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A publication of the Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society 


FUNDING FOR VIRGINIA'S 
ENDANGERED PLANTS PROGRAM 

As the Bulletin goes to press, the Virginia General 
Assembly is still considering bills providing increased money 
and staff for Virginia's endangered plants program. The 
House of Delegates and the Senate have adopted different 
bills, which now must be reconciled in a conference. The 
VWPS is trying to ensure final adoption of the Senate bill. 


VIRGINIA WILDFLOWER CELEBRATION 88 

When most of us think of wildflowers, we think 
"spring," for that is when our woodlands come alive. This 
year the VWPS has expanded its annual celebration of spring 
to encompass the blooming of spring wildflowers throughout 
the state. During all of April and May the Society and its 
chapters will promote pleasure in wildflowers—and the 
desire to preserve them. 


The House bill adds only $35,000 per year to the 
$25,000 that the Department of Agriculture is already 
spending to identify, list, and protect endangered plant 
species. This is not enough to hire even one full-time staff 
person, much less to research the reasons why certain 
species are endangered or to correct those causes. The 
Senate bill provides the full amount that was requested: 
$102,500 for the first year, $141,500 for the second year, 
and one full-time person. Adoption of this measure would 
permit a small but effective program. 

I wish to thank all members of the VWPS who wrote or 
called their state representatives to urge support for the 
endangered species appropriation. Your involvement is 
crucial to our success in ensuring protection for plant 
species through a variety of state and county actions. 

I will report on the final outcome in the next issue of 
the Bulletin . At that time, I will also try to identify which 
members of the legislature were particularly helpful. 


Virginia Wildflower Celebration 88 emphasizes the 
diversity of Virginia's landscape and the specialties of each 
chapter's region, from the Tidewater to the Shenandoah 
Valley. Celebration activities give VWPS members a special 
opportunity to explore beyond their own chapter areas. 
They offer all who enjoy Virginia's wild plants a chance to 
follow the spring across the Commonwealth. On short walks 
or strenuous expeditions, Celebration participants can enjoy 
the wildflowers of stream valleys and coastal wetlands, 
rocky slopes and moist woods, wildlands and urban gardens. 
They can renew acquaintance with the most familiar spring 
ephemerals and see for the first time species they've known 
only from books. They can see for themselves and learn 
from others the changes that threaten to impoverish 
Virginia's natural heritage. 

Beginning on page 3 is a guide to the activities 
chapters are planning for Virginia Wildflower Celebration 88. 
Some are getting an early start with events in late March, 
and those too are included. Often during the two months of 
this Celebration, you'll wish you could be in two places at 
once—and that's how it should be! 



• Faith Campbell 


RHODODENDRONS AND MOUNTAIN LAUREL 
will be the focus of walks planned by the Blue 

Ridge Chapter for June 10-11. Participants 
from other parts of Virginia will be welcome to 
join chapter members. Watch for details in the 
May Bulletin. 



T 















VWPS CHAPTER NEWS 


From the President 


LOOKING TO THE FUTURE 

Elsewhere in this issue you'll see plenty of signs that 
spring is upon us. Outside, birds are raising their voices, the 
wind carries a new fragrance, the earliest wildflowers are 
emerging. All of us are ready for celebration as this 
glorious season begins. 

In the spring and throughout the year, chapter and 
Society volunteers work to bring people and plants together 
—outdoors in field trips, walks, gardens, plant rescue 
projects, photography; indoors in slide programs, talks, 
contacts with legislators, workshops, newsletters. That's the 
heart of the VWPS. 

Much of our time goes to doing what needs to be done 
right now or in the near future (or sometimes yesterday!), 
both to create programs such as these and to carry on the 
prosaic routines that sustain the organization. But it's 
essential that at the same time we look farther ahead, and 
with the help of the Long Range Planning Committee that 
completed its work last fall, the VWPS board is doing just 
that. 

In September the committee presented a report that 
refines and greatly enlarges that of an earlier counterpart. 
Its wide-ranging suggestions, grouped under twelve major 
goals, challenge the board to strengthen the VWPS program, 
expand it, sharpen its focus. The board has assigned 
priorities to the various goals and is now in the process of 
working through them, choosing strategies and specific steps 
to implement them. 

Some of the committee's suggestions concern or¬ 
ganization— membership development, for example, and 
facilitating administrative chores. Most have to do with 
program. Some, mainly those that propose amplification of 
existing programs, will be relatively easy to carry out. 
Others, especially those that articulate dreams for the 
distant future, will require sustained effort and extensive 
discussion throughout the VWPS. 

A few examples suggest the range of ideas: strengthen 
the Bulletin , and eventually develop a more substantive 
journal; expand the Signature Slide Collection; develop a 
state wildflower checklist; create new programs directed 
toward young people; produce a video on a "conservation 
through cultivation" theme; build working relationships with 
the primary exponents of change in Virginia—the individuals, 
agencies, and corporations that to a large extent control the 
environment of native plant species. 

The possibilities opened up by the Long Range Planning 
Committee will clearly engage us for some time to come. 
The Society is greatly indebted to the committee members: 
Cole Burrell, chair; Marion Blois, Cris Fleming, Gary 
Fleming, Ed Risse, and Nicky Staunton. 

• Mary Pockman 



THE BULLETIN 
A publication of the 
Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society 

Mary Pockman, President 
Editors pro tem: Karen Sorenson, Mary Pockman 
Art by Barbara Stewart 
Typing & layout - Ardyce Kinsley 

Permission is hereby given to reproduce original material 
contained in The Bulletin provided credit is given to the 
author, if named, and to the VWPS, P. O. Box 844, 
Annandale, VA 22003. 


Shenandoah Chapter will be involved in two long-term 
projects^ helping form arboretum at James Madison Uni¬ 
versity in Harrisonburg and at Blue Ridge Community 
College in Weyers Cave. The Arboretum at JMU is an 
established forest of mixed mesophytic types which requires 
modification for public use. It also has a Cove-Hardwood 
ecosystem nearby in the mountains. The Blue Ridge project 
is literally "from scratch." An open area has been assigned 
for the arboretum and trees, etc. will be planted as time and 
money permit. These areas are excellent sites for plants 
obtained through plant rescues. The chapter is emphasizing 
field trips and the presentation of conservationists views to 
the public of the Shenandoah Valley, which is quickly 
developing into a population center of considerable size and 
significance. 

The May meeting of John Clayton Chapter will 
introduce members to the two-acre wildflower meadow 
being developed by the chapter and York County officials at 
the county's New Quarter Park. In mid-October chapter 
volunteers planted seed of more than two dozen species, 
some purchased and some collected locally by chapter 
members. As of New Year's, chapter president Cynthia 
Long reported that the ground was almost covered with tiny 
seedlings, many of them already identifiable. Plants are 
also being started this winter to be set out in the spring. In 
addition to many native wildflowers, the meadow will have 
a few non-native species and several grasses, including a 
test plot of a bluestem found in the area, Andropogon 
ternua. 

Blue Ridge Chapter had an excellent opportunity to 
reach teachers in kindergarten through high school when the 
annual Virginia Science Teachers Conference was held in 
Roanoke last fall. Chapter members served as field trip 
leaders for about 80 teachers from across the state, taking 
them to the Peaks of Otter and other locations along the 
Blue Ridge Parkway. Like Shenandoah Chapter, the Blue 
Ridge Chapter is helping in the development of an arbor¬ 
etum, this one to be located on the campus of Virginia 
Western Community College. 

Several chapters, including Prince William and Pied¬ 
mont , have had workshops or field trips focusing on winter 
botany. They report great enthusiasm for this extension of 
the season. Members of at least two chapters, Potowmack 
and Prince William , are active in efforts to encourage 
protections of native flora at Great Falls Park in Virginia as 
the National Park Service undertakes partial restoration of 
one of the Park's historic features, George Washington's 
Patowmack Canal. 

PIEDMONT CHAPTER ADOPTS 

GREAT MEADOW PLANTINGS 

The Great Meadow wildflower plantings sponsored 
since 1984 by the VWPS are now a Piedmont Chapter 
project, through action by the chapter and VWPS boards. The 
change recognizes the strong interest of people who live 
close to Great Meadow, which is in Fauquier County, part of 
the area served by Piedmont Chapter. 

Great Meadow is a nonprofit center for outdoor 
events, including the annual Virginia Gold Cup steeplechase. 
The wildflower project there was planned both to provide 
enjoyment and education for visitors and to develop new 
information about the requirements of meadow plantings in 
this region. Funding for it has been contributed by the 
Wildcat Foundation. 

The project has been coordinated by a regional 
committee composed of representatives from Piedmont, 
Potowmack, and Prince William chapters and chaired by 
Mary Painter, who initiated the Great Meadow plantings. 
She and B. J. Williams will serve as co-coordinators under 
the direction of the Piedmont Chapter board. 















Blythronium ameiicanum 


VIRGINIA WILDFLOWER CELEBRATION 1988 

From the end of March, and throughout April and May, chapters of the Virginia Wildflower 
Preservation Society will be hosting activites to celebrate the blooms of spring. For additional 
information, use the address or phone number at the end of the description or, where only the 
sponsoring chapter's name is given, the following list: 

Jefferson Chapter: Katherine Malmquist, 2527 llyilraulic Road, it27. Charlottesville, VA 22901 
(804) 296-9325 <70 or (804) 924-3384 (O) 

^ ~ \ John Clayton Chapter: Donna Warp, Herbarium, Department of Biology, College of William and 

Mary, wuuamsburg, VA 23185; (804) 565-0657 (11) or (804) 253-4240 (O) 

Piedmont Chapter, c/o Jocelyn Alexander. Box 336, The Plains. VA 22171 
Potowmack Chapter: Box 161, McLean, VA 22101; Karen Sorenson, (703) 534-2838 
Prince William Wildflower Society, Box 83, Manassas, VA 22110; Nicky Staunton, (703) 368-9803 (H) 
or (703) 363-3943 (O) 

Shenandoah Chapter: Michael Hill, 204 Pope Street. Bridgewater, VA 22812; (703) 828-2405 


MARCH 23, Wednesday, 10:00 n.m. Jenn Chitren will guide a spring exploration at Lecsylvnnia Park. Prince William 
Wildflower Society. 

MARCH 20, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. Fjekl trip to Arcadia for early spring flowers, sponsored by Blue Ridge Chapter. 

Rich Crites, 2663 Willow LawrTSW,' Ronhok^W 24018; (703) 774-4518 (II); (703) 982-7326 (O) 

MARCH 26, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. The Potowmack, Prince William and Piedmont chapters host a panel 

discussion, "Preservin g Natural Habitats in Urbaniz ing A reas. " Moderated by Stan Shetler, curator of botany and 
acting assocTaTfTTlTre'ctor of the Museum of NaturaT History,’ Smithsonian Institution, panelists will represent view¬ 
points of development, land use planning, conservation, public parks and politics. National Wildlife Federation, 

8925 Leesburg Pike, Vienna, Potomack Chapter. , 

MARCH 27, Sunday. Field trip to Riven Rock . Shenandoah Chapter. 

APRIL 8, Thursday, 10:00 a.m. Field trip to the James Tract of the Northe rn Neck Audubon Chapter, Hickory Hollow 
and Cabin Swamp, Lancaster County. Limit 20: priority to VWPS members. Advance registration required; send 
to Cynthia Long, 105 Bowstring Drive, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Map will be sent with confirmation. John 
Clayton Chapter. 

APRIL 9, Friday, 1:00 p.m. Spring wildflower w alk a long Bu ll Run to see bloodroot, mayapples, ferns and spring beauties, 
with Jean Chitren. Prince William Wildflower Society. 

APRIL 16, Saturday, 10:00 n.m. Walk through the grounds of Montpelier with Dave Tice, including the Old Grove Forest, 
recently designated a National Natural Landmark. Meet at the Albemarle Square Shopping Center, Charlottesville, 
to carpool to Montpelier. Jefferson Chapter. 

APRIL 16 and 17. Saturday and Sunday, 2:00 p.m. Annual Bluebell Walks at Bull Run Regional Park to see the largest 
display of Virginia bluebells on the East Coast. Guides wiTTfje park naturalists and volunteers from Potowmack 
and Prince William Chapters. Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority, (703) 528-5406. 

APRIL 17, Sunday, 1:00 p.m. Walk Conway Robins on Forest with Jenn Chitren to see lady's-slippers, trillium, pennywort, 
leaves of Adam and Eve^ Prince William WiIdTIower Society. 

APRIL 17. Sunday, 1:30 p.m. Field trip to Blackwater Cre ek Natural Area, Lynchburg, sponsored by Blue Ridge Chapter. 
Dorothy Bliss, 322 Sumpter Street, Lynchburg, VA 24503. (804) 845-5665. 

LATE APRIL, date to be announced. Field trip to a site in the Shenandoah Valle y. Shenandoah Chapter. 

APRIL 23. Saturday, 8:00 a.m. - 7:30 p.m. Visit the 100-acre Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve in Pennsylvania with 
the Potowmack Chapter. Bus tour leaves from Green Spring Horticultural Center in Annandale. Cost: $25; $23 
for VWPS members; box lunches $7 by reservation. Green Spring, (703) 642-5173. 

APRIL 23. Saturday, 10:00 a.m. Walk through five wildflower gardens in the Charlottesville area . Jefferson Chapter. 

APRIL 23, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. Field trip to Andy Andrews' swamp . Meet at White Marsh Shopping Center, Route 17, 
Gloucester. Bring lunch. John Clayton Chapter. 

APRIL 24 Sunday 11:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m. The Piedmont Chapter will hold its first annual Trout Lily Festival at 
Airlie, near Warrenton, including walks through a trout lily woodland and a light brunch. In the afternoon, 

Airlie's chamber musicians will perform Shubert's "Trout Quintet." Piedmont Chapter. 

appit 14 s.mrinv ?-00 n.m. Take a walk along Billy Goat Trail at the C&O Canal with naturalist A1 Studholme. 

Meet at the information kiosk nHi to the parking lot opposite Old Angler's Inn. Potowmack Chapter. 






















APRIL 29 - MAY 1, Fridnv-Sunday. Spring Wildflower Pilgrimage, sponsored by the Science Museum of Western Virginia. 

Blue Ridge Chapter members will lend many oF the Field trips. Science Museum of Western Virginia. Center in 
the Square, One Market Square, Roanoke, VA 24011; (703) 342-9710. 

APRIL 30, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. - noon. Walk through Locust Shade, near Dumfries, to see the park and the repository 
site for rescued plants. Prince William WlidFlower Society. Leader: Elaine llaug. (703) 070-2347. 

APRIL 30, Saturday, 1 3 p.m. and 4-0 p.m. An early afternoon walk tours spring wetland wildflowcrs at Veterans Park. 

Later in the afternoon, a eanoe trip for a closer look at welTnnd natives! Prince Wiilinm Wildflower Society. 

Lender: Elaine Hang, (703) 070-2347. 

APRIL 30, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m., and 

MAY 1, Sunday, noon - 5:00 p.m. The Prince William Wildflower Garden Tour features a meadow and wildflower border 
in Rrentsville; wildflowcrs beneath azaleas at Bull Rim Mountain, Hnymnrket; and a traditional in-town garden 
featuring wildflowers in Manassas. Prince Wiilinm Wildflower Society. 

MAY 1, Sunday, 10:30 a.m. Wildflower walk along th e Po tomac at Carderock, Maryland, with Marilyn Stearns, sponsored 
by Potowmack Chapter. Beth Holloway, I703J 780-4002. 

MAY 2, Monday, 1:00 p.m. Jean Chitren will lead an easy^ access walk in Mellwig County Park, to sec large whorlcd pogonia, 
Indian cucumber, lady's-slippers. Prince William WlidFlower Society. 

MAY 6-8, Eriday-Sunday. Informal expedition to the Great Smoky Mountains, sponsored by Blue Ridge Chapter. Partici¬ 
pants make their own travel and housing arrangements and meet For spring flower explorations. Bruce Bolder, 

1825 Pelham Drive, Roanoke, VA 24018. (703) 774-4072 (H); (703) 981-9453 (O). 

MAY 7, Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Canoe Mason Neck's great marsh, leaving from Veterans Park. Prince William 
Wildflower Society. Leader: Elaine Haiig, 7703) 670-2347. 

MAY 7, Saturday, 9:30 a.m. A wild plan t walk through part of a 357-acre natural area located along Chickahominy Swamp 
in Henrico County, sponsored bv Pocahontas Chapter. Meet at the Glen Lea Recreation Area. Leader: John Hayden, 
(804) 289-8232 (O); (804) 794-2473 (H). 

MAY 7, Saturday, 9:00 a.m. - noon. Annual plant s ale of spring and summer-blooming wildflowers, at Bethel Lutheran 
Church, Manassas. Prince William Wildflower Society. 

MAY 7-8, Saturday and Sunday, all day. The Spring Wild flower Symposium at W intergrecii features talks and hikes about 
wildflowers, birds, butterflies, etc. Supported by JcFFerson Chapter. Doug Coleman, Wintergrcen, Virginia 22958: 

(804) 325-2200. 

MAY 8, Sunday, noon - 3:00 p.m. Potowmack Chapter's annual plant sale at Green Spring Farm Park, in conjunction 
with the park's Mothers Day celebration. 

MAY 13-15, Friday-Sunday. Spring Wildflower Weekend, Shenandoah National Park. A weekend of guided walks, motorcades, 
and slide programs at the Park's peak of spring Dloom. Shenandoah Chapter members will lead several events. Terry 
Lindsay, North District Naturalist, SNP, Route 4, Box 348, Luray, VA 22835; (703) 999-2243. 

MAY 14, Saturday, 10:00 a.m. Wild fl ower ph o tograph y field tr ip, sponsored by Blue Ridge Clinpter, to Peaks of Otter, 

Blue Ridge Parkway. Leader: photographer Bobby Toler, 7005 Grcenway Drive, Roanoke, VA 24019. 

(703) 366-0239 (11);* (703) 366-9180 (O). 

MAY 15, Sunday. Field trip to Thunder Ridge, along the Blue Ridge Parkway, sponsored by Blue Ridge Chapter. 

Leader: Dorothy Bliss (see April 17). 

MAY 21, Saturday, 6:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m. Sunup to sundown wa lk a n d c anoe trip in Lecsylvania Park. Prince William 
Wildflower Society, Leader: Elaine Hang, (703) 670-2347. - 

MAY 26, Thursday. Field trip in Northwest River City Park, Chesapeake, to see Stewartia malacodendron (silky cninellia) 
in bloom, and if time permits, to Cape Henry Bird Sanctuary, in the West Ghent nrca"orHorFoik. - John Clayton 
Chapter. 

MAY 30, Monday. Memorial Day canoe trip to Marumsco Creek from Veterans Park. Prince William Wildflower Society. 
Leader: Elaine llaug, (703) 670-2347. 



For additional copies 
of this guide, write to: 
Celebrntion-VWPS 
Box 844, Annandale, VA 22003 



Si/mp(pc<up<i4 {\P 0 tidut< 


















Virginia's Rarest Plants: 

SIDA HERMAPHRODITA, the Virginia Mallow 

The Virginia mallow is a tall, coarse, small-flowered hibiscus relative 
with distinctively long-tipped, lobed leaves similar to those of the striped 
maple. This nationally rare plant grows in glades, along streambanks, and 
in other openings in the central Appalachians, from Pennsylvania to 
Tennessee. Being shade-intolerant, it is found only in sunny places, reaching 
its greatest density near large rivers such as the Potomac, Susquehanna, 
New, and Ohio, where major floods create open areas in the vegetation. It 
has also colonized roadsides and railroad banks in a few sites. L. K. 
Thomas, Jr., of the National Park Service has reviewed the species' status, 
in a 1979 article ( Bartonia 46: 51-59), and David M. Spooner et al. provide 
a more recent summary ( Sida 11: 215-225, 1985). 

The Virginia mallow is actually quite scarce in our Commonwealth, 
occurring sporadically along the Potomac, where it seems to come and go 
at particular places, probably being flood-dispersed, and also known from 
one site near Clifton Forge. In 1985, I found a small stand of this plant 
along the Potomac in Rosslyn. Its numbers there have varied year-t<^-year, 
but it survived the 1986 flood with no major harm. Indeed, the flood may 
have spread its seeds downriver, so we should look for new stands! 

• Larry E. Morse 


Bruce Peninsula, June 18-25 

Through Jefferson Chapter president Katherine Malm- 
quist, interested Virginians are invited to join an Ohio Native 
Plant Society trip to Canada's Bruce Peninsula, June 18-25. 

In its 50-mile lengthy the Bruce encompasses bogs and 
fens, vast woods, lake shores, dunes, and the limestone 
palisades of the Niagara- Escarpment. Wildflowers are 
abundant, including 44 species of orchids, many of which will 
be blooming. There are also 85 species of shrubs and vines 
and some of the rarest ferns in North America. 

Cost per person is U.S.$300 (subject to change until 
May 1 due to fluctuation in the dollar); that includes 
lodging, all meals, taxes and gratuities, guide fees, and 
Flower Pot Island boat trip. For more information: 
Katherine Malmquist, (804) 296-9325 or 2527 Hydraulic Road 
#27, Charlottesville, VA 22901. 

Oregon, July 24-30 

The Oregon Chapter of The Nature Conservancy is 
sponsoring a botany field trip across Oregon July 24-30, 
1988, exploring the diverse plant life and other natural 
history features of half a dozen different habitats. Travel 
by van with a small group and trip leader Mike Houck, a 
well-known Oregon naturalist. For details, write to Oregon 
Botany Expedition, The Nature Conservancy, 1205 NW 25th 
Ave., Portland, OR 97210. 



WHO CAN HELP? 

Everything the VWPS does is made possible by mem¬ 
bers who contribute their energy and skills to local and 
statewide programs, earning substantial compensation in 
enjoyment and satisfaction. New volunteers are always 
welcome, to undertake specific tasks for the benefit of the 
VWPS throughout Virginia. Among current needs are people 
to help with 

—all aspects of publicity; 

—writing and editing for the Bulletin ; 

—developing new educational programs, such as 
slide presentations, for adults and for children 
and youth; 

—filling orders for books and other educational 
or fund-raising items; 

—searching out or developing new items for fund¬ 
raising. 

If you or someone you know might be interested in 
becoming more actively involved with the VWPS statewide, 
please get in touch with the chair of an appropriate 
committee or with Mary Pockman, at P. O. Box 844. 
Annandale, VA 22003. 



FIELD TRIP OPPORTUNITIES 


VIRGINIA WILDFLOWER PRESERVATION SOCIETY 
P. O. Box 844, Annandale, VA 22003 

Board of Directors, 1987-88 


President 

First Vice President 
Vice President 
Corresponding Secretary 
Treasurer 
Botany Chair 
Conservation Chair 
Education Chair 
Membership Chair 


Mary Pockman, McLean 
Ann Rcgn, Palmyra Second 
Bob Lee, Berryville 
Dornn Kreitz, Onklon 
John White, Deloplnne 
Dorothy Biiss, Lynchburg 
Faith Campbell, Burke 
Cris Fleming, Chevy Chase, 
Phoebe White, Dclnplane 


Nancy Arrington, Manassas; Ed Ballard, Annandnle; 
James Minoguc, Bcntonvillc; Larry Morse, Arlington; 
Bob Tuggle, Collinsville; Rebecca White, Norfolk 


MD 


Chapt er representatives 

Blue Ridge 
Jefferson 
John Clayton 
Piedmont 
Pocahontas 
Potowmack 
Prince William 
Shenandoah 


Rich Critcs, Roanoke 
Ann ltegn, Palmyra 
Cynthia Long, Williamsburg 
Jocelyn Alexander, Wnrrcnloi 
Roy Seward, Richmond 
Kevin llowc, Alexandria 
Nicky Staunton, Mannssns 
Michael Mill, Bridgewater 


The position of Recording Secretary nnd the 
chairs of Fund Raising nnd Publicity nnd 
Publications arc currently vacant. 













Finding Wildflowers 


LINDEN 


The G. W. Thompson Wildlife Management Area, north 
of Linden, Virginia, is on the western edge of Fauquier 
County, about 60 miles west of Washington. The area 
occupies the eastern side of Blue Mountain and lies a few 
miles northeast of Shenandoah National Park and the main 
Blue Ridge. Although the natural environment of the 
mountain has been damaged by extensive housing develop¬ 
ments, almost four thousand acres are owned by the state 
and are maintained as a wildlife area. 

The management area, usually referred to as "Linden," 
is one of the places in Virginia where you can find northern 
flora, including trees such as alternate-leaved dogwood and 
black ash and herbaceous plants such as large-flowered 
trillium, marsh-marigold, and many unusual ferns. With an 
elevation range from 1000 feet at the base to almost 2200 
feet at the top, Linden contains many different habitats, 
including second growth oak-hickory forests similar to those 
in Shenandoah, open grassy clearings, old orchards from 
abandoned mountain farms, and several unusual "cold 
swamp" areas along the eastern side of the mountain. 

Linden is noted primarily for the incredible display of 
large-flowered trillium in early May. Trillium expert Dr. 
Richard Lighty has called it one of the most extensive 
trillium stands in the southern Appalachians. There are 
literally millions of trilliums here, growing not only along 
the woodland trails but even in roadside clearings and front 
yards of residents. The showy white flowers of Trillium 
gran diflorum are known to change to pink as they a"ge^ ST 
Linden, however, you will see even newly- opened flowers in 
many shades of pink, from palest rose through deep cerise to 
almost crimson. The smaller Trillium cernuum , or nodding 
trillium, rare in Virginia, has also been recorded here. 


Other special flowers to see at Linden in early May 
include a fine stand of yellow lady's-slipper, many showy 
orchis, the strange little pennywort, yellow corydalis, slen¬ 
der toothwort, both palmate and three-lobed violet, and the 
unusual and easily overlooked green violet. Wild geranium 
and heart-leaved golden alexanders bloom along the road¬ 
sides. 

Down in the "cold swamp" area off the trail grow 
several species that one usually associates with more 
northern climates or higher elevations in the Appalachians- 
-lettuce saxifrage as well as swamp saxifrage, marsh mari¬ 
gold, sarsparilla, false hellebore, golden saxifrage, miter- 
wort, wood anemone, and Canada mayflower. 

By early June the trilliums are gone but the woodland 
trails still harbor Virginia waterleaf, four-leaved milkweed, 
and showy skullcap. 

The G. W. Thompson Wildlife Management Area is 
owned by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland 
Fisheries, 4010 West Broad St., Box 11104, Richmond, VA 
23230, telephone (804) 257-1000. There are no visitor 
facilities or informative displays. The best areas for 
wildflowers are the Ted Lake Trail at parking lot #4 and the 
fire road at parking lot #6. 

Directions: From 1-66, take exit 3 at Linden. Go south 
a few hundred feet and turn left on VA 55 for 1.5 miles. 
Turn left on county 638; at 1.1 miles bear right toward Blue 
Mountain Estates. Continue for another 2.8 miles to parking 
lot #4, on the right, and another 1.3 miles up the mountain 
to parking lot #6. 

• Cris Fleming 




"SOURCES OF NATIVE PLANTS & WILDFLOWERS", available from 
the VWPS, lists mail-order sources for nursery propagated plants and 
responsibly collected seed. The current listing includes more than a dozen 
seed sources, and more than two dozen retail nurseries offering a variety 
of woody and herbaceous native plants, including ferns and grasses. It also 
identifies several wholesale nurseries from which local garden centers can 
obtain nursery propagated woody plants. For a copy, send a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to VWPS-Orders, P. O. Box 844, Annandale, VA 22003. 



THREE ARTICLES ON RARE PLANTS in the Novem- 
S er/December issue of The Nature Conservancy Magazine 
are of interest to VWPS members. Robert H. Mohlenbrock 
outlines the reasons for saving plant species; Larry E. Morse 
describes the Conservancy's rare plant protection strategies; 
and Linda R. McMahan assesses the effectiveness of plant 
conservation laws. To obtain a copy of this issue, send your 
request to Claire Naisbett, The Nature Conservancy, 1800 
North Kent Street, Arlington, VA 22209. 


JEFFERSONIA , a quarterly newsletter of Virginia 
botany, is well known to some VWPS members, but it may be 
new to others. Affiliated with the Virginia Academy of 
Science, it covers a broad range of botanical studies related 
to Virginia—historical, taxonomic, ecological, bibliograph¬ 
ical, biographical. Subscriptions ($4 per year) or manu¬ 
scripts for consideration may be sent to the editor, Dr. L. 
Michael Hill, Biology Department, Bridgewater College, 
Bridgewater, VA 22812. 




Non-Profit Organlutlon 
U.S. POSTAGE 
PAID 

PERMIT NO. 347 
SPRINGFIELD, VIRGINIA 



NEW YORK 
botanical garden 






















$$ UPDATE: VIRGINIA'S ENDANGERED 
PLANTS PROGRAM FUNDING FALLS SHORT $$ 

As I reported in the last issue of the Bulle tin, the 
Virginia General Assembly considered two bills to provide 
increased funds for the listing and conservation of en¬ 
dangered plant species in our Commonwealth. 

The House bill provided only $35,000 per year (to be 
added to the existing $25,000). The small amount was due 
primarily to the fact that our sponsor, Del. John Watkins, is 
not a member of the Appropriations Committee, and Del. 
Robert Ball of Richmond, who chairs the relevant sub¬ 
committee, opposes plant conservation efforts. The Senate 
bill, sponsored by Sen. Clive DuVal and seconded by Sen. 
Joseph Gartlan, both members of the Senate Finance 
Committee, asked for $102,000 per year. Unfortunately, the 
legislature adopted the smaller House amount. The legis¬ 
lature also called for hiring one additional staff person 
(although the increased appropration is not sufficient to pay 
salary and overhead). Finally, the bill calls for a study of 
Virginia's efforts to conserve endangered plant and animal 
species. 

While we have made some progress, it is naturally 
disappointing to obtain less than the desired funding. 
However, we will continue to work with the Virginia 
Department of Agriculture. In particular, we will work with 
them on the study required by the legislation. The apparent 
reasoning behind the study idea is a belief held by some that 
the endangered plants program should be merged with the 
Natural Heritage Program, which is in another governmental 
department, the Department of Conservation and Historic 
Resources. At least some proponents of moving the program 
appear to be interested primarily in identifying and listing 
rare plant species, and not in accepting responsibility for 
othei aspects of the program. 

The leadership of the Virginia Wildflower Preservation 
Society believes it is imperative that all aspects of the 
program—including development and implementation of ac¬ 
tive conservation management programs for listed species, 
and regulation of collection and trade of those species- 
remain" the responsibility of a single department. Whether 
that department should be the Department of Agriculture or 
the Department of Conservation and Historic Resources 
depends, in our view, primarily on which is willing to 
commit sufficient staff and financial resources to do the job 
right. 


VWPS CONSIDERS NAME CHANGE 

What name can tell people most clearly what this 
Society is and does? At this stage in the Society's 
development, would a change in its name make a difference 
in its effectiveness? 

These questions, growing out of last fall's report from 
the Society's Long Range Planning Committee, are being 
discussed by the Board of Directors and throughout the 
organization, with three possible names in mind: Virginia 
Wildflower Preservation Society (no change), Virginia Wild¬ 
flower Society, and Virginia Native Plant Society. 

Any change of name would require a vote by the 
membership to amend the bylaws. The board will be 
deciding in June whether to recommend such action, and it 
welcomes comments from members. 

{continued on page 1, col. 21 


HELP FILL EMPTY CHAIRS 

The VWPS Nominating Committee is looking for candi¬ 
dates for positions on the Board of Directors. Three 
positions are currently open, and need to be filled immedi¬ 
ately: Recording Secretary (one-year term), Fund Raising 
Chair (two-year term) and Publicity/Public Relations Chair 
(two-year term). Additionally, the following positions are to 
be filled for three-year terms beginning this fall: President, 
Botany Chair, Director-at-large, and Nominating Committee 
member. 

If you are interested in one of these positions, or wish 
to suggest someone, please contact a member of the 
Nominating Committee: Rich Crites [(703) 256-3157] or 
Dawn Gill [(703) 982-7326], both from the Blue Ridge 
Chapter; J. D. Andrews [(804) 898-3223] from the John 
Clayton Chapter; or Chair Nancy Arrington [(703) 368-8431], 
from the Prince William Chapter. As an alternative, you 
may also write to the committee at P. O. Box 462, 
Manassas, VA 22110. 

The Nominating Committee will prepare a slate of one 
or more candidates for each position. Additional candidates 
may then be nominated, provided their consent is obtained, 
by a petition signed by at least 15 members of the Society 
and filed with the Nominating Committee at least 45 days 
before the annual meeting. 


Faith Campbell 


. Nancy Arrington 

















From the President 


NAME CHANGE (continued <jTom page 1 ) 


ABOUT NAMING 

In A Wind in the Door , Madeleine L'Engle created 
Proginoskes^ a cherubim—not a cherub, Proginoskes says 
firmly, but a singular cherubim—who is a Namer. He's been 
assigned to the stars, to know every one by name in order 
"to help them each to be more particularly the particular 
star each one was supposed to be." With stars and earthlings 
alike, he explains, "that's basically a Namer's job." 

This passage echoes in my mind throughout the 
conversations during spring wildflower walks. 

"Which buttercup is that?" " Ranunculus hispidus ." 

"Isn't that rue anemone charming! Anemonella thalic- 
troides , is that right?" "No, they've changed it; it's 
Thalictrum thalictroides now." 

"That? Oh, it's just one of those weedy things—I've 
never bothered to look it up." 

"He calls that trout lily, but I always thought it was 
dog-tooth violet." "Actually, it's adder's-tongue." 

"Are those deep rose trilliums at Linden really Trillium 
grandiflorum ?" "Well..." 

And so it goes, as all of us in our individual ways try 
to get a handle on what we're seeing. Some relish the 
taxonomic logic and the debate behind the Latin nomen¬ 
clature, some the folklore and vivid metaphor of the 
common names, All are under the spell of the plants 
themselves. 

There was a period of time in the sixties when it was 
popular among some amateurs to disdain naming. The main 
idea was to appreciate other creatures, to experience them, 
to enter into their lives without arbitrary labels standing in 
the way. The approach may still resonate within a desire to 
go beyond just adding names to a life-list, but on the whole 
it was short-lived. We really can't do without names. 

As with Proginoskes, naming what we see—star or 
species—fixes it in our minds and lets us think and talk 
about it without ambiguity. Naming also affirms its 
particularity, and says that we value it enough to want to 
talk about it. 

. Mary Pockman 


HOLD THAT DATE! 

September may seem a long way away, but you know 
how quickly summers go, so before you forget, mark your 
calendar for the Society's annual meeting, to be held 
September 23-25th at the lovely Massanutten Village Resort 
(near Harrisonburg). Look for more detailed information in 
a special mailer to be sent out in late spring or early 
summer! 


THE BULLETIN 
A publication of the 
Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society 

Mary Pockman, President 
Editor pro tern: Brooke Russell 
Art by Barbara Stewart 
Typing & layout - Ardyce Kinsley 

Permission is hereby given to reproduce original material 
contained in The Bulletin provided credit is given to the 
author, if named, and to the VWPS, P. O. Box 844, 
Annandale, VA 22003. 


The Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society was 
founded, and the name was chosen, out of a broad 
determination to do something about the Commonwealth's 
diminishing heritage of wild plants. Through six years of 
discussion and program development, more specific goals 
have gradually been defined, namely: building awareness of 
Virginia's plants and respect for the natural environment; 
working for measures to protect endangered species and 
safeguard diverse habitats; and encouraging the use and 
enjoyment of native plants in ways that are consistent with 
conservation principles. 

On a statewide basis and through local chapters, 
various activities are furthering these goals, and in the long 
run it's what the Society does that matters. Under any 
name, the Society's members and it's publications would 
continue to use both "wildflowers" and "native plants," 
choosing one or the other according to the context. To some 
extent, however, what the Society is called does influence 
people's decisions to join, to be actively involved, and to 
take the Society seriously. The question is whether that 
influence is great enough, and the present name ambiguous 
enough, to warrant a change. 

The phrase "Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society" 
has the advantage of familiarity. The Society is becoming 
known by that name, and "wildflower" itself is, to most 
people, a long-familiar term with pleasant associations. In 
addition, "preservation" has the positive implication of 
saving something of value. Any significant change in the 
name would entail extra effort to overcome some temporary 
loss of recognition and support. That would be easier to do 
now, of course, than sometime in the future, when the 
organization and its name have become even more firmly 
established. 

The word "Preservation" has other connotations that 
may not serve the Society so well. To some it suggests 
entrenched resistance to change—a blindness to legitimate 
needs such as roads or housing, however sensitively planned. 
("Conservation" may be a better word for the more flexible 
approach taken by the Society.) The phrase "Virginia Wild¬ 
flower Society" would avoid these negative images; more¬ 
over, it would make the name easier to say, and shorter to 
write or print. 

The word "wildflowers," for all its positive associ¬ 
ations, is both narrower and broader than the Society's 
emphasis. Strictly speaking, it refers only to flowering 
herbaceous species, although it can be—and often is— 
stretched to cover the Society's interest in all kinds of 
plants. At the same time, "wildflowers" embraces wide¬ 
spread, showy species, many of them non-native, that do not 
particularly need conservation attention. 

The phrase "Virginia Native Plant Society" would 
unequivocally include trees, shrubs, vines, ferns, and grasses. 
By focusing on native species, it would suggest, even without 
the use of the word "preservation," an active concern for 
the conservation of plants in the wild, particularly rare 
species and their communites and ecosystems. It would also 
link the Society more clearly with comparable organizations 
in other states, the great majority of which are "native 
plant" societies. Replacing the familiar "Wildflower" with 
"Native Plant" would be the more marked of the two 
possible changes; identifying this name with the Society and 
the Society's purpose and activities would thus present the 
greater challenge. 

Members are invited to send their comments to 
chapter presidents or to any Society board member. 

If the board decides to propose an amendment to the bylaws, 
that proposal will be placed on the agenda for the annual 
meeting in September. 


2 










FIELD TRIP OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL MEMBERS 


The entire VWPS membership is invited to join Blue 
Ridge Chapter members for two exciting field trips to areas 
off the Blue Ridge Parkway, planned for June and July, 
respectively. 


The Peaks of Otter 


Blue Ridge Parkway/Blackwater Creek 


For Saturday, June 11th, a "Rhododendron Celebra¬ 
tion," consisting of several short walks in the vicinity of the 
Peaks of Otter, is planned. This all-day excursion will 
concentrate on the area just north of the Peaks, where the 
most magnificent displays of Rhododendron catawbiense 
(purple laurel) in Virginia's mountains may be enjoyed. 
Participants will meet at 10 a.m. at the Peaks of Otter 
Visitor Center (MP 86), and drive a few miles north along 
the Blue Ridge Parkway, enjoying the impressive views to 
Onion Mountain Overlook (MP 79.7). Then, we will take a 
short loop trail surrounded by pungent, bursting blooms of 
rhododendron ( Rhododendron sp.), azalea ( Azalea sp.), and 
mountain laureO Kalmia latifolia )— a photographer's delight! 
At 12:30 p.m., we will break for lunch in the Big Springs 
Picnic Area at the Peaks of Otter. You'll probably have no 
problem building an appetite, so don't forget to bring a 
lunch! 

In the afternoon, we'll drive north along the Blue 
Ridge Parkway, parking at Floyd's Field (MP 80.3). Here, we 
will take a short walk to Cornelius Creek Shelter, enjoying 
nature's spectacular offerings along the way. We will close 
the day with a stop at Thunder Ridge Overlook (MP 74.7), 
and a short walk to Thunder Ridge Shelter. 


The Society's annual wildflower field trip is planned 
for the weekend of July 23-24th. Come join fellow members 
who'll visit a mountain meadow along the Blue Ridge 
Parkway, and a woodland ravine in the Blackwater Creek 
Natural Area, Lynchburg. Meet on Saturday, July 23rd at 10 
a.m. at the Smart View Recreation Area (MP 154.1) off the 
Blue Ridge Parkway. Here, participants will take a loop 
trail through a deciduous forest, and search for woodland 
wildflowers along the way. At 12:00, we'll break for a 
picnic lunch (again, you'll be working up an appetite, so 
don't forget to bring a lunch!) at Smart View. At 2 p.m., we 
will have worked our way to Rakes Mill Pond (MP 162.4). 
Here, we'll wander over open meadows filled with summer 
wildflowers and ferns. We'll view three species of Osmunda 
(fern), Melanthium virginicum (bunch-flower), Castilleja 
coccinea (Indian paint brush), Lilium superbum (Turk's-cap 
lily), Aconitum uncinatum (monkshood), and a wealth of 
other lovely flowers. At 5 p.m., we'll eat a picnic supper at 
Smart View. The Blue Ridge Chapter has offered to provide 
drinks and dessert, so all you'll need to bring is the main 
course. 

On Sunday morning, July 24th, we'll meet at 10 a.m. 
at the end of Thomson Drive in Lynchburg (near Lynchburg 
Hospital on Tates Spring Road). From here, we'll go to the 
Ruskin Freer Nature Preserve in the Blackwater Creek 
Natural Area, and follow the Blackwater Creek Nature 
Trail, discovering many ferns and mid-summer wildflowers 
on rocky cliffs and along creek banks. Those who wish to 
may enjoy their picnic lunch at Blackwater Creek Athletic 
Area, off Monticello Avenue. 


These trips offer wonderful opportunities to get out 
and enjoy the fresh air, and the beautiful sights and smells 
of summer—not to mention some Society eomraderie! If you 
would like further information about either—or both—of 
these trips, call Dorothy Bliss at (804) 845-5665, or Rich 
Crites at (703) 774-4518. 

. Dorothy C. Bliss 


Hotel Reservations : Individuals who need to should make 
hotel reservations for these trips as early as possible. 
Participants on the Peaks of Otter trip (June 11th) may call 
or write: The Peaks of Otter Lodge, P. O. Box 489, 

Bedford, Virginia 24523; (703) 586-1081. The following 
hotels, all located near the Roanoke Civic Center at 1-581 
and Route 460-East in Roanoke, are appropriate for both the 
Peaks of Otter trip (June 11th) and the Blue" - 
Parkway/Blackwater Creek Trip (July 23-24th): 


Econolodge 
Days Inn 
Omega Inn 
Holiday Inn 


(703) 343-2413 
(703) 342-4551 
(703) 981-9341 
(703) 342-8961 


- approx. $36-$40 

- approx. $36-$40 

- approx. $31-$37 


approx. $41-$55 
''Approximate cost is for two people. 

• Rich Crites 



3 

















COLORFUL CORRIDORS: WORKING WITH THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 


The following information was gathered from a VWPS Winter Workshop meeting, 
during which members from several chapters met with Boyd Cassell, 

Chief Environmental Planner for the Virginia Department of Transportation. 


Highway rights-of-way represent the largest potential 
reservoir of biodiversity in the Commonwealth of Virginia. 
The Virginia Department of Transportation owns more public 
land than any other public entity, and these vast land 
resources can and should become our repositories for native 
plants. 

Efforts of representatives of the Virginia Wildflower 
Preservation Society (VWPS) to work with the Virginia 
Department of Transportation (VDOT) should be concen¬ 
trated on the Department's Environmental Division. The 
Division staff includes landscape architects, botanists, and 
agronomists, all capable of providing technical assistance. 
Division Chief Robert L. Hundley, a State Environmental 
Engineer, has already indicated a desire to cooperate with 
the Society. Another important and helpful person in the 
Division's Central Office is Boyd B. Cassell, Chief Environ¬ 
mental Planner. Additionally, each of the nine VDOT 
Districts has a District Environmental Manager available for 
consultation on specific projects. 

Native plant demonstration plots are valuable projects 
to pursue, but the long-range goals of the VWPS chapters 
should be directed at modification of the standard operating 

gWWB mw pw ni i ■ m \ i m . . m 


LOOK OUT FOR LYME DISEASE 

Society members who spend a lot of time out-of-doors 
(and that's most of us) should be aware of a curious disease 
carried by ticks that is believed to be spreading from the 
Northeast to other parts of the country, particularly coastal 
areas and parts of the upper Midwest. 

Lyme disease, also known as "the great imitator" 
because it mimics other diseases and thus defies proper 
diagnosis, is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi , a bacterium 
carried by deer ticks and possibly lone star ticks. In its 
early stages, the disease causes a red rash to appear in the 
area of the tick bite; the rash may expand over several days 
from one to 18 inches, flu-like symptoms (low-grade fever, 
chills, headache) may develop, and in the later stages of the 
disease, symptoms similar to meningitis, such as stiff joints, 
difficulty in concentrating and remembering, and fatigue 
may occur. The final stage of the disease, which may occur 
weeks to months later, involves elevated temperature and 
pain and swelling in one of more of the joints. 

Scientists studying the disease recommend that if you 
are bitten by a tick, you should take it to your doctor or 
local public health official to have it identified. If you 
develop any of the symptoms described above after receiv¬ 
ing a tick bite, consult your physician immediately, and tell 
him or her that you have heard about Lyme disease. Lyme 
disease may be treated with antibiotics— the earlier the 
better, as with most diseases. 

Prevention, of course, is the best strategy. Scientists 
recommend avoiding tick habitats whenever possible, wear¬ 
ing long pants with cuffs tucked into socks when in tick 
habitats, wearing light-colored clothing to help spot ticks 
more easily, using insect spray, brushing off clothing and 
checking pets before entering the house, and undressing and 
checking for ticks (they usually crawl about for several 
hours before burrowing into the skin). 

—Adapted from "Lyme Disease," by Edward Bruske 
( National Parks , Vol. 62, No. 3-4, March/April 1988 
pp. 33-37). 


procedures of VDOT. And that means encouraging the 
widespread use of native plants instead of exotics for 
plantings along highway corridors. 

As we have seen in the past, the use of exotic and 
alien plant species by VDOT has threatened native plants far 
beyond the highway corridors where they have been intro¬ 
duced. The unsatisfactory experience with kudzo ( Puerarie 
thungergiana ) clearly illustrates this point. The current love 
affair with the European crown vetch ( Coronilla varia ) is 
now a concern, as is the extensive planting of weeping 
lovegrass ( Eragrostis sp.) on hillsides. These plants are often 
preferred by VDOT because of their low maintenance needs 
and their ability to hold the soil and control erosion. 
Unfortunately, however, they can soon take over and choke 
out more fragile, native plants. 

VWPS members must be sensitive to legitimate con¬ 
cerns of VDOT, including erosion and sediment control, and 
maintenance costs. If we do not approve of exotics, we 
must find natives that can accomplish the same functions. 
Additionally, we must be careful to recommend seed mixes 
that are commercially available in the large quantities that 
are required for roadside development plantings. Seed stock 
for native plants that comes from different regions of the 
country may introduce changes in the local gene pool, and 
threaten long-established local species. Finding the most 
appropriate and cost-effective combination of seed mixes 
for local plantings can be a complex task. All of these 
complexities suggest that VWPS should establish a meaning¬ 
ful dialogue with the professionals in the Environmental 
Division of VDOT. 

me early planning stage at the beginning of a new 
road project is the best time for VWPS to cooperate with 
VDOT personnel At that time, the proposed route can be 
reviewed, and significant native plant habitats can be saved 
by appropriate alignment of the new roadway. It is often too 
late to have significant influence on a project after the 
bulldozers have begun their work. As the old saying goes, 
time is money, and contractors and VDOT officials do not 
appreciate project delays after a contract award has been 
made. 

It is vital that VWPS members monitor planned road 
improvements by communicating with elected officials in 
their respective political subdivisions. Another person who 
should be contacted on a regular basis is the Chief or 
Resident Engineer of each VDOT Residency Office. The 
Resident Engineer keeps a detailed, six-year road improve¬ 
ments plan. The names and addresses of the VDOT Resident 
Engineers may be obtained by calling the local VDOT Office 
listed in the telephone directory, in the Government Listings 
section. 

There is one text that should be required reading for 
VWPS members interested in establishing a working re¬ 
lationship with VDOT: "Guidelines for Planting along 

Virginia's Roadways.” This short publication is available 
from R. L. Hundley, State Environmental Engineer, Virginia 
Department of Transportation, 1221 E. Broad Street, Rich¬ 
mond, VA 23219. The main function of the guidelines is to 
promote proper planting, with consideration of safety and 
maintenance constraints. For VWPS members, one of the 
most pertinent parts of the VDOT text is the descriptions of 
model planting agreements at the end of the publication. 
These sample agreements specify the responsibilities of 
private organizations and VDOT in cooperative roadside 
planting programs. 


4 


Bob Lee 










Virginia's Rarest Plants 

Arabis serotina, the shale barren rock-cress 


Perhaps one of the rarest and most threatened elements of Virginia's flora is the 
shale barren rock-cress, a rather tall, white-flowered member of the mustard family. 
Like many of its relatives, the species is a biennial, putting out small, basal rosettes 
one year and then bolting the next. The lanky, open inflorescences, which are produced 
in late summer, have rather inconspicuous flowers that give rise to long, many-seeded 
"siliques" (seed capsules). Not a very showy species, the shale barren rock-cress is still 
a fascinating plant and deserving of special attention. 

This species is very restricted in both its distribution and habitat preference. 
The plant is currently known from fewer than 30 places in the world, within a small, 
nine-county area of the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. It is almost always 
found growing on "shale barrens," which are unique, sparsely vegetated woodland types 
of the mid-Appalachians. Adding to its rarity is the fact that populations of the rock- 
cress tend to be very small. Despite extensive field searches conducted by Michael 
Lipford of the Virginia Natural Heritage Program, only 128 individuals (representing 
approximately one-half of the world's population) were documented during the 1987 
field season. 

The shale barren rock-cress was first described to the scientific community by 
Edward Steele in 1911. Because of its resemblance to a closely related species (the 
smooth rock-cress), however, many botanists did not recognize a distinction between 
the two. During recent studies of shale barren habitats, Tom Wieboldt (a botanist from 
Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University) noted that the shale barren rock- 
cress bloomed considerably later than its counterpart. He began researching other 
distinguishing features exhibited by the plant, and, just last year, published an article 
which helped to clarify the differences between the two species. (Sida. 1987. 12(2): 
381-389). 



Because of its extreme rarity, the shale barren rock-cress has become a plant of some notoriety. It has just recently been 
formally proposed for federal listing as endangered, and may well become Virginia's next legally protected species. To aid in 
these efforts at providing protection for the remaining populations of the plant, the Virginia Natural Heritage Program has made 
additional recommendations which support its state listing as well. 

» Garrie D. Rouse 



UPDATE ON FOOTLOOSE LOOSESTRIFE 

The purple loosestrife plant, which has become an 
invasive pest in several states, may soon be controlled by 
biological agents (insects) according to a recent report from 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture's Beneficial Insects Laboratory. Testing of 
selected insect species under quarantine conditions may be 
possible within two to three years. A new book, "Spread, 
Impact, and Control of Purple Loosestrife in North Ameri¬ 
can Wetlands," by Daniel Thompson et al . (1987), provides 
information about this subject, and is available from 
Publications Unit, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington 
DC 20240. 

—Adapted from Illinoensis , Vol. 4, Number 1, 
February 1988 


SPECIAL EVENTS AND 
DATES TO REMEMBER 

Peaks of Otter Field Trip 
June 11 

Blue Ridge Parkway/Blackwater Creek Field Trip 
July 23 - 24 

VWPS Annual Meeting 
September 23 -25 


SHORT TAKES 


RARE PLANTS FOUND IN VIRGINIA, 59 in number, rep- 
resent 2.1 percent of the 2,867 plants that in 1985 were 
protected or were candidates for listing under the U.S. 
Endangered Species Act, according to a Center for Plant 
Conservation analysis of data from the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. Most U.S. rare plants occur in Hawaii and 
in the West and Southwest, with the highest proportions in 
Hawaii Lome to 27.2 percent of the total, and California, 
24.1 percent. 


VIRGINIA NATURAL RESOURCES NEWSLETTER is now 
published quarterly by the Office oT the Secretary of 
Natural Resources covering issues of concern to half a dozen 
state agencies and the Conservation Council of Virginia. 
Copies may be obtained by writing to the Office of the 
Secretary of Natural Resources, Fifth Floor, Ninth Street 
Office Building, Richmond, VA 23219. 


ACID RAIN may be a greater problem in Virginia than had 
been thougTit, according to a recent University of Virginia 
study reported in the December newsletter of the Con¬ 
servation Council of Virginia. 

Of the 353 streams investigated by the study, 11 
percent were found to be acidic, and 78 percent were 
considered sensitive to acidification. A previous study by 
the National Acid Precipitation Program suggested that few 
streams in the Southeast have pH levels below 6.0, but the 
UVa group found one creek with a pH of 4.7 and a large 
number of others with pH levels below 6.0. No historical 
data are available for comparison. 


5 















Finding Wildflowers 


FROM SOUTH AFRICA 

Some items of particular interest from a report sent 
by a former VWPS member (Potowmack Chapter) 
now living in Johannesburg. 


One cf the first places I visited here was The Wilds, a 
52-acre park in the middle of the city. Half of it is 
maintained as "wild" with representatives of all plant zones 
in South Africa. With some 18,500 species of flowering 
plants in the country, there is no shortage of raw material. 

Although trees in The Wilds are labeled, few wild¬ 
flowers are. Many good wildflower guides for South Africa 
are available, but the staggering number of species makes a 
single guide impractical. Plants have common names in both 
English and Africaans, as well as a confusing variety of 
names used by tribal peoples. 

There are over 1,000 Liliaeeae species in South Africa, 
many of them highly ornamental. White calla lilies, 
Zantedeschia aethiop i ca , grow not only in The Wilds but all 
over this part of the country. So do Agapanthus spp. lilies, 
with 3' spikes of purple flowers. In this family, the Wilds 
has a good collection of aloes. Some of them, along with 
some proteas, provide winter bloom in the park. 

The Proteaceae family, found primarily in the southern 
hemisphere, is represented by some 450 species in South 
Africa. Many are drought resistant and bloom best when 
periodically singed by fire. The national flower is the 
sugarbush, Protea repens , a showy yellow-and-peach flower. 

The national tree designation changes every year. In 
1987 it was the cabbage tree, Cussonia spp.; a few 
specimens grow in The Wilds. All have a stout trunk with 
all the leaves in a ball at the top; one local name is 
"Umbrella for the Sun." Their roots store so much water 
that they can provide survival water for people in times of 
drought. 


For daisy aficionados, the Mesembryanthemaceae fam¬ 
ily, known as vygies, has over 2,000 species in South Africa. 
A superb stand of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis heats up one 
section of The Wilds with yellow, hot pink, white, orange, 
and peach. Some of these flowers turn certain desert areas 
of South Africa into carpets of color in spring. 

The Wilds serves as a nursery for cycads, among the 
most ancient surviving plants. These endangered plants, 
resembling small, squat palm trees, have suffered the same 
fate as cacti in the southwestern U.S. Large areas of South 
Africa have been denuded of them for sale to home 
landscapers, and some species are so rare that only a few 
known specimens survive. 

Another threat to some trees, nationwide and in The 
Wilds, comes from "witch doctors" who steal bark at night 
for use in medicinal concoctions, sometimes girdling and 
thus killing the trees. To combat bark collection in The 
Wilds, the more popular "medicine" trees are painted with an 
oil-based paint. It may make the trees look awful, but it 
renders the bark unusable. 

The Botanical Society of South Africa encourages the 
conservation and cultivation of the country's flora. There is 
considerable interest in South Africa in gardening with 
native plants, and several books steer gardeners to the more 
easily-cultivated and ornamental. The selection of plants 
available is enough to make any VWPS gardener turn green! 

* Susan McSwain 


WHERE DO YOU FIND WILDFLOWERS? 



Those of you who enjoyed Susan McSwain's article, "Finding Wildflowers: South 
Africa," in this issue, and Chris Fleming's article, "Finding Wildflowers: Linden," in 
the winter issue of the Bulletin might like to try your own hand at leading fellow 
members to choice wildflower habitat. We would like to start a regular column 
featuring prime wildflower areas throughout the state (McSwain's article was an 
exception), but we need material from you, the VWPS members. So, if you have a 
favorite public spot in mind, pick up your pen, turn on your typewriter, or crank up 
your computer and let us know! You should include directions to the habitat; a person 
to contact for permission to be on the land (if it is not open to the public); a phone 
number (if any) to call for further information; and, of course, a description of the 
wildflowers one can see, along with their specific location. Send two or three double¬ 
spaced pages to Editor, The Bulletin , P. O. Box 844, Annandale, Virginia 22003. 




Non-Profit Organization 
U.S. POSTAGE 
PAID 

PERMIT NO. 347 
SPRINGFIELD, VIRGINIA 


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Vol. 7, No. 4 


A publication of the VIRGINIA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY 

(formerly the Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society) 


VWPS Now Virginia Native Plant Society 


As of November 1, the Society is 
continuing to work for the appreciation 
and conservation of Virginia’s native 
plants, under a new name: Virginia 
Native Plant Society. 

Approved by the membership at 
the annual meeting September 24, 
after more than a year of discussion in 
committees and boards and among 
members, the change was made 
chiefly to increase the Society’s effec¬ 
tiveness in conservation, especially in 
work with agencies that make signifi¬ 
cant land-use decisions, and to clarify 
the scope of its concerns. 

At the same time, chapters gained 
a wider choice of chapter names, and 


some will be considering possible 
changes. Blue Ridge Chapter has al¬ 
ready voted to ask board approval to 
become “Blue Ridge Wildflower Soci¬ 
ety, a chapter of the Virginia Native 
Plant Society.” 

As part of its planning to imple¬ 
ment the membership’s decision, at its 
regular meeting on September 25 the 
VWPS board approved a proposal 
and established guidelines for devel¬ 
oping a new logo and letterhead de¬ 
sign. Among the planned changes is 
the addition to the letterhead of a brief 
descriptive phrase that will supple¬ 
ment the name in conveying the 
Society’s scope and purpose. 

Several designs will be presented 


to the board by graphic design stu¬ 
dents at Northern Virginia Community 
College (Alexandria), as part of a class 
project. They will be under the direc¬ 
tion of Communication Design Pro¬ 
gram Head Bob Capps, a widely re¬ 
spected graphic designer. Once the 
board has selected a design, the 
symbol and basic design elements will 
be adapted for all the Society’s printed 
materials, including the Bulletin. 

At the annual meeting, members 
also elected the proposed slate of can¬ 
didates for office and approved By¬ 
laws changes increasing the author¬ 
ized number of Directors-at-large and 
changing the structure of the Nominat¬ 
ing Committee. 


Habitat Emphasis 

The Society is going to stress the importance of habitats 
and ecological relationships of our native plants in all future 
activities including membership brochure, Bulletin articles, 
field trips, slide shows, conservation activities, education pro¬ 
grams, Wildflower Celebration, Wildflower of the Year, plant 
rescues, propagation, and sales. 

Each plant species has its own requirements and each 
type of habitat supports a community of plants and animals 
that are dependent upon the health of that habitat. Therefore, 
to preserve a species we need to preserve its natural habitat. 








— Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 

From the President 


Greetings, as the first president of the Virginia 
Native Plant Society... that strikes a “strange”chord, doesn’t 
it? In its six years of working to conserve wildflowers and 
native plants in Virginia, the Virginia Wildflower Preserva¬ 
tion Society was nurtured by Mary Painter, founding presi¬ 
dent of VWPS, and by Mary Pockman, president of VWPS 
as it grew through a stage of defining itself. Much akin to the 
teen years. 

Always, the concern for preserving our native plants 
and for effectively representing their needs has been our 
priority. Efforts from each of you have been monumental 
and appreciated by all of us. 

I appreciate the opportunity to continue the programs 
begun by VWPS - Mary Painter and Mary Pockman. Also, 


there is much to anticipate. We have our first Wildflower of 
the Year - the Virginia Bluebell (Mertensia virginica) - to 
bring us together statewide...as well as continuing Virginia 
Wildflower Celebration ’89. We are in the process of pre¬ 
senting the Bulletin prepared in a different way, by our 
newly elected publications chair, Jenifer Bradford. 

One of the most encouraging things to come to my at¬ 
tention during October is the report from Phoebe White re¬ 
garding our 1988-89 membership starting point: 400+ 
members. This is much stronger than fast year. Exciting! 

November 1,1988...weareonourway. Please keep us 
informed of your ideas, concerns, and efforts. The power 
behind our programs and efforts is you.. .members of VNPS. 
Powerful! 

Nicky Staunton 


Your New Board of Directors 


OFFICERS 


DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE 


President 

Nicky Staunton 

Bob Tuggle 

Rebecca White 

1st Vice President 

Ann Regn 

Nancy Arrington 

Larry Morse 

2nd Vice President 

James A. Minogue 

Jocelyn Alexander 

Ken Wieringo 

Recording Secretary 

Liz Smith 



Corresponding Secretary 

Dorna Kreitz 



Treasurer 

John White 

CHAPTER PRESIDENTS 




Blue Ridge 

Bruce Boteler 

COMMITTEE CHAIRS 


Jefferson 

Kathleen Malmquist 

Botany 

Dorothy Bliss 

John Clayton 

Libby Hodges Oliver 

Conservation 

Faith Campbell 

Piedmont 

Mary Painter 

Education 

Cris Fleming 

Pocahontas 

Marie F. Minor 

Membership 

Phoebe White 

Potowmack 

Karen Sorenson 

Nominating 

Jocelyn Alexander 

Prince William 

Alden B. Bradford 

Publications ' 

Jenifer M. Bradford 

Shenandoah 

Betty Rosson 


BULLETIN 

A publication of the 

Virginia Native Plant Society 

Nicky Staunton, President 

Jenifer M. Bradford, Editor Barbara Stewart, Artist 

Permission is hereby given to reproduce original material con¬ 
tained in the Bulletin, provided credit is given to the author, if 
named, and to VNPS, P.O. Box 844, Annandale, VA 22003. 
Contributions to the Bulletin are welcomed and should be sent to 
the Editor at 10261 Slate Run Lane, Nokesville, VA 22123. The 
deadline for copy for the next issue is February 13. 


Editor’s Note 

ALL copy submitted for publication should be 
typed, double spaced with wide margins. Copy sent 
well in advance of each Bulletin deadline will be greatly 
appreciated. Bulletin deadlines for 1989 will be: Febru¬ 
ary 13, April 10, July 10, and October 9. Please mark 
these dates on your calendar. 

The Editor is interested in receiving written com¬ 
ments on the new format, type style, and content as 
found in this issue. Changes wiII continue to take place 
as a new logo is developed and as new policies are 
formulated. Watch out as VNPS progresses. All sug¬ 
gestions are welcomed. 


Page 2 


Fall/Winter 1988 












Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 


A Closing Word 


November 1 marked the begin¬ 
ning of a new chapter for me as well as for 
the Society. As the VWPS became the 
VNPS, I became past president, closing a 
most rewarding three years. I look forward 
to continuing to be active in the Society, 
especially under Nicky Staunton’s leader¬ 
ship, but more selectively than is possible 
for anyone who currently holds the office of 
president. 

In many ways, my term ended and the 
transition began with the 1988 annual 
meeting. The buoyant spirits and camara¬ 
derie of that weekend, undampened by the 
weather or the glitches, exemplified what I 
cherish most about this organization. You 
are a wonderful bunch of people! Special 


thanks to all of you who helped with the 
annual meeting, many quietly pitching in at 
the last minute, and made it such a special 
occasion. 

That meeting resolved one of the 
board’s preoccupations this year, the pros 
and cons of changing the Society’s name. 
As I remember all the group discussions, 
personal conversations, letters and phone 
calls that have revolved around that ques¬ 
tion, two things stand out. The first is that 
there’s no perfect name for this organiza¬ 
tion; each one considered has both advan¬ 
tages and drawbacks. It’s a matter of 
choosing what seems the best compro¬ 
mise and making it work. 

The second is that it’s all too easy to 


get so entangled in the words that we lose 
sight of the reality they represent. Our 
fundamental concern is not any particular 
combination of sounds or pattern of ink on 
paper, useful as that may be. It’s the plants 
themselves, and how we human beings 
treat them. 

That might be a good last word - - but 
my closing word is thank you. So many of 
you, Society and chapter board members 
and “just” members, have worked long and 
patiently, dreamed what is not yet, offered 
ideas and advice and resources and criti¬ 
cism, made me think, laughed with me, 
stretched my understanding. To all of you, 
my deep gratitude. 

Mary Pockman 


Eastern Native Plant Alliance Formed 


The Eastern Native Plant Alliance 
(ENPA), uniting organizations and institu¬ 
tions that promote and demonstrate native 
plant conservation, held a lively and enthu- 
siasticfirst meeting in Fletcher, NC, in July. 
Its purpose is to provide a forum for sharing 
ideas and information, and thus to stimu¬ 
late more effective programs in all areas 
related to plant conservation. Member 
groups, located in the eastern U.S. and 
southeastern Canada, work with native 
plants in a variety of ways, including public 


education, display, cultivation, habitat 
preservation, and research. 

VWPS was represented at the July 
meeting, along with about twenty others, 
including native plant societies, botanical 
gardens and arboreta, gardening organi¬ 
zations, nurseries that propagate native 
plants, and public agencies. A second 
annual meeting is planned for the summer 
of 1989, with increased participation ex¬ 
pected. 

The plan for a body to connect these 


diverse organizations has been developed 
by a group of individuals who recognized 
the need to respond to mounting interest in 
native plant gardening with a consistent 
conservation message. 

VWPS founder Mary Painter was one 
of the initial planning group. She was suc¬ 
ceeded in 1986 by past president Mary 
Pockman, who represented VWPS at the 
1988 meeting and will continue to serve on 
the ENPA steering committee. 


Elaine Haug presented her “What’s It?” 
slides and we all had to identify the plant 
involved. Dr. George Beatty from Penn. 
State awed us all with his wide-screen, 
multi-projector program, "Travels with Lin¬ 
naeus in Lapland." He was the hit of the 
evening. The photographs and accompa¬ 
nying Scandinavian music soothed us all, 
despite the rainy, foggy night. 

The weather was still not at its best on 
Sunday morning. The Board of Directors 
met while members were again offered a 
choice of field trips. As always, good con¬ 
tacts and new friendships were cemented. 


Annual VWPS Meeting 


Our Annual Meeting was held on 
September 23-25,1988, at the Ski Lodge, 
Massanutten Resort, near Harrisonburg. 

Exhibits and displays from many 
chapters and affiliated organizations were 
set up on Friday afternoon. At 8:30 p.m., 
Dr. Elwood Fisher, botanist from James 
Madison University, presented slides of 
favorite plants of the area. 

Saturday was devoted to field trips, 
which varied in length of time and area of 
interest. These trips included the trails of 
Massanutten, Reddish Knob, High Top, 
Pocosin area of the Shenandoah National 


Park, and a canoe trip on the South Fork of 
the Shenandoah. 

The Gala Auction began at 5:00 p.m., 
under the guiding voice of Bob Lee, fol¬ 
lowed at 5:30 p.m., by a business meeting. 
Reports, election of officers (see list else¬ 
where), proposed amendments to the Ar¬ 
ticles of Incorporation and Bylaws, and 
other important items of business were 
conducted. The name change was voted 
on and approved. It was back then to the 
auction and reception until 7:30 p.m. 

A pig roast and buffet dinner was 
served, followed by the evening program. 


Fall/Winter 1988 


Page 3 








Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 


VIRGINIA’S RAREST PLANTS 

Spiraea virginiana (the Virginia Spiraea) 


Deep in the gorges of some of our 
more remote rivers of extreme southwest 
Virginia is found one of our rarest shrubs - 
the Virginia Spiraea. Here it grows in sand, 
gravel, and among boulders of floodplain 
openings produced by the high-gradient 
(high-energy) environment of some of our 
most beautiful and breathtaking river 
courses. A member of the rose family, the 
Virginia Spiraea is closely related to the 
attractive Meadowsweet, Steeplebush, and 
other cultivated Spiraeas. It is a handsome 
plant, producing showy white clusters of 
small white flowers against a background of 
deep, forest-green foliage. 

The name "Virginia Spiraea” was 
something of a misnomer until just recently. 
The plant was first collected by Dr. Mill- 
spaugh in 1890 from along the Mononga- 
hela River near Morgantown, West Virginia 
(see Clarkson, Roy B. 1959. The West 
Virginia Spiraea. Castanea 24: 143-146) 
but, presumably due to its scientific name, 
common vernacular has traditionally attrib¬ 
uted the plant to our state. It was not until 
1985, however, that Dr. Douglas Ogle and 


Thomas Wieboldt (while on a collecting trip 
along the New River) discovered the plant 
for the first time in Virginia. Since then it nas 
been found in several other localities in our 
state. One might say that the Virginia Spi¬ 
raea has finally “come home.” 

This rare shrub is a true “southern Ap¬ 
palachian endemic,” known only from West 
Virginia, south to the mountains of northern 
Georgia. In Virginia, it is currently docu¬ 
mented from only four, highly localized 



stations along rivers of the Cumberland 
Plateau and southern Blue Ridge pro¬ 
vinces. Because of its habitat preference, 
the Virginia Spiraea tends to occur in the 
same places where water impoundments 
have been or might likely be built. One 
population occurs just below an existing 
reservoir and another would have been 
destroyed had a proposed dam gone 
through. Other threats include channeliza¬ 
tion, railroad construction and mainte¬ 
nance, deposition of trash, and recreational 
use of these usually scenic sections of river. 

Because of its extreme rarity and the 
potential threats that it faces, the Virginia 
Spiraea is currently a strong candidate for 
federal listing as Threatened or Endan¬ 
gered. Additionally, the Virginia Natural 
Heritage Program has recently made re¬ 
commendations to the Virginia Department 
of Agriculture and Consumer Services 
supporting its state listing as well. 

Garrie D. Rouse 

Beginning with the March 1989 issue of the 
Bulletin, Mike Lip ford, coordinator of the Vir¬ 
ginia Natural Heritage Program, or Chris Ludwig, 
botanist of the VNHP as of November 1, will be 
writing this column. Chris was formerly a botanist 
with the Maryland and Delaware Natural Heri¬ 
tage Program. He also has served as a field 
biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 


Virginia Endangered Plant... .ACT! 


The Board of the Virginia 
Department of Agriculture and Consumer 
Services (VDACS) has approved a pro¬ 
posal to list 12 additional species of plants 
for protection under the Virginia Endan¬ 
gered Plant and Insect Species Act (VE- 
PISA). The listing will provide the plants 
protection under the VEPISA and allow for 
the development of a comprehensive re¬ 
covery plan. These plants are: 

Arabis serotina (shale barren rock cress) - a 
strict shale barren endemic known from fewer 
than 25 stations in the Ridge and Valley Province 
of Virginia and West Virginia. 

Bacopa stragula (mat-forming water-hyssop) - a 
low, mat-forming Chesapeake Bay endemic 
restricted to freshwater intertidal mudflats of 
major estuarine rivers. 

Buckleya distichophylla (piratebush) - a colonial 
shrub of steep slopes and river bluffs restricted to 
the mountainous regions of the southern Appa¬ 
lachians. 

Carex Polymorpha (variable sedge) - despite its 
wide range from Maine to Virginia, this plant is 


currently documented from only a handful of 
isolated stations. 

Fimbristylis perpusilla (Harper's fimbristylis) - a 
diminutive sedge of exposed, muddy bottoms of 
coastal plain ponds (or “bays”), this species was 
reported for the first time in Virginia in 1986. 
Helenium virginicum (Virginia sneezeweed) - a 
wetland plant of seasonally wet sinkhole ponds 
on the western slopes of the Blue Ridge Moun¬ 
tains in Augusta and Rockingham Counties. 
Helonias bullata (swamp-pink) - a wetland spe¬ 
cies of seepage swamps with scattered relict 
populations ranging from New York to Georgia. 
Ilex collina (long-stalked holly) - a plant of high- 
elevation wetlands and rivers of the southern 
Appalachians, known from only 10 sites. 
Iliamna corei (Peter's Mountain mallow) 
Nestronia umbellula (nestronia) - a colonial 
shrub of dry woodlands, this species is endemic 
to the Piedmont of the southeast ranging from 
Virginia to Alabama. 

Scirpus ancistrochaetus (northeastern bulrush) 
- a wetland species of freshwater marshes and 
wet meadows with eight known localities ranging 
from Vermont to Virginia. 


Spiraea virginiana (Virginia spiraea) - a hand¬ 
some shrub restricted to high-gradient river 
bands of the southern Appalachians. 

The list of “candidate” plants was pre¬ 
pared by the Virginia Natural Heritage Pro¬ 
gram under an interagency agreement with 
VDACS. However, authority for protecting 
the plants rests with the Department of 
Agriculture, which has now begun the 
lengthy process of soliciting public com¬ 
ments and placing the plants on the list. 

The Virginia Native Plant Society ex¬ 
pects to submit comments supporting the 
proposed listings both during the written 
comment period in November-December7, 
1988, and during the public hearing (which 
will probably take place in May ’89). Mem¬ 
bers of the Society who have information 
about any of these plant species and threats 
to their survival should send such informa¬ 
tion to either Dr. Faith Campbell, Conserva¬ 
tion chair, or Dr. Dorothy Bliss, Botany 
chair. 


Page 4 


Fall/Winter 1988 










Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 


What Pine is That? 


A mong the most valuable of our for¬ 
est trees are members of the pine family, 
which also includes spruce, fir, and hem¬ 
locks. The latter three may be easily distin¬ 
guished from pines, since eastern pines 
have two or more needles grouped in 
bundles or fascicles while the other genera 
produce their needles singly. Of the eight 
species of pines that occur in Virginia, 
two ,Pinus palustris, long-leaf pine and P. 
serotina, swamp or pond pine, grow natu¬ 
rally in only a few southeastern counties. 
P. taeda, loblolly pine, is found in the 
eastern half of the state and as far west as 
Albemarle and Buckingham counties. P. 
echinata, short-leaf, and P. virginiana, 
scrub pine, are scattered over much of the 
state while P. strobus, white pine, P. 
pungens, Table Mountain pine, and P. 
rigida, pitch pine, are more or less re¬ 
stricted to the western half. 

Pines are commercially valuable for 
lumber, pulpwood, paper products, cabi¬ 
net making, turpentine, fuel, and horticul¬ 
tural purposes. Their seeds provide an 
important food source for many birds in¬ 
cluding chickadees, quail, wild turkeys, 
and pine warblers. The young needles and 
seeds are eaten by chipmunks, mice, and 


squirrels and the white tail deer browse on 
the needles. These trees also furnish 
cover and nesting habitat. 

Some distinguishing characteristics 
of Virginia pines are included in the follow¬ 
ing chart. Why don’t you take this with you 
on your next field trip and see how many 
pines you can identify? First check the 


length and number of needles in each 
bundle, then look for the cones and com¬ 
pare them with the description (1 in. = ap¬ 
proximately 2.5 cm). 

Dorothy Bliss 
Botany chair 

Excerpted from the Blue Ridge News¬ 
letter, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1988 



Distinguishing Characteristics of Virginia Pines 


Tree 

Needles 

Cone 

Bark 

Distribution 

White 

Pine 

5 in a bundle 

7-13 cm long 

Slender, 10-15cm 
long, nodding 

Branches smooth old bark 
dark with deep furrows 

Western half of the 
state 

Scrub 

Pine 

2’s 4-8 cm long 
twisted 

4-6 cm long, scales with 
a small prickle 

Reddish brown broken into 
shallow plates 

Poor soils most of 
state 

Pitch 

Pine 

3's 5-12 cm long 
stiff, mostly twisted 

Egg-shaped 3-9 cm long 
often clustered, scales 
tipped with prickles 

Rough dark bark 

Most of state 
dry, sandy soil 

Short-leaf 

Pine 

2’s or 3's 7-13 cm 
long straight 

5 cm long, scales with a 
short weak prickle 

Bark broken into more or 
or less rectangular plates 

Over much of state 
except southwest 

Table 

Mountain 

Pine 

2’s or 3’s, 4-8 cm 
long, stout, stiff 
twisted, sharp pointed 

5-9 cm long, whorls of 3 or 
more, heavy, woody scales 
with stout recurved spines 

Bark in irregular red-brown 
plates 

Mountains & western 
half of state, dry 
ridges 

Loblolly 

Pine 

3’s or 2’s 12-25 cm 
long slender 

6-12 cm long, cone scales 
with a stout triangular spine 

Reddish bark breaking into 
large plates 

Eastern half of state 

Long-leaf 

Pine 

3’s 20-45 cm long 
slender 

15-25 cm long cylindric, thick 
scales with short prickles 

Thin scaled bark 

Few southeastern 
counties 

Pond or 
Marsh 

Pine 

3’s 12-28 cm long 
flexible 

5-7 cm long top-shaped 
weak prickle 

Flaky dark, red brown 

Pond margins coastal 
plain - two counties 


Page 5 


Fall/Winter 1988 






































CHAPTER NEWS 


Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 



Piedmont 

^ he G. Richard Thompson Wildlife Management Area 
(WMA), near Linden, in Fauquier County, is one of Northern 
Virginia’s botanical treasures. Aside from the increasingly cele¬ 
brated displays of trillium (Trillium grandiflorum), easily the most 
dazzling in the region, and perhaps anywhere by virtue of the lovely 
setting, the area harbors several extremely important habitats with 
unusual and rare plant species. Botany chair, Gary Fleming, has 
done valuable work in identifying these species and places. 

When the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries 
announced plans for extensive timber cutting (including some 
clearcuts) within the WMA, citing the need for revenue and for 
cutting mature oaks before extreme gypsy moth damage, we 
stepped in. After many conversations with an interested VNPS 
network, and lengthy correspondence, we began a good dialogue 
with officials of the Department in Richmond. Gary Fleming hiked 
the area with the local manager of the WMA. He supplied maps 
pinpointing botanically important areas, and these were sent to 
Richmond. To make a long, involved story short, Richmond as¬ 
sured Piedmont they would not cut in the areas of concern. While 
Richmond officials have been true to their word, the massive tim¬ 
ber-cutting machinery, trucks, and wide, compacted logging roads, 
do no credit to the Department entrusted with this land. 

The story is not yet done. Stay tuned. The episode under¬ 
scores the great importance of VNPS vigilance. Conservation 
chair, Jocelyn Alexander, would be glad to hear from members who 
share a strong interest in the WMA. A growing group is forming, a 
loose-knit “Friends of the Richard Thompson” of sorts. 


Blue Ridge 

Dorothy Bliss, Botany chair, 
had a display at the second annual 
conference co-sponsored by the VPI 
Forestry Department and Jefferson 
National Forest entitled “Public In¬ 
volvement and Plan Implementation.” 

The conference, held on November 5 
at VPI, Blacksburg, featured lectures, 
displays, four workshops, ana a ques¬ 
tion and answer forum. Forestry con¬ 
cerns were addressed in each seg¬ 
ment of the program. 

Prince William 
Wild flower Society 

PWWS has decided to empha- 
size the importance of trees this up¬ 
coming year, with particular reference 
to saving trees within the County. The 
Rescue, Conservation, and Education 
chairs will concentrate their major ef¬ 
forts to this end. Habitat will also be 
stressed, in keeping with the new 
VNPS policy statement. 

FROM NEAR AND FAR 

Aid for a Tropical Rain Forest 

Smith & Hawken announced in their 
Winter ’88 catalog for gardeners that they 
had donated $100,000 to preserve a tropi¬ 
cal rain forest on behalf of their customers. 
The money was given to Conservation In¬ 
ternational, a nonprofit group, in a “debt-for- 
nature” swap involving Conservation 
Bonds. Customers were encouraged to join 
their effort through a Cl membership. Nice 
leadership S&H! 

VNPS Member Honored 

Ed Ballard, of the Potowmack Chapter 
of VNPS, received a Certificate of Apprecia¬ 
tion from the Northern Virginia Community 
Appearance Alliance. The Alliance, estab¬ 
lished by the 11,000 member Northern Vir¬ 
ginia Board of Realtors, is to carry out an 
initial goal of identifying and rewarding out¬ 
standing contributions to community wide 
appearance. The Alliance wishes to recog¬ 
nize and encourage quality new construc¬ 
tion, rehabilitation efforts, and overall en¬ 
hancement of the natural environment. 


Ed Ballard is tireless in his efforts to 
promote protection and use of native plants 
by developers, county landscaping, and 
parks. 

Photographic Guidelines 

“Photographers should ensure that 
neithertheirbodies, equipment, northeiref- 
forts to ‘prune’ distracting features of the 
habitat cause direct or indirect damage or 
exposure to the subject or to other plants in 
the vicinity.” They shouldn’t remove over¬ 
mature flowers, for example, so that only 
fresh ones appear in the picture, nor should 
they tramp on surrounding vegetation in 
search of a better specimen. 

Adapted from a letter to Audubon, 
September 1988, written by Edward G. 
Voss, Curator and Professor at the Univer¬ 
sity of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor. 

New Book Out in February 

Native Shrubs and Woody Vines of 
the Southeast, Landscape Uses and Iden¬ 
tification, by Leonard E. Foote and Samuel 


Jones, Jr., approx. 260 pp., 220 color 
photos, hardbound, $32.95. Order from 
Timber Press, Inc., 9999 SW Wilshire, 
Portland, OR 97225. 

A comprehensive guide with land¬ 
scape recommendations. Identifies ap¬ 
proximately 550 species through excellent 
keys. Supplementary material includes 
conservation, plant photography, propaga¬ 
tion, and derivation and ecology of the flora. 

Floral Handicap 

Golfers at Burnham and Berrow Golf 
Club in England are facing an unusual 
handicap at their local course - wild orchids. 

The hundreds of rare blooms have 
prompted conservationists to have the area 
designated one of special scientific interest. 
Anyone damaging them faces a £1,000 
fine. 

Players are now asking for a rule 
change so they can move a ball if it lands in 
the exotic flowers. The president said, “We 
love our wildlife - but we have got to play golf 
too.” Daily Mail, July 7, 1988 


Page 6 


Fall/Winter 1988 









Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 


New York Botanical Garden Library 


3 51 


85 


345 5704 


Holiday Gifts from the VNPS 

Ordering holiday gifts from the VNPS lets you please family 
and friends - - or yourself - - and at the same time give a gift to the 
VNPS. Specifically: 

Ferns and Fern Relatives of Virginia, a pocket-size check¬ 
list compiled by VNPS Botany Chair Dorothy Bliss, is brand-new. 
It’s a valuable resource for field trips, at just $1.25. Currently in 
press. 

Barbara Stewart’s beautiful note cards make thank-you’s 
easy. A set of 10, two each of five pen-and-ink drawings of Virginia 
wildflowers, on blue or cream, is $7.80. 



Two excellent books for wildflower gardeners are Harry 
Phillips’ Growing and Propagating Wildflowers ($17.62) and 
Henry Art’s A Garden of Wildflowers ($15.53). 

For those who enjoy plants in the wild, consider Earl Core’s 

Spring Wildflowers of West Virginia ($6.17). 

Or try one of the handsome volumes by Oscar Gupton and 
Fred C. Swope: Wild Orchids of the Middle Atlantic States 
($15.06), Wildflowers of Tidewater Virginia ($13.44), or Fall 
Wildflowers of the Blue Ridge and Smoky Mountains ($1 5.53). 

There are still a few VWPS T-shirts, in royal blue or sky blue, 
in men’s S and women’s M and L only, reduced to $6.23. This may 
be your last chance. 

Prices include mailing costs and Virginia sales tax. Send 
orders, with check payable to VNPS, to VNPS-Orders, P.O. Box 
844, Annandale, VA 22003. 


Wildflower Seeds: 

Economical and Satisfying 

To encourage gardeners to grow more native plants from 
seeds or spores, the New England Wild Flower Society is offering 
for sale more than 150 varieties of wildflowers and ferns in its 1989 
Seed List, including natives for woodland, wetland, and meadow 
gardens. 

All requests for the 1989 Seed List must be received by 
March 1. Requests will be filled in the order received. Send a self- 
addressed, 450 stamped envelope (#10, business size) to Seeds, 
New England Wild Flower Society, Garden in the Woods, Hemen- 
way Road, Framingham, MA 01701. No requests for Lists will 
be honored without the stamped envelope. 


i- 1 

! Some Folks Are a Bit Dotty! 

... and those people are among our favorites, because a mailing label with a dot indicates a member in good standing 
| through (and in some cases beyond) October 31,1989. If you don’t have a “dotty label” join the crowd and renew! 

The next issue of the Bulletin will be sent to current members only. Please complete the form provided below and 
send it, with your check payable to VNPS, to: 

Virginia Native Plant Society 
| Membership Chair 
P.O. Box 844 
Annandale, VA 22003 

Name: _ 

Chapter: _ 

Category: _ 

Contribution _ to VNPS _ to chapter Total $ _ 


Categories include: Individual $10; Patron $25; Family $15; Student or Senior $5; Senior Family $10; 
Supporting $50; Sustaining $100; Associate (groups) $25; Corporate Sponsor $125; Life $250. 




Fall/Winter 1988 


Page 7 


















































































Bulletin of the Virginia Native Plant Society 


EDITOR 

VNPS Board is considering hiring an Editorfor 
the BULLETIN on a trial basis (five issues). The 
selected Editor is to be from VNPS membership. 
Strengthening the BULLETIN content and ap¬ 
pearance is the goal, thereby attracting member¬ 
ship growth. VNPS Board invites interested 
members to respond to Nicky Staunton, President. 
Resumes are invited to accompany expressed 
interest. 


Thank You 

Special appreciation needs to be expressed 
to Jeni Bradford, Publications chair, for the time- 
consuming work she has done to bring this issue 
of the BULLETIN to you. At this point, the Editor's 
job is voluntary, and Jeni has given time to the 
organization of copy, the location of printer, and 
development of copy with a spirit of enthusiasm to 
be admired. 

"Thank You" to each contributor to this issue 
of the BULLETIN. We hope it is well on its way to 
being the effective publication needed by VNPS. 

The VNPS Board 




Wishes for 


And a Happy New 


a totaIXy joy-filled holiday] 

l)ear full of all that you love dearDy. 



Virginia Native Plant Society 

formerly the Virginia Wildflower Preservation Society 
P.O. Box 844 
Annandale, VA 22003 


Non-Profit Organization 
U.S. Postage 

PAID 

PERMIT NO. 347 
Springfield, VA 





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NEW YORK 

botanical garden