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U. S: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN No. 28. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 



BY 



G. N. COLLINS, 
Assistant Botanist in Tropical Agkiculture, 

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS. 



Issued* Januaby 17, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
19 03. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

B. T. Galloway, Chief of Bureau. 
BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

Frederick A". C'kville, Botanist. 

V. K. Chesnut, Assistant Botanist in Charge of Investigations of Poisonous Plants. 

O. F. Cook, Botanist in Charge of Tropical Agricvlfvre. 

Edgar Brown, Botanist in Charge of Seed Laboratory. 

Lyster H. Dewey, Botanist in Charge of Investigations of Fiber Plants. 

Rodney H. True, Physiologist, Drug and Medicinal Plant Investigations. 

Carl S. Scofield, Ex'pert on Cereals. 

F. H. Hillman, Assistant Botanist, Seed Herbarium. 
Joseph W. T. Duvel, AssTstant in Seed Laboratory. 

G. N. Collins, Assistant Botanist, Tropical Agriculture. 
William E. S.Ifford, Assistant Curator, Tropical AgrimUure. 
W. R. Beattie, Assistant, Testing Garden. 

W. W. Tracy, Jr., Assistant, Variety TVials. 
W. F.- Wight, Assistant, Geographic Botany. 
W. 0. Richtmann, Pharmacognostical Expert. 



¥-■ 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN No. 28. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO, 



BY 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



G. N. COLLINS, 
Assistant Botanist in Tropical Agriculture, 

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS. 



Issued Janlary 17, 1908. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1903. 



LIHTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. DErART:MENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

Bi'REAU OF Plant Industry, 

Office of tme Chief, 
^Ya.shimJfo)u D. r., Septemher '27 , 1902. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit lierewith a paper on The Mango 
in Porto Rico, by G. N. Collins, Assistant Botanist in Tropical Agricul- 
ture, and respectfully recommend that it be published as Bulletin 
No. 28 of the series of this Bureau. The paper has been submitted for 
publication by the Acting Botanist in Charge of Botanical Investiga- 
tions and Experiments. 

Respectfullv. 

B. T. Galloway, 

Ch ief of Burea u. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



P R 1: F A C 1: 



Th(^ miuigo is a fruit liiglily esteeinod throughout the Tropics, in 
most places outranking In popuhirity l)<)th th«» banana and the orange. 
Euroi)ean residents in the Tropics almost universally ac<|uire a fond- 
ness for th(^ mango, and in England the demand for it is steadily 
increasing, it having been found possil)le to make im])ortations from 
India, notwithstanding the innnense distance. The mango is as yet 
little known in the United States, having >)een represented in our 
mai'kets only by fruit of inferior varieties. These give no suggestion 
of the (jualities of th(^ tx'tter sorts and tend rather to discourage than 
to increase the demand. If an effort similar to that M'hich brought 
the banana into favor in the United States could place an adequate 
supply of good mangoes })efore the public, there is no apparent reason 
why this new tropical fruit should not repeat the histoiy of its now 
popular })redecessor. 

Porto Kico is favorably- located for the growth of the mango, the 
south side of the island especially possessing the right climatic condi- 
tions. The trees are ver}^ prolific and remarkaV^ly free from diseases. 
High-grade varieties are alread}^ growing in different parts of the 
West Indies, Florida, Central America, and Mexico, and their intro- 
duction into Porto Kico should be attended with little difficulty. 

This bulletin, written by Mr. G. X. Collins, under the direction of 
Mr. O. F. Cook, botanist in charge of investigations in tropical agri- 
culture, and based largely upon observations made by the author 
while engaged in a botanical exploration in Porto Rico in cooperation 
with the recently established Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment 
Station, discusses the possibilities and requirements of the mango 
there, and it is hoped that it will help to establish the growing of 
mangoes as one of the profitable industries of the island. 

Lyster H. Dewey, 

Acting Botanist. 

Office of Botanical Investigations and Experiments, 

^Yas^dngton, D. C, September 18, 1902. 

5 



CONTENTS. 

I'age. 

, . 9 

Introciuction 

Desi-ription 

Orijrin ^o 

Culture jq 

Requirements 

Methods of propagation 

Seed ■ J* 

Inarchinp 

, . 16 

Layering 

Patch budding 

Cultivation _ 

Diseases - „. 

Uses 21 

The canning of the green or ripe fruit 

;Marnialade and jelly 

Chutney „' 

Alcohol 2Q 

:Medicinal properties 

Dye, tan, and pigment 

Gum 25 

Minor uses in India 

The mango in Porto Rico 

Present status 

Best localities 

Porto Rican forms 

Mango de Mayaguez ^^ 

Mangotina ^_ 

Melocoton " 

;Mango de rosa " 

Mango piiia 2q 

:Mango largo 28 

Mango mango 

Mango jobos 2g 

Mango redondo 

Varieties to be introduced 

Mulgoba 29 

Alphonse, Aphoos, or Alfoos 

No. 11 ;;: 30 

Manila oi 

Mango china „, 

Gordon - ^.^ 

Peters 02 

Julie - 09 

Best method ot introducing new varieties ^^ 

Packmg and shipping ^^ 

Market 3q 

Summary ^j 

Description of plates * " ' 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page. 

Plate I. Grove of mango trees between Cabo Rojo and Joyua, P. R. 38 

II. Mango tree in fruit, Tapachula, Mexico 38 

III. Branch of mango tree, with fruit, Tapachula, Mexico 38 

IV. Fig. 1. — Mango tree growing in dry region near San Jose, Guate- 

mala. Fig. 2. — Section of " Redondo " mango fruit. Ponce, P. R. . 38 
Y. Mango seeds>: 1, "Cocha;" 2, "Largo;" 3, "China." Guatemala 

City 38 

YI. Fig. 1.— Mango fruit, showing method of peeling. Fig. 2. — ^lango 

fruit, showing method of packing. Fig. 3. — Mango fork 38 

YII. " Mayaguez " mango fruit, San Juan, P. R 38 

VIII. Mango fruits, Porto Rico: Fig. 1. — " Melocoton." Fig. 2.—" Rosa." 

Fig. 3.— "Largo." Fig. 4.— " Mangotina" 38 

IX. "Pina" mango fruits, San Juan, P. R 38 

X. " Largo " mango fruits. Ponce, P. R 38 

XL ' ' Mango ' ' mango fruits, San Juan, P. R 38 

XII. "Jobos" mango fruits," San Juan, P. R 38 

XIII. " Redondo " mango fruits, Ponce, P. R 38 

XIV. " Manila " mango fruits. City of Mexico 38 

XV. " China " mango fruits, Guatemala City 38 

8 



B. IM.— 36. B.I. A?:.— 49. 

THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The manj^o is considered )>y maii}^ to be the finest of tropical fruits, 
though on this point there is much diversity of opinion, occasioned to 
a great extent by difference in taste, but still more by the great diver- 
sity in the fruit itself , which varies enormously in different localities, 
there beino- laro-e areas where the mango is common and where not a 
single good variety is to be had. Persons forming their opinion of 
the fruit in such localities usually indorse the proverbial statement 
that the mango is '"a mass of tow saturated with turpentine.'' On the 
other hand, those acquainted with the fruit at its best are almost 
unanimously^ enthusiastic in their praise. Elphinstone, the historian 
of India, says: 

The mango is the best fruit of India, at once rich and delicate, and all other fruits 
are comparatively insipid beside its intensity of taste. There is something in it that 
is nothing less than vi)luptiious. 

A taste for mangoes, at least for the varieties existing in Porto 
Rico, has in most people to be cultivated; ])ut once acquired, it is like 
a taste for olives, and becomes almost a craving. The milder flavored 
varieties, in which no taste of turpentine is to be detected, are usually 
enjoyed even by the novice, but after one becomes familiar with the 
fruit a slight taste of turpentine ceases to be disagreeable. The fiber, 
however, that exists in the poorer varieties is an unmitigated evil, and 
renders the eating of a mango a serious operation, to which one must 
devote his entire attention and may need to conclude with a bath. In 
the varieties where the fiber is the worst, one can not even have 
recourse to sli(;ing the meat from the seed, as in that case the cut ends 
of the fibers are stiff' enough to irritate the tongue. 

Good mangoes are produced m America, but as yet in such small 
quantity that few persons have had an opportunity to taste any but 
inferior fruit. Sample lots of the more common and poorer varieties 
are frequently shipped to northern markets, and have doubtless done 
much to hinder the growth of the trade. A first impression is very 
lasting, and first impressions of the mango based on such fruit are likely 
to be anything but favorable. As an example, mangoes are frequently 



10 THE MANGO IN POKTO KICO. 

to be found in the Washinofton market, but we have never seen one 
that could be called good, even in comparison with the Porto Rican 

fruit. 

This impression formed in the minds of the novelty' -loving public 
will doubtless be difficult to dispel; but if reall}^ good mangoes could 
be placed in the markets their increase in popular favor would be 
certain and the growing of mangoes might become a profitable pursuit. 
In spite of the fact that in all mango-producing countries the natives 
consider the fruit wholesome and perfectly safe, prejudice against it 
exists among some military officials and others, who condemn the fruit 
as positively dangerous. During the Spanish war this prejudice was so 
strong that the soldiers in Porto Rico were prohibited from eating the 
mango, and many beautiful trees were cut down. This unjust prejudice 
probably arose from- eating the fruit when unripe, in which state, like 
most other fruits, it is unwholesome. Soldiers, hungry for fresh fruit 
and quite unfamiliar with the mango, might easily mistake the green 
' for the ripe, especially as in Porto Rico some of the varieties when 
ripe still remain green in color. All varieties become mellow when 
ripe, however, and if eaten in that condition can not but be wholesome. 
It is commonly believed in Porto Rico that the mango and rum should 
never l)e partaken at the same time. This again probably applies to 
the green fruit. 

In some parts of India the natives at one season of the year live 
almost exclusively on mangoes, apparently without harm; and among 
the writers consulted all commend it as extremely wholesome except 
Sir George Birdwood, who states that the fruit is apt to act injuriously 
on the kidneys. On the other hand, the mango is considered by most 
authorities to have medicinal properties decidedly beneficial. An 
extract from the Pharmacographia Indica, in Watt's Dictionary, 
describes the fruit as "invigorating and refreshing, fattening, and 
slightly laxative and diuretic." 

DESCRIPTION. 

The mango tree {Mangifera indica) varies in height, according to 
the variety, from little more than a bush to a tree 50 to 70 feet high, 
with a trunk 6 to 10 feet high and 2 feet or more in diameter. The 
leaves are lanceolate, about 1 foot in length, tapering gradually to a 
narrow point, with a smooth, shining surface. The young leaves are 
first pink, then red lief ore turning green. The top is rounded and 
very dense. (See Pis. I, II, III.) The bark is gray and smooth. 
The flowers are small, reddish-white, or yellowish, borne in large 
upright racemes. The fruit varies greatly, according to the variety. 
In some kinds it is not more than 2 or 3 inches in greatest diameter, 
while others are three or four times that size, some weighing as much 
as 4 pounds. In form they vary from nearly spherical to long and 



ORIGIN. 1 1 

narrow like a cucumber, straight or crooked. The most common varie- 
ties are usuall}' from 2 to 4 inches in length, more or less kidney-shaped, 
with the " nak," or stigmatic point, more or less produced. In color 
thev may be green, yellow, or red. In composition the diti'erence is 
no less pronounced. In some the seed is large (see PI. IV, lig 2), and 
the thin flesh between it and the skin consists almost entire!}' of liber 
attached to the seed, while in others the seed is small, and in some so 
nearly aborted that it is easily cut with a knife. In the best varieties 
the tiber is almost entirelv wanting and the entire fruit consists of a 
mass of juicy, usually orange-colored pulp. This in some varieties is 
so firm that it may be sliced with a knife: in others it is soft enough 
to be eaten with a spoon. 

The characters usually utilized in distinguishing varieties of the 
fruit are the size, color, and form; the extent of the depression at the 
stem; the location and prominence of the ''nak'' or stigmatic point; 
the color and thickness of the flesh and the amount of fiber contained; 
the presence or absence of a turpentine flavor. The seeds of diflerent 
varieties are also very distinct. A glance at PI. V will give some idea 
of the diversity, and although these characters are quite as constant 
as those more commonly used, they seem never to have been utilized 
in the description of varieties. 

The Anacardiaceae, to which the mango belongs, include also the 
turpentine tree {Pistdcia terehinthus), the original source of turpen- 
tine, and it seems not at all unlikely that the characteristic odor of the 
mango is in reality due to the presence of turpentine or some closely 
allied substance. Exudations of a transparent resinous substance sim- 
ilar to that of the turpentine tree are frequently to be noticed in the 
mango. 

ORIGIN. 

The mango {Mangifera indica) is said by De Candolle to be native 
in South Asia or the Malay Archipelago, and recent authors report it 
as wild in the forests of Ceylon and the regions at the base of the 
Himalayas, especially toward the east, at an altitude of from 1,000 to 
2,000 feet. The species has been so long under cultivation that it 
would be extremely difficult to locate definitely the place or places 
where it was actually domesticated. The general region is, how- 
ever, without doubt that given above. Of the 37 species of Mangi- 
fera enumerated in Index Kewensis, all are from the Indo-Malayan 
region except two— one, described by Oliver, from West Africa, and 
one, by M. Dessousseaux, from the island of Mauritius. Engler and 
Prantl describe the genus as containing 27 species from the East 
Indies and the Malay Archipelago. Its culture is very ancient, as 
shown by references in Sanskrit mythology and ancient Hindu folklore. 

For so old and so useful a plant, its distribution was comparatively 



12 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

limited until historic times. To the west, it had not passed the Red 
Sea, being unknown in Egypt, while to the east it had apparently not 
reached the islands of the Pacific. According to Rumphiiis (1750) 
it was introduced into some of the islands of the Malay Archipelago 
within the memory of living men, though the variety of native names 
would argue an earlier introduction. The species is not well adapted 
for distribution by natural agencies, and man has probabh^ been 
chiefly responsitjle for its dissemination. 

In the New World it seems to have been first introduced into Bra- 
zil, although it is not known at what date. The earliest record of its 
introduction into the West Indies appears in Hughes's Natural Historj^ 
of Barbados, 17.50. where it states: ''This tree or its seed was recently 
brought from Rio Janiero and grows only at the Guiney plantation." 
The date of this importation is more definitely placed at about 1742 
or 1743 bv letters published in Transactions of the Society for the 
Encouragement of Arts, etc., 1786, page 217. In 1782 Captain Mar- 
shall, of Lord Rodnej^'s squadron, captured a French vessel, bound 
from the island of Reunion or Mauritius to Santo Domingo, that had 
on board manv valuable plants, among which was the mango, said to 
have been in the form of grafted stock. These were planted in the 
botanic gardens of Mr. Hinton East at Gordon Town, Jamaica. Two 
kinds — one labeled No. 11 and the other No. 32 — have since been 
known by these designations, No. 11 being one of the most popular 
varieties in Jamaica at the present time. 

The mango is now a common fruit throughout the Tropics of the 
world. It has been developed to the highest state of perfection in its 
home in India, where the number of well-marked varieties is enor- 
mous. Mr. Maries, of Durbhungah, has collected over 500 varieties, 
100 of which he characterizes as good. Thirtv-four of these varieties 
he describes in Watt's Dictionar}^ of Economic Products of India. 
Ceylon is also famous for its mangoes. Both the east and the west 
coasts of Africa have several good varieties. In Australia the culture 
is fast increasing, and it bids fair to become one of the most popular 
fruits. One very fine variety is said to exist in the island of St. 
Helena. The mango is the most highly prized fruit of Guam, where 
there is a fine seedling variety. Its cultivation in that island is, how- 
ever, not a success, owing probabl}^ to the thin soil, which aflords 
such a shallow footing that the hurricanes uproot the trees in all 
exposed localities. In the Hawaiian Islands, Mr. William C. Stubbs" 
reports: "The mango is receiving perhaps more attention just now 
than any other fruit. As many as twelve, or fifteen varieties hav^e 
already been introduced. It is a delicious fruit, and decidedly orna- 
mental in an}^ ground."' In the New W^orld, Trinidad and Jamaica 

«Bul. No. 95, Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Report on 
the Agricultural Resources aud Capabilities of Hawaii, p. 40. 



CULTURE. 



13 



have tho largest eolleotioiis. althouuh the drier regions of Central 
America and Mexico may be found to offer better seedling varieties. 
In spite of the many discouraging frosts that have visited Florida, 
planters of that State are actively engaged in propagating good vari- 
eties by budding, grafting, and inarching, and, if visited with no fur- 
ther misfortune, will in a few years produce considerable quantities 
of high-grade fruit. 

CULTURE. 

REQUIREMENTS. 

The mango will grow in a variety of conditions, and it seems to have 
little preference as to soil, the most important requirement being a 
deep soil that is well drained. As to climate, it is much more exact- 
ing, and the fact that the tree may thrive well in a given locality and 
yet fail to produce fruit should i)e kept always in mind. It may be 
considered as proven that the mango will be prolitic only in regions 
subjected to a considerable dry season. On the moist north side of 
Porto Rico the trees grow luxuriantly. l)ut they are not nearly so 
prolitic nor is the fruit of such good quality as on the dry south side, 
and in the very dry region about Yauco and at Cabo Rojo the fruit 
seemed at its best, while its abundance was attested by the fact that 
fine fruit was selling as low as 12 for a cent. In Guatemala and 
Mexico the mango was found at its best only in regions where severe 
dry seasons prevailed. This position is amply supported by reports 
of the mango in other localities. 

The moist conditions that prevail at the Botanic Gardens of Trinidad 
are reported by ]\lr. Hart" to be very unfavorable to the production 
of mangoes, a decided improvement being noticed in particularly dry 
seasons. This was also found to be the case in Jamaica, reports from 
dillerent parts of the island* all agreeing that the mango fruits but 
sparingly in moist localities, and in such is much more prolific in dry 

seasons. 

Rains at the time of flowering seem to be especially injurious. It 
has been suggested by Mr. Hart and others that the moist weather 
interferes with pollination. If this is accomplished by insects the 
damp weather may easily afiect their operations. Information on this 
point seems entirely wanting and investigation might be well repaid. 
In cases where the trees do not flower the explanation is probably to 
be found in the fact that the mango, like so many other plants, needs 
some check to its growth to induce the formation of blossoms. Where 
the dry season is lacking, artificial means of checking the growth are 
often resorted to, and old trees that have never borne fruit are some- 
times made to produce enormous crops. 

«Bul. Royal Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, July, 1899, Vol. Ill, pp. 190-194. 
& Jamaica Bui., November and December, 1901, Vol. VIII, pp. 161-178. 



14 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

The tree is seldom seen at hig-h altitudes, but this maj^ also be due 
to the fact that high altitudes are often moist. At Senahu, Alta Vera 
Paz, Guatemala, trees were seen growing at an altitude of between 
2,000 and 3,000 feet. They looked strong and healthy but were with- 
out signs of fruit or flowers, and it was said that these trees had never 
been known to produce fruit. 

METHODS OF PROPAGATION. 

SEED. 

The mango grows readil}' from seed, and this is the only method of 
propagation practiced in Porto Rico. For transporting the seed long 
distances it is, of course, necessarj^ to remove the pulp, and the best 
results have been obtained with cleaned seeds, dried on the outside and 
packed so as to conserve the moisture without molding. Packed in 
this wa}^, several successful importations of seed have been made from 
the East Indies to Florida. 

The ease and rapidity with which mangoes can be propagated by 
means of seed are decided advantages, but the results are very uncer- 
tain, and very few of the really desirable varieties can be maintained 
by this method. There are a few good varieties in different parts of 
the w^orld the seedlings of which appear to produce fruit identical 
with the parent. 

Much could doubtless be done to improve the mango in Porto Rico 
b}^ the growth of seedlings from selected fruit, and reallj' good varie- 
ties might be originated. Cross fertilization of the flowers might pro- 
duce new varieties and increase the chances of producing good forms. 
On the other hand, if the mango follows the analogy of other fruits, 
it might bo worth while to try the experiment of self-pollinating some 
of the best varieties, with the idea that the reproductive fertility would 
be thus impaired and the size of the seed reduced. 

A more expeditious method of reducing the size of the seed might 
be to cross-fertilize with the pollen of some variety or perhaps species 
so distantly related that partially or completely sterile hybrids would 
be secured. Breeding experiments of all kinds require, however, so 
much time that for practical purposes the introduction of superior 
varieties existing in other countries is certainly the first step to be 
taken. 

INARCHIXG. 

This, and methods to be described later, provide means of propa- 
gating good varieties, so that the fruit of the new plant will be identi- 
cal, or nearly so, with that of the parent. No greater variation need 
be expected than that occurring on a single tree. 

In India and wherever the cultivation of the mango is carried on to 
any great extent, inarching is by far the most common method of 



INARCHING. 15 

propag-atin^. An article in the Suoar ffoiirnal and Tioijicul Cultivator 
describes the process as follows: 

The best metliod of propajjating good varieties of mangoes is l)y means of inarch- 
ing, which is a very simple process. It is j)erforme<l usually lietween a large tree of 
superior variety growing in the ground and a seedling growing in a jxit — small, cheap 
flowerpots about S or 9 incht's <lee]) and 6 inches diameter do well for the purpose. 
The soil should be good potting .«oil, with a fair proportion of manure. A single 
large mango stone should l)e planted in each pot. The seedlings are ready for 
inarching, if well grown, in ten months or so; if not well grown, they should be 
older. Two-year-old see<llings are very successfidly inarched. The stem of the 
seedling shoulil in each be fairly thick, with the wood fairly developed — near the 
root the stem will be somewhat thicker than an ordinary workingman's smallest 
finger. Any number of seedlings in pots can be inarched in one tree by erecting a 
stage [for their .support] under the lower branches. The stem of the branch to be 
inarched sh<juld be alxuit the saute thickness as the stem of the seedling, an<l like 
the seedling, should V)e fairly developed wood. The juncture where the inarching 
is performed should l)e about 6 or 8 inches from the root of the seedling and about a 
foot or so from the growing point of the branch, unless the branch is making new- 
vigorous growth, in which case the distance will be more. A straight, well-shape<l 
branch should be selected, so that the future grafted tree will be well proportioned. 
A slice of wood and V)ark should be cut from the seedlings and from the branch, so 
that the inner bark of both can l>e made to touch accurately; the two wounded sur- 
faces are bound securely with tape or bast filjer, and grafting clay ai)plii'd to keep 
out air. The juncture of branch and seedling should extend for a length of about 3 
inches, but at no i)oint should the wound in either be deep; the slices should in fact 
be of almost uniform thickne.«s throughout and not thick. Tenaceous clay should 
not be used to cover the inarch; it soon cracks and admits air. One part of fresh 
cattle dung, nuxed with two parts of good soil, kneaded together with a little water, 
serves the purpo.se excellently. Inarching can be done in Iixlia at any season, but 
it is most succe.ssful when the trees are in active growth. It takes some time (sev- 
eral months) before the inarched juncture is perfectlj' joined by the new wood and 
bark cells. Meantime the seedlings in the pots must be carefully and regularly 
watered. When the juncture is complete the leading shoot of the seedling should 
be removed immediately above the inarch juncture and some days after\var<!s the 
branch of the tree may be severed immediately below the juncture. 

Trees for inarching should be in a sheltered situation, because if swayed much by 
the wind the pots or the j)latform are disturbed from their position. 

In j)lanting out young grafts the pots should be broken if the young plant can not 
be removed without disturbing the earth on the roots. If the earth on the roots is 
much disturbed the plant will almost certainly die. They should be planted with 
plenty of manure in pits 3 feet deep and wide. '^^ 

Mr. Lewis A. Berna^^ in "Cidtiiral Industries for Queensland," 
recommends that the seedlings be inarched when only three weeks old 
and 6 or 8 inches high. The}^ can then be taken from the pots, the 
roots wrapped in gra.ss, and the whole tied to the branch which is to be 
grafted. He recommends that the grafting be done early in the rainy 
season, and states that the grafts may be severed from the parent 
within a month or as soon as thirteen days. Inarched mangoes 
should come into bearing in from three to five ^^ears after planting. 



"The Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, May, 1898, pp. 168, 169. 



1() THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

Inarched stocK in Wardian cases can be shipped long distances, and 
importations into Florida have shown that if properh^ handled a fair 
percentage of the plants may be expected to live. 

Other forms of grafting are also used to some extent to propagate 
mangoes. Grafting is, however, diflBcult in the case of the mango, 
and can only be practiced b}'^ experienced hands. 

LAYERING. 

Propagation by layering, a method used to some extent wtere early 
fruiting trees are desired, is described in Firminger's Manual of Gar- 
dening (p. 86), as follows: 

Select a branch of ripened wood of the plant to he layered that will hear being 
bent down to the earth without breaking. Cut the branch half through with a 
sharp knife just under one of the leaf buds toward its extremity, and then pass the 
knife upward, so as to slit the branch about an inch or two up. The slit piece, with 
the leaf bud at its extremity, called the "tongue," should be kept open by inserting 
a small piece of tile. Remove the earth to the depth of 2 or 3 inches from, or place 
a flowerpot over, the spot just where the tongue falls on the branch being berit 
down; then carefully bend the tongued part of the branch into the earth or into the 
flower pot, secure it in that position by a peg, and cover it over with earth, which 
should be pressed down and watered. 

Chinese layering, a variation of this method, called gootee in India, 
where it is used to some extent, is described by Mr. Masters" of the 
Calcutta Botanical Gardens as follows: 

Select a firm, healthy branch, the wood of which is well ripened, and immediately 
under a leaf bud take off a small ring of bark about 1 inch wide. Scrape the woody 
part well, so that no bark remains. Apply a V)all of well-tempered clay; bind it on 
securely with a tow or other soft bandage; make it fast to a stake if necessary; hang 
a small pot, having a hole in the bottom, just over the gootee and supply it with 
water daily. In a few months you obtain a fine, well-rooted plant. 

As the fibers are emitted from the buds that are above the wound they will descend 
into the ball of earth and form roots. As soon as they are seen protruding them- 
selves through the bandage, the branch may be cut off from the parent tree, and 
planted where it is intended it should remain. This appears to be the most expe- 
ditious method of 'obtaining strong, well-rooted plants, and, at the same time, is a 
sure method of procuring duplicates of any desirable variety. 

An ingenious method for watering the gootee is described by Fir- 
minger, as follows: 

A piece of rope has a knot tied at one end of it, the other end is passed within the 
pot and drawn through the hole at its bottom until the knot is brought down to fall 
upon and close up the hole. The rope, thus secured by its knotted end within the 
pot, is carried on at full stretch and coiled around the gootee. By this means the 
water, when poured into the pot, oozes slowly out, trickles "down the rope and along 
the coil, and so distributes itself along the whole gootee. 

Trees started by layering or gootee are said to be prolific, but to 
bear small fruit. They are also thought to be short lived. These 
objections are so great that these methods are seldom emplo^^ed. 

"Firminger's Manual of Gardening, pp. 87, 88. 



PATCH BUDDINCl. 17 



PATCH nrDDINO. 



Tho ])iiddino;of in{uij4oe.s was fonnoily thoug'ht to bo extremely ditii- 
cult, but planters in Florida have found it one of the best methods of 
propagation, and use it ver}' extensively on stocks that are to remain 
in place. For nurserj' stock that is to be transplanted inarching is 
still considered the most satisfactory. Budding- has lately been tried 
in India, but has not as yet proved successful. 

What appears to ])e an entirely new method of budding is descril)ed 
by Mr. Knight in the Queensland Agricultural .lournal for July-Sep- 
tember. IIMH) (p. 256), under the name of l)ai"k grafting. If all that is 
claimed for it is true, it would seem to put an entirely new aspect on 
the propagation of improved varieties, making transportation of scions 
an easy matter and their propagation so simple and sure that it can be 
undertaken by persons having no special training or ex]:)erience. The 
possibilities are at least sufficient to warrant thorough experiments. 
Mr. Knight says: 

After twelve years' close observation and a large number of experiments made on 
the mango tree, the oonclupion that I liave arrived at is that no tree is simpler to 
graft. 

The work can be successfully done by anyone and at any time, whether the sap is 
active or dormant. The buds are certainly not so ciuick in coming when the sap is 
down, but they make up for any delay when once started. 

Still it can not be said tliat grafting, when the sap is down, is the best time for the 
operation. On the contrary, the first three months in the year have proved to be 
preferable. All the remarks in this article apply to one process only; that is, the use 
of bark without any wood adhering to it. Up to date the best material for tying on 
the grafts is ordinary candle cotton, procurable at the ironmongers, and generally sold 
in 1-pound balls. The grafts are simple pieces or bark without any growth whatever 
on them. Of course there nuist be dormant buds or eyes on them. Tlie pieces of 
bark may vary in length and width according to the size of trunk or limb on which 
they are intended to be engrafted. 

The plates accompanying this article show grafts measuring 2i inches 
long by tive-sevenths of an inch wide for the smallest piece, and 3i 
inches by If inches wide for the largest size. Mr. Knight further states : 

The most convenient size to use is a piece about twice the length of the width, and 
if taken off where rings exist, so that the ring is across the center of the section, there 
will be two or three latent buds near the ring. The rings on the trunk and limbs 
denote the exact number of growths and rests the tree has made. At the point of 
every new growth, while resting, there is a whorl of leaves and at the base of every 
leaf there is a bud which is capable of becoming a tree, and whether it is used for 
grafting during its infancy or ten years afterwards it will develop with proper treat- 
ment. The youngest bark used on the tree shown on PI. 11 (1) was 4 years old 
and the oldest section 9 years old when transplanted. The older the bark the 
easier it is to remove, and it is much handier to trim into shape. First cut out the 
section for transplanting, and, should the edges be bruised and torn, cut them away 
to sound bark. Now press the piece firmly onto the spot where it is intended to 
grow and make a clean cut all round. Next take out the bark inside the mark and 
put the prepared section in its place. Do not make it fit so tightly that it has to be 

8992— No. 28—02- 2 



18 THE MANGO IN" PORTO RICO. 

squeezed in, but make it a nice fit. Now bind it with the candle cotton, with just 
sufficient pressure to make it touch its new parent. Avoid, if possible, binding imme- 
diately over the buds. The old notion that all air must be excluded to effect a union 
is a delusion as far as grafting the mango is concerned. There is no necessity for clay, 
grafting wax, or any other nasty stuff to insure agood union, but just the candle cotton. 
Now it may be that a section of bark has been prepared for transplanting which is 
much thicker than the piece taken out. Well, never mind; tie it on, and it will grow, 
although it is not a comfortable fit. Should the weather be hot and dry when the 
grafting is l^eing done the top may be left on the tree for shade, but it must be 
thoroughly ring-barked 6 or 8 inches above the graft. In two or three weeks cut the 
top off at the spot where it was ring-barked, and if the buds on the graft have started 
into growth remove the binding. 

When the young shoots which have sprung from the grafts have ripened, the old 
wood projecting beyond the graft should be sawn off close to the base of the new 
growth. As the new wood continues to grow it will cover up the entire end where it 
was sawn off, making very neat work of it. In the mango a term " ripened" shoot 
applies when the leaves and bark of the latter have taken their full green color 
(chlorophyll), or when the shoot has rested and is ready to continue its growth. 

In a matured growth, the green coloring mr.tter has been succeeded by a brown 
color wliich varies considerably with age. 

Accompiinying the above article were photographs showing: (1) 
A tree with its entire top cut off and fourteen different varieties of 
mango grafted on it, all of which were growing; in less than two 
months from the time of grafting the new gi'owth in some cases meas- 
ured 7 inches. (2) A grafted mango tree where the grafts had made 
a growth of 3 feet 6 inches in twelve months, with no cultivation. Mr. 
Knight adds that experiments have proven beyond a doubt that "sec- 
tions of the mango tree will keep good for grafting purposes from 
three to six months' time according to variety and the constitution of 
the tree from which they are obtained." Such mature bark Avith its 
dormant buds would probabl}' be much less subject to injur}- and decay 
during the vicissitudes of the voyage to the West Indies than would 
the tender shoots usually employed as cuttings, and as no such time as 
the above is necessary for the journey from India to the West Indies, 
it would seem that the introduction of the best varieties into Porto 
Rico might now be a comparatively simple matter. 

Mr. G. W. Oliver," of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
has recently reported excellent results with a uiethod called bv the 
preferable name '' patch ])udding," similar to that described by Mr. 
Knight, but originated independentl3^ Mr. Oliver's directions are 
as follows: 

The method I wish to call attention to must be performed under certain conditions, 
the first and most important of which is that the stock must be in active growth. 
The best time is when the new leaves are not far enough developed to show the 
bright green color. The bark is then most easily removed. Choose the thick part 
of the stem only a few inches above the surface of the ground; cut out a rectangular 

a " The Propagation of the Mango," in The Florists' Exchange, Xew York, Apr. 
19, 1902, p. 461. 



CULTIVATION. 19 

piece of bark about IJ inches in length, and from the variety to be propagated cut a 
similar piece with a bud in the center, not, however, from new woixi, but from that 
whicli in at least 2 years old and which has lost its green color and assumed the 
grayish brown tint. Fit the section of bark, with bud attached, into the space 
formed by the removal of the bark from the stock. If this piece of bark removed 
from the stock has a bud in the central part, the wood exposed to view will fit better 
with the section of bark to be applied. When the section has been put in place, 
with a small l)rush apply a light coating of liquid grafting wax in which there is a 
large quantity of resin, to the cut parts, and immediately tie tiriuly with thick 
pieces of raffia; then an 8-inch wide strip of strong wrapping paper wound round and 
round the stem a few inches above the bud, and tied above with a cord, completes 
the operation for the time being. 

If good material is selected and the operation carefully carried out at the proper 
time, there is no reason why a high percentage of successful unions should not be 
secured. 

It is said that in Martinique" the mang-o has ])eeii successful!}' 
grafted on the cashew tree {AnaeardiutJi oecldentdh), and it is further 
stated that seedling mangoes so grafted produce fruit doubled in size, 
free from fiber, and with the seed so reduced that it is frequently with- 
out the power to germinate. The fruit although melting and very 
juicy is said to be without flavor. These results, as reported, are so 
radically opposed to those usually obtained from similar experiments 
that they are not likely to be generally accepted until verified. 

CULTIVATION. 

The culture of the mango in localities to which it is suited is largely 
a question of the best method of propagation. Once established the 
tree needs little care. 

^^'hether mangoes are planted directly in the field or started in pots 
and transplanted, it is recommended that the holes be prepared some 
time in advance, and, if possible, that a layer of rich soil, mixed with 
bones, be placed at the bottom. Manuring in the early stages, though 
often retarding the production of fruit, makes strong, vigorous trees. 
Twenty to 30 feet is recommended as a good planting distance, though 
this should doubtless be modified according to the variety, as some kinds 
produce much larger trees than others. For the varieties already in 
Porto Rico this distance should probably be increased to -iO or 50 feet. 
The better grafted varieties usually make much smaller trees, and with 
these the distance might be reduced to 15 feet or even less. If subse- 
quent manuring is practiced, the fertilizer should be applied after the 
fruiting season, and at the same time the ground around the trees 
should be stirred. 

In parts of India the young trees are shaded for a time until they 
are large enough to stand the sun, and bananas are recommended 
to provide the desired protection. In Porto Rico this seems hardly 

«Annals de la Societe d' Agriculture de la Martinique (Tome II) , quoted in Jumelle's 
Cultures Coloniales, p. 212. 



20 THE MANGO IN POKTO EICO. 

necessary, except perhaps in some of the very diy localities on the 
south side. 

In moist regions, where the mango fails to flower, it will be found 
necessar}' to check the growth. This can be accomplished in a variety 
of ways, the most primitive of which is mutilation of the trees or ring- 
barking the smaller branches. This method is common in India, but 
is not recommended as it disfigures the trees and may eventuall}^ kill 
them. Concerning the eflicacy of this treatment, Mr. Horace Knight 
reports that in Queensland trees 10 or 12 years old that had been bear- 
ing only about a dozen fruits, after being ringbarked on their smaller 
branches by opossums, bore such a crop that they had to be propped 
to save them from breaking. The method recommended b}^ Mr. 
Knight, however, is that of root pruning, which he thinks will 
accomplish the same result without disfiguring the tree. 

Another method is to lay the roots bare for a time, and as soon 
as the tree flowers cover them with rich earth. With trees grow- 
ing in warm, moist localities Woodrow advocates the application of 
salt at the end of the rainy season, about 10 pounds to the tree. This 
doubtless acts in the same manner, and if efficacious would seem a 
simple and economical method. 

Under favorable conditions the mango is ver}^ prolific. The tree 
shown in PI. II was estimated to have in the neighborhood of 5,000 
fruits at the time the photograph was taken, and trees quite as prolific 
were seen near Cabo Rojo, P. R. ; while trees in southern Florida 
before the freeze of 1880 were estimated to bear as high as 10,000 
mangoes. From this it will be seen that with 25 to 100 trees per acre 
enormous quantities of mangoes can be produced on very small tracts 
of land, provided the right climatic conditions exist. 

DISEASES. 

The mango in Porto Rico seems almost entirely free from diseases 
or the attacks of insects. On the north side of the island the skin of 
the fruit is frequently disfigured by black spots, probably a fungus. 
Though in no way injuring the eating qualit}' of the fruit these detract 
from its appearance and would doubtless lessen its market value. In 
the drier localities this discoloration was not observed, the fruit being 
uniformly smooth and clear. Should it be deemed advisable to take 
measures to prevent these spots, spraying with some fungicide would 
doubtless accomplish the desired result. With the introduction of 
better varieties, some of the diseases met with in other countries will 
possibly make their appearance. In Trinidad the better varieties are 
frequently affected by a disease that causes the pulp around the seed 
to darken and become sour and entirely inedible. It seems not 
improbable that the moist conditions prevalent in Trinidad may con- 
duce to this disease, in which case the dry south side of Porto Rico 
will have an additional advantaue. 



USES. 21 

In Porto Rico termites frequently build their nests in niantro trees, 
but their o-ulleries are constructed entirely on th(> outside of the })!irk, 
and do not appear to injure the tree in any way. 

In introducing new varieties great care should be exercised not to 
introduce any of the almost innumerable parasites, botli animal and 
vegetable, that prey upon the mango in other countries. All grafted 
stock and cuttings should be carefully inspected and disinfected before 
being planted. 

USES. 

The principal use of the mango is as a fresh fruit, and as such it 
deserves to become as common as the orange or the banana. A justi- 
fication of this rather sweeping assertion is to be found in the degree 
of popularity which the mango enjoys in comparison with these ])ettcr- 
known tropical friuts in countries where all are well established. 
Experience has shown that such comparisons are a better criterion of 
the ultimate i)opulai-ity of an introduced fruit than the judgment of 
otherwise competent persons with whom the fruit is more or less, of a 
novelt3\ 

The intense tiavor of some of the most fibrous mangoes is by many 
preferred to the milder and less fibrous varieties. The eating of the 
former is, however, such a difficult and untidy performance that the 
taste is much less frecjuently acquired than would be the case could 
some better method of conducting the operation be devised. Where 
the fruit is plentiful the method of peeling shown in PI. VT enables 
one to secure the greater part of the tlesh of a stringy mango without 
soiling the hands. A cut is made around either end of the fruit and 
these are then connected along one side, the central strip being peeled 
ofi' in one piece. The skin remaining on the ends of the fruit affords 
a means of holding it Avithout the fingers coming in contact with the 
juicy flesh. If in addition a sharp-pointed fork is at hand, this can be 
firmly fixed in the seed and the skin at the ends removed, thus saving 
the sweetest part of the fruit. PI. VI, fig. 3, shows a special mango 
fork secured in Mexico by Dr. J. N. Kose. The long, slender tine in 
the center easily penetrates the seed and the shorter outer tines need 
only to touch the seed to prevent it from turning. 

The mango has numerous important secondary uses, among which 
may be mentioned the following: 

THE CANNING OF THE GREEN OR RIPE FRUIT. 

Mr. E' M. Shelton/' of the department of agriculture, Queejisland, 

gives the following recipe: 

After peeling, the fruit is separated from the stones by slicing into pieces of con- 
venient size; these should be stewed for a few minutes only, before pouring into cans, 
in sirup strong or weak in sugar to suit taste, or the fruit may be cooked in the can 

f Bulletin of the Botanical Department of Jamaica, July, 1894, Vol. I, p. HI. 



22 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

with sirup, as before. There may be a difference of opinion as to the palatablenesa 
of canned mangoes. A considerable number of those persons who have tasted the 
results of our work have pronounced the canned fruit excellent, while others have 
declared their indifference to it. A like diversity of opinion, we note, holds respect- 
ing the raw fruit, particularly to those unaccustomed to its peculiar flavor. Mangoes 
stewed in the form of sauce will be found a welcome addition to any dinner table. 
"As good as stewed peaches," we have heard them pronounced. 

MARMALADE AND JELLY. 

The same writer also gives the following directions for making the 
fruit into marmalade and jell}" 

Marmalade. — Peel and slice the mango, cutting close to the stone, and cook, using 
plenty of water. Boil until the fruit is thoroughly disintegrated, when the pulp 
should be run through the colander with the purpose of extracting the "wool." 
Sugar should now be added to suit the taste (about three-fourths of a pound to the 
pint of pulp), and the mass boiled until clear, when it should be poured into the 
molds or jars in which it is to be kept. This marmalade is of a rich golden-yellow 
color; it retains the form of the mold perfectly, and seems in all respects to satisfy 
the most exacting taste. In the absence of the experience necessary to test the 
keeping qualities of mango marmalade, it would be the part of wisdom to seal the 
jars designed for future u.se while hot with wax, or better yet, with a plug of cotton 
wool. 

Jelly.- — For jelly, prepare the mangoes by slicing as for marmalade, boil the fruit 
with water, prolonging the boiling only to the extent of extracting the juices. Great 
care should be taken in boiling, as the mango rapidly "boils to pieces," in which 
case it is impossible to make satisfactory jelly. Pour off the juice, strain, and boil 
down to a jelly, an operation that occupies only a few moments, as the mango is rich 
in gelatinous materials; the pulp remaining after the jelly has been removed may be 
used to advantage in making marmalade. In the amount of sugar used in iMaking 
jelly, the housekeeper is safe in following old practices in this respect with other 
fruits. It is impossiVjle to give exact rules in all the operations connected with 
working up this fruit. In general, it will be well to use, in boiling, water somewhat 
to excess, and as the mango "cooks" readily, constant watchfulness is needed to 
prevent l;urning. 

To show something of what is possible in the way of results with this fruit, I may 
say that in our experiments 13 good-sized mangoes gave 1 pint of jelly and 5 quarts 
of marmalade. This certainly must be counted a very favorable, not to say remark- 
able, result. 

About Acapulco Dr. Edward Palmer found the foreign residents 
making the unripe mangoes into an excellent jelly, with the mango 
flavor so modified as to please even those who do not care for the fresh 
fruit. At the same place the experiment had been tried of making 
sweet pickles of the green fruit, with very satisfactory results. 

During the height of the season in Porto Rico, mangoes can be 
bought at retail at the rate of 5 to 25 cents per hundred, at which 
price the cost of the fruit in making jellies and marmalades is nominal, 
and as the cheap sugar made in Porto Rico is suitable for making pre- 
serves, and the transportation charges on the finished product low, 
it would seem that if a salable article could be produced, its manufac- 
ture ought to be profitable. In view of the abundant supph' and the 



CHUTNEY, ETC. 23 

■wonderful choapiipss of tho mango in Porto Rico, some of tlicise uses 
will warrant invostigation and exi)orinient. Another consideration in 
this regard is the fact that the commoner sorts at present growing in 
Porto Rico are probabl}- much better suited to the above uses than 
the milder-flavored varieties so highly prized for consumption in the 
fresh state. 

A very delicious dish can })e made b}- simplv peeling mangoes when 
unripe ])ut nearly full grown; slice, place in a dish, pile on sugar, and 
bake in a slow ovon. 

CHUTNEY. 

The mango forms one of the chief ingredients of chutne3^s, concern- 
ing which the following, copied from Bulletin No. 40, Botanical 
Department, Jamaica, applies equally well to Porto Rico: 

Large quantities of chutney are imported into America from India, althougii it 
could readily be supplied from Jamaica, affording employment to a number of people, 
and utilizing mueh material which now goes to waste. 

The following recipe has been kindly forwarded by a correspondent: Three pounds 
common mangoes (turned, but not ripe); 3 pounds tamarinds; 2 pounds raisins 
■ (weighed after stoning); 8 pounds brown sugar; ^ pound chilies; 2 pounds green 
ginger; i pound garlic or H pounds onions; J^ ounce mace; 1 ounce mustard seed; 
\ ounce cloves; i ounce pimento; i pound table salt. Soak the tamarinds in 2 quarts 
of the best vinegar, stir them about with a wooden spoon to get the pulp off, and 
take out the seeds and the leathery part in which they are inclosed. Cut the raisins 
small. Peel the ginger and grate it. Pound the chilies, garlic, and mustard seed in 
a mortar, using a little of the vinegar to moisten. Mix all together thoroughly; it is 
then ready inr use. 

ALCOHOU. 

According to Mr. Dj^bowski," the bruised and imperfect fruit that 
would otherwise be lost is sometimes utilized to produce by distillation 
a fair grade of alcohol. 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. 

While not possessing any pronounced and universally recognized 
medicinal properties, the mango is in India credited by the natives 
with a great variety of virtues, and numerous medical authorities speak 
very highly of certain of its uses. 

As stated elsewhere, the fresh ripe fruit is considered slightly laxa- 
tive and diuretic. The rind and fiber, as well as the unripe fruit, are 
astringent and acid. A long list of medicinal properties is given in 
Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, among which 
the most important and best authenticated are the following: 

The unripe fruit, peeled, cut from the stone, and dried, is considered 
one of the best antiscorbutics, and is said to stamp out scurvy when 
lime juice and all other available remedies fail. Prepared in this way 

« Traite Pratique de Cultures Tropicales, Paris, 1902, p. 534. 



24 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

it is known as amchur or amhckur, and is an extensive article of diet 
in India. 

The dried and powdered ls;ernel of the seed is a vakiable astringent, 
extensively used in eases of diarrhea and dysentery. One-half of a 
kernel taken in the morning and the same dose repeated in the evening 
are said to cure the most obstinate case inside of live days. 

The unripe fruit roasted and made into a sherbet is taken by the 
natives of India to prevent sunstroke; the pulp is also rubbed over 
the bodj^ for the same purpose. 

An extract of the bark or rind is highly recommended for its extra- 
ordinary action in cases of hemorrhage. 

DYE, TAN, AND PIGMENT. 

In some parts of India'* the leaves of the mango are used to produce 
a yellow dye, as is also the bark, which is frequently mixed with that 
of other trees, among which are mentioned the pomegranate and a spe- 
cies of Bauhinia. With the bark of some trees it yields a permanent 
black. The juice of the bark mixed with lime is said to produce a 
fleeting green d3^e, while the addition of tumeric to the above mixture 
gives a bright rose-pink. 

The dry, unripe fruit is extensively used as a mordant, especially in 
dyeing with safflower. 

The bark and even the leaves are used as a tanning material, one 
sample of the bark jaelding, on analysis, 16.7 per cent tannin. 

Piuri, or Indian 3^ellow, a coloring matter used in water colors and 
for painting houses in India, is indirectly the product of the mango. 
Before August, 1883, the source of this Indian coloring matter was 
unknown. At that time F. N. Mukhargi, at the request of Sir Joseph 
Hooker, made a trip to Monghyr, where the dye is produced, and 
found that it was obtained from the urine of cows fed on mango 
leaves. His letter is published in No. 39 of the Kew bulletins. Mr. 
Mukhargi states that the cows utilized for this purpose are kept exclu- 
sively on a diet of mango leaves and water, which increases the bile 
pigments and imparts to the urine a light-yellow color. The cows 
thus treated are made to pass urine three or four times a da}^ by hav- 
ing the urinar}' organ rubbed, and soon lose the ability to urinate vol- 
untarily. The urine is heated and the yellow precipitate is strained 
out andL made into balls, dried on charcoal fires and in the sun, when 
it is read}^ for market. The price paid by the dealers is about 40 
cents per pound. About 2 ounces a day is obtained from an average 
cow. 

An exclusive diet of mango leaves is said to be injurious to the cows, 
and to keep up their strength the animals are now and then allowed 
grass or other fodder, which, however, reduces the proportion of the 
coloring matter. 

"Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Vol. V, p. 152. 



PRESENT STATUS, 25 



GUM. 



The gwn which exudes from the trunks of man^o trees, frequently 
in c'ousidonible quantities, is said to be a substitute for gum arabic. 

MINOK USES IN' INDIA. 

The nuiltitude of uses the mango has in India, where it is not merel}'' 
a hixurv but an important food staple. ha\e l)een summarized in 
Watt's Dictionary as follows: 

AVhen green, the stone is extracte<l, the fruit cut into lialves or slices, and (a) jnit 
into curries; {!>) made into a pickle, \vith salt, mustard oil, chilies, and other ingre- 
dients; {c) made into preserves and jellies by being boiled and cooked in sirup; 
((/) boiled, strained, and with milk and sugar made into a custard known as mango- 
fool; (<") dried and made into the native "ambchur," used for adding acidity to 
certain curries; (/) when very young cut into small j)iei'es, mixed with a little salt, 
and sliced chilies and milk added, it forms a "tasty" salad. 

When ripe {a) it is made into curry whii'h has a sweet, acid, not unpleasant, taste; 
(h) it is cut into small pieces and made into a salail with vinegar and chilies (the 
sour fruit is sometimes s« used); {<■) the juice is s lueezed, spread on plates, and 
allowed to dry; this forms the tliin cakes known as amb-sath. The kernels are eaten 
in times of famine, and by the poorer classes in many parts of India they are ])oiled 
and eaten as greens. They are also ground with meal and mixed with various other 
ingredients to form the relish known as am-khatai. When stuffed with coriander, 
turmeric, and other spices, and boiled in mustard oil, they are esteemed a great 
delicacy. 

THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 
PRESENT STATUS. 

The mango is one of the most common fruits in Porto Rico, and 
during the .season when this fruit is ripe it is eaten in larger q.uantities 
than an}' other, with the possible exception of the banana, which lat- 
ter is used more as a vegetable, cooked in one form or other. That it 
is a popular as well as common fruit is shown by the fact that when 
mangoes are scarce people are willing to pay comparatively high 
prices for them, and this in spite of their being looked upon as luxuries 
rather than as staple articles of food. 

Porto Rico seems very well adapted to the production of mangoes 
and, as the plant is strictly tropical and very susceptible to cold, would 
seem to have a decided advantage over Florida, whe>re good varieties 
aie already successfully grown, but where, except in the extreme 
soiithern part, the danger of injury from cold is very great. A really 
high-grade mango is unknown in Porto Rico, and the first steps 
toward making their exportation profitable is the introduction from 
the other islands, or from Florida, Mexico, or the East Indies, of 
grafted stock of the best varieties. Even seedlings of improved forms 
would without doubt be a great advance, but until the quality is in 
some way improved the shipping of mangoes in other than small lots 
will scarcel}' prove profitable, as the sale of the mango in its present 



26 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

form will be largely limited to those who have at some time lived in a 
countiT where the fruit is grown and have already acquired a liking 
for it. With this class even poor mangoes will alwa3's find a market, 
if good ones are not to be had. 

That mangoes of the best varieties can be grown in America has 
been demonstrated, although only small quantities are as j^et produced. 
Mr. D. G. Fairchild, who has had excellent opportunities to test 
mangoes in all parts of the world, says that with the possible excep- 
tion of the Bombay Alphonse the finest mango he ever tasted was one 
of the variety known as ''Mulgoba" and grown in Florida. 

The mango grows in all parts of Porto Rico, but is more common 
on the drier south side of the island, where the trees will occasionally 
be seen growing so thick as to suggest an orchard. (See PI. I.) It can 
scarceh^ be said to be cultivated at all, as few trees are planted and 
most of the fruit is obtained from trees that have spread spontane- 
ously. It seems to prefer dry hill slopes, and was seen in the greatest 
profusion about Cabo Rojo. Trees are seldom seen growing ahout 
houses. This maj^, however, be due to a superstition that the shade 
of the mango is dangerous, our Porto Rican driver on one occasion 
preferring to have his horses stand in the hot sun rather than in the 
shade of the deadly mango. 

If the tree is propagated artificially at all, it is by means of seeds. 
The only indication that any grafted stock exists in Porto Rico was a' 
statement heard in Yauco to the effect that the variety known as 
Melocoton is from grafted stock brought from Martinique. The 
importation may have been made, but even if such is the case it has 
been of little value, as it has since been propagated only through 
seedlings. 

The season of ripe mangoes in Porto Rico is from Ma}' to August. 
By selecting proper varieties this might be prolonged, since in some 
parts of India it extends over a period of six months. This would 
be a great advantage in shipping the fruit to temperate regions, as at 
present the season coincides with the season of temperate fruits, which 
places the mango at a decided disadvantage. 

BEST LOCALITIES. 

Mango plantations in Porto Rico, to be most profitable, should with- 
out doubt be located in the drier parts of the island, where, as has 
been said, the trees are not only more prolific, but the fruit is better 
formed and more free from blemishes. The whole south side, a nar- 
row strip across the western end, and the northwest corner would seem 
to be well adapted. The southwestern part of the island is at present 
producing the best mangoes. In this region there are many more or 
less extensive tracts of low-priced land unsuited to the growing of 
other crops, but apparently adapted to the mango. 



PORTO RICAN FORMS. 27 

!Manfjotreos are ooinmon about Sail Juan, ])ut this rooion is so moist 
that the trees are not prolitic aiul the fruit is freciuently det'ornied and 
spotted. 

PORTO KICAN FORMS. 

There are a great many forms of the mano-o in Porto Rico, but at 
present their classitieation is litth? more than a list of names. The 
same name is applied in different parts of the island to distinct fruits, 
and, again, what appears to be the same form will receive distinct 
names in different localities. In any given market, however, consid- 
erable agreement will be found as to the terminology of forms, though 
the fruit is evidently picked in bulk and sorted before being ottered 
for sale. In some markets this is carried nuich farther than in others. 
The fruit of the same tree seems always to be very nearly uniform, 
but as the mango comes true to seed only to a limited extent and the 
fruit in Porto Rico is all from seedlings, an almost endless variety is 
naturally to be expected. 

True varieties— that is, varieties propagated by asexual methods — do 
not exist in Porto Rico, and the following descriptions are intended 
to assist in fixing the vague terminology of the market forms and if 
possible to stinudate further observation as to whether these come true 
to seed. These forms should not be confused either with true horti- 
cultural varieties or, until further investigation, with races that are 
known to come true to seed. 

The forms described below are those that fell under immediate 
notice, the name most commonh' in use being appended. 

Mango de Mayaguez (PI. VII). — A small vellow form, with compara- 
tively large seed, but with good flavor, soft flesh, and few fibers. This 
form, for sale in the San Juan markets, is considered one of the finest. 
It has very little of the turpentine taste, but its flavor did not appear 
to be an}" better than that of several others, while its small size and thin 
flesh make it seem on the whole inferior. In shape it is as3nnmetrical, 
with depressed stem. The color in the early part of the season is a 
uniform yellow; later many specimens were seen with one side red. 

Mangotina (PI. VIII, fig. 4). — A ver}" small yellow form, with one 
side red. Similar to the Mango de Mayaguez seen at San Juan but 
longer, with rounder base and the stigmatic point nearer the apex. 

Melocoton ''^ peach'''' mango (PI. VIII, fig. 1). — A small yellow and red 
form seen at Yauco, said to have come from grafted stock brought 
from Martinique. Base yqyy square, stem slightl}" depressed, skin 
thin, meat with very few fibers, mild in flavor. 

Mango de rom (PI. VIII, fig. 2). — A nearly spherical form seen at 
Yauco, 3'ellow in color, with one side a beautiful red. The skin is 
very thin, the meat comparatively free from fiber, very mild and 
pleasant, without a trace of the turpentine flavor. 



28 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

Mango pina (PI. IX). — A short, thick form found in the San Juan 
market before the middle of June, green, .slightly asynnnetrioal, with 
rather oblique base, stem depressed. The meat is thick, of good tex- 
ture and flavor. 

Jlfoigo largo (Pis. VIII and X). — A form common on the south side 
of the island and at ]\Iayaguez. Long, nearly straight, stem not 
depressed, green in color. The flesh is verj- firm, moderately thick, 
and with very few fibers. At Yauco slightly shorter specimens were 
called "Mangotina,'" a name used very loosely in all markets, this 
form selling there at 10 for 1 cent. The flavor is fine, though the taste 
of turpentine is pronounced, and to those who do not object to this 
feature it will appeal as one of the best Porto Rican forms. 

Mmgo mango (PI. XI.)— A large, rather straight form, with a very 
square base, somewhat resembling ''largo,'' but slightly more sym- 
metrical and thicker. Large quantities were seen in the San Juan 
market on June 22; a month later none were to be found. The flesh 
was fairly thick and of good quality. 

This name may possibly be a contraction of mangon^ which would 
be not at all inapplicable, as this is one of the largest Porto Rican 
forms. Stahl gives mango as the common name of Mangifera indica 
in Porto Rico. 

Mango johos (PI. XII). — A common form in the San Juan market in 
the early part of the season. A very poor kind, considered to be the 
wild or unimproved form. It is green in color, with a large seed and 
very stringy meat, frequently ripening unevenly and having a strong- 
turpentine flavor. In form it is slightly asymmetrical, stem not 
depressed. 

Mango redondo (PI. XIII and PI. lY, fig. 2).— A large, thick-meated 
form, couuuon in the Ponce market. In form it is quite symmetrical, 
with a decidedly depressed stem. In color it varies from green to red, 
the difference being in some instances so marked as to suggest a distinct 
type. The color seemed the only difference, however, and the market 
people insisted that the green and red might come from the same tree. 
The flesh is verv iuicv. moderatelv free from fibers, and of a very good 
flavor. 

VARIETIES TO BE INTRODUCED. 

There are probably hundreds of excellent varieties and forms grown 
in India and elsewhere that might profitably be introduced into this 
country, but it would perhaps lie better to introduce a very few of the 
best sorts and get them thoroughly established than to dissipate energy 
on a great number. 

As early as 1869 some seventeen varieties of Indian mangoes were 
successfully introduced into Jamaica. These have since been propa- 
gated and new importations made until there exists in Jamaica a con- 



VAKIETIE'^ TO BK INTRODUCED. 29 

sidonihle miml)or of Iiuliiin iiuingoes. The best vaiieties are, however, 
continod to gardens, and very few of the choicer kinds are exported. 
There are also a few Indian varieties in Trinidad and Florida. 

Among the varieties of mangoes that should 1)c introduced into Porto 
Rico, the following may be mentioned: 

Mii/(/of)a.—"Yovm roundish, oblique, reniform; si/e lari^e. weigh- 
ino- from thr(>e-fourths ])ound to 1 pound; surface smooth and undu- 
ladng; color yellow, beautifully blushed with red and faintly dotted 
with numerous brown dots; skin thin, tough, tenacious; seed reniform, 
oval, rather large; tiber scanty, tine, and tender; flesh rich, apricot 
yellow, very tender, melting and juicy, sweet, rich, fragrant; qviality 

very good. 

'•The Mulgoba surpasses in flavor and quality the seedlings pre- 
viously grown, l)ut its most distinctly marked finitures of superiority 
are the tenderness of the flesh and al)sence of the objectionable tiber 
and strong turpentine flavor couuuon to most of the seedlings grown 

in this country. 

••The tree is a strong, symmetrical grower, and appears to be 

abundantly productive."" 

Grafted stock of this variety was secured by the Division of 
Pomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in 1889 and placed Avith 
fruit growers in southern Florida. After a narrow escape from the 
freeze of 1895 the surviving tree has done well, and the variety has 
been successfully propagated. This variety should be at once intro- 
duced into Porto Rico. 

Alj^home, Aphoo>i, or Al/ho-^. is perhaps the most noted of mangoes. 
Wood row sa3's: 

It is universally admitted to be the finest of all mangoes. In tiavor its fruit is 
indescribable; it seems to be a subtle blending of all agreeable flavors. In weight 
the fruit averages 8 ounces, and in color green, enriched by a crimson glow on the 
exposed side, and in shape oblong, slightly thickened at the upper end, and without 
any prominent stigmatic point or beak. • i, -i 

The leaves varv much in size and shape, and with difficulty can l)e di.stinguished 
from common varieties; but among the choice varieties the leaves of the Alphonse 
may be known by the bright red midrib apparent until the leaves are nearly npe. 
The branches of the inflorescence are of a rich rosy color. 

In manner of growth or habit this variety is rather stunted and irregular, rarely 
forming a graceful tree. It is also very delicate and apt to give way beK.re insect 
attac-ks more than ..ther varieties; but as its fruit is valuable it should be kept free 
from insects and otherwise protected in proportion to the price the frmt brings, o 

This is a verv early varietv and so highly prized in India that as 

much as $19 a hundred is sometimes paid by dealers for selected truit. 

In June, 1902, several inarched plants of this variety, all from a 

sinole tree known to produce superior fruit, were sent from Bombay by 

« W. A. Taylor, Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agr., 1901, p. 390. 
b Gardening in India, pp. 226, 227. 



30 THE MANGO IN POETO "RICO. 

Mr. D. (t. Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer of the U. S. Department of 
Ag-riculture. Some of these were sent out at once through the Divi- 
sion of Pomolog}' to experienced growers in Florida, where the}^ were 
budded on health}^ stock and are now doing well. Budding was also 
successfully accomplished from the remaining plants held in the green- 
houses at Washington, and the variety seems now safely esta])lished. 

A letter from Col. J. G. E. Griffith, « Hodges, Black River, Jamaica, 
states that after three attempts he imported in 1901 six Alphonse and 
six Paeree plants, eight of which are now doing well. Five of these 
are believed to be Alphonse. 

Every effort should be made to preserve this valuable variety, and 
budded or inarched stock should be introduced into Porto Rico as 
soon as possible. 

It might also be desirable to secure one or two of the late fruiting 
forms. Several varieties, grouped in Watt's Dictionary under the 
name of Budayas, are said to fruit as late as September or October, 
whereas the Alphonse fruits in May. 

No. 11. — This variet}'', the original stock of which was among the 
first mangoes introduced into Jamaica b}' Captain Marshall, in 1782, 
is still the most popular variet^y in the island. It is a fine fruit, though 
somewhat string v, and is said to come true to seed. Mr. Hart iden- 
tifies this varietv with the Reine Amelie of Martinique. As Martin- . 
ique received a large part of its earl}' introduced plants from Mauritius, 
the source of this variety in Jamaica, this identification doubtless 
means identity of origin, and the fact that these distinct strains are 
still identifiable would argue great constancy for this variety. Budded 
stock of this variety is also growing in Florida. 

Manila (PI. XIV). — A Mexican race, almost entirely free from 
fiber, and of a mild, pleasant flavor. The skin is uniformly light yel- 
low and thin; the flesh is also light colored and firm. The seed is 
very thin and small in proportion to the amount of flesh. 

This is a really high-grade mango, not unlike the Mulgoba in flavor. 
Its shipping qualities have not been tested, but perfectly ripe fruit 
purchased in Mexican markets kept in good condition for several days. 
This mango was very popular in the City of Mexico about the end of 
June. It was sold in all the markets and hawked on the streets, the 
price being usually i cents apiece Mexican. The uniformity of the 
fruit as it appeared in the different markets, taken with the absence 
of asexual methods of propagation in Mexico, would argue that it is a 
form that comes true to seed. If this is the case, it would certainly 
be one of the most desirable mangoes for Porto Rico, and seed should 
be secured at an early date. 

The name of this race suggests that it came from the Philippine 

aBul. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, Vol. VIII, ])t.s. 11 and 12. 



VARIKTIES TO BE INTRODUCED. 31 

Islands, and indeed it i.s not impossible that it was brought to Mexico 
from those islands l)y one of the SyKinish galleons that during the 
seventeenth century plied regularly between the Philippines and 
Mexico. 

A form resem])ling this in Guam is tnere commonly supposed to 
have come from the Philippines. I)ut as ships oidy touched at (luam 
on the return vovage from Mexico the fruit nuist have reached Ciuam 
b}' way of America, and would naturally have become established in 
both countries. Possiblv a further contirmation is to be found in the 
occurrence of the same or a very similar form in Cuba, known as the 
l*hili})})in(' mango. 

Mango china. — A ver}^ fine seedling race, common in the markets 
of Guatemala City, and considered the finest mango of that region. 
The form of the fruit is characteristic, being very thin and almost cir- 
cular in outline, with a prominent blunt '"nak," located some distance 
fi'om the apex. The tlesh is thick and remarkably free from fiber for 
a seedling, mild and aromatic, without suggesting turpentine. 

This variety difi'ers from others examined in having pronounced 
longitudinal ridges on the seed, which is thin and very broad. (See 
PI. V, fig. 1.) Like the Manila of Mexico, this form apparently comes 
true to seed. It could easily be secured and would certainly be an 
improvement on anything at present in the island. By some this form 
is called Mcuujo de hi'ea. This name is, however, more appropriate!}^ 
applied to another form m which the fruit is more or less coated with 
a pitch-like exudation, hren meaning pitch. 

There are a numl)er of excellent varieties and forms already grow- 
ing in other islands of the West Indies, which it might be desirable to 
introduce. The fact, ho'wever, that Indian fruit is outselling the West 
Indian in the London market would indicate that the best Indian vari- 
eties should receive the most attention. It is possible that the best 
kinds are not exported from the British West Indies where mangoes 
as good as Indian varieties maj' be growing, but where under the 
unfavorable conditions they do not bear sufiicient fruit to permit of 
being exported. These same mangoes, if transplanted to the south 
side of Porto Rico, might become much more prolific, and on account 
of the ease with which they could be introduced the subject should 
receive careful attention. 

In Bulletin No. 20 of the Botanical Department of Trinidad, July, 
1889, Mr. J. H. Hart describes the Trinidad varieties, some of which 
would appear to be very excellent. Among the most desirable kinds 
may be mentioned the following: 

Gordon. — A fine large fruit. The seedlings are said to produce 
fruit almost identical with those of the grafted stock, and are thought 
to bear better. 



32 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

PetsTH. — One of the finest flavored of all Trinidad mang'oes, said to 
bear regular crops. In Trinidad this variety is very subject to sour- 
ing in the center of the fruit. This would probably be much less 
troublesome in Porto Rico. 

Julie. — A fine, large mango, with thin, long seed; commences to bear 
when ver}^ young. 

On the west coast of Africa and in some other localities the mango 
has two seasons of bearing ripe fruit, about six months apart. At 
Esquintla, Guatemala, where the mango grows luxurianth' and is very 
prolific, this appears to be the case, as many trees were seen bearing- 
flowers and nearly ripe fruit at the same time, April 16. If this is a 
difference in kind and not due to climatic conditions these forms should 
be imported, as the placing of a new fruit on the market would be 
greatly facilitated could it be done in the winter, when competition 
with native fruits would be less. 

BEST METHOD OF INTRODUCING NEW VARIETIES. 

The introduction of new varieties from the East Indies has been 
attended with much difficulty. Seeds can, of course, be secured at com- 
parativeh^ small expense, but in most of the cases on record only a small 
percentage have germinated, and these, after the trouble and delay of 
bringing them to bearing, are likely to produce fruit with only a 
slight resemblance to the variety desired. 

Hitherto the most successful importations have been in the form of 
inarched stock in Wardian cases. This, though a very satisfactory 
method, is very expensive, and a less costly plan would greatly encour- 
age importations. 

Experiments in packing cuttings, suitable for budding, so that they 
ma}^ be sent through the mails, have been made b}' Mr. D. G. Fair- 
child. He recommends the following method: 

Have a cylindrical tin case made, 10 inches long, 2 inches in diameter, with a well- 
fitting cap 2 inches long, in which to send the cuttings through the post. This case 
should be fitted in a cloth sack before dispatching. Cut scions about 10 inches long, 
making sure that they have good buds on them. Dij^ the cut ends in collodion or 
melted beeswax, wrap each scion in a strip of light tin foil, and wrap these again 
in oiled paper. Pack not more than four or five in each case, with slightly moist- 
ened sawdust. Be careful to put the address on the tag. 

The first shipment of mango cuttings packed in this manner arrived 
in rather poor condition, the sawdust in which thej^ w' ere packed being 
apparently too moist. Buds, which were inmiediately placed in the 
healthy stock, showed signs of life, but it is still too early to report 
the success or failure of the experiment. The sending of a second 
shipment, packed in drier sawdust, was so delayed that the severe heat 
encountered on the voj^age resulted in an entire loss. Experiments 



PACKING AND SHIPPING. 33 

with this method of packiiij^ are beiii^ continued ]>y Messrs. Taylor 
and Fairchild, as the system has not as yet received a fair ti-ial. 

Experiments made by Mr. H. Knight, in Queensland, on the' keep- 
ing quality of mango cuttings proved that cuttings carefully packed 
in cocoanut fiber would remain alive and in good condition for at least 
three and one-half months. Cuttings were tried in ))oth moist sand 
and cocoanut fiber that had been boiled, washed, and sijueezed dry. 
The cuttings were packed in tight tins. At the end of two months, 
of 14 cuttings packed in moist sand, all were dead but one, while after 
three and one-half months all the cuttings in the coeoaiuit fiber were 
alive and had shoots from 2 to 4 inches long. This length of time is 
ample for the introduction of new varieties from India to this country, 
but the cuttings thus experimented w^th were doul)tless kept at a 
reasonably luiiform temperature, and it must not be inferred that they 
would have sui-vived a voyage to the West Indies where, owing to the 
changes to which they would be subjected, they would probably have 
deteriorated nuich more rapidly. The fact that the cuttings made 
sprouts, M-hile indicating the success of this method of preserving the 
life of the cuttings, would not be desirable if the cuttings were to be 
used for l)udding. This could, however, doubth^ss be prevented by 
drier packing. 

The introduction of new varieties by means of cuttings that can be 
sent throup-h the mails would be such a simple and economical method 
that it is well worthy of experiment, })ut in view of the difficulties 
which many have experienced in budding the mangoes it may be well 
not to place too much dependence on this method until budding has 
been successfully accomplished from cuttings thus treated. 

The propagation and dissemination of the finer varieties of the 
mango might well be one of the lines of activity of the experiment 
stations recently established in the tropical possessions of the United 
States. 

PACKING AND SHIPPING. 

The packing and shipping of mangoes is a question of great impor- 
tance, as the success or failure of their production on a commercial 
scale is to a large extent dependent on its proper solution. With the 
poorer varieties, it is a comparatively simple matter, and the fruit 
wrapped in paper and packed in cases comes through in very good 
shape. With the finer varieties the question is, however, much more 
difficult. Sample lots of the best varieties grown in the West Indies 
have been shipped long distances, as from Jamaica to London, and 
have arrived in good condition. 

In larger lots it would doubtless be much more difficult, but with 
proper care it would seem that the loss need not be serious. The 
8992— No. 28—02 3 



34 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

aclvisabilit}' of shipping in cold storage has never been properly' tested, 
but the general opinion seems to be that low temperatures injure the 
Havorof the fruit. Mr. J. II. Hart, Superintendent of the Royal 
Botanical Gardens of Trinidad, recommends" a temperature some 8° 
or 1(»- below that in which the fruit was ripened. '• Pick the fruit," 
he says, " when fully formed or " full.' handle without bruising, or, as 
I wrote many years ago of oranges, ' handle as you would eggs,' 
choose well-formed and uninjured fruit, pack so that fruit receives no 
undue weight or pressure, place for transit in a well-ventilated part of 
the ship, and nearly every kind of fruit can be carried successfully for 
voyages of from six to fourteen days or more, mangoes of the best 
kind among the number;" while experiments in shipping mangoes 
from Australia would indicate that a temperature of about 35-^ was the 
most satisfactory-. 

There can ))e no doubt that questions of ventilation and of packing 
so that the fruit is not subjected to undue pressure are of more 
importance than the exact temperature, and the instructions of Mr. 
Hart will, if followed, allow good fruit to reach the northern markets 
in prime condition. 

The United States consul at Bombay, William Thomas Fee, in his 
report for October, 1901, states that in the large shipments of man- 
goes now being sent from India to London the fruit is packed in the 
cast-off boxes used for shipping oil to India, and that it arrives in 
good condition. 

M. Nollet, director of the garden at Martinique, has succeeded in 
making small shipments from that island to Paris with a loss not 
exceeding 10 per cent. The fruit was wrapped in soft paper and 
packed one dozen in a box, the interstices tilled with sawdust and the 
whole placed in cold storage. 

The fruit is usually picked when of full size, but l)efore it has com- 
pletely ripened, and is placed in shade to complete the process. In 
some parts of India it is buried in the ground to ripen, as this is sup- 
posed to make it sweeter. 

To establish a market for Porto Rican mangoes, it will be necessary 
for some individual or company to undertake to grade, pack, and ship 
the fruit on a scale sufficiently large to enable commission merchants 
to receive regular consignments and feel confidence in the uniform 
quality and condition of the shipments. Growers may hesitate to 
embark in the production of mangoes on a large scale before a market 
is assured, but a market will not be assured until the supply can meet 
the above conditions. A large and well-organized plantation could 
probably best meet these requirements, but, in the absence of such, the 
neighboring planters of mangoes might very advantageously cooperate 

aBul. Royal Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, 1897-99, Vol. Ill, p. 192. 



MARKET. 35 

b}^ eoinhiiiini,^ their crops and placinjf the gradinjr, packing, and ship- 
ping of the fruit in the hands of one person. The industry misrht 
thus 1)6 successfully launched without serious risk to individual 
planters. 

MARKET. 

Although a local market already exists in Porto Rico, the only out- 
look for making the growing of mangoes protital)le is in a trade with 
the temperate regions. Such a trade can hardly l)e said to exist in 
this country, for. although small lots are frequently sent North and 
are disposed of at from 5 to It) cents apiec<>, they have been sold 
merely as novelties; for the few larger shipments that have been 
made there was no sufficient demand, and to avoid total loss prices 
had to be lowered so that Porto Kican mangoes ha\e been sold in 
Washington at the rate of 2 for 5 cents. 

^^'hat can be done with mangoes of the best quality in this country 
is still a matter of conjecture; but in view of the unanimously favor- 
able opinion of those who have tasted good varieties, it w'ould seem 
that it is merely a ([uestion of Ix'ing able to })roduce good fruit and to 
ship it in good condition. 

The history of. the mango in Florida atiords some very encouraging 
data regarding profits to be derived from mango culture. The follow- 
ing, quoted from Bulletin No. I, Division of Pomology, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, refers to trees growing in the neigh})orhood of 
Tampa Bay: 

One grower on the point sold, fntin eleven trees in the fourth year from the seed, 
fruit whii;h brout;ht him $219. In their sixth year he shipped bushels to various 
places, realizing at Chicago 60 cents per dozen, and the fruit shipping well. Another 
dealer received from the produce of one of his bearing trees $66 in its sixth year. 

These mangoes were probably of inferior varieties, as Mr. William 
A. Taylor states " that prior to 1889 none but seedling mango trees 
were grown in Florida. On the other hand, the quantities were so 
small that the fruit was probablv sold as a novelty and the profits 
realized give little idea of how larger and continued shipments would 
fare. 

In England the trade is much farther advanced. There has been a 
small trade between Jamaica and England for a number of years. The 
following, copied from the Bulletin of the Botanical Department of 
Jamaica, No. 39, January, 1893, page 23, is a statement of the number 
and value of mangoes exported during the years 1887 to 1892, to which 
is added the approximate price per 100. 

« Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1901, p. 390. 



36 THE MANGO IN PORTO RICO. 

Number and value of mangoes exported from Jumnica, 1887 to 1892. 





Year exported. 


Nnmber. 


Value. 


Approxi- 
mate 
value per 
100. 


189-7 




258,060 
222,020 

18,388 
170, 988 
299, 584 

93,470 


£. .V. 
203 2 
158 12 
19 19 
100 19 
258 9 
116 6 


<\. 
6 
6 

6 




80.38 


1891 


.35 




.53 


1 a«Q 


.29 


IHgS 


.42 


1887 - 


.60 









The following statement is also made: 

This export will never be of any great value unless the fruit is picked by hand 
and packed with care, for the least bruise is fatal. Good mangoes would doubtless 
fetch a good price in New York. 

Large shipments of fine East Indian mangoes are now being received 
in London and not only arrive in good condition, but are bringing 
fancy prices, quite outselling the West Indian fruit, to which they 
are much superior. 

This is decidedly encouraging, for if there is a demand for good 
mangoes in England, why not in the United States \ And if it is possi- 
ble to successfully ship tine varieties from India to London, there 
ought surely to be no difficulty in shipping from Porto Rico to New 
York. 

SUMMARY. 

The essentials for making the cultivation of mangoes in Porto Rico 
a profitable indijstry may be summarized as follows: 

(1) The introduction and propagation of good varieties, meaning {a) 
fair-sized fruit, moderately free from fiber and with little of the tur- 
pentine flavor; (^) fruit that will stand shipping; (c) early and late 
fruiting varieties, and if possible varieties bearing two crops a year. 

(2) Care in picking, packing, and shipping, that the fruit may reach 
the market in good condition. 

(3) A general supervision of the shipping by some responsible per- 
son or firm, insuring uniformity and regularity of supply. 

(4) The placing of good fruit before the public in such quantities 
that the price need not be excessive, and that the supply can be regU: 
lar and continuous during the fruiting season. 

If these conditions can be met, an increasing demand may be expected, 
and there seems no j-eason why the commercial production of mangoes 
should not be added to the agricultural industries of Porto Rico. 



PLATES. 



37 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES, 

Plate I. Grove of mango trees between Cabo Rojo and Joyua, Porto Rico. These 
trees "were injured by the hurricane of 1899, and have not regained their 
typical form. 
II. Mango tree in fruit, Tapachula, Mexico; estimated to be bearing about 
5,000 mangoes. 

III. Branch of mango tree, with fruit, Tapachula, Mexico. 

IV. Fig. 1. — Mango tree, growing in dry region near San Jose, Guatemala. 

Fig. 2. — Section of "Redondo" mango fruit, Ponce, Porto Rico. (Xatu- 
ral size. ) 
V. Mango seeds: Fig. 1.— "Cocha." Fig. 2.— ' = Largo." Fig. .S.— "China." 
Guatemala City, Guatemala. ( Natural size. ) 
VI. Fig. 1. — Mango fruit, showing method of peeling. (Natural size. ) Fig. 2. — 
Crate of mangoes shipped from Florida to Washington, D. C, showing 
a successful method of packing. (Photograph loaned by W. A. Taylor. ) 
Fig. 3. — Mango fork. (Natural size.) 
VII. "Mango de Mayaguez" fruit, San Juan, Porto Rico. (Natural size.) 
VIII. Mango fruits: Fig. 1.— "Melocoton." Fig. 2.— "Rosa." Fig. .3.— 
"Largo." Fig. 4. — "Mangotina." Yauco, Porto Rico. ( Natural size. ) 

IX. "Mango pina" fruit. San Juan, Porto Rico. (Natural size.) 

X. "Mango largo" fruit, Ponce, Porto Rico. (Natural size.) 
XI. "Mango mango" fruit, San Juan, Porto Rico. ( Natural size. ) 
XII. "Mango jobos" fruit, San Juan, Porto Rico. ( Natural size. ) 

XIII. "Mango redondo" fruit, Ponce, Porto Rico. (Natural size.) 

XIV. "Manila" mango fruit. City of Mexico. (Natural size.) 

XV. "Mango china" fruit, Guatemala City, Guatemala. (Natural size.] 
38 

o 



Bui 28. Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept, of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




Bui 28, Bureau of Plant Industry. U. b Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Mango Tree in Fruit, Tapachula, Mexico. 



Bui. 28, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Branch of Mango Tree with Fruit, Tapaghula, Mexico. 



Bui. 28, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 



31 



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Bui. 28, Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 



Plate V. 





"— ^=^^(^j^>^ 




Mango Seeds, Guatemala City (Natural Sizei. 
1, ••Cofha; " 2, "Largo;" 3, ■•China." 



Bui 28, Bureau of Plant Industty, U S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Fig. 1.— Mango Fruit, Showing Method of Peeling Natural Size). 




V5 



Fig. 2.— iVlANGO Fruit, Showing Method of Packing. 



Fig. 3.— Mango Fork 
I Full Size). 



Bill- 28, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VII. 




Mayaguez" Mango Fruit, San Juan, P. R. (Natural Size). 



Bui. 28. Bureau of Plan-t Industry, U. S. Dtpt. of Agriculture. 



PLATE VIII. 





Fig. 1. — " Melocoton. 



Fig. 2. — " Rosa. 





Fig. 3.— "Largo." F"^- 4.— " Mangotina. 

Mango Fruits, Porto Rico (Natural Size). 



Bui. 28, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Oept of Agriculture. 



Plate IX. 




PiNA" Mango Fruits, San Juan, P. R. (Natural Sizej. 



Bui 28, Bureau of Pli'-» ln,(u<.tfv U ?i D. ot of Agnculture 



Plate X. 




LARGO" Mango Fruits, Ponce, P. R. (Natural Size). 



Bui 28, Bu'eau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XI. 




Mango" Mango Fruits, San Juan, P. R. (Natural Size). 



Bui 28 Bureau of Plant Imlusiiv U S Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate XII. 




"JoBos" Mango Fruits, San Juan, P. R, 



Bui. 28, Bureau of PUnt Industry, U. S. Oept of Aifriculture 



Plate XIII. 




Redondo" Mango Fruits, Ponce, P. R. (Natural Size), 



Bui. 28 Buffiu nf Plant Inilustrv U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XIV. 




Manila" Mango Fruits, City of Mexico (.Natural Sizej. 



Bui. 28, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Oept. o( Agriculture. 



Plate XV. 




China" Mango Fruits Guatemala City (Natural Size). 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 29. 



B. T. GALLOWAY, Chirf of Bureau. 



. THE EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TURNIPS: 



A SERIES OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
•AN EXPLANATORY TEXT. 



BY 



ERWIN ¥. SMITH. 
Pathologist, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, 

VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



Issued ' January 17, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

government printing office. 

1903. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

B. T. Galloway, CJnef. 
VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

Albert F. AVoods. Patliologist and Physiologist.^ 

Erwix F. Smith, Pathologist in Charge of L.:iboratory of Plant Pathology. 

George T. ]*Ioore, Physiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Physiology. 

Herbert J. ^yEBBE^, Physiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Breeding. 

Newton B. Fierce, Pathologist in Charge of Pacific Coast Laboratory. 

Hermann von Schrenk, Pathologist in Charge of Mississippi Valley Laboratory. 

P. H. Rolfs, Pathologist in Charge of Sub-Tropical Laboratory. 

M. B. Waite, Pathologist in Charge of Investigations of Diseases of Orchard Fniits. 

3Iark a. Carleton, Cerealist. 

Walter T. Swingle, Physiologist in Charge of Life Histpry Investigations. 

C. 0. TowNSEND, Pathologist. 

Rodney H. T-rve,(i Physiologist. 

T. H. Kearney, Physiologist. 

P. H. DoRSETT, Physiologic. 

Cornelius L. Shear, Assistant Pathologist. • 

William A. Orton, Assistant Pathologist. 

Flora W. Patterson, Mycologist. 

Joseph S. Chamberlain, Expert in Pliysiological Cheniislry. 

R. E. B. McKenney, E.rpert. , 

Charles P. Hartley, Assistant in Physiology. 

Dean B. Swingle, Assistant in Pathology. 

James B. Rorer, Assistant in Pathology. 

Lloy'd S. Tenny, Assistant in Pathology. 

Jesse B. Norton, Assistant in Physiology. 

Karl F. Kellerman, Assistant in Physiology. 

George G. Hedgcock, Assistaiit m Pathology 

A. W. Edso>", Scientific Assistant. - ^ •" 



o Detailed to Botanical Investigations and Experiments. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Frontispiece 




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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BDREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY- BULLETIN NO. 29. 

B T. GALLOWAY, Chief i if llureau. 



THE EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TURNIPS: 



A SERIES OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
AN EXPLANATORY TEXT. 



BY 



LIBRARY 

Nf/vV YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



ERWIX F. S:SIITH, 
Pathologist, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, 

vegetable pathological and physiological investigations. 



Issued Janvary 17, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



LETFI-R OF TRAXSMriTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 

Washlngto7), I). C, Octoler /, 1902. 

Sir: I have the honor to tninsinit herewith a technical paper on 
"The Effect of .Black Rot on Turnips: A Series of Photomicrographs, 
Accompanied \y\ an Explanatory Text," and respectfully recommend 
that it be published as No. 29 of the series of bulletins of this Bureau. 
The paper was prepared b}' Dr. Erwin F. Smith, in charge of the 
Laborator}^ of Plant Pathology, Vegetable Pathological and Physio- 
logical Investigations, and was submitted b}" the Pathologist and 
Physiologist. 

Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureait. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

3 



V R 1: F A c 1-: 



Dr. Smith's studies of the bacterial organism eausintj the black or 
brown rot of turnips dealt with in this paper were begun in September, 
1890. In other papers he has discussed the morphology and cultural 
peculiarities of the parasite and has pointed out methods for limiting 
the spread of the disease. In this paper he contines his attention to 
the action of the parasite on the host plant, demonstrating l)y means 
of the microscope and camei'a the a))ility of the organism to destro}'^ 
cell walls, and illustrating \arious stages in. the progress of the disease. 
The paper is timely in that the tibilit}- of bacteria to destroy cell walls 
in living plants is still disputed in many quarters and is a subject left 
untreated in most of the text-books. 

The paper is technical and is designed for the use of investigators 
in plant pathology. 

Albert F. Woods, 
Pathologid and Physiologist. 

Office of the Pathologist and Physiologist, 

Washington.^ D. C, October 6., 190°2. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

9 
Introductory 

General consideratiuiiH 

Plant furnishing the cultures 



The method of inoculation, etc 

Symptoms which resulted 

Technique employed in study of diseased plant - 

Special account of tlie diseased plant 

Results of synchronous inoculations into other plants 

Description of plates 

7 



12 
13 
13 
15 
19 
20 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Diagrammatic representation of inoculated turnip plant Frontispiece. 

Plate I. Fig. 1.— Bacterial cavity in turnip root. Fig. 2.— Bacteria in vessel 

of turnip root, highly magnified 20 

II. Cross section of lower part of rootof turnip plant shown in frontispiece. 20 

III. Cross section of turnip root higher up than PL II 20 

IV. Fig. 1.— Cross section of turnip root just under the leaves. sFig. 2.— 

Shows bacterial occupation of vessels of root at same level as fig. 1. 20 
V. Fig. 1.— Vertical section of turnip root, showing bacteria in vessels. 

Fig. 2.— Vertical section of turnip root, showing bacteria in vessels. 20 
VI. Fig. 1.— Cross section of turnip root, showing bacteria confined to a 
single vessel. Fig. 2.— Cross section of turnip root, showing bac- 
terial occupation of several vessels. Fig. 3.— Cross section of turnip 
root, showing several vessels and many parenchyma cells occupied 
by bacteria. Fig. 4.— Bacteria wedging apart parenchyma cells. 
Fig. 5.— Bacteria wedging apart parenchyma cells. Fig. 6.— Bac- 
teria of the black rot magnified 1,000 times; cover glass prepara- 
tion \ 20 

VII. Figs. 1 and 2.— Cross sections of turnip root, showing occiipation of 

vessels -" 

VIII. Fig. 1. — Bacteria occupying intercellular spaces in the parenchyma 
of the turnip root. Fig. 2.— Bacteria escaping from a small bundle 

into the surroundi^ng tissues 20 

IX. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate early stages in the formation of bacterial cavities 

in the turnip root - - - - -^ 

X. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate later stages in the formation of bacterial cavities 

in the turnip root -" 

XI. Margins of liacterial cavities, showing progressive destruction of the 

cell walls; more highly magnified than in PI. XI 20 

XII. Fig. 1.— Longitudinal section through turnip root near the cambium, 
showing bacterial cavities. Fig. 2.— Small portion of the larger 

cavity of fig. 1, highly magnified 20 

XIII Figs. 1 and 2.— Additional details from the larger cavity in PI. XII, 

« 1 20 

fig 1 



B. P. I.-37. V. V. V. I.-9.S. 

THE EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TURNIPS." 



INTRODUCTORY 

Very few persons would now huvc the hardihood to deny the exist- 
ence of phmt diseases due to bacteria, l)ut great ignorance still exists 
respecting this class of diseases, and particularly respecting the capac- 
ity' of these })acteria for destroying cell walls and making their way, 
unaided by other organisms, from one part of the phmt to another. 
Even so good a phyNiologist as H. ^Marshall Ward, in so recent a hook 
as Disease in Plants (IHOO). knows nothing ul)out the destruction of cel- 
lulose by l)acteria, and is inclined to think that, in most cases of " ))acte- 
rmV disease, fungi act as carriers of the bacteria or forerunners. 

The writer has found so much of interest attached to the study of his 
slides that he is prepared to believe that photographs of them will be 
of more or less general scientific interest. The behavior of Pseudo- 
monas campedris when inoculated into cruciferous plants is not unique,, 
and this particular organism has been selected accidentally, rather than 
for any special reason, to illustrate what I have to say at this time. 
The writer possesses alcoholic material of equal interest from many 
kinds of plants inoculated with various bacteria and a single turnip 
plant attacked by one organism has been selected for these illustrations, 
principally because the material proved excellent and appeared to be 
sufficient for the purpose in hand. The figures will also serve to illus- 
trate how much ma}' be learned from the careful examination of a 
single specimen. 

The following study is purely morphological, and it, of course, raises 
various questions which can be settled only by the isolation of a cytase. 
Judging by the time required for cruciferous plants to get into the 
condition shown in inoculated plant No. 53,* the enzymic action on 
the cell walls must be rather slow, and experimental evidence with the 
precipitated substances containing the enz3'me would probably be less 
readily obtained than in case of those bacteria which act on the tissues 
ver}' rapidl}'. The isolation of the enzyme, and the study of its action 
were tempting subjects, but the writer's time was very fully occupied 
with other matters, and the requisite leisure could not be found. This 

« This disease is also called brown rot. 

&The plant from which sections were cut for nearly all of these illustrations. 

9 



10 EFFECT OF BLACK EOT ON TURNIPS. 

is the less to be regretted, however, since we may confident!}' expect 
this phase of the subject to be treated very fully and satisfactorily'^ iu 
the forthcoming papers of Jones and Potter/' 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

So far as I can determine from sections, Ps. camjyestris is capalile 
not only of destroving the middle lauiella. but also of dissolving the 
cell wall proper. This it does slowly. At fi.rst I thought that I 
detected a swelling of the walls prior to their disappearance, but sub- 
sequent comparatiA'e measurements of the walls supposed to be swollen 
w4th normal walls left me in doubt. Fresh material, which has not 
been examined to this end, might give a ver}^ difi^erent result. That 
the solution of the cell walls is progressive is shown b}'^ the fact that 
many of the walls still remaining in the bacterial masses are only one- 
third to one-fourth as thick as the walls of adjacent uninjured cells. 
In certain cases where the bacterial mass lies up against the wall of a 
cell on one side and not on the other, there has been a distinct thinning 
of the wall on the side next to the bacteria. The difficulty of makii g 
exact determinations is increased by the considerable variability in 
thickness of the walls in the normal parts of the plant. 

Kussow's cellulose test gave ver}^ distinct pictures of the gradual 
solution and final disappearance of the cell wall. The uninjured cell 
walls gave a blue reaction, those in process of solution stained feeblj^ 
or not at all. Sections were also stained in carbol fuchsin, picro- 
nigrosin, iron htiematoxj'lin, and Fleming's triple stain. The vessels 
of the root are distinguished very readil}- from the other parts of the 
root by the safranin of the triple stain, which picks out the lignified 
reticulations. The bacteria are stained well by carbol fuchsin, by 
iron ha^matoxylin, and by nigrosin. 

The closed bacterial cavities in this root vary in size from openings 
involving onl}^ two or three adjacent cells to spaces formed by the 
destruction of hundreds, even thousands, of cells. They are full of 
bacteria when not so exposed that the latter have difl'used out into the 
alcohol. 

In many cases parenchyma cells are squeezed together from without 
and the bacteria do not enter them until they are crushed out of all 

« Since this was written Mr. Potter's paper has been published. He finds that 
individual bacteria of Pa. destructans hore small holes through membranes previously 
softened by an enzyme, and in this way enter the cells. Such observations are of 
course enormously complicated by the minuteness and abundance of the bacteria, 
and one must be on guard against appearances, which are often deceptive, particu- 
larly with dry lenses. Potter's statements, however, are positive, and are based on a 
number of observations with l)oth fresh and fixed stained material, so that for the 
present, and so far at least as regards the species in ciuestion, we may accept his 
statements as substantially correct. They will probably soon be verified or contra- 
dicted by other observers. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 11 

seml)Uince to cells, but in other cases cells which seem to belonj^ to 
the parenchviiia are tilled relatively early without beiujj;- crushed. 
These are generally nonlionitied wood cells bordering on or lying in 
the vicinity of the vascular t)UTidles. Probably the organisms l)ore 
their way through the cell wall in the manner described by Potter, but 
the writer has never been able to make out clearly any such penetration. 

The writer will be pleased at any time to show the slides from wiiich 
these photographs were made to anyone who is interested, and in 
exceptional cases will mail slides, or material from which sections may 
be cut, to those who are particularly interested, this especially because 
all reproductive processes are imperfect, the gelatin prints being 
inferior to the negatives and the latter to the microscopic image of 
the sections. Most of the sections were cut and the photographs made 
early in 1901, but other work got in the way and delayed the comple- 
tion of the paper. Most of the negatives were, however, exhibited 
in the form of lantern slides at several ])laces early in 1901. e. g.. 
University of Michigan, Michigan Agricultural College, The Botanical 
Seminar of Washington, and the sul)stance of the paper was presented 
before the Society for Plant Morphology and Physiology at its tifth 
annual meeting in 'New York, December 30, 1901, where the lantern 
slides were again exhibited. 

The following statements will be made plainer by a brief account of 
the structure of the turnip root. As may be seen from Pis. II and 
111, the basal and swollen part of the turnip root consists of a small 
pith, a large cylinder of xylem, a narrow cambium cylinder, and a 
phloem cylinder, beyond which is a cylinder of cortical parenchyma 
surrounded by cork. In other words, the structure is that of many 
dicotyledonous stems. The upper part of the root has a larger pith 
and better differentiated medullary rays. The xylem part of the root 
contains much wood parenchyma, which is not always easily distin- 
guishable from the medullary rays. The only lignified parts are the 
reticulations in the vessels. These stain a bright pink with safranin 
and come out quite distinct from the surrounding wood parenchyma 
in man}" of the photographs. 

PLANT FURNISHING THE CULTURES. 

On PI. I, fig. 1, is shown the cross section of a turnip root, the 
interior of which has been destroyed by the bacterium of the brown 
rot, PKeudomonas campestris (Pammel) Smith. This root was collected 
in September, 1896, from a field near Baltimore. 

Turnips attacked by brown rot often live for a long time, but the 
diseased root does not enlarge much radially. This one, like many 
others observed by the writer, had the form of a carrot root rather than 
that of a turnip root, although it was several months old. The walls of 
the cavities in such roots are usually black or brown, and hence the 



12 EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TURNIPS. 

common name. Frequently there is no external indication of tlie 
cavity. For a painting- in perspective of such a root see Centralblatt 
fiir Bakteriologic, 2 Abt., Ill Bd., PI. VI, tig. 1. 

THE METHOD OF INOCULiATION, ETC. 

On the frontispiece will be found a diagrannnatic representation of 
a turnip plant inoculated with a pure culture of Pseudomonaii cain- 
pestris. This figure is intended to represent plant No. 53, which was 
inoculated on the blades of two leaves by means of delicate needle 
punctures. The plant, was then some weeks old and about 9 or 10 
or possibly 12 inches high. The material used for inoculation con- 
sisted of a well clouded, moderately turbid bouillon culture (eleven 
days old), which had been used for control in thermal-death point 
experiments, and which was just beginning to throw down a small 
amount of yellow precipitate. In other words, the culture was still in 
active growth and in excellent condition for purposes of inoculation. 
The original source of the organism was the interior of a turnip 
such as that which furnished the cross section shown on PI. I, fig. 1. 
The inoculations were made in the following manner: Selecting two 
leaves five or six removes from the lowest 'leaf, some of the germ- 
laden fluid was first removed from the tube on the end of a sterile 
platinum loop and placed on the clean surface of the leaf blades, 
and then from 75 to 100 delicate pricks were made through this fluid 
into the leaf, by means of a fine-pointed steel needle, which was passed 
through the'flame before and after use on each plant. Finally, a fresh 
loop of the bacterial liquid was lifted out of the tube and spread 
over these punctures. The punctures of themselves did not do the plant 
any serious injury. The inoculated leaves were covered for an hour or 
two after the punctures by means of clean white paper — i. e., until 
sunset. This was done partly to avoid insolation and partly to prevent 
a too rapid evaporation of the fluid from the surface of the leaf. The 
leaf surfaces were not sterilized before inoculation for three reasons: 
(1) Because it was desired to have the inoculations made under condi- 
tions simulating as nearly as possible those occurring naturally; (2) 
because numerous experiments had already shown that with a proper 
selection of plants such as those used for this series of inoculations, 
needle punctures unaccompanied by bacteria did not lead to disease; 
(3) because exposure of the delicate leaves to mercuric chloride or 
other strong germicides for a time suflicient to destroy all surface 
spores would, probably, in spite of subsequent washings, have left 
enough poison on the leaves to inhibit the growth of the parasite, if 
not to seriously injure the plant. The pricked area on each leaf 
included perhaps 2 to 3 square centimeters. 



SYMPTOMS^ WHICH RKSULTKD. 13 



SYMPTOMS WHICH RESULTED. 

The history of this phint. which wtis t'xaniiiuHl noarly every day, 
is as follows: 

December 19, 189ii. — Plant inoculated. 

December 28. — A slight yellowing of part of the pricked areas. 

December 30. — Yellowing and wilt over the whole of the pricked area on one leaf 
and over one-fourth of the pricked area on the other leaf. 

Jainuir!/ J, 1897.— A marked progress of the disease on each leaf. The wilt now 
involves from 5 to 8 square centimeters on each leaf, and has run out to the margin 
of each leaf near the apex. 

Jaiimin/ 4. — The wilt now involves from 10 to lo .^^ijuare centimeters on each leaf. 

Jamumj 5.— The wilt is still confined to the two inoculated leaves, about 30 square 
centimeters on each leaf blade being involved. The advancing part of the diseased 
area is dull green and flabby. The brown veining on these leaves is not nearly so 
conspicuous as in the cabbage and kale plants which were inoculated at the same 
time and from the same cultures. 

January IG {£8th'day).—\Jp to this time there have been no constitutional symp- 
toms — that is, no leaves have shown symptoms except those which were inoculated. 

Februari/ 9 {52d day) .—T\\\s plant is now badly dwarfed and the top is dying. 
The four large outer leaves which remain have shriveled nearly to their base, and 
the bundles in the base of the petioles are plainly blackened. One small leaf is now 
wilting and shows a distinct blackening of its veins. One other small upper leaf is 
still green and normal in appearance. This leaf is but slightly developed. 

The plant was now pulled up and e.xaniined. The rootlets were 
sound. The main root axis, which was about 3 inches long and one- 
half inch in diameter in the largest part, was smooth, white, and .sound 
externally. The root was now washed and inspected critically. A 
most careful examination of the surface of the root gave no indication 
as to the cause of the disease. The root was then cut open cross- 
wise in three places, namely, at the top. in the middle swollen part, 
and at the base of the swollen part. Tn the upper cut, which was 
made about one-eighth inch under the crown of leaves, the bundles 
were decidedly black, and many were occupied by the bacteria; there 
were various small bacterial cavities but no large cavity. In both of 
the other sections of the root there were small cavities here and there, 
the affected xylem was pale brown, and in the middle part the whole 
inner tissue seemed to be softening. The bark part of the root was 
perfectly sound, 

TECHNiaUE EMPLOYED IN STUDY OF DISEASED PLANT. 

When examined microscopically, the vessels of some of the bundles 
were found to be full of bacteria. The vessels of other bundles were 
free, or tilled in part. No fungus threads were present. The root 
had a turnipy smell when cut. Before putting the specimen into 
alcohol two tubes of potato were inoculated from the interior. Both 



14 EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TURNIPS. ^ 

jdelded a prompt and very abundant growth of the same organism 
with which the plant had been inoculated fifty-two days before, and 
no other organism appeared in the tubes. The root remained in strong 
alcohol for more than four years — i. e., until an opportunity was found 
for making sections. Portions of it were then placed successively in 
absolute alcohol, alcohol and chloroform, pure chloroform, cold chloro- 
form containing paraffin, warm chloroform with more paraffin, and 
tinallv pure melted paraffin. When thoroughly infiltrated with par- 
affin they were suitably embedded and cut on the Reinhold-Giltay 
microtome with a very sharp knife. The sections were floated out 
and cemented to clean glass slides by means of sterile, distilled water 
containing one-half per cent of gelatin, freshly prepared. Mild heat 
was used in straio-htenino- out the wrinkles in the sections and the excess 
of water was removed by setting the slides on end. When dry, the 
slides were gently warmed until the paraffin was melted, and were 
then placed in turpentine or xjdene until the paraffin had been removed. 
They were then passed in succession, gently, into Coplin staining jars 
containing a mixture of turpentine or xylene and absolute alcohol, pure 
alcohol, graded mixtures of alcohol and water, and finall}" Ziehl's car- 
bol fuchsin, in which they were allowed to remain from three to five 
minutes. The excess of stain was removed by leaving the slides in a 
mixture of equal parts of alcohol and water until the proper differen- 
tiation in color had been secured. They were then passed rapidly 
through graded alcohols into absolute alcohol, and from that into a mix- 
ture of alcohol and xylene, into pure xylene, and finally into Canada 
balsam or Dammar balsam dissolved in xvlene. In a verv few of the 
sections here shown, viz, PI. I, fig. 2, and Pis. II and IV, nigrosin was 
substituted for carbol fuchsin. A series of sections (cross and longi- 
tudinal) from this root were prepared, stained, and studied, and the 
results obtained are illustrated by means of the accompanying photo- 
micrographs. 

The fixing of the root in strong alcohol was considered necessary in 
order to prevent the bacteria from diffusing out into the fluid. Even 
95 per cent alcohol does not entirely prevent diffusion in case the bac- 
terial cavities are large, but does so quite satisfactorilj^ in case of single 
vessels or small cavities. The knife used for making the sections was 
•very sharp, and did not shove or tear them to any extent, but the 
strong alcohol in which the material was fixed did, of course, cause 
more or less twisting and shrinking of the delicate parenchymatous 
tissues. During the process of hydrating, staining, bleaching, deh}^- 
drating, and mounting the cell walls were also occasionallv broken and 
displaced. Observations on the fresh root left no doubt that the vessels 
were the primary seat of the disease, but the exact limits of the bacterial 
occupation remained to be determined from properh' infiltrated material. 
This has now been accomplished. The manner of fixing, of infiltrating, 



TECHNIQUE EMPLOYED. 15 

and of outtinji:. aiul tho subsoquoiit t'astoiiino- to tho slido and caivful 
inaiiii)ulatioii duriiiu- t\\v removal of the i)aratlin. the iiydratiiig-, stain- 
ing, ditfeivntial l)loachinii\ dehydrating, and mounlini;- proeesses leaves 
no douht whatever that the location of the bacteria in the tissues, as 
shown in the photoniicrographs, is the same as in the fresh root. There 
has been no tearing of these bacterial masses or shoving oi- crowding 
of them into parts of the root where they were not originally present, 
such as Avould naturally occur in making sections of living or unintil- 
trated material. In some cases tlie more delicate parts of the root 
have V)een broken a little in places, as already mentioned, but only to 
a slight extent, which in no way interferes with one's judgment as 
to the effect of the bacteria upon the root. Indeed the process of 
fixing renders the l)acterial layer tougher and less liable to shoving 
or rupture l)y the knife than any other part of the root, as may be 
readily seen from an inspection of my sections. The bacteria in the 
sections have ttiken a deep purple stain, and, there being very little 
ground stain, the individual rods stand out clearly under the oil- 
inuuersion lens, nuich more clearly than in the photomii-rographs. The 
sections are remarkaldy good, but owing to their thickness (»'. /< to 10 /i) 
a number of lavers of bacteria lie one behind the other and seriously 
interfere with the photographic image. Ver}' likely also a more expert 
photomicrographer would be able to make more out of the sections 
than the writer. Attempts were made to cut thinner sections, but the 
material did not seem well adapted to very thin sections. In those 
2-4 // thick there was so much shoving together and tearing that the}' 
could not be used. 

SPECIAL. ACCOUNT OF THE DISEASED PLANT. 

On PI. II ma}' be seen a cross section of the lower part of the root, 
magnified 50 times. The section was taken from the point marked "3" 
on the frontispiece. The bleaching process subsequent to the staining 
has been carried so far that the root is only slightly stained, except 
where there is bacterial occupation of the vessels and wood parenchyma. 
The actual size of this section is indicated by a circle at the bottom of 
the plate. 

The extent of bacterial occupation and disorganization in the inte- 
rior of the root is very interesting. In one of the cross sections of 
this root, made higher up than that shown on PI. II and involving- 
less than one-half the circumference, the writer counted 93 distinct 
centers of bacterial infection and 15 bacterial cavities, involving in 
cross section from 50 to 300 cells each. In a cross section from nearly 
the same level as PI. II, 146 distinct groups of bacteria were counted 
in the vessels. In the photograph here reproduced it will be observed 
that the bacteria are confined to the inner portions of the root, princi- 
pally to the vessels and the surrounding nonlignified wood parenchyma. 



16 EFFECT OF BLACK ROT ON TUENIPS. 

There are no bacterial pockets in the bark part of the root (phloem 
and cortical parenchyma), forming the outer 30 to 60 rows of cells. 
The bacterial foci, of which there are about 130 in this section, are 
also for the most part at a considerable distance from the center of 
the root — i. e. . in the outer part of the xylem. which, consequently, 
we may assume either to have been the lirst portion of the root to 
become infected or else to have been that part most readil}- attacked 
by the organism. The cavities are all or nearly all on the rim of the 
xylem. There are many infected bundles farther inward in the xylem, 
but cavities are wanting in that part of the root and are still very small 
in the outer xylem at this level, and are not clearl}' visible with this 
magnification. Farther up the root (PI. Ill) the cavities are larger, 
and onh" the smaller and medium-sized ones have retained their bacte- 
rial contents intact. The sections agree, however, in that the outer 
part of the xylem has suffered most, and in that all parts external to 
the cambium are free from infection. 

Fig. 2 of PI. I shows a single small vessel magnified 2,000 times. 
It is from the inner part of the root and is filled with the bacteria. It 
corresponds to one of the vessels of PI. 11. 

PI. Ill is from a cross section in the middle swollen part of the root. 
(Frontispiece, at point marked "2.") In comparing it with PI. II, it 
should be remembered that the magnification is not the same. The actual 
size of the section is shown on the lower left-hand side of the plate. 
From the largest cavities the bacteria have diffused out into the alcohol, 
and only the borders of these cavities are still occupied by the organ- 
ism. That these open places are also true bacterial cavities and not due 
to anything else is shown by an inspection of the serial sections, an open 
cavity in one giving place to a bacterially filled cavity in another, and 
all being free from fungi and insect injuries. Two of the largest of 
these full cavities may be seen in the upper part of the picture. On 
the lower left-hand side of this section is an irregular oblong cavity, 
which was made b}" a platinum loop thrust into the tissue to remove 
some of the organism for cultural purposes. 

PI. IV, fig. 1, represents a cross section taken from the top of the 
root (frontispiece, point marked "1"), showing transition into stem. 
The magnification is too small and makes evident much less than the 
section, but suflBces for orientation, and shows that there is no surface 
wound or large cavity. The pith and the cortical parenchyma are 
entirely free from the bacteria. Most of the phloem is also free, but 
bacteria are present in it at the point marked " Y."' Fig. 2 is a detail 
from the same slide, more highly magnified. 

A study of Pis. II, III, and IV, and of corresponding longitudinal 
sections not here represented, shows that while the vascular system of 
the plant is very badly infested, the bulk of the tissue is still free 
from the bacteria; i. e., at least nine-tenths of it, including all of the 



SPECIAL A( rol'NT. 



17 



outer ])ortioii of tho root whicli luis come into direct loiituct with the 
fimjii and Imi-teriu of the soil, and whicli would Ih' more or less rotted 
if tli«' or«;anisni had entered the plant from the earth. If the infeetion 
had l>«'en from tlu' soil, the root would al.M) have contained a mixture of 
thing's anil not one species in pure culture, and certainly not I'x, ciini- 
jit'stris, since the soil was not ol>tained from calihuiie fields, and all the 
numerous uninoculated turnip plants o;rown in it ivmained entirely 
free from this disease. 

The foUowine- photomicrocrniphs ar(> all made frotu sections of this 
root at level No. •-^ (See frontispiece and 1*1. III.) 

PI. V. ti"-. 1, lepresents a lonji-itudinal section through ;i small Itun- 
dle fully occui)ied 1)V the bacteria and deeply stained. The maenitica- 
tion is not sufficient to show the individual oruanisms. hut it can no 
made out (juite clearly that tlie surroundinu" parenchyma i> not occu- 
pied and that there is as yet no disorifunization of the tissues. The 
second lijrure on this phite is :i lonjjitudinal section throuifh two small 
vascular bundles. The knife i)assed throu*i-h the middle of the lower 
])imdle and the extreme margin of the ujjper one. The tissue around 
-the u})per bundle is just becomini'' h()lU)wed out into a cavity, that 
around the lower one is still intact and unoccupied by the ])acteria. 
The vessels themst^lves are crowded full of the ore;anism. 

Three of the reproductions on PI. VI are from cross sections of 
small bundles, i. e.. bundles similar to those illustrated in PI. \'. In 
the lower riuht-hand corner is a cross section showing a single vessel 
occupied by the l)acteria, the rest of the tissue being entirely free. 
In the lower left-hand corner are several vessels so occupiml: tho 
larger one, however, contains only a narrow film of ])acteria (around 
the walls), which may have entered from a))ove or l»elow. or at this 
level, through the side of the vessel next to the more fully occupied 
part of the bundle. The surrounding tissue here is also entirely free 
from these organisms. The iipper figure on this plate corresponds 
more nearly to the lower figure on PI. V. Here several ve.ssels are 
occupied, together with their connective tissue and the surrounding 
parenchyma, and we have the first stage in the formation of a l)acterial 
cavity. The left-hand side of this figure is shown more highly magni- 
fied on PI. IX, fig. I. The middle figures at the left show the manner 
in which the bacteria crowd apart parenchymatous cells, multiplying 
first in the intercellular spaces and either dissolving or splitting apart 
the middle lamella, probably both. The middle figure at the right is a 
cover glass (smear) of Ps. eampestrls stained Avith carliol f uchsin and 
mao-nified 1,000. It was made directlv from the vessels of a cabbage 
plant and is the only figure not taken from the turnip. 

On PI. VII are two additional figures showing early stages in the 
occupation of small bundles. Nonlignified wood-parenchyma cells 
are also occupied, at least in fig. 2. The surrounding tissues are 
9228— No. 29-02 2 



18 EFFECT OF BLACK EOT OT TURNIPS. 

entirely free from bacteria. In both figures the bacterial contents of 
vessels have fused. This I take to have occurred through natural 
openings rather than through openings made by the bacteria, because 
occasional h' in cross sections of unoccupied bundles I find reticula- 
tions thinning out and disappearing in the same way. In the lower 
figure a few of the cell walls have been In-oken and displaced slightly 
in mounting. 

The upper figure on PL VIII shows an early stage in the destruc- 
tion of the parenchyma, the intercellular spaces are occupied by the 
bacteria, but the cells themselves are still free and have not been 
wedged apart, as in figs, -i and 5, PI. VI. The granular matter in the 
center of the cells is protoplasmic material. The lower figure shows 
in cross section a very small vascular bundle. The two reticulated 
vessels are filled and the bacteria have found their way outside of 
these into the intercellular spaces which are filled and greatly enlarged, 
the cells being crowded apart and, in case of one of the lower ones, 
crushed in. Two or three nonlignified cells are also filled. 

PI. IX shows two stages in the formation of bacterial cavities. In 
the upper figure there is more or less vagueness in the cell walls, one 
of which, on the right-hand side, has almost entirely disappeared. This 
figure shows a single vessel in the center (comparable to fig. 1, PI. V). 
The surrounding cells which are so fully occupied by the bacteria are 
nonlignified wood cells of the fleshy root. In the lower figure there 
has been a greater softening of tissue and a considerable cavity is in 
process of formation. Here in the center (from right to left) are at 
least four vessels, and there is probably a fifth vessel just above the 
cell marked X. The reader's attention is called particularly to the 
vagueness of the cell walls and to the open cavity which is shown in 
the lower middle part and the left-hand part. The whole forms a very 
instructive and typical picture of the way in which cavities are brought 
about by the mechanical and solvent action of this organism. The 
tissue for a long distance around both of these foci is sound and entirely 
free from bacteria, and, as in the other cases, the bacteria could have 
entered these bundles only as a result of the leaf inoculations already 
described. 

On PI. Xare shown two figures illustrating a further advance in the 
destruction of the parenchyma of the root and the formation of bac- 
terial pockets. The cells are separated from each other by masses 
of bacteria, are crushed in, and are slowly dissolving, their walls 
becominp- vaguer and vaguer until at the middle of the cavity they 
can not be seen at all. Fme examples of this gradual destruction of 
the cell walls are to be seen in both of these tigures. The reader's 
attention is called in particular to the right-hand side of the upper 
figure, showing bacterial occupation of the intercellular spaces which 
usually precedes the formation of an open cavity. In the upper part 
of the upper figure, in the last one of the second row of cells at the 



SPECIAL ACCOUNT. 19 

left, is a fine example of the way the cells are crushed together and 
loosened from their surroundino-s. Similar examples may ))e seen at 
the i)()ttom of this tigure, and in lig. 2. In tig. 2 observe i)arti('ularl3^ 
the condition of the cells next above the unoccupied cells marked X, Y, 
and Z. 

The two figures shown in PI. XI are from the margin of bacterial 
cavities similar to those shown on PI. X, l)ut more hiohlv maciiitied. 
Here also the cell walls are in all stages of separation and decomposi- 
tion. In the middle of fig. 1, and at the left side of fig. 2, cell walls 
may be seen in all stages of solution. In none of these serial sections 
is there to be found any trace of fungus threads or of insect or other 
animal devastation, the entire injury boing due to an enormous nudti- 
plication of the organism which was inoculated into the leaves of the 
plant, and Avhich found its wa}' into the root through the vascular bun- 
dles of the petioles. Part of the injury is plainly mechanical, due to 
crowding, and part is chemical, due undoubtedly to the solvent action 
of a C3"tase. Had the plant been allowed to remain in the soil a few 
weeks longer, the result must have been the fusing of these various 
small cavities into one or more large cavities. Wc shoidd then have 
had a phenomenon like that shown on PI. I. fig. 1. 

PI. XII, fig. 1, is fi'om a radial longitudinal section showing cam- 
bium and phloem' at the right (top) and xylem (wood parenchyma) at 
the left with cavities close to the caml)ium. Fig. 2 is a detail from the 
larger of these cavities taken at the point marked X. 

PL XIII is a continuation of XII, showing details from the larger 
cavity taken at the points marked Y and Z. Here again cell walls are 
crushed and undergoing solutions, and the bacteria arc present in 
incalculable numliers and no other organisms are present. In the upper 
part of fig. 1. at the right, the l)a('teria ma}' be seen wedging' apart two 
parenchyma cells. Similar phenomena may be seen in the upper right- 
hand corner of fig. 2. 

RESULTS OF SYNCHRONOUS INOCULATIONS INTO OTHER PLANTS. 

At the same time and from the same culture as turnip No. 53 twenty- 
eight other plants were inoculated as follows: Four rape, 6 radish, 6 
cabbage, 5 kale, 3 turnip, and four Roman hyacinth. Twenty-three of 
the 28 plants contracted the disease, as follows: Four rape— 1 plant 
became diseased constitutionall}", 3 showed only local symptoms; 5 
radish — 3 developed constitutional symptoms, 2 local symptoms only; 
6 ca}>bage — all (! developed constitutional symptons, and No. 42 was 
illustrated in 1897 in 2te Abt., Centralblatt f . Bakt. (Ill Bd., Taf. VI, 
fig. 5), and in the same journal in 1001 (VII Bd., Taf. VIII and IX); 
5 kale — 3 developed constitutional symptoms, 2 only local symptoms; 
3 turnips — 1 developed only local s^^mptoms, the others showed also 
constitutional symptoms. The hyacinths did not become diseased. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Fkontispiece. — Turnip plant Xo. 53, showing place of inoculation (on leaves) and 
indicating by tigures the part oi root from which sections were taken 
for the photomicrographs. Diagrammatic. The illustrations were all 
made from the root of plant No. 53, except fig. 1, PI. I, from another 
turnip, and fig. 0, PI. VI. which was made from a cabbage plant attacked 
by the same disea.se. 

Plate I. Fig. 1. — Cross section of turniji plant, showing bacterial cavity. Natural 
infection. From a fiel<l near Baltimore. Zeiss planar, x 4h circa. 
Fig. 2. — Single vessel from PI. II, showing bacterial occui)ation. Stained 
with nigrosin. x 2000. 
II. Cross section of lower part of the root (Frontispiece, 3), differentially 
stained with safranin and picro-nigrosin to bring out location of the 
bacteria, x 50. 

III. Cross section of a part of the middle portion of the root (Frontispiece, 2), 

differentially stained with carlwl fuchsin, showing numerous bacterial 
cavities, x 15. 

IV. Fig. 1. — Cross section, extreme upper portion of the root ( Frontispiece at 

point marked 1 1, differentially stained. Zeiss, TO mm. x 23. Fig. 2. — 
Detail from the same section (at X) more highly magnified. Zeiss, 
16 mm. X 185. 
Y. Fig. 1. — Longitudinal section in middle of root (Frontispiece, 2) showing 
reticulated vessels filled with the bacteria and surrounding tissue free 
from infection, x 154. Fig. 2. — Longitudinal section from same level as 
Fig. 1, showing vessels filled witli the Fseudomonas, and a cavity around 
the upper bundle, x 136. 
YI. Fig. 1. — Cross section, middle of root, differentially stained, showing a 
single ves.«el packed with the bacteria. This may be compared with 
fig. 1, PI. Y. X 520. Fig. 2. — Cross section from same portion of the 
root differentiallv stained, showing a small bundle partly occupied by 
the Piii'mloiKOwiL The larger vessel contains <;)nly a rim of bacteria. 
The surrounding tissue is free from bacteria, x 460. Fig. 3. — Cro.«s sec- 
tion, middle of' root, differentially stained, showing vessels and non- 
lignified wood parenchyma occupied by the bacteria. In the middle 
portion the cells have begun to disorganize and a bacterial cavity is in 
process of formation, x 385. Figs. 4 and 5.— Bacteria separating cell 
walls. X 1000. Fig. 6. — Ps. camphtris. Smear preparation from a cab- 
bage stem, stained with carbol fuchsin. k 1000. 
YII. Figs. 1 and 2. — Cross sections, middle of root, differentially stained, show- 
ing small bundles verv fullv occupied bv the Fseudomonas. Fig. 1 x 475. 
Fig. 2 X -170. 

VIII. Fig. 1.— Cross section, middle of root, differentially stained, showing par- 
enchvma cells with bacteria multiplying in their intercellular spaces. 
The cell cavities are free, x 1000. Fig. 2.— Cross section, middle of 
root, differentiallv stained, showing disorganization of a small bundle. 
X 1000. 
IX. Fio's. 1 and 2. — Cross sections, middle of root, differentially stained, show- 
fng formation of liacterial cavities. Zeiss apochromatic 3 mm. oil immer- 
sion ol)jective 1.40 X. A. and compensating ocular Xo. 4. Cramer's slow 
isochromatic plates, Zettnow's color screen, with sunlight, x 1000. 
X. Figs. 1 and 2. — Cross sections, mid<lle of root, differentially stained, show- 
mg well developed, small cavities filled with the Psenfloiiionas and with 
remnants of the disorganized cells, the latter conspicuous only on the 
margins of the cavitv. x 340. 
XI. Figs. 1 and 2.— Cross sectii ns. middle of root, differentially stained, show- 
fng margins of cavities with cell walls in all stages of solution, x 1000. 
XII. Fig. 1. — Radial longitudinal section, middle of root, differentially stained, 
showing one large cavitv and several small ones. Bark part of root at 
right-hand side, x 85. "Fig. 2.— Detail from upper left-hand corner (X) 
of fig. 1. X 475. 

XIII. Details from fig. 1, PI. XII, showing vaiious stages in the separation and 
solution of cell walls. Fis:. 1 is from XII. 1. Y. Fig. 2 is from XII, 1, 
Z. x475. 

20 

o 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 














BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 







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Nat. Size. 



BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 









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Nat. Size. 










BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29. Bureiu of Plant Industry. U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 






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BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate V 





BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (FAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bol. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture 



Plate VI. 





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BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 

PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate VII. 




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BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29. Bureau of P'ant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VIII. 

















2 

BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 






HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29. Bu'eau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IX. 





BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 



Plate X. 




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BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL) SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO.. BOSTON. 



Bui. 29, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate XI. 




BROWN ROT OF THE TURNIP. 
PSEUDOMONAS CAMPESTRIS (PAMMEL^ SMITH. 



HELIOTYPE CO., BOSTON. 






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iJ. S. DEPARTMKNT t^F AGRlCrLTURK 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY - BULLETIN NO. 30. 

B. T. GALU)\\\\'. Chirfoj- ISiirenu. 



BUDDilS^G THE PECAN 



:n 



GEORGE \V. OLIN'EH. Expkkt. 



SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



IsSLKD I)KtKMBEK H, litOL'. 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PR,INTINC4 OFFICE, 

1902. 



BIREAU^F.PLANT INDUSTRY. 

BEVERtf-T. .Galloway, Chief of Bureau. 

SEED AXD PLANT IXTRODUCTION AND DLSTPJBCTION. 

SCIEXTIFIO STAFF. 

A. J. PiETERS, Botanist in Charge. 
David G. FAiRCRiho, Agriculfnrnl Erplorer. 
John E.W> Tracy, Hxpevt. 
George W. Oliver, Expert. 



Bui. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Frontispiece. 




U. S. DEPARTMKXT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY- BULLETIN NO. 30. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, C/nV/«//fMmiu. 



buddlxg tile pec ax. 



BY 



LIBRAFJY 
NEW YORK 
BOfANICAL 

GARDEN 



GEORGE W. OLIVER. Expert. 



i\> 



SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



Issued December 9, 1902. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1902. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 

Washington, J). ('., OctoJxr 15, 1902. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a paper by Mr. George 

W. Oliver, Expert in the Office of Seed and Plant Introduction and 

Distribution, on "Budding the Pecan." Owing to the increased 

interest in nut culture in this country Mr. Oliver's method of rapidly 

propagating the pecan by budding is worthy of careful attention, 

and I respectfully recommend that the paper be published as a 

bulletin of the regular series of this Bureau. 

Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secreta')^ of Agriculture. 



C X T 1: X T S 



Page. 

Difficulties encountered in pecan budding 9 

'W hy the pecan should be budded 10 

Raising seedling stocks 10 

Selection of dormant buds 11 

Location of the buds 12 

Experiments with buds of the current season I'i 

An improved method of budding 13 

Other methods of budding 14 

Starting buds into growth 15 

Transplanting budded trees 16 

Description of plates 20 

5 



ILI.rSTKATloXS. 



Page. 

Seedling pecans budded 1 >y new method Frontispiece. 

Plate I. Fig. 1.— Pecan branch, summer condition. Fi<:. L*. — Pecan ]>raii(li. 

winter condition 20 

II. Fig. 1. — Pecan branch, fruiting condition. Fig. 2. — Seven-year-old 

branch of Hicorin laciniom 20 

III. Fig. 1. — Patch budding; method of removing section of bark from 

stock; bud prepared ready for inserting. Fig. 2. — Seedling pecan 
stock; preliminary incisions in bark; bud ready for inserting. 
Fig. 8. — Seedling jiecan stock; bark rai.«e<l ready for bud 20 

IV. Fig. 1. — Seedhng pecan stock; Inid in position ready to be tied. 

Fig. 2. — Bu<lded seedling pecan; Inid inserted and tied. Fig. 8. — 
Budded seedling jiecan; method of wrapping with strij) of waxed 
cloth 20 

y. Fig. 1. — Budded seedling pecan; method of covering with paper to 
prevent injury from sun. Fig. 2.— Triangular budding; seedling 

stock prepared i-ea<ly for bud ; bud ready to be inserted 20 

VI. Brancii i )f pecan 20 

VII. Three-year-old budded pecan trees, recently transjtlan ted 20 

7 



B. 1'. I.— ;ts. s. 1". I. I).— jy. 

m^DDrXn THE PKOAN. 



DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN PECAN BUDDING. 

The propaii^ation of the pecan has hitherto been one of the principal 
drawbacks to the successful cuhivation of this nut tree. According 
to the pubhshed ex])eriences of trrowers who ha\e given attention to 
propagation by budding and grafting, the percentage of successful 
unions in the total nund)«'rof plants worked has been small. Although 
th(» young budded or grafted trees are sold at very high })rices, the 
work is unr«Muunerative from the luirservmjurs point of view. Much 
of the work of ])ecan propagation has doubtless been along similar 
lines to those favorable to the propagation of well-understood subjects, 
such as the apple peach, and other fruit trees. Consequent!}' the 
pecan has earned the reputation of being difficult to work on stocks of 
the same or allied species. This is not to be wondered at, as mistakes 
are ver}' easily made in the selection of working material, time of 
operating, etc. The writer is convinced, however, tiiat if budding be 
performed as herein described the pecan will i-ewur"d the careful oper- 
ator with a high percentage of unions. 

The principal trouble encountered in pecan Imdding is undoubtedly 
due to the selection of wrong material from the tree to be propagated. 
By the methods usually adopted a success not above the average was 
attained, and it is easy to understand why small trees ])udded from 
choice varieties can not be sold at less than from !^1 to $8 each. By 
the use of a method which has been devised for budding the pecan and 
the selection of 1-year-old buds the outlook is good for very success- 
ful propagation. It will be seen where some of the trouble lies if the 
budding of the peach is compared with that of the pecan. In the case 
of the former a shoot of the current year's growth will b}" the latter 
part of August give a very large number of buds which can be worked 
successfulh'. This is not the case with the pecan. True, a number 
of likely looking buds are formed on a shoot of the current season, 
but by the method of budding in use at present not many of the buds 
on a shoot are used. Two or three at the base are generall}' selected, 
but, as will be explained later, there is great danger of unsatisfactory 
results through using even the best of these buds. 

9 



10 BUDDING THE PECAN. 

WHY THE PECAN SHOULD BE BUDDED. 

In the pecan region of the Southern States there are at least fifty 
named varieties, nearly all of which are well worthy of perpetuation 
on account of the large size and fine flavor of the nuts. These choice 
varieties of the pecan are as yet but little known, owing to the very 
small number of trees in cultivation. In the course of time, however, 
as they are more widely grown, they will become the most prized of 
all the nuts for domestic use, and it is probable that when the supply 
is large enough they will be preferred abroad to the best Persian wal- 
nuts. The nuts of the choicer varieties of pecan, owing to the sup- 
posed difliculty of bud pi'opagation, are nmch in demand at fancy 
prices for the purpose of raising young plants. It has been ascertained, 
however, that seedlings from nuts of the choice varieties do not come 
true, resembling in this particular many of our popular fruit trees. 
Many of these seedling pecans bear nuts not much superior to the 
common wild forms. With the knowledge now acquired as to the 
liability of varieties to vary in their seedlings through the agency of 
cross fertilization, it would indeed be remarkable were the seedlings 
to produce nuts equal in size and flavor to those of the mother tree. 
The chance trees which bear large nuts are found wild in widely" difl'er- 
ent parts of the South. The nuts from these trees are much above the 
average not onl}^ in point of size, but also on account of other desirable 
qualities. Being peculiarly situated, and as they can not depend 
Avholly upon their own pollen to aid in the reproduction from seed, 
there is nothing to prevent pollen from undesirable forms gaining 
access to the pistillate flowers, thus securing a reduction of the size or 
a decrease in the flavor of the nuts borne by the seedlings. After 
waiting several years for the seedling trees to bear, this naturally 
causes the grower a good deal of disappointment. So, necessarily, as 
with apples, peaches, and other fruits, the only wa}^ in which the 
choice varieties of the pecan can with certainty be perpetuated in 
a manner to permit of being handled by dealers, is by budding or 
grafting on seedling stocks. 

RAISING SEEDLING STOCKS. 

Up to the present time it has not been demonstrated that there is a 
better stock for the reception of buds or grafts of the pecan than 
seedling stocks of the same species. In raising pecan seedlings for 
stocks it is advisable to select seeds from trees at the northern limit 
of the pecan belt, because, while seedlings from that section will 
thrive throughout the belt, those from the extreme south can Tiot be 
expected to prove as hardy and thrifty at the northern limit as those 
trees which are growing wild in that section. 

The seed nuts should be secured as early as possible after they are 
ripe, so as to make certain of preventing loss through drying out. 



RAISING SEEDLING STOCKS. 1 1 

Stratiticiition should be bef^iin late in tho fall. For thi.s purpose it is 
most convenient to use boxes, say, 8 feet long, I foot wide, and 3 
inches deep. A mixture of sand and ashes in about etjual propor- 
tions is a o-ood medium in which to imbed the nuts. A laver of this 
material 1 inch thick should be placed in the bottom of a box, then a 
layer of pecans as close toj^ether as possible. It is not advisable to 
put more than a single layer in a box, because of the brittle nature of 
the root, the nuts being somewhat irregular in sprouting. Each box 
is then filled with the sand and ashes, and all the boxes used should be 
piled together to a convenient height. They should occupy a shel- 
tered position out of doors, and l>e covered with a considerable thick- 
ness of straw, mats, or old sacking until the nuts show signs of 
germinating, which will usually occur toward the end of April. To 
give facilities for inserting the buds on the north side of the seedling 
stocks, the nuts are then planted in rows running east and west. The 
rows should be 3 feet apart and the nuts placed 5 inches apart in the 
.row. It is not possible the first season to raise seedlings which are 
large enough to be used as stocks, but in order to secure a good, stout 
errowth, so as to have them large enough for working the second 
season, the soil should be deeply worked with a plow, rolled and, wdien 
necessary, harrowed several times until it is well pulverized. The 
remaining part of the work must be done by hand. 

The position to be occupied by the seedlings is marked by the aid 
of a stick with a notch cut in one end. This is run along the line, 
leaving a well-delined mark in the soil. With a spade a trench is dug 
about 5 inches deep. In the bottom of the trench about 2 inches of 
equal parts of leaf soil and sand are placed. The nuts are carefully 
laid on this. In planting those which have the root developed to a 
length of more than 1 inch, a hole is made in the soil with the fingers 
and the root placed in it. If the soil be dry, water is given. Fine 
soil is then raked level over the nuts and slightly firmed with the end 
of the rake. The operation is finished by a mulch of 1 inch half-rotted 
leaves, cut cornstalks, or other material. This prevents baking of the 
soil after rains and supplies a surface which is easily pierced by the 
sprouts. The nuts thus treated should germinate very evenly, and at 
the close of the first season should show a stem above ground of about 
12 inches in leno-th. Manv of the seedlings will attain a thickness of 
three-eighths of an inch close to the ground. The taproot will average 
fully 2i feet in length and will be supplied with quite a number of 
very small fibrous roots. By the middle of the following June the 
seed.ings will average over half an inch in diameter near the ground, 
making excellent stocks for budding. 

SELECTION OF DORMANT BUDS. 

After a series of trials with buds of the current season's growth and 
those of the preceding season, none but those which were formed 



12 BUDDING THE PECAN. 

during the season preceding the operation of budding are recommended 
for use. The dormant buds (PL I, fig. 1, A) during the month of June 
are ready to burst into active growth when given the slightest en- 
couragement. Moreover, they can be very easily removed from the 
bud stick, together with a section of thick, solid bark. The bark on 
the old wood can be handled without being injured in any way, and it 
is in every particular splendidly adapted for successful work. After 
the union has taken place and the stocks are cut back, the bud will 
give a stronger growth and attain a greater length than growths from 
the current season's buds. In using buds from the current season's 
wood (PL I, fig. 1. B) many difliculties will be encountered, and the 
results will be found disappointing. Until the season is pretty well 
advanced the current year's bark is very thin and more or less succu- 
lent, and it can not be removed from the wood without being bruised. 
Sometimes, even when the greatest care is exercised by the operator, 
it will split lengthwise and be rendered useless. Again, especially up 
to the latter part of July, the cuticle is very apt to peel, and where it 
does stay on it is almost certain to be bruised in the operation of 
tying. Another serious objection is the presence of the leaf stalk. 
This, shortly after the bud is inserted, will shrivel up and fall, or it 
can easily be detached; but the scar left, which in most cases is a 
large one, is, it is thought, the channel through which a large part of 
the sap of the bark is lost before it has had an opportunity to unite 
with the cambium of the stock. 

LOCATION OF THE BUDS. 

It is important that the position which the dormant buds occupy on 
the branches be accurately understood, so that the proper ones may 
be selected for the work of budding. They are to be found on the 
branches made the year preceding that in which it is desired to insert 
the buds. The pecan trees which have been examined in the vicinity 
of Washington show exceedingly few growths from terminal buds. 
The growth of a season starts from one of the large axillary ))uds 
near the apex of the preceding year's growth (PL 1, fig. 2, A). Two 
or more of these buds may produce growths, but commonl}^ only one. 
In fruiting branches the nut cluster takes the place of the terminal 
bud on the young wood, as seen in PL II, fig. 1. The strong shoots 
from these axillary buds when 1 year old are the ones which give 
good material for budding. Each bud will be found immediately 
above a leaf scar of the preceding season (PL I, fig. 1, A). Those 
buds which are nearest the base of the shoot are the smallest and 
firmest; consequently they are the best fitted for the work. Regard- 
ing the period during which buds retain their power of bursting into 
active growth, PI. II, fig. 2, shows a 7-year-old branch of an allied 
species of hickory {'Hicoria laciniosa) with three small growths from 



KXl'EHl.MKMTS — IMI'ROVKD MKTHOD. 18 

donntiiit l)iids iiiado dmino- tlu' present season, toi^ether with ii Imd 
quite dormant and evidently al)le to persist for some time. In tiie selec- 
tion of hud wood it is preferable to cut the ])ranches from the tree to 
be propai»-ated in the early part of the day, choosing,' shoots us hui^-e in 
diameter as possible and those which show the ufreatest numbiT of 
short, plump buds. Innnediately on severintf the branches from the 
tree the jrrowtii of tli(> current season is se\-ered and disearded. and 
the 1-year-old l)ud sticks are wrapped in tlampened newspapers. If 
necessary, they can in this manner l)e kept for s(>v(Mal days without 
danger of dryino- out. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH BUDS OF THE CURRENT SEASON. 

Ill a recent series of buddino- experiments with the current season's 
buds the work ])eoan dune (5. The l)uds selected were principally the 
small, plump ones found at the base of the soft wood (1*1. I. Htr. 1, R). 
At that date the buds were sliirhtly inunaturc; conseciuently, when a 
large section of bark w'as removed from the wood it showed signs of 
injury. The cuticle peehnl easily, and even with gretit care in removing 
buds with sections of bark attached and in i)lacing and tvinir them in 
position, the percentage of unions was small. I'p to the end of -lulv 
separate lots of the current year's buds were worked at intervals of 
one week, the percentage of unions increasing slightly with each 
week. Patch budding (PI. Ill, tig. 1), which is merely a moditication 
of annular budding, was the method used. Taking everything into 
consideration, the results ol)tained could by no means be considered 
satisfactory. 

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF BUDDING. 

An improved method, which has been demonstrated to be a perfect 
way in which to bud the pecan and one by the use of which there are 
very few failures, is as follows: For the reception of the bud make 
two transverse cuts in the bark of the seedling stock (PI. Ill, tig, 2) a 
few inches above the ground line, these two cuts, about 1 inch apart, 
tc be connected b}- a longitudinal incision. The bark at each side of 
the longitudinal cut is then raised far enough (PI. Ill, fig. 3) to admit 
of the insertion of the section of bark on wdiich the bud is situated 
(PI. Ill, tig. 2, A). The rectangular section of bark when prepared for 
insertion must be of exactly the same length as the cut in the stock. 
It is taken from the stick of buds by making two transverse cuts 
through the bark at equal distances from the bud. Two longitudinal 
cuts are then made through the bark, leaving the bud in the center of 
the patch, which should be a little over 1 inch long and five-eighths 
of an inch wide. The patch must be raised carefully from the bud 
stick to guard against breaking and with as little bending during the 
operation as possible. When the operator finds that he does not 



14 BUDDING THE PECAN. 

succeed at the first trial, it will be advisable to practice for a time on 
wood which is of no value. The stick of buds should be grasped 
firmly in the left hand, with the knife held by the fingers of the right, 
the thumb resting on the bud stick. Insert the point of the knife at 
one end of one of the longitudinal cuts, pressing the blade toward the 
thumb; this pressure will start the bark. Next insert the end of the 
handle of the knife, gradually removing the section. The patch is 
prepared for insertion by first cutting the two ends as straight as pos- 
sible, using a very sharp knife. The outer bark at the sides (PI. Ill, 
fig. 2, A) is then shaved off, so that the edges will make a perfect fit 
when under the bark of the stock (PI. IV, fig. 1). When the bud is 
securely in place, the two wings of bark on the stock are bound firmly 
over the bud section with raffia (PI. IV, fig. 2), and, as a preventive 
against the admission of water during the process of uniting, a little 
soft grafting wax may be smeared across the upper transverse cut 
and the whole wrapped with a narrow strip of waxed cloth (PI. IV, 
fig- 3)- The wrapping should be started at the bottom, each wrap 
being half covered by the succeeding one; this will effectually keep 
out moisture during wet weather. As a protection against the heat 
of the sun, strips of paper, 8 inches long by 6 inches wide, should be 
tied around the stem of the stock an inch or two above the bud, but 
covering it (PI. V, fig. 1), allowing the bottom part to remain open. 
After the sixth day the paper covering should be removed, and after 
the tenth day the waxed cloth may be taken off. By the fifteenth day 
the buds will have united sufficiently to allow of the removal of the 
raffia. This method of budding will be found to give an exceedingly 
satisfactory union. Experience has shown that with carefully selected 
buds from 1-year-old wood and healthy, vigorous growing seedling 
stocks, every section of bark will unite. 

OTHER METHODS OF BUDDING. 

Sometimes, when the .seedling stocks are small and the size of the 
section of bark necessary for the union will more than cover half of 
the circumference of the stem of the stock, a quick growth on the 
part of the stock will produce a swelling immediately above the upper 
transverse cut in the bark. This can be averted by the use of a tri- 
angular patch bud (PI. V, fig. 2), with one of the angles pointing 
upward. In using this method care must be taken that the three 
sides of the bud section should exactly fit the sides of the space pre- 
pared for them. It will be found advisable to smear a small quantity 
of soft grafting wax over the cut parts after the bud is in position and 
before tying with raffia. This makes an exceedingly neat union and 
is best used with small buds. Large ones need a larger section of 
bark attached. 

In patch budding (PI. Ill, fig. 1) a rectangular piece of bark, similar 
in size to that given in PI. Ill, fig. 2, is taken from the bud stick. A 



STARTING BUDS INTO GROWTH. 15 

corresponding- piece is removed from the stock and the section from 
the ])iul stick carefully fitted in its place. It is then tied with a strand 
of dampened ratha. l)ut this is used only to keej) the l)ud tirmly in 
place; the top and bottom of the section are left uncovered, ))ecause 
there is a danger of the raffia injuring the cut ends, which are held 
tightly in place b}' narrow strips of waxed cloth covering all ))ut the 
bud. A wrapping of paper is then given, as already described. The 
principal objection to this method of budding is that the sides of the 
bark are apt to rise somewhat during the growth of the stock. This, 
while in no way injuring or retarding the growth of the bud. does not 
have a ver}^ neat appearance for some time after the union is effected 
and may have a tendency to weaken the point of union, l)esides giving 
opportunities for hart)()ring noxious insects. 

STARTING BUDS INTO GROWTH. 

It is desirable that the buds be started into growth as .soon as possible 
after it has been ascertained that the union has taken place. Buds 
which are united to stocks having a large section of bark attached are 
liable to have more or less of the bark decav during the winter months. 
This occurs principally with young buds, especially when they are 
worked on 1-year-old wood. This would seem to be common to all 
the species of the hickory family, but where 1-year-old buds are used 
the danger is lessened consideral)lv. However, in the latter case they 
lose their vigor in proportion to the time the}' remain on the stock 
without being encouraged to break. 

In order to force the bud into growth it is necessarv that the top of 
the seedling stock be removed, leaving onl}' one or two healthy leaves 
at the base of the present season's growth. In a few days the buds in 
the axils of these leaves will push out. and they should be Removed as 
soon as the}' can be handled, and on down the stem the small dormant 
buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the preceding season will 
burst into active growth and must be rubbed off at once. By this 
time the scion bud will have swollen considerably, and in a month's 
time it will have developed several full-sized leaves. With buds 
inserted up to the end of June there is abundant time for the devel- 
opment of a good-sized shoot. The terminal buds of these shoots 
reach maturity in the majority of cases, but this is of Httle consequence, 
as one of the lateral buds will push out strongly the following spring. 

The practice of tying the growth of the scion to the top of the stock 
is a good one; it not only saves the soft growth from being whipped 
about by the wind, but it also secures a close, upright growth. At 
the beginning of the second season all of that part of the stock which 
is above the union should be carefully removed, not with a pair of 
pruning shears, but with a sharp knife, so as to leave a cleanly cut 
surface, with the bark uninjured. The cut surface should be covered 
with melted grafting wax to prevent decay. 



16 BUDDING THE PECAN. 

TRANSPliANTING BUDDED TREES. 

The pecan is usually regarded as a difficult subject to deal with in 
transplanting. A large percentage of the trees die back after being 
placed in their permanent positions from nursery rows. However, if 
certain precautions be observed it will be found that there is no ground 
for the supposed difficulty, as the pecan will withstand the ordeal of 
transplanting in a young state quite as well as any other forest tree. 
In transplanting the pecan its requirements must be carefully con- 
sidered. In a young state it is a very deep-rooting subject, and any 
attempt to change its nature by coaxing the roots to grow near the 
surface of the soil will end disastrously. 

PI. VII shows part of a row of 3-year-old budded trees, which 
were planted during the spring of 1902, after being out of the ground 
for several weeks. In this row there are about 10 plants, and only 
one of them shows signs of poor health. The work of removing these 
trees from nursery rows was evidently carried out with no more care 
than is ordinaril}" bestowed on young forest trees, except that a fairly 
successful attempt was made to save as many roots as possible. A few 
of the large roots were mutilated, and during a journey of a week or 
more from the nurseries the roots became dry. The mutilated roots 
were pruned and the cut surfaces covered with melted grafting wax to 
prevent deca3^ They have been treated since coming to the nursery of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture as described below, and the result 
is a lot of young trees with new growths in every way satisfactory. 

To insure the growth of the trees after transplanting, it is very 
necessary to avoid excessive trimming of the branches and roots. 
There must be at least one healthy undisturbed shoot of the previous 
season left on the plant untouched, because the large, plump axillary 
buds near the tip of the shoot will come into leaf with greater cer- 
tainty and more quickly than will older buds on cut-back growths. 
Especially is this the case after the tree has undergone removal, involv- 
ing the tremendous disturbance of the root system, which almost com- 
pletely robs the plant for the time being of its water supply. Seedlings 
in nursery rows with undisturbed roots, when trimmed down to the 
small lateral buds on 1 or 2-year-old wood, will start as readily, if not 
as strongly, as the buds near the end of the most recent growth. It 
must be remembered that the terminal buds of the pecan ver}^ seldom 
grow. They sometimes do so in seedlings, but very seldom after a cer- 
tain age. This is shown in PI. I, lig. 2, PI. II, tig. 1, and PL VI, 
which represent the growths made during three seasons. In PI. I, 
fig. 2, the large, plump bud near the terminal contains the flowering 
branch. The branch shown in PI. II, fig. 1, is developed from this 
bud. PI. VI shows a still further development. The small, dead 
stump between the two living shoots represents the position occupied 



TRANSPLANTING BUDDED TREES. 17 

])y the nuts tlu' prci'rdinu- year, while the two slioots are fi'oni two of 
the hirg-e l)U(l.s near the nut. (PI. II, flu-, 1.) 

In transplantin*^- yoiinj^- trees, especially those Avhich are to a certain 
extent weakened ))v the operation of budding, it is impossible to save 
all of the lateral roots during the o})eration of digging from the seed 
rows. It is, however, verv desiral)le that as few as possible be sacri- 
ficed. Ver}' careful lifting will pay for the extra labor. In seedling 
trees the taproot is usually severed much too near the collar and at 
too earlv.a stage. It must be allowed to grow the first and second 
seasons if the seedlings are to be budded, ]>ecause when removed at 
the end of the first season or the beginning of the second the weak 
growth will render it impossible to perform any l)udding operations 
during that 3^ear. Therefore, it is not till the third year that the tap- 
root can be interfered with, ])ut it is well not to risk touching it 
until the growth of that season is completed, for the reason that 
although the shoot made from the inserted bud makes considerable 
growth the same season it is put on, it will make very large growth 
the season following. The budded seedlings will then bear removal. 
They may have a small part of the taproot removed and be either 
planted permanently or in nursery rows. The budded seedlings of 
the present da}', if the variety be a good one, are retailed at about 
$2.50 apiece. When the tree brings that amount — and the supply 
is understood to ])e far short of the demand — it should be furnished 
with good roots. If it is worth that sum to the purchaser, it is cer- 
tainly entitled to a little further expenditure of time and care in the 
preparation of suital)le conditions under which to grow. The reten- 
tion of roots at least 2^ feet below the surface of the soil is desirable. 
If the ground in which the young trees are to be placed is not com- 
posed of good soil to that depth, it should be supplied. A good start 
the first vear after planting means ever3'thing to the future tree; a 
bad start will, in the majority' of cases, mean a sickl}- tree for a long 
time and an unprofitable investment in the end. With the roots deep 
in good, light, loamy soil the tree is to a certain extent independent 
of moisture from the surface. When growth begins in earnest, the 
roots will grow in the direction of the food supply. The severance 
of a large portion of the taproot saves a good deal of labor in dig- 
ging and planting, but it means a complete defeat of nature's method 
in supplying the wants of the tree. An^^one who tries the two methods 
and compares the results will be convinced in one season in favor of 
large roots. 

As a further precaution, the roots should be plunged in liquid nmd 

the moment they are free from the soil and never be exposed for a 

minute longer than is necessary, as they too often are, to the drying 

influence of the air. After taking from the mud, the roots should be 

9496— No 30—02- 2 



18 BUDDING THE PECAN. 

wrapped in damp sacking, moss, or any other material which will hold 
moisture, and kept in this condition until thej' are about to be planted. 
The}' should then l)e again plunged in liquid mud, and while this is 
hanging to the roots they should be planted. When the soil has been 
well firmed about the roots of the tree and the hole is about two-thirds 
filled with soil, the remaining space should be filled with water. When 
this has disappeared, fill in the rest of the soil. A mulch of short 
grass, stable litter, or half-decayed leaves left on during the summer 
will supply favorable conditions. If these little details are faithfully 
attended to there is little danger that unsuccessful results will follow. 
A little extra expense is involved at first, but careless handling will be 
far more costlv in the end. 



X i^ j\^ 1 Jli lb . 



19 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Frontispiece. Part of row of seedlings l)udded by new method on June 26, 1902; 
photographed August 15, 1902. 
Plate I. Fig. 1. — Branch of pecan, showing growth of two seasons, with old and 
new buds. A, 1 -year-old dormant buds; B, current season's buds; C, 
small plump buds at base of growth, from which the leaves fall early. 
Fig. 2. — Twig of pecan; top part of season's growth, showing buds 
during winter; A, flower bud; B, terminal bud. 
II. Fig. 1.— Fruiting branch of pecan, developed from bud shown in Plate I, 
fig. 2, A. A, buds from which the growth of the following season is 
developed, the buds, B, remaining dormant. Fig. 2.— Seven-year-old 
branch of Hicoria laciniosa. A, growth made from buds which stayed 
dormant during seven years; B, dormant bud in good condition. 

III. Fig. 1.— Patch budding. Two-year-old seedling pecan with piece of bark 

removed. A, bud with section of bark attached, ready to be fitted on 
stock. Fig. 2. — Seedling pecan stock, showing incisions made in the 
bark with a knife previous to lifting the bark; A, bud with section of 
bark which has the sides shaved down, ready to be inserted under the 
bark of the stock. Fig. 3.— Seedling pecan stock, with bark raised 
and ready for bud to be inserted. 

IV. Fig. 1. — Seedling pecan stock, showing bud in position ready to be tied. 

Fig. 2.— Budded seedling pecan, the wings of bark on the stock 
almost covering the bud section. Both are held securely in position 
while the union is being accomplished. Fig. 3.— Budded seedling 
pecan, showing the method by which the narrow strip of waxed cloth 
should be applied. 
V. Fig. 1.— Seedling pecan budded, showing how the paper covering 
should be fastened for protection from sun. Fig. 2.— Triangular bud- 
ding. Seedling pecan, with triangular section of bark removed; A, bud 
of variety to be propagated ready to insert in stock. 
VI. Branch of pecan, showing shoots made from buds near the base of the 
nut cluster, as seen in Plate II, lig. 1, A; A, position occupied by nut 
cluster during preceding year. 
VII. Three-year-old budded trees transplanted during March, 1902; photo- 
graphed August 15, 1902. 
20 . 

O 



fiul. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




B 



^t 



' . 



Fig. 1.— Pecan Branch— Summer Condition. 



Fig. 2.— Pecan Branch— Winter 
Condition. 



Bui. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1.— Pecan Branch— Fruiting Condition. 



Fig. 2.— Seven-year-old Branch of Hicoria 

laciniosa. 



8ul. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U, S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III 




Fig. 1— Patch Budding. Bud Ready for Fig. 2.-Seedlinq Pecan Fig. 3.-Seedling Pecan 
Insertion. Stock. Preliminary In- Stock. Bark Raised 

cisiONS IN Bark. Ready for Bud. 



Bui. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Oept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 



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Ml 






i-my^ 



i-m 



{■M^ 



'wJi 




Fig. 1.— Seedling Pecan 
Stock. Bud Inserted 
Ready to be Tied. 



Fig. 2.— Budded Seedling 
Pecan. Bud Inserted 
and Tied. 



Fig. 3.— Budded Seedling 
Pecan. Bud Wrapped 
WITH Waxed Cloth. 



Bui 30, Bureau of Plant Industiy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V, 





Fig. 1.— Budded Seedling Pecan, Covered 
WITH Paper 



Fig. 2,— Triangular Budding. Bud 
Ready for Insertion. 



Bui. 30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Branch of Pecan, Showing Shoots from Buds near Nut Cluster of Previous Season. 



Bui. 30, Buteau of Plant Industry, U. S. Oept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VII. 



I 

X 

m 
m 




U.S. DKPARTMHXT Ol Ac .KlcL L 1 URK 
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN NO. 3L 



B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Kuronn. 



CULTIYATEI) FORAGE CR0F8 



OK TIIK 



XUllTH\\i;sTEI{X STATKS. 



»Y 



A. S. IHTCIICOCK. 

ASSL^TANT AgKOSTOI^OGIST, IN ClIAK(iK OF CoOPKlJATrV'K 

KXI'KUIMEXTS, 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 



Jxsl iil) IJEf.EMlJKh lo, 1>JU2. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1902. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

Beverly T. Galloway, Cliief of Bureau. 
GRASS A^p FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

Scientific Staff, 

W. J. Spillman, Agrostologist. 

A. S. KiTcncoCK, Asmtant A(p'ostologi$t, in Charge of Cooperative Experiments. 

C. R. Ball, Assistant Agrostologist. 

David Griffiths, Expert in Charge of Field Management. 



U.S. DEPARTIMKNT ()!• AC.RlCCI/rURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN NO. 31. 

B. T. (iALLOW.W. Chit-f of Burt'iiu. 



CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS 



OV TlIK 



NOI!THWI'STi:itN STATICS. 



BY 



NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

A. S. HITCHCOCK, OAROt-N 

Assistant Agrostologist, in CHAR(iE of Coopkhative 

Experiments. 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 



Issued December 13, 1902. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFIC] 

1902. 



l.ETTHR OF TRAXSMITTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 

WasJuui/ton, T). r., Octoher 17, 1902. 
Sir: 1 have the honor to transmit herewith a paper on "Cultivated 
Forage Crops of the Northwestern States," and respectfully recom- 
mend that it l)e published as Bulletin No. 31 of the series of this 
Bureau. 

This paper was prepared by Mr. A. S. Hitchcock, Assistant Agros- 
tologist, in Charge of Cooperative Experiments, (xrass and Forage 
Plant Investigations, and has been submitted with a view^ to publica- 
tion b}' the Agrostologist. 
Respectfulh', 

B. T. Calloway, 

Chief of Hureaa. 
Hon. .James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



I'RT. TACI- 



Durini^- the surniiior of liMJi Professor llitchcock. uiukw instruc- 
tions from the then Agrostologist, Prof. F. Jviunson-Scribner. visited 
the States of Kansas, Nebraska. Colorado, "\V3^oniini?. Utah, Nevada. 
California, Oregon, Wasliintrton, and Idaho for the purpose of study- 
ing conditions with reference to cultivated forage crops. In the course 
of his investigations he visited the experiment stations of the above 
States and interviewed many farmers and ranclnucii. fi'om some of 
whom he received nmch valual)le information. C'onsi(l('ral)le informa- 
tion was also obtained from seedsmen and from deaU'rs in grain and 
hay and farm machinery. The accompanying paper is a resume of 
the information thus obtained. It is recognized that in a large section 
of country rather sparsely settled, and particularly one in which agri- 
culture is a recent develo})ment, many farmers and others have learned 
much that would be valuable to others in the same section of country. 
The principal ol)ject of this paper is to make common property of the 
individual knowledge of various farmers, ranchmen, and others, so that 
each may benefit by the experience of others. This is particularly 
important in a new country such as the region described herein. 

The paragraph relating to the "Inland Empire" and the last para- 
graph of the section devoted to velvet grass were written by the 
Agrostologist; otherwise the paper is entirely the work of Professor 
Hitchcock. 

W. J. Spillman, 

Agrostologist. 

Office of the Agrostologist, 

Washington, 1). 6'., October 1.^, 1902. 

5 



CO XT i:\TS. 



Page. 

Deacription of the regions 9 

Great Plains 10 

Rocky Mountain region II 

Great Basin 12 

Interior valley of (.'alifornia I'.i 

Upper Paeific coast region 13 

The "Inland Empire" 14 

Forage crops 15 

Alfalfa 15 

General conditions 15 

Feeding value 18 

Seeding 18 

Making hay 19 

Turkestan alfalfa 21 

Timothy 21 

(Jrain hay 22 

Redtop .". 22 

Awnless brome grass 22 

Velvet grass 23 

Clovers 23 

Forage crops of minor importance 24 

Kentucky l)luegrass 24 

Orchard grass 24 

Cheat 25 

Perennial rye grass 25 

Rape 25 

Field jieas 25 

Vetches 26 

Baling hay 26 

Description of plates 28 

7 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page. 
Plate I. Ficr. 1. — Mast and boom stacker, with Jark^on fork. Fig. 2. — fable 

derrick, with grapple fork 28 

II. Fig. 1.— Derrick stacker, with Jackson fork. Fig. 2. — Derrick 

stacker, showing details 28 

III. Fig. 1. — Derrick mounted on wheels. Fig. 2. — Derrick with revolv- 

ing pole 28 

IV. Fig. 1 — A common type of hayrack. Fig. 2. — Pole stacker, with 

Jackson fork 28 

V. Fig. 1. — Lattice rack for feetling alfalfa to cattle. Fig. 2. — Box rack 

for feeding alfalfa to cattle 28 

YI. Fig. 1. — Lattice rack for feeding alfalfa to sheep. Fig. 2.— Box rack 

for feeding alfalfa to sheep 28 

YII. Fig. 1. — Baling grain hay, San Jose, Cal. Fig. 2. — Brome grass at the 

Kansas Experiment Station 28 

8 



K. 1'. I.— :W. (!. F. 1". I —•.•7. 

CLi;ri\ ATKI) roilACH CHOI'S of thk noiith 

WESTERN STATES. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE REGIONS. 

The piv.>^(_'nt Itullctiii cli.sc'U.^^.scs hrn'Hy the t'oni^c rcsouici'.-^ of that 
portion of the rnited States extend in*;- from Colorado and central 
California north to Montana and Wa.shinyfton. The whole area ina\ 
be divided into several well-marked regions, each of which will he 
discussed separately. Kach region has its characteristic climate, 
topoi;rai)hy. and ])hysi()i>-nomy. The climate depends chiefly upon 
the latitude, altitude, and the amount and distrilmtion of the rainfall. 
The latter factor is i>-reatly influenced hy the presence and trend of the 
mountain chains anil the direction of the prevailinj,'' winds. In gen- 
eral the winters are longer and moiv severe as the latitude increases. 
The climate is cooler at higher altitudes. The Coast Range. Sierra 
Nevada, and Cascade Mountains rob tht' winds of their moisture as 
they blow from the Pacific Ocean eastward, thus producing an arid 
region in the interior. The physiognomy, or general appearance, 
depends very largely upon the character of the vegetation, which in 
turn varies according to the climate and soil. The low and scattered 
vegetation of the sagebrush plains of the Great Basin region, the 
forests of the Pacific slope, and the butlalo-grass sod of the Great 
Plains are examples of the characteristic physiognomy. It is not the 
intention to discuss minutely the physical geograph}' of the region, 
but these preliminarv remarks will call attention to the basis of the 
regional classification. The relation of these pln'sical factors to the 
agriculture of the individual regions will be referred to later. 

The soil conditions are more local in their efi'ect than the above-men- 
tioned factors, but in some cases may profoundly modify the growth 
of plants. The soil factors may be physical, such as its ability to hold 
or transport water, the size of the particles, and character of the sub- 
soil; or chemical, depending upon the chemical constituents, such as 
the presence of excessive amounts of carbonate of soda, salt, or other 
substances, producing alkali soils. One other factor should be men- 
tioned, which, though not included among those determining the clas- 
sification into areas, is nevertheless of vast importance in its relation 
to agriculture. This is artificial water supply or irrigation. 

9 



10 cultivated forage crops of the northwest. 

Great Plains. 

This region extends from about the ninetN'-eighth meridian to the 
Rocky Mountains and from Texas far north into Canada. The altitude 
increases from about 1.500 feet, at the eastern limit, to the base of 
the mountains, where it may be 6,000 or 7,000 feet. The western 
portion of this area extends into the group of States considered in 
this bulletin. The topographical features of this region are discussed 
by the late Thomas A. Williams in Bulletin No. 12 of the Division 
of Agrostology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, entitled "'A Report 
upon the Grasses and Forage Plants and Forage Conditions of the 
Eastern Rocky Mountain Region." 

The annual rainfall is usually from 10 to 12 inches, in consequence 
of which the cultivation of crops is dependent upon irrigation. The 
native grasses are well adapted to grazing, and hence stock raising is 
the paramount industry throughout this portion of the Great Plains, 
which includes the eastern part of the States of Montana, Wyoming, 
and Colorado. The stock raised is chie% cattle and sheep, vast herds 
of which roam over the plains during the summer, and, in most local- 
ities, for the greater part of the winter, subsisting upon the short 
grasses, the most important of which are buffalo grass {Bnlhilis dacty- 
loidex) and blue grama {BouteloKo oligostachya). Along the draws or 
in the valleys of the streams taller grasses occur, such as blue-stem 
{Andrrjjxxjon furcatuH) and alkali saccaton {Sjxyrohohis avroide-s), the 
common bunch grass of the Arkansas Valley. The upland or " short" 
grasses seldom grow sufficiently tall for hay, but in favoralile seasons 
hay is cut in those situations where the tall grasses abound. The 
foliage of the short grasses usually cures on the ground and furnishes 
food through the winter; but in order to provide food during the 
stormy periods of the winter and to increase the carrying capacity 
of the ranges by supplementing the natural food supply, hay is put 
up for winter use. This practice is increasing as competition enforces 
more economical methods of agriculture. Almost all the forage stored 
for winter is produced by the aid of irrigation. Near the base of the 
mountains there is an al)undant supph" of water in the mountain streams, 
and this is distributed along the valWs b}" means of canals. In many 
places storage reservoirs supply water in the canals during a portion 
of the period of low vfater. 

The most important forage plant raised b}" cultivation is alfalfa. 
This can be grown up to an elevation of 5,000 or 6,000 feet. On 
account of the altitude the nights are too cold for the successful culti- 
vation of corn and many other of the coarse forage grasses grown in 
the prairie regions to the east. Sorghum and Katir corn are grown 
to some extent in Colorado for forage. Timothy is grown, especially 
in the mountain region; it is used for both pasture and hav. Red 
clover is i-aised in Montana and to some extent in the two States to 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. 11 

the south. The n^ccntlv iiitrotluei'd jiw iilcss hroinc wi-.iss hu.> sliown 
that it Clin bo .sucvossfully i,rit)\vii without ini^'-atiou. For ti tuith(>i- 
discussion of the fonii^o fonditions of tliis area the reader is refeired 
to Bulletin No. 12 mentioned above. 

HocKv MoiNTAiN Region. 

This includes a wide area passin^j- throuoh Colorado, Wyoming, 
western Montana, and a part of eastern Idaho. This area also received 
attention in Bulletin No. 12. 

As in the precedintif area, the most important ai^ricultural in(histry 
is stock raisini^. Sheep raisinjjf is relatively more important here. 
The sheep are pastured during- the sununer in. the valleys, or at least 
where thev have acces.s to water, hut durintjf the wintei- they mav ))e 
driven to the more arid districts, depending- upon the snowfall for 
theii- water supply. 

The forai,re conditions of one of these arid regions is discussed by 
Prof. Aven Nelson in Bulletin No. 13 of the Division of A«>rostolo"v, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, entitled •■The Red Desert of Wyo- 
ming and its Forage Rt'sources." 

Alfalfa is raised l)y irrigation at the lower altitudes throughout the 
area, but, as before stated, is not successful at an altitude exceeding 
6,0U0 or 7,000 feet, depending upon the latitude, and somewhat n\nm 
the local conditions. Above this altitude the common foratre L'rasses 
of the East may be grown. Timothy is raised in Colorado in favor- 
able locations up to an elevation of l>,Oi>0 or even Iti.ooo feet. On the 
plateau from Laramie westward the ranchmen depend largely upon 
wild hay for winter food. This is irrigated to increase the crop; but, 
owing to the injudicious or excessive application of water, the more 
desirable grasses are driven out by ''wire grass" (Juncm haltivxs), a 
kind of rush. 

It is a common practice to flood the land in the spring and allow it 
to remain partly under water until time for cutting the hay, when the 
water is turned otf. A species of spike rush {Eleocharis)^ also known 
as wire grass, is conuiion in the moist spots. This wire grass is onlv 
moderately nutritious, but yields larger crops of hay than w^hen grow^n 
on unirrigated land, and it is less trouble to turn on the water once 
than to supply the water oftener. allowing it to drain otf each time. 

There is an impression among farmers in southern Wyoming that 
wild hay is more valuable for feed than alfalfa, ton for ton, for all 
kinds of stock. This is reflected in the price of hay at Saratoga, 
where wild hay or timothy sold at $15 and alfalfa at ^5 to |6 per ton. 
At Laramie baled native hay was worth $8 to $10, and alfalfa in the 
stack $5 to Wl per ton. Throughout the West, grass hay is considered 
better than alfalfa for horses. There are several other kinds of forage 
plants that have been grown in isolated localities with success, and 



12 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

whose cultivation should be extended. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Canada field pea, rape, and awnless brome grass. 

Great Basin. 

This reo-ion extends from the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the Rockv 
Mountains, and from Arizona north into southeastern Oregon and 
southern Idaho. It is an arid region, having an annual rainfall of 
less than 15 inches over the greater part, and in central Nevada of 
less than o inches. The altitude of this great plateau is about 5,000 
or 6,000 feet, with numerous mountain chains rising :2,000 or 3,000 
feet higher. There are several lakes or depressions having no outlet, 
the largest of which is the Great Salt Lake of Utah. 

In such localities there is usually an excessive accumulation of min- 
eral salts, known as alkali. The water of the streams flowing into 
these depressions holds these salts in solution. l)ut deposits them upon 
the surface of the soil when the water evaporates. These alkali soils 
modify the vegetation. Each species of plant is able to withstand a 
certain amount of alkali in the soil upon which it grows. If the amount 
is in excess of this limit, the plant can not exist. Consequently, the 
native vegetation gives a fair index of the alkaline condition of the 
soil. The presence of saltbushes {Atriplex spp.), salt grass {Distlchlls 
Kpicata)^ and grease wood {Sa/'cohatus vermiculatus) indicates a strongly 
alkaline soil. A still larger amount of soluble mineral matter prevents 
the growth of even the salt plants, and in such cases the soil is devoid 
of vegetation. 

The prevailing vegetation over the whole region, except in the 
mountains and upon the abov'e-mentioned alkali soils, is the sagebrush 
{Artemisia tridentata). Hence such localities are called sagebrush 
plains. As in the case of the two preceding areas the chief agricul- 
tural industrv is the raising of stock — cattle, sheep, and horses. The 
latter class of stock is of importance in certain localities, but is rela- 
tively unimportant over the whole area. The sheep are herded in the 
mountains in summer, where there is water, and upon the deserts in 
winter, where there is snow. There are vast areas where stock can 
not graze on account of the insufficiency of food or water, or both. 

Alfalfa is grown in large quantities under irrigation in the valleys 
and is practically the only supplemental forage for all kinds of stock. 
In some of the larger valleys other crops are raised, such as grain and 
sugar beets. As an example, the highly cultivated Cache Valley, in 
northern Utah, mav be mentioned. In a few favored localities drj- 
farming may be carried on successfully. This, however, is where 
there is seepage and conservation of water from the winter snow on 
the mountains. In the Cache Valley there are numerous instances of 
grain and alfalfa fields on the hillsides above the canals. 



CALIFORNIA AND COAST REGION. 18 

IXTEUIOU \ Al.l.KY OF C'AI.IFOKXIA. 

Between the Coast liiiiio*' and the Sierru Nevada Mountains Hes a 
vaUev extending; throiijjfli central California from Kern Coiintv on 
the south to ShasUi County on the north. This is formed hy the 
union of two valleys, the Sacramento Kiver tlowino- from the north 
and the San Joaquin from the south. The reunion is chai-actei-ized by 
hit>h tomperatui-t' and scant rainfall in the summer. The Coast Kang-e 
Mountains forminti' the western limit of the valley cut oti' the 
moisture-laden winds from the Pacific Ocean, except at San Francisco 
Bay, where there is a break in the chain throujifh which the above- 
mentioned rivers reach the ocean. At this point in the valley and also 
opposite a few other minor breaks, the climate is nioditied in propor- 
tion to the amount of moisture that tilters throu(;;h. 

When the winter rainfall is sufficient there may be an abundance of 
native pasture during- the >])rinu-. but the main dependence* is placed 
on two crops — alfalfa and o*rain hay. Exi-eptino- in a few favored local- 
ities, crops are raised l)v the aid of irrigation. The alfalfa is mostly 
consumed upon the farm, while the grain hay supplies the city mar- 
kets. Alfalfa grows to the greatest perfection, especially in the San 
Joaquin Valley, where it is customary to o})tain about 8 tons of hay 
at five cuttings from each acre, and about five months' pasture*. (Jrain 
hay is produced from wheat, barley, and, to, a less extent, from oats. 
In some districts, wild-oat hay is common. 

Uppf.h Pacifu- Coast Rkoion. 

This includes the area l^'ing along the coast west of the Cascade 
Mountains, from Puget Sound south to San Francisco. It is charac- 
terized by cool summers, mild winters, and a large rainfall. Fogs are 
frequent and droughts ver}^ rare. The conditions are very favorable 
for the growth of pasture grasses, and the section is preeminentl}' a 
dair}^ region. Through most of this region cattle can be pastured 
through the winter. Some ha}' is preserved, especialh' in western 
Washington, but on account of the dampness the qualit}' is inferior. 
The Willamette \"alley of western Oregon may be considered as a part 
of this general area, though, since it is shut off from the coast by a 
low range of mountains (the Coast Kange), the rainfall is much less, 
and the climate is correspondingh' modified. The annual rainfall here 
is 40 to 60 inches, mostly in the winter. Along the coast the rainfall 
is 60 inches, increasing northward in the region of Puget Sound, and it 
is distributed throughout most of the year. In this region the grasses 
and clovers that are commonlv used in the Eastern States grow in 
great luxuriance. 



14 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

The "Inland Empire." 

This region, sometimes known as the Palouse countrv, comprises 
eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and northern Idaho. It is 
characterized by a dark, tine-grained basaltic soil of great fertility and 
of very uniform character over a wide area. The limiting factors of 
agriculture here are rainfall and altitude. With Pasco, Wash., as a 
center, where the annual rainfall is about 6 inches, the rainfall increases 
in all directions, attaining a maximum of about 30 inches at the base of 
the Blue and Rocky mountains on the east, and the Cascade Mountains 
on the west. A considerable portion of this area in Washington and a 
smaller section in Oregon have a rainfall of less than 10 inches. In 
this portion irrigation is practiced. In Washington, about 150,000 
acres are under irrigation within this area, alfalfa being the staple ha}^ 
crop, with a yield of 3 to 8 tons of hay per acre, at three cuttings. 
The principal irrigated areas are situated in Yakima, Kittitas, Walla 
Walla, and Chelan counties, Wash. Smaller areas, especially in narrow 
canyons along the smaller streams, are located in various parts of 
Oregon and Washington. The Kittitas Valley in Washington, which 
lies at a higher altitude (about 1,600 feet) than any other considerable 
irrigated area in the region in question, grows alfalfa, timothy, and 
clover, producing hay of excellent quality. Like all other regions 
between the Cascades and the Rockies, the haying season is free from 
rain, which fact accounts for the excellent quality of hay produced. 

Those portions of the "Inland Empire" having more than 10 inches 
of rainfall have heretofore been devoted almost exclusively to wheat 
growing. In recent years considerable attention has been given to 
hay and pasture grasses. Brome grass {Bromus Inermis L.) has 
proven to be an excellent pasture grass in this region. It also yields 
profitable crops of hay the second and third years after sowing. A 
superior quality of brome grass seed is produced here. Of the hay 
grasses, timothy and red clover are preferred for lowlands and 
alfalfa, red clover, and orchard grass for uplands. On these wheat 
lands, which lie at an altitude of 1,500 to 3,000 feet, alfalfa produces 
one or two crops a year, and is rapidly becoming an important hay 
crop. Irrigation is not practiced in this region where the rainfall 
exceeds 10 or 1-2 inches a year. 

Heretofore, and even at the present time, the principal hay of the 
wheat-growing area has been a mixture of wheat and wild oats {Arena 
fatua). Where the rainfall exceeds 18 inches wild oats are trouble- 
some in the wheat fields, particularly on north hillsides, where snow 
banks protect them against freezing. Hay is cut from those patches 
in the wheat fields where wild oats predominate. When cut green 
this hay is of good quality, but many careless farmers cut it so late 
that the seeds are mature, and the hay is not only of poor (juality but 



FORAGE CROPS. 15 

serves to st-attei- the seed of the pest. The common system of farm- 
incr consists of takinjj^ a cro]) of wheat ev(>rv alternate year. Icavinjr 
the hmd idle every other year. During the idle year the land is sum- 
mer fallowed: that is. plowed up in spring and left bare during sum- 
mer. These fallow fields often furnish excellent wild-oat pastures, 
which are generally utilized. 

At the present time alfalfa, clover, and brome hay are hcginning 
to take the place of grain hav in this wheat-growing section. It has 
been learned that an exhausted ))rome-grass tield can l)e restored to its 
earl}' vigor by plowing in winter and harrowing to good tilth. After 
this plowing, a crop of spring grain may be taken without serious 
injur}' to the brome grass. 

FORAGE CROPS. 

Ai.FALFA" {MfHlicago mtlvu). 

(5ENEKAL CONDITIONS. 

This well-known forage plant is extensively gi'own throughout the 
West in all localities wliere the conditions are suitable. It rctjuircs a 
well-drained soil and a fairly good supply of water, l»ut will not endure 
an excess of water (standing water) near the surface. It thrives best 
where the summers are hot and dry and the winters not too cold. It 
will withstand a moderate amount of alkali in the soil. In the North 
it suffers in some localities from the effects of too cold w inters, and is 
not usually successful above an altitude of 5,000 or 0,000 feet. It can 
be grown without irrigation in l)ut comparatively few localities in the 
Northwest; but under irrigation it is extensively grown in all the 
States of this region, and reaches its greatest perfect ion in the hot, dry 
valleys of California, where the summer season is long, the water sup- 
ply abundant, and the soil well drained. Alfalfa will not succeed on 
acid soils, but these are of rare occurrence in the western part of the 
United States. 

Alfalfa is a perennial leguminous plant, a native of western Asia, 
but cultivated in the Old World for ages. Jt was brought to Mexico 
by the Spaniards and from there spread into South America and north 
along the Pacific coast, and then throughout the interior arid and semi- 
arid regions. The name alfalfa, of Arabic origin, was given by the 
Spaniards and is in common use throughout western America. In 
Europe the same plant is known as lucern, a name which is common in 
the eastern United States, and also in Utah and the adjacent parts of 
Idaho and Wyoming. In the latter region the name is commonly pro- 
nounced with the accent on the first syllable. 



«For further description see Farmers' Bulletin No. 31. 



16 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

Being a legunie. it gathers nitrogen from the air by means of its 
root nodules, and hence acts as a soil renovator. Although alfalfa is 
a perennial, a field usually deteriorates after a few years from various 
causes. Fields in California as much as 27 and in Nevada from 85 to 
40 years old are reported, but in most cases they require renewing 
much earlier. Often the alfalfa fields become infested with weeds. 
The squirrel-tail grass {Fordeum jiihatum) — also called foxtail in 
Wyoming, barley grass in Utah, and tickle grass in Nevada — is com- 
mon in alfalfa fields of the Great Basin and W^'oming plateau region, 
and wild barley {Tlordeum murinum) — also called barle}' grass and fox- 
tail — on the Pacific slope. 

These two grasses are especially troublesome on account of the long 
bristles attached to the chafl'. When mature the^' cause serious irrita- 
tion in the mouths of animals eating hay containing the weed. In the 
Cache Valley and in western Wyoming the common dandelion is verj^ 
troublesome. It thrives along irrigation ditches and invades the 
alfalfa fields to such an extent that usually the fields are plowed up in 
from five to eight 3^ears and renewed. This is done in the fall and 
oats are sown the following spring, after which the fields are again 
seeded down to alfalfa. 

Many express the opinion that under favorable conditions an alfalfa 
field will last indefinitely and continue to yield profitable crops if 
properly handled; but the alfalfa ma}- be killed in spots due to the 
trampling of stock if a field is overpastured, or, during irrigation, 
certain portions of the field being lower, may remain saturated with 
water for too long a period. Alfalfa wnll scarcely survive standing 
water longer than forty-eight hours. When alfalfa dies, its place is 
likely to be taken b}- the before-mentioned pernicious weeds. 

Some growers renew their fields by disking the bare spots in the 
spring and sowing seed thereon, or even disking the whole field. Disk- 
ing is to be recommended, as it cuts the crowns vertically and causes 
them to send out new stems. 

FEEDING VALUE. 

In the great alfalfa districts of the West t\\\s forage plant furnishes 
the chief and often the onlv food for stock besides the native pasture. 
It is fed to growing stock and to fattening stock; to cattle, sheep, 
horses, and hogs; even the work horses upon the ranches may receive 
no grain in addition to the allowance of alfalfa. Horses that are 
worked hard upon the road, such as livery teams, usually receive a 
small quantity of barley, and this grain maj' form a part of the ration 
for the work horses upon the ranches. Rolled ])arley is the form in 
which it is usually fed. as in this condition there is said to be less 
waste than when whole or ground. For this purpose the grain is 
passed through heavy rollers, which crush it without grinding it. 



Ff:EDINC} VALUE OF ALFALFA. 17 

TIu'Ic is much dittVreiu-o of opinion Jiniono- farnuMs as to the value of 
alfalfa for horses. Sonic prefer tiniothv or wild hav. tou'cther with 
grain; some feed alfalfa and <rrain. while others maintain that horses 
do well enoui^fh ui)on alfalfa alone. It is usually aihnittcd that for 
hard work, horses should he given at least a small allowance of grain. 

In Wyoming some ranchmen claim that wild hay gives a firmer 
flesh than alfalfa, and thus, even when feeding the latter to cattle heinc 
prepared for the market, the stockmen will feed wild hay for about two 
weeks prior to shipment. Sonn' feeders finish hy adding grain to the 
ration. For this purpose harley is used, as it is the only grain avail- 
able through most of the Northwest. The seasons are too short or 
the nights too cold for the successful cultivation of corn, the standard 
feeding grain of the region to the ea.st, and freight lates make this 
grain when shipped too expensive for use. At Fort Collins and adja- 
cent i^arts of Colorado large numbers of sheep are fattened for the 
market upon alfalfa and corn. It is said that about 800, (»00 were fed 
in that vicinitv during the winter of 1900-r.>(>l. Laml)s wei<rhini»- ;;,') 
or -JrO i)ounds are l)rought from the ranges of New Mexico and fed from 
about tlie Istof Octolx'r until sold, which may be any where from Feb- 
ruary to June. The yearlings will then weigh from T<» to !H» i)ounds. 

It is stated " "-that 40 acres of alfalfa will keep ;}00 sheep when pas- 
tured upon it. There is danger of l)loating at first, but as soon as 
the sheep have become accustomed to it this danger ceases. Forty 
acres of alfalfa and 20 acres of grain will feed 450 to 500 head." 

In man}' parts of the Great Basin it is customary for feeders to buy 
alfalfa in the stack for winter feeding, paying a certain amount per 
head per da}'. Conveniences for weighing ar(> usually lacking, and this 
method seems to be satisfactory. At Lovelocks, which lies in one of 
the great alfalfa districts of central Nevada, the price for cattle was T 
to 8 cents per head and for sheep 1 cent per head per day. In Nevada, 
and also in some other districts of the Northwest, the stock cattle are 
kept upon the range during the winter, though the ranchmen try to 
provide a suppl v of alfalfa or wild ha}^ for use during snowstorms. A 
selection is made from the herd, however, of those that are to receive 
winter feed with more regularity. These are the weaklings, the heifers 
with calf, and the cows w^ith calves by their sides. It is also customary 
to feed only the old or weak sheep during the winter, the remainder 
being turned upon the deserts for their winter range. 

Some common forms of racks for feeding alfalfa to cattle and sheep 
are shown in Pis. V and VI. 

Though some maintain that grain hay is better for feeding cattle, ton 
for ton, than alfalfa, the majority of feeders state that the reverse has 
been their experience. Mr. G. F. Chapman, of Evanston, Wjo., states 

" Agricola Aridus, published by the Colorado Agricultural College, I, p. .24. 
9495— No. 31—02 2 



18 CULTIVATED FORAGE CEOPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

that he has many times tried to raise cows with calves upon wild hay, 
but that the calves often die of starvation, while when fed upon alfalfa 
both cow and calf remain in g-ood condition. 

SEEDING. 

The soil should be well prepared and finely pulverized, as the young 
alfalfa is a tender plant. In those localities where the rainfall is 
depended upon for the water supply, the seed should not be sown 
until a rain has moistened the soil thoroughly and thus placed it in 
a condition to favor germination. In California the rains come with 
such regularity that the seed may often be sown in advance of a rain 
and thus get the full benefit of the favorable conditions. 

The seed is sown in the spring, except in central California, where 
it mav be sown in either fall or spring. In California a common 
method is to irrigate, if necessary, in September or October, prepare 
the soil, and then to sow the seed broadcast with barley, or sometimes 
wheat. There is some danger from frost, and the grain is thought to 
protect the alfalfa. It is best not to pasture the alfalfa the first season, 
but to allow it to obtain a good start for the second season. If sown 
in the spring, the grain is usualh^ omitted. 

In other parts of the Northwest, alfalfa, though sown in the spring, 
is sown either alone or with grain — barley, wheat, or oats. Mr. W. 
P. Noble, of Golconda, Nev., states that alfalfa is sometimes sown with 
timothy in central Nevada. Sowing with grain has the advantage 
that there is a return from the land the first season, while the alfalfa 
is getting started. When sown with grain it is best not to pasture 
the alfalfa or cut it for hay the first season. After harvesting the 
grain, the alfalfa should be irrigated, and for this reason the grain 
should be removed from the field as soon as possible. 

On the other hand, many prefer to sow the alfalfa alone, as in this 
way a better stand is obtained. Under favorable conditions one cut- 
ting may be obtained the first season, but it is not best to draw too 
heavily upon the field the first year either by cutting or pasturing the 
crop. Where the ground is weedy, it may be necessary to cut the 
weeds in the summer; but a still better plan is to previously free 
the soil from weeds b}" proper methods of cultivation. 

When alfalfa is sown with grain, the two may be sown at the same 
time by means of combination machines which drill the grain and 
alfalfa throup-h the same holes or scatter the alfalfa broadcast in front 
of the grain drill, or the alfalfa may be drilled one way and the grain 
cross-drilled, or the two may be sown broadcast and harrowed in 
separately. The amount of seed recommended by alfalfa growers 
varies from 12 to 30 pounds per acre. When the seed is drilled in, 
the amount required is less than when sown broadcast. The larger 
quantities of seed tend to produce smaller stems and the hay contains 



MAKING ALFALFA HAY, 19 

less watste. rnder averaj^e conditions i*(> pounds per acre sown broad- 
cast should be sufficient, if it is evenly distri))uted nnd covered to a 
uniform depth; ])ut u few pounds more per acre may be sown to 
insure a i-ood stand. Where alfalfa is orown for a crop of seed, a 
less quantity should be sown than where a permanent meadow is 
desired. 

MAKING HAY. 

As stated, it is best not to cut a crop of alfalfa hay the first season, 
but to allow the field to get well started for the next year. However, 
under favorable conditions, especially in California, one or even two 
or three crops of hav may l)e obtained the first year. The oTower 
must use his judo-mcnt as to whether a crop can be taken from the field 
to advantage. In California it is customary to make two cuttings if 
the seed was sown in the fall with grain; the first cutting consists 
mostly of grain, and the second of alfalfa. After the first year the 
number of cuttings depends upon the length of the season and the alti- 
tude. At the higher altitudes or latitudes not more than two cuttings 
may })e possible, while in the upi)er San Joaquin Valley in California 
five or six cuttings are usually obtained, and as high as ten cuttings 
are reported. The fields are usually irrigated once for each cutting, 
either before or after. If the irrigation is made after the cutting, 
sufficient time should elapse to allow the growth to commence, or there 
is danger of scalding. At Newman, which is in the center of the 
alfalfa district of the San Joaquin Valley, the first cutting is made 
about May 1, and others at intervals of four to eight weeks, six weeks 
being about the average. The last cutting is made in September, after 
which, for about four months, the fields are pastured. The yield of 
hay here for the season is about 8 tons per acre, though some farmers 
state that only three or four cuttings were made, yielding 5 tons. 
The opinion was expressed that the fields were often pastured too 
much. On the high plains of southern Wyoming only two cuttings 
are usually made, yielding about 5 tons of hay per acre. In the Love- 
lock Valley, Nev., where large quantities of alfalfa are grown, three 
cuttings are made, with a yield of 5 to 7 tons. 

Alfalfa hay is prepared in the manner usual for hay crops, but the 
operations are modified somewhat by the climatic conditions prevailing 
in the dry regions of the Northwest. One man with a team can mow 
about 1.5 acres per day. The alfalfa is usually raked within a few hours 
after mowing, thrown into bunches by hand, and stacked as soon as 
convenient. If the hay is allowed to remain too long in the swath or 
windrow, too much loss of foliage occurs in stacking on account of the 
dryness of the air. The stacks may be put up in the field or near the 
corrals, according to convenience. If the fields are pastured during 
the latter part of the year, the stacks are inclosed by a fence. In some 



20 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OB^ THE NORTHWEST. 

sections, especially in California, where there are winter rains, the hay 
is often stored in barns or sheds. 

The hay is usually stacked by machinery. If the stack is made in 
the tield, sweeps or bull rakes are occasionally used for hauling the 
bunches to the stacks, but these implements have the serious objection 
of shattering- the leaves, causing corresponding loss of valuable fodder. 
For this reason the bunches are usually loaded by hand on wagons 
provided with hay racks (PI. IV, fig. 1). At the stack the hay is 
unloaded from the wagons b}^ horsepower, the machine used for this 
purpose being called a stacker or hay derrick. 

The most common type of stacker throughout the Northwest is some 
modification of the pole, or mast and boom, stacker. This is essen- 
tially a derrick, with pulleys and a hay fork, b3' which several hun- 
dred pounds of hay can be lifted from a wagon and deposited upon the 
stack. PI. II, PL III, and PI. IV, fig. 2, show some of these forms. 
The stackers are generally homemade. The derrick may be sup- 
ported by a heavy framework or may consist of poles held in place by 
guy I'opes. The hay is usualh" lifted by means of a fork, but nets are 
in common use in some localities. The most common style of fork is 
that known as the Jackson fork, or, outside of California, as the Cali- 
fornia fork. For alfalfa the fork usuall}^ has four tines, but for grass 
hay five or six tines. By means of a small rope the operator upon the 
wagon can dump the fork load of hay upon the stack at any desired 
point. (See PI. I, fig. 1.) One or two horses attached to the lift- 
ing rope or cable furnish the power to lift the load. The load on 
the fork is swung over the stack by slightly leaning the derrick toward 
the stack. The fork then swings by its own weight. The empty fork 
is drawn back to the wagon by means of the dump rope. Sometimes 
the load is swung over the stack by hand. Another form of fork occa- 
sionally seen is the harpoon fork. Instead of the fork there is some- 
times used a net, also called a sling or hammock. Three or four of 
these are placed at intervals in the hay as it is being loaded. At the 
stacks, the nets full of hay are lifted from the wagon to the stack by 
means of derricks. 

Another form of stacker which has proven very satisfactory is the 
cable derrick. PI. I, fig. 2, illustrates this form. Forks or nets may 
be used with this style. In eastern Colorado and parts of Wyo- 
ming an improved stacker was in common use. 

The bunches may be brought to the stacker with horse sweeps, but 
the distance must not be great or there will be too much loss of leaves. 
Hence the stacks are smaller than when the bunches are brought by 
wagon. 

The stacks of alfalfa are commonly made about 25 feet wide and 
high, and as long as convenient, often 100 or more feet. 

Throughout most of the alfalfa region the hay is put up during the 
dry season, and the process can therefore go on without fear of 



TFKKKSTAN ALFALFA AND TIMoTHY. 21 

iiitorruptioM troiii showers, llt'iuc no piiiiis aic taken to to}) oil' tlic 
8t:u'k in order to slied rain until the stark is linislicHl. 

TiRKKSTAN Alfalfa. 

Turkestan alfalfa, a \ ariety recently introduced from Russian liii- 
kestan by the U. 8. Di'partnient of Aoriculture, has l)een tried in 
many parts of the Northwest, t)ut over most of this reijioM it appears 
to hav'e no superiority ov«>r the kind already grown. Kxperiments 
seem to show, however, that it is somewhat moie resistant to cold 
than the common variety; hence it is likely to he l)ett(>r ada])ted to th(^ 
colder portions of the area, such as Washiuiiton. ()re;^on. and Idaho. 

Ti^iOTHY [Phleuiii jn'atensi'). 

This standard oi-ass is extensively grown in many parts of the Xorth- 
w^est, particularly where the climate is too moist and cool for alfalfa, 
such as the mountain districts and the Pacitic coast plain west of the 
Coast Range. It is the most commonly cultivated grass in the Rock}' 
Mountain region, thriving in the higher altitudes where alfalfa is not 
successful. Except in favoi'ed locations, the tields must be irrigat(>d, 
Timothy will not usually succeed in the hot, dry valleys of California 
and the southern portion of the(ireat Basin region, even when irrigated. 
In the irrigated regionsof central Washington, timothy is an imi)ortant 
crop, being grown chieflv above 1,200 feet altitude. The Ellensburg 
district of the Yakima Valley is famous for the excellent cpiality and 
large (juantity of timothy grown for shipment. On account of the dry- 
ness of the air the hay retains its fresh green color, while that grown 
in the very moist regions around Puget Sound and along the coast to the 
southward is usually darkei- colored. For this reason there is a strong 
demand for timothy grown in the irrigated districts around P'dlens- 
burg, Wash., and elsewhere in northeastern Washington and in north- 
ern Idaho, for export. As stated in another chapter, this timothy is 
baled in large quantities for the Alaskan and Philippine markets In' 
the process of double compression. Where grown for home consump- 
tion, timothy is often mixed with red clover. The timothy ma}' be 
sown in the fall and the clover in the spring, with oats; or the oats 
may be sown in the spring and the other two mixed and sown broad- 
cast later. Sometimes the clover and timothy are sown together by 
means of combination drills. These machines have a separate feed 
box for the clover, which may drop the seed in the same holes w ith 
the timothy or sow it broadcast in front of the drill. On moister land 
and certain kinds of gravelly soil, alsike replaces the red clover in 
combination with timothy. 

Timothy, either alone or in combination with clover, is frequently 
used for pasture. The method of establishing pasture employed hy 
Mr. Wheeler, who owns a ranch near Reno, Nev., illustrates the pos- 
sibilities in this direction, where water is available. Upon ordinary 



22 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

sagebrush land, and without previous preparation, a mixture of 
alfalfa, timothy, red clover, and orchard grass were sown. Beyond 
irrigation, nothing further was done. The pasture, now 3 3"ears old, 
is in excellent condition and consists chiefl}" of alfalfa and timothy. 
Under this treatment the sagebrush has gradually disappeared, though 
the dead stems may be found on the ground beneath the growth of 
grass. A meadow can be established in the same manner, hut it is 
then necessar}' to level the land by some means, such as dragging the 
surface with heavy railroad iron drawn by several horses. 

Gbain Hay. 

In central California and parts of the interior region, hay made from 
cereals is an important product. Grain hay is made from wheat, which 
is considered the best; from barle}", and, to a less extent, from oats, 
though in many localities wild oat hay is commonlv preserved. As 
previously stated, alfalfa is generalh^ consumed on the farm, while 
grain hay supplies the city markets. For convenience it is usually 
baled. It is often the case that the price of the grain determines 
whether the crop shall be converted into hay or the grain be allowed 
to mature. For ha}", the grain is cut when between the milk and the 
dough stages. It is preserved the same as other hay, but is allowed 
to cure in the bunch. It may then be stacked or, if possible, baled 
from the bunch. As there is little or no rain in the grain-ha}" region 
of California, there is little danger of injury from this cause by leaving 
the hay in the bunches. 

On a large ranch near Lovelocks, Nev., an example was presented 
of the use of wheat to supplement the alfalfa crop. The latter had 
been seriously injured by the ravages of a variety of field mouse. 
Wheat was sown in the spring to fill up the places left bare from this 
cause and the mixed crop was converted into hay in the usual manner. 

Redtop {Agrostis alba). 

Redtop is frequently grown on wet meadows in the northern Rocky 
Mountain region and to some extent in other localities. It is not con 
sidered as valuable a grass as timothy, but from the fact that it thrives 
in moist land and can be sown upon native meadow, Avhere under irri 
gation it resists fairl}" well the encroachments of rushes (wire grass), 
it is utilized both for hay and pasture. It is riot usually grown alone, 
but with other grasses or clovers. 

AwNLKSs Brome Grass {Bromus inermis). 

Awnless brome grass" has been grown for man}" years in Europe, 

«For further information concerning this grass, see Circular No. 18, Division of 
Agrostology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, "Smooth Brome Grass." 



VELVET GRASS AND CLOVERS. 28 

where it is native. In recent 3'ears it has been tried in many parts of 
the United States with varyinjr degrees of success. It has proven 
most successful in the semiarid regions of the Northwest from Kansas 
and North Dalvota to Washington. It is especially adapted for those 
regions where the rainfall is insufficient to grow forage crops without 
irrigation and yet the conditions do not approach the aridity of the 
desert. Such regions are found in the eastern part of the (ireat Plains, 
plateaus in the Rocky Mountains, and the Palouse region of eastern 
Washington. 

The seed may be sown broadcast in the spring, at the rate of about 
20 pounds to the acre. The stand is usually thin the first year, l)ut 
the second year it thickens up and forms a sod. In localities Avhere 
winter wheat can be grown, brome grass can be sown in the fall. It 
is valuable for hay, ))ut more especially for i)asture. During mid- 
summer the foliage dries up more or less, but gives good pasture in 
early spring and late fall. The second year it yields large crops of 
palatable hav, ))ut thereafter it is better adai)ted for psisture than for 
■hay. (See PI. VII, tig. 2.) 

Velvet Grass {HoIchs lanatus). 

This grass is common in the Pacific coast region along roadsides, in 
abandoned fields and other waste places, and also is found encroaching 
upon pasture land. It is a native of Europe, but has been introduced 
into many parts of the United States. Opinions differ as to its useful- 
ness, some stigmatizing it as a vile weed, others referring to it as a 
valuable forage grass. It is not a very large yielder, but will thrive 
on poor soil where more valuable grasses fail. Hence in localities 
where the usual meadow and pasture grasses flourish the advent of 
velvet grass should be looked upon with disfavor, but on more sterile 
soil it furnishes a fair crop of forage where other grasses fail. It has 
been said that '"" velvet grass is a good grass for poor land, and a poor 
grass for good land." Velvet grass goes under the name of mesquite 
in many parts of the Northwest, but this name is more frequently 
applied to certain native grasses of the Southwest. 

On sandy soils along the coast and on peaty soils that dry out in 
summer, velvet grass is perhaps the most profitable hay and pasture 
grass, because the better grasses do not succeed. Stock usually refuse 
to eat it at first until driven to do so by hunger, but the}^ will soon 
acquire a taste for it. and it is exceedingl}" nutritious. Its worst faults 
are its low yield and lack of palatability. 

Clovers. 

Red clover {Trifolium. pratense) is in common cultivation through- 
out the northern portion of the Rocky Mountain and upper Pacific 
coast regions and is rapidly coming into cultivation in the more moist 



24 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

parts of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Two crops of hay 
ma}' be obtained, although in western Washington the approach of the 
rainy season may interfere with the second crop. The seed is usually 
sown in the spring, but on sandy land in western Washington it may 
be sown in the fall. As mentioned under the head of timothy, red 
clover is usually sown in combination with that plant. 

Alsike clover {T. hyhrfdmn) is occasionally grown in the same local- 
ities where red clover thrives, but it is adapted to more moist land. 

White clover (7! Tepens) is sometimes cultivated in combination with 
bluegrass in those localities where the latter thrives. Such pastures 
are frequently found in the mountain districts and along the upper 
coast region. 

Forage Crops of Minor Importance. 

The following forage plants are cultivated in sufficient abundance to 
receive attention. Some are already of importance in certain locali- 
ties, and most of them should be cultivated over a wider area and 
given greater attention than is now the case: 

Kentucky bluegrass {Poa pratensis). — In the mountain districts 
and the upper coast region bluegrass is used for pasture, usually in 
combination with white clover. Unless supplied with water during 
the summer months this grass gives little pasture during that season, 
but when the water supply is sufficient and properly distributed it 
yields abundantly. Upon the ranch of Mr. Wheeler, at Reno, Nev., 
there are several pastures of bluegrass and white clover which by 
means of irrigation are kept in good condition through the season. In 
some localities it is considered a pest on account of its tendency to 
drive out other grasses where the conditions are favorable for the 
growth of bluegrass. Mr. G. F. Chapman, of Evanston, Wyo., a 
prominent ranchman, states that it forms a thin, low mat which can 
not be utilized for hay, and is not as valuable for J^asture as other 
grasses. This is usually true when the land is not irrigated, as it 
tends to dry up during dry periods to a greater degree than native 
grasses, but it starts early in the spring and remains green well into 
the fall. 

Orchard grass {Dactyl Is glomerata.) — This well-known grass should 
be grown much more extensively than it is. It resists drought better 
than most of the tame grasses grown in the East, and can be used for 
pasture or hay. On account of the tendency to grow in bunches when 
sown alone, it is best, especially for meadow, to sow with some other 
grass. For this purpose meadow fescue is well adapted. The latter 
occupies the spaces between the bunches of orchard grass and thus 
forms a more even and continuous surface for the mower. Both bloom 
at about the same time, and both are capable of resisting drought to 
about the same extent. 



CROPS OF MINOK IMPORTANCE. 25 

Chkat {Bi-omus seva1inuf<). — In the oastern Tnitod States this o-vass 
is known us a bad weed in grain Holds. l)ut in the Wilhiniette \^illey 
of western Oregon it is used (juite extensively for hay. It is eonnnon 
to see cheat sown along the draws or other low portions of grain fields. 
Mr. T. H. Cooper, a farmer near Corvallis who utilizes cheat in this 
way, sows the seed broadcast in the fall at the rate of 1 to li l)ushel8 
per acre. He cuts the hay when it is in the dough state, which is 
altout the last of June. The yield of seed is about 40 })ushels per acre, 
a bushel weighing 85 to 40 pounds. It is quite probable that cheat 
could be used for forage in other localities. 

Perenmal rye grass {LoJ'nun j^tmitn). — This is commonly grown 
in the ^^'ilhunette Valley and in some other parts of Oregon and 
Washington and proves to be a good grass for pasture and hay. 
Although not considered as a grass for dry regions, the trials at the 
experiment stations of Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming indicate that 
it stands well as a drought-resisting grass. The variety known as 
Italian rye grass scarcely ditiers from this, except in usually having 
the chaff or flowering glume provided with a l)ristle at the ti]), and in 
growing somewhat taller. 

Rape (/i/v/.v.svVv/ fxfjfx.s). — A plant to be reconnncnded for pasture 
in the cooler parts of the Northwest is rape. It is now used to a lim- 
ited extent in several localities, especially in the Rocky Mountain 
region. As a forage plant for sheep and as succulent forage for sum- 
mer and fall, rape is to be, highly recommended. It is not easily 
injured by frost and hence is available as fall feed. The seed should 
be sown in June or July, and rape may consequently be grown as a 
catch crop after grain or other early maturing crops. Where there is 
sufficient moisture the seed may l)e sown luoadcast, but in the drier 
regions much better results are obtained by sowing in drills far enough 
apart to permit of cultivation. In eight to ten weeks from sowing it 
is ready for use, and sheep can be turned into the tield to pasture off 
the succulent growth. It is also an excellent feed for cattle, but they 
are likely to waste more by trampling than smaller stock. 

Field peas {Pisum arvense). — This leguminous plant is adapted for 
use as a forage plant in the northern portion of the Northwest and 
farther south in the mountains. At present it seems to be grown to 
a comparatively limited extent, but it is worthy of culture to a much 
greater degree. Canada field peas can scarcely compete with alfalfa 
in the regions where the latter can be grown; but where alfalfa is not 
successful on account of the cooler climate the peas are an excellent 
substitute, in that they are rich in protein, and hence have a high 
feeding value. It is best to sow them with grain — oats, wheat, or 
barley being used for the combination — at the rate of 1 to li bushels 
of peas to an equal quantity of grain. The crop can be cut for hay or 
used for pasture. 



26 CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

Vetches. — In the Willamette Valley, Oregon, spring vetch {Vicia 
sativa) is commonh^ grown for hay and annual pasture. Mr. T. H. 
Cooper, of Corvallis, uses vetch for his silo, after which he uses green 
corn. He sows the seed in the fall with w4ieat or oats, 2 bushels of 
the mixture containing about a peck of grain. The crop is cut in 
June. Spring vetch is cultivated here and there in the cooler parts 
of the Northwest, but the crop as a whole is very insignificant when 
compared with the staple forage crops of the region. The plant is a 
legume, and can gather nitrogen from the air in a manner similar to 
clover and alfalfa. Hence it furnishes forage rich in protein and at 
the same time acts as a soil renovator. While spring vetch can not 
be successfullj^ grown over much of the area under consideration on 
account of the heat and drought, yet it is to be highl}' reconnnended 
for those localities having a cool, moist growing season. In the upper 
coast region it can be sown in the fall. In the mountain regions it 
should be sown in spring. It is best to sow with grain, as the latter 
tends to hold the vetch upright, and it can thus be handled for hay 
more easily, and also because the grain mixture produces a more 
evenly balanced feed. After the mixture of grain and vetch is cut, a 
second crop of vetch will usually appear, which can be saved for seed. 

Hair}^ or sand vetch ^^ ( Vicia villosa) has been tried to a limited extent, 

but the results over most of the region described are not promising. 

It thrives, however, in the Palouse region and tends to become a weed 

in wheat fields. 

BALING HAY. 

As in other parts of the United States, it is customary to bale hay 
for convenience in transportation. Most of the hay consumed in the 
larger cities is of this kind. The baled ha}-^ upon the markets of the 
Northwest is for the most part restricted to alfalfa, clover, timoth}', 
grain, and wild or native hay. In San Francisco and other cities of 
California, grain hay takes the lead, while at Seattle and the cities of 
the Sound, timothy is most used, the kind depending in part on the 
availability and in part on the demand of the market. Alfalfa is, in 
many cases, as available as timothy, or more so; but the latter is used 
in the cities in preference because it is believed to be more suitable 
for horses. In fact, timothy hay is taken as the standard upon the 
citv markets. The type of press used at San Jose, Cal., is shown in 
PI.' VIL fig. 1. 

The item of freight often enters greatly into the market price of baled 
hay. For example, during the summer of 1901, grain hay was worth $8 
per ton at Raymond, a town upon the railroad, while at Yosemite the 
freight charges brought it up to $10 per ton, and at the same time the 

«For further information upon the vetches, see Circular No. 6, Division of Agros- 
tology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, "The Cultivated Vetches." 



BALING HAY. 27 

pi'ifo of hay at Nomo. in Alaska, was 7 coiits por pouiid. oven when 
doubh> compressed. 

Baled hay for export to Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines, and 
other trans-oceanic points is compressed h}' the process known as 
"double compression." By means of powerful machines operated b}- 
electricity or hydraulic power, the hay, obtained by looseninu- ordi- 
nary l)aled hay, is compressed into square or cylindrical packages 
smaller and more compact than the ordinary bale. The hydraulic 
presses used for making- the so-called round bales are similar to those 
used for making the cylindrical bales of cotton. The measurements 
of the different types of double-compressed bales an^iboutas follows: 

Ordinary square bale, 15 l)y 18 by 38 inches; weight, 16U pounds. 

Square bale for Alaskan trade, 14 by 18 by 26 inches; w^eight, 100 
pounds. 

Round bale, 2 feet in diameter, 24 inches long: weight, 145 pounds, 
or 36 inches long, weight, 26(» pounds. 

The saving of space in transit may best be understood by comjjaring 
the weight and cubic contents of baled and compressed hay. The 
ordinary baled hay occupies 140 to 160 cubic feet pei- ton; the square 
doul)le-compressed, 85 feet per ton; the round l)ales. 55 feet per ton. 

The hay used for this process is almost exclusiveh' timothy. The 
firm of Lilly, Bogardus & Company, Seattle, Wash., from whom much 
of the information concerning double-compressed bales was obtained, 
states that the timothy from the Ellensburg district. Wash., is much 
preferred on account of the fresh green color. A good quality is also 
obtained from the Spokane and Canir d'Alene districts. On account of 
the damp weather, timothy from west Washington is not so satisfac- 
tory^ in appearance. There is some demand for clover hay in Alaska, 
and much grain hay is shipped to Honolulu. There is also a small 
but increasing demand for alfalfa hay for export. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. Fig. 1. — Mast and boom stacker, with six-tined Jackpoii fork. The mast 
is held in place by guy ropes from *the top. Leading to the right may be seen the rope 
to which is attached a team of horses. The base of the derrick is in the form of sled 
runners, so that the whole may be drawn along the stack ])y attaching a team. Fig. 
2. — A cable derrick, provided with a grapple fork. The cable is supported by poles 
at the ends, and these in turn by guy ropes. 

Plate II. Fig. 1. — A derrick stacker, with six-tined Jackson or California fork. 
The derrick is substantial, and guy ropes are not necessary. Stakes driven into the 
ground around the base hold the derrick in place. Fig. 2. — The same derrick, show- 
ing details. It will be observed that from the peculiar attachment of the ropes, the 
hay is swung over the stack Avhile it is being lifted from the wagon. 

Plate III. Types of derrick stackers. Fig. 1. — Derrick built on wheels and sym- 
metrically braced. Fig. 2. — Derrick with revolving pole. In both forms the central 
pole rotates in sockets. The ropes are not attached to this derrick. 

Plate IV. Fig. 1. — A common type of hayrack. Fig. 2. — A pole stacker, with four- 
tined Jackson fork. The angle of the pole is regulated by a short beam. This is 
often replaced by a chain or rope. The derrick leans toward the stack sufficiently to 
swing the fork load of hay into position, when it is elevated. 

Plate V. — Types of racks in common use for feeding alfalfa to cattle. Fig. 1. — 
Lattice rack. Fig. 2.— Box rack. 

Plate VI.— Types of racks 'for feeding alfalfa to sheep. These racks are longer 
than those intended for cattle. Fig. 1. — Lattice rack. Fig. 2. —Box rack. 

Plate VII. Fig. 1. — Hay press, for baling grain hay, San Jose, Cal. Five men and 
three horses are employed; one man and horse drag the hay from the stack to the 
baler, with a four-tined Jackson fork; one man drives a team attached to the horse- 
power; two men pitch the hay into the baler; one man works the press and weighs 
the bales. Average time, three minutes to the bale. Weight of bales, about 210 
pounds. Bales tied with rope. Fig. 2. — Field of brome grass at the Kansas Experi- 
ment Station, Manhattan, Kans. A seven-year-old boy stands in the grass. 

28 

o 



Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. 5. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




Fig. 1.— Mast and Boom Stacker, with Jackson Fork. 




Fig. 2.— Cable Derrick, with Grapple Fork. 



Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1.— Derrick Stacker, with Jackson Fork. 




Fig. 2.— Derrick Stacker, Showing Details. 



Bui. 31, Burpau of Plant Industry, (J. S Oept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 



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Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Fig. 1 .— a Common Type of Hayrack. 




Fig. 2.— Pole Stacker, with Jackson Fork. 



Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V. 




Fig. 1.— Lattice Rack for Feeding Alfalfa to Cattle. 





flHi 


k 1 


^I^M 


i 




^^^H 


|p 1 


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Fig. 2.— Box Rack for Feeding Alfalfa to Cattle. 



Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI, 





~i3f-- 



""irf^f^-' 



i 
I 



Fig. 1 .—Lattice Rack for Feeding Alfalfa to Sheep. 




.^i^^ 




V-.* ■ 









Fig. 2.— Box Rack for Feeding Alfalfa to Sheep. 



Bui. 31, Bureau of Plant industry. U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VII. 




Fig. 1. -Baling Grain Hay, San Jose, Cal. 




Fig. 2.— Brome Grass at the Kansas Experiment Station. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY -BULLETIN No. 32. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, f/iiV/»/^urr.iii. 



A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH CAUSED BY 
POLVPdIil'S FRAXINUPHILUS. 



BY 



HKRMANX ^'()^ SCHKENK. 

Special Agent in ('hak(ie of the Mississiimm Valley 

Lahoratorv. 

VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL 
INVESTIGATIONS. 



Issued Fehkiary 2.S. 190.3. 




WASHINGTON: 
government printing office. 

1903. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

B. T. Galloway, Chief. 
VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IXVESTIGATIO^S. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

Albert F. Woods, Pathologist find Physiologist. 

Erwin F. Smith, Pathologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plead Pathology. 

George T. :Moore, Pki/ftiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Physiology. 

Herbert J. Webber, Physiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Breeding. 

Newton B. Pierce, Pathologist in Clwrge of Pacific Coast Lahoraiory. 

Hermann yon Schrenk, Special Agent in Charge of ^fissis.si2)JJi Valley Laboratory. 

P. H. Rolfs, Pathologist in Charge of Sub-Tropical Laboratory. 

M. B. Waite, Pathologist in Charge of Investigations of Diseases of Orchard Frtiits. 

Mark A. Carleton, Cerealist. , 

Walter T. Swingle, Physiologist in Charge of Life History Investigations. 

C. O. Townsexd, Pathologist. 

Rodney H. True,« Physiologist. 

T. H. Kearney, Physiologist. 

Cornelius L. Shear, AssistaM Pathologist. 

William A. Orton, Assistant Pathologist. 

Flora W. Patterson, Mycologist. 

Joseph S. Chamberlain, Expert in Physiological Chemistru. 

R. E. B. McKenney, Expert. . 

C. P. Hartley, Assistant in Physiology. 

Dean B. Swingle, Assistant in Pathology. 

James B. Rorer, Assistant in Pathology. 

Lloyd S. Tenny, Assistant in Pathology. 

Jesse B. Norton, Assistant in Physiology. 

Karl F. Kellerman, Assistant in Physiology. 

George G. HEDCi<?ocK, Assistant in Pathology. 

A. W. Edson, Scientific Assistant. 



rt Detailed to Botanical Investigations and Experiments. 



Bui. 32, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate I. 




FIG. 1.— EARLY STAGE OF DISEASE. 




FIG. 2.— LATER STAGE OF DECAY. 
TRUNKS OF YOUNG WHITE ASH TREES, SHOWING EARLY AND LATER STAGES OF DISEASE. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN No. 32. 

K. T. (iAl.l.tiWAY, (•//iVi.//.'i(i<(iu. 



A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH CAUSED BY 
FOLYPORUS FllAXINul'HILUS. 



KY 



IlKUMAXX VON SCHHKNK. 
Special Acext ix Chau<;k of thk Mi.s.si.s.sii'pi Valley 

LABOHATOin . 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL 
INVESTIGATIONS. 



Is.snEi) Febkiaky 28, 190:^. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

lyoa. 



L1:TT1:R 01- TRAXSMI'ITAL 



u. 8. derautmext of agriculture. 

Bureau of Plant Ixdu.stry. 

Office of the Chief, 
Was/u'/u/fon, D. C, October 2J, 1902. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, iind to recommend for 
publication as Bulletin No. 3^ of the series of this I^ureau, the accom- 
panying- technical paper entitled *• A Disease of the White A.sh Caused 
by Polyporus Fraxinophilus." 

This paper was prepared l)y Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, Special 
Agent in Charge of the ^Mississippi Valley Laboratory, Vegetable 
Pathological and Physiological Investigations, and it has been sub- 
mitted by the Pathologist and Physiologist M'ith a view to publication. 
Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

C '-' ief of Bu reau . 
Hon. James Wilson. 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

3 



PR I: FACE, 



Tho at'companying: paper treats of a disease of the white ash caused 
b)' Polypoi'K.^ fra,ri)it>jihlhis, concerning- which a nuniher of in<]uiries 
have hitely been made. It has been carefully studied ))y Dr. Hermann 
von Schrenk, who has charoe of the Mississippi \'allev Lal)orator\ of 
Vegetable Pathological and Physioloo-ical Investioations, located at 
St. Louis. This disease is pievalent in the ^Mississippi Valley, which 
is the western limit of the white ash, and is particularly severe in 
Missouri. Nebraska, and eastern Kansas, fully 5^»0 per cent of the trees 
in some localities beino- affected. The ash is extensively o-rown in 
parks and grounds, where the white rot does considerable damage. Its 
mode of growth and entrance into the tree may be taken as a type 
for many wound parasites destroying ornamental and shade trees, 
and it is believed that a knowledge of its life history and the methods 
to be used for comliating it will prove of considerable benefit at this 
time both to foresters and others interested in the preservation of 
trees. 

Albert F. Woods, 
Pathologist and PI ly biologist. 
Office of the Pathologist and Physiologist, 

Washington, D. C, Octoh,r 17,1902. 



COM H NTS, 



Page. 

Introduction 9 

White rot 9 

Geograi)hical distrilmtion 10 

Susceptibility to thi.^ disease 11 

Method of attack 11 

Description of diseased wood 11 

The sporophore 12 

Microscopic changes in the wood 14 

Growth of the fungus in dead wood 17 

Remedies 18 

Description of plates 20 

■ 7 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES. 

Page. 
Pl.\te I. Sections of living wliite ash trees attacked by PolypornH fraxinophilns. 

Fig. 1 . — Early stage of disease. Fig. 2. — Later stage f )f decay . Frontispiece. 
II. Fruiting bodies oi Pol i/porns fraxinophilus on white ash. Fig. 1. — 
Fruiting body of Fohjpornx fraxinnpliUuit. Fig. 2. — Two young 
sporophores on living asli. Fig. :>. — An nld sjiorophore on living 
ash : 20 

III. Fig. 1. — Transection of healthy ash wood, stained with iodine. Fig. 

2. — Transection of diseased ash wood, not stained 20 

IV. Disease caused by Folijporni^ fraxinophlluH. 1. Transection of ash 

wood, showing change in wood cells caused Ijy fungus hyphse. 
2. Transection of medullary ray from 1)rown wood layer, showing 
how the cells become tilled with a l)rown humus compound. 3. A 
medullary ra}% showing later stagL'. of fungus attack. 4, 5. Tran- 
section of wood cells, showing various stages of change of wood 
into a ))rown humus compound. 0. Starch grains from medullary 
ray cell. ~. Starch grains from diseased Avood. 8. Transection 
of rotted wood 20 

V. Cross section of diseased trunk of white ash kei:)t in a moist place for 

several weeks 20 

TEXT FIGl'KE. 

Fig. 1. Map shcjwing distribution of Fraxhms americana 10 

8 



B- ''■ I-'l- V. !•. ,.. I.-,,,. 

A DISEASE OF THE AVIIITE ASH CAUSED IIV POLY- 

POKUS FIIAXIXOIMIILUS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The white ash is uttac-ked hv a iiuinl)or of fuiious parasites, which 
g-roAv on the living leaves and do more or less injury. ArctfUinii fra.r- 
ini Sell., the orange rust, is perhaps the one licst known, as it otuws 
. on almost all speeies of ash. even the introduced forms. It occurs 
with varying frequency in successive years, and. so far as known, 
has appeared in epidcMuic form l)ut once (iss.j). Among the funo-i 
whicli grow as parasites on leaves are several species of (Thirosporium. 
and SjiJuhi-npsis, as Avell as Sej^tora/ fra.r!/n' and l*h>jlh,f<t'H'fa fraxini 
Ell. & Mart. Sphaevmeina .y}/)/(( Berk, c^c Rav. grows on vountv 
twigs, and kills a good many now and then. 

The fungi mentioned above, to which several others might ])e added, 
rarely appear in sufKcient numbers to do very much harm to the trees 
affected. 

WHITE ROT. 

There is one fungus, Polt/jHrrmf raxinojj/ulus Pk., which grows in 
the heartwood of the trunk and 1)ranches of the white ash. This fun- 
gus changes the hard Avood of the ash into a soft, pulpy, yellowish 
mass (PL I), making it unfit for lumber purposes. Diseased trees are 
ultimately blown down by windstorms. In regions where this disease 
is conmion the ash never grows to be a very large or very old tree. 
During the last year numerous inquiries have been made as to the 
causes of the white rot and how it could be prevented. In Forest 
Park, St. Louis, nearly all the white ash trees were diseased, and 
many were blown over ]»y the wind. 

A diseased tree is readily recognized by the large, conspicuously 
colored sporophores, which usually occur in considerable numbers, one 
or more at every branch stub. Polypxjrus fraxino;philus has been 
studied by the writer, particularly in Missouri, where it occurs in 
great numbers on the ash. It has been found elsewhere in the United 
States and has been reported from as far east as Albany County, N. Y.« 

«Peck, C. H. Thirty-fifth Report, New York State Museum. 



10 



A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTIOX. 

The distribution of this fungus is very interesting when considered 
with reference to its host. The white ash. as indicated on the accom- 
panying map (fig. 1), is found throughout the entire eastern United 
States, growing as far westward as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. 
Judging from the very meager data now at hand, it seems that Poly- 
porus fraxinophilus is most common near the western limit of the 
distribution of the white ash. It is very common in parts of Missouri, 
Kansas, Indian Territory, and Iowa. In the eastern United States, so 
far as the writer was able to ascertain, it is comparativeh^ rare. 

Near its western limit Fraxlmus americana is at best a tree of medium 
size and development. On the dry limestone hills west of the Missis- 




FiG. 1. — Map showing distribution of Fraxinus americana L. 



sippi it grows slowly, as is evident from the sections shown on PI. I, 
which are three-fourths natural size. In this region Polyporus frax- 
inophilus will be found on 90 per cent of the standing trees. The dis- 
eased trees were counted in two circumscribed localities, in neither of 
which was a tree more than .5 inches in diameter found to be sound. 

The fact that in a given locality' so high a percentage of the indi- 
viduals of a species are diseased at a relatively early age ma}-^ be 
explained by the greater virulence of the disease-causing- factor or by 
the greater susceptibility of the indiA'idual: in this case, probabh" the 
latter. That this disease does not directly affect the living parts of the 
tree has no weight, for in the long run it affects it indirectly by under- 
mining its support. 



SUSCEPTIHILITY DESCRIPTION. 1 1 

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THIS DISEASE. 

The (juestion of the relative susceptibility^ of iiidividiml phints to a 
disease is a most interesting- and at the same time a most obscure and 
ditticult one to discuss. In the present instance it would seem that 
there mioht be some relation between the greater susceptibility on the 
part of the ash near its western limit and its o-enerally weaker devel- 
opment at this limit. It will be an inteiesting i)oint to detei-mine, for 
instance, whether the rate with which l)ranch wounds or stul)s heal in 
Ohio and Pennsylvania is greater than in Missouri and Kansas. That 
the rate of growth is slower in the Western States we know. 

Pol ifpot-m fraxlnopli lilts has been reported as growing on livino- 
trees of Fraxinus virldis in Rooks Count.v, Kans." 

METHOD OF ATTACK. 

Pohjporm fraKinop)h'dH!i attacks ash trees of all ages, usually, how- 
ever, those more than 7 inches in diametei-. The fungus begins its 
growth in a wound, or more often in a dead branch. It would perhaps 
be more correct to say that the fungus gains entrance into the tree at the 
point where the callus touches the branch stub. The branches of the 
ash are usually inclined upward at a considerable angle, and the callus 
leaves a groove between its outer surface and the branch stub in which 
water can collect. From sections of old branch stubs it appears that 
the earliest signs of fungus action are found in the outer parts of the 
dead stui) close to this groove. The fungus grows down toward the 
center of the tree in the outer layers, and from these spreads to the 
main trunk up and down and lateially. It is quite usual to tind a tree 
infected at two or more separate points. In a region ^\here the sporo- 
phores are common and where each tree has many dead branches this 
is not at all surprising. 

DESCRIPTION OF DISEASED WOOD. 

The wood of the ash is uniformly straw yellow in color and shows 
little difference in tint between heart and sapwood. A gradual dark- 
ening of the wood near the center of the tree is the first indication of 
the presence of the fungus mycelium (PI. I). In an irregular patch 
the wood looks as if stained, at first a very light brown, later on a 
darker brown. The broad bands of summer wood show this change in 
color most conspicuously. The next stage in the disease is marked b}^ 
a bleaching of the color in the spring duct layers; these gradually turn 
back to the original straw color and then turn white in spots. The 
white color becomes more marked until the entire spring wood is 
white. It has a disintegrated appearance by this time, and shortly 
afterwards all the fibers fall apart. The dense bands of summer wood 



« Ellis & Everhart. X. A. Fungi, No. 3302. 



12 A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH. 

change more slowl}'. This g'ives rise to a banded appearance near the 
edge of the diseased area, more pronounced in some places than in 
others (see the lower part of PI. I, fig. 2). Ultimately the whole wood 
ring turns into a looseh'^ connected mass of fibers. 

When the tree is first attacked it appears as if the changes described 
take place simultaneoush" over a large area (3 square inches in the 
tree shown in PI. I, fig. 2), and that thereafter the change from sound 
to decaj'ed wood goes on more slowly. This is the case in diseases of 
other trees, and is possibly accounted for by the fact that at first no 
products of metabolism interfere with the growth of the fungus, while 
later on these may retard gTowth to some extent. 

The completely rotted wood is straw colored, verj^ soft and nonre- 
sistent, and readilv absorbs water. The disintegTating chano-es are 
by no means uniform, as a glance at PI. I will show. The diseased 
areas have very irregular shapes; sometimes they involve the whole 
trunk, at other times only one side, depending somewhat on the point 
of infection and the shape of the trunk. In the trunk shown in the 
lower figure on PI. I the fungus was growing in the seventh ring 
from the bark. 

THE SPOROPHORE. 

The sporophores of Polyporusfraxinojyhihis appear around the base 
of branch stubs, or in wounds, very soon after the original infection 
(PL II). With some trees — for instance, Pinus ecliinata attacked by 
Trametes pini — it appears that a good deal of wood is destroyed before 
2i\\\ fruiting bodies of the fungus form. With the ash, fruiting bodies 
make their appearance when the wood shows signs of having decayed 
only a ver}" short distance from the point of infection. In one tree, 
where the sporophore was developing at a branch stub, the heartwood 
was actually rotted for a distance of only I inches on either side of the 
base of the branch, while the characteristic discoloration extended for 
a foot in both directions from the stub. When the dead branch is a 
large one, small white knobs grow out at several points near its base 
(PI. II, fig. 2), often as many as ten or a dozen. These knobs are 
almost white, \qvj smooth, and adapt themseh^es to the irregularities 
of the rough bark. When the branch extends out horizontally, the 
sporophore frequently appears to be hanging from the under side of 
the branch (PI. II, fig. 1). As the sporophores grow older they extend 
downward on the bark; in other words, become decurrent behind. 

The mature sporophore is nearly triangular in ci'oss section. 
Although fairh' regular in form, there are many sporophores which 
are compound, i. e., composed of several superincumbent shelves or 
several shelves joined laterally. It has a broad rounded edge, which at 
first is white and gradualh* tarns darker until it becomes somewhat 
straw colored. The older portions of the upper surface are dark brown 
or black, and are very hard and woody. 



THK SI'OKOPHORE. 13 

The youngest part j>;ro\vs out over the older jx^rtioiis. wliicli niiikes 
old spoiophores look soniewhjit suk-atf. riic main hody »>!' the mature 
sporophore is very hard and woody. It is obscundy zoned and ])ale 
blown or rust color. The jjores arc \ cry rcy'ularly stratosc. They 
are short and of regndar cross section. The yountifcst ones are white, 
the older ones red l)rown. They extend from the point whei'c ti\e 
sporo[)hore touches the l)ark almost to the edtic of the sporo})hon\ 

There is some ([uestion as to what name ou«^"ht to be oi\'(Mi to this 
fungus. Two species of Polyporufi ofrowing on the ash have been 
described — PoIijjHirnx frdxttn^tix (Hull.) Fr. and Pnh/j>nrn-^ fr<(,i'!n- 
ophilus Pk. The European fungus is described 1)V RuUiard" and 
Fries* as sessile, corky-woody, azonate. at first sujooth, then concen- 
trically Hulcate, at tirst white, then red brown or brown, pale inside, 
pores minute, short, at lirst white, then red brown or rust coloi-. This 
description accords fairly well with the specimens distributed in 
Thiimen's Myc. Univ., No. Sor>, except that these specimens <'an hardh^ 
be called "woody." In ISSl Professor Peck describ(>d a fungus, 
PolyjxiriiK yr(/.rhii)j)/u7t/.'<, growing on ash trees in AU>any County, 
N. Y.. as follows:'' 

Pileus sessile, thiclc, ci»rky, subtriquetrous, narrow, somewhat Recurrent behind, 
the first year whitish, with a minute whitish tomentum or hairiness, then gray, 
finally blackish, in (il<l specimens concentrically snlcate, riinose, the substance 
within obscurely zcjiied, at first whitish, then isabelline or pale tawny, the margin 
ol)tnse; pores stratose, plane or subconvex, small, nearly eipial, subrotund, the dis- 
sepiments obtuse, entire, whitish; spores white, broadly elliptical, .0003-.00035 inch 
long, .00025-.0003 inch broad. Pileus 2— i inches long, 1-1.5 inches broad. 

A comparison of the two descriptions will show that they are almost 
the same, differing in small details. Anj'one who has tried to separate 
the species of this variable genus will have become impressed with 
the inadequacy of manv of the older descriptions, and in the present 
instance it becomes a matter of extreme difficulty to determine whether 
the descriptions of Bulliard and Fries fit the American fungus. In 
most respects the latter agrees with the descriptions, except in the red- 
browni pores. The European specimens seen have red- brown pores. 
On the other hand, there can be no doubt as to the identity of the ash 
fiuigus with PolyporiiH fra.rhKiphllns Pk. The decurrent pileus, at 
first wath a whitish tomentum, later gray, and finally black, can not be 
mistaken for any other. In view of the fact that the only European 
specimens of Polyporus fraxineus available do not agree with the 
present fungus it is deemed best to retain the name given by Profes- 
sor Peck for the present. It may be found necessar^^ to make it a 
sjmonym of Polypornf^ fraxineus after a further comparison with 
European material. 

« Bulliard, ]M. Hist, des Champignons de la France, 1: 341, 1741. 

'' Fries, Elias. Systema ]Myc. , 1 : 421 ; Raljenhorst's Kryptogamenflora, 1 : 421, 1S84. 

'■Peck, C. H. Thirty-Fifth Report, New York State Museum, 1881, p. 136. 



14 A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH. 

The fungus under discussion is one of the most distinct forms of the 
Fomes type of Polyporiis, and considering- the great variability of 
form of many species of this genus it can be said to be remarkably 
constant in most of its characters. 

MICROSCOPIC CHANGES IN THE AVOOD. 

The minute changes which the wood cells undergo are marked by 
great distinctness and regularity. The wood of the ash forming the 
bulk of the trunk serves as a repository for large quantities of starch. 
Even in trees which are T5 to 100 years old one will find starch almost 
at the center. In the ash the starch occurs in the form of small grains' 
(PI. IV, fig. 6), filling the cells of the medullary rays and wood paren- 
chyma. Fig. 1, PI. Ill, represents a cross section of wood (cut in 
March), stained with iodine. The medullary rays appear almost as 
black lines. 

One of th€ first changes noticeable in the wood when attacked by the 
ash fungus is in connection with this starch. The region where the 
starch changes is just outside of the dark line seen in PI. I. The large 
grains (PI. IV, fig. 6) appear to break up into numerous smaller ones 
(PI. IV, fig. T), and finally even these disappear. The change is a very 
rapid one, and transition stages are very rare. No such regular 
gradual dissolution of the grains occurs as is described by Hartig 
as taking place in oak wood attacked by Polyporus suljyJiureus and 
Polyj)orus igniarius. When stained with iodine one finds large grains 
now and then, with channels through them (PI. IV, fig. 6), or more 
frequently some which look as if the center had been dissolved out. In 
several instances grains were found which stained brown with iodine 
at the edges. This brown color then gradually passed in toward the 
center of the grain. 

No hyphffi are present in the wood where the starch is breaking up. 
This would indicate that a diastatic enzyme given off by the mycelium 
precedes the latter for some distance. The first hyphaj are generally 
several rings farther toward the middle of the trunk. The even extent 
of the solution strengthens this supposition, for in a limited area of one 
wood ring one and the same stage of dissolution is found at alwut 
the same distance from the point where the fungus begins its growth. 
After the disappearance of the smallest grains the cells formerly 
filled with starch appear empty for several cell rows inward. Shortly 
after the disappearance of the starch they become filled with a bright- 
colored substance, which is probably liquid at first and hardens after 
infiltration into the cells (PI. IV, fig. 2). This substance, which is 
very soluble in alkalis, is probably some humus compound which 
must be regarded as a decomposition product. It is distributed 
throughout the medullary rays and the woody i^arenchyma, occupying 
almost the identical cells which had harbored the starch. This will 



MICROSCOPIC CHANGES. 15 

readily ))e comprohendod by ii coinpurison of PI. Ill, li^s. i and 2. 
Fig. 2 is from n phc)t()<>iapii of an unstained section taken from the 
region of brown wood at the outermost edi>e. 

It is rather diflicult to determine the origin of this decomposition 
])roduet. It is possil)ly the hist product of a change in the starch 
grains, possibly also a substance derived from wood cells farther 
inward, which infiltrates into the nu^dullary ray cells and wood paivn- 
chyma in advance of the fungus hy})hie. The latter is the })robable 
explanation, for one finds the hunuis compound in the suumier wood 
cells, which had very little starch originally. The hunuis compound 
appears to form in many of the wood cells, however, as ji product of 
the walls. Figs, -i and 5 of PI. IV show various stages of this change. 
The cells tt are sound wood cells, which have very thick walls and a 
ver}'^ small Imuen. The walls of cells marked // are ver}' much thinner, 
and at these points they are coated with the humus com})ound. Such 
walls when stained with })hloroglucin show no \"ery sharp dividing line 
between the yellow hunuis compound and the a})parently sound ligni- 
lied wall. Cell c is completely tilled with the hunuis mass. This evi- 
dence that th«; wall actually changes into the yellow mass is not very 
conclusive. The humus compound does not seem to be formed from 
the walls of the medullary ray cells, where it is found ultimately, for 
no signs of change are evident in the walls of these cells. Tlu' local- 
ized distribution of the hunuis substance is very striking. It is always 
absent from the wood cells of the spring wood (PI. Ill, tig. 2) and 
from the large vessels. In the cells it appears to be as a solid mass, 
sometimes completely tilling the lumen (PI. IV, figs. 2 and 5), or in 
globules or plates adhering to the walls (PI. IV, fig. 2). It is this su]> 
stance which gives the brown color to the earlv stage of diseased wood. 

The next stage in the dissolution of the wood cells takes place 
abruptly, and is rapid after it has once set in. The liypha of the 
fungus first evident in the medullary ra3's spread through the wood 
of both the spring and summer bands, branching in all directions. 
They give off an enzyme which attacks the inner parts of the wood 
cells, extracting the lignin. A transverse section of wood in this stage 
(PI, IV, tig. 1) stained with phloroglucin presents a most striking 
picture. Here and there, in irregular groups and in all stages, one 
finds wood cells from which the hadromal has been removed; the 
extracted parts remain white and stand out in sharp contrast to the 
unaffected parts of the walls. In the figure the unaffected parts are 
shaded. The white parts represent delignified walls. The middle 
lamella is dissolved last and then the individual cells fall apart. When 
this takes place throughout larger areas, for instance, one or more 
wood rings become separated from one another, and this gives rise to 
the plates spoken of above. The white areas which are evident in the 
figures on PI. I represent wood thus destroj^ed. The individual fibers 



Ifi A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH. 

remain intact for some time, and are then gradually dissolved. In the 
oldest parts of diseased wood they are no longer present. 

Wood partially destroyed in the manner just mentioned was stained 
with potassium permanganate, HCl and NH^OH, according to the 
method recently described by Maule." 

A dilute solution of the permanganate is allowed to act on the wood 
for a minute. The wood is then treated with strong HCl until no 
color is visible. A drop of ammonia is then added. The lignitied walls 
stain a deep red, which in many respects defines the various parts of 
the walls more sharply than the phloroglucin reaction. The parts 
(PI. IV, iig. 1), which do not stain with phloroglucin do not stain Avith 
the permanganate. The contrasting color between the lignitied and 
delignified parts is even sharper. Maule claims that the permanganate 
reacted with an ether compound in the walls even after the removal 
of Czapek's hadromal. In the "delignified" wood cells of the ash 
even this compound (if there be a separate compound which reacts 
with the permanganate) is therefore absent. 

In the ash wood the white fibers are not pure cellulose. The same 
is true of many similar fibers from oak wood destroyed by species of 
Hydniim, or Polyporus igniarncs^ and probably of other white fibers 
resulting from fungus action on wood. With chloriodide of zinc, the 
best cellulose reagent we have, these fibers stain a yellow brown, not 
blue. This would indicate that the change in the wall is not the same 
as in many of the conifers, where the so-called lignin is destro3^ed, 
leaving a comparatively pure cellulose, as determined by staining 
reaction and macrochemical analysis. This subject is simply referred 
to in this connection, as it will form the subject of a separate paper. 

The change to an impure cellulose takes place locally, and generally 
very early in the course of the destructive action of the fungus. The 
mass of Avood destroyed changes somewhat differently. The first 
changes noticeable are in the medullary rays and immediately adjoin- 
ing cells. Very fine fungus hypha3 invade these cells, and shortly 
after the middle lamella disappear. Small cavities occur in thicker 
parts of this layer, i. e., where several cells touch (PI. IV. fig. 3, o)^ 
and these increase in size (/•), spreading laterally, until two or more 
join. Ultimately the individual cells become entirely isolated, The 
wood cells proper are gradually destroyed from within outward, the 
middle lamella? remaining longest. The change from perfectly sound 
wood to wood entirely dissolved is a very abrupt one (PI. IV, fig. 8). 
The hyphas invade a cell and dissolve the wall. So rapid is this that 
no intermediate changes can be found. A piece of completely rotted 
wood, such as occurs in the center of a diseased trunk (Pi. I), is repre- 
sented in PI. IV, fig. 8. A more resistant piece of summer wood is 

"Maule, C. Das Verhalten verholzter Zellinenihranen gegen Kalium permanganat, 
eine Holzreaction neuer Art. (Beitnige zur wissenschaftlichen Botanik, Vol. IV. 
Stuttgart, 1901.) (Reviewed in Bot. Cent., 89. 328, 1902.) 



GROWTH OF THE FUNGUS. 17 

shown at one side. It is surrounded by an intricate mass of hyplu^, 
in which pieces of undissolved wood are held in much the relative 
position which they occupied in the sound wood. It will he seen that 
the wood is practicallv destroved entirelv. The mass of fundus hvv)hie 
o'ives a soft, leatherv, vieldiiio- consistencv to the rotted material. 

The young hypha^ i\re exceedingly line, so much so that it requires 
a strong immersion lens to detect them. They are perfectly colorless, 
and remain so when older. Clamp connection occurs frequently. 

GROWTH OF THE FUNGUS IX BEAD WOOD. 

The mycelium of the fungus grows only in living trunks, so far as 
could be ascertained. It will grow out from infected wood when the 
latter is kept in a moist place, but oitlv to a very small extent. A 
number of pieces of diseased ash trunks, each about a foot long, were 
placed in the nnishroom cellar of the Missouri Botanical Garden, some 
with the cut surface in contact with the soil, others exposed to the 
moist air. In order to test whether dead wood could be infected, 
several healthy pieces of ash trunks, recently cut and of about the 
same diameter as the diseased pieces, were placed in contact with the 
smoothed end surfaces of the diseased pieces. After two or three 
days the hyphi\? in nearly all the pieces began to grow out from the 
diseased areas (PI. V), both from the brown areas and from the parts 
entirely decayed. This indicates that the fungus is equally active all 
through the diseased parts. In the pieces wherp the cut surfaces were 
exposed to the moist soil or air the hyphsB grew for some weeks, 
making a thick, tough felt. They gradually ceased growing after 
about three weeks. The sound ash trunks were firmly united to the 
diseased ones after three davs, and after a week the funo-us had ^o 
thoroughly united the two pieces that they could not be pulled apart, 
using a moderate amount of force. After three months the healthy 
pieces were examined. The hyphfe of the fungus had grown into the 
wood for a very short distance only. They had effected practically 
no change. A hard cushion of mycelium had formed between the 
two pieces, and this was turning brown and had evidently ceased 
growing. These tests show that under the conditions of temperature 
and moisture which permit of vigorous growth of several of the 
wood-destroying fungi growing on dead wood the mycelium of the 
ash fungus will not grow for any length of time. The sound wood 
placed in contact with the diseased wood was full of starch at the 
time, so it could not have been lack of food which prevented the 
growth of the hyphas. A piece was removed from a sporophore 
immediately after it was brought in from the woods. The sporo- 
phore remained attached to a section of the trunk about a foot long. 
For several weeks hyphfe grew out from the injured surface, making 
a new rounded edge, doing so almost as rapidly as in the natural state. 
12163— No. 32—03 2 



18 A DISEASE OF THE WHITE ASH. 



REMEDIES. 



The white ash is becoming more valuable as a lumber tree, and it is 
being grown extensively as an ornamental tree in parks and grounds. 
In limited areas it will pay to adopt measures which will tend to pre- 
vent the disease described in the foregoing pages, or at least to recog- 
nize diseased trees and use them for lumber, so as to save the parts 
still sound. A disease such as the white rot of the ash is a difficult 
one to combat after a tree is once badly diseased, for the fungus 
grows in the interior of the trunk, where it can not be reached. Trees 
which grow in forest tracts should be cut down when badly diseased, 
so as to prevent the spread of fungus spores. That a persistent cut- 
ting out of diseased trees will in a comparatively short period reduce 
the number of newly infected trees has been demonstrated repeatedly 
in European forests, where it is now often impossible to find many 
well-known forms of disease which were formerly comparatively 
common. 

In parks and grounds diseased trees, when they appear healthy 
otherwise, need not necessarily be cut down, for the trees may remain 
alive and vigorous even when the heartwood is partially decayed. 
The only danger is that trees weakened in that way are liable to be 
broken off by windstorms. A diseased tree can be recognized as 
soon as the white punks or sporophores appear at a knot hole. As 
soon as a punk appears it can be cut out, and some of the diseased wood 
with it. The hole should then be tilled with tar oil and left open for 
a time. Tar oil should be added from time to time, as a good deal will 
soak into the decayed wood, and thereby arrest the further growth of 
the fungus to some extent. If the hole made by removing the punk 
is a large one it should be covered with tar paper, so that no opening 
is left for water or dust to enter. 

A sure method of combating this disease is by a careful system of 
pruning and the coating of all wounds with an antiseptic substance. 
Vigorously growing ash trees heal wounds rapidly, and after three or 
four years any ordinary-sized wound will be completely occluded. In 
treating trees planted in parks or gardens the pruning had best be 
done in the winter. Care should be taken to cut all branches as close to 
the trunk as possible, and after trimming the ragged edges of a cut 
the whole surface should be coated. Ordinary gas tar is the best sub- 
stance for this purpose. If too hard it should be heated so as to be 
fairly liquid and then applied with a brush. The gas tar, especially 
when warm, penetrates for a considerable distance into the wood and 
prevents the development of the ash fungus. It forms an air-tight 
and water-tight cover which is not destroyed by weathering, and which 
at the same time is objectionable to insects. 

Where the coating of wounds is carried on with care it will be 
entirely practicable and possible to prex^ent this ash disease. 



PLATES. 



]9 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. (Frontispiece.) Sections of living white asli trees {Fraxinus americana) 
attacked by PoJyporus fraxinophilus Pk. The upper figure shows an early stage; 
the lower, a later stage of the decaying process. 

Plate II. Fig. 1.— Fruiting body of Polyporus fraxinophilus Pk. growing out 
from a dead branch. This is a rather exceptional form of sporophore, which is 
found only on branches. Fig. 2.— Two young sporophores of Pol t/jwr us fraxinophilus 
Pk. growing on living ash. Fig. 3. — An old sporophore of Polyporus fraxinophilus 
Pk. growing on living ash. 

Plate III. Fig. 1.— Transection of healthy ash wood, stained with iodine so as to 
show the distribution of starch in the medullary ray cells and in the wood paren- 
chyma surrounding the large ducts. This section is made just outside the dark line 
dividing sound from diseased wood (see PI. I). Fig. 2.— Transection of diseased 
ash wood, not stained, showing the distribution of a humus compound in the medul- 
lary ray cells and in the wood parenchyma surrounding the large ducts. This sec- 
tion is made just inside the dark line dividing sound from diseased wood (see PL I). 

Plate IV. 1.— Transection of ash wood, showing one form of change in the wood 
cells caused by the fungus hyphpe. The darkly shaded parts are sound wood cells. 
The white parts are wood parts which do not stain witli phloroglucin. (Magnifica- 
tion same as for fig. 2.) 2.— Transection of medullary ray from the brown wood 
layer, showing how the cells become filled with a brown humus compound, here 
shown by the dotted areas. In two cells the dry compound has cracked. 3.— A 
medullary ray, showing a later stage of fungus attack. The middle lamellte are dis- 
solved out, separating the individual cells from one another. Note the absence of 
the humus compound. (Magnification same as for fig. 2. ) 4 and 5.— Transection of 
wood cells (highly magnified), showing various stages of change of wood into a 
brown humus compound. Note the great thickness of walls of neighboring sound 
cells. The humus compound is shown by the shaded parts. 6.— Starch grains from 
medullary ray cell. Normal grains and several grains showing how grains are now 
and then dissolved. The short line equals 10/i. 7.— Starch grains from diseased 
wood, showing how the large grains are broken up into smaller ones. (Magnifica- 
tion same as for fig. 6.) 8.— Transection from entirely rotted wood. The sound 
wood cells at one side belong to a small piece of more resistant wood. (Magnifica- 
tion game as for fig. 2. ) 

Plate V. Cross section of diseased trunk of the white ash kept in a moist place for 
several weeks. The fungus hyphte have grown out from the diseased wood, forming 
a white felt. 
20 

O 



Bui. 12, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1. Fruiting Body of Polyporus fraxinophilus. 





Fig. 2. — Two Young Sporophores on Living Ash. Fig. 3. — An Old Sporophore on Living Ash. 

Fruiting Bodies of Polyforus fraxinophilus on White Ash. 



Bui 32, Bufftiu 0* Plant Industry. U. S Oept of AKriculture 



Plate III. 



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Bui 32, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate IV. 




Disease Caused by Polyporus fraxinophilus. 

1, Transection of ash wood; 2, transection of medullary ray; 3, medullary ray, showing later 
stage of fungus attack; 4, 5, transection of wood cells; 6, starch grains from medullary ray 
cell; 7, starch grains from diseased wood; 8, transection from entirely rotted wood. 



Bui. 32. Bureau of Plint Industry. U. S Oept of Agncultura 



Plate V. 




CROSS SECTION OF DISEASED TRUNK OF WHITE ASH KEPT IN A MOIST PLACE FOR SEVERAL WEEKS 
(SHOWING GROWTH OF MYCELIUM FROM THE ROTTED PART.) 



U.S. ni<:rARrMKxi- ov A(;Ricin;ruRH 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN NO. 33. 



h. T. <;.\l.l.(i\VAV, flii.f ..I Hmviin. 



NORTH mwm SPECIES (IE LEPTOCHLOi, 



BY 



A. S. IIITCIKOCK. 
Assistant Aorostoi.ocist, i\ ('iiAR<iK ok CoopKitArn 

KxrKKIMKN TS, 

GRASS AND FOHAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 



IssiEi) Fkhuiwky lU, iW3. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 

1 9 <:» 3 . 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

Beverly T. Galloway. Chief of Bureau. 
GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

W. J. Spillman, Agrostologist. * 

A. S. Hitchcock, Assistant Agrostologist, in Charge of Cooperative Experiments. 

C. R. Ball, Assistant Agrostologist. 

David Griffiths, Expert in Charge of Field Management. 



U. S. DKPARTMENT OF A(;RICUL'I URE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN NO. 33. 



H. T. tiALLOWAY, Chief <ii Hiirtau. 





II 





BY 






Lfrr>Aoy 



A. S. IIITC^IICOCK, 



Assistant Agrostolooist, in Charge of Cooperative 

p^xperiments, 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 



Issued February 10, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE., 

1903. 



LETFl^.R OF TRAXSMriTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 
Washington, D. C, October JS, 1002. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith a technical paper entitled 
"North American Species of Leptoehloa," and respectfully rec(mimend 
that it be published as Bulletin No. 33 of the series of this Bureau. 

This paper was prepared by Mr. A. S. Hitchcock, Assistant Agros- 
toloo-ist, in Charge of Cooperative Experiments, Grass and Forage Plant 
Investigations, and has been submitted by the Agrostologist with a 
view to pnl)licatiou. 

Respectfully, 

^ B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

3 



PR H FACE, 



There is iiuich confusion in the names applied to our North Ameri- 
can jrnisses. This is partly due to llie fact that much new material 
has been collected since the revision of some of the imiiortant genei-a. 
The practice, formerly more prevalent than at present, of erecting' 
new species on the basis of a single specimen or of a very few speci- 
mens at most, has added to this confusion. The economic importance 
which the grasses have assumed in the last two decades 1ms made this 
confusion all the more embarrassing. It therefoi'e seems desirable 
that the bibliography, synonymy, and systematic relationships of 
American grasses be woi'ked out as rapidly as possible. The pi'csent 
paper by Professor Hitchcock is an attempt to do this for the genus 
Leptocldoa. It is based chiefly upon the material in the herljai'ium of 
the U. S. National Museum and that of the U. 8. Department of Agri- 
culture, but all the important public herbaria in this country were 
consulted during its preparation. The descriptions of the species are 
diagnostic rather than complete, but it is hoped that these will serve 
the purpose of students of systematic botany. Much time has been 
spent in working out the pi'oper relationship of the species and it is 
hoped that the short descriptions, the text figures illustrating the 
spikelets of each species, the plates taken from herbarium si)ecimens 
of several species, and the key to oui- United States si)ecies will take 
the place of more complete descriptions and render this papei- \'alua- 
ble to students of this genus. 

The species of Lepiochloa are iidiabitants of the warmer regions, 
only one or two of our species extending as far nortli as New York 
and Illinois. One of the si^ecies, Lepiochloa duhia, called sprangle, is 
an imijortant range grass in the Southwest, and recent experiments 
indicate that it will prove a desirable grass for cultivating in semiarid 
regions. 

W. J. Spillman, 

Agrosiolofjist. 
Office of the Agrostologist, 

Washington, D. C, October U, 1902. 

5 



COXTl-NTS 



I'age. 

<» 
Introduction 

Key to species of the United States ' 

History of seniis 

North American species - - 

Species exchided ... ~ 

Description of plates 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 

Plate I. Yig. l.—Leptochloa mucronata. Fig. 2.— Leptochloa viscida,.^ M 
IT. Fig. 1. — Lejjtochloa domiugensis, from Florida. Fig. 2.—Lepto- 

cJi loa domingensis, from Texas . _ _ 24 

III. Fig.\.—Leptochloascabra. Fig. 2.—Leptochloa nealleyi 24 

IV. Fig. 1. — Leptochloa fascicularis (Diplachne jirociimbens "Nash). 

Fig. 2.—Leptochloa fascicularis {Diplachne iraciji Vasey) 24 

V. Fig. l.—Lejitochloa fascicularis (ordinary form). Fig.2.—Lep- 

tocliloa imhricata 24 

VI. Leptochloa florihunda 24 

TEXT FIGURES. 
[All five times natural size.] 

Fig. 1. Spikelet of Leptochloa attenuata 11 

2. Spikelet of Leptochloa vmcronata .. 11 

3. Spikelet of Leptochloa virgata 12 

4. Spikelet of Leptochloa domingensis. from Texas 13 

5. Spikelet of Leptochloa domitigensis, from Florida 13 

6. Spikelet of Leptochloa domingensis, from Central America 13 

7. Spikelet of Leptochloa nealleyi 14 

8. Spikelet of Leptochloa scabra 14 

9. Spikelet of Leptocliloa viscida . . 15 

10. Spikelet of Leptochloa dubia 15 

11. Spikelet of Leptochloa floribunda 16 

12. Spikelet of Leptochloa aquatica .' 17 

13. Spikelet of Leptochloa fascicularis 17 

14. Spikelet of Leptochloa imbricata 19 

15. Spikelet of Leptochloa spicata ... 19 

16. Spikelet of Gouinia brandegei 21 

8 



B.P.I -42. «. P.P. 1.-98 

\ORTH AMERICAN' SPECIES OE LI:PT()CHL()A. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In presenting the following review of the genus Leptochloa I have 
been able to bring together oih- knowledge of tiiis group of grasses 
without describing any new species. In i-egard to the latter, botanists 
will probably be thankful. l>ut, on the other hand, I have been con- 
strained in several cases to unite species kept sepai-ate by others. 
All will not agree with nie in the course I have taken in this i-espect. 
It is always difficult to decide where specific lines shall be drawn, but 
I have been governe<l by this i-ule: When two or more forms are con- 
nected by numerous intergrading specimens they are to be considered 
as the same species, although typical specimens of the extreme forms 
may be easily distinguished. 

The notes are based mainly upon the Herbarium of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, but through the kindness of those in 
charge I have had the opportunity to examine the collections at the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, the Gray Herbarium, the New York 
Botanical Garden, and the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science. 
I have also examined the specimens in the larger European herbaria, 
to the directors of which I wish to express my thanks for the privilege. 

For the purpose of this paper it seemed not woi'th while to enumer- 
ate all the specimens examined, but a number of representative 
specimens from numbered sets have been indicated for easier refer- 
ence. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES 

1. Spikelets i^sually short-pediceled (sessile in L. spicatcuhnt flowers several), 
arranged somewhat distantly along the branches of the panicle, not so con- 
spicuously one-sided as in the following group; 4 to several flowered (2-flow- 
ered in some forms of L. diibia ) . 2 

1. Spikelets nearly sessile in two or more rows on one side of the branches of the 
• panicle, 2 to 4 flowered and usually closely imbricated (more distant in 

L. mucvonata ) . 7 

2. Panicle simple or often reduced to a single branch or spike _ spicata. 

2. Panicle compound 3 

3. Spikelets 4 (2) to 6 flowered 4 

3. Spikelets many flowered, elongated 6 

9 



10 NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

4. Flowering glume broad, truncate and more or less emarginate; sometimes 
slightly awned from the protrusion of the mid-nerve dubia. 

4. Flowering ghime rounded at apex and short-awned or mucronate 5 

5. Panicle '2 to 3 inches long. Plant A^nth numerous culms, a few inches to a foot 

high; leaves 3 or 4 inches long viscida. 

5. Panicle larger, culms 2 to 3 feet tall, leaves a foot or more long^ . floribunda. 

6. Flowering glume awned fascicularis. 

6. Flowering glume awnless or mucronate imbricata. 

7. Spikelets usually 2-flowered, sometimes 3 or even 4 flowered. 1 to 2 mm. long, 

branches of panicle very slender, upper empty ghime as long as or longer 
than the first flowering gkame. latter obtuse mucronata. 

7. Spikelets usually 3 to 4 flowered, rather closely imbricated, spikes shorter and 

close set on the axis, forming a narrow panicle: empty glumes shorter than 
the first flowering glume . 8 

8. Sheaths scabrous, glumes sharp-pointed scabra. 

8. Sheaths smooth : flowering glumes rounded or truncate at apex 9 

9. Sheath ciliate on margin above; flowering glume more or less awned. 

domingensis. 
9. Sheath not ciliate; flowering glume awnless nealleyi. 

HISTORY OF GENUS. 

The genus Leptochloa was established by Palisot de Beau vols.'* To 
his new genus he refers Cynosurus capillaceus^ Eleusine filiformis, 
and E. virgata. The last of these species is figured^ and in the 
descrij)tioii'' of plates he uses the name Leptochloa virgata. It may 
be inferred that he intends to make the new combination for the 
other two species, as in the index, page 1G6, he indents under Lep- 
tochloa the three names, capiUacea, filiformis, and virgata. It may 
be remarked that if one intends to be verj- accurate in regard to cita- 
tions these three species of Leptochloa should be referred to page 166 
(the index) rather than page 71 in the body of the work, where the 
genus is described. The same remark would apply to the most of 
Beauvois's species. 

Beauvois also established the genera DijjlacJine/^ to which he refers 
Festuca fascicular is J^Hxn., and Rahdocidoa,^ to which he refers Cyno- 
surus nionostacliyos, virgatus, domingensis, cruciatus?, mucronatusP. 

Kuntze substitutes Rabdochloa for Leptochloa because Beauvois 
assigns five species to the former and only three to the latter. 

Professor Scribner unites these under the genus Leptochloa.^' Pro- 
fessor Gray also placed Diplachne under Leptochloa as a section.^ 
Nuttall'' proposed the genus Ox //cZe/tta to include O. attenuata (Eleusine 
mucronata). 

I have accepted the genus as delimited bj^ Scribner, U. S. D. A. Div. 
Agros. Bui. 20:110. Our species all are annuals except L. duhia. 

«Essai d'une nouvelle Agrostographie, 71. 1812. '^1. c. p. 84. 

61. c, Atlas, pi. XV, fig. 1. fProc. Acad. Phil., 1891: 303. 

tl. c, Atlas, 10. ?7 Man., Ed. I. 588. 

<n. c.,80. ^'Gen. 1:76, 1818. 



NORTH AMKRICAN SPECIES OF LEl'TOCHI.OA. 11 

NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

A.— LkpTOCHLOA proper. SjiikcUts : to !, Jioinnil, iirnuiijnl i los< tmjvthvr on one sidr «>/ ttie 

hranrhes <»/ thi' piinicli'. 

LEPTOCHLOA MUCRONATA Kuntli. Rev. Griiui. 1: '.U. is:r>. Transfers 

Eleiisrne mitcroiiata Mic-hx. (PI. I. fiK- 1: text fig. 2.) 
Eli'iiKiiiemiicroiiatd Mivhx. Fl. 1: G.'). ISO;}. •' Hah. in tnltis Illinoensibns.- 
Festiini tinformisUxm. 111. 1 : l!tl. n. 1044. ITiM. •• Ex Amer. Meritl. Comm. D. 

Ruhard. ■ 
Elensi ne Jil i form is Fers. Syn. 1: MT. IHOr,. • Hab. in Americ. merulion." 
Eleusiiie sparsa Mnhl. Descr. Gram. 13."). 1817. '• Habitat in Carolina ct (Teorgia."' 
Ox!/(h „ id (ittrini((t(i 'iintt. Gen. 1: TO. 1H1><. •• ( )n the banks of the Mis.si.ssii.i)i 
near New ( )rleans."" Mr. Nuttall says: " To this genus belongs the Elnisine 
filifortiiix of Persoon. growing in the tropical regions of America, nearly 
allied to the present species." ami is often (luoted as the author of o.ri/drnia 
filiforuiis. Vmt he does not make this combination. 
LejJtochlixi Jilifonii is Beanv. Agros. 71 and 166.1812. Transfers Eleusiiw fili- 
formis Pers. Roemer and Schtiltes (2: .ISO. 1817). also transfer Elriisinrjili- 
formis Pers. Presl.Rel. Haenk. 1: 2SS, 18:50. gives as the locality --Hab. in 
Mexico, ad Sorzogon Lnzoniac" In the herbarium of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture are several specimens from India. I am unable to disting\iish 
these from the American plant. Hooker includes the.se under L. Jiliformis 
R. & S. (Flora Br. India. 22: t-Mts. 1S%.) I have examined the Asiatic 
material in European herbaria and feel satisfied that L. miicroitata occ-urs in 
southern Asia. It can be distinguished from the allied L. chinensis by the 
papillose sheaths. 



Flu.L— /-. o tin, 11,1 til. Fig. 2.— L.mnrronat,!. 

Eleusine elongata Willd. ex. Steud. Nom. ed. 2, 1: 549. 1840. Labelled '• Habitat 
in America meridionalis Humboldt. "" Types of this and the next examined 
in herbarium Willdenow. 
EleuHine stricta Willd. 1. c. Labelled " Habitat in San Domingo." 
Lepiochloct (itfrniiafd Steud. Syn. 20'.i. 18.-).*). Transfers O.rydenia attcnuata 
Nutt. This is kept separate by Mr. Nash in Britton's manual, but the char- 
acters do not seem to me to be sufiBciently constant for separation. This foi-m 
is represented by Bush. Nos. rm. 40:',. 792. 798. and Eggert, 219a. from Mis- 
souri, and Palmer, 892. 401, from Indian Territory. 
Leptochloa pdlncidnla Steud. 1. c. " Duchaissing legit in Panama." 
LeptocMoa pilosa Scribn. U. S. D. A., Div. Agros. Cir. 32: 9. 1901. -'Tyve 
specimen collected in sandy soil, Dappan. Travis County. Tex., 294, J. E. 
Bodin, September, 1891. " Prof essor Scribner states that •■ This species is closely 
related to Leptochloa mncronata. but it is at once distinguished by its rigid 
leaves and papillate-pilose sheaths." The leaves are somewhat more rigid 
than is usual in this species, but the papillate-pillose sheaths are found com- 
monly in L. mucronata. 
Stems tufted 6 to 10 dm. high, erect or occasionally more or less decumbent at 
base and rooting at the nodes. Leaves numerous, flat and rather soft, vary- 
ing from 1 to 3 or more dm. in length and as much as \ cm. wide. Sheaths 
more or less pilose from a papillate base. Panicle often 3 dm. or more in 
length, consisting of numerous slender spikes, arranged along a central axis; 



12 KORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

spikes usually 8 to 15 cm. long. Spikelets 3 to 4 flowered. 1 to 2 mm. long, 
rather distant on the axis, that is, scarcely overlapping. Empty glumes about 
equal, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, nearly as long as the spikelet. or some- 
times longer, lower slightly narrower. Flowering glumes thin, awnless, 
smooth or somewhat pilose on the nerves. 

The form separated as L. attenuata has large panicles, with acuminate empty 
glumes and flowering glumes pilose on nerves. 

Distribution.— F/rguuo toFlorida and west to California: Hall. TT7. 778; Wright; 
765: Bush, 468. 590; Curtiss, 5998; Coulter, 785; Lindheimer. 212. Mexico: 
Palmer, 248. 22, 694. 749, 1364, 117. 50 (in part); Rose, 1542; Schott, 739, 590. 
Yucatan: Gaumer. 853. Cuba: Wright. 740 (in part), 741 (in part). Porto 
Rico: Sintenis, 3550. 

Var. PUIiCHELLA Scribn. Bull. Torr. Bot. Chib. 9: 147. 1882. " Santa Cruz 
Valley, near Tiicson."" 

Distribution.— rea^a.s to Arizona: Heller. 1884: Hall, 777, 778; Coues & Palmer, 
511; Jones, 4176. 3Iexico: Palmer. 50 (in part). oOi, 694.8: Wright. 1316. 
Differs from the type in the short branches of the panicle, 2-3 cm. long, and 
the short narrow leaves. 

LEPTOCHLOA VIRGATA Beauv. Agrost.. 166; Atlas, p. 10. 1812. Refers 
Eleusine virgata to his new genus Leptochloa (I.e. p. 71 ). (Fig. 3.) 




Fig. 3.— 7.. virr/ata, from St. Croix. 

CynosvruH virgatns L. Syst. Nat., Ed. X: 1759. No locality is given, but he 
refers to Sloan jam., t. 70., f. 2, which is probably this species. In Spec. PI., 
Ed. 2. the locality is "Habitat in Jamaica." See Munro. "The Grasses of 
Linnteuss Herbarium."' Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 6: 33-35. 1862. Linnaeus 
mentions that the lower flowers are subaristate. 

Festuca virgata 'Lam. 111.1:189. 1791. " Ex ins. Domingi." States that the 
spikslets are aristate and " floscul. ultimis submuticis. " ' 

Eleusine virgata Pers. Syn. 1: 87. 1805. Description taken from Lamarck, I.e. 

Oxydenia virgata Nutt. Gen. 1 : 76. 1818. This is the citation often given, but 
is an error, asNuttall merely says. " To this genus belongs Eleusine filiformis 
of Persoon . . . and we may probably add the Eleusine virgata of Jamaica." 

Chloris pohjstachya Lag. Nov. Gen. 4. 1816. The short description scarcely 
suffices to determine this plant. " Spicis pluribus. patentibus: calycibus flos- 
culisque glabris. muticis: ciilmo compresso. H. in N. H. unde semina missit 
D. Sesse." 

Chloris pofeformis H. B. K. 1 : 169. 1815. " Crescit in calidissimis humidis fl.u- 
minis Magdalene prope Mompox: item prope Guayaquil et San Eowndon 
Quitensium." As synonyms are given Cynosurus virgatusL.. Eleusine vir- 
gata Willd.. and Leptochloa rt/-gato Beauv.. but a new specific name is applied 
because there is already a Chlorin virgata Sw. In the description it is stated 
that the awn is very short. 

Leptochloa procera Nees in Syll. Ratisb. 1: 2. 1828. Type examined at Berlin. 

Leptochloa digitaria Willd., ex Steiul. Nom. Ed. 2. 1: 549. 1840. Types of this 
and the next examined in herbarium Willdenow. Both specimens labelled 
" Habitat in America Meridionalis, Humboldt." 
Leptochloa unioloides Willd., 1. c. 



NORTH AMKKICAN SPECIES OF LKPT< »('HL(»A, 13 

Leptochloa muticu Steiid. S\ni. 1: 'JOS. 1854. ••Siirinain Am. Austr." Type 

exainiin^d. 
DisTKiBLTio.N: Rnatan Mund: Gaiimer. Mc.victi: Liebmanii i.'.")!, 2.")J; Nelson 

2768.2483. Cuba: Rugel 19:3; Wright 3436. 740 (in part), 741 (in part); 

Comlis 2r)(). Porto Rico: Heller 4o3r)- Sintenis 844. MoHitiiqiie: Bourgean 

237.1; Hahn 163. St. Vincent: Smith 577. ,S7. Croix: Ricksecker 2.")S. St. 

Thontds: Eggers 68. Galapogos: Anderson 44. Brozil: Riedel. Traill l',>74. 

Paraguay: Morong 970. 

LEPTOCHLOA DOMINGENSIS Trin. Fnnd. Agrost.. 133. 1820. Transfers 
i'jjiiosnrits (loniingotsis Jactj. (PI. II, figs. 1, 2; text figs. 4. 5. 6. ) 

Cynosin-Kfi (torn iugensis Jacq. Misc. 2: 363. 1781. •• Faeie infra niedinni jnlosa 
dorsa glabra." 

Bromus capillaris Moench. Meth. 194. 1794. " Sub nomine Poae cajjillaris semina 
accepi." no locality given. Knnth refers this to L. dominginsis (Ennni. 1; 
269) and the description applies, especially. "Folia lata infra glabra, supra 
deorsum scabra, basin versus pilosa," but Moench also says, • vaginie glabne."" 
However, the pubescence is confined to the margin of the .sheath. 

Eletisiiie domingensi.s IPeTH. 1: 87. 180r). " Hab. in Jamaica. St. Domingo." 

Rahdochloa doiii i )ige)isis Beanv. Agrost. 176. 1S12. Transfers ^ 7///o.\/(/;/.s- (/(/»<- 
ingensis, p. 84. He also refers Poa domingensis Pars. Syn. 1 : 88 to his genus 
Rahdochloa, and in this is followed by Kunth (1. c). 




Pig. 4. — L.d(>inin<jen.<tis, FlQ. 5. — L.domiiKjensix, FlO. 6. — L. domiiKjcnsis, 

from Hidalgo, Tex. from Florida. from Central America. 

Leptontachy.s domingensis Meyer. Esseq. 74. isis. Transfers Eleusine domin- 
gensis Pers. 

LejitocJdoa {jracilis'Nees. Syll. Ratisb. , 1: 4. 1824. Transfers Chloris gnicilis 
H. B. K. See note Tinder L. dubia. Nees in Agrost. Bras., 433. 1829. gives 
" Habitat in Brasiliis . . . (Sellow. Vidi in Herb. Reg. Berol.)*' 

Chloris gracilis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 1: 168. 1815. "Crescit in calidis Pro- 
vincite Jaen de Biacamoros prope Tomependa, alt., 207 hex." 

Leptostachys gracilis Meyer. Fl. Esseq., 74. 1818. Transfers Chloris gracilis 
to his new genus Leptostachys. 

Our plants have the rigid, glaucoiis appearance of L. virgata. with involute 
leaves, but resemble L. domingensis in having the margin of the sheaths and 
the upper surface of the lower part of the blades ciliate or pilose. The awns 
are almost the length of the flowering glume. Grisebach distinguishes these 
by the length of the spikes and of the awns (Fl. Br. W. I.), thus, L. virgata 
with spikes 3-6 in. long and awns short or none; var. gracilis, awns about as 
long as glume, spikes 1^-2 in. long; var. domingensis, spikes 3-5 in. long and 
awns longer. The length of the awn can not be depended upon to distinguish 
these forms. 

Stems + to 1 m. high, smooth and somewhat shining or glaucous, leaves long and 
narrowed to a slender point, involute; the tropical specimens have softer, flat 
leaves. Our specimens are probably introduced as the plant is not common 
within our borders. The drier climate would account for the involute leaves. 
The upper surface of blade near base is sparsely pilose with long weak hairs, 
the margin of the sheath is more densely ciliate. Panicles 1 to 2 dm. long 



14 KOETH AMERICA!^ SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

with numerous ascending branches 4 to 8 cm. The tropical specimens often 
have more ample panicles. Spikelets crowded, about 2 mm. long. 3 to 
5-flowered. Empty glumes acute, lower narrow and shorter, about 1+ mm.; 
lower flowering glumes bear awns about their own length, upper with shorter 
awns or awnless. 

DtSTRiBrTiON: Florida along the coast south of Tampa, Simpson. Texas, Cor- 
pus Christi, and Hidalgo.^ Nealley. South America and West Indies. 

LEPTOCHLOA NEALLEYI Vasey. Bull. Torr.Bot. Club. 12: 7. 1885. "Col- 
lected in Texas by Mr. G. C. Nealley. for whom it is named."' 

LeptochJoa stricta Foum. PI. Mex. 2: 147. 1886. I have examined the type in 
Paris. "Vera Cruz (Gouin. n. 73)." 



¥\o.7.— L. neaUeyi. 

Stems i to li m. high, smooth. Leaves elongated or on the smaller plants only 5 
to 10 cm. long. 3 to 5 mm. wide, involute, somewhat scabrotis: sheaths smooth 
or very slightly scabrous. Panicles narrow, 3 to 4 dm. long, branches numer- 
ous, crowderl. appressed. 2 to 6 cm. long. Spikelets crowded, about 2 to 3 
mm. long. 3 to 4-flowered. First empty glume about one-half the length of 
the second and narrower: flowering glumes obtuse. 

Distribution: Texas: Nealley 2o01 : Bush 1363: Buckley, Drummond 291; Tracy 
7368. This has the aspect of L. scabra, but the glumes are rounded at the 
apex, while in the latter they are acuminate or slightly awned. (PI. Ill, fig. 
2; text fig. 7.) 

LEPTOCHLOA SCABRA Nees. Agrost. Bras. 43o. 1829. " Habitat in ripa 
inundata fliuninum Amazonum. Tagipuru et Tocantins, provincife Paraensis 
( Mart. ) . • ' Nees remarks that this differs from L. virgata in having the leaves 
and sheaths very scabrous and the small, whitish, slender spikelets entirely 
unawned. (PI. HI. fig. 1: text fig. 8.) 



Fig. 8. — L. scabra. 



L. langloisii Yasey. Biill. Torr. Bot. Club, 12: 7. 1885. " This large and 
showT species was found in Louisiana by Rev. A. B. Langlois, for whom it 
is named.'" 

Resembles L. nealleyi in habit. Differs in having distinctly scabrous sheaths; 
the branches of the panicle longer and more or less curved: the spikelets 3 mm. 
or more long, the glumes acute or acuminate. Our plants are probably intro- 
duced from further south. 

Distribution: Louisiana: In ditches and fields, Station Michaud. 13 miles from 
New Orleans, Langlois. Brazil: Rnsbj 235. British Guiana: JenmanUil. 
Costa Eica: Tonduz 2604; Spruce 424. 

"The specimen from Hidalgo (fig. 4) differs from the others in having the flowering glumes 
awnless. It is in an unsatisfactory condition, but may be L. virgata, Beauv. 



NORTH AMKRICAN SPECIES OF LErTOCHLoA. 15 

B— Intormediato between LejittMhlmi and l>ipliuhn)\ 

LEPTOCHLOA VISCIDA Beul. Grasses N. A. 2: 4:?4. IsjXi. Tiatisf.rs 

Diphtchne viscidtt Scribn. (Fl. I. fig. 2: text fiK- '•'• > 
DiphichiK- risciild Scrilm. B\ill. Torr. Bot. Club. 10: .!ti. 1SH;{. " Sautu Cruz 

Valley, near Tneson. Arizona." Colleeted by Pringle. 
Growing? in tufts in moist places, 1 to 3 dm. high. Leaves a few cm. long. 2 to 3 

mm. wide. Panicle short, 1 to 4 cm. long, more or less enclosed in the sheaths. 

Spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long. 5 t<^ T-flo\vered. First glume ab )ut one-half llie 

second, j mm. long. Flowering glumes short awned, somewhat viscid on the 

back. 




Fifi. 9. — L. visrifla. 

DlSTRiBl-TioN: ArizoiKi: Pringle: Meanis T<.»3, H33; Griffiths 19S8. Xcir Mc.vico: 
Wright 2041. 2044. Me.vivo: Pringle 814: Palmer T4H. 74Mi. 092, 1TS!»: 
Brandegee o; "Wright 1086. 

LEPTOCHLOA DUBIA Nees in Syll. Ratisb. 1 : 4. isi4. In an article entitled 
•• Xovif plantarum species in horto botanico Bonnensi cultie." Nees al) Esen- 
beck. who .signs the portion relating to Lvptoddoa. describes L. jirocera. and 
.states that it differs from •■ Leptochhxt gnicile, Humb. et Kunth n. gen. et 
sp. I. p. 108 (sub chlori).vaginisglabris,valvuliscorollinisnudis,necciliati3, 
apice integris. nmcronatis, nee aristatis, flosculoruni nuniero niinore . . . 

A Leptochloa (Chlori) dubia Hunil). et Kunth 1. c. p. 101); panicula aequali. nsc 
subfastigiata, flosculorimi numero minore, valvulis nudis,nec ciliatis . . ." 
He thus incidentally transfers these two species of Chloris to Leptochloa. 
(Fig. 10.) 




Fig. 10. — L. dubia. 

Chloris duhia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 1 : 169. 1815. '• Crescit in apricis subhumidis 

prope rupem porphyriticam el Penon, in convalle Mexicana, alt. 1168 

hexap." 
Lejitostachys dubia Mey. Fl. Esseq. 74. 1818. Refers Chloris dvbia donhttnlly 

to Lepiostachys. 
Festuca ohtusiflora Willd. in Spreng. Syst. 1: 356. 1835. "Mexico." Type 

seen. 
Uralepishrevispicata 'QwcWey. Proc. Acad. Phil. 1862:93. 1863. "Northern 

Texas." I have examined Buckley's specimen in the herbarium of the 

Philadelphia Academy. 



16 NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

Diplachne dubia Scribn. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 10: 30. 1883. Transferred to 
tlie genus Diplachne. 

Leptochloa pjri nglei. Beal Grasses N. A. 2: 436. 1896. •■ D. pringlei Vasey 
ined. Arizona, Pringle. 1884."' In the Department herbarium is a specimen 
collected by Pringle in 1884 in Tucson (No. 13), which answers to the 
description given in BeaVs Grasses, but seems to me to be a small form of 
L. dnhia. This is figured in U. S. D. A. Div. Agrost. Bull. 7: 224, fig. 218. 

Diplachne dubia Pringleana O. K. Rev. Gen. PI. 3^: 348. 1898, transferred 
to Leptochloa by Scribner and Merrill, U. S. D. A. Div. Agrost. Bull. 24: 27, 
1901, is a robust variety from Chihuahua, Mexico (Pringle 422). 

Stems 3 to 10 dm. high from a perennial root. Leaves long and narrow, tapering to 
a slender point as in L. fascicnlaris Gray, usually not over one-half cm. wide. 
Panicle, consisting of several or many more or less spreading spikes. .") to 15 
cm. long. Spikelets. 5 to 10 mm. long. 5 to 8 flowered, or in the smaller forms 
only 2-fiowered. Empty glumes acute, upper 4 mm. long, lower a little 
shorter and narrower; flowering glumes broad and obtuse or emarginate at 
apex, the midrib sometimes extending into a short point. This species is 
readily distinguished by the broad, scarious emarginate apex of the flowering 
glumes. This is a valuable forage plant in the Southwest, where it is called 
"sprangle." Experiments indicate that it may prove valuable under culti- 
vation in the arid regions of our "Western States. 

Distribution: .4?-/zo??a; Lemmon 368. Neic Mexico: Wooiew -ilS. JV.ro.s; Jones 
4210; Wright 767. Florida: Garber33; Curtiss 3450: Simpson 302: Tracy 6453. 
Mexico: Palmer 270. 273, 530. 381, 482. 468: Bourgeau 533: Brandegee 6; 
Schaffner671, 1079. 933: Pringle 422: Xantus 119; Botteri 690. 

C.— Diplachne. Spikelets several flowered, arranged more distantly on the branches of the 

panicle and not fonspiciiously one-sided. 

LEPTOCHLOA FLORIBUNDA Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2=*: 89. 1878. Type 
locality: " ad ripas fluminis Amazonum inter Manaos et Santarem (Spruce).*' 
(PI. vi. fig. 1; text fig. 11.) 

Diplachne halei Nash. Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 292. 1899. Tj^e collected in 
Louisiana by Hale. Co-type in herbarium U. S. D. A. 



Fig. 11. — L. floribunda. 



Leiitochloa halei Scribn. & Merr. U. S. D. A. Div. Agrost. Bull. 24: 27. 1901. 
Transfers Diplachne halei. The relation of L. halei to L. floribunda is dis- 
cussed in the article last cited. Going over the same evidence I believe that 
we are safe in making the present disposition. 

Plant with the aspect of L. fascicularis Gray. Panicle oblong, rather compact, 
with numerous branches 4 to 6 cm. long. Spikelets 4 to 5 mm. long. 5 to 
7 flowered. Empty glumes slightly unequal, upper about 2 mm., lower 
shorter. Flowering glumes with a very short point. 

Probably introduced in the LTnited States from farther south. 

Distribution: Texas to Brazil. Key West: Blodgett: 3Iississippi: Tracy 7451; 
Louisiana: Hale; Te^as: Drummond 322: Brazil: Spruce 1118. 



NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 



17 



LEPTOCHLOA AftUATICA Scribn. & Merrill. U. S. D. A. Div. Agi'ost. Bull. 
24: 26. 1901. "Type specimen collected in shallow water near Cnernavaca, 
State of Morelos, altittide 17(»0 m., C. G. Prinijle. mU August 22. ISJi:." 
Resembles L. floribunda, but ditfers in having more unequal outer glumes, 
longer spikelets, with more distant flowers and obtuse flowering glumes. In 
L. floribunda the flowering glumes are distinctly short-awned. (Fig. 12.) 




Pig. 12.— L. nqnatica. 

LEPTOCHLOA FASCICULARIS Gray. Man. Ed. 1. 588. 1848. 

Festuca fascicidaris Lam. Tabl. Enc. 1: 189. 1891. " Ex. Amer. merid. Comm. 
D. Richard." (PI. IV. figs. 1. 2; PI. V. fig. 1: text fig. 18.) 

BroiiiKs jioa'formis fipreng. Nach. Bot. Gart. Halle 15. 1801. Dr. Dammer. of 
the Royal Botanical Museum of Berlin, has kindly sent me a transcript of 
SprengeVs description. '• Bromiis poceforniis mihi Pyrenaeen."' \\'ith refer- 
ence to a footnote which says ''Poa dkjitaia Michaux. Sed est certissime 
Bromiis. utut repugnet habitus: nam(iue aristae manifesto infra apicem glumte 
oriuntur. Br. panicula erecta stricta composita, spicatis sex floris sub secun- 
dis, foi. longissimis involutis." 



Fig. V^. — L.faxcicnlaris. 

Festuca polystaclnja Michx. Fl. 1: 66. 1803. '• In arvis Hlinoensibus.- Type 

seen. 

Diplachne fascicidaris Beauv. Agrost. 80 and 160. Atlas, p. 11, pi. xvi, fig. 9. 
1812. Made type of new genus without description of species. 

Festuca procumbens Muhl. Gram. 160. 1817. A prostrate form ^\^th longer 
awns, but the characters are not constant, and it does not seem best to sepa- 
rate this as a species, as is done by Mr. Nash. 

Diplachne procumbens Nash in Britton Man. 128. 1901. Transfers Festuca pro- 
cumbens Muhl. There is a South American species by this name, Diplachne 
procumbens Arech. Gram. Urug. 354. 1894. 

11068— No. 33—03 ^ 



18 NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

LeiJtochloa polystachya Knnth. Rev. Gram. 1: 91. 1835 (or earlier?). Transfers 
Michaux"s Fesfiica polystachya. Under the riile once a synonym always a 
synonym the Australian species should receive another name {LeptocMoa 
polystachya Benth. Fl. Austr. 7: 617. 1878). Bentham says (p. 618), "I 
have been able to retain Brown's specific name, as the American Diplachne 
panicularis [fascicularis] named Leptochloa polystachya by Knnth is gener- 
ally retained under the former genus. Syn. Cynoclon xwlystachya R. Br. Prod. 
187. C. virgatiis Nees in Steud. Syn. 1 : 313. C. Neesii Thw. Enum. PI. Ceyl. 
371." 
Diplachne acuminata Nash in Britton Man. 128. 1901. Represented from 

Nebraska. Rydberg 1713; Arkansas. Coville 87: Colorado, Clements 263. 
Uralejisis compositaBnc'kley. Proc. Acad. Phil. 1862: 94. 1863. "New Mexico. 
Dr. Woodhouse." I have examined this specimen in the herbarium of the 
the Academy. 
Diplachne tracyi Vasey. Bull. Torr. Bot. Chib. 15: 40. 1888. "In clumps 
growing in ditches at Reno. Nevada." Tracy No. 216. Dr. Vasey remarks 
that this is -'Near D. fascicularis.'' In the type specimen which is in the 
herbarium of the Department of Agriculture the lateral nerves are more con- 
spicuously excurrent than is usual in D. fascicularis. but there seem to be no 
constant characters by which this form can be separated. It is a large form, 
with more exserted panicles, found from Nevada to Mexico, Pringle 813; 
Palmer 691. 
Lejitochloa tracyi Beal. Grasses N. A. 2: 436. 1896. Transfers Diplachne tracyi. 
Festuca multiflora Walt. Fl. Car. 81. 1788. 

" Repens, paniculis erectis ovatis. spiculis 8 ad 40-floris acutis, floris angustis, 
acutis. fauce siibplimiosis."" This may refer to L. fascicularis. but the 
description is scarcely sufiacient. This plant is not represented in Walter's 
herbarium, which is at the British Museum. 
Stems tufted, smooth. 3 to 12 dm. high, erect or procumbent. Leaves narrow, 
usually involute. 1 to 3 dm. long. 3 to 5 mm. wide: sheaths smooth or slightly 
scabrous. Panicles from a few cm. to 2 dm. long, more or less included in 
the upper sheath; branches of panicle few or several and of variable length, 
in the larger forms as much as 1 dm., appressed or ascending, or at maturity 
spreading. Spikelets usually somewhat overlapping, 7 to 12 mm. long. 6 to 
12 flowered. Empty glumes narrow, acute, lower 2 to 3 mm. long, about 
one-half the upper; flowering glumes 4 to 5 mm. long, with an awn of variable 
length, sometimes, especially in the procumbent form, as long as the glume; 
lateral nerves piibescent below. 
Distribution: Maryland to Florida and west to South Dakota and New Mexico. 
TeiTos; Jones 4203; Drummond 387, Kansas: Hitchcock 920. Florida: Nash 
2306. St. Croi.v : Ricksecker 306. Cuba : Wright 3822, 3812. Mexico : Pringle 
818: Palmer 254, 691; SchafEner 683 {D. procumbens). 
LEPTOCHLOA IMBRIC ATA Thurb. Bot. Calif . 2 : 293. 1880. " Larkins 
Station, San Diego County (Palmer No. 404); Fort Yuma (Major Thomas); 
and through the Gila VaHey to the Rio Grande."' (PI. V, fig. 2; text fig. 14. ) 
Diplacline inibricata Scribn. inTasey 111. N. A. Grasses 1^ : No. 42. 1891. Trans- 
fers Leptochloa imbricata and gives a plate. 
Dijilachne verticillata l^iees&Mey. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19. Suppl. 1 : 158. 1843. 
(Not Leptochloa verticillata Kunth, 1835. ) '"Ad Copiapo in republica Chilensi. 
Martiol831.et ad Aricam Peruviae." The authors remark that this species 
differs from Diplachne virens of Brazil (presumably Tridens virens Nees) 
and D. fascicularis in having the glumes not awned from the apex but very 
shortly mucronate and from the first in its larger spikelets. I have examined 
T. virens Nees and think it is not identical with L. imbricata Thurb. 



NORTH AMERICAN Sl'KCIES OF LEl^OCHLOA. 



19 



San Lxiis de Potosi" (Virl., 
1891. Transfers Leptochloa 



Lept ochhui virh'tii Fonrn. P\. Mex. 2: 147, IHSC). 
n. 1404). Type specimen examined at Paris. 

RalMlochloa imbric(ff(( Knntze. Rev. Gen. 3: 788, 
iinbnvata Thurb. 

Resembles in habit L. fiiscintldris Gray. The panicle is more oblong in outline, 
being more compact and with shorter branches, and often dark colored and 
more exserted. Spikelets also resemliling L. f<tscicitl(iris. but the empty 
glumes are broader and more obtuse, and the flowering glumes are somewhat 
apiculate but not awned. 



Fig. \i.—L. imhricata. 

Distribution: Arizona: Palmer 548, 51; Lemmon 860: Vasey 540. California: 
Wright 2118: Coulter 776. Te.vas: Tracy 7367. Me.rico: Palmer 47, 184. 881, 
216, 5; Meams 2741. Argentina: Hieronymus 1088. Paraguay: Morong 981. 

There is a Leptnchliut verticiUata from the East Indies (Kimth Gram. 1: 91. 1885. 
Eleusinc verticiUata Roxb., Hort. Beng. s. 1814). 

Diplachne tarapacariim Philippi from Chili appears to belong here, judging from 
the specimen in herbarium U. S. D. A. (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chili. Bot. 88. 1891.) 

LEPTOCHLOA SPICATA Scribn. Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 1S91. 304. 1891. 
Transters Diptlachne spicata. (Fig. 15.) 



Fig. 15.— I,, spicata. 



Bromus spicat7is 'Nees. Agrost. Bras., 471. 1829. " Habitat in campis. campo 
mimoso dictis, provincise Piauhianae." Nees observes that in habit this 
forms a transition to Brachypodimn or Agropyron, but differs in the few 
nerved glumes; nor does it fit in Diplachne any better, since the native species 
has the glumes not at all apiculate, and foreign species differ much otherwise. 



20 NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEPTOCHLOA. 

Triciispis {TriplasU) simplex Griseb. Mem. Acad. Sci. and Arts. N. Ser. 8: 
532, 1862. Plant. Wright. 2. " In rnpibns aridis," Wright, 1551. 

Diplachne mmplex Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras.. 2'^: 97. 1878. '• Habitat in prov. 
Piatihy (Gardner n. 2367)." 

Diphich)ie spicata Doell 1. c, 159. 1878. This is a correction. "Pag. 97. Delea- 
tur Diplachne simplex: legatnr Diplachne spicata, ut conservetur nomen 
specificxTni."" 

Triodia schaffneri Wats. Proc. Am. Acad.. 18: 181. 1883. " In the Escabrillos 
Mountains. San Lnis Potosi (1077 Schaffner) closely resembling in habit the 
Cuban Tricitsjjis simplex of Grisebachand Diplachne spicata Doell of Brazil. 
It is clearly a Triodia as the genus is defined by Mr. Bentham."' 

Diplachne reverchoniYasey. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 13: 118. 1886. •• Collected 
on granitic rocks. Llano Co., Texas, by Mr. J. Reverchon."" 

Triplasis setacea Griseb. in Goett. Abhandl., 24: 304. 1879. Plantse Lorentz- 
ianffi). "Pr. la Merced. S.: ad fl. Juramento." In his remarks upon this 
species Grisebach says: "Species T. simiilici Gr. (PI. Wright. Ciib., II. p. 532) 
proxima."' 

Stems tufted, slender, 1 to 3 dm. high. Leaves usually about one-half the height 
of the flowering culm, numerous, narrow, slender, and involute. Infloresence 
reduced to a single spike, 5 to 10 cm. long. Spikelets 4 to 7 mm. long, several 
flowered. Empty glumes acute, flowering glume short awned. 

Distribution: Texas: Reverchon, 1613: Nealley, 78. Mexico: Pringle, 3267. 
Argentina: Hieronymus, 337. Brazil: Gardner, 2367. 

Diplachne loliiformis F. von M. of Australia closely resembles this. 

Besides those species mentioned above are three described by Four- 
nier, which I have not seen. Copies of the original descriptions of 
these are here appended. 

LEPTOCHLOA LIEBMANNI Fourn. PI. Mex., 2: 147, 1886. 

Culmo elato 2-3 pedali, valde ramoso. stramineo, glabro; foliis infra longe vaginan- 
tibus mollibus lanceolatis, 4-5' latis. ligula fimbriata; panicula longa stricta, 
radiis appressis. secundifloris: spiculis 4-floris, glumis insequalibus, inferiore 
aucta dimidio breviore, superiore obtusa obscure trilobata, lobo medio mucro- 
nato; palea exteriore acuta carinata. , 

Antigtia. februario (Liebm., n. 248): absque loco (Liebm.. n. 244). 

DIPLACHNE PATENS Fourn. PI. Mex.. 2: 148. 1886. 

Culmo a basi ramoso, ramis circular! ter ascendentibus glabro, striato, stramineo, 
nodis brunneis. ligula hyalina acuta sEepe laciniata, foliis longis linearibus 
angulo recto divergent! bus, acutis; panicula invaginata, radiis alternis patulis 
flexuosis scabris. spiculis 7-floris; gluma inferiore dimidiam superiorem non 
aequante, exteriore violacea acuminata carinata scabra: rhachi inter flores 
flexuosa; palea inferiore carinata. nervo medio prominente acuminata, supe- 
riore duplo minore, bicarinata, obtusa, apice Integra. 

Vera Cruz (Gouin, n. 93). 

LEPTOCHLOA PANICULATA Fourn. Bui. Soc. Bot. France (ser. 2), 27: 
296. 1880. 

Culmo 3-pedali, cum nodis glabro: foliis latis brevibus. acuminatis. ligula brevi 
laciniata: inflorescentia pedali, axi paniculte et radiorum scabro; radiis 
primariis primum patulis. dein divaricatis, in dimidia inferiore parte radiolos 
semipollicares emittentibus; spiculis 3-4 floris muticis, floribus remotis, glumis 
aequalibus. palea exteriore bidentata mutica. 

Absque loco (n. 1079). 



NORTH AMERICAN SPKCIKS oK LKPTUC'HLoA. 
SPECIES EXCLUDED. 



21 



LEPTOCHLOA BRANDEGEI Vasey = GOUINIA BRANDEGEI Hitchc. 
(Fig. Hi.) 




y 



FlO. 16.—Omiinia brandegei. Callus on right. 

This was first described by Va.sey (Proc. Calif. Acad., ser. '2.2: ','1:5. 1889). This 
agrees with the other species of Oouiiiin in habit and in general floral strnc- 
tnre. snch as the 1-nerved nufcinal eniitty glnines, the IJ-ncrvcd flowering 
glume, the rather long-pediceled rudimentary flower, and the hairy callus of 
the lower flower. It differs from the other species chiefly in the very short 
awn to the flowering glume. 

DisTHiBUTioN: L()ir('i-('alif(»-tii(i : Brandegee 7, 1^1. 1 1 . :!>^. ('(iniicii hUtnd, Mexico: 
Palmer, mi. 

Leptochloa rigida 'M\\r\.ro= Eragrostis sessilispica Buckley. 

Leptochloa palmeri Vasey ined. = Goiiinia viryata Scribn. 

Leptochloa mexicana Scribn. = 6'o(n'?n'o mexicana Scribn. 



PLATES. 



23 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. Fig. 1. — Lepfochloa mucronata Knnth. Athens, 111. The visual form. 
Fig. 2. — Leptochloa viscida Beal. Mexican Botindary Sur^^ey, 
Mearns No. 793. 
II. Fig. 1. — Leptochloa domingensis Trin. Florida, Simpson. Fig. 2. — 
Leptochloa domingensifi Trin. Hidalgo, Tex.. Nealley. 

III. Fig. 1. — Leptochloa scabra Nees. Louisiana. Langlois. This is the 

specimen upon which was based Leptochloa Langloisii Vasey. Fig. 
2. — Leptochloa nealley i Vasey. Texas, Nealley. Type specimen. 

IV. Fig. 1. — Leptochloa fascicular is. The prostrate form that has been 

named Diplachne procmnbens Nash. Denver, Colo., Letterman. 
Fig. 2. — Leptochloa fascicidaris. The western form which has been 
\VA\ne(\. Diplachne tracyiYdiBeY. Reno. Nev.. Tracy, 216. Type speci- 
men of D. tracyi Vasey. 

V. Fig. 1. — Leptochloa fascicidaris Gray. Sheffield, Mo. Bush No. 804. 
The ordinary form. Fig. 2. — Leptochloa imbricata Thurb. Culti- 
vated in Grass Garden, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

VI. Lepjtochloa floribunda Doell. The cotype of Diplachne halei Nash. 
Louisiana, Hale. A fragmentary specimen, but interesting because 
of its history. 

24 

o 



Bui 33, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 








Bui. 33, Bureau of Plant Indust'y, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 



21 



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2 
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11 
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2 

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33 

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Bui, 33, Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 



31 

D 



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> 




Tl 

P 

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> 



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Bui, 3?, Bur.-au of Plant Industry, U S Dent cW Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 





Bui. 33, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Dept. of Agricultur 



Plate V. 




03 
X 

o 
> 

-i 
> 




Bui. 33, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Fig. 1.— Leptochloa floribunda. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN No. 34. 



B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



SILKWORM FOOD PLANTS: 



CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION. 



HY 



GEORGE W. OLIVER, Expert, 

' SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



Issued January 15, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

Beverly T. Galloway, Chief of Bureau. 
SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. * 

A. J. PiETERs, Bofanist in Charge. 

David G. Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer. 

John E. W. Tracy, Kvpert. 

George W. Oliver, Expert. 



Bui. 34, Burpau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Frontispiece. 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN No. 34. 

B. T. GALLOWAY. Chi, J of Bureau. 



SILKWORM FOOD PLANTS: 



CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION. 

BY NEW YORic 

GEORGE W. OLIVEK, Expert, 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



Issued January 15, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1903. 



LETTI'R OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 
W(i.s/i;,i(/fo,i, I). (\, (Moher 27, 1002. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a paper entith'd '"Silk- 
worm Food Plants: Cultivation and Propagation," hy George W. 
Oliver, Expert, Seed and Plant Introduction and Distril)ution, and 
respectful! V recommend its pu))lication as a ])ulletin of this Bureau. 

The paper has been prepared at the request of Dr. L. O. Howard, 
under whose direction the funds appropriated at the last session of 
Congress for an investigation into the sul)ject of silk culture in this 
country are expended. Dr. Howard has made a number of sug- 
gestions in regard to the scope and character of the paper, and has 
furnished the illustration used as a frontispiece, selected from a large 
number of photographs taken by him during the past sunmier while 
investigating the silk-cultural industry in Italy and other countries. 
Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. ^ 



Contents. 



Page. 

Introduction 7 

Methods of reproduction 8 

Propagation by cuttings 9 

Summer cuttings •' 

Winter cuttings 10 

The cutting 10 

Preparations for jjlanting cuttings 10 

Indoor spring cuttings Jl 

Propagation l)y seeds 11 

Grafting and budding 13 

Koot grafting ."l 13 

Scion or sprig budding 14 

Shield budding 15 

Raising stocks for grafting and budding 16 

Soil 16 

Planting 16 

Pruning 17 

Description of plates 20 

5 



* 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Mulberry trees and leaf gatherers, Lombardy, Italy Frontispiece. 

Plate I. Branch of the white mulberry, Morus alba, with large undivided 

leaves 20 

II. Branch of the white mulberry, Morus alba, with divided leaves 20 

III. An ornamental variety of mulberry, iforus alba,' yariety renosa 20 

IV. Leaves of seedling Russian mulberry, Morus alba, variety tatarica.. 20 

V. The native red mulberry, Morus rubra 20 

VI. Paper mulberry, Broussoneiia papyrifera. A. — Leaf from old tree. 

B. — Leaf from 2-year-old seedling. C. — Twig with female flowers. 20 

VII. The Persian or black mulberry, Morus nigra 20 

VIII. Osage orange, Toxylon porniferum. Leaves, fruit, and bark 20 

IX. Summer cuttings of the white mulberry, with leaves shortened 20 

X. Winter cuttings of 1-year-old shoots of the white mulberry, ready 

for planting 20 

XL Root grafting the mulberry. A and B. — Scions fitted on stocks, 
ready to be tied. C. — Stock and scion wrapped and ready to be 

planted 20 

XII. Scion or sprig budding. A aiid B. — Scions prepared for inserting. 
C. — Stock with bark raised, ready for sciqn. D. — Scion in posi- 
tion, ready to be wrapped. E. — Stock with scion held in place 
by wrapping. F. — Stock waxed to exclude air and moisture 20 

6 



c; V>. I. n.— 30 
B. P. I.— its. .. I . 1. ■ .— ^" 

SILKWOint FOOD PLANTS: CULTIVATION AND 

I'ROl'ACJATION. 



INTRODUCTION. 

There is a small family of plants closely allied to each other, a few 
of which supply the silkworm with food. This family is called 
Horaces. There are three o-enera of trees in the oroup— J/"(>?v6s% the 
mulberry (Pis. I, II, III, IV, V, and VII); To,'i/Ion, the Osac,re oran^^e 
(PI. VIII), and Broussonetm, the paper mulhorry (PI. VI). The last 
named, bein^^ unsuitable for silkworm food, will not aj^ain be referred 

to here. 

The Osage orang-e provides palatal)le food for the silkworm, and if 
the worms were free to select the leaves for themselves the tree would 
be satisfactory; but the leaves are selected for them often with bad 
results, for the young and immature leaves have a tendency to sicken 
the worms. Ignorance of this fact renders the use of the Osage 

orange dangerous. 

Of the mulberry there are many so-called species and a great many 
varieties, but there are only one or two species and a few varieties 
which are of importance in silkworm propagation. Chief among 
these for producing silkworm food is the white mulberry, Ilorus alia 
(PI. I). This is thought by some to be a native of China. It has 
long been known that the white mulberry and its varieties are hardy 
over a large area of the United States. 

The uninitiated should not be left to their own devices in growing 
mulberrv trees, especially if the enterprise is to be an extensive one, 
for if failure results, silkworm propagation in the particular section 
of the country where the experiment is conducted will receive a seri- 
ous setback. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to discuss the question of the 
most suitable varieties of the white mulberry, as this could only be 
done from a European point of view. Bureau, in his monograph, 
describes 27 varieties of the white mulberry alone. In Italy, silk- 
worm growers favor Iforus alba, variety moretti, and forms raised 
from it. France and Spain have each its favorite kinds. Japan has 

7 



O SILKWORM FOOD PLANTS. 

close upon 100 forms, one or two of which would probably answer all 
purposes, while most of the silkworms reared in China are said to be 
fed upon Jlorus multicaiolis. This mulberr^^ was larg-ely planted in 
the United States many years ago. Few, if any, of the original trees 
remain, but specimens which are thought to be wild seedlings of these 
are very plentiful in the Southern States. These trees are thoroughly 
acclimated and free from disease. It is therefore probable that there 
is now in the United States an abundant supply of material for propa- 
gating purposes, at least. 

It is intended to show in these pages how the mulberry may be prop- 
agated and grown so as to provide the maximum amount of leaves 
for the food supply of the worms. The white mulberry, under good 
cultivation, is a low-growing tree, seldom attaining a greater height 
than 25 or 30 feet. It will reach this height in a comparatively few 
years after planting. Although it will live to a good old age, its 
growth, like that of most other trees, is most rapid when young. As 
the trees attain their full height they become stocky and make a mul- 
titude of small growths, from which flowers and fruit are produced. 
The fruit, which is usually abundant, is not a favorite in this country, 
being generally considered too sweet and insipid. In shape it may be 
said to resemble more or less that of an elongated blackberry. In the 
vicinity of Washington the trees flower about the middle of May and 
ripen their fruit during June. 

METHODS OF REPRODUCTION. 

The usual methods of propagation in use for fruit trees are employed 
with varying degrees of success in the case of the mulberry. These 
methods consist of budding, grafting, layering, cuttings, and seeds. 

Grafting and budding are by far the most expensive methods, and it is 
doubtful if the results justify their use, so far as raising muDierry trees 
is concerned. Part of the work connected with budding and grafting 
consists in raising stocks, which are seldom large enough for use until 
they are two years old. At this age, the buds or grafts are inserted, 
and then troubles previously undreamed of present themselves to the 
inexperienced cultivator. Were the mulberry tree as easily managed 
so far as budding or grafting is concerned as is the peach, the use of 
these methods would be feasible, but unfortunately the mulberry is 
far from being an easy subject in this respect, and a few failures are 
apt to produce disappointment and disgust. It will frequently happen 
that old trees must either be removed or desirable varieties worked 
on them; budding or grafting may be resorted to in such cases. 

Layering consists in bending down a portion of a branch so that its 
stem after being notched may take root in the ground while still 
attached to the parent tree. It is a cumbersome method, however. 



MP:TH0DS of Rf:PRODUCTI0N. 9 

Althouofh arood-sized plants can he raised in a short time by its use, it 
is seldom employed when any other method will produce the same 
results. 

Raisino- young trees from cuttings of the 1 -year-old ripened wood 
is a method which requires but little skill. As with budding and 
grafting, this method is instrumental in perpetuating varieties, as 
e\ery rooted cutting will eventually be a reproduction of the tree from 
which it was taken. This is not the case with plants raised from seeds, 
which always vary considerably from the parent. For this reason some 
mulljerr}' growers in Europe object to the seed method. Some of 
the seedlings, even from a single parent tree, will vary greath' in the 
value of the leaves for feeding purposes. Some will be thin in texture 
and lacking in the necessary chemical constituents; some, very hair}'; 
others thick, smooth, and m every way desirable. However, experi- 
enced mulberrv growers can readilv tell the value of a seedling tree 
for feeding purposes, and it is therefore possible to make a selection 
in this respect without nuich loss. 

PROPAGATION' BY CUTTINGS. 

SIMMER CITTINGS. 

In any group of seedlings there will always be found individuals the 
leaves of Avhich possess great adapta))ilitv for feeding purposes. These 
should certainly be propagated to perpetuate this desirable character- 
istic. Propagation should ])e started after the seedlings have made 
considerable growth in order to insure a good supply of wood. These 
plants should be increased by cuttings during the sunnuer months. At 
this season it is advisable to retain some of the leaves on the cutting 
and give treatment which will prevent shriveling during the process 
of rooting. The cuttings should be made from wood as ripe as possible; 
the leaves, besides being well matured, should be healthy and free from 
noxious insects. During July the lower parts of the current season's 
shoots will be found in good condition for propagating. 

Trim the cuttings similarly to those shown in PI. IX. At least 
two leaves shortened to one-half their length should be allowed to 
remain on the cutting. When placed in the propagating bed, the slips 
should be inserted in the sand in a direction sloping from the operator. 
Good results will follow if a cool propagating house is used, with clean 
sand as the rooting medium. When a propagating house is not avail- 
able, a wide frame provided with sash will answer the purpose. The 
frame should face north, and if in the shade of trees, so much the bet- 
ter. The sash should be kept closed, so that a humid atmosphere may 
be maintained until the cuttings take root. After they have made 
a considerable quantity of roots in the sand .they should be transferred 



10 SILKWOKM FOOD PLANTS. 

to beds in the open. The beds should be 5 feet wide. Place the 
rooted cuttings about 6 inches apart each way and water copiously 
until established, when they must be freely exposed to air and sunshine. 

WINTER CUTTINGS. 

The eiLtting. — The principal supply of plants may be secured by 
propagating from cuttings, which should be made from dormant wood 
taken from the trees just after the leaves have fallen. 

In no case should the cutting wood be less in diameter than a quarter 
of an inch. The cuttings (PI. X) should be about 10 inches in length, mak- 
ing the upper cut about one-half inch above a bud. The position of the 
lower cut is immaterial. The cuttings should now be tied in Imndles 
of fift}^ and either stored for the winter or be inunediately put out 
where they are to root. Where the winters are not too severe, or in 
the Eastern States south of the thirty- ninth parallel, they should be 
put in the ground during autumn. North of this it will be found 
best to keep them under cover until the ground is in a condition to be 
worked in early spring. If the}^ are kept even for a short time in a 
dry place, they will lose their sap and become shriveled. Therefore 
they should be buried in moderately moist sand or sand and ashes. 
Under such conditions a good callus will have formed around the 
lower cut surface before the time arrives when they are to be put in 
the open. If sphagnum moss be easily procurable, it can be used very 
successfully as a substitute for sand or ashes; but in this case the 
bundles of cuttings should be smaller and they should be placed with 
the buds pointing upward, the moss to be packed tightly around them, 
with the top part uncovered. This is an excellent method for induc- 
ing the formation of a good callus. 

Prejxiratlons for planting cuttings. — Previous to putting the cut- 
tings in the open the soil should be plowed deeply, then harrowed 
and rolled until well pulverized. A furi-ow is made with a spade to a 
sufficient depth, a little sand placed in the bottom, and the lower ends 
of the cuttings placed on top. Fill in the soil to half the depth of the 
furrow, firm well with the feet, then fill in the remainder of the soil, 
leaving only enough of the cutting exposed to view to keep the top 
bud from being covered. Where there is danger of hard freezing 
weather after fall planting, cover the surface with rough stable litter 
or dead leaves, this covering to be removed before the buds begin to 
swell during the latter part of March. 

The rows of cuttings can be arranged in beds of any convenient 
width, leaving spaces between the beds; this arrangement will facili- 
tate covering, watering, and hand-weeding. If plent}^ of good ground 
is available, enough space should be left between the rows to permit 
of horse cultivation. During the summer the plants should be gone 
over several times and all superfluous shoots removed, leaving only 



CUTTINGS AND SEEDS. ' 11 

one shoot to each phmt. It" lurj^o onoutjfh, the rooted cuttings should 
be removed to nursery rows the followinj^ fall. In no case should the 
plants be removed from the cuttin*^ beds to permaniMit locations. 

If the plants make sufficient jjfrowth the first season, they should be 
severely cut back; otherwise the o])eration should be deferred initil the 
foUowintr season. The lenjith of stem to remain as the future trunk 
must be regulated according to whether a dwarf or tall specinuMi is 
wanted. It must be taken into consideratit)n that the leaves are much 
more easily gathered from dwarf trees than from tall ones; in fact, 
they are more easily managed, not oidy so far as leaf gathering is 
concerned, but also in pruning and in keeping noxious insects and 
fungus diseases under control. The leaves on a tall tree are not all 
developed alike; those oiv the side fully exposed to the sun will 
naturally be in perfect condition, while on the opposite side they are 
softer and pr()bal)ly not so well adapted to the purpose for which they 
are intended. Medium-sized trees are therefore preferable for all 
purposes. 

INIX^OK SPKINi; < ITTINCS. 

Another method of propagation from cuttings, and a very success- 
ful one, consists in selecting medium-sized shoots al)out the ])eginning 
of November. These, ])efore being made into cuttings, are .sorted into 
bundles of ditierent lengths, tied, and heeled in ashes or sand, or in a 
mixture of both, and protected In' a frame having a northern exposure. 
During the winter they are taken out and cut into lengths of about 
5 inches. These are tied in bundles and buried in moist sand or 
moss. In early spring they are unti(>d and put (juite thickly in a 
propagating bed having a mild l)ottom heat, where the}' will root 
rapidly. When such .a bed is lacking, wooden flats about 4 inches 
deep may be used for the reception of the cuttings; but they must 
have the protection of a frame covered with sash. If a little loamy 
soil is placed in the bottom of the flats the cuttings will remain in good 
condition for a considerable time after rooting and until a favorable 
opportunity arrives for planting them out in nursery rows. If those 
rooted indoors are given plenty of air after being rooted in the bed, 
they can be transferred to the open ground with safety during dull 
weather. 

PROPAGATION BY SEEDS. 

The most convenient and rapid method of propagation is undoubtedly 
from seeds, as they are quick to germinate and the seedlings make 
growth about as rapidly as plants raised from cuttings. Seeds sown 
shortly after being harvested will germinate in a few days. If kept 
over winter and sown in earW spring, the seedlings will appear within 
fourteen days. When the seed is spring sown, the seedlings will, if 
the weather be propitious, attain a height of from 12 to 18 inches in 



12 SILKWORM FOOD PLANTS. 

one year: but during dry seasons thej will onh' grow from 6 to 12 
inches. Seedlings from se^ds sown immediatel}' after the fruit ripens 
are alwa\^s small at the end of the season, but they produce strong 
plants the season following. 

Seed is usually produced in great abundance b}' nearly all of the 
species and their varieties. The mulberry, like the strawberry, black- 
berry, and raspberr}', does not ripen all of its fruit at one time; con- 
sequently several gatherings are necessary before a crop is harvested 
from any one tree. The earliest fruits can be gathered immediate!}' 
after they are ripe and the seed sown if desired. It should be remem- 
bered that seedlings thus raised have comparatively little time to make 
their growth; therefore, ever}' day counts. 

In gathering the fruit, it will be found easiest to shake the tree and 
pick the fruits from the ground. To remove the seeds from the sur- 
rounding pulp, put the fruit into a large bucket or tub and squeeze 
with the hands until it becomes a jelly-like mass. Add water and stir 
well until the contents are thinned sufficientl} to allow the seeds to 
sink to the bottom. The remaining material can be poured off. The 
seeds should be exposed to the air until dry. If it is desired to sprout 
them the same summer, they should be sown in beds in the open, the 
soil of which should previously be well worked by deep plowing and 
gone over several times with a harrow and a roller. -When the soil is 
sufficiently pulverized the ground should l)e marked off' into beds 5 
feet wide and of any convenient length , leaving a space of 2 feet 
between the beds. To prevent washing of the soil and also to mini- 
mize the evil effects of drying winds, drive some stout stakes into the 
ground along the sides and ends of the beds, and to these nail eight or 
twelve-inch boards. The surface of the bed should be leveled and all 
stones and roots of plants removed with a hand rake. 

Sow the seeds broadcast, taking care not to sow them too thick, as 
there is a danger of the seedlings crowding each other. Crowding 
produces weak plants, because even the best soil is capable of sup- 
porting only a certain number of plants to the square foot. Press 
the seeds into the soil with the back part of a spade and cover lightly 
with soil screened through a quarter-inch sieve. 

In order to have the best results, the seed beds should not be exposed 
to the sun until a considerable time has elapsed after germination. 
This condition may be arranged as follows: Procure some pieces of 2 
by 3-inch scantling; place two of the pieces parallel to each other 5i 
feet apart. Nail laths from one to the other, using the 2-inch surface 
in which to drive the nails. Leave 1-inch spaces between the laths. 
The slats are put lengthwise over the beds, and can be used with or 
without the side boards. Over the slats spread archangel mats, or can- 
vas, until germination takes place; these coverings should be fre- 
quently dampened. After the seedlings show above the ground, the 



GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 13 

cloth coverings are to be kei)t on durintr the hottest part of the day 
only, and when the first true leaf appears they may be removed alto- 
gether and the shade necessaiy thereafter supi)lied by the lath slats. 
Water must be sup[)lied if the soil needs it. With spring-sown seed, 
the coverings over tiie lath shits may be disi)ensed with, but the sur- 
face of the bed should not be allowed to become dry until the s(>edlinos 
are large enough to take care of themselves. 

CRAFTINC; AM) RrDDlNO. 

In Italy and other silk-raising countries it is claimed that the leaves 
of trees raised from cuttings and seeds are superior for silk produc- 
tion, but that the quantity of leaves produced by trees so propagated 
is oidy about one-half the bulk of those from grafted or budded trees. 
Therefore, to produce a large (juantity. grafting and ])udding methods 
of propagation are practiced to a great extent. B(>fore the beginner 
undertakes these expensive methods of propagation in the United 
States, however, he should consider that land rentals are high in 
Europe and that land is cheap in the United States; therefore the 
American can afford to grow more trees ])y the methods which are 
instrumental in giving the best grades of silk. This is an important 
point to consider, and the writer is inclined to the belief that in the 
propagation of plants giving the highest grades of silk there will be 
little danger of a scarcity of material, as the mulberry thrives as well, 
if not better, in most parts of the United States as anywhere in 
Europe. 

For those who decide to try propagating by grafting and ))udding 
two of the most successful methods of performing the operation are 
here described. 

ROOT GRAFTING. 

This is performed in February and March. The stocks, which are 
two-year-old seedlings of the Russian mulberry (J/orus alha, variety 
tatarica), should show a diameter of at least three-eighths of an inch 
to give a satisfactory union. The stocks should be lifted in the fall 
and " heeled in " out of the reach of frost. The scions should be cut 
while in a dormant state and buried in damp sand in a protected place. 

In the latter part of February the work of root grafting (PI. XI) may 
be started. The preparatorv work consists in securing a quantity of 
strong tidy cotton, and of grafting wax made of beeswax tw^o parts, 
of resin two parts, and of mutton tallow one part. Put the ingredi- 
ents in a small tin bucket, place on a hot stove, and when melted drop 
in one or more balls of the cotton, allowing them to remain in the 
melted wax for live minutes; remove with a pointed stick. When 
cool they are ready for use. Procure a deep box in which place the 
stocks, keeping them covered with a dampened sack; another box 



14 SILKWOKM FOOD PLANTS. 

should be provided for the scions similarly protected, and a third one 
for the grafted roots. These precautions are necessary, as a little 
exposure to dry air is always detrimental. 

In beginning work with the stocks sever the top from the root at the 
collar; this can be done best with a pair of pruning shears. Take a 
scion at least 8 inches long and attach by the tongue method, as shown 
in PI. XL Select stocks and scions of as nearly the same diameter as 
possible; make a slanting cut at the bottom of the scion and a similar 
cut at the top of the stock. In the case of the scion, make an upward 
incision at a point about one-third of the length of the cut surface 
from the base; this will form a tongue. Next make a corresponding 
incision downward near the top of the slanting cut on the stock. The 
idea is to have the tongue of the scion take the place which the knife 
blade occupies when making the incision in the stock. When the two 
parts are neatly fitted so that the bark of stock and of scion come 
neatly together at one side, or at both if possible, bind firml}' with 
the waxed cotton. This material should be used in preference to raffia, 
because when the grafted stock is buried in the ground, raffia would 
be certain to rot before the union took place, while cotton will remain 
in good condition for a long time. 

After the fitting and tying have been done, the grafted stocks should 
be tied in bundles of twent3^-five, the first tie to be made rather firmly 
near the upper part of the scions; secure them again near the base of 
the scions, but not as firmly as before. Care must be taken so as not 
to displace the fitted parts. The bundles should now be buried in sand 
in a frame or other protected place until planting time arrives. The 
grafted stocks should be planted out just as soon as the condition of the 
soil will permit. Plant them deep enough so that only the top bud is 
exposed to the light. 

The subsequent treatment is in all respects similar to that given for 
cuttings. Mark the kinds, with the dates of grafting and planting, on 
large labels which will not be easily displaced. 

SCION OR SPRIG BUDDING. 

Scion or sprig budding, as shown in PI. XII, is perhaps the most 
successful and easiest to accomplish of all methods. It is practiced on 
stocks which have not been transplanted for at least one year previous 
to the time when it is desired to bud. The stocks should be larger 
than those used for root grafting. The most desirable time for the 
operation is in spring, when the bark lifts easily; this will necessarily 
be after the stocks come into leaf. The scions must be selected from 
shoots of the previous season's growth, short and stocky, with two 
buds present (PI. XII, A and B). They should be cut from the parent 
plants in the fall and kept dormant until the opportune moment arrives 
when the stock plants are in a receptive condition. 



SCION AND SHIELD BUDDING. 15 

111 preparing the stock for the scion the preliminary work is similar 
to that in shield budding the peach, cherry, or rose. At a point a little 
above the collar of the stock a transverse cut is made through the 
bark for a distance of half an inch or more around the stem (PI. XII, C.) 
This is followed by a longitudinal cut, beginning in the middle of the 
first cut and extending downward for about an inch. Prize up the 
bark at each side of the long cut (PI. XII, C) and it is ready for the scion, 
which is prepared for insertion by making an oblique cut through the 
base, so as to leave a cut surface about an inch long (PI. XII, A and B). 
The scion is then fitted in place so that its cut surface is neatly placed 
against the wood of the stock (PI. XII, D) laid bare by the raising of 
the bark. The next operation is shown in PI. XII, E, and consists in 
tying the parts together so that they will be held firmly while the 
union is taking place. In order to exclude air and moisture, grafting 
wax or clay should be applied, as shown in PI. XII, F. 

Within two weeks from the time of budding, the union will be 
effected, if everything has gone well. The ligature should not be 
removed, however, until there is danger of its cutting into the bark. 
The most essential part of the subsequent treatment consists in head- 
ing back the stock, so that the future head of the tree will be formed 
by the growth of the scion, and to do this successfully good judgment 
must l>e exercised. Cut off only a part at first, leaving some foliage 
on the stock until the Inids on the scion begin to push, when that part 
of the stock above the union should l)e removed with a sharp knife. 
Cover the wound thus made with grafting wax. 

SHIELD BUDDING. 

The shield system of budding may be used, but only in the spring, 
as the mulberry does not take kindly to shield buds inserted during 
the season suitable for most of our fruit trees. 

Shield budding consists in selecting a stock, either a branch or stem, 
from which the bark slips readily. In raising the bark of the stock 
for the reception of the bud, the work is similar to that described for 
scion or sprig budding. The bud is usually selected from dormant 
wood kept over winter in ashes or sand; but for this there exists no 
necessity, because there is always present an abundance of dormant buds 
on a growing plant, and these answer the purpose much better than 
budsl'rom dormant wood. To remove them, with a sharp knife make 
an incision in the stem about five-eighths of an inch ])elow the bud; 
bring the blade up under the Inid, severing a section of bark three- 
eighths of an inch in width, with the bud in the center; bring the 
blade out a little above the bud. If this operation is neatly performed 
the bud will require no further trimming before being inserted under 
the bark of the stock. The bark of the stock is then firmly bound 
over that of the bud and the parts kept in position with raffia. No 



16 stlkwor:m food plants, 

waxing is necessary. Thie union should take place within fifteen days, 
after which the ligature should be loosened or removed as proves 
necessar}'. 

RAISING STOCKS FOR GRAFTING AND BIDDING. 

In grafting and budding from any particular variety which it is 
desired to perpetuate, the Russian mulberry, Jlojnis alba, variety 
tatarica, is the one used as stocks. It is of a robust-growing nature 
and has been found well adapted to the soils and climates of all the 
agricultural belts of the United States. It is this variet}' that is so 
much used in the West and Northwest for hedges, as it is the hardiest 
of all the mulberries. 

Stocks are best raised from seeds, and a suppl}^ for this purpose 
should be obtained from a reliable source, to avoid unnecessar}^ delay 
and disappointment. The sowing and the subsequent management of 
the seedlings are the same with stocks as with seedlings for general 
planting, except that when planted in nursery rows they should be 
placed about a foot apart, so as to give an abundance of space for the 
operator to work. 

SOIL. 

So far as has been ascertained, the mulberry is not particular as to 
the character of the soil. It seemingly grows equally well in a great 
variety of well-drained soils. Even in sandy and gravelly situations 
it holds its own. In shallow soils over hardpan the mulberry thrives 
after most of our fruit and ornamental trees have given up the 
struggle. Under the same conditions the Persian mulberry has been 
found to fruit abundantly. 

Notwithstanding its behavior under what would be supposed adverse 
conditions, there are few plants which respond more vigorously to 
applications of manure. In Japan it has recently been shown that by 
liming alone the percentage of liber in the leaves decreased very per- 
ceptibly. Again, by liming and also manuring with sodium nitrate 
and calcium sulphate a still further reduction in the fiber was appar- 
ent. The trees operated on were \\ meters (5 feet) high. Each tree 
was treated with 5<)0 grams (l.llbs.) of lime, -100 grams (.9 lb.) of sodium 
nitrate, and 200 grams (.-M lb.) of calcium sulphate. How the cater- 
pillars fared as a result of this change in the composition of the leaves 
is not stated. 

PLANTING. 

This all-important operation may be performed either in the fall or 
spring. After the leaves have fallen or are matured, no delay should 
occur in transplanting to permanent positions. When this period is 
selected, it gives good opportunities for the formation of new roots. 



PLANTIN(4 AND PRININCJ. l7 

In sprinij' the trees may be tiuiisplanted any time after the around is 
in a \V()rkal>le coiulition and up to tlu> period when the t)uds are about 
to l)urst into orowtii. Spaees intended to l)e planted should he deeply 
worked beforehand l)y i)lo\vinij and harrowin^-, and after plantinjr the 
weeds should be kept down. 

The distance between the trees should not be less than 10 feet in the 
rows, and the rows should be the same distance apart. If the field 
devoted to the trees is more than 2 or 3 acres in extent, wider spaces 
should be left at intervals for waj^ons, etc. It is certain that trees 
planted l«l feet a])art will eviMitually occupy all the space; but when 
there is danoci- of their becoming- too nuich crowded, enough of 
the plants may l)e rooted out and burned to allow the remainder 
abundant space to develop. If this is done, those which are to remain 
permanently should be trained accordingly. The above arranjjement 
is the best for trees nearly all the branches of which can l)c reached 
from the ground, not only for pruning, but also for leaf gathering. 

In planting trees similar precautions should be taken to those in the 
case of ordinary forest trees; that is, not to allow the roots to become 
in the least dry from the time they are lifted from the nursery rows 
until planted in the field. As soon as they are lifted the roots should 
be dipped in a mixture of soil and water and kept covered until planted, 
so that they wdll not become dry. If the ground is naturally hard and 
the soil is poor, dig large holes, even for very young trees, as they grow 
rapidly and should be encouraged to make good, stout growths from 
the beginning. Put some good soil in the hole, spread out the roots 
on this, and cover with several inches of tine soil before firming with 
the feet. Allow the roots to be about the same depth in the hole as 
they were in the nursery rows. Prune back the growth of young trees 
one-half in the fall, and if necessary cut back to strong buds in early 
spring. 

PRUNING. 

The pruning of the trees presents no special difficulties so long as it 
is done early enough in the season to avoid late growth, which, if 
caught by cold weather before ripening, will perish during the winter. 
The principal pruning should be done in winter and should consist of 
shortening back strong growths so as to form a low, spreading tree. 
Keep the central part of the tree as free of growth as possible, to admit 
light and air. 

After the first cutting back, select three or more of the strong 
shoots to form the principal branches. If they are strong and show 
a disposition to grow upright, they may be kept apart by using three 
sticks tied in the shape of a triangle; place these in the center of 
the tree and tie the branches to them until they grow in the desired 

11805— No. 34—02 2 



18 SILKWORM FOOD PLANTS. 

direction. By careful attention to cutting^ out the undesirable growths 
the tree can be made to assume an}^ desired shape. 

In gathering* the leaves always allow enough to remain on the tree 
to insure its perfect health. If some of the trees show signs of fail- 
ing vigor as a result of excessive leaf gathering, it is advisable to 
allow them to grow for a season without picking, and by early prun- 
ing out of unnecessary growth permit those growths which are desir- 
able to become ripened. 



P L A T E S 



19 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Fkoxtispiece. — Old mulberry trees, showing Italian method of pruning, with a group 
of embryo silk culturists (leaf gatherers) in the foreground, Lombardy, 
Italy. By this method of pruning, tall trunks from 8 to 10 feet from 
the ground are produced, necessitating the use of ladders for leaf gath- 
ering. From a photograph taken August 26, 1902, by Dr. L. 0. Howard. 

Plate I. Branch of the white mulberry. Morns alba, with large undivided leaves, 
of thick texture and smooth surface. The leaves of this variety are pre- 
eminently adapted for silkworm food. From photograph of a tree in 
the grounds of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
II. Branch of seedling white mulberry, Morns alba, with divided leaves. Seed- 
lings from the same parent will sometimes have leaves of the di\-ided 
form, others a^ssuming the undivided shape shown in Plate I, while some 
may have both forms on the same tree. 

III. An ornamental variety of mulberry, Moms alia, variety venosn. Of no 

value as food for silkworms. 

IV. Leaves of seedling Eussian mulberry, Morus alba, variety tatarica. This 

mulberry, owing to its extreme hardiness, is used for stocks on which to 
graft or bud the most valuable varieties in order to perpetuate their 
characteristics, propagation from seed being altogether unreliable for 
perpetuating varieties. 
V. The native red mulberry, Morus rubra. From a specimen in the Herbarium 
of the U. S. National Museum. The varieties of this species are usually 
prized for their fruits, being of little yalue as food for silkworms. 

VI. Paper mulberry, Broussonetki papyrifera. Valueless in silk culture. A. — 
Leaf from old tree. B.— Leaf from 2-year-old seedling. C— Twig with 
female flowers. 
VII. The Persian or black mulberry, Morus nigra. This species is cultivated in 
Europe and Asia for its fruit. From photograph of a tree in the grounds 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
VIII. Osai^j ora^e, Toxylon j)omiferu,n. Leaves, fruit, and bark. The mature 
leaves of this native tree provide excellent food for silkworms. 

IX. Summer cuttings of the white mulberry, with leaves shortened to prevent 
excessive evaporation. 
X. "Winter cuttings of 1-year old shoots of white mulberry, ready for planting. 

XI. Root grafting the mulberry. A and B.— Scions fitted on stocks, ready to 
lie t\ed. C— Stock and scion wrapped and ready to be planted. 
XII. Scion or sprig budding. This method of propagation can be used on 
strong seedling stocks or on branches of trees. A and B.— Scions pre- 
pared for inserting. C— Stock with bark raised, ready for scion. D.— 
Scion in position, ready to be wrapped. E.— Stock with .scion held in 
place by wrapping. F.— Stock waxed to exclude air and moisture. 

20 

() 



Bui. 34. Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Depl. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




Branch of White Mulberry (Morus albaj, with Large Undivided Leaves. 



Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculturs. 



Plate II. 




Branch of White Mulberry (Morus albai, with Divided Leaves. 



Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Branch of White Mulberry i Morus albai, Variety venosa. 



Bui 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Leaves of Seedling Russian Mulberry (Morus alba), Variety tatarica. 



Bvil (4 Biir.'aii o( Pl.int In.lust.v U' S P.'Pt ><> A.v,, ultii 



Plate V. 




Branch of the Native Red Mulberry (Morus rubra). 



Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 



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o 


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o 


■V 




m 


cc 


x 




S 




c; 


— . 


r 


^* 


CD 


■=• 


3J 


•- 


3) 


.-* 


-< 










n 


— 




03 




.ii 




O 


-t 


c_ 


Q 


en 




(n 


>->i 


O 


w 


7 




m 

H 




> 










Tq 


tl 




> 


P 


■0 

< 


,_^ 


3J 








TT 




m 




31 


< 


> 






r+ 




£3* 








n> 




B 




P 








(t> 




Cb 




O 




^ 




<t> 






Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI 




Branch of the Persian or Black Mulberry (Morus nigra). 



Bui. 34. Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VIM 




Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IX. 




Summer Cuttings of White Mulberry, with Leaves Shortened. 



Bui. 34. Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate X. 




Winter Cuttings of One-year-old Shoots of White Mulberry, Ready for Planting. 



Bui 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XI. 




Root Grafting the Mulberry. 

A and B, .seion.s fitted on .stocks, ready to be tied; C, stock and scion wrapped and ready to be planted. 



Bui. 34, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XII 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 35. 



B. T. GALLOWAY, iMcf <>/ Jiiinau. 



RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS, 



AS BEARING U.\ iilE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

SOUTHERN STATES. 



BY 



S. A. KNAPP. Spk( lAi. A(4EKT, 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



IssiEi) February, 14, 1908. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

19 3. 



BUREAU OF PliAlS^T IJfDUSTRY. 

Beverly T. Galloway, Cfiief of Bureau. 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

A. J. PiETERS, Botanist in Charge. 

David G. Fairchild, AgrintUural Explorer, 

John E. W. Tracy, Expert. 

George W. Oliver, E.vpert. 

S. A. Knapp, Special Agent. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 35. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, ChifJ of Rurmu. 



RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS, 



AS BEARING ON THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

SOUTHERN STATES. 



BY LIBfMRY 

NEW YORK 

BO; '.N/CAL 

-.ROEN 

S. A. KNAPP. Special Agent. 

SKED AND PLA>fT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 



Issued February, 14, 1903. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1903. \ 



LETT1:R of TRAXSMriTAL 



U. S. Department of AciRicuLTURE, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 
Washington, D. C, September 18, 1902. 
Sir: 1 have the honor to transmit herewith a report on ''Recent 
Foreign Explorations, as Bearing on the Agricultural Dev^elopraent 
of the Southern States." ))v Dr. S. A. Knapp, Special Agent, Seed 
and Plant Introduction and Distribution, and recommend that it be 
published as Bulletin No. 35 of the series of this Bnreau. This n^port 
has been submitted by the Botanist in Charge of Seed and Plant 
Introduction and Distribution with a view to publication. 
Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James AVilson, 

Secretary of Acjrlculture. 

3 



PREFACE, 



The introduction of Kiushu rice by the Section of Seed and Plant 
Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1899 
was the tirst step taken toward improving the conditions of rice grow- 
ing in southern Louisiana and Texas, and the marked development of 
the rice industry since that time is' in a large measure due to the value 
of this variety. There were still other problems connected with the 
rice industry, however, as well as those which concerned the improve- 
ment of extensive tracts of pine lands occurring in manv of the 
Southern States, which remained unsolved. These problems could be 
best approached by first securing all the information available in 
foreign lands, and Dr. S. A. Knapp was connnissioned to go to Asia 
to make a careful study of the rice industry and to secure such seeds 
as he might decide were valuable. 

Dr. Knapp's report deals with the life of the peoples among whom 
he traveled, as well as with the methods and cost of rice production 
and the cultivation and production of certain other crops, and alto- 
gether it constitutes a unique contribution to our knowledge of the 
agriculture and the condition of the farming communities of these 
countries. 

The report is submitted for publication as Bulletin No. 35 of the 
Bureau of Plant Industry. 

A. J. PlETERS, 

Botcmht in Cltarge. 
Office of Seed and Plant 

Introduction and Distribution, 

Wmhington^ D. 6"'., Stjjtemher 12, 1902. 

5 



CONTEXTS. 

Page. 
9 
Introduction 

Japan _^ 

Agricultural situation " 

Acreage and yield of food crops 

Methods of rice culture 

Field work 

Cutting rice 

Manure 

Farm wages 

Cost of raising rice 

19 
Farm life 

General remarks 

Ceylon „ 

Agriculture 22 

Imports 22 

Farmhouses 

India 22 

Timber " 

Extent of arable land 

Fertility of the soil 

Green manures 

Commercial fertilizers 

Crop rotation - 

Public roads _,, 

24 
Conveyances 

Dress 24 

Country houses 

Villages 25 

Plows and scrapers ' 

Seeding and harvesting 

Rice farming 

Treatment of the seed bed and manurmg ^o 

Plowing and fertilizing 

Methods of cultivation . 

Product per acre 

Harvesting 

Thrashing 29 

Wages 29 

Cost of cultivation 

Northern limit of culture - 

Consumption of rice as food 

Acreage under cultivation 

Acreage under irrigation 

7 



8 CONTENTS. 

India— Continued. p 

Live stock and farm implements 33 

Wells 33 

Rice produced 34 

Agriculture in the Punjab 34 

Cost of living 35 

Rice farming in Lower Burma 35 

Rice milling 35 

Rice for foreign markets 35 

Selection of seeds 37 

China 37 

Agricultural conditions 37 

Tillage of the soil _ 3g 

Irrigation 39 

Cultivating, harvesting, and thrashing rice 39 

Hulling rice 39 

Production and cost of milling rice 40 

Cost of building, etc .• 49 

Exportation of agricultural products 40 

The Philippine Islands 40 

Rainf al 1 4][ 

Temperature 4X 

Range of products 42 

Stock and pasture lands 42 

Fodder plants 42 

Sugar cane 42 

Rice farming 43 

Fruits 43 

Timber 43 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 



Plate I. Fig. L — Rice mill among the mountains, Japan. Fig. 2. — Planting 

rice, Japan 44 

II. Fig. 1.— Cleaning rice, Japan. Fig. 2.— Pounding rice, Japan 44 

III. Fig. 1.— Tamil girls picking tea, Ceylon. Fig. 2.— Carts with bam- 

boo covers, Ceylon 44 

IV. Fig. 1.— Plowing in India. Fig. 2.— English plow and Indian plow. 44 
V. Fig. 1. — Wooden scrapers used in preparing for irrigation, India 

Fig. 2. — Well used for irrigation, India 44 

VI. Fig.' 1.— Washing rice, China. Fig. 2.— Sugar boiling house, Luzon. 44 



TEXT FIGURES. 



Fig. 1. Tract of land at Masuda, Japan, showing 409 irregular fields 15 

2. The same land divided into 138 regular fields 15 



B. P. T.— 14. S. 1>. T. n.— 31. 

RKCENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS, AS BEARING ON THE AGRI- 
CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The rice belt of Louisiana and Texas comprises a section of prairie 
land bordering- on the Gulf of Mexico and extending- westward from 
the parish of St. Mary, along the coast of Louisiana, 140 miles to the 
Sa])ine Kiver, and thence al)out 4(K) miles along- the Texas coast to 
Brownsville, on the Rio Grande, with an avei-age width of 60 miles 
and a mean elevation above the sea level of (] to 40 feet. 

Throughout the entire belt the surface has such a slight variation 
that for the pur])oses of irrigation it ma}- be considered practically 
level. The soil is a rich, sandy loam, in some sections, underlaid with 
a tenacious clay at the depth of 2 to 3 feet. In the other sections the 
soil is a strong clay or clay loam, with subsoil conditions similar to 
that of sandy loam. Between these extremes the sand and the clay 
form many grades of loams, but all easily tilled and fertile. At a 
depth of 8 to 16 feet from the sui-face a stratum of water-bearing sand 
is generally struck, the water answering for house purposes. At a 
depth vai-ying from 60 to 250 feet, veins of water providing a flow 
sufficiently strong- for purposes of irrigation have been uniformly 
found. 

This rice belt contains more acres of ara])le land than an}' one of a 
majority of the States in the Union. It is intersected by a large 
number of navigable rivers and minor streams, and has one of the 
most salubrious climates on this continent. 

Until within a comparatively recent date (1884), however, it was 
regarded as almost valueless for agricultural purposes, due to its inac- 
cessibility, its generally level surface, and its retentive soil. From an 
earl}' period an occasional small field has been successfully planted in 
rice, but this was invariably handled by primitive methods. In 1884 
the adaptation of wheat machinery to rice culture began, and with it 
the rapid expansion of this industry. For nearly ten years thereafter 
the rice crops mainl}- depended for success on rainfall, and the rice 
farmers met with man}^ reverses, though irrigation by the construc- 
tion of surface canals was undertaken as early as 1890. 

9 



10 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

By 1898 the canal and the deep-well system of irrig-ation had been 
satisfactorih' tested and the rice industry was rapidh' extending along- 
safe lines. At this point it was found that too large a per cent of the 
machine-handled rice was liable to breakage in milling. The attention 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture was called to this fact, and 
measures were immediately taken to remed\^ the defect and to over- 
come the difficulty by the introduction of new varieties. The Depart- 
ment work resulted in the introduction of a variety from Japan, known 
as Kiushu, which has given very satisfactory results. 

In the evolution of this industry further difficulties became appar- 
ent. While rice could be successfully planted during- a period of 
nearly four months — March, April, May, and June — it all ripened at 
nearly the same time, giving onlv about one month for harvest against 
four months for planting; that is, it was demonstrated that the har- 
vest could not be prolonged in proportion to the period of planting, 
where only one variet}^ of rice seed was used. The varieties planted 
developed this peculiar characteristic, that whether planted in March 
or June the crop would mature at about the same time, that planted 
later developing in every instance with increased rapidity. The har- 
vest is the season of high wages, and the limited harvest period 
increased the expenses and prevented using the care necessary to prop- 
erly cure, thrash, and store the crop, thus greatly augmenting the 
cost and reducing the quality of the rice. If the period of harvest 
could be materially lengthened, ever}- grower could produce from 50 
to 100 per cent more rice than at present. One farmer with a single 
helper and good teams can prepare the land and plant 200 to 300 acres 
of rice. It would be difficult to cut more than 100 to 150 acres with 
the same help, but if the harvest could be extended over three months' 
time, then the laborers who planted the crop could in the main harvest 
it. It became evident that this result could be attained only by plant- 
ing early, medium, and late maturing varieties, and that these varie- 
ties must be rices of fixed characteristics and habits of growth. Such, 
with few exceptions, can be found only in Asiatic countries, where 
centuries of uniform conditions of climate and culture have established 
fixed habits of growth in certain varieties of rice. 

A second and almost equalh' important reason for visiting foreign 
rice-producing countries was to observe methods of cultivation, har- 
vesting, and storing, in so far as these affect the quality of the grain, 
and, if decidedlv beneficial, then to suggest some wa}' by which the 
same result could be obtained by the use of machinery. It had already 
been observed bj- American rice growers using imported Japanese seed 
rice that it had several points of superiority over the home-grown rice 
and it was desirable to find the reason for this superiority. (1) It had 
generally been noted that the vitality and germinating power of the 
imported seed were nearly 40 per cent greater than that of domestic 



JAPAN. 11 

seed. (2) That imported seed averaged better in color and was freer 
from rust than much of the domestic. (3) That it was less lial)le to 
be chalk}" and break under the milling- process. 

Now, were these conditions due to soil, climate, and selection, or to 
more careful methods of harvesting- and storing^ If upon investiga- 
tion it was decided that they resulted from the latter causes, then it 
was believed that the machinery used could be modified or added to 
till the rice grown upon the prairies of Louisiana and Texas would 
possess every excellence of the foreign article. 

It should not be inferred that the rice lands of the United States are 
limited to the coast prairies of Louisiana and Texas; but in that section 
rice farming is carried on entirelv with machinerv, and the peculiar 
difficulties are more pronounced. The alluvial lands of the Lower 
Mississippi and of other rivers flowing into the (rulf of Mexico, as well 
as many trat-ts in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida, are adniirably 
adapted to the cultivation of rice, and growers in these districts are 
deeply interested in anything that relates to improvements in rice pro- 
duction. Except where the density of population demands the use of 
all land to meet the food supply, there will be found many unfilled 
tracts in the river bottoms of nearly all of the Southern States which 
can be profitably utilized for rice. Hence the best methods of pro- 
ducing rice are of general interest. 

Other questions receiving the earnest attentioji of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture relate to the vast tracts of land in the Gulf and 
South Atlantic States which are rapidly being denuded of their pine 
timber or on which the work of devastation has been completed. 
Except for some small value they possess as grazing lands they have 
been held in slight esteem from an agricultural standpoint. As a 
whole these lands possess a soil almost destitute of humus, with a stifle 
subsoil and a mechanical condition most unfavorable to the growth of 
plants. If valuable plants could be found that readily adapt them- 
selves to such conditions, then the pine-land problem would largely be 
solved. The Department therefore decided to collect from Asiatic 
countries the most valuable of such plants and to conduct a series of 
experiments on the pine lands of the South to determine the best 
methods of making them profitable to agriculture. 

JAPAN. 

Such marked benefits had been secured by the importation of Kiushu 
rice that it w^as considered worth while to find other rices in the Flow- 
ery Empire that would ripen at difl'erent periods, suited to the require- 
ments of our harvest. Two days spent at the Royal Agricultural 
College at Kamaba, Tokyo, and one day at Nishigahara Experiment 
Station gave a comprehensive view of the valuable work along prac- 
tical and scientific lines for the advancement of agriculture going on 



12 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

in Japan. Many tests had been made at these stations to determine 
the varieties of rice most profitable for general use among the farmers 
of Japan, and samples were exhibited of each variety tested. Fifteen 
of the best for general planting, including early, medium, and late 
varieties, were selected. In addition to the samples of seed exhibited, 
small plats of each variet}' were shown in the trial fields, from which, 
in connection with the notes that had been taken, the relative vigor 
and habit of growth of each variety were determined. Some deduc- 
tions which the Japanese experimenters have made may be profital^ly 
noted here: (1) The great importance of selecting pure-bred seed of 
even qualit}' and size of grain. (2) The removal of an}' light or imper- 
fect grains. This is done in Japan by soaking the seed rice in water 
several days till it is about ready to sprout, when it is thrown into salt 
water of 1.3 specific gravity and allowed to remain two minutes, being 
gently stirred meanwhile. The light grains will float; the others are 
removed, washed in cold water, and planted. When a seed drill is to 
be used the damp seed is first dried by being rolled in the ashes of rice 
straw. (3) Even sprouting of the grains is very essential to even 
ripening of the crop. This is accomplished by previously soaking the 
seed as above stated. 

The agricultural station experimenters found it profitable to use 
about 200 pounds of superphosphate per acre on rice. They also used 
with good effect soy-bean cake, horse manure, human excreta, and 
straw ashes. Too much straw plowed under caused fermentation and 
injured the roots of the plants. For their conditions the fertilizer 
should contain nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the ratio of 2, 
1..5, and 1.2. 

It is the observation of scientific and practical men in Japan and 
China that the best rice can not be produced on low, marshy ground. 
Such rice is relativeh' dark in color and inferior in quality. The best 
rice is produced on well-drained land. It is claimed that one advan- 
tage of planting a rice field to a winter wheat or barley crop is that 
the soil is dried and pulverized. 

By the time the fields of growing rice had been carefulh" examined 
and the subject fully discussed with Japanese farmers, the 15 varieties 
originally selected were reduced to 10 b}^ elimination of the less valua- 
ble ones. At Kobe some additions were made to the list on the 
advice of E. H. Hunter, the well-known rice miller, and the final 
number of varieties selected for importation was 15. This seed 
arrived in the United States in good condition and has been planted 
for trial. If it meets expectations the Department will be prepared 
to distribute seed which has been full}' tested. 

AGRICULTURAL SITUATION. 

The following account of agriculture and rural life in Japan ma}^ be 
of interest: Rice forms the principal article of food of the Japanese, 



FOOD CROPS, JAPAN. 



13 



and its cultivation presents many interestintr prol)loms. First, about 
45,000,000 people must be sustained largely by the product of 7,0()(>,<»00 
acres of rice. This allows nearly (5^ persons to the acre and on the 
basis of the crop of 181)0 furnishes 4 bushels of hulled rice, or about 
240 pounds of milled rice, for each person. This indicates that Japan 
has attained a density of population which allows only a narrow mar- 
gin between home consumption and possible production. 

ACREAGE AND YIELD OF FOOD CROPS. 

It must not, however, be inferred that rice is the sole food of the 
people. The dailv ration includes a variety of foods of a highly 
nitrogenous character, which, with vegetables, supplement the rice. 
The following official report of the number of acres of food crops pro- 
duced annually in Japan will correct to some extent the impression 
that the Japanese subsist almost solely on rice: 

Food crops of Japan, as reported for 1896.n 



Food crops. 



Acres. 



Total 
product. 



Rice l> 

Wheat 

Rye 

Barley 

Peas and beans 

Millet. l)uckwheat, and rape. 

Irish potatoes 

Sweet potatoes 



6,967,461 
1,104,200 
1,681.267 
1,626,260 
1,343,191 
2,077,982 
57,790 
195, 25i 



Bn!<lieli<. 
180, 99S, 855 
17, 763, 945 
14,608,117 
39,246,425 
18, ()C3, 070 
28,002,330 
6, 862, 469 
68,402,579 



Product 
per acre. 



Buslu'h. 
26 

16.09 

8.7 

24.1 

13.4 

10.6 

118. 75 

350. 33 



^Tl^lr^lSent'rSdiS^"- refers to this product with hulls removed, and for comparison with 
paddy about 20 per cent should be added. 

The acreage devoted to rice in Japan can not be very much increased. 
The islands are of volcanic formation, and in a general way it may 
be stated that a rather bold range of mountains traverses them from 
the southwest to the northeast, occupying seven-eighths of the terri- 
tory. The remaining one-eighth consists of fertile valleys, widening 
toward the sea until they gradually expand into coastal deltas of con- 
siderable extent. The narrow valleys are terraced on each side;^ at 
the base of the mountains canals are made to receive the descending 
rivulets and convey the water to the various fields as required for 

irrigation. i. j. \ ^ ^ 

Frequently the surplus water is used to turn an overshot wheel tor 
milling rice or for manufacturing purposes in the native villages, or 
it may be allowed to flow into some creek or river, but as far as possi- 
ble sufficient mountain water for irrigation is conducted by canals at a 
level somewhat higher than the rice field. (PI. I, fig. 1.) The inge- 
nuitv displayed in devising the elaborate system of irrigating canals 



14 RECENT FOREIGlSr EXPLORATIONS. 

and the amount of patient indiistrv required to construct them are 
simply marvelous. The extent of the retaining walls constructed to 
prevent the washing of the terraces, or to arrest mountain slides, or 
as barriers against a river bent on destroying a tield, is inconceivable. 
These are the works of a patient and industrious people throughout 
man}' generations. 

Occasionallv water for irrigation is elevated from a creek or river, 
but almost invariably by the simplest machinery, such as has been 
employed for hundreds of years. One of the simplest machines for 
elevating water in common use is a wooden wheel 6 to 8 feet in diam- 
eter and 12 inches wide, with buckets on the perimeter, or rim. The 
power that raises the water is the weight of a man traveling on the 
buckets on the side of the wheel opposite the buckets lifting the water. 
It is so adjusted that the weight of the man on one side of the wheel 
is a little more than the weight of the water raised bv the buckets on 
the other side; hence the wheel revolves. When the water reaches 
the required elevation it is discharged into a spout. 

METHODS OF RICE CULTURE. 

Rice production in all oriental countries is conducted upon the same 
general plan, but the methods differ so materially from those employed 
in the United States that they should V)e carefully noted. The lands 
are divided by levees into small fields. These are of no regular form, 
and generally the inclosing levees are gracefully curved to represent 
some ideal of beauty in the mind of the planter. In the small valleys 
among the mountains these curved embankments were doubtless nec- 
essaiy to conform to the mountains and thus to inclose a larger area, 
but as the improvements encroached upon the lowlands curves contin- 
ued to be used. The levees vary in Avidth from 1 foot for field divi- 
sions and paths to 4 feet wide for main embankment roads. This 
system of levees and fields has precluded the use of domestic animals in 
the preparation of the soil and harvesting of the rice. The Japanese 
are fully aware of the disadvantages of having such small and irregular 
fields, and have made strenuous efforts to relieve the situation. 

]Many of the rice fields in Japan average scarceh' more than 35 feet 
square, and the boundary levees have such wavy lines that they look 
as if made by hogs in a frolic. Under modern conditions the horse 
and the ox could be used in tillage, but there are no paths which such 
animals can traverse to these minute fields; and if there were, the 
tracts are too small for the use of plow or harrow, because there is 
not room to turn, much less to follow the angular boundary lines. If 
a farmer owns several tracts it is seldom that the}' are adjacent, and 
hence he is helpless to institute reform. Many progressive Japanese 
farmers have tried to institute reforms, but under the old law changes 
in land boundaries required the unanimous consent of the owners, 



LAND TRACTS, JAPAN. 



15 



which it was pmotic-ally impossible to socuro. This was prooiscly 
the situation of the hinds bek)no-in«- to tho yeomanry of Enjihind until 
about the connnencement of tho Nineteenth century. Three years 
since a hiw was passed by the Japanese Parliament that if two-thirds 
of the owners of a tract of land agreed to reform the l)oundaries the 
minority must concur. Still the farmers of Japan were conservative, 
and only two or three provinces have made any considerable progress. 
The accompanying diagrams i)resent a striking example of the land 
situation and the reform accomplished in one locality. 




Fig. 1.— Tract of land at Masuda, containing 25 acres, divided into 409 irregular fields. 






Fig. 2.— The same tract shown in fig. 1, redivided into 138 regular fields. 

Fig. 1 is a plat of a tract of land at Masuda village, near Sendai, and 
shows the little fields as they have been for ages. Fig. 2 is of the same 
tract readjusted under the reform movement. Mr. J. H. De Forest, 
of Sendai, who furnished the maps from which these illustrations were 
made, states that this tract as platted contains only 25 acres and for- 
merly had 409 irregular fields in it. (See fig. 1.) There are now 
(see tig. 2) only 138 regular fields, with perfectly straight water 
courses and roads wide enough for two loaded carts to pass. Even 



16 RECENT FOREIGT^^ EXPLORATIONS. 

thus enlarged these fields are small indeed as compared with those in 
the United States, but it is a great advance for Japan. 

Such reform as this will greatly facilitate the use of cattle in plow- 
ing the wet fields and in carting out the crops. But, more than this, 
the area of arable land is greatly increased by breaking down the 
numerous grass ridges and throwing their space into productive soil. 
About one-tenth is thus gained, or 2 acres in the plat figured; and as 1 
acre averages about $175 in value, the entire gain is over $350. But 
the whole expense of this reform was only $400, so that it almost paid 
for itself in the value of new space gained, to say nothing of the less- 
ening of manual labor. 

Japanese farmers are beginning to see that American methods must 
be more and more considered if they are to keep pace with agricul- 
tural advance all over the world. 

FIELD WORK. 

The fields of the Japanese farjners are generally well drained and 
thoroughly tilled, mostU^ with the spade or mattock. Both of these 
implements difier from those used in the United States. The mat- 
tock has a blade about 16 inches long and 5 inches wide, with a handle 
4 or 5 feet long. The implement weighs 7 or 8 pounds. With a quick, 
powerful blow the blade is driven into the soil about 14 inches; then, 
using the handle as a lever, the soil is disintegrated and partially 
inverted. The spade is a wooden blade about 2 feet long with an 
ordinarv handle; the lower end of the blade is cased with steel, and 
upon the back of the upper end is a block the width of the spade. 
The spade is thrust into the soil by the foot at an angle of about 30°, 
and, using the block for a fulcrum, the soil is rolled to one side, as in 
plowing, but it is more thoroughly disintegrated. All the trash, 
straw, or grass upon the field is turned under, together with such an 
amount of lime, ashes, fish manure, or human excreta as the farmer 
may be able to secure. Where a winter crop is raised the manure is 
generalh^ applied in the fall. If the rice field remains fallow during 
the winter the manure is applied at the time of spring working, in 
March or April, according to conditions. 

The seed bed is prepared as earl}^ as convenient in the spring, about 
April 1. thoroughly manured, and is giv^en the care of a bed in the 
garden. It is spaded 8 inches deep and worked until the manure is 
thoroughly incorporated and all clods pulverized, after which it is 
surrounded b}' a low ridge and water is admitted to fill the soil until 
the spaded earth becomes consistent mud. The seed, which had been 
previously' selected for purity, size of grain, and flinty character, is 
then soaked in pure water till well sprouted, which usually' requires 
two daj's, and is then sown on the bed broadcast as thickh' as admis- 
sible for strong plants. Prior to sowing the bed is covered with water 



JAPANT':SE RICE FIELDS CUTTING RICE. 17 

to the depth of 2^ inches. In live or six days the lico is well start<}d. 
It is then left dry in the daytime and is Hooded at night. Covering 
with water at night keeps it warm, and uHowing the bed to l)ecome 
dry in the daytime admits air and i)revents sun scalding, which fre- 
quentlv occurs when the rice is young and the covering of water is 
shallow. 

Early in June, when the rice is 8 or 10 inches high, it is pulled up, 
tied in bundles of 6 to 10 plants, and transplanted into fields, which 
have been prepared and flooded to the depth of 1^ to '2 inches. (PI, I, 
fig. 2.) 

The rice plants are set in rows a])out 1 foot apart and at a distance 
of ]0 to 12 inches in the row, on the richest lands, making i> bunches 
to the yard. On poor lands double that numl)er might be set. They 
are so set that the soil covers the root. Thereafter the flow of water 
is not continuous. After a few days it is drawn ofl', and if the farmer 
is al)le to make the investment an application of rape-seed oil cake or 
tish scraps is made to the surface. As soon as the fertilizer has had 
time to become incorporated with the soil, water is again applied and 
withdrawn to allow the crop to be hoed. Every weed is cut out, and 
in .some cases the roots are slightly pruned. Each field is given the 
minute attention of a garden. "When the growing period is well 
advanced the water is allowed to remain permanently upon the field, 
care being taken to renew it by gentle inflow and escape, till a slight 
change in color indicates that the period of ripening is approaching. 
It is then withdrawn. While the slight change of color is given as the 
guide, the time when the milk in the seed has become dough is more 
correct, for the Japanese cut their rice when the straw is scarcely 
turned. Both the straw and the rice are better when the harvest occurs 
before the grain is dead ripe. 

CUTTING RICE. 

The grain is cut close to the earth, with a small sickle-like knife set 
in a handle. Four hills or bunches are bound too-ether with two 
straws, making a bundle 3 or 4 inches in diameter. These are gen- 
erally laid crosswise in small piles, and are allowed to dry during the 
da3\ At evening they are hung with heads down on bamboo poles, 
which, by means of cross sticks, are made into a structure like a fence. 
The lower pole is high enough to allow a space of about a foot between 
the suspended bundles and the ground. The upper pole is 18 to 20 
inches above this, the rice bundles on the upper pole overlapping the 
bundles below. After the bundles hang upon the poles long enough 
to become dry they are taken down by women and the grain removed 
b}' drawing the heads through a hatchel. 

The grain is then placed upon mats and exposed to the sun till thor- 
oughly dry. Before it is sent to market the hulls are removed b}^ 
11084— No. 35—03 2 



18 EECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

passing the grain through a pair of burrs made of cement and bamboo 
and worked by hand. Winnowing is done b}^ the open-air process, or 
by a simple fanning mill. (PI. II, tigs. 1, 2.) 

After winnowing the milled product is placed in sacks deftly made 
of rice straw, each sack holding about 133i pounds. In these the rice 
is transported to market and the sacks are afterwards sold for paper 
material. 

MANURE. 

The extent to which night soil is used for fertilizing is scarcely 
conceivable. Whether in city or country, it is practically all saved in 
earthen receptacles and removed once or twice daily, according to the 
weather. The night soil is carried in wooden buckets, balanced on a 
pole across the shoulder. In cities the collectors sell to fertilizer com- 
panies what a man can carry (about 8 gallons) for 10 cents in silver. 
The companies transport it on flatboats to the rural districts, where it 
is applied in liquid form. In one corner of almost every garden and 
field may be found a cistern for storing liquid manure. 

FARM WAGES. 

Common laborers on the farm in Japan receive on an average 6 
cents (gold) per day for women and 10 cents for men, with board, 
except in harvest time, when they are paid about double these amounts. 
Harvesting is expensive, considering the price of labor. On one occa- 
sion while in Japan a field was passed where two men were cutting 
rice. They stated they were paid 2 yen (|1 gold) for cutting, bind- 
ing, and hanging on poles the rice in a small field by the roadside. 
On measuring it there was found to be two-elevenths of an acre, the 
cost being at the rate of |5.50 (gold) per acre. Still, it is difficult to 
see how there could be any change in the methods of managing the 
riceindustry in Japan. The present system of transplanting insures 
the best results and allows time to take off the winter crop. By the 
hand process the straw, which is quite valuable, is preserved, the 
grain is cut at the right time, even where there is a variation of matu- 
rity in the same field, and there is no loss from the cracking of kernels 
by the hatchel. 

COST OF RAISING RICE. 

A farmer near Tokyo furnished the following data in regard to the 
profits of rice farming, the estimate being for 1 acre of land: 

Case 1. — Where the owner of the land hires the work done: 

Cost of seed, 16 sho, or nearly 36 pound.s $0. 62 

Cost of manure 10. 00 

Cost of labor, 120 days' work 18-00 

Cost of repairing tools 1-20 

Taxes, Government and local 8. 00 

Profits 16- IQ 

Total - 54.00 



COST OF RAISING KICK FARM LIFE IN JAl'AN. li) 

INCOME. 

Fliilled rice, 8 kokn, or about 2,520 pountl3, equivalent to 3,272 pounds of 

paddy or 20! barrels $48. 00 

Straw, 480 kwan, or about 2 tons 4. 80 

Chaff and l^roken rice 1 . 20 

54. 00 

Case 2. — Where the land is rented to a tenant, supposing the crops to be the same, 
the account would stand as. follows: 

Seed for 1 acre $0. f52 

Manure 10. 00 

Labor, 120 days, at 15 cents per day 18. 00 

Repairing tools 1. 20 

Rent, one-half the crop, or 1,260 pounds 24. 00 

Total expenses of tenant 53. 82 

Total i)roht : 18 

54. 00 
Total income, $54, as above. 

The foregoing statement, taken from tlie account book of a practical 
Japanese farmer, is full of interest and tlirows some side lights on 
their agricultural S3stem. 

The small amount of seed used is due to transplanting. Consider- 
able expense is incurred for manure, but a crop of 20| barrels per 
acre is large for old land. One is chiefly impressed b}^ the number of 
days' work, one hundred and twenty, expended on 1 acre, and the 
amount of the Govermnent taxes, §8. Eight hundred dollars taxes on 
a hundred acres of rice would stagger the American farmer. Where 
the tenant does the farming it will be noted that one-half of the grain 
produced is allowed for the use of the land and that there is no real 
profit. He simply receives pay for his labor. 

FARM LIFE. 

How the Japanese farmers live can best be understood by giving a 
description of some particular farmhouse. While visiting the distin- 
guished statesman, K. Mochizuki, at his country estate, a visit to the 
dwellings of some of his tenants was made. The following is a 
description of an average farmhouse on this estate: 

In the rear of the house was a garden of about half an acre, planted 
to field crops, beans, barley, etc., and in front was a garden of aljout 
one-fourth of an acre, artistically laid out and planted to vegetables, 
with occasional flowers. The main building was one story high, about 
24 by 48 feet in size, wath the kitchen, 14 by 24 feet, across one end. 
Here was the usual clay stove, similar to those of Mexico, and a dirt 
floor, which by some process had been made as hard as cement. The 
remainder of the house was floored with mats. The family stores 
were packed in tubs, of which there were a dozen or more stacked at 
one side of the kitchen, all scoured to appear as if just brought from 



20 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

the shop. The farmer's wife was cooking at the stove. On the left 
of the kitchen, in front of the house, was a room 10 by 12 feet, covered 
with the customary mats and used for a sitting room. Each mat was 
3 by 6 feet in size and 2 inches thick. Back of the sitting room and 
opposite the stove was a room, 10 by 12 feet, used for a dining room. 
Beyond the sitting room, in the front of the house, was a private 
room, 12 by 16 feet, for lodging. From the dining room a hallway 
extended to and along the end of the house. The partitions of the 
rooms, which are generally removed during the day to give more venti- 
lation, were made of light sash, with strong white paper instead of glass. 
On the right of the kitchen was an addition, 20 by 24 feet, for the serv- 
ants' quarters and general storage. Each servant had a small sitting 
room and a lodging room, with mats on the floor. There was no fur- 
niture, as we use the term, in the house; no chairs, tables, bedsteads, 
or mirrors. The members of the household sit, eat, and sleep on the 
matted floor. How everything can be kept so perfectly clean, without 
soil or stains, belongs to the mysteries of Japanese housekeeping. In 
front of the servants' quarters a servant was cleaning grain and 
spreading it on the mats to dry in the sun. The tub and pounder for 
cleaning rice was in front of her. She did not like to be photo- 
graphed in her ordinary garb, but was satisfied when told to turn her 
back and appear to be at work. 

Adjoining the house on the left was a beautiful Japanese garden or 
tiny park, possibly 40 feet square, containing the usual landscape, 
trees, and statuary. In the center of this park and about 20 feet from 
the farm dwelling stood an artistic little one-storj-^ house, about 14 by 
16 feet in size. It looked like a large playhouse for children, but we 
were informed that this was a special house for receiving guests and 
serving tea. The Japanese paper windows were slid l)ack, revealing 
a beautiful little parlor about 10 feet square, with the usual seat or 
bench of honor on one side, and a tiny waiting room. The house 
was a frame building, cross lathed and plastered, with posts exposed, 
boarded up and down on the outside, and ceiled overhead. In the rear 
of the house was a barn, 18 b}^ 20 feet. 

The house here described is a typical Japanese farmhouse, one story, 
with thatched roof. The laborers' cottages are built upon the same 
plan, but are smaller. The residences of wealthy country gentlemen 
are somewhat larger and with more elaborate grounds. Imt they retain 
the same simple arrangements and general style of living. There is 
no arrogant caste in Japan. The rich and the poor, the landlord and 
the tenant, the employer and the employed, live on the most intimate 
and friendly terms. 

Among the farmers of Japan, rice is considered quite a luxury and 
many can not afiord to eat it regularly. Among the poorer farmers 
barley, millet, and sweet potatoes are substituted for rice. Among the 



AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN JAPAN AND CEYLON. 2l 

better nourishedJiipanese the following constitutes the otdintiry bill of 
fare- Boiled rice, boiled rape and daikon (half radish and half turnip), 
bean soup, and barlev tea for breakfast and dinner. Lnm-h at noon 
is the same without the V)ean soup. A little salt tish is added oc-ca- 
sionallv. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Japan has an area of 147,655 square miles, exclusive of Formosa, 
about one-tenth of which, or 15,(K)0 scpiare miles, is tillable. Hie 
population is now not far from -t5,00(».()nO, which gives a ratio ot 
3 000 persons to the square mile of arable land. At this ratio the 
State of Iowa could sustain 15(1,000,000 people and Texas more than 
HOO 000 000. This statement is sutiicient to refute the claim that 
JapaneJe agricultural products may at some future time compete with 
America in our home markets. Japan is rapidly becoming a great 
manufacturing and commercial nation, for which she is, by virtue of 
the genius of her people, exceedingly well adapted. The trend ot 
events indicates that when that time arrives Japan will be a large con- 
sumer of American food and tibiM- products. 

CEYLON. 

The island of Cevlon, a British dependency, in latitude 6^ north, 
contains •25.365 square miles and has a population of 8,31)1,-143, com- 
posed of about two-thirds Cingalese and one-third Tamils, with a few 
Moormen and Malays. The Cingalese are the primitive inha))itants 
and occupv mainlv the southwestern portion of the island. 1 hey ai-c 
medium sized, well formed, rather light colored, intelligent, and digni- 
tied Thev are inclined to play the gentleman even in the roughest 
work, but are honest and make good clerks. The Tamils have been 
imported from the mainland, presidency of Madras, and bear a strik- 
ing resemblance to the American negro. They do a large part of the 
farm work and furnish most of the servants. There is not, however, 
much general farming done in the island, the central portion of which 
is occupied bv mountain ranges, though the valleys are fertile. Only 
about 4 400 square miles are under cultivation of any kind. The thin 
sandy soil of the coast does not appear to be adapted to any crops 
except the cocoanut palm, which grows with amazing luxuriance, and 
the nuts constituting an important article of export. In the higjier 
lands and on the mountain sides are large plantations of tea and cotlee, 
with occasional groves of cinnamon and other spices. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Rice is the main crop, but not enough of this is produced for home 
consumption, large quantities being imported from Fenang, Singapore 
India, and Burma. When preparing the ground for rice, a kind ot 



22 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

wooden drill, shod with iron and drawn by oxen or water buffaloes, is 
used. Two crops are produced, of which the principal or maha crop 
is sown in July, just in time to catch the late summer rains, and is 
harvested in December or January. The small or yala crop is planted 
in February and harvested in June. About 15 bushels per acre is 
considered a fair crop on the west coast, but in Anuradapura Province 
30 to 50 bushels per acre are frequently obtained, depending on con- 
ditions. The Cej'lon rice is rather inferior in qualit3\ 

IMPORTS. 

The imports of cleaned rice at Colombo, Ceylon, from January 1 to 
November 10, 1900, were 486,652,390 pounds; from January 1 to 
November 1, 1901, 459,229,540 pounds. This shows that Ceylon, with 
a population of about 3,500,000, imports more rice than the entire 
product and annual imports of the United States. 

FARMHOUSES. 

The farmhouses are one story generally, with about three rooms, 
and are commonly built of brick or sun-dried clay, with mud-plastered 
walls. Some houses are built of poles, lathed with bamboo or bamboo 
matting, and are plastered with clay outside and inside. The floors 
are of tile or clav, and the roof is covered with grass, palm leaf, or 
tile. The usual cost of a house is 850 gold. Farm laborers receive 
about 8 cents (gold) per daj-*, without board, but generally prefer to 
work for a share of the crop. One-half is given to the laborer. (PI. 
m, figs. 1. 2.) 

INDIA. 

India (including Burma) has an area of 1,800,258 square miles and a 
population a little short of 300,000,000. This population is not uni- 
formly distributed. It is very dense in the valleys of the Gauges, the 
Brahmaputra, and the Indus and its tributaries. Bengal, with an area 
of 151,543 square miles (less than three-fifths of Texas), has a popula- 
tion of about 75,000,000. 

TIMBER. 

The absence of timber in India strongly impresses the traveler. No 
fences, rarely woodlands, and no barns in a country almost exclusively 
devoted to agriculture indicate a peculiar people. In the government 
reports considerable forest lands are mentioned. The\' are, however, 
in remote sections and quite inaccessible as a source of supply of wood 
and timber for the centers of a dense population. The price of wood 
for fuel is from ^16 to $40 per cord and not very good wood at that; 
hence the masses must live without fire, except the little that is used 
for cooking. 



AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN INDIA. 23 

EXTENT OF ARARI.E LAND. 

The hii-uo proportion of the whole country that is jiral>lo i.s one of 
the tir-st and most noteworthy observations of the traveler in India. 
In Jai)an one-tenth of the entire area ean be tilled, and in China a lari,^e 
part of the country can never be sul)j(H'ted to the plow, althouoh 
China as a whole ranks high in fertile lands; l)ut in India, out of the 
544,993,122 acres of surveyed land in 1899, seven-eh-venths were 
available for cultivation and 190,487.058 acres were actually sown with 
crops. 

FERTILITY OF THE SOIL. 

One of the most suggestive items to be noted is the fertility of the 
soil, after a tillage of so many thousand years, with little manure of 
anv kind. With few exceptions all the dung of animals is used for 
fuel, and as far as observed those exceptions were limited to the gov- 
ernment farms. Many good farmers are said to use some cattle 
excreta on the land, but in all the small villages visited dung, made into 
patties and dried in the sun, was almost the only fuel. In the vicinity 
of cities the preparation and sale of cattle dung for fuel is quite an 
industry, and as far as observed it is all used in this way, 

GREEN MANURES. 

Inquiry at all the government agricultural stations visited and 
observations throughout India failed to develop a single case where 
green manures had been used to fertilize the soil. A further evidence 
that it is not used is found in the fact that the plows used simply stir 
the soil, but can not turn anything under. 

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

It is difficult to use commercial fertilizers among Hindu farmers, 
for they suspect that all such preparations contain bone, blood, or 
some refuse of dead or slaughtered animals, and they declare it will 
defile them to handle it. An English gentleman in Calcutta told me 
that he had purchased some commercial fertilizer for his garden and 
his Hindu gardener refused to put it on the land. He employed a 
low-caste man to apply it to the vegetables, and after it was applied 
the o-ardener made no objection to working the soil on which it had 
been scattered. 

CROP ROTATION. 

Rotation of crops is well understood and practiced. This gives a 
partial relief in case of continuous cropping. To some extent sum- 
mer fallowing has been employed as a renovating method. On the 
whole the present fertility of the soil is marvelous. 



24 EECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

PUBLIC ROADS. 

The main highways are models of excellence, broad, well graded, and 
bordered with loveh' shade trees, such as the ban^^an, the tamarind, 
and the sacred neem. At suitable distances wells have been made, and 
near them are located rest houses for weary travelers. Generally 
the rest houses are unfurnished and without any resident care-takers, 
but all day and all night they are occupied by weary travelers for a 
shorter or longer rest, as the case may be. Here and there may be 
seen a single man or woman; but general!}^ the people travel in fami- 
lies or small groups, carrying their more cumbersome bundles upon 
their heads and their wealth upon the ankles of their women in the 
form of silver bangles. 

Mingled with the countr}- people are numerous pack oxen and don. 
keys, with immense loads of all kinds of products. The oxen are 
noted for their docility and the donkeys for their diminutive size, 
being not more than 30 inches tall ; but they are sturdy little animals 
and for their size the}" carry enormous loads. 

CONVEYANCES. 

In addition to the native families and village groups traversing the 
principal highways, there may be seen numerous carts drawn by oxen 
with a peculiar hump on their shoulders, the straight yoke resting on 
their necks and tied tirmly to their horns. The carts are crude affairs. 
In some cases the wheels are merely two thicknesses of 2-inch plank, 
crossing each other at right angles, while in other cases the wheel con- 
sists of a large hub through which spokes are mortised to support a 
wooden felly 5 or inches deep and 5 inches wide. 

The carts invariably have large wooden axles, which soon wear the 
hubs and allow the wheels to stand at considerable angles. Occa- 
sionally a native official or the family of some village headman rides 
in an ekka or a tonga drawn by a trotting ox. 

DRESS. 

The clothing of the country people is exceedingly simple. In warm 
weather the men wear a turban and a single loin cloth so wrapped as 
to form a sort of breeches, extending to the knee; generalh' they have 
neither shoes nor sandals. In cold weather the cotton loin cloth is 
sui^plemented by a thick cotton bedquiltworn like an Indian's blanket. 
The women wear short skirts and a thin cotton waist without sleeves, 
and in addition a long shawl or wrap of thin cotton stuff is thrown 
over the head and twined about the shoulders or allowed to hang loose. 

COUNTRY HOUSES. 

There are no countrj^ houses, in an English sense, in India. The 
ryots (farmers) live in a collection of dwellings called a village for 



INDIAN VILLAGES PLOWS AND SCRAPERS. 25 

want of a better term. These houses are of one story, ha\intr a slnol(> 
room, or occasionally two. In the mountain ret,^ions the walls are of 
stone, while on the plains they are made of brick or dried mud. There 
is usually a small yard in the rear of the house. There are openings, 
but no windows, and the doorway, if closed at all. simply has a ])amboo- 
niat curtain. The roofs are made of tile and the floors of cla^- hardened 
by repeated washings with cow duntv. 

VILLAGES. 

Between the houses in the small villages are narrow, tortuous allej'^s, 
but i-arely regular streets. The village is surrounded by a high wall 
of stone, brick, or adobe, which answers for a fence against depreda- 
tors, the cattle being brought within this inclosure at night. Each 
village has its customs and unwritten laws, and it and not the indi- 
vidual is the political and social unit. It has its blacksmith and car- 
penter, its doctor, and its headman or chief, and generally its l)anker. 

The government taxes for the village are paid b}^ the headman, who 
assesses them among the inhal)itants in proportion to their property 
or income. Local matters are settled by the village, though in impor- 
tant cases there lies an appeal to the British courts. The village doc- 
tor, the carpenter, and the blacksmith are paid in rice at the harvest, 
not for specific work done, but as a sort of annual salary. 

PLOWS AND SCRAPERS. 

The plows used in different provinces vary somewhat, but have a 
general resemblance in that there is no moldboard and the instrument 
is simply one for stirring the soil. It consists of three pieces- -the 
standard, the tongue, and the steel drill at the tip of a wood support 
or shoe. (PI, lY, fig. 2.) 

The standard is usually 3 by 4 inches and about 5 feet long, into 
which, about 12 inches from the lower end, the tongue is mortised at 
an angle. The standard stands a little less inclined than ordinary plow 
handles. Near the upper end is a single pin used for a handle. A 
steel bar about 1 inch square at one end and brought to a point at the 
other passes through the lower end of the standard and is supported 
by a V-shaped shoe. This steel bar stands at such an angle that the 
sharp point penetrates the soil 3 or 4 inches or more, as may be 
required. It amounts to nothing more than a sharp-tooth drill, and 
costs 60 cents complete. This plow is drawn by two oxen. (PI. 
IV, tig. 1.) In use, the steel tooth cuts from the land a cloddy strip 
from 4 to 6 inches wide, and this is then broken up by the wedge- 
shaped wooden shoe. Afterwards men and women pass over the 
fields and smash the lumps with their mauls. Some ryots use a crude 
clod crusher made of wood and drawn by oxen. The harrow is much 
like ours, but crude. After the harrow has been used the routine of 
labor depends upon the crop to be planted. 



26 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

In some cases where the farmers were planting wheat they used a 
wood scraper to prepare wide, flat furrows for the seed. This scraper 
consists of a board 1 by 6 inches and 3 feet long, with a handle 4 feet 
long attached to one edge at the center. The lower edge of the board 
is sharpened. It requires two men to operate it— one holding it on 
the ground by means of the handle and the second standing about 8 
feet in front and pulling it from the holder by means of a rope. In 
this slow way a shallow furrow is formed for the water of irrigation. 
(Pl.y, tig. 1.) It must not be inferred from the inferior implements 
used that Indian lands are not well tilled; the farmers make up for 
the defects of tools by additional labor. 

SEEDING AND HARVESTING. 

Seeding is done in a variety of ways, one method being for the 
dropper to follow the plow and drop the seed into the drill-like fur- 
row through a tube behind the plow, the next furrow covering it. 
Or the seed may be sown broadcast and harrowed. Or, in case of 
rice, the plants may be set into the flooded field from a seed bed pre- 
viously prepared. The grain is all hand cut, and when dry, thrashed 
by tramping with oxen. 

RICE FARMING. 

The experience of the practical and scientific farmers of India has 
shown that rice does best on a deep clay or clay-loam soil, but the sub- 
soil should not be so stiff as to prevent all natural drainage and cause 
stagnation of water, since rice is more luxuriant where fresh water is 
constantly added. Sandy -loam soils, if manured, produce an excellent 
quality of rice; the more manure the better the rice. More seed per 
acre should be used on sandy -loam soils than on clay loams. 

Rice sown late in the spring when the weather is hot requires more 
seed than if sown in the early spring. If sown in a seed bed and 
transplanted the least seed is required— about 35 pounds per acre. 
Drilled rice requires about double this quantity, and if broadcasted 15 
to 20 pounds more per acre are needed than when drilled. 

While there are many hundred varieties of rice, for practical pur- 
poses only three general classes need be recognized, i. e., early, 
medium, and late ripening. 

TREATMENT OF THE SEED BED AND MANURING. 

The site for the seed bed is usually selected on land more or less ele- 
vated to insure drainage. If water is allowed to stand on the field 
between crops it produces a ferment which is unfavorable to the future 
production of the plants. 

The use of green stable manure on rice fields just before planting is 
not recommended. It is of little value, due to the fact that where ordi- 
nary manure is kept very wet it undergoes no chemical changes by 



RICE CULTIVATION IN INDIA. 27 

which useful phmt food is libonitod. Therefoiv inanuro should be 
well rotted and applied long enough liefore planting to have some 
effect; better still, in case of a winter crop on the same field the 
manure should be applied to the winter crops. It is a common prac- 
tice after plowing to burn trash on all seed beds from which rice 
plants are to be transplanted. Coarse grass, dead leaves, brush, rice 
husks, straw tramped under the feet of the oxen, dust piles, and occa- 
sionally some cattle dung are piled on the plowed land, and on top of 
this a thin layer of soil is spread to prevent rapid burning. The trash is 
then fired. The effect of this on the seed bed is the production of an 
ash for the support of the young plants and the destruction of weed 
seeds and injurious roots near the surface. The action of the heat on 
the surface soil also tends to liberate potash and phosphoric acid and 
to make the soil more po-rous. 



PLOWING AND FERTILIZING. 



Plowino- and other heavy field work are generally done })y bullocks, 
water buffaloes, or camels. Great emphasis is placed on repeated 
plowing. In India most of the rice lands receive no manure and 
have not received any for centuries, yet they continue productive, and 
when well tilled yield fair crops. One writer states: "All that is 
necessary to produce a ])umper crop is timely and a])undant rain." 
Some writers seem to think that the fertility of the rice lands of Ben- 
gal is due to the overflowing of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. 
But these streams do not overflow and deposit silt to the same extent 
that this is done by the Nile. Moreover, this would not explain the 
fertility of the terraced rice land. The continuous fertility can not 
be due to the use of manure, for practically no commercial fertilizers 
are used, and almost all the droppings of cattle are used for fuel. It 
is mainly due to great natural strength of soil, good tillage, and 
rotation of crops. 

METHODS OF CULTIVATION. 

In December the old straw and trash are raked into pil md burned 
on the land. The field is then plowed, and at intei-vals it is given two 
more plowings, after which it is left until the latter part of March or 
early part of April, when the clods are crushed, and advantage is taken 
of the first rains to plow it twice more. The field is harrowed after 
each of the later plowings. Harrowing is done with a ladder having 
pins on the under side. The cultivator rides on t>he ladder, which 
also serves in a measure to break the clods. When the rice is up a 
few inches it is raked. This stirs the soil and to some extent thins the 
plants. The average product of a field sown and cultivated in this 
way is 6^ barrels per acre. 

Where rice is sown in a bed or nursery and transplanted into the 
field, the field is first plowed three or four times in water, thoroughly 



28 RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

mixing the soil into thin mud. After the mud has settled the ground 
remains covered by about 2 inches of water. Where the fields depend 
on rainfall for moisture the plants are transplanted during a shower. 
The plants are set in hills 6 inches apart each way, two or three plants 
being set in each hill. In this way about 28,000 plants are set per 
acre. Transplanting for the main or aman crop is done in Ma3% and 
for the spring or boro crop in December and January. It is possible 
in some parts of India to raise five crops of rice in one year. The first 
crop is called aus and is the summer harvest from July to August; 
the second crop, or kaida, from September to October; the third, 
chatan aman, from October to November; the fourth, called boran 
aman, from December to Januar3\ and the fifth or l)oro crop from 
April to May. 

In the sub-Himalayan districts labor is verj^ cheap, and it is cus- 
tomary to dig over the fields for rice with the mattock to the depth of 
6 inches. This costs 80 cents per acre. 

PRODl'CT PER ACRE. 

It is difiicult to arrive at anj^ correct estimate of the yield per acre from 
direct statements by native farmers. By dividing the total product in 
a given season bv the total number of acres planted it has been ascer- 
tained that the average yield of rice per acre for all India is 823 pounds 
for the principal crop and .558 pounds for the spring or boro crop, making 
1,.381 pounds, or about 8^ barrels, for the year, as only two crops in one 
year are generally raised. This is not a large showing for two crops, 
and it is quite evident that if one crop should be raised and the land 
devoted to green-manuring crops the remainder of the season, the one 
rice crop for the j-ear would exceed the amount at present secured 
from two crops. 

HARVESTING. 

Rice is cut with a small sickle or hook knife and bound at first in 
bundles about 3 inches in diameter. After it has cured a while, the 
small bundles are made into larger ones and drawn to the thrashing 
place, where they are placed in hollow stacks, one tier of straw deep, 
with the heads on the inside. Twenty women can on an average har- 
vest 1 acre in a day. One binder, four horses, and two men in the 
United States daily do the work of two hundred women in India. 

THRASHIXCi. 

The usual mode of thrashing is to clear and level a small space of 
ground, wash it with cow dung until hard, and to pile on this circular 
form the rice to be thrashed. Five bullocks are tied to a rope tandem, 
and driven around on this pile of unthrashed grain. Sometimes, to 
expedite the work, a second line of bullocks is used. Two men drive 
the two lines of bullocks and two men sift the straw with forks. In 
this way four men and ten bullocks will thrash the grain from an acre 



RICE CULTIVATION IN INDIA. 29 

in six hours. When the straw is to be kept whole the rico is thrashed 
1)V beatiiiji- the heads over the edge of a ])lank. 

Duriiiii- the liarvest and thrashing time the farmer has to We eon- 
stantly on the wateh to see that the paddy is not stolen by dishonest 
lal)ort'rs. He frequently builds a straw hut close to the thrashing 
floor in whieh he can sit and sleep. It is a regular custom to surround 
the pile of paddy with a ring of ashes so that it can not be approached 
without evidence. 

WAC.KS. 

Money wages are not usually paid. In some cases the reaper gets 1 
load out of every 21 he cuts. In other cases he gets !(► or 12 pounds 
of paddy for a day's work. Usually he receives 6 pounds of paddy 
and half a pound of cleaned rice. Laborers are generally employed 
])y the year, and the wages paid are much less than the above, averag- 
ing about 2 cents per day. The ordinary plan upon which crops are 
raised is to form a farmers'' club. For this purpose five to ten farmers, 
each the owner of a pair of bullocks and a plow, form a club to help 
each other plow their lands. 

COST OF Cl'LTIVATIOX. 

The ryot never keeps any account of his expenses, and hence it is 
difficult to estimate the cost of cultivating an acre of rice; but allow- 
ing customary wages and estimating the time required for the work 
performed, the following is an approximation of the cost on an acre 
of land where rice is sown broadcast: 

Plowing 4 times, 12 clays' work for 1 man and a pair of Inillocks, at 3 cents 

per day ?0. 36 

Carrying and spreading manure, 4 men 1 day - 08 

82S pounds seed paddy 32 

One plowing and harrowing after seeding, 3 teams 1 day 08^ 

One weeding, 20 women 1 day, at 2 cents 40 

Repairing levees, 16 men 1 day, at 2 cents 32 

Reaping, 16 women 1 day 32 

Carrying the bundles of paddy to the thrashing place or floor 04 

Thrashing, 4 men and 10 bullocks 1 day, at 2 cents for each man and 1 cent 

for each bullock ^^ 

Cleaning and winnowing, 3 men 1 day 06 

Rent of iirst-class land per acre 96 

Additional charges per acre 12 

3.24^ 
Yield of first-class land, 1,010 pounds of paddy, valued at 3. 84 

Profit per acre 'J^J 

The foregoing estimate, obtained from the most reliable authority, 
is impressive because it shows the low condition of agriculture in this 
Himalayan district. The wages of a man one da}- — 2 cents— and the 
charges for the use of an ox one day — 1 cent — are prices below our 
conception of values of labor. 



30 RECENT FOREI&N EXPLORATIONS. 

It is noted that no account is made of manure and straw. Very 
little manure is generality used, and in many districts none. In the 
interior, where the above estimates were received, the straw and manure 
have no commercial value. While wages are low the price of rice is 
also low only 32 cents for 82f pounds of paddy, or 61i cents per bar- 
rel of 162 pounds. When the rice crop is handled in the usual way — 
the plants grown in a seed bed and transplanted to the field — there is 
an additional cost of 6i cents for preparing the seed bed; and the cost 
of pulling plants find transplanting into the field, which requires five 
men and twenty-eight women one day, is ^6 cents. There is, how- 
ever, a saving of 40 cents for weeding and also a saving in spreading 
manure and other small items, which reduces the total cost of an acre 
of transplanted rice to 30 cents more than that of broadcast, leaving 
a net profit of 29i cents per acre on the crop. 

In the above estimates no account is made of the Government assess- 
ments on rice, which are considerable. These are sufficient at least to 
wipe out all profits in this class of farming. 

The following estimates of the cost of raising rice under high-class 
conditions are furnished by Hon. James Mollison, inspector-general of 
agriculture for India: 

Preparing and tilling seed bed $0. 64 

Manure used on seed bed, 6 loads; on an acre, 20 loads -1.16 

Cost of seed, 80 pounds ^0 

Plowing, puddling, and leveling 1-52 

Transplanting ^^ 

Weeding seed bed '^° 

Top dressing with castor cake, 200 pounds per acre 96 

Cutting, thrashing, and winnowing 1-44 

Tying and stacking bundles of straw 24 

Cost of irrigation ^-28 

12.32 
Add Government tax per acre 4. 80 

Total cost per acre -*- - - 17. 12 

Probable crop, 3,000 pounds, valued at $24. 00 

Value of straw 4- ^^ „^ ^^ 

25. 60 

Net profits per acre 8. 48 

The above estimates are based on wages in the Surat district, which 

are higher than in the Himalayan, but still very low. 

Under good cultivation the cost per acre is equal to that in the 

United States. 

NORTHERN LIMIT OF CULTURE. 

The question is frequently asked how far north rice can be produced 
profitably. Hon. C. L. Dundas, director of agriculture for the Punjab, 
stated that he could not tell, but assuredly as far north as his adminis- 
tration extended, 34° 15' north latitude. 



PRINCIPAL CROPS OF INDIA. 



31 



CONSUMPTION OF RICE AS FOOD. 

The people in India do not keep account. of farm products, except as 
they are compelled to bj' law; hence it is impossible to arrive at any 
exact data except through Government sources. In some provinces 
of India rice is the principal food; in others, less rice is produced and 
it constitutes onlv a portion of the food supply. In RtMig-al the 
75,000,000 people on an average consume 1 pound of rice per capita 
each day, or 365 pounds per year, as determined by the Government 
reports. This would appear to be large, but in the wa}' this amount is 
obtained it covers all losses, wastage, etc. The following table gives 
a comprehensive statement of the food crops produced in India and 
the relative proportion of rice to other grains: 

Table 1. — Area {in acres) under crop of principal products in each province of British 

, India, 1897-1900. 
[Native States not included.] 



Province. 



Rice. 



Wheat. 



Upper Burma 

Lower Burma 

Assam i 3, 653, 5.S3 

Bengal 39, 656, 800 

Northwest Provinces 4, 592, 603 

Oudh 

Ajmer-Merwara 

ParganA Miinpur 

Punjab 

Sind 

Bombay 

Central Provinces 

Ber^r 

Madras i 6, 429, 045 

Coorg 94. 523 



1,818,962 
6, 277, 678 



2, 899, 792 

2% 

167 

482, 795 

898, 853 

1,251,143 

4,708,624 

44,138 



Total a72, 808, 952 



15,813 

14 

223 

1,541,400 

4,601,392 

1.619,583 

1,838 

1,292 

5,488,598 

347,445 

811,. 590 

1,633,777 

21,192 

20, 636 



Barley. 



120 



59 

1,448,200 

3, 1.54, 323 

1,020,830 

27,214 



898,443 

8,910 

44, 328 

6,005 

234 

3,318 



Millet. 



804,950 
748 



183, .500 

3, 395, 313 

547, 575 

91, 109 

2,504 

1, 243, 605 

1,014,678 

11,035,141 

80, 887 

60, 102 

4,155,425 

18,219 



616,104,793 6,611,984 i 22,633,756 



Corn. 



Peas, beans, 
i pulses, etc. 



76,300 

11,492 

2, 823 

1,802,200 

1,143,430 

462, 575 

62, 438 

1,101 

1,239,723 

1,400 

184, 8.54 

104, 201 

7,701 

95,234 



195,523 

45,010 

86, 283 

.5,141,200 

3,943,905 

2,224,635 

14, 240 

509 

1 , 047, 568 

165,678 

1,861,980 

2,921,603 

236, 661 

5, 4.53, 883 

80 



5, 195, 472 



23, 338, 758 



Province. 



Upper Burma 

Low er Burma 

Assam 

Bengal 

Northwest Provinces. 

Oudh 

Ajmer-Merwara 

Pargana MAnpur 

Punjab 

Sind 

Bombay 

Central Provinces 

BerSr 

Madras 

Coorg 



Total 



Sugar cane. 



2,236 
9,330 

28, 315 

873, 000 

1,023,851 

235, 320 

199 

16 

360, 978 

;2,615 

70, .515 

25, 533 

2,471 

58, 638 



2, 693, 023 



Cotton. 



153, 734 

9,068 

3,399 

144, 000 

968, 302 

28, 780 

35, 453 

4 

735, 125 

91,091 

2, 0.50, 251 

712, 836 

2,061,082 

1, 382, 716' 



<■ 8, 375, 841 



Jute. 



Total acres in 
crops. 



100,168 i 
1.970,500 



2, 070, 673 



2, 976, 850 

6, 335, 406 

3, 743, 608 

.51,733,900 

24,144,439 

10, 176, 896 

199, 478 

6, 165 

11,074,831 

2, 488, 277 

15, 964, 210 

12, 129, 278 

3, 097, 782 

20, 694, 679 

112, 981 



164, 878, 789 



Total 
population. 



3,167,791 

4, 603, 103 

5, 433, 668 

70, 414, 425 

33,801,894 

12, 650, 831 

.543, 258 



20,861,061 
2,871,774 

15, 135, 827 

10, 784, 294 
2,897,040 

35, 630, 440 



a Total yield, 618,966,312 barrels of 162 pounds each. 

(•Total yield, 2,110,562 bales of 



h Total yield, 266,2.50,560 bushels. 
400 pounds each. 



32 



RECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 



In the more populous provinces the area planted to food crops is so 
small in proportion to the population that even the slightest failure 
results in disaster. 

Nearly all the tilling" of the soil is done with the plow, and oxen, 
buffaloes, and sometimes cows furnish the motive power. The small 
number of carts (wagons are not used on the farms) is explained by 
the fact that a large part of the transportation of produce is done on 
the backs of oxen or donkeys. 

Table 2. — Area (in acres) irrigated in British India, 1899-1900. 



Irrigated from — 



Province. 



Govern- 
ment 
canals. 



Upper Burma 252, 161 

Lower Burma 310 

Assam 

Bengal 754, 557 

Korthwest Prov- 
inces j 1,981,373 

Oudh 

r 
Ajmer-Merwara 

ParganS, MAnpur 

Punjab 4,243,524 

Sind 2, 352, 433 

Bombay i 99,829 

Central Provinces .1 

Beriir 

Madras 2, 648, 160 

Coorg 1,370 



Private 
canals. 



Tanks. 



Wells. 



307, 198 129, 864 
1,325 



5,692 1,215,683 

976, 394 

7, 228 



823, 729 20, 049 
140, 595 



5,013 30,413 
810, 176, 187 
72 
26,289 1,832,527 



Total 12, 333, 717 1, 310, 723 



4, 388, 345 



7,211 



4, 478, 507 
1,643,178 

43, 776 

324 

4,154,598 

41,005 
667, 789 

64, 118 

66, 838, 
1, 129, 8041 



Other 
sources. 



Total 
irrigated. 



102, .587 
3, 434' 



799, 021 
5,069 



754, 557 



553,595[ 8,234,850 

80,4.53' 2,700,025 

116 51,120 

324 

9, 375, 983 

110,414| 2,644,447 

78, 149: 871, 223 

14,079 2.55,264 

107 67,017 



134,083 



Net area 

cropped 

during 

year. 



146, 986 



12,297,148! 1,224,003 



5, 783, 766 
1,370 



3, 695, 206 

6, 857, 898 

4,552,210 

53, 2.53, 600 

24, 402, 658 

8,624,2.54 

230, 773 

6,786 

23, 275, 728 

2,781,014 

19,278,203 

14, 762, 603 

5,403,7.58 

23, 122, 215 

200, 117 



31,544,036190,447,023 



Area 

cropped 

more than 

once. 



260, 036 

846 

565, 146 

10,618,100 

4,461.342 

2, 427, 975 

17, 400 

136 

2,017,570 

215, 474 

320, 293 

164, 340 

1,495 

2, 674, 229 

701 



23, 745, 083 



Table 2 shows the number of acres irrigated as in Table 1, native 
states not being included. Of course lands subjected to natural over- 
flow or on which there is a heavy rainfall are not included in this 
table. The irrigated lands are principally planted to wheat and food 
crops other than rice, although in some provinces the rice crop 
depends entirely on artificial irrigation. In the best rice districts, 
however, the rainfall is very heavy, amounting to over 200 inches in 
a 3^ear in Lower Burma, which with the annual deposits from the 
overflow of the Irawadi River makes it ideal rice land. 

Table 3 shows the number of head of live stock and number of farm 
implements in the same area as that covered b}^ Table 1. 



LIVE STUCK, ETC., IN INDIA. 33 

Tabi.k :^.—Lhe stock ami farm hnplfiiHiitx in lirHinli Iioim. 



Province. 



Upper Burmii 

Lower Biirniii 

Assam 

Bengal 

Northwest Provinces . 

Oudh 

Ajmer-Mcrwarn 

PargnnA Manpur 

Punjab 

Sind 

Bombay 

Central Provinces . . . 

BerAr 

Madras 

Coorg 

Total 



Province. 



Upper Burma 

Lower Burma 

Assam 

Bengal 

Northwest Provinces . 

Oudh 

Ajmcr-Merwaru 

Parganil MAnpur 

Punjab 

Sind 

Bombay 

Central Provinces — 

Beriir 

Madras 

Coorg 

Total 



Bulls and 
bullocks. 



BulTaloes. 



Cows. 



687,823 

.5-S, 821 
1,102,938 
1,19.=).73C. 
7, (M.i, 630 
3, 148, 812 
64,390 
1,996 
4,(ai,729 

528, 744 
2,295,836 
2,831,655 

697-, 791 

4,411,350 

34, 629 



29,257,910 



697,939 

397,338 
l,006,3a5 

880, 7.54 

4,567,777 

2, 065, .569 

60,233 

2,009 

2,566,047 

515,559 
1, 139, 843 
2, 524, 616 

623, 370 

3, 853, 408 

26, 674 



Bulls. I Cows. 



109,953 
276, 620 

91,136 

Ifti, 597 

.565,835 

219, 357 

2, 731 

27 

592, 137 

5,502 

197, 780 

354,. 531 

37,909 
846,679 

11,931 



98, 5H1 

231 , .V<.s 

122. .54S 

326,042 

2,413,369 

S66, 232 

21,142 

727 

1,903,070 

190,093 

669, 469 

511,467 

211,774 

1,560,104 

7.690 



Sheep. 

.5,113 

2,374 

137, 903 

l,819,4f.7 

,5.54,948 

161,305 



(ioat.s. 



4, 759, 122 
320, 378 

1,439,216 
279, 998 
217, ,502 

8, 234, 262 
629 



25,013 

12,374 

11,497 

47.*<..V)1 

3.123,899 

1.495,322 

118,906 

994 

5.112.771 

831,937 

1,670,436 

CM, 091 

283. \M 

5,181,639 

1.755 



20,927,441 3,417,726 



9,133,896 I 17,932,237 19,059.649 



Horses and 
ponies. 



23, 197 

12, 112 

9,908 

&5, 913 

434, 426 

181,084 

2,436 

83 

312, 746 

76, 799 

90,367 

94, 542 

29,627 

40, 239 

401 



Mules and 
donkeys. 



2,692 



133 

12,722 

262, 777 

50,213 

.5,029 

23 

612, 387 

84,442 

,51,207 

17,628 

20,488 

120, 086 

274 



Plows. 



415, 630 
478,388 
821, 570 
458,211 

3, 162, 668 

1,464,406 

33,069 

865 

2,229,768 
243,042 
891,451 

1,295,9.53 
136, 041 

2, 749, 701 
26, 979 



Carts. 



Youiij; stock 

and bulTalo 

calves. 



239, 101 

199, 181 

11,883 

60,337 

486, 136 

100, 7tr2 

9,407 

315 

242, 648 

&5, 125 

468, 9.58 

417, ,521 

129, 779 

.524,041 

715 



638, 724 

,594,034 
1, 390, 361 

216,257 

6, 408, 351 

2, 427, 824 

21,040 

1,411 

3,712,614 

352, 797 
l.,\50,194 
1,886,2.50 

249, .549 

4, 383, 639 

19,096 



1,343,880 



1, 240, 101 



14,407,742 



2,925,849 



23.8.><2,U1 



WELLS. 

The wells are open, 5 to 7 feet in diameter, and 3() to 00 feet deep. 
On one side of the well an embankment is made about 5 feet high. 
This .slopes at an angle of 20° from the well and frequently terminates 
in a pit a few feet deep. This embankment forms a de,scending road 
for the oxen to travel when hoisting the water. A bullock's hide is 
used for a bucket; the corners are attached to a rope, which passes 
over a single pulley at the top of the well and is tied to the yoke of 
the oxen. Each hoist carries about one barrel. (Pl.V, fig. 2.) Two 
yoke of oxen a^e required, as one yoke can be used only six hours 
consecutivelv, and there must be one man to drive the oxen, one to 



11084— No. 3.5—08- 



-3 



84 KECETSIT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

manipulate the hueket, and one in the field to distribute the water. 
Three men and four oxen will water ID acres of wheat during the 
cropping- season. 

KICE PRODUCED. 

In 1900 there were in the provinces of Bengal, Burma, and Madras 
49,915,918 acres in rice, which produced 43.5,822,000 barrels. If we 
place the product of the remaining 22.893.039 acres in rice at 
183.144,312 barrels, the total for India would be 618,966,312 barrels 
of rough rice, or about 177 times more than the entire rice product of 
the United States. 

AGRICULTURE IN THE PUNJAB. 

Hon. C. L. Dundas. director of land records and agriculture for the 
Punjab, stated. -in reply to inquiries, that — 

Unirrigated rice can only be grown in the puliinontane tracts, where there is 
heavy rainfall. The average yield i.< about 550 pounds per acre. On irrigated lands 
the average yield is about 900 pounds. A good crop would be 1,200 pounds, and 
1,500 can be obtained by careful cultivation. In the Punjab this is produced almost 
invariably by owners with small holdings. If the holding is large, part is culti- 
vated by the tenant on the share plan, the tenant paying one-fourth to one-half the 
gross product. Hired labor is employed sometimes in transplanting and generally 
in harvesting. This is paid for in kind. 

Throughout the Punjab, women of the agricultural class are employed in the 
lighter kinds of outdoor field laV)or, such as harvesting, picking cotton, etc. The 
women of certain tribes of high so"ial or religious character never work in the 
field, but generally women work on the lands of their male relatives. Compensa- 
tion consists in their food and a small present in kind at the close of the harvest, 
practically subsistence and nothing more, but differing from the starvation wages of 
civilized countries by the patriarchal customs of India, which forbid a man from 
tilling his own stomach while leaving his employee hungry. Hence harvest wages 
depend entirely on the harvest. If this is good, the laborer, male or female, may 
get enough grain to keep him or her two or three months. Unless forced by famine, 
women will not work in. the field except for their male relatives. In the Himalayas 
the women do all the farm work, including plowing. 

Windmills being unknown and water mills impossible on the plains, all the grain 
used as food in India is gromid on handmills (small stone burrs) by women. Spin- 
ning is universal, and much of the coarse cloth used for clothing is manufactured at 
home. 

The cost of labor necessary to produce a crop of rice is about 45 per cent of the 
total product grown, including the straw. To give a definite cash estimate of cost is 
practically impossible. A landlord would, in a typical case, pay some 8 per cent 
customary dues and divide the Ijalance with his tenant, paying one-half his own 
share in water rates and land revenue to the Government. The revenue or tax to 
the Government varies from $1.50 to $3 per acre. As a rule, the landlord works 
his own farm. 

The highly flavored rices are regarded as choice, but the people prefer to plant the 
coarser varieties, as giving less trouble. There is apparently great obscurity in the 
scientific names of rices, and it is difficult to distinguish varieties. 

Wheats, millets, and gram (peas) form the staple crops, wheat being the chief 
article of export. Considerable cotton is produced. About 110 pounds of lint cotton 
is an average crop for an acre. It sells at about 5 cents per pound. 



LIVING AND KICK FARMING IN INDIA. o5 

Tlu' practiceof iilowin-.' under renovating cropH I l)elieve is unknown in the Punjab. 

Cattle for plowing or lifting irrigating water range in value from ^il'i to !?2o per 
liead. Buffaloes are worth ironi ?20 to $35 per head and canielH about $15 each. 
The i>riee of cattle for work varies with tlie provinces. At Poona a good buffalo for 
field work is worth $(>.,50; an ox $1(5 to $17. At Delhi a buffalo is worth $8 to $10; 
an ox §16 to $20, according to size. Native plows generally sell for (iO cents each. 

COST OF LIVIN(;, 

Amono- the rvots no c-ash ostiniate of the cost of livino- could he 
obtained. The following statement made by an educated Hindu may 
be assumed to be correct as regards cost of living in the city: A 
laborer needs 1 pound of rice, worth 2 cents; one-half pound of dahl 
(split peas), 0.75 cent; one-half pound of barley, 0.875 cent; condi- 
ments, 0.17 cent; fuel, 0.5 cent; making a total of 4 cents for a day's 
living. Better living fpr laborers earning higher wages costs about 6 
cents per day, divided as follows: Rice, 1 pound; nmtton, one-half 
pound; barley, one-half pound; vegetables, condiments, oil or butter, 
and fuel. The retail price of rice, low grade, is here given at 2 cents 
per i)ound. Th«^ wholesale ijrice in India for this grade is about 1 cent 
per pound and in Burma 90 cents per hundred. 

RICE FARMING IX LOWER BURMA. 

Rice farming in Lower Burma varies somewhat from that in Bengal. 
The lands are richer, and the rains are more abundant. The cultivator 
commences to plow about the 1st of June and continues to work the 
soil till he secures an even surface of mud, which is kept soft by the 
heavy rains. In Juh' women transplant the rice from the seed bed 
and receive for this work at the harvest a certain number of bundles 
per hundred plants set. The harvest commences in November, and 
cutting, curing, thrashing, and winnowing are done in much the same 
manner as in Bengal. Rice cultivation in Lower Burma comes nearer 
being on a commercial basis than in India. Wages are regulated by 
each village and are frequently paid in money. Laborers who are 
imported from Madras in harvest time usually receive 23 cents per 
barrel of product for cutting and binding. A large portion of the 
crop is cultivated on the tenant system, the landlord furnishing land 
and seed every other year and receiving one-third to one-half the 
product. He furnishes no house nor other buildings and does not 
fence the land. A yoke of cattle will work about 10 acres of land. 

RICE MILLING. 

Very little rice milling, as the term is commonly understood, is 
done in India proper, except for resident Europeans. In the rural 
districts, where the rice is wanted for local consumption or for export, 
the hulls are removed by pounding, using a pounder worked by the 
foot. Pounding and winnowing in the open air or by a fanning mill 



36 RECENT FOEEIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

complete the milling- process. There is no charge for milling", the 
hulls and bran being considered by the natives full compensation. 
As late as 181>1 there were only two modern power mills in India. 
Most of the rice exported to Europe from Bengal is cargo rice, four- 
fifths husked and one-fifth padd3\ It is claimed by shippers that cargo 
rice is not as liable to heat on shipboard as that completely milled. 
In Burma the grower markets all his rice in the paddj" and in bulk, 
except such as goes b}' rail, which must be sacked. The larger part 
is delivered by boat, and is carried to the mills in baskets by coolies. 
It is weighed and delivery actually takes place in the mills. At first 
the mills were merely husking mills to prepare the large crop of paddj^ 
for export, but gradually other processes were added until complete 
modern milling plants were equipped. The hulling stones in the best 
mills are made of emery. Some of the machines are cruder than 
simihir machines in the United States, but they appear to do the work 
satisfactorily. Permission was freel}' granted to inspect the Kemen- 
dine mill in Rangoon, which has a daily milling capacit}^ of 500 tons 
of rice for native use or 300 tons for Europeans. A larger mill has 
just been completed for the same company. The Kemendine does no 
custom milling. The paddy is bought and the milled product sold on 
the market. There are over fifty mills in Rangoon, and many of them 
do custom work. The usual price for custom milling ranges from 2i 
to 3f cents per bushel, or an average of 11 cents per barrel, giving the 
farmers all the by-product. The breakage in milling for native use 
amounts to 6i pounds per hundred. For European use or for export 
rice milling the charges are 18 cents per barrel. The laborers 
employed are mostlv Tamils from Madras, who are paid from 2-1 to 32 
cents per day. Women employed in the rice mills are paid 12 to 16 
cents per day. Most of the mills use the hulls for fuel. Over 
21,000,000 barrels of paddy rice were milled last season at Rangoon 
for foreign account. This furnished a large amount of l)ran and pol- 
ish, which the thrifty Chinese in Burma and the Straits Settlements 
bu}^ and feed to pigs and cattle. Many mills are owned by Chinese. 
Last 3"ear Burma furnished about 2,000,000 tons of cleaned rice for 
exj^ort. 

RICE FOR FOREIGN :\IARKETS. 

India and Burma rice is not generally raised on a commercial basis. 
Each farmer or tenant produces enough for home consumption, and 
the surplus is sold for whatever it will bring. If the j^rice falls ever 
so low just the same amounts are produced and placed on the market. 
It is true that if rice is abundant and cheap in India home consump- 
tion is increased. Rice is raised in those countries commercially very 
much as eggs are generally produced in the United States. No account 
is kept of the expenses, and it is sold regardless of cost. Where no 
cash wages are paid it is impossible to determine the cost of production. 



SEED SELECTION CONDITIONS IN CHINA. 37 

American supremac}' in the rice indu.strv deiXMuls upon more eco- 
nomical production. This may bo accomplished by divor.sitied farm- 
ino- iind by an increased etticiency in machin(>ry . Improved machinery 
in the rice field is of recent introduction, and it Avill undout)t(Hlly be 
made more efficient and the rice farmers Avill handle it with p-reater 
economy. 

sp:lection of seeds. 

No rices were seen in India that appeared to be an improvement on 
those grown in the United States, except possildy some very early 
varieties. In Bengal there are varieties that mature in sixty days. 
While it nuist not be expected that the}' will mature as quickly in 
America, thev are nevertheless worthy of trial on account of their 
ra[)i(l maturing- (|ualities. 

India produces some good wheats and shows a large and profitable 
yield in the latitudes corresponding to our Southern States. Out of 
150 varieties 5 were selected as worthy of trial. A few yood soil- 
renovating plants were found. The sunn hemp {Crotalariajuncea) is 
highly recommended by the Poona State Farm for its luxuriant and 
rapid growth. If planted inunediately after the rice harvest, it will 
make a growth of 2 feet before frost. Some valualile sorghums and 
vetches for the semiarid portions of the United States were found. 

CHINA. 

In scholarship, energy, and business qualities the Chinese take very 
high rank among the nations of the earth. They are bright, apt, of 
indefatigable perseverance, and instinctively grasp the financial bear- 
ings of business transactions. They soon become the merchants and 
bankers of every country in which they settle. Thev have such 
marvelous tact along business lines that Europeans doing business in 
China uniformly employ Chinese agents or compradors in all dealings 
with the Chinese. 

A(iRICULTURAL CONDITIONS. 

It is difficult to deal with the agricultural conditions in China in a 
comprehensive way, because there are no reliable statistics published, 
and the traveler is limited to his observations and the very meas-er 
information to be obtained from Chinese farmers. The farmer, too, 
is not disposed to give information to a stranger, thinking that some 
advantage will betaken of it. In traveling through the rural districts 
of China the large areas of unused lands were observed with surprise. 
Along the Yangtze in particular the cultivation of the highlands has 
been largely abandoned and tillage has been limited to the fertile 
alluvial lands. Even in the vicihit}- of Nankin, the old capital of the 
Ming Dynasty, there are thousands of acres of land, evidently fertile 
if properly tilled, which lie neglected as commons. The rainfall is 



38 EECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

somewhat uncertain on the highlands and it is necessary to resort to 
irrigation, but apparentl}^ an abundance of water for most food crops 
can be oljtained from wells. These highlands bear evidence of having 
been cropped in former ages. 

Few nations are in advance of the Chinese in economic production 
and in crop results along well-established lines of agriculture, but 
they seem to be entirel}^ ignorant of modern methods of renovating 
worn-out soils. Thousands of acres of land in the vicinity of large 
cities, it was said, could be obtained of the Government either free or 
at a nominal cost for renovation and cultivation. 

The almost entire absence of timber or woodlands in eastern China 
was noted with surprise. The highlands and the mountains are com- 
pletely denuded, with the usual result of alternate periods of great 
drought and excessive rainfall. Grass and reeds are used for fuel. 
During September thousands of men and women were cutting grass 
from the sides of the mountains, coarse grasses in the untilled places 
in the valleys, and the tall reeds on the Yangtze bottoms. These were 
bound into bundles and sold for fuel. In cooking with this trashy 
material one person is needed to feed the lire. In cities a common 
fuel is coal dust, mixed with equal quantities of clay, made into balls 
about 8 inches in diameter and dried. The Government does not 
appear to be making any effort to restore the forests. 

An impressive feature of Chinese rural life is the apparent insecurity 
of person and property. Every farmer has a compound, or high-walled 
inclosure, into which stock is driven at night and in which are stored 
the farm crops. Farmhouses of the better class are about 42 feet 
square, and without windows in the outside walls. In the center of 
each house is an open court, generally about 14 feet square, called the 
"heavenly well," which admits air and light to the rooms. The houses 
of the coolies or peasants are rarely more than 16 by 24 feet in size 
and contain one room only, having no compound. Pigs and chickens 
are driven into this room at night. The houses are one-story struc- 
tures with adobe, brick, or stone walls, according to the cost of material, 
with thatched or tiled roofs and clay or tile floors. There are no 
fences; consequently the farm animals are herded. 

TILLAGE OF THE SOIL. 

In some provinces there is considerable hand tillage after the manner 
of the Japanese, but generally oxen, cows, or buffaloes are used for 
plowing. The plows are much like those used in India. They operate 
like a single-tooth harrow slightly depressed from the horizontal, and 
simply stir up the ground. No inversion of the soil is possible. On 
the alkivial lands water buffaloes are generally used for plowing rice 
fields, because they are plowed with water standing on them and 
worked until a field of mud is secured. After the first plowing, high 



TILLACJK AND KICE CULTIVATION IN THINA. 81) 

lands, especially such as are used for pardons, arc worked over with a 
claw hoe, the tines of which are 8 to lit inches lontj. This is forced 
into the ground by a (juick, smart stroke, and the tool is then pulled 
toward the cultivator. Steel-toothed harrows are also used to i)ulver- 
ize the soil. 

Plowino- for rice is done in May. Seed J)eds uie prepared and 
planted in April, and about the 1st of June the youni,^ rice plaivts are 
transplanted from the seed bed to the tield. To prevent breakino- the 
roots a spade is i uii under the plants some 2 inches below the surface 
before pullinor commences. The plants are set in rows which are 8 
inches apart, the space between the plants in the rows beint,'- about the 
same distance. After the plants are set out the tield is kept flooded 
with water about 2 inches deep till the heads beo-in to till. Further 
irrigation is then left to the lainfall uid(>ss it is unusually div. 

IRRIGATION. 

One of the common ways of irrio-ating oiiixlens is from open wells, 
using the balance pole and bucket to raise the water. For raising 
water only a few feet a narrow vertical wheel is used and operated l)y 
the weight of one or two men opposite the water to ])e elevated and 
sufficient to balance it. For higher lifts a large wheel is commonly 
used, with wooden or earthen buckets on the rim. Oxen turn a hori- 
zontal wheel, which imparts power to the vertical wheel by means of 
cogs in the rim. 

CULTIVATING. HARVESTING, AND THRASHING RICE. 

The Chinese are good cultivators. They go through the rice fields 
pulling all the weeds and stirring the soil with their lingers or with a 
small rake. When the rice is ripe it is cut with a small reap hook, 
))ound into bundles, and set up in small shocks. Thrashing is done bv 
whipping the heads over the edge of a box some 6 feet square. The 
rice is then spread on mats in the sun to diy. 

HULLING RICE. 

Before the rice is sent to the market it is generally hulled by pound- 
ing, using the foot-power pounder so universal in the Orient. If 
complete milling is required, the pounding is continued longer. Occa- 
sionally the hulls are removed by placing the grain in a small circular 
stone trench, in which a broad-rimmed wheel is rolled bj^ ox power. 
A long axle passes thi-ough the wheel, one end of which is attached 
to a pivot in the center of the space surrounded l)y the stone trench, 
and the other extends some 6 feet beyond the wheel and trench; to 
this end the oxen are attached and are driven around till the rice is 
hulled. 



40 BECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIONS. 

PRODUCTION AND COST OF MILLING RICE. 

The average yield of i4ce is from twenty to thirty fold. This prob- 
ably denotes a crop of 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of paddy. The cost of 
milling is 7i cents (gold) per barrel (162 pounds), of which 6 cents is 
paid for pounding and li cents for winnowing. The entire cost of 
milling is met by the value of the bran and hulls. The red rice and 
lower grades are all consumed locally. The local price of rice is from 
1 to 2 cents per pound, according to quality. It is difficult to secure 
accurate data, because in the different provinces weights of the same 
name vary materially in the amount they represent and coins of the 
same denomination differ in value. 

COST OF BUILDING, ETC. 

Hard brick sell for $2.10 per thousand and it costs about $1.50 per 
thousand to lay them in a wall. The wall is the principal expense 
incurred in building in the country. Lumber for building is generally 
imported from the United States and is expensive, costing on the coast 
from $40 to $80 per thousand. Country carpenters and masons usually 
receive 10 cents per day and board. Farm laborers are paid $5 per 
year and board. Board for a day consists of li pounds of rice, cost- 
ing 2 cents, and pork and vegetables costing 1 cent. Allowing 10 
cents per month for the labor of cooking the food, the total cost of 
board is about $1 per month. 

EXPORTATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 

There is no probability of the overproduction of staple foods in 
China and their large exportation for the following reasons: 

(1) At present China produces only about sufficient food for her 
own consumption; any large increase of the area planted would involve 
a system of levees to protect river bottoms, and deep wells to irrigate 
the highlands. 

(2) Before rice and other grains can be produced in large quantities 
for export, the Chinese must feel that they are safe in the enjoyment 
of their property, and the duties between different provinces and the 
petty exactions imposed on internal commerce must be abolished. The 
conservative type of Chinese character prevents radical and sudden 
changes. The increasing consumption will keep pace with the increase 
of production. 

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

A visit to the Philippine Islands in October, 1901, confirmed the 
opinion formed during a visit in 1898, that from an agricultural stand- 
point these islands are among the most valuable territories of all Asia. 



RAINFALL, ETC., IN THE i'lIILl 1'1'INE ISLANDS. 41 

This does not mean that the soil is richer than portions of Japan, 
China, India, or Siam, l)ut richness of soil is not the only elenu-nt that 
determines productive capacity; rainfall and temperatnr(^ with c^ood 
drainau-e, are even more essential conditions than natural ruhne.ss ot 
soil In possessino- a uniform temperature suited to the best condi- 
tions of tropical plant growth, the Philippines enjoy a great advan- 
tao-e The distance of the islands from Cldna and Siam is sufhcient to 
alfow the intervening water to neutralize any chill wmds from the 
northwest, while the great warm current of the Pacilic touches them 
upon their eastern shores, producing a most enjoyable chmate. Ihe 
rainfall from 80 to 1<»0 inches per annum, is sufficient to meet the 
requirements of tropical plants; but what is still more important, it 
falls during the months-May to December- best suited to tlu^ growth 
of plants. This is followed by a comparatively dry period-December 
to :Mav 15— in which the plants mature and are harvested. 

The^-eport of the oljservatory at Manila shows the following aver- 
aoe number of days in each month on which rain fell: 

RainfoR in the Philippine Islands. 



Month. 



January . . 
February . 
March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 



Number | 
of days 
)n which 
rain fell. 




Month. 



August 

September. 
October . . . 
November 
December . 



Total. 



Number 

of days 

on which 

rain fell. 


Rain- 
fall. « 




Inches. 


10.8 


13.08 


20.7 


15.02 


14.4 


7.47 


11.3 


4.92 


H.4 


3.09 


j 125.7 


75.56 

1 



« The rainfall is the average from 1865 to 1896, inclusive. 

The following table, compiled from the report of the observatory at 
Manila, shows the mean temperature of each month for seventeen 
years ended 1897: 

Temperature of the Philippine Islands. 



Month. 



January . . 
February 
March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 



Temper- 
ature. 



° F. 
77.0 
77.9 
80.6 
82.9 
83.8 
82.4 
80.9 



Month. 



August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December . 



Temper- 
ature. 

o j^ 

80.9 
80.6 
80.4 
79.0 
77.3 



Average . . 



.3 



11084— No. 35—03- 



42 EECENT FOREIGN EXPLORATIOiSrS. 

The valleys are broad and well drained, while the mountains are 
approached b}' a g-radual elevation and frequently bj^ table-lands, and 
are generally fertile to the top. Neither on the coast nor in the lowest 
valleys of the interior is the heat at any time oppressive, and within 
a short distance from an}^ point on the islands it is possible to reach an 
altitude where the climate is perfectly delightful, even in the warmest 
season of the year. 

RANGE OF PRODUCTS. 

Takirio- all the islands and the fertile mountains into consideration, 
there is possible a very wide range of products, from the most delicate 
spices to the hardy cereals. The chief commercial products have been 
rice, sugar, tobacco, coffee, and fiber plants, but the islands can pro- 
duce cattle, wheat, corn, oats, the legumes, and the grasses. 

STOCK AND PASTURE LANDS. 

Like Porto Rico, the Philippines furnish admirable conditions for 
stock raising. The mountain sides have frequent streams of pure 
water and produce an abundance of grasses, somewhat coarse and lack- 
ing in flavor, but which if cropped closely are relished bj^ domestic 
animals. Softer and sweeter grasses can readily be introduced. Ber- 
muda grass and several of the Paspala and some clovers do well. 
Stock raising has been profitably carried on for many years by natives, 
often on quite a large scale. The native horses are small, but are 
hardy and of immense energy, showing their descent from Andalusian 
stock. There is a good demand for dairy products, and few lines of 
husbandry would be found more profitable. 

FODDER PLANTS. 

The soil and climate of the Philippines are especially adapted to the 
production of a great variety of fodder plants. Among the many may 
be mentioned alfalfa, esparcet, serradella, vetch, lupme, pea, soy bean, 
Lespedeza l)icoloi\ Pueraria thunhergiana^ Astragalus latoides^ cow 
peas, Panicurn. colonum^ guinea grass, and Panicum maximwH. Dur- 
ing the rainy season it would be necessar}^ to use these plants for 
soiling, as the almost daily .showers prevent curing. From December 
1 to May hay could be made in most parts of the islands. 

SUGAR CANE. 

Conditions are very favorable for raising sugar cane. The heavy 
rainfall during the growing period, followed by the dr}' nionths of 
December, January, February, ]\Iarch, and April, are ideal conditions, 
so far as climate is concerned. This gives a full year for growth and 
five months for manufacturing the sugar. The sugar mills are very 



RICE FARMING, ETC., IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 43 

crude, except soiiic in Negros, Panay, and CVbii. In Luzon tlic sugar 
factories are mainly of the open-kettle sort, and witli machinery cruder 
tlian is g-enerally us(>d in farm sorghum manufacture in America. 
Some stone rollers for crushing- the cane are used, and many factories 
have only large wooden tubs with iron bottoms for boiling the cane 
juice. In Panay and ('ebu the mills are of a higher type, although 
crude as compared with American up-to-date milling plants. (PI. YI 
%. 2.) 

RICE FARMING. 

The method of raising rice in the Philippines is practically the same 
as in India, except that the plowing is almost exclusively done with 
water buffaloes, and a larger proportion of the land is sown broadcast. 
Rice planting is usuaHv done in June, and harvestincr in November 
and Decem))er. Only one crop is raised each year. With artificial 
irrigation two crops could be produced annually, one in the sunnuer 
and one in the winter and early spring. The area devoted to rice 
could be considerably enlarged, but it is doubtful whether in the evo- 
lution of the islands under American conditions such will be the result, 
•as a number of other farm products are more profital)lc and are culti- 
vated with less labor. The natives much prefer to plant and work 
man i la hemp {Mnsa text His), as when once planted it produces a crop for 
several years with slight attention. Coffee and some of the spices are 
favorite products in certain sections. Plowing the land and setting 
rice plants in the mud is a disagreeable task, even to Filipinos; conse- 
quently the general trend of agricultural industries in case of expansion 
will be away from rice and toward crops more easily handled and 
more profitable. 

FRUITS. 

Nearly every known variety of fruit can be produced on these 
islands, from such as require extreme tropical conditions to the hardv 
fruits of the temperate zone, like the apple and the cherry, for the 
islands possess a great range of climate. There are valleys where the 
temperature never falls below 70° and there are table-lands where it 
drops nearly to the frost line in the winter. These extremes are found 
on the same island. At Manila 65° F. above zero would be extraordi- 
nary weather. A hundred and thirty miles north, in the province of 
Benguet, the grains and fruits of northern New York can be pro- 
duced. 

TIMBER. 

It is estimated that only about one-fifteenth of the land has been 
brought under cultivation. A large portion of the remainder is timber 
land, and nearly all of it belongs to the Government. Many very 



44 RECENT FOREIGTSr EXPLORATIONS. 

valuable varieties are found, among which is mahogany. Except the 
teak forests of Upper Burma, now under complete Government con- 
trol, these are the most valuable timber lands in eastern Asia, and if 
cutting is properly regulated they will remain a source of profit for 
many years. At present the only method of obtaining this wood is to 
cut and hew it into square timbers, which are then dragged down the 
mountains by oxen. By this method fully one-third is wasted and 
many valuable young trees are destroyed. 



O 



Bui. 35, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




FiQ. 1.— Rice Mill Among the Mountains, Japan. 




Fig. 2.— Planting Rice, Japan. 



Bui. 35, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 










FiQ. 1.— Cleaning Rice, Japan. 




FiQ. 2.— Pounding Rice, Japan. 



Bui. 35, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Dept. of Agricultur 



Plate III. 




Fig. 1.— Tamil Girls Picking Tea, Ceylon. 




Fig. 2.— Carts with Bamboo Covers, Ceylon. 



Bui. 35, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




i'--* 



Fig. 1.— Plowing in India. 




Fig. 2.— English Plow and Indian Plow. 



Bui. 35, Bureau of Plant Industiy. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate V. 




Fig. 1.— Wooden Scrapers Used in Preparing for Irrigation, India, 




Fig. 2.— Well Used for Irrigation, India. 



Bu'. 35, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI 




Fig. 1.— Washing Rice, China. 




FiQ. 2.— Sugar-Boiling House, Luzon. 



U. S. DEPARTMEN 1 OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 36. 



B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



THE '-BLUING" AND THE "RED HOT" OF THE WESTERN 

YELLOW PINE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

THE BLACK HILLS FOREST RESERVE. 



BY 



HERMANN VON SCHRENK, 

Special Agent ix Charge of the Mississippi Valley 

Laboratory, 

vegetable pathological and physiological i n^estigations. 



IssLEi) May •^. ^90^. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

19 3. 



BlREAl or PLANT INDUSTKV. 

B. T. GAr,LOWAYj Chkf. 

\e(tEtablk pathological and physiolcxtIOal Investigations. 

S( lENTIFIC .STAFF. 

A LBEKT- P. Wqods, Eeftholoffid and Phyiflologixf . 

Erwin X Smith, PothologlM in Charge of lAifforatofy of Plant Pathol og;/. 

George T. Moore, Physiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Physiologi/. 

Herbert J. Webber, Physiologist in Charge of Laboratory of I'lant Breeding. 

Nea\-tox B. Fierce, Pathologist in Charge of Pacific Coast Laboratory. -;„ 

Hermaxn vox Schkenk, Special Agent in Charge of Mississippi Valley jMboralcny. 

P. H. EoLFS, Pathologist in Charge of Sub- Tropical Laboratory. 

yi. B. Waite, Pathologist in Charge of Inve^gatioris of Diseases of (Jrchard Fwit^i. 

Mark A. Carletox, CereoZis*. , ^ 

Walter T. Swixgle, Physiologist m Qhnrge of Life History Investigation.-'. 

C. O. ^TowxsexDj Pathologist. 

P. H. Dorsett, T'a//iM?o^i.s/. ..-/ 

T. H. Kearxey, Physiologist,' Pkmt Breeding. 

CoRXELius L. SnEAS.{ Assistant Pathologist. 

William A. Ortos, Assistant Pathologl-^t. 

Flora W. Patterson, Mycologist. 

Joseph S. Chamberi.aix, E.vpert in Physiokigical Cliernistry. 

R. E. B. McKexney. JKip<^r/. 

Charles P. Hartley, Assistant in Physiology, Plant Breeding. 

Deaxe B. Swixgle, Assistant in Pathology. 

James B. Rorer, Assistant in Pathology. 

Lloyd S-Teshy, Assistani in Pathology. 

Jes^e B. NortoX; Assistant in Physiology, Plant Breeding. 

A. W. Edsox, Scientific Assistant^ Plant Breeding. 

Karl F. Kellermax, As.^istant in Physiology. ^ 

George G. Hedgcock, Assistant m Pathology. 



y 
( 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S. Dept. of Agriculture . 



Plate I. 




y 



Cross Section ofa DyingTree ofthe Bull Pine, showing Blue Color. 



JULIUS BlflN a. CO LfTH.N.Y 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 36. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



THE '' BLUING" AND THE -'RED ROT" OF THE WESTERN 

YELLOAV PINE,. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

THE BLACK HILLS FOREST RESERVE. 



BY 



HERMANN VON SCHRENK, 

Special, Agent in Charge of the Mississippi Valley 

Laboratory. 

VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



Issued May 5, 1903. 




NEW YORK 

B0TAN5CAL 

GARDEN 



WASHINGTON: 
goyernment printing office. 

1903. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 

Washin(jt07i, D. C, December U, 1902. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a technical paper on 

The ''Bluing" and the "Red Rot" of the Western Yellow Pine, with 

Special Refe'i-ence to the Black Hills Forest Reserve, and respectfully 

recommend that it be published as Bulletin No. 36 of the series of this 

Bureau. 

This paper was prepared by Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, Special 
Agent of this Bureau in Charge of Timber Rot Investigations, a line 
of^work being conducted jointly by this Bureau and the Bureau of 
Forestry, and it was submitted by the Pathologist and Physiologist 
with a view to publication. 

The illustrations, which comprise 14: full-page plates, several of 
which are colored, are considered necessary to a full understanding of 
the text. 

Respectfully, t, n. r. 

,B. T. Galloway. 

Chief of Bureci u. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of AgAculture. 



PREFACE 



The report submitted herewith, entitled The "Bluing" and the 
"Red Rot" of the Western Yellow Pine, with Special Reference to the 
Black Hills Forest Reserve, covers in part an investigation under- 
taken by the Bureau of Plant Industry in cooperation with the Bureau 
of Forestry in the broad field of the diseases of forest trees and the 
means of controlling- them, as well as the causes of and methods of 
preventing the decaj- of all kinds of timber, especially that valuable 
for construction purposes. At the present time an immense quantit}' 
of dead and d3'ing timber of the bull pine is standing in the Black 
Hills Forest Reser^'e, South Dakota. The amount has been variouslj- 
estimated, but will probably approach 600,000,000 feet. The death of 
the trees was caused by the pine-destroying beetle of the Black Hills, 
as shown by investigations conducted by the Division of Entomology 
of the United States Department of Agriculture.'* Following attack 
by the beetles the wood of the tree is invaded by various fungi, one of 
which causes the blue coloration of the wood. Dr. von Schrenk has 
demonstrated, however, that the fungus which causes the bluing does 
not injure the strength of the wood. 

The rapid decay or "red rot" of the timber is caused by another 
fungus, and its ravages can be forestalled by a proper use of the 
wood. A series of recommendations is made, which, if followed, will 
result in the saving of a very large part of. the dead wood. 

Albert F. Woods, 
Pathologist and Physiologist, 

Office of the Pathologist and Physiologist, 

Washington^ D. C., December 23, 1902. 



«Bull. 32, n. s., Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1902. 

5 



CONTENTS. 



Paga 

Introduction ^ 

Death of the trees - " 

When are the trees dead 1^ 

The " blue ' ' wood *. 1 1 

Rate of growth of the blue color 11 

Nature of the "blue" wood 12 

Strength of the "blue " timber 13 

Lasting ])Ower of the ' ' blue ' ' wood 14 

The "blue" fungus 15 

Effect of ' ' blue ' ' fungus on the toughness of the ' ' blue ' ' wood 20 

Relation of the ' ' blue ' ' fungus infection to the beetle holes 20 

Fruiting organs of the "1)lue" fungus 22 

Growth in artificial media 23 

Dissemination of the spores 24 

The blue color 24 

Summary 26 

Decay of the "blue" wood 26 

The "red rot" of the western yellow pine 27 

Cause of the " red rot" 27 

Conditions favoring the development of the "red-rot" fungus 28 

Final stages and fruiting organs 28 

Rate of growth of "red rot " 30 

Amount of diseased timber 31 

Possible disposal of the dead wood 32 

In the Black Hills 32 

In the remaining parts of South Dakota 33 

Value of the dead w'ood 33 

Inspection 33 

Recommendations 34 

Description of plates 38 

7 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Plate I. Cross section of the trunk of a dying tree of the western yellow or 

bull pine, showing blue color Frontispiece. 

II. Dying trees of the bull jjine. Fig. 1. — Green, " sorrel -top, " and 

' ' red-top ' ' trees. Fig. 2. — Green and ' ' sorrel-top ' ' trees 40 

III. Color change in leaves of the bull pine. 1. Leaves from healthy 

tree. 2. Leaves from "sorrel-top" tree. 3 and 4. Leaves from 
trees turning to the ' ' red-top ' ' stage 40 

IV. Fig. 1. — "Red-top" tree in a group of healthy trees near Elmore, 

S.Dak. Fig. 2.— "Black-top" trees 40 

V. Figs. 1 and 2. — Sections of trunks of the bull pine, showing early 

stages of ' ' blue disease " 40 

YI. "Blue" sections from dead trees. Fig. 1. — Sections from tree dead 

five months. Fig. 2. — Sections from tree dead eighteen months . . 40 
VII. Mycelium and fruiting bodies of the "blue" and "red-rot" fungi. 
1. Tangential section of "blue" wood. 2. Cross section of " blue" 
wood. 3. Cross section of a medullary ray. 4. Young perithecium 
of the ' ' blue ' ' fungus. 5. Mature perithecia of the ' ' blue ' ' fungus. 
6. Two i^erithecia of the "blue" fungus. 7. Two asci with spores 
of the "blue" fungus. 8. Spores of the "blue" fungus. 9. Top 
of beak of perithecium of Ceratostomella pilifera just after the dis- 
charge of the spore mass. 10 and 11. Median sections of sporo- 

phores of the ' ' red -rot ' ' fungus 40 

VIII. Sections of "blue" wood. Fig. 1. — Eadial section. Fig. 2. — Tan- 
gential section 

IX. Pieces of wood from the bull pine, showing blue fungus starting 

from holes made by a wood-boring beetle 40 

X. Sections showing early stages of the "red rot." Fig. 1. — Section 
taken 35 feet from the ground from a dead tree. Fig. 2. — Section 
showing more advanced stage of decay. Fig. 3. — Section from tree 

shown in fig. 2, made 15 feet higher up 40 

XI. Sections from "black-top" bull pines, showing advanced stages of 
decay. Figs. 1 and 2. — Sections from the top of a fallen tree. Fig. 

3. — Section from a standing pine 4 feet from the ground 40 

XII. Group of broken ' ' black-top ' ' trees 40 

XIII. Fig. 1. — Top of "black top" broken off. Fig. 2. — Polyporus pon- 

derosus growing on dead pine stump 40 

XIY. Sections of rejected cross-ties. Fig. 1. — Wood affected with "red 

rot. ' ' Fig. 2. — Diseased wood from living tree 40 

8 



B. r, I.-IG. V. 1-, !■- I.-IOO. 

THE "BLUING" AND THE "RED ROT" OF THE WEST- 
ERN YELLOW PINE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 
THE BLACK HILLS FOREST RESERVE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The present investig-ation was undertaken to determine — 

(1) The cause of the bkie color of the dead wood of the western 
yellow pine, commonly known as the bull pine {Pimis ponderosa), and 
the effect of the coloring on the value of the wood. 

(2) The reason for the subsequent decay of the wood, the rate of 
decay, and whether the decay could be prevented. 

(8) Whether it would be possible to use the dead wood before it 
decayed; first, to reduce the fire danger; second, to prevent the decay 
and thereby save an immense quantity of timber. 



DEATH OF THE TREES. 



The physiological changes which take place in the bull pine {Pinus 
fonderosa) as a result of the attack of the pine-bark beetle {Dendroe- 
tonus ponderom Hopk.^') are intimately connected with the fungus 
diseases under consideration, and may therefore be referred to briefly. 

According to Hopkins, the beetles enter the bark of the living trees 
in July, August, and September. The primary longitudinal burrows or 
galleries are excavated by the adult beetles, and the transverse, broad, 
or larval mines (Bull. 32, n. s., Division of Entomology, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Pis. I and III and fig. 1) through the inner liark 
and cambium of the main trunk have the effect of completely girdling 
the tree, and by September the cambium and the bark on the lower 
portion of the trunk are dead. The foliage of the trees thus attacked, 
however, shows no change from the normal healthy green until the 
followmg spring, when the leaves begin to fade. 

The first signs of disease noticeable in an affected tree are visible in 
the spring of the year following that of the attack by the beetle. Here 

« Hopkins, A. D. Insect Enemies of the Pine in the Black Hills Forest Reserve. 
Bull. 32, n. s.. Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, pp. 9, 10. 

9 



" »T.TTx mTTTii "x>TrT^ T>r»m" 



10 THE "BLUIKG and THE "RED ROT OF THE PINE. 

and there one will find the needles of affected trees turning j-ellowish. 
The bright green fades almost imperceptibly, starting near the tip of 
the needle. The needles first affected are those on the lowest branches 
(PI, II), and on these branches the discolored leaves will be more or 
less scattered. B}^ the end of Ma}' most of the leaves on an affected 
tree will be pale green or yellowish. (PL II; PI. Ill, 2.) This yellow 
color increases in intensity during the summer and makes the affected 
trees a conspicuous mark among the healthy green trees. Trees in this 
stage are locally known as ''sorrel tops" or 'S'ellow tops." When 
standing on a hillside, groups of "sorrel tops" can be easily detected at 
a distance of several miles. It is rather a difficult matter to show the 
contrast in a photograph. The middle tree on PI. II, fig. 1, shows the 
contrast with the green trees on the left to some extent. 

The yellow needles are drier than the green ones and show a marked 
disintegration of the chlorophyll. As the}- continue to dry the color 
changes gradually through various intermediate stages (PI. Ill, 3) to 
a reddish brown. This color (PL III, 4) becomes very marked after 
the trees have passed through the second winter. The needles are 
then dry and thev begin to fall off'. Such trees are known as "red 
tops." \See PL 11, fig. 1; PL IV, fig, 1.) The leaves finally fall off 
completely, leaving the branches bare. Such trees without any leaves 
are known as '"black tops." (PL IV, fig. 2.) The group of trees on 
PL II, fig. 1, shows the green trees and the "sorrel tops" and "red 
tops" (rapidly becoming •'black") side by side. 

To summarize the foregoing: One finds the living trees attacked in 
July and August; the following spring the leaves turn yellow ("sorrel 
tops") and gradually red ("red tops"), and the third year they drop 
off' altogether ("• black tops"). It is a difficult matter to say at what 
point the trees are dead. Girdled trees die with different degrees of 
rapidity, depending upon the species. The black gum {M/ssa sylvatica) 
will live — i. e., will have green leaves — for two years after being gir- 
dled; so also several species of oak. Pines and spruces rareh' live 
more than a year, and generall}- not so long. 

The reason for the different behavior of these trees is probably to 
be found in the different power to conduct Avater through the inner 
sapwood. The subject is one about which little is known as yet. In 
the case of the bull pine, after the girdling by the beetles certain 
changes take place in the cambium and the newer sapwood which 
leave no doubt as to the death of those parts. By September, as 
described below, the cambium and bark are actualh' dead and par- 
tially decayed for 30 feet or more from the ground. The leaves are 
still green and full of water the following spring. The only way in 
which this can be accounted for is by assuming that sufficient water 
passes through the inner sapwood to keep the crown of the tree 
supplied 



THE "blue''' wood. H 



WHEN akp: thk trees dead? 



The question as to when a tree is dead is one of considerable prac- 
tieal importance in determining which trees in the forest should be 
cut. For this purpose it is safe to assume that a tree may be pro- 
nounced dead when the bark is loose at the base of the tree for con- 
siderable distances up the trunk. A tree with its bark in this condi- 
tion can not possibly recover. The wood under this loose bark will 
always be found to be dark in color and will appear covered with 
shreds of bark when the bark is pulled off. It must l)e remembered 
that such trees will have green leaves. The criterion of green or yel- 
low leaves is not a safe one to follow, and ought not to l)e considered 
in making specifications for cutting dead tim])er. Attention is here 
callod to the recommendation (4) made on page 35. 



THE "BLUE" WOOD. 



Very soon after the attack of the l)ark l)eetles {Dendroctomis j^ond- 
eraser) the wood of the pine turns l)lue. The color at first is very 
faint. V)ut it soon becomes deeper. A cross section of a trunk several 
months after the beetle attack will appear much as shown on PI. V, 
fig. 1. Lines of color extend in from the bark toward the center of 
the tree, and increase rapidly in intensity until the colored areas stand 
in sharp contrast to the unaflfected parts. The colol* appears in small 
patches at one or more points on the circumference of the wood ring. 
At first it is a mere speck, l)ut this gradually spreads laterally and 
inward, eventually forming triangular patches on cross section. The 
color likewise spreads up and down the trunk from the central spot. 
As the time passes after the first attack of the beetles, several color 
patches may fuse. Their progress laterally and upward toward the cen- 
ter of the trunk may be equally rapid on all sides of the tree, or more 
rapid on one side than on another (Pl.V, fig. 2). The intensity of the 
color mav vary considerably on the two sides of one and the same trunk. 
After a certain period of time the whole sapwood will have a beautiful 
light blue-gray color, as show^n on PL I. The wood which adjoins the 
inner line of the "blue'' wood is of a bi-illiant yellow color, which con- 
trasts sharply with the blue outside and the straw yellow of the heart- 
wood. This yellow area is in the form of a ring of more or less irregular 
shape. Sometimes it is formed of one annual ring very sharply 
defined; then, again, it may include all or only parts of several annual 
rings. As the wood grows older, the blue color becomes deeper and 
the yellow ring more sharply defined. 

RATE OF GROWTH OF THE BLUE COLOR. 

The first signs of the blue color are usually found several weeks after 
the attack by the beetles at points on the trunk in the immediate 



12 THE "bluing" and THE "RED ROT " OF THE PINE. 

vicinity of the attack. Tlie first signs of the blue color are found in 
the base of the trunk. On PI. VI, fig-. 1, three sections of a tree which 
was attacked the latter part of Juh^, 1901, ai'e shown. The sections 
were cut in November, 1901, at points 5 feet, 16 feet, and 36 feet from 
the ground. The sapwood of the first section, 5 feet up, is entirely 
blued; the second section, 16 feet up, is blue here and there; while the 
section made in the top, 36 feet up, is without a particle of blue color. 
Note in this connection that the sections with blue color show the cross 
sections of the galleries of the bark beetles {Dendrocto7iu8 ponderosse) in 
the laj^er formed by the cambium layer, the outer wood, and the inner 
bark. The sections on PI. VI, fig. 1, show some of these galleries filled 
with sawdust. A more advanced stage is shown on PI. VI, fig. 2. In 
this tree the sapwood is blue from the ground up into the extreme top. 
The smallest section, cut from the tree in the upper part of the crown, 
is blue with the exception of the innermost rings, i. e., the beginning 
of the heartwood. 

The blue color dev^elops ver}^ rapidl}" when once the tree is attacked. 
Standing trees attacked by the beetles in Jul}', 1902, showed signs 
of blue color in three weeks. T'hree months after the attack the 
sapwood of the lower part of the trunk is usually entirely blue, as 
shown on PI. I. The year following the attack, i. e., when the trees 
have reached the "sorrel-top'' stage, the bluing has reached the top, 
and late that 3'ear, when the "red-top" stage is reached, the entire 
sapwood is blue (PI. VI, fig. 2). 

An experiment was made during the past sunmier to see whether 
the blue color would appear in trees felled Ijefore being attacked by the 
pine-bark beetle. It may be said at this point that they did "blue" 
just as the standing ones did. 

naturp: of the "blue" wood. 

Some weeks after the attack by the liark beetles, changes take place 
in the bark and the newer wood which ultimately result in the bark 
becoming loose and separating from the tree. When the first flow of 
resin into the galleries has stopped, the air enters into the galleries, and 
channels of communication with the outside are established through 
which the water in the cambium and newer wood can escape. The 
result of this is that a moist atmosphere prevails in the air chambers, 
very favorable to the growth of fungi. As the cambium and bark 
cells lose water they shrivel and break from one another, so that after 
a few months the bark breaks away from the wood proper. On the 
south and southwest sides of the trees the bark dies most rapidly, and 
here, contrary to the general occurrence, it frequently adheres firmly 
to the tree. On the shaded sides of the trunk the bark becomes 
loosened, as described, before six months have elapsed. The surface 
of the wood is moist, very dark in color, and feels somewhat clamm\% 



THE "blue" wood. 13 

Numerous white strands of fungus mj'celiuni make their appearance 
after six months or more. As the wood of the trunk dries, the barli, 
loose at first, tightens, so that in the '"black-top" stage it adheres 
quite tirmly to the trunk. When cut into, it peels off in large sheets 
ver}' readily, however. 

The •• blue '' wood differs very little from the sound wood in general 
appearance, except its color. It is full of moisture at tirst, but loses 
this rapidly, so that in two years after the beetle attacks. the wood 
it may be almost perfectly seasoned, even when completely covered 
with its bark. The "blue" wood is said to be very much tougher 
than the green wood, so much so that the tie makers in the Black 
Hills can be induced to cut wholly blued wood only with diificulty. 
This toughness and a possible reason therefor are discussed hereafter. 

STRENGTH OF THE *'bLUe" TIMBER. 

Ever since its first appearance there has been considerable discussion 
as to the strength and durability of the ''blue" timber when com- 
pared with sound timber. It was universally believed that it would 
prove very nnich inferior in both respects. A test was made in the 
testing laboratory of the department of civil engineering of Washing- 
ton University, St. Louis,'^ to determine the comparative strength of 
the "blue" and the health}^ timber. Sections of tree trunks 5 feet 
long were cut from trees at points 10 to 15 feet from the ground, and 
were shipped to St. Louis, where they w^ere sawed into blocks of sev- 
eral sizes. For the compression tests, blocks 2 by 2 by 4 inches and 
3 by 8 b}^ 6 inches were cut and planed to the exact dimensions, or as 
nearly so as possible. 

For the cross-breaking strength, sticks 2 by 2 inches hy 4 feet, and 
3 b V 3 inches by 4 feet were prepared. The blocks for these tests were 
kiln-dried at a temperature of 172° F. until an approximately constant 
weight was reached. It was found that completel}^ dried blocks would 
not shear at all. The moisture content of the green blocks was slightly 
higher than that of the "blue" blocks. 

Three kinds of timber were used: A — Green timber; B— "Blue" tim- 
ber taken from "sorrel-top" trees, i. e., trees dead about one year; 
C— "Blue" timber taken from "red tops" and "black tops" (mostly 
the latter), i. e., trees dead about two years. 

The tests were made with the machinery described by Johnson 
in early reports^ of the Division of Forestry. Every block was 
carefully measured. The results, reduced to the average crushing 
strength and the average cross-breaking strength per square inch, are 

« The machinery Avas put at the writer's disposal through the courtesy of Prof. J . L. 
Van Ornum. 

b Timber Physics, Bulls. Nos. 6 and 8, Division of Forestry, U. S. Department of 

Agriculture. 



14 



THE 



' ' BLUING " 



AND THE 



"red rot" 



OF THE PTISTE. 



given in the following table. The number of pieces used for each 
test is given in a separate column. It will be noted that the heart- 
wood pieces were kept distinct from the pieces cut from the sap wood. 

Compression strength in pounds j>er square inch. 



Kind of timber. 



A. Green timber 

B. "Blue" timber, 1 year old . 

C. "Blue" timber, 2 years old 



Heartwood. 



Sap wood. 



t^flT strength. 



210 
190 
131 



Pounds. 

3, 919. 74 
3, 876. 44 
4, 017. 48 



Number 



Average 



of nieces average 



Pounds. 

1, 575 5, 089. 98 

649 j 5,130.95 
770 ! 5,308.32 



Cross-breaking strength in pounds per square inch. 



Kind of timber * 



Heartwood. 



Sap wood. 



Number 

of pieces 

tested. 



A. Green timber 338 

B. "Blue" timber, 1 year old 317 

C. " Blue " timber, 2 years old •. 322 



^^erage ^^^^.^ Average 
strength. °teE strength. 



Pounds. 
5, 375. 26 
5, 361. 17 
5,665 



Pounds. 
553 I 5,832.66 
242 ' 5,818.84 
272 ] 6,843.31 



The figures given in this table show that the ' " blue "' timber is 
slightl}' stronger, both when compressed endwise and when broken 
crosswise. This result is probabh' due to the fact that the "blue" 
wood was slightly drier than the green wood when the tests were 
made. It is scarceh" probable that the presence of fungus threads in 
the cells of the wood in any way strengthens the fiber. However 
that ma}" be, these tests show beyond doubt that for all practical pur- 
poses the ''blue " wood is as strong as the green wood. Under the con- 
ditions now existing in the Black Hills Forest, the "blue" wood is cer- 
tainly very much stronger than the green wood. It is in effect sea- 
soned timber. The trees have stood in the most favorable position 
possible for drying, with thousands of holes in the bark made by the 
beetles through which the water could escape, assisted b}" the winds 
which constantly sweep by the trunks. Where wood is used, as it 
unfortunately is in these days, almost immediately after it is cut from 
the forest, the "blue" wood is certainl}- as good so far as its strength 
is concerned as the green wood, and ought not to be discriminated 
against because of supposed weakness. 

LASTING POWER OF THE "bLUE" WOOD. 

The wood of the bull pine is one which is not very resistant to 
decay-producing fungi. Under ordinary conditions, such as are found 



THE "blue" fungus. 15 

in the State of Nebraska outside of the arid belts and in the Black 
Hills, the wood will last from four to six years when placed in the 
ground in the form of a cross-tie, for instance. Dead trees may stand 
in the forest for many years without decaying, especially when killed 
by lire, but ordinarily when the bark remains on the trees they begin 
to deca}' after the third year. 

From observations made on the "'black-top"' trees now standing in 
the forest it would seem that the lasting power of the "blue" wood 
would be very small. It is perhaps not fair to compare these trees 
with sound ones, for their bark is full of holes, giving fungus spores 
every opportunity to enter, as described below. When placed in the 
ground this wood rots very fast, if one can draw conclusions from the 
dead tops lying around in the forest. There is every reason why it 
should rot rapidly. The hyphw of the "• blue " fungus have opened pas- 
sao-ewavs for the rapid entrance of water and for other fungi in almost 

1 1 • 1 

every medullary ray. Dried wood will probably last a long while, 
especially if properly piled, so as to allow the air to circulate between 
the separate pieces. When sawed and split for cord- wood, the ' ' blue " 
wood should keep just as long as the green wood. The tendency to rapid 
decay can be largely done away with by treating the wood with some 
preservative. Ties were cut during the past spring from green timljer 
and from dead trees. These were shipped to Somerville, Tex., where 
they were impregnated with zinc- chloride. These ties were laid in 
the tracks of the Santa Fe Railroad and are now under observation. 
A second lot of ties has been cut during the past summer from green 
trees and from "sorrel tops," "red tops," and "black tops." These 
will be treated within a short time and laid in the track of a Mexican 
railway so as to determine the relative resistance of the various grades 
of "blue" timber in a tropical climate as compared with the green tim- 
ber. On the particular road chosen for this experiment the life of very 
resistant timbers is short. 

THE "BLUE" FUNGUS. 

The blue color of- the wood is due to the growth of a fungus in 
the wood cells. The staining of wood due to fungi has been known 
for many years, especially the form known as "green wood" (J6>^s 
verdi). In Europe this green coloration attracted the attention of 
foresters and investigators as early as the middle of the last century, 
and a number of descriptions and discussions appeared from time to 
time (particularly in France), in which an attempt was made to account 
for this phenomenon. A green dye was extracted from this wood, 
which at one time was thought to be valuable because of its absolute 
permanency. Various dicotyledonous woods showed the green color; 
among others, beech, oak, and horse-chestnut. 



16 THE "bluing and THE "RED ROT OF THE PINE. 

In spite of numerous investigations, the causes of the green color 
and its relation to the wood remained comparative] 3^ obscure until 
recenth', when Vuillemin published an extended account" showing 
that one form of the green color was due to the growth in the wood 
of one of the Discom3'cetes, Ilelothnn xruginosum. Vuillemin men- 
tions a number of other fungi which have been described as causing 
the green color, among others, PropoUdium atrocyaneum Rehm, on 
wood of the poplar; JVxvla ceraginosa Rehm, on the tans}^; and 
Fusarium peruginoHuni Delacroix, on potato tubers. 

Without going into details, Vuillemin established the fact that the 
green coloring matter, called xylindeine, is formed by the hyphse of 
Helotium sdruginosum, and that the presence of these green-colored 
hyphfe gives the green color to the wood. The wood fiber itself 
remains colorless. The xylindeine is soluble in alkalis and can readily 
be extracted. The wood fiber is not destroj^ed, but remains intact. 
The name "green deca)^" is therefore incorrectlv applied, for the 
green wood is in no sense decayed. This is an interesting fact, for it 
will be remembered that the same has been said of the "blue'' wood. 
A more detailed comparison of the relation of this green coloring mat- 
ter and the fungus forming it to the coloring matter in the ''blue" 
wood will be published in another paper. 

The blue stain of coniferous woods is a familiar defect in the United 
States, particular!}^ in the South, where freshly sawed lumber, 
especially shingles and lath, is affected during the moist warm weather 
of April, May, and June. The blued lumber is considered as a low- 
grade material, and many precautions are taken by Southern manufac- 
turers to prevent loss. A full account of this trouble and a discussion 
as to its cause and methods for its prevention are now in preparation. 

In Europe the blue color of pine wood was first noted b}^ Hartig,* 
who refers brieflj^ to the fact that a fungus ( Ceratostoma piliferuTn 
(Fr.) Fuckel), is the cause of bluing in coniferous wood, especially of 
pine trees which have been weakened by caterpillars, and of firewood. 
He states that the hyphee of this fungus, which are brown, grow rap- 
idly inward into the trunk through the medullary raj^s and that they 
avoid the heartwood, probabl}" because of its small water content. 

The blue color of coniferous wood in this country is probably caused 
by the same fungus referred to by Hartig, although it seems necessary 
to refer to it under a different name {Ceratostomella pilifera (Fr.) 
Winter). 

« Vuillemin, Paul. Le Bois Verdi. (Bull, de la Soc. d. Sciences de Nancy, Ser. II, 
16: 90-145; 1898. Ipl. ) References to earlier works on the green color are given 
in this paper. 

6 Hartig, Robert. Lehrbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 1900, pp. 75 and 106. (See 
also earlier editions of the Lehrbuch fiir Baumkrankheiten; see also Frank, A. B., 
Krankheiten der Pflanzen, 1: 107, 1895.) 



THE ''blue" fungus. 17 

CERATO.<rO.MELLA I'lLlFERA ( Fr. ) WillttT. 

Sfiliuria pilifcra Fr. Systema ^lyt-., 2: 472, ISoO; Berkeley, (irevillea, 4: 

146,1876. 
Sjtlitvrit rostrnla Schnm. Emini. FI. Sae., 2: l-S. 
Ceratostuina jtllifermu (Fr. ) Fuekel. Syuib. Myc, j). 128; KllLs iV: Kverhart, 

N. A. Pyrenomycetes, p. 193. 
Ceratostoinelhi piUferri (Fr. ) "Winter. Rabenhursjt's Kryptogainenflora, etc., 

1, Pt. II: 252, 1887; Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., Pt. I, Al>t. 1: 406; 

fig. 2o{l. 

The ■• blue" fuiio-us was tirst described by Fries, who phiced it in the 
genus Sjtha'rta. Later it was phiced in a new genus {CWatodoina) by 
Fuckel, and remained in this genu.s until recently, when Winter in 
his revision of the famil}- Cet'citostomeiv, put the fung-us in the genus 
Oeratostomella.-^ This genus is characterized as "perithecia more or 
less superficial, or inmiersed (sometimes only for a short time), gener- 
ally tough, leathery, or carbonaceous, with marked, generally well- 
developed beak. Spores variable, t3'picany unicellular, hyaline. 
Species mostly on wood." The genus Ceratostoiud ditt'ers from Cmt- 
todomelhi only in having the spores brown instead of hyaline. This 
seems a very weak character upon which to separate two genera, and 
Winter realizes this, as indicated in a note (p. 253), where he says: "I 
hesitate to accept the genus Ceratostomella^ for the different color of 
the spores does not seem to be sufficient basis for a genus. I do it 
only to satisfy general!}' accepted demands." 

As the present investigation is not materially concerned in the valid- 
ity of any particular name, the writer accepts Winter's name, leaving 
the question of whether it ought to be Ct-ratoatoma or CeratostouieUa 
to others. 

CeratostomeJla pilifera occurs, according to Winter, on coniferous 
woods, mostly on pine timber. Winter remarks that in spite of the 
ver}' common occurrence of this species, he was able to find the mature 
asci but once, and gives a figure of the two asci he saw. This is borne 
out by the findings mentioned hereafter. Four forms of C. pilifera 
are described, which are probably forms modified by the substratum 
on which they grew, and of less interest in this connection. 

The fruiting bodies of the "'blue " fungus occur in thousands on blued 
logs and boards in favorable seasons; the long necks of the perithecia 
when looked at sidewa^^s form veritable forests on a board. In the 
pine forests of the Black Hills the perithecia are to be found on decay- 
ing sticks, in the cracks formed when trees or branches break off', and 
sometimes under the loosened bark of dead trees. It is a strange fact, 
however, for which no very plausible reason can as yet be assigned, 
that with the thousands of dead and "blue" trees now in that forest 
the asci of the fungus should be comparatively so rare. 

«Saccardo, P. A. Michelia, 1: 370. 

leeiJr— No. 36— OH 2 



18 THE "BLUING AND THE "RED ROT OF THE PINE. 

The growth and development of the fungus may be briefly noted as 
follows/' The spores of the "blue'' fungus (PL VII. 8) are probably 
blown about by the wind in countless thousands, and at the time of the 
beetle attack in July and August some of these spores lodge in the 
holes made in the l)ark of the living pine tree by the bark and wood- 
boring })eetles. The atmosphere of these holes is constantly kept 
moist l)y the water evaporating from the trunk. In these holes the 
spores can germinate within a day after falling there. 

In drop cultures of pure water the spores germinate readily over- 
nioht. The hyphw grow into the bark tissues and into the cambium, 
and from there they enter the cells of the medullary rays. The readi- 
ness and rapidity with which the hyphfe grow into the medullary rays 
lead one to suspect that the food substances, stored in the medullary 
rays at this period of the year in considerable quantities, exert a 
chemotropic stimulus. In the early stages of development one finds 
the hypha? of the "blue '" fungus only in the medullary ray cells. After 
a hypha has entered one medullary ray cell it branches and spreads to 
the neighboring cells (PI. VII, 1 and 2: PI. VIII, figs. 1 and 2), so 
that in a very short time the entire ray is filled with the hypha?, most 
of which grow in the ray toward the center of the trunk. Numerous 
starch grains are usually .found in the ray cells during the early part 
of August; these are rapidly dissolved by the fungus and serve as a 
source of food supply for a considerable period of time. The hyphfe 
are at first colorless, very thin-walled, and full of vacuoles and oil 
globules. They branch rapidly, forming numerous septa. If the 
starch supply is abundant, hyphsB several microns in diameter may be 
formed (PI. VII, 2). These are constricted at the septa and show signs 
of rapid development. The older hyphfe turn brown, and with the 
first signs of the brown color in the hypha? the bhiish coloration of 
the wood begins. One of the first efiects seen after the hyphae have 
entered the medullary ray cells is the gradual solution of the walls 
separating the medullary ray cells from one another (PL VII, 1, 2, 
and 3). The walls which separate the ray cells from the neighbor- 
ing wood cells may become very thin, as shown in the middle ray 
(PL VII, 1), but they are rarely dissolved entirely. The intermediate 
walls, on the other hand, entirely disappear. This leaves a tube with 
a cross section having the shape of the cross section of the ray, extend- 
ing into the trunk from the bark. This tube is sometimes filled 
entirely with a mass of brown hypha?, the larger number of which 
extend in the direction of the ray (PL VIII, figs. 1 and 2). From the 
ray cells some hyphfe make their way into adjacent wood cells (PL VII, 
2; PL VIII. figs. 1 and 2). They grow along these, both up and down 

« A fuller discussion of its cultural characteristics, spore germination, and the blue 
color will be printed at a later date. 



THK ''BLUE FUNGUS. 19 

(PI. VII. 1). giving- oil Itrunches to other wood cells." In this manner 
the whole wood body becomes penetrated by the In-own hyphte in a 
very short time after the iirst infection. The number of hyphie in the 
wood cells proper, i. e., excluding- the medullary ray cells and the 
cells of the wood parenchyma, is very small indeed. This is proba- 
bly due to the fact that thc^ fungus finds scant material upon which to 
live in the wood cells. The hyplue are apparently al)le to puncture 
the unlignitied walls here and there, but they stop at that point. The 
writer was not a])le to demonstrate that the hyph<\3 could attack the 
lignitied walls. In other words, the '* blue *" f ung-us is one which confines 
its attack to the food substances contained in the storing cells of the 
trunk and to the slightly lignitied walls of these storing- cells. The 
best instance of the resistance which the lignified walls offer to the 
dissolving action of the hypha? is found in the outer walls of the medul- 
lary rays, which are composed in part of the more heavily incrusted 
walls of the adjacent wood liber. 

The resin ducts are attacked in much the same manner as the medul- 
lary rays. (PI. VII, 3; PI. VIII, iig. 2.) The walls of the component 
cells are dissolved, leaving a tube filled with brown hyphte. When 
looked at with a low-power magnifying glass, a cross section of the 
wood shows the resin ducts as black spots in the wood ring. 

The rate at which the hyphte advance in the medallary rays keeps 
them considerablv in advance of the hvpha? in the wood cells and also 
of the blue color which follows the appearance of the hypha? in the 
rays. When the hyphtv have reached the heartwood they cease grow- 
ing inward. One reason for this ma}^ be the absence of food materials 
in the rays of the heartwood, and another may be the greater lignifica- 
tion of the heartwood cells. It is very certain that the hyphse do not 
flourish in the heartwood, neither in the medullar}- rays and resin ducts 
nor in the wood cells proper. Hartig ascribes the restriction of the 
fungus to the sapwood to the smaller amount of water in the heart- 
wood, but it would seem to the writer that there would hardly be so 
very sharp a line between the points where growth does take place 
and where it does not, if it were a matter of water supply alone. 
The readiness with which the fungus can enter heartwood and sapwood 
cells and the presence or absence of food substances would seem to be 
factors of more importance in determining the regions where the 
fungus could or would not grow. 

The growth in the medullary rays comes to a stop within six months 
after the first infection, and perhaps earlier. This applies to such 
wood as is infected in July or August. By December or January the 
whole sapwood will be filled with hyph^. In the top of the tree the 

"The hyphw growing out from the metlullary rays, as shown in PI. VIII, fig. 2, 
make the wood cells appear septate. This, of course, is not the case. 



20 THE "bluing" and THE "RED ROT " OF THE PINE. 

development is probably veiy similar, althouo-h it was not possible to 
make an accurate determination of this fact because of the great 
irreo-ularity in the rate with which infection takes place after the 
beetle attack. The rate of growth in the trunk varies considerably. 
Some trunks are invaded on all sides with equal rapidity; some, on the 
other hand, seem to be more resistant on one side or another. A good 
idea as to the presence or absence of the fungus can usually be obtained 
by observing the extent of the blue coloration, to which reference is 
made below. 

EFFECT OF "BLUe"' FUNGUS ON THE TOUGHNESS OF THE " BLUE '' AVOOD. 

On page 13 it was stated that the -'blue" wood was considered 
very much tougher than the healthy wood. The tie cutters in the 
Black Hills lind that it is very much harder work to cut cross-ties from 
the •• black-top"' wood than from green trees — so much so that they 
demand additional pay for cutting these ties. 

When split with an ax, the two halves of a block seem to hang 
together more firmly, and it requires more strength to wedge them 
apart. Chips do not fly ofi' as easily. The only explanation which 
can be suggested for this peculiar behavior of the diseased wood is 
that in the '' blue" wood we have an enormous number of filaments, all 
extendino- radiallv through the wood. These filaments occur in 
bunches, much interwoven, scattered at regular intervals through the 
wood. It is estimated that at a point about 1 foot in from the bark 
there are about 39,(J0(>,0(JU medullary rays per square meter of tangen- 
tial surface, or about 3,700,0U0 per square foot. Even if the tensile 
strength of one hypha is not very great, when it comes to ■1:,000,000 
bundles these may have some effect in holding masses of wood fiber 
together (see Plate VIII). This view is strengthened by the fact that 
it seems easier to split the "blue'' wood along radial lines than on 
tangential lines. In making ties the tangential cut is used almost 
entirely, and it is possible that these hyphal bundles are responsible 
for the toughness. When split tangentially and viewed edgewise, one 
can see some of these hyphal bundles projecting from the medullary 
rays, as if they had been pulled out and stretched before being torn. 

RELATION OF THE -"BLUE"' FUNGUS INFECTION TO THE BEETLE HOLES. 

As Has been previously stated, the first evidences of the presence of 
the. "blue" fungus are seen some weeks after the beetles have bored 
into the cambium layer. The first signs of blue color in the wood 
might be expected just under a hole in the bark or near such a hole, 
or under the tube excavated in the bark extending from such a hole. 
This, however, is not always the case: in fact, is rarely the case. The 
small triangular patches of color may appear anywhere within the area 



THE "blue'' fungus. 21 

uttiicked by the beetles. Wh}^ this should l)e so it is difficult to explain 
satisfactorily. The spores must enter the region between the wood 
and the bark through the beetle holes and l^urrows, for there is no 
other way for them to get through the V)aik. Cracks in the bark are 
practically entirely wanting in the living trees. The only explanation 
possil)le is that the hyphiv start their growth in the bark and camljium 
layer, the parts richest in food materials, and then grow inward at one 
or more points independent of the beetle holes. 

As soon as the living bark and wood die, a wood-boring beetle enters 
the wood and makes numerous small holes all through the sap wood 
(see PI. IX). It enters felled trees within a few days after the tree is 
cut. The lioles which it makes extend radially into the trunk, some- 
times with great directness, then again ol)liquely. The beetles bore 
with great rapidity, so that they may ha\e reached the heartwood in 
the cour.se of a few months. Tliesc holes form very convenient chan- 
nels for the entrance of the hyphie of the "blue" fungus, and they 
take advantage of their opportunities. Before they appear in the 
wood cells surrounding the holes made by the wood-boring beetle, 
one linds great masses of another fungus in the open ends of the wood 
cells bordering the hole. This is the so-called '"ambrosia" fungus,*' 
which the V^eetles carrv into the holes with them, and upon the spores 
of which they feed. The hj'phas of this fungus are colorless and 
thick walled. They extend into the wood cells away from the holes 
only a short distance, but near the holes they grow into dense mats, 
which practically plug the lumen of the wood fibers toward the beetle 
hole. The launches of sporophores with the round pores project into 
the beetle hole from these mats. 

The hj'phae of Ceratostomella can be distinguished readity from those 
of the "ambrosia" fungus. They are thin walled, full of vacuoles, and 
turn brown verj^ soon. There seems to be no relation between the 
two, although such a relation is not impossible. The development of 
the '"ambrosia"" fungus is now being investigated, and it is hoped that 
this stud}^ will throw more light on any possible relation. 

This class of beetle probably carries the spores of Ceratostomella 
with it into the holes it makes, much as it carries the '"ambrosia " spores. 
This seems probable from the fact that the '" blue "' fungus seems to start 
at various points along a beetle hole; in other words, it does not grow 
down into the hole from the outside. Sections made at right angles to 
the hole show that the fungus starts to grow on all sides of the hole, 
and that it makes most rapid headway' in a direction parallel to the long- 
axes of the wood fibers (PI. IX). When once the hypha? have reached 
the medullary rays from the wood fibers, progress in all directions 

« Hubbard, H. G. The Ambrosia Beetles of the United States. Bull. 7, n. s., 
Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1897, pp. 9-30. 



22 THE ^'bluing" and the "red rot" of the pine. 

becomes equally rapid. The blue color appears around the beetle 
holes soon after the entrance of the ' ' blue "' fungus. Usually it f oitqs 
two rings extending from the hole along the wood fibers. Various 
stages of this first appearance of the color are shown on PL IX. The 
spread of the "blue"" fungus within the wood, through the agency of 
wood-boring beetles, is an occurrence frequently found in man}" conif- 
erous woods. The central figure at the bottom of PL IX is from a 
photograph of a log of western hemlock found in the Olympic Forest 
Reserve, in Washington, which shows an even more striking case of 
the spread of Ceratostomella from holes made by Gnathotricus occi- 
dentalis Hopkins MS. This particular piece of wood was cut from 
a fallen trunk, about 6 inches in from the bark. 

FRUITING ORGANS OF THE •"BLUE*' FUNGUS. 

The "blue"' fungus forms its fruiting bodies on the surface of the 
wood in which it is growing. Air seems to be necessary for the for- 
mation of the fruiting bodies. A good deal of moisture in the sur- 
rounding air is necessary likewise. No fruiting organs are formed in 
dry air. In the forest they occur in the cracks formed when a blued 
trunk is broken ofi', on broken branches, and at such other points as 
are exposed to the air. So far the writer has been unable to find the 
perithecia of CeratostomeUa on the surface of standing trunks under 
the bark, although a diligent search has been made for them at all 
seasons for two 3'ears. When, several months after the beetle attack, 
the bark becomes loose, so that it separates from the wood, a space 
is left between the bark and wood. In this space numerous fungi 
develop in quantities, among others a species of Alternaria which lines 
the pupal chambers of the DendroctonuH^ and a species of YerticiUiiun. 
The whole atmosphere of this region is surcharged with moisture, and 
yet the •"blue" fungus does not fructifv here, for there is probably 
not enough air. 

The black perithecia of the "blue" fungus, Ceratodomella inlifera 
(Fr.) Winter, are familiar objects on blued boards or shingles, where 
the}' occur in thousands side by side. The perithecia are formed 
within a few hours when the conditions are favorable. At various 
points on the surface of the wood, in some instances out of every 
medullaiy ray, masses of h3'pha? grow out forming a dense mass which 
gradually develops into an egg-shaped bod}- (PL VII, 4). The surface 
of the young perithecium shows irregular polygonal markings, which 
gradually become indistinct as the perithecium turns jet black almost 
to its tip. At the tip of the young perithecium a number of hyphte 
grow out parallel with one another (PL VII, 4) in a direction perpen- 
dicular to the substi'atum. They remain colorless at the tip. These 
hyphfe grow in length with remarkable rapidity and form a long 



THE 



blue" fungus. 23 



bristlo-lilvo nock several times us long- as the diameter of the perithc- 
eium (PI. VII. tl). This neek becomes very brittle as soon as the peri- 
thecium is mature, and breaks oti" at the slightest jar or touch. The 
tips of the hyphfe composing the neck remain joined at the top until 
the spores are discharged; they then separate and form a sort of cup- 
shaped support for the spore mass (PI. VII, 9). The body of the peri- 
thecium when mature is about 18»»/< in diameter and lOO/f high, and is 
covered with scattering Ijrown hyph.v. The neck averages about 1,050/^ 
in length and 20/< in thickness. 

The spores of Ceratostomella are elongated and somewhat curved 
(PI. VII, S). They are very small, and the asci in which they are 
borne are almost round or egg-shaped (PI. VII, 7) and exceedingly 
evanescent, so much so that it is very difficult to find them. Hun- 
dreds of perithecia \\\ all stages may be examined without showing 
a sign of asci. When the spores are mature, they arc discharged 
through the neck, either in the form of a large drop (PI. VII, 5, .s), 
or in a long, worm-like mass. The spores are held together ])V a 
mucilaginous material, which will not mix with water. It is suggested 
that this serves admirably to spread the spores through the agency of 
crawling insects and worms, both common on w^ood where the peri- 
thecia are likely to be found. The spores germinate in water afttu- a 
few hours, sending out a short hyaline germ tube, which In-anches 
very soon after its appearance. The discharge of the spores takes 
place when a certain amount of moisture has accumulated within the 
perithecium. A rain storm often brings about a worm-like discharge 
from ripening perithecia. In cultures a globular discharge takes place, 
probabl}^ because of the more equitable distribution of water. The 
spores measure 5. 5/< by 2.5yw, average. 

GROWTH IN ARTIFICIAL, MEDIA." 

The ''blue" fungus grows quite readily in artilicial media. In pine 
agar the mycelium develops rapidly; less so in ordinar}^ agar or gela- 
tin. Cultures are most readily obtainable in pure condition by inoc- 
ulating pine agar tubes with pieces of blued wood removed (with care 
so as keep them sterile) from the inner portion of a blued log. The 
hyphi« grow out from the blued pieces and soon grow through the 
agar to the surface. On nearly all cultures of this character peri- 
thecia developed on the surface of the agar within a week. The asco- 
spores germinate in a few hours, and at the end of thirt3"-six to forty- 
eight hours a colorless mycelium bearing large numbers of conidiahas 
developed. At first these conidia were regarded as contaminations, 
but their repeated appearance in cultures made from pure cultures of the 

« The cultural work was carried on in conjunction with Mr. George G. Hedgcock, 
assistant in pathology. 



24 THE "BLUma" AND THE "RED EOT " OF THE PINE. 

ascospores leaves no doubt as to their being- a stage of the "blue" 
fungus. Cultures made from these conidia developed a mycelimn on 
which both conidia and perithecia appeared. Work with these conidia 
is still in progress and a report upon the results accomplished is to be 
published in full at a later date. 

In four to five da^'s in good growing cultures on rich pine agar or on 
sterile pine blocks the older threads of the colorless mycelium beo-in 
to turn brown, and at the end of seven to nine days young perithecia 
begin to form. These are at first hyaline and change rapidly from 
brown to black. They mature quickly, and at the end of from twelve 
to eighteen days some will be found ejecting the ascospores. In twentv- 
one days nearly all perithecia in a culture will be mature. 

DISSEMINATION OF THE SPORES. 

The sudden appearance of the "blue" fungus on lumber piles and 
over large areas at once, and its simultaneous appearance within the 
trunks of the pine trees seem to point to the distribution of the spores 
of the fungus hy the wind. It was thought that the l)ark ])eetles might 
be instrumental in carrying the spores into their holes. This they 
might do by having the spores adhering to their bodies or by feeding 
on the spores and depositing these in their holes. To test these hypoth- 
eses, beetles were placed in tubes of melted pine agar, thoroughly 
shaken, and then plated. Quite a number of beetles were dissected 
and cultures were made, using their alimentary canals, as well as some 
of their feces, as infecting material. In none of these cultures did any 
" blue " fungus appear. A very characteristic bacterium was obtained 
from the alimentary tracts, but no CemtostoineUa. A number of live 
beetles {Denflwetonus) were allowed to walk about on pine agar plates 
but no "blue" fungus developed. These trials are by no means to be 
regarded as conclusive, for they were not exhaustive. They are to 
be repeated on a larger scale this winter and in the summer when 
the l)eetles emerge. The number of perithecia developing on dead 
sticks and in cracks is suflicient to account for any infection which 
takes place in the Black Hills forest. This applies with equal force 
to all i-egions where the "blue" fungus occurs. 

The months of May, June, July, and August are the ones during 
which the most rapid development of this fungus takes place. 



THE BLUE COLOR. 



Wood in which the mycelium of IleJotiuin mniginosum (and prob- 
ably of other "green" fungi) grows turns green very soon after the 
fungus gets into the wood. As shown hy Yaillemin and others, the 
green color is due to a substance formed as a product of metabolism 
of the fungus, which is deposited in the form of regular oranules in 



THE "blue" fungus. 25 

the hyphiv and fruitiii*:- bodies of the fungus. The green matter, 
xylindeine, is confined to the fungus threads and in no way stains the 
wood til)ers. Vuilleniin states expressly (p. 144) tliat "there is no 
green decay or green staining of the wood. The wood appears green 
when the colored thallus of UAothnn xrmjinosum or of analogous 
fungi is found in its elements." With the highest powers of the 
microscope he was unable to tind any coloration of the walls of the 
wood. The green color is therefore due to the presence en masse of 
green -colored threads. 

Similar instances of color due to the presence of colored mycelium 
are found on pine and spruce wood, where brown and black lines are 
formed by masses of dark hypha' bunched at particular points in the 
wood cells. The familiar zigzag and fantastic lines often found in 
wood of the tulip tree and in birch and maple are due to similar fungus 
threads. In none of these cases are the wood fibers themselves colored. 

So far as known to the writer, no attempt has ever been made to 
explain the nature of the blue color of coniferous woods. The color 
is a difficult one to define. A number of the writer's artist friends 
who were called into consultation pronounced it a blue gray, approach- 
ing Payne's gray. Freshly cut wood looks decidedly blue, but as the 
wood dries the color fades somewhat and dry wood is mouse gray. 
The color is by no means regular; here and there some of the yellow 
of the healthy wood shines through. The drawing shown on PI. I is 
perhaps a little too blue. PI. V is closer to the real color. Certain 
portions of the blued wood look greenish when viewed obliquely. 

There are two possible explanations as to the cause of the so-called 
blue color: (1) The wood may appear colored because of the pres- 
ence of the colored fungus threads in the wood. The mass efiect of 
such colored threads might make the wood appear colored. (2) The 
wood might be colored by a pigment or stain formed either })y the 
fungus or as a result of the fungus growth in the wood, and this 
pigment might stain the walls of the wood fibers. 

The first explanation holds good for the "green" wood. Here a 
pigment is formed in the hyphae and fruiting Iwdies of the fungus, and 
it is because of the presence of the green-colored bodies in the fungus 
threads, according to Vuillemin, that the entire wood looks green. 
Careful examinations made of the "blue" wood by persons trained to 
observe colors, called into consultation by the writer, have led to some- 
what conflicting results, and it is therefore thought inadvisable in the 
present stage of the investigation to enter on a lengthy discussion of 
the color subject. A number of facts may be stated, however. Exam- 
inations of the wood fibers of sound and "blue" wood showed that it 
was possible in most instances to distinguish between the sound and 
the "blue" wood. The walls of the sound wood look somewhat 
darker (with a suggestion of purple) than the blued fiber. This method 



26 THE "bluing'' and the "red rot" of the t^ine. 

of examination, with hi^h mag'nitication, is a ratiier uncertain one, 
however, for the refraction caused by the containing liquids, which 
are purplish, and of light falling- from a blue sky, is apt to show very 
faint traces of color which do not belong to the wood. It may be 
stated definitely that the libers of the " blue" wood show no indication 
whatever of any color element seen in the wood en masse. 

The hyphffi constitute the onlj^ color element present in the "blue" 
wood which could not be detected in the sound wood. These are 
present in the medullary ra3\s and adjacent cells, as described above. 
These hypha? are pale reddish-brown, a color which may be obtained 
by taking a pale tinge of warm sepia. This color is ver}" distinct and 
stands out in sharp contrast to the surrounding yellow wood libers. 
(See PL VIII, showing the contrast.) How these brown hyphfe could 
make a blue gray or mouse gray it is difficult to understand, for no 
density of such a brown, even in combination with straw yellow (of 
the wood fiber), could possibh" produce blue gray. It would there- 
fore seem probable, or at least possible, that there is some pigment 
with a blue element in the "blue" wood which is so faint that its 
detection in thin microscopic sections becomes almost impossible. 

All efforts to extract an}- color of a blue nature from the wood have 
so far failed. Extracts of blued wood with ether, alcohol, benzol, 
chloroform, alkalis, and acids gave evidence that changes of some 
sort had taken place in the wood fiber, for the extracts of sound and 
" blue" wood differed materially in nearly ever}' instance. No signs 
of any blue or blue-gray color were obtained. 

It seems necessary, therefore, to leave this matter for further inves- 
tigations, which are now in progress. 

SUMMARY. 

In the foregoing chapters a peculiar disease of the dying wood of 
the bull pine has been described. The wood turns blue in August and 
September, after the trees are attacked by the beetles. The blue color 
starts near the base of the tree and gradually spreads upward until 
the entire sapwood is blue. The ' ' blue " wood is somewhat tougher 
than the healthy wood and has been shown to be practically as strong 
as the healthy wood. 

DECAY OF THE "BLUE" WOOD. 

The changes which the "blue" fungus brings about in the wood of 
the western yellow pine can hardly be called deca\'. It is true that 
the medullar}' rays are destroyed in part and that the walls of many 
wood fibers are punctured, but as a whole the wood is sound in the 
ordinary acceptance of that term. It is not rotten, or doty, or decayed. 
The "blue" fungus attacks cell contents and not the cell walls. 



DECAY OF THE "BLUE" Wool). 27 

After the wood Im.s l)oen deiid for some time eertuin chim.«;('s Ix'^m, 
which in the end result in the entire decay of the wood. 'Die deud 
wood may or may not be l)lue, for the processes by which the wood 
chanoes to decayed wood arc the same for wood which is entirely 
healthy and for the •• blue" wood. 

THE "KKD KOT"' OF THE WESTERN YEEEOW I'TNK. 

The " red rot " of the western yellow pine usually starts in the tops of 
the •• black-top" trees, i. e., trees which have l)een dead for two or more 
years. At one or more points, usually on the north or east side of a tree, 
one will find that the wood immediately under the bark starts to rot. 
This rot starts at the bark and gradually extends inward (PI. X, tig. 1). 
The wood when it shoAys the tirst signs of this decay is wet and soggy 
and rapidly becomes brittle, so that it crum])les into small piec^eswhen 
rubbed. A plane will no longer make a smooth .^surface (Fl. X, tigs. I 
and :>), for the knife tears out small pieces of the wood fiber. The 
color of the wood changes from blue to red yellow. When the decay 
has gone on for some time, bands and sheets of a white felty substance 
are found tilling certain cracks which result 1)ecause of shrinkage in 
the wood mass (PI. X, fig. 2). Th^^^e white sheets consist of masses of 
fungus threads densely interwoven. The destruction of the wood con- 
tinues until the heartwood is reached, and as this is exceedingly small 
in the tops of these trees one will find that after some time almost 
the entire wood mass has changed to a brown, In-ittle, resistless mass 
(PI. XT). The completely rotted wood crumbles into a fine powder 
when crushed between the fingers. When wet it is of a cheesy con- 
sistency. When the water has evaporated from such wood it is like 
so much brown charcoal. 



CAUSE OF THE "KED ROT." 



The ''red rot" of the dead timl)er is caused by one of the higher 
fungi which grows in the wood, and by so doing brings about the decay 
of the wood. The spores of this fungus fly about in the forest and 
some of them lodge in bark crevices of the dying trees. The numerous 
beetle holes afford every opportunity for entrance to the wood, and it 
is therefore not surprising to find that the majority of the ''black-top" 
trees become infected sooner or later with the spores of this fungus. 
The spores germinate and hyphie grow into the dead cambium and the 
wood, where they attack such organic matter as has been left by the 
"blue" funo-us. They go farther, however, and attack the cell walls 
of the wood fibers, from which they extract the cellulose. As a 
result of this, the wood fibers shrink in volume and crack in regular 
lines extending obliquely across the cell walls. As the solution of the 



28 THE "bluing" and the "ri:d hot" of the pine. 

cellulose goes on. large numbers of fibers separate in a body from the 
adjoining- ones, often along the lines of medullary rays, and the spaces 
so formed are rapidly filled with fungus threads, giving rise to the 
white sheets already spoken of. (See PL X. fig. '2.) 

CONDITIONS FAVORIXG THK DEVELOPMENT OF THE '" RED-ROT " FUNGUS. 

One of the most important factors which influences the development 
of the ''red-rot*' funo-us. and one which holds for all fungi, is water. 

O . CD 

If the trees in the Black Hills were dry, the red rot would make but 
slight progress. At the time when the attack takes place the trees are 
full of water, especially the tops, for these have lived longer than the 
butts of the trees, and water was pumped into them long after the 
lower parts of the trees were dead. Tlie top. therefore, is the most 
favorable point for the ''red-rot*- fungus, and it is there that it is 
found developing most rapidly. From the top the fungus may grow 
down, so as to afiect the lower part of the trunk, but as this has been 
drying continuously since the beetle attack one will find that it is veiy 
rare for those parts of the trunk situated at points 5 to 3< ' feet from the 
ground to be seriously injured by this fungus in the first years after 
the death of the trees. This is an exceedingly important considera- 
tion when the practical phase of this subject is taken into account. 

The relation of the water supply to the " red rot" is illustrated veiy 
well in the large number of trees where the bark has died and peeled 
off from one side of the tree. On PI. X, fig. '2. a photograph of such 
a case is reproduced. The bark has fallen off' on the south and south- 
west sides of the tree, but it still is attached to the opposite side. The 
result of this peeling becomes evident very soon, for on that side the 
wood dried ver}' rapidly, while on the other side the bark prevented 
such evaporation. The wood remained moist, and here the '"red-rot" 
fungus found a footing and conditions favorable for its growth. The 
result was that in the course of some months the north and northeast 
sides of that trunk were completeh' decaj'ed, while the opposite side 
remained sound. A similar instance is shown in the largest section on 
PI. VI, fig. 2: in this case at the base of the tree. 

Where the bull pine grows on hillsides not exposed to the sun or 
wind, or where there is much undergrowth, one will frequently find 
the '"red-rot" fungus entering the trees at the base before it attacks 
the top. . This is likewise due to the fact that the water has not left the 
trunk with suflicient rapidity to prevent the attack. 

FINAL STAGES AND FRUITING ORGANS. 

When the tops become rotted almost to the heart they become so 
weak that thev are broken off' bv the first wind. In those sections of 



DECAY OF THE "BLUE" \V<m)D. 29 

the Black Hills Forest Reserve where the beetle attack took place some 
four or more rears ago there are thousands of dead trees stan.lino- with 
their tops broken off much like those shown in Pi. XII. \n this view 
the tops can be seen lying on the ground. PI. XIII. rig. I shows the 
lower end of one of these tops. One will note how sharp it has broken 
off-almost straight across. One of the sheets of mycelium has curled 
over at the extreme right of the hgure. The cross sections ot such a 
top (reproduced on PI. XI, tigs. 1 and 2) show how completely the wood 
has been destroyed and that there is small chance for such a top remain- 
ing on the tree very long. 

Where the ^' red-rot^' fungus attacks the tree at its base it l>nngs 
about the decav of the larger roots underground, and also of the sap- 
wood of the trunk close to the ground (PI. VI, tig. 2, large section 
and PI XI rio- 3) After a time the roots ])ecome weakened to sucli 
an extend that^thev are no longer able to keep the trunk in an upright 
position, and the result is that the tree is blown over. Such a fallen 
free is then attacked rapidly at all points by the "red-rot fungus, 
and in a few vears nothing is left of it but a pile of rotted wood. 

When the wood has been completely destroyed the fruiting organs 
of the " red-rot" fungus begin to form. Some of the hyplne grow out 
through the bark and form a tiesh-colored knob (PI. XI, hg. 1) which 
rapidlv increases in size and turns reddish in color. This knob grad- 
uallv widens horizontallv, forming a shelf, and on the lower side ot 
thi^ shelf numerous pores appear. One of these bodies is seen grow- 
ing out from the fallen top shown on PI. XIII, rig. 1, a little below 
and to the rio-ht of the small branch extending out toward the front 
of the picture: (See also PI. XI, fig. 2, and PL XIII fig. 2 ) After a 
year a mature fruiting body or sporophore (commonly called a punk, 
mushroom, or toadstool) has developed, from which yores are dis- 
charo-ed at intervals. These spores are formed in the small tubes 
found on the lower side of the sporophore, and on a quiet night one 
can see them coming from the sporophore in white clouds as they are 
beino- discharged in countless thousands. The spores are so hght that 
they'are carried many miles by the winds and lodge on every stick and 
tree in the vicinity. 

The sporophores of this fungus may grow for many years. At dif- 
ferent periods, the length of which is not yet definitely known they 
add a ring on the outside and thereby increase in size. The one shown 
attached to the section on PI. XI, fig. 2, is probably 2 years ok, while 
the one at the base of the tree on PI. XIII is probably several years 
old The sporophores may occur singly or in groups of two or three 
together. When a top falls so as to lie close to the ground where it 
is likelv to be kept wet, the sporophores will develop every few inches, 
so that there may be as many as 20 or 30 on a log 10 feet in length. On 



30 THE "bluing" and THE ''RED ROT'' OF THE PINE. 

standing- trees thej^ occur onl}' at the base of the trees (PL XllI). 
Here thev g-row close to the ground and oftentimes their lower surfaces 
are actuall}' in the ground. Grass, pine needles, and stones almost hide 
the entire sporophore. 

Older punks are- rough on top and appear to be covered with some 
waxy substance which has hardened and cracked. This substance, 
when scraped, resembles a hard resin. It is brittle, and is readily 
soluble in alcohol and xylol. It has a sticky appearance, and when 
f reshh' formed on the younger parts its bright red color forms a distin- 
guishing character not readily overlooked. The younger parts are 
sometimes flesh color, then again reddish yellow in color, and as they 
grow older the}^ turn more decidedly red. The surface is at first 
smooth and wax}-, and as the sporophore grows older it becomes very 
much wrinkled. The outer waxy covering cracks (PI. XIII, fig. 2), 
and the whole surface then seems to be coated with a dull gray, lime- 
like substance, which is exceedingly characteristic. 

The red-rot fungus belongs to the Hymenomycetes, genus Polyporus 
{Fomes), and differs decidedlv from other species of this genus. The 
species most closely related to it are PoJyporim pinicola viiW^ Polyporus 
marginatus. Its whole appearance, its color, hard resinous covering, 
and very rough surface distinguish it from these species. It has been 
decided to consider it as a new species — -PoJyjJorus p)07iderosus, u. sp. — 
which may be described as follows: 

A large Polyporus of the Fomes type usually growing singly (PI. XI, fig. 2), some- 
times two or three together (PI. XIII, fig. 2), broadly applanate; about as thick in 
the back as it is wide (PI. YII, figs. 10 and 11) ; top, when young, fliesh-colored to 
yellow red, becoming darker red with age; smooth when young, rapidly becoming 
rough and covered with irregular nodules. Older specimens show numerous ridges, 
formed by regular additions (annual) on the edge and below. Top covered after 
the first year with a hard, brittle, dull, resinous substance, which cracks as it grows 
old, and looks sandy or crystalline. Lower surface smooth, pores very regular, 
almost round, extending out to a line which is about one-fourth inch in width. ( See 
PI. YII, figs. 10 and 11.) Common on dead trees and fallen logs of the western 
yellow or bull pine {Pinus ponderosa) in South Dakota. 

RATE OF GROWTH OF " RED ROT." 

The question as to the rate of growth of the "red rot " is one of great 
practical significance. The "red rot"" fungus is the principal cause 
which prevents the dead wood from lasting indefinitely.' It usually 
attacks the trees when they have reached the "black-top'' stage; i. e., 
toward the end of the second year after the beetle attack, and there- 
after. The larger number of trees are probabh' free from this rot 
until the third year. To make this clearer, one may make a schedule 
of the stages through which the trees go, about as follows: 



AMOUNT OF DISEASED TIMBER. 31 

1899, July. — Live treei^ attacked by the bark-ljoring beetles. 

1899, September. — Wood of the lower part of the trunk starting to blue. 

1899, December. — "Wood l)lue to the lieart l>eIow, and wood of the top ]iartially 
l)lue. 

1900, ^lay. — "Sorrel-top" stage; leaves turning yellow ; wood wholly blued. 

1900, October. — "Ked-top" stage; leaves red and lower ones starting ti> fall off; 
wood blue, but sound. 

1901, May. — "Black-top" stage: leave.^ falling off and fallen wood starting to 
decay; "red rot" in the tops. 

1901, October. — "Black-top" stage; leaves all fallen; top badly decayed and in 
many instances broken off. 

This calendiir nm.st be considered a tentative one, based upon obser- 
vations of two years, although in the main it is pro])ably correct. 
The '■ red-rot" part is extremely variable, and can not be assioned to any 
definite period. Thel:ime when the tops will ])cg-in to decay is depend- 
ent upon the weather at any particular season, the amount of rain, the 
vioor of the tree and the length of time it takes the tree to die com- 
pletely after the beetles have attacked it, the position of the tree in 
the forest, the prevailing" winds, and probal)ly other factors more or 
less related to those mentioned. 

It is exceedingly important that this variabilitj' be recognized, for 
its bearing on the cutting and utilization of the dead timber is of the 
greatest importance. There ma}' be "black-top"' trees which will he 
sound from the ground to the very top, and these trees ma}' have 
stood in the forest for years in this condition. Not far away one will 
find others which have barely reached the ''black-top" stage which may 
show signs of decay to within a few feet of the ground. It is there- 
fore entirely impossible to lay down a hard and fast rule, and to state 
that the "black tops" after a year are all of no value as timl>er. 

The average conditions in the Black Hills are certainlv verv favor- 
able for the development of "red rot," and one will probably not l^e 
very far from the truth when he assumes that after the trees have 
reached the "black-top" stage they are liable to decay and deteriorate 
within a comparatively short time: that time probably will not exceed 
two years. 

AMOUNT OF DISEASED TIMBER. 

In the foregoing, but brief reference has been made to the actual 
condition of the forests in South Dakota at this time and to the extent 
of the injury following the attack of the bark beetles. The amount of 
dead wood, both standing and fallen, is very large, and as the beetles 
are still at work, it is steadily increasing. It is, of course, rather dif- 
ficult to make estimates of the exact amount without an actual survey 
of the whole region. A trip through the worst region — i. e., north of 
Spearfish River and west of the Burlington Railroad tracks — was made 
during the past summer, in company with several expert timbermeu, 



32 THE "blui^^g" axd the "eed rot" of the pine. 

for the purpose of determining about how much dead and dying- tim- 
ber one could safely count on removing this winter. Estimates were 
individual, and these estimates "■ agreed fairly well as to the relative 
amounts of the various grades of timber present. Taking these 
estimates as a basis, it appears that about half of the timber in this 
particular region is now dead. This refers to the standing timber, and 
leaves the fallen timber entirel}" out of consideration. This immense 
amount of timber is drying out rapidly and forms a tremendous fire 
danger. Should fire start in these woods, it would sweep the dead as 
well as the living- trees from the hillsides. The great danger of leaving 
the trees with the beetles in them, which will be ''sorrel tops" next 
summer, has been jDointed out by Hopkins. Besides these two dangers, 
there is still another point worthy of attention, and that is the loss, 
under present conditions, of the value of this wood. The following 
considerations are made, keeping in mind both the protection of the 
living timber against further insect and fire loss and the possible 
utilization of the vast amount of dead timber. 

POSSIBLE DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD WOOD. 
IX THE BLACK HILLS. 

Timber from the Black Hills Forest Reserve is now being used by 
tne mining interests in the Hills, and to a verj^ small extent by the rail- 
roads on their lines in South Dakota. The mining interests use the 
wood for mine props, lagging, and fuel. They are absolutely depend- 
ent on the timber in the Reserve for the lumber necessary for use in 
mining, for their fuel, and for their water, which is conserved because 
of the forests on the hillsides. The I'ailroads use the wood for cross- 
ties on the lines which extend from Lead Cit}' and Deadwood south to 
the State line. The timber used for mine props, lagging, etc.. by all 
the mines in the Black Hills is stated to be about 75,000.000 feet at the 
maximum. The amount of timber used for ties is practicalh' inap- 
preciable, and at this writing most of the tie cutting has practically 
stopped. 

It appears from this that the amount of dead timber which could 
possibly be used in the Black Hills is not more than 75,000,000 feet. 

«The exact estimates were a:^ follow;?: 



Kind iif timber. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


Green timber 


Percent. 
40 
25 
20 


Per cent. 
40 

25 


Per cent. 
50 


"Sorrel tops " 


26 


"Red tops" 


15 


"Black tops ' 


l.T •'>n 


10 











The third estimate was made by Dr. Hopkins and the writer. 



VALUE OF THE DEAD WOOD INSPECTION. 33 

IX THE REMAIXINO PARTS OF SOUTH DAKOTA. 

The Black Hills uro situated in the extreme southwest corner of 
South Dakota, and the only railroad connection which they have with 
the surroundinii' territory is southward into Nebraska. It is there- 
fore entirely inipractical)le to consider a possible use of any of the 
dead timber in parts of South Dakota outside of the Black Hills. 

It appears from the foregoino- that only a very small amount of the 
dead timber can be used in the Black Hills, and that y> idiotically none 
can be taken to other parts of South Dakota. The only practical)le 
method of disposing- of this surplus amount would be to ship it out of 
the State, l)ut this is not permissible under the present forest-reserve 
law, as will be pointed out hereafter. 

VALUE OF THE DEAD WOOD. 

The dead wood which ought to be removed from the Black Hills 
Forest Reserve is of all grades and values, and for practical purposes 
it is impossible to draw any lines grading the same which will hold 
good. It nuist be taken for granted that the onl}" wood which can be 
considered as worth anything at all is wood which shows no sign of 
deca}' or rot. Most of the timber, in fact nearly all, will be blue. The 
blue color, as has been previously shown, ought not to make much 
difference as regards its strength, and if properly treated with pre- 
servatives it is probable that the "blue'' wood will be serviceable for 
ties and lagging. 

The wood which is dead in the forest now rots rapidly, as has been 
pointed out, and ever}- day that it is left makes large amounts of it less 
valuable than it was before. At best one may expect that timber which 
is killed by the beetles one year will begin to decay after two years. 

In fixing the price of this dead timber it should be remembered that 
in order to get it out, lines of railroad would have to ])e constructed 
at a very considerable cost. Even with such lines the cost of bringing 
the dead timber from the forest to points where it could be utilized 
would be great. The expense of bringing timber from Montana and 
Wyoming to Nebraska (such cost including the first cost of the timber 
plus the transportation) will about equal the cost of bringing the tim- 
ber from the Black Hills to Nebraska. That the wood must have some 
value to be worth going for at all is obvious, but, as has been pointed 
out, its value will depend upon the rapidity with which it is removed. 

INSPECTION. 

One of the greatest difficulties which will be encountered in the 
utilization of the dead timber will be in connection with the inspec- 
tion of the material used. There will be vast quantities of the timber 

16614— No. 36—03 3 



34 THE "bluing" and the "red rot" of the pine. 

which will be hard and sound, but badl}^ blued. Then again, if the 
recommendations as to the cutting of live trees which are infested 
with beetles are followed there will be timber which will in all 
respects be like the green timber. A tie cut from the top of a tree in 
September, after the beetle attack in August, will usuall}' be perfectly 
healthy, i. e., it will show no traces of blue color or onlj^ yer^^ slight 
ones. 

All timber which is entirely sound, i, e., not decaj'ed, is fit for the 
uses to which it can ))e put in the Northwest, either for mine timbers, 
lagging, ties, etc. The blue color is not to be considered as a sign of 
decay. Timber which shows rotten spots of any size in the sap wood 
should not be used. An idea of what such decayed spots look like can 
be gained by studying the photographs reproduced on PI. X, figs. 1 to 
3, and PI. XIV, fig. 1. Besides the defect caused by the " red rot," one 
will sometimes find logs which show decay in the center. This is a 
disease of the living tree, and when more than one or two rings are 
afiected by the disease, such logs should likewise be rejected. The tie 
section shown on PI. XIV, fig. 2, is an example of this form of rot. 

A careful and intelligent inspector who familiarizes himself with 
the causes of the decay in the Black Hills Forest Reserve ought to 
have no difliculty in determining after some practice which timber is 
fit for use and which ought to be rejected. No amount of chemical 
treatment will, so far as we now know, make a practically decayed log 
serviceable. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Bearing in mind the considerations just referred to, the following 
recommendations are made : 

(1) Removal of vwod from the forest. — The dead timber should be 
removed from the Black Hills Forest Reserve at once. It forms a 
standing fire menace. The standing beetle-infested trees serve to 
spread the insect trouble. This dead timber should be removed at 
once, or at the earliest possible moment, and the living infested trees 
should be felled and peeled as recommended by Dr. Hopkins, for with 
every da}- the situation becomes more and more difiicult to handle. 

(2) Sale of vxK>d.—l\\ order to rid the forest of danger from fire, 
from further insect and fungus spread— in other words, in order to 
protect the remaining living trees from further destruction— the dead 
wood should be removed. The cost of operation in removing the 
dead timber is very considerable: (1) Because of the distance from 
lines of transportation; (2) because of the greater difliculty in cutting 
this wood; (3) because of the scattered localities in which it is found; 
(4) because of the constant care and selection necessary to get good 
sound wood. Therefore, because of this increased cost, it is recom- 
mended that the dead and beetle-infested timber be sold at a nominal 



RECOMMENDATIONS. ^5 



prioc to such a., nuiv applv therefor, this to l>e done in order to induce 
persons to assist in clearing the forest with all possihle speed. 

(3) Removal from South Dakota.-lt has hecn point.>d out that the 
great mass of dead timber now in the Black Hills Forest Reserve can 
not be used in South Dakota. It is therefore rec-nmiended (agaui as 
a measure of protection for the living forest) that the forest-reserve 
law be so amended as to permit the shipment of the dead and beetle- 
infested timber from the State of South Dakota. 

In makincr such a change, it ought to be understood that shipv)mg 
timber fron'i the State should in no way interfere with the mdustries 
dependent upon such timber in the State where the timl)er is situated. 
The case under consideration is an example in point. The mining 
interests of the Black Hills are absolutely dependent for their timber 
supplv on the wood in.the Black Hills, and if any timber is removed 
from^he region of the Black Hills, i. e., from the State of South 
Dakota, it should be taken from regions ii the Black Hills which are 
not tributiiry to the important mining interests in the Hills. In other 
words if any timber is removed from the Black Hills, it should come 
from the region south and west of the Little Speartish River. 

(4) Thaler which ><hould he reinoved.—Th^ timber which should be 
removed is the dead and beetle-infested timber. For the purposes of 
inspection dead timber should be considered as tim})er which comes 
from trees whose leaves are no longer green— that is, the '^sorrel tops, 
the '^ red tops," and the ^' black tops." " Beetle-infested timber has 
been specified by Dr. Hopkins. 

This dead timber will be 'M>lue timber," and much of it is now 
decayed. Contractors should be required to cut and remove only such 
timber as is perfectly sound, without any signs of decay. 



PLATES. 



37 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. — Frontispiece. Cross section of the trunk of a dying tree of the western 
yellow or 1)ull pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the Black Hills, South Dakota. This 
tree was attacked by the beetles in August, 1901. The section was cut at a point 
6 feet from the ground during the early part of November, 1901. Note the beetle 
holes in the bark; also the yellow ring between heartwood and sapwood. 

Plate II. — Dying trees of the bull pine. Fig. 1 shows several trees; at the left two 
live, green trees, a "sorrel-top" tree in the center, and a "red-top" tree at the 
right. Photographed August 5, 1902. Fig. 2 shows several live, green trees at 
the left and a "sorrel-top" tree toward the right. Note that this tree is still 
green at the top. Photographed August o, 1902. 

Plate III. — Various stages showing the gradual color change of leaves of the bull 
pine {Pinus ponderosa) after they have been attacked by the bark beetles {Den- 
droctonus ponderosie). 1. Leaves from a healthy tree. 2. Leaves from a " sorrel- 
top" tree. 3 and 4. Leaves from trees changing to the " red-top " stage. When 
the leaves have reached the stage of 4 they fall off and are completely dead. 

Plate IV. — Fig. 1. Group of bull pines {Pinus ponderosa) near Elmore, S. Dak., 
showing a "red-top " tree in the center and healthy trees on both sides. Fig. 2 
shows a group of "black-top" trees from which all leaves have fallen. This 
photograph was made in November, 1901, and it is probable that these trees 
were attacked by the beetles in August, 1899. 

Plate V. — Sections of trunks of the bull pine {Pinus ponderosa), showing the 
"blue" disease. Fig. 1 shows an early stage. This section was cut in Novem- 
ber, 45 feet up in the trunk, from a tree attacked by the beetles in August of 
the same year. The tree is still alive at this point. The blue color has started 
at two separate points. Fig. 2. A later stage, showing the blue color spread out 
over one-half of the section. Note the yellow ring at the border of heartwood 
and sapwood. 

Plate VI. — Fig. 1. Three sections from a bull pine made in November, 1901. This tree 
was probably attacked by the beetles the latter part of July, 1901. The sections 
were made at points 5 feet, 16 feet, and 36 feet, respectively, from the ground, 
i. e.. the largest section was cut from the butt, the second one about half way up, 
and the third in the top. The healthy wood photographs white, and all darker 
shades represent blued wood. Note the beetle holes in the bark. Fig. 2. 
Three sections from a bull pine made in November, 1901. This tree was prob- 
ably attacked by the beetles in July, 1900. It is a "black-top" tree. The sec- 
tions were made at points 4 feet, 26 feet, and 40 feet from the ground. All are 
blue. The section near the ground shows " red rot." This happens frequently 
where the bases of the trees are shaded by long grasses and bushes. In most 
trees the base will be found sound. The whole tree was dead. 

Plate VII. — Mycelium and fruiting bodies of the "blue" and "red-rot" fungi. 1. 
Tangential section of "blue" wood; w, cross sections of hyphse of the blue fungus 
{Ceratostornella pilifera (Fr. ) AVinter), growing in the medullary rays; h, hyphse 
growing longitudinally in the wood fibers. These hyph* are brown. 2. Cross 
section of "blue" wood, showing longitudinal section of medullary ray with 
hyphte of the "blue" fungus {h) growing in the ray and into adjoining cells; the 

38 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 



3y 



ray cells have been destroye<l; ;/(, cross sections of hyphie of Ceratostomella jnlifera. 
3. Cross section of a medullary ray, with resin <Uu-t showing the internal cell 
walls wholly dissolved oat. Masses of hrown hyph:e, m, of the "blue" fungus 
extend longitudinally through the ray. 4. Young perithecium of the "blue" fun- 
gus ( Ceratostomella pilifera (Fr. ) Winter), grown on pine agar culture. 5. ]\Iature 
perithecia of the " blue" fungus {Ceratostowelhi pillfira (Fr.) Winter), grown on 
pine agar culture, showing the spores, .«, discharging from the top of the beak. 
The line at the side equals 0.1 mm. 6. Two perithecia of the " blue " fungus 
( Ceratostomella pilifera ( Fr. ) Winter) just before the discharge of the spores. Peri- 
thecia from culture on pine woo.l. 7. Two asci with spores of the ' ' blue " fungus 
( CeraioMumella pilifera (Fr. ) Winter). 8. Spores of the " l)lue " fungus ( CeratoMo- 
mella pilifera (Fr.) Winter). 9. Top of beak of perithecium of Ceratostomella 
pilifera (Fr.) Winter, just after the discharge of the spore mass. The hyphae 
composing the tip..f the beak have spread out, forming a sort of support for the 
spore mass. 10 and 11. ^^ledian sections of sporophores of the " red-rot" fungus 
{Paliiponts2)onderosu.% n. sp.), natural size. 
Plate VIII.— Photomicrographs showing the structure of "blue" wood. Fig. 1. A 
radial section, showing how the hyplue of the "blue" fungus grow in the medul- 
lary ravs, being confined almost entirely to the rays. :Magnitication, 80 .liame- 
ters. Fig. 2. A tangential section, showing how the hyphtie completely fill the 
medullary ravs. Numerous small hyph» grow out into adjoining cells in a 
tangentia'l direction. This makes the wood cells in the photograph look as 
if they were septate. The apparent septa are hyphit. :Magnitication, 80 
diameters. 
Plate IX.— A number of pieces of wood from the bull pine {Pinus ponderosa), show- 
ing holes made by wood-boring beetles. The trees from which these pieces were 
taken were in most cases dead, either standing or felled. The " blue" fungus 
has started to grow in the wood cells bordering on these holes, and is gradually 
spreading to other cells from these holes as a center. Note that these wood 
pieces show both radial and tangential surfaces. The piece of wood in the 
center at the bottom of the plate is western hemlock. 
Plate X.— Sections of "black-top" trees of the bull pine {Pinus ponderosa) , showing 
early stages of the "red rot" caused by Polyporm ponderosus, n. sp. Fig. 1. 
Section of a dead tree 35 feet up from the ground. This tree had probably been 
dead for eighteen months to two years. The decay has just started in at several 
points on the north and northwest sides of the tree. Note that the larger part 
of the wood is blue. The healthy, unaffected wood is white. Note also the 
beetle holes in the bark. Fig. 2. A section from a similar "black-top" tree, 
showing a more advanced stage of decay. The whole section was blue. The 
decay started on the side where the bark prevented the rapid evaporation of 
moisture from the wood and had reached the heartwood. Note the radial and 
tangential sheets of white mycelium. Fig. 3. A section from the same tree from 
whfch fig. 2 was taken, made some 15 feet higher up. The section is blue, but 
shows few signs of decay. This shows how the "red rot" usually attacks the 
tree somewhere below the crown. 
Plate XI.— Sections of " black-top " trees of the bull pine, showing advanced stages 
of decay caused by Polyporus ponderosus n. sp. Figs. 1 and 2. These two sections 
were cut from a fallen top of a "black top " such as is shown in PI. XIV, fig. 1, 
one near the point where the top broke off, the smaller one near the top of the 
crown. Both show how completely the wood has been destroyed. This stage 
was probably reached 'about three years after the beetle attack. Fig. 3. The 
lower figure shows a section cut 4 feet from the ground from a standing " black- 
top" pine. On one side a fruiting body of Polyporus ponderosus is to be seen. 



40 THE "bluing'' and THE "RED ROT " OF THE PINE. 

which is probably two years old. The sapwood is wholly converted into a 
brown, brittle mass. Such a tree is lial^le to be blown over at any time. 

Plate XII. — A group of "black-top" trees of the bull pine near Elmore, S. Dak., 
shoAving how the tops break off after the trees have been dead for some time. 
Many of the tops are visible, lying near the base of the trees. A single "black 
top" from which the top has not fallen is seen at the left. The standing trunks 
are decayed for several feet downward from the point where the top Ijroke off. 
The base ot these trunks is generally sound, and contains enough timber to make 
a good cross-tie. 

Plate XIII. — Fig. 1. View of a broken top, showing how it has broken off almost 
straight across. Near the middle of the figure a fruiting body of the " red-rot " 
fungus {Pohjporus ponderosux, n. sp. ) is growing out. Fig. 2. Base of a dead 1)ull 
pine {Pinns jwnderosa) near Elmore, S. Dak., showing a number of fruiting 
organs of the "red-rot" fungus {Pobjporas jjoxderosus, n.sp. ) growing out from 
the wood. These are the bodies variously known as "punks," "toadstools," 
"mushrooms," or " f rogstools. " The double one to the left is very old. Note 
the cracked upper surface. A section of the trunk made at the point where 
these bodies are growing out would appear much like PI. XI, fig. 3. 

Plate XIV. — Sections of the ends of two cross-ties cut from dead timber, showing 
defects which are so serious that ties of this kind should be rejected. Fig. 1. 
Defective because of the "red rot." Fig. 2. Defective because of a disease of the 
living timber. 

o 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE 



O 

-< 



C) 

-\ 

m 
m 
00 

O 



o 



m 



(f) 
O 

XI 
XI 

m 



O 

TO 
> 

z 
o 

J3 
m 
o 

H 
o 

-D 

H 

XI 

m 




Wm^--.i^.'M^j^w^^fm^ 



CO 

c: 



31 
P 

M 



XI 

m 
m 



> 

z 
o 

CO 

o 

XI 

m 



o 



XI 

m 
m 

C/) 




Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Dept of AgtScultui^. 



Plate III 




JULIUS BIEN & CO.LITH.N Y. 



Color changes in Leaves of the BullPine 

1. Leaves rram healthy tree. 2. Leaves from "SorreL-top " tree. 
3 CLTLcL 4. ZecLves fy-om trees turrting of the "Red-top" sta,ge. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Dept, of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 



a 



3J 

m 

D 

I 

H 
O 
■0 



X 

m 
m rn 
r 
S i 

g> 

^ O 

c 
D -D 

^? 

I 

m 
> 

|- 

H 
I 
< 



33 

m 
m 
en 

Z 
m 
> 

X 







r 
> 

a 

I 

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O 



H 

X 

m 
m 
CO 




Bui 36. Bureau of Planr Industry, U S. Dept. of Agriculture . 



Plaie V 




Fig. / 




Fig. n. 



Sections ofTrunks oftheBullPine, showing Early Stages of"Blue Disease" 



JULIUS BIE.N &CO.LITH N.Y- 



Bu. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Fig. 1.— Sections from Tree Dead Five Months. 




Fig. 2.— Sections from Tree Dead Eighteen Months. 
•BLUE" SECTIONS FROM DEAD TREES. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industiy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VII. 




Mycelium and Fruiting Bodies of ■Blue" and "Red-rot" Fungi. 

1, Tangential section of "bine" wood; 2, cross section of "bine" wood; 3, cro.ss section of a medullary ray; 
4, vonng perithecinm of the " blue " fungus ( CeratostomeUa piUfera); 5, mature perithecia of the " blue' 
fungus; 6, two perithecia of the "blue" fungus; 7, two asci with spores of the "blue" fungus; 8, spores 
of the "blue" fungus; 9, top of beak of perithecinm of Cinitostniiit'Ua pUifcra just after the discharge of 
the spore mass; 10 and 11. median sections of .sporophores of the "red-rot" iungux Pulypdriis jxmder- 
(i,mii, n. sp.). 



Bui 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VIII. 




■'■IHilWllr. I }''■ '" 




Fig. 1 .—Radial Section. 




Fig. 2.— Tangential Section. 
SECTIONS OF BLUE" WOOD. 



Bui. 36. Bureau of Plant Industry, U S. Depi of Agriculture. 



Ptaie IX 




% 9 



JULIUS BIEN & ^ 



Pieces of Wood from the Bull Pine, showing Blue Fungus Starting from 
Holes made by a Wood-boring Beetle. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate X. 




.: .>^. 




Fig. 1 .—Section Taken 35 Feet from the Ground from a Dead Tree. 




Fig. 2.— Section Showing More Advanced Stage 
OF Decay. 



Fig. 3.— Section from Tree Shown in 
Fig. 2, Made 15 Feet Higher Up. 



EARLY STAGES OF "RED ROT.' 



Bui. 36, Buceau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XI. 




Figs. 1, 2.— Sections from the Top of a Fallen Tree. 




Fig. 3.— Section from a Standing Pine, 4 Feet from the Ground. 



SECTIONS FROM "BLACK-TOP" WESTERN YELLOW PINE TREES, 
SHOWING ADVANCED STAGES OF DECAY. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XII. 




Group OF Broken " Black-top " Trees. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XIII. 




Fig. 1 .— Top of Black Top" Broken Off. 




Fig. 2.— Polyporus ponderosus Growing on Dead Pine Stump. 



Bui. 36, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XIV. 




^■^ 



\. 



*#^ 

r^ V 



k 



Wv 




Fig. 1.— Wood Affected with Red kot.' 






f 




{ 



;.K 



* \. 






\. 



y 



Fig. 2.— Diseased Wood from Living Tree. 
SECTIONS OF REJECTED CROSS-TIES. 



$u 



•^^'^^^jZ^ 




U. S. DEPARTMENi^F AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN No. 37. 

B. T. Galloway, CVkV/-'' ^'""i". 



FORMATION OF THE SPORES IN THE SPORANGIA OF RHIZOPUS 
NIGRICANS AND OF PHYCOilYCES NITENS. 



iV 



DEANE B. SWINGLE, 
Assistant in Pathology, Laboratory of Plant Pathology. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL 
INVESTIGATIONS. 



ISSCED Jl-NK 27, 190.3. 




WASHINGTON: 

government PRINTING OFFICE. 
1903. 



BULIiETINS OF THE BTJREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry, which was organized July 1, 1901, includes Vege- 
table Pathological and Physiological Investigations, Botanical Investigations and 
Experiments, Grass and Forage Plant Investigations, Pomological Investigations, and 
Experimental Gardens and Grounds, all of which were formerly separate Divisions, 
and also Seed and Plant Introduction and Distribution, the Arlington Experimental 
Farm, Tea Culture Investigations and Domestic Sugar Investigations. 

Beginning with the date of organization of the Bureau, the several series of bulle- 
tins of the various Divisions were discontinued, and all are now published as one 
series of the Bureau. ' A list of the bulletins issued in the present series follows. 

Attention is directed to the fact that "the serial, scientific and technical pubUca- 
tions of the United States Department of Agriculture are not for general distribution. 
All copies not required for official use are by law turned over to the Superintendent 
of Documents, who is empowered to sell' them at cost." All applications for such 
publications should, therefore, be made to the Superintendent of Documents, Union 
Building, Washington, D. C. 

No. 1. The Relation of Lime and Magnesia to Plant Growth. I. Liming of Soils 
from a Physiological Standpoint. II. Experimental Study of tlie Relation of Lime 
and Magnesia to Plant Growth. 1901. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 2. Spermatogenesis and Fecundation of Zamia. 1901. Price, 20 cents. 

No. 3. Macaroni Wheats. 1901. Price, 20 cents. 

No. 4. Range Improvement in Arizona. (Cooperative Experiments with__ 4he 
Arizona- Experiment Station.) 1902.. Price, 10 cents. ' '- 

No. 5. Seeds and Plants Imported Through the Section of Seed and Plant Intro- 
duction for Distribution in Cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stations. 
Inventory No. 9, Numljers 4351-5500. 1902. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 6. "A List of American Varieties of Peppers. 1902. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 7. The Algerian Durum Wheats: A Classified List, with Descriptions. 1902. 
Price, 15 cents. 

No. 8. A Collection of Economic and Other Fungi Preparer! for Distribution. 1902. 
Price, 10 cents. 

No. 9. The North American Species of Spartina. 1902. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 10. Records of Seed Distribution and Cooperative Experiments with Grasses 
and Forage Plants. 1902. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 11. Johnson Grass: Report of Investigations Made During the Season of 1901. 
1902. Price, 10 cents. 

No. 12. Stock Ranges of Northwestern California. Notes on the Grasses and Forage 
Plants and Range Conditions. 1902. Price, 15 cents. 

No. 13. Experiments in Range Improvements in Central Texas. 1902. Price, 10 

No. 14. The Decay of Timber and Methods of Preventing It. 1902. Price, 55 cents. 

No. 15. Forage Conditions on the Northern Border of the Great Basin, Being a 
Report upon Investigations Made During July and August, 1901, in the Region 
Between Winnemucca, Nevada, and Ontario, Oregon. 1902. Price, 15 cents. 

No. 16. A Preliminary Study of the Germination of the Spores of Agaricus Campes- 
tris and Other Basidiomvcetous Fungi. 1902. Price, 10 c^nts. 

No. 17. Some Diseases of the Cowpea: I. The Wilt Disease of the Cowpea and 
Its Control. II. A Cowpea Resistant to Root Knot (Heterodera radicicola). 1902. 
Price, 10 cents. 

No. 18. Observations on the Mosaic Disease of Tobacco. 1902. Price, 15 cents. 

No. 19. Kentucky Bluegrass Seed: Harvesting, Curing, and Cleaning. 1902. Price, 
10 cents. 

No. 20. Manufacture of Semolina and Macaroni. 1902. Price, 15 cents. 

No. 21. List of American Varieties of Vegetables for the Years 1901 and 1902. 1903. 
Price, 35 cents. 

[Continued on page 3 of cover.] 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETIN No. 37. 



B. T. (lAl.l.owAY, Vliiij iij linnau. 



FORIIATIOX OF THE SPORES IX THE SPORANI^IA OF 
. NIGRICANS AND OF FHYCOJIYCES NITENS. 



BY 



DEANE B. SWINDLE, 
Assistant in 1*athology, Laboratory of Plant rATiioLOGY. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL 
INVESTIGATIONS. 



LFBRARY 

Issued .Iink 27, W08. NEW YORK 

BOTANfCAL 

Garden 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



BIREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

B. T. Galloway, Vhief. 
VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

SCIEXTIFIC STAFF. 

Albekt F. Woods, Fntliolor/ixl mid F}iijxioIo</ii<t. 

Erwix F. Smith, Pathologist in Charge of L<(1jor(itorij of Plant Patholoyy. 
George T. ^Ioore, Phijsiologist in Charge of Laboratory of Plant Physiologij. 
Herbert J. Webber, Physiologist in Charge of iMboratory of Plant Breeding. 
Newton B. Pierce, Pathologist in Charge of Pacific Coast Laboratory. 
Hermann von Schrenk, Special Agent in ('harge of Mississippi Valley Laboratory. 
P. H. Rolfs, Pathologist in Charge of Sub-Tropical Laboratory. 
M. B. Waite, Pathologist in Charge of Lnrestigations of Diseases of Orchard Fruits. 
Mark A. Carletox, Cirealist in Charge of Ccrecd Investigations. 
Walter T. Swingle, I'hysiologist in Charge of Life History Investigations. 
C. O. Townsend, Pathologist. 
P. H. Dorsett, Pathologist. 
T. H. Kearney, PJiysiologist, Plant Breeding. 
CoRXELirs L. Shear, Assistant Pathologist. 
William A. Orton, Assistant Pathologist. 
Flora W. Pattersox, Mycologist. 

Joseph S. Chamberlaix, Expert in Physiological Chemistry. 
E. E. B. McKexney, Expert. 

Charles P. Hartley, As.nstant in Plnjsiology, Plant Breeding. 
Deane B. Swingle, Assistant in Patltology. 
James B. Eorer, Assistant in Pathology. 
Lloyd S. Tenny, Assistant in Pathology. 
Jesse B. Norton, Assistant in Physiology, Plant Breeding. 
A. W. Edsox, Scientific Assista^it, Plant Breeding. 
Karl F.'Kellerman, Assistant in Physiology. 
George G. Hedgcock, Assistant in Patltology. 
2 



Ll-TTI-R OF TRAXSMITTAL. 



V. S. DKrAKTMEXT oK AdRICULTURE, 

BuKEAV OF Plant Txdlstry, 

Offick of the Chief, 

in/.s/////V^'/', /A r., .?yjrwiry'20, 1903. 
Sir: 1 Imvo the honor to tnui.sinit lieivwith a technical paper entitled 
" Formation of the Spores in the Sporang-iaof Rhhopux JVir/ricans and 
of P]ujcoinyce>< jVltefis," and respectfully recommend that it be pub- 
lished as Bulletin No. 37 of the series of this Bureau. This paper was 
prepared bv Mr. Deane B. Swingle, of the Pathological Laboratory of 
Vegetable Pathological and Physiological Investigations, and was sub- 
mitted with a view to publication l)y the Pathologist and Physiologist. 

Respectfully. 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretan/ of Ar/riculture. 



PREFACK. 



The following- pupor hy ^\v. Dciino li. Swing-le, ontitled "Fonna- 
tion of the Spores in tht^ Sporangia of Rhizoj/ii-s jri(/ricaH>< and of 
Phycmnyces Nltens^^ throws a new light on certain intricate processes 
in two important genera of fungi. The ([uestion of spore formation 
is one of vital interest to the study ot" the rej)r()duction and distribu- 
tion of fungi, both parasitic and nonparasitic. Mr. Swingle's paper 
corrects an erroneous idea that has received wide acceptance- both in 
this countrj^ and abroad. The inherent properties and ))ehavior of 
protoplasm must be the basis of work in pathology and ])hysiol()gv. 
This paper is a contril)ution to our knowledge, especially in regard 
to the mechanics of this type of cell-division, and to the nature and 
functions of the vacuole and the relation of the activities of the luicleus 
to those of the rest of the protoplasm. The results of this study are in 
a large measure applicable to many of the other fungi, including a 
number that are parasitic. 

The paper is technical and is intended for the use of investigators 

in pathology and physiology. 

Aleekt F. Woods, 

Pathologist awl Physiologist. 

Office of the Pathologist and Physiologist, 

Washington, I>. ('.. Fehniary 7, 1003. 



COXTKXTS, 



Page. 

Historical 9 

Methocls 14 

Rhizopus nigricans Elirbg 15 

Phyromj/ref^ ntlerh'; Kiiii/e 23 

General eoiiHiderationp 28 

Summary 36 

Index to literature 38 

Description (jf plates 39 

7 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Plate I. Rhizopus nigricans. Fig. 1. — Group of sporangiophores with sporangia. 
Fig. 2. — Longitudinal section of young stolon. Fig. 3. — Longitudi- 
nal section of old stolon. Fig. 4.— Disintegrating nuclei from old 
stolon. Fig. 5. — Longitudinal section of young sporangium. Fig. 

6.— Longitudinal section of nearly full-sized sporangium 40 

II. Rhizopus nigricans. Fig. 7.— Longitudinal section of full-sized spor- 
angium before the columella is formed. Fig. 8.— Longitudinal sec- 
tion of sporangium in which the columella is l)eing formed. Fig. 
9.. -Section of small part of sporangium showing cleavage furrows. . 40 

III. Rhizopus nigricans. Fig. 10.— Longitudinal section of sporangium 
showing spore formation. Fig. 11.— Nuclei from columella that ha.s 
just been formed. Fig. 12. — Sporangium in which the spores are 
completely formed. Fig. 13.— Xuclei from columella of old spor- 
angium. Fig. 14. — Ripe spores in their liviBg condition 40 

lY. Phycomyces nitens. Fig. 1.^.— Longitudinal section of young sporan- 
gium. Fig. 16. — Small part of young sporangium very highly mag- 
nified. Fig. 17.— Formation of zones in sporangium. Fig. \S.— 

Layer of vacuoles in sporangium 

Y. Phycomyces nitens. Fig. 19.— Formation of columella. Fig. 20. — 
Structure of vacuoles an<l nuclei. Fig. 21.— Formation of the 
spores. Fig. 22. — Furnjws cutting outward from columella cleft. 
Fig. 23. — Furrows from the vacuoles cutting out to the periphery. 
Fig. 24. — Section showing nearly ripe spore.«. Fig. 25. — Ripe spores 
in their living condition. Fig. 26.— Peculiar-shaped spores. Fig. 
27. — Yery irregular-shaped spore 40 

YI. Figures illustrating mechanics of cleavage. Fig. 2S.—Pilobolus before 
formation of columella. Fig. 29.— PiloboJus during formation of 
columella. Fig. 30. — Pilohohis after formation of columella. Fig. 
31.—Pilobolus during formation of spores. Fig. 32.— Synchitriurn 
during formation of spores. Fig. 33.— FuUgo during formation of 
spores. Fig. 34. — Egg of squid during segmentation 40 

8 



P.IM.-JT. . V.P.H.l.-lOl. 

FORMATION OF THE SPORES IN THE SPORANIilA OF RHIZOPUS 
NIGRICANS AND OF PHVCOMYCES NITENS. 



HISTORICAL. 



Althouoh the lifo history unci uross uiuitomy of nearly all the species 
of the :Mucorinea' have been carefully worked over and described, yet 
in regard to the cytological details there are the widest differences of 
opinion, chiefly owing to the fact that only a few forms have been 
studied with the aid of the most recent methods. It seems desirable, 
therefore, that others should be critically examined. The present 
paper is a contribution toward that end. 

The earliest account that deals specifically with the formation of the 
spores in the Mucorinete is that of Corda (1888). He investigated the 
development of the sporangia of Rhhopm nigricans, but was able to 
discover little of the real nature of the process. After the formation 
of the columella in the lower part of the sporangium, he describes the 
spores as being formed in rows radiating from the columella, but just 
how they originate he does not make clear. 

Van Tieghem (1873, 1875, 1876) in a series of classic papers has 
covered practically the entire group, describing the structure and 
development of a very large number of forms with much accuracy and 
minuteness of detail. He believed that the method of spore formation 
was the same in all the genera having a spherical sporangium. In 
these forms the sporogenous protoplasm separates itself into two very 
different substances— the sporal protoplasm which is always granular, 
and the intersporal protoplasm which is homogeneous and brilliant. 
The sporal protoplasm has the form of small polyhedric portions, and 
these are separated from each other by the intersporal protoplasm. 
Soon the polyhedric masses round themselves off, secrete a cellulose 
wall, and acquire the homogeneous refringent appearance which char- 
acterizes the spores of the greater number of the Mucorineae. At the 
same time the intersporal protoplasm distributes itself so that it occu- 
pies all the space between the spores, and forms a layer between the 
peripheral spores and the sporangium wall. Van Tieghem considers 
this a process of free formation similar to that which occurs in the 
ascus, differing chiefly in the amount of intersporal protoplasm. 

9 



10 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

Strasburger (1880) has given an account of the more general features 
of the spore formation in 2fue<ir inucedo. He considers that the spo- 
rogenous protoplasmic mass is cut up Y>\ cell plates analogous to those 
formed in cell division in the higher plants. This account is, how- 
ever, very brief and incomplete. 

Shortly afterwards, Biisgen (1882) studied the formation of the 
spores in Mucor. His conclusion is that the protoplasmic mass is cut 
up into blocks by cell plates,' and that these blocks are subdivided 
until the final spores are reached. In this he adds little to Stras- 
burger's account, 

Leger (1806) published a paper intended to till the gaps in our 
knowledge of the spore formation in the Mucorinea?. This paper is 
quite comprehensive, dealing with nearly all the principal genera. 
Leger studied the spore formation parth' bj' means of sections of 
material embedded in collodion, but largeh' b}" examining' the sporan- 
gia in toto or by crushing them under a cover glass. His results 
agree entirely with those of Van Tieghem. He finds that all the forms 
investigated agree in having the protoplasm divided at once into gran- 
ular portions separated b}" nongranular plates. Later, the granular 
masses are surrounded bv walls and become the spores, while the 
nongranular plates form the intersporal protoplasm. 

In the case of Rhhojnis nigrleaiu^ Leger finds that when the spores 
are first formed they arc separated by thin membranes onh'. How 
these membranes originate he does not make clear. The intersporal 
substance appears a little later after the spore walls are formed. In 
this respect RMzojms differs from all the other forms investigated. 

In his description of the formation of the columella, Leger states 
that the contents of the sporangium are easil}' seen to be differentiated 
into a lighter and a denser portion. These are then separated by a 
columella wall, the lighter part being included in the columella and 
all the denser part remaining outside. Just how the protoplasm is 
divided and the wall formed he does not tell us. He states that the 
nuclei in the spores are oval, while those in the columella are spherical. 
As the spores ripen the cytoplasm disappears from the columella and 
the nuclei, reduced to nucleoli [sic], remain adhering to the inner sur- 
face of the columella wall. 

The nucleus is essentially^ the same in all the forms which Leger 
describes. It consists of a nucleolus surrounded b}' a clear zone which 
does not stain, and outside of this by a distinct nuclear membrane. 
The nucleoli are described as so many times larger relatively than I 
have found them that 1 am entireh^ unable to credit his results. The 
nuclei, also, as he figures them, are much too large and contain no 
chromatin. 

Thaxter (1897) has done the most to clear up our knowledge of the 
spore formation in the Syncephalidw. He states that he was earlier 



HISTORICAL. 1 1 

inclined to accept the view of Fischer (1892), which is that in .such 
forms as Si/iteejf/ia/is the spores borne in a sinole row an* formed 
exoo-enouslv by constriction like conidia. the wall of the fruitino- 
body forming part of the spore wall, and that this body can not, 
therefore,, be considered as a sporangium homologous with that of 
Jfiteof. After a thorough stud}' of Syneephaliutruni and Si/ncej?/talls, 
however, he accepted the "sporangial" theory, and brings very con- 
clusive evidence to support his results. In Sytivejfhalastruni race- 
mosum he iinds that the contents of the CA'lindrical cells that are to 
form the chains of spores are divided into spores, not b}' gradual con- 
striction from the surface inward. l)ut sinudtaneously b}' a hyaline 
intersporal sul)stance. Walls art* then formed ai'ound the individual 
spores entirely within and distinct from the wall of the mother cell. 
By crushing these spore rows under a cover glass he was able to force 
the spores out in a perfect condition, leaving the walls of the sporangia 
empty and intact except for their ruptured tips. This is conclusive 
evidence of the* endogenous formation of these spores. Furthermore, 
in many cases he tinds that the spores are borne, not in single rows, 
but more or less irregularly, the diameter of the sporangium being 
somewhat great»M- than that of a single spore. In such cases the 
planes of separation are obli([ue, or even parallel, to the long- axis of 
the sporangium. In such a form as this Thaxter tinds an inter- 
mediate stage between the spherical sporangium of Mucor and the 
cylindrical one of Syncejyhalis^ the supposed ab.sence of which was 
used by Fi.scher as evidence against the homology of the two. 
• In S'l/ncejjhalis, Thaxter tinds that the separation of the protoplasm 
into spores is quite different from that in Si/nee/jhalastnwi. He 
investigated an undescribed species from Li})eria, and also S^yncepludh 
'pycnoHperma^ and tinds that in both cases the protoplasm is cut pro- 
gressively from the .surface inward V)y '"intermediary zones," each of 
which is made up of an inner nonstainal)le part, and an outer one that 
takes stains readily. The spore wall in both species is distinct from 
the sporangium wall and forms close around the protoplasm, exclud- 
ing the intermediary zones. In the undescribed species the.se zones 
remain until the spores are ripe and then deliquesce, while in Syn- 
cejyJtdl is pyenos2>erma the stainable portion breaks up into a refractive 
oily substance and the nonstainable part forms a thick permanent 
layer around the spore Avail and gives to the spores their peculiar 
shape. 

Harper (1899) has described the spore formation in PUoholus and 
Sporodinia of the Mucorinese, and also in Synchltrium of the Chytri- 
diaceffi. The processes in these widely separated forms show many 
interesting points of similarity. 

In Synchitriuin, Harper finds that the " initial cell" contains at first 
one comparatively large nucleus, which, as the cell reaches nearly its 



12 FORMATION OF SPOKES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

full size, divides rapidly to form a vast number of smaller daughter 
nuclei. This multinucleated mass of protoplasm is then divided into 
comparatively large blocks by narrow furrows, cutting progressively 
inward from the periphery. These furrows cut inward at nearly right 
angles to the periphery, but, as seen in surface sections, they intersect 
each other at almost every angle. They are so narrow that they 
appear in section as single lines which push aside the vacuoles, arrang- 
ing them in a row on either side. In case the sporangium is .slightly 
shrunken in tixing, however, they appear as slightly separated sur- 
faces. As these cleavage furrows grow deeper they branch, curve, 
and intersect each other until the whole mass is divided into multi- 
nucleated pieces. These are then divided into uninucleated pieces by 
furrows cutting inward from their surfaces. 

The nuclei then divide until there are usually from 8 to 12 in each 
piece. Without further cleavage these multinucleated protoplasmic 
masses then enlarge somewhat, secrete a protective wall, and become 
the spores. They then go into a resting condition until germination. 

In PHohohix, Harper traces the entire development of the sporan- 
gium. He iinds that when it has reached a considerable size its con- 
tents are divided into three parts — a central vesicle of cell sap, which, 
from the absence of a smooth, rounded surface, can not be consid- 
ered as a central vacuole; outside this, a thin layer of spongy proto- 
plasm with numerous nuclei; and outside this layer, extending to the 
sporangium wall, a nuich denser mass of protoplasm, also containing 
many nuclei and a few rounded vacuoles. In the spongy protoplasm, 
and running parallel to the sporangium wall except at the lower side 
where it extends to the periphery, a dome-shaped layer of vacuoles 
then appears. These vacuoles are at first round, but later they be- 
come flattened parallel to the surface of the sporangium until they are 
disk-shaped. They finally fuse, edge to edge, to form a cleft, which, 
with the aid of a circular furrow cutting upward through the spongy 
protoplasm until it meets the lowest vacuoles in the series, cuts out 
the columella. This columella is bounded at first by only a plasma- 
membrane, outside of which is a more or less open cleft. Later the 
columella wall is formed in this cleft. It has its dome-shaped outline 
from the first, and does not begin as a cross wall at the base of the 
sporangium, being rounded upward later by pressure of turgor from 
below, as is described for Mucor in most standard text-books. (See 
Bessey's text-book, p. 236.) 

The spore plasm is then invaded by surface furrows cutting pro- 
gressively inward. These are much like those in Synchitrium^ but 
wider, owing to the more shrunken condition of the protoplasm dur- 
ing the process. While this is going on, the vacuoles in the spore 
plasm become sharply angular, and these angles, continuing outward 
as furrows, cut into each other and into the furrows from the surface, 



HISTORICAL. 13 

thus aidiiiir in the oleavagfc. The wht)U> mass is thorebv roducod to 
blocks of varying sizes which are, as in Synehltrluvi^ progrcssivel}'^ 
cut down to uninudoatod pieces. As in Synchitrhnn also, these pro- 
tospores ar(> pressed tiu-htly tog-ether In' turgor. 

The nuclei then divide until there is a considerat)l(' number in each 
piece of protoplasm. This division is followed by successive con- 
strictions of the nature of bipartitions until a binucleated stage is 
reached. Each piece then surrounds itself Mith a wall and is a mature 
spore. The later phases of the process — i. e., from the protospore to 
the matui-e spore — Harper regards as an enil)ryonic development. 

In the subdivisions of the protospores. Harper notes that the pro- 
toplasm in advance of the cleavage furrows becomes clear and non- 
stainal)le. forming a hyaline zone in the plane of constriction, as 
though the denser part of the protoplasm drew away from this region 
toward the nuclei, leaving only a clear liquid substance behind. In 
the earlier stages of cleavage, however, both in PUoholus and in 
Synchitrium^ such a dirt'erentiation of protoplasm in advance of the 
cleavage furrows does not take place. 

Here, as in Synchitrlidn, the entire protoplasm is included in the 
spore, there being no intersporal protoplasm. There is a slime 
excreted to fill the spaces between the spores, but it is not protoplasm. 

In SjKH-odliiia the process is in many respects nu;ch like that in 
F'doboJax^ but there are some striking differences. The sporangia 
here are much smaller and are composed of two parts, the outer and 
upper part being filled with dense protoplasm, while the central and 
lower portion is occupied by a foamy protoplasm, there being no large 
opening filled with cell sap as in PiloJjolus. The vacuoles that cut 
out the columella are much larger than in PUoholus^ and are arranged 
on the line, as it appears in section, between the two kinds of proto- 
plasm. They fuse laterally to form a curved cleft, but no surface 
furrow cutting in to meet them has been observed. The spore plasm 
is then di\ided into blocks ^^\ furrows cutting from the columella cleft 
outward and from the surface inward, but here the cleavage process 
ceases. No uninucleated stage is ever reached. These protoplasmic 
blocks contain numerous nuclei, and round off and are covered with a 
cell wall. They are then the mature spores. This is a considerable 
abbreviation of the process in PUoholus, and there is a corresponding 
shortening in the time required for developing the spores in 
SpoTodlnla. 

The nuclei in all three forms are made up of the same parts as those 
in the higher plants. There is a nucleolus surrounded by a zone filled 
with nuclear sap and chromatin, the whole being enveloped in a nuclear 
membrane. A point well worthy of consideration is that the nuclei 
are in a resting condition during cleavage. 

Hans Bachmann (1899) has described the entire structure and 



11 FOEMATION OF SPOKES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

development of a new species of MortiercUa. Thougli the paper was 
published very recently, little improvement over the older writers is 
shown in the matter of technique. He has not. so far as he states, 
made any sections of the sporangia. 

]^\ a study of entire sporangia he linds that the surface comes to be 
marked out into polygons separated by rather broad bands of an even 
width. These markings he interprets as representing a surface view 
of pohdiedric masses of protoplasm which are destined to become 
spores, separated by layers of intersporal protoplasm. 

Plasmolyzing agents in some cases cause the sporangium to contract 
as a unit and not as individual polygons, showing that each is not 3'et 
entirely surrounded ])y an osmotic membrane. 

Gentian violet stains the material between the polyhedrons: the 
formation of the violet lines is progressive, as is shown by the fact 
that in some cases they are short and do not extend over the entire 
sporangium, but radiate from various points. In this. Bachmann makes 
a decided advance over Leger, liut still he apparently fails to grasp the 
most important point — that these blue-staining lines represent cleavage 
furrows lilled with the stain. 

METHODS. 

The mold B/uzopux was tirst obtained in uiixed cultures by exposing 
moistened bread for a few minutes to the air of the laboratory. To 
ol)tain pure cultures, a few sporangia were carefully transferred from 
the original cultures to slightly moistened bread, which had been 
exposed an hour or so on two or more successive daj's to a temperature 
of from 60- to 65^ C. in a steam sterilizer. In from one to two days 
after inoculation the stolons began to appear on the surface of the 
bread, and in another day there were a considerable number of 
sporangia formed. 

The cultures of Phycomyces were obtained from Ann Arl^or, Mich. , 
through the kindness of Dr. J. B. Pollock. This mold was grown 
either upon sterilized bread or nutrient agar. From these cidtures 
small bits of m3'celium were cut out (below the surface of the sub- 
stratum in the case of PJiycomyces) and instantly immersed in the 
hxing fluid. After remaining in this about twenty-fovir hours, they 
were washed for a few hours in running water, dehydrated by run- 
ning through grades of alcohol, cleared in xylol or chloroform, and 
embedded in paraffin. 

The sections were cut on a Jung, or a lieinhold-Giltav microtome, 
usually 4 /< thick, but sometimes 2 //, and were fastened to slides with 
albumen and glycerine. They were then stained with Flemming's 
triple stain (safranin, gentian violet, and orange G), then dehydrated, 
cleared with clove oil or bergamot oil, and mounted in Canada bal- 
sam. If the right exposures are given to these stains, the cytoplasm 



KHIZOPUS NIGRICANS. 15 

11 )p(>{U's oraiiij;o. the cln'oiiititin blue, the luiclcolus and ])f()t(Md crvstal- 
loitls red, ami the cell wall either blue or oranoe. 

For tixing" liuids the mixtures of Flennning, llerinanu, and ]\IerkeI 
were used with verv g-ood results. Eisen's fluid u-avo some very tine 
results, ])ut was little used. An exposure of one hour to Flemmino-'.s 
fluid, followed by twelve to twenty-four hours in ^lerkeFs fluid or 
chrom-acetic aeid, o-ave especially iine preparations, not being so nuuh 
l)laekened as when exposed longer to the osmic acid. 

I am deeply indebted to Dr. Robert A. Harper of the I'niversity of 
AVisconsin. and to Dr. Erwin F. Smith, Dr. Rodney II. True, and ]Mr. 
Karl F. Ki'llerman of the United States Department of Agriculture 
for many valuable suggestions and criticisms given during the prog- 
res ; of the work. 

t 

RHIZOPTJS NIGRICANS I.hrbg. 

The general morphology of Ii/ilsojms has been Acry well described 
by the earlier authors. 

The spore in germinating sends out a tube which branches until a 
tangled mycelium is formed in the substratum. This mycelium sends 
up from various points ar>rial hypha?, which are erect at flrst and form 
a delicate white grpwth in the cultures. After these h^'ph* reach the 
lieight of one or two centimeters thev bend over and o-row horizon- 
t:illy along the surface of the substratum. 

When one of these stolons has grown in this direction for a short 
distance, it forms a swelling at the apex two to four times the diame- 
ter of the stolon, and out of this grow from two to six branches, one 
of which is in reality a continuation of the stolon, while the others 
grow into sporangiophores. (PI. I, flg. 1.) If this swollen portion of 
the stolon comes in contact with the substratum or the sides of the cul- 
ture dish, a few rhizoids are sent out which tirral}' anchor it, and, in 
case the}' penetrate any nutritive substance, these doubtless aid in 
nourishing the sporangiophores. The stolon continues gTowing- out 
and forming these grouj^s of sporangiophores at intervals, and linally 
ends with such a group at the apex. Each sporangiophore bears a 
single spherical sporangium. 

In healthy stolons, especially if they are growing rapidly, the pro- 
toplasm is almost continuall}' streaming in one direction or the other. 
This has been fully described by Arthur (ISUT), who considers that it 
is principally due to evaporation of moisture from the surface of 
exposed parts, together with the constant taking in of water b_v the 
hyphte that are in the substratum. In his conclusion he expresses 
the opinion that ''the movement is an incidental feature in the life of 
the plant." Further mention of this paper will be made in connection 
with the distribution of the protoplasm in the sporangium. 



16 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

The growing ends of the stolon.s are densely crowded with proto- 
pUisni containing many nuclei. This condition prevails for sonic dis- 
tance back in the stolons (PL I, fig. 2), but as we follow back toward the 
older part the protoplasm is more and more permeated with cell sap, 
and at last we find a region where there is nothing Imt a wall filled 
with cell sap, so far as we can distinguish from a surface view of liv- 
ing material. In stained sections, however, as shown in PI. I, fig. 3, 
it can be seen that there is still a thin layer of protoplasm lining the 
wall, and strands or even small masses of it in the center. In parts 
as old as that shown in the figure, the nuclei have begun to disinte- 
grate somewhat, and appear as tin}' red-staining masses of various 
shapes. (PI. I, fig. 4.) . 

The young sporangiophores, like the ends of the stolons, are densely 
crowded with protoplasm and nuclei, and even the lower part of the 
older ones is never entirely devoid of protoplasmic contents, as is 
stated b}^ Leger, but retains a structure very nmch like that in the 
stolons. 

As the sporangiophore reaches its full length it ])egins to swell out 
at the tip into a tiny round body, the future sporangium. The con- 
tents of this are at first evenl}^ distributed, being equall}^ dense in the 
center and at the periphery, but before it has reached half its final 
size the protoplasm begins to be decidedly dense toward the sporan- 
gium wall, while in the center it is of a nuich looser structure. PL I, 
fig. 5, shows the distribution of the cytoplasm and nuclei at this stage. 
There are also present a few crystalloids. They seem often to be in 
tiny clear vesicles, but whether or not these are ordinary vacuoles I 
can not be certain. These crystal-like bodies vayj nmch in size, and 
as a rule increase in number as the sporangium gets older. It is quite 
noticeable, however, that the}^ are entirely confined to the central part 
of the sporangium. 

The nuclei are so small that they appear only as dots in a drawing 
of the size of PL I, fig. 5. Their structure can, however, be clearly 
made out with higher magnification, and it is to all appearances pre- 
cisely like that of those shown in PL II, fig. 0, which will be described 
later. 

The cytoplasm in young sporangia, it will be observed, is quite 
dense next the sporangium wall, but gradually becomes less dense 
toward the center, where it is of a very loose spongj' structure, con- 
taining many vacuoles of considerable size. There is at this stage no 
sharply defined boundar}' l)etween the denser and the less dense parts 
of the cytoplasm, but a gradual transition from center to periphery. 
The denser la} er does not, however, extend quite to the sporangio- 
phore at the base of the sporangium. (PL I, figs. 5 and 6.) 

At this time also there is a very marked streaming of the protoplasm 
up the sporangiophore into the sporangium. These currents appear 



RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS. 17 

as a bundle of ytnuicLs, which in optical section spread fan-like as they 
enter the sporangium and extend toward the periphery. Many of 
these streams, particularly at the sides, extend nearly to the sporan- 
giunj wall, as seen in PI. I, tig. 5. Harper (lSiM») has described each 
individual current in Plloholm as having ''marked a path for itself 
through the protoplasmic structure. It is marked by continuous deli- 
cate films, (piite distinct from the spongy structure of the adjacent 
plasma." These surrounding tilms, as the writer has seen them in 
Bhisopm, are of a more hyaline and homogeneous appearance than 
either the currents or the surrounding cytoplasm. 

The nuclei in these currents are much elongati^d in the direction in 
which the currents run and I have not been able to differentiate the 
parts, tJie nucleolus and chromatin l)oth staining red. 

As the streaming contiiuies the protoplasm at the periphery becomes 
denser, and there appear clearly differentiated layers within the spo- 
rangium. The beginning of this differentiation is not simultaneous 
throughout the protoplasm. It appears at certain points approxi- 
mately equidistant from the periphery, between which and the periphery 
the thickening of the protoplasm forms a dense zone lining the sporan- 
gium except at the base, where its inner boundary line gradually extends 
to the periphery. In the stage shown in PI. I, tig. 0, this boundary line 
is not perfect, but somewhat l)roken, admittijig thin streams of loose 
protoplasm from the interior of the sporangium. Inside this zone 
and of about one-third its thickness is a semitransparent layer consist- 
ing of loose protoplasm like that which tills the interior of the sporan- 
gium, but clearer and less granular, and taking the orange stain less 
strongly than the latter. In structure it resembles the thin tilms about 
the streams previously mentioned. The cytoplasm inside this semi- 
transparent zone and occupying the central and lower part of the 
sporangium is of a loose, spongy, much-vacuolated structure, contain- 
ing scattering nuclei and a considerable number of proteid bodies. 
There are no marked protoplasmic strands indicating currents in the 
center of the sporangium, though the writer has often found them in 
later stages; but radiating from the central part of the sporangium 
and passing from it through the clear zone to the denser plasm are 
many very slender strands marking the paths of currents. These 
currents bear nuclei and seem to represent a very late stage of the 
migration of cytoplasm and nuclei toward the periphery. Some of 
these streams enter the openings in the denser plasm, while others run 
against its inner surface. This streaming goes on until the inner 
boundary of the denser plasm is at all points sharply detined. This 
boundary does not consist of a membrane or of any differentiated layer. 
The denser plasm at this time contains only a very few vacuoles of 
any considerable size, but under very high magnification it can be seen 
20844— No. 37—03 2 



18 FOKMATlOISr OF SPOEES OF EHIZOFUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

that there are A'ery manj- exceeding-ly small ones, with detinitely 
rounded outlines. Most of these are scarcely larger than the nuclei, 
and some are much smaller. They can not, therefore, be shown in a 
drawing on so small a scale as PI. 1, tig. (>. They are, however, essen- 
tially the same in size, number, and distribution as those shown in 
PI. il, tig. 9. 

Thus far, except for the arrangement of the cytoplasm and nuclei, we 
have had no phenomena in the sporangium that even suggest cell divi- 
sion, unless possibly it be the clear zone. The greater part of the more 
solid portion of the cytoplasm has formed itself into a layer at the 
periphery. Nearly all of the nuclei also have migrated into this por- 
tion of the sporangium, and are distributed irregularly throughout 
the dense cytoplasm. They are not even approximately' equidistant 
from each other, nor are the}' often, if ever, in actual contact, though 
Leger states that such is very frequently the case. How he could 
determine the normal distribution of the nuclei from crushed sporan- 
gia is difficult to comprehend. 

As soon as the protoplasm is distributed as has been described, the 
separation of that which is to be included within the columella from 
that which is to form the spores begins. The columella is not at first 
a flat cross wall at the base of the sporangium which is later pushed up 
by turgor to its characteristic dome shape, as it is currently described 
as doing, but is laid down in essentiallv the same fashion as described 
by Harper (1899) for Piloholus. There first appears in the denser 
plasm a single layer of spherical vacuoles (PI. H, fig. 7) running par- 
allel to its inner surface. The layer of the denser plasm inside the 
system of vacuoles is usually from one-fifteenth to one-twentieth as 
thick as the layer outside. Apparently these vacuoles are formed by 
the enlaro-ement Of the very minute ones already mentioned that lie 
in this region, rather than by the migration of previously enlarged 
vacuoles. In sporangia in which this layer of vacuoles is only partly 
formed there are usually a few large vacuoles arranged in the layer, 
and between them are smaller ones, varying in size down to the small- 
est in the sporangium (PI. II, fig. 7). This leads one to believe that 
the vacuoles in this layer are essentially like the others in the sporan- 
gium and in the mycelium. These vacuoles and all others in the spo- 
rangium agree with those of Piloholus and Sjwrodinia in being devoid 
of all stainable contents (PI. II, fig. 7), in which respect they difier 
strikingly from those of Phyeomyces^ described later. 

The vacuoles are at first spherical, or nearly so, but soon begin to 
flatten, their long axes being parallel to the inner surface of the denser 
plasm. Bv this flattening the}' become disk-shaped, as in PL II, fig. 8, 
and the edges of adjacent ones come in contact and fuse, forming a 
narrow curved cleft in the protoplasm. At the same time a circular 
furrow begins to cut upward from the surface of the protoplasm at 



RHIZOrUS NIGRICANS. 19 

the ba.se of the sporiiiigiuni thvouoh the denser phifsiii (PI. 11. tig. 8). 
This furrow increases in depth until it reaches and fuses with the 
lowest vacuoles in the hiyer. Thus the protoplasm of the sporangium 
is divided into two distinct portions destined to perform radically 
different parts in the further life of the plant. That outside the cleft 
is to be entirely cut up into spores, while that inside is later to be 
surrounded by the columella wall and plays no direct part in repro- 
duction. The former I sliall distinguish as the spore-plasm and the 
latter as the columella-plasm. It will be noted from what has been 
alread}' said and from PI, II, tigs. T and 8, and PI. Ill, tigs. !<» and 12, 
that the columella-plasm includes all the looser plasm in the sporan- 
gium and also a thin layer of the denser plasm. 

Orve might have expected from PI. 1, tig. (!, that the columella 
wall would l)e laid down in the clear zone shown in that tigure, but 
that such is not the case there is no room for doul)t. The writer has 
preparations in which this zone is still almost as marked as in the 
tigure mentioned, while the columella cleft is forming in the denser 
plasm. PI. 11, tig. 8, and PI. Ill, tig. 1(>, show that the outer part of 
the looser plasm is still souunvhat clearer than that in the center, 
though the paths of the currents have become almost o))literated. The 
time for the disappearance of the currents varies greatly in ditierent 
sporangia. 

There is no visi))le ditl'erence while cleavage is going, on between the 
denser plasm inside the layer of vacuoles and that outside, nor is 
there any diti'erentiation of the c3'toplasm between the vacuoles or in 
advance of the surface furrow, such as Harper found in the late sub- 
divisions of the protoplasm of Piloholus and in the last stages of cleav- 
age of FuUgo (lOOo). 

While the cutting out of the columella is going on, the sporangium 
gives every appearance of having only slight turgidity. The cleft in 
the protoplasm is always quite wide — at least in certain places. When, 
however, the cleavage is complete, the protoplasmic masses increase 
in volume and become strongly turgid again, causing the two proto- 
plasmic surfaces lately separated to become pressed together so tightly 
that onl}^ 1)}' the closest study can one follow the cleft throughout its 
entire extent. 

In case the spore cleavage, which will be described later, begins 
before the columella cleft is completed, as often occurs, this period of 
turgidity is postponed until after the spores are entirely cut out. 

It will be noted that when tirst formed the cleft around the colu- 
mella is bounded by two protoplasmic surfaces. When these surfaces 
become tightly pressed together b}' the turgor in the sporangium, one 
might expect them to fuse into a continuous mass of protoplasm again, 
there being no wall between them at this time. Indeed, such a phe- 
nomenon was described by Biisgen (1882) in the formation of the 



20 FORMATIOI^ OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

spores of the Saprolegniete. It is not, however, surprising that with 
the technique used in those da^^s he should fail to see that there was 
still a distinct boundary between the closel}' packed spores. 

When the period of turgor relaxes a little the two surfaces generally 
separate slightly, but at irregular intervals points are often found 
where they still adhere, forming tiny conical projections, whose apices 
are for a short time in contact. 

In the behavior of these two protoplasmic surfaces we have consid- 
erable additional evidence for the existence of a definite plasma-mem- 
brane. 

Even before the cutting out of the columella takes place the nuclei 
of the looser protoplasm begin to disintegrate. In very young spo- 
rangia all the nuclei have the same normal structure, but in the one 
shown in PL I, fig. 6, for example, they are clearly sufl^ering disinte- 
gration in the center of what is to become the columella-plasm, though 
out near the denser plasm they retain their characteristic structure, 
often until the spores are nearly ripe. (PI. Ill, fig. 13, a.) 

It might be suggested that the nuclei in the center of the sporangium 
are not well fixed, but these sporangia are so small and thin-walled 
that I can not believe, with all the c3^toplasm and the greater part of 
the nuciei having a perfectl}^ normal strvicture, that the difference in 
appearance of these nuclei is to be attributed to poor fixation, espe- 
cially as it is essentially the same for all the best fixing fluids used. 

The first sign of disintegration is the appearance of a red-staining 
mass on one side. As the process goes on, the whole nucleus comes 
to appear as a slightly shrunken, homogeneous mass, often irregular 
in shape, and staining the same shade of red as the cr3\stalloids. It 
might be argued that these red-staining bodies are cr3^stalloids whose 
substance is being dissolved, but 1 have found very good evidence that 
such is not the case. As shown in PI. Ill, figs. 11 and 13, there are all 
stages of disintegration between the almost perfect nuclei and the most 
shrunken and angular ones. On the other hand, all the crystalloids in 
these sporangia, so far as could be observed, are perfect in shape, 
none showing notches or marks of corrosion, such as we should expect 
to find if they were being dissolved. Furthermore, the crystalloids 
seem to be forming rather than dissolving, judging from their greater 
number and size in the older sporangia. 

In PI. Ill, figs. 11 and 13, a represents a nucleus with normal 
structure lying just inward from the denser plasm, while 5, t\ and d 
lie nearer the center and are breaking down. In no sporangia as old 
as that shown in PI. I, fig. 6, have I found nuclei in or near the center 
of the looser plasm in which nuclear membrane, chromatin, and nucle- 
olus could be distinguished. These nuclei do not entirel}"^ disappear 
during the life of the plant, nor would it be at all accurate to say, as 
Leger has done, that the}^ are ''reduced to a nucleole." 



RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS. 21 

The formation of the spores usually Itoofins aft(M- the columella cleft 
is complete, althoujrh in some instances (as in PI, II, fig. S) somewhat 
previous to that, hut always hefore the layintr down of the columella 
wall. Spore foi-mation does not take place in the manner described 
by Van Tieghem and Leg-er— by the sinuiltaneous differentiation of 
plates of hyaline nong-raiudar protoplasm cutting- the spore-plasm 
into polyhedric l)locks — nor by the progressive differentiation of such 
plates from lines on the surface of the protoplasm, as described by 
Bachmann (1900). In the scores of sporangia sectioned in all stages 
ot development the writer has not found at any time even the slightest 
indication of sucii a differentiation of the protoplasm into granular 
polyhedric masses with nongranular plasm between. The first indica- 
tion of the division of the spore-plasm is the formation of furrows at 
the surface, M'hich cut progressively inward. (PI. II, tigs. 8 and 9.) 
These furrows are not broad, as in Plloholm, nor are their sides closely 
pressed together, as in Synchitrium. They cut in at very different 
angles to the surface of the sporangium, and pass between, and often 
very close to, nuclei and vacuoles. (PI. II. tig. 9.) They usually 
branch or curve at a short distance inward from the surface, and by 
cutting into and fusing with neighboring furrows cut out small pieces 
of the surface layer of the protoplasm of the sporangium. These 
pieces are almost always the detinitive spores, lacking only the walls. 
Only a few of the larger ones are further divided up. There is no 
uninucleated stage in the spore formation of Rhizojms, as in Pilohohis, 
it being like Sporodinia and Phy corny ces in this respect. These sj^ores 
are at tirst somewhat angular in shape and contain exactly the same 
number of nuclei (2 to 6) as when ripe, there being no nuclear division 
at any stage of their existence previous to germination. 

The nuclei of the spore-plasm during all stages of cleavage are in a 
resting condition. (PI. II, fig. 9.) Each consists of a nucleolus, or 
occasionalh' two nucleoli, which in my preparations is stained a deep 
red, surrounded by a zone of evenlv granular, blue-staining chromatin, 
the whole being liounded by a definite nuclear membrane. Both in 
the spore-plasm and in the columella the nuclei are spherical or very 
slightly ovoid until they begin to disintegrate. They are relatively 
more numerous in some sporangia than in others, which may possibl}^ 
be due to differences in the moisture supply, w^et cultures making 
looser and more bulky cytoplasm than drier ones. 

The vacuoles of the spore-plasm, which are for the most part 
exceedingly minute, as can be seen by a comparison with the nuclei 
in PI, II, fig. 9, do not become angular and assist in dividing the pro- 
toplasm here as in Piloholus and Phycomyces. They retain their 
rounded form throughout the entire process of cleavage, even when 
furrows cut very close to them. As previously stated, the^^ contain 
nothing but ordinary cell sap. 



22 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

After the surface furrows have cut inward for a considerable dis- 
tance, a few similar furrows begin to cut outward from the columella 
cleft, which as yet contains no wall. (PI. Ill, fig. 10.) With the 
meeting of these two systems of furrows the cleavage is practicall}'^ 
complete. 

During the process of spore cleavage the protoplasm is slightlN' 
shrunken, apparently because of the giving off of water. Th(^ furrow's 
are more or less open and filled with clear cell sap only. (PL II, 
fig. 9.) As soon, however, as the cleavage is complete, the spore 
mass becomes strongly turgid again, and each spore so increases in 
volume that all are pressed tightly together • and the furrows are 
entirel}^ closed, so that with the Zeiss 2 mm. immersion objective, 1.30 
aperture, and No. 18 compensating ocular, they appear in optical 
section as single lines and are ver}" hard to trace through the dense 
spongy cytoplasm. The spores are thus made sharply angular, but 
later the}'' round oft', leaving little spaces between them. 

The formation of the columella wall usually begins before the spores 
are entirely cut out, but it does not reach its definitive thickness until 
the}^ are nearly ripe. 

As seen in PI. Ill, fig. 12, these spores have no regular system of 
arrangement whatsoever, and the writer can not find the slightest 
ground for Corda's view that they are in i-adial rows. 

As already stated, the spaces between the spores contain at first 
absolutely nothing except cell sap. There is no trace of any inter- 
sporal protoplasm, such as has been described by the earlier authors 
and considered as homologous with the epiplasm of the ascus. 

The spores of B.}uz(>pu>< are at first angular and covered l)y only a 
plasma-membrane, but soon round off and a firm wall is formed 
about them. 

During this process of ripening a homogeneous slime is excreted by 
the spores, w^hich fills up the spaces betw^een them. In such exposures 
to the triple stain as best bring out the cytoplasmic and nuclear 
structures this intersporal slime does not stain at all, and for this 
reason the writer has left it an empty space in PI. Ill, fig. 12. By 
a longer exposure to the violet it is readily brought out as a smooth 
bluish mass filling up the spaces between the rounded spores. 

There is no special mechanism for the discharge of the spores in 
Bhizo2?us 2iii in PlJohAm. There is, however, an inner layer of the 
sporangiuDi wall that can not readily be differentiated from the rest 
of the wall in specimens fixed in the killing fluids of Flemming and 
Merkel; while in those fixed in Eisen's fluid and stained in the triple 
stain it is verj^ readily distinguishable from the outer layer b}^ its 
lighter blue color, the boundary between the two being sharply 
defined. PI. II, fig. 7, is therefore the only one in the writer's series 
in which he could show the separate layers of the sporangium wall. 



PHYCOMYCES NITENS. 23 

The inner hiyer is sonit'whtit tiiickor than the outer, hotli boinj>- of an 
even thickness except for a little space around the sporang-iopjiore 
where the inner one thins out and disappears. Whether or not tliis 
is honioloo-ous witii the "collar" of Piloholus, the writer can not be 
certain. 

The spores are set free bv the ))urstino' of the sporanoiuni wall, 
witiiout its being- thrown off. ^Vhether or not the inner layer ot" the 
wall swells bv the absorption of water and bm-sts the outer layer the 
writer has not determined. The writer has never found this inner layer 
on sporano-ia as voung- as that shown in PI. I. tio-. 5. nor in the walls 
of the mycelium. 

The ripe spores as they escape from the ruptured sporangia are 
mostly ovoid in sliapt' and of varying sizes. Their walls are marked 
with longitudinal ridges, as may be seen in PI. Ill, tig. 14. 

PHYCOMYCES NITENS Kunze. 

Unlike Rhizojym^ the sporangiophores of Phycomijces are "borne 
singly, springing directly from the mycelium. When the sporangio- 
phore is yet only a few millimeters long, the apex b(>gins to swell out 
into a sporangium in the same manner as that described for Rluzopns 
nigricans. As the sporangium enlarges the sporangiophore elongates, 
pushing up the former farther and farther from the surface of the 
substratum. The spores are formed when the sporangiophore is 
about 2 cm. long, and it is then that the sporangium has its maximum 
diameter. 

As shown in PL IV, fig. 15, there is the same streaming of cytoplasm 
and nuclei up the sporangiophore and out toward the periphery of the 
sporangium as in Bhhojym nigricanx. 

As can be seen by a comparison of PI. IV, tig. 15, with PI. I, tig. 5, 
the cytoplasm in the young sporangium of Phycomyces is more coarsely 
granular than that of RJdzopus and takes the stain much more deeply. 

The most noticeable difference between the young sporangium of 
Fhycomyces and that of Ehizopusis that in Phycoinyccs there are many 
more large round vacuoles which, as they move outward toward the 
periphery of the sporangium, become filled with a visible content. 
(PI. IV, fig. 15.) This content appears in sections stained with the 
triple stain as a 1)luish homogeneous body of the same shape as the 
vacuole but somewhat smaller in diameter, lying in the middle of the 
vacuole, with a clear zone between it and the vacuolar membrane. 
(Pis. IV and V, figs. 15 to 22. ) This content begins, not as a very minute, 
sharply-staining body which grows larger and larger in diameter, but 
as a faintly-staining mass which, as it grows older, becomes more 
dense and takes the stain more strongly. In the youngest stage it 
appears quite as large in proportion to the size of the vacuole in 
which it lies as when it becomes older. (PI. IV, fig. 16.) It forms in 



24 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

the vacuoles after they have entered the sporangium — never, so far as 
I have observed, appearing in those of the mycelium or sporangio- 
phore, and rarely in those of that part of the sporangium which lies 
close to the mouth of the sporangiophore. The younger stages of 
their formation are shown in PI. IV, tigs. 15 and 16, while in Pis. IV 
and V, iigs. 18, 19, and 20, they have reached their maximum density. 

As the protoplasm streams up into the sporangium and out toward 
the periphery, there is at first a gradual transition in density from the 
center outward, precisely as in MMzoj^us at the same stage. (PI. IV, 
fig. 15.) A little later, however, as in PI. IV, fig. 17, it is divided into 
three regions, differing in density. The outer region or layer is very 
dense and takes the stain strongly. Inside this is a second layer, which 
is considerablj^ less dense and stains less strongly. Inside this second 
layer and occup^'ing the central part of the sporangium is a region of 
very loose and much vacuolated protoplasm which takes the stain 
scarcely at all. Between the interior region and the second layer the 
the differentiation becomes very sharp, but, as in Hhizojnis^ there is 
no wall or membrane of an}" kind between them. Between the second 
and the outer layers, however, the transition is at first very gradual 
(PI. IV, fig. IT), but becomes more and more sharp as the sporangium 
grows older, I have never found in Phyeomyces a stage such as is 
shown in PI. I, fig. 6, which occurs regularly in Uhlzopus. It is pos- 
sible that this second layer is homologous with the semitransparent 
zone that has the same relative position in the sporangium of Rhizoinis. 
I have not regarded it as such, however, as it is of so much greater 
relative density and contains no delicate strands representing currents. 
It is interesting in this connection to compare PI. I, fig. 6, with PI. IV, 
figs. 17 and 18. 

The nuclei are at first about evenly distriliuted in the outer and second 
la^^ers, but in the interior there are very few, or for a shoil period in 
the development of the sporangium none. (PI. IV, figs. 17 and 18.) 

None of the vacuoles in the interior region of very loose protoplasm 
or in the inner part of the second layer has the stainable content men- 
tioned above. Practically all of the larger ones in the outer dense 
layer contain this substance, however, as also do most of those in the 
outer part of the second layer. (PI. IV, fig. 17.) Between these 
larger vacuoles are very small ones which contain nothing that takes 
the stain. (Pis. IV and V, figs. 15-24.) The difference in the destinies 
of these two kinds of vacuoles will be seen later. 

As may be seen from PI. IV, figs. 15, 17, and 18, and PI. V, fig. 
19, the vacuoles that contain the stainable substance are very numer- 
ous, taking up a considerable portion of the space in the sporangium 
and lying very close together, often two or more being in actual con- 
tact, their clear zones being separated b}- onlj' the vacuolar mem- 
branes. (Pis. IV and V, figs. 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20.) In such cases 



PHYCOMYCES NITENS. 25 

the vacuolar incmhiaiu' is isolated from the remainder of the proto- 
plasm for a little space, and may readily ])e seen and studied by 
itself. (PI. V. tio-. 20.) It is very thin and homogeneous, taking the 
violet stain very sliuhtly, wliich gives it a faint blu-", color. When 
two vacuoles are thus in contact they are usually flattened against 
each other, so that the membrane l)etween appears in optical section 
as a thin, straight line. In such cases the contents are often flattened 
on that side to conform to the shape of the vacuole. (PI. V, flg. 20.) 
A considerable number of the nuclei that are in the second layer 
when it is flrst formed migrate into the denser plasm, and the difler- 
entiation between the two layers becomes more distinct. Then a 
layer of vacuoles, practically all having stainable contents, becomes 
arranged in a dome shape in the denser plasm and running parallel to 
its inner surface. (PI. IV, fig. 18.) These vacuoles flatten out, 
become disk-shaped, and fuse edge to edge to form a dome-shaped 
cleft in the denser plasm, as in Rhizopm and Plloholus. (PI. V, fig. 
19.) It is interesting to note that as the vacuoles flatten, the content 
flattens also, so that its surface remains always more or less parallel 
to the vacuolar membrane. (PI. V, fig. 19.) 

So far as I have been able to observe, there is never a surface fur- 
row that cuts inward to meet the lowest of the layer of vacuoles, as is 
the case in FUoholux and Rhizopm. In this respect Phycomyces 
appears more like Sjxyrodlnia. The layer of vacuoles begins so very 
near the surface of the protoplasm (PI. V, fig. 19) that if there is 
such a surface furrow it nnist l)e very shallow indeed. I have never 
found any evidence of its existence. 

When the vacuoles of this layer have entirely fused, edge to edge, 
the separation of the columella is complete. There is at first no wall — 
simply a cleft bounded l>y plasma-membranes. The contents of all 
the vacuoles that make this cleft have now fused, forming a layer of 
slightly uneven thickness separating the outer surface of the columella 
plasm from the inner surface of the spore-plasm. All the very loose 
interior protoplasm, the second layer, and a small part of the denser 
plasm are included within the columella, while the greater part of the 
denser plasm goes to form the spores. 

As soon as the difl'erentiation of the columella is complete, or in 
exceptional cases a little before, the formation of the spores begins. 
Here we get a most striking diflerence between Phycomyces and 
Rhizopm. The large round vacuoles in the spore plasm begin to lose 
their rounded form and become angular. (PI. V, figs. 21 and 22.) 
These angles become sharper and sharper, and appear to cut through 
the cytoplasm between the nuclei, and when they encounter each other 
fuse to form irregular clefts. The cytoplasm in advance of these vacu- 
olar furrows shows no visible difl'erentiation, but remains of an even 
density throughout the entire spore-plasm during the whole process of 



26 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

cleav^age. (PI. V, figs. 21 and 22.) So far as the writer has been able 
to observe after a most diligent search in a ver}- large number of spo- 
rangia in all stages of spore formation, there are never surface furrows 
cutting into the spore-plasm at any point. The angles from the vacu- 
oles may often be seen cutting out to the surface of the spore-plasm. 
(PL V, figs. 21 and 23.) Furrows also cut into the spore-plasm from 
the columella cleft and fuse with the vacuolar furrows in tlie spore- 
plasm, and thus aid in dividing the protoplasm into spores. (PI. V, 
fig. 22.) 

During the whole process of spore formation the nuclei are in a 
resting condition. They are spherical, or nearly so, and are made up 
of one or two nucleoli and finely granular chromatin within the 
nuclear membrane. (PI. V, figs. 20-24.) They are a little larger 
than those of RMzojms. The furrows often cut very close to them, 
but they give no visible sign of being in any way afi'ected by the cleav- 
age of the cytoplasm in which they lie. (PL V, figs. 21-23.) I have 
never observed a single case of nuclear division in the sporangium of 
Phycomyces. 

The very small vacuoles described above that have no stainable con- 
tents do not take any part in the cleavage. They remain round through- 
out the process, even when the furrows from the larger vacuoles cut 
very close to them. (PL V, fig. 22.) 

As the vacuoles that take part in the cleavage become angular the 
content becomes angular also, taking approximately the shape of the 
vacuoles, so that its surface is parallel to the vacuolar membrane, but 
seldom in contact with it, there being still the clear nonstainable zone 
between. (PL V, figs. 21 and 22.) As the angles of adjacent vacuoles 
fuse, the contents are brought in contact and fuse also, thus forming 
a mass filling up the spaces between the spores. (PL V, fig. 21.) It 
will clearly be seen that this mass is not protoplasm, as it originates 
as a secretion from the vacuolar membrane deposited inside the vacuole. 
It is homogeneous at the time the spores are formed, staining bluish- 
brown in Flemming's triple stain and containing no nuclei or other 
inclusions. All the cytoplasm and nuclei of the spore-plasm are 
included within the spores themselves. (PL V, fig. 21.) 

There appears to be a considerable shrinkage of the protoplasm 
while the cutting out of the columella and the spore formation are going 
on, and this is followed by an increased turgidity of the protoplasmic 
masses, but this is not so marked as in Bhlzopus and. Filoholus and 
the spores do not become sharply angular. This increase in turgidity 
of the protoplasmic masses is followed by a very marked enlargement 
of the small vacuoles, which did not take part in spore formation. 
They still, however, contain only ordinary cell sap and no stainable 
contents. The columella wall begins to form while spore cleavage is 
going on, and continues to thicken until the spores are nearly ripe. 



PHYCOMYCES NITENS. "2 < 

I"p to this tiiii(> tho spores are surrounded by only a plasma-mem- 
brane, the spore wall not yet having- been formed. They now l)ei>in 
to round otf and eontraet, the vacuoles become very nmch smaller, 
and the whole spore is thereby much reduced in size and surrounds 
itself with a Avail of considerable thickness. At the time the spore 
wall is formed the plasma-membranes of the adjacent spores are not 
in contact, but are separated by the intersporal slime from the vacuo- 
lar contents. 

The plasma-membranes of the spores, except in the pcnnpheral layer, 
orio-inate entirelv from the vacuolar membranes, without visil)le 
change except in form. Only a part of the plasma-meml)rane of the 
spores in this layer is made up of the original plasma-membrane of 
the sporangium. In this respect there is a marked diflference between 
Pliycomycts and Rhizopux. 

The spores vary greath* in size and in the number of nuclei. Every 
spore has at least one nucleus, and some have as many as twelve or per- 
haps more. As a rule, there are about six or eight. In PI. V, tig. 25, a 
and e show the extreme sizes of the spores and 1) the usual size and 
shape. Uidike Rh'izopux, the walls of these spores are smooth. 

Occasionally the cleavage is interrupted before it is complete, and 
walls are built around partially divided masses of protoplasm before 
they have rounded otf sufficiently to obliterate the furrows. This 
results in peculiar-shaped spores, such as are shown in PI. V, fig. 26, <?, 
and tig. 27. 

After the spores have been formed the intersporal slime becomes 
foamy in appearance. (PI. V. fig. 24.) If the sporangium be allowed 
to dry out and is then placed in water, this intersporal sul)stance swells 
consideral)ly and probably aids in breaking the sporangium wall. 
This wall is made up of two layers from a stage even younger than 
that shown in PL IV, fig. 15, though the walls of the mycelium and 
the sporangiophores show onh' one laA'er in stained preparations. 

Owing to the great shrinkage of the spores in ripening and to the 
partial collapse of the columella, the sporangium is very much smaller 
in diameter when mature than at the time the spores are formed. 

From the time of the cleavage to the ripening of the spores the 
sporangiophores elongate very rapidly, often reaching a length of 10 
cm. or more. The ripening usually rec^uires only a few hours. 

As in Bhizo2nis^ the old mycelium is not entirely empty, but con- 
tains a verv thin layer of protoplasm lying close to the wall, and in 
this protoplasm are embedded a few nuclei. The columella also in the 
ripe sporangium contains a loose network of protoplasm with scattered 
nuclei. The nuclei, while the mycelium is young, have essentially the 
same structure as those in the spores, except that they often have as 
many as three nucleoli. As the mycelium grows older, however, they 
disintegrate like those of Rluzopus. 



28 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

The writer has also studied the cutting out of the columella and the 
spores in Piloholus crystaUinu.s and Sporodhiia grcoidls^ but, as his 
investigations agree with Harper's account (1899), he has simply 
given a fuller review of his work than he should otherwise have done, 
and shall treat these two genera in his general discussion. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

From a consideration of the preceding pages, we find that the 
processes by which the spores are formed in Rhizopus and PJii/eomyces 
appear very different, and that both these forms differ from Piloholus 
and Spoiytdinia^ which two are different from each other. In other 
words, of the four genera of the Mucorinea? that have been most care- 
fully studied no two are alike. 

In Phycomyces the spore-plasm is divided into spores by vacuoles 
alone. ^' The furrows cutting outward from the columella cleft form 
no exception to this statement, this cleft being simply a fused system 
of vacuoles. In Plloholns both vacuoles and surface furrows take part 
in the process. In RJiizopus and Sporodhiia the work is done entirely 
b}' surface furrows and furrows from the columella cleft, the vacuoles 
in the spore plasm playing no part in the process. Sporodi/iia, how- 
ever, differs from all the other forms in having none of the denser 
plasm included inside the columella, and ivoxw Piloholus and Phizopus 
in having no surface furrow to assist the vacuoles in cutting out the 
columella. PiJobolus differs also from the other three forms in that 
the spores in this genus only are cut down to a uninucleated stage, fol- 
lowed by an embryonic development consisting of nuclear and cell 
division. 

There are some respects, however, in which all four genera agree. 
In all cases the protoplasm is divided progressivel}', the nuclei during 
the cleavage are in a resting state, and aU the protoplasm in the spo- 
rangium outside the columella is included withfn the spore walls, the 
substance between the spores not being protoplasm but a slimy mate- 
rial excreted by it through osmotic membranes. 

Harper (1899) has pointed out that this is not a process of free ceil 
formation in the sense that the cells are cut out entirel}' within a larger 
mass of protoplasm, as in the ascus of LacJniea and Ki^ysipdie^ but is an 
entirely different type of cell division. He uses this as evidence against 
the homology of the sporangium of the ZA'gom^'cetes with the ascus. 
Juel (1902), however, in a very, recent j)aper on Ttqyhridiinn (a new 
genus of the Protomycetes) seems to have entirely missed this part of 
Harper's distinction. He refers to the action of the kinoplasmic rays 
as being Harper's whole distinguishing characteristic of free cell forma- 
tion, and considers this insufficient grounds for such a distinction. He 

« By this is meant not that the vacuoles are the sole and active agents of division, 
but that they are not assisted by surface furrows. See note to page 31. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 29 

calls the division of the protoplasm in TdphrkUum free spore forma- 
tion, though he confesses that he does not understand the stag-e in 
which the spores are being cut out, and gives us no conclusive evidence 
that the substance between the spores is protoplasm. 

Timberlake (1902) has described a process of cleavage in the forma- 
tion of the swarni-sporcs of Trijdrodlefi/on. lo'fricnhifuin similar to that 
which I have described. In this alga the protoplasm forms a la3'er of 
an even thickness around a central vacuole, and this protoplasm is 
divided into a single layer of spores by narrow furrows cutting from 
the central vacuole outward and meeting similar furrows from the 
surfaces. 

The mechanics of this process of division present a ver}'^ perplexing 
problem. Sections like those shown in PI. II, tig. 8, and PI. Ill, fig. 10, 
where cleavageisonly partly complete, have an appearance that suggests 
the eft'ect of cracking on the surface due to drying. If a colloidal sphere 
were allowed to dry by evaporation from its surface, it would crack 
and split in a manner nuich like the sporangia of RJilzopiis. That 
such an explanation is not adequate for this cleavage phenomenon is 
clearly evident from the fact that the furrows are tilled with cell sap 
in living specimens throughout the entire process of division. One 
can scarceh' imagine any bodj" cracking from dr} ing out when the 
crevices are tilled with a watery liquid. In any case such an explana- 
tion would not account for cleavage by angles cutting out from vacu- 
oles embedded in the protoplasm. 

An explanation that would in a measure account for the angles being 
pushed out from the vacuoles is that the vacuoles take up water from 
the surrounding cytoplasm In' osmosis through their membranes, 
which would cause an outward pressure against the latter. If now cer- 
tain parts of this membrane should become weaker than other parts, 
these weaker parts would be pushed out by the internal pressure. 
Such an explanation, however, would not account for the surface fur- 
rows, as they are not surrounded on all sides ])y an osmotic membrane, 
there being no membrane across the mouth of the furrow at the periph- 
ery of the sporangium. (PL II, figs. 8 and 9.) If such a membrane 
be present, it is so thin that it is not visible with the highest powers 
of the microscope, and hence it is doubtful whether it would be more 
resistant to outward pressure from within the furrow than the plasma- 
membrane and cytoplasm at the inner edge of the furrow. 

That the plasma-membrane and vacuolar membrane should possess 
sufiicient rigidity to cut into the protoplasm after the fashion of a 
knife is entirely foreign to our conception of these membranes. 

The most probable explanation the writer has found for the mechanics 
of the cleavage is on the basis of local contractions of the cj^toplasm, 
somewhat comparable to the phenomena exhibited in the naked proto- 
plasm of amoebae and pseudopodia. In PI. VI, figs. 28-31, the writer 



30 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

has attempted to demonstrate diagrammatical ly the way in which 
such localized contractions would cut up the protoplasm in exactly the 
same manner actually occurring in these sporangia. The type of 
cleavage represented in l*Uoholus has been chosen so that the same 
diagrams may ])e used to explain vacuolai- and surface-furrow cleavage. 
For the sake of clearness the diagrams were made much simpler than 
the actual sporangia, but without changing any essential fact of struc- 
ture. The lines of force caused by the contraction of the cytoplasm 
have been represented by arrows — red indicating a localitv in maxi- 
mum contraction; green, a locality that has not yet reached its 
maximum: and blue, a locality that has passed its maximum. Where 
there are wide spaces between arrows there is assumed to be little or 
no contraction. Dotted black lines represent planes where cleavage 
will take place. 

For the cutting out of the columella, let us assume that after the 
system of vacuoles shown in PL VI, fig. 28, is formed, the cytoplasm 
at such points between l)ut close to the Aacuoles, as shown by the red 
arrows, begins to contract in a direction at right angles to the future 
columella cleft, the spore-plasm pulling toward the periphery and the 
columella-plasm toward the center of the sporangium. This would 
tend to pull the cytoplasm away from the points at the rear ends of 
the arrows and also to draw the general masses of the spore-plasm 
and the columella-plasm toward each other. This would cause pres- 
sure ao-ainst the sides of the vacuoles and cause them to flatten out to 
fill the spaces from which cytoplasm is being withdrawn, as is shown 
in PI. Yl, fig. 29. At the l)ase of the sporangium where the surface 
furrow is to cut in, the cytoplasm contracts in a direction approxi- 
mately radial to the curve in which the furrow is to cut. This pull- 
ing causes a rift beginning at the surface of the sporangium, and 
the viscid plasma-membrane, ever adhering to the surface of the cyto- 
plasm, folds in to line this rift. As the furrow cuts inward, the 
points of greatest contraction move inward also (PI. \1, fig. 29), keep- 
in o- alwavs close in front of the furrow until the latter fuses with the 
lowest vacuoles in the system. 

The principle involved in the cleavage of the spore-plasm is essen- 
tially the same. At the points indicated by red arrows in PI. VI, 
fig. 30. viz, on the periphery, on the columella cleft, and on the vacu- 
oles, the cytoplasm begins to contract in a direction approximately 
toward the centers of the masses of protoplasm that are to become the 
spores. This pulling away of the protoplasm causes rifts or furrows 
running into the spore-plasm from the periphery, the columella cleft, 
and the vacuoles, as shown in PI. VI, fig. 31. The width of the fur- 
rows depends on the continuation of the contraction after the furrows 
have progressed beyond the points of contraction, i. e.. on the amount 
of contraction that takes place at the points marked in the diagrams 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 31 

by green-colored arrows. It" the pulling- ut the sides of the furrows 
continues, as in Piloholu.s^ the furrows arc wide, but if it soon ceases, 
as in SynchitriuiK, they are narrow. 

It is not improbable that in the last stages of cleavage, where the 
spores are connected by only a slender neck, constriction like that 
which cuts off conidia may ph\v a part in finishing the process. 

There is little evidence that the nuclei directly intluence the con- 
traction. The direction of the contraction seems to be in general 
toward the center of the protoplasmic masses that are to be the spores, 
without regard to the distribution of the nuclei. The nuclei do, how- 
ever, seem to determine to some extent just what protoplasm shall 
constitute each individual spore; otherwise we might have spores 
formed of enucleated pieces of protoplasm, and nonc^ such has ever 
been ol)served in these forms. 

Viewing the eleavage from the l)asis of localized contraction of the 
cytoplasm, we do not find such radical dili'erences in the processes 
involved in PUoholus^ Sporodinta, JiJilzopus^ and Plujcomyces as 
appeared at first sight. In Piloholns and Plnjcounjcts there are large 
vacuoles in the spore-plasm, in the vicinity of which cytoplasmic con- 
tractions take place in such a wav as to cause angles to cut outward 
from the vacuoles, while in SporocUnla and Phizopus such is not the 
case. On the other hand, there are no c^'toplasmic contractions on the 
periphery of the sporangium in PJajconiyces as in the other three gen- 
era. Otherwise these four genera exhil>it no essential differences in 
the manner of formation of the columella and spores. The difference 
is simply in the location of the cytoplasmic contractions. 

The explanation offered for the mechanics of the cleavage in the 
si^orangia of the Mucorineae seems equally applicable to other cases of 
surface cleavage, e. g., Synchitrium^ Fulkjo^ and some animal eggs. 
To illustrate this extended application of the theory the writer has 
made diagrams of Synelutriuiu^ Fuligo^ and the egg of the squid, indi- 
cating, by means of arrows, as in PI. VI, figs. 28-31, the location, direc- 
tion, and duration of the cytoplasmic contractions that would produce 
such furrows as have been observed in these forms. PI. VI, fiors. 32 

7 o 

and 33, are based on Harper's (1899 and 1900) figures, and PL VI, fig. 
31, on Watase-s (1890) figure. If this view of the mechanics of cleav- 
age be the correct one, we must regard the vacuoles as passive rather 
than active agents in cutting the protoplasm." They have, however, 
a very definite and important mission to perform. In all four genera 
under discussion they form the greater part of the plasma-membrane 
for the columella and for the surface of the spore-plasm next to the 
columella, and in PlloboJuii and Phycomyces they form the greater 
part of the plasma-membrane for the spores. As I have alreadv 
stated, this is done by the vacuolar membrane becoming directly a 

" See note at the bottom of page 28. 



32 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

part of the plasma-membrane withovit any visible change except in 
form. The protoplasmic surface that abutted against the vacuole is 
the same that is later in contact with the cell sap in the clefts. The 
boundary of the vacuole has become directly the boundary of a part 
of the cleft. We have good reason, therefore, to believe that the 
vacuolar membrane is identical with, or at least very similar to, the 
plasma-membrane, and may serve the same purpose if opportunity is 
offered. This homology is further substantiated by the fact that the 
columella wall is laid down in the dome-shaped vacuolar cleft by the 
plasma-membranes, formed for the most part by the vacuolar 
membranes, and, in the case of Fhycomyce^ and Piloholns, the walls 
of most of the spores are formed by what was once a number of 
vacuolar membranes. If, with Strasburger (1898), we regard the 
plasma-membrane as kinoplasmic, we find here very strong reasons 
for believing that the vacuolar membrane is of a kinoplasmic nature 

also. 

The vacuoles are, then, openings in the protoplasmic mass, less 
resistant to the contraction of the cytoplasm, and from which clefts 
may originate. In the higher plants and in the ascus of the Ascomy- 
cetes we have the new plasma-membrane of the daughter cells formed 
by the kinoplasmic libers. In most animal cells and in many of the 
alga?, as Cladophora^ and in the formation of conidia in fungi, the 
new plasma-membrane originates from the old by following the con- 
striction furrow from the surface inward. In FJnjcomyces there are 
neither spindle libers nor surface furrows present during spore forma- 
tion, and the kinoplasm which forms the plasma-membranes for the 
spores seems to be located entirely in the vacuolar membrane. 

The behavior of the vacuoles in the sporangia of FilaJjoJus, Sj^oro- 
dinia., Rluzopus^ and Phycoinyces is of considerable interest in its 
bearing on the question of whether or not the vacuole can be consid- 
ered as a permanent organ of the cell. Though, as already suggested, 
the vacuoles are probably not active agents in the division of the pro- 
toplasm, yet there can be no doubt that they do have a part to play in 
the process by offering places of slight resistance to the contractions 
of the cytoclasm, and by supplying material for the formation of new 
plasma-membranes around the spores and the columella. In the cut- 
ting out of the columella it is evident that the vacuoles are arranged 
in Their definite dome-shaped system for the distinct purpose of being 
where they can best do their part in the process. In Phycoinyces the 
early formation of the stainable substance in some vacuoles, while 
others remain empty, and the fact that the former go to form plasma- 
membranes for the spores and the columella, while the latter do not, 
indicate that certain vacuoles are predestined from a very young 
condition of the sporangium to take part in columella and spore 
formation. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 33 

The idea that the vacuolar membvaiio has special properties not 
possessed by the general })ody of the cytoplasm is l)y no means a new 
one. De Vries (1885) has shown, >)y treating- living- cells with plasmo- 
lyzing- agents containing coloring matter, that the vacuole wall is an 
osmotic meml)rane like the hautschicht. He has also been al)le to 
isolate the vacuoles from the cj'toplasm without breaking them, show- 
ing the wall to have some strength and elasticit}^, and that it retains 
its identity even when not surrounded b}- a viscid cytoplasm. The 
vacuoles of Spirogt/m were often seen to divide b}^ constriction when 
treated with a saltpeter solution. By long innuersion in a saltpeter 
solution followed b}^ eosin the vacuole wall was hardened, so that it 
would be broken by pressure without collapsing. De Vries concludes 
that, there is a very strong similarity between vacuole wall and 
hautschicht. 

Went (1888) holds that all living- plant cells, with the possible 
exception of bacteria, Cyanophycea?, and spermatozoids, contain 
vacuoles, which by division furnish all the vacuoles for the succeed- 
ing generations of cells. In Ai<per(/llh(!< oryz?e he saw both division 
and fusion of vacuoles. In a cell of Dtinatlion jMiIlttlans he observed 
nine vacuoles fuse into two large ones. These then fused to form one; 
but before the constriction left at the point of fusion had disappeared 
another constriction had begun to form in another part of the same 
vacuole, -which increased in depth until it had cut the vacuole in two 
again. Went expresses his belief that the wall of the vacuole plays 
an active part in this division. In Oladosporium herbarum and in the 
hairs on the epidermis of Cucurbita pepo he found that the vacuoles 
divide just before cell division. 

Went concludes that the vacuole wall is an organ of the protoplasm 
ranking with the nucleus and the chromatophores, originating- l)y the 
division of a previously existing vacuole, and never forming de novo 
in the protoplasm. 

Bokorny (1893) treated living cells with a weak caffein solution and 
found that the vacuole wall was not killed by it, but that it contracted 
without losing- its rounded outline, precisely as De Vries describes for 
vacuoles when the cell is treated with a 10 per cent saltpeter solution. 
Bokorny points out that, as a dilute caffein solution has but verv weak 
plasmolyzing power, the phenomenon in this case is one of irritability, 
the caffein solution being the stimulus and the vacuole wall being the 
receptive part of the cell. A caffein solution as weak as 0.01 per cent 
will cause the reaction. 

The work of these authors offers very strong evidence that the vac- 
uolar membrane is at least a differentiated and specialized portion of 
the protoplasm, differing molecularly from ordinary cytoplasm, and 
having many properties in common with the plasma-membrane. 
20844— No. 37—03 3 



3-1 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

Pfeflfer (1890) confirms the conclusions of De Vries and "Went that 
the vacuole wall is an osmotic membrane very much like the haut- 
schicht. and that it reproduces itself by division. He is able to form 
new vacuoles in plasmodia. however, by introducing very small parti- 
cles of asparagin, and finds these to agree in all essential particulars 
with normally produced vacuoles. He also holds that b}' extensive 
vacuolization nearly all of the cytoplasm may be changed to "'plasma- 
haut" (vacuole wall and hautschicht). Pfefl'er, seems, however, 
inclined to regard both the vacuole wall and the hautschicht as the 
result of surface tension, and a precipitation of the surface of the 
cytoplasm by contact witli water. 

Biitschli (1892) also refuses to accept the view that the vacuole is 
bounded by a definite, permanent wall, and would, with Pfetfer, refer 
it to surface tension between the watery liquid of the vacuole and the 
viscid, semiliquid protoplasm; or. at most, he regards this boundary 
as only a precipitation membrane formed by the action of the vacuo- 
lar contents on the adjacent protoplasm. 

In the part played b}" the vacuoles in the formation of the spores in 
the Mucorineaj we have additional evidence that the vacuolar membrane 
is a more definite structure than Biitschli regards it. The vacuolar 
membrane so clearly is able at times to perform the functions of the 
plasma-membrane that the structure and composition of the two seem 
identical. 

The exact composition of the stainable substance in the vacuoles of 
Phycomyces is not easy to determine. In living sporangia crushed 
under a cover-glass it is easy to see the vacuoles more or less isolated 
from the cj'toplasm, but no contents can be seen at o-wj stage of 
development. Neither can the intersporal substance be seen in spo- 
rangia where cleavage is only partially complete. In older sporangia, 
however, this is clearh' visible. This would suggest that this sub- 
stance is in solution or very transparent in living sporangia and is 
precipitated in the process of dehydrating or clearing — probably by 
the alcohol. It appears in sections of old sporangia even before stain- 
ing, no matter what fixing fluid is used. It is not readih' soluble in 
water, as maj' be seen from the fact that it is visible in sections that 
have been soaked several hours in water. 

In seeds, Wakker (1888) found that the aleurone grains inside the 
vacuoles begin as very minute, dense bodies, much smaller than the 
vacuoles themselves, afterwards increasing in size till the vacuoles are 
nearly or quite filled hy them. As I have already- pointed out, how- 
ever, the contents of the vacuoles of Phycomyces are at the moment 
the}' first become \isible quite as large in proportion to the size of the 
vacuole as when the}' become older. The substance seems to be evenly 
distributed in the cell sap of the vacuole, simply increasing in density 
as the sporangium grows older. There can be little doubt that it is a 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 35 

secretion of the rytophisiu through the vticuohir inenibnine, and the 
fact that the substance is secreted only in those vacuoles which are to 
take part in the cleavage seems to indicate a difference, in function at 
least, between the membranes of the two kinds of vacuoles. 

The clear zone between the bodj'^ inside the vacuole and the vacuolar 
membrane seems to be due to the contraction of the substance in 
dehydration. 

The fact that this substance takes so readily the shape of the vacuole 
or the furrow that contains it would show that in the living state it is 
not solid, but very plastic, if not in actual solution. 

Stevens (1899) describes a gelatinous, stainable substance in the vacu- 
oles of the oogonium oiAlhxujo hlit'i^ and seems to regard it as being used 
to form the walls of the oospore. He says of it: "It appears to be trans- 
ferred directlv from the vacuoles to the exteriorof the protoplasm, there 
to be chano-ed to true cellulose." Whether or not this substance is the 
same as that in Phycomyo'^ I can not be certain. Stevens's description 
agrees very well with my own in that the substance takes the stain 
only slightly when first formed, and stronger in later stages. In 
Albugo^ however, it leaves the vacuoles and goes to form cellulose 
walls, while in Phycomyces it never disappears, but forms the inter- 
sporal substance in the clefts made by the vacuoles and apparently 
pla3's no part in the formation of walls. Stevens describes this sub- 
stance as occurring in figs. 91, 92, 93, and 9-1: of his PI. XV, 1)ut I 
have been unable to find any representation of it in the places referred 
to. Neither does he describe the method by which it is transferred to 
the periphery of the oospore. 

Trow (1901) also has figured a similar content in the vacuoles of 
Pythium ulthnum, but does not describe it so as to give any idea of 
its true nature. 

A problem that has been most perplexing to me is how the proto- 
plasm in the sporangium comes to be differentiated into a very dense 
layer at the periphery containing many nuclei, and a very loose struc- 
ture in the interior with few nuclei. The purpose of such a differen- 
tiation is very evident, viz: That as much of the protoplasm as 
possible may be included within the spores, but just what propels the 
protoplasm up the sporangiophore and out toward the peripher}- of 
the sporangium is not so easy to determine. Arthur's (1897) explana- 
tion that it is due to evaporation of water from the surface, combined 
with absorption of moisture from the substratum, seems entirely inade- 
quate. If this were the cause, we should expect to find the layer of 
denser protoplasm at the base of the sporangium as well as on the 
sides and top, as we have no evidence that evaporation does not go on 
from the part of the sporangium just around the sporangiophore as 
well as from the rest of the surface. Furthermore, from Arthur's 
explanation we should expect a gradual transition between the denser 



36 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

and the less dense protoplasms, but, as has been already pointed out, 
the transition is quite sudden. Still further, the laj^er of dense pro- 
toplasm is not of the same absolute thickness for all sporangia, nor 
does it bear a constant relation to the size of the sporangium. The 
writer has been rather inclined to regard the thickness of this la3^er as 
dependent on the aniQunt of available protoplasm, though by no means 
certain on this point. Arthur's conclusions bear more specifically on 
the streaming in the hypha? than in the sporangium, and yet he gives 
us no intimation that he wishes to separate the two processes and refer 
them to different causes. 

In the formation of the oosphere in some of the Peronosporese we 
have, according to AVager (1896), Stevens (1899), and others, a differ- 
entiation of the protoplasm into ooplasm and periplasm, but this 
differentiation is not characterized by such a marked difference in the 
density of the two protoplasms as in the Mucorinea. The wall about 
the oosphere is described as forming on the boundary between two 
protoplasms. The question as to just how the protoplasm is divided 
and the wall formed has been pretty carefully avoided by all these 
authors. Stevens states that there is a thin film formed between the 
two protoplasms, and that this film seems to develop into the wall of 
the oospore, but his account of the process is very incomplete. Trow 
(1901) figures a stage in Pythl.um uHhmim, in which the oosphere is 
only partially cut out, but, unfortunately, he does not describe it suffi- 
ciently to give us a clear conception of the real nature of the process. 
The fact that the columella cleft forms just inside the denser plasm, 
rather than between it and the looser plasm, accords well with the idea 
that the cleft is formed by cytoplasmic contractions. The layer of 
denser plasm inside the columella cleft seems to be for the specific 
purpose of aiding in the cleavage by its contraction, a function that 
the looser plasm is probably unable to perform. 

SUMMARY. 

The essential processes in the formation of the spores in the sporan- 
gia of RJdzopm and Phjcomycea may be summarized as follows: 

1. Streaming of the cytoplasm nuclei and vacuoles up the sporangi- 
ophore and out toward the periphery, forming a dense layer next the 
sporangium wall and a less dense region in the interior, both containing 

nuclei. 

2. Formation of a layer of comparatively large, round vacuoles in 
the denser plasm parallel to its inner surface. 

3. Extension of these vacuoles by flattening so that they fuse to 
form a curved cleft in the denser plasm; and, in the case of Rhizopm^ 
the cutting upward of a circular surface furrow from the base of the 
sporangium to meet the cleft formed by these vacuoles, thus cleaving 
out the columella. 



SUMMARY. 37 

4. Division of the spore-plasm into spores; in Rhhopus, by fur- 
rows pushing- procrressively in wurd from the surface and outward from 
the cohmiella c-left, l)oth systems l)ianchinc.-, rurving-, and intersecting 
to form multinucleated bits of protoplasm, surrounded oidyl)y plasmas- 
membranes and separated by spaces filled with cell sap only; in Plnj- 
comyces, by angles forming in certain vacuoles containing a staina))le 
substance and continuing outward into the spore-plasm as furrows, 
aided by other furrows from the columella cleft and dividing the 
protoplasm into bits homologous with and similar to those m Bhizojms, 
and separated by furrows i)artly tilled with the contents of the vacu- 
oles that assist in the cleavaoe. 

5. Formation of walls about the spores and columella, and, in the 
case of Rhizopus, the secretion of an intersporal slime. 

6: Partial disintegration of the nuclei in the columella. 



38 FORMATION OF SPORES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMTCES. 

INDEX TO lilTERATURE. 

Abthur, J. C. (1897): The Movement of Protoplasm in Coenocytic Hyphse. Ann. 

of Bot. 11, 1897, p. 491. 
Bachman'x, H. (1899): MortiereJla run Tieghemi. Beitrag zur Physiologie der Pilze. 

Jahrb. fiir wiss. Bot. xxxiv, 1899, p. 279. 
BoKOKXY, Th. (1893) : Die Vakuolenwand der Pfianzenzellen. Biol. Centr. 13, 1893, 

p. 271. 
BiJSGEN, M. (1882) : Die Entwicklung der Phycomycetensporangien. Jahrb. fiir wiss. 

Bot. XIII, 1882, p. 253. 
BtJTscHi.i, O. (1892) : Untersnchungen iiber niikroskopische Schiiume und das Proto- 

plasma, 1892, p. 145 et al. 
CoRDA, A. C. J. (1838): Icones Fnngorum, II, 1838, p. 19. 
De Vries, H. (1885): Plasmolytische Studien iiber die Wand der Vacuolen. Jahrb. 

fiir wiss. Bot., XVI, 1885, p. 465. 
Flscher, A. (1892): Phycomycetes. Eabenhorst's Kryptogamen-flora. Band I, Abt. 

IV, 1892, p. 161 et al. 
Harper, R. A. (1899): Cell:Division in Sporangia and Asoi. Ann. of Bot., 13, 1899, 

p. 467. 
(1900): Cell and Xuclear Division in Fullgo rariam. Bot. Gaz., 30, 1900, 

p. 217. 
JuEL, H. O. (1902): Taphridium. Bihang till K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl, 1902. 
Leger, M. (1896): Recherches histol. sur la structure des Mucorinees, 1896. 
Pfeffer, W. (1890): Znr Kenntniss der Plasmahaut und der Vacuolen. Abh. d. 

k. siichs. Ges. d. Wiss., XVI, 1890, p. 187. 
Stevens, F. L. (1899): The Compound Oosphere of Albugo Bliti. Bot. Gaz., 28, 1899, 

p. 149. 
Strasburger, E. (1880): Zellbildung und Zelltheilung, 3d ed., 1880. 
(1898): Die pfianzlichen Zellhiiute. Jahrb. fiir wiss. Bot., XXXI, 1898, 

p. 511. 
Trow, A. II. (1901): Observations on the Biology and Cytology of Pythium ultimum. 

Ann. of Bot., 15, 1901, p. 269. 
Thaxter, R. (1897): New or Peculiar Zygomycetes. 2. Syncephalastrum and Syn- 

oephalis. Bot. Gaz., 24, 1897, p. 1. 
Timberlake, H. G. (1902): Development and Structure of the Swarm-spores of 

Hydrodktyon. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci., XIII, 1902, p. 486. 
Van Tieghem, Ph., et G. Le Monxier (1873): Recherches sur les Mucorinees. Ann. 

d. sc. nat., 5« ser., Bot., 17, 1873, p. 261. 
Van Tieghem, Ph. (1875) : Xouvelles Recherches sur les Mucorinees. Ann. d. sc. nat., 

6"= ser., Bot., 1, 1875, p. 5. 
• (1876): Troisieme Memoire sur les Mucorinees. Ann. d. sc. nat., 6" ser., 

Bot., 4, 1876, p. 312. 
Wager, H. (1896): On the Structure and Reproduction of Cystopus caiididus. Ann. 

of Bot., 10, 1896, p. 295. 
Wakker, J. H. (1888): Studien uber <lie Inhaltskorper der Pflanzenzelle. Jahrb. 

fiir wiss. Bot., XIX, 1888, p. 423. 
Watase, S. (1890): Studies on Cephalopods: I. Cleavage of the Ovum. Jour, of 

Morph., IV, 1890, p. 247. 
Went, F. A. F. C. (1888): Der Vermehrung der normalen Vacuolen durch Theilung. 

Jahrb. fiir wiss. Bot., XIX, 1888, p. 295. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

[All the ficrures were drawn with the aid of a Leitz or a Zeiss camera lucida with 
objectives an<l oculars, as follows: Fig. 1, Leitz No. 1 objective, No. Oconlar; litrs 
&, b, 7, a, 10, and 12, Leitz ^\ oil-inimersion objective, No. oeular; fi.'. 14 J.eitz V- 
od-nnmersion objective. No. 3 ocular; figs. In, 17, 18, and 19, Zei.-s 2 mm 1 ;W aper- 
ture, od-immersion objective. No. 1 Huvghenian ocular; lig.s. 2, .S, 21, 24 '^ti and '^7 
Zeiss 2 mm. 1.80 aperture, oil-immersion objective. No. G compensating mnl'ar; fi.rs' 
J2, 2.-J, and 2.0, Zeiss 2 mm. 1.. 30 aperture, oil-immersion objective. No ]2conipeii- 
sating ocular; tigs. 4, 9, 11, 13, IG, and 20, Zei.ss 2 mm. 1.30 aperture, oll-inmiersion 
objective. No. Ih compensating ocular.] 

Pl.\te I. RhizopuK nigrirfim. Fig. 1.— Group of sporangiophores Ijearing sporangia, 
showing how they grow out from the stolon. X 12. Fig. 2.— Longitudi- 
nal section of young stolon, showing dih:tri))ution of cytoplasm and 
nuclei. X 750. Fig. 3.— Same, except that the stolon is much older; 
wall very thick, and nuclei disintegrating. X 750. Fig. 4.— Disinte- 
grating nuclei from .stolon .shown in tig. 3. X 2,250. Fig. 5.— Youik^ 
sporangium, showing cytoplasm and nuclei streaming up the sporan^ 
giophore into the sporangium and out toward the periphery. There are 
a few crystalloids in tlie center. X 520. Fig. fi.— Si)orangium that has 
attained nearly its full size. The differentiation between the looser and 
the den.«er plasms is sharply marked, except at a few places. Just inside 
the denser plasm is a clear zone of protoplasm that does not take the 
orange stain, and through this run strands of orange-staining cytoplasm 
bearing nuclei. X 520. 
II. lihizopus nigricans. Fig. 7.— Full-sized sporangium, showing layer of vac- 
uoles nearly formed in the denser i^lasm. The two layers of the wall are 
here shown. X 520. Fig. 8.— Section cut through sporangium a little 
to one side of the sporangiophore. The columella cleft is being formed 
l)y fusion of the vacuoles shown in fig. 7, and by a surface furrow. The 
spores are also being cut out l)y progressive surface furrows. X 520. 
Fig. 9.— A small part of the same sporangium as shown in tig. 8, drawn 
from another section, showing in detail very early cleavage furrows, and 
structure, size, and distribution of nuclei and vacuoles. X 2,250. 

III. Rhizopm riigricam. Fig. 10.— Cleavage much farther advanced than in 

figs. 8 and 9. Furrows cutting outward from the columella cleft. Sec- 
tion not cut through sporangiophore. X 520. Fig. 11.— Nuclei from 
columella of same; a, very close to columella cleft; h, c, and d, nearer the 
center; a has a normal structure, \<'hile h, c, and d show stages in disin- 
tegration. X 2,250. Fig. 12.— Sporangium in which the spores are 
completely formed, rounded up, and surrounded by thin walls. The 
columella wall is also formed. X 520. Fig. 13.— Nuclei from columella 
of same; a lies near columella wall and still retains its normal structure; 
b lies near it but is beginning to disintegrate; c and d lie near the center 
and are reduced to homogeneous angular masses. X 2,250. Fig. 14.— 
Ripe spores in their living condition, showing variations in size and 
ridges on walls. X 950. 

IV. Fhycomyces nitens. Fig. 15.— Young sporangium, showing cytoplasm nuclei 

and vacuoles streaming up the sporangiophore and out toward the periph- 
ery of the sporangium. Vacuoles in the denser protoplasm have a visi- 
ble content. X 550. Fig. 16.— Small part ©f young sporangium very 
highly magnified, showing early stage in the formation of the visible 

39 



A 



•40 FORMATION OF SPOEES OF RHIZOPUS AND PHYCOMYCES. 

content of the vacuole; also two much smaller vacuoles with no such 
contents; nuclei in resting condition. X 2,250. Fig. 17. — Portion of 
cross section of sporangium at a somewhat later stage than fig. 15, show- 
ing distribution of protoplasm into an outer dense layer, an interior 
region of very loose protoplasm containing empty vacuoles and no nuclei, 
and between these two a layer of intermediate density. X 550. Fig. 
18. — Part of longitudinal section of sporangium, showing laj'er of vacu- 
oles forming in denser protoplasm where the columella is to be cut out. 
X 550. 
Plate V. Phycomyces nitens. Fig. 19. — Layer of vacuoles in the denser plasm, flatten- 
ing out toward each other to form the columella cleft by their fusion. The 
contents flatten out also, taking the shape of the vacuoles. X 550. Fig. 
20. — Small part of section very highly magnified, showing three vacuoles 
in contact, separated only by their membranes; also three very small 
empty vacuoles and six nuclei in resting condition. X 2,250. Fig. 21. — 
Spore plasm Vjeing cut up into spores by vacuoles becoming angular, and 
the angles cutting through the protoplasm as furrows; cytoplasm in front 
of furrows undifferentiated; nuclei in a resting condition. The contents 
of the vacuoles extend out into the furrows and fuse as the furrows fuse, 
to form the intersporal substance. X 750. Fig. 22. — Furrows cutting 
outward into the spore plasm from the columella cleft; cyt< plasm in 
front of furrows undifferentiated. X 1,500. Fig. 23. — Furrows from the 
vacuoles cutting out to the plasma-membrane at the periphery of the 
sporangium. X 1,500. Fig. 24. — Xearly ripe spores containing resting 
nuclei and empty vacuoles, and embedded in intersporal slime. X 750. 
Fig. 25. — Living, ripe spores; walls smooth; cr, very large; 6, average size; 
c, very small. X 1,500. Fig. 26. — Very large peculiar-shaped spores; 
e, probably due to arrested cleavage. X 750. Fig. 27. — Very large, 
irregular-shaped spore due to arrested cleavage. X 750. 
VI. Filoboluscrystallimis. (Diagrammatic and much simplified.) Fig. 28. — One- 
half of longitudinal section of sporangium just before the cutting out of 
the columella. The arrows indicate lines of contraction of the cytoplasm 
to form the columella cleft. Green arrows indicate points where the con- 
traction is just beginning and red arrows points where the contraction is at 
its maximum strength; dotted black lines represent planes where cleavage 
is to take place. Fig. 29. — Same, but somewhat older stage; vacuoles 
flattened to fill the spaces where the cytoplasm has been pulled away; 
also surface furrow at the base of the sporangium. Blue arrows indicate 
points where contraction has passed its maximum strength. Fig. 30. — 
Columella cleft completed, spore formation just ready to begin. Fig. 31. — 
Vacuoles in the spore-plasm becoming angular, and furrows cutting 
inward from the periphery and outward from the columella cleft, due to 
the cytoplasm pulling away at these points. Fig. 32. — Synchitriiim decip- 
iens. (After Harper.) Two cleavage furrows cutting into the sporan- 
gium. These are slightly open at the inner extremity where the cyto- 
plasm is contracting, but closed nearer the periphery of the sporangium 
where contraction has ceased. Fig. 33. — FuUgo varians. (After Harper. ) 
Two furrows cutting into the spore plasm; furrows slightly open through- 
out their entire extent. Fig. 34. — Squid. (After Watase. ) Surface 
view of egg, showing cleavage furrows cutting into the cytoplasm between 
the nuclei; furrows very narrow at the extremities. 

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BULLETINS OF THE BTJREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry, which was organized July 1, 1901, ineludee Vege- 
table Pathological and Physiological Investigations, T'otanieal Investigations and 
Kxi)erinients, (ira.'^.s and Forage Plant Investigations, Poniological Investigations, 
and Gardens and (Grounds, all of which were formerly separate Dinsions, and also 
Seed and Plant Introduction and Distribution, The Arlington Experimental Farm, 
and Tea Investigations and Experiments. 

Beginning with the date of organization of the Bureau, the independent serie.-< of 
bulletins of the several Divisions were discontinued, and all are now published As 
one series of the Bureau. 

The bulletins issued in the present series are: 

Xi). 1. The Relation of Lirae and Magnesia to Plant (.rrowth. 1901. 
'2. Spermatogenesis and Fecundation of Zamia. 1901.' 
'A. Maciironi Wheats. 1901. '^ 

4. Range Improvement in Arizona. 1901. 
r>. Seeds and Plants Imported through the vSection of See.<l and Plant Intrn- 

ductien. Inventory No, 9, Nos. 4351-5500. 1902. 
6. A List of American Varieties of Peppers. 1902. 
.-7. The Algerian Durum Wheats: A Classified List, with Descriptions. 1902. 

8. A Collection of Economic and Other Fungi Prepared for Distribution. 1902. 

9. The North American Species of Spartina. 1902. 

10. Records of Seed Distribution andr Cooperative Experiments with Grasses 
and Forage Plants. 1902. ' - 

11: Johnson Grass: Report of Investigations Made During the Season of 
1901. 1902. 

12. ."^tock Ranges of Northwestern California. 1902. 

13. Experiments in Range Improvement in Central Texas. 1902. 

14. The Decay of Timber and Methods of Preventing It. 1902. 

.15. Forage Conditions on the Northern Border of the Great Basin. 1902, 
Ifi. A Preliminary Stud}- of the Germination of the Spores of Agaricus Campes- 
tris and Other Basidiomycetous Fungi. 1902. 

1 7. Some Diseases of the.Cowpea. 1902. 

18. Observations on the Mosaic Disease of Tobacco,, 1902. 

19. Kentucky Bluegrass Seed : Harvesting, Curing, and Cleaning. 1902. 

20. Manufacture of Semolina and Macaroni. 1902. " 

21. List of American Varieties of Vegetables. 1903. 

22. Injurious Effects of Premature ^pollination. 1902. 

23. Berseem: The Great Forage and Soiling Crop of the Nile Valley. 1902. 

24. The jManufacture and Preservation of L^nfermented Grape Must. 1902. 

25. Miscellaneous Papers. 1902. 

26. Spanish Almonds and Their Introduction into America. 1902. 

27. Letters on Agriculture in the West Indies, Spain, and the Orient. 1902. 

28. The Mango in Porto Rico. 1902. 

29. The Effect of Black Rot on Turnips. 1903. 

30. Budding the Pecan. 1902. 

31. Cultivated Forage Crops of the Northwestern States. 1902. 

32. A Disease of the White Ash Caused by Polypoi'us Fraxinophilus. 1903. 

33. North American Species of Leptochloa. 1903. 

34. Silkworm Food Plants. 1903. 

35. Recent Foreign Explorations, as Bearing on the, Agricultural Development 

of the Southern States. 1903. 



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