950 Swart was also Minister of Education, Arts and 
Science, and between 1948 and 1959 he acted in several other portfolios, such 
as Leader of the House of Assembly and Deputy Prime Minister. In 1955 he 
represented South Africa at the Conference of Prime Ministers of the Common- 
wealth, as well as at the inauguration of the Court of Appeal of the Federation 
of Rhodesia (Zambia and Zimbabwe) and Nyassaland (Malawi) in Salisbury 
(Harare). During the illness and eventual death of J.G. Strijdom in 1958 Swart, 
being the most senior minister, was Acting and Intermediate Prime Minister. 

From 12 January 1960 to 30 April 1961 Swart was the ninth and last 
Governor-General of the Union of South Africa. From 31 May 1961 he was 
the first State President of the Republic of South Africa for six years. He was 
thus the only person who was Governor-General and State President. In 1967 
he retired to his farm De Aap in the Brandfort district where he lived until his 
death in 1982. 

Swart's public career spanned a period of more than 40 years and he left his 


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imprint on the political, cultural and educational terrain and on the press. Over 
the years he held the following positions: secretary/organizer of the Taalfees 
(language festival) at Bloemfontein as part of the country-wide festival for the 
protection of language rights (1913); member of the council of the Grey 
University College, Bloemfontein (1953—1933); member of the Foundation 
Committee and Congress of the Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurverenigings 
(FAK) (Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Societies) (1929); founder member of 
the Voortrekker youth movement (1930); member of the board of directors of 
the National War Museum of the Boer Republics and of the National Women’s 
Memorial, Bloemfontein (1930-1948); acting editor of Die Volksblad, Bloem- 
fontein (1937); parliamentary press representative of Die Volksblad and Die 
Burger ( 1938); founder member of the Afrikaanse Handelsinstituut (1940); and 
chancellor of the University of the OFS (1950-1976). He was also guardian of 
a number of organizations and institutions, such as the Voortrekker youth 
movement and the National Cultural History Museum in Pretoria. Six schools 
were named after him, and the honorary citizenship of several towns was 
bestowed on him. He received several other awards and honours from organiz- 
ations as varied as the Voortrekker youth movement, the Suid- Afrikaanse Aka- 
demie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African Academy for Arts and Science), 
the Automobile Association of South Africa, the OFS Agricultural Union and 
the Department of Justice. He held honorary doctorates from the universities of 
Rhodes in Grahamstown, Potchefstroom and the OFS and was awarded the 
Decoration for Meritorious Service by the government. 

Swart also left his mark as author and journalist. He produced a number of 
short stories and articles in Afrikaans and English for newspapers and journals. 
Because of his journalistic ability several editorships were offered him over the 
years, but he declined them. He was, however, a director of two publishing 
companies, namely Nasionale Pers and Voortrekkerpers. He wrote the two 
children's books Kinders van Suid-Afrika (1933) and Die agierryer (1939). He 
also wrote poems, songs and school songs for three different schools. 

Swart was a keen sportsman all his life. He was a rugby player and ref- 
eree. In 1918 he captained the first rugby team of the Oranje club in Bloemfon- 
tein and from 1919 to 1921 he was secretary of the OFS Referees’ Association. 
During his stay in the USA in 1921 he helped a South African soccer team to 
beat a Chinese team in Madison, Wisconsin. He was also a bowls and jukskei 

Farming was a special field of interest. He was an honorary member of the 
Letelle Sheep Association of South Africa and a life member of the OFS Agri- 
cultural Union. He farmed with Afrikaner cattle. 

Swart will probably be remembered for the fact that the first treason trials 
took place during his term as Minister of Justice, as well as the fact that he 
introduced the first farm prisons and the first Suppression of Communism Act. 
Throughout his political career he was a staunch believer in Afrikaner national- 
ism. He was a popular, revered and approachable person and statesman. He 
had a remarkable memory even in his old age and his youthful spirit made him 
popular among young people. His tall figure of over two metres was part and 
parcel of his public image. 


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Swart was buried in the Presidents’ Acre in Bloemfontein. His private 
papers are kept in the Institute for Contemporary History at the University of 
the OFS in Bloemfontein. 

Swart married Cornelia Wilhelmina (Nellie) de Klerk of Kanneboskroon in 
the Winburg district on 2 December 1924. A son and daughter were born of 
this marriage. The couple also adopted a daughter. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Bloemfontein: Estate no. 1482/1982; — Institute for Contem- 
porary History, University of the Orange Free State: C.R. Swart collection (PV 18); 
Komitees en Gekose Komitees waarin C.R. Swart gedien het, 1924-1959. (Manuscript, 
compiled in 1979); Recorded chronology of C.R. Swart’s life, 1 December 1974; — depart- 
ment of foreign affairs, Curriculum vitae of C.R. Swart (July 1982); — Honoris causa: 
C.R. Swart, University of the OFS, 18 March 1955; — J.J. KRUGER, President C.R. Swart. 
Kaapstad, 1961; — R. SEGAL, Political Africa: a who's who of personalities ami parties. 
London, 1961; — Mr and Mrs Swart. The Cape Times, 19 May 1967; — B. schoeman, 
Totsiens, oom Blackie! Bylaag tot Dagbreek, 28 Mei 1967; — j. van wyk, Eintlik uit die 
Overberg. Die huisgenoot, 2 Junie 1967; — c.R. swart. Van De Aap na Dc Kaap — via 
Pretoria. Die Burger (Byvoegsel), 29 Januarie 1971; — ’n Standbeeld vir C.R. Swart. Die 
Volksblad, 30 April 1971 ; — a.s. de beer, Ensiklopedie van die wireld, 9. Stellenbosch, 
1977; — Presidential tradition broken today. The Argus, 10 October 1978; — Kanseliers: 
Charles Robberts Swart. Die bull, Feesuitgawe 1979; — Droom jou drome, s£ oom Blackie. 
Die Transvaler, 29 Mei 1981; — D. meyer, Eie mense vereer oom Blackie. Die Volksblad, 
29 Mei 1981; — e.a. venter, 400 leiers in Suid-Afrika oor vier eeue. Potchefstroom, 1980; 
— Obituaries: The Natal Witness, 17 July 1982; Die Vaderland, 17 Julie 1982; Die Volks- 
blad, 17 Julie 1982; The Star, 17 July 1982; The Sunday Times, 18 July 1982; Die bull, 
September 1982; — 1 . crobler. Ministers van Justisie: [eerste Staatspresident, 4 Junie 
1948-6 Desember 1959]. Nuntius, (16), November 1986; — Makers of modem Africa: 
profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991. 


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TEMA, Samuel Samson (*Molepo, east of Petersburg, 10 October 1899— 

tSeshego, Pietersburg district, 7 April 1981), 
preacher and pioneer in the Dutch Reformed Church 
in Africa (DRCA), was the eldest son of Samson 
Tema and his wife Damaris. Tema received his 
early schooling in the Pietersburg district. In 1909 
his father decided to become a Dutch Reformed 
Church (DRC) evangelist. The family left for the 
Stofberg Gedenkskool (Stofberg Memorial School) 
near Viljoensdrif in the Orange Free State where 
Tema’s father received theological training. Tema 
continued his schooling there until about 1916. 
After that he worked as an unqualified teacher until 
1920 when he re-entered Stofberg Gedenkskool to 
qualify as teacher. After he had completed two of the three years training, he 
was involved in a student strike, protesting against students doing manual 
labour. He was expelled from the school. 

For a while Tema worked on the railways but then started teaching ? gain. 
He continued his studies by correspondence and obtained a teaching diploma at 
Kilnerton Institution, a Methodist college in Pretoria. His first post as qualified 
teacher was at Ferreira in Johannesburg where he met Rev. P.H.A. Fouchd*, 
a missionary of the DRC. During this time Tema received a calling to serve as 
an evangelist and through the mediation of Fouch6 he was allowed to return to 
the Stofberg Gedenkskool for theological training in 1932. He completed his 
studies in 1934 and in 1935 began working in Fouchd’s congregation as a can- 
didate minister. As he did not have a congregation of his own, he did pioneer 
work in Orlando. He traced members of the DRC and held services in his own 
home. With Fouchd’s assistance Tema raised enough funds to have a church 
build and in 1938 he was ordained in Orlando, his first congregation. 

In 1940 Tema was appointed as the itinerant secretary of the Christian 
Students’ Association (CSA) stationed at Fort Hare near Alice. He visited 
schools and training centres for Africans in South Africa, Northern Rhodesia 
(Malawi) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and established branches of the 
CSA. He continued his work in the CSA until 1949. During the Second World 
War (1939-1945) the government requested him to serve as chaplain to the 
African troops in the South African forces in North Africa. While in North 


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Africa he visited Israel, including the places in the Bible that made a great 
impression on him. 

From 1949 until he retired in 1967 he served the Tshwane Congregation in 
Atteridgeville, Pretoria. During this time he played a leading role in the 
developing Dutch Reformed Mission Church (DRMC). At the 1951 synod of 
the church he was elected as assistant secretary. During the next five years the 
DRC decided that it would allow Africans to serve on the executive council of 
the DRMC. At the 1956 synod Tema was elected as moderator of the executive 
council of the Transvaal DRMC, but the DRC decided that it would be 
‘unwise’ if an African were to be elected as moderator immediately. Members 
attending the synod were therefore requested to re-elect a moderator. Rev. 
C.J.J. van Rensburg was then elected and Tema became the first African 
member of the executive council of the synod of the Transvaal DRMC, as well 
as the assistant chairperson of the synod. In 1960, at the general synod of the 
DRMC, Tema was elected to the Synodical Commission and the Ecumenical 
Commission. At this synod Tema proposed a name for the church, namely 
Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (DRC A). The proposal was accepted. 

On the interdenominational scene Tema soon distinguished himself as 
leader. In 1954 he gave a lecture at the Interracial Conference of Church 
Leaders held in Johannesburg. He regarded the solution to the racial question 
an important challenge to the churches in South Africa. He was a founder 
member and for many years served as president of the Interdenominational 
African Ministers’ Association (IDAMASA). On a more personal level Tema 
also had contact with the Zion Christian Church (ZCC) of Edward Lekgan- 
yane* whom he met in 1960. It was through Tema’s mediation that Lekgan- 
yane was admitted to the Stofberg Theological School (which was moved from 
Viljoensdrif to inter alia Turfloop (Sovenga) in 1960 in terms of the Group 
Areas Act) in 1963. Tema’s friendship with Lekganyane created cordial 
relationships between the DRC A and the ZCC. 

Tema also played a role in the sphere of the international churches. In 1938 
the Christian Council of Southern Africa sent Tema as a delegate to the 
conference of the International Missionary Council at Tambaram in Madras, 
India. While there he visited Mahatma Ghandi*. In 1964 he attended a meeting 
of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Frankfurt, Germany. At the 
meeting he was nominated as president for the African branch and so became 
a member of the executive council. He held this responsible position for five 
years and attended meetings of the executive council in Manila in the Philip- 
pines (1965), Toronto in Canada (1967) and in Beirut and Lebanon (1969) 
where he had to report on African affairs. As representative of the DRC A 
Tema attended various meetings of the All African Conference of Churches— in 
Zambia (1962 and 1964), Uganda (1963) and the Ivory Coast (1969). 

In 1964 he visited the United States of America (USA) under the auspices 
of the Leadership Exchange Programme. He concentrated on church organiz- 
ation and administration and visited several universities and churches. He also 
spent some time at a theological seminary in Princeton. 

Tema was involved with the Moral Rearmament Movement and attended its 
conference in Switzerland in 1954. In 1956 he took part in the international 


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mission to promote moral rearmament. 

In 1967 he accepted superannuation and after farming for a short time he 
became warden at the Mmadikoti College for Advanced Technical Education 
(Mmadikoti Government School) in Seshego. Even before his retirement he 
as a member of the Lebowa Territorial Authority and remained a member 
when the Legislative Council of Lebowa was established, concen. rating 
especially on agricultural development. He resigned from the council in 1973. 

On 15 May 1977 an honorary doctorate was bestowed upon Tema by the 
Mary Holmes College of Mississippi in the USA for his years of faithful 
service to the church in South Africa and on the international scene. 

Tema’s life was characterized by faithful and loyal service to the church, 
perseverance, endurance and faith in the future of the DRCA. He worked for 
the independence and self-sufficiency of the young church and also pleaded for 
the raising of academic standards in the training of African ministers. Yet he 
cherished the ideal that one day only one DRC would exist in South Africa. He 
stressed good church management and administration and believed in the 
naming of all the members of the consistory and church council. As he served 
in urban areas for many years he was especially aware of the problems of the 
urban African. 

In 1937 he married Fedelia Tebogo Moshoeshoe, a teacher from Johannes- 
burg. She was related to the Lesotho royal family and was a member of the 
Roman Catholic Church. Two daughters and two sons were bom of this 

J.a. van wyk. Dr. Samuel Tema: ’n lewensskets. In: stofberg teologiese skool 
(TURFLOOP), Enkele swart pioniers in die N.G. Kerk in Afr'.ka. Sovenga, 1978. (Stofberg 
Teologiese Studies, 3); — p.a.h. kotze, Ere-doktersgraad vir ds. S.S. Tema, emeritus. Die 
sendingblad, 14(3), Maart 1978; — D. crafford, Aan God die dank. 1. Pretoria, 1982; — 
Private information. Mrs M.M. Motumi (daughter), Mofolo, Soweto. 

TEMPO, Anna (Sister Nannie) (‘Worcester, 23 September 1867— tCape 

Town, 30 May 1946), community and social 
worker. Her parents, William and Magavi Tempo, 
were only children when they were brought from 
Mozambique to the Cape and sold as slaves to 
farmers in the Worcester district. At the time of her 
birth her father was already a freed slave who 
worked at a vineyard, while her mother did washing 
and ironing. 

As a young girl, in about 1884, Tempo entered 
the service of Miss Henrietta Schreiner (later Mrs 
Stakesby Lewis 1 *) who needed assistance with the 
care of her young orphaned nephews. The children 
came to call Tempo ‘Nannie’, a nickname by which 
she became well known. When Miss Schreiner visited Australia, England and 
the United States of America, she took her nephews and Tempo with her. On 
their return they settled in Cape Town. 


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Miss Schreiner was a well-known temperance worker and under her 
influence Tempo converted to Christianity. She took a special interest in Miss 
Schreiner’s welfare work and was encouraged to help Miss Schreiner with 
welfare work among blacks. Temperance meetings were held and the homes of 
coloureds were visited. She visited women’s wards in prisons and hospitals, but 
did much to assist young girls and women "who have gone astray". In Cape 
Town Tempo’s eyes were opened to the great moral dangers which threatened 
young girls at night in the streets of the city and especially in the docks area. 
It became her life task to save the girls morally and spiritually. 

After the death of Miss Schreiner (then Mrs Stakesby Lewis) in 1912, 
Tempo went to Ireland for a time to serve as a nurse for the family of a 
Colonel Crawford. In 1914 she returned to Cape Town and became matron of 
the newly opened Stakesby Lewis hostels. She also went out at night, visited 
the brothels and the docks area, found the young girls there and convinced 
them, sometimes after lengthy pleading, to give up their immoral life and to go 
home with her. She obtained a small house in Napier Street where the girls 
found refuge. 

During the First World War (1914-1918) the streets of Cape Town teemed 
with young men from the ships which visited Table Bay. Tempo also made 
these young men the objects of her redemptive work. Upon seeing them being 
led astray by a girl, Tempo’s fingers would often touch a young man’s arm. 
She would then look into his eyes and plead: "Master, please don’t go with 
her. Think of your mother, your sister and the girl who loves you." Mostly the 
man would then let go of the girl’s hand and walk off. 

By 1922 public opinion apparently turned against her and the type of work 
she was doing. She was forced to vacate the house and find other lodgings 
from where she could operate. For the next few years she lived under extre- 
mely poor conditions. In February 1924, however, with the assistance of the 
Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) she was able to move to a small house in 
Castle Street and in 1928 she also obtained two cottages in Jordaan Street. Fi- 
nancial support of the DRC and her own church, the Dutch Reformed Mission 
Church (DRMC), later made it possible to have a home built for these girls. 
Fittingly it bears her name: Nannie House. 

Health clinics, the Child Life Protection Society, maternity homes and the 
police sent women and girls to the Nannie House. They were mostly stranded, 
destitute and homeless. After a few months they were returned to domestic 
service, or other occupations were found for them. 

In 1937 Tempo received the King George Coronation Medal ”[a]s an ac- 
knowledgement of her years of work among the prostitutes of Cape Town". 
After that she said to a friend: "If only the great Master had rather given me 
five pounds for the Nannie House!" Typical of this remarkable woman she 
never worried about herself. The welfare and spiritual salvation of the girls was 

She died in the Nannie House in Cape Town. 

At a time when very little was done for coloured women Tempo fulfilled a 
very important role. After her death the synod of the DRMC took over the 
management of the Nannie House and a new building was completed in 1950. 


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In terms of the Group Areas Act the Nannie House was moved from Cape 
Town to Athlone in October 1960. 

Obituaries: The Cape Argus, 31 May 1946; The Star, 1 June 1946; — c.J. kriel, Die eerste 
eeu. Kaapstad, 1981; — A.G.H. LOUBSER, Suster Nannie. Kaapstad, 1957; — Sister Nannie 
dedicated her life to help fallen. Die Bonier, 20 Febmarie 1965; — D. crafford, Aan God 
die dank, 1. Pretoria, 1982; — j.m. cronj£, Vroue met nardusparfuum. Pretoria, 1984. 

TIIEMA, Richard Victor Selope (*Ga-Mamabolo, Petersburg district, 1886 — 

tOrlando West, Johannesburg, 13 September 1955), 
____ politician, journalist and newspaper editor. His 
"W parents were Pedi and did not originally belong to 
1| the Mamabolo tribe who, through early contact with 
missionaries, were already Christians. Though his 
parents were not Christians, Thema attended 
mission schools. He interrupted his education when 
he ran away from school in 1901 and joined the 
British troops stationed in Pietersburg during the 
South African War (1899-1902). After peace was 
declared he went to Pretoria where he first worked 
as waiter in a boarding-house and then at the Impe- 
ls i rial Military Railway Dispensary in Pretoria. 

In 1903 he resumed his education and in 1904 was requested to open a 
school not far from his parents’ home. From 1906 to 1910 he studied at 
Lovedale Institution at Alice in the Eastern Cape where he completed the 
Junior Certificate in 1907 and then qualified as a teacher. From the end of 
1910 he taught in the Pietersburg district for a year, but then started working 
as a clerk, first at the Pietersburg mine recruiting office for three years, and 
from 1915 in Johannesburg in the office of the attorney Richard W. Msimang. 

Msimang was chairperson of the committee that had to draw up a new 
constitution for the South African Native National Congress (SANNC, African 
National Congress (ANC) after 1923). Thema acted as Msimang’s secretary on 
the committee. This led to Thema’s increasing involvement in the affairs of the 
congress and in 1915 he was elected provincial secretary of the Transvaal 
branch of the SANNC. While Solomon T. Plaatje* was in Europe during the 
First World War (1914-1918), Thema took over his duties as secretary- 
general, acting periodically in this capacity in the 1920s. In 1919 he was a 
secretary of the deputation to the Versailles Peace Conference and the British 
government to petition for a better dispensation for the blacks in South Africa. 

While in England, Thema enrolled for a course at a London school of 
journalism. On his return to South Africa he became sub-editor of the SANNC 
newspaper Abantu Batho, and correspondent for Umteteli wa Bantu. He 
became known as a persuasive writer and major spokesperson for moderate 
African opinion. In 1932 he became editor of the newly established newspaper, 
The Bantu World. He remained editor until his retirement in 1952. The 
newspaper was owned by whites but written by and for Africans. Under 
Thema’s editorship the paper became an important medium for the 



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politicization of the urban African. It gave detailed information about the ANC, 
but was simultaneously a mouthpiece for Thema’s own political viewpoints that 
were fairly moderate and even considered conservative. He was opposed to the 
influences from the left and the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA, 
South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953), the use of boycotts as a 
political technique, and co-operation between Africans and Indians whom he 
considered an economic threat. Thema was joint author with J.D. Rheinallt 
Jones* of the chapter ‘Our changing life and thought in South Africa’ published 
in Thinking with Africa : chapters by a group of nationals interpreting the 
Christian movement (New York, 1927). 

Thema believed that dialogue and negotiations would be the best way to get 
a better dispensation for Africans. Throughout the 1920s the government 
invited Thema to attend and participate in conferences convened under the 
Native Affairs Act no. 23 of 1920 to discuss matters concerning the Africans. 
He became a founder member and leader of the multiracial Johannesburg Joint 
Council of Europeans and Bantu. Although the ANC did not support this 
council it proved to be a forum for expressing the problems experienced by the 
Africans. In 1925 he was appointed assistant secretary to the Joint Council. 
From 1937 he served in the Native Representative Council (NRC), representing 
the rural areas of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. He remained a 
member of the NRC until it was dissolved in 1951. In 1945 he was leader of 
the National Anti-Pass Council that went to Cape Town to hand over a petition 
to Acting Prime Minister Jan Hofraeyr*. During the ensuing protest march, 
Thema was arrested for leading an illegal procession. 

Thema was one of the organizers of the All-African Convention (AAC) that 
met for the first time in December 1935. He served on the AAC executive. 
After the slump the ANC experienced under the presidency of Pixley Seme, 
Thema helped with the revival of the congress. Under president-general A.B. 
Xuma* he served as ANC speaker, but after Xuma’s defeat in 1949 Thema 
could not associate with the new trends in the ANC. When a member of the 
CPSA, J.B. Marks*, became provincial president of the Transvaal ANC, 
Thema founded the National Minded Bloc— a conservative faction that opposed 
the co-operation between the ANC and SACP and the increasing militancy. 

During the 1920s and early 1930s Thema was superintendent of the Bantu 
Men’s Social Centre in Johannesburg. He resigned when he became editor of 
The Bantu World in 1932. For many years he served on the Lovedale Govern- 
ing Council. 

Thema was a strong and prominent leader in the early years of the ANC. 
He is sometimes described as an opportunist who made his demands through 
white liberals and mass meetings where he proved to be a well-informed and 
brilliant orator. 

He was married to Phillipine Mapule Chide. The couple had a son and a 
daughter. He was buried in the Croesus Cemetery in Newclare, Johannesburg. 
Kwa-Thema township outside Springs was named after him, as well as the 
Selope Thema Community School in Orlando East. 

M. STAUFFER (ed.), Thinking with Africa: chapters by a group of nationals interpreting the 


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Christian movement. New York, 1927; — Obituaries: The Bantu World, 17 & 24 September 
1955; The Rand Daily Mail, 17 September 1955; The Star, 16 September 1955; — t.d.m. 
skota (ed.), The African who's who: an illustrated classified register and national 
biographical dictionary of the Africans in the Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. [Johannesburg, 
1965]; — c.M. DE viluers, Die African National Congress en sy aktiwiteite aan die Wirwa- 
tersrand, 1912-1956. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1965; — P. walshe, The rise of 
African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress, 1912-1952. London, 
1970; — T. karis a o.M. carter (eds), From protest to challenge: a documentary history of 
African politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, 1972-1977; — J. starfield, 
‘Not quite history’: the autobiographies of H. Selby Msimang and R.V. Selope Thema and 
the writing of South African history. Social dynamics, 14(2), December 1988; — Makers of 
modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — Private information: Ms M. 
Masemola (granddaughter), Soweto. 

TYAMZASHE, Benjamin John Peter (*Kimberley, 5 September 1890— tEast 

London, 4 June 1978), Xhosa composer, choir con- 
ductor and organist, was the fourth of the seven 
(some sources contend eight) children of Rev. 
Gwayi Tyamzashe, early missionary of the Congre- 
gational Church, and Rachel MacKriel of Scottish- 
French descent, from Mafeking (Mafikeng). After 
Gwayi’s death in 1896 Rachel returned to her 
people in Mafeking, and the children were sent to 
the Ciskei to be brought up by paternal uncles. 

Tyamzashe received his primary education at the 
Peelton Mission School near King William’s Town. 
From 1 905 to 1 909 he attended Lovedale Institution 
at Alice, where he obtained his Primary Teacher’s 
Diploma. Between 1913 and 1923, through private study he obtained the Senior 
Teacher’s Diploma and the Drawing Teacher’s Diploma. He matriculated in 
1939, but his efforts to study for the B.A. degree at the University of South 
Africa ended with the death of his wife. 

Tyamzashe’s teaching career began when he was still a student at Lovedale. 
For short periods thereafter he taught at Dordrecht, near Cape Town, and at 
Mafeking. From 1913 to 1924 he taught at the Tiger Kloof Institution, Vry- 
burg. During this period he obtained, with distinction, the Associate Dip- 
loma— which included instruction in solfa notation, elementary harmony, coun- 
terpoint, form and style — from the Tonic Solfa College in London, England. 

In 1925, in the hope that his wife would enjoy better health, the family 
moved to Cala, Transkei. Shortly after his arrival at Cala he became principal 
of the Higher Mission School, a position he retained until his retirement in 
1950. He retired from Cala to his farm Zinyoka, near King William’s Town. 

Tyamzashe's music career was influenced by his family background. 
Coming from a musical family, he played the organ from the age of ten. At 
Lovedale Tyamzashe was an enthusiastic member of the male choir, and for his 
friends he made up many ditties about events or personalities. While teaching 
at Tiger Kloof, he trained choirs and played the harmonium for the school 
assembly. Encouraged by his teacher colleagues at Tiger Kloof, he started 


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At Cala composition became more meaningful to him. Here he wrote 
mainly for primary school usage. His five SSC (two sopranos and contralto) 
part songs (‘Abantwana besikole’, ‘Amagqabi emithi’, ‘Inkonjane’, ‘Ukuba 
bendinamaphiko’ and ‘U-Nonhayi’) are firm favourites with every Xhosa pri- 
mary school choir, past and present. In 1925 his song ‘Ivoti’ was the set piece 
for the Transkei-Cape Choir Competition, the first vernacular composition to 
be accepted in this way. 

Most of Tyamzashe’s compositions are choral works. Because he seldom 
dated a manuscript, it is not possible to establish a chronology of his works. 
Furthermore, the date of publication is apparently also not an indication of the 
date of composition. Nevertheless, it is usually accepted that the first song he 
composed was ‘Isithandwa sam’ (My beloved) (1917), and that his composi- 
tions can be divided into three periods, corresponding to the places where he 
lived and worked. His works are listed in Y. Huskisson, and J.P. Malan (both 

In an analysis of Tyamzashe’s works D. Hansen (infra) showed his music 
influences to be entirely Western, although his stay with his uncles as a young 
child exposed him to Xhosa traditional music. Only from 1947, at Cala, did his 
exposure to Xhosa traditional folk music become noticeable in his compositions 
when he started introducing the occasional Xhosa music idiom, rhythms and 
melodies into his works. At Cala he also led the Transkei Border Troupe that 
specialized in Xhosa indigenous songs. When he composed ‘Zweliya duduma’ 
for a massed choir of 3 000 voices to welcome the British royal family to 
Umtata in 1947, he incorporated the Xhosa prophet Ntsikana’s* chant. 

At Zinyoka he specialized in pieces d’occasion, usually on request: ‘Mthin 
(athin’) amahlunguiu' that invoked God’s blessing on the work of Methodist 
churches in South Africa, was written for the 1963 Methodist conference in 
Port Elizabeth; ‘Unobantu’ for the official opening of the new dining hall at the 
exclusive Xhosa Mount Arthur Girls’ High School at Lady Frere; ‘Ekhaya 
radio bantu’ for the new Radio Xhosa studios in the Ciskei; Tskhukhukazi' for 
a choir of 500 voices, asking for God’s blessing for Queen Elizabeth II at her 
coronation in 1952; ‘Huntshu C.L.A. yo mneno-nciba’ which praised the 
Ciskeian Legislative Assembly; and Tbethil Intsimbi yaBantu' which praised 
the Intsimbi newspaper of Transkei. There are several requiems for funerals: 
‘Uwvumil umthetho ka Thixo’ for the eldest son of Paramount Chief Matanzi- 
ma; and ‘Lala Ngoxolo’ (Rest in Peace) for a close friend of his son who died 
after being knocked down by a car. For the wedding of his son Victor (a 
medical doctor) he composed ‘Umtshato ka dokotile’. 

Because of his Western facility and his ability to avail himself of the 
indigenous, he was approached in 1965 by Father Hirmer to rewrite the 
Catholic Mass at Indwe, Ciskei. From about April 1965 he thus began to write 
music for the Roman Catholic Church. ‘Missa 1’ helped him to formulate 
guiding principles for further liturgical compositions of this kind. He again 
quoted Ntsikana’s chant in the Gloria of ‘Missa 1 ’ and in ‘I-Komplini’. 

His choral works cover the universe, nature, people— in descriptive and 
dramatic vein, often with an idte fixe (for example a national melody) to suit 



an occasion. Popular Victorian music with fa-la-la choruses, and ragtime and 
band music with pom-pom effects impressed him and were heard not only in 
his music, but also when he was seated at his piano at home. Yet Tyamzashe 
is considered the first African composer who, in a modest way, "turned to his 
own musical past for inspiration". His leading characteristic was versatility, 
allied to a quick musical brain. 

Tyamzashe’s work has received much recognition. Several of his composi- 
tions were used as set pieces for choir competitions: ‘Ukuba bendinamaphiko’ 
(TUATA, 1961), ‘Inyibiba’ (Transkei, 1964), and ‘Intlokoma’ (Transkei, 
1965). In 1968 his song ‘Ududa nabo lixhaga leDini’ received the only prize 
awarded in a competition arranged for African composers by the Society for 
South African Composers. On 24 April 1976 he received an honorary M.A. 
degree from the University of Fort Hare in recognition of the major contribu- 
tion he had made to Xhosa music. 

His lifelong association with missions and mission schools left their imprint. 
He was a dignified but engaging person with a keen interest in his fellow being 
and the events around him. 

Tyamzashe married Mercy Gladys Xiniwe in 1918 (or 1919). Four sons and 
two daughters were born of this marriage. After his wife’s death in 1938 he 
married a second time, to a Mrs Gwayi, but the marriage was unsuccessful. 
Shortly before his retirement in 1950 Agnes Nomasango, a diviner, became his 
third wife. Some years after the marriage she died. Tyamzashe died of cardiac 
failure at Frere Hospital, East London, and was buried on his farm Zinyoka, 
King William’s Town. He was survived by his six children from his first 

D.D. hansen, The life and work of Benjamin Tyamzashe: a contemporary Xhosa composer. 
Grahamstown, 1968; — Y. huskisson, The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. (Johannes- 
burg] , 1969; — Who’s who: Fort Hare confers honorary master’s degree. Bantu education 
journal, 22(4), April 1976; — D.D. hansen. The music of the Xhosa-speaking people. 
D.Phil. thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, 1981; — Y. huskisson, The Bantu 
composers of Southern Africa. Supplement, edited by J.P. Malan. Pretoria, 1983; — J.P. 
MALAN (ed.). South African music encyclopedia, 4. Cape Town, 1986; — Private informa- 
tion: Dr V.P. Tyamzashe (son), Umtata. 


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VAN DER GUCHT, Rosalie (*Burma, 27 October 1908— fCape Town, 31 

October 1985), theatre director, actor and teacher. 
She was the only child of Claude van der Gucht and 
Florence Roberts. Her mother was governess at the 
royal school for the princesses of Chulalongkorn, 
Supreme King of Siam (Thailand), and her father 
was manager of the Bombay-Burma Trading Com- 
pany. Her parents met in Siam, married against 
parental opposition, and settled in Burma. 

At the age of four Van der Gucht was sent to 
school in England. In 1919, after the First World 
War (1914-1918), she went to study at Tudor Hall 
in Chistlehurst, and in 1924 went on to the Lycee 
Victor Duruy in Paris, France, where she obtained 
the Diplome D’Etudes de Civilisation Francaise. Returning home to England, 
she was presented to court and in 1926 enrolled at the Central School of 
Speech Training and Dramatic Art, where Elsie Fogerty who created the first 
comprehensive teacher training in this field, was head. Elsie Fogerty con- 
sidered Van der Gucht an excellent student. Van der Gucht obtained the first 
part of the Diploma in Dramatic Art of the University of London. Her second 
year teacher’s course Dramatic Certificate was obtained in the first class. After 
completion of the course Van der Gucht spent seven years teaching at Malvern 
Girls’ College as resident speech and drama teacher. On her return to London 
in 1933 she was placed on the London County Council’s Senior Panel of 
Instructors in Elocution and Dramatic Literature and worked at the Stanhope 
Women’s Evening Institute. She obtained the Licentiate of the Royal Academy 
of Music (Elocution), was elected to the British Drama League Panel of 
Adjudicators and joined the Questor’s Theatre Club where she directed and 

In 1939, after serving as a driver in the London Auxiliary Ambulance 
Service, Van der Gucht left England for South Africa to take up an appoint- 
ment at the Grahamstown Training College. This was the beginning of a 
prestigious career in the field of speech and drama in South Africa. She was a 
pioneer and inspired teacher in her field and was much loved and admired by 
the hundreds of students whom she taught and influenced, as well as the many 
other people with whom she came in contact throughout her long career. She 


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inspired devoted friendships which would sustain her during the long illness 
before her death. 

During the Second World War (1939-1945) she attempted to join the Signal 
Corps, but was rejected due to poor eyesight. In 1942 the board of the Faculty 
of Music at the University of Cape Town (UCT) recommended the appointment 
of Van der Gucht as assistant in speech training. Arriving to take up her 
appointment in Cape Town, she found herself acting, directing and teaching 
with characteristic energy, humour and enthusiasm. One of her early perform- 
ances was A. Kesselring’s Arsenic and old lace for the Repertory Theatre 
Society. At this stage she directed G.B. Shaw’s* Mrs Warren’s profession and 
J. Bridie’s Tobias and the angel for the Eoan Group. 

In 1946 Van der Gucht was appointed head of the Speech and Drama 
Department at UCT, and she began to set her stamp on the department. She 
was an exceptional leader and knew how to delegate. As head she inspired her 
staff, encouraging them to stretch their own abilities and trusting them to meet 
her demands. She was an educator first and foremost, a hard taskmaster and an 
enthusiastic supporter of staff and student endeavours. 

Among her own early productions as head of the department were Shakes- 
peare’s Merchant of Venice (1947) and Ibsen’s The wild duck (1948). For the 
Little Theatre’s twenty-first birthday celebrations Van der Gucht produced The 
Oresteia of Aeschylus in September 1952. In March 1958 her production of 
The good woman of Setzuan was the first staging of a Bertolt Brecht play at the 
Little Theatre. As a director she was best known for her delicate and insightful 
productions of Chekhov plays like The cherry orchard. Uncle Vanya, The 
seagull and Three sisters. 

Van der Gucht initiated many projects related to drama besides her direct 
departmental duties. One such project was the establishment of an important 
organization, Theatre For Youth, in Cape Town in 1956. This reflects the kind 
of vision which also enabled her to recognize the need to develop the depart- 
ment further. She therefore recommended the institution of a Performer’s 
Diploma and the chair of drama. 

After her retirement in 1971 she focused on directing plays and travelling. 
Travel took her to inter alia mainland China, Thailand, Mexico, Canada and 
Cyprus. She directed 32 productions in the years between her retirement and 
her death. Several of these were after her first extensive operations for cancer, 
notably her production of Alexei Arbuzov's play Old world of which Michael 
Venables in The Citizen said, "This is a real gem of a production” and "Miss 
Van der Gucht demonstrates once more the insight, fine judgement and 
theatrical mastery that have earned her her respected place as doyenne of our 
English-language theatre". 

Van der Gucht received many awards, including the Three Leaf Award for 
Best Director, the AA Mutual Life for Best Director— an award from the Cape 
Tercentenary Foundation for outstanding services to drama— and a similar AA 
Vita Award. The latter was in recognition of her exceptional contribution as an 
educationist in English drama in South Africa and her inspired efforts to 
maintain the highest standard of excellence in our theatres. This last award 
came in August 1985, two months before she died, a fitting tribute to her life’s 




She never married. 

University of Cape Town. Little Theatre: Little Theatre Press Cutting Book, 1942—1976; 
— d. inskip. Forty Little years: the story of a theatre. Cape Town, 1972; — Obituaries: The 
Cape Times, 1 November 1985; Die Burger, 1 November 1985; The Argus, 1 November 
1985; — Tribute: L. schach, Rosalie van der Gucht: a Very personal and affectionate 
memoir. Scenario, (59), 15 December 1985; — J.O. MORRIS, A critical biography of Rosalie 
van der Gucht: investigating her contribution to education in South Africa with special 
reference to speech and drama. M.A. thesis. University of Cape Town, 1989. 

VAN DER POEL, Jean (*Claremont, Cape Town, 24 December 1904 — fCape 

Town, 3 August 1986), historian and teacher, was a 
daughter of Jan Christoffel van der Poel and his 
wife Anna Esther. 

Van der Poel grew up in Cape Town and at- 
tended the University of Cape Town (lJ(CT) from 
1922 to 1926. She was drawn to history by the in- 
spired teaching of Eric Walker*, head of the De- 
partment of History. He supervised the! master’s 
dissertation she completed in 1925. It dealt with the 
affairs of Basutoland (Lesotho) from 1858' to 1870. 
She was awarded a Donald Currie Memorial schol- 
arship which enabled her to study at the! London 
School of Economics. The topic she chose for a 
doctoral thesis was also suggested by Walker. Before leaving for England she 
prepared a calendar of the huge collection of John X. Merriman* papers at the 
South African Library. Her doctorate was granted magnum cum laude, and her 
thesis on railway and customs policies won a Royal Empire Society prize for 
the best monograph on imperial history by a historian under 35. It was 
published by that society in its Imperial Studies Monograph series. 

In the middle of 1929 Van der Poel returned to Cape Town. Walker wanted 
her to lecture at UCT, but she insisted on taking a post as senior history 
teacher at Rustenburg Girls’ High School. She completed a B.Ed. dissertation 
on State action in native education in the Cape, 1841—1925 and was to play 
an important role in the South African Teacher’s Association. 

In 1938 Van der Poel was persuaded to move to UCT, where she lectured 
from March 1938 until she retired at the end of 1969. In 1954 she was. made 
a senior lecturer and in the early 1960s she was offered the King George V 
chair of history, but declined it. 

In 1942 the widow of Sir James Rose Innes* requested Van der Poel to 
arrange her husband’s papers and provide a calendar. However, Van der Poel 
is perhaps best known for two major research projects which she completed in 
her years at UCT. The first was a history of the Jameson* Raid, published by 
Oxford University Press in 1951. This was the first scholarly enquiry into the 
question of responsibility for the raid. Joseph Chamberlain’s* complicity had 
been suspected at the time, but now Van der Poel brought it out into the open. 


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The failure of the British government frankly to admit its role when the raid 
went wrong, had been "a tragic error", she concluded. Later historians 
accepted her judgement. 

In 1951 she was asked by the principal of UCT to help William Keith 
Hancock, an Australian historian, collect material^ for a biography of J.C. 
Smuts'". Van der Poel accepted the assignment and assembled, classified and 
catalogued a vast mass of papers over 20 years. Hancock’s biography was 
heavily dependent on her labours. Her own assessment of Smuts is to be found 
in the long entry she wrote for the first volume of the Dictionary of South Af- 
rican biography. In 1966 the Cambridge University Press published the first 
four volumes of Selection from the Smuts papers under the joint editorship of 
Hancock and Van der Poel; the volumes that followed in 1973 were published 
under her name alone. After her retirement she thought of writing on the 1922 
Rand Revolt, but decided instead to devote her time to reading and to music. 

Van der Poel, who did not marry, was a shy and private person. She did 
not engage in academic controversy with other scholars^ nor sought the lime- 
light. She was an excellent and witty lecturer, and a person of strong beliefs 
and a strong attachment to European culture. She always lectured on European 
history, and delighted in the history and music of that continent. Her books 
will ensure her a prominent place in South African historiography. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Cape Town: Estate no. 5625/86; — University of Cape Town 
archives: Walker and Mandelbrote collection; h.m. Robertson, Draft history of the 
University of Cape Town; — A. LENNOX-SHORT A D. welsh (eds), UCT at 150. Cape 
Town, 1979; — C. Saunders, Jean van der Poel, historian. Quarterly bulletin of the South 
African Library, 41(2), December 1986; — Private information: Personal interviews with 
Van der Poel. 

VORSTER, Balthasar Johannes (John) ("Jamestown, 13 December 1915— 

fCape Town, 10 September 1983), statesman and 
politician. He was the thirteenth of the fourteen 
children, and the eighth and youngest son of Willem 
Carel Vorster and his wife, Elizabeth Wagenaar. 
His parents were deeply religious, while his father 
was an ardent Afrikaner nationalist. 

Vorster started his education at the Spitskop 
farm school in the Jamestown district. To accommo- 
date the educational needs of the family, his father 
moved to Sterkstroom wiiere Vorster matriculated in 
1933. He then proceeded to the University of Stel- 
lenbosch to study law, obtaining the B.A., as well 
as the LL.B. degrees by 1938. Among the lecturers 
who influenced him was H.F. Verwoerd*, who later became Prime Minister, 
whose sociology classes Vorster attended. Vorster displayed leadership qualities 
during his student years and was inter alia secretary of the student council in 
his final year, and in 1937 and 1938 he was chairperson of the Junior National 
Party (NP) branch at Stellenbosch. 


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In 1939 Vorster was appointed as registrar to the judge president of the 
Cape division of the Supreme Court. In October 1939 he became professional 
assistant to a law firm in Port Elizabeth and later a partner in another law firm 
in the city. He excelled in court work and during World War II (1939-1945) 
he defended a number of Afrikaners who had been indicted in terms of the 
emergency regulations. 

Vorster played a major part in the Afrikaner community of Port Elizabeth 
from 1939 to 1942. He was elected as chairperson of the district management 
of the Herenigde (Reunited) Nasionale Party (HNP) in the Port Elizabeth North 
constituency, but resigned as chairperson of the branch as a result of the breach 
between the HNP and the Ossewa-B rand wag (OB) which he had joined. This 
led him to withdraw his HNP candidature for the by-election in the King 
William’s Town constituency in 1941, having rejected the parliamentary system 
as an OB member. Vorster also played an important role in culture and sport 
in Port Elizabeth. He was chairperson of the Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniging 
(Afrikaans cultural society) and amongst other things, chairperson of commit- 
tees of the Park rugby club. He was involved in a fierce struggle with the 
Eastern Province Rugby Union because they discriminated against Afrikaner 
players who were opposed to South Africa’s participation in the war. This 
stand against discrimination in sport is ironical in the light of his own govern- 
ment’s discrimination on the grounds of race and colour some years later. 

Vorster was appointed as the chief general of the OB in the Eastern Cape 
in August 1940— the youngest chief general in the OB. He also served in the 
Cape provincial executive of the OB. He held strong republican convictions and 
was vehemently opposed to the war effort of the J.C. Smuts* government. On 
23 April 1942 he was arrested under the emergency regulations and detained 
without charge in the police cells in Port Elizabeth for almost three months. 
After he had been on a hunger strike for two days, he was transferred to the 
internment camp at Koffiefontein where he was detained for a further fourteen 

After his release Vorster was under house arrest in Robertson for three 
months. Subsequently he and his wife settled in Brakpan where he practised as 
an attorney. He soon re-entered active politics and joined the Afrikaner Party 
(AP) of N.C. Havenga* formed by loyal J.B.M. Hertzog* followers who were 
opposed to the war after the split in the HNP in 1940. During the general 
election of 1948 he was appointed as the AP candidate in Brakpan, but was 
compelled to stand as an independent candidate because of his past connections 
with the OB. He lost by two votes against A.E. Trollip of the United Party 
(UP). Five years later (1953) he won the neighbouring Nigel constituency for 
the NP. He was to represent this constituency in parliament for 25 years. 
Meanwhile he made swift progress as a jurist and was admitted to the Johan- 
nesburg bar in 1953, practising as an advocate until 1958. 

In 1958 Prime Minister Verwoerd appointed Vorster as Deputy Minister of 
Education, Arts and Science, and of National Welfare and Pensions. He was 
responsible for handling the controversial Extension of University Education 
Act in 1959, which provided for separate university colleges for different 
ethnic groups. 


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In August 1961 Vorster became Minister of Justice. During the next few 
years he emerged as a ‘strong man’ in handling the attempts by the extraparlia- 
mentary South African Communist Party (SACP), African National Congress 
and Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) to bring about political change by force 
and end minority white rule in South Africa. Vorster gained parliament’s 
permission for extraordinary powers for the government to detain people 
without trial and place restrictions on freedom of movement, gatherings and 

The legislation used by Vorster to silence and suppress the extraparliamen- 
tary opposition included the General Laws Amendment Act of 1962. In terms 
of the act people regarded as dangerous to the security of the state were placed 
under house arrest. Another General Laws Amendment Act of 1963 em- 
powered the government to detain any person for 90 days without trial, and in 
terms of the Criminal Procedure Act of 1965 a person could be detained for 
180 days. Vorster was accused of destroying the sovereignty of the law, but he 
maintained that the 90-days and 180-days articles were necessary to break the 
back of the revolutionary organizations. 

Vorster’s reputation among the white electorate grew as the police, backed 
by strict security legislation, achieved significant success in 1963 and 1964. 
Counted among the successes were the Rivonia swoop and trial, the arrest of 
A. (Bram) Fischer’", leader of the SACP, and the arrest of John Harris, planter 
of the Johannesburg station bomb. 

Because of the methods he used, Vorster was often portrayed by his politi- 
cal opponents as a power-drunk Gestapo chief. He was also accused of inhu- 
manity. Yet he never refused to speak to the relatives of any person condemned 
to death or of any long-term prisoner. He also held personal interviews with 
the parents of students involved in acts of sabotage and he even interviewed 
some of the students in jail. 

In 1966 Prime Minister Verwoerd was killed in parliament. The NP caucus 
unanimously nominated Vorster as new chief leader and he thus became South 
Africa’s seventh Prime Minister on 13 September 1966. The English-language 
press in South Africa and abroad was generally hostile to and apprehensive 
about Vorster’s rise to power. 

Vorster soon left his own imprint on the premiership. He was accessible 
and warm and replaced Verwoerd’s intellectual dogmatism with greater prag- 
matism. He sought to normalize relations, especially those between Afrikaans 
and English speakers. He often stressed the importance of white national unity. 

Vorster’s first three years as Prime Minister witnessed a political conflict 
among Afrikaners. Two conflicting schools of thought were beginning to 
emerge: the ‘verkramptes’ (conservatives) who wanted to limit to the absolute 
minimum the contact between people of a different language and colour, and 
the ‘verligtes’ (enlightened) who wanted to remove petty apartheid. Vorster 
sympathized with the ‘verligtes’. The ‘verkramptes’ opposed mainly four 
aspects of his government’s policy: its more flexible approach with regard to 
sport and entertainment, diplomatic relations with African states, immigration, 
and Afrikaner-Engiish relations. Vorster gradually grew impatient with what he 
termed the ‘super Afrikaners’ and in August 1968 Albert Hertzog* was 


dismissed from his cabinet. After the nonconformists were driven from the NP, 
the Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP) was founded under Hertzog in October 

After the break in Afrikaner unity brought about by Vorster’s more prag- 
matic policy, the NP lost many votes to the UP in the general election of 
1970— the first time since coming to power in 1948. However, the HNP 
suffered a humiliating defeat. But Vorster’s position consolidated again and in 
the general election of 1974 the NP regained lost ground. The opposition 
parties started to crumble and in the general election of 1977 Vorster led the 
NP to its greatest victory. 

Vorster was convinced that discrimination would disappear as NP policy 
unfolded. He tried to foster good relations with African nations and he had 
more discussions with black leaders than all his NP predecessors put together. 
The constitutional and economic development of the black homelands was one 
of the priorities during his term of office. Transkei became independent in 
October 1976 and Bophuthatswana in December 1977. By the end of 1978 six 
black homelands had already become partially self-governing. For the first time 
white industrialists were also allowed to invest in the homelands on an agency 
basis. But the right of blacks to set up family homes or businesses in parts of 
South Africa classified as white was very rigidly restricted until after the 
Soweto disturbances of 1976-1977. 

Sport was an important area in which Vorster initiated policy changes. The 
cancellation of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) tour of South Africa in 
1968 after Vorster had refused to allow the MCC to include a coloured man of 
South African origin— Basil D’Oliveira — in their team, hampered South 
Africa’s position in international sport. But Vorster had begun to move away 
from Verwoerd’s policy of racial discrimination on the sport field, because he 
wanted to prevent South Africa’s total isolation in the international sport arena. 
He announced the first concessions in April 1967 and thus elicited the anger of 
the ‘verkramptes’. In April 1971 he announced a new sport policy in which a 
distinction was made between multiracial and multinational sport: ethnic teams 
could compete against each other but mixed teams were barred. In September 
1976 a further adjustment was made to allow multiracial or mixed sport to a 
greater extent. 

Vorster tried to improve black-white relations by replacing a policy of ex- 
tremely rigid social and economic segregation with one of selective segregation 
in the social sphere. Facilities like restaurants, hotels, libraries, theatres, 
museums and parks in white areas were opened piecemeal to blacks. More 
economic opportunities were also created for blacks. Job reservation, at first 
rigidly enforced, began to disappear. The wage gap between whites and blacks 
was narrowed, the bargaining position of blacks in the labour market was 
improved and the first report of the Commission of Inquiry into Labour Legis- 
lation (chairperson: Prof. N.E. Wiehahn) was completed. 

Vorster also tried to address the political ambitions of the coloureds for 
whom he regarded integration as undesirable and a separate homeland as politi- 
cally impracticable. In 1968 the representation of coloureds in parliament was 
abolished, the interference of one population group in the politics of another 


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was prohibited, and the Coloured Representative Council (CRC) was enlarged 
and its powers increased. Vorster proposed a ‘consultative cabinet council’ in 
1975 to allow for liaison between the CRC and the white parliament at cabinet 
level. But the Labour Party majority in the CRC rejected this and objected to 
the limited powers of the CRC. 

The Report of the Commission of Enquiry into Matters Relating to the 
Coloured Population Group (chairperson: Prof. Erika Theron) was tabled in 
parliament in 1976. The government accepted the majority of the proposals of 
the commission but rejected those contrary to apartheid policy. It would not 
allow direct coloured representation in such government bodies as parliament 
and provincial councils, but was prepared to change the existing Westminster 
system of government in order to give coloureds and Indians a greater say in 
administration. Consequently the NP accepted proposals in 1977 for a new con- 
stitutional dispensation under which whites, coloureds and Indians would each 
have their own parliament and cabinet, while matters of common interest would 
be handled by a council of cabinets. A new political dispensation was, 
however, not implemented during Vorster’s term of office. 

The one event during Vorster’s term of office that changed the course of 
South African history was the political upheaval that broke out in Soweto on 16 
June 1976. The turmoil swiftly spread country-wide and continued with varying 
intensity until October 1977, causing the death of some 600 people. The situa- 
tion was complicated by the death in detention of the Black Consciousness 
leader Steve Biko* in September 1977. An international storm of protest 
resulted. The government responded to the upheaval by banning eighteen or- 
ganizations, as well as the widely-read black newspaper World, and opponents 
of the government's internal policy were restricted. South Africa’s international 
isolation increased overnight as the Security Council of the United Nations 
(UN) imposed an arms embargo on South Africa. 

The government eventually responded to the political turmoil by reluctantly 
beginning to accept the permanency of urban blacks, who were offered local 
community councils but no parliamentary representation. Home ownership for 
blacks in ‘white South Africa’ under 99-years leasehold rules was also insti- 

In his foreign policy Vorster tried to normalize South Africa’s relations with 
Africa. Unlike Verwoerd he stressed that South Africa had a role to play in 
Africa. His beliefs found expression in an outward policy of contact and 
dialogue. His actions in this regard included a meeting with Chief Leabua Jona- 
than of Lesotho in Cape Town early in 1967, and visits to South Africa by the 
president of Botswana, Sir Seretse Khama, and the Prime Minister of Swazi- 
land, Prince Dlamini, as well as Vorster’s visit to Malawi in May 1971— the 
first Prime Minister of South Africa to visit an independent African state. The 
visit was reciprocated by President Banda of Malawi later that year. 

The military coup d'itat in Portugal in 1974 ended 500 years of Portuguese 
colonialism in Africa. This drastically changed South Africa’s relations with in- 
dependent black Africa. Vorster thereupon embarked on his (Utente offensive. 
In a dramatic speech in the Senate in October 1974 he committed his govern- 
ment to the normalizing of relations and to peace, progress and development. 


President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia described this as the voice of reason for 
which Africa and the world had been waiting. Vorster undertook two dramatic 
secret peace missions— to President Felix Houphouet-Boigny of the Ivory Coast 
in 1974 and to President William Tolbert of Liberia the following year. The 
Organization of African Unity rejected Vorster’s policy of ditenie at its annual 
conference in April 1975 and two other factors caused it to fail: South Africa’s 
military intervention in Angola in 1975 and the upheaval which erupted in 
Soweto in 1976. 

Vorster played a key role as mediator in the search for a peaceful settlement 
in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). As part of his relaxation policy he withdrew units of 
the South African Police which he had sent to Rhodesia and tried to persuade 
Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith to negotiate with the black nationalist 
leaders. He did much to create a climate in which negotiations could take 

One of the most imaginative acts in Vorster’s peace initiative was a meeting 
on board a train with President Kenneth Kaunda on the bridge over the 
Zambezi river at the Victoria Falls in August 1975. Although this conference 
failed to produce any tangible results he continued his search for peace. Thus 
he conferred three times during 1976 with Henry Kissinger, American 
Secretary of State. 

As far as the thorny dispute with the UN over South West Africa (SWA) 
(Namibia) is concerned, Vorster’s government accepted the international status 
of the territory and in 1972 twice held talks with Kurt Waldheim, secretary- 
general of the UN, and his special representative, Alfred Escher. An advisory 
council for SWA was established in 1974 and in 1975 the Turnhalle Confer- 
ence was convened to work out a constitution for an independent SWA. Vorster 
also held talks with the representatives of the five Western countries in the 
Security Council. In September 1978 he announced a general election to be 
held in SWA in December in opposition to the UN’s plan to hold its own 
elections in April 1979. But the Western contact group did not take this as a 
cue to terminate negotiations. 

Vorster became the most widely travelled Prime Minister South Africa had 
had. He paid official visits to Spain, Portugal, France and Switzerland in 1970, 
Paraguay and Uruguay in 1975 and Israel and West Germany in 1976. 

Vorster also tried to strengthen relations with the United States of America 
(USA) but was unable to win American backing when South African forces in- 
tervened in Angola in 1975. When the Democrat Jimmy Carter became 
American president in 1977, relations deteriorated because Carter’s administra- 
tion insisted on majority rule with universal suffrage in South Africa. Vorster 
strongly spoke out against USA interference in South Africa’s internal affairs 
and when he conferral with American Vice-President Walter Mondale in 
Vienna in May 1977 he absolutely refused to give in to American demands 
over the political rights of blacks. 

Vorster’s health deteriorated fast from 1977 onwards. He announced his 
resignation on 20 September 1978. At the request of his colleagues he made 
himself available as the NP candidate for the state presidency. He was inaugur- 
ated as State President in Pretoria on 10 October 1978. After less than eight 


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months in office, he was compelled to resign on 9 September 1979 after a 
judicial inquiry into the notorious Information Scandal. The Commission of 
Inquiry into Alleged Irregularities in the Former Department of Information 
(chairperson: Judge R.P.B. Erasmus) was very critical of Vorster’s handling of 
the affair. 

Vorster and his wife settled at Oubos seaside resort some 150 km west of 
Port Elizabeth and they also resided in that city from time to time. He rarely 
expressed political opinions in public any more, but when the split in the NP 
occurred in 1982 he issued a statement in which he approved of the conduct of 
A.P. Treumicht and his followers. 

Vorster’s health further deteriorated and he died in Tygerberg Hospital in 
Cape Town. In accordance with his wish he did not have a state funeral. He 
was buried in the so-called Heroes’ Acre at the Dutch Reformed Church at 
Kareedouw in the Eastern Cape on 13 September 1983. On the same day a 
memorial service was held in the Dutch Reformed Church in Bosman Street, 

Vorster was an unpretentious, phlegmatic and placid man who drew 
pleasure from the small and simple things in life. He was deeply religious and 
a devoted family man who was generally approachable and hearty. As a 
speaker he was equalled by few. He spoke spontaneously from only a few 
notes and used his sense of humour to keep the attention of his audience. He 
was a highly respected parliamentary debater. 

As a political leader a good political sense and an exceptional knowledge of 
human nature came to his aid, although these qualities were impaired during 
the last two years of his life when his health deteriorated. Although he initiated 
many policy changes his critics point out that his obsession with party unity 
prevented him from really putting South Africa on a new political course and 
that the last two years of his premiership was a period of stagnation because of 
an inability to make decisions. He is seen by some as a politician rather than 
a statesman, someone who had the prestige and power to bring about real 
reform but shied away from doing so. Millions of blacks therefore regarded 
him as merely the leader of the white minority who failed to improve their 
political position. He did, however, succeed in uniting the two white language 
groups in a common— although narrow— South African patriotism. Despite the 
Soweto upheavals of 1976-1977 he did much to improve good relations 
between white and black and to foster contact and dialogue across the colour 
bar. He also took the first steps to bring about much needed constitutional 
reform in order to broaden the base of democracy in South Africa. 

Vorster received honorary doctorates from four Afrikaans-language univer- 
sities in South Africa and thirteen towns and cities bestowed honorary citizen- 
ship on him. In 1975 he received the Decoration for Outstanding Service and 
the Hendrik Verwoerd Award for Exceptional Service of National Interest. He 
was chancellor of the University of Stellenbosch for nearly fifteen years. He 
was a member of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Runs (South 
African Academy for Arts and Science) and the Voortrekker youth movement 
for many years, as well as a life member of the Federasie van Afrikaanse 
Kultuurverenigings (FAK) (Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Societies). He 


received medals of honour from the Simon van der Stel Foundation and the 
Junior Rapportryers. He was chairperson of the board of directors of Voortrek- 
kerpers and a trustee of Afrikaanse Persfonds. 

There are numerous busts and paintings of Vorster. Several schools, a 
hospital, the airport at Kimberley, a building at the University of Stellenbosch 
and the police headquarters in Johannesburg were named after him. 

Vorster and Martinie Steyn (Tini) Malan, whom he met at Stellenbosch 
while she was a social work student and Junior NP committee member, were 
married in Worcester on 20 December 1941. She was the daughter of P.A. 
Malan, attorney in Worcester and co-founder of the NP in the Cape, of 
SANLAM and of Nasionale Pers. Two sons and a daughter were born of the 

Institute for Contemporary History, University of the Orange Free State: B.J. Vorster collec- 
tion (PV 132); M.S. Vorster collection (PV 614); — a. ries, Man van staal het sagte hart. 
Die Byvoegsel tot Die Burger, 17 September 1966; — f. la grange, Hy land toe met sy 
witbroek op die askar. Die Byvoegsel tot Die Burger, 17 September 1966; — j.d. vorster. 
My broer John. Die Byvoegsel tot Die Burger, 17 September 1966; — Ons nuwe premier, 
adv. John Vorster. Die Beeld Foto-byvoegsel, 18 September 1966; — c. pama, Kwartierstaat 
van die Eerste Minister, Familia, 3(3—4), 1966; — J. BOTHA, Verwoerd is dead. Cape Town, 
1967; — H. swart, Mnr. Vorster se hare ook stomp afgeknip. Byvoegsel tot Die Burger, 7 
Junie 1967; — g.m. cockram, Vorster's foreign policy. Pretoria, 1970; — J.H.P. serfon- 
TEIN, Die verkrampte aanslag, Kaapstad, 1970; — [Foto-beeld van John Vorster], Foto-Rap- 
port, 12 September 1971; — A.M. van schoor (ed.), Die Nasionale boek: gewy aan 25 jaar 
van Nasionale bewind, 1948-1973. Johannesburg, 1973; — b.m. schoeman, Vorster se 
1 000 dae. Kaapstad, 1974; — nasionale party van suid-afrika. inligtingsdiens, Uit 
die mond van Vorster, 8(1975/76), Desember 1975; — Foto-beeld van John Vorster. Foto- 
Rapport, 14 Desember 1975; — o. geyser. Detente in Southern Africa. Bloemfontein, 1976; 
— D. * a. ries, John Vorster 10 jaar. Kaapstad, 1976; — a.pj. van rensburg, Afrika-ver- 
skeidenheid. Kaapstad, 1976; — a. blignaut, John Vorster: s<5 was hy en s6 is hy. Huisge- 
noot, 12 Maart 1976; — Tien jaar premier, 1966-1976. Die Transvaler Gedenkbylae, 8 
September 1976; — J. d'oliveira, Vorster, the man. Johannesburg, 1977; — o. geyser, 
B.J. Vorster: select speeches. Bloemfontein, 1977; — F.R. metrowitch, South Africa's new 
frontiers. Sandton, 1977; — o.c. olivier, Suid-Afrika se buitelandse beleid. Johannesburg, 
1977; — A.PJ. van rensburg. The tangled web: leadership and change in Southern Africa. 
Cape Town, 1977; — T. eksteen, The statesmen. Cape Town, 1978; — Die 4 399 dae van 
John Vorster. Rapport-Ateljee Gedenkbylae, 24 September 1978; — John Vorster: S.A. pre- 
mier in beeld. Die Burger, 21 September 1978; — P. GREYLING, Sy roeping was vrede, veil- 
igheid. Die Burger, 21 September 1978; — Mnr. Vorster tree uit. Die Burger, 21 September 
1978; — [Various articles]. Die Transvaler, 21 September 1978; — p.f. van der schyff, 
Sb is SA se premiers gekies. Beeld, 28 September 1978; — Pres. Vorster. Bylae by Die 
Transvaler, 9 Oktober 1978; — M.c. botha, Premiersverkiesings sedert 1910. Johannesburg, 
1979; — Die Burger, 5 Junie 1979; — L. de villiers, Secret information. Cape Town, 
1980; — J.P.C. MOSTERT, Die vormingsjare en vroet politieke loopbaan van B.J. Vorster tot 
1958. M.A. thesis. University of the Orange Free State, 1980; — M. rees a c. day, 
Muldergate: the story of the info scandal. Johannesburg, 1980; — J.P.C. mostert, B.J. 
Vorster: die student, 1934-1938. Acta diuma historica , 9(1), April 1980; — J.J. swane- 
poel, Die diplomasie van adv. B.J. Vorster. Ph.D. thesis. University of the Orange Free 
State, 1982; — H.O. TERBLANCHE, Die amp van Eerste Minister, Journal for contemporary 
history, 7(1), July 1982; — E. rhoodie, The real information scandal. Pretoria, 1983; — 
H.o. TERBLANCHE, John Vorster: OB-generaal en Afrikanervegter. Roodepoort, 1983; — J.a. 
DU pisani, Die lewe en werk van B.J. Vorster: 'n beknopte oorsig en waardering, Tydskrif 



vir geesteswetenskappe, 23, Desembcr 1983; — JX swanepoel, Verhoudinge met Lesotho 
in die Vorster-era, 1966-1978, Journal for contemporary history, 8(2), December, 1983; — 
C. DE VRiES, Die politieke implikasies van die inligtingskandaal tot en met die uittrede van 
Staatspresident B.J. Vorster. M.A. thesis. University of the Orange Free State, 1984; — j.a. 
DU P1SANI, Die politieke verdeeldheid in Afrikanergeledere, 1966-1970, met besondere ver- 
wysing na die beleid en leierskap van B.J. Vorster, M.A. thesis. University of the Orange 
Free State, 1984; — j.a. du pis am, Die ontplooiing van afsonderlike ontwikkeling tydens die 
B.J. Vorster-era: die tuislandbeleid, 1966-1978. Ph.D. thesis. University of the Orange Free 
State, 1984; — dj. oeldenhuys. The diplomacy of isolation : South African foreign policy 
making. Johannesburg, 1984; — j.a. du pisani, B.J. Vorster se nuwe sportbeleid as faktor 
in die verdeeldheid binne die Nasionale Party wat gelei het tot die stigting van die Herstigte 
Nasionale Party. Journal for contemporary history, 9(2), December 1984; — h.o. ter- 
blanche, John Vorster: Afrikaner-nasionalis. Journal for contemporary history, 10(1), April 
1985; — H.o. terblanche, John Vorster’s three years in Port Elizabeth, 1939-1942. 
Looking back, 25(2), July 1985; — N. LUYT, Die ontwikkeling van die konstellasiegedagte 
in Suider-Afrika, Journal for contemporary history, 10(2), August 1985; — E. bell, Die 
Afrikabeleid van premier B.J. Vorster. M.A. thesis. University of Pretoria, 1986: — H.c. 
jones, Tini Vorster: van maatskaplike werkster tot premiersvrou. M.A. thesis. University 
of the Orange Free State, 1986; — JX swanepoel, B.J. Vorster and South West Africa as 
international question, 1966-1978, Journal for contemporary history, 10(1), April 
1985-11(2), April 1986; — j.a. du pisani, B.J. Vorster en Afrikaiterverdeeldheid, 
1966-1970: ’n oorsig en evaluering van die verlig-verkrampstryd. Journal for contemporary 
history, 1 1(2), August 1986; — H.o. TERBLANCHE, John Vorster se intemering: redes en ver- 
weer. Historia, 31(3), November 1986; — J. BARBER A J. Barratt, South Africa's foreign 
policy: the search for status and security, 1945-1988. Johannesburg, 1990; — Obituaries: 
Beeld, 12 September 1983; Die Burger, 12 September 1983; Die Oosterlig, 12 September 
1983; Die Vaderland, 12 September 1983; The Citizen, 12 September 1983; — J. grobler. 
Ministers van Justisie: [Eerste Minister en Staatspresident, 3 Augustus 1961-12 September 
1966]. Nuntius, (16), November 1986; — m.r. lipschutz a r.k. Rasmussen, Dictionary of 
African historical biography. 2nd ed., expanded & updated. Berkeley, Ca., 1989; — Makers 
of modem Africa: profiles in history. 2nd ed. London, 1991; — Private information: Mrs 
M.S. (Tini) Vorster (wife), The Strand; Dr C.J.H. (Cassie) Steenkamp (personal physician). 
Port Elizabeth; Miss H.C. Jones, Institute for Contemporary History, University of the 
Orange Free State, Bloemfontein. 


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WATERBOER, Nicholaas (Nicolaas) (*Griquatown, Hay district, 1819— 

tGriquatown, 17 September 1896), Griqua chief of 
Griquatown, was the eldest son of Andries Water- 
boer* and his wife, Gertruida Pienaar. 

After his father’s death in December 1852 
Waterboer was elected as chief; his election was 
supported by Adam Kok III* and his council. Dur- 
ing his regime the dispute over land rights south of 
the Vaal River, started by Andries Waterboer and 
Comeli(u)s Kok II*, Griqua chief of Campbell, con- 
tinued. With the signing of the Bloemfontein Con- 
vention in 1854 this territory became part of the 
Orange Free State Republic (OFS). At that stage 
relations between Waterboer and the OFS were 
good and his claims to land between the Orange and Vaal rivers were therefore 
acknowledged. The dispute between him and Comelis Kok II was only settled 
in 1855 by Adam Kok III when he established a boundary between them — the 
so-called Vetberg Line. 

In 1860 David Arnot* became Waterboer’s agent and advised him to contest 
the land claims of the OFS. Arnot hoped to establish a British settlement called 
Albania on land south of the Vetberg Line which belonged to Waterboer in 
order to resist so-called Boer aggression. When diamonds were discovered 
along the Vaal River in the late 1860s this dispute reached a climax. Arnot 
himself tried to prove Waterboer’s claim to the disputed territory east and west 
of the Vaal River with the aid of a doubtful witness. Furthermore, he suggested 
to Waterboer that he request British protection. Waterboer’s request was 
granted on condition that the Cape Colony accept responsibility. At the same 
time the disputed land claim was referred to the arbitration of R.W. Keate*. 
The decision was in favour of Waterboer and he received the territory to which 
he had laid claim. However, ten days later, on 27 October 1871, Governor 
Henry Barkly* of the Cape Colony annexed the territory and appointed Richard 
Southey* as lieutenant-general. Waterboer and his followers thus became 
British subjects. 

Waterboer and his followers gained little by the annexation. He was 
apparently under the impression that he would retain control over the territory 
west of the Vaal River. When the British authority appointed magistrates in the 


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area and sold some of the land, he decided in 1872 to follow his father-in-law 
to Griqualand East. There he applied his abilities as cabinet-maker and assisted 
in the establishment of Kokstad. 

In 1874 he returned to Griquatown and continued his duties as chief as if 
nothing had happened. This strengthened the belief of his followers that he was 
legally still in power. This soon led to problems with the British authorities 
which could not be resolved, even after several interviews with Waterboer. 

Waterboer and his followers were very dissatisfied when Barkly did not 
accede to their land claims. Moreover, conflicting claims to farms rendered the 
situation so difficult and confusing that Barkly appointed a Cape land court 
under Advocate Andries Stockenstrom* in 1876 to look into the matter. The 
court awarded five farms to Waterboer— about half the area he had laid claim 
to. He also suffered financial loss due to extensive legal costs. The dissatisfac- 
tion of the Griqua eventually led to the appointment of Charles Warren* in 
1877 to reinvestigate the dispute over land. Warren was more sympathetic and 
awarded thirteen farms to Waterboer. However, Waterboer had to renounce all 
other land claims. In exchange he would receive a pension of £1 000 per year. 
This was poor compensation for his loss of power, status and possessions. 

In May 1878 the squatters on the southern border of Griqualand West 
started a rebellion which soon spread to the rest of the area. The Griqua also 
took part and since there was evidence that Waterboer supported the rebels, he 
was arrested and sent to jail in Kimberley. He and his family were then banned 
to Hopetown from where they were only allowed to return in 1 880 after the re- 
bellion had ended. 

Waterboer spent his last years in Griquatown where he died and was buried. 

He was married to Margaretha Kok, the daughter of Adam Kok III, the 
Griqua chief of Philippolis— a marriage which united two prominent families 
and thus probably had a political undertone. Four sons and six daughters were 
born from this marriage. 

He was unsophisticated and led a quiet and sober life till he came under the 
influence of speculators and agents. The discovery of diamonds and the subse- 
quent diamond-fields dispute put him in the spotlight and caused unaccustomed 
pressure; consequently, though undiplomatic, Stockenstrom described Water- 
boer as "a weak, drunken specimen of humanity, worked upon by landtrick- 
sters" and "half an imbecile, a perpetual drunkard and a mere puppet in the 
hands of designing persons”. Waterboer’s great passion was cabinet-making. 
He used a set of tools presented to him as a youth by Governor Benjamin 

Cape Archives, Cape Town: MOOC 6/9/359, no. 2930; Griqualand West Records: GLW 
3-15 and 113; — a.P. undley, Adamaruia: the truth about the South African diamond 
fields. London, 1873; — D. arnot a j.m. orpen, The land question in Griqualand West. 
Cape Town, 1875; — The Independent, 5 April 1878; — c. warren. Report of the land 
question in Griqualand West. London, 1880; — w. dower, The early annals of Kokstad and 
Griqualand East. Port Elizabeth, 1902; — c. warren, On the veldt in the seventies. 
London, 1902; — jj. oberholster, Die anneksasie van Griekwaland-Wes . Kaapstad, 1945; 
— D.H. van ZYL, 'n Griekwa—'letsiegeit": iets oor die Griekwas. Kaapstad, 1947; — s.J. 
halfard, The Griquas of Griqualand: a historical narrative of the Griqua people. Cape 


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Town, [1949]; — a. DREYER, Jubelfees gedenkboek van die Gemeeme Grikwasiad [sic]. 
(Printer Prieska), [1957]; — Die Banier , November 1962; — M.c. legassick, The Griqua, 
the Sotho-Tswana, and the missionaries, 1780-1840: the politics of a frontier zone. Ph.D. 
thesis. University of California, 1969; — J.J. oberholster, Griquas. In; Standard 
encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, 5. Cape Town, 1972; — I.B. SUTTON, The 1878 rebellion 
in Griqualand West and adjacent territories. Ph.D. thesis. University of London, 1975; — 
M. broodryk. Die rebellie in Griekwaland- Wes, 1876-1879. M.A. thesis. University of 
South Africa, 1977; — N. parsons, A new history of Southern Africa. London, 1982. 

WEINBERG, Eli (*Libau, Latvia, 28 August 1908— tDar es Salaam, Tanza- 
nia, 19 July 1981), trade unionist and photographer, 
was the son of a tailor. At sixteen Weinberg left 
school to work for the railways. He soon became 
involved in trade union activities and was arrested 
twice. The second time, in 1928, he was jailed for 
participating in a general strike against anti-trade 
union legislation. Anxious about his safety, Wein- 
berg’s family urged him to emigrate. 

On his arrival in South Africa Weinberg joined 
his uncle in Kroonstad, where he worked as a 
photographic printer. From there he moved to the 
coal mines in Northern Natal. His experiences 
there, combined with his left-wing politics, soon 
drew Weinberg into labour activities. In the early 1930s Weinberg met A.W.G. 
Champion* who gave him the address of the Communist Party of South Africa 
(CPS A, South African Communist Party (SACP) after 1953) in Johannesburg. 
He also wrote several articles for Umsembenzi, the mouthpiece of the CPSA, 
in which he described the conditions on the mines. At the end of 1931 he 
moved to Johannesburg. 

In 1932 Emil Solomon (Solly) Sachs*, secretary of the Transvaal Garment 
Workers’ Union, asked Weinberg to help organize a union in the Western 
Cape. In that same year Weinberg joined the CPSA. His aim was to help 
organize a united nonraciai working class and to challenge state legislation. The 
1924 Industrial Conciliation Act and the Pact Government's ‘civilized labour' 
policy formally excluded black workers from bargaining and political rights. 

Along with other trade unionists Weinberg formed the African Garment 
Workers’ Union in Cape Town. In the latter part of the 1930s Weinberg was 
also active in setting up the white and coloured Sweet Workers’ Union in Port 

The labour movement’s major growth period was to come in the 1940s, 
when the Second World War (1939-1945) ushered in an economic and 
industrial upswing. With many skilled white workers drafted for the war, more 
black workers entered factories and commercial enterprises. The black trade 
union movement grew rapidly. In 1941 the Council of Non-European Trade 
Unions (CNETU) was formed. Weinberg was active in the federation and also 
gave practical support to the member unions. After a series of strikes in 1942 
many black unions were able to negotiate real wage increases. In 1946 


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Weinberg participated in supporting the massive African Mineworkers’ Union 
strike for higher wages, printing and distributing leaflets and providing 
transport. The strike was crushed, however. 

In 1943 Weinberg was invited to serve as general secretary of the National 
Union of Commercial Travellers, an office which he retained until his banning 
in 1953. In this capacity Weinberg also sat on the South African Trades and 
Labour Council (SATLC), a body which constitutionally had no colour bar. In 
spite of his and other left-wing efforts, the SATLC never accepted Africans 
into its executive committee. 

The National Party came to power in 1948. In a programme of social 
engineering the new government passed a series of laws which tightened the 
control over African workers in urban areas. The trade union movement 
suffered a series of blows. The 1950 Suppression of Communism Act resulted 
in the banning of scores of trade unionists— members, ex-members and 
nonmembers of the CPSA alike— Weinberg included. A string of acts followed, 
which aimed to eliminate black trade unions and increase state control over 

One result of the removal of the left-wing trade unionists was the dissol- 
ution of the SATLC, which then became an all-white union federation. In 
response, CNETU officials and about fourteen other unionists, including 
Weinberg, convened a conference of registered and nonregistered unions, 
leading to the formation of the South African Congress of Trade Unions 
(SACTU) in March 1955. From its inception SACTU was aligned to the 
African National Congress (ANC), with SACTU asserting that the economic 
struggle could not be separated from the political struggle for a democratic 
South Africa. 

Weinberg's listing as a communist was followed by a succession of 
bannings over 23 years. Nevertheless, Weinberg contributed to the setting up 
of trade union initiatives. He participated in policy debates and also continued 
to assist secretly in training the new organizers of the SACTU unions. 

Deprived of his living, Weinberg turned to his early love, photography. In 
this role he was able to undertake many commissions, ranging from now well- 
known studio portraits of ANC leaders to powerful visual images of the 
struggles of his time. 

In 1960, during the state of emergency following the Sharpeville shootings, 
Weinberg and his wife Violet were detained along with 2 000 others. The 
majority of the SACTU leaders were banned. Subsequently many were jailed 
or went into exile. In 1963 the Weinbergs were again detained and charged 
with attempting to revive the SACP. Weinberg was sentenced to five years’ 
imprisonment. His wife was jailed the following year. During their imprison- 
ment the Weinbergs suffered a blow with the sudden death of their son Mark 
in 1968. They were not allowed to attend the funeral. On Weinberg’s release 
he was again banned and placed under house arrest. 

In 1976, in the wake of the Soweto student uprisings, Weinberg went into 
exile to Tanzania. There he worked for SACTU as administrative secretary and 
also wrote and published his book Portrait of a people {infra). He died in 
1981, survived by his wife and daughter Sheila, who at the time was banned 



and under house arrest, and living in Johannesburg with her young son Mark. 

At the time of Weinberg’s death the black labour movement had been re- 
vived and had begun its massive growth. It propelled the state into recognizing 
its organizations, and was in the process of making powerful links with com- 
munity struggles. As one of a breed of tenacious left-wing labour activists, 
Weinberg could claim that he had helped to pave the way for just such a 

k. luckhardt a b. wall, Organize or starve! The history of the South African Congress of 
Trade Unions. London, 1980; — E. weinberg, Portrait of a people: a personal photographic 
record of the South African liberation struggle. London, 1981; — E. weinberg, Why I am 
a member of the Communist Party; — Obituary: The Star, 20 July 1981; — Tribute: L. 
callinicos, Eli Weinberg: a brief history of his life. South African labour bulletin, 7(3), 
November 1981; — Private information: Mrs Violet M. Weinberg (wife), Johannesburg. 

WELZ, (Johan) Jean Max Friedrich (*Salzburg, Austria, 4 March 1900— 

tCape Town, 24 December 1975), artist and archi- 
tect, was the eldest of five children of a family who 
had been framers and gilders for three generations. 

Welz studied art at the Realschule in Salzburg. 
After matriculating in 1918 he went to Vienna to 
study architecture under Oscar Strnad and Josef 
Hoffmann. The latter in particular was instrumental 
in laying the foundations of the stark architectural 
style that was to replace its flamboyant Art Nouveau 
predecessor. Welz felt drawn to and understood this 
functionalist development, and its formalist aesthetic 
was later to manifest itself in his painting. 

In 1925 he went to Paris, France, to supervise 
the construction of the Austrian pavilion at the International Exhibition of 
Decorative Arts. He never returned to live in Austria. From 1925 to 1937 he 
lived and worked as an architect in Paris, and on occasion collaborated with 
such architectural luminaries as Adolf Loos and Lee Corbusier. It was during 
this time that he became known as ‘Jean’, the French equivalent for ‘Johan’. 

During his free time he eagerly studied the new developments in painting 
and sculpture as seen in the galleries. He entrenched his observations by 
participating in avid cafe discussions about art with some of the ‘rebel’ artists 
of the time. His gallery visits and the cafe discussions may be regarded as his 
art training because he never attended a formal art school. 

Because prospects in Europe were bleak, Welz emigrated to South Africa 
in 1937. After presenting a letter of recommendation from Lee Corbusier to 
Prof. G.E. Pearse*, Welz was appointed to the architectural office of the 
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. He designed the entrance foyer 
of the Great Hall at the university as well as the Institute for Geophysical 
Research, both according to the modern architectural principles which at that 
date were novel in South African building. 

In 1939 he had to resign his post at the architectural office owing to illness 


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and, following medical advice, the Welz family moved to the Little Karoo. 
Here they tried to make a living by running a tearoom on the Tradouw Pass 
near Barrydale. It was here that Welz began to draw and paint seriously. 

In 1941 the family moved to Worcester where he lived for 28 years. From 
1941 to 1947 he was the first principal of the Hugo Naud£ Art Centre for 
which he converted an old wagonbuilders' workshop into an art school, lecture 
hall and theatre. He taught art, putting into practice theories he had learnt from 
the pioneer in children's art education, Franz Cizek. He became the respected 
and influential artist of the town. 

Welz held his first exhibition in Cape Town and Stellenbosch in 1942. He 
exhibited still lifes, portraits and landscapes, but not a single work was sold at 
either venue. In the same year he also joined the dynamic society of artists 
known as the New Group— who included artists like Lippy Lipshitz* and 
Gregoire Boonzaier. 

After resigning from the Hugo Naudd Art Centre in 1948 he initiated a 
local branch of the South African Art Association. He promoted art awareness 
among the public by regularly lecturing on art and architecture. 

But his main preoccupation from 1942 onwards was painting. It was not 
long before he was acknowledged as one of our foremost artists. This was 
attested by the Silver Medal awarded to him in 1947 by the Suid-Afrikaanse 
Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South African Academy for Arts and 
Science) (SAAWK) for his picture Earthenware and cupboard door (South 
African National Gallery), as well as the selection of his work for official 
exhibition of South African art overseas. In 1969 the SAAWK awarded him the 
Medal of Honour for painting, and the South African National Gallery com- 
memorated his seventieth birthday by mounting a major retrospective exhibition 
of his paintings and drawings. 

At his Johannesburg exhibition of 1947 he initiated the idea of selling post- 
card reproductions of some of the exhibits. From the beginning of the 1950s he 
lived in relative seclusion, but exhibited frequently, and his works commanded 
higher prices than those of his living contemporaries. 

As a painter Welz was well into the avant-garde that he had studied with so 
much enthusiasm in Paris, France. During the 1940s this refreshingly contem- 
porary and new kind of painting set a standard for art in South Africa, and the 
more enlightened artists and critics were soon to follow and champion him. 

The art of Welz has been described glibly as "romantic expressionism". 
Indeed, his aim was always to integrate poet and painter. Nevertheless, he also 
stated "however poetic any work of art may be, it must be based on reality, 
perfect reality". His concept of reality is not to be confused with illusionistic 
realism. His reality is derived from formalist aesthetic principles that find their 
origin in visual experience. From this attitude arose Welz’s concept of art 
being a "science of symbols". These philosophical concepts are the essence of 
his painting, whether it was a purely nonrepresentational design (somewhat in 
the manner of Piet Mondriaal), or a landscape, still life, figure study or 
portrait. All his paintings are fundamentally formalist exercises in which line, 
shape, tone, texture (particularly tone and texture) and colour are amalgamated 
into severely intellectual compositions. This is the ‘reality’. An indefinable and 



subtle ‘poetry’ imbues these works with timeless aesthetic value. 

His still lifes, therefore, are not mere documentations of groups of house- 
hold objects, but a reflection of a state of mind. His landscapes are not typo- 
graphical recordings, but evocations of experience. His figures propound 
dreams of Utopia. Above all his portraits are profound psychological and spiri- 
tual observations that are unsurpassed in the South African oeuvre. 

In 1968 his earlier illness recurred and he had to enter hospital. His health 
continued deteriorating and he died in 1975. 

While living in Paris, Welz married a Danish journalist, Inger Christensen. 
They had five sons, of whom one, Stephan, became a well-known connoisseur 
of the arts. 

J. welz, Kuns is die wetenskap van simbole. Standpurue, 10, Oktober-November 1955; — 
Jean Welz: catalogue retrospective exhibition, South African National Gallery, with articles 
by M. Bokhorst and W.E.G. Louw. [Cape Town, 1970]; — Artist of distinction: Jean Welz. 
SA panorama, October 1970; — Obituaries: The Cape Times, 25 December 1975; The 
Argus, 26 December 1975; The Star, 27 December 1975; — Tributes: W.E.G. LOUW, Welz: 
'n huldeblyk. Die Burger, 31 Desember 1975; |F. HARMSEN), Jean Welz: in memoriam, 
4.3. 1900 (Salzburg) [to] 24.12. 1975 (Kaapstad). De arte, 19, April 1976; — V. Holloway, 
Welz op Worcester. Die Burger, 5 April 1976; — Jean Welz: catalogue, with introduction 
by Johanna de Villiers. [S.I., 1977]; — G. bowes-taylor, Portrait of the artist. The Cape 
Times, 29 January 1984; — Jean Welz on portraiture. In: f. Harmsen, Looking at South 
African an. Pretoria, 1985. 

WILMAN, Maria (*Beaufort West, 29 April 1867— tGeorge, 9 November 

1957), geologist and botanist of international repute, 
author and scholar, was the fifth of the nine daugh- 
ters of Herbert Wilman, member of parliament for 
Beaufort West in the Cape parliament of Sir John 
Charles Molteno*, and his wife Engela Johanna 

After matriculating at the Good Hope Seminary 
in Cape Town, Wilman went on to Newnham Col- 
lege at the University of Cambridge in England in 
1885. In 1888 she completed a natural science tripos 
in geology, mineralogy and chemistry, and then 
took a course in botany. At that time women were 
issued with certificates only and it was not until 
November 1931 that the degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon her by 
this university. 

Her association with the South African Museum in Cape Town began in 
1888 shortly after her return from England. At the museum she worked in the 
Geological Department and was trained in museum work by L.A. Pdringuey*. 
She was a pioneer in the Geological Commission of the Cape of Good Hope, 
the first and oldest continuing state-funded geological organization in Africa, 
established in 1895. During this time her bibliography, ‘Catalogue of printed 
books, papers and maps relating to the geology and mineralogy of South Africa 
to December 31, 1904’ was published in the Transactions of the South African 


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Philosophical Society of August 1905. 

In 1908 she was appointed as the first director of the newly established 
Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum in Kimberley— a position she held 
until 1946. The exploration of Griqualand West was a priority of the museum 
with Wilman’s most important work being connected with the preservation of 
relics of San and Khoikhoi culture— a study which started after a visit to rock 
paintings in the George district in November 1907. She took photographs of 
San paintings and rock engravings and did extensive research in the stone- 
implement cultures of Southern Africa. She encouraged local farmers, officials, 
diggers and every other likely person she could find to help her with this 
gigantic task. Most of these collectors needed her guidance, and many an 
alluvial digger was taught by her to recognize and preserve bones and tools 
from the gravel terraces and beds of the Vaal and Harts rivers for the museum. 

Wilman published the following articles in the South African journal of 
science: ‘Notes on some Bushmen paintings in the Thaba Bosigo district, 
Basutoland’ (1910) and ‘The engraved rock of Loe, Bechuanaland Protectorate’ 
(1918). Her major archaeological publication was The rock-engravings of Gri- 
qualand West and Bechuanaland, South Africa (1933; reprinted 1968), the 
culmination of 24 years of research and fieldwork done over weekends. 

It was Wilman who, recognizing the ethnological value of A.M. Duggan- 
Cronin’s* photographs, spurred him on to extend his knowledge of indigenous 
peoples and their mode of life through expeditions into various areas. She then 
selected and arranged the photographs for publication, chose the authors who 
were to write the introductions according to their expert knowledge, and 
undertook all the secretarial work, editing and proof-reading connected with the 
entire production of Duggan-Cronin’s books, The Bantu tribes of South Africa 
(eleven sections making four volumes, of which the first was published in 
1927) and The Bushmen tribes of Southern Africa (1942). 

Wilman was a keen gardener and botanist. She created the museum garden 
and the well-known rock garden which extended about 400 metres along one 
boundary of the Kimberley Public Gardens. This rock garden contained 
representative specimens of practically all South African succulents that had 
been gathered for study purposes. Besides succulents and other small plants 
there were a variety of native trees, shrubs and a large number of treasured 
species of grass. It was due to her influence that the native Karees, the 
Mesquites and the Australian drought-resistant Kurrajong replaced the old 
pepper trees in the streets of Kimberley. But perhaps the most important of 
Wilman’s public-spirited activities was the collection and distribution of great 
quantities of grass-seed for pasturage as well as soil restoration. It was these 
grasses that helped largely to resuscitate some of the dust bowls in the United 
States of America— more particularly in Texas. She personally attended to the 
museum herbarium and collected 7 000 sheets. Among some of the botanical 
discoveries that bear her name are Watsonia wilmaniae , Stapelia wilmaniae, 
Ruschia wilmaniae , Herreoa wilmaniae and Nananthus wilmaniae. 

Her last publication, linked to her interest in botany, was entitled Prelimi- 
nary check list of the flowering plants and ferns of Griqualand West (1946). 
This book serves as an excellent guide to the flora of this large area, and 


provides an important and still unique contribution to the botanical survey of 
South Africa. 

Friends played an important part in Wilman’s life. Among them was her 
lifelong friend and associate, Dorothea F. Blee(c)k*. According to those who 
knew her, Wilman was alert in mind and body, but quiet and calm in manner 
and speech, even when her feelings were aroused. She was always faultlessly 
and elegantly dressed for all occasions, with an almost puritanical avoidance of 
surplus ornament and artificial aids of beauty. 

She became a member of the South African Philosophical Society in 1898 
and at the time of her death was a life member of the Royal Society of South 
Africa. She was a staunch supporter of the South African Association for the 
Advancement of Science. In 1939 an honorary doctorate in law was conferred 
upon her by the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in recognition 
of her work. 

Wilman was a pioneer in two senses. She became a scientist at a time when 
science was almost taboo to women, and she laid the foundation for botanical 
and archaeological research in Griqualand West and the Kalahari. 

She never married. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Kimberley: Estate no. 7/58; — The Rand Daily Mail, 1 
March 1938; — Honoris causa: M. Wilman, University of the Witwatersrand, 1939; — 
Obituary: Diamond Fields Advertiser, 1 May 1957; — h.m.l. biolusi, Maria Wilman, 
1867-1957. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 35(4), April 1958; — [E. 
radloffi. Dr Maria Wilman, 1867-1957. South African journal of science, 60(12), 
December 1964; — R. & N. musiker, Wilman, Maria. In: Standard encyclopaedia of 
Southern Africa, 11. Cape Town, 1975; — J. deacon, The remarkable Maria Wilman. The 
digging stick, 4(2), September 1987; — L.E. KENT, The remarkable Maria Wilman: a 
footnote. The digging stick, 5(1), April 1988. 

WOLIIUTER, Henry (Harry) Charles Christopher (*Beaufort West, 14 

■ February 1876 — fWhite River, 30 January 1964), 

game ranger in the Sabi Game Reserve (Kruger Na- 
tional Park) from 1902 to 1946. He was the second 
son of Egbertus George Wolhuter and Maria Louisa 
Catherine Krummeck. (Wolhuter’s Christian names 
are given as they appear in his estate and his last 
will and testament.) 

Wolhuter’s childhood was spent in Beaufort 
West. According to his autobiography, Memories of 
a game ranger, his happiest recollections of those 
years involved being in the veld, hunting wildlife. A 
love of the outdoors and the freedom it offered were 
to remain with Wolhuter throughout his life. He re- 
ceived little education and his schooling ceased when he was in his early teens: 
he admitted that he disliked studying and frequently played truant. In the early 
1890s the family moved to the Transvaal. Until the outbreak of the South 
African War (1899-1902) Wolhuter tried his hand at various trades— bartender 


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and shopkeeper on the Witwatersrand; manager of his father’s farming and 
trading enterprise at Legogote (Lozieskop near the southwestern boundary of 
the Kruger National Park); farm manager for H.L. Hall*; commando service 
for the South African Police (the police force of the Transvaal Republic); and 
wildlife hunter. When war was declared in 1899, Wolhuter tried to avoid 
military involvement, having some sympathy for both sides, but later joined 
Steinaecker’s Horse, a British volunteer unit comprising a number of dubious 
characters, as well as men considered by Wolhuter to have been of "sterling 
quality". Great camaraderie existed among members of this unit and Wolhuter 
made some lifelong friends. Until 1902, interspersed with bouts of malaria, 
Wolhuter extensively patrolled the lowveld (Eastern Transvaal) and in this way 
became familiar with its wildlife and people. He built the blockhouse at Sabi 
Bridge which later became the nucleus of Skukuza Camp in the Kruger Nation- 
al Park. 

On 17 August 1902, shortly after the re-establishment of the Sabi Game 
Reserve, Wolhuter was appointed as the second game ranger of the reserve by 
the warden James Stevenson-Hamilton*. For 44 years Wolhuter remained in 
this post, being responsible for the southwestern district. He first lived at 
Mtimba (some 7 km west-northwest of the present Numbi entrance which was 
excised from the reserve in 1923) and, after 1938, at Pretoriuskop. 

In August 1903 Wolhuter became legendary for his personal bravery. In an 
attack by two lions Wolhuter was thrown off his horse and dragged by the 
shoulder across the veld by one of them. Just able to reach his sheath knife, 
Wolhuter killed the lion by plunging the knife into its heart, and then managed 
to scramble up a tree until help arrived some hours later. It took months for the 
wound to heal and Wolhuter was lei) somewhat lame in the arm. This disability 
prevented him from enlisting in the First World War (1914-1918). The lion 
skin and knife are on display in the museum at Skukuza and a commemorative 
plaque was placed at the ‘Lindanda’ tree (Wolhuter’s African name) in 1937. 

Tall, lean and happiest on horseback, the outdoor life of a game ranger 
suited Wolhuter well. Moreover, as well as being vigorous and adventurous, 
Wolhuter— unlike some of the other early appointments in the game 
reserve— proved to be responsible and hard-working. His duties included 
extended patrols of his ’section’ on horseback and policing the area against 
poachers and trespassers with the assistance of African game guards. He also 
observed the wildlife, commenting on its number and condition. Before the 
development of modern conservation management, an important task of a game 
ranger was the destruction of species at that time considered to be ‘vermin’— 
lion, cheetah, leopard, wild dog, reptiles and birds of prey. Building, garden- 
ing, road construction and repair, mending equipment and providing housing 
also formed part of Wolhuter’s activities. He had a lifelong interest in dogs and 
horses and became a notable breeder of both. 

Wolhuter was essentially a practical person. His employment carried little 
administrative responsibility and this he avoided whenever possible. Although 
he became senior game ranger, he generally declined to act as warden during 
Stevenson-Hamilton’s extended absences from the reserve, content to allow 
others, sometimes less capable than he, to be placed in charge. He was a 


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honorary life member of the South African Wildlife Society. 

When the Kruger National Park was opened to tourists in the late 1920s, 
Wolhuter became a great favourite with visitors because of his talent as a story- 
teller. His memoirs, charmingly illustrated by Charles Astley-Maberly, were 
first published in 1948 and have been reprinted many times. It remains popular 
and has become a minor classic in Africana. This book is a ‘good yam’ but 
offers little critical insight into the evolution of nature conservation in the 
Transvaal. Wolhuter’s exploits are also the subject of another early account of 
the game reserve. The Kruger National Park: tales of life within its borders, by 
C.A. Yates, Wolhuter’s brother-in-law. 

Wolhuter married the Edinburgh-born Alice Maude Webster in Barberton 
on 14 February 1919. Their only son, Henry succeeded his father after the 
latter’s retirement in 1946 and filled the post of senior game ranger until his 
untimely death, also in 1964. 

Archives of the Kruger National Park, Skukuza: File Series KNP Kll, K2 and Rangers’ 
Diaries; — Transvaal Archives, Pretoria: CTG 65 , 74/18, 1902/3; LC646, AG 1079/04, 
15.3.1904; Estate no. 1437/64; — c.a. Yates, The Kruger National Park: tales of life within 
its borders. London, 1935; — I. stevenson hamilton, South African Eden. London, 1937; 
— Obituaries: The Star, 6 February 1964; The passing of Harry Wolhuter. African wildlife, 
18(1), March 1964; — Wolhuter-tradisie van meer as sestig jaar verbreek. Die Vaderland, 
28 Dcsember 1964; — lowveld 1 820 settlers society. Some lowveld pioneers. [Pretoria, 
1966]; — U. de v. pienaar, Neem uit die verlede. Pretoria, 1990; — Private information: 
Mrs Joan Wolhuter (daughter-in-law), Bryanston Village, Sandton. 

WOOD, Josephine Ethel (Josie) (*Grahamstown, 22 January 1874 — fGra- 

hamstown, 4 April 1965), teacher and founder of 
the South African Library for the Blind. She was 
one of the six children of the first mayor of Gra- 
hamstown, George Samuel Wood, and his wife 
Frances Elizabeth Wood (nee Hoole). Her grandfa- 
ther. George Wood*, was an 1820 settler and mem- 
ber of the Legislative Council. 

After matriculating at the Diocesan School for 
Girls in Grahamstown, Wood was trained as a 
teacher. Initially she acted as tutor for two cousins 
in Johannesburg before leaving for an extended tour 
of England and Europe in 1909. On her return she 
settled in Grahamstown and became active in the 
Society. She also nursed invalids in her own home. 
She continued with this until the Great Influenza Epidemic of 1918 when she 
met Eleanor Comber. Comber came to South Africa to work among the blind. 
To combat the high level of illiteracy she taught braille and acquired a small 
number of books in braille. When she decided to leave South Africa in 1918, 
she looked for someone to take over her work. She turned to Wood. 

In March 1919 Wood started with her work among the blind. She stored in 
her own home a 100 braille volumes, canvas bags for mailing, and the names 

work of the Child Welfare 


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of 20 people interested in borrowing books to read. All administration was 
done from there as well. During the first year she raised funds by selling her 
own sketches and paintings, while well-wishers and readers also donated 

A next step was to start a transcription service. Her niece, Edith Wood, 
was the first voluntary transcriber. Wood herself also learnt braille. However, 
the demand for books in braille exceeded the numbers the volunteer tran- 
scribers could produce. She therefore appealed internationally for contributions 
and in 1921 received supplementary stock from the American Braille Press in 
Paris, France, the National Institute for the Blind, and the National Library for 
the Blind in London, England. The arrangement with the latter library con- 
tinued for many years in the form of so-called block loans of 80 titles at a 
time. Wood also induced the national and provincial governments to make sub- 
stantial contributions for books for the blind. 

Wood’s lobbying for assistance included transport of items for the library. 
The Union Castle Shipping Company responded by transporting the contribu- 
tions and loans from overseas institutions free of charge. The postal services 
lowered the postage payable on items for the blind. Eventually, in 1953, it was 
decided that no postage would be charged on any item to and from any 
recognized institution serving the blind. 

By 1924, only five years after Wood had started the library, it had grown 
to such an extent that she decided to get assistance. Staff were appointed, and 
a deed was drawn up which called for a council to govern the library. Also in 
1924 a bequest from the Rhodes University Council facilitated the erection of 
the building in High Street in Grahamstown which would house the library in 
future. In 1925 the South African Library for the Blind was officially opened 
by R.W. Bowen, then member of the Cape Provincial Council. Wood was hon- 
orary secretary of the library council for 46 years. 

In 1929 Wood was a co-founder, with Bowen and others, of the South Afri- 
can National Council for the Blind (SANCB). 

Several awards and honours were bestowed on her in gratitude for her ser- 
vices. In 1952 she was appointed first honorary life president of the SANCB, 
and in the same year was awarded an honorary M.A. degree by Rhodes Uni- 
versity, Grahamstown. In 1955 the Rotary movement awarded her its Token of 
Esteem; in 1961 she was made an honorary Fellow of the South African 
Library Association (South African Institute for Library and Information 
Science); in 1962, when the Grahamstown Municipality celebrated its centen- 
ary, she became the first person to receive the Freedom of the City; and in 
1963 she became the first recipient of the R.W. Bowen Medal for lifelong and 
meritorious service to the blind of South Africa, awarded by the SANCB. After 
her death in 1966 a commemorative plaque was unveiled in the library, and on 
11 November 1966 J.M. Hyslop, then vice-chancellor of Rhodes University, 
opened the Josie Wood Wing in the South African Library for the Blind. 

Wood never married. She died in Grahamstown where she had spent most 
of her life. 

Master of the Supreme Court, Grahamstown: Estate no. 750/65; — Honoris causa: J.E. 



Wood, Rhodes University, 1952; — Obituaries: The Daily Dispatch, 5 April 1965; Eastern 
Province Herald, 5 April 1965; Grocott's Mail, 6 April 1965; — Tribute: A half century of 
service to the blind. Imfama, 5(5), May 1965; The close of a chapter: Josephine Ethel 
Wood, 1874-1965. Imfama, 5(6), June 1965; — T. Neville, New wing at Braille library 
will honour spirit of Josie Wood. The Daily Dispatch, 28 January 1966; — v.h. vaughan, 
Fifty years of service, 1929-1979: the story of the South African National Council for the 
Blind. Pretoria, 1979; — P.J.a. de villiers, The South African Library of the Blind: a 
diamond jubilee. Cape librarian, October 1979. 


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ZIBI, Shadrack Fuba (*Ngwazi, Middledrift district (between King William’s 

Town and Alice), 20 August 1879— fKaya Khulu, 
Pilansberg area, Rustenburg district, 26 July 1963), 
chief of the Mbuto (Mbuthweni) section of the 
Hlubi group of tribes, was the son of Fuba III and 
the grandson of Zibi II. He was educated at Love- 
dale Institution at Alice in the Eastern Cape which 
he later joined as teacher, choir conductor and inter- 
preter. He remained there for fourteen years. In 
1912 he conducted the Lovedale and St Matthew's 
College Male Voice Choir at the first Missionary 
Conference in Cape Town. 

Upon Zibi’s father’s death in 1890 the com- 
munity came to be ruled by a regent— Zibi’s guard- 
ian Khetho Wuso. In 1913 Zibi was requested to return to Ngwazi to take up 
the chieftainship (after the custom that required of him to have married and 
fathered his first child). He was formally installed as chief in the same year. In 
1915, during the First World War (1914-1918), he recruited 60 men from 
among his followers whom he escorted to Upington to assist the South African 
Defence Force during the campaign in German South West Africa (Namibia). 

In 1922 Zibi met a white ex-soldier who informed him of the availability of 
land in the Western Transvaal. Due to congestion in Middledrift district Zibi 
decided to move his people to the Transvaal. In October 1923 he was granted 
permission to proceed to the Rustenburg district to acquire land. He purchased 
half of the farm Rhenosterboom for £1 755 and agreed to rent the other half 
for £100 a year. With approximately 400 families he arrived on the farm on 20 
September 1924, a day celebrated annually by his people ever since. He named 
his village Kaya Khulu (Great Hut or Home). 

Due to insufficient funds Zibi initiated the Rustenburg Farm Scheme, 
offering shares in the farm for £50 per person. However, the scheme was 
opposed by the government on the grounds that no personal title to the land 
could be issued. Eventually, in 1927, the farm was registered in the name of 
the secretary of Native Affairs in trust for Zibi and his followers. In 1928 
another group of 200 Hlubi families from the Mount Frere district under 
headman Israel Zibi joined those settled at Kaya Khulu. In 1931 Zibi acquired 
another farm, Rampapaanspoort. The community, however, also used land, 


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such as Miersrust, that connected the two farms belonging to the tribe, for 

When Zibi moved to Kaya Khulu, he had lost his title as chief and became 
a headman. In 1941 his position as headman changed when he was officially 
appointed as chief with civil and criminal jurisdiction over the community. 
Some of his councillors apparently opposed this and Zibi was forced to depose 
them. After the passage of the Bantu Authorities Act in 1951 he was one of the 
first local officials appointed in the Western Transvaal when his tribe was 
proclaimed and recognized as the AmaHlubi Tribal Authority on 19 June 1953. 

Although politically never very active, Zibi attended several conferences, 
such as the Governor-General’s Native Conference of 1923, 1925 and 1927. At 
these conferences he expressed opinions on the land issue and questioned the 
lack of freedom for Africans. He expressed reservations about the restrictions 
placed on Africans which prevented them from owning the land they occupied, 
it was especially at the Dutch Reformed Church Conference of 1923 that he 
attacked the Natives Land Act of 1913 and its effect on the pride and self- 
respect of Africans. He warned that the Natives (Urban Areas) Act no. 21 of 
1923 would cause even greater problems for urban Africans as it would deprive 
them of the right to live in the city. At the Non-European Conference of June 
1 927 Zibi was evidently accused of being a government nominee to conferences 
and that he did not have the right to speak for his followers. In reaction he 
stated that he was appointed constitutionally by the chiefs of the Rustenburg 
district to represent their interests. 

Zibi took a strong interest in public affairs and was known for his gifts as 
writer. As freelance journalist he contributed many articles to both white and 
African newspapers— some under a nom de plume. He promoted the Wayfarers 
and Pathfinders youth organizations in the district and started the Kaya Khulu 
Primary School where his wife Maud became the first principal. The Shadrack 
F. Zibi Secondary School at Kaya Khulu was established in his honour in 

He was married to Maud Nomtshato (Mam)Jwara, a trained teacher. They 
had one daughter and four sons. 

Central Archives, Pretoria: NTS and URU collections; — R.H.w. SHEPHERD, Lovedale, South 
Africa: the story of a century, 1841-1941. Lovedale, [1940]; — P.-L. BREirrz, The tribes of 
the Rustenburg and Pilansberg districts. Pretoria, 1953. (Department of Native Affairs. 
Ethnological publications, no. 28); — t.d.m. skota (ed.). The African who's who: an 
illustrated classified register and national biographical dictionary of the Africans in the 
Transvaal. 3rd ed., rev. & enl. (Johannesburg, 1965]; — T. karis a g.m. carter (eds). 
From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa, 
1882-1964. 1. Protest and hope, 1882-1934. Stanford, 1972; — T. KARIS A g.m. carter 
(eds). From protest to challenge: a documentary history of African politics in South Africa. 
1882-1964. 4. Political profiles, 1882-1964. Stanford, 1977; — P.-L. BREUTZ, A history of 
the Botswana and origin of Bophuthatswana. Ramsgate, 1989; — Private information: 
Residents in Mabes Kraal district, Bophuthatswana (North-West Province); Mrs Zibi 
(nursing sister), Kaya Khulu Clinic, Kaya Khulu, Bophuthatswana (North-West Province). 


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Afrikaner, Jager, 1 
Agar-Hamilton, John August Ion, 2 
Andresen, Hans Olaf Waldemar Rudiger 
Emmerich Felix Januarius, 5 
Arndt, Ruth Elizabeth, 7 
Aschenbom, Haas Jurgen, 8 

Baloyi, Richard Granville, 1 1 
Barmania, Mahomed Dawood, L2 
Bassa, Cassim Mohammed, IS 
Berman, Charles, 17 
Biko, Bantu Stephen, 18 
Blackburn. Molly, 21 
Bodasing, Babu, 22 

Boodhasing, Dulel Sing see Bodasing, Babu 
Botha, Mina see Freund, Wilhelmina Louisa 

Botha. Wilhelmina Louisa Ida (Mina) see 
Freund, Wilhelmina Louisa Ida 
Boxall, Dorothy Ruth, 25 
Brock, John Fleming (Jack), 27 
Bud-Mbelle, Horatio Isaiah see Mbelle, 
Horatio Isaiah Budlwana 
Budd, Raymond Francis, 29 
Bums, Abdol, 21 

Butshingi, Makhwenkwe Harrison, 22 

Caddy, Benjamin Jennings, 24 
Calata, James Arthur, 26 
Caluza, Reuben Tholakele, 28 
Champion, Allison Wessels George, 40 
Chora see Core 

Choudree, Ansuyah Ralipul see Singh, 
Aasuyah Ratipul 
Christian, Affico, 44 
Cillie, Martha Helena, 45 
Clow, Sydney John, 46 
Cobela, Victoria see Mangena, Anna 
Coree, 48 

Cornelius, Hester Elizabeth, SO 
Cornelius, Johanna Catharina Jacoba, 50 
Cressy, Harold, 52 

Dadoo, Yusuf Mohamed, 56 

Davies, Joan Hoskyn, 58 
De Freitas, Hester Elizabeth see Cornelius, 
Hester Elizabeth 

De Villiers, Anna Johanna Dorothea, 59 
Dunjwa, Jeremiah, 61 

Emery, Bessie Amelia see Head, Bessie 

Erasmus, Barend Jacobus (Ben), 62 
Esau, Abraham, 65 

Fellner, Johanna Catharina Jacoba see 
Cornelius, Johanna Catharina Jacoba 
Fincken, Mary Eveline, 68 
First, Heloise Ruth, 69 
Fisher, Percy, 72 
Fourie, Pierre Jacy, 74 
Franks, Esther, 75 

Freund, Wilhelmina Louisa Ida (Minna), 77 

Gerstman, Blanche Wilhelminia. 79 
Gomas, John Stephen, 80 
Gordon, Max, 84 
Gumede, Josiah Tshangana, 86 
Gutsche, Thelma, 88 

Haldane, Richard Maxwell (Dick), 91 
Head, Bessie Amelia, 92 
Hefer, Johan Daniel (Bull), 95 
Hellmann, Ellen Phyllis, 96 
Hertzog, Johannes Albertus Munnik (Albert), 

Higgs, Cecil, 102 

Jantjes, Britanje, 105 

Jolobe, lames James Ranisi, 106 

Jordan, Archibald Campbell Mzoliza, 108 

Kausob, Kausobson, 110 
Kekana, Johannes Jane Tane, 112 
Kbori see Coree 

Kirk, Henrietta Georgina (Netta), 1 14 
Koch, Ellen see Hellmann, Ellen 
Kok, Corneli(u)s II, 1 16 
Kotane, Moses Mauane, 1 19 


Copyrighted material 

Kousop. Jacobus see Kausoh. Kausobson 
Kumalo, Alfred Assegai. L2J 

La Guma. James Arnold (Jimmy). 121 
La Guma, Justin Alexander (Alex), 121 
Lapin, Esther see Franks, Esther 
Latsky, Louise (Lulu), 129 
Lekganyane, Edward Engenas, 112 
Lekganyane, Engenas Barnabas, 110 
Lekganyane, Ignatius see Lekganyane. 

Lekganyane, Joseph Engenas. Ill 
Lembede, Anton Muziwakhe, I3S 
Letanka, Daniel Simon, 111 
Letele. Arthur Elias, 112 
Letty, Cythna Lindenberg, 141 
Long, Samuel Alfred (Taflfy), 141 

Mahhida, Moses Mbheki Mncane. 140 
Madiba, Moses Josiah. 148 
Madibane, Harry Percival, 150 
Mahahane. Zaccheus Richard, LSI 
Makhothi see Moletsane 
Mangena, Alfred. LSI 
Mangena, Anna Victoria, 154 
Manye, Charlotte see Maxcke. Charlotte 
Mapikela, Thomas Mtobi, 155 
Marks, John Beaver, 158 
Martins, Helen Elizabeth, 150 
Matsepe, Oliver Kgadime, 101 
Matthews, Zachariah Keodirelang, 105 
Maxeke, Charlotte Makgomo, 168 
Mbelle, Horatio Isaiah Budlwana, 120 
Mentz, Esther Susanna, 122 
Moiloa II, 121 

Molema, Seetsele Modiri, 175 
Moletsane, Abraham Makgothi, 128 
Moore, Philip Alan, 181 
Moroka, James Sebe, 182 
Mosaka, Paul Ramotsoane, 184 
Mpanza, James (Sofasonke), 187 
Msimang, Henry Selby, 182 
Muller, Elizabeth (Elise), 121 
Mvabaza, Thomas Levi, 121 

Naicker, Gangathura Mohambry (Monty), 


Naicker. Marimuthu Pragalathan. 128 
Nakene, Godfrey, 129 
Ncayaya. Henry Reed see Ngcayiya, Henry 

Ngcayiya, Henry Reed, 201 
Ngoyi, Lilian Masediba. 2Q2 
Nkosi, Johannes, 204 
Nokwe, Philemon Pearce Dumalisile, 200 
Ntuli, Anna Victoria see Mangena, Anna 

Nzula, Albert, 208 

Opperman, Diederik Johannes, 210 

Pocock, Mary Agard (Mamie), 216 
Pokela, John Nyati, 218 

Quore see Coree 

Roos, Esther Susanna see Mentz, Esther 

Sachs, Emil Solomon (Solly), 220 
Sauer, Magdalena Gertmide, 221 
Selope Thema. Richard Victor see Thema. 

Richard Victor Selope 
Sibeko, David Maphgumzana, 224 
Singh, Ansuyah Ratipul, 225 
Sister Nannie see Tempo, Anna 
Skeelkoos see Kausoh, Kausobson 
Slovo, Heloise Ruth see First, Heloisc Ruth 
Sobukwe. Robert Mangaliso, 222 
Sontonga, Mankayi Enoch. 211 
Strauss, Helena Dorothea, 212 
Stromsfte, Magda see Sauer, Magda 
Sumner, Maud Francis Eyston, 214 
Swart, Charles Robberts, 210 

Tema, Samuel Samson, 241 
Tempo, Anna (Sister Nannie), 241 
Thema. Richard Victor Selope, 245 
Tyamzashe. Benjamin John Peter. 242 

Van der Gucht, Rosalie, 250 

Van der Poel, Jean, 252 

Vorster, Balthasar Johannes (John), 253 

Waterboer, Nicholaas, 202 
Weinberg, Eli, 264 
Welz, Jean Max Friedrich. 266 
Wilman, Maria, 208 
Wolhuter, Henry (Harry) Charles 
Christopher, 220 

Wood, Josephine Ethel (Josie), 222 

Xhord see Coree 

Zibi, Shadrack Fuba, 225 


Copyrighted material 




NOTE: Some of the corrections in 'Corrigenda et Addenda ' were incorporated in this index 
Volume number is given in Roman followed by the page number in Arabic numerals. 

Abbema, Sybrandis (Sibrand), I, 1 
Abdurahman, Abdullah, L 1 
Abel. Clarke. HI. 1 
Abercrombie, Hugh Romilly, IV, I 
Abercrombie, James, III, 1 
Abrahams, Israel, V, 1 
Abrahamson, Harold, IV, 2 
Abt, Harry, V. 1 
Abu Baler Effendi, L 4. 

Ackerman, Daniel Petrus, V, 2 
A cocks, John Phillip Hanson, V, 2 
Acutt, Renault Courtney, V, A 
Acutt, Robert, V, 3 
Adams, Newton, II, 1 
Adamson, James Constantine, L 5 
Adamson, John Ernest, I* 2 
Adderley, Charles Bowyer, V, 5 
Addison, Friend, ID, 2 
Addison, William Henry, II, 1 
Afrikaner, Jan Jonker, II, 2 
Afrikaner, Jonker, HI, 3 
Ahrbeck, August, III, 5 
Ahrens, Karl Heinrich Ferdinand 
Wilhelm, HI, 5 
Aiken, Alexander, HI, 5 
Ainslie, William, m, 6 
Aiton, William Townsend, IV, 2 
Akcrman, John William, U, A 
Albasini, Joao, 0, 5 
Alberti, Johann Christoph Ludwig, 
ID, 2 

Alberts, Gert Andries Jacobus, ID, 

Alberts, Hendrik Abraham, in, 8 
Alberts, Johannes Joachim, in, 2 
Albertyn, Johannes Rudolf 
(1847-1920), III, IQ 
Albertyn, Johannes Rudolph (John) 
(1878-1967), IV, 3 
Albertyn, Pieter Kuypers 
(1813-1878), I, 8 
Albertyn, Pieter Kuypers 

(1872-1946), HI, 11 
Albrecht, Friedrich Wilhelm 
Richard. IU. U 
Albu, George, L 2 
Alden, Harold Lee, IV, 4 
Alexander, Bernard (Ferdinand), 

IV, 4 

Alexander, Du Prd, HI, 12 
Alexander, Fritz Ludwig, V, 6 
Alexander, Henry, D, 7 
Alexander, James Edward, III, 15 
Alexander. Morris, L IB 
Alexander, Raymond Albert, V, 1 
Alfred (Ernest Albert), R, I 
Albeit, Christoph Wilhelm, IU, 16 
Albert, Wilhelm Adolph, D, 2 
Alice (Mary Victoria Augusta 
Pauline). V, 7 

Aling, Robert Nicolaus, ID, 16 
Allan, Alan Vere, III, 16 
Allan, Peter, V, 9 
Allard, Marie Jean Francois, W, 12 
Alleman, Rudolph Siegfried, m, IS 
Allen, James Franklin Swithin, III, 

Allen, Philip. V, 2 
Allison, James, L 11 
Allison, Joseph, 111, 12 
Allum, Julius, IV, 5 
Altera, Lars Martinus, V, 16 
Ally, Thomas, V, U 
Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice 
Stennett, V, U 

Ameshoff, Herman Arnold, HI, 26 
Amraal Lamberts. HI, 21 
Amshewitz, John Henry, D, 2 
Ancketill, Henry, IV, 6 
Ancketill, Oona (Kitty), V, 13 
Andersen, Nils Severin, V, 14 
Anderson, Andrew Arthur, IU, 22 
Anderson, John, V, 14 
Anderson, Mary set Byron, Mary 

Anderson, Peter von Maltitz, III, 22 
Anderson, William, 1^ 12 
Anderssen, Edwin Cbeere, IV, 6 
Andersson, Charles John (Carl 
Johan), L 14 

And rag, (Karl) Martin, V, 15 
And rag, Louis Paul, V, 16 
Andrews, Charles Freer, ID, 23 
Andrews, Henry C., ID, 24 
Andrews, William Henry, L 16 
Angas, George French, D, IQ 
Angove, Josiah, III, 25 
Anketell set Ancketill 
Anosi, David George, II, LL 
Anreith, Anton, ID, 25 
Anstey, Norman, IV, 2 
Anstruther, Philip Robert, III, 28 
Antonisaen, Robert Karel Jozef 
Emiel, V, 11 

Appel, Ferdinandus, ID, 28 
Appeldoom, Johannes, 1_, L8 
Appleyard, John Whittle, lj, 18 
Arbousset, (Jean) Thomas, L 20 
Arbuckle, William, III, 22 
Arbuthnot, James, V, 12 
Arbuthnot, Jane, V, 12 
Archbeli, James, II, 12 
Archer, Joseph, III, 3Q 
Archibald, Robert Montgomery, ID, 


Ardagh, John Charles, IV, 8 
Aide me, Henry Mathew, U, 16 
Arentz, Eduard, L 21 
Armstrong, Alexander Boswell, V, 


Armstrong, Henrietta Ester 
Carolina, ID, 30 
Armstrong, John, L 22 
Arndt, Johiuinea, IV, 2 
Arndt, Wilhelm Friedrich Carl, V. 

A mot, David, L 22 


Copyrighted material 

Amott, William, IV, IQ 
Arrowsmith, Aaron, III, 31 
Arrowsmith, John, III, 31 
Arthur, Frederick Patrick Albert, 

m, 32 

Arthur, Mary, V, 19 

Arthur, William Patrick Albert, III, 


Ascham, Roger, III, 33 
A sc hen bom, Hans Anton, L 24 
Ashdown, Arthur Henry, V, 20 
Ashton, William, ID, 34. 

Ashworth, Abraham Hargreaves, V, 


Ashworth, Alexander Hargreaves 
(Alec), V, 21 
Askam see A sc ham 
Astrup, Nils, 01, 34 
Atherstone, John Nottingham, II, 16 
Atherstone, William Guybon, I, 25 
Auge, Johann Andreas, I, 22 
Auld, James McDonald, V, 22 
Auret, Jeremias, V, 22 
Autshumao set Herry 
Ayliff, John (1797-1862), l 28 
Ayliff, John (1821-1878), U, 12 
Ayliff, Jonathan, 0, 12 
Ayliff, William, 0, 18 
Aylward, Alfred, 01, 35 
Ayres, Thomas, 01. 36 

Babington, James Melville, 10, 38 
Backhouse, James, L 31 
Baden- Powell, Robert Stephenson 
Smyth, L 32 

Badenhorst, Alida Margaretha 
Jacobs (Tant Alie), IV, 12 
Badenhorst, Christoffel Cornelius 
Jacobus, 10, 39 

Badenhorst, Gerhardus Jacobus, IV, 


Badenhorst, Johannes Hendrik de 
Lange, V, 23 

Badenhorst, Lourens, in, 39 
Bad nail, Hopkins, 01, 4Q 
Baerentxen , William Joseph, IV, L3 
Bailey, Abe (Abraham), 0, 19 
Bailey, Samuel Silverthome, If 20 
Bailie, Charles Theodore, 01, 41 
Bailie, John Amelius, IV, 13 
Bailie, John, 1^ 34 
Bain, Andrew Geddes, 1^ 35 
Bain, Andrew Hudson, IV, 14 
Bain, James Thompson, L 38 
Bain, Thomas Charles John, Lt 39 
Baines, Frederick Samuel, 10, 41 
Baines, Thomas, \_, 41 
Baird, David, n, 21 
Bake, Rudolf Willem Jan Cornelia 
van den Wall, IV, 13 
Baker, Herbert, I, 44 
Baker, John Gilbert, 01, 42 
BaJdaeus, Philippus, IV, 16 
Baldwin, William Charles, 01. 42 
Bale, Henry, 0, 23 
Bale, William Ehrington, 01, 43 
Balfoort, Dirk. V. 23 
Balfour, Francis Richard Towniey, 


m, 43 

Ballinger, Violet Margaret 
Livingstone (Peggy), V, 24 
Ballinger, William George, V, 25 
Ballot, Elsie Josina, 01, 44 
Ballot, Heinrich Wilhelm, L 42 
Ballot, Johann Stephen Simeon, I* 


Balm forth, Ramsden, 10, 44 
Bam, Cornelius Daniel, 10, 45 
Bam, Pieter Canzius van 
Blommeetein Stewart, 10, 46 
Bam hatha, I, 48 

Bancroft, Joseph Austen, QL 46 
Bandey. David Wallis, V, 26 
Banks. Joseph, 0. 24 
Bannister, Saxe, L 5Q 
Bantjes, Jan Gerritze (1817-1887), 

Bantjes, Jan Gerritze (1843-1914), 


Bamgwwnath, John Albert, V, 22 
Barber, Frederick Hugh, II, 25 
Barber, Frederick William, n, 25 
Barber, Henry Milford, 10, 42 
Barber, Mary Elizabeth, 0, 26 
Barbier, Estienne, I, 33 
Barends, Barend, V, 28 
Baretto, Francisco, 01, 5Q 
Barker. George, L 54 
Barkly, Henry, 0, 22 
Barlow, Alfred, V, 29 
Barlow, Arthur Godfrey, 01, 42 
Barlow, Charles Sydney (Punch), V, 

3 Q 

Barlow, Ernest (Billy), V, 31 
Barlow, Peter, V, 32 
Barnard, Andrew, 0, 3Q 
Barnard, Anne, L 35 
Barnard, Keppel Harcourt, IV, 12 
Barnard, Samuel Baylis, 0, 31 
Barnard, Stephanus Philippus, IV, 


Barnardt, Johannes Hendrik, V, 33 
Barnato, Barney, II, 31 
Bamato, Henry Isaac, 01, 48 
Barnes, John Frederick Evelyn, 01, 


Barnett, Joseph, V, 34 
Bamett-Clarke, Charles William, 

Barrington, Henry Frederick Francis 
Adair, 10, 51 

Barrow, Anna M. see Truter, Anna 

Barrow, John, 0, 34 

Barrow- Dowling, Thomas, III, 5J 

Barry, Charles Edward, V, 34 

Barry, Jacob Dirk. IV, 19 

Barry, James, 0, 36 

Barry, Joseph, I* 56 

Barter, Charles, 11^ 38 

Barter, Charles St Leger, IV, 19 

Barton, Geoff ry, 01, 32 

Basson, Albertus Johannes, V, 34 

Basson, Pierre Corneille Faculyn, 

V, 35 

Bate, Charles Veale, IV, 2 Q 

Bathurst, Henry, IL 39 
Bathweng L L 52 
Battiss, Walter Whall, V, 36 
Batts, Henry James, V, 32 
Baumann, Gustav, IV, 21 
Baumann, Isaac, II, 40 
Baum bach, Johannes Emil 
Friedrich, V, 38 
Baur, Leopold Richard, L 38 
Bawden, William Pascoe, III, 53 
Bax, entitled Van He rentals, Joan, I, 


Baxter, William Duncan, IV, 22 
Bayer, Adolf Joseph Wilhelm, V, 


Bay ley, Thomas Butterworth 
Charles, L 59 

Bayly, Zachary Stanley, IV, 22 
Baynes, Arthur Hamilton, 01, 53 
Baynes, Joseph, 0, 41 
Beard more, Ernest, V, 39 
Beattie, John Carruthers (Jock), IV, 

Beaumont, William Henry, III, 54 
Beck, Henricus, L 60 
Beck. Johannes Hendricus Meiring, 
n, 42 

Becker, Basil James Pavey, V, 4Q 
Becker, Hendrik, IL 43 
Beckett. Henry Frederick, in. 54 
Beckett. Thomas William, III, 55 
Beddy, William, IV, 25 
Beelaerts van Blok! and, Frans 
Willem Anne, 0, 43 
Beelaerts van Blokland, Gerard, 0, 

Beelaerts van Blokland, Gerard 
Jacob Theodoor, II, 46 
Beetz, Paul Friedrich Werner, V, 40 
Begemann, Adriaan Jacob, I, 61 
Behrens, Heinrich Eduard Carl, 10, 

Beiderbecke, Carl Heinrich, V, 41 
Beijer, Johannes, 10, 56 
Beil, Ludwig Heinrich, 0, 49 
Be inart, Ben Zion, V, 42 
Beit, Alfred, L 62 
Beit, Otto John, 0, 5Q 
Bekker, Simon Potgieter, IV, 25 
Bell, Charles Davidson, ^ 64 
Bell, John, 1^ 65 
Bell, Sydney Smith, n, 51 
Bell, William Douglas, III, 32 
Bell, William Henry Somerset, 01, 

Bell, William Henry, V, 42 
Be 11 aars, William, L 66 
Belmas, Xenia, V, 44 
Bender, Alfred Philipp, Ij 62 
Beningfield, Reuben Widdows, in, 

Beningfield, Samuel, 01, 59 
Bennie, John, L 68 
Bennie, William Gov an, II, 5J 
Benson, George Elliot, 01, 60 
Bcrgh, Egbertus, 01, 6Q 
Bergh, Marthinus Adrianas, 0, 52 
Bergh, Marthinus, 01, 61 

Copyrighted material 

Bergh. Otof (Olaf), L 69 
Bergh, Olof Martin(i), II, 53 
Bergius, Karl Heinrich, III, 61 
Bergius, Petter Jonas, L 30 
Bergtheil, Jonas, I_t 21 
Berkeley, George Henry Frederick, 
III, 62 

Bernard in de Saint-Pierre, Jacques 
Henri, IV, 26 

Berrangd, Christian Anthony 
(Andrew) Lawson. V, 45 
Berrangf, Daniel Fredrik, IV, 22 
Berrangi, Jan Christoffel, II, 54 
Berry, William Bisset, U, 55 
Berthhoud, Paul, L 22 
Bessel <tar, Gerrit, II, 56 
Bolter. Andriea Jacobus, II, 52 
Bester, Frans Petrus, V, 46 
Beater, Paul Michiel, IV, 22 
Bethel!, Christopher, IV, 28 
Bethune, Edward Cecil, III, 62 
Beukes, David Petrus Matthys 
(Dawie), V, 46 
Beuster, Carl, m, 63 
Beutler, August Friedrich, II, 5S 
Bevan. William Henry Rawlinson, 
V, 42 

Bevington, William George 
Graham, V, 48 
Bews, John William, in. 63 
Beyer, Emil Bernhard, III, 64 
Beyers, Andriea (Andrew) Brink, V, 

Beyers, Christiaan F reden k, III, 64 
Beyers, Coenraad, V, 49 
Beyers, Frederick William, HI, 62 
Beyers, Leonard (Lcn), V, 50 
Bezuidenhout, Cornelia Frederik 
(Freek), II, 59 

Bezuidenhout, Johannes Jurgen 
(Hans Jan), II, 59 
Bhokhwe see Bokwe 
Bhunu, IV, 29 

Biccard, Francois Louis Charles, 


Bickenrteth, Henry, III, 69 
Biddulph, John Burnet, II, 60 
Biddulph, Thomas Jervis, V, 51 
Bidwell, Henry William, m. 69 
Biewenga, Pieter, V, 52 
Biggar, Alexander Harvey, L 23 
Biggar, Robert, II, 61 
Bigge. John Thomas, L 24 
Binns, Henry, U, 61 
Bird, Christopher Chapman, L 26 
Bird, Christopher John, II, 62 
Bird, John. D, 63 
Bird, Robert Vincent, V, 53 
Bird, William Wilberforce, L 22 
Bisset, John Jarvis, L 2& 

Bisset, Murray, IV, 30 
Bisseux, Isaac, L 29 
Bjorklund, Botolf Bernhard, L 80 
Blaauw see Blaeu 
Black, Stephen William, IV, 31 
Black, William Patrick Henry, V, 


Blackburn, Douglas, IV, 32 

Blaeu, Willem Janszoon, III, 20 
Blaiherg, Philip Barnett, IV, 33 
Blaine, Benjamin, HI, 20 
Blake. John Y. Filmore, 111, 21 
Blauw see Blaeu 
Bleek. Dorothea Frances. 1, 80 
Block, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel, 

L 82 

Bleloch, William Edwin, V, 54 
Blencowe, George, V, 55 
Blesius, Johan, ID. 22 
Blignault, Andriea Petrus, IV, 34 
Blignault, Jan Hendrik, IV, 35 
Blignaut, Christian August (Chris), 
V, 52 

Blignaut, Pieter Jeremias, IQ, 22 
Blink, Hendrik. IV, 36 
Bliss, Anna Elvira, Q, 64 
Bloem, Jan (c. 1740-1799), 01, 23 
Bloem, Jan (c. 1775-1858), IQ. 23 
Blok, Thomas, V, 52 
Blom see Bloem 
Blommaert, Willem, □, 64 
Blood, Bindon, 01, 74 
Blyth, Matthew Smith, V, 58 
Board man, William, 10, 24 
Bode, Johannes Fredericus, 01, 25 
Bodenstein, Cornells Johannes, 10, 

Bodenstein, Helgard Dew aid 
Johannes, 0, 66 
Bodenstein, Johannea, III, 26 
Boerhaave, Herman, L 85 
Boerneef see Van der Merwe, Izak 

Boers, Willem Cornelia, L 86 
Boetendag set Buytendag(h) 

Boezak, IV, 36 
Bogaert, Abraham, in, 22 
Bohle, Hermann, II, 68 
Bohm, Johann Friedrich Albrecht, 

m, 22 

Boikanyo see Kgama 01 
Bok, WiUem Eduard. L 82 
Bokwe. John Knox, L 88 
Bold, John Southward, V, 59 
Boldingh, Gerrit, IV, 32 
Boleo see Mal6o 
Bolitho. Valentine Noy, V, 59 
Bolus, Harriet Margaret Louisa 
(Lulu), V, 60 
Bolus. Harry, L 89 
Bom part. Victor, 10, 28 
Bonas, Gustave Henry (Guasie), V, 

Bonatz, Johann Adolph (Adoii), 01, 


Bond. John James, IV, 38 
Boniface, Charles Etidnne, L 92 
Boom, Annetje, 10, 29 
Boom, Jan Hendrik Hendricxsz, 0, 


Boon, Martin James, V, 61 
Boonacker, Pieter Diederick, V, 62 
Boonzaier, Daniel Comelis, L 23 
Booth, Lancelot Parker, 01, 29 
Borcherds, Meent, L 96 
Bore herds, Petrus Bore hard us, 0, 


Borchorst see Borghorst 
Borckenhagen, Carl Ludwig 
Ferdinand, L 98 
Borghorst, Jacob, 10, &Q 
Borradaile, Abraham, 01, 8Q 
Bom us, Johannes Philippus, L 99 
Borstlap, Gerhard us Petrus see 
Huguenet, Andrd 
Bos. Pieter. 10. 81 
Boshof(f), Jacobus Nicolsas, L 100 
Boshof(f). Johan Christoffel 
(Stoffel), m. 82 

Bosh off, Henri Guillaume, 01, 81 
Boshoff, John Christopher, 10, 82 
Bosh off, Louis Joachim, 01, 83 
Boshoff, Pieter Johannes Jurgens, 

V, 63 

Boshoff, Stephan us Petrus Erasmus, 

V, 63 

Boshoff, Willem Petrus (Oubaas), 

V, 65 

Bos man, Andrew Murray, V, 65 
Boaman, Daisy, V, 66 
Bosnian, Daniel Brink, 01, 83 
Bosnian, Daniel Ferdinand (Dame), 
01. 84 

Bosnian di Ravelli, Vere see 
Boaman, Jan Gysbert Hugo 
Bosnian. Elisabeth, IV, 40 
Boaman, Frederik Christiaan 
Ludolph, V, 62 

Bosnian. Herman Charles, 10, 85 
Bosnian, Her man us, IQ, 86 
Bosnian. Hermanua Stephan us, 


Bosnian, Izak Daniel, 10, 86 
Bosnian, Jan Gysbert Hugo, IV, 38 
Bosnian, Joseph Jacobus, 10, 82 
Bosnian, Lambertus see Bosnian, 
Herman us 

Bosnian, Susanna, IV, 39 
Bot. Arie Klaas. V, 69 
Botes, Ella Sophia (Botie), V, 20 
Botes, Jan Johiuines, V, 70 
Botes, Wietae, V, 21 
Botha, Andriea, 10, 88 
Botha, Annie Frances Bland, 01, 89 
Botha, Christiaan, 10, 89 
Botha, Christiaan Laurens, IV, 40 
Botha, Colin Graham, V, 22 
Botha, Daniel Stephan us, 0, 70 
Botha, David Hercules, V, 23 
Botha, Hermanua Nicolaas 
Wilhelm us (Manic), 01, 90 
Botha, Jacobus Frederik (the elder), 

01, 91 

Botha, Johan(nea) Samuel Frederik, 

0 . 21 

Botha, Louis, IV, 41 
Botha, Philip Rudolph (1851-1901), 
IV, 51 

Botha, Philip(pus) Rudolph(us) 
(1771-1833), L 105 
Botha, Schalk Jacobus. V, 23 
Bothnia see Botma 
Botlhasitae, N, 22 
Botma, Abraham Carel, 10, 91 


Copyrighted material 

Botma, Stcphanus Cornells, III, 22 
Botma, Steven Jansz, III, 22 
Botomani (Botman), III, 23 
Bottom ley, George, V, 75 
Botumam see Botomani 
Bourke, Edmund Francis (Eddie), 
V, 22 

Bourke, Richard, L 106 
Bousfield, Henry Brougham, L 108 
Bouvezak see Boezak 
Bouwcr, Barend Daniel, III, 22 
Bouws, Jan, V, 26 
B<iwer, Graham John, V, 22 
Bowie, James, IV, 52 
Bowker, James Henry, II, 22 
Bowker, John Mitford, HI, 24 
Bowker, Mile*. IL 2* 

Bowker, Robert Mitford, III, 25 
Bowker, Thomas Holden, III, 26 
Bowker, William Mdnkhouse, III, 

Bowler, Thomas William, II, 25 
Boyce, William Binnington, L. 109 
Boydell, Thomas, IV, 52 
Boyes, Lorenzo, III, 22 
Boyes, Walter William, V, 22 
Boys, Edmond (Edmund, Edward) 
French, III, 22 

Brabant, Edward Yewd, III, 98 
Brabazon, John Palmer, III, 22 
Bradfield, Rupert Dudley, V, 80 
Bradley, Richard, III, 22 
Brand, Christoffel, II, 22 
Brand, Christoffel Joseph, II, 28 
Brand, Georg Alfred, III, 22 
Brand, Johannes Henricus, L 1 10 
Brand, Pieter. Ill, 100 
Brand, Robert Henry, IV, 54 
Brandt, Johanna, IV, 55 
Brandt, Louis Ernst, II, 84 
Brauns, Justus Carl Ernst Heinrich 
Johannes, II, 84 
Bray, Edwin, V, 80 
Brebner, John, L 117 
Brebner, William John Cormack, 
III, 100 

Brecher, Barnabas Gerhard, V, 81 
Brother , Ferdinand, V, 81 
Brodell, Hermanus Christiaan 
(Manie), III, 102 
Broedt, Johannes Marthinus 
Nicolaas, IV, 55 
Brehm, Joachim, III, 102 
Broijer see Breyer 
Bremer, Karl, III, 103 
Bronton, Jahleel, II, 86 
Brcreton, Thomas, III, 104 
Brosler, Frans Reinhard, II, 86 
Brouil, Henri £douard Prosper, III, 


Breyer, Herman Gottfried. V, 82 
Breync, Jacob, IT, 88 
Broyne, Marcel Romeo, V, 82 
Bridekirk, William Storey, II, 88 
Briggs, Jamea Dominic Francis 
(Jimmy), V, 84 
Brill, Johannes, ]_, 1 18 
Brine ker, Peter Heinrich, L L12 

Brink, Andries Jacob Eksteen, IV, 


Brink, Carl Friedrich (Karl 
Frederik), V. 86 

Brink, Christiaan van der Merwe, 

V, 86 

Brink, Cornelius Bertie, V, 85 
Brink, George Edwin, V, 87 
Brink, Melt Jacobus, L 121 
Brink, Pieter Gerhard, III, 106 
Brits, Christian Ernst Gerhardus 
(Papa), V, 88 

Brits, Coenraad Jacobus, III, 107 
Brits, Johannes Nicolaas, IV, 52 
Broad bent, Samuel, L 122 
Broadwood. Robert George, III, LQ8 
Brock, Byron Britton, V, 82 
BrockJehurst, John Fielden, III, 109 
Brodrick, Albert, L 123 
Brodrick, William St John 
Fremantle, III, 102 
Broekhuysen, Gerrit Jeronimo 
(Gerry), V, 82 

Broeksma, Albertonie Herman, V, 


Broeksma, Cornells, V, 21 
Bruers, Susanna Barbara, III, 1 10 
Bromhead, Gonville, III, 111 
Bronkhorst, Johannes Gerhardus 
Stephanus (Gert), IV, 58 
Bronte- Stewart, Brian, IV, 52 
Brooke, John Charles Herries, HI, 

Brooke, Richard, HI, 1 12 
Brookes, Edgar Harry, V, 22 
Brooks, Thomas Warwick, IV, 60 
Broom, Robert, V, 24 
Broome, Francis Napier (Frank), V, 

Broome, Frederick Napier, IL 82 
Broome, William, II, 2Q 
Brounger, William George, L 124 
Brousson, Daniel Rousselet see 
Rousselet Brousson, Daniel 
Brown, Alfred (Gogga), n, 90 
Brown, Alfred Reginald see 
Radcliffe- Brown, Alfred Reginald 
Brown, John Croumbie, IV, 60 
Brown, John Roland, IV, 61 
Brown, John Tom, L 125 
Brown, Joseph Ellis, III, 1 12 
Brown, Nicholas Edward, II, 22 
Brownlee, Charles Pacalt, L 126 
Brownlee, Frank Harold, HI, 1 13 
Brownlee, James, IV, 62 
Brownlee, John, L 129 
Bru-de-Wold, Hilmar Theodore, IV, 

Bruce, David, V, 22 
Bruce, Victor Alexander, III, 1 13 
B rummer, Nicolaas Johannes, IL 22 
Brune, Otto Walter Heinrich Oscar, 
V, 28 

Brunner. Ernst August, HI, L14 
Bruton, James Edward, L 120 
Bruwer, Johannes Petrus Van 
Schalkwyk, V, 22 
Bryan, Hugh, HI, 124 

Bryant, Alfred Thomas, ni, 1 15 
Bryant, James Churchill, L 121 
Bryce, James, III, 1 16 
Bryde, Johan. V, 101 
Bryden, Henry Anderson, HI, 1 16 
Buchan, John, L 121 
Buchanan, Barbara Isabella, III, 122 
Buchanan, David Dale, L 122 
Buchanan, Ebenezer John, IL 24 
Buchanan, George Cunningham, V, 

Buchanan, James, IL 25 
Buchner, Carol Valentyn, V, 102 
Buck! and, Francis Henrietta 
(Fanny), IV, 62 
Buckle, Harry Osborne, V, 103 
Budler, Johann Friedrich, H, 96 
Buhrmann, Hendrik Teodor 
(Theodor), H, 22 

Buhrmann, Willem (Wim), V, 104 
Buis(se)t, Maria, IV, 64 
Buitendag see Buytendag(h) 

Buller, Red vers Henry, H. 22 
Bullock, George Mack worth, IV, 64 
Bulwer. Henry Ernest Gascoyne, Q, 

Bulwer- Lytton, Edward George 
Earle, HI, 121 

Bunhury, Charles James Fox, HI, 


Bunting, Sydney Percival, IL 103 
Burchell, William John, 11, 104 
Burger, Alwyn Petrus, III, 128 
Burger, Barend Jacobus, III, 119 
Burger, Hendrik, IV, 65 
Burger, Jacobus Johannes (Kootjie), 

IV, 66 

Burger, Schalk Willem, IL 106 
Burgers, Frederi(c)k Louis 
Benjamin, IV, 62 

Burgers, Marius Philip Olivier, IV, 


Burgers, Thomas Francois, L 123 

Burke, Joseph, IV, 68 

Burman, Johannes, L 122 

Bur man, Nicolaas Laurens, L 128 

Burnett, Bishop, V, 105 

Burton, Alfred Richard Edward, V, 


Burton, Henry, L 138 
Burton, William Westbrooke, L 132 
Burtt Davy, Joseph, II, 108 
Bush, Heather M. see Marticnasen, 
Heather M. 

Bush, Sydney Frank, IV, 69 
Buti, Ernst Tshediso Samuel, V, 


Butler, Charles. IV, 20 
Butler, Elizabeth Southerden, IV, 7] 
Butler, Henry, V, 106 
Butler, William Francis. IL 120 
Butters, Charles, IV, 22 
Butte rworth , Joseph, V, 107 
Buttner, Johann Daniel, L 140 
Buttner, Carl Gotthilf, IL 122 
Button, Edward, IV, 22 
Buxton, Sydney Charles, IL 122 
Buxton, Thomas Fowell, II, 125 


Copyrighted material 

Buys, Bernard us Rudolf, III, 120 
Buys. Coenraad set De Buys, C. 
Buys, Stephanus Bernard us (Fame), 

V, 108 

Buytendag(h), Card Hendn(c)k, V, 


Byrne, Joseph Charles, 11, 1 16 
Byron, John Joseph, III, L2Q 
Byron, Mary, III, 121 

Cabral, Pedro Alvares, 1^ 142 
Cachet, Frans Lion, L 142 
Cachet, Jan Lion, L 146 
Cadbury, George, IV, 24 
Caldecott, Harry Stratford, II, 118 
Caldecott, William Arthur. V, LIB 
Cal den set also Kalden 
CaJderwood, Henry, L 148 
Caldwell. Edmund, V, 110 
Calepi set Mica] i pi 
Callander, James, III, 122 
Callaway, Godfrey, L 149 
Callaway, Henry, I* 150 
Cambridge, Alexander Augustus 
Frederick William Alfred George, 
V, Lil 

Cameron, James (1800-1875), III, 


Cameron, James (1831-1906), II, 


Cameron, William Alexander 
James, V, 112 

Cameron, William Mouat, IV, 24 
Campagne, Huybert Dirck, II, 12Q 
Campbell, Ambrose George, HI, 


Campbell, Duncan, III, 122 
Campbell, Ethel Margaret, IV, 25 
Campbell, George Gordon, V, 112 
Campbell, Henry Cooke, III, 124 
Campbell, Ignatius Royston 
Dunnachie (Roy), III, 125 
Campbell, John, III, 122 
Campbell, Killie see Campbell. 

Margaret Roach 
Campbell, Malcolm, V, 114 
Campbell, Margaret Roach, III, 128 
Campbell, Marshall, 0, 121 
Campbell, Samuel George, III, 129 
Campbell, William Andrewes Ava, 

01, 125 

Campbell, William John, m, 12Q 
Campbell, William Pitcairn, III, 130 
Campbell, William Young, III, 131 
Campbell-Bannerman, Henry, II, 


Campbell- Pitt, Robert George, IV, 


Cana, Frank Richardson, V, 114 
Cane, John, H, 123 
Canitz, George Paul, III, 122 
Canty, David, IV, 26 
Cao, Diogo, L 153 
Caprara, Rend Silvio, V, 1 15 
Caradoc, John Francis see Cradock, 
John Francis 

Cardwell, Edward, III, 122 
Carew, Reginald Pole, III, 133 

Carey, Walter Julius, III, 122 
Can n us, Johan George, V, 1 16 
Carr, William, III, 124 
Carrington, Frederick, ID, 125 
Carter, Sydney, L 154 
Carter, Thomas Forteacue, III, 126 
Carter, William Marlborough, L 

Cartwright, Albert, V, 116 
Cartwright, John Dean, 111, 136 
Caaalis, Addle see Mabille, Addle 
Casalis, Jean-Eugdne, L 156 
Cathcart, George, II, 123 
Cato, George Christopher, II, 126 
Caton-Woodville, Richard see 
Woodville, Richard Caton 
Cawood, Samuel, L 152 
Cecile, Mother see Isherwood, 
Annie Cecilia Ram* bottom 
Cellier, Sard set Cilliers, Sard 
Celliers, Johannes Francois (Jan 
Volkstem), H. 128 
Celliers, Johannes Francois Elias 
(Jan), L 158 

Celliers, Johannes Gerhard us (Jan), 

III, 122 

Ccntlivres, Albert van de Sandt, IV, 


Cetshwayo, Ij 161 
Chadwick, John Courtenay 
Chasman. Ill, L38 
Chaka stt Shaka 
Chalmers, John Aitken, L 163 
Chalmers, William Buchanan, III, 

Chamberlain, Joseph, III, 139 
Champion, Charles William, V, 112 
Champion, George, III, 143 
Changuion, Antoine Nicolas Ernest, 

n, 125 

Chaplin, (Francis) Drummond 
(Percy), V, L18 
Chapman, James. L 162 
Chard, John Rouse Merriott, III, 


Charters, Samuel, III, 144 
Chase, Hezekiah, HI, 145 
Chase, Isaac, III, 146 
Chase, John Centlivres, L 165 
Cheetham, John Erskine (Jack), V, 

Chenu de Chalezac de Laujardidre, 
Guillaume, IV, 12 
Chermaide, Herbert Charles, III, 


C heron, Marie Virginie, IV, 28 
Chiappini, Antonio Baldazar 
Melchior Casper, V, 120 
Chiappini, Antonio Lorenzo, 111, 


Chiappini, Charles du Plessis, V, 


Childe, George Frederick, V, 121 
Chilvers, Hedley Arthur, L 167 
Chisholm, Erik. IV. 29 
Chisholm. John, V, 122 
Cholnoky, Bdla Jeno, V, 123 
Christian, Henry Bailey, IV, 81 

Christie, John, V, 124 
Christo!, Frederic, 111, 148 
Chubb, Ernest Charles, V, 125 
Chungwa, II, 122 
Churchill, Isabella Augusta see 
Wilson, Sarah 

Churchill, Joseph Fleetwood, III, 

Churchill, Marianne Julia, V, 126 
Churchill, Randolph Henry Spencer, 
HI. 149 

Churchill, Winston Leonard 
Spencer, V, 126 
Cillid, Gabriel Gideon, IV, 8J 
Cillid, Petrus Johannes (Piet 
Kalifomie), IV, 82 
Cilliers. Andries Chari (es), V, 125 
Cilliers, Barend, III, 15Q 
Cilliers, Jan Daniel. H, 122 
Cilliers, Sard (Chari) Amoldus, IV, 

Clarence, Ralph, III, 15Q 
Clark, Bernard Maule, V, 130 
Clark, Gavin Brown, L 168 
Clark. Gowan Coningsby, V, 131 
Clark. John. IU, 151 
Clark, Robert Douglas, III, 152 
Clark. Robert McHalfie (Mac), V. 

Clark, William Henry, V, 132 
Clarke, Alured, in. 152 
Clarke, Charles Mansfield, III, 152 
Clarke, Frederick, m, 153 
Clarke, Marshall James, III, 154 
Clarke, William James, IV, 85 
Clarkson, Charles Francis, ni, 155 
Claudius, Heinrich, 1^ 168 
Clayton, Ida May, m, 156 
Clayton, Walter Frederick. HI, 156 
Cleaver, Anne Fenton, HI, 156 
Cleaver, Ferrar Reginald Mostyn, 
HI, 152 

Clegg, William Henry, V. 122 
Clements, Ralph Arthur Penrhyn, 

HI, 158 

Clerk, George Russell, V, 122 
Clery, Cornelius Francis, HI, 159 
Cloete, Abraham Josias, I_, 170 
Cloete, Edward Fairley Stuart 
Graham, V. 124 

Cloete. Hendrik (1758-1818), HI, 


Cloete, Hendrik (1792-1870), L 


Cloete, Jacob, ni, 161 
Cloete, Pieter, HI, 161 
Cloete, Pieter Lourens (Laurens), 

V, 125 

Cloppenburg, Jan Willem, IU, 162 
Cloppenburg(h), Ruardus (Ruarat), 
IV. y, 

Cobb, Freeman, IH, 162 
Cochrane, Douglas Mackinnon 
Baillie Hamilton. IV, 82 
Cochrane. William, V, 126 
Cock, Henricus, V, 136 
Cock. William. L 122 
Coertae, Arie Gerhardus 


Copyrighted material 

Oberholstcr (Gert), V, 137 
Coetsd, Jacobus, V, 138 
Coetser, Phillippus Jeremias, V, 138 
Coetzee, Andreas, V, 1 39 
Coetzee, Barzillai (Barzilia), V, 14Q 
Coetzee, Blaar see Coetzee, 


Coetzee, Dirk, II, 113 
Coetzee, Jacob (ua), U, L34 
Coetzee, Johannes Petrus (Hans), V, 


Coetzee, Petrus Stefan us Zacharias, 
V. 141 

Coetzer see Cod act 
Cohen, Emil Wilhelm. II. 115 
Cohen, Louis, V, 142 
Coil lard, Francois, V, 143 
Coke, John Talbot, III, 163 
Cole, Alfred Whaley, II, 136 
Cole. Galbraith Lowry. HI, 163 
Colebrook, William Macbean 
George, L 123 

Coleman, John William, V, 144 
Colenbrander, Herman Theodoor, 

m. 163 

Colenbrander, Johannes Wilhelm 
(Johan William), IV, 82 
Colenbrander, Theodoras 
Christiaan, L 123 
Colenso, Harriette Emily, L 176 
Colenso, John William, I* 122 
Collard, James Horsburgh, V, 144 
Colley, George Pomeroy, II, 132 
Collins, Richard, L 181 
Collins. William. Ill, 166 
Collins. William Richard (Bill). V, 

Collins. William Whiskin. Ill, 162 
Collison, Francis, III, 168 
Colli son, John, IV, 20 
Collyer, John Johnston. Ill, 162 
Colvile, Henry Edward, III, 170 
Colvin, Ian Duncan, L 142 
Combati si see Mncumbatha 
Combrink, Johannes, V, 146 
Cornfield, John Francis, III, 12Q 
Commaille, John Mcllwain Moore 
(Mick), IV, 21 
Commelin, Casper, H, 139 
Commelin, Johannes (Jan), II, 140 
Compton, George William, IV, 92 
Congwa see Chungwa 
Connell, John. IV. 22 
Connor, Henry, II, 140 
Conradie, David Gideon, V, 146 
Conradie, Elizabeth Johanna Moller 
(Bettie), L 183 

Conradie, Johannes Hendrik, III, 


Conradie, Willem Johannes, III, 122 
Conroy, Andrew Meintjes, III, 122 
Conroy, Edwin Alfred, II, 141 
Conway, Thomas, V, 142 
Coode, John, III, 123 
Cook, Edward Boyer, III, 124 
Cook. Mary, V, 148 
Coolhaas, Willem Philippus, V, 142 
Cooper, Charles Duncan, V, 130. 


Cooper, Henry, III, 125 
Cooper, Henry William Alexander, 

L 184 

Cooper, Thomas, III, 123 
Coqui, Theodor Julius Adolph, III, 


Comelisz, Leendert, III, 126 
Cornish, Charles Edward, III, 122 
Corstorphine, George Stuart, L 183 
Cory, George Edward, □, 142 
Coagrave, Mary Anne, IV, 23 
Coster, Herman us Jacob, Q, 145 
Cotterill, Henry, L 186 
Couche see Coetzee 
Courtney, Leonard Henry, IV, 94 
Cowan, Andrew, II, 146 
Cowen, Charles, V, 151 
Cowie, Alexander, II* 142 
Cowie, William Hannay Watts see 
Rayne, Leonard 
Cowie, William, III, 177 
Cowley, Edith Augusta, V, 151 
Cox, Alice, V, 133 
Cox, Charles Leo, V, 153 
Cox, Charles, V, 154 
Cradock, John Francis, II, 148 
Craig, James Henry, III, 128 
Cranendonk, Abraham, II, 142 
Crawford, Archibald, III, 122 
Crawford. Hugh. Ill, LED 
Crawford, Lawrence (Lawrie), IV, 

Crawford, Mary see Fitzgerald, 

Creswell, Frederic Huge Page, L 


Crewe, Charles Preston, HI, 181 
Crewe-Milnes, Robert Offley 
Ashburton, II, L5Q 
Cricmon, Eric Cuthbert, IV, 95 
Crisp, William. L 189 
Croese see Cruse 
Crofts, Charles James, IV, 26 
Crompton, John Lake, HI, 181 
Cronenberg, Hendericus, V, 156 
Cronj£, Andries Petrus, III, 182 
Cronjd, Andries Petrus Johannes, 

III, 183 

Cronjd, Frederik Reinhardt 
(Frikkie), HI. 184 
Cronjd, Pieter Amoldus (Piet), III, 

Cronwright, Samuel Cron, I* 121 
Cronwright- Schreiner, Samuel C. 

see Cronwright, Samuel Cron 
Crookes, Samuel, IU, 187 
Crosby, William. V, 156 
Cross, George William, V, 152 
Croudace, William Henry Hugh. III, 


Crazier, Robert, V, 158 
Crudop, Hendrick, IU, 1 88 
Cruse, Hieronimus (Jeronimus), IV, 


Cruse. Jacobus. II. 150 
Cruse, Pieter Jozcf, IU, 188 
Cruudtop (Cruydop) see Crudop 
Cullman, Thomas (Major), HI, 182 

Cullingworth, Jeremiah, in, 189 
Cumming, Roualeyn George 
Gordon, II, 151 
Cungwa see Chungwa 
Cunningham, George Glencaim, III, 

Cunynghame, Arthur Augustus 
Thurlow, in, 190 
Curlewis, John Stephen, IV, 22 
Currey, Henry Latham, ni, 121 
Currey, John Blades, II, 132 
Currie, Donald, L 122 
Currie, Oswald James, IV, 28 
Currie, Walter, I* 123 
Curtis, Joseph Story, IV, 28 
Curtis, Lionel George, V, 158 
Curtis, Roger, V, 159 
Cuthbert, James Brown, IV, 22 
Cuyler, Jacob Glen, L 125 
Cyprian, B.N. KaDinuzulu see 
KaDinuzulu, Cyprian B.N. 

D'Ableing, Joan (Jan), II, 154 
D'Ailly, Johannes Godcfridus, HI, 


D'Aprbs de Mannevillette, Jean 
Baptiste Nicolas Denis, IV, ID] 
D’Arbez see Van Oordt, Johan F 
D’Oyly, Charles, IU, 232 
D’Urhan, Benjamin, H* 305 
Da Costa, Raie, V, 16J 
Da Gama, Vasco, L 198 
Da Nova (Nohoa, Novoa), Joao, L 

Da Silveira, Gon^alo, V, 162 
Dabulamanzi, U, 134 
Dahl, Gunder Christian Oscar, II, 

Dale Lace, John see Lace, John 

Dale, Langham, I* 201 
Dalgety, Edmund Henry, III, 123 
Dalindyebo, U, 136 
Dalrymple, William. H* 132 
Daly, Reginald Aldworth, V, 161 
Dampier, William, ni, 124 
Danckaert, Jan, IV, 100 
Daneel, Johannes Wynand (John), 

II, 132 

Daniel, Hector Cyril, IV, 1QQ 
Daniell, Richard, 204 
Daniell, Samuel, 1* 203 
Daniels, Gladys Constance, III, 124 
Dapper, Olfert, III, 123 
Darbyshire, John Russell, III, 125 
Darlcy- Hartley. William. IV. 10J 
Darling, Charles Henry, II, 158 
Darragh, John Thomas, I* 2Q7 
Darter, George Silver, III, 126 
Dartnell, John George, H* 152 
Da u mas, Francois, L 208 
Davel, Oelof Abraham Izak, 11, 160 
David, Gabriel, V, 163 
Davidson, Daniel Macfarlane, V, 

Davidson, James Christopher, IV, 


Davie, Thomas Benjamin, IV, 103 

Copyrighted material 

Davies, Edward Rees, K 208 
Davies, William, I_, 209 
Davies, William Thomas Frederick, 

III, 196 

Davis. Edmund, IV, 106 

Davis, John, III, 192 

Davis, Mary Elizabeth, IV, 105 

Davis, Michael, V, 164 

Davis, Reginald Percy Basil, II, 160 

Davis, Thomas Benjamin Frederick, 

IV, 106 

Davis, William Jefford, t 209 
Davitt, Michael, IK 161 
Davy, Joseph Burtt stt Burtt Davy, 

Dawes, Herbert Edmund (Bertie), 

V, 164 

Daws, George Buxton, IV, 102 
Dawson, Frederick Stuart (Stewart), 

IV. 108 

Dawson, George Geoffrey (Robin), 

L 210 

De Alcnqucr, Pero, L 211 
De Almeida, Francisco. Ill, 192 
De Ataide, Pedro, III, 198 
De Bams, Juio, II, 162 
De Beer, Daniel Ferdinand Bosman, 

V, 165 

De Beer, Edmund Zacharias 
Johannes, III, 198 
De Beer, Johannes Nicolaas, IV, 


De Beer, Samuel, III, 199 
De Blank, Joost, V. 166 
De Bucquoij, Jacob, IV, 1 IQ 
De Buys, Coenraad, II, 163 
De Camoes, Luis, II, 165 
De Castanheda, Femio Lopes, III, 


De Castro, Joao, II, 166 
De Chavunnes, Dominicus 

(Dominique) Marius Pasques, II, 


De Chavonnes, Mauritz (Maurice, 
Mauritius), II, 168 
De Clercq, Jacob, V, 168 
De C reiser, Cornelia, IV, 1 10 
De Fontaney. Jean, IV. Lii 
De Geyter, Joannes (Jan, Julius), 

IV, 112 

De Graaf, Hendrik, V, 169 
De Graaff, Nicolaus, I, 211 
De Graef. Claes see De Graaff, N. 
De Grandpreez, Josephus, V, 170 
De Grevenbroeck, Johannes (Jan) 
Guillelmus (Willem). UI, 200 
De Groot, Paul Christiaan, IV, 1 13 
De Guingand, Francis Wilfred, V, 

De Havilland, Thomas Lyttieton, V, 


De Henningsen see Hen(n)ingsen 
De Hertogh see Hartog 
De Hoodt, Joost (Josae) see 
Hondius, Jodocus 
De Houtman, Comelis, L 212 
De Jager, Johannes Gideon (Johan), 

V, 122 

De Jong, Arthur, V, 122 
De Jong van Rodenburgh, 

Cornelius, IV, 116 
De Jonge, Cars Geert, L 212 
De Jongh, Marthinus Johannes 
(Tinus), IV, 115 

De Jongh. Modestus set Lauwerijs, 

De Kersauson de Pennendreff, 
Robert Marie, V, 123 
De Klerk, Abraham, 01, 201 
De Klerk, Abraham Jacobus Kotzd, 

I, 213 

De Klerk, Daniel Petrus, IV, L16 
De Klerk, Johannes (Jan), V. 126 
De Klerk, Theunis Christiaan, ni. 


De Klerk, Willem Johannes, III, 


De Kock, Bosman see De Kock, 
Lourens Bosman 
De Kock, Johannes Jacobus, III, 


De Kock, Lourens Bosman, IV, 112 
De Kock. Michiel Hendrik (Mike), 

V, 122 

De Kock, Willem Johannes, V, 128 
De Korte, Benedictus, IV, 118 
De la Bat, Bcmabl Jean Gerhard, 

II, 169 

De la Bat, Gabriel de Vos, IV. 119 
De la Caille, Nicolas Louis, ni. 203 
De la Fontaine, Jan, K 213 
De la Guerre, Jonas, IV, 119 
De la Porte, Elizabeth Jacoha 
(Betsy), V, 183 

De la Rey, Adolf Johannes. IV, 120 
De la Rey, Adriaan Johannes 
Gysbertus (Groot Adriaan), III, 


De la Rey, Adrianus Johannes 
Gyshertus (Klein Adriaan), III, 


De la Rey, Jacobus Hercules 
(Kooa), L 214 
De Lacy, John, V. 180 
De Lagutre see De la Guerre 
De Lange, Johan Hendrik (Hans 
Dons), V, 111 

De Lima, Joseph(us) Suasso, 219 
De Loor, Barend, V, 184 
De Man, Andries, II, 121 
De Man. Roeloff. U. 122 
De Meijer, Pieter, HI, 207 
De Meillon, Henry Clifford, V, 185 
De Melker, Daisy Louisa, IV, 121 
De Meuron, Charles- Daniel, H, 172 
De Mist, Jacob Abraham Uitenhage, 

II. 114 

De Mist, Julie Philippe Augusta, II, 


De Moor, Elizabeth A.L. see 
Goddefroy, Elizabeth A.L. 

De Neuville set Deneuville 
De Neyn, Pieter, II, 180 
De Novae*, Dias stt Dias, B. 

De Pass, Aaron, L 220 
De Pass, Alfred Aaron, V, 146 

De Pass. Daniel, L 221 
De Rouhaix, Emanuel Herman 
Franfois, IH, 209 

De Saint-Pierre, J.H. Bernard in stt 
Bernard in de Saint-Pierre. J.H. 

De Saldanha, Antonio, H, LSD 
De Sandol-Roy, Simon Ridder, III, 


De Savoye, Jacques, HI, 210 
De Smidt, Abraham (1755-1809), 
IV. 122 

De Smidt, Abraham (1829-1908), 

III, 211 

De Smidt, Henry, III, 21 1 
De Smidt, Willem Ann£ Janssens, 

ni. 212 

De Suffren Saint-Tropez, Pierre 
Andrd, L 222 

De Ville, Pieter Bem(h)ardus, V, 


De Villebois-Mareuil, Georges 
Henri Anne- Marie Victor, ni, 


De Villiers, Abraham, in, 214 

De Villiers, Bemardus Josephus van 
de Sandt, II. 141 
De Villiers, Christoffel Coetzee, 


De Villiers, Comelis Janse (the 
elder), HI. 215 

De Villiers. Cornelius Gerhard us 
Stephanus (Dr Con), V, 188 
De Villiers, Daniel Johannes, in, 

De Villiers, Francois Jean, V, 189 
De Villiers, Izak Frederik Albertus, 
IH, 212 

De Villiers, Jacob Abraham Jeremy 
(Jaap). Ill, 212 

De Villiers, Jacob Elisa (Eliza), II, 


De Villiers, Jacques (Jacob), IU, 


De Villiers, Jan Stephanus, III, 219 
De Villiers, Jean Etienne, IV, 123 
De Villiers, Jean Etienne Reenen. 
IU, 22Q 

De Villiers, Johan Abraham Jacob, 

IV, 123 

De Villiers, Johan Hendrik (John 
Henry), K 224 

De Villiers. Johan Zulch, II, 144 
De Villiers. John. V. 190 
De Villiers, Josias Eduard, IV, 124 
De Villiers, Justina Wilhelmina 
Nancy, V, 121 

De Villiers, Louis Celliers, III, 221 
De Villiers, Marthinus Lourens, V, 


De Villiers, Melius. II, 144 
De Villiers, Oefie stt De Villiers, 
Jean Etienne Reenen 
De Villiers. Petrus Johannes, III, 


De Villiers, Pierre du Pleasis. V, 


De Villiers, Pierre, UI, 223 
De Villiers, Pieter Kuyper de Vos, 


Copyrighted material 

in. 224 

De Villicrs, Rocco Catorzia. V, 193 
De Villicrs, Rocco. IV, 125 
De Villicrs, Tielman Nieuwoudt, II, 


De Villien, Wilhelm Bruckner, III, 


De Villien, Willem Petrus. Ill, 225 
De Voogd, Adnanus, V, 134 
De Vos, Pieter Jacobus Gerhardus, 
HI. 226 

De Vriendt, Franciscus Jacobus 
Ludovicus (Louis), IV, 126 
De Waal. Daniel. IV, 126 
De Waal, David Christiaan, II, 188 
De Waal, Jan Christoffel, L 230 
De Waal, Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr 
(Jannie), L 23J 

De Waal, Nicolaas Frederic. II, LS2 
De Waal. Pieter, III. 225 
De Waal. Pieter Willem, IV, 122 
De Wet, Andries Francois (Dries), 
V, 134 

De Wet, Andries Gerhardus, III, 


De Wet, Casparus Jan Hendrik, III, 


De Wet, Christiaan Rudolph, L 233 
De Wet, Hendrik Christoffel, III, 


De Wet, Jacobus Albcrtus (Kook), 

II, L3Q 

De Wet, Jacobus Petrus, V, 196 
De Wet, Johannes Carolus, V, 125 
De Wet. Johannes, 240 
De Wet, Nicolaas Jacobus, IV, 125 
De Wet. Olof Godlieb, II. 121 
De Wet. Pieter Daniel, II, 122 
De Wildt. Mauritz Edgar. V, L36 
De Wit, Petrus Johannes, III, 221 
Dean, Thomas St John (Tiny), V, 

Deane, William Arthur, IV, 108 
Dcgrandprt, Louis Marie Joseph 
Ohier, III. 2QQ 
Dehan. Richard see Graves, 
Clothilda Inez Mary 
Dchlrain, Pierre Th cogene Henri, 
IV, LL4 

Dekker, Gerrit, V, 114 
Delalandc, Pierre- Antoine, III, 204 
Dclalle, Henri Francois- Xavier, IV, 

Delfos, Cornells Frederik, II, 170 
Del port, Petrus Jacobus, III, 206 
Den(e)ijn see De Neyn 
Deneuville, Alphonse Marie, IV, 

Denijssen, Daniel, III, 207 
Denison, Robert Beckett, III, 208 
Denyssen, Petrus Johannes, V, 155 
Des Ligneris, Maximilian Joseph 
August, III, 210 

Devenish, Anthony Lennox, V, 156 
Devereux, Aidan, III, 212 
Dhlomo, Herbert Izaac Ezra, V, 


Dias, Bartolomeu, L 241 

Dibbetz, Reinier de Klerk, V, 122 
Dicey, Leicester Maguire, IV, 122 
Dicke, Bernard Heinrich, IV, 122 
Dickson, Gladys Natalie (Aunty 
Lex), V, 125 

Diederichs, Adriaan Petrus 
Johannes, IV, 130 
Diemel, Petrus, V, 199 
Diemer, Abraham, IV, 111 
Diemer, Albert Dirluz (Elbert 
Dirkaz), IV, 111 
Dieterlen, Hermann, L 244 
Dijkman, Elizabeth Jane, II, 122 
Dimer see Diemer 
Dingane, II, 194 
Dingiswayo, II, 126 
Dinkwanyane, Johannes Kgalema, 

II. 126 

Dinter, Moritz Kurt, II, 122 
Dinunzulu, L 245 
Dinuzulu see KaDinuzulu. Cyprian 

Dirkxze, Albert see Diemer, Albert 

Distant, William Lucas, II, 198 
Dixie, Florence Caroline, III, 232 
Dixon, Henry Grey, III, 232 
Dixon, Robert Leng, V, 199 
Dlamini IV see Mbandzeni 
Do Couto, Diogo, II, 2QQ 
Dobie, John Shedden, IV, 131 
Dobson, Joseph Henry, III, 231 
Dodds, Arthur Evens, V, 200 
Dohne, Jacob Louis Bredens, V, 


Dohne, Jacob Ludwig, L, 247 
Dohse, Ernest Walter Ferdinand 
Fritz, V, 201 

Doidge, Ethel Mary, V, 202 
Doke, Joseph John, L. 242 
Doman, (Antony), III, 233 
Dombaer, Pieter, IV, 112 
Domsaitis, Pranas, IV, 132 
Domscheit, Franz see Domsaitis, 

Don, Charles Davidson, IV, HI 
Don. David, V, 201 
Donges, Johannes Michael. L 250 
Donges, Theodor Amadeus 
Heinrich, IV, 114 
Donges, Theophilus Christiaan, IV, 

Donges, Theophilus Ebenhaezer 
(Eben), V, 201 

Donkin, Rufane Shaw(e), III, 234 
Donovan, Alfred Daniel, III, 235 
Dorelle see Humphris, Dorothy E.S. 
Dorha(l) see Klaas 
Dormehl , Frederic Hansaen, III, 236 
Dormer, Basil Anthony, V, 207 
Dormer, Francis Joseph, L 250 
Douglas, Abraham, II, 201 
Douglas, Charles Whittingham 
Horsley, V, 202 

Douglas, Henry Alexander, III, 236 
Douglas, Robert Percy, III, 237 
Douglass, Arthur, III, 235 
Dove, John. V, 2Q5 


Dower, William, in. 238 
Doyle, Arthur Conan, L 251 
Dr O'Kuiis see Postma, Willem 
Drake, Francis, III, 240 
Draper, David, L 252 
Drfcge, Johann Fran(t)z, L 254 
Drennan, Matthew Robertson, V, 

Drew, Dewdney William, III, 240 
Dreyer, Andries, I_, 256 
Dreyer, Thomas Frederi(c)k 
(1885-1954), V, 210 
Dreyer, Thomas Frederik 
(1815-1889), III, 241 
Driver, Evelyn Frederick (Bok), IV, 

Dronsfield, John Marsden, V, 211 
Du Biel, Albert Johan Ernest, IV, 

Du Buis see De Buys 
Du Plessis, Chari (Sarei) Nicolaas 
Jacobus, V, 211 

Du Plessis, Daniel Hendrik Celliers, 
V, 216 

Du Plessis, Izak David 
(1808-1884), V, 217 
Du Plessis, Izak David 
(1900-1981), V, 217 
Du Plessis, Jacobus Albertus, III, 

Du Plessis, Johannes, 262 
Du Plessis, Lodewicus (Wicus) 
Johannes, IV, 137 
Du Plessis, Lou wrens Marthinus, 
III, 248 

Du Preez, Andries Bernard us, V, 


Du Preez, Daniel Coenraad 
Sebastian. V, 220 

Du Rand, Jacobus Abraham (Salty), 
V, 221 

Du Toit, Alexander Logie, L 266 
Du Toit, Andries Francois 
(1811-1871), III, 251 
Du Toit, Andries Francois 
(1813-1883), III, 252 
Du Toit, Charles Wijnand. II, 207 
Du Toit, Daniel Franks (Doktcr), 

II. 208 

Du Toit, Daniel Francois (Oom 
Lokomotief), II, 209 
Du Toit, Ernst Johannes, II, 210 
Du Toit, Francois Jacobus, IV, 139 
Du Toit, Gerhardus Johannes, IV, 

Du Toit, Heinrich Sebastian Davel, 

III, 253 

Du Toit, Hendrik Daniel Alphonso, 
V, 222 

Du Toit, Jacob Daniel, III, 253 
Du Toit, Jacobus Stephan us, m t 

Du Toit, Marthinus Lourens, V, 


Du Toit, Michiel Siebert Wiid 
(Mike), III, 255 

Du Toit, Paul Philippus, V, 225 
Du Toit, Petrus Johann, IV, 140 

Copyrighted material 

Du Toit, Pieter Jacobus, L 268 
Du Toil. Pieter, V. 224 
Du Toit, Sarel Petrus, III, 259 
Du Toit, Stephanus Jacobus 
( 1847 - 1911 ), L 268 
Du Toit, Stephanus Johannes 
( 1891 - 1972 ), V, 226 
Du VaJ, Charles Henry. ID. 259 
Dube, John Langaiihaleie, 111, 242 
Duckitt, Hildagonda Johanna, ID, 

Duckitt. William, L 252 
Dudgeon, Philip Maurice, HI, 243 
Duerden, James Edwin, H, 201 
Duff- Gordon, Lucie see Gordon, 
Lucie Duff 

Duggan-Cronin, Alfred Martin, ni, 


Dug more, Henry Hare, II, 203 
Dummy, Francois Renier, ni, 245 
Duminy, Jacobus Petrus, V, 211 
Dunbar, Drummond Miles, V, 213 
Duncan, Patrick, L» 258 
Dundas. Francis, 111, 245 
Dundas, Henry, III, 246 
Dundas, William Bolden. Ill, 242 
Dunn, Archibald Gardner (Eddie), 
V, 213 

Dunn, Edward John, II, 204 
Dunn, John Robert, L 260 
Dunn, William. III. 247 
Dunning, Edwin Harris, IV, 132 
Du parquet, Charles Aubert, V, 214 
Durham, Edward, V, 222 
Dumford, Anthony William. Ill, 


Dushane see Mduahane 
Duthie, Augusta Vera (Avie), III, 


Duthie, Thomas Henry, III, 251 
Dwane, James Mata, IV, 142 
Dwyer, Edward, II, 211 
Dyamond, George Benjamin 
(Bernard), IV, 142 
Dyke, Hamilton Moore, III, 260 
Dymer see Diemer 

Eagle, John Nunn, V, 228 
Eanes, Gil, III, 262 
Eaton, Norman Muagrave, V, 228 
Ebden, Alfred, HI. 262 
Ebden, Henry Anderson, HI, 262 
Ebden, John Bard well, II, 212 
Eberlanz, Gustav Friedrich, III, 263 
Echt see Egt 

Ecldon, Christian Friedrich, L 223 
Eckstein, Friedrich Gustav 
Jonathan, II, 213 

Eckstein, Hermann Ludwig, IX, 213 
Edgar, Charles Samuel, III, 263 
Edgar, James, n, 214 
Edington, Alexander, IV, 144 
Edwards, Edward, HI, 264 
Edwards. John Powell, V, 230 
Edwards, John, V, 222 
Edwards, Roger, U, 215 
Edwards, Samuel Howard, III, 265 
Edwards. William (1773-1842), IV. 


Edwards, William (1783-1828), L 

Egan. Eric. IV. 146 

Egcland, Jacob Jacobsen, V, 231 

Egersddrfer, Heinrich (Heiner), II, 


Egt, Daniel. V. 231 
Ehrlich, Ludwig, HI, 266 
Ehrlich, Wolf, V. 232 
Eich, (Friedrich) Wilhelm, V, 233 
Eich, Friedrich. HI. 266 
Eiselen, Gotthi If Theodor Sebastian, 
III, 266 

Eiselen, Werner Willi Max, V, 233 
Elbertsz, Hendri(c)k (Heinrich), IV, 

Elffers, Hubertus, L 275 
Ellebrecht see Elbertsz 
Ellenherger, David Fr6ddric, III. 


Elliot, Edward Locke, V, 235 
Elliot, George Francis Scott, III, 


Elliot, Henry George, III, 268 
Elliott, Arthur, II, 217 
Elliott, Charles Blcttcrman, V, 235 
Elliott, Guy Abercrombie, V, 236 
Ellis Brown, Joseph see Brown, 
Joseph Ellis 

Ellis, Daniel Edward (Daan), V, 


Ellis, George Rayner, III, 269 
Ellis, Thomas Gordon, V, 238 
Eloff, Jan, III, 269 
Eloff, Sarel Johannes, III, 270 
Eloff, Stephanus Johannes Paul us 
(Fanie), V, 239 

Elphinstone, George Keith, HI, 271 
Elphinstonc-Holloway see Holloway 
Elsevier, Samuel, in, 272 
Elton, James Frederic(k). Ill, 222 
Emma, Mother, V, 240 
Emmett, Joseph James Cheere, V, 


Emous, Hendnk Jan, HI, 223 
Endemann, Karl, ]_, 276 
Endler, Johann Franz (Hans), II, 


Endres, Johann Michael, III, 274 
Engela, Daw id Sofius, IV, 142 
Engelbrecht, Gerhard as Jacobus, V, 


Engelbrecht, Stephanus Petrus, V, 


Engelen, Alfred Pieter Frederik 
Lodewijk (Fred), V, 243 
Engelenhurg, Frans Vredenrijk, I* 


Engelhard, Charles William, V, 244 
Eno see Ngqeno 
Enslin, Johan Adam, V, 245 
Erasmus, Daniel Jacobus (Van 
Straten), L 279 

Erasmus, Daniel Jacobus Elardus, 

n, 219 

Erasmus, Francois Christiaan, V, 

Erasmus, Jacobus Abel, III, 275 
Erasmus, Stephanus Petrus, III, 276 
Eriksson, Axel, U, 220 
Eriksson, Axel Wilhelm. II. 220 
Erskine. David. III, 222 
Erskine, St Vincent Whitshed, III, 

Escomhe, Harry, L 280 
Espin, John, III, 228 
Esselen, Daniel Johannes, HI. 229 
Esselen, Ewald August(e), V, 248 
Esselen, Louis Francois (Franz). Ill, 

Esselen, Louis. II, 221 
Esterhuyse, Daniel Christiaan, II, 


Eustace, John Thomas, III, 280 
Eva. II. 223 

Evans, Edward Ratcliffe Garth 
(Russell). V, 249 
Evans, Edward William, IV, 148 
Evans, Herbert, V, 250 
Evans, Illtyd Buller see Pole Evans, 
llltyd Buller 
Evans, Samuel, III, 281 
Evatt, Francis, IV, 148 
Evelcigh, William, IV, 149 
Evenden, Charles Alfred. V, 250 
Everaert, Pieter (Piter), IV, 149 
Everard, (Amy) Bertha, IV, 150 
Everard, Rosamund King, V, 251 
Everard-Steenkamp, Rosamund K 
see Everard, Rosamund K 
Exton. Hugh, III, 282 
Eybers, George von Welflingh. V, 

Eybers, John Henry, IV, 151 
Eyssen, Stephen Harry, V, 253 

Faber, Cornelia Jacobus, III, 283 
Fagan. Gideon, V, 255 
Fagan, Johannes Jacobus, IV, 152 
Fagel, Francis Willem, III, 283 
Fairbaim, John, n, 225 
Fairbridge, Charles Aken, U, 227 
Fairbndge, Dorothea Ann, L 282 
Fairbridge, James William, HI, 284 
Fairbridge, Kingsley Ogilvie, 1^ 283 
Fairbridge, William Ernest, III, 284 
Faku, L 283 

Falconer, Arthur Wellesley, III, 285 
Fallows, Fearon, II, 228 
Fannin, John Eustace, III, 286 
Fantham, Annie see Porter, Annie 
Fantham, Harold Benjamin, lj 285 
Farewell, Francis George, f. 286 
Farini, Gilarmi (Guillarmo) 

Antonio, HI, 287 
Farrar, George Herbert, 1^ 287 
Faulds, William Frederick, V, 256 
Faure, Abraham, II, 229 
Faure, Anthonij Alexander, II, 233 
Faure, David Pieter, IV, 132 
Faure, Hermione Stephanie 
Lombard, in, 282 
Faure, Jacobus Christian, V, 252 
Faure. Peter Hendrik. III. 288 
Faure, Petronella Sophia, IV, 133 


Copyrighted material 

Faure, Philip Eduard, L 288 
Fearoe , Thomas Gleadhow, IV, L54 
Feetham, Richard, IV, L55 
Fehr, William. IV, 156 
Feilden, John Ley land. III, 288 
Fell, Henry. Ill, 282 
Ferguson, Abbie Park, II, 234 
Ferguson, George Reid, III, 289 
Ferguson, John Kenneth, V, 257 
Ferguson- Davie, Charles James, V, 


Fern, Emily Isabel, V, 259 
Femcyhough, George Taylor, IV, 


Ferreira, Comelis Rademeyer, V, 

Ferreira, Ignatius Philip, III, 220 
Ferreira, Ignatius Stephanus, V, 260 
Ferreira, Joachim Johannes, V, 26J 
Ferreira, Marthinus Philippus 
Comelis, III, 220 
Ferreira, Thomas Ignatius, III, 291 
Fetherstonhaugh, Richard Steele 
Rupert, III, 2 21 

Ffennell, Raymond William, 111. 


Fichardt, Carl Eberhard, II, 234 
Fichardt, Charles Gustav, III, 292 
Fichardt. Everard Walter, V. 262 
Fichardt, Gustav Adolf, II, 235 
Fick, Johan Izak Jacobus, II, 235 
Fick, Marthinus Laurentius, IV, 152 
Fiddes, George Vandeieur, III, 224 
Field. William Swan, III, 225 
Fillis, Frank, III, 225 
Finaughty, William, m, 226 
Finnemoce, Robert Isaac, IV, L58 
Fischer, Abraham (1850-1913), L 

Fischer, Abraham (Bram) 
(1908-1975), V, 263 
Fischer, Percy Ulrich, V, 264 
Fisher. Beryl Stranack, V, 264 
Fisher. John, III, 226 
Fisher, Leonard Noel, III, 297 
Fismer, Maria van der Lingen, III, 

Fitzgerald, John Patrick, II, 237 
Fitzgerald, Mary (Pickhandle 
Mary), V, 265 

Fitzherbert, Humphrey, III, 228 
Fitzpatrick, James Coleman, III, 


Fitzpatrick, James Long, L 222 
Fitzpatrick. James Percy, L 222 
Fitzroy, Charles Augustus, II, 238 
Fitzsimons, Frederick William, III, 

FitzSimons, Desmond Charles, V, 

FitzSimons, Vivian Frederick 
Maynard, V. 262 
F lather. Horace. V, 262 
Fleck. Christiaan. Ill, 30Q 
Fleming, Francis Patrick, V, 268 
Flemming, Leonard Denman, L 294 
Flint, William, V, 262 
Flugge-De Smidt, Rudolph Alfred 

Herman, V, 262 
Flygare, Johannes, IV, 158 
Foe kens, Willem Jacobus, III, 300 
Fogarty, Nelson Wellesley, IV, 152 
Fogg, Peter Parry, III, 3QJ 
Foord, Ben, V, 270 
Foot, Henry Marty n, III, 302 
Forbes, Archibald, V. 221 
Forbes, David, V. 221 
Ford, Lewis Peter, V, 222 
Forestier- Walker, Frederick William 
Edward, III, 302 
Forrest, Ada, IV, 152 
Forssman, Magnus Johan Frederik, 

L 225 

Forssman, Oscar Wilhelm Alric, L 


Fort, George Seymour, IV, 160 
Fotheringham, John Sibhald, V, 273 
Foueh*, Daniel Roelof, III, 303 
Fouchl, Leo, V, 274 
FoucW, Paul Hendrik Andries, IV, 

Fouchi, Willem Christian Petrus, 

HI, 303 

Fouch6, Willem Diederik, IV, 161 
Fourcade, Henry Georges, IV, 162 
Fourie, Christiaan Ernst, III, 304 
Fourie, Hermanus Comelis 
Mart(h)inus, L 298 
Fourie, Isak Johannes van Heerden, 
UI. 305 

Fourie, Joachim Christoffel, III, 305 
Fourie, Joseph Johannes 
(1823-1920), V, 225 
Fourie, Joseph Johannes (Jopie), L 

Fourie, Petrus Johannes, III, 306 
Fox. Henry Wilson. V, 225 
Foxon, Cuthbert Colenso Cock, V, 


Foxon, Frank Ernest Augustus 
Cock, V, 222 
Francis, Daniel, III, 307 
Franc ken, Adriaan, L 300 
Francois, Auguste Leo, IV, 163 
Franke, Erich Victor Carl August 
(Viktor). UI. 302 

Fran ken, Johan Lambertus Machiel, 

IV. 164 

Franks, Kendal Matthew St John, 

V, 222 

Franz, Abbot see Pfanner, Wendolin 
Franz, Gottfried Heinrich, IV, 165 
Franz. Helene Magdalene Elizabeth, 
V, 228 

Fraser, Alexander John, V, 222 
Fraser, Colin, II. 232 
Fraser, Colin McKenzie, III, 309 
Fraser, Florence Dorothea, V, 28Q 
Fraser, George Sackville, II, 240 
Fraser, John George, ^ 301 
Fraser, Marigold see Fraser, 
Alexander John 
Fraser, Simon Joseph, III, 302 
Fraser, William Percy, V, 281 
Frederici, Johann Christian, V, 281 
Frederick, -Paul, III, 310 

Frederik, David Christiaan, III, 310 
Frederik. Josef. HI. 311 
Frederik, Willem see Frederik, 
David Christiaan 
Freeman, Charles, IV, 166 
Freeman, Joseph John, II, 241 
Fremantle, Henry Eardley Stephen, 
L 302 

French, John Denton Pinkstone, D, 

French, Somerset Richard, V, 282 
Frere, Henry Bartie Edward, II, 243 
Friderici see Frederici 
Friis, Jens Jorgen, IV, 166 
Fritsch, Gustav Theodor, III, 31 1 
Frobenius, Leo Viktor, IV, 167 
Froneman, Christoffel Cornelius, 

m, 312 

Froneman, Gabriel Francois van 
Lingen (Sampie), V, 283 
Frost, John, IV, 168 
Froode, James Anthony, II, 246 
Frykenius, Simon Hendrik, III, 313 
Fula, Arthur Nuthal, IV, 162 
Fuller. Claude. H. 248 
Fuller, Thomas Ekins, L 304 
Furse, Michael Bolton. Ill, 311 
Fynn, Henry Francis, L 305 
Fynn, William McDowell. IV, 120 
Fynney, Frederick Bernard, IV, 170 

Gabbema, Abraham, II, 249 
Gabriel, Tommy, V, 284 
Gaggahec see Rarabc 
Gaika see Ngqika 
Galeshiwe (Galesewe), II, 242 
Galloway. Alexander (Sandy), V, 

Gallwey, Michael Henry, III, 315 
Gal pin, Ernest Edward, II, 250 
Gallon, Francis, III, 316 
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, II, 

Gane, Ernest Gerald, IV, 122 
Gane, Lawrence, IV, 122 
Gane, Percival Carl, IV, 122 
Gansevanger, Trijntje see Theunis, 

Garden, Robert Jones, III, 316 
Gardiner, Allen Francis, II, 254 
Gardiner, Frederick George (Fritz), 

Gardner, William Henry, IV, 123 
Gariick, John, III, 317 
Gamer. William Hinde, in. 317 
Garratt, Francis Sudlow, III, 318 
Garrett, Fydell Edmund, I, 302 
Garside, Sidney, IV, 124 
Gaaebone ( Gas i bon we). III, 318 
Gaseitaiwe, II, 256 
Gatacre, William Forbes, II, 252 
c.atrlv. John, III, 319 
Gaul, William Thomas, in. 319 
Gavin, William, L 308 

(Valrka II *>58 

Gear. John Hall ward (Jock), V, 285 
Gearing, Henry Charles, V, 286 
Gee re, Georg Diederik, III, 320 


Geldenhuys, Frans Eduard, III, 320 
Geldenhuys, Johannes Norval, IV, 


Geldenhuys, Lourens (Louw), V, 


Gelletich, Hans (John), H, 221 
Gemacr, Be rend, IV, 176 
Gerard, Charles Jean Joseph, III, 


Gerdener, Gustav Bernhard August, 

IV, 06 

Gcrotz, Friedrich Carl David, III, 


Gerrard, William Tyrer (Tyler), III, 

Gerstner, Joseph, ID, 323 
Gey van Pittius, Jan Hendrik 

Frederik Eduard Rudolf Claudius, 


Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius, 

III, 323 

Geyer, Albert us Lourens, IV, 121 
Geyer, Anna Elizabeth, V, 212 
Gibaud, Frank, V, 258 
Gibb, Robertson Fyfe, V, 282 
Gibbon, Perceval, III, 324 
Gibion, Alan George Sumner, III, 

Gibson, James Young, IV, 180 
Gibson, John Alexander, IV, 122 
Gie, Michiel Coenraad, III, 325 
Gijlswijk, Bernard Jordan, III, 326 
Gilchrist, John Dow Fisher, 1* 309 
Gill, Cohn Unwin, V, 282 
Gill. David. II. 252 
Gill, Edwin Leonard, IV, HO 
Gill, James, IV, HI 
Gill, Lucy Marion. IV, 182 
Gill. William. 1U. 326 
Gillmore. Parker, IV, 182 
Gilquin, Phillipus Herman us, V, 

Ginsberg, Franz (Frank), IV, HI 
Girouard, Edouard Percy Cranwiil, 

L 310 

Gladstone, Herbert John, II, 260 
Gladstone, William Ewart, II, 261 
Glaeser, Georg Wilhelm Heinrich, 
ID, 327 

Glanville, Ernest, HI. 327 
Glanville, Thomas Burt, HI, 328 
Glover, Edward, IV, 184 
Glynn, Henry Thomas. V, 221 
Goch, George Henry, V, 291 
Goddard, Ernest James, n, 263 
Goddefroy, Elizabeth Anna Louise 
(Betsy). IV, 185 

Goddefroy, Marius Joseph, HI, 329 
God4e Molsbergen, Everhardus 
Cornells, IB, 329 
Godfrey, Daniel Stuart (Dan), IV, 


Godfrey, Robert, HI, 330 
Godfrey, Subhan (Sooban), IV, 186 
God I on ton, Robert, II, 263 
Godsken see Goskc 
Goedvriend, Theodoor Franc iscus, 


Goerz, Adolf, V. 222 
Goff, Sarah Maud see Heckford, 
Sarah Maud 
Gogosoa, III, 332 
Goldhach, Daniel. HI, 332 
Goldblatt, David, V, 223 
Goldblatt, Sarah Eva. V, 223 
Goldman, Peter Leopold Alexander, 

m, 332 

Gold man n, Edwin, IV, 182 
Goldswam, Jeremiah, IH, 333 
Gondongwana see Dingiswayo 
Gonin, Henri Louis, L 312 
Gonin, Henri Theodore, M, 334 
Gonnema, IH, 334 
Goodenough, William Howiey, III, 


Goodlet, Brian Laidlaw, V, 294 
Goodman, Robert, in, 335 
Goodricke, John Richardson, HI, 


Goodwin, Astley John Hilary, III, 


Goodwin, William Ailerton, III, 337 
Gool, Zainunnissa (Cissie), IV, 188 
Goold-Adams, Hamilton John, I* 


Gordon, Charles George, IH, 338 
Gordon, George Hamilton, IV, 188 
Gordon, George Hamilton see 
Hamilton-Gordon, George 
Gordon, Lucie Duff, IV, 182 
Gordon, Mary Sarah, V, 295 
Gordon, Robert Jacob, IV, 120 
Gore- Browne, Wilfrid, ni. 339 
Goring, Heinrich Ernst, I* 313 
Goske, Ijsbrand, H, 262 
Goaselin, Constant, in, 340 
Gossop, Ailerley, IV, 183 
GoUke see Goske 
Gotthardt, Joaeph, IV, 123 
Gouldsbury, Henry Cullen, IV, 194 
Govan, William, L 314 
Gow, Francis Herman, IV, 194 
Gower, Samuel, in, 340 
Graaff, David Pieter de Villiera, II, 

Graaff, Jacobus A mold us 
Combrinck, II, 262 
Graham (of Fintry), John, I* 314 
Graham, John James, V, 296 
Graham, Thomas Lyndoch, HI, 341 
Grand, George Franfois, II, 269 
Grant, Charles Cameron, HI, 341 
Grant, Charles, H, 270 
Graumann, Hairy, IV, 195 
Graves, Clothilda Inez Mary, III, 

Gray, George Edward Kruger, V, 


Gray. James, V, 222 
Gray, Robert, L 316 
Gray, Sophia (Sophy), IV, 196 
Greathead, James Henry, in, 342 
Greaves, Constance H^ V, 298 
Greaves, Francis (Frank), V, 228 
Greaves, Harry Siddon, V, 299 
Greeff, Hendrik Adriaan, V, 299 

Green, Alexander Henry, L 324 
Green, Arthur, IU, 343 
Green, Edward KnoUes, III. 343 
Green, Edward Lister, V, 300 
Green, Frederick Joseph, II* 273 
Green, George Alfred Lawrence, 
m, 344 

Green, Henry, IV, 196 

Green, James, L 324 

Gree nacre, Benjamin Wesley, ffl, 


Greenacre, Walter, HI, 345 
Greenberg, Leopold, IV, 128 
Greene, Edward Mackenzie, III, 


Greene, William Conyngham, III, 


Gregorowski, Reinhold, II* 274 
Gregory. Alfred John, V, 301 
Greig, George, IL 275 
Greig, John Young Thomson, III, 


Greijbe, Johan Hendrik, IV, 128 
Grenfell, Harold Maxwell, III, 348 
Grenville, Richard Plan La genet 
Campbell Temple Nugent 
Brydges Chandos, III, 348 
Greshoff. Jan, V, 302 
Grey, Albert Henry George, m, 


Grey, George (1799-1882), 11* 276 
Gray, George (1812-1898), I* 326 
Grey, Henry George (1766-1845), 
m, 350 

Gray, Henry George (1802-1894), 
ID, 351 

Gray, Raleigh, IV, 199 
Grayling, Barend Christiaan, V, 303 
Grayling, Jan Christoffel, IV, 200 
Greyvcnstein, Jan Hendrik Jacobus 
Antonij, V, 204 

Grieahach, Carl Ludolf (Charles), 

V, 204 

Griffith, Charles Duncan, II* 276 
Griffith, Patrick Raymund, II, 277 
Grimley, Thomas, H, 228 
Grimm, Hans, III, 352 
Gnnaker, Ole Olsen, V, 305 
Grindlcy- Ferris, Ivon, V, 306 
Grobbelaar, Coert Smit, V, 307 
Grobler, Esaias Reinier, IV, 201 
Grobler, Frederik Albert us (Groot 
Frederik), HI, 353 
Grobler, Hendrik Stephan us, IU, 


Grobler, Johannes Hermanus 
(Hans), HI, 355 
Grobler, Pieter Dant£l Cornel is 
Johannes. HI. 355 
Grobler, Pieter Gert Weasel, III, 


Grocott, Thomas Henry, V, 202 
Groenendaal, Jacobus, 1* 332 
Groenewald, Pieter Willem Jacobus, 

V, 208 

Groenewoud, Philippus Wilhelmus 
Gerhardus, V. 302 
Groom, William Charles Romaine. 


Copyrighted material 

HI. 359 

Gross kopf, Ernst Berthold, 1 333 
Grosskopf, Johannes Friedrich 
Wilhelm, L 333 
Grotz see Gcrotz 
Grout, Aldin, III, 359 
Grout, Lewis, 1 335 
Grunberger, Friedrich Carl 
Christoph Adolph, IV. 202 
Griiner, Axel Otto, V, 310 
Grutzner, Carl Heinrich Theodore, 

i, m 

Guhhins, Charles Decimus 
O ‘Grady, III, 360 
Guhhins, John Gaspard, 1^ 337 
Gundelfinger, Karl, V, 310 
Gunn, Hugh. Ill, 360 
Gunning, Jan Willem Boudewijn. 

III. 361 

Gunter, Christian Frans Gerhardus, 

V. Ill 

Gurney, Walter Edwin, V, 212 
Gush, Richard. L 338 
Guthrie, Francis, II, 279 
Gutsche, Carl Hugo, 1 338 
Gutsche, Clemens, II, 23Q 
Gutsche. Hugo. V, 312 
Gwali, II, 281 

Gwyn, John see Jeffreys, Mervyn 

Gyngell, Albert Edmund, IV, 203 

Haagner, Alwin Karl, IV, 204 
Haarburger, I wan Hartwig, V, 314 
Haashroek, Sarel Francois, III, 363 
Hackius. Pieter, I* 340 
Hadah see Herry 
Haddy, Richard, II, 282 
H aden, Francis Seymour, II, 282 
Hager, Carl Otto. II, 282 
Haggar, Charles Henry, HI. 364 
Haggard, Henry Rider, I. 340 
Hahn, Carl Hugo, 1_, 341 
Hahn, Johannes Samuel, Ij 343 
Hahn, Johannes Theophilus, 344 
Hahn, Paul Daniel, I, 346 
Haig. Douglas, III, 365 
Hall. Arthur Lewis, IV. 204 
Hall, Elsie Stanley, V, 314 
Hall, Henry, V, 316 
Hall, Hugh Lanion, IV, 205 
Hall. John, III, 366 
Hall, Kenneth Ronald Lambert, V, 


Hall, Thomas Dennison, III, 366 
Hallheck, Hans Peter, IV, 202 
Halil, Gustave Gregory Richard, V, 


Halloran, Laurence Hynes, 1 347 
Halm, Jacob Karl Ernst, V. 318 
Halse, Henry James, IV, 208 
Halstead, Thomas, III, 367 
Ham, Pieter Nicolaas, HI, 368 
Hamelberg, Hendrik Antonie 
Lodewijk, I, 348 
Hamer, James Alban, V, 318 
Hamersma, Taetse, III, 368 
Hamilton, Bruce Meade, III, 369 

Hamilton, Frederic Howard, III, 


Hamilton, Ian Standish Monteith, II, 


Hamilton, James Stevenson see 
Stevenson- Hamilton, James 
Hamilton-Gordon, George, m, 370 
Hamlin, Ernest John, V, 319 
Hammar, August, V, 320 
Ham mar, Joseph, V, 320 
Hammerschlag, Sigmund, III, 371 
Hammersley-Heenan, Robert Henry, 
V, 321 

Hammond, John Hays, II, 287 
Hanau, Carl, in. 371 
Hancock, James, IV, 209 
Hancom- Smith, Daisy Louisa see 
De Melker, Daisy Louisa 
Handcock, Peter Joseph, IU, 371 
Hanekom, Hendrik Andrics, III, 372 
Hanekom. Jeanetta Helena 
Margaretha (Nettie), V, 322 
Hanekom, Matilda, V, 323 
Hanger, Edward Samuel (Ned), V, 

Hannam, Isabelle, V, 324 
Hans Kaapnaar see Von Wicliigh, 
Gideon Relief 

Hansard, Henriette I.L. see Juta, 
Henriette I.L. 

Hanson, Harold Joseph, V, 325 
Harders, Remmer(us), ffl, 373 
Harding. Walter. II. 289 
Hare, John, V, 326 
Hargreaves, Peter. I* 350 
Harison, Christopher, III, 373 
Harraway. Harry Gleeson (Lai), V, 

Harries, Katanne (Katrine), V, 329 

Harris, David, 1^ 351 

Harris, Frederick Rutherfoord, IV, 


Harris, Robert Henry Thomas 
Pcnruddocke, V, 329 
Harris, William Cornwallis, IV, 211 
Harrison, Arthur Cecil, V, 330 
Harrison, Charles William Francis, 
IV, 212 

Harrison, George, III, 374 
Harry see Herry 
Hart, Arthur Fitzroy, III, 374 
Hart. Robert, II, 290 
Hart-Synnot, Arthur Fitzroy see 
Hart, Arthur Fitzroy 
Hartig, Rolf Ernst, III, 375 
Halting, Pieter, III, 376 
Hartley, Charles Augustus, IV, 213 
Hartley, Henry, m, 376 
Hartley, Maud Frederica (Frida), 

III, 377 

Hartley, William, IU, 378 
Hartman, Anton Carlisle, V, 331 
Hartog, Jan (Johannes), II, 221 
Hartogius see Hartog 
Hartwig, Ernst August, V, 333 
Harvey, Russell, IV. 214 
Harvey, William Henry, I* 352 
Haszner, Johann Friedrich, III, 378 

Hatch, Frederick Henry, II, 292 
Hathom, Alexander Anthony Roy, 
0, 379 

Hathom. Kenneth Howard, HI, 379 
Hattersley, Alan Frederick, V, 333 
Hattingh, Bernhard us Rudolph, IV, 


Hattingh, Frederik Johannes Willem 
Jacobus, V, 334 

Haughton, Sidney Henry, V, 335 
Haupt, Card Albrecht, V, 336 
Havelock. Arthur Elibsnk, 111. 380 
Havcnga, Nicolaas Christiaan 
(Klaaie), IV, 215 
Hawke. William. Ill, 380 
Hawkins, William, 1 354 
Haworth, Adrian Hardy, III, 381 
Hay, William Sanders Ebenezer. 

IV, 222 

Hayden, David. IV. 223 
Heath, John Charles Wood (Jack), 

V, 336 

Hecht, Daniel see Egt, Daniel 
Hecht, John, IV. 223 
Heckford, Sarah Maud, IV, 225 
Heckroodt, Willem Hendrik 
Lategan, V, 337 

Hecse, Carl August Daniel, IV, 226 
Hecse, Christoph Heinrich Theodor 
Daniel. III. 381 

Hecse, Karl Willem (Kalie), V, 338 
Heidmann, Johann Christian 
Friedrich, in, 382 
Hein, Johann Friedrich (Frederik), 

IV. 222 

Hele Shaw, Henry Selby, m, 383 
Helm, John Thomas, III, 384 
Helm, Samuel Peter, L 554 
He I more, Holloway, IV, 228 
Helot, Willem. HI, 384 
Hely- Hutchinson, Christian Victor 
Noel Hope, IV. 228 
Hely- Hutchinson, Walter Francis, 1 

Hem my, Otto Ludcr, III, 385 
Hen(n)ingsen, Josephine (Amelia), 

V, 342 

Henderson, James (1867-1930), 1 

Henderson, James (1878-1932), III, 

Henderson, Joseph, HI, 386 
Henderson, Robert Hugh, III, 386 
Henderson, Thomas, IV, 229 
Hendricks, Hendrick, V, 338 
Hendrie, David Anderson. IV, 230 
Hendrikz, Willem de Snnderes, V, 

Henkel. Caesar Carl Hans. IV. 230 
Henkel, Irmin, V, 340 
Hennessy, Alfred Theodore, V, 341 
Henning, Michiel Wilhelm. 01, 387 
Henrique, Infante Dorn, 1 357 
Henry the Navigator see Henrique, 
Infante Dom 

Henslow, George, HI, 388 
Henwood, Paul. IV, 231 
Hepburn, Andrew, V, 342 


Copyrighted material 

Hepburn, James Davidson, L 359 
Herbert, Henry Howard Molyneux, 

n, 29i 

Herbert, Thomas, III, 388 
Hcrboldt, Albertus Johannes, III, 


Hermann. Paul, L 360 
Hermann, Raphael, V, 343 
HeroJd, Tobias Johannes, II, 294 
Henman, Louis, V, 343 
Herry, II, 296 

Herachcl, John Frederick William, 

L 361 

Hershcneohnn, John Matthew 
Nicolas Alexander, III, 389 
Hershensohnn, Joshua Retinski, III, 


Hertz, Joseph Herman, 365 
Hertzog, James Barry Munnik, L 

Hertzog, Willem Fredrik, L 379 
Hertzogenraedt, Johannes 
Wilhelmus. V. 344 
Hesse, Christian Heinrick Friedrich, 

III, 390 

Hesseling, Derk Christiaan, II, 296 
Hesseis, W. see Mulder, Hendrik 

Hcttasch, Andreas Gustav, L 380 
Heumius, Justus, L 381 
Hewat. John, IV, 212 
Hewitt, John, IV, 212 
Heydenreich, David set Hayden, D. 
Heydt, Johann Wolflfgang, L 381 
Heymans, Willem (Guillaume) 

Maria Albert, V, 345 
Heyning, Margarctha A. see Moller, 
Margaretha Anna 
Hey ns, Stephanus Petrus, III, 391 
Heys, George Jesse, IV, 211 
Hhili see Bhunu 

Hibberd, Charles Maxwell, IV, 214 
Hicks Beach. Michael Edward, II, 


Hicks, John Wale. Ill, 391 
Hiddingh, Comelis, U, 298 
Hiddingh, Jonas Michiel, III, 392 
Hiddingh, Willem (1773-1839). II, 


Hiddingh. Willem (1808-1899), II. 


Hilarius, Willem (William, Bill), 

IV, 215 

HiJdyard, Henry John Thornton, III, 

Hillier, Alfred Peter, V. 346 
Hills, George, V, 346 
Hime. Albert Henry, II, 101 
Hime, Charles Frederick William, 

IV, 215 

Hindoo, Oliver John (Jack), 111, 394 
Hintrager, Friedrich Wilhelm 
Robert Oscar (Oskar), IV, 236 
Hintsa, L 382 

Hintchhom, Friedrich Heinrich 
(Fritz). IV, 232 
Hitchms, Charles. Ill, 395 
Hlambamanzi see Sembite, Jacob 

Hlubi, Lefitlha Molefe, III, 395 
Hobart. Robert. V, 347 
Hobhousc, Emily, 1L 302 
Hobson, George Carey, III, 396 
Hobson, John Atkinson, II, 306 
Hodges. William, QL 396 
Hodgson, Thomas Laid man, III, 397 
Hodgson, Violet M.L. see 
Ballinger, Violet M.L. 
Hoendervangers, Jacobus (Petrus), 

L 385 

Hoernle, Agnes Winifred, IV, 238 
Hoemie, Reinhold Friedrich Alfred, 
III, 397 

Hoesch, Walter, V, 348 
Hoexter, Oscar Hendrik, V, 349 
Hoffman. Abraham Card, V, 349 
Hoffman(n), Josias Mathias, II, 10 1 
Hoffman(n), Josias Philippus, III, 

Hoffmann, Nathan Dave see 
Hoffmann, Nehemia Dov 
Hoffmann, Nehemia Dov, V, 350 
Hofmeyr, Adnaan Jacobus Louw, 
III, 401 

Hofmeyr, Andrew Murray, III, 402 
Hofmeyr, Charles Murray, HI, 402 
Hofmeyr, Christoffel, V, 351 
Hofmeyr, George Morgan, V, 352 
Hofmeyr, Gysbert Reitz, III, 402 
Hofmeyr, Henry John, IV, 239 
Hofmeyr, Henry Murray (Harry), 

V. 352 

Hofmeyr, Jan (Frederik) Hendrik, 

IL 309 

Hofmeyr, Jan Christoffel, II, 308 
Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik (1835-1908), 
III, 403 

Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik (Onze Jai.s 
(1845-1909), II, 314 
Hofmeyr. Johannes Dirk Jacobus 
(Hannes), V, 353 

Hofmeyr, Johannes Wynand Louw, 
III, 404 

Hofmeyr, Nicolaas, 319 
Hofmeyr, Nicolaas Jacobus. L 385 
Hofmeyr, Servaas, Ul_ 405 
Hofmeyr, Stephanus Johannes 
Gerhardus, 1^ 389 
Hofmeyr, William Angus, III, 405 
Hofstede, Helperus Johannes, V, 


Hoge, Johann Max Heinrich. IV, 


Hogge, William Samuel, III, 406 
Hohls, Johann Otto, HI, 408 
Hohne, Just Friedrich Rudolph 
Kaufmann, IV, 241 
Holbech, William Arthur, V, 354 
Holden, William Clifford, III, 408 
Holland, Edward William Hollwell, 
UI, 409 

Holland. Henry Thuratan, II. 320 
Holland, Reginald Sothem, V, 355 
Hollander, Fdix Charles, in, 409 
Hoi lard, William Emil, IV, 241 
Holleman, Frederik David. IV, 242 
Holley, James Hunt (1873-1957), 

m, 410 

Holley. James Hunt (1914-1959). 

III, 410 

Hollins, Richard Roger, V, 356 
Holloway, Christina Maria (Tienic), 

IV, 241 

Holloway. John Edward (Jack), V, 

Holloway, William Cuthbert, II, 


Holmca, Gideon Skull, 111, 411 
Hoi stead see Halstead 
Holtshausen, Johannes Andries, II, 


Holtzhausen, Jacobs Susanna 
(Nunez). V, 358 
Holub, Emil, L 390 
Homan, Leonard Elphinstonc 
Brunei, Ul. 412 
Hondius, Jodocus, IV, 244 
Honey, De Symons Montagu 
George, in, 413 
Honeyball, George, III, 414 
Hoogenhout, Casper(us) Peter, III, 

Hoogenhout, Nicolaas Marais, L 

Hop, Hendrik, V, 359 
Horsbrugh, Boyd Robert, V, 359 
H ort or, William Edward, V, 360 
Horwood, Hetty Christiana, V, 361 
Horwood, Thomas Berridge 
(Bennie), V, 361 
Hosken. William, V. 362 
Hosking, Henry, III, 416 
Hough, George, 393 
Houghton, Robert Desmond Hobart. 

V, 363 

Household, John Goodman, III, 416 
Howard, Francis, III, 416 
Howarth, Anna, IV, 244 
Howell, Hermanus Johannes, III, 

Howell, James Michael Gristock, 
III, 418 

Howes, Robert Rhodes Reed Barret, 
V, 364 

Hoy,’ William Wilson, III, 418 
Hubner, Hermanus, 111, 419 
Hue kins, Daniel Montgomery, III, 

Hudson, George, III, 420 
Hudson. Samuel Eusebius, II, 322 
Huet, Dam met Pierre Mane (Piet), 
II, 323 

Hughes, Isaac, V, 365 
Hugo, Andr* MaJan, V, 365 
Hugo, Daniel see Hugot, Daniel 
Hugo. Dirk de Vos, V, 366 
Hugo, Francois Daniel, III, 421 
Hugo, Gideon Juzua, III, 421 
Hugo, Hendrik Cornelius, III, 422 
Hugo, Hendrik Johannes, IV, 245 
Hugo, Jacobus Francois (Koos 
Mostertpotjie), IV, 246 
Hugo, Thomas Johannes, III, 422 
Hugot, Daniel, IV, 246 
Huguenet, Andre, III, 423 


Copyrighted material 

Huising, Henning see Htising, IL 
Hulett, George Herbert, IV, 247 
Hulelt, James Uege. L 394 
Hull, Henry Charles, V, 367 
Hullebroeck, Emiel Leopold, III, 


Hulienaar, Petrus , III, 425 
Hume, David, III, 426 
Hume. William. V. 368 
Humphrey, William Alvara, HI, 426 
Humphreys, James Charles 
Napoleon. V. 369 
Humphris, Dorothy Ella Somerton, 

IV, 247 

Hunt, William Leonard set Farini, 
Gilarmi (Gutllarmo) Antonio 
Hunter, Archibald, III, 427 
Hunter, David, L 395 
Hunter, Peter Langwill, III, 428 
Husing, Henning (Hemmingh, 
Hemminck), IV, 248 
Huskisson, William, III, 428 
Husa, Alexander, IH. 429 
Hutchins, David Ernest, IV, 249 
Hutchinson, John, V, 370 
Hutton, Charles Ward, V, 371 
Hutton, Charles William, III, 429 
Hutton, Edward Thomas Henry, III, 

Hutton, Frederick Augustus, V, 371 
Hyde. James, IV, 211 
Hyslop, James, IL 325 
Hyslop, Thomas, II, 325 

I'Ons, Frederick Timpeon, L 399 
IkaJafeng, Moilwa. II. 327 
Immelman, Daniel Ferdinand, III, 


Immelman, Ren4 Ferdinand Mai an, 

V, 373 

Impey, Samuel Patton, V, 374 
Impey, William, II, 327 
Imroth, Gustav, ID, 432 
Ingham, William, 111, 433 
Inglesby, Thomas James Campbell, 

IV, 253 

Ingram, Joseph Forsyth, V, 374 
Ingram, Mary E. see Davis, Mary 

Innee, Edward Arthur Robert. Ill, 


Innes, James Rose (1799-1873), L 

Innes, James Rose (1824-1906), III, 


Innes, James Rose (1855-1942), II, 

Innes, Robert Thorbum Ayton, IV, 


Irie, Johann Jakob, HI, 434 
Irons, William Josiah, III, 435 
Irvin, George Driver, V, 375 
Irving, Hugh Mackintosh, V, 376 
Irving, James, IV, 254 
Isaacs, Barnett see Bamato, Barney 
Isaacs, Henry Isaac see Bamato, 

Henry Isaac 

Isaacs, Joseph Barnett see Barnett, 


Isaacs, Nathaniel, L 400 
I sherwood, Annie Cecilia 
Rams bottom, m, 435 

Jahavu, Davidson Don Tengo, III, 

Jahavu, John Tengo, L 403 
Jickel, Ernst Hermann Martin, IV, 


Jackson, George Francis Travers, 

IV, 255 

Jacobs, Erasmus Stephan us. III, 438 

Jacobs, Petrus Jacobus (Piet), II, 


Jacobs, Pieter Daniel, H, 334 
Jacobs, Simeon, II, 334 
Jacobsz, Charlotte, V, 377 
Jacobsz, Louis Johannes, V, 377 
Jacobsz, Willem Hendrik, L 404 
Jacottet, Edouard, L 406 
Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph, IV, 256 
J agger, John William, L 407 
James, Hennen see Jennings, 


James. Reginald William, IV, 252 
Jameson, L ea n de r Starr, III, 438 
Jamison, Sophia Barbara Elizabeth, 
!L 335 

Jannasch, Friedrich Wilhelm, II, 


Janse, Antonie Johannes Theodorus, 

IV, 258 

Jansen, Ernest George, V, 378 
Jansen. Martha Mabel, V, 382 
Janse(n) van Rensburg see Van 

Jansen, Leendcrt see Janaz, 


Janssens, Jan Willem, III, 442 
Janaz, Leendert. IH. 444 
Jantjie (Jantje), HI, 444 
Jardine, Alexander Johnstone, n, 


Jardine. William. HI. 445 
Jarvis, Hercules Crosse, IV, 259 
Jeffreys, Mervyn David 
Waldegrave, V, 383 
Jenkins, Robert, III, 445 
Jenkins, Thomas, L 408 
Jenkins, William Owen, IH, 446 
Jenkinson, Robert Banks, HI, 447 
Jennings, Hennen, HI, 447 
Jennings, Jeremiah Edmund Bowden 
Jerry), V. 384 

Jennings, Sidney Johnston, V, 386 
Jentach, Adolph Stephan Friedrich, 

V, 386 

Jeppe, Carl Ludwig Theodor 
Abraham, H, 337 
Jeppe, Friedrich Heinrich, II, 338 
Jeppe, Hermann Otto Carl 
Friedrich, n, 340 

Jeppe, Julius Gottlieb Ferdinand, H, 

Jervis, Henry, IH, 448 
Joao H, L 409 

Joel, Solomon Bamato, II, 341 

Joel, Woolf, II, 342 
Johansson, Karl Johan Ossian 
Rutgersson see Johnson, Charles 

Johnaon, Charles, IH, 449 
Johnson, Charles Ocean, V, 388 
Johnson, Frank William Frederick, 
HI, 449 

Johnson. George Lindsay, IV, 259 
Johnstone, George, II, 342 
Jolivet, Charles Constant, n, 343 
Jollie, Ethel M. Tawae see Tawse* 
Jollie, Ethel M. 

Jolly, William Adam Tasker, m, 

Jones, George Roderick, III. 451 
Jones, Guy Carleton (Peter), in, 


Jones, Harold Spencer see Spencer 
Jones, Harold 

Jones, John D. Rheinalit see 
Rheinallt Jones, John D 
Jones, Josephus, V, 389 
Jones, Percy Sidney Twenty man, V, 

Jones, Robert, V, 390 
Janes, Sydney Twenty man, V, 391 
Jones, William Oliver (Oliver the 
Spy), V, 392 
Jones, William. V, 391 
Jones, William Weal, L 411 
Jonker, Abraham Hendrik, IV, 260 
Jonker, Ingrid, IV, 261 
Jonker, Jacobus (Koos) Johannes 
Albertus, IV. 262 
Jooste, Jacobus Petrus, IV, 263 
Jooste, Joseph Petrus (Piet), III, 453 
Jordan, William Worthington, III, 


Joris, Annetje see Boom, Annetje 
Jorisaen, Eduard Johan Pieter, H, 

Jorisaen, Samuel Gerhard, in, 455 
Joseph, Sheikh see Yuasuf, Sheikh 
Josson, Marie Hyppolitus Nicolaus 
Mauritius (Maurits), IV, 264 
Joubert, Daniel Stephanus Burger, 
III, 456 

Joubert, David Johannes, IH, 456 
Joubert, Francois Allan (Frank), V, 

Joubert, Francois Gerhard us, IV, 


Joubert, Gideon Daniel, V, 394 
Joubert, Hendnna Susanna Johanna, 
V, 395 

Joubert, Henry Hartzenberg, HI, 


Joubert, Johannes, IV, 266 
Joubert, Paulus Petrus, HI, 457 
Joubert, Petrus Jacobus (Piet), L 

Joubert, Willem Adolph. Ill, 458 
Joubert, Willem Francois (Frans), 

II. 347 

Joyce, James William, L 41* 
Judelowitz, Jacob Solomon, V, 396 
Judge, Edward Conduitt, III, 458 


Copyrighted material 

Junod, Henri- Alexandre, [I, 349 
Juritz. Charles Frederick, II, 351 
JuUl Henricu* Hubertus, L 418 
JuU, Hennette Irene (R6ne) Louise, 

IV, 266 

JuU. Jan Caret, U. 352 

Kadalie, Clements, IV, 268 
KaDinuzulu, Cyprian Bhekuzulu 
Nyangayezizwe, IV, 269 
KaDinuzulu, Solomon, V, 397 
Kaiser, Friedrich Wilhelm Erich, V, 


Kajee. Abdullah Ismail. Ill, 460 
Kakkcrlak, Cupido, V. 398 
Kalden, Petrus, 0, 354 
Kalepe see Mkalipi 
Kama, II, 354 
Kamaherero see Maharero 
Kambazembi wa Kangombe, III, 


Kambonde II see Kambonde ka 

Kambonde ka Mpingana, II, 355 
Kamp, Jan, II, 356 
Kannemeyer, Daniel Rossouw, II, 

Kanthack, Francis Edgar, III, 461 
Kapuuo, Clemens Mutuurunge, V, 


Kam-Davies, Walter David, IV, 


Karupumbura see Tjamuaha 
Kauta (Kawuta) see KhawuU 
Kay, Dorothy, 10. 462 
Kay, Stephen, IV, 270 
Keatc, Robert William, II, 358 
Kart, Albertus Daniel, V, 400 
Keel, Barend Bartholomeus 
(Bennie), V, 401 
Keet. Daniel Johannes. HI. 463 
Keet, Johan(nes) Bem(h)ard Zulch, 

rv, 271 

Kekewich, George. II, 359 
Kekewich, Robert George, U, 360 
Kellner, Bernhard Otto, V, 402 
Kelly-Kenny, Thomas, III, 464 
Kemmerer, Edwin Walter, IV, 272 
Kemp, Jan Christoffel Greyling, ^ 

Kemplay, Isabelle see Hannam, L 
Kendall, Edward Augustus, III, 464 
Kendall, Franklin Kaye, IV, 272 
Kendrick, John, V, 403 
Kennedy, Charles Thomas, V, 404 
Kennedy, Reginald Frank, V, 404 
Kent, Thomas Parkes, IV, 223 
Kentridge, Morris, IV, 274 
Kerby, George, HI, 465 
Kerr, Philip Henry, HI, 465 
Keetell, Gertmida Anna (Gertrude, 
Trudie), V, 405 
Keatell, John Daniel, L 421 
Kett, George Frederick Wood house, 

V, 406 

{ettlewell, Percy William Henry, 

V, 407 

Key, Bransby Lewis, IV, 225 

Keyter, Jan de Wet, IV, 226 
Kgama IIL L 424 
Kgamanyane, IV, 277 
Kgware, William Moahobane, V, 

KhawuU, n, 361 
Kibel, Wolf. D* 361 
Kicberer, Johannea Jacobus, 1, 425 
Kidd. Dudley, OL 466 
Kiea, Charles Frederick, V, 408 
Kiewict de Jonge, Herman us Jacob, 
IV, 228 

Kiggelaer, Francois, HI, 467 
Kilpin, Emeat Fuller, V, 409 
Kilpin, Ralph PUkington, IV, 279 
Kimmerling, Albert, IV, 279 
King, Amy see Everard, (Amy) B. 
King, Burnham see King, Thomas 
King, Dick see King, Richard Philip 
King, Edith Louise Mary, QL 467 
King, James Saunders, H, 363 
King, Norman Landrey, V, 410 
King, Richard Philip, H, 364 
King, Thomas, V, 410 
Kingswell, George Herbert, IV, 280 
Kinmont, Alexander (Alec), V, 41 1 
Kipling, Rudyard, I . 427 
Kirby, Percival Robson, V, 412 
Kirkman, John, HI, 468 
Kirkneas, John Johnston, V, 413 
Kirkwood, James Somers, V, 414 
Kirsten. Johann Friedrich. L 428 
Kirsten, Johannea Frederik, L 429 
Kisch, Daniel Montagu(e), V, 415 
Kitchener, Frederick Walter, in. 


Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, II, 365 
Klaas, HI. 470 

Klaas Waarzegger see Meurant, 
Louis Henri 

Kleijn, Frederik Willem Hendrik, 

ni, 470 

Klein, Heinrich Joseph (Hendricus 
Josephus), IU. 471 
Kleinschmidt, Franz Heinrich, U, 

Klijnveld, Herman, IH, 471 
Kioeke, Gesinus Gerhard us, IV, 281 
Kloete(n) see Cloete 
Kioppers, Philippus Johannes, V, 

Kluthe see Cloete 
Knight- Bruce, George Wyndham 
Hamilton, L 430 

Knobel, Johann Balthazar Christian, 
IV. 282 

Knothe, Carl Paulus Gerhard, I, 431 
Knox, Charles Edmond, HI, 472 
Knox, William George, V, 417 
Knox-Shaw, Harold, V, 417 
Knud sen, Hans Christian, I, 432 
Koch, Charles, V, 418 
Kock, Antonie (Antonius, Antoine) 
Francois, IV, 283 
Kock, Johannes Hcn(d)ricus 
Lambert us, III^ 473 
Kock, Johannes Herman us Michiel 
(1835-1899), IL 370 

Kock, Johannes Hermanus Michiel 
(1839-1928). IV, 283 
Kock see also Kok 
Kohler, Charles William Henry, IV, 


Kohrtuunmer, Johann Philipp, HI, 

Kok, Adam L IV, 285 
Kok. Adam II (Dam). IV, 286 
Kok. Adam m. IV, 282 
Kok, Cornelius L IV, 285 
Kok see also Kock 
Koib(e)(n), Peter. HI, 475 
Kolbe, Frederick Fortunatus 
Hofmeyr, V. 419 
Kolbe, Friedrich Cart. I_. 433 
Kolbe, Friedrich Wilhelm, V, 419 
Kolbing, Carl Rudolph. II. 371 
Kolver, Andreas Lutgerus, IH, 476 
Komhati see Mncumhatha 
Kombrink see Combrink 
Kong(w)a see Chungwa 
Koopman, HI, 477 
Koopmans-De Wet, Maria 
Margaretha, L 436 
Korsten, Frederik, H, 371 
Kottler. Moses. V, 420 
Kotzd, Christiaan Rudolph, ni. 477 
Kotzl, Jacobus Comelis Gideon, V, 


Kotzi, Johannes Gysbert (John 
Gilbert), L 438 
Kotzd, Johannea Jacobus 
(1832-1902), H. 373 
Kotzd, Johannes Jacobus 
(1835-1899), IV, 289 
Kotzd, Petrus Johannes, H, 374 
Kotzd, Robert William Nelaon, IV, 


Kotzee. Andries Lodewickus, V, 


Krampe, Fritz, HI, 478 
Krause, Albert Edward Jacobus, II, 

Krause, Cart Johann Gottlieb, V, 


Krause, Frederick Edward Traugott, 
HI, 479 

Krause, Otto Cart Heinrich, IH, 480 
Krebs, Georg Ludwig Englehard, II, 

Kreft, Hermann Heinrich, HI, 481 
Kreli see Sarili 

Krenz, Alfred Friedrich Franz, V, 


Kriegler, Johann Christiaan, IV, 290 
Kriel, Abraham Paul, HI, 481 
KrieL Jacobus Petrus. IV, 291 
Krige, Christman Joel, HI, 482 
Krige, Jacob Daniel (Jack) 
(1896-1959), IV, 222 
Krige, Jacob Daniel (Japie Home) 
(1862-1953), IV, 221 
Krige. Leopold Jacobua, V, 426 
Krige, Willem Adolph. ITT, 483 
Krijgelaer see Kiggelaer 
Kritzinger, Matthys Stefanus 
Benjamin, V, 426 


Copyrighted material 

Kritzinger, Pieter Hendrik, III, 483 
Krogh, Johannes Christoffei, HI, 


Kro(o)nenberg set Cronenberg 
Kronletn, Johann Georg. 1 . 441 
Kroon, Thomas, in, 485 
Kropf, Johann Heinrich Albert, L 

Kruger, Card, in, 486 
Kruger, Card Hendnk, IV, 221 
Kruger, Casper Jan Hendrik, IV, 


Kruger, Gerrit Hendrik Jacobus, III, 

Kruger Gray, George E. set Gray, 
George E. Kruger 
Kruger, Johannes Hendrik, V, 427 
Kruger, Pieter Ernst, III, 487 
Kruger, Stephan ua Johannes Paul us, 
1. 444 

Kruger. Izak David. IV. 225 
Kuchler, George Conrad 
(Coenraad), V, 429 
Kuhn, Christoffei Hermanns, IV, 


Kuhn, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm, L 

Kuit, Albert, V, 429 
Kuper, Simon M(e)yer, V, 430 
Kupferburger. Wilhelm. HI. 488 
Kurtze, Karl Frederic Moritz see 
Von Vdtheim, Ferdinand K.L. 
Kuschke, Georg Siegfried Johannes. 
V, 431 

Kuyper, Abraham, HI, 488 
Kuys, Amoldus Gerhard ua 
Marthinus, HI, 490 
Kuys. Johannes Abraham, II, 376 
Kuys, Philippus, L 456 
Kynaston, Herbert, H, 377 

Labia, Ida Louise, V, 433 
Labia. Natale, IV. 228 
Lakistour, Gustave Aristide de 
Roquefeuillc, HI, 492 
Lahouchere, Henry du Pr£ 
(1798-1869), IL 378 
Lahouchere, Henry Du Prf 
(1831-1912), HI. 492 
Labram. George Frederick, HI, 493 
Lacaille set also De la Caille 
Lace, John Dale, V, 433 
Lacy. George. HI, 494 
Lagden, Godfrey Y cabman, L 457 
Laidler, Percy Ward, IV, 228 
Laing, James, [, 458 
Laing, John, H, 378 
Laite, William James. IV, 222 
Lake. John Graham. IV. 300 
Lament, Henry Parkyn, V, 434 
Lamprecht, Hendrik Adriaan, HI, 

Lancaster. James, II, 379 
Landau, Annie, V, 435 
Landau, Judah Leo, HI, 495 
Landman, Johannes Abraham, HI, 

Landman, Karel Pieter, III, 496 

Landsherg, Otto Heinrich Ludwig, 

H. 380 

Lane, Hugh Percy, H, 381 
Langs, H, 382 
Langalibalele, H. 383 
Lange, Johannes Henricus, V, 435 
Langenhoven, Cornelia Jacob, 1, 


Langerman(n), Max, H, 384 
Langschimdt, Wilhelm Heinrich 
Franz Ludwig, n, 385 
Lansdown. Charles William Henry, 
IV, 301 

Lanyon, William Owen, I, 465 
Larsen, Abraham Emil, IV, 301 
Lategan, Andries Willem (Loaaie, 
Los). V, 436 

Lategan, Hendrik Willem, HI. 498 
Lategan, Justina W N set De 
Villiera, Justina W.N. 

Latrohe, Christian Ignatius, III, 499 
Latsky. Johan Michael. V, 437 
Laubscher, Franc iscus Xavierus 
(Frans), V. 438 
Laubser, Magdalena Maria 
(Maggie). V, 439 
Laurence, Perceval Maitland, HI, 

Lautrf, Francois Prosper, V, 440 
Lauts, Ulrich Gerard, L 466 
Lauwerija, Modestus, HI. 501 
Lavis, Sidney Warren, IV, 3Q2 
Lawley, Arthur, HI, 502 
Lawn, James Gunaon, HI, 502 
Layard, Edgar Leopold, L 467 
Lazarus, Esrael, III, 503 
Le Boucq, Engelbertus Franc incus, 

IV. 304 

Le Fleur, Andrew (Andries) 
Abraham Stockenstrdm, V, 441 
Le Grand. G&tton, V, 442 
Le Roux, Jacobus Johannes, III, 509 
Le Roux, Johannes Basson (Sonnie), 

V, 445 

Le Roux, Le Roux Smith, III, 509 
Le Roux, Petrus Jacobus (Oom 
Pietie), V. 445 
Le Roux, Stephan us Petrus 
(Stephen), V, 446 
Le Roux, Thomas Hugo, V, 447 
Le Sueur, Franciacus (Francois), 

IV. 308 

Le Vaillant, Francois, II, 396 
Leaak, Thomas Smith, IV, 301 
Leathern, William. IH, 504 
Lee. Albert William, in. 504 
Lee, Johannes Lodewicus (John), 

HI, 505 

Leendertz, Remo set Pott, Reino 
Lefebvre, Denys, IV, 305 
Leguat, Francois, HI, 505 
Lehfeldt, Robert Alfred, IV, 305 
Leibbrandt, Hendrik Carol Vos, H, 

Leibbrandt. Sidney Robey. IV, 306 
Leipoldt, Christiaan (Frederik) 
Louis, II, 387 

Leipoldt, Christian Friedrich, V, 


Leipoldt, Johann Gottlieb, n, 392 
LeUk, James Rankine, V, 443 
Leiste, Christoffei Hieronimus, H, 

Leith, George Easelmont Gordon, 
IH, 506 

Lemming, Frederik Carl, L 468 
Lemue, Jean Louis Prosper, L 469 
Lennox, George St Leger Gordon, 

L 470 

Lennox, John, L 471 
Lenton, Henry John, IV, 308 
Lentswe, V, 444 

Leonard, Charles Henry (Brandt), 
HI, 507 

Leonard, John, HI, 508 
Leslie, James Patrick, V, 449 
Leaning, Maria set Stein- Lessing, 

Letcher, Owen, HI, 510 
Lethbridge, John, III, 511 
Letsie. HI. 512 
Letterstedt, Jacob, OT, 512 
Leuchars, George, HI, 513 
Leue, WUly Karl, V, 450 
Leupold set Leipoldt 
Lcutwein, Theodor Gotthilf, H, 394 
Levaillant set Le Vaillant 
Leverton, Graham Stanley, IV, 309 
Lcveson Gower Granville, George, 
H, 399 

Levi, Nathan, UL 514 
Leviseur, Elsa, IV, 302 
Leviseur, Moritz, IV, 310 
Levy, Joseph Langley, HI. 514 
Levy ns, Margaret Rutherford Bryan, 
V. 450 

Lewis, Bernard, III, 515 
Lewis, Charles Edwardcs, I, 472 
Lewis, Ethelreda, HI, 515 
Lewis, Frederick James, V, 451 
Lewis, Issac, H, 399 
Leyds, Willem Johannes, UL 516 
Lezard, Ernest, V, 452 
Liberman, Hyman, II, 400 
Lichtenstein, Martin Hinrich Carl, 
HI, 520 

Liebenberg, Petrus Johannes, HI, 


Liesching, Carl Ludwig Wilhelm 
(Louis), HI. 524 

Liesching, Friedrich Ludwig, in, 


Ughtfoot, Thomas Fothergill, H, 

Lighten, Norman Charles Kingsley, 

V, 452 

Lindbergh. Albert Victor, HI, 525 
Unde, Georg Frederik. IV, 311 
Lindeque, Barend, HI, 526 
Undeque, Leonard Nico (Len), V, 

Undley. Daniel. II. 401 
Lingbeek, Goswijn (Gosewijn) 
Willem Sanne, IV, 312 
Linnaeus, Carolus (1707-1778), L 


Copyrighted mater 

Linnaeus, Carolus (1741-1783), L 

Lippert, Edward (Edouard) 
Amandus, IV, 313 
Lipahitz, Iirael-Isaac (Lippy), V, 


Lister, Frederick Spencer, m, 526 
Lister, Joseph Storr, HI, 527 
Lithman, Karl Wilhelm, V, 455 
Little, Malcolm Orme, 111, 528 
Livingstone, David, II, 404 
Lloyd, Alan Charles Gore, IV, 314 
Lloyd, Arthur Wynell, V, 456 
Lloyd, Banastyrc Pryce, til, 528 
Lloyd George, David, HI, 529 
Lloyd, Lucy Catherine, IV, 315 
Lloyd, William Henry Cynric, 111, 

Lobengula, III, 530 
Loch, Henry Brougham, L 476 
Lochner, Helena Johanna Franc ma, 
V. 457 

Lock, Freida (Freda), V, 458 
Loedolff, Hugo Hendrik, n, 409 
Loevy, Julius, m, 533 
Logan, James Douglas, II, 410 
Logeman, Willem Sy brand, I, 477 
Logie, Hugh John, IV, 316 
Logier, Frederick, IL 411 
Lomax, Ambrose, III, 534 
Lombard, Ivan hoe Makepeace, V, 

Lombard, Johannes Petrus La (Le) 
Grange, m, 534 
Lombard, Pieter, V, 460 
Long, Basil Kellet, ITL 535 
Long. William. HI. 536 
Long more, George, V, 460 
Loots, Willem Francois (Willie), V, 

Loram, Charles Temple man, m, 


Lord, Arthur Ritchie, V, 462 
Los, Sietae Oene, ID, 538 
Lotrie, Francois Bernard Rudolph, 
HI. 539 

Letter, Matthias (Mattys), V, 463 
Letter, Johannes Cornelius (Jacobus) 
(Hans). V, 462 

Lotz, Elizabeth Catherine, V, 464 
Loubser, Johannes Alhertus (Bob), 

IV. 316 

Louis, Weasel, |L 412 

Lou n* bury. Charles Pugsley, III, 


Lourens, Dirk Cornelius Bemardus, 

V, 464 

Louw, Abraham Faure, IV, 317 
Louw, Adriaan Jacobus, HI, 540 
Louw, Andries (Andreas) Adriaan 
(1827-1908), IL 413 
Louw, Andries Adriaan (Andrew) 
(1862-1956). Ill, 541 
Louw, Charles Robert (Charlie), V, 

Louw, Eric Hendrik, V, 467 
Louw, Francina Susanna (Cinie), 

ffl, 542 

Louw, James Murray, HI, 542 
Louw, James Theodore, III, 543 
Louw, Marthinus Smuts (Tienie), V, 

Louw, Nicolaas Petrus van Wyk, 

IV, 318 

Louw. William Ewart Gladstone. V, 

Louw, Wynand Hendrik, IV, 324 
Louwrens, Hilligard Muller. IV, 


Loveday, Richard Kelsey, L 478 
Low, James Barrie, V, 474 
Lowe, Clarence van Riet (Peter), 

IV. 325 

Lub, Jacob. 0. 413 
Lubbert. Erich, V, 475 
Lucas, Engel bertus. III, 544 
Lucas, Frank Archibald William, 

IV, 326 

Lucas, Thomas John, ni, 544 
Luckhoff, Anton Daniel, in, 545 
LockhofT, Paul us Daniel, IL 414 
Luckhoff, William Archibald, IV, 

Luckhoff, August Daniel, IV, 327 
Luckhoff, Carl August, III, 546 
Ldderitz, Franz Adolf Eduard, V, 

Ludolph see Loedolff 
Luijt, Arie Martinus, III, 546 
Luke, Francis Richard, HI, 547 
Lukin, Henry Timaon, ID, 547 
Luson, Joaeph, II, 415 
Luthuli, Albeit John. IV, 329 
Lutyens, Edwin Landseer, IV, 331 
Luyt, Jan, V, 477 
Lyell-Tayler, Harry, V, 477 
Lyle. John Vacy, IV. 333 
Lynch, Arthur Alfred, HI. 549 
Lynx see Nxele 
Lya, John Robert. L 479 
Lyttelton, Alfred, H, 415 
Lyttelton. Neville Gerald. IV, 334 

M.E.R. see Rothmann, Maria E. 
MaarachaJk, David. V. 479 
Maaadorp, Andries Ferdinand(us) 
Stockenstrom, L 482 
Maaadorp, Christiaan Georg(e) 
(1737-1790), m, 551 
Maaadorp, Christian George 
(1848-1926), V, 479 
Mahille, AdWe, L 483 
Mabille, Adolphe, L 483 
Macartney, George, IU, 551 
Macaulay, Donald, V, 480 
MacBride, John, HI, 552 
MacCarter see M*Carter 
MacColl, John Duncan, HI, 553 
MacDermott, Francis Dermot, V, 


Macdonald, Archibald, D, 418 
MacDonald, Alexander. V, 481 
MacDonald, Hector Archibald, II, 

MacDonald, James Ramsay, IV, 335 
MacDonald, William. IV, 335 

Mac fad yen, William Allison, 111, 


Mac far lane, Walter. Ul. 554 
MacFariane, George James, V, 482 
Mack, James. IU. 555 
Mac Kay, William McDonald, V, 


Mackenzie, Charles Frederick, II, 

Mackenzie, James, Ul, 555 
Mackenzie, Thomas William, W, 

MacKenzie, John, L 487 
MacKenzie, William Alexander, V, 

Mackeurtan, Harold Graham, II , 


MacKidd, Alexander, L 489 
Mac krill, Joaeph. Ul. 556 
Maclean, Charles Rawden see Ross, 

Maclean, John, L 490 
Maclear, Thomas, Ul, 557 
Macleod, Lewis Rose, HI, 558 
MacLeod, Norman Magnus, HI, 558 
Macleroy, George, IV, 336 
Macmillan. William Miller. V, 484 
Macoma see Makoma 
Macowan, Peter, II, 423 
Macqueen. James, HI, 559 
Mac rone, William Kenneth, HI, 559 
Macvicar, Neil, L 492 
Madeley, Walter Bayley, L 493 
Maeder, Gustave Adolph, HI. 560 
Maeding see Meeding 
Maerlandt see Meerlandt 
Maetsuycker, Johan, ID, 561 
Magato, IH, 561 
Maggs, Charles. IV. 337 
Magoeba, IV. 338 
Mag6pane see Mankopanc 
Maguire, James Rochfort, II, 425 
Maharero, IL 425 
Maharero, Samuel (Uereani), II, 


Mahep see Maubane, Andries 
Mahlangu, NyaMJa see NyaMla 
Mahlokohla see Bhunu 
Mahon, Bryan Thomas, Ul, 562 
Mahura, II, 430 
Maitland, Peregrine, H, 431 
Makana see Nxele 
Makapaan see Mankopanc. 

Makgato see Magato 
Makgoba see Magoeba 
Makomo see Maqoma 
Malaboch see Mmaleb6g6 
Mai an, Adolph Gysbert, IV, 338 
Mai an, Charles Wynand Marais 
(Charlie), H, 433 
MaJan, Daniel Francois, IH, 562 
Malan, Daniel Gerhardus, HI, 570 
Malan, David Johannes, m, 571 
Malan, Francois Stephan us, L 495 
Malan, George Stephanus, IH, 571 
Malan, Hercules Philippus, IV, 339 
Malan, Sailor see MaJan, Adolph G. 


Copyrighted material 

Malan, Solomon Jeon Cl aar, II. 434 
Molon. Wouter de Voo. 01. 372 
MoJon. Wynond Chari, 10, 573 
Malcolm, Daniel McKinnon, IV, 


Malcolm, Dougal Orme, ID, 574 
Molcomeu, Carl Hermann, 10, 575 
Ma)6o, 0. 435 

Malherbe, Daniel Francois, IV, 341 
Malherbe, Francois Ernst Johannes, 
V. 485 

Malherbe, Gideon Jazua, ID, 575 
Malherbe, Mabel Catherine. IV. 344 
Malherbe. Willem Adriaan, V, 486 
Malherbe, William Mortimer 
Robertson (Mortie), IV, 345 
Mally, Charles William. 01. 576 
Mampunj, 10, 576 
Mampuni see Thulare 
Manasae !Noreaib, IV, 346 
Mancadan, Sybrandus, ID, 577 
Manckhagou see Schacher 
Mandume, Ndemufajo, V, 487 
Mangold. Jakob Christoff, V, 487 
Mangold, James Christiaan see 
Mangold, Jakob Christoff 
Mankopane, 0, 436 
Mankurwane, III, 578 
Mann, Robert James, II, 437 
Mann. William. IV. 347 
Manning, Charles Nicholson, V, 


Mao son, Harley William Daniel 
(Cake), IV. 347 
Mansvelt, Nicolaas, L 499 
Mant(h)atiai see Mmanthatisi 
Manuel I_. L 501 
Manukosi (Manukuza) see 
Mapela, H. 438 
Maphaaa (Thembu), II, 438 
Maphassa, ^ 503 
Mapog (Mapoch) see Nyablla 
MapumuzAna see KaDinuzulu, 
Maqoma, 0, 439 
Manus, Eughne Nielen, 1 , 504 
Marais, Johannes Henoch, 1^ 508 
Marais, Johannes Izaak, 0, 442 
Marais, Nicolaas Hendnk, 0^ 444 
Marais, Pieter Jacob, 0, 445 
Marais, Stephanus le Roux, V, 488 
Marbut, Curtis Fletcher, 01, 579 
Marc hand, Bernard Petrus Jacobus, 
ni. 580 

Marc hand, Daniel Johannes Le 
Roux, 580 

Marc hand, Johannes Marthinus, V, 


Marl, Diet lot Siegfried, 0. 446 
Mart, Frederik Korsten (Frikkie), 
n. 447 

Marl, Jacob Philippus, 10, 580 

Marl, Paulas, 01. 581 

Marl, Tobias Johannes Albertus, 

01, 581 

Maree, Willem Adriaan (Willie), V, 



Marengo see Morenga 
Marie Mauritia, Mother see 
Tiefenboeck, Theresa 
Marinka see Morenga 
Maritz, Gerhardus Jacobus, IV, 348 
Mantz, Gerhardus Marthinus (Gert), 

Mantz, Johannes Stephanus, 10, 


Maritz, Salomon Gerhardus 
(Mania), I* 513 

Maritz, Susanna Catharina see Smit, 
Susanna Catharina 
Markham, Henry William, V, 491 
Markotter, August Friedrich 
(Oubaas Mark), m. 582 
Marks, Samuel (Sammy), L 515 
Mar loth, Hermann Wilhelm Rudolf, 
1, 518 

Marnitz, Philip Wilhelm, m. 583 
Marquard. Leopold (1787-1867), 

01, 583 

Marquard, Leopold (1897-1974), V, 


Marques, Lourenfo, V, 493 
Marshall, Henry itamvn, 0, 447 
Marshall, William, 10. 584 
Marsveld, Hendrik. II, 448 
Martienssen, Heather Margaret, V, 


Martienssen, Rex Distin, III, 584 
Martin, John, (L 449 
Martin, Richard Edward Rowley, 

01. 585 

Marx. Beat nee Mary, IV. 349 
Masey, Francis Edward, 01, 586 
Mashow see Maaaouw 
Maiilc see Sekhukhune I 
Maskew, William Henry, 01, 587 
Mason, Albert Edward, 0, 450 
Mason, Arthur Weir, ID, 587 
Masson, Francis, 1^ 521 
Massouw, David, 0, 451 
Massouw, Rijt (Riet) Taaiboach, 0, 

Masters, Maxwell Tylden, IV, 350 
Masupha. David. 0. 453 
Matelief(f), Cornel.*, 01. 588 
Mathers, Edward Peter, IV, 350 
Mathews, Joseph William, IV. 351 
Mathews, Thomas, 0, 453 
Matiwane, I, 523 
Matroos, Herman us, 0, 454 
Matthews. Ernest Lewis, V, 494 
Matthews. Hayd(e)n Thomas see 
Joubert, Johannes 

Matthews. William Henry. IV. 352 
Mauhane, Andries, V, 495 
Mauch. Karl (Carl), L 524 
Maund. Edward Arthur, IV. 352 
Maurice see Morice 
Mavras, Olga (Mersyne) see 
Molina, Mercedes 
Maximov, Evgeni Iakovlevich, V, 

Maxwell, John Grenfell, V, 496 
Maxwell- Hi bberd, Charles see 
Hibberd, Charles Maxwell 

Maydon, John George, 0, 455 
Mayer, Ernst Karl Erich, in, 589 
Maynard, Charles, V, 497 
Maynard, Henry, V, 497 
Maynard, James Mortimer, V, 498 
Maynier, Honors! us Christiaan 
David. 0, 456 
Mbandzeni, 10, 590 
Mbikiza, 0, 459 

McArthur, Robert Taylor, IV, 353 
McCabe, Joseph, 0, 417 
McCall urn, Henry Edward. 0, 418 
M ‘Carter, John Macilwraith, L 484 
McClelland, Francis, IV. 354 
McCord, lames Bennett, IV, 354 
McCorkindaie, Alexander, 1^ 485 
McCrea, John Frederick, V, 499 
McDonald see MacDonald 
McGregor, Alexander John, IV, 355 
McGregor, Andrew, 10, 591 
McIntyre. Donald Glcnoe, V, 499 
McKenzie, Douglas, 10, 591 
McKenzie, Duncan, 0, 421 
McLarty, William, IV, 355 
McLean, Calvin Stowe, V, 499 
McMillan, Sibella Mary Theodora 
Douglas, V, 500 

McMurray, Thomas Barry, 10, 592 
McPherson, Jessie, V, 501 
McShercy. Hugh. 01, 593 
Mdlangaao, 0, 460 
Mdushanc, 0, 460 
Mdvuso see Mswati 
Mead, Frederick, V, 502 
Meade, Robert. 10, 593 
Meeding, Johann Friedrich, 01, 593 
Meerlandt, Rudolphu*, V, 503 
Meed, Hippolytus Alphonsius, V, 


Meeaer. Nicolaas, 0], 594 
Meier, Philip(p) L,H. see Meyer, 
Philip(p) L.H. 

Meier, Phyllis H.L see Sawera, 
Phyllis H I. 

Meijburgh, Petrus Albertus Daniel 
Erasmus, V, 504 
Meijburgh see also Myburgh 
Meijer see Meyer 
Meijerink see Meiring 
Mein, Thomas (Poppa), V. 505 
Mein. William Wallace. V, 505 
Mcinertzhagen, Isaac, V, 506 
Meinbof, Carl Friedrich Michael, 

Meintjes, Laurens Smitz, IV, 356 
Meintjes, Stephanus Jacobus, 01, 


Meiring, Amoldus Mauritius, 0, 


Meiring, Pieter Gerhard Jacobus, 

ID. 595 

Meischke, Mattheus Card August, 
IV, 356 

Meissner, Charles- Frldlric, 10, 596 
Melck, Martin. 10. 596 
Meller, Henry James, ni, 598 
Mel lor, Edward Thomas. L 528 
Melvill, John, IV, 357 

Copyrighted material 

Melvill, Teignmooth, III, 598 
Mendelssohn, Emmanuel, III, 599 
Mendelssohn, Sidney, L 529 
Menti, Hendrik, III, 599 
Mentz, Joachim Frederik 
(1887-1957), HI, 600 
Mentz, Joachim Friedrich 
(c. 1725-1777), ffl, 601 
Mentzel, Otto Friedrich, L 530 
Menzies, William, m, 601 
Merenaky, Alexander, L 532 
Merenaky, Hans, ID, 602 
Merrifield, Eric Mowbray, V, 506 
Merriman, John Xavier, H, 463 
Mem man, Nathaniel James, L 535 
Mes, Margaretha Gerarda, III, 606 
Metcalfe, Charles Herbert 
Theophilus, IV, 358 
Methley, James Erasmus, II, 470 
Methven, Cathcart William, D, 470 
Meurant, Louis Balthazar, L 537 
Meurant, Louis Henri, L 538 
Meyer. Frederik, V, 507 
Meyer, Johannes Petrus (Jan), V, 

Meyer, Lukas Johannes, HI, 607 
Meyer, Philip(p) Ludwig Heinrich, 
IV, 359 

Meysing, Hermann Joseph, IV, 359 
Mgijima, Enoch, L 539 
Mhala, ID, 608 
Mhlakaza, L 540 
Mhlontlo, IL 471 
Michaelis, Maximilian, II, 472 
Michel borne, Edward, III, 609 
Michell, Charles Cornwallis, L 541 
Michell, Lewis Lloyd, L 542 
Middel, Jacob, HI, 609 
Middelberg, Gerrit Adriaan Arnold, 
IL 473 

Middleton. David. Ill, 610 
Middleton, Henry, III, 610 
Middleton, William Henry, ID, 611 
Mikro see Kuhn, Christoffel 
Herman us 

Millais, John Guille, IV, 360 
Millar. Alfred Duchesne, IV, 360 
Millar, William Alexander (Billy), 

V 509 

Miller, Allister Mackintosh, ID. 612 
Miller, Ruth, V, 509 
Miller, Thomas Maskew, V, 510 
Miller. William, m. 613 
Millin, Philip, V, 511 
Millin, Sarah Gertrude, IV, 361 
Mills, Charles, IV, 363 
Mills, Daniel, IV, 364 
Milner, Alfred, III, 613 
Milner, Henry, m, 617 
Milnes, Robert O.A. see Crewe- 
Milnes, Robert O.A. 

Milton, William Henry, m. 618 
Mitchell, Charles Bullen Hugh, II, 

Mitford, Bertram, III, 618 
Mitford-Barberton, Henry see 
Barber, Henry Mitford 
Mitford-Barberton, Ivan, V, 511 

Mizeki (Mitaeki), Bernard, V, 513 
Mkalipi, L 544 
Mlanjeni, II, 475 
Mmaleb6g6, Kgalushi Sekete, ID, 

Mmanthatisi, □, 477 

Mmhlonhlo see Mhlontlo 

Mncumbatha, III, 620 
Mocke, Johan Godfried, IV, 365 
Modjadje n. m, 621 
Moeller, Franz Bernard Migcod, 
IV. 366 

Moepi see Maubane, Andries 
Moerdijk, Gerard Leendert Pieter, 
ID. 622 

Moerdyk, Sylva Hennette. V, 513 
Moffat, Howard Unwin, IV, 366 
Moffat. John Smith. I. 545 
Moffat, Robert, L 546 
Mofolo, Thomas Mokopu, L 550 
Moir, James, V, 514 
Mokopane, IL 478 
Mol, Comelis Nicolaas, III, 624 
Molapo, II, 479 
Molehahangwe, 0, 479 
Molengraaff, GustW Adolf 
Frederik, L 551 
Molesworth, William, II, 480 
Molikoe, Johannes, V, 515 
Molina, Mercedes, V, 515 
Moll, Comelis, III. 624 
Moller, Jacobus, IV, 367 
Moller, Margaretha Anna, IV, 368 
Molsbergen see Go d6e Molsbergen 
Molteno, Donald Barldy, V, 516 
Molteno, James Tennant, II, 481 
Molteno, John Charles, II, 482 
Molteno, Percy Alport, III, 625 
Molyneux, George Mary Joseph, 
IV, 369 

Molyneux. William, IV. 369 
Mandriaan, Willem Frederik, V, 

Montagu, John, L 553 
Montgomery, John, ID, 625 
Montshiwa, II. 485 
Monypenny, William Flavelle, ]_, 

Moodie, Benjamin, II, 487 
Moodie, Donald, II, 488 
Moodie, Duncan Campbell Francis, 
n, 491 

Moodie. George Pigot, L 557 
Moodie, John Wedderbum Dunbar, 
UI, 626 

Moodie see also Mudie 
Moodie, Thomas (Groot Tom), IV, 


Moots, A mod Mahomed, V, 518 
Moor, Frederick Robert, [L 492 
Moor, John William, IV, 371 
Moore, Hans Garret (Bould), IV, 


Moore. William Edward. IV, 372 
Moorosi, II, 493 
Moorrees, Adriaan, III, 626 
Moorrees, Hubert us Adrian us, IV, 

Mopedi, Paulus, III, 628 
Mopela see Mankopane 
Moran, Patrick, L 558 
Morant, Henry Harbord, III, 629 
Morcom, William Boase, IL 494 
Moreland, John Swales, IQ, 629 
Morcmi, ID, 630 
Morenga, Jakob, III, 630 
Moresby, Fairfax, IV, 374 
Morewood, Edmund, III, 631 
Morgan, Charles Smith, V, 519 
Morgan, George, III, 632 
Morice, George Thomas, IV, 375 
Morice, Joan Aliaon, IV, 375 
Moritz, Theodor August Eduard, V, 

Morkel, Pieter Gerhard, IV, 376 
Morkel, Willem, HI, 633 
Morland, James Smith, V, 521 
Morley, John, HI, 633 
Moroka IL L 559 
Morris, Abra(hs)m, III, 634 
Morris, Henry Harris, IQ, 635 
Morris, James, III, 635 
Morris, Richard Henry, V, 521 
Morrison, John Todd, III, 636 
Morrison, William Roydon, V, 522 
Morton, James. IV, 376 
Moselekatse see Mzilikazi 
Mosenthal, Adolph, IV, 377 
Mosenthal, Harry, HI, 637 
Mosenthal, Joseph, HI, 638 
Moshoeshoe see Moshweshwe 
Moshweshwe, George (Tlali), V, 

Moshweshwe, L 560 
Moshwete, JL 494 
Moshweu see Mjumkxjw 
Mossberg, Erland, IV, 377 
Mosaop, Ernest Edward, V, 523 
Mossop, Joseph, V, 524 
Mostaert, Woo ter Comelis 
(Comelisz), IV. 378 
Moiwiti see Moshwete 
Mothibi, IL 4 ^5 

Motjuoadi, Andrew Tshidiso, V, 

Mott, John Raleigh, IH, 638 
Moysey, Charles John, HI, 639 
Mptuide, U. 496 

Mphephu Alilali Tshilamulele, HI, 

Mqhayi, Samuel Edward Krvne. L