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Toronto •; 

^H ■ 



OF THfi 

American Museum of Natural 

Vol. XXXI, 1912. 


New York : 

Published by order of the Trustees. 





American Museum of Natural History 

Seventy-seventh Street and Central Park West, New York City 




First Vice-President 


Second Vice-President. 








i - BOWDODf. 

•-H H CHOi 
THOM \> I >h w Hi CD1 LEB 
AETHER CI i:i I— .1 VMES. 





Y R. PY\1 





Assistant. Secretary 
(il i »R<;i II SHERWOOD. 




Scientific Staff. 


DOTC A. l.i «as, Sc.D. 


Edmund Ons Hovey, Ph.D., Curator. 
Cm -ii u A Reeds, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 


L. P. Gratacat. a M . Curator. 
George 1'. Krxz, Ph.D., Honorary Curator of Geo 


\\\\v.\ K. Crampton. I'll. I)., Curator. 

\\ . Mim.ii, A li .. Assistant Curator. 

/. Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 

I.. P. <iu\T\< \i-. A.M.. Curator of Mollusca. 

Joi issbeck, Assistant. 

William Morton Wh ti n. PhD.. Honorary Curator of Social Insects. 

ALEXANDER Petri nki .\it< ii. Ph.D.. Honorary Curator of Arachnida. 

Aaron L. Tkkadwj ii .. Ph.D., Honorary Curator of Annulata. 

Chaklk- \\ . I in'.. H >.. Honorary Curator of Coleoptcra. 


Bashkuki. Dkan. Ph.D., Curator. 

Louis Hussakof, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Fishes. 

John T. Nichols. A .Ii.. km ietanl Curator of Recent Pishes.. 

Mary Cynthia Die kii; taut Curator of Herpetology? 


J. A., Ph.D., Curator. 

Frank M. Ciiaiwiav Curator of Ornithology. 

Roy C. Andmwb, A li.. Assistant Curator of Mammalogy. 

W. DsW. Miller, Assistant Curator of Ornithology. 


Scientific Staff, 


ar Fairfield Osbo I.I.D., D.Sc, Curator Emeritus. 

\\ . I) Mmm.w, Ph.D., Curator. 
\Vu.tkk Ckwi.ku, Associate Curator of Fossil Mammals. 
Barntm Brown. A.M., Associate Curator of Fossil Reptiles. 
Wii.i.iwi K Gregory, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 


Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator. 

Puny K. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Curator. 

Robert H. Lowie, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 

Hkrhekt J. Simndkn, Ph.D., Assistant Curator. 

ML, Assistant Curator. 

irn W. Mkad, Assistant Curator. 

AltAXaOM Smwki: I Curator. 

Harlan I. Smith, Honorary Curator of Archaeology. 

Ralph \Y. Tower, Ph.D., Curator. 


Charlk— Knwahd Amokv Winslow, M.S., Curator. 
John Henry O'Nkm.i.. SB. Assistant. 

Mahv CnrBDU Di< ■kkksi.v, U.S., Curator. 


EUim w. Towni, PhD. Curator. 
Id\ Hi< MAKDsos Hood, A.H, Assistant Librarian. 


Ai.hmu s. Bi< KMdiiK, I'll I > . I.I. I)., Curator BoMitaa. 
II Sherwood. AM. < 
MM L rTfflUlM. Assistant. 


Pa ob. 

Titl e pfe i 

Officers and Trustees iii 

Maff iv 

Contents vii 

Dates of Publication of Author's Separates viii 

List of Illustrations ix 

List of 'fnes of Genera, Species and Subspecies xi 

Errata xiv 

Art. I. — Historical and Xomenclatorial Notes on North American 

Sheep. By J. A. Allen. (Four text figures.) 1 

II .— New Species of Monkeys of the Genera Seniocebus, AlouaUa, 

and Aotus. By D. G. Elliot, F. R. S. E., etc 31 

III. — Orthogenesis in the Egg Capsules of Chimsera. By Bash- 
ford Dean. (Two text figures.) 35 

IV. — On Some Fossil Rhynchophorous Coleoptera from Florissant, 

Colorado. By II. 1 \\'i. kham. (Plates I-IV.) 41 

V — Notes on the Tertiary Deposits of the Bighorn Basin. By W. 

m i.air, Princeton I ' Diversity, and Walter Granger, 

American Manna of Natural History. (Plates V and VI 

and two text figures.) 57 

VI. — An Unusual Specimen of Mytilus middendorffi. Grewingk, from 

Alaska. By L P. Gratacap. (Plate VII.) 69 

VII . — Mammals from Western Colombia. By J. A. 71 

VIII. — The Relationship of the Genus Priscacara. By J. D. Hase- 

m \ I 97 

IX A N"i m 1'ika from Colorado. By J. A 103 

X —The Osteology of the Manus in the Family Trachodontkhe. 

My Barm m Biol n Two text figures.) 105 

XI— Notes on West Indian Fishes. By John Treadwei.l 

IOL8. (Four text figures.) 109 

XII. — Notes on the Trapezium in the Kquidte. By S. H. Chubb. 

(Three text figures.) 113 

XIII.— Mammals Collected in Lower California, with Descriptions of 
NewSpecies. By Charles HaskinsTou \-v.m>. (Plates 

VIII an.l IX.) 117 

XIV — A Crested Dinosaur from the K.Imonton Cretaceous. By 

B\rm m Brmwn. ( Plates Xaiwl XI ami four text figures.) 131 
XV. — Description of a New Species of QZdipomida*. By D. G. 

i It. S. E.ete 137 

XVI. — Diagnoses of apparently new Colombian Bin Is. B\ 

M Chapman (Plate XII.) 139 

X\ II. — Brachyottraam, a new Genus of Glyptodonts from Mexico. 
Marnum Brown. (Plates XIII XXIII and four text 

figures.) 167 

XVIII —Notes on Cuban Fishes. By John Treadweli. Xi. hols. 

(Two text figures.) 179 

\l\ I'. Cretaceous Chim;in.i.Is ,,f North America. By I. 
sAXor. (Plates XIX and XX and twenty-one text 
figures.) 195 


viii Contents. 

\\— Mollusca from tin- Tertiary of the We-i B] I I). A. 
COCKEREI.I. and .li mi - ELUfDBMOW. Plate- XXI and 


\ \I. — A New Ibis from Mt Kenia British Last Africa. By Frank 
M Chwman. (Plata! .Will :im.I XXIV.) 

wil A Revision of the PI— iflfwtfcwi of the Kingfiahera. By Pi 

Di\\ Mm. lit (Plate- \x\ sad XXVI and two t. 

figiir. 239 

Will. — Concealing Coloration, an An>wer to Theodore Roosevelt. 

My Ahhoit II. Tjiavkk. i Pour text Iguna.) 313 

WIV. Li-t of Insects Collected in Lower California. My JOB 

< lajoaam k SSA 

X \ V. — Notes on an KmLryo of PriatM CUtpidatu*. My I.. Hthsakof. 
o text Ifurai ).., 

XXVL — Observations on some North American Mcmitracida- in their 
last nvmphal stages. By [OKAI M vi \i -< n. (Plates 
\ X \ 1 1 X X \ 1 1 331 

\\\ll The Dipterous Crenus BibuxU*. My A. I,. Mki..\m>kk. 

(Pour text figures.) 

\\\ III Nam "f little known Heiniptera. chiefly from Australia, in the 

American MuBB Um of Natural History My P. BXBOJtOTH. 343 

XXIX <>n the Hair'-like Appendages in the | .'nMfrnusrobus- 

tus (Mljjr .;. My Ma-hh>hi> Dkan. (Two text figures.).. 349 
X X X Type- of Insect-, exce]it Lepidoptera ami Pormicida', in the 
American Museum of Natural History additional to those 
previously bated. My JoHS A. (Iikisshkck 353 

XXXI A Review of the Species comprising the ( Itmir, i n-( 'a-nocharia 

Group. By JOBJf A. Qao a ap aCK. (Thirteen text figures.) 381 


The edition of A\it! - rates is 300 copies, of which about 100 are mailed 

on the dates of issue, and the other- p l a c e d on sale in the Library. 


. I, March 4, 








































VI. April 
















XIII. " 








IX. Mav 



























XII. " 


















XIV, July 



X X X . 





XV, Julv 








XVI « 


Illustrations, ix 



I IV. — Fossil Rhynehopboro u a Coleoptera from Florissant, Colorado. 

V OoBtoel of so-called I nit Ijiion with \\ :i-;iT <h on the southwest slopes of 

MeCttBoon Peak. 
VI. — Gravel lenses in Wind River RjUliltniW 
\ II I fatorti i Bpi omen of Mytilus middendorffii Grewingk. 

VIII. — (1) Adult male ami female Elephant Seal (Macrorhinus anguslirostris) . 
(2) View of northwest side of Guadalupe Island, L. Cal. Small beach at 
extreme left occupied by Klephant Seals in 1911. The rocky point in 
Btet is where lur Seals were found in 1S92. 
IV Skull of Tihuron Wolf (Cnnis jmnesi). 
<<mrolophus nsborrti, lateral view of skull. 

XI lower jaw, inside view. Paratype. 

XII Map of W esters Colombia. 

XIII XV. — Brachyostracoii (Ulyptodon) mejricanus. Carapace. 
X\ I XVIII. — Brachyoslracon cyliitdricus. Carapace. 

XIX - Chinueroid dental plates (Kdnphodon). 

Chimaroid fin-spine and palatal plate (Edaphodon) . 
X X I XXII. Tertiary Mollusea from the West. 

XXIII -(1) Oreoibisahli yontm. Head of adult, one-half natural sixe. (2) Head 
of young, natural size. 
Orif Nest, three young, and part of egg-shell. 

XXV. Kii Skulls and mandib 

XXVI K Coracoids, scapulae and clavicles. 

XXVII XXXII Xvmphal stages of North American Membracids. 


Mountain Ham, from drawing by E. Savage. Reproduced from New York 

Vol VI, \i 8 

Helier pie, from drawing by E. Savage. Ueproduei-d from Ann. du 

Mi. Vol II 1808, pi i\ ....I 

Opm canadensis. Reversed and modified copy of plate in Ann. du Mus. Xat. 
1. II. phr nd originally on same drawing as the two 

• •ding figun - 7 

'-gas's Nat. and • 

ruia. VoL I, 17.V.I. lower figure of plate facing p. .% 18 

Egf-eapeule :. Atlantic Chimaroid, probably Ckimara (Bathyal. 


Egg-capsule of ( himsroids, arranged in orthogemtie mries. 30 

8ketrh-map of part of the Mighorii Bojffl 60 

x Illustration*. 


Diagrammatic section showing overlap of the Wind River horizons 61 

Manns of Trachodon 106 

\ .ntral view of skeleton of Trachodon annectens 108 

Antennarius astroscopus n. sp 109 

Pseudomonacanlhus amphioxys (Cope) 110 

Monacanthus hispidus (Linnseus) Ill 

Wnrmainthus cUiatus (Mitchill) Ill 

SfHIM calxdlus, distal row of carpal bones and proximal end of metacarpus, 

■b u tr im tttpwium 1 1 1 

Equus caballus and Mttokipput, lateral view of metacarpus showing 5th 

metacarpal • I I 

Kiaagi domestic ass, Grant's and Grevy's zebras, trapezia and trapezoids. . . . 115 

mlophus osborni, occipital view of right side of skull 132 

" " top view of skull 133 

" " braincase of paratype 134 

" " sclerotic ring, restored, and single plate 135 

Brachyostrticoii rylindricus, left upper series of teeth 170 

" left lower series of teeth 170 

sacro-lumbar tube 1 T'.i 

" " sacro-lumbar tube, right side 174 

Siphostoma torn i, n. sp 183 

Xyskema havana n. sp 190 

Map showing American localities from which Cretaceous chimscroids have 

been obtained 201 

Diagram-key to the American species of Edaphodon of which the mandibular is 

known 203 

Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, right mandibular, oral, and outer views 205 

" " " right vomerine, outer, inner, and top views 206 

Fragment of a chimaeroid dorsal fin-spine 207 

Variation in the mandibular of Edaphodon mirificus, showing characters on 

which various supposed species have been based 209 

Edaphodon "laiidcns" (Cope), type mandibular in oral aspect 210 

IcUerigerw (Cope), left mandibular in outer and oral views 211 

stenobryus (Cope), right mandibular in outer and oral views 212 

agassizi (Buckland), right mandibular in oral and outer views. . . . 214 

pair of palatal elements in oral aspect 214 

sedgrmcki (Agassiz), left mandibular in outer view and both man- 
dibulars in oral view 216 

Edaphodon laqueatus (Leidy), right vomerine in outer and inner views 217 

Leptomylus cooki Cope, right mandibular in oral and outer views 219 

for/ex Cope, right mandibular in outer and oral views 220 

" " " left palatal view from above 221 

IaoUxnia neocasariensis Cope, left palatal view from above and in oral aspect . . 222 

Cross-sections of Edaphodon and of Isotctnia palatals 223 

Fragment of an Edaphodon vomerine, type of the genus Bryactinus Cope 223 

Diagram showing the part of the Edaphodont vomerine named by Cope, Bry- 
actinus 223 

Sphagepaa aciculata Cope. Incomplete fin-spine I'-'.". 

Pristis cuspidatus Latham, embryo 328 

Illustrations. xi 


Pristis empidatm same <ml>rvo in ventral view 329 

odes femorata <?; Bibiodes ctstim, hind leg: Bibiodes halteralis, hind leg; 

Biboides halleralis, wing 339 

I IM and Mt/tus, showing extruded eggs 350 

fore leg 384 

MtfN Ihi icaria, genitalia 385 

puellaria genitalia 386 

/Hiirsulli, genitalia 388 

tpipkgtaria, genitalia 389 

mormonaria, genitalia 392 

I, fore-leg 392 

xhdris inlerruptarui, genitalia 393 

indistincta, genitalia 394 

• nation; fore-, mid-, and hind-leg; head in profile; and section of 

male antenna 398 

ocharis, venation 400 

Tornos, fore-, mid-, and hind-leg; section and tip of male antenna 401 

Tornos $oolopa c inaria, genitalia 403 





Eugnamlidea Wickham 42 

Brachyostracon Brown 169 

Oreoibis Chapman 235 

Piestolestes Bergroth 344 

Marina Grossbeck 397 

Stenocharis Grossbeck 399 

BfSUlM and Srnsi'K< n:s. 

Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot 

Alouala ululnli Elliot 

Aottu griseimembris Elliot 

Eugnamlidea tertiaria Wickham 
Ophryastiles miocenus Wickham 
Ophryastes championi Wickham 

tus different Wickham 
Cleonus estriaUt* Wickham 
Dorytomus vidcanicus Wickham 


' ruchelua floriseanteneU Wickham I'.t 

xii Names. 


Cryptorhynchus coloradensis Wickham 50 

falli, Wi.kham 51 

Boris hoveyi Wickham 60 

" tctiurtirrti Wickham ■'<- 

nus cxtinclus Wickham 53 

Sylnlagus (Tapeti) fulvescens Allen 75 

Heteromys lomiiensis Allen ~~ 

Reithrodontomys milleri Allen 77 

Rhipidomys moUissimus Allen 78 

similis Allen 79 

" cocalemis Allen 71 

Thomasomys cinereiventer Allen 80 

" popayanus Allen 81 

Neacomys pusillus Allen 81 

Oryzomys palmira Allen 83 

" pectoralis Allen 83 

" {Oligorytomys) munchiquensis Allen 85 

" " fulvirostris Allen 86 

" (Melanomys) obscurior affinis Allen 88 

Mpeomys fuscatus Allen 89 

Microxus affinis Allen 89 

Sciurus milleri Allen 91 

Blarina (Cryptotis) squamipes Allen 93 

Ochotona figginsi Allen 1 • ,; ! 

Antennarius astrocopus Nichols 109 

Lepus alleni tiburonensis Townsend 120 

Perognathus baileyi insudaris Townsend 1 '-'- 

penicillatus goldmani Townsend 122 

spinatus nelsoni Townsend 139 

Neotoma albigula seri Townsend 125 

" instdaris Townsend 126 

Peromyscus guardia Townsend 1*6 

stephani Townsend 1 -' '» 

eremicus carmeni Townsend 126 

Cant* jamesi Townsend 1 M » 

Saurolophus osborni Brown 131 

(Krfi ixtmidas salaquiensis Elliot i 137 

Cryptnrus soui cauca; Chapman 141 

Chama*petes sancke-marthte Chapman 141 

Leptotila verreauxi occidentalis Chapman 11- 

Pionopsitla fuertesi Chapman 11- 

Capita maculicoronatus rubrUaleralis Chapman 144 

Veniliornis nigriceps equifasciatus Chapman 144 

Rhamphocamus rufiventris griseodorsalis Chapman 145 

Drymophila caudata striaticeps Chapman 145 

Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri Chapman 146 

Grallaria milleri Chapman 147 

" alleni Chapman 148 

Upucerthia excelsior Columbiana Chapman 148 

List of New Names. xiii 


SynaUaxis gularis rufipertus Chapman 149 

" " cinereiventris Chapman 149 

Pieolaptes lacrymiger sancta-marthn ( Stajman 150 

Xenicopsis subaktris columbianus Chapman 150 

ipoleaus columbianus Chapman 151 

Muscisaxicola alpina Columbiana Chapman 

Myiodynastes ckrysocepkalus intermedins Chapman 152 

Tyrarmiscus chrysops minimus Chapman 153 

nigricapillus flavimentum Chapman 154 

Platypsaris komochrous canescens Chapman 155 

to fuscicauda Chapman 155 

Rupicola peruviana aurea Chapman 156 

Phanprognc tapera immaculata Chapman 156 

Troglodytes solstitialis paUidipectus Chapman 157 

Thryophilus nigricapillus connectens Chapman 157 

"icerthia olwascens infasciata Chapman 158 

Planesticus fuscobrunneus Chapman 158 

• otybn chivi caucae Chapman 159 

Basileuterus richardsoni Chapman 160 

Spinus nigricauda Chapman 160 

M cauca Chapman 161 

iinbe columbiana Chapman 162 

Atlapetes flariceps Chapman 162 

nocompsa cyanea caucat Chapman 163 

Diglossa cryptorhU Chapman 164 

" gloriosissima Chapman 165 

Sporalhn; ala margariUx Chapman 165 

■rospingus albitemjxtra ytiyriceps Chapman 166 

Brachyostracoi w i , 169 

1 'tstoma torri i Nichols 183 

Xystctma 189 

Oreohelix megarcht Cookerell & Henderson 230 

" grangeri Cockonll <\: I Icndereon 231 

Gastrodonta (?) evanstonensis var. sinclairi Cockerell 231 

Omphalina ono d o n tU Coflkonfl A Henderson 

Ortoibis akeleyorum Chapman 235 

■ rceris angulata K<»h\v. r 326 

xies astiva Melander SM 

femorata Molar., i- : 340 

Henicocephalus airius Bonn-nth 344 

Piestolestes lineatus Bergm' h 345 

Hermillus edo Borgmt li 346 

Slenotatmus edwardsi Bergroth 347 

Lygus neovalesicus Bergroth. 348 

ina pearsalli Grombeck 387 

nbdtiminiilis ( Imssherk |88 


magnifica Groasbeck 390 

huUlinoides Grow*). 391 

xiv Errata. 


Camocharu indittincla Grossbeck 394 

" macdunnoughi Grossbeck 395 

" obscura Grossbeck 395 

" eureka Grossbeck 396 

Marina coniferaria Grossbeck 399 

Stenochari* permagneria Grossbeck 400 

Tornoifieldii Grossbeck 404 


Page 235, line 13, for akleyorum read akeleyorum. 
" " 19, " akleyorum " akeleyorum. 
" 359, " 29, " Stenolsemus read Stenotaemus. 

375, " 13, " Chilorsiac hrysochlamys read Chilorsia chrysochlamys. 
Plates XXIII and XIV, for akleyorum read akeleyorum. 



American Museum of Natural History. 

Volume XXXI, 1912. 

59.9.735 0(7) 


By J. A. 




Introduction ........... 

Sheep in Canada in 1800 by Duncan licGiUhrray 

.(•count of th<- species ai - - drawing of the original 

IIH-ll ...... 

'Belier d<- Montagne* 
< > ...... 

ivier, and revival of the name? ml ovit coaMMam- 

I - I Nuddrr'- ■ Natural euany* 


:• nsis Sli.iu 

r early re the Korky Mountai 

era group <>f Mountain slurp 

riran Sheep, with their type localities and 
ranges 22 

>:ll group ... 




Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol X.W I 


The present paper originated in an attempt to settle the question of 
priority between the names Oris cervina Desmarest and Ovis canadensis 
Shaw, both of which prove to have been published early in the year 1804. 
This investigation led to the finding of many interesting facts conne< tod 
with tin- original discovery of the Rocky Mountain Bighorn and the origin 
of its early technical names, and also other information relating to tin- 
discovery of other forms of North American sheep. While little of the 
early information here cited is new, much of it has been lost sight of in 
recent years; nor has it ever been presented fully or connectedly. For this 
reason the McGillivray account is here treated with a fullness of detail 
that may seem unnecessary, notwithstanding its historic interest, and the 
fact that it is the sole basis of the three technical names most frequently 
employed for the designation of the Rocky Mountain Bighorn. Attention 
is called, also, to various misstatements that have crept into the literature 
of the general subject, and to the diverse figures based on the original 
drawing of the type specimen. These show how untrustworthy zoological 
illustrations may be, and how easy it is to place too much reliance on 
pictorial representations of animals in even standard works. 

Finally it has seemed desirable to conclude this paper with a list of the 
numerous forms of American sheep at present currently recognized, with 
their synonymy, type localities, geographical distribution, and principal 

Discovery of Wild Sheep in Canada in the Year 1800 
by Duncan McGillivray. 

The accounts of the discovery and the early descriptions of the Rocky 
Mountain Sheep are of such interest as to be worthy of consideration in 
some detail, especially since a question of nomenclature rests on the correct 
determination of the dates of publication of different accounts based on the 
original McGillivray specimen. 

The first specimen of this sheep known to science was killed and pre- 
served by Duncan McGillivray, an agent of the North West Fur Company, 1 

i "Duncan McGillivray was a clerk of the North West Co., in 1797 or earlier." says 
Dr. Coues. and "accompanied David Thompson on his Bow River tour. Nov. 17th-Dec. 
3d, 1800. He left the N. W. country in 1802. became a partner of McTavish. Frobtsher & 
Co.. and was one of the signers of the Montreal agreement of Nov. 5th. 1804." — New Light 
on the Early History of the Greater Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry 
and of David Thompson, I. 1897. p. 439, footnote. 

1912.) Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 3 

who accompanied the well known explorer and surveyor, David Thompson, 
while making tns survey of the upper Bow River country of Canada in 
tin- Mrtamn of 1 s <mi Me(;illivray has left on record definite information 
as to the time and place of its capture, and a first hand account l of the 
habits, haunts, and external characters of this now well known species. 
It appears from his narrative that these two explorers first met with these 
animal- on November 30, 1800, near what is now Calgary in southern 
Alberta, where the Bow River emerges from the first range of the Rocky 

attains, in, as McGillivray states, longitude 115° 30' west, and latitude 
50° north. 2 They found here a small hand and killed a number of them, 
including a fine old ram. He recognized the animal as a nondescript, and 
d the skin of the ram to send to the Royal Society of London, 
account 3 begins as follows: " In the fall of 1800, 1 was on an excur- 
sion on horseback, through the plains that are situated between the Sas- 
eatchevaa and Missouri rivers, along the rocky mountains, accompanied 
l>y Mr. Thompson, a Gentleman of the N. W. Company's employ, five 
( 'anailian-. and an Indian guide. Returning back to the north, we fol- 
lowed the course of the Bow-River, into the heart of the mountains, with a 
view of « •\amining them — and on the 30th November, at noon, we halted 

be foot of the first ridge to graze our horses, and ascertain our latitude. 

I lit t K- distance ahead, appeared a herd of small animals, which we took 
to l>e a species of the Deer, in that country very numerous. While Mr. 
Thompson was taking his meridian altitude, I went forward with the 
Indian to have a shot, and on a nearer approach, was very much surprised 

ml instead of Deer) a herd of about twenty animals, that were utterly 
unknown to me." He describes how he and the Indian killed five, and 
■ddfl " I had the satisfaction to shoot a large male, whose motions appeared 

guide tin Bight of the rest — his superior size, and enormous horns, 

!•■ him the particular object of my pursuit, and I have pres erved his 

i. with a view of pr ese n ting it to the Royal Society of Ixmdon. During 
the Winter, I had frequent opportunities of hunting this tribe, which has 

bled me to make ■ few observations on it, thai may !>«• of advantage to 
Naturalists, in ascertaining the genus, or species of this animal. The 

din. I the above male, taken on the -pot. where he WSJ killed, namely, 

itnile 11.") :;<>, West, and latitude 50. North, are as follows:...." 

He describes the hair and horns, and says: " short, tins animal 

i New York Daily AdrcrtiMr, Vol. XVIII. No. 5661. December 4. 1802: New York 
Medical Repository. Vol. VI. 1803. pp. 238-240. 

* Latitude 60° N.. It evidently wrong, m David Thompson's map of the Bow River 

soe maps accompanying Coues's 'New Light on the early History of the Greater 
Northwest') shows the Bow River emerging from the first range or the mountains at about 
latitude 51* 20*. as on modern maps, and hence near Calgary. 

• In the New York Dally Advertiser. L e. 

4 Bulletin American Museum of Suturul History. [Vol X \ \ I 

appears to be a compound of the deer :m<l the sheep, ha\ ing the body tad 

hair of the former, with the head and horns of the latter." Later, after 
speak in i; of its habits ami it- Mage, lie describes the female, ami sa\ s " they 
are all [hoth males and females] distinguished by the white riimp and hlaek 
tail," hut he nowhere makes any reference to the general coloration. 

"The Greet, or rTnifHinreHlT." be continues, "distinguish this animal 
by the name M\-Ai in . or the Ughj Rein Deer. The SUve Nations, com- 
prehending Blood Indians, Piicans. ami Uhvl: Feet Indians, call it Km\-ki- 
CA-NOW, which also means a species of the l>eer - hut the Canadians who 
accompanied me, at first sight, named it le better du m on tag net (the moun- 
tain Ram). It is only to he met with in the rocky mountains, and it gen- 
erally frequents the highest regions, which produce any vegetation, though 
sometimes it descends to feed to the bottom o! the valley- The Mountain- 
Ram, or Sheep, though not numerous, are to he met with in considerable 
numbers in some parts of the mountains, from latitude "> 1 southward. I 
have, on several occasions, seen herds of 20 or 30, but generally not more 
than 2 or 3 of them together." 

McGili.ivkay's Account, and Savage's Drawing of the Original 


Mr. McGillivray was in New York late in the year 1802, with his non- 
descript mountain ram, which was for a short time in a private museum 
and art gallery in that city, owned by an artist named K. Savage, before it 
was sent to London. To Mr. Savage great credit is due, as will be soon 
shown, for his part in making known to the world MeGillivray's d is cover y, 
as he not only made a careful drawing of the specimen, but induced McGilli- 
vray to prepare an account of his discovery of this new species, with his 
; vations on its hahits and external appearance, and also secured the 
prompt publication of hoth his own drawing and Mr. MeGillivray's narra- 
tion. Thus, the 'Daily Advertiser' article is introduced by a letter to the 
editor from Mr. Savage, which reads as follow 

"Having bean informed that Mr. D. McGillevray. a Gentleman from Canada, 

had in his possession, the Skin of a non-descript animal, 1 made application to him 
for leave to make a drawing of it. to enrich the Columbian Gallery. He very politely 
indulged my request and at my solicitation has favored me with the following account, 
which elucidates the drawing, and which may gratify the public curi. 

» The Daily Advertiser. New York. Vol .Will -aturday. December 4. 1802. 

The article is entitled 'Description of the My-Attlr. or Mountain-Ram,' and makes a 
full column, and a few turn on the next, or the large folio page, and is printed as a single 
paragraph. The sentences are frequently separated only by a dash, and the sentence 
lowing the dash sometimes begins with a capital letter and sometimes with a lower case 
initial. There is a profuse use of commas, but in other respects the article is intelligently 
written an 1 his the appearance of having baan printed as the author wrote it. 

Allen, Xotes on North American Sheep. 5 

Before Mr McGillivray'a article was sent to the 'Daily Advert 

■ manuscript eopy of it had been communicated to Dr. Samuel Latham 

hill, on.- of the editors of the New York ' Medical Repository,' 1 by this 

•>aine M in a letter dated Nov. 24, 1802. It was published in the 

>ry.' probably in the following January, 1 in an article entitled 

omit of the Wild North American Sheep.' This article consists of an 
editorial introduction to a communication bearing the following explanatory 

•ion: " Memorandum respecting the Mountain Ham of North America. 

Duncan McGillivray, Communicated to Dr. Mitchill, by Mr. Savage, 
in a Letter, dated New York. November 24, 1802." 

Dr. Mitchill states in his editorial introduction (/. c, p. 237): "It is 
not universally known that there are species of sheep running wild in the 

da of North America. This, however, is the fact: and a dried specimen 

me of them was lately brought to New-York by Mr. M' c (iillivray. It 
made known to Dr. Mitchill by Mr. Savage, and is now in his Museum. 
That enterprising artist has made two good paintings from it. . . . " The 
uncoiored plate in the 'Medical Repository' (facing p. 237) is of course 
from one of them. As will be shown later, the other soon found its way to 
id "the dried specimen" was, apparently, soon after received at 
the British Museum. 

Mr. McGillivray's account of the animal in the 'Daily Advertiser' 

republished in London in the 'European Magazine and London Review* 

for 1803, under the title ' Description of the My-Attic, or Mountain Ram,' 

and credited to the rk Daily Advertiser." From this source it 

was again republished, one hundred and seven yean later, in New York, 

» The Medical Repository, and Review of American Publications on Medicine. Surgery. 
and the Auxiliary Branches of Science. Conducted by Samuel Latham Mitchill. M. D.. 
and Edward Miller. M. D \ ! \ I No. III. (Jan.*) 1803. pp 237-240. with a plate. 

The manuscript sent to the editors of the 'Medical Repository' was probably a dupli- 
cate copy of that published in the ' Daily Advertiser.' but subjected before printing to con- 
siderable editorial revision. The paragraphing and the construction of the sentences vary 
much from the London magazine version, and in the use of capitals and punctuation it 
further widely differs from the 'Advertiser' article. There are also a few verbal changes, 
and the nml— Ion here and there of words or phrases essential to the integrity of the criminal 
test. In substance, however, the 'Medical Repository' version Is the same as the article 
In the Advertiser.' This is fortunate, since the 'Medical Repository' is the source from 
which, with perhaps a single exception (Geoffroy ) . the McGillivray account has been uniformly 
cited or made use of by all later writers prior to 1910. 

* As bound up the separate numbers carry no date, nor is a date indicated for them in the 
table of contents, but there Is evidence in the dates carried by some of the communications 
to show that the four quarterly numbers composing the volume were Issued for July. October. 
January, and April. 1802-1803. as was the case in the later volumes. In which the numbers 

Fig. 1. From drawing by E. Savage. New York Med. Reposit., Vol. VI, 1802-03, pi. hi 

I'.il ii-i- tU- Montatf in 

Fig. 2. From drawing by E. Savage. From Ann. du Mus. dHist. Nat.. Vol. II, 1803, pi. Ix. 


AlUn, Sole* oi< 

in the issue of l 'I Stream' f<>r October ~9, 1910. 1 It was this 

rcpub lio a t ion that gave me a due to the source whence the Rocky Mountain 
Sheep was originally introdnoed int<» technical soClogical literature, for 
immediately I recalled the fact that Mr. Savage's drawing and Mr. McGinn 

3. Reversed and modified copy of plate In Ann. du Mus. Nat HM Vol. II. 
See Pig. 2. Based originally on same drawing as Pig. 1 . 

published in a New Y<>rk newspaper formed the basis of 
riginal description and figure of his 'Beher de Montague, 1 

in 1803, which became the !>a^i> <>f Desmarest'a nam ■/'»'/ early in 

» That Fir-it story of a Sheep Hunt. Forest and Stream. Vol l.\ \ \ v. is pp. e»2. 
SSS. See also a further ammni. with referen ce s to Oeoffroy. Shaw, and Desmarest. in the 
number of this Journal for \o\ pi run ,,,, si i, 812. 

As rapMMMMd in HM Kuropean MaRazlne and LoadM K.\i. w jikUmok by tin- literal 
reprint of it m Forest and Stream' in LtlQ HM artlrle is divided Into seven paragraphs, 
the sentences begin uniformly with a capital letter, and many superfluous commas are one 
tier respects it U almost an exact rcpnxlu.iion or Mm MtghMl \dvertlser' teat. 

Through Uw courtesy of Dr. Qsargi -.11.11. istitor of 'Forest and Stream.' 

I have been •»»!• M the original article in a flic of the ' Advertiser' discovered by 

him in the New York Society Library. 

8 liulhtin American Museum of Xutnml History. [Vol \\.\l. 

Ge<>i I l:<"i \ |',| 111 |; |,| M,,\ I \c. 

Tin- Brst French account of the Rocky Mountain Sheep, by the eminent 
naturalist Eticone Geoffroy St. Hilaire, appeared in the 'Annals' ol the 
I'ari^ Museum of Natural History for 1803, under the title 'Description 
d'une nouvelle espece de belief sauvage de I'Amerique septentrionale. 1 
Geoffroy says: 


"Le directeur du Museum de New-Ymvk. M. Suvage, a bien voulu, a la eollici- 

tation de M. Lormerie, agriculteur francais, nous envoyer la figure dun belier de 
l'interieur des terres, qui est a peine connu des Anglo-Americaina euxmemes. II 
nous prcvient qu'il n'a pu faire cettc figure que mi l.i peati bourree qui est dans son 
Museum, mais qu'au surplus il s'est attache a copier avec la plus grande exactitude 
les couleurs et les traits qui peuvent le mieux servir a caractenaer cette nouvelle 
espece. 1 Dans l'intention de suppleer a ce que i ne pouvoit exprimer, 

il a eu la complaisance de nous adresser une notice qu'on a imprimee dans le journal 
itmenr.tin Y Arertisseur, et qui a et6 redigee sur les lieux mdrae ou l'animal a 6t6 
dccouvert. Cette notice nous apprenil qu'on doit la d6couverte de cet animal a 
mi Angfiui nomm6 M. Oillcvray. . . . "* 

Prom these sources of information Geoffrey characterized the sr> 
as "un animal a corps de eerf et a t<*te de helier," and further obsei 
" II est asses singulier qu'un animal que la forme de n :1 tcte et de se 
place dans le genre des betiers ait la taille svelte et elegante de nos cerfs;. . . . 
En effet, le better de montagtu. . . a le poil court, roide, grossier et comme 
desseche. Ses couleur- rentrenl dans celles des cerfs, des chevreuila, et son 

pelage est hrun-marron; " He quotes McGillivray's measurements, 

and summarizes his account of its habits and haunts. He was evidently 
strongly impressed with its cervine features of form and pelage, ami derived 
from the drawing an erroneous conception of its coloration. 4 His artist, 
in reproducing S drawing, idealized it on these lines. Savage's 

drawing, as published in the 'Medical Repository' (here reproduced in 
Fig. 1), is of normal proportions for an old ram of this specie- as to both the 
body and the limbs, and the horn is truncated at the tip, through the natural 

» Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. nat., Tome II. An. XI (1803), pp. 360-363, pi. lx. 

» In this connection attention may be called to the accompanying Figures 1 and 2, show- 
ing Savage's drawing as reproduced in the 'Medical Repository' and Geoffroy's modified 
reproduction of the same drawing. 

* Notwithstanding Geoffroy's explicit statement as to the basis of his information, 
Richardson says (Faun. Bor.-Amer., I, 1829, p. 272): "This specimen [McCiillivray's] being 
afterwards sent to M. Geoffroy. he published a description of it with a figure in the Annalet 
du Museum" ! This error was repeated by Audubon aid Bachman. and by other later authors. 

* Possibly during the two years of exposure in camp life and travel the original color 
may have become changed by staining to such a degree as to mislead the artist as to its 
proper color. It is otherwise difficult to explain the erroneous coloring of Mr. Savage's 

1912.) Alien, Notes on North American Sheep. 9 

abrasion usually seen in very <>1<1 nun-, and the tip rise^ only to the level 
of t; The depth of tin- body behind theahonlden b only sboul one- 

third the total length, and just equals the length <»f tin- fore limb. 1 In 
ffroy'a plate tin- body is much slende r er and the lega much longer, the 
Ion limits being considerably longer than the depth <>f the body at the 
ihoulders. Thehorn (only one ean be seen) terminates in a point, which 
i> not on a level with the eve but considerably above tin- dorsal outline of 
the forehead. (See Fig. 2.) These facts are noted in detail on account of 
their bearing on the source of the plate accompanying Shaw's description, 
soon to be considered. (See Fif, r . 3.) Geoffroy's plate was nncolond; 
Shaw s was colored to agree with Geoffroy's description. 


Geoffroy while giving all the information at his command, and idealising 
in the plate his impressions of how the species should look, failed to give it a 
technical name, merely designating it, in his text and on the plate, as the 
Belier de Montagne. One year later, however, in 1804, this was supplied 
by another French naturalist, A. <i. Desmarest, who formally introduced 
the species into technical nomenclature as Ovia cernna.* Desmarest's de- 
avowedly based on Geoffroy's, all but eight lines of which 
given in quotation mark^ from Geoffroy. 

OVIS ' W \I>l\>l-> Sll AW . 

Almost shnultaneonsly with the publication of Desman ount, 

as f.! iblc to determine, the Hocky Mountain Sheep W8S briefly 

ribe<l and figured in Shaw and Xodder'- ' Xatnrah-t '» Mixellan 
under the name (hi* amodentit, the text being in Latin ami English, and 

the plate colored. iffroy only, on whose account both the 

ription and plate an- obviously baaed, although he adds at the end of 

his description : "A very fine specimen of tin- rare quadruped ma\ be ieen 

in the British Mim um." Thhl can have been no other than tlie specimen 

VfcGQlivra; to London in If dready detailed. Shaw's plate 

I w « riirur. .-iltory' is noteworthy for Km accuracy, though let* 

>>•'■ artUt and Nodder'n plate: yet we fin. I it thus erltkflnd by an 

iran author in 1 MM K. poaltory. (vol m 'SOS). 

la a description, accompanied with an Indifferent tlKtire. of the Argali of North America. 

under the name of Mountain Ham."- I'mimi AMriHM 1SS&, p. MS. 

Ml I son pp. 5.6. 
•Nat. Mince!. . I i S10. and accompanying text » pp ). unpaged and without 


10 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \\.\1, 

(drawn by \<><1<|. r is evidently a reversed copy of Geoffroy' s, with the 
oervine form <»f body and limbs still further emphasised, the horn-tip just 
as perfectly restored, and a background added (Fig. 3). It is not likely 
that this dose a g re em ent would have happened had Nodder, made his draw- 
ing bom an actual specimen, say the original McGillivray specimen then in 
London. The coloring, ferruginou- brown, <>t' both Shaw's diagnosis and 
the plate, is evidently the " l>nin-inarr<>n " of Geoffroy. 

It is hence perfectly evident that McGilIi\ ray's description of his Moun- 
tain Ram and Savage's drawing of the same specimen served jointly as not 
onK the basis of 6eoffiroy*s description and figure, and hence of I ►esman 

name Ovis cetvinO, hut aim of Shaw's OvU Canadensis, while (ieoll'i, 

account gave rise, much later, to ( luvier's name Otis montana. 



Cuvier's name Ovis montana is merely a Latin translation of Geoffrey's 
French vernacular name, "beiier de montagne. 1 Blainville in 1818, and 
most later authors for the next fifty years, erred in ascribing the name Otis 
montana to Geoffroy. 2 

If Geoffroy had really used this name instead of the French equivalent 
it would have saved disagreement among modern nomenclators over the 
question of priority between 0. cenrina and 0. canadensis, as when 0. mon- 
t(in<! was used by Cuvier it was preoccupied by an Ovis montana given by 
Onl in 1815 to the Rocky Mountain Goat. Yet this name was used almosl 
exclusively for the sheep until 1880, when Alston 3 adopted Ovis cervina 
Desmarest, on the ground that Ovis montana was preoccupied; but he 
wrongly took Desmarest's name from 1818 instead of from the original date, 

Merriam, in 1890 and 1891, 4 employed Ovis canadensis Shaw as the earli- 
est available name, and later 5 gave his reason for this selection, claiming 
1803 as the date of publication of this name. 

Rhoads, in 1894, 6 rejected Oris canadensis Shaw as "unavailable," for 

> "Le Moufflon d'Amerique. (Ot. montana.) Geoff. Ann. duMus. lx." — Ccvibb, 
Regne Anim.. I. Dec. 7. 1816, p. 267. 

* Desmarest used Otis certina for the species as late as 1818, but abandoned it in 1822 
for Otis montana. without giving any reason for making the change. Later Ovis montana 
was wrongly credited by many authors to Desmarest. 

* Biologia Oentrali-Americana, Mamm., p. Ill, June, 1880. 

« North Amor. Fauna, No. 3, p. 78, Sept. 11, 1890; ibid., No. 5. p. 81, July. 1891. 
»Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XIV, p. 29 (footnote), April 5, 1901. He here says that 
he "adopted the name canadensis as of unquestionable priority." 

* Reprint of Ord's North American Zoology, 1894, Appendix, p. 25; Amer. Nat., XXVIII, 
Jmne, 1894, p. 526. 

1912. 1 Allen, Note* on North American Sheep. 11 

the reason that Shaw'- work is '"without any date whate hough it 

len$'ui\ has priority over any other." (Oris crrrinn 
i> bete wrongly cited as dating from 1S18.) 

In the following year the present writer ' also employed the nam* 

uirest (hen cited correctly, almost for the first time, as dating 
from 1*04) as preferable, on the ground that "there can be a difference at 

t of hut a few months in the publication of the two names. Obviously 
the name having a positive date should have preference." P^lliot, in 1901,* 
adopted 0% > eeretaa, and this name and 0. amain mil both have at present 
about equal currei 

While the name 0n» rrrrinn Desmarest is known to have been published 
early in 1804, the date of Or/.* canadensis Shaw has been assumed, on 
h y pothetical grounds, as December, 1803. 3 The careful collation of Shaw 
and Nodder's work given below -how- that the actual date of publication of 
this name was almosl unquestionably February. 1804, and could not have 
been in 1803. 

Collation of Shaw and Nodder's 'Naturalists Misckllany.' 

This work, of twenty-four volumes, was published in monthly parts. 

nning August 1, 1789. The first volume has an engraved title-page 4 

ring date 17 ( .>0. and also two dedieatory title-pages, facing each other, 

in Latin, the other in Knglish. but carrying no date. Kach following 

volutin- bai also two rimnar printed dedieatory undated title-pages, each 

nut- being inscribed to a different person or to some learned Society. 5 

TIhmiiI pobheation lor any part of the work (inthecopy examined), 

■ pt the lir-t volume, are those engraved OB the plates. Thus all the 

plates in Volume I an- dated. 1 The platee are all. with rare exceptions (in 

ill. Amer. M I II. p. 2.58. June 29. 1895. 

m Mammals of North America. 1901. p. 40. 

i and M«. Nat. Hist. (6). April. 1895. pp. 376. 
irium Nature or the Naturalist's Miscellany. Vol. I. Dedicated by permission 
NT Majesty. By O. Shaw M D.. F. R. 8. the Figures h> I I' N odder. Botanic 
Painter to Her Majesty. London. Printed for Nodder a Co . 15 Brewer Str. Golden 
8q. 1790. [24 vols.. Royal 8vo. 1790-1 

• The English version of the dedlcaUon in volume I Is as follows: To the | Most Illus- 
trious Princess. | Charlotte. I Queen of Oreat Britain. | not less distinguished by | Her 

Hit Station. | this First Volume ! of the | Naturalist's Miscellany | is | with 
profound humility Inscribed | by | Her Majesty's most devoted I and I most obedient sub- 
jects and servants, | George Shaw, I Froderi- tar. 

• Plate 1 is Inscribed across the bottom •• Pul.lished Aug*. 1. 1789. by F. P. Nodder and 
C°.. N°. 13 Panton Street." The inscription at the boMOssl ->f Plate 10* U Published 
Jan r *. l" 1790. by F. P. Nodder * < Panton 8treK." The plate Inscriptions are 
similar throughout the next five or six volumes. 

U Hull, tin American Museum of Xntmal History. (Vol. XX XI. 

which the plates an- not even numbered . (Uted in ■ similar manner to the 

end of Volume V; in Volume VI only ■ plate i- dated in each of six pea 

tuo are dated En five parts, and three in the last or August part. In Volume 

VII usually only one plate is dated in each part, and the nme is trm 

Volume VHl as far as plate 286, the first plate in the December part; the 

plates in the real of the volume are all without dates. The first plate of 
Volume IX is dated (Sept. I, L797), and the next L".» plates have no date; 
for the rest of the volume one or more plates are dated in each part, and all 

are dated in the final part (August, 1798). In Volumes X, XI, XII. 

and the fir>t three part- of Volume XIII, nearly all the plates an- dated. 
From this point on to the end of the work very few plates are dated, in most 
of the volumes none, and when dated only the year is given. 

Bach volume is furnished with an index «m««tiwg of a single leaf. 
In L813j a general index was issued, probably with the concluding part, 
with references for both the Latin and English names, to both the volumes 
and the plat. 

In the course of the work seven plates have no numbers, and ten are 
wrongly numbered, through errors in engraving; hut their serial relation 
is evident from their position in the volumes and by the subject references 
in the indexes. In the October part at Volume XIII the dates and numi 
are not serially eonformahle, plates 497 and 496 being dated October 1, 
1801, while plates 499 and 500 are dated Sept. 1, 1801. In Volumes IX 
and X plates 339 and 349 are dated 1789 instead of 1798, and plate 360 is 
dated 1 770 instead of 1789. 

The copy of the work examined has been collated with the volume indexes 
in order to determine whether the plates included together as volumes have 
been properly made up for binding, and no error in this respect has been 
found. The plates themselves have been listed serially, by volumes, through- 
out the work and the date, or the absence of a date, noted for each plate. 
The results of the collation, as given below, are thus based on thorough 
study, with a view to their possible usefulness to others. 

Mr. Sherborne l refers to the prospectus of this work as announcing its 
publication to be in monthly parts, beginning August 1, 1789, each part 
to consist of "three, and sometime more" plates. My collation shows that 
the first twp volumes contained 37 plates each, an extra plate having been 
issued with the part for April, 1790, and with the part for February, 1791. 
The next succeeding five volumes (III— VII) contain only 36 plates each, 
issued regularly at the rate of three plates per month. Volume VIII con- 
tains 46 plates, the first two parts consisting each of three plates, and the 
remaining ten'parts having four plates each. This number was maintained 

• Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). XV, 1895. p. 376. 

Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 


for each subsequent part, and the following volumes contain 48 plates each 
pt the last which has only H. 1 lacking the August issue, owing to the 
s and death of Dr. Shaw, who died July 22, 1813. 1 

Volumes I V began with August and ended with the part for the follow- 
ing July. No part was issued in March, 17'.».">. and the volume (Volume VI) 
ended with August instead of July, as previously. So far as the dates on 
the platef and the number of plates in each volume give evidence, all the 
remaining volumes, beginning with Volume VII, began with August and 
ended uniformly with the July part. 

The above data may be presented in tabular form, as follows: 

Tabular Statement. 

N. B.— Hvpothet 

ical dates are 


d in brackets 


Number of 

Plate* per 



Plate* and Date*. 

Plate* and Date*. 



1- 15, Aug 1, 

Dec. 1 

, 1789 

16- 37, Jan 


-July 1, 




38- 52, " 

1780- " 


53- 74, 





75- 87, " 



88-110. • 





111-125, " 

I " 


126-146, •« 





117-161, " 


162 183 



VI ' 


183-197, " 

1794- " 



Aug. 1, 




219-230, Sept. 1 

l :«.»:,- " 


554, •• 






1796- " 

269-300, 1 " 

1 • 




301-316, " 

17Q7-I " 



lAug. 1 





3 " 


366-396, Jan 







, » 

118 m. •• 




WO, " 



18] i" 




509-540, (Jan. 


Aug. 1, 






88, 1 " 






605-636,1 " 







653-684, I " 





82.1 " 







», I " 





7^1 790, t " 

1807- " 

797-728,1 " 



729-844,1 " 

B45 B76,l " 









925-940,1 " 



041 075 




973-988.1 " 

1811- " 


989-10201 " 





1021-10361 " 

1813- " 

1812 0644 ' 



' There is. however, otic other except i I DM Will Ike part f->r July (1808). 

bad apparently live plates, and the volume 49 plate*, there being two. with different subject* 
numbered 774 

? contains an enitraved memorial (bound at the end of the last volume 
la the present copy) to Dr. Shaw, on which Is Inscribed the date of his death, at the age of 
60 years. 

• No part was Issued in March. 1705. and the volume ended In August Instead of July. 

• The July part contained S plates. No. 774 having been given to two different plates, 
making 40 plates for the volume. 

14 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. (Vol X I X I 

Explanatory Notes. 

The following data are supplementary to the above Table. Many of then 
have been given in the text preceding the Table, but are here presented with many 
n in more convenient form for reference, in the order of the volumes. 

Vol. 1. All the plates are dated. This is the only volume in which all the plates 

have dates. 
Vol 1 1 AD bat 4 of the plates are dated; these, with the obvious date of issue, are: 
no. 44, Oct. 1, 1790; no. 62, March 1, 1791; no. 69, June 1, 1791; no. 72, 
July 1, 1791. 
Vol. III. All but two of the plates are dated: these are no. 78, Aug. 1, 1791; no. 

103, May 1, 1792. 
Vol IV All plates are dated except no. 112, Aug. 1, 1792; no. 124, Dec. 1, 1792; 

no. 146, July 1, 1793. 
Vol. V. Tour plates are without dates: no. 151, Sept. 1, 1793; no. 169, March 1, 

1794; no. 172, April 1, 1794; no. 182, July 1, 1794. 
Vols. VI and VII. One or more plates are dated in each monthly part, except in the 
issue for March, 17B6; the dated plates render practically certain, as in the 
previous volumes, the month of issue of the undated plates. 
Vol. VIII. The first two monthly parts contained each 3 plates, and the remaining 
ten parts each 4 plates. Only the first plate in each of the first four parts 
is dated, the last dated plate being no. 265, dated Dec. 1, 1796. 
Vol. IX. The first plate of the volume (no. 301) is dated Sept. 1, 1797; the next 
plate bearing a date is no. 331, dated April, 1798; 1 plate of the May, 3 plates 
of the June, 3 of the July, and all of the plates of the August issue are dated. 
Vol. X. Most of the plates in each monthly part are dated. 
Vol. XI. In this volume all the plates are dated except one in the September issue, 

which has neither date nor number. 
Vol. XII. Each monthly part has two, three, or all four of the plates dated. 
Vol. XI II All the plates in the September, October, and November parts are 
dated, except two in the September issue. No plates in this volume after 
the November issue (pll. 505-540) are dated. 
Vol. XIV. Only one plate is dated; this is plate 553 of the December issue, which 

bears simply the date of the year (1802). 
Vol. XV. Only 7 plates are dated, and these bear only the year, namely, no. 589, 
the first plate in the volume, which is dated 1803. All the four plates of the 
April issue are dated 1904, and there is one plate thus dated in the May issue. 
The Ovis canadensis plate, no. 610, belongs to the February part, on the 
basis of four plates in each monthly issue, there being 48 plates in the volume. 
This plate has previously been assigned to December, 1903. 1 
Vol. XVI. No plates are dated. 
Vol. XVII. Only one plate is dated, no. 699, in the issue for December, which is 

dated 1805. 
Vol. XVIII Xo plates are dated. 
Vol. XIX. The single dated plate is no. 804, dated 1807. 
Vol X X No plates are dated. 
Vol XXI. Only five of the 48 plates are dated; three of them are dated 1809, and 

two, 1910. 
Vol XXII \ x III. XXIV. In these volumes no plates are dated. 

• Cf. Sherborne. I. c. p. 37«. 

1912.] AUen, Notes on North American Sheep. 15 

Date of Ovis CANADzmna Shaw. 

Prom the forgoing it is evident that the (late of publication of the name 
:■!, list* Shaw cannot he positively determined, bat in all probability 
was early in February, 1X04. There is little room for doubt that Oris 
'in Desmaresf was published also early in 1S04. The 'Xouveau 
Dictionnaire d'Histoire Natorelle ' appeared in 1X03 and 1X04, in twenty- 
four volumes, the Brat twenty-one of which, according to the title-page 
dates, were published in 1803, and the last three in 1804. The volumes 
thus published at the rate of about two a month, and doubtless 
Volumes XXII and XXIII. and possibly also Volume XXIV, appeared in 
.January, 1804. On the Other hand, it must be assumed that from Novem- 
ber, 1801, <>n to the end of Shaw and Nbdder'fl work in 1813, the plates 
were issued regularly, four in a part for each month, in order to fix even a 
hypothetical date for any of them. There is, however, evidence that this 
regularity of issue was not always maintained. The last 560 plates, com- 
prising all the plates in the last 12 volumes except the first 12 of Volume 
XIII. art- wholly without dates except for 15, scattered at wide intervals, 
which give the year. No plates are definitely dated after November 1, 
1801. It seems therefore that where a question of priority between two 
names i, at stake, the only proper course is to accept the name which was 
published in a work of known date rather than the alternative undated 
name, the probable or approximate date of which depends upon an assump- 
tion and mathematical computation. 

OthbbEabli l;i n i.i \< i s i,, iiii Mountain Sheep of North America. 
of interest to note in Una connection that the next references to the 

Rocky Mountain Sheep, following Me(Jilli\ ray's discovery of the 

based on personal observation of the animal in life, occur in Paul Allen's 

narrative of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 1 These ezploreri first became 

aeqnaint. <l with the ipecief in 1806, in the badlands of the Upper Missouri 
t met with a little below the mouth of the Yellowstone', and the next 
sped me- Medillivray's to reach civilization were the pair (male and 

female! brought by them to Philadelphia 00 their return in 1806. Very 
of then were published by (Jodman in 1826 in his 'American 
Natural History.' lb- identified them with the Argali of Siberia, and says 

-n,ry of the Expedition under the command of Lewie and Clark to the Source* or 
the Mlaaouii. thence acroea the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the 
lie Ocean. Per fo r m ed during the Yean 1804-o-S. etc. 2 Vole.. 8vo, 18M. 
■ Yd II IH2S. p. 320. with an original plate. 

Ill Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \\.\I, 

of thnii : "Two specimens of thr Argali, a male and female, were brought 
in by Lewis and < Sarke, and may be seen in the Philadelphia Museum, when 

rved." The plate of an old ram in Griffith's 'Animal King- 
dom ' (Vol. [V, 1S27. faring p. 318) was also drawn from the Lewis and Clark 
specimens. 1 

Barton had, how eve r , in 1804, 2 published the story of a Mohawk Indian 
who had apparently reached thr sheep country of the Upper Missouri on a 
journey northwest from Detroit, to the effect that he had met with "a 
kind of Sheep with a hairy hark, much like a deer, but having long wool 
over its belly, and large horns (one of which he saw weighed seven pounds)/' 
Hart on further says, in the same article: "The existence of a large species 
of sheep, in the same tract of country ["adjacent to the sources of the 
iri"] is no longer doubtful. This is probably the Argali of Asia. 
It i- unquestionably the Taye* of the Monqui-Indians, who reside in Cali- 
fornia. A figure of this animal was published by Venegas as early as the 
year 17.">7, in the first volume of the Naticitu de la California, printed at 

In the following year Barton again referred to the sheep of the Missouri 
badlands in a further account of the Taye, 4 stating: " I have BU self received 
some additional information concerning the existence of a large horned 
animal, in all probability the Taye, in the country adjacent to the river 
iri ... . This animal is a native of the Stony-mountains [Rocky Moun- 
tains of to-day] about the headwaters of the Missouri." He refers to the 
use of its horns by the Indians, etc., and considers " the existence of a native 
sheep in North-America, is thus sufficiently established/' but that it 
"remains to be ascertained whether it is a species peculiar to this continent 
or one common to it and the old world." Barton was obviously ignorant, 
of McGillivray's account, published in 18(W, and his comment on the sub- 
ject of sheep in North America is mainly of interest as being apparently 

1 In an effort to trace the history of these specimens further, I wrote to Mr. Winner 
Stone. Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. In the hope of obtaining further information. His reply (in litt., Jan. 8, 1912), 
though negative In character, is of interest, as follows: "The Lewis and Clarke material all 
went to Peale's Museum so far as I know. Lewis's W'oodpecker and Clarke's Crow are 
expliritly based upon Peale's Museum specimens by Alexander Wilson. Furthermore I do 
not think the Academy was ever referred to as the 'Philadelphia Museum.' That term was 
the regular title of Peale's Museum in 1826 and later. It is hard to say where t he sperimens 
may be by this time. The birds that turned up in the Boston Society some years ago and 
three birds purchased by our Academy are the only Peale's Museum specimens that I know 

1 Medical and Physical Journal. I. 1804, pp. 75. 77. in an article entitled 'Notice of the 
Travels of a Mohawk-Indian ' 

» The "Taye" and its interesting history will be considered later. 

• Med. and Phys. Journ., II. 1805, pp. 106-113. In an article entitled: "Some Account 
of the Taye. a species of Sheep.' 

1912] Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 17 

the first reference in any scientific journal to the wild sheep of the Missouri 
River country, the existence of which there was soon after established by 
and ( lark'- specimens ami the narrative of their explorations. 
It is rather surprising that Sir Alexander Mackenzie did not acquire 
some definite information of wild sheep in 1793, on his wonderful voyage 
from Fort ( hepeuyan over the Rocky Mountains to the mouth of the Frazer 
River, bul be evidently did not meet with them, although the mountains 
flanking the Peace River Frazer River divide, in about latitude 55° north, 
is 'aheep country.' While in ramp at the head of Peace River, on June 10, 
the natives, he says, gave him among other things, " the skin of a moose-deer, 
dressed, and a white horn, in the shape of a spoon, which resembles the horn 
of the huffaloe of the Copper-Mine River; but their description of the animal 
Inch it belongs does not answer to that." 1 Yet Richardson surmised, 
and no doubt, correctly, that this spoon was made from the horn of a moun- 
tain sheep. 2 

kcnzie also learned from the natives of the occurrence of "small 
white buffaloes" in the mountains west of the lower Mackenzie River, 3 
which have l>een identified by various later writers with the White Sheep 
(Ovis dalli dalli) described by Nelson in 1884. 

The Taye of "California." 

As is well known, the sheep discovered by McGillivray in the year 1800 

outhern Alberta, was not the first form of American sheep known to 

n and historians. Pennant in his 'Arctic Zoology,' published in 

1 I. p. [2 . refers to "certain quadrupeds of this genus [sheep]" as 

having been observed by missionaries in ( alifornia in 1697, and quotes 

their account as found in Jones's 'Abridged Philosophical Transactions' 

L V, part 2, p. 195). Richardson quotes from the same account as 

nally published in tin unabridged ' Philosophical Transactions' of much 

earlier <1. 

A similar account of the sheep is given by Venegas in his 'History of 
fornia,' published in Madrid in 1768, and republished in English in two 

ages from Montreal through the Continent of North America. English ed., 1803, 
Vol II, p. 05: Amer. ed.. 1802. p. 150. 
* Faun. Bor -Amer.. I. 1829. p 

ragM twxm Montreal, etc.. English ed . Vol I 1S02. pp. 202. 239; Amer. ed.. pp. 

-•<». M 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI. 

volumes in 1759. 1 The most interesting feature of Venega's account is 
the figure of the "Taye or Californian Deer," here reproduced in Fig. 4. 

The Venegas account has been referred to or more or less fully quoted 
by many subsequent authors, but his description of the Taye is merely 
a paraphrase of Father Piccolo's statement, published originally in Paris 
some fifty years earlier, and republished in English in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1708.' The explanatory title of Piccolo's article is: 

Pig. 4. From Venegas's Nat. and Civ. Hist, of California, Vol. I, 1759, lower figure of 
plate facing p. 36. 

» A Natural and Civil | History ! of | California: | containing | an accurate DescripUon 
of that Country. I Its Soil, Mountains, Harbours, Lakes. Rivers. | and Seas; Its Animals. 
Vegetables. Minerals, | and famous Fishery for Pearls. | The | Customs of the Inhabitants,! 
Their Religion. Government, and Manner of Living. I before their Conversion to the Christian 
Religion by | the missionary Jesuits. | Together with | Accounts of the several Voyages and 
Att.-mpts made for | settling California, and taking actual Surveys of that | Country, its 
Gulf, and Coast of the South-Sea. | Illustrated with | Copper Plates, and an accurate map of 
the Country and | the adjacent Seas. | Translated from the original Spanish of Miguel Vene-i 
gas. a Mexican Jesuit, published at Madrid 1758. In two Volumes. | — | Vol. I. i London: 
I Printed for James Rivington and James Fletcher, | at the Oxford Theatre, In Pater Noster- 
Row. 1759. | 

The original Spanish edition is said to be titled 'Noticias de la California'. 

The sheep matter in Venegas occurs in Vol. I, pp. 36, 37. with a figure of the Taye on the 
plate facing p. 36. 

* Phil. Trans.. Vol. XXVI. No. 318. for the months of November and December, 1708, 
pp. 232-240. with Kino's map. The Taye matter is at p. 336. 

1912. 1 Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 19 

" An K\tra< t of a Memoir, concerning the Discovery of a passage by Land 
to California; with a Map and Description of that Country. Presented 
ha Rmal Council of Guadalaxara in Mexico, by Francis Maria Picolo. 1 
Taken from the Letters of the Missionary Jesuits, printed at Paris." The 
memoir is dated "Guadalaxara, Mexico, February, 10, 1702." The accom- 
panying map is entitled 'A Passage by Land to California Discovered by 
the Rev. Father Eusebius Francis Kino jesuite beyween y° years 1698 and 
1701. ' Piccolo's reference to the Taye is here quoted in full, it being the 
source of all subsequent accounts of sheep in California based on the records 
of the early Jesuit missionaries.* 

" Besides several sorts of Animals that we knew, which are here in plenty, and 
are good to eat, as Stags, Hares, Coneys, and the like; we found two sorts of Deer, 
that we knew nothing of: We call them Sheep, because they somewhat resemble 
ours in make. The first sort is as large as a Calf of one or two Years old: Its Head 
is much like that of a Stag; and its Horns, which are very large, like those of a Ram: 
Its Tail and Hair are speckled, and shorter than a Stags: But its Hoof is large, 
round, and cleft as an Oxes. I have eaten of these Beasts; their Flesh is very tender 
and delicious. The other sort of Sheep, some of which are White, and others Black, 
differ less from ours; They are larger, and have a great deal more Wool, which is 
good, and easy to be Spun and Wrought." 

Father Juan Maria de Salvatierra crossed the Gulf of California from the 
mouth of the Yaqui River, Sonora, to California and took formal possession 
of the country in the name of the King of Spain October 25, 1697, and was 
soon joined by Father Frauds Maria Piccolo. They established missions 
during the following five years of their sojourn here, at various points from 
about latitude 28° southward to La Paz. It was in this region that they 
became acquainted with the Taye, as recorded by Piccolo, the historian 
of tl ipts to establish missions in what is now Lower California. 

Dei alifoniia' where the Taye was found in 1G97 was the peninsula 

of I lifomia south of north latitude 26°, and not the present State of 

( alifornia, which at that time had not become a field of missionary enter- 
BOf had the country then received a distinctive name. 

t to note that sheep still exist where the first Spanish mis- 
tries found them in 1097. Dr. Charles H. IWnaend on his recent 
'Albatross' expedition to Lower California in the interest of this Museum, 
obtained some imperfect >kulls of mo untai n sheep from the natives at CoH- 
and saw a living specimen in the low mountains at the head of 
the hay. He also informs me that mountain sheep are said still to inhabit 
the l.»w mountahu near the Gulf coast as far south as Saltillodel Rey, or to 

' The correct spelling of the name is Piccolo. 

ivttero (Stor. aat. del Mearico. IV. 1781. p. 1&8). often dted In this connection. 
KlTes four lines to the TaJ6, Identifying it with the Ibex of Pliny and the quenUn of Buffon. 

20 HulUiiu American Museum of Natural History. Vol XXM. 

within about MM hu ndred miles of La Paz, and that they range thence 
northward in all the high hills and mountains, especially on the Gulf Bl 
nearly to the United States boundary. 

The Lower California mountain sheep received its first technical name 
in 1903, when it wasdeseribed by Dr. I). G. Elliot as Ovis cervinn crrninobatcs, 1 
the description being based on specimens from the San Pedro Martir Moun- 
tains, in the northern part of the Peninsula. It is closely related to the 
previously described Otu neleoni Merriam, from the Grapevine Mountains, 
on the boundary betw ee n < alifornia and Nevada, and also to 0vi3 canadensis 
gaillardi Mearns (1907), from the Gila Mountains, near the boundary of 
southwestern Arizona and Sonora. 

Many authors have made the mistake of supposing that the " California " 
moutitain sheep of the seventeenth century Spanish missionaries was the 
sheep of the modern State of California. Sir John Richardson, in 1829, 
stated that " Mr. David Douglas described Piccolo's sheep under the name 
Otis calif or nica." * 


In 1829, David Douglas described a North American sheep under the 
name Otis californianus. 3 No type locality is stated, but he says that the 
only specimen he had been able to examine was taken near Mount Adams 
("Lat. 46. 14. 55., Long. 121. 17. 0"), in what is now Yakima County, 
Washington. This should evidently be taken as the type locality, notwith- 
standing the name californianus is applied to the species, and his statement 
that it "is more numerous in the mountainous districts of California," than 
in "the subalpine regions of Mounts Wood [Hood], St. Helens, and Van- 
couver." In this account of Ovis californianus he makes no reference to 
the Taye of Lower California. 

Northern Mountain Sheep. 

The sheep of the far north are, so far as known at present, specifically 
distinct from the sheep of the Rocky Mountains of southern Canada and 
the Tnited States, the mountainous districts of northern Mexico and Lower 

1 naM Columbian Museum. Zool. Sir.. III. No. 14, p. 239. Dec.. 1903. 

» Fauna. Bor.-Amer., I., p. 272. As no page is cited in the reference he gives to the 
'Zoological Journal." where the species was described, it is probable the description had not 
been published at the time he wrote this statement, and hence the error in the specific name, 
given as californica instead of calif or nianut. 

* Zoological Journal. IV. p. 332. Jan.. 1829. 

1912 ] Alien, Notes on North American Sheep. 21 

torn ia, and (formerly) the Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada 
of California. The numerous 'subspecies' <>f this group are all cl<> 
related to the sheep of the central Rocky Mountains, they differing only 
slightly in coloration, in size, or in any other characters, although the 
hern form- have long been restricted to isolated areas. It is to this 
much sa to any marked evidences of differentiation that appears 
to have led to their recent recognition as nameable forms. 

<-p of northern Canada and Alaska differ strongly from the 
sou; up in coloration, in size, and in the conformation of the horns. 

The tlm <■ «»r four forms of the northern group commonly recognized present 
a wide range of color variation, the most northern phase being practically 
pur- while the most southern form is so dark as to be commonly 

known st the black sheep. Notwithstanding this striking difference in 
color, they are otherwise hut slightly and rather inconstantly differentiated, 
whil cntly shown by Sheldon, 1 they completely intergrade over 

a large intermediate district. The southern form of this group does not, 
so far as known, intergrade with the adjoining form of the southern group, 
nor is it known whether their respective ranges actually meet. 

The white sheep of Alaska 2 was described and named in 1884, from speci- 

near Fort Reliance on the Upper Yukon, Alaska. 
Tin black sheep of northern British Columbia was described and named 
in 1 V*7. 3 from specimens taken in the Cheonnee Mountains in northwestern 
British Columbia, and an intermediate type in 1901, * from specimens 
ir Dawson City, Yukon Territory. 
Richardson's "Ovis montana Desmarest," as shown by both the descrip- 
tion and plate. is doubtless a composite of 0. dalll and 0. stortn, the white 
ng apparently referable to dalli and the dark female to sionri. The 
iKty, "the mountains which skirt the tooth branch of the Mackenzie 
r<l River]," whence these specimens are said to have come ia vague, 
and c\ identlj Richardson's first-hand knowledge of the sheep of the North- 
was extremely limited. Hi> description of the coloration of 
the ired indicates that he believed the difference in color 

to be seasonal. 

"The head, buttocks, and posterior part of the belly, are white; the rest of the 
body and the neck are of a pale ossbsff <>r <hi9ky wood-brown colour. A deeper and 

ha Wilderness of the Upper Yukon: A Hunter's Exploration for Wild Sheep In Sub- 

. Charles Sheldon. New York. 1011. 
Ml montana Jalli Nelson. Proc. U. S. N K. 1884. p. 12. 

n. Hull Amer. Mm I i I lvc. ,,,, m-114. pi. u, ui. Re- 

described by Lydekker In 1898 (Wild Oxen. Sheep, and Goats. 1808. p. 215) as On* canadttmt 

Murnaday. Fifth Ann. Rep. New York Zool. Soc.. 1001, App. I. pp. 1-4. 
• Fauna Bor.-Amer.. I. 1829. p \lll. 

22 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. (Vol. XXXI, 

more shining brown prevails on the anterior aspect of the legs. The tail is dark 
brown, and a narrow brown line, extending from its base, runs up betwixt the white 
buttocks, to unite with the brown colour of the back. The colours reside in the ends 
of the hair, and as these are rubbed off during the progress of the winter, the tints 
become paler. The old rams are almost totally white in the spring. This is the 
ease with the male specimen of our plate. The female in the back ground, presents 
the colours mentioned above." 

According to Biddulph, 1 the male of Richardson's plate was still extant 
in 1885, as he says: "There is stowed away in one of the basement rooms 
[of the British Museum] a stuffed specimen in bad preservation, labelled 
canadensis. This is the specimen described and figured by Richardson 
in the 'Fauna Boreali-Americana.'" He also refers to a specimen from 
Liard River, "labelled niricola or the Alaskan Wild Sheep," a dark colored 
specimen which thirteen years later became the type of Lydekker's Ovis 
canadensis liardensis. 

According to a letter from Mr. Lydekker to Mr. Sheldon (kindly shown 
me by Mr. Sheldon), dated November 28, 1905, Richardson's ram was still 
in the British Museum ("although in very bad condition"), and is regarded 
by Lydekker as "undoubtedly a dalli." Mr. Sheldon (in lift., February 10, 
1912) calls my attention to the fact that the "tail of the ram in Ri< •lwmlson's 
figure is white," and it must therefore have been "killed in the Nahanni 
Mountains (most probably) or farther to the north on the Mackenzie 
watershed, area 'A'" (on Mr. Sheldon's map of the distribution of sheep 
in his 'The Wilderness of the Upper Yukon'). 

Synonymic List of North American Sheep, with their Type 
Localities and Ranges. 

The listing of a form in the following enumeration does not necessarily 
imply its acceptance by the present writer. The form here entered as Ovis 
cervina califomiana has not usually been recognized as tenable; as it is 
now probably extinct at the type locality and is unrepresented by typical 
specimens in museums, its real status in relation to other forms can 
probably never be satisfactorily determined. On geographical grounds it 
seems as well entitled to enumeration as several of the more southern races 
now commonly recognized. Otis cervina auduboni is a nearly parallel case 
with Ovis califomiana Douglas. Both are admitted as a matter of con- 

» On the Geographical Races of the Rocky Mountain Bighorn. By Lieut. Col. John 
Biddulph. Proc. Zool. Society London. 1885; pp. 678-684. See p. 679 for the reference to 
Richardson's type. 

Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 23 

venionce in compiling the records. This is true also of Otis cervina 
gaillardi, 0. c. cremnobates, and 0. dalli fannini, although the latter seems 
to be merely an unstable intermediate between 0. d. dalli and 0. dalli 

A. The Oris cervina Group. 

1. Ovis cervina cervina Desmarest. 

The My-Attic, or Mountain Ram Duncan McGillivray, New York Daily 
Advertiser, Dec. 4, 1802; with letter of introduction by E. Savage. Republished 
in the 'European Magazine and London Review,' 1803 (not seen), and thence 
republished in 'Forest and Stream,' New York, for Oct. 29, 1910. 

Mountain Ram of North America McGillivray, New York Medical Repository, 
VI. No III, 1803, pp. 237-240, with pi. (Probably published Jan., 1803.) Same 
as the above, wiih slight editorial changes and the addition of a figure of the animal 
drawn by E. Savage, and an introduction by Dr. Samuel Latham Mitchill. McGilli- 
vray is usually cited from this source by subsequent authors. 

Belicr de Montagne Geoffroy, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., II, 1803, pp. 360-363, 
pi. lx. Based on McGillivray in the 'New York Daily Advertiser' (as cited above) 
and on a copy of Savage's drawing. The figure, however, is much modified. 

Ovia cervina Desmarest, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXIV, 1804, pp. 5, 6; Nouv. 
Diet -III XXI, 1818, 553. Both based wholly on Geoffroy, 

as cited above. — Alston, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Mamm., p. Ill, June, 1880. From 
Desmarest at 1818.— Rhoads, Reprint of Ord's X Am t. Zool., 1894, App. p. 25. 
From Desmarest at 1818.— Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 258 (foot- 
note) June 29, 1895. D( ifl cited at 1804, with discussion of the availability 
of the name. — Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer., 1931, p. 46; Check List of Mamm. 
West Indies, etc., 1905, p. 53. 
Ovis canadensis Shaw, Nat. Miscel., XV, pi. 610 and text (unpaged and without 
date). Based wholly on Geoffroy, as cited above. — Biddulph, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1885, pp. 681, 683 (claims priority for the name, citing cervina Desmarest 
as from 1818.— Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna. No. 3, p. 78, Sept. 11, 1890 (San Fran- 
cisco Mountain and Qraad CbflOtt, Arizona; name canadensis employed without 
comr: "• Biol Boe. Washington. XIV. p. 29 (footnote), April 5, 1901 (prior- 
l for the name canadensis). — Mkaiins, Mamm. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
I 1907, pp. 235, 236, footnote (synonymy). — Preble, N. Amer. Fauna, 
Oct. 26, 1908 (range in Alberta).— \\ akkkn. Mamm. of Colorado, 
1910 pp. 9-12 (nearly extinct in Colorado; those still remaining are increasing in 

Ovis canadensis typica Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats, 1898, pp. 209- 

•ncral account, part); Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia and 

1901, p. 10 (part). 

Ovis montana Ccvier, Regne Anim . I. 1817 ( - " Dec 7, 1816") p. 267. Baaed 

on Geoffroy's ' Belicr dc Montagne,' 1803, as cited above. — Blainville, Journ. de 

; i. I WWII. 1818) p 161 (footnote). Name attributed to Geoflfroy.— 

Desmarest, Mamm., PI 1 1 , I B22, p. 487. Desmarest here abandons his own earlier 

name cervina for montana, without comment — Ovis montana was used by most 

J I Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol .XXX I. 

authors from this date till 1880, and by some for twenty years later, the authority 
for the name being usually given as Geoffrey, frequently as Desmarest, rarely cor- 
rectly as Cuvier. The more important recent references are: 

Ovis montana B.\mu>, P. EL R. Expl. and Surv., VIII, 1857, Rp. 673-679, figs. 
24-32, part (systematic and general). — Allen, Bull. Essex [nst., VI, 1874, 51 
Lincoln, Colorado).- I Sci. Philadelphia, 1867, p. 136 (horns 

'often met with about bases of cliffs and precipices")- — Coues and Yarrow, 
Hep. Wheeler Surv .. V. Zool., 1875, p. 68 N Mac.) — Hornaday, Fifth 

Ann. 1: (1900), June 1, 1901, pp. 101-116, 4 half-tone cuts (de- 

scription and distribution). 

Ovis amnion ? Mm hill, New York Med. Repos., X. p. 35 (footnote), July, 
1806. Stony Mountains, on authority of a manuscript journal of James M'Kay. 
Origin of tin- myth: '"The animal does not live more than ten or twelve years, be- 
cause the horns make so great a sweep, and grow so far forward as to make it 
difficult or impossible for the mouth to reach the ground, and graze the herbage for 

Ovis ammon Harlan, Faun. Amer., 1S25, p. 262. Regarded as merely a variety 
of the Argali of Asia. — Godman, Amer. Nat. Hist., II, 1826, p. 329, with an original 
plate drawn from the Lewis and Clark specimens. 

Ovis pygargus Griffith, Anim. Kingd., IV, 1827, p. 318, V, p. 359, with an original 
plate by Hamilton Smith drawn from the Lewis and Clark specimens. 

Type Locality, near Calgary, Alberta. 

Range, Rocky Mountain region, from Alberta and southern British Columbia 
to New Mexico and central Arizona; in the State of Washington west to the moun- 
tains in Ferry, Okanagan and Chelan Counties (W. V. Sheard); also the Blue Moun- 
tains of northeastern Oregon (H. E. Anthony). 

I am indebted to Dr. D. G. Elliot for the following notes on the former abundance 
of sheep in the southern part of Yale County, British Columbia. 

"In 1886 I made a hunting trip in British Columbia after mountain sheep. 
Starting from Hope on the Fraser River, I crossed a portion of the Coast Range into 
Ashnola, and under Indian guidance proceeded to a mountain called by the natives 
" Ka-Asch-IIo," where our camp was pitched. At that time there had been but little 
or no hunting in that part of the country as it was not easy of access, and great num- 
bers of sheep and mule deer frequented the district. The mountain, on which our 
hunting was done, had many more or less flat Btretchee on it, some of considerable 
extent, mi that it was possible to ride a horse over most of it. The sheep, not having 
been much disturbed, were not particularly shy and it was possible to approach quite 
to hands of considerable size without alarming them or causing them to move 
away to any distance. The old rams had not yet joined the ewes, but kept by them- 
selves in companies of five to eight, while the large bands were composed of ewes, 
young rams and lambs. 

"To illustrate how plentiful the sheep were at this period in that locality, the 
following incident will show. I had been hunting one morning without meeting any 
rams carrying horns sufficiently large to be considered a worthy trophy, when about 
eleven o'clock I reached a hog-back having quite a sharp ridge and which dropped 
down in a graded descent to the plain or wide valleys on either side. I sat down on 
the edge and was surveying the country and other ridgei below me, when I heard 
sounds as if some metal had struck a stone sharply on the side of the hog-back away 
from me. I kept perfectly still and soon was able to distinguish the unmistakable 

1912.) in on Xorth American Sheep. 

sound of email hex. g against small stones. In a few mo m e nta , not more 

D seventy-live feet from where I sat, the horns and then the head and body of an 
old ewe appeared and crossed the top of the hog-baek and began to descend the aide 
on which I sat. This leader was closely followed by a crowding company of e 
lambs and young lambs. If they saw me, they paid no attention to my pres< 
as I k ill in hope that a head would appear with sufficiently large horns 

og. The procession of animals continued to pass over the ridge 
until I estimated that at Last one- hundred and fifty had crossed, but without any 
bead app- tiring, so I sat and watched them descend slowly the steep 

ley below. On other days however I obtained specimens, and the head 
of a ram and ewe are still in my possession. 

.ese sheep on Mt. Ka-Aacb-Ho te em ed to be rather local in their habitat, 
for so far as I could learn at the time from the Indians, they were not to be found 
• rth in the Range, and of course if they did go as far as the Fraser, that river 
would be an insuperable bar to their farther progress unless far up towards its head 
watc? we had left the Ashnola Country, the news of our successful hunt 

ruited about and many hunters went to the sheep mountains and in a few 
seas< e compelled to seek a safer retreat and all or nearly all left 

the localir 

J Ovis cervina calif orniana Douglas. 

Ovis californianus Douglas, Zool. Journ., IV, p. 332, Jan. 1829. Specimen 
desei e) from near Mount Adams; said to occur in the Cascades and "in 

nets of California." 
Ovis californica Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., I, 1829, p. 272 (a passing refer- 

identifying it with "Pieeolo'i sheep)." 
Ovis call}' i vth, PtOC Zool Soc. London, 1*40, pp. 65, 67; Ann. and 

Mag Nat Hi-' \ II. 1M1, pp. 199, '-''A pL v, fig. 5, horns. Recognized as a good 
species. — Burnt i.rn. I'roc. Zool Soc London, 1885, p. 888. Name. () cnlifornianus 
Douglas reject ed, owing to an error in the length of the tail M given by Douglas. 

Ovis moir P R B K\pl. and Snrv., X. pt. <>, 1889, p. 72. Abun- 

dant on Mount Shasta, and evidence of its habitual presence in the vicinity of Rhett 
and \ kes, northern California. — Sitkley and Gibbes, P. R. R. Expl. and 

I, I860, p. 187. Mt. Hood, Oregon: Mt Shasta and eastward in Cali- 

Ovis canadensis Mkhkis r. Fauna, No. 16, p 28, 1899. 

dence of its recent o asta. — Stephens, California Mamm., 1906, 

found in parts of the Sierra Nevada and on Mt Shasta, but 
ire apparently now exterminated in thoee mountains." 
Ovis cervi' '01, p. 46, part. 

Tyj» Dear Mount Adams. Yakima County, Washington. 

:. Maintains .,f » ou tlicrn Washington and Oregon, 
and Miasta and the mountainous country to the eastward in northern 

California: now probably extinct 

3. Oris cervina auduboni Mcrriam. 

* Species of Sheep B Joan , L 1804, pp. 7."» 77. II. 

1805, pp. 106-113. Contains probably the earliest references to the sheep of the 

20 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Upper Missouri fount ry. Supposed to be the Argali of Asia, and also identified 
with the Taye of Piccolo and Venegas. 

Opm montana Baibd, P. R. R. Expl. and Surv., VIII, 18.57, pp. 673-679, figs. 
24-32, part.— l'roc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, Oct. 1874, p. 48 (badlands 
«.f the Yellowstone River,, t.uiwiix, Ludlow's Recon. Black Hills of Dakota, 
1875, p. 84 (little Missouri River). 

Ovis cervina kUMK, Hull. Amer. Mus. Nat Hist., VII, p. 263, Aug. 21, 1895, 
(Black Hills region, South Dakota). 

Ovis canadensis auduboni Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XIV, p. 31, 
April 5, 1901. Based on skulk from the badlands of South Dakota. 

Type locality, badlands between the White and Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota. 

h'nnge. Badlands of the Yellowstone ami Missouri Rivers in eastern Montana, 
eastern \\ yomiun. North and South Dakota, and western Nebraska. Probably 
now extinct over most of this area. 

4. Ovis cervina mexicana Merriam. 

Ovis men uriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XIV, p. 30, April 5, 1901. 

— Bailey, N. Amer. Fauna, No. 25, pp. 70-75, Oct. 25, 1905 (western Texas). 

— Hornaday, Fifth Ann. Rep. New York Zool. Soc. (1900), June 1, 1901, pp. 120- 
122 (description, from Merriam). 

Ovis cervina mexicanus Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer., 1904, p. 86; Check List 
Mamm. N. Amer., 1905, p. 54. 

I'lensis mexicanus Lydekker, Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia 
and America, 1901, p. 11 (from Merriam). — Mearns, Mamm. U. S. and M> \. 
Bound. Surv., I, 1907, pp. 232-239 (range and relat ionships). 

Type locality, Lake Santa Maria, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Hnuiji . Mountains of northern Chihuahua, extreme western Texas, southern 
New Mexico, and southern Arizona. 

5. Ovis cervina nelsoni Merriam. 

Ovis nelsoni Mkkkiam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XI, pp. 217-218, July 15, 
1897 (original description; Grapevine Mountains, boundary between California 
and Nevada. — Hornaday, Fifth Ann. Rep. New York Zool. Soc. (1900), June 1, 
1901, pp. 117-119 (description and distribution). 

Ovis cervina nelsoni Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer., 1901, p. 46; Check l.i.-t 
Mamm. N. Amer., 1905, p. 54. 

Ovis canadensis nelsoni Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats, 1898, p. 208 
(from Merriam); Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia and America, 1901, p. 10 
(from Merriam). — Stephens, California Mamm., 1906, pp. 58, 59 (general account 
and range). — Meakns, Mamm. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., I, 1907. pp. 245-247 
(detailed aeeount and range). 

Type locality. Grapevine Mountains, on the boundary of southern Nevada and 

Range. Mountains of southern Nevada, southern California, and northern 
border of Ix>wer California. 

1912] Allen, Notes on North American Sheep. 27 

6. Ovis cervina gaillardi A/earns. 

Oris montana Baird and Schott, Mex. Bound. Surv., pt. 2, Zool., 1859, p. 52. 
k> waterless sierras of northwestern Sonora and New Mexico"( =■ southwestern 

Ovis canadensis gaillardi Mi.\k\-. Mamm. I' S. and Mex. Bound Surv., I, 1907, 
pp. MO 244, figs. 35-39 (original description). 

Type locality. ( lila Mountains, between Tinajas Altas and the Mexican boundary 
line in Yuma County, Arizona. 

Range Mountains of northwestern Sonora and southwestern Arizona. 

7. Ovis cervina cremnobates Elliot. 

Taye of the Motiqui Indians Piccolo, Phil. Trans., XXVI, No. 318, 1708, p. 336 
(English transl., original not seen); Jones's Abridged Phil. Trans., V, 1731, pt. 2, 
p. 104 (same :u> the above); Baddam's Abridged Phil. Trans., V, 1740, p. 156 (same 
as the two above cited). These English translations have been repeatedly cited. 

The Taye, or California Deer Venegas, "Noticias de la California, 1758" (not 
seen; usually cited from the English <•<!.: Nat. and Civ. Hist. California, I, 1759, 
pp. M\, :*7, pi facing p. 36, lower fig. Based on Piccolo's account, of which it is a 
paraphrase, but is the source usually cited for Taye. Its noteworthy feature is the 
plat.-, well reproduced in 'Forest and Stream,' Oct. 29, 1910, p. 593. Also here 
shown in Fig. 4. 

Ovis cervina cremnobates Elliot, Field Columbian Mus., Zool. Ser., Ill, No. 14, 
pp. 280 241, 2 figs., Dec., 1903; Marara. Middle Amer., 1904, p. 84, figs, xxvi, xxvii; 
mm \ Amer., 1905, p. 5 1 

Type locals ■■>. San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California. 

:• . Mountainous parts of Lower California, from Satillo del Rev northward, 
especially on the Gulf side, nearly to the I'nited States boundary. 

B. Ovis dalli Group. 1 
8. Ovis dalli dalli Nelson. 

Small White Buffaloes Mackk- 1(61 from Montreal through the Continent 

■,gli>h ed.. I. 1802, pp. 202, 239; Amer. ad., 1802, pp. 20, 36. 
Ovis montana Rn n lum. Bor.-Amer , I. Wjo p. 271, pi. xxiii (part, 

the male 01 

Ovis montana dalli I PtOC I 8 N v ftfofc, VII. IS84, p. 12 (original 

D I. * 

•lalli Allen. Bull. Amer - h 1, 1899 (Nahanna 

mea-urements).— Stonk, Bull. Amer M XIII. pp t:t— 47, 

i.ution tad halm- -Preble, N. Amer 

• On the Oti* dalli group see Hornaday. Fifth Ann I: , >rk Zool. Soc (1UO0). 

June L00. with Illustrations: Sheldon s rii.- IfMsnMBSOfOa I pimt Yukon: 

1 1 orations for UiM Mieep.' New York. 1011. Sheep poifin, and especially 
ih colored map of distribution and illustrations of color phases. 

28 Hull* tin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol X.WI, 

1806 Grange; maleefO. RMtaM Riehardson referred to 0. daih Boa 
DAT, Fifth Ann Rep. N«w York Zool. Soc. (1900), June 1, 1901, pp. 80-96, 8 lialf- 
Umm tin> ( d esc ripti on, distribution, li:il>its, color of type specimens, etc.). 

idensis dalli NSUBOM :m<l I'm k, N:it. Hist. Collections from Alaska. 
. pp. 289-484 Measurements, distribution, habits).— McConnml Ottawa , \ I. \-> B, Dec . 1892, pp. 181, 182 (distribution and color variation).- Li I 
am, Wild Oxen, Steep, sod Goats, 1898, pp. 219 221 (genera] account); Greal and 
Small Qame of ESuropa, Asia and America L901, p. 15, pi. i. fig. 3. 

Oris ennui ilalli BlUOTT, Synop. Mamm. N . Aincr., 1901, p. 17; < 
Mamm \. Am. r . L9C 

.:•< locality, DSar Fori Reliance, Yukon. 

:> . ( beater pari of Alaska and Yukon, and southeastward in the Mackenzie 

9. Ovis dalli kenaiensis AUm. 

Ovis dalli Osgood, N. Amar. Fauna, No. 21, p. 62, Sept. 26, 1901 (Cook Inlet. 
region, Al..- 

Ovis dalli JTCTOISaWI Allen, Hull. Amer. M \\1. pp. 1 I.V148, 

figs. 1, 2, Apr. _':{, L902 (Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; original description); ibid., 
\\ p 227, N«>v. 4, 1904 (Kenai Peninsula). — Elliot, Check List Mamm. \. 
Amer.. 1908, P 

Tyjte locality. Sheep Creek, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

Rang*. Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

10. Ovis dalli stonei Allen. 

Ovis moutana Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Amer., I, 1829, p. 271, pi. xxiii, (part, 
the female only). 

Ovis efanei Ai.i.i \. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Sist., IX, pp. 111-114, pll. i, ii, 
Apr. 8, 1897 (original description); ibid., XII, p. 2, March 1, 1899 (Xahanna Mts.) — 

\k, ibid., X11I. p. 12, April 6, 1900 (range and habits). — Phiiilk. X. Amer. 
Fauna. Nil 27, p. L66, < tot 26, 1908 (O. liardensis considered a synonym of 0. sU* 
female of 0. moutana Richardson referred to O. stonei). — Hornaday, Fifth Ann. 
Rep New York Zool. Soc. (1900), June 1, 1901, pp. 97-100, 3 half-tone cuts (detailed 
description and figures). 

Ovis canadensis stonei Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats, 1898, p. 217-219 
(general account); Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia and America, 1901, 
pp. 12-15, text figs. 2, 3, pi. i, fig. 1 (additional matter). 

Ovis liardensis Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats, 1898, p. 215, fig. 41. 
Type from " Liard River." Later (Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia and Amer- 
' >01, p. 12) referred by him to Ovis stonei. 

Type locality, Cheeonnee Mountains, northern British Columbia. 

Range. Northern British Columbia, east of longitude 130° W.; further north 
merges into the fannini type. 

11. Ovis dalli fannini Hornaday. 

Saddle-backed Sheep McConnell, Ottawa Nat., VI, No. 8, Dec, 1892, p. 131, 
in text (Upper Y'ukon River, N. W. Terr.). 

Allen, Note* on North American Sheep. 29 

Oviajatu \>\\. Fifth Ami Reg. N.-w York Zool. Soc. (1900), June 1, 

1901, pp. 78-81, 5 half-tone pll., 1 map (original description). 

canadensis fannini \.\ dkkkku, Great and Small Game of Europe, Asia and 
America, 1901, p(> 19 21 suggests it maybe a hybrid between dalli and stonei). 
locality, near Dawson City. Yukon. 

;.-. Mainly be twe en latitude 58°-64° north, and between longitude 129°- 
135° west, in British Columbia and Yukon, gradually merging in the south with 0. 
daft stonei, and west and north with O. dalli dalli. (See Sheldon, op. cii.) 



By D. G. Elliot, D. Sc., etc. 
Seniocebus meticulosus ap. nov. 

Type locality. River San Jorge. Northern Colombia. 

Genl. Char. Head and ears naked; no orange rufous on underpaid; rump, 
root of tail and thighs bright bay. Posterior molar the smalle-t 

Color. Male. Face and forehead covered with short white hairs; top of head 
and nape cowed with very long white hairs, forming a high crest on the head, and 
flowing over the back between the shoulders; rest of head, ears and throat naked, 
black; upper part* to rump dark drab; flanks paler, the hairs on the latter as well as 
rioulilers tipped with white: hairs on upper arms and shoulders 
from pKiN bright bay, with terminal third drab and tips white; thighs, rump at 
il. and hind side of legs bright bay; rest of legs, arms, inner side of limbs, 
and entire under parti silvery white; hands and feet grayish white; tail above bright 
bay on basal third, the same color extending for half the length on under aide, re- 
mainder jet black. 

uremenls. Total length. nun.; tail. 400; fa Skull: total 

-nasal length, I -el, 30.3; zygomatic width. 32; palatal 

; » intertemporal width, 23.1; median length of nasal- 80.7; length of 
ee,; length of mandible, 30; length of lower molar serie-. 12. 

Female. Resembles the male, except there it very little of the bright bay color 
on the shoulders and rump, while the thighs are colored like the upper parts, dark 
drab, the hairs tipped with bay. Tail like that of the male 

this handsome little monkey, the third species known 

of the genu-. | at the American Museum of Natural History in 

Y<»rk from Mr-. K. I.. Kerr, who proc ur ed them in the forest on the 

tombia. While hearing in some of its coloration a 

to the apedei known for so long ■ time from Brazil, 8. birolor, 

the bright bay rump ami thighs, pure silvery white under parts ami inner 

of limbs, and grayish white hands and feet of this species cause it to 

differ in a OOOapJCUOm manner from its relative. The lately described 8. 

I the third known member of the genus. 

The -pen - of tbj -y rare in collections, and I am not aware 

that there is another example belonging to it contained, at the present 

time, in any other Mimiiiii in the bin: •<■ much indebted 

Kerr. 1 ho obtained these sjM'citnens, for tin- energy and p. 

he has dispia;. 

32 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \\.\I. 

Alouatta ululata sp. nov. 

Alouatta discolor Dui.i.m mir Spix. Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. B), VI, l'.'lo, p 111. 

Ty/>e locality. Miritibi, Maranhao. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr.Di.str. Low Amazon; Maranhao, Brazil. 

I Char. Sexes unlike; male with chestnut red hack; female raw uml< 

Color. Mali. ForctMUd. and whisker- extending beneath chin, black; top of 

: browtn-h black; arms, li.iii.l-. feet, rump, and outer side of legs black; indistinct 
bla«ki-h stripe 00 middle of back; reel of Upper parts and flanks rich chestnut reel, 
in certain limits suffused with a golden color; upper edge of thighs chestnut red; 
forearm- beneath black; rest of underpart- and limb.- beneath nude; finger* and toes 
covered with long yellowish red hairs; tail black with numerous golden red hairs 
intermingled; tip chestnut red like flank- I.x type in British Museum. 

Ft mult . Tuft above middle of forehead, and whiskers black; top and sides of 
head above ears, upper part of body and flanks raw umber, with a golden tinge on 
head, and an indistinct dark dorsal line; arms black with a strong olive tinge: 
similar but paler; hands similar to arms, but hairs grading at knuekles, and extending 
over fingers, yellowish gray; feet more golden red, and toes golden yellow; tail like 
Iflp at base grading to a mixed golden red and black, with the tip golden red Body 
and limbs beneath, naked. El type in British Museum. 

metU». Male. Total length, lib") nun.; tail. 585; foot, 1-10. (Skin.) 
Skull: total length, 120.6; occipito-nasal length. 101.4; Hensel, 104:5: zygomatic 
width, 7s. 1; breadth of braincase, 52.4; palatal length, 47.7; median length of nasals, 

length of upper molar i I; Length of mandible, 95.1; length of lower 

molar gem ■-. I > ."> Eft type in British Museum. The above descriptions ? 
taken from specimen* loaned to me by my friend Guy Dollman, Esq., of the British 
Museum, and receiv e d from Miritiha, Maranhao, Brazil. 

Specimens of this monkey were received at the British Museum repre- 
senting both sexes and were supposed by Mr. Dollman to be the long lost 
Mycctcs discolor Spix, and were so described by him under that name (/. c). 
Spix's figure and his description do not agree, and the latter cannot be 
strictly applied to any species of Alouatta known. The figure represents 
an immature male, probably of A. behtebul Linn., as it came from near Para 
where Liniia-us's species is found, as Spix says of his discolor: "Habitat 
in -ylvis ripariis fluminis Amazone nee non Tocantins prope urbem Para." 
.1. ululata is a handsomer and more brilliantly colored species than A. 
In Ivbul, and differs from it in its chestnut red upper parts, flanks, and upper 
edge of thighs, and black hands and feet. 

Spix- type of A. discolor is in the Munich Museum, and is a rather small, 
uniformly glossy black monkey, with a very faint brownish hue on the 
flanks, and the fingers, toes and tip of tail pale rusty red, evidently a 
young male of A. belzebul (Linnaeus). 

Elliot, Sew Species of American Monkeys. 33 

Aotus griseimembra sp. nov. 

Type locality. Hacienda Cincinnati. Santa Marta, Colombia. Type No. 
id Museum of Natural History, o" ad., collected by M. A. Carriker, Jr., 
July 20 1011. 

<\x>t above and below each eye white; a black patch beginning at a point 

on forehead between each eye and extending backward on crown, fan-shaped; jet 

black line extending from each eye on side of head and going to occiput; rest of head, 

and upper parts mixed cinnamon and black; arms and legs smoke gray, hairs 

tipped with buff, no cinnamon or black present; hands mummy brown and black; 

-ides, golden brown on center and on toes; sides of head and neck 

throat buff; rest of under parti and inner side of arms and thighs ochra- 

ceous buff; flanks grayish buff; tail at root above like upper parts, mixed black and 

cinnamon, beneath at root dark ochraceous rufous, sides on basal half buff, hairs 

black tipped; rest of tail jet black. 

icnts. Total length, 1017 mm.: tail, 872; foot, 92.5 (Collector). 
Skull: total length, 60; occipito-nasal length, 58.0*2; zygomatic width, 36.05; inter- 
oral width, 32; median length of nasals, 11; breadth of braincase, 32; palatal 
length of upper molar series, 13.05; mandible, 35; length of lower 
molar series, 15.03. 

This species, while resembling somewhat A. vociferans, differs in being 
darker on the upper parts and especially in the gray arms and legs, the hairs 
buff tipped. Two examples, l><>th males, were collected by Mr. Iff. A. 

: iker, Jr., in tin- mountains near the coast of Santa Marta, Colombia. 

59.7,38 C: 15.6 



By Hashford Dkw 

The egg capsules of Chinwcroid-, even of the common species, are rare 
objects in collections. The m useu m is accordingly greatly indebted to 
Professor H. P. K. Jungersen of the Zoological Department of the University 
of < !openhagen, for the gift of one of these capsules, of a kind, moreover, 
which lias not been recorded. It was "dredged in the North Atlantic 
peal depths," bat unfortunately the station is not known. 

I p to the present the egg-capsules of four species of Chimoera have been 
described. ('. ooQiei, monstrosa, phantasma, and mitsukiirii. Of these the 
pecimen resembles most closely the egg-case of the last mentioned 
species. It is a fair inference, therefore, in view of the ultra specialization 
of these capsules, that the parental fishes were similar, and in this event 
we may provisionally assign the present capsule to C. (Bathyalopex) mira- 
bilis (Collett), 1 a Chimera recently described from the same general region 
in which this capsule was dredged. (Fig. 1.) 

Comparison of the present capsule with those of other Chimseras may be 
ghren in tabular form on p. 

rpreting the foregoi n g results one observes that in certain regards, 
as fan htm, the p re se nt capsule is highly specialized: it is remarkable 

in the slcnderness of its trunk-sheath in terms of the entire length: in the 
great length of its tail-sheath and of its opening valve: and in its very num- 
erous respiratory openings along the tail nhosttl In addition to these 
feat' iote that the marginal web, so conspicuous in colli< i and mon- 

strosa, has undergone great reduction, about indeed as in mitsulcurii, and 
i at tin- l>e>t by small flaring barbs at the extreme anterior 
also thai the dorsal keel of the capsule ii rery low, and that the " teeth" 
on the anterior rim of the valve are specialized anteriorly into long and 
delicate processes, more exaggerated in regional differentiation than in the 
capsules of other spec 

In certain regards, therefore, the present specimen is the most specialized 
capsule known in chin and DQSSib|y, a judging from the number and 

> Collett. Porta. Vld. SoUk. ChrUUanla. 1904. No 0. p. 5. and 1905. Report on Norwegian 
fishery and Marine Investigation. \ i n No. 3. p. 35. pi l 

* Dean. ChlmaroM Ptetaea and their Development. 1900. Carnegie Institution, p. 30. 
•Dean. 1904. Biol Mull. Vol \ll pp. 105-112: Amer. Naturalist. Vol XXXVIII. 

Fig. 1. Egg-capsule of a North Atlantic Chimseroid. probably Chimcera (Bathyaloptx) 
iirabilit (Collett). Natural size, shown in lateral, ventral and dorsal aspects. 

Dean, Orthogenesis in Egg Capsules of C himmra . 

of breadth 
to length. 


It 17 oolbai 

1 7 rnonstrosa 



• liyalopex) 





5 - 

A i 

If H 

a I Hi 


15 l 

- J: 



P &3 

M ! = 


8 o 


g c « 


1 | -- 









86(+ many 
(30) rudi- 
50 (very 
54(+20 ru- 



200 + 

ning in 

6 " " 

5.5 " " 

5+" " 
6 + " M I 

^'e of its structures, the most specialized hitherto described among all 


In ■ final note we suggesl tin- lines of the evolution <>f tin- cepettlee of 
< Ihimt 

If we compare the known egg ptptnlf of vatioffJI ipe c iea i>f chimaeroids, 

we lin. I that with slight BUnplificatioQS, they arrange t lnin-fl\ •■- in a series 
• what a> ihown in P|g. 2, in tin- order B, < '. 1 >. K. form- which 

typify recenl species. In this series, on account of the reduction of the 

■re Is an apparent contradiction between these figures and the proportional breadth 
of |bJ trunk sheath.— that is the entire breadth of the capsule Is apparently less than the 
breadth »( the trunk sheath. This Is duo to the fart that the "breadth" lx intended to mean 
tin ■ »M< -i distance from lateral »- lb tip i<> lateral web-tip. This 1« In certain cases leas than 
the entire breadth of the trunk sheath, since the ventral region of the capsule often enlarges 
In an extraordinary way. 

* Proof error In earlier paper. — 12 Instead of H 

ii great percentage Is doubtful: In the single specimen available the hinge was not 
clearly shown, and It may have been torn through. 

38 HiJh-tin American Mu*> tural HUtory. [Vol XXXI, 

marginal web of the capsule, the extraordinary development of its caudal 
i th and the huge RU of the opening valve, we are led to conelude that 
the form K is more specialized than the form B. Interpreting this remit 
evolutionalh , we an- warranted in assuming that the species of Chimaera 
which had ovidncal >tructurcs of such a nature as to produce the capsule E, 
was descended from species of Chinwera whose structures in turn pro- 
duced capsules not unlike those of I), C, and B. All of this follows dearly 
from the evidence of the capsules themselves, i. e., without collateral evi- 
dence as to chimaroid descent. We may go so far, I believe, as to assume 
on this evidence that the capsule B was represented in a still older (ancestral) 
form by the hypothetical capsule A, and that the form E predicates ovi- 
ducal structures of a form which may be expected to give rise to the hypo- 
thetic*] capsule F. In fact, encouraged by the findings of recent years, we 
suggest the probability that these two types of capsules will eventually be 

It is an interesting fact that the capsule suggested in A is similar to the 
type of capsule which occurs in the neighboring chima?roid family Callo- 
rhynchidn?. And it is also pertinent to observe that there are many reasons, 
anatomical, emhryological and palaeontological, for regarding Callorhytichus 1 
as similar to the ancestor of the Chimreridae. Accordingly it is by no means 
illogical to consider such a capsule as A as representing the earliest " Chim- 

If now we review the capsular structures of the various species of 
Chimwra, we are impressed with the fact that the series falls into a " direct 
line" (orthogenetic). In this series of capsules we note that: 

I. The lateral web becomes reduced and obsolescent: its most con- 
spicuous rudiment appearing at the capsule's anterior end. 

II. The dorsal web undergoes a similar reduction. 

III. The body-sheath becomes shorter, and the tail-sheath of the 
capsule proportionately longer and narrower. 

IV. The exit-valve of the capsule increases in length. At first (C) 
it becomes actually shorter, but not relatively, i. e., in terms of the length 
of the body-sheath. 

V. The serrated portion of the edge of the valve becomes constantly 
reduced in length (and the individual serrations in general more conspicu- 

\ I. The line of respiratory apertures on the sides of the caudal sheath 
becomes lengthened. 

1 The capsule of Callorhynchut, it may be recalled, corresponds more closely with that of 
■harks, which in general, on grounds anatomical, embryological and palseontological , are 
shown to be more primitive than chimaeroids. Cf. Dean, Carnegie Memoir already cited. 

Kljc t, E»«-<-»p«ul«i« of Chinwroids <II I), arrniK««d In orth<»««m'tic mtI«-«. At card 
eod of tfato Mriw an hypothetical form 1* Indicated ( A and F). 

40 liiillctiri American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI. 

The ehacacter of the changes which here are indicated, are certainly 

definite in their direction; and it is significant that this serial arrangement 
in the capsules accompanies a similar serial arrangement in at least the 
ernal characters of the adult ( himaeras. It is thus an orthogenetic series 
narrowly defined. It cannot be explained on grounds of natural selection, 
for the reasons which we have already enumerated, 1 unless indeed, one can, 
following the recent admissions of Weismann, regard selection as an im- 
personal process conditioned by "alterations in the equilibrium of the 
determinant system," and having a "quite definite direction persisted in 
for internal reasons." However the variations occurred [e. a., mutational) 
which produced the foregoing result we must nevertheless admit that they 
have expressed themselves orthogenetically. 

I Biol. Bull.. Vol. VII. 1904. pp. 106-112. 

56.57.68RU 18:78.8) 


Hv II. I\ W'lCKHAM. 

Plates I-IV. 

The beetles treated in the following report form part of a collection made 

\>\ parties under the direction of Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell. They have 

been transmitted to me for study by the American Museum of Natural 

Hid tin- specimens are divided between that institution and the 

University of < olorado. 

This paper is one of a series intended to elucidate the fossil Coleopterous 
fauna of Florissant, with the ultimate aim of working out all of the accessible 
collection- and thereby putting our knowledge of the beetle life of that 
place and time in such shape as to make it available for comparison with 
modern or other ancient fauna-. While Hr. Scudder has described 116 
of Rhynchophora from these shales, the field was not exhausted 

i in that group, since my studies of smaller series, mostly collected by 
Prof. CockereU's parties, have increased the number of known forms by 
about tweiin per cent. In the non-Kh\ ncliophorous families the propor- 
tion of novelties will be enormously greater, udder had only begun 
their study. 

A few word- should be said regarding the descriptions and the plate-. 
In citing specimens I have spoken of them as paired when both sides, obverse 
and were shown. In men casta, the insed wasj of course, reprs- 

ted Upon tWO -tone-. When only one stone, which shows but one \ iew 

of the insect, was present, I have spoken of the specimen as single, a- 

to the figure-, thej are all from my camera lucida drawings and are intended 
how the outlines and proportions. Where the sculpture i- -hown, thi- 
alto i- put in with the camera lucida, but it will be -ecu that in many in- 
are drawn to illustrate the course- of sculptured marking- 
and not to . ' the minuter modifications Detail views are 

furnished for main of the mJCTOOCopical chai nd attention ha- been 

called, in the proper placst, where stria or similar structures hsve been 

diagramed. Ad\antage 1 taken of tin- Opportunity tO ligure 

as Rhynchophora described ia Vol. \\\ of thi> Bulletin, page- 1 
Arranged bj families, the spa n reported upon are as folloi 


Unlit!. I useum of Natural History. 

Vol XXXI. 

Km HH hi i 


Eugnamptidea t<rtiari:i n. sp. 
Iaothea alien i Scudd. 
Docirhynchu> terebrans Scmltl. 

Quia Sciidd. 
Toxorliym-hu* minusrulus Scudd. 
" grandis Wickh. 

KMumn in 

Ophryastites mioWBlM n. sp. 
" cinereus Scudd. 

Ophryastes champion i n. sp. 
Otiorhynclni<> flori.—antensis Wickk. 
Cyphu* -ubterraneus Wickh. 


Geralophus antiquarius Scudd. 

" occultus Scudd. 

" idderi Width. 

" saxuosus Scudd. 

" fossicius Scudd. 

" repositus Scudd. 

" lassatus Scudd. 

" pumieeus Scudd. 

" retritus Scudd. 

Coniatus differens n. sp. 
Apiori oonfecttun Scudd. 

Apion exanimate Scudd. 

•• • reCrenatum Scudd. 

Cleonus estriatus n -p. 
" rohweri Width. 

" prinioris Scudd 
" foersteri Scudd. 

" degeneratus Scmltl. 

Dorytomus vulcanieua n. -p. 
Magdalis striatieepfl Width. 
Vnthonomus rohweri n. sp. 

Sibynes whitneyi Scudd. 
Conotnwhelus florissantensis n. sp. 
Crypt orhynehtis eoloradensis n. sp. 
" fallii n. sp. 

kerri Stmdd, 
Baris hoveyi n. sp. 
" schucherti n. sp. 
" matura Scudd. 
Balaninus extinctus n. sp. 
" restrictus Scudd. 
" minusculoidcs Wickh. 
" minusculus Scudd. 

Scyphophorus fossionis Scudd. 

Cratoparis adumbratus Width. 

Masteutes Scudd. 

M. saxifer Scudd. This species is represented by a fine specimen, 
showing obverse and reverse, collected at Station number 14, by Mrs. 
W. P. Cockerel!. 

Eugnamptidea n. gen. 

Form similar to BugnamphU, but differs in the antenna' having a four-jointed 
club. Other characters are wanting, but the above will amply distinguish it. 

E. tertiaria n. sp. (Plate IV, Figs. 9 and 10.) Form moderately elongate, 
apparently about as in the recent Eugnamptus angustatus. Head rather long, but 
not quite equal to the prothorax, rather coarsely punctate immediately behind the 
eye, occipital and genal regions strongly but finely transversely striate. Beak about 
as long as the prothorax, slightly roughened and with a fine lateral stria or carina, 
slightly arcuate, the extreme tip broken off. Eye large. Antenna long, slender, 
eleven-jointed; joints 1 to 6 subequal, seventh distinctly shorter, the remaining four 
forming a loose slender dub as shown in the figure, the tip of the last joint obscured. 
Prothorax short, discal region rather strongly moderately coarsely and fairly closely 

1912.] ham, Fossil Coleoptera from Florissant, Col. 43 

beset with circular punctures which become continent and auiueekafl smaller on the 
sides. Elytra visible only at the edge where two rows of strong larn<- circular punc- 
tures are seen, those of each row closely approximate hut the rows themselves distant 
:ueter of the punctures. AbdoMMB -howing four subequal segments 
separated by oenrly straight suturi trams tip hroken off. Sculpture of the 

underside obO BUi e, apparently only a BUgM roughening or scabrosity. Length 
from front of eve to hroken tip of abdomen. 2M mm. 

Station numher 14. Collected hy B. A Kohwer The type is in the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

The antenna of this insed is most remarkable and will at once separate 
it from any weevil with which I am acquainted. It belongs to the Rhyn- 
chitida-. however, by all the other character- of structure and facies that 

be made <>ut. None of the ipecaei deacribed l>y Dr. Scudder approach 
it very closely though the form is similar to some of them, notably Isothca. 

antenme of /. alleni as figured on the whole specimen have a four or 
five jointed club, hut Dr. Scudder giva a very circum-tantial account in 
which the dub i- aaid to be composed of joints 9 to 11, and in his detail 
figure it is so drawn. 

Isothea Sends* 

I. alleni Sejant Represented by one single and one paired specimen 
Collected at Station numher 14 hy Geo. X. Kohwer, and hy a very poor 
example from Station numher <> collected by S. A. Rohwcr. 

Docirhynchus Sends! 

D terebrans Scndsl A good ipecimeii come- from Station number 14, 
where it was collected hy S. A. Kohwer. Tin- head and hcak tog e ther are 
not a- | the elytra in thai example, which agrees with S<in !i Ur's 

ire in this although in hi- description the conjoint length of the 

two par ual to the third. Two other specimens are 

-red here, one of them having been taken at Station numher 1 1 hy Prof. 
1 ■ rell. the other at Station number 1715 h\ Mr- < 01 kcrcll. 

D culex & udd R epresen ted by two paired and two single specimens, 

all from Station numher 1 I. where they were collected hy S. A. Kohwer 

an.: kcrcll I have allowed for some slight variation in the length 

of the beak in tin- species, which differ from P. t<nbr<ni*, a-i«lc 

from the ro.tral structure, chiefly in having a BBBOOth prothorax and in 

being a trifle larger. 

Toxorhynchus Sends* 

T. minusculus Scudo*. 'I I four pair- come from 

ion nuuih.r 17. ami two pair- from Station numher 17B. The example- 

II Hullt tu< Amenaut Mvfun «/ Natural Ihxtory. [Vol. XXXI, 

agree with Scudder'- «l«-<ript ion and figure in form, use and the chai 
terfetk coarse thoracic sculpture. Tiny show the beak to have been nearly 

Jit and about as long a.s the prothonix. 

T. grandis Width. (Plate III. Fig. 5.) This speciea was oot figured 
at Ike time of the publication of the original description, and advantage 
i> taken of the present opportunity to offer a camera luctda drawing which 

will show the form and tin- elytral sculpture. 

Ophryastites ScwoU. 

O. miocenus n. sp. (Plate II, Fig. 1.) Represented by an elytron only, of a «lv .-liort and broad type, the disk arched ami marked with nine rather deep 
stria- at t he 1 tot toms of which are series of strong rounded puncture.-, becoming smaller 
at apex and .-ides. The interspaces between the striae are somewhat convex but not 
sharp, excepting the outer two which are subcarinate. There is no sign of scaly 
vestiture. The width between the rows varies somewhat, but in general the inter- 
spaces are about as broad as the punctures or a little less. In the row- tin in-. K -■-. 
the punctures are ordinarily separated by less than their own diameters. Length, 
B 10 nun Width, 2.80 mm. 

Station number 11. Collected by S. A. Rohwer. The type and only known 
specimen, in obverse and reverse, is in the Museum of the University of Colorado. 

Among the fossil forma known from Florissant, this compares only with 
0. ooseofumi Scodd., a larger form of narrower build and with heavily 
scale* 1 elytra. 

O. cinereus Scudd. One specimen from Station number 14, collected 
by S. A. Rohwer. 

Ophryastes Schihih. 

O. championi n. sp. (Plate I, pig. 3.) Specimen preserved partly in profile, 
the head slightly twitted so as to show part of the top. Beak thick, very slightly 
arcuate, and, measured from its apex to the front of the eye, a little shorter than the 
prothorax. two strong straight sulci on the rostral disk extending from a point about 
opposite the anterior end of the anteimal aerobe to the; from t he posit ion of the 
beak it is quite possible that a third sulcus was present, as in O. latirottru. Scrobe 
deep, oblique, directed against or in front of the lower margin of the eye. Bead 
finely sculptured with small punctures. Eye broken on the lower edge, but probably 
po i nted beneath Antenna? wanting. Prothorax, as preserved, about one third 
higher than long, dorsum arched, more strongly posteriorly ocular lobe pronounced 
but not excessively strong, discal and lateral sculpture shown only in part in the 
figure) strong and irregular, more or less rugose. Elytra somewhat broken, outline 
only moderately arched, sculpture composed of rather regular rows of rounded deep 
puncture-, theae of the disk stronger and larger than the lateral ones. None of the 
rows an- in coumlete preservation, so it is not possible to determine the exact char- 
- of their apices. Apparently from overlapping of the elytra, the extreme discal 
stria; are obliterated or mixed so that the figure is made to show only those rows which 

ham, F<m ra from Florissant, (»l 16 

are traced with oertainty. Abdomen MJUMwbai distorted, hut the third and fourth 
• ral segments, as seen from the side, arc much shorter than the first and second, 
while the fifth i- longer than the two preceding united. The abdominal sculpture 
is a hue Bubnigose punctuation. Legs wanting, except one of the first pair, which 
l.cen small ami globular, the tihia rather long and slender. 
-et in the stone at an angle. Length, from a: 
•it margin of protborax, '.» .">(» mm. 
.n Dumber 14. Collected by Mrs \\ . P. Cockerell. The type is in the 
iin of the l'ni\ ( olorado. 

The only specimen h ;i r e ve r se , the sulci alx>ve described being repre- 
ted by ridges and the punctures l>y tubercles. It is difficult to get an 
irate idea of the -i/.e and -pacing of the punctures under these condi- 
tions, hut they appear m represented in tin- figure. The puncture- • 
probably sol set in impressed stria\ The inter-pace- were finely closely 
dilate or ebe clothed with thick rounded scale-, since impressions 
indicate one or the other of these structures. The insect SWUM to have 
had an appearance -imilar to the recent <>. ruDSrotUf. Fudging from the 
riptioti- and figure-, this cannot he either of the two species of Ophri/astcs 
rihed by Scudder and it hears no special resemblance to any of his 
other Florissant Rhynchophora. 

I take pleasure in naming this fine species for Mr. G. < '. Champion of 
London, England. 

Otiorhynchites Frittek (emend. Scud 

O. florissantensis Wiekk i Plate I. Fig. 1.) A figure of this species 
which will -how the form of the elytron and the arrangement of 
the puncture- over a portion of the surface. The part drawn i- -otnewhat 
more irregularly sculptured than most of the remainder. 

Cyphus <>> mi. 
C. subterraneus Wiekk (Plate II. F%, 1 The figure i- intended to 

illustrate the outline and the CO UT Sei of the elytral -tria- as far as tiny are 
• able. It i- drawn from the type. 

Geralophus SeneV. 
G. antiquarius 8emUL ■• Station- number IS, 18B and 1 1. 

All of the nine -periineii- before DM Were eolleeted h\ S. A. Kohwer and Mr-. 
W I' ( oekerell. 

G OCCUltUS >'//(/«/. Two pair- taken by S. A. RoflWtt :iml two -ingle 
•iien- collected bj kerell, all from Station number 1 I 

|jQ Bulletin American Museum of Salural Uuttory. [Vol \ \ \ I 

O. scudderi Wiekk Plate IV, Fig. 8.) Tin- ia mentioned m.r.l> to 

< all attention to 1 1 1« - figure 

O. saxuosus Scudd. One paired specimen from Station number I I. 
Mr- < o cke r el L 

O. fossicius Sciitlil. Station Dumber I I. one pair, collected by Mr-. 

< oekerell: Station number 17, a single specimen taken by S. A. Kohwer: 
Station 21, a single specimen from Mrs. ("oekerell: and another example 
without special locality. 

O. repositus 8cu4d Two single specimens from Station number 1 1. 
collected by Prof. Cockerell, and another example, referred here with some 
doubt, from Station number 13, collected by S. A. Elohwer. 

O. lassatus Scudd. This is the most abundant species. Specimens 

wen taken by all of the members of the expedition and are marked with the 
Station numbers 13, 14, and 17. 

G. pumiceus Scudd. A single specimen from Station number 14, S. A. 
Kohwer, is placed here with some doubt. 

O. retritus Scudd. One specimen, Station number 17, collector not 

Coniatus Genu. 

C. differens n. sp. i Plate III, Figs. 3 and 4). Form moderately stout . Seed 
small, strongly and closely but finely punctate on the vertex, eye circular, Weak about 
as long as the prothorax, regularly arcuate, surface finely roughened, scrobe shallow 
and somewhat obscured. Prothorax short, a little tapering, but the lower edge i- 
eru-hed >o that the original form is not entirely retained, disk and sides to near the 
margin beset with deep closely placed circular punctures of small size but much 
coarser than those of the head. Elytra broken at tip but moderately arched, sur- 
face minutely roughened and marked with moderately deep regular stria.', the stria' 
with series of strong longitudinal punctures, interspaces a little convex, without 
vi-ihle hairs. Body beneath punctured similarly to the pronotum but less closely 
and deeply, especially upon the abdominal segments. Legs fairly stout. Length, 
from front of head to tip of abdomen, 4.00 mm. 

Station number 14. Collected by Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. The type and only 
known specimen is in the Museum of the University of Colorado. 

Resembles C. evisceratus Scudd., in form, but is larger, the head i> 
strongly punctate but not striate and the beak is a little shorter. 


A. confectum Scudd. Station number 13, S. A. Rohwer: Station 
number 17, S. A. Rohwer and Mrs. \Y. P. Cockerell. In all, the species is 
represented by four examples, one of which is paired. 

A. exanimale Scudd. A poor paired specimen from Station number 14, 
collected by Mrs. ( oekerell. I am not sure of the specific reference. 

1912.] Is**, Fossti CoUoptera from Florissant, Col. 17 

A. refrenatum Sen, til. Two pair- ami one single miri'JBiWli from Station 
number IS: ■ angle spei inun from Station number 14. All are collected 

A lo'i: 

Cleonus SckBnL 

C. estriatus n sp. [Plate II. Fig. 8.) Form moderately -'out fot thai genus, 

subparallel Head finely but closely punctate, the punctures circular and extending 
well out on to the rmtnmi. brooming inet towards the apex and finally evane- 
close to the tip where they >eem to he replaced l>y a mere roughening. Beak, viewed 
from above, broad, tapering rather gradually into the head, sides subparallel from 

•ly in front of the base to the truncate apex, median line probably can' 
fairly di-tinct. Hanked on each side by a finer line. Eyes not defined. Prothorax 
about two lift!. than long, bene wider than apex, no evident apical oouatrie- 

gradually narrowing from the base but more rapidly ami areuately bo near tin- 
tip .t in- c >n-i-t > of fine circular closely Crowded punctures, evenly dis- 
tributed and only tun-lv perceptibly larger than those of the head. Scutellum broad, 
triangular, much wider than long, punctured about like the prothorax but a little 
more finely Klytra -ubparallel at sides but tapering somewhat near the apex. 

■ Mire of tine but well marked widely separated and somewhat irregularly di.— 
tributed puncture-, each of which carries a short slender hair. There is no 

- want inn. Abdominal Segments, in part, showing through the elytra. 
■<e, probably the third and fourth, being short and subequal. .-utures -lightly 
arcuate. Length, to tip of rostrum. V7."> mm.: of beak, about 1.20 mm.: of elytra. 
4.90 mm. Width of I>oth elytra. :i.(M) mm. 

on 14. Collected by Mr- W I*. Cockerell. The type and only known 
eriean Museum of Natural History. 

• scribed species cannot be referred to any of Dr. Scudder's 

• tiini. stnee it differ- radically from all of then in sculpture. In this 

particular, it cmio - nearest to Eodeo nm t iu b j ech u, but in that beetle the 

puncture- of the bead and prothorax are confluent and form a more or leSS 

itructure. The lack of elytra! strife in C. •.-■hiatus i- the most 
striking chars* ter in comparison with all of the known Florissant toasili 
the group. Regarding the geneti c assignnsent, it i- possible tlur 

ntually re quir e a new genu- tor it- reception. It ditfet- 
from all the American ( leonini known to me in the non— triatc elytra, lack 
of basal prothoracic lobe and in having a large di-tinct -cutelluni. Although 
I have examined a cotl-iderable number of exotic -pecie- of the tribe, ai 
well a- ii.i • • I find nothing that agrees with it in all of the above chara< - 
though the Algerian C ojihthuhiiiciix bat a similarly non-lobatc thoracic 
base. The inc-o->cutcllum in Clronu* i- rcalh of good Btt)l . a- ma\ be -c.n 

b\ dissection, but it i- mostly hidden by tin- overlap of the prothorax 

The punctuation of the -cutelluni on m\ specimen indicates, I think, that 
it was exposed in life and strong^ I i-il»l<- 

C. rohweri Wickk (Plat 1 The figure will -how the form. 

|s Hull, tin \ '■'in. [Vol. XWI, 

the courses of tht- elytra] stria and the proportions of the different pi 
of the body. The punctuation is not indicated on the drawing, and refer- 
ence most be had i<> the original description. 

C. primoris Scudd. One specimen from Station number I 1. collected 

M : I ii kerell. 

C. fosrsteri Scudd, Six specimens, all from Station number 1 I. col- 
lected by S. A. and Geo. N. Rohwer. 

C. degeneratus Scudd, One paired specimen from Station II. col- 
lected bj Prof. < lockerefl. 

Dorytomus Stepk. 

D. vulcanicus ii. sp. (Rate IV, Kin. I.) Form elongate and as seen in profile 
about paralM Head much bicker than long, finely and extremely closely but not 
confidently punctured on the Upper half, the punctures circular ami rather deep. 
The lower half is marked with about eleven fine transverse stria- which very nearly 
follow the curve of the thoracic margin. Eye elliptical, transverse, close to the 
base of the beak which is slightly arcuate, of nearly uniform thickness throughout, 
distinctly hut rather finely striate ami minutely granulate, the BCTobe lateral, directed 
below the middle of the eye. Prothorax about one and one-half times as higS as 
long, no post-ocular lobes, surface punctured about like the head Elytra about 
three times as long as the prothorax, sculpture indistinct but consisting of row 
well separated moderately fine punctures, the punctures circular or occasionally 
elliptical in form. Metaster/mm punctured similarly to the prothorax, abdominal 
sculpture perceptibly finer. Legs moderate, front thigh strongly toothed. Length, 
exclusive of rostrum, 4.75 mm.; of beak, about 1.75 mm. 

on number 17. Collected by Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. The type and only 
i is in the Museum of the University of Colorado. 

In general, this insect compares quite closely with the recent I), hiticullis 
from New Hampshire. It docs not agree with the figures nor descriptions 
of either of the two fossil species described from the Florissant shales by 
Dr. Scudder. Compared with I), wtitiamri Scudd.. the present form baa 
relatively a much shorter beak and longer elytra, while it differs from D. 
coercitus Scudd.. in having the beak stouter, shorter and distinctly stii 
■ II a- in the dentation of the front femur. 

Magdalis Germ. 

M. striaticeps Width. (Plate II, Fig. 2.) The drawing will show the 
few characters of the species that can be made out. Unfortunately the 
specimen is in poor preservation. 

Anthonomus Genu. 

A. rohweri n. sp. (Plate IV, Figs. 11 and 12.) Form, in profile, subparallel, 
ra scarcely arched except behind the middle. Head moderate, strongly punc- 

Um, Fossil < „l,»i>iera from Florissant, Col. 49 

bond in an areuab hack of the eye and distinctly transversely striate on 

h> ■• -k Beak curved, the bend rather sudden and a little antemedian, surface 

punctate and stn.. elliptical. Prothorax a little shorter than the beak, 

un very little arched, surface strongly coarsely (for such a small insect) and 

-uheotifliiently punctate on the disk, the punctures generally circular in form; at 

-ides below, they dissppsar and are replaced by a slight roughening only. The 

spaces between the punctures are finely slataSSQUI Klytron marked with strong 

r.avs of punctures in stria-, the stria' themselves fairly deep, the interspaces convex, 

W S SS e ly rugulose and finely irregularly punctulate. The strial punctures are 

elongate and distinctly narrower than the interspaces, but longitudinally they 

Bppi iy closely. I "nder surface of meso and metathorax and the 

abdominal segments with the punctures a little smaller, less strongly impressed and 

more distantly placed than on the prothoracic disk, the intervening spaces finely 

trail-verily rugttloae. Hind femur with a rather strong tooth near the apex, the 

tibia rather slender and bent at the base. Length, exclusive of rostrum, 2.25 mm. 

tion number 13. Collected by S. 1. Rohwer. The type is in the Museum of 
tin- University of Colorado. 

Thia insert i- re presen ted by a angle specimen, ami compares with A. 

mis Scudd.j Inn has a less strongly arched hack, there is no sign of 
hairs on the prothorax. in spite of the fine preservation, and the elytral 
striae are strongly punctured, while Scudder snnply describes them as dull 
rugulose in hi- 3] My figures will show the courses of the striae as 

far a- tin -\ can be made out, and the arrangement of both strial and inter- 
stitial punctui 

Sibynes Germ. 

S whitneyi SeudtL ISro specunens, neither of them very well pre- 
• d. are referred here. Both are from Station Dumber 14, one collected 

kerell. the -niinr of the other not specified. 

Conotrachelus Sckdnk. 

C. florissantensis n sp Plats III. I u: 1 form StOttt, moderately arched. 

I finely granulate or punctate oa the frontal regno, vertex becoming transversely 

apparently rounded, partly concealed by the post-ocular lobe. Beak 

i'ial. ngularrj and -lightly arcuate, surface roughened and strongly 

laterally striate or carinate I'rothorax about two thirds ss loaf SS high, \Mth well 

marked but not excessively prominent |>o8t-ocular lobe, surface laodtraftshj coarsely 

and deeply punctate, the punctures usually ahout circular and close Bet, Incoming 

confluent in rows upon the disk and upper parts of the sides, so as to form wavy 

rug* largStj obssursd by 'he impression of the other Ixxly parts, hut the 

stone shows them to have been rather decpl - he stria; marked with regular 

deep punctures separated by about their own long diameters, the punctures being 

somewhat elongate or elliptical in outline Btarnal pieces of meso and metathorax 

strongly and moderately coarsely aribraterj punctured, abdomen much more finely 

50 Hull, tin American Mtueum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

punctate. The first and second abdominal segments are about equal, the third tad 
fourth much shorter, together equal to either of the foregoing, the fifth about as Ion k 
as the first. Legs stout, finely roughened, tibia' curved, the front ones, at least, 
longitudinally striate, front femora strongly unidentate, hind ones apparently 
mutic Length, exclusive of rostrum, 6.20 mm.; of beak, about 2.20 nun. 

Station number 14. Collected by Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. The type and only 
specimen is in the Museum of the University of Colorado. 

By all the viable c ha rac ter s, should undoubtedly go into the genua 

Conotrachelus. resembles the recent ('. nenuphar very strongly, 
but the sculpture of the beak, head and thorax is more like that of ('. 
cribriruUi.s, though less coarse. The proportions of the abdominal tegmenta, 
the eonnation of the first and second across the median area and the bent 
ends of the la>t three sutures are strikingly similar to the abdominal struc- 
tures of our modern < onotracheli. The only one of Scudder's weevils 
which seems to approach closely in any way is his Rhyxoxi, r/ntm irfrrnabih . 
That inaed is much more slender, has a relatively longer beak, different 
elytral sculpture and, according to Scudder's figure, the abdominal segments 
are not of the same proportions. In my figures, the lines representing the 
elytral striae are to be taken as indicating the courses but not the width. 
The punctuation is shown only in part, since it is obscured over much of 
the elytral area. 

Cryptorhynchus ////>/. 

C. coloradensis n. sp. (Plate III, Figs. 6, 7 and 8.) Form elongate, especially 
as to the elytra. Head almost entirely concealed by the prothorax, finely closely 
punctate near the eye which is quite small and subelliptical. Beak nearly straight, 
rather broad in profile, the base damaged, but, so far as can be seen, tapering to the 
tip from a point at about apical two thirds, moderately strongly striate and finely 
roughened. Antenna showing five funicular joints, subequal in length, approximately 
as broad as long except the last one, which is a little wider, club elliptical, pointed, 
three jointed, as long as the four preceding joints of the funicle. Prothorax short, 
form apparently badly distorted, but seemingly with strong post-ocular lobes. 
Surface deeply, finely and extremely closely but not confluent ly punctured, cadi 
puncture with fine stria- at bottom. Elytra also somewhat distorted but long, finely 
punctato-striate, the striae shallow, the punctures strongly longitudinal, w -am-ly 
if at all wider than the stria- and moderately well impressed, interstitial spaces nearly 
flat, broad (three or four times as wide as the striae), with scattered fine puncture- 
and marked with a minute feathery fan-shaped alutaceous sculpture due probably 
to the impressions of striated scales. Each of these little alutaceous patches is 
practically equivalent in size to one of the strial punctures, or a little less, and in 
some cases they encroach on the striae. Underside of the body finely closely punc- 
tured, the puncture* with fine lines similar to those on the presumed scale impres- 
sions of the elytra, the abdominal sculpture a little finer than the thoracic. Legs 
wanting except a detached portion of what 1 take to be a fore tibia, of fairly stout 
build, and two joints of a hind tarsus. length, exclusive of the rostrum, 5.90 mm.; 
of the beak, about 1 .85 mm. 

1912] ham, Fossil ColeopUra from Florissant, Col. 51 

Station number 14. Collected by Geo. N. Rohwer. The type is in the Museum 
of tin- (Jnmnftj of Colorado. 

I plan tin- Btruge weevil, known only from the single specimen, in the 

Oi CryjitorhiiHt'hu» in its broad ■enae. It bears a general resemblance 
-nine of the large tropical ( r\ ptorhj minds which have a similarly, 
though lea exaggerated, short thorax. The generic reference is also borne 
out by tin prew nee of post-ocular lobes, the short third and fourth abdomi- 
nal segment-, the Weak structure and the antennae. Nothing approaching 
it is to be found in Dr. S< udder's memoir. The figures will give an idea 
of the outline of the Inxly and the courses of the striae, except at the apex 
where they are obscure. Details of the strial punctuation and of the 
primimul Male marks are also shown. 

C. fallii n. sp. (Plate III, Fig. 9.) Form stout. Head with fine close punctu- 
■ ming somewhat rugose laterally. Eye elliptical, close to the base of the 
beak I'm-' nun nearly straight, apparently with a rather strong constriction at 
base, median part wider than t he basal, surface finely closely punctate, scrobe about 
straight, moderately deep and terminating just before the eye. Prothorax a little 
more than half as long as high, dorsal outline not distinguishable on account of the 
condition of the stone, front margin with distinct though not very strong ocular lobe, 
tee closely though not confluent ly punctured, the puncta of moderate size, 
ning smaller near the lower margin. Elytron a little more than twice the length 
of tli<- prothorax, and about one and a half times as long as wide, deeply striate, the 
with rather small, distinct, well separated, subcircular punctures, the intersti- 
tial spaces convex and strongly alternating in height. There i> evidence of punctu- 
on the interspaces as well as in the stria* but the exact nature of this 
ol easily made out. The appearance is that the flatter in- 
terspaces have a double row of fine circular punctures, the more convex ones a single 
median row of rather -hallow transverse depressions giving a scabrous effect. Abdo- 
men and sternal pieces of the meso and mctathorax punctured similarly to the disk 
rax but a little less strongly. Leg- more finely punctate. As far as 
can be seen, the thigh- are not tooth.-.! length, exclusive of rostrum, 4.90 mm : 
of beak, about 1.65 mm 

lion number it Collected by lira w P Ooekere fl . The type and only 

•peril - iii the Mu-eiim of the I'tuver-itv of Colorado. 

In i general aaj this beetle r teera btei the Bgure of Oemhpkmt aYm 

Id., but that genus i- said to be without p«.-t-ocular lobe- There are 

nil point iient in the specific characters as well. I have 

felt fairly safe iti assigning the present ipeciei to Crtiplorhytichus in the broad 

•ease used h\ [lnger, but have aot cared to attribute it to an\ of the more 

tricted groups into which that germ am been divided The form, 
sculpture, alternation of elytra] Intervals, beak itra c tur e and ocwav lobe- 
are all Ciyptorhynchine. In n to the Bgure, the line- representing 

the Dtended ni.-reU to indicate their COUrae, ami relative po-ition-. 

Hull, lit, American M \ ihtml Hixlm*/ [Vol. XXXI, 

These details and those of the punctuation (which is shown only on il, 
parts of tin- elytra when- best preser veil ) were made with the camera liuida. 

Tim -|,. . i. - ii named for Mr. H. ('. Fall of Pasadena, California. 

C. kerri ftmii Seem to have been fairly abundant. Two paired 

e from Station number 13, S. A. Holiwer: two other- an 

from Station number 11. Geo. X. Holiwer: and another, single, H from 
Station number 17. Mrs. \Y. V. ( oekerell. 

Baris Germ. 

B. hoveyi n. sp. (Plate IV, 1 iu- ' r », 6 and 7.) Form moderately elongate, recall* 

ing some of tin- recent species of l.imnobaris. Head small, finely punctate, beak 
-lender, rather long, slightly and regularly curved, not tapering much. Eye rather 
large, tran.-verse. Antenna with the first funicular joint longer than the third and 
fourth united club somewhat elliptical. Prothorax, in profile, a little higher than 
long, tafNriag arcuately anil regularly to apex, back and breast pursuing similar but 
reversed curves, punctuation coarse and close, deep, but scarcely at all confluent, 
the punctures circular, stronger on the sides near the breast. Elytra moderately 
long, back only moderately arched, striate, the stria> with extremely deep coarse 
round punctures, those of each stria separated by less than half their own dianu 
but a little more distant from those in the adjoining rows. Towards the sides and 
apex, the punctuation is finer. Interstitial spaces somewhat convex, each with a 
row of smaller punctures as shown in the detail figure, these small punctures showing 
more plainly on each alternate interspace. Underside of meso and metathotai 
punctured similarly to the prothorax, abdominal sculpture indistinct, probably on 
account of the state of preservation. Legs short, stout, and rather evidently punc- 
tured. Length, exclusive of rostrum, 2.75 mm. 

Station number 14. Collected by S. A. Rohwer. The type is in the American 
M i-eiim ( ,f Natural History. 

Represented by a single specimen in good preservation. Among 
Ider's speeies, this compares only with B. matura which differs, if we 
may rely upon the figures and description, in having the strial puncturei 
somewhat longitudinal and closer together, while the interstitial sparer are 
impunctate. The generic reference is to be understood in the broad sense. 
Named for Dr. E. O. Hovey, of the American Museum of Natural 

B. schucherti a. sp. (Plate IV, Figs. 3 and 4.) Preserved in profile. Form, 
in this view, subp irallel, moderately stout. Head very finely sculptured, a slight 
pun-t ulation being visible under considerable, magnificat ion. Eye not definable, 
beak -tout, slightly curved. Prothorax long, closely and rather coarsely but not 
deeply punctured on the discal area, more finely near the sides and front. Elytra 
a little less than one and one half times as long as the prothorax, regularly but not 
very deeply striate, stria- punctured, punctures circular, moderately deep, flat bot- 
tomed, a little more widely spaced in the rows nearest the outer margin, «> that while 

1912.) Uickham, Fossil ColeopUra from Florissant. Col. 53 

pu n et uw of a discal row are separated by about their own diameters, those of 

the rows near the margin are sometimes distant half as mueh again. The rows are 

separated by twice the diameters of the punctures The interstitial spaces are about 

flat and apparently finely punctulate or roughened. Underside rather faintly and 

moderately closely punctate, a little more strongly on the thoracic than on the 

d segments. Legs wanting Length, excluding rostrum, 4.20 mm. 

ion number 17. Collects! by Mrs VV. P. Cockerell. The type, showing 

• rse and reverse, is in the Museum of the I'niverMty of Colorado. 

Thifl beetle i- much larger than any of the species of Baris described 
from Plorissanl l>\ I>r. Scuddcr. It differs from all of them in so many 

ul> that there is not the slightest danger of confusion. The generic 

.iiinent must be understood as referring to Bari.s in the wide sense, 
■ace the aiitennal characters cannot be studied. The peculiar jointed 
appearance of the pronotuni may be due to cracking or to some shifting 
of the opposite ami underlying thoracic walls. The abdomen appears to 
have the tip broken off, the segments beyond the second are not definable. 
The representation of the elytral stria? in the outline figure is intended to 
duff) their courses, the detail of the punctuation being shown on a higher 
scale in another drawing. 

I give tlii- species the name of Prof. Chas. Schuchert of Yale University. 

B. matura Seudd. (Plate IV. Pig. 2.) Form rather stout, body de- 

lly less than twice as long as high, dorsal line only moderately and 

,ly arcuate Head of moderate size, finch < -hwly punctate, the punc- 
ture- circular, beak -lightly arcuate, striate and finely roughened, not 

ngly tapering, a little longer than the prothorax. Eye dose t<» the h 
of the Leak, slightly elliptical and oblique. Prothorax twice as lrgh as long, 
• very finely, closely punctured, the punctures circular and 
much larger than those of tin- head 
<»n number 11. Collected !»\ S. A. Rohwer. 

\ specimen, wit! sell with the description and detail 

given l>\ Dr. Scudder. How ev er, since my example 

reserved in profile while his wa> in dorsal view, I thought it well to give 
i notes and a figure to supplement his. This will allow the spe 

to be compared n M tly with Othen known from Florissant, all of 

which seem t<. have i,. i m«1 by l>r Scudder from promV 

Balaninus uVrss. 

B. sztinctus n sp 1*1. .i. l\ ht- i; 14 sad 15. Fora saoderately robust, 
both ssdi Bead large, mode r a t ely Bosrsstj sod Eairiy olosety puncture*! 

above, finely ragOM SB I !>•• lower parts of the cheek Eye elliptical transversely 

lieak, measured on the chord of the lowei arc, slight l\ mnrc than half the 

SSSSbined length of the thorax and elytra, moderate)] and nearly regularb annate. 

54 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

surface finely roughened, aerobe deep. Prothorax short, distinctly more than twi< •«■ 
as high as long, disk and upper part of the side with moderate sized circular puii< t un-, 
regularly disposed and separated by approximately their own diameters, becoming 
gradually finer and more widely separated ventro-laterally. Elytra about tlm •«• 
and one half times as long as the prothorax, rather finely punctate in striae, striae 
seemingly finely impressed, the punctures circular and widely spaced, as shown in 
the detail figure. Underside punctured similarly to the prothoracic disk, but more 
finely on the abdominal segments. Legs with moderately strongly clavate thighs, 
not visibly toothed, tibiae slender. Length, exclusive of rostrum, 2.40 mm. 

Station number 17. Collected by Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. The type is in the 
Museum of the University of Colorado. 

The single specimen at hand indicates that this insect was not closely 
related to those described by Scudder, being much smaller than any of 
than. It may approach the European species of Balanobius but seems to 
have shorter legs. 

B. restrictus Scudd. The collection contains three specimens of a fine 
large Balnninu* from Station number 14 and 20, represented by obverses 
and reverses, as well as another example from Station number 14 in reverse 
only. One of these is preserved on the flat, the remainder are side views. 
All agree in having a relatively short beak, about 3.50 mm. lon^r, the out- 
line of which varies somewhat in curvature but most closely approximates 
the figure of B. restrictus Scudd., which species is also closely imitated in 
form and . lvtral structure. In length, they vary from 7.00 to 9.50 nun. 
I do not find well marked characters for separation and have therefore 
assumed that they represent but one species, which I have assigned as above. 

B. minusculoides Wickh. (Plate III, Fig. 2.) A figure of this species 
is given to supplement the description. No additional specimens have 
come to hand. 

B. minusculus Scudd. One specimen from Station number 14, S. A. 
Rohwer: one from Station number 17, Geo. N. Rohwer: and another from 
the same place, Mrs. W. P. Cockerell. 

Scyphophorus SehSnk. 

S. fossionis Scudd. Station number 14, S. A. Rohwer, a paired speci- 
men. This shows, in the reverse, that the ridges corresponding to the 
elytral striae are slightly interrupted at short and regular intervals, in- 
dicating that the striae were faintly punctate. The prothorax also shows 
a fine punctuation. 

Cratoparis Schonh. 

C. adumbratus Width. (Plate I, Fig. 2.) The figure will show the 
outline and the courses of the elytral lines of punctures, but these lines are 
very nearly obliterated over a great part of the surface in the unique type. 
The nature of the punctuation is shown over a small area only. 

1912.1 Wickham, Fossil CoUopUra from Florissant, Col. 55 

i:\im. \\ vrm\ <>r hates. 

Plate I. 

Otiorhynchites florissantfii.-i- Width. 
" 2. Cratoparis adumbratus Wickh. 
" 3. Ophryastes championi n. sp. 
" 4. Cleonus rohweri Wickh. 

Platk II 

l Ophryastites miocenus n. sp. 
M:igdalis striaticeps Wickh. 
" 3. Cleonus eatriatusn-p 
" 4. C}-p nus subterraneus W r ickh. 

Plate III. 

Fin 1. Conotrachclus florissantensis n. sp. 
Balaninus minusculoides Wickh . 

3. Coniatus differens n. sp. 
j " " detail of elytral punctuation. 

5. Toxorhynchus grandis Wickh. 

6. Cryptorhywhus coloradensis n. sp. 
7 " " detail of antenna. 

g " " of elytral punctuation and scales. 

9. fallii n. sp. 

Plate IV. 

1 Dorytomus vulcinuus n. sp. 
Bans mat ura Scudd. 
" schurhrrti n sp. 
" " detail of elytral punctuation. 

hovcvi !i. sp. 
" " detail of antenna. 

11 " «>f rlyt nil punctuation. 

Geralophus scudderi Wickh. 

imptidea tertiaria n. gen. et n. sp. 
" detail of antenna. 

Anthonormi-. mhw.n • 

" " detail of elytral punctuation. 

Balaninus* > sp. 

" " detail of antenna. 

" "of elytral punctuation 









• 1 








Vol. XXXI. Plat* I 

I i ICin \. HOPHi PB«A rROM Fl ORIM \M < 

Bulletin A M \ H 


r°0 o 

f> o 


°go o0 ^0 0o> 

ooo °°o°O c t 

o « 
00 " Oq o o oj. 

°o ° o ° „o 

oo n °o0 °o ( 

o o o ^o 



o 00 o 

000 J> 


o o. 

\°0 o O 

'o n o. 



Vol. XXXI. Plat* II. 


But-lii n \ M N II 

I \\l Plate III. 

Fossil Kmvm hophorous Coleoptera from Florissant, Colorado. 


Vol. XXXI. Plate IV. 

°ooo o ooo 


° o o o oo o o o o 

oooooo oo oo O 


pjcb'ooo (_y 

12 CZ>00<=> 




doo6 f 





B\ W. I SiN< i in, Thini rron IM\ KBfRT, and Walter Granger, 
Ambba w M \\h km. Bistort. 

Plates V and VI. 

Introduction ........... 

Eteganftng the Tertiary Stratigraphy of the Basin 
\ Vertebrate Fauna! Horizon near the Top of the Fort Union (?) 
The Buffalo I - "ii 

1. Distribution of the Knight Formation (Wasatch) 

j Distributional the Lysite end Lost Cabin Format 


3. The Tatman Formation .... 

. urding the I.ithology of the Tertiary Sedimen 
Gravel Beds ....... 

4 the Eocene Deformation in the Bighorn Ha-in . 
Pita of Diaeoction of the Beein DepoeHe 

ons (Wind 





In continuing, during the summer of 1911, investigations begun the 
irmi the Tertiary deposits of the Bighorn basin in northwestern 
Wyoming, ■ number of new facts have come to light which it is deemed 
-able to publish. The presentation of these data may, however, be 
prefaoed to advantage by ■ brief itatemenl of the stratigraphy, structure 
ami litl • the baan deposits, and of the special problems relating 

thereto which we have attempt) 

The drainage area of the Bighorn Raver i-. structurally, a region of down- 
warp, in< lo i «l more or less completely to the east, south and weal by moun- 
tain- of upwarp. The basin so formed is undciflain by all the members of 

the H ii from the Archaan to the Fort Union ami has 

D filled by a conformal nnl ami gravel beds -ubdivided 

ontologieal evidence into the Knight formation \\ the 

1 ibm formations (Wind River), all three known from their 

fossiK to be Lower Eocene in age, the Tatman formation, a name which we 

propOM .. nitic -hale- and -and-' 'lying the Lost Cabin 

tSB Bulletin American Mxueum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI. 

formation and of doubtful age, and, finally, various gravels capping tin 
Tertiary section which it has not been deemed advisable to name. As 
announced in an earlier publication, 1 microscopic examination of these 
sediments undertaken with the object of determining the origin of the 
materials composing them has shown that they have all been derived from 
the older rocks of the mountains and have been transported into the inter- 
montane basin by streams. They represent, therefore, ftie waste of the 
mountains accumulated since the deformation of the Fort Union, on the 
uptilted edges of which the Knight formation rests unconformably. The 
Eocene clays are brilliantly colored and exhibit a more or less regular alter- 
nation of red and pale blue (yellow-weathering) bands of variable thickness 
and. frequently, of great horizontal extent. The colors seem to depend on 
the amount of iron present in the clays, the red variety carrying, in the two 
analyses which have been made, one and one-half percent more iron than 
the him. We have suggested that the accumulation and oxidation to 
hematite of the excess of iron salts in the red clays may have occurred dur- 
ing dry climatic cycles and that the blue clays were deposited under mniatct 
conditions less favorable to the concentration and oxidation of the iron. 
That the deformative stresses which flexed the older rocks into their basin 
structure continued to act after the deposition of the Tertiary sediments 
filling the basin is shown by the presence of marginal anticlines and syn- 
clims and the general centripetal dip of the entire Lower Eocene series. 
The field work of the season just past shows that flexing of the basin deposits 
occ ur re d after the deposition of the Tatman formation, which is post-Wind 
River in age. 

The following report is merely a supplement to the already published, 
fuller presentation of the subject. 




McCulloch Peak (Map, Fig. 1) is a residual butte with three summits. 
approximately 6200 feet high, and composed entirely of Eocene clays and 
sandstones. Structurally, it is synclinal, the beds dipping, with minor 
irregularities, toward the central peaks. This syncline probably owes its 
existence to the same causes which produced the Elk Creek anticline dis- 

> Eocene and Oligocene of the Wind River and Bighorn Basins. Bulletin American 
Museum of Natural History. Vol. XXX, pp. 83-117. 1911. 

lair and Granger, Tertiary Deposits of the Bighorn Basin. 

Bred Hal year, namely mountain uplift accompanied by compression 
and faring of the marginal portion of the intermontane trough. Handed 
otaya am found to the \ <r\ summit The lowed beds rising above the broad 
bench <»n the south side of the Shoehooe opposite Ralston and Powell eoa> 
.ttemodon and are, t h er efo r e, referable to the Knight formation. 
At higher levels the Wind River may occur, but fossils are. scarce and the 
region is bo rough and inaccessible that we have not yet been able to verify 
tfajfl assumption. It is known, however, that the lignitic beds which we 
propose to call the Tatinan formation overlying the Wind River on Tatman 
Mountain, are not present on MeCulloch Peak. Due east from the lower 
end of the Irma ditch, on the southwest slopes of the peak, the red-banded 
Knight beds with Eohippus and other characteristic fossils rest on a series 
of bluish shales or clays, with one or two pink bands, overlain by a heavy 
yellow-brown sandstone (Plate V). These beds dip at a steeper angle 
an the banded clays above, although in the same general 
northwesterly direction, and are slightly discordant with them in strike. 
Apparently the two series are unconformable. Fisher's map l includes the 
bluish beds below the banded series in his "Laramie and associated" forma- 
tions, dow known to be in large part Fort Union. At a locality on the 
KNlthweat slopes of M<< ulloch Peak shown in the accompanying photo- 
(i Plate V . about a mile due east of the point where the Wasatch- 
1'ort Union contact line crosses the Shoshone River (see map), 245 feet 

^graphically below the contact with the red-banded beds, the following 
determined by Dr. W. I). Matthew, were found in the so-called 
lime and associated," probably the top of the Fort Union: 

Phenacodus sp., cf. prinurvus, one specimen. 
Pfcaaaeodoat, small form, two gpecimena. 

f. Yassacyon, one .specimen 
?Plagiaula<i<l ..r I nsectivore, one specimen 
fCbtyphodoa, one specimen 
Creodont, indet. 

Mini, in. lit 

What is believed to be the same faunal horizon occurs on the north side 
of the Shoahooe Rival in the bluffs opposite Ralston station on the Burling- 
ton railroad where the beds seen i to dip below the Systemodon horizon on 
the SOUth >ide of the river. From these bluffs a partial skeleton of a new 
Species of Limnoryon was obtained and also some teeth and limb bones of a 

hum-sized I'henacodus. The l.imnocyon, although a new species, does 
eem to be priniiii\r. at compared with forms already known from the 


• OwjIok) and Water Resource* of the Bighorn Ba4n. Proft— lonil Paper No. S3. V 
O. 8.. PUu* III 

60 Hull* tin American Museum of Xaturul History. [Vol W \ I 

To tin- northwest of Ralston on Big and Little Sand Coulee (Map. 
Fig. 1 1, the following forms, determined by Dr. Matthew, were obtained from 
beds belie v ed to be the same as those exposed below the Knight formation 
on the southwest slopes of McCulloch Peak: 

Phenacodiu sp. 

Phenaeodut sp., cf. hemieonus. 
ucodus sp., cf. primarvus. 
Didymictis cf. Uptomylus. 
"I'nlironiciis sp. 
Esthonyx sp. indesc. 
~ mall Esthonychid. 
Edentate, gen. indesc. (probably Metacheiromyidae). 
Primate or Insectivore. 
Iidthyopsis sp. 

No doubt is entertained regarding the stratigraphic position of the fauna 
from the soutliwrst slopes of M< ( Ulloch Peak. At the other localities, the 
nearest Sysfcmodon-be&ring beds are several miles distant on the south 
side of the Shoshone, where they dip toward the peak. The beds north 
of Ralston and the exposures on Big and Little Sand Coulee seem to bear 
the same relation to the Systemodon beds on the north side of the Md 'uUoch 
Peak syncline as do the "Laramie and associated" beds on the south side, 
namely to underly the Knight, but owing to the discovery in them of Limuo- 
cyon and Bathyopsis, neither of which has heretofore been found in beds as 
old as the Knigbt, we feel that further examination of the stratigraphy is 
desirable. Should the beds in question prove to be older than the Knight, 
and it be deemed advisable to give them a formation name, they may be 
refe r red to as the Ralston beds or Ralston formation. 

The B«. ?falo Basin Section. 

1. Distribution of the Knight Formation (Wasatch). — Early workers 
in the Bighorn basin failed to recognize more than one formation affording 
vertebrate fossils, die so-called Coryphodon tone or Bighorn Wasatch, now 

known as the Knight formation. The discovery of Lambdotkerivm by the 
Amherst expedition of 1904 and it> localization in the nppermosl levels 

of the red-banded clays beneath the lignitic beds of Tatmaii Mountain by 
the American Museum .party last year demonstrated the presence of the 
Wind River. The existence of tin Lysite formation beneath the I.nmb- 
dothi nu ///-hearing levels was suspected but not definitely proved. At 
that time we assumed that the extensive Buffalo Basin exposures south of 
Tat man Mountain in the drainage area of Dry Cottonwood (nek, better 

1912.] eWr <iu»l (Irunger, Tertiary Deposits of the Bighorn Basin. 


know i) i old prove to be Knight. Much to our surprise 

w. save found mi ITU iinl psJieontologica] evidence to show conclusively 
that thc\ arc referable to the Lgrsite Mid I>>st Cabin formations, 

Tin' Knight formation m « atpoaed in the valley of the Gray Hull from a 
point about five miles west of Kenton (see map, Fig. 1) to the contact with 
the Fort Union mar Basin and on the west side of the Bighorn as far south 

the mouth of Fifteen-mile and beyond. On going up Fifteen-mile suc- 
cessively younger formations are found to overlap the Knight, first the 
baracterised by the frequent occurrence of Htpbodom and the entire 
abs< - istrmodtni or I.aiufxlothiri um, then the I>>st Cabin with l>oth 

d Eoftfonop* and, finally, on the highest huttesin the basin, 
the lignitie beds of the Taiinan formation. Where the contact between the 
Knight and the I.y>ite in Buffalo basin should be drawn on the map is 

• what doubtful as it depends on the presence or absence of certain 
noiie-tiM.-ahundant fossils in a conformable series of beds and not on strati- 
graphic or lithologie differences. It certainly lies well to the eastward 

potl-TA THAN t rav*U 

Diagrammatic section trending In a general northeast -sou ill west direction from 
Tatmau Mountain toward Meeteette, showing overlap of the Wind Kiver horizons 
K night formation I Wasatch). Not to scale 

of the n :i of the main branch of Fifieen-inile with the large dry- 

h coming in from the eastern end of Tatman Mountain (lee map. Fig. 1). 

Mapping on an adequate base ami careful collecting must he done together 
• re the boundaries of the various Tertiary formations in this area can be 


Although th< been uptilted about the southwest 

gin of the basin, dipping in general, with the exception of minor Bem 
ard Tattnaii Mountain, we ha\e not been able to find any ffiqrTHUTTS of 
.lit formation in this ana. the Wind Kiver horizons d.ysite and 

'■in apparently overlapping unconformable on the Port Union 

•nd eiiti; ealing the Knight as r e p resen ted in the diagram (Fig. 2). 

It follow^ from this that Doctor LoOU 'ion from near M 

Will p IM May. 1907. 

• '•L' Hull, tin \ '■' iral History. \ \ I 

to the top of Tatman Mountain does not -liow " tin- character of the Wasatch 
deposits" hut combines four elements, the Fort Union, Lysitc, Lost Cabin 

and Tat man formations. 

2. Distribution <>( thr Ltjsitc and Lost Cabin Formations (Wind River). — 
( )n the north -i« 1« • of the (iray Biill-Fifteen-mile divide southwest of Tatman 
Mountain the deeper cutting of the former stream has inei>,<| its valley in 
the Knight formation while on the divide and to the south and south v.- 
of it younger beds occur. The I>ost Cahin formation is exposed on the 
Gray Bull-Fifteen-Mile divide and on all sides of Tatman Mountain where 
it may be readily located as the uppermost 325 feet, more or less, of red- 
handed l>eds immediately heiieath the yellow lignitic shales of the Tatman 
formation. It extends across Buffalo Basin to the south of Tatman Moun- 
tain and may he found in a similar position beneath the Tatman formation 
both to the north, south and east of Squaw Buttes. The Lost Cabin forma- 
tion, as at present defined, includes all the Wind River of earlier writ) 
The exigence of the Lysite was not known previous to 1904 when the 
Amherst expedition made the first collection at the type locality on Lysite 
(reek and Cottonwood Draw in the Wind River basin. 

With the deepening of the valley of Fifteen-mile down stream, toward 
the east, the Lysite formation is exposed and forms the great field of bad- 
lands to the south of Tatman Mountain. It> thickness, sealed from photo- 
graphs, is probably not in excess of 600 feet and may be less. Like the 1 
Cabin formation above it, it can be separated from the older Knight 
formation only by the fossils it affords. In the Gray Bull valley it may be 
found in any of the long draws south and southwest of the McGee ranch 
about five miles below the Y I ' ranch house where it is represented by brick- 
red and bluish shales interstratified with sandstone lenses, affording sections 
indistinguishable from those in the type locality on Lysite Creek and Cotton- 
wood Draw north of Lost Cabin in the Wind River basin. On the north 
side of Tatman Mountain south of St. Joe post-office it undoubtedly is repre- 
sented by all or part of the 600 feet of sparingly fossiliferous beds between 
the Lambdotkerium zone and the top of the Knight formation with it- 
abundant remains of Eohippus (see Plate IX, Fig. 2, Bulletin American 
Museum, Vol XXX, 1911). It probably caps the high ridge south of Elk 
Creek also. At Fenton, the Gray Bull has cut below the base of the I a site, 
exposing the Knight. 

Xo Wind River fossils have yet been found on the north side of the Gray 
Bull, but it is highly probable that they will be found in the upper beds 
about the summit of McCulloch Peak. 

3. The Tatman Formation. — We propose the name Tatman formation 
for a hitherto unnamed series of yellowish shales, yellow-brown and gray 

I'M j Su Granger, Tirlmr,, Deposits of the Bighorn Basin. 63 

sand>ton<- and lignite beds o ver lyin g the red-banded Lost Cabin clays 
npiralh dev el oped fn Tatman mountain, but occurring also on Squaw 
liuttes and on the divide botw e ui Fifteen-mile and Gooseberry Creeks 

both to the north. BOOtb and west of tin- buttes. Wherever the contact is 

nan formation appear- to l>e conformable with the Ix)st 

hi bed- below. It hai not been found north of the Gray Hull River 

and have been entirely eroded from this portion of the basin Its 

thickness i> estimated by Fisher * as about 600 feet. 

nidation of the coarser Tatman sediments suggests 
that their source wa> the same as that of the underlying Eocene horizons, 
but that depo-itional condition- were different is shown by the scarcity 
liannel landttQMS, the absence of color-banding and the abundance 
of impure. gypstferoos lignite at many horizons in the shales. Some of 
the thicker lignite beds have attracted attention among the local ranchmen 
as a source of blacksmith*! coal. 

With the exception of a few scraps of bone, no vertebrate fossils have been 
found in the Tatman formation. The invertebrates suggest that its age is 
probably Eocene and possibly Bridger. 

The only change in our previously published diagrammatic section across 
the Bighorn basin itated by the work of the past summer is the sepa- 

ration from the Wasatch of 400 to 600 feet of beds immediately beneath 
the Lambdotherhun zone, which, it is now believed, belong to the Lysite. 



Gravel Beds. 
The discovery <>f thick gravd lenses in the Knight, Lysite and Lost 

n forma' oe <>f the most important additions to our knowledge 

of the hthology of the Tertiary sediments of the Bighorn ba>in. for it demon- 
ic that their Bourcc i> tin older rocks of the surrounding 

el laaaM inter-tratilied with coarse yellow -brow n MDdstOM occur 

in the Knight formation on the Booth -ide of I >i > Creek, northwest of 
•on where they over!) dayi affording Sysfmodsn, They have ; 
. .it tnanj localities in the L\ site and Lost < labia formations throughotri 

\ I where the p<l»b|e> m-ciii to increase in in toward 

l>. 34. 

\ II. Fig. 2B. 

»'»! Hullilin American Museum of Xnturtil History. \. I \\\| 

the south mid southwest, due. undoubtedly, to the fact that we art- there 

approaching the source of supply of the material composing the gravi 
Almost without exception, the pebbles are quartsite <»r chert, well rounded, 
hut eometunei flattened with the Hat surfaces lying parallel to the bedding 

planes of the leu (Plate VI . The matrix is coarse Band with calcareous 

or farraginous cemen t In one of the chert pebbles from a gravel leas in 
the Wind River near the Perkins ranch on the north side of Go oae b etty 
< reek, a fragment of a coral resembling Favorites was found. Pieces of 

silicilied wood wen alto noted in this conglomerate. These g r av e ls are. 
un<|Ue>tionaU\ , channel deposits laid down l>y the streams which drained 
from the mountains during the Eocene and supplied the clays, sandstones 

and gravels to the intermontane trough. Gravels predominate in the 
southwestern portion of this trough simply because the Lysite and Loal 
Cabin formations, in which they occur nio>t abundantly, have been re- 
moved by erosion farther east by the deep cutting of the Bighorn, l>ut the 

absence of g ravel s from the easterly exposures of the Knight formation is 
rather remarkable. 



As Wind River fossils have not yet been found in either the Elk < reek 
anticline or the McCulloch Peak syncline, it cannot be determined whether 
these marginal Bexures were produced during, before or after Wind River 
time. That they were probably later is suggested by the fact that the 
Tatman formation on the Gooseberry-Fifteen-mile (reek divide, overlying 
what is probably the Lost Cabin formation, has been tilted up with the 
latter, dipping toward the center of Buffalo Basin. It may well l»c that 
this accentuation of centripetal dips was contemporaneous with the develop- 
ment of the marginal flexures and that both were due to a common cause. 
Minor flexures have been noticed in the Lost Cabin formation on the divide 
between the Gray Bull and Fifteen-mile ( nek north of Parker Spring. 


Where the Shoshone River cuts through the Eocene clays west of 
McCulloch Peak, the lower terraces along the river are covered with water- 
worn pebbles and boulders of volcanic origin, mainly andesitic. When 
representatives of pre-Tertiary rocks occur they are always well-rounded. 

1013 >,,,/,.,. and gmafT, FWthrg l><i*>*il* of the Bighorn Basin. 

At higher levels, the character of tin- terrace-mantle changes completely. 

Hen- nothing l»ut highly angular rain-etched fragments of Palseozoic lime- 

ifeOfM an to DC found varying in diameter from an inch or less to masses 

ral feet W 8dch fragments form a veneer on the tops of the higher 

ices out in the badland day*, l>ut they aUo occur far above the level of 
recognizable terraces on the tops of narrow ri<k r <s, 6000 feet above sea level, 
in the tremendously rough badland country to the west and southwest 
of the w.M.-rly summit of MeCulloeh Peak. That we are dealing with 
Palieozoic linuatOOCS and not the residual fragments of a Tertiary deposit 

•i.iwn by the fossil ootnfa and hryozoa which were repeatedly seen weath- 
ering out in relief on the solution-etched surfaces. Not a fragment of any 
roek other than limestone nil been BSSn in these higher terraces and no water- 
worn material of any kind. High up on the west slope of Mc< 'ulloch Peak 
an < -trending ridge of these angular blocks crosses the badlands. 

~i\ feet or more high and blocks, large and small, arc piled up 

ether in a symmetrical rampart A similar mass is cut across by the 

r clitf east <>(' < orhett station. The limestone blocks, falling over the 
cliff, have formed a talus high above the river, readily distinguishable from 

the rain-waahed slopes of the surrounded days. The neareal ledges of 

IC lime-tone are at least fifteen miles to the westward ami yet 
bliK-k- several cubic feel in volume have been carried out from the moun- 
tain the basin-filling i I clays before the initiation of the 
iea which haf SO deeply dissected it. and dropped without any attempt 
at assortment according to sine, large and small together, and without any 

block near Peter Miller Boring measures spprasa- 

ht by three or four feet. In a cut bank at a level coiisider- 

ilnive the lowest of the limestone-capped terrace- highly angular 

frau the limestone were seen imbedded in soft, unstratified, yellow- 

tnbling boulder day 

A i 'nent of the fact- observed m ptos eat ed before the recent 

Washington meeting of ti ety of America and the tran-- 

n of tin- limestone Mocks ascribed t«. glacial ice. Since then, corre- 

ndentt have offered several alternative hypotheses, enggeatrng (l» that 

the fragments ma\ rep reee nl a disintegrated remnant of an overthmst 

blot diaoa hn it they have been traneported by 

water m < laimed l.\ Trowbridge 1 in explaining the transportation ol the 

anite found on tl the piedmont fan- in 

n.» evidence for such ex t ens i ve overthrnst of the 

e as the first of these suggestion 

rrowbiida* illcy, California. 

Bull icon Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX \ I. 

and, for the second, it seems difficult to assume aqueous transportation 
without postulating far rteep er surface gradient! than seem to have existed 

previous to the dissection of the Kocem- basin filling. 

The narrow created boulder ridges, high up in the badlands, suj 
moraines. The terraces, capped only with angular fragments of limratonci. 
suggest lacustrine condition-* and the transportation of the fragments by 
floating ice. Unfortunately the problem must be left, for the present, in 
this most unsatisfactory condition, for lack of time and the paheontologic al 
objects of the expedition made it impossible to give it the attention which 
it desen 

Since the limestone blocks were deposited over the floor of the EocctM 
basin, a tremendous a tint of dissection has taken place, resulting in tin- 
maze of canons trenched in the MeCulloch Peak mass and leaving isolated 
limestone blocks perched high up on narrow comb-ridges far above the 
present valleys. This dissection may possibly be an event of Pleistocene 

That considerable erosion may have occurred in the Bighorn basin as a 
whole previous to the deposition of the limestone blocks is suggested by the 
absence of the Tatman formation and its overlying gravels in the Me< ulloch 
Peak area, where, as already stated, the limestone blocks rest directly on 
the red-banded pre-Tatnian clays. This does not alter the situation, 
however, in regard to the canon-cutting since these gorges have been cut 
in the clays beneath the limestone-block capping. That this is younger 
than the andesitie stream gravels on the top of Tatman mountain seems 
probable. These high-level andesitie gravels apparently antedate the 
dissection of the basin and are a remnant of a gravel sheet spread over the 
floor of the basin at the close of its depositional history. They must not be 
confused with the low-lying volcanic gravels found along the Shoshone 
River and elsewhere. These are much younger than the limestone-capped 
terraces. Such limestone fragments as occur in them are invariably water- 


1. The Lower Eocene sediments of the Bighorn basin represent the 
alluvial filling of an intermontane trough of downwarp. 

2. They have been transported from the surrounding mountains as 
shown by the lithology of the gravels, sands and clays. No volcanic ash 

3. They are stream transported and have been deposited in stream 
channels or spread over flood plains. No evidence in favor of wind trans- 
portation has been observed. 

1912 Smcfa Granger, Tertiary Deposits of the Bighorn Basin. 89 

4. The EooeM clays Hi Landed in more or less regular alternation, 
and Mur. This may be due to climatic causes leading to concentra- 
tion of iron salts and their oxidation. 

beds are divisible into three formations, the Knight. I 

and Lost Cabin, readily separable by their fossils, but not differing litho- 

loci< ally and eonfonnahle throughout. The Wind River (comprising the 

te and Lost Cabin i> confined to the southwest portion of the basin 

McCulloch Peak |>ossibly excepted) and has been removed elsewhere by 


The Lower Eocene formations are overlain conformably by another 
of beds, 'containing much lignite, the Tatrnan formation, in which deter- 
minable vertebrate fossils have not yet been found. Invertebrate fossils 
t that it may be of Eocene age, possibly Bridger. 
The Tatinan formation is overlain by andesitic gravels of doubtful 
age, of which but a remnant on the top of Tatman Mountain is preserved 
in place. 

8. Deformative stresses have acted on the basin filling after the deposi- 
tion of the Tatman formation, flexing it into marginal anticlines and syn- 
ofinei and increasing the centripetal dip of the beds. 

9. The major dissection of the basin is. probably, a comparatively late 
nt, geologically speaking, perhaps referable, in part, to the Pleistocene. 






1 3 

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— » as 

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— 5C 

7 "I 

- - 

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By L P. Gbatacap. 

Plate VII. 

Abort two years ago Mr. Alfred EL Dunham of Nome, Alaska, brought 
t«. bm ■ molluscan fossil, received by him from an old Spanish sea captain 
of the name of de Soto, who had found it on one of the islands of the Alaskan 
Bsula. Its excellent preservation, the strongly accentuated features 
of age, Been in it, and an apparent newness in its specific character, at least, 
gave it an especial interest Later examination confirmed the impressions 
of ita umiMial character, and its identification as Mytilus muldindorffii 
(Irewingk was made !>y Dr. Dall. 

f<>— i! is that <>f a lamellibraneh shell, consisting of the right and left 
valves which have been separated, and somewhat displaced from their 
original relative positions, the movement tearing apart the ventral edges, 
_ or deflecting the umbones, and disclosing the interior 
fill i i el-like cement, in which quarts grains are abundant and which 

shows a probably coarse clastic sedimentation in the matrix formation 
from which thi> >hell was taken. 

unofficial glance provoked the first sttsp i cion that the shell belonged 

to the Mytilida- and might indeed be a Modiolo. The nucleal shell had a 
mytiloid shape, but the development of s short rounded >helly cord or 
ridge bourrelet . eurving from the apex to the edge of either valve appeared 
abnormal. The shell had developed very marked old-age characters, and 

nded numerously ridged or corded and voluminous ventral areas, 
formed evidently s dependent pouch-like extension beyond the original 
oblong or elliptical outfines of the younger shell. I >r. Hall's letter disclosed 

lb u : 

ir fossil ■ I much di st o rt e d Specimen of the Mioeenc Mi/tilu* 

Irndorffii Grcwingk, described in his book 00 tl I N \\ . 

America, Normally it is like most other M i/l that it has three 

wide plications distally, but your nw im f w d in an arcuate shape 

and something or other has made it hi .era ted resting stages, like 

Hot the dental ridge near the beak, which i> present in all 

Hit is exaggerated and made eoospieuous by the arcuation. Tnen 

sry like it in the Pliocene of Oregon which I Darned after 


70 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI 

Dr. ( 'omlon of the State I niversity. I don't wonder you did not recognize 
it as a Myiilus, as the distortion ti exceptionally great, and the beast evi- 
dently had a hard life of it." 

The alteration of the typical shell produced by distortion, abnormal 
development, old age. and perhaps interrupted though persistent growth, 
merits a record at least as displaying an interesting phase in fossil mollttaon 
disfiguration. The specimen may be described as follows: 

Shell oblong, quadrate, slightly protuberant posteriorly, swollen at beaks, 
becoming in old age sacciform; apical outline mytiloid, elevated dorsal center with 
curving descending edge becoming inflected or carinate in old individuals, through 
arcuation, half way to the inferior limits of the shell, the lower half (in the specimen 
a gerontic feature) forming a columnar cavity, compressed and throughout striate 
with undulating lines of growth. Surface at first smooth with undulating lines of 
growth which are strengthened at successive intervals into shoulders or semi-salient 
folds, which become crowded, later producing a coarsely striate surface. Shell 
crossed by evident anterior-posterior furrows or plications forming with the lines 
of growth more or less obsolescent nodes, these latter more noticeable in the earlier 
periods of the shell. Apparently, in the specimen described, constriction developed 
as the shell increased in size and its ventral edge lengthened, making a lateral shallow 
concavity. The "dental ridge" is very conspicuous, being a round thickened crest 
or cord, developed like a fold, leaving the anterior angle of the umbo, and turning 
backward in a semicircle. The strong sculpture or successional ridges or capes over 
the surface of the valves is unusual, and if persistent in many individuals would 
almost constitute a varietal feature as also the humped up effect of the dorsal outlines. 
When compared with Grewingk's figures the identity of the two phases is not strik- 
ing, and might indeed not be even suspected, though it is also obvious that the 
plicate and sulcate surfaces of the former admit, in extreme growth, of almost inevit- 
able distortion. 

Grewingk's specimens came from Tonki Cape and Igatskoi Bay, on 
Kadiak Island; de Soto's specimen was picked up on the hills forming the 
medial ridge of the Alaskan peninsula near Cape Seniavin. 

Description of the Plate. 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of specimen showing distortion and extension of the shell 
and ridgy striatum. Nat. size. 

Fig. 2. Ventral view of specimen showing separated umbone, and the strong 
"dental ridge." Nat. size. 

Fig. 3. View of one valve showing "dental ridge," and the prominent growth 
stages. Nat. size. 

Fig. 4. Mytilus middendorffii (from Grewingk). 

Fig. 5. Dorsal view (from Grewingk). 

Fig. 6. Ventral view (from Grewingk). 

\ M. N. II 

I \ \i. r 


59 9(86) 


By J. A. A i 

The present paper is based on a collection of mammals, numbering 
about 400 specimens, representing 55 species, made in the Cauca district l 
of western Colombia daring November and December, 1910, and the first 

BMlrttw of 1911, by ;m expedition sent out by this Museum for the pur- 
pose of collecting birds and mammals and studying the life zones and 

ronmental conditions of this highly diversified and hitherto little 

iied portion of South America. Mr. William B. Richardson, formerly 
employed by the Museum as a collector in Nicaragua, was engaged for a 

r to l>egin what was hoped to be a thorough biological survey, so far as 
bird and mammal life was concerned, of the Andean region of southwestern 
< "lumbia. He reached Buenaventura early in November, and worked 
for several weeks in the humid coast belt, from sea level to about 2000 feet, 
and later in the Western Andes and the Cauca Valley, chiefly at altitudes 
of from 5000 to 10,000 feet. 

Mr. Frank M Chapman, Curator of Ornithology, who planned the 

expedition and has directed its work, 1 joined Mr. Richardson in the field 

li 27, 1911, accompanied by Mr. Leo E. Miller, and Mr. Louis A. 

rtes as artist, since to gather material and make the necessary field 

Hej for a habitat group to illustrate the bird life of the higher Andes 
was one of the primary objects of the expedition. Mr. Chapman was thus 
able to plan the future field work from personal knowledge of the region, 
and after two months' of reeonnaissanee work returned to New York with 
Mr I'uertes, 1' Messrs. Miller and Richardson in the field. 

As already stated, this report on the mammals is based on the collec- 

Dl made prior to the end of July, 191 1. The rastthl of the following UM 

months work, numbering about 400 additional specimens of mammals, are 

in transit to the M lisfiiim ' These will form the basis of a second paper on 

the Mammals of the Museum's ( 'olombian Expedition. The report on the 

th the exception of a few species collected alone the Rio San Jorge, to the northward 
In Bolivar Department. 

tpman bad been contemplating an expedition to this region since the late Mr. 
.) It Hatty, in 1898. brought to thU Museum a small collection of birds and mammals 
Kath.r.xi by him in the Upper Cauca Valley, but lack of funds has rendered It necessary to 
defer the enterprise from year to year awaiting favorable conditions. 

* Since this was written they have reached the Museum, and a preliminary examination 
of the collection shows that the species represented are In the main additional to those 
l>r«\ tciiioly nrrlMil. 


72 Bulletin American Museum of Natural Hilary- [Vol X.WI. 

birds, by Mr < hapnian. i> well advanced in preparation, and will compi 
a more detailed account of the field work of the expedition. 

The principal localities at which mammals were collected are the follow- 

By Richardson. 

San Jos6, coast belt, altitude (at which collections were made), 200 feet, Nov. 
29-Dcr U, m 10. 

Los Cisneros, 600 feet, March 17-21. 

Caldas, alt itude 2000 feet, east of San Jose, Nov. 18-21. 

San Antonio, altitude 7000 feet, Jan. 4-March 31, 1911 (on the Cali River, 
near OaU 

Las Lomitas, altitude 5000 feet, Feb. 26-March 13. 

By Miller. 

Mira Flores, altitude 6200 feet, April 18-May 1 (Central Andes near Palmira). 

Munchique (Oerra Mumhique), 6000-8325 feet, May 24-June 11. 

Cocal, 4000-6000 feet, June 10-17. 

Gallera. 5700 feet, June 28-July 13. 

La Florida, 7000 feet, July 8-18. 

Crest of Western Andes, 40 miles west of Popayan, 10,340 feet, July 3-24. 

San Jos6, Los Cisneros, and Caldas are in the torrid coast belt; Mira Fl< - 
on the western slope of the Central Andes, near Palmira; Munchique, Cocal, Gal- 
lera, La Florida, and "Crest of Western Andes," are all near Popayan, and all are 
on the western slope, near the crest, except La Florida, which is east of the c 

The region which includes these localities has heretofore been only 
superficially examined. A few mammals obtained by Mr. J. H. Batty in 
1898 have formed the basis of several species described by Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas, Mr. E. W. Nelson, and the present writer, and Mr. Thomas has 
described several species collected in the coast belt (Choc6 district) by Mr. 
M. G. Palmer in 1908. 

Other neighboring localities, wholly outside of the area of the present 
paper, at which mammals have been previously collected, are northern and 
northwestern Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Quito, etc.) to the southward and 
westward, and western Cundinamarca and the Bogota district to the east- 
ward and northeastward, from which a few species have been described, 
but from which districts no very large collections have been received. 

Considering the great diversity of environment presented in south- 
western Colombia, due to great differences in altitude and precipitation at 
even contiguous localities, and the merely superficial and sporadic field 
work hitherto done here, it is not surprising that thorough collecting by 
modern methods lias disclosed a large number of hitherto unrecognized 

1912-1 himmals from Western Colombia. 73 

forms of mammal life, which it has itemed necessary to describe in the 

paper. Further material will doubtless show that several others 

onally referred to previously known species will require new 

tions. In the present paper the following 18 forms have been 

:/.«•< 1 as ti' 

Oryzomys pulmirse. 
" pectoralis. 
atomys milleri. " (Oligoryzomys) munchiquensis. 

ys mollissimus. " fulvirostris. 

" similU " (Melanomys) obscurior affinis. 

cocalcnsis. Microxus affinis. 

uasomys cinereiventcr. .Epeomys fuscatus. 

popayanus. Sciurus milleri. 

Neacomys pu-illu-. Blarina (CryptotLs) squamipes. 


1. Marmosa phaea Thomas. 

One specimen, adult male, without skull. Las Ixunitas (alt. 5000 ft.), 
Richardson). Doubtfully referred to this species. 

2. Marmosa murina zeledoni Goldman. 

Three immature specimens, without skulls, San lose lalt. 200 ftJ, Nov. 
Lichardson). Doubtfully referred to this form. 

'.\. Thylamys caucae (Thou 

Intonio alt ibadult male, .Fan. 12 

This specimen is from very near the typ* locality of the 

1 Metachirus opossum melanurus FIosjssj. 

skull only . ( local . July 12 Idler . 

The >ki: resembles M. o p ot twm fusrogrif ux Allen l>ut it is 

darker with the tail wholly black to the tip Allen, from 

the rjpp a quite ditTerent animal, but related to the M. 

Opossum grovp, of which further material may show it to be a subspecies. 

itarmoia cauem Thorn**. Ann. and Ma*. Nat. HLrt. (7), V, Feb. 1000. p. 331. 

74 Hull, tin American Mustum of Natural History. [Y<>1 XXXI, 

5. Didelphis paraguayensis andina Mini. 

Twelve specimens, 4 adult and 8 young, Munchique (alt. 8225 ft.), 
May 25-June (Miller). All but two are in the black phase. 

6. Didelphis marsupialis etensis Allen. 

Three specimens (Richardson): San Jose* (alt. 200 ft.), Dec. 5 and L3, 
2 young ipeGUnens; ( aldas (alt. 2000 ft.), 1 adult female. 

7. Chironectes minimus (Zim /nermann). 

Two specimens: Juanchito (alt. 3500 ft.), adult male, Aug. 13 (Mill. & ; 
flat skin, purchased, Palmira (Richardson). 

Juanchito specimen : total length, 695; tail, 390; hind foot, 66. Skull, 
total length, 725; zygomatic breadth, 43. 


8. Bradypus ephippiger I 'ft Hip pi. 

Two specimens, adult male and female, Rio San Jorge, Dec. 12 and 20 
1911 (Mrs. E. L. Kerr). 


9. Dasypus l novemcinctus Lmnmug. 

One specimen, Munchique (alt. 7000 ft.), June 11 (Miller). 


10. Mazama tschudii (Wagi 

Two specimens, adult female and young male in spotted coat, Gattera 
(alt. 5700 ft.), July 2 (Miller). 

These specimens are referred provisionally to this species. 

> On the use of Dasy pus in place of Tatu.ef. Thomas. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1911 p l ;i 

1912] MUn. Mammal* from Western Colombia. 75 


11. Sylvilagus Tapeti fulvescens sp. nov. 

•10, 9 ad., Belen (alt. 6000 ft.), Western Andes, July 28, 1911; 
coll. Leo B. Miller. 

Mu<h Miiall«'r than either S. andinus or surdaster Thomas, from Ecuador, de- 

. <-ly from the coast region and the Eastern Andes. 

•ral color above pale fulvous varied slightly with black, the fur being slaty 

basal K. than narrowly banded with black, followed by a broad band of buff, with 

rather inconspicuous brownish black tips; top of nose with a broad band of pale 

M buff varied with black-tipped hairs, becoming pale rufous on the frontal 

:i; chin, throat, pectoral region and middle of abdomen white, passing into a 

buff tint laterally and on the inside of the hind limbs; prepectoral band very 

buff; the hairs of the whole ventral surface are grayish plumbeous at base; 

ears pale rufous on both surfaces, as is the nape patch; fore and hind feet yellowish 

rufous, the soles dusky; the very short tail is dusky above, pale yellowish rufous 


Total length (type and only specimen), 328; tail, 20; hind foot (c. u.), 81 (s. u. 
73); ear (in dry skin), 40. Skull, greatest length, 61.5; zygomatic breadth, 31; 
mas' :h. 24; interorbftel breadth, 13; length of nasals (diagonally), 25, 

greatest breadth, 13.5; palatal length, 23; breadth of palate, 10; palatal foramina, 
10 X 5; upper tooth-row (at alveolar border), 12; greatest antero-posterior diameter 
of bulla. 9.4. 

type is a fully adult female, with the sutures of the skull well closed. The 
frontal region is flat but not concave interorbitally ; the postorbital processes are 
small, narrow and pointed and diverge from the braincase. The general coloration 
above is a dull pale shade of yellowish. 

geographically nearest known relatives of 8. fulvescens are S. 

tmdurttr Thomas from the low coast district of Ecuador (dark-colored with 

blaeki-h ean end very small hulhi- . and 8, tmdktui from the Eastern Andes 

Mom • < . • an altitude of over 13,000 feet), also dark colored 

with the ears gray at base and blaekMi apieally. Both considerably 

• d tin- present in nae, and differ strongly from it in coloration. 

12. Agouti paca virgata Hangs. 

tpecima tduh fwniln. San Jottf alt. 200 ft.), Dec. 3, 1*»10 

i Rich 

660; tail. II; hind fort d length, 

itic breadth, S3; nasals, length on mid-line, 47; greatest 
in.ntak length on midline, SO; bmulth at posterior border, 

7t'. liulldin Ann i '.<n/. [VoL XXXI, 

58; interorbital breadth, 38; greatest breadth of occiput, 59; length of 
upper toothrow a1 alveolar border, 

In coloration and in the form of the skull this specimen ith ;i 

from Nicaragua which I refer to rirgata. 

13. Agouti paca Bubep. indet 

One specimen, La Florida (alt. 7000 ft.), .Inly is Mill,, . 
This is a young malt- with the milk premolars >till in place. In colora- 
tion and markings it agrees well with Stolsmann's description of CaVofSnyi 

taemmowtkUj but, though still young, is a much larger animal, both in 

external and cranial measurements. .1. tOCXOnotOskii i- a mountain form, 

living, according to the desoriber, on both slopes of the Andes in Ecuador 
be t we en (HXX) and 10,000 feet. Bis type is stated to be an apparently adult 

male. It is certainly much more mature, although much smaller, than the 
present specimen from I. a Florida. I'ntil further material is available it H 
impossible to decide upon the relationship of the two forms. 

14. Dasyprocta variegata variegata T&ckudi. 

Two specimens, males, Los Cisneros (alt. 000 ft.), March 19 and L'l 
(Richardson). One is adult, the other still retains the milk premolf 

Indistinguishable from a specimen from the Elio Oscuro, Cauca Valley, 
collected some years ago by the late J. H. Batty. They also agree 
closely with a number of specimens in a large series of I), columbitma Hangs 
from Bonda, Santa Marta, Colombia. The Bonda series shows a wide range 
of individual color variation, especially in the amount of ochraceous in the 
dorsal pelage, and in the white-tipping of the hairs of the lower back. The 
description of D. columbimm was baaed two immature specimens, and no 
comparison appears to have been made with I), tariefata; it seems to be at 
best a slightly differentiated subspecies of the mriejata group, ami should 
apparently stand as I). Mtriefata oolumbuma. The basal length (189.1 
the type skull of eoUnmhiana is obviously an error; probably 189.4 shotdd 
read 89.4. 


15. Proechimys semispinosus calidior Thomat. 

Fourteen specimens (Richardson), Nov. 29-Dec. 11, 1911; 10 adults, 
4 young one fouith to one half grown. The young specimens have the 
whole back dark brown, the flanks strongly washed with ferruginon-. 

1912. 1 M : Mb from Western Colombia. 77 

Mr Thomas'- description ' of t hi- w b epcciea agrees perfectly with I 
omens, which were collected in the coast region of Colombia, about 

KM) mile- north of the type locality of ailitiior, in the >aine character of 


mrementsof 8aduhs: Total length, »^00); head and ho. ly, 

Skull (average 
era! adults . total length. .">7; lygomatic breadth, 

lh.i nom i: 
16. Heteromys lomitensis >p. nov. 

. ad., Las Lomhas, Cauca, Colombia, Manh 1, 1911; coll. 
\V. B. Richardson. Altitude 5000 1 dope of Western Andea 

(Jpperparta superficially dull black, the hair.- without either rufous or fulvous 
tipping; !">• h apm ea and baill gr ay ieh white basally. black apically, with ■ few white- 
tipped hair- and -p!tn- intermixed; ventral surface, inside of limbs, muzzle, lower 
bonl kfl and eheek-pouehes white; fore feet white; hind feet thinly covered 

with .-il\«ry white hairs nearly to ankles; soles naked, black; tail indist inctly bicolor, 
dark brown above, lighter bel o w , nearly naked; ears dark brown. 

Type, total length. 250 nun.; head and body, 120; tail, 130; hind foot (c. u.), 
Skull, total length :natn hreadth, 16; length of nasals, 14; inter- 

1 bread 1 1 ma, 8; up|>er toothrow. 

rannted l»y thre<> adult ipechnenfl (two males, one female), all from the 
• locality. Manh 1 4. 1«»11. 

Tin | nearly related to ll^iroiinjs auxtrulis Thomas, from near 

aeale\el .,• -• i.i ier, lower Cachabi River, northwestern Bcoador, from 

which it differs in darker coloration and -mailer -i/.c. 

M> no 
17. Mus mu8culus / 
Seven specimens Richardson : Sen Jose*, I tp» unen, I N < ddas, 

6 Specin 

IS. Reithrodontomys milleri -p. nov. 

Wk May 28, 
191 ! Miller, for whom the ipe c iei i- nai I. ID recognition of hi- e\cel- 

BeJd work in ooDeetttf the mammal- which extent form the beai 

nd Mac. Nat. HUt I). VIE! 

78 liullilin American Museum of Natural History. Vol \\.\I. 

I purparts yellowish brown, darker mcsially, lighter :m<l nunc fulvous on the 
sides and passing into the deep orange-buff lateral line which sharply divides the 
dorsal from the ventral surface; underparts white or grayish white, the hairs basally 
gray, this color often tinging the surface; ears dull brown; upper surface of all the 
feet dusky brown, the digits flesh-color or whitish; tail bicolor, dark brown above, 
grayish brown below, not lighter at the tip. 

Type, total length, 185; head and body, 78; tail, 107; hind feet (c. u.), 19. 
Ten adults (all topotypes): total length, 181 (169-190); head and body, 73.8 
78); tail. 107 (98-116); hind foot, 19 (18-20). Skull, total length. 28; zygomatic 
breadth. 11..1; interorbital breadth, 4; breadth of braincase, 11; mantoiri breadth, 
10; length of nasals, 8; diastema, 5; upper toothrow, 4. 

Type, an adult male. Represented by 17 specimens (Miller), of which 1 
from Munchique (May 24-June 8), and 2 from Cocal, June 17. The adults show a 
considerable range of individual color variation, the type representing the average 
coloration Above the general coloration varies from yellowish brown to rufous 
brown; below from clear white to grayish white, only one specimen out of the whole 
series showing a faint tinge of cream buff. Immature specimens are dusky grayish 
brown above with a slight yellowish tinge tipping the hairs. 

Compared with RnthrodorUomy* tOdergtrUmi Thomas, from Quito, 
Ecuador, the present species is fulvous brown instead of "grayish lawn" 
above, clear white or grayish white instead of "more or less bully or fawn- 
colored below," with B well developed lateral line, the feet and hands more 
or less dusky above (blackish in young specimens) instead of "white, 
without darker markings on the metapodials," and the tail not white- 

19. Rhipidomys mollissimus sp. now 

Type. No. 32243, 9 ad., Mira Flores (alt. 6200 ft.), west slope of Central Andes, 
near Palmira, Cauca, Colombia, April 30, 1911; coll. Leo E. Miller. 

Upperparts yellowish brown inconspicuously grizzled with blackish, the hairs 
being dark slate basally with a narrow apical or subapical band of fulvous, and a 
slight tipping of black on the middle of the back; top of head scarcely different from 
the back; a well marked lateral line of deep buff separating the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces; underparts yellowish white, the hairs white to the base with the tips 
washed with pale yellowish; ears dull brown; tail black, unicolor, nearly naked 
basally, scantily clothed with short black hairs towards the tip. nearly concealing 
the annulations, and forming a conspicuous tuft at the tip; fore feet externally huffy, 
toes not conspicuously lighter; hind feet with buffy edges and toes, the median area 
dull black. 

Type, total length, 279; head and body. 123; tail vertebras, 166; hind foot 
(c. u.), 27; ear (in skin), 15. Skull, total length. 32; basilar length. 26) zygomatic 
breadth, 17; length of nasals, 11; interorbital breadth, 5; breadth of braincase, 14; 
mastoid breadth, 12.6; palatal length, 12; diastema, 7.5; upper toothrow, .">. 

Pelage short and fine, exceedingly short and downy on the ventral surface. 

The type and only specimen is an adult female; mammae 1-2=6. 

.■!/.'• 'its from I olotnbia. /9 

This »eeins to hear some resemblance to R. fulrin nt, r Thomas, 

but i> about one fourth larger, has a well-defined lateral line and is much 

polar b el ow, where the bain are not -laty at base as in R.fulciccntrr. 

Rhipidomys similis sp. nov. 

i">8, o" ad., Cocal, Cauca, Colombia, June 17, 1911; coll. Leo E. 
Miller. Altitude, 8000 f< 

Similar in coloration of upperparts to Thomasotnys popayanus; ventral surface 

-h whit*' washed with pah fulvous; ears brown, well covered on both surfaces 

with blaekkh ; with the upper surface dark brown, in the hind feet nearly 

.. the toes conspicuously white; tail dark brown, covered with black hairs, 

v concealing the annulations on the apical half, with a heavy terminal pencil. 

il length. 340; head and body, MS; tail, 185; hind foot, 81. Average 

ilults (type and three topotypes), total length, 326.5 (320-340); head and body, 

143 (128 165 : '.il. I'M) (184 199 ; hind foot, 30 (29-31). Skull (type), total 

leng' jflffftnatfr breadth, 18.5; nasals, 12; interorbital breadth, 5; breadth 

of braineaee, 1"> 2; diastema, 8.5; palatal foramina, 6.4; upper molar series, 5.1. 

Represented by 6 specimen-, two of which have worn teeth and all are 
adult; four are from an altitude of 6000 feet and two from 4000 feet. 

In general appearance externally ]{. nmUi* looks like a pale-bellied 
diminutive of Thomtisomys popayanMB. It is, however, not only much 
■nailer, but the ventral surface h grayish white with a wash of buff instead 
of i ep ochraeeous buff; the amount of fulvous beneath varys in 

different specimen! from ■ slight (practically abse nt in one) to a strong 

h of pale buff. It is of course, readily distinguished from popayama 

by the cranial characters and the well-haired and heavily tufted tail. 

21. Rhipidomys cocalensis sp. nov. 

. ad., Cocal, Cauca, Colouil. i.i. June 11. 1911; coll. I-eo E. 
Miller Altitude, WOO : 

Qpp the head, uniform bright yellow i-h rufoUS, mcoti-picuoii-lv 

1 with a few black-tipped hair-; entire ventral SttffaOS, m-ide of limbs, and 

lower half of check- pure white to the l>a>e of the hairs; head like tlr 

more distinctly Lined with Mack-tipped hairs; ear- light brawn, naked; tail brown, 

utiicol..!. n-:irl\ ii iked for the basal three-fourth-; apical fourth well-clothed with 
B hairs, lengthening towards the tip and forming a weD-developed apical 
tuft flesh color: bind feet Light « it h the metapodial area shad*-*! with dtti 

browaun lesfa eol 

d length, 960; head and II; tail, 199; hind foot, 28. skull. 

•uatic breadth. Is; SOUUS, U. int«rorbital breadth. 
breadth of braincasc, 15; diastema, 8.3; palatal foramina, 7; up|>cr molar scries, 5. 

by three immatu mens in addition to the type, 

which i le with greatl] worn teeth Two of the young 

BO Bulletin Anm ../ Natural History. Vol XXXI, 

specimens are from Cooa! ami tin- other from Munchique. A halt' grown 

specimen has the upper parts dusky, quite blackish OO the median line. 

ami strongly trashed with yellow on the sidei and with a yellow lateral line. 

In the other young specimens the hack is more or less mixed with black- 
tipped hairs. 

This is a typical Rkipidomyt, hut I fail to recognise it among the de- 

serihed spec i. 

22. Thomasomys cinereiventer sp. nov. 

Type, No. 82496, d" ad., crest of Western Andes (altitude, 10,340 feet), 40 miles 
west of Popayan, Cauca, Colombia, July 14, 1911; coll. Leo E. Miller. 

Similar in size and general proportions to T. kalirwwxkii (Thomas),' hut differ- 
ing in smaller ears and in coloration. Upper pints very dark brown, the hairs tipped 
with broccoli brown (Ridgway) hint red of "dull yellow" as in kalinow*kii\ tmder- 
parts ash gray with a barely perceptible wash of ecru drab (Ridgway), the I; 
being slaty for their basal two-thirds, and tipped with Boiled whitish; tail pale 
brown, not "black" as in kulimnrshii, covered with short hairs and not pencilled; 
ears rather small, brown: upper surface of feet pale brown, much paler than the 

dorsal surface, the base of the nails with a tuft of silvery white hairs. 

Type, total length, 304; head and body, 161; tail, 169; hind foot (c u 
ear (in dry skin), 14 X 12. Skull, total length, 36.5; lygornatic breadth, I 
breadth of braincase, 15; interorbital breadth, 6; length of nasals, 15; palatal 
foramina. <i; diastema. 10; tipper toothrow, 5.5: lower jaw. condyle to tip of inci 
23; coronoid to angle, 9.8. 

The type is an old male, above average size, with slightly worn teeth. 

Six topotypes, all old adults, the teeth in all showing appreciable wear, give the 
following: Total length, 299-3 (273-320); head and body, 137 (126-161); tail, 1".". 
(144-172); hind foot, 35 (34-36); skulls, greatest length, 35 .3 34 87 ; sygotnatic 
breadth, 18.1 (18-18.5). The average of this scries varies but a few millimeters from 
the measurements given for the alcoholic type of T. balinotmkii, which are as follows: . 
(Total length, 295;1 head and body. IK): tail, 155; hind foot (s. a.), 32.8; skull. 
greatest length, 36; zygomatic breadth, 18.5. 

A series of 20 specimens (13 males, 7 females) from the type locality, all aduh 
but not of course of equal age, measure as follows: Total length, 281.8 (273-321 > : 
head and body, 131.4 (123-161); tail, 150.8 (144-162); hind foot, 34.6 (34-36); 
skull, greatest breadth, 35.5 (34-37); zygomatic breadth, 18.1 (17.3-18.5). 

The young adults are much darker (nearly black) above and much clearer gray 
(silvery gray) below. The range of individual color variation in fully mature speci- 
mens is very slight, nor is there any appreciable sexual difference in size. 

Represented by 22 specimens from the type locality (the crest of the Coast 
Range, west of Popayan, altitude 10,340 feet), collected July 10-28, 1911, and by 
8 collected at Cocal (6000 feet), June 14-17. Several of the specimens of each series 
are not quite mature, but about five sixths in both series are fully adult, and several 
are old adults with worn teeth. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XIV, Nov., 1894, p. .i4<). 

Ml,u. Mammal* from Western Colombia. 81 

Tin bears a striking general resemblanee to T. kaimowtkii from 

"the Valley of Vitoc, Easl Central Pern," from which it differs mainly in 

coloration, and inucli smaller I 

Thomasomys popayanus sp. nov. 

71. • ad Brest of \ndes (alt. 10.340 ft.), 40 miles west 

of IV I Solombia, July 17, l'.tll; coll. Leo E Miller. 

(Jpperparti yellowish rufous lined with black, a broad median dorsal band darker 
than the adjoining parts; more orange yellow on the sides; whole ventral surface 
and inside of limbs deep ochraceous buff from the throat to the base of the tail, the 
pelage plumbeous at the base; top of head darker than back and slightly grayish; 
a of nose suffused with buff; cheeks like the sides; muzzle and chin ochraceous 
gray; upj>er surface of feet dark, brown, the toes whitish; under surface of hind feet 
Irish brown; ears dull brown, nearly naked on both surfaces; tail dull grayish 
brown, unieolor, nearly naked (the very short hairs invisible without a lens), with a 
slight, barely distinguishable tuft at the end, as in many species of Oryzomys. 

head and body, l»; tail. 21S; hind foot, 35. Skull, 

■; zygomatic breadth. J<); length of nasals, l.">; interorbital breadth, 5; 

breadth of braincase, 17: diastema, 9; palatal foramina. 7; upper molar series, 7. 

ted by 11 specimens, all males, end all but one topotypes. The other 

- tii Antonio (alt. 8000 ft.), collected by Kichard-oii. Jan. 10. All are adult, 

but three are slightly undersize in comparison with adults with worn teeth. Tea 

the following measurement-.: Total length. :;t>7 only one 

nd body, 1M l i.i 164 ; tad. -Ml 201 _>is); hind foot 

Skull, total length, 8&9 (86JM0); zygomatic breadth, 19.9 
i'» 30 

In coloration tin- scrie> i> unusually uniform, the chief difference being 

that the darker median band along the back is in some specimens barely 

liable while in others obviously younger specimens) it a strongly 

eloped. The color of the ventral surface varies from hulF to ochraceous 

buff; the grayish buff of the muzzle varies a little in the amount of huffy 

i> pan-nth distind from anj other known species of 
i from Bogota. 

J I Neacomys pusillus sp. dot. 

. San Josd, Cauca, Colomhia. Die '.'. l'.'io; coll. W B 
00 feet, in the humid mast region. 

"■rparts orange rafou i with blade-tipped hairs and 

©range ;.t on tlie lower had: w '< lack-tipped 

ides lighter and more yellow i-h. a clear deep orange yellow 
band separating the dorsal and ventral surfaces and extending from the sides of the 

82 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI, 

nose to the thighs; top of head much darker than shoulders and back; ventral sur- 
face wholly dear white to the base of the hairs, which ire somewhat rigid; ears 

•iKilly dark brown, soaatuy haired; inner surface with Mattered short yellowish 
hairs; tail wholly dark brown and nearly naked; upper surface of feet with very 
short yellowish hairs; soles of hind feet naked, pale brown. 

Type, total length, 145; head and body. 7."): tail, 70; hind foot, 20. Skull, 
total length, 19; zygomatic breadth, 10; breadth of braincaae, K»:i: length of nasals, 
7.5; upper molar series, 2.5; diastema, 1 

Represented only by the type, an adult male with slightly worn 1 1 

This species is similar in general coloration to Neacomy* fpMMlfl 
(Thomas), the type of the genus, from Huambo, in northern Peru, at an 
altitude of 3700 feet, but apparently less dark and more orange, with the 
color of the feet much lighter. It differs from it, however, strikingly in 
size, the skull being 1 BUB. shorter in total length, and 3 mm. less in zygo- 
matic breadth, with proportional differences in all external measurements. 
Geographically the localities are separated by the whole breadth of the 
Andean system, the present species being from the humid lowlands of the 
Pacific < "oast. 

In this connection a reexamination of tie _'<) specimens colli 

by Mr. H. H. Keayi at [nca Mines in southeastern Peru (lat. 13° 30' south. 
long. 70° west, altitude 600!) Feel in L900, and referred by me ' to Neacomyi 
tpimnui, has shown tint in all probability the Inca Mines series represen ts 
a well marked form of A*, tpintma, characterised especially by its larger 

size. Excluding from thtt series several Specimens that were without 

measurements or not fully mature, the remaining 15 specimens give the 
following measurements: Total length, ISO MM _mi;; ; head and body, 86 
(76-95); tail, 103 (95-114). The measurements given for two specimens 
(type and topotype) of ipinonu, from alcoholic specimens, reduced to 
millimeters, are [total length. 173.71 (174.99, 17*i.23)]; head and body, 
76.2(70.2,76.2); tail, 99.4 (98.79, 100.03 

This large series from Inca Mines shows that the coloration of this 
group may present a wide range of individual variation, in some of tl 
specimens the dorsal surface being blackish grizzled with rufous, in others 
orange rufous minutely punctated with black, the majority of the specimens 
varying between these extremes, irrespective of age or sex, the two speci- 
mens showing the greatest difference in coloration having been collected on 
the same day and at the same places. The ventral surface varies from deep 
buff to clear white. In some of the white-bellied specimens the white; 
extends to the base of the hairs, while in others the basal portion is more or 
less slaty gray, as is the case in all of the buff-tinted specimen. 

' BuJl. Amer. Mus. N:r HI. 1900, p. _'- , - > . an t XIV. 1901, p. I-' 

1912.] Mini, Mammals from Wettern Colombia. 83 

Oryzomys palmir® sp. n<>\. 

Tv| • . :i«l . Mini Plant alt. t>200 ft.), a few miles east of Palmira, 

eastern .-lope ..f Central Andes. April :i<>. lOilj coll. LaoE. Miller. 

Pelagtsoft and fine, velvety on tin- vent nil surface. Upperparts yellowish tawn y- 
olive, finely grissled with blackish on the back nore yellow i-h; 

top of head darker and more varied with I>lacki.-h than the back; ventral surface 
ashy white, sharply defined against the sides, the bain dark gray basally broadly 
tipped with whitish; limbs externally like the sides, internally like the belly; upper 
surf. pale Duffy white, without darker median area; ears dark brown, 

covered with very short hairs on both surfaces; tail pay brown, lighter below. 

tal length, 216; head and body, 106; tail, 110; hind foot, 36; ear (in 
dry .-kin . 13. Another old female from Palmira, within si^ht of Mira Flores, but 
at nearly 3000 feet lower elevation, is slightly larger; a series of 8 subadults, partly 
from Mira 1- lores and partly from Las Lomitas, the latter at 5000 feet on the Western 
Andes, but only about 30 miles west of Palmira, are smaller, the difference being 
.rcntly due to immaturity. These average, total length, 197 (190-200); head 
and body, 99 (90-101); tad, 97 (90-100); hind foot 27). 

Skull (type), total length, 27; zygomatic breadth, 15; interorbital breadth, 5;, 12; length of nasals, 10; palatal length, 12; palatal foramina, 5; 
maxillary tooihrow, 4.5; diastema 

is an old female with worn teeth. Repr ese nt ed by 14 specimens, of 
which .") are toi>otypes, 1 is from Palmira, 6 are from Las Lomitas, and 1 each from 
Cocal and the crest of the Western Andes. These localities include a range in alti- 
tude of from :j."»« M ) to 10,340 feet, and are distributed in and on both sides of the 
Bey. The variation in size- and coloration Stems to be correlated with age 
in locality, so thai the recognition of more than one form in the pre 
-••ems undesirable. 

ft palmira closely resemble* in oolaratkMi, texture of pelage, and 

pro; 0. mollipUonU Allen, from Santa Marta. Colombia, but it 

>e fourth smaller. The group to which the- belong has a 

distribution in Central and South America. 

Oryzomys pectoralis >p. nov. 

mi Andes (alt. in.. ho ft. . in miles west 
of l'n; Jury 10, I'M l ; toO Leo l Miller. 

Dowith brown, slightly griasltd with black along the median line; sides 

clear yellow, forming n well-defined lateral line; top and sides of head biatkitfa 

I with gray and slightly suffused with buff, much darker, than back; 

basal half of pelage grayish plumbeous, broadly tipped with 

■ a! riijim iii the base of the hairs; sides of nose, chin an 

brown, nak si portion externally; feet 

fletb-color, thinly O O TBTt d with uhiti.-h hair-; soles of hind feet l.lacki-h brown; 
tail pale grayish brown, nearly unioolor 

j length, I and body, 166; tail. 162; hind foot, 36; car, 17. 

84 HiiUitui 1 M us, inn hi Xtitural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Skull, total length, 36; zygomatic breadth, ls..">; interorbital breadth, 5.2; breadth 
of braincase, 15; length of nasals, 12; diastema, 9; palatal foramina, 5.5; upper 
toothrow, 5.3. The type is an old female with somewhat worn teeth. There is, 
however, no sexual difference in size or coloration 

This species is represented by 112 specimens, collected at various localities in the 
Coast Range, varying in altitude from 4000 to 10,340 feet, as follows: 

Cocal, 4000-6000 feet, 5 adults and 5 immature, June 10-17 (Miller). 

Gallera, 5700 feet, 2 specimens, immature (Miller). 

Munchique, 8225 feet, 45 specimens (26 adult, 19 immature), May 23- June 5 

Crest of the Western Andes, west of Popayan, 10,340 feet, 30 specimens (25 adult . 
5 immature), July 10-22 (Miller). 

Mira lions, 8200 fed . 6 specimens, April 30-May 1 (Richardson). 

San Antonio, 8000 feet, 10 specimens, January 4-12 (Richardson). 

Las Lomitas, 5000 feet, 1 specimen, February 26 (Richardson) 

Gilengu, Cauca Valley, 3500 feet, 1 specimen, May 5 (Miller). 

There is a considerable range of individual variation in both size and 
coloration. In adults with well worn teeth the dorsal surface is less mixed 
witli black tipped hairs than in young adults which have attained lull size 
as regards external measurements, but which show slight immaturity in 
the skull; and in old adults the ventral surface is much whiter, through 
the greater length of the white points to the hairs. The snow white pectoral 
area, in which the hairs are white to the base, varies considerably in size 
and form, from a small central spot about 30 mm. long by about 15 mm. 
broad, to a broad patch 60 mm. or more in length and filling the whole sp 
between the axilla?. Usually there is no trace of a fulvous wash on the 
underparts but it is present in a few specimens (about 10 per cent.), and 
varies from the merest trace to deep buff, about three or four specimens in 
a hundred showing a strong wash of fulvous. It seems to be confined to 
young adults and not to specimens from any particular locality. 

Young specimens, from one-quarter to two-thirds grown, are dusky 
brown, almost blackish in the younger stages, with a faint trace of 
yellow tipping the hairs of the dorsal area, while the sides may be strongly 
washed with yellow, which often forms a well-defined lateral line dividing 
the dorsal and ventral areas. The white pectoral spot is sharply defined, 
but the remainder of the ventral surface may be uniform rather dark gray, 
or gray thinly overlaid with white, formed by the extreme tips of the hairs. 

The tail varies from unicolor dark brown or gray brown to indistinctly 
bicolor either on the basal portion or nearly throughout its length, the 
upper surface being much darker than the lower, or the light color may be 
restricted to irregular linear blotches on the lower surface. 

The Munchique series contains 20 specimens which the condition of 
the skull and teeth shows to be fully adult, in only six of which, however, 

Allen, Mammal* from Western Colombia. 85 

distinct wearing <>f the teeth; l>ut in several of these six the cusps 
atirely obliterated. 

and extremes of tic Millielliqiie >eries are {IS follow 

■h. 314 (300 324 ; head and body, i I s (140- 

lO, 166 165 176 : hi. i.l tout. 36 34-38). Ten skulls: Total 
pmiatk breadth, 19). 

The average and extreme- of the series from the crest of the Western 
Andes, wesl of Popayan, including only those that the skulls show to be 
mature including 7 with worn teeth) are as follow 

1 » specimens: Total length, 312 H00-330); head and body, 148 (136- 

Uul, 164 1-.4-170); hind foot, 35.4 33.5-37). Twelve skulls: 

J length, itie breadth, 17.7 (17-19). The seven 

lis with greatly worn teeth average somewhat larger than the series 

as a whole, as follow-: Total length, 316 (310-330); head and body, 155 

tail, 162 (154 170 : hind foot, 35.6 (33.5-36); skulls, total 

ygomatic breadth, IS (17-19). 

Tin belongs to the Orjpnmyt ullrigulari.* (Tomes) group, hut it 

i> much larger than any of the forms of this group hitherto described from 

th America. The type locality of O. albigulnri.* is Pallatanga, 

in western central Ecuador, on the wesl -lope of the Andean range. Ac- 

rements of three topotypea given by Thomas 1 it is a much 

smaller species, the dimensions as given being as follows: Total length, 

-ad and body, 127 124 r. ,, .» ; tail, ltd (157 if.:, ; hind 

Specimens of <). p eeawo f sf of this sise are so obviously 

immature, in coloration a- well u in >kull characters, that they could not 

iken for adults, not would they agree well with the description of 

in coloration. 0. meridnutU Thomas is still smaller, while 

r Allen, from I arta, < Colombia, is much Larger and very 

dim olored, the upperparta being strongly reddish brown mntcad 

• Dowish brown, as in other form- of the nlbiguhtri* group. 

Orysomys I Oligorysomys I munchiquensis sp. nor. 

. ad., I.a Florida (alt 77<Mt r J, p.M!: ...11. I 

• rpart«, fr "ad posteriorh raceouB strongly urizzlnl whh 

les paler without adi.-tn line; head gr ay ish ttrcogry mind with 

washed with a pale shade <»f buff; ears well clothed, rxt.-rn illy, dull oehraesooi iatcrnaOy; upper surfaot of fore tad Mad (est 

netapodial area n«>t darkened; tail pale brown, slightly 

S(i Bulletin Amer . ll-innj. [Vol. XXXI, 

Type, total length, 1 '.••">; head and body, 81; hind foot (c. u.), 23 Foil 
specimens (only in part exact topotypes), total length, 186 (173-203); head ami body, 
75.6 (67-86); tail, 110 (99-118); hind foot. 22 21 23). skull, total length, 
zygomatic breadth, 12; interorbital breadth, 2.8;, 11; length 
of nasals, 8; diastema, 4.5; palatal foramina, ;M; upper molar .-erics, 3. 

The type is a fully a>lult female. Represented by 15 specimens, all adult. M 
follows: La Florida, 8 spe< ■imens, July 8 and 9; Cocal, 1 specimen, June 17: 
of Western Andes mar I'opayan, 1 specimen, July 13; Munchique, 10 specimen*, 
June 1 '■'. and July 9 These localities are near each other on the western slope of 
the Wert e ta Andes at altitudes ranging from 6000 to 8325 feet, with one specimen 
from an altitude of 10,340 feet. 

This species is a miniature of 0. slolzmanni Thomas (northern Peru) 
with the head blaekish varied with gray instead of uniform with the rest 
of the dorsal surface. 

28. Oryzomys (Oligoryzomys) fulvirostris sp. nov. 

Type, No. 32567, 9 ad., Munchique (alt. 8325 ft.), May 29, 1911; coll. I 

Upperparts rusty !>rown profusely lined with black, the hairs being Maekish 
slate for the basal two-thirds, then subapically banded or tipped with yellowish 
rufous, mixed with hairs wholly black or black-tipped; head less rufous, blackish 
prevailing in front of the eves, with a transverse narrow streak of fulvous at the front 
edge of the whiskers; sides more yellowish than the back, passing insensibly into 
ochraceous buff on the ventral surface; chin and throat grayish suffused with huff, 
lighter than the rest of the ventral surface; ears blackish; upper .surface of feet Been 
color mottled with small blackish scales, conspicuous on the hind feet, not concealed 
by the sparse light colored bristly hairs; tail grayish brown, nearly naked on the 
proximal half, increasingly hairy toward the tip with a slight pencil 'white in the 
type, but black in the paratype, and in other specimens received later). 

Type total length, 218; head and body, 188; tail, 130; hind foot, 23.5. Skull, 
23; zygomatic breadth, 12: interorbital breadth, 3.2; breadth of braincase, 11; 
length of nasals, 9; palatal length, 8.2; palatal foramina, 3; maxillary toothrow, 3; 
diastema, 5.2. Teeth very small ; interorbital region rounded on the edges, depn 
medially, forming a furrow. 

The type is an adult female that had reared young. Represented by three speci- 
mens, the type and two adult males, one from Gallera (alt. 5700 ft.), the other 
(tailless) from the crest of the Western Andes, 40 miles west of Popayan. The 
paratype is practically indistinguishable from the type in coloration, and vai 
remarkably little from it in measurements; the total length being 220 instead of 218, 
the tail 1 •'*•"> instead of 130, and the hind foot 24 instead of 23.5. The tailless specimen 
had lost its tail before capture, there being no trace of its former presence when the 
skin was prepared by the collector 

This species is a typical Oligoryzomys in size and proportions, readily 
distinguishable by its deep buff underparts and yellowish nose spots, and 
especially by the conspicuously squamose upper surface of the hind feet. 

AH >rn Colombia. 87 

Worn teeth in tin- species of OUgorjfmtmjft show an enamel pattern similar 

iat in Z]ffodontomjf», and both tins group and Mihiiionn/x might well 

take the rank of Full genera. 

Oryzomys (Melanomys phaeopus Thomas. 

Twenty-nine Bpecimens: Munchiquc ah. of camps, 6000-8325 ft.), 

May 28 Inii Miller i; La Florida '77(H) ft.), 7 specimens 

ler : Las Lomitas (."MM) ft. . Feb. 26, 27, s specimens (Richardson); 

Mira Finn- 6200 ft. . April 27 30, 1 specimens Miller ; ( a Idas (2000 ft.), 

21, 1 specimen (Richardson); Junchito (3400ft.), May 9, 1 specimen 


Only one specimen of the La Florida series is fully adult; of the Mun- 

chiqiM BCTH - -i\ an- fnlly adult and measure as follow-: Total length, 230 

. head and body, 121 (114 124 ; tail, 103 (W-112); hind foot, 

The description of pkaopu» x was based on a single specimen from Palla- 
i iiador. The present -cries is evidently referable to this spe< 

imens that might haw served as the basis of the 

ption although from localities considerably further north. 

In pkaOpUS the Color of the upper surface i- " eoar-ely grizzled hllvOUS and 

black*" in Obscuriot grizzled rufous (approaching chestnut) and black, the 

reddish tone strongly prevailing over the black; in pk&OfUi the ventral 

surl I'- ochraeeous butf with a Strong mixture of gray, in obxcurior 

uperficial wash of gray; in pkmoput the pelage is eaanti 

and longer than in OOSCMTtOr, the difference being S tro ng ly marked and 

noi a glance; pkatopiu is distinctly larger than oateaWor; in phimpus 

tail i- brown, somewhat lighter below than above, in uhxi-uriur unieolor 

: black. i found at about the -ame altitude-, but only one of 

the form- has thus far been CoUected at the -anie loealitie-. though in OM 

! and Munclii. not far apart. 

Orysomys Melanomys obscurior Fans***. 

Till: I KHMI ft. . .lime 10 13, 7 -peeinieii-. 

all adult. ( i.ill- r. . .1 un< I 28 J nl J ineii-. about one half 

adult, the other- in variotU immaturity. 

The adnhs of the Gallera series, mostly mak I l specu 

l length, it li l at 234 ; head and body, in 

I. p. 356. 

SN Bulletin American Museum of Natural HUtory. [Vol. XX XI. 

118); tail, 94 (84-100); hind foot, 26.5 (26-28). The. skulls range in total 

length from 28 U) 30, and in zygomatic breadth fnun 1 l.s to 15.2. 

Coc; 7 specimens (4 n total length, -\ \ 

22S); head and body, (118 L2S j tail. M (83 L10 ; hind 
(24.5-27.5). Skulk, total length, 28.5 (28 20 ; Bygomatic breadth, 15. 

Judging from the original description of Orjptomy* pfutoptu obtcurior 

Thomas, 1 based on a single specimen with the tail "imperfect at tip.'* from 
Concordia. MedeUm, Colombia, the presenl series is referable to thai form. 
My series averages rather larger than the measurements of the singlespeev 

men given by Thomas, but there are several adult specimens in the ser ia l 
as small as Thomas's type, which was probably a rather young adult. 
This is indicated by the fact that the younger adults are not only " mueli 
darker throughout [than in phiropwt], especially on the posterior hack, 
where the fur is practically black, only relieved by ;i few yellow-tipped 
hairs," as in the younger adults of my series; in old adults the lower hack 
i- not noticeably darker than the anterior half of the dorsal area. In the 
specimens with the posterior back not different from the anterior, the teeth 
show more or leaf wear and the SIM is at the maximum. 

0. phceopus and (). }>h. oosevrtor are here both treated as full species, 
since well marked differences are shown, in my large Beries representing 
both forms, in size and coloration, and especially in the texture of the pel 
as already noted under pkcnpUM. 

Immature specimen-., up to half or two thirds grown, of the two forms 
are, however, not positively distinguishable. In both forms such speci- 
mens are uniform dull black above with little or no fulvous or rufous ripping 
to the hairs, and slaty black below with a slight wash of gray, instead of 
"ochraceous buff" (Rklgway) with a wash of gray in adult phmopUt, or 
"russet " (Ridgway) in adult obscurior. 

The Milniiujiiis obteurior group has a wide range, of which my M. 
chrif.vunrlas of Costa Rica and Nicaragua proves to be only a rather slightly 
differentiated subspecies. 

31. Oryzomys (Melanomysi obscurior affinis subsp. now 

Typ. No. '.1090, <? ad., San Jos6 (altitude 200 ft.), Cauca, Colombia, Dec. 3, 
1910; coll. W. B. Richard 

Color of UpperparU similar to that in 0. [Mi.) obscurior but decidedly darker 
with km rufous tipping the hairs; underparta darker, "walnut brown" instead of 
"russet " Ridgway); in size and cranial characters not appreciably different from 

' Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6). Vol. XIV, Nov.. 1904, p. 356. 

1912.) AM <d* from Wettern Colombia. 90 

,nth. 235; head and body. 14.".; tail, 90; hind foot, 30; skull, 
breadth, 158. A length, 210 (190- 

moetly -". ead :m.l body, 120 (110-130, mm I IS : tail, 86.5 (80-90); 

ikulb: Total lengti ^3-31); zygomatic 

is an old male with worn teeth, and the largest specimen of the series. 
-I>eciinens (Richardson): San Jose (alt. 200 ft.), Nov. 29- De 
10sp« ! us Cianeroe (alt. 600 ft.), March 17, Is. 2 specimens. , 

\{ iJt.trurinr is a dark form, from the humid tropical coast district, 
of tin Orysomyf obacuritr group. 

iEpeomys fuscatus sp. now 

230, 9 ad., San Antonio near C'ali. alt. 7000 ft.), Cauca, Colombia, 
Jan. 21. 1911; eoll W B. Richardson 

_•>• bag, thick, soft and velvety. I'ppcrparts blackish, almost clear black 

median dorsal region, with a faint wash of grayish brown over the shoulders 

and lei of the body, almost imperceptible except in favorable' lights, when 

the extreme tips of the hairs are seen to be grayish bistre; underparts dark gray, the 

ng slaty with the extreme tips of the hairs lighter or pale drab-gray; ears 

:i. thickly clothed with soft black hairs on the basal third externally, the 

nearly naked on l>oth surfaces; feet flesh color, very thinly haired; tail light gray 

brown, nearly unicolor, naked. 

. . total length, 220; head and body, 110; tail, 110; hind foot, 25; ear (in 
adults (all topotypee): total length. 203 (190-220); head 
and body, 108 (100-120); tail, 91.3 (85-110); hind foo 

Ii, 26.3; zygomatic breadth, 1">: interorbital breadth. .">: 
bre.-i incase, 13; length of nasals, 10.."> : palatal length. 11 ; palatal foramina. 

Mtaxillary toothrow, 4.2; diastema. 7 Five adult skulls, total length, - 
(26-26.8); «J1 

is an old female with the teeth worn; most of the topotypesalso have 
le of them they are much worn Represented l>y 
•ts, all from tic dity. 

leiitly related nyi wieam Thomas, from which 

Lp|x-ars to differ in relatively longer tail and somewhat in coloration, 
widely separated from it physiographirally. ./,'. fuscatus 1.. 
from the wot dope of the Western Andes, while the t\ pe locality of rulcatii 
Pinchincha at an altitude of 12,000 feet. 

Microxus affinis >p. nor, 

1 -'"M i ft.), Cauca, Colombia, 

Jan. .-II. W. I'. 

i<- tips of the hmr> yellowish giving 
below dark grayish brown, t! ■ tips of the 


BuUti Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

hairs olivaceous, giving the general effect of dark grayish brown wit }» % faint olive 
tinge; ears dull In-own. nearly naked, rather short and; feet grayish brown, the 
hairs dark with linht<-r tips; tail brown, not appreciably lighter below, nearly naked, 
much .shorter than head and body. 

Type, total length, 160; head and body, 90; tail, 70; hind foot, 20; ear (in dry 
skin), 12X10. Skull, total length, 25.8; zygomatic breadth, 11; intemrbital 
breadth, 5.2; breadth of braincase, 12; length of nasals, 10; palatal length, 11; 
palatal foramina, 6 (reaching nearly to middle of m '); maxillary tootbrow, ■">: dia- 
stema, 5.6. 

The type and only specimen is a fully adult male, the teeth slightly worn. 

This species appears to be closely related to Microxus bogotensis (Thomas), 
of wh ich it may be a subspec i as. 


34. Sciurus hoffmanni Peter*. 

Twenty-six specimens, collected as follows: 

San Antonio (7000 ft.), 7 specimens, Jan. 5-Feb. 6 (Richardson). 

Mini Flores ((5200 ft.), 7 specimens, April 17-28 (Richardson). 

Las Lomitas (5000 ft.), 2 specimens, March 12-13 (Richardson). 

La Florida (7700 ft. . 1 specimen, July (i (Miller) 

GaUera (5700 ft.), 1 specimen, -Inly 2 'Miller). 

Munchique (8325 ft.), 8 specimens, May 20 June 3 (Miller). 

Measurements of Specimens from Munchique. 

32500, <? length, 432 

32501, o" "434 

32502, 9 '452 

32503, 9 "430 
32.504, cT " !•">! 

32505, 9 " 452 

32506, <? " 111 

32507, o* "459 

tail, 232 

" 210 

" 224 

" 247 

" 235 

" 236 

" 218 

" 224 

hind foot, 55. 

" 55. 

" 59. 

" 55. 

" 58. 

" 57. 

" 55. 

" 59.5. 

In size, coloration, and cranial characters these specimens, as a series, 
are indistinguishable from a large series from Costa Rica, the type country 
of S. hoffninniii. 

35. Sciurus gerrardi (inn/. 

One specimen, Rio San Jorge, Bolivar, Colombia, Dec. 15, 1911 (Mrs. 
E. L. Kerr). 

1912] Allen, Mammals from Western Colombia. 91 

Sciurus milleri ap. nor. 

». 32511. 9 ad., Cocal (altitude 4000 ft.); coll. of Leo F. Mill. 
whom the species is named. 

In cranial characters similar to Sciurus hoffmanni, but much larger and very dif- 
oolara f. Top of head, nape, and posteriorly to middle of back, grizzled 
rufous and hla«-ki>h. the hairs being black minutely tipped with rusty; posterior 
half of nid-donal region gloetf Mack without rufous tips to the hairs; the black 
to the basal fourth of the tail, which portion is wholly intense black all 
around; sides of shoulders ami upper surface of fore limbs more rufous than the 
bead and fore-back, the hairs being broadly tipped with orange rufous, which is 
linn color on the fore limbs and scapular region; sides of the body pos- 
be shoulder-, the thighs and hind limbs externally strongly rufous, the hairs 
being conspicuously tipped with rufous; sides of head, ehin, and throat dull yellow- 
ish gray ; inside of fore and hind limbs and ventral surface deep orange rufous, with a 
to ■ whitish spot on the breast (absent in the cotype); tail wholly deep 
black for about the basal third, and the black extends apically to the tip of the tail 
on the ventral surface, with the sides and upper surface intense red; ears rather small, 
with tine sl„,rt dusky hairs externally, and also internally for the apical third; soles 

J length, 508; head and body, 240; tail vertebrae, 268; hind foot, 58. 
Skull, total length, 56; lygomatk breadth. 82£; interorbital breadth, 18; length of 
nasals. 16; upper tootfcrow, '.»">: diastema, 13.5. 

A second specimen (topotype) is a little smaller in external measurements, but 

-kull has the same length, but in other dimensions varies from 1 mm. larger to 

mailer. In coloration the same tones of color prevail, except that many of 

on the lower back are barely perceptibly ru f ouo t ipped instead of clear 

•ail is washed with orange instead of red. It is also a younger speci- 

Tlii paretitly related to the N. ciiriahilis-lmiasi/orffi, group 

of tin- Upper Amazonian region, with none of the forms of which, however, 

i- it ap p ar e ntl y closely related. 

Sciurus sestuans caucensis \<l.«»i. 

Mira Plorea (0200 ft. , 2 specimen*, April 2 Palmira, Central 

Andes (6000 ft. , 1 specimen, April _'_' ' Richardson). 

hteamri uilable for only two of the specimens, as follow - 

I length, 360; tail. iso ; hind loot, 12. 
71. . , - 11. 

ire indUtitie;uUha!ile from the hitherto unique type of 
eenern.*'.". from Rio Lima alt. 5000 ft 

Am. and M 1000, p, 366) has 

suggested that >'. n ti NelaOB M pr«»l»ahl\ identical with 

92 Bulletin Anui in, of Xatural History. \\\l 

Macroxua medcllensis Gray, "also from the Valley «»f the Cauca," but a 
careful comparison of the type of o aucen tit and the other specimens hen 

referred to niumixix with Gray's description of medeUetuil (Ann. and M 

Bkt, Oct l^7_'. p. K»s shows that they are not even nearly related. 

38. Sciurus (Microsciurus) similis Nebon. 

Poor specimens: Cocal, June 11 and L5, 2 specimens; Gallera, Jun< 

•_' specimens ( Miller i. Altitude -J(MM) and 5700 feet, respectively. San 
Antonio. .Ian. 'J'.'. 1911, l specimen (Richardson). Altitude 7000 f< 


rf», length. 2S0; kail 121 

82497, •. " 246; u 121 

32498, 9, " 286; 183 

82499, 9. " 262; " 122 

82178, tf\ " 280, " 115 

hind foot, 81, Gallera. 

" 86, 

" 34 Cocal. 

" 80, 

" " 26, San Antonio. 

These specimens agree perfectly with the type, and previously unique 
specimen, from near Cab' (alt 0000 ft.). 

39. Sciurus (Microsciurus) palmeri Thomas. 

Two specimens, San .lose (alt. 200 ft. I, Nov. 29 and Dec. 9 (Richardson). 
San Jose is only a few miles south of the type locality of the species, and 
at the same altitu le in the tropica] Coast belt 


40. Putorius macrurus ( TaaumowM). 

Two specimens: Mini Flores (alt. 5200 ft), adult female, April 1 
(Richardson): Munchique (alt. 8325 ft.), adult male, June 1 (Miller). 
Total length, 9 375, d" 495; tail, 9 150, <? 202; hind foot, 9 43, c? 52. 
Skull, total length, 9 44.5, d 1 52; lygomatic breadth, 9 23.5, d" 29.5; 
mastoid breadth, 9 20.5, d" 23. 

Referred provisionally to this species, with the description and colored 
plate of which it perfectly agrees. The chin and throat are like the pectoral 
region — not white as in P. affinis (as affinis is now commonly accepted). 

1912.] Alien, Mammals from Western Colombia. 08 

Procy<>\ii> 1 . 

41. Nasua olivacea Gray. 

Two specimens, an adult male ami a young male (with milk dentition), 

Munrliiqin- (alt. 6000 ft.), May 29 and June 6 (Miller). Adult male 

total length, 606; tail vertebra*. L28; hind foot, 64.5. Skull, 

I length, 94; zygomatic breadth, 40.5; mastoid breadth, 35; breadth 

of rostrum in front of canines, 7 

Nasua quichua Thomas. 

specimen, young male (with milk dentition), Popayan, July 23 

< Mil:. 

43. Bassaricyon medius Thomas. 

specimens, adult male and female, Gallera (alt. 5000 ft.), west 
slope of Western Andes, July 13 (Miller). 

.1 length, very old •', 820, l 740; head and body, cf 396, 9 350; 
tail vertebra?, d" 434, 9 390; hind foot, d" 71, 9 70; total length of skull, 
cf 80; zygomatic breadth, 50. (Skull of female mislaid.) 

11. Potos flavus caucensis Allot. 

Hires specimens, all old, San Antonio alt. 7000-8000 ft. . west slope 
ii Andes nesi < Isii . .Ian. 8 and !• | Richardson . 
-e specimens confirm the charactsn of the subspecies, based on 
specimen^ from upper < BUGS Valley (alt. 6000 ft.), near < ali. 

1"). Felis jaguarondi Fi$eksr. 
ipecimen, a Bat*ekin mthout skull or fret. Popayan, -Inly l'7 Miller . 

r dark gray with the middle of the hack blackish. 

SOKK 11 

Blarina Cryptotis squamipes sp. nov. 

t"8, c? ad., crest of f iO ft), 40 mile* wi 

Popayan, Cauca, Oj1....,1., a, July 17. lull. .-,,1! Leo K. Miller 

94 liulhtin American Museum of Natural History. i \.\.\I. 

very large, color very dark. Above, with head turned from the Light, intense 
black, with head toward the light, with a brownish sheen; below similar but with 
the bfOwnkt) sheen much stronger over the pectoral region than on the back; nose 
and chin lighter, more brownish; upper surface of fore and hind feel dark brown, 
heavily scaled, naked except for a few short black bristly hairs on the hind 
tail blackish, well clothed with short bristly black hairs. 

Type, total length, 128; head and body, 86; tail vertebrae, 42; hind foot, 18; 
skull (imperfect, lacking the occipital portion), tip of premaxillaries to posterior 
border of right parietal. 'JO; length of nasals, 07; palatal length, 9.8; length of entire 
upper toothrow, 10.5; length of the four large molariform teeth, 6; distance between 
outer border of last molariform teeth, 6. 

The type and only specimen is an old male with the cranial sutures obliterated 
anterior to the braincase, which part i> lacking. 

Blarinn $quandpe$ is fully equal in size to B. magna Merriam from 
Oaxaca, Mexico, and hence is one of the two largest known species of the 
subgenus CryptotU. Besides its huge size and exceedingly dark color, it 
may readily be distinguished by the coarse, heavy scales clothing both fore 
and hind feet — a feature I have not before seen noted in connection with 
any species of Blartna. 

Phyllostomid i 
17. Artibeus jamaicensis sequatorialis Andenm 
One specimen, adult male, Cali (alt. 2000 ft.), Dec. 22 (Richardson). 

48. Hemiderma perspicillatum (Linnaeus). 
One specimen, San Jose", Dec. 4 (Richardson). 

49. Thyroptera tricolor Spi.r. 
Two specimens, San Jose", Dec. 11 (Richardson). 


50. Alouatta seniculus caucensis Alien. 

Four specimens (Richardson): Las Lomitas (alt. 5000 ft.), adult female 
and young male, March 1; Palmira (alt. 3500 ft.), April 15, adult male; 
Guengue (alt. 3500 ft.), May 5, adult female. 

1912.] 41m, Mammals from Western Colombia. 96 

uens agree with the type series of this ro b s p e c iee in amal] 

narrow n . from the I'pper Cauca Valley. 

51. Ateles ater F. Cnrier. 

Poor specimens, 1 ailult male, _' adult females, tnd ■ young female a 
lew weeks old, Gallera (alt. 5000 ft. >, July 13 'Miller 

il length, 1150; tail, 000; hind foot, 1 

1220; " 630; " " 160. 
1260; " 750; " " 160. 
. .skull, total length, ll'-'; lyg, brt'a<lth, 69; breadth of braincase, 57. 

73; " " " 60. 

11.",; " " " " 62. 

Aotus lanius Doll man. 

( >n<- specimen, ■ hunter'- flat akin, without skull, obtained by Mr. P. M. 
Chapman on the Toche River, Central Andes, Cauca district, in 1911. 

53. Aotus griseimembra Elliot. 

Tun specimens, adult male and female. Rao Sinu Cerete, Bolivar, Colom- 
bia. Nov. 11 and 20 Mr-. I.. K. Kerr). 

54. Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot. 1 

ramena, male and female, Rio San Jorge, Bolivar, Colombia, 
il. 1911 i Kerr). 

66. Cebus capucinus nigripectus Elliot. 

il Antonio alt. 7(MK) ft. . adult male, Feb. 21, 1911 

Total length, 1020; tail. 510; bind foot, 180. Skull. 

I length, imatic breadtl breadth of braincase, 

length of braincase, 76; length of upper molar \\ lower jaw 

: ior border of condyle . 65; angle to top of 
height at condyle, 37.5; lower mol . 26. 

was base<l on two mbaduhi and one <|ui- 
imen, all From Lai Pubas, Upper < aucs v*ah\ 



By J. I). Hasem 

(ira has usually been considered • member of the family 
of Cichbd fishes. However, its relationship has been questioned in recent 
.irtly at least because the Ckhlkhe are now almost exclusively 
found in Smith America and Africa. Hence the exact relationship of Pris- 
ma i> important from the standpoint of zoogeography. If it is a member 
of the ( ichlidie. then the point of family origin may have been in the north- 
ern hemisphere, and not on an ancient southern continent (Gondwana). 

Thanks to Professor Bashford Dean, who has placed in my hands the 

abundant material of the N'ewhury and Cope Collections in the American 

Museum, I was enabled to make a study of the relationship of Priscacara. 

I am also indebted to Doctor L Huasakof for his suggestions in regard to 

the fossil characters. 

The genua Prtseaeora was described by Cope in 1877 from Green River. 

Wyoming Middle Eocene according to Osborn's 'Age of Mammals'). 

•hat it might be included in the Pomacentrida* but that it 

differs from the genera now known in the possession of vomerine teeth and 

in having apparently eight btanchioategal rays. I nave been unable to 

fy the presence of eight branchiosti in the excellent material 

ich includes Cope's specimens at the American Mibrinn of Natural 

but to the contrary am certain that the correct number is six 
In regard ti» the vomerine teeth, I think that only two 1 

142 and _'li:>. American lifmnnm actually show 

small sockets which indicate the existence of very small vomerine teeth in 

imer i- well p re serv ed in several ipeehnMM of other 

antra, but DO vomerine teeth or lOcketl were found. 

( ope p • •_■ thai the jaws of Prtseooam are toothless bat 

Woodwai that the specimens of Prisooeara have amaO ronioal teeth 

in both jaws. I have verifi ed Woodward*! oonchMoa. Wood ward also 

that the Cicnhdc bavt narial opening on each ride of the 

lit and that ti tenoid but otherwise they are like the I 

The data given in the following table indicates that this is the 
■ira i> more like the I.abrid:e than the I'omaeen- 

trii! both Woodward and Pellegrin have considered Prison 

as a member of the ( i< hlidie. and I believe that the following data lend 
i|>|M.rt to their \ i- 

Hull, tin American Museum of Natural History. 

[Vol XXXI, 

Pouai is r»M 

Single nostril on each 

A subocular sin If 

Lover pharyngeal 
bones OOmpsstfli] 

united and T or V 


I ID.* 

I). >iil»l<- nostril on 

Single nostril on 

each side 

\ ■ subocular shelf N<> subocular shelf 

bones oOBsptofeatj 
oatted and T or v 


Small conical teeth Ixmg conical teeth 

in jaws in jaws 

Gills 3) and pseudo- Gills 3 J and pseudo- 
branchiae branchiae 

Branchiostegals 5-7 Branchiostegals 5 or 

No vomerine teeth 

Preoperculum ser- 
rate or entire 

Lower phar 
bones united but 

retaining a Mitun- 
and triangular 


1 sually short coni- 
cal teeth in jaws 

i Kills and -lit l»- 
hind 4th and no 

Branchiostegals 6 or 

No vomerine teeth No vomerine teeth 

I'r -operculum 
rate or entire 

Vertebrae with 

transverse processes 
from 4th to .".th 

Ribs attached to 
the transverse proc- 
esses when they 
are present 

2 anal spines 

Vertebrae with 

transverse proc- 
from the 3rd 

Ribs attached to 
the transverse 

processes when 
they are present 

3 or more anal 

Preoperculum ser- 
rate or entire 

i>rae with 
transverse proc- 
esses from the 3rd 

Ribs sessile or sub- 


3 or more anal 



Not certain 

No subocular shelf 

Lower pharyngeal 

bones united but 

rotalnlin ■ ■atom 

and triangular 


Small conical teeth 
in the jaws 


Mranchiostegali 6 

Small vomerine 

teeth in at least 

l special. 

Preoperculum ser- 
rate or faintly so 

i>rae with 

transverse proc- 
from the 3rd 

Kibs sessile 

3 anal spines 

Numerous strong 
dorsal spin' ■ 

Ctenoid scales 

Back part of lateral 
line wanting 


Numerous standi r 
dorsal spines 

Cycloid (or weakly 
ctenoid) scales 

Lateral line contin- 
uous or in 2 parts 


Numerous Strang 

dorsal spines (8- 

Ctenoid scales 

Lateral line usually 
in 2 parts rarely 


10 or 11 strong dor- 
sal spines 

Ctenoid scalei 

Lateral lines perhaps 
in 2 parts 

Very probably fresh- 


The Green River Lake Formation is considered an estuarine or land- 
locked bay deposit (of. page 136, 'Age of M annuals '). This view is appar- 
ently derived from the presence of Dasyaiis and Notogoncus whose nearest 

Hasrman. Th> hip of the Genu* Priacacara. 99 

livit . w arc marine forms. On page 572, 'Cambridge Natural 

t\.' Boulenger states that Notogonew, found in bath water 
«»f Frame and North America. i> related to the marine (innorhynchida- 
which is represented by only one living marine >peeies, G. greyi. Dasyali.*, 
the order of sharks, ifl allied to existing forms which frequent 
:id estuaries of Florida M wefl as adjacent coasts (c/. Boulenger, 
p. ; th skates and sharks are known to inter mouths of ri\ 

Ju !. otrygon has many special whicli are found in rivers of South 

America. Pi]>lomystiut also offers no decisive support for a marine origin 
of tl Liver Lake Formation, because some of its surviving relatives 

ist in riven and along the coast of Chile and eastern Australia 
V. „ [ward . 

The presence of / <•«, Amia and other teleosts indicate that the 

formation i> of fresh water origin. The relationship of Dapedoglossus 
[Pkareodu*) and 1'riscacara with forms which live in tropical rivers, also 
indi resh water origin. Asitaops (cf. Cope, p. 85-87) is considered 

by Boulenger, p. 656, to be related to Apkredodenu which is now found in 
fresh water. These and other genera indicate that the bulk of the fishes 
of the Green River Formation were fresh water forms. The deposits also 
lack typical marine percifonn fishes. Hence it appears more probable 
that the shark-like forms entered this basin from the sea, than that all of 
the freshwater forms floated down the streams to be deposited near the 
coast in an estuary or land-locked bay. As far as Priscacara is concerned, 
it makes little or no difference whether the Green Kiver >halcs were or were 
not eatuarian or land-locked bay in origin, because Vriscacuni is known from 

undoubted freshwater deposits. Pharyngeal teeth of Pri t oae an are known 

from the Washakie basin of the Bridget formation -/. < lope, p. 93 ■ Hence 
j probably a freshwater form. 1 

i the sul, -ocular shelf, number of anal spines, location 

of lateral processes on vertebrae, etc, separate the Labridse and cichlidse 

from the PomacentridsB. < tonoid scales, sessile rilis. shape of fused pharyn- 
geal bones with suture, short corneal teeth, strong dorsal spines, and l>eing 

<iru from the Labridse. The 

of vomerine teeth and a few other characters show a closer rela- 
tionship between the ancestral CichtidsB and Per. ida' and < entrarehid:e, 

might »*• maintained that I'rxtrarara entered the freahwaUr from the sea. Thai 

l haa some weight in view of the fact that I have shown that Gtophagu* bratilitnm. a 

iid. can live for aome time in sea-water. But if such a view were proven, then the origin 

■a*. Thia being the case, no favorable evidence would exist 

from their distribution for a continuous Oondwana Land. 

ibau also considers the Green River Formation as fresh water (<•/. Index Fossils. 

100 HulUtui American Museum of Natural I! [Vol X.WI 

than is generally accredited, but most of these similarities arc apparently 
ancestral (paleotelic) perciform 'characters. Prucaeara is easily separated 
from these families by its fused lower pharyngeal bones which retain ■ 
suture, etc. 

The character of the naresof Priscacara cannot be definitely determined. 
This character is not, I believe, of any great importance because some of 
the living Cichlidae (Gcophagus) have several small pit> on their moots. I 
have passed bristles through some of these holes and in some cases they 
were found to be continuous with the cavity beneath the true nari>. 
Besides there appears to be no objection to the view that the ancestral 
Cichlidse might have had double nares — possessing, however, the tendency 
of narial coalescence or disappearance of one of the openings on each side 
of the head. So Priscacara may or may not have had double nares. 

In all details, which can be definitely determined, excepting the presence 
of vomerine teeth in at least one species of Priscacara, this genus agrees 
with the Cichlidce. The presence of degenerate or small vomerine teeth 
in any or all of the species of Priscacara is not, I believe, of sufficient im- 
portance to separate the genus from the Cichlidre, because many of the 
primitive perciform fishes had vomerine and palatine teeth. It is, there- 
fore, quite probable that the ancestral Cichlidte also had degenerating 
vomerine teeth. In fact, the small size of the vomerine teeth in Priscacara 
may be evidence of the trend of their evolution. The teeth may be 
adolescent in the smaller species of Priscacara, where, in spite of favorable 
material, they could not be determined. On the other hand it is possible 
that the development of some of the living Cichlidre would show traces of 
vomerine teeth if the different genera were studied. Therefore it appears 
that the data at our command are sufficient to show that Priscacara is an 
ancestral Cichlid. 


The serrate preoperclum of Priscacara vaguely indicates, along with other charac- 
ters, that the American genus Crenicara is more primitive than the genus Acquidens 
which is usually considered to be the most primitive. 

Priscacara sp.? Specimen No. 2583 in the American Museum has fused lower 
pharyngeal bones with a suture 

Priscacara oxyprion Cope, No. 2447 Amer. Mus., has a lateral line which appar- 
ently ends under the posterior base of the soft dorsal. The same specimen has two 
or three lateral line scales on the base of the caudal. This may indicate a two-part 
lateral line, if not, it being continuous, makes no difference, for some of the living 
Cichlidaj have continuous lateral lines (cf. Cichla). 

Priscacara serrata Cope, Nos. 2442 and 2443 Amer. Mus., evidently have sockets 
of teeth on the end of the vomer. 

1912] Haseman, The Relationship of the Genus Priscacara. 101 

The specimens all have twenty-four or more vertebra? (usually twenty-six), but 
this is a very variable character in perciform fishes. The serrate preoperculum is 
also found in living Cichlida? (cf. Crenicara). The arrangement of scales on the 
cheeks, pre- and sub-operculum, also vary much in living Cichlidse. 


1. Boulenger, G A I'.MH. I ishes in Cambridge Nat. Hist., Vol. \ II, pp. 670- 

2 Cope E D. 1884. Collected papers in the report of the U. S. G. S. Terr., 
I. Vol. III. pp. 92-100. 

Jordan and Evermann. 1900. The fishes of Middle and North America. 
II. pp. 1511-1512, l-")»:;. 1"»71 
I. Osborn, H F. 1910. The age of mammals. 

Pellagrin, J. 1904. Coutrib. a Y4t. anatom. et taxinomique des poissons de la 
famfle <!'■ Ci<hlides. Paris. 

Regan. C. T. 1905-1906. A series of papers on the American CichUds. Ann. 
.1 X\I. pp. 60-67, 225-243, 316-340, 443-145. hoc. cit. 
II. pp. 46-66. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1905 (August), pp. 152-1 
Woodward, A. S 1901. Catalogue of fossil fishes. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
IV, pp 539, 554-555. 

59.9.32 0(78.8) 

By .1. A. 

The Mu-< sun has recently received as a gift from Mr. J. D. Figg 
Direct o r of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, a series of nine 
specimens of O c koh ma, three of winch are from Pagoda Peak, Routt County, 
Colorado, and six from Geneva Park, between Mount Evans and the 
main divide, about 70 mile- Wert of Denver. Three of the Geneva Park 
brans ere in rammer pelage (August 28-31) and three in winter pelage 
November and December). The Pagoda Peak specimens were taken 
iber 30, and are also in winter pelage and thus comparable with the 
ember-December Geneva Park series. The skulls of the two series 
■how no appreciable differences, but the series are quite different in colora- 
tion. The Geneva Park specimens are of course referable to Ochotona 
'fills Bangs; the others, representing an isolated colony at Pagoda Peak, 
northwestern Colorado, may be distinguished as 

Ochotona figginsi sp. now 

. ad., Pagoda Peak, Routt County, Colorado, Oct. 30, 1910; 
I and presented bj Mr. J. I). Figgins. for whom thi named, 

appreciably different in size ami cranial character- from Ochotona saxatilis, 
bill different in coloration; the ground color of the pelage of the upper parts is much 
darker, the subapical light hand of the hairs being very pale yellowish white in 
*axattl<- and very near ecru drab in figginxi; the black tips of the hairs are also fewer 
and much shorter in the former, not forming a very pronounced feature, while in 
figg> : re bo abundant and so much longer as to give a blackish tone to the 

coloration; in taxa tiH * the ventral surface, in winter pelage. 1 is pale buff, with the 
kind approaching ochraceous buff; in figginsi m it h a pale yellow- 

wash, a little stronger and more buffy <>n the pectoral band, but not of the deep 
buff seen in aaxatili*. The lower borders of the dorsal area in figginsi share in the 
ker general tone of the upperparts, and are thus much deeper and more of a 
i in saxatilit. 

ition am called to the Pagoda Peak animal l>y Mr 
who in collecting the specimens here described found that they had "<|iiite 
•brent note from those found about the main Ml ' '/ i»] 

■*o*a •axatih, Bangs wm based on a aeries of specimens In summer pelage, from 
Mfomery. near Mount Lino Colorado, collected by me July 27. l 

(See Monographs of North Amer. Rodent I;, ill) In this species, as probahl> in 

all other species of the genus, the summer and winter pelages are very unlike 


104 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol .XXXI. 

ami diffe red somewhat in color, DOSsibljf mbjed to separation." He adds: 
" I Vrhaps nothing will describe this difference [in the Dotes] more fully than 
tn Nty tliat those on the Divide have a sharp, char note, while those of the 
Routt County region have a lower and more guttural note, giving one the 
impression that they were suffering from a bad cold in the throat. . . . 
In case the differences prove sufficient to warrant separation, I will deem it 
a favor if you will describe it." 

Respiting the locality he states (in litt.): "In the northwest corner 
of the State [Colorado], there are numerous detached peaks or cones several 
thousand foet above the plateau, 1 and upon one or two of these, possibly 

more, conys are found \s far as the natural habitat of these animals 

is concerned, the lava cones are as isolated as if they wire islands." 

1 Gannett gives the altitude of Pagoda Pmk >>n i he authority of Hayden), as 11,251 feet. 




\\\ Barnxtm Bbown. 

The general oeteologica] characters of this family were briefly stated 
in the description of Claotaunu (= Trockodon) annederu by Marsh, 
American Journal <>t" Science, •'><! series, voL II, LS92, pages 171 17:!, ac- 
oompanied by a restoration of the skeleton. In his description of the 

skeleton, which was copied later in 'The Dinosaurs of North America,' 
Kith Annual Report of the I'. s. Geologica] Reports, 1896, Marsh says: 
"The humerus is comparatively short, and has a prominent radial crest. 
The radius ami ulna are iniieh elongated, the latter being longer than the 
humerus, ami the radius about the same length. The ulna has a prominent 

olecranon process, and i> a stouter hone than the radius. The carpal hones 

were quite short, ami appear to have been only imperfectly ossified. The 

fore foot, or manUS, was very long and contained three functional <: . 
only. The first digit was rudimentary, the second and third were nearly 

equal in length, the fourth was shorter ami leas developed, ami the fifth 
entirely wanting, a- shown in Plate II. figure I. 

"In the functional digits II, III and IV) tin- phalanges are elom 

thus materially lengthening the fore foot. The terminal phalanges of these 

digits are broad and flat, showing that they were covered with hoofs and 

with claws. The limb as a whole was thus adapted to locomotion or 
and not at all for prehension, although this might have I 
and position. 
"The elongation of tin- fore arm ami maim- is a peculiar feature espe- 
ii iii connection with the ungulate phalanges. It may, 
be explained by supposing that the animal gradually assumed a 
mo: oaition until it became essentially a biped, while the fore limbs 

their primitive function, and did not become prehen- 
iu some allied fori; 

•ription I on a practically complete skeleton found 

Mr I B Hatcher in the Lance formation of Converse County, W 

mine. Although the Lorn '.d at the time of di>eo\cry it 

[Uite evident that in extracting it from tin- matrix or in subsequent 

handling the hone- of the nanus were changed. This fact i- dear!] estab- 
lished I- rly complete skeleton of i|. >m the same 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX X I 

formation and general locality recently purchased from Mr. Chas. Stern I. ■ 

and now exhibited in the American 
Museum. No. 5060. In Marsh'l 
i t-t oration four digits are shown, 
three bearing hoofs which were 
considered to be the II, III ami 
IV. I is shown as rudimentary 
with two phalanges and without 
terminal hoof. Two complete line 
of ossified carpals are introduced. 
and the phalangeal formula, ac- 
cording to this restoration, is as 
follows : 

Dijjit I, two phalanges without 

Digit II, three phalanges, the 
third a hoof. 

Digit III, three phalanges, the 
third a hoof. 

Digit IV, three phalanges, the 
third a hoof. 

This reconstruction was followed 
in mounting the skeleton erected in 
the Yale University Museum, also 
in a skeleton of the same sp< 
mounted in the National Museum, 
Washington, also in the two skele- 
tons of Trachodon mirabilis in the 
American Museum of Natural His- 

The manus in each of these 
mounted skeletons is incorrectly 
assembled as shown in this new 
skeleton (Fig. 1), the skin char- 
acters of w Inch are now being pub- 
lished by Professor H. F. Osborn. 
In this specimen there are only two 
ossified carpals present, one above 
the other, apparently in normal position as they are found in the sau it- 
position in each foot. This specimen shows conclusively that digit I is 
absent. The phalangeal formula (Fig. 2, p. 108) is as follows: 

Fig. 1. Manus of Trachodon correctly as- 
sembled. Position of phalanges determined 
from skeleton No. 5060. 

1912.1 Brown, The Manut in the Family Traehodontida. 107 

II with three phalanges, the third a hoof. 

iii.. (< «( H << << << 

IV " " no hoof, 

v* << << << << << 

The metacarpals are distinct in form and cannot be confused. Mtc. V 

• ry ihoit, massive and divergent. The other three arc closely appre-sed 
throughout their length and are not divergent. 

IV is curved transversely and its proximal end is greatly enlarged. 
The distal end u quite small and round. 

Mtc. Ill a equal in length to Mtc. IV. It is enlarged at each end with 
the distal end considerably larger than the proximal end. In position it 

adfl below II and IV a distance equal to the thickness of the lower 
carpal bone. 

Mtc. II ia considerably shorter than III and IV, and is nearly uniform 
in diameter throughout its length with the ends slightly enlarged. 

The phalangeal formula is remarkable considering the development 
of the digits. The proximal row is longest and that of digit III is largest 
of the series. Those of the second row are irregular in form; in digits III 
and IV they are slightly triangular. Of the terminal row II and III are 
well formed hoof-, while IV and V have deteriorated into small rounded 
l)ony nodule-. 

In none of the phalanges are the articular ends developed to the degree 

of articulating perfection seen in the pes. 

The extreme elongation of the metacarpals, the loose articulation of 
the phal '1 the reduction of the unguals to two functional hoofs 

indicate that the manus was no longer used to any extent in progression. 

In the European I/wmodon and its American r epr ese nt ative Caompto- 

ttf the maim- -till functioned to eon-iderahle extent in progression 

The integument in thai Bpechnca extend- over all the phalanges hat 

the terminal hoof- of digits 1 1 and 1 1 1 are M well formed a- thOM in the pes 
and were undoubtedly covered by a nail. In life the integument was proba- 
bly continuous over all the phalangei with exception of the terminal hoofs 

of digits II and III. 

108 Bulletin American Museum of Naluml HiMory. [VoL \\\1 


Sc ,-, 




U W 3 




Fig. 2. Ventral view of skeleton No. 5363, Trachodoa anne:ten». ' Phalanges partly embedded In 




By John Treadwell Nichols. 

I. — Anlmnariui astroscopus, \ ran Frog-fish from Barbadoes. 

The Museum has recently received a specimen (Am. Mm No. 3315) of 
the genus Antmnarius from Burbadoes, a gift from Dr. A. B. Deynard, 
which belongs to a hitherto undescribed spec 

specimen is about six inches in total length, deep and compressed. Depth 
1.5 to base of caudal. Maxillary vertical, 3.5 in length of head. Dorsal II— I— 12. 
Anal 7. Pectoral 10. Skin very rough with small prickles which are mostly bifed. 
ntained twice in snout, orbit larger. First dorsal spine is a movable bulbous 
knob from the posterior side of which rises an extn-nulv slender spine, broken in our 
specimen. The second spine is free and about one-half as long as the third, which 

1 Antennariut uslroHop a4. D. >p. 

1 t<> the back by skin. Dorsal high an I eoatJMMMMy it." anterior rays not 
different from the posterior. C »lor. in -.pint-, pah with b lot ch es <»f n-ddish, perhaps 
ial staining. Dorsal with a black ring on the c«>nt«>r of its posterior rays. 
Anal with a largo, oblong, black ring of oeeDue. Caudal i - upper 

tly over one another. A ring on ride A small ring at base of third 
dorsal spine. A black spot on the posterior band (atom of the pectoral. A few 
black spots on the sides and streaks on the fins. 

110 Bulletin American Museum .«/ Xutiiml History. [Vol. XWI 

This fish is close to Aittt nntirius strllifer Barbour : hut differs from it in 
form and color, in having a different soft dorsal, and different sqnamation 
about the second dorsal spine. 

II. — Pscvdomonacanthus amphioxys (Cope) from Dominca and Bebmi DA. 

The Museum has recently received a specimen of Psettdomonaoantkut 

ampktOXIfS 140 nun. long, collected by Mr. Hoy \Y. Miner of the Department 
of Invertebrate Zoology, at Dominica, West Indies. As the species is not 
well known, an outline sketch of it, compared with our two common Mmi- 
acaufhu.i, will he of interest. There is also in the collection of the Museum 
a specimen from Bermuda. 162 mm. long, which closely resembles this 
Dominiean fish, hut has the pelvic bone decidedly more horizontal, the 
depth of the fish consequently less. That of the Bermuda fish is 1.8 in 
length to base of caudal, that of the Dominican fish 1.6. Whereas this 
variation is perhaps due to specific distinctness, it seems best in view of the 
scanty material for comparison at present, to consider both specimens P. 

Fig. 2. Pseudomonacanlhm amphioxys (Cope). 

They differ from our two species of Monacaniktu notably in the less 
movable pelvic bone, and fixed ventral spine. The dorsal spine is granular 
in front, without strong spinules behind. It fits into a pronounced groove 
in the back, which is quite absent in our Monacanthus. 

» Barbour, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass., XLVI, 1905, p. 132. 


Nichols, Notes on West Indian Fishes. 


Monacanthus hispid us (Linnaeus). 

1 Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill). 

59.9.725: 14 71.77 


By S. H. Chubb. 

trapezium, a bone generally believed to be of very rare occurrence 
in the domestic horse, seems much more frequently present than has been 
■Opposed and careful dissection will no doubt show that it is well worthy of 
being included in the hone skeleton although it has no important function 
at the present time. It is rather surprising that it should stil! e\i-t when 
the first digit, with which it functioned, must have ceased to be of service 
early hi or before the Eocene epoch. 

Tin- writer obtained a miscellaneous collection of 35 sets of carpal bones 

from adult horses. These also included in most cases the proximal end of 

the metacarpus. The specimen- procured in the flesh were carefully 

i and cleaned with the result that in 7>7' , the trapezium VTM found 

perfectly well-defined though varying considerably in size and shape, the 

being roughly triangular and about 17 mm. in their greatest 
diameter. The smallest in the collection i- "> mm. Many of the larger 

eO-defined facets articulating with the trapezoid and also with 
the 2nd metacarpal inner splint bone) while the majority articulate only 
with the trapezoid. Several of the smaller specimens have no articulation 
whatever, but were -imply lodged among the ligaments. With the excep- 
tion of some of the larger bom- there is no uniformity of character but -imply 

an irregularly shaped nugget of bone, so that it would be imposs ib l e to iden- 
tify one if found out of place. Fig. 1 shows one of the more developed 

mens and also an average example. 
A most Unexpected find in the preparation of these -pecimen- was a 
•i^ial 5th metacarpal Kg. 2). Thi- bone is 16 mm. in length ami 7 mm. 
in diameter and articulated with the Ith m et aca r pal (outer -plint U>nc). 

bape and general appearance it i- wonderfully similar to the 5tfa mt 
carapal of one of the Middle Oligocene horses Mt$ohi]>]m.<t, also shown in 

'777 American Mu-eimi collection.) 

Judging from the more definite 

character and comparative uniformity of the- | .lined in the 

hould rather | to find it constant in these 

although it would Im- unwise to speak po-iti\«-ly on thi- point in 

vie* of the small number of subject- examined 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. 

[Vol. XXX I. 


Fig. 1. Distal row of carpal bones and proximal end of metacarpus showing trapezium 
in place. j nat. size. 

a. trapezium; 6. trapezoid; c, magnum; d, 2nd metacarpal; «, 3rd metacarpal; /, 
4th metacarpal. 



Fig. 2. Lateral view of metacarpus showing 5th metacarpal; J nat. size. o. vestigial 
5th metacarpal; 6, 4th metacarpal; c, 3rd metacarpal; d. unciform; e, magnum. 

The Kiang (Eqttus hemionus). — In this specimen, the wild ass of 
northern Asia (Fig. 3), the trapezia are perfectly paired and have none of 
the abortive appearance characteristic in the horses and have no articu- 
lation with the 2nd metacarpal. 

The Domestic Ass (Equus asinus). — In the domestic ass (Fig. 3) they 
are as nicely formed as in the kiang and are placed low on the trapezoid, 
having a well developed facet for articulation with the 2nd metacarpal. 

In the zebras the few specimens at hand would seem rather to point to 
the same or a greater irregularity than in the horses. 

In Grevy's zebra (E. gretyi) the trapezia are placed much higher on the 
trapezoids than in the asses, widely separating them from the 2nd meta- 
carpal below. The left one is imperfectly formed and much smaller than 
the right. 

E. granti, the last specimen figured, gives further evidence of irregularity. 

Chubb, The Trapezium in the Equida. 


The right trapezium is very small and simple in form, while on the leftside 
it is entirely absent. 




€5) (£3 

Fig. 3. Trapezia and trapezoid* of 
o. trapezium;, b. trapezoid. 


and zebras. Inferior surface. Natural •ize. 

After more • examination the trapeaon may prove to be very 

liar in the zebras, but in E. caballus at least it seems quite permissible 
irhen considering 1 1 1 • - skeleton. 





By Charles Haskins Townsend. 

|By permission of the U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries. 

Puma vin and IX. 

The mammals brought back by the 'Albatross* Expedition number 
specimens, representing 59 species, ten of which, from islands in the 
Gulf of California, appear to be undescribecL 

Mammals, usually of the smaller kinds, were obtained at nearly all of 
the twenty-seven localities visited by the ship. While a single night's 
trapping often yielded numerous specimens, many were destroyed by 
before the traps could be visited in the morning. Wood rats, pocket 
mice and deer mice wen- especially numerous, and it was possible to obtain 
them by setting traps almost anywhere in the bushes near the beaches. 

: and coyotes were obtained at two, hares at six, spermophiles at 
three, and kangaroo rats at four localities. Specimens of lynx, fox, raccoon, 
skunk, and gopher were seemed only in the Sierra Laguna mountains by a 
collector lent from tin- ship. The elephant led was found only at Guada- 
lupe [aland. Afl the work of the muse included deep sea in \ estimations, 
sometimes at considerable distances from land, all anchorages were of short 
duration and at points rather widely separated. 

The gre a ter part of the collection of tnauiuiab was prepared by Mr. H K. 
Anthony, now of the Mum-uiii staff. 

The islands visited include Guadalupe, the San Benitas, Cedros, 

dalciia. Margarita, and San RoqUC in the l'acilic. and Ceralho, K-piritU 
Santo, San J ita Cruz. Santa Catalina, Carmen. Angel Cuardia, 

San Ksteban. and Tiburon in the Gulf. In physical charactcri>tic>, the 

islands bear dose resemblance t<> the coastal i I the Peninsula, having 

the same deaert-Hke appearance. Some of them are totally without trash 

Water, and mOSl Of them are uiiinlial »it »•< I. Small inammab were obtained 

only at islands where the trap- could be left ou( over night 

The following notes relate to islands from which aai e pro- 


•■nUflc Resttii'* <>r tin- i:\i>. iiii..:i to tbt « i»iir of California in ch»r. 

BMStp ' Al»mm>« ' In Ittl « 'omnuuMlor < • II 
llurru. nliiklKllMK 


118 Bulletin American Museum of Natural Hi.tlnnj. [Vol. XXXI, 

Tiburon is the largest island in the Gulf; it u thirty miles long by about 

fifteen in width, and has a height of 4000 feet. It is separated from tin- 
Mexican mainland by a channel from one to three milt ■> wide, and is inhab- 
ited by Seri Indians reputed to be dangerous to small parties. 

Angel de la Guardia is near the western shore of the Gulf. It is forty 
miles long by about ten miles wide, and has a height of about 4000 feet; it 
is without fresh water and is uninhabited. 

San Esteban is exceedingly rough and mountainous with a height of 
1800 feet and a diameter of about four miles. It lies eight miles south v. 
of Tiburon, is without fresh water and is uninhabited. 

Carmen, near the Peninsula, is seventeen miles long by five and ■ half 
miles wide, and has a height of 1500 feet. Important salt-works are located 

Lint of Species. 

Delphinid^e. Porpoises, Dolphins, etc. 

Porpoises were observed almost daily while the 'Albatross' was in the 
Gulf of California. They were especially numerous about the head of 
Concepcion Bay, where a band of two hundred or more came near the 
anchorage and showed little fear of the launch which several times pasted 
among them. 

1. Tursiops nuuanu Andrewt. Niuanu Dolphin. 

Two skulls, Santa Catalina Island, April 16. 

The skulls obtained by the ' Albatross' Expedition at Santa Catalina 
Island, when compared with a skull obtained by Mr. J. T. Nichols, in the 
Pacific (Lat. 12° N., Long. 120° W.), were found to be identical. The 
species was then described by Mr. R. C. Andrews in Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. 
Hist., Vol. XXX, Art. IX, pp. 233-237, August 26, 1911. 

2. Tursiops gilli Dnll. Gill's Dolphin. 

Skull, San Bartolome Bay, March 14. 

Porpoises were seen daily while the ' Albatross ' remained in San Barto- 
lome Bay. The skull obtained was found on the beach with portions of 
the skeleton. 

3. Globicephalus scammoni Cope. Scammon's Black-fish. 

Twelve skulls, Santa Cruz Island, April 16. 

There were many skulls and skeletons of this species on the beaches at 

Townttnd, Mammals from Lower California. 119 

Santa Cruz Nam!, and aUoat Santa Catalina, win re we called the same day. 
There was evidence that all tin- animals had been killed for their oil. 

Hovid.v.. Sheep, Bison, etc. 

We were informed by ■ resident that the mountain sheep is found among 
the high, rugged hills on both sides of Concepcion Bay, but it is more 
numerous <>n the ranges further inland. Only one was seen by our party. 

Our informant. Sr. Liberato (astro, from whom the horns were received, 
said that w <• would find good sheep hunting on Tiburon Island, but no traces 
of the B] re found during our hunting there on April 12-13. The 

Mine used at Concepcion Bay for the mountain sheep is " borrego cim- 
maron." The species is found throughout the desert ranges of the eastern 
ride of the Peninsula, from west of the mouth of the Rio Colorado southward 
to new Ia Paz. 

4. Ovis cervina cremnobates. Elliot. Lower California Moun- 
tain Sheep. 

Four pain of horns, south end of Concepcion Bay, April 7. 


Antilocapra americana mexicana Mtrriam. Lower California 


One head, inland from Santa Rosalia Bay. 

The antelope was formerly found on many of the plains of Lower Cali- 
fornia, 1 nit is now rare. It is not at present known to exist further south 
than tin- Santa < lata I toot, about midway on the Penman)*, 

Cervid*:. I >i i 
Odocoileus hemionus peninsulee Lffdtkk$r, Lown CaUPOSMIa 

Mah- juv.. Ban Bartolomc Bay, March 1 t; female, Saa Bernado lions- 

tail. ;. male, Saa B e rn ado Mountains, Mh\ !.">, <kk) ft.; male, 

San Bernudo Mountains. May 16, 0<X» ft. 

On the Penio seen at only a few localities, but are said to be 

rather common. 

1 _'< I Bulh lean Mtusvum <>f Xalurn 1 II [Vol. XXXI, 

7. Odocoileus hemionus eremicus Mearns. Tiburon Island I)i 

Male and female ad., Tiburon Island; male, antlen only, all from 
Tiburon Island, April 12. 

Deer arc abundant at Tiburon Island if one may judge by tlnir tracks 
and trail>. Several of the animals were seen and two specimens wrn- 

obtained. The weight of a heavily antlered buck, killed by Lieut. Stanley, 
was 121 pounds after evisceration. 

8. Odocoileus cerrosensis Merriam. CsDBOS Island Peek. 

Fragments of weathered antlers, Cedros Idand. Probably now extinct; 
killed formerly by miners for food. 

Leporid.e. Hares, Rabbits. 

The collection of jack rabbits although small contains two especially 
striking forms, the grayish or silvery rabbit of Tiburon Island, allied to 
species of the Mexican mainland, and the remarkably dark species peculiar 
to Espiritu Santo Idand. The latter with its glossy black back resembles 
no other rabbit, and is a most striking variation from the form inhabiting 
the adjacent coast of the Peninsula. 

9. Lepus californicus magdalenae NeUon. Mm.uw.yw Island 

Jack Rabbit. 

Male, Santa Margarita Island, March 20. 

10. Lepus californicus xanti Thomas. Cape San Lucas Jack Rabbit. 
Male, Cape San Lucas, March 24; female, Pichilinque Hay, Man h 28. 

11. Lepus insularis Bryant. Ksiihiii Sakto Jack Rabbit. 

Female, Pichilinque Island, March 27, — introduced from Espiritu Santo 
Island; female, Espiritu Santo Island. April 18. 

12. Lepus alleni tiburonensis subep. bov. Tiburon [bland Jack 


Closely related to L. alleni, from which it differs in being much darker and more 
iron gray, the buffiness on the back being rather pale and much overlaid and mixed 
with hlack. 

Toirnsend, Mammal* from Lower California. l-'l 

Sides of body and outwit <>f legs much darker and more iron gray than in alleni. 
Hump j>:ii< li darker and less differentiated from color of back. Iron gray of sides 

nding on underparts, leaving only a narrow median white urea. Under side of 

. more l>wff. ean darker and grayer. Top of head very similar to alleni. 

Type. N<> 31900, male Represented by three males in rather worn spring pelage, 
Tihuron Island, April 13. 

A dozen <>r more of these raid >its were seen by our party. Measurements, 
average of three specimens: total length, G10; tail, 63, hind foot 127. 

BsraomrmB. Poem Mick, Kangaroo Rats, etc. 

kel mice of the genus Perognathus are naturally abundant in the 
desert -like country of Lower California, and were obtained at all localities 
where die trap- were set at night. 

There were -igns that they were quite as common on the islands as on 
the Peninsula. They are burrowers, nocturnal in habit, and feed on seeds 
which they collect and carry in their cheek pouches. 

13. Perognathus penicillatus arenarius Merriam. Little Desert 

Pocket M<>i -i 

Male, San Hartolome Bay, March 14; male San Francisquito Bay, 
April 10. 

11. Perognathus spinatus peninsulas Mmimm. Cape San Lucas 

Poem M"i -i 

• n males, 3 females, Cape San Lucas, March 24; 5 males, San Jose* 

del < !al o, Han b -'«■. 2 male- ami 2 female-, PSchflinque Hay. March Js-30; 

male. AgUS Verde Bay, April 2; male and female, Mfalege, April ">; male, 

\pril B; •'! males, Miration-, April L'.">; female, San' Ihr- 

aado Mountain-. May 5. 

18, Perognathus penicillatus siccus Otfooi. 

larch J I. 

16. Perognathus baileyi rhydinorhis EZKbf. Sam QuiMllM Poem 


Pichilinaue Bay, March 29 30; nak I 

April 8. 

122 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

17. Perognathus fallax Mrrrium. Short-eared California I 'or kki 


Female, San Bartolome Bay, March 14. 

18. Perognathus spinatus bryanti . 1 forum. Bryant P<m ki i Mouse. 

Four males, female, San Jose Island, April 1; 3 males, Espiritu Santo 
Island, April 19. 

19. Perognathus baileyi insularis subsp. now Tiburon [slams 

Pocket Mouse. 

In size and color about the same as P. penicillatus pricei. Skull in general rat her 
narrower; rostrum and nasals narrower; interparietal larger. Ascending branches 
of supraoccipital narrower; maxillary arm of zygoma weaker. 

Type, No. 31846, male. 

Represented by 2 males and 1 female, Tiburon Island, April 13. 
Measurements, average of three specimens: total length, 2 12; tail, 119; 
hind foot, 27.3. 

20. Perognathus penicillatus goldmani subsp. now Goi.i>\iw> 

Pocket M<> 

In general size and color about the same as P. baileyi; skull slightly smaller 
and lighter; molariform toothrow shorter; inner side of parietal shorter. Named 
for Edward A. Goldman. 

Type, No. 31845, male, Tiburon Island, April 13. 

Measurements of the type: total length, 171 ; tail, 90; hind foot, 23. 

21. Perognathus spinatus nelsoni subsp. now Carmen Island Pocket 


Compared with P. spinatus peninsula, the color is grayer and lacks the drab 
brown effect seen in peninsula; general size similar, but tail slightly shorter — 
decidedly shorter than in bryanti. 

Type, No. 31855, male. 

Represented by 2 males and 1 female, Carmen Island, April 3. Named 
for Edward W. Nelson, well known for his studies of Lower California 
mammals. Measurements, average of three specimens: total length, 172; 
tail, 93; hind foot, 24. 

Kangaroo rats are very abundant on Tiburon Island where there were 
many tracts of level ground conspicuously marked with their burrows and 

1912.] Towntrid, Manttimh from Lower California. 123 

well-beaten trails. Being nocturnal, we saw nothing of them, hut the traps 
yielded specimens hoth nights we were at tin- island. They did not appear 
to be so common at other places visited by the ' Alhatross'. 

Kamgaboo I; 

ta ar« handsome animals with velvety fur, and derive their 
name from tin- long hind legs and tail and the habit of leaping kangaroo 
fashion. They have check pouches in which food is carried to their burn 

Dipodomys insularis M>rriam. Sam Jose Island Kangaroo Rat. 
Malr. _' females, San Jose bland, April 1. 

23. Dipodomys merriami lfanmt. Tiburon Island Kwgaroo Rat. 
Seven males ami 1 female, Tiburon Island, April 12-13. 

l' L Dipodomys merriami simiolus Rhoai$. Ai.i.ikd Kangaroo Rat 
Male, .*S females, San Francisquito Bay, April 10. 

Dipodomys merriami melanurus Mrrriam. Black-tailed 
Kangaroo Rat. 

specimens, Miraflores, April 25 Ma 

Geommidk. Pocket Gophers. 
These animal- are active borrowers, living almost entirely underground. 

• vegetable Peeden and have check pouches in which to carry food. 

Thomomys bottae anit» Attem. Santa Amiv Pocket Gopher. 
Seven specimens, Miraflores, April 28 Ma\ L 

Mm:ii>i Wood Bass, Dm Mice, etc. 

W.m.I | obtained by night trapping at mOSl <>f the localities 

visited by the 'Albatross'. It is, by reason of its conspicuous brush i 

iimri' in evidence than any other mammal. NestS were 1080 by the dozen 
in all >«>ri> <>f l<> ( .in the high, rocky ridges, down to the mangrove 

belts along the lagoons. One nasi high up on Margarita Island, eras built 

quite in the open againet the nds of a rod: oonunanding an sal 

The broken twigs <>f which it was largely composed, were covered entirely 

124 Bulletin American Musium <>/ Snhtml History. [Vol X.WI. 

over with pieces of cactus, the dried dung of burros and cattle and a bush* 1 
of small stones. Another, just back of the beach and in the center of a 
clump of cactus, was five feet in diameter and completely covered with peb- 
bles and sea shells. Another among the mangroves on Magdalena Island 
was six feet in diameter and composed entirely of mangrove twigs. Its 
base was well secured among elevated mangrove roots and more than a foot 
clear of the marshy ground beneath. There must have been a score of 
wood rat nests among the mangroves on Magdalena Island within a radius 
of 500 yards and many of the structures were five feet high. Any kind of 
portable object in the vicinity of a wood rat's nest may be used in its com- 

27. Neotoma intermedia gilva. Rhoads. Yellow Wood Rat. 
Female, San Bartolome Bay, March 14. 

28. Neotoma intermedia pretiosa Goldman. Matanctta Wood Rat. 
Five males, 3 females, Santa Margarita Island, March 19-21. 

29. Neotoma intermedia arenacea Allen. Capi Wood Rat. 
Three males, 2 females, Cape San Lucas, March 24-25. 

30. Neotoma intermedia perpallida Goldman. San Jos£ Island 

Wood Rat. 

Five males, 1 female, San Jose bland, March :•>! April 1. 

31. Neotoma intermedia Rhoads. Rhoads's Wood Rat. 

Female, Ague Verde Bay, April 2; 2 females, Mulege, April 5, Concep- 
cion Bay, April 8; female, San Bernado Mountain-, May 111; 2 jnv., Mira- 
flores, April 25-30. 

32. Neotoma intermedia vicina Goldman. Ksnum Santo Wood Rat. 

Female, Espiritu Santo Island, April 19. 

33. Neotoma nudicauda Goldman. Cabmen Island Wood Rat. 
Two females, Carmen Island, April 3. 

1912.] Tovnsend, Mammals from Lower California. 125 

34. Neotoma albigula seri -ul>sp. nov. Tibik-.n kwn Wood Rat. 

In color -iuular to .V. nViiguli, which it resembles more nearly than any other 
species. Teeth rather small; interorbitals narrow; interparietals small as com- 
pared with albigula. Named for the Seri Indians inhabiting Tiburon Island. 
31040, male. 

Elepresi Dted by 1 male and 2 females, Tiburon Island, April 12-13. 
Measurements, average of three specimens: total length, 328; tail, 
hind foot, 3 

35. Neotoma insularis sp. nov. Angel Im.wd Wood Rat. 

media giha and about the same size, but paler, grayer and 
leas s Skull relatively shorter and broader, with heavier rostrum, heavier 

dentition ami larger auditor)' bullae. 

male, Ange! del la Guardia Island, April 11. 

Measurements of type: total length, 290; tail, 120; hind foot, 35. 

Deer. M 

e nocturnal animals, abundant in most parts of North America, are 

common aln where in Lower California and the outlying island.-. 

traps set for them at night seldom failed to yield specimens, but 

;ied little of their habits. They feed largely on seeds and inhabit all 

ta <»f natural crevice- under rockfl and the root- of tree- ami bushes. 

They are extensively preyed Upon by Owls, BnakeS, and weasels. 

36. Peromyscus eremicus cedroscensis Alhn. CBHMM I-i wn M< 
male, 3 female-. CedlOfl I.-land. March 10 12. 

Peromyscus maniculatus coolidgi Thomas. Coolidge's Field 


1-Vmale, San Bartolome Bay, March 1 1. 
38. Peromyscus eremicus polypolius flafooa*. Mv Im.wi> 

Three male-. I femah -. Santa Margarita I-laml. March 10 21. 

39. Peromyscus eremicus eva Tktmn. I '\ k*l 

Four males, < ape San Lm I mala, s.m Joai del < 

male, 1 female, Pichilinque I i li 28 '.<>; 1 female-. 

126 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI. 

Mulege, April 5; 2 males, 1 female, Concepcion Bay, April 7-8; 1 female, 
San Bernado Mountains, May 15; 1 juv., Miraflores, April. 

40. Peromyscus eremicus eremicus Baird. Desert Mouse. 
Female, San Francisquito Bay, April 10. 

41. Peromyscus eremicus tiburonensis Mcams. Tiburon Desert 


Two males, 1 female, Tiburon Island, April 12-13. 

42. Peromyscus guardia sp. nov. Angel Island Mouse. 

Larger than eremicus, in color at least as pale; upper outline of skull less arched; 
skull similar in general to that of eremicus, but zygoma more compressed anteriorly 
and rostrum decidedly longer. Incisive foramina rather short, not reaching anterior 
plane of first molars; interpterygoid fossa? broader; audital bulla; larger. 

Type No. 31907 female. 

Measurements: average of two specimens, total length, 208; tail, 111; 
hind foot, 24. 

Represented by male and female from Angel de la Guardia Island, 
April 11. 

43. Peromyscus stephani sp. nov. San Esteban Island M<> 

Although near to Tiburon Island, the San Esteban form is clearly not very 
nearly related to P. tiburonensis. In color it is close to typical eremicus; the tail 
averages shorter and the hind foot larger. 

P. tiburonensis is one of the smallest of the eremicus group, while the San Esteban 
form is one of the largest, skull decidedly shorter than in eremicus, dentition about 
the same; nasals more pointed posteriorly and reaching beyond premaxillaries. In 
eremicus the contrary is true — the premaxillaries exceed the nasals. Posteriorly 
the frontals meet at an angle on the median line, instead of forming a curve as in 

Type, No. 31961, male. 

Measurements, average of four specimens: total length, 195; tail, 97; 
hind foot, 22. 

Represented by 2 males and 2 females, San Esteban Island, April 14. 

44. Peromyscus eremicus carmeni subsp. nov. Carmen Island 

Desert Mouse. 

Generally similar to P. e. era, but back rather grayer and general color less 
rufescent, under parts more creamy white. Specimens vary from white to creamy 
white beneath; foot larger; teeth larger and tooth-row longer. 

Type No. 31885, male. 

1912] Totcnsmd, Mammals from Lower California. 127 

Measurements, avenge of 12 specimens: total length, 197; tail, 111; 

hind foot, 

Represented by ."> male. 7 females, Carmen Island, April 13. 

Sqiirrkls, Spkrmophiles, etc. 

Antelope squirrels wen obscivcd at three localities only. We did not 
see them at any point on the \\« sri ^i«l«- of the Peninsula. All specimens 
obtained by shooting. 

46. Ammospermophilus leucurus insularis Ntlmm and Goldman. 
Baruuru Sahto Im.wd Spermophile. 

Three males, 1 female, 2 skulls, Espiritu Santo Island, April 19. 
Ammospermophilus leucurus peninsulse Allen. Lower Cali- 


Five males, l female, Cape San Lucas, March 24; 1 skull, Agua Verde 
\pril 22. 

\ 1 -I'IKIIl.loMI) B. I\sK( TIVOROUS BaT8. 

Bats were not much in evidence during our explorations, as we were 
seldom ashen in the evening. The specimens with one exception were 

obtained in the interior by a collector sent from the ship. 
i;il species are known to inhabit Lower California. 

17. Pipistrellus hesperus australis Milhr. Ai.i.iki> Hat. 
One female, Ceralbo Man. I. April 19. 

Iv Dasypterus ega xanthinus Thomas. Sierra Lagin \ Bi i. 
Two specimens, Miraflores, Mi 

49. Antrosous pallidus minor Milhr. Little Comoxdu Bat. 

Three -] Mirafioi I -3. 

Myotis peninsularis Milhr. LowiB CaUTOVKU Mat. 
Fivesp Bon . May 1-6. 

128 Bulletin American Museum of Natural llirtory. [Vol XXXI, 

Phocid,e. Seals. 

One of the most interesting features of the expedition was the recti 
ery of the elephant seal at Guadalupe Island, lying 1 !<> miles west of the 
northern pari of the Peninsula. This species was formerly taken in great 

numbers for its oil, and finally became bo Bcaree that it was reported by 

Scamnion in 1869 to be "nearly if not quite extinct." Specimens were 
taken by the writer in 1 XS 1 a t San Cristobal Bay, Lower California, since 
which time it has not been seen at that locality. He also obtained speci- 
mens in 1892 at Guadalupe Island where it has been found subsequently 

only twice. Nut having been found elsewhere than at these two localities 
since about 1865, it has generally been supposed to be extinct. The herd 
at Guadalupe Island contains about 150 animals, and is now being protected 
by the Mexican Government. The writer has already published a special 
account of the elephant seal in 'Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the 
New York Zoological S.-ciety'. I, No. 8, pp. 159-173, pll. 52-72, April, 1912. 
He has also published an article on the same subject in the 'Century 
Magaaine 1 for June, 1912, pp. 205 -11. 

51. Macrorhinus angustirostris Gill. Xohthkkn Elephant >k\i.. 

Plate VIII. 

Three males, 1 female, skins, 2 skeletons, 6 live yearlings, Guadalupe 
Island, March 2-4. 

Some of the young brought back lived nearly a year in the New York 
Aquarium. The skins of the adults with some of the young have been 
mounted for the American Museum of Natural History. 

OtariidjE. Sea-Lion >, I'i k-Seals. 

Sea-lions abound at many points on the Peninsula and the outlying 
islands, from Guadalupe Island, 140 miles west of the northern part of the 
Peninsula, to Consag Rock, near the head of the Gulf of California. 

The California species has not been recorded from farther south than the 
Tres Marias Islands, below the mouth of the Gulf. The largest colony 
observed during the cruise occupied the western side of West San Benita 
Island, where there were perhaps 1000 hauled out on the rocks. All the 
little inlets on the eastern side of the East San Benita were filled with 
them, there being about 700 altogether. 

A brief search was made for fur-seals at Guadalupe Island, and a very 
thorough one at the San Benita Is'ands, but none were found. The breeding 
season, it is said, does not commence until June. Doubtless there are some 

Town >imals from Lower California 129 

ivors ■bout Guadalupe, where they were taken as late as 1894. At 
this island they f re qu e n ted the numerous sea-caves under tin- dHb. (Plate 

Zalophus californianus Lesson. GAUfomu Sia Liox. 
< ledros [aland, not tared. 

Arctocephalus townsendi Merrum. I/Ower Calooshia Fub- 

This speciea baa no1 been wen since lVM. There are no specimens in 
muaeunu with the exception of those collected l>y the writer in 1892. There 
tnplete records showing thai 5575 fur nrali were killed at Guadalupe 
and San Benita Islands between 1878 and 1S94. 

Ml MH.ID.E. Ski em, W I UBLBj KTC. 

Spilogale lucasana Merrum. Can Sam I.icas Spotted Skuhk. 

Three specimens, Miration-. May 2. is. ]<). 

Spotteil -kunk- of this or allied species are found in mosl parts of Lower 
fornia, when- the inhabitai ally fear them, believing that the 

rillo " cause- rabi< 

Paxx vhmdi. Rao re. 

55. Procyon psora pallidus Mrrriam. 
Male, female. Miration-. April 24 and May 10. 

BDJ WOLVl -. l'-\i -. I1C. 

rtolome and Tihuroii were all obtained by 

on the beachea at night. Poxea and coyotes appear 
to inhabit :ill pan- of the Peninsula, and fag track- wen seen on Cedroa 

56. Urocyon cinereoargentatus californicus Afeontf. Caiifom*!..- _'-8. 

130 liulhlin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

57. Canis peninsula Mrrriam. Lowxb California Coyoii. 
Two males, 1 female, San Bartolome Bay, Mareh 1 1. 

58. Canis jamesi sp. no v. Tiburon Island Wolf. 
Plate IX. 

Much paler than C. mearnsi, and nearer C. eslor, the desert coyote, but of a 
richer color and a little more buff; ears long, skull large, nearly equalling that of 
the type of eslor; teeth larger and heavier than in either mearnsi or eslor — about 
equalling those of lesles; bulhe rather flattened, closely resembling those of C. Icstes. 

Type No. 31987, male, Tiburon Island, April 13. 

Measurements of the type: total length, 1143; tail vertebrae, 330; hind 
foot, 330; ear from crown, 118. 

Named for Mr. Arthur Curtiss James of New York, through whose 
generosity the Museum was enabled to cooperate in the expedition of the 
'Albatross' to the Gulf of California. 

Felidve. Cats. 
59. Lynx ruff us calif ornicus Mearnt. California Lynx 
Male, Miraflores, May 21. 

\ H 

\ \ \\l. I'iui VIII. 

l Adult male and female Elephant Seal iM<irr<>rhi>m.« artgustirostris). Guadalupe 

orthweri - dalupe [eland, I. <";il Small lirach :it iwtrmir 

rock) |»iint in » •< • 1 1 1 « ■ t i- where 1 urScaia 

V M. N 11 

skull ■ a bkad H 

56.81.9S> 117:71 .' 



By Baknum Bbowh. 

1'i.u i - \ wi) XI. 

During the past three yean expeditions from the American Museum 
ptared the Edmonton formation exposed on the Red Deer River 
in Alberta, Canada. As a result of this work a large collection of new or 
little known vertebrate fossils was secured and the geological horizon in 
which they occur was determined to be a distinct formation, intermediate 
in a. en the Lance and the Judith River (Belly River) Cretaceous. 

collection will l>e monographed and the geology more fully discussed 
as soon as the material is completely prepared. 

The Bubjeci of thi> preliminary paper is a new genus of the family 
TrachodonticUe which presents some anatomatical features not heretofore 
known in the Dinosauria. 

Saurolophus osborni fen. et sp. nov. 

Tyi* of genua and specit '. a marly complete skeleton. 

rmlatnH >kull and fan 
Wality. Edmonton formation 500 feet below top of beds, 
r. Alberta, Canada. 


teristk and striking feature of tlie skull (Plate X and 

\n and 6) is a long median, dofBtl cr.-t to which the generic 

run :m, proportion ami relation of other elements <>f the 

>kull are, with minor difference! to l»e pointed out later, similar to that of 

th. achodtm. This, creel is a complex one. tunned by a backward 

prolongation of the nasals, p rrfrnntah ami frontal-. The poateriot end is 

■ what elevated above the anterior facial angle ami judging from the 

Lion of the hone- at the I. roken point, it was at least four inchei 

i (tending in life slightly beyond the posterior end of the pari. • 

In position this Cn to that of the chameleons but it has a 

dilTereni origin ami ma) hi d a different purpose. 

cfmmeUo according to Parker ' is rnmpomd of the inter- 

•Tnuu. Znol. SOC. Lood«»i Part in. l*M. pp 77-106; §15-19. 


2 K 

g fa 

1 Crested Dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous. 


parietal and tin- posterior end <>f the frontal and a er vci chiefly a^ attachment 

f«»r the large le mp ondu n m ade Mivart. 1 In thii nen animal the !>■ 

in tl . the rapratettipora] archei and the back of the skull 

In-low the crest an- similar in form and proportion to those of 

■ ■i in which there is no crest. 

It is reasoned tl, that the main attachment of the longissimus 

i.| temporalis muadea were as in Trachodon. To the crest were 

rted the upper part of the oompUxu$ t tU§a$trie and the superficial tun- 


The creel near the posterior end on the dorsal face carries a series of 

ridges and in lift- it probably bore a frill as in the living lizard Basiliscus. 

is further Worm- ont by the high spines of the mid-dorsal 

which, like Batiliscut, probably carried a high median dorsal frill. 

In profile the >kull is triangular. Anteriorly it expanded in a broad 

duck -like bill similar to Tnirhodon. 

ia\illari» > and predentaries alike bear pseudo tooth-like projections, 
undoubtedly co ve red by a horny beak in life. • 

premaxfllariea are formed ae in Tracfoxion but the anterior recurved 

Pig. 2. Siurolophui otborni. Top vlrw of ■kull. reconstructed from right half and 
viewed at right angle* to line from premaxillary to rnd of crwt. 

or border a not so high and the posterior pro j ect in g processes are much 

iperior proceni b exposed as far back a^ the pwt n rm border 

of the narial opening irhere it disappean under the naaal The 

Soc London i^ 


Bulktin American M Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

inferior process on its lower border unit ly with the inaxill. 

lachrymal and pre f r o ntal ;iihI terminates posterior to the lachrymal. En 

Trachodon it terminates opposite tin- middle of the lachrymal. 

The lachrymal is triangular in form and much longer than in Traokodon. 

On the side of the maxillary below its union with the jugal there are 
five large foramina in a line. In Trachodon there are usually two large 
ones, anterior and posterior in position with intermediate Bmaller ones. 
In the disarticulated skull No. 5221, the superior of the two anterior proc- 
esses that unite with the premaxillary is reduced and much shorter than in 

Jugal, quadratojugal, quadrate, postfrontal, and squamosal are aa in 
Trachodon with exception of the end of the postfrontal which is divided 


Fig. 3. Saurolophus osborni. Braincase of paratypc No. ">221 Am. Mus. 

by a wedge-like process of the squamosal. Both skulls show this character 
whereas in all specimens of Trachodon known to me the postfrontal ends 
in a single rounded point. 

The parietals are fused above forming a narrow ridge that divides the 
supratemporal fossse as in Trachodon. 

The frontals are markedly different from any other genus of the family. 
Instead of continuing the facial angle back to the parietals they rise upward 
forming an obtuse angle with the parietals. In front each frontal sends off a 

Bra ted Dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous. 


broad process thai extends backward to unite with the nasals forming the 
underside of the overhanging crest This process is covered on the outside 
by a prolonged process from the pr ef r ontal that forma the angle of the tri- 
angular crest and reaches ■ point near the broken end where it is completely 
with the other elements. 
The occipital region is similar to that of Trachodon. 
The mandible is deeper than in Trachodon but its form is similar and the 
that compose it air apparently not distinguishable from that 

Brats Case. — The brain case (Fig. 3) of No. 5221 is with exception of 
the frontals not distinguishable from Trachodon and the nerve openings 


Fig. 4. Saurolophut .,. HTntic rinu'. r<stun-.|. uml single plate. 

imilar in -i/e and position. A cast of the brain, however, will probably 

show a greater development in tin- cerebral portion. 

A- in the other genera "I TYnchodontidie the eye was much smaller 
than the orbital opening and < -elerotie plate.- were |iresent. This specimen 
permits Of SO ition of the ring as ten plate- are preserved, eight 

of which are in position. Restoring the missing parts by tlii- perfect half 

Circle a- a guide there were thirteen plate- in the complete ring (Fifl 

fa individual plate i- thin, flat and oblotlg. Both surface- are -niooth ami 

the outer free border is finely de n ticulate while the inner border i- -i ii\\. 

In form the\ more mark resemble the -clerotals of 1'fi runotlaii and are unlike 

■ "i hi,. i-aurs or birds. Kaich plate may be 

136 liulliiir I ' .' N " tory. \"1 \\\l 

divided int<» third- of which one-third underlapped the preceding plate, 
the middle third i- tree, and the remaining third overlapped the succeeding 
plate. The vertical diamftw of the plates i- constant and the V-shaped 
overlap is on the kmg axis of each plate along the arc of the circle. Thin 
l>y slipping one plate over the other it was possible to dilate the pupil to 
twice it- normal site while the width of the sclerotic ring remained the same. 
This mechanical adjustment is different in Ichthyosaurus where the 
sclerotic ring fills the orbital opening. In Ichthyosaurus the plates ait 

attached at their base 00 the outside of the ring which remains the sum 
diameter while the plate- passed over each other in dilation or contraction 

similar to the movement of an iris diaphragm camera shutter. 

/(. — Characters of the teeth are derived from the disarticulated 
skull No. S221 in which inaxillaric- and dentaries are preserved (PI. XI . 

They closely resemble those of Trachodon in composition, implanation 
and succession, ;md probably in Dumber. 

In the maxillary there are sixty vertical-transverse rows. In the dentary 
forty-four rows are preserved, ami probably not more than six rows are 
mi-sing. It cannot be stated how many teeth in each row were functional 
at the same time on the triturating surfai 

In this species the enamel face of a dentary tooth i- elongate vertically 
with median carina, low and lateral sides nearly ilat. The apex is gently 
rounded and borders are smooth and arched, not angulate. The outline 
of the enamel surface resembles that of Kritosaurus Brown l from the < reta- 
ceous of New Mexico. In Traehodon the enamel face of a dentary tooth is 
diamond-shaped in outline and sharply angulate. The median carina i- 
high with lateral sides sloping. 

The maxillary teeth are poorly preserved and the characters not well 
defined They apparently have smooth borders with the carina low. 

The skeleton throughout show- characters by which it may be distin- 
guished from other genera, but at the present writing only a part of the 
vertebral column has been freed from the matrix. It will be fully de- 
scribed in the monograph. 


Length of skull, distal end of quadrate to premaxillary 1000 mm. 

Depth of dentary, mid-eection 160 

Length, end of crest to premaxillary 1170 

Height, end of crest to end of dentary 887 

' Bull. Am ! Hist.. Vol. XXVI II. Art. xxiv, 1910. pp. 267-274. 



Bi l>. <;. Bluot, i>. Si 

(Edipomidas salaquiensis -p. now 

Type locality. Forest of the River Salaqui, northern Colombia. Typo Am. 
• ad. 

\'lult malt . Face ami sides of head OO Ve ted with vitv short white hairs, 

bladt; throat naked, black; middle of forehead to crown white, the hairs 

t a point just above and widening M '! town; crown and nape 

nut hair* ringed with black; forearms white, rest of arms, shoulders, entire 

upp ankles black mottled with cream buff; innerside 

of arms, lower part of throat and C a color rest of under parts of body and 

ep buff yellow; tail above jet black a few chestnut hairs at the 

ith I'hestmit at root, remainder jet black; hands and feet gray; ears black, 

1/ 'nenU. Total length, 600 mm.; tail, 395; foot, 7.">. Skull: total length, 

SO; hen-el. 87.4; zygomatic width, 86.1; intertemporal 

ledian length of nasals. 7.:{; breadth <>f braineaee, 27.6; palatal 'ength, 

lv length of upper molar series, 10; length of mandible 31.9; length of lower molar 

Tin- species, wliile having a general resemblance to (E. geoffroyi, is 

id differs in the coloring Of its coat in the following respects: the 

\ ti and nape are dark chestnut iu-tead <>f burnt umber, the mottling is 

•in <<>lor on inner side of anus ami cheat, and buff yellow 00 rest of 

tmd< ind inner -ide of l< | I of all these parts being pure white. 

The cranial charactef different. The skull is much larger in its 

dimensions; the palate i- wider ami longer: the bulla- longer and higher. 
the lygomatic arch longer and wider; the braincase broader and occipital 

on broader ami more rounded; na-al- broader and longer; mandible 
mtich heavier, the ascending ramus much broader at line of tooth row, 

ng 13.1 mm. to ll.o of (B. fwo/royt, with the angle more p ro min ent. 

The orbit- are much wider the outer ditiien-ioti- across both bei: 

for the pn ''"///. 

Tie as procured h I Kerr (who also <li 

"i.i meticulosus lately described) in the forest of 
th« taqui, among the coast mountains of aorthwesteni Colombia. 

• oiild appear to be | larger animal than its relative from Costs R 
■ad j ot probable that the ranges of the species approach 

iqni Eliver is ■ considerable distance to the south <>f 

the northern border of Colombia. 





In 1896 the American Museum <>f Natural History purchased from the 

I II. Battj I -mall collection of birds from the Caucs Valley and its 
adjoining mountains, in Colombia. The attention of the writer was thus 

dram to the avifauna of this interesting region ami plan- wen- discussed 

for it- exploration with Mr. Batty. Various circumstances, including 
unfortunate death in 1906, pr ev ented their realization until 

1910. In the meantime Merwn (i. Palmer, rep r esen ting W. P. II. Rosen- 

g, the well-known dealer in bird-, made important collection- in the 

Western Andes, 1 ami in the San Juan River region about Xovita, 2 while 

-ual collecting had been previously done by others, the results all 

ling to -how that western Colombia a rich and strongly char- 

rised bird life, ami present- an exceptionally promising field for a study 

of problem- in g eographic distribution. 

In November, 1910, that veteran collector of tropical American birds, 

William B. Richardson, was sent by the Museum to western Colombia with 

• actions t.. work the western slope of the Western Andes, from the port 

S hi Antonio, at the -uminit of the pam leading to < ali 
in the CauCS Valley. The following March he was joined by the writer, 

with Low* Agassis Puertes a- artist, and Leo E. Miller, whose especial 

field ha- been the collecting of mammal-. In May, Richardson and Miller 

For Popayan whence they penetrated the Western Andes over the 

ii trail going as far dow n the Pacific -lope a- '< oeal.' at an altitude of 

t, while Chapman and Puertes, in rrronnsimsnai. wenl down the 
irtago, thence crossed the < Central And.- over the QoJndio 

1 -iradot in the Mairdaleiia \ 'allev . and, after descending the Magda- 

taued from Sants Marts in June. 

In August, 1911, Richardson returned home ami Miller was joined by 

Arthur A. Allen. Allen and Miller devoted September. October, and part 

mber, to work in the Qttindio region, reaching an altitude of lo.LMK) 

'ago, crossed 
the Western And on the Baa Juan River, returning to Cab' by 

■>n on Bird* from Western Cotom ■**•*• Proc Btol. 8oc. Wieh.. 

»«*». |.; Kan. Bird* from Western Colombia.' / 1910 

\' '> in iiii'Ornltholonr of Western Colomhle.' In ( I li, n , 


1 in I \i . ■ .,■ \ [Vol. XX \ l, 

way of Buenaventura early in January, 1912. Subsequently some coi- 
lecting waa done in the Cauca marshes near Juanchito, the porl of < ali, 
and in February the expedition started t'«>r the headwaters of the Magdalene 

l>y way of I'opayan and AlmagUCr. 

The collections thus far received amount to 5058 birds and 757 mammals. 
The latter arc being determined by Dr. J. A. Allen, who has already pub- 
lished a report on the collections made op to August, 191 1. in which eighteen 

form- arc described as new, 1 while the writer has in preparation a detailed 

report <»n the birds with especial reference to their distribution as it is 

controlled l>y altitude. Therein will he found recorded >nch comparatively 

rare species as Cryptunu berlepteki, Ofculatia purpurata, Mania nationi 
(common in the Cauca Valley), NycHbitu l<i>i<i ; cmttl<itn.s, Pittasoma roten- 
bergi, Pheugopeditu spadiz, TkryopkiUu teueopogon, Oreothraupis arrerm nope, 
Buthraupis awreoemfia, Urotkraupu ttolxmanni, and others equally rare 
or new to ( 'olonihia. 

In advance of this paper, which will require at least several months for 
completion, the following diagnoses <>t' apparently new spedes and sub- 
species an- presented. They arc based not only on the recent'y acquired 

Cauca collections hut. in some instances, on specimens collected by the II. 

H. Smith Santa Marts Expedition of 1898-99 2 which, in the light of addi- 
tional material, appear to In- deserving of recognition by name. 

The preparation of this report has been greatly facilitated by the loan 
of material for comparison from the United States National Museum, the 
Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, the Carnegie Museum of 
Pittsburgh and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, and 

to those in charge of the ornithological departments of these institutions I 
gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness and extend my thanks. Jn spite, 
however, of the fact that I have thus had access to most of the pertinent 
material existing in American museums, I have often been badly handi- 
capped by lack of proper specimens for comparison. In man] 
find that the native-made "Bogota" and "Quito" specimens, which are 
often almost he only representatives of their respective species in our 
collections, are so badly faded as to he not only worthless but misleading 
for scientific purposes, and until, in the fulfilment of our plans, we have in 
our possession recently collected specimens of the species concerned further 
action upon them must he deferred. 

Ridtrway's 'Nomenclature of Colors' has been um-A as a standard in 
descriptions of plumage. 

'Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.. 1012. pp. 71 B 

» 'List of Birds collected in the District of Santa Marta. Colombia by Herbert H. Smith,' 
by J. A. Allen. Bull. Am. Mo*. \ ; BM \ III, 1900. pp. 117-183. 

Colomhnih Birds. 141 

The map accompanying thi- paper u based on K. Make White'- map <>f 
•The Centra] ami Western Province! <>f Colombia, ' published in the Fin- 
dings <»f the Royal iety for May, 1883, the sheet map, 
N.i. Ill, of Colombia, accompanying the report of the Intercontinental 

Railway ( Commission, a manuscript map of the ( laoca \ alley ami road from 

Buenaventura to Cali, prepared by EL Blake White in 1897, and loaned to 
the Museum by Mr. Phanor J. Bder, data from the vicinity of \o\ita, 

contributed by Mervyn (J. Palmer, and data gathered by the Museum 

Crypturus soui caucee nibsp. nov. 

. subsp.— Similar to Crypturus soui soui but appreciably darker, more 
rufeaoent, above, the crown and nape sooty-black, without I 
of brown ; wing-quills, part icularly secondaries and tertiaries, more fuscous. 

_'. Am. M . ad., Baa Antonio, alt. 6600 ft., 

Western Andes, Cauea, Colombia, April 6, 1911: F. If. Chapman; W. B. Richardson. 

Remark*. — Comparison of three females and four males from the 

\ alley and adjoining mountains with three females and four males 
from Trinidad (which, in this connection, may he considered as r epresent i n g 
tOW the character- above mentioned to he constantly diajjm 

and to l»e about equally pronounced in both sexes. 

;>turut .*. muxtiliniix Bangs <»f the Santa Marta region, i- represented 
in our collection by five adult females ami one male. Tin- male can he 
bed by specimen- from Trinidad, hut the females, both al 
. re more richly colored than any other representative of this 

ip known to me and thl I i lentl\ a \ alii one. 

u xnui a, , of which we have specimens from (hiri- 

(pn and Hondun ie crown sooty, much a- in r-,iinr 

hut i- paler below and ha- the neck ami chest browni-h. Specimen- from 

n, and tin- Fall- of Madeira, an- paler, more cinnamon above than 

Trinidad birds and evidently constitute an additional n 

Chamwpetes sanctee-marthoe -p. m 

'utpetts goudoti (nee Lesson) Allen, Mull Am.Mu- \ 11 Mil, 1900, 
. sp. — Siniil.n 1st goudoti goudoti (Lesson) hut up|>. i 

oUvaeeou I abdo men o o ver iB f t bi- breast, throat marks 

fceao, ah 8000ft, - 
Colombia, May 16, 1899; Mr- ll II. Smith. 

11.! liiilhtin Amer [Vol. XXXI, 

Description of Male. — Upperparts brownish olivaceous, somewhat In 
on the rump and tipper tail-coverts, tail with a hrownish titi^c. \\ inus externally 
like the liatk, the primaries and their coverts blacker; chin blackish, front and sides 
of throat mars-brown more or less well defined from the chest nut-rufou- breast and 
undcrparts; under tail-eoverts like 1 1 1 « - belly but. with some olivaceous. \\ ing, J l.">; 

tail, 270; tarsus, 70; ouhnen, 2d mm. 

Description of Female. — Resemble- the nude i-i color hut is somewhat smaller, 
and the three outer primaries are not so deeply or so sharply incised. Wing, 235; 
tail, 258; tarsus, 68; onhnen, 2fi mm. 

Ri mark*. — Twelve specimens of Chtiiini tpett s g, goudoH from the Western 
ami Central Amies of the Cam a, including nine from the Quimlio Pass, tin- 
type locality of the species show, on comparison, that the series of fourteen 
specimen- from the Santa Marta Mountains referred by Dr. Allen to C. 
fOudoU represent a well-marked species characterized as above. \> a whole 
these birds exhibit little variation in color. In two specimens the throat 
is almost as richly rufous as the breast, while in two others the entire umler- 
parta, except the throat, is faintly barred with dusky. 

Leptotila verreauxi occidentalis subsp. nov. 

Char, subsp. — Most closely allied to Leptotila verreauxi verreauxi I3p. but upper- 
parts, wings and tail externally much grayer, more olivaceous, forehead whiter, 
reflections of crown much less pronounced and obscured by grayish, underparts 
paler, laM vinaceous; flanks somewhat grayer; under tail-coverts averaging more 

Type.— No. 108696, Am. Mus Nat. Hist., d" ad., San Antonio, alt. 6600 ft., 
Western Andes, Cauca, Colombia. April 7, 1911; F. M. Chapman, W B. Richardson. 
Wing, 132; tail, 103; tarsus, 29; culmen, 17.5 mm. 

Hi marks. — Several authors have commented on the paler colors of 
specimen* of Leptotila a monad from western ( Colombia ami western Ecuador 
(cf. Salvadori, Cat. B. M., XXI, p. 549, and Hartcrt, Nov. Zool., Y, 1806, 
p. 503), but so pronounced and constant are its characters that one can only 
assume it has heretofore escaped recognition by name through the inade- 
quate material by which it has been represented. Comparison of twenty 
specimens from western Colombia with twenty-six specimens of /,. r. 
rcrrrauxi from Trinidad, Venezuela. Santa Marta, " Bogota," and the 

Magdalena Valley in Colombia. Panama, Chiriqui ami Costa Rica, show 
that the differences between the two forms expressed in the preceding 
diagnosis are constant, and are not bridged by individual or seasonal varia- 
tion. While a specimen labelled "Bogota," which we may consider the 
type locality, is as richly colored as any bird in the scries; two specimens 
from Chicoral Bridge in the foothills of the eastern slopes of the Central 

ujnose* of apparent! , nil, 143 

Ami.-, opposite Giradot, tad ■ third from Puerto Berrio <»n the Magdalena 
River, shon some approach toward the Canes form. Lepk&a 

.onmion bird in the Cauca region, ranging from 1800 feet at 
•out v>(H» feet, and living chiefly about the borden ol forests. 

( )nr -|m< iiiKii- are all from tin- mountains as follows: ( 'aldns. San Antonio, 

and Cerro Btfunchiqoe in tin- Western Amir-. Mirations, ami Salentoin the 

•ral Ami. 

Pionopsitta fuertesi sp. nov. 

tp Most nearly related to Pionopsitta amazonina (1 1 but 

face yellow, crown blue. 

Tyj- 11470, f :i-l . I^iguneta, alt. 10,340 ft., near Quindio Pass, Cauca, 

I 1011; A A. Ansa; I- B Miller. 

■-_■•. back with an olivaceous wash, nape, rump 

filter, more yellow; forehead, lores, superciliaries and entire 

aides > ill, tw, 'Town blue; rectrices from above very dark maroon, 

i ba-.dly. ami i ■ medianly, the ends for 20 mm. or more cyanine-blue; 

from below rich turquoise, basally brownish and with more or less green 

the inner margins of particularly the inner feathe; r wine-coverts and 

r wing-quills externally green, the tertials more olivaceous, outer quills black, 

• ised margins, except apieally and those of primary co\ nine-blue 

(wry bordered I lesser, upper, and under wing-coverts and bend of 

•■inker on the border of the bluish outer coverts, deeper on 

■ r under wing-coverts rich turquoise; axillars in molt, but 

app : . me mixed green and red; underparts greenish yellow or yellowish 

lite so yellow as the fon thinks and under tail-eoverts less 

yellow, the sides of the breast and centre of the abdomen with traces of red 

HT, 74; central feather, 08; culmen, 21 mm. 
ftm An adult female in somewhat worn plumage resembles the male 

id leas broadly defined, the crown duller a single upper tail-covert 
lesser WO . ad more red on the center of the abdomen, 

■•.. and no green border to the blue of the primal 

o wear, and individual variation rather 

have but :i trace of the blue crown-patch, less red 
more largi with narrow blue ends which are tipped with 

I and of the same color as t b. 
of the tad. the bead "f tin- wing faintly led, ami IsSMf under wini: 

Thi> D >|>e< inieii-. • 

at I ibd in taigusl ami Sep t ember, i> with the ejoeep- 

the only known red-tailed niember of its genua. The 
tail also dilbr> in diape from the prevailing type in PlOftOpttttS being 
BKM lending beyond the Ontei pair lor _'.". mm. 

III. I this interesting bird in honor of Mr Loui 

in reOOgnitaon of tin shich, not ah t. but in mattj other 

lered tile Mtlseum'l < "olombiail expedition. 

Ill Hiili '' ' tory. [Vol XXXI, 

Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis subsp. nov, 

>ito micidicoronatus (nee Lawr.) Hki.i.m \vu. P. Z S . 1911, p. 11 
Ch:v - attar to Capito m fulicoronatus ma n. but 

i mainly vermilion rather than mainly orange, crown 

ng whiter; male with the p?ctoralbaml paler. 

\'u iiiTt'.J. ? ad.. Juntas de Tamanft, alt. 800 ft., Cauca, Colombia, 

bet 17 l'.Ml: A A All ■!.: I. E Miller. 

Remark*. — This well-marked form is based on twelve adult specimens 
from the following localities, all in the humid littoral zone: -luutas, 2cf cf ; 
Novita, 1 ; ; San Jose*, I cf, 6 9 9; I>o> Cisneros, 2 cfef. Comparison 
ot' these birds with >i\ topotypes of C. m. fnamdicoronafua shows the differ- 
ences set forth in the preceding diagnosis t<> be con-taut. The differen 
in the size of the two tonus are indicated by the appended measurements: 

ih «.f bill 
Tail Culmcn at nostril 

Cm. i' ~ x 45.5 23 9.7mm. 

average of 2 mail i 

rvbrUateraH* 82 50 23 10 S 

average of 6 males 

('. m. macid 78 5 46 5 21 5 

average of 1 females 

C.m.ruhrihit,. 82 22 10 

average of 6 femi 

Veniliornis nigriceps equifasciatus subsp. nov. 

Similar to VenUiomit ntgricept rugricepa (Lair. A D'Orb.) but 
olive-green and yellowish bars on underparts of equal width. 

Type.— No 111819, Am. Mua Nat. Hist.. J ad., Santa Isabel. Quindio \ 
alt. 12,000ft., Se]>t. IS. 1911; A. A. Allm; !.. E. Miller. 

Rsatorfct. — In addition to the type an immature male was collected at 

the same locality on the same date. It agrees with the type but has DO red 
on hack, the red of the crown has a slight orange tint, and the yellowish ban 
on the underparts arc paler. Compared with an adult famale of nigr i eepe 
from Marptri, Bolivia. equifosciatlU may I>e at once distinguished by having 
the yellowish bars of the underpaid wider, the olive-green bars narrower. 
The underparts of the Bolivian bird may be described as dull olive-green 
narrowly barred with yellowish bull", the olive area on the breast being at 
least twice as wide as the yellowish area, while the feathers are narrowly 

' -.gnoae* of «/</* rds. 1 IS 

tipped with olive. The l»ar> on the nnderparts of Bqujfatciotus, however, 

|Ual width and the feather^ arc narrowly tipped with yellowidi. 

A male From Mt. Pichincha in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences 

•DOW - BOOM approach toward niijrinp.t in having the olive bars on the breast 
htly wider than the yellowish ones, ba1 is evidently to be referred to 

Rhamphocaenus rufiventris griseodorsalis subsp, aov. 

r. subsp. — Similar to llhnmphoccenus ruj frit Bp. l>ut with the 

the bead lea rufous gray, slightly tinged with cinnamon 

stronger, more oehimeeoui on the forehead; sides of the head less strongly 

.tT; but oehraceoQfl-baff of underparts, particularly of abdomen, 

Tfpt So IO80M, Am M . 9 ad., Miraflores, alt. 68(H) ft., 

Colombia, April 18, 1911; F. M. Chapman. 

ond specimen taken by Allen and Miller in November, 

ith the type. For comparison with these two Cauca 

bird two specimens of ntfietUru from Guatemala (type local: 

Etica, one from Panama, and eight from Santa Marta, ( 'ol. 

; r. Banctaj-martkaScl. > differ from ( lentral American specimens 

My in their somewhat larger t&ae and longer bill, the cinnamon of the 
d nape being nearrj I U in true riifinnfri*. H. r. yr 

differs from mndm-mmrthm, therefore. essentially as it does from 
rufi gray back, without trs namon, being its best characi 

Drymophila caudata striaticeps subsp. i 

r. tubsp. — Similar to Drymophila c - ' but male with the 

whol bead uniformh with whr . 1<-<1 white interscapular 
patch .-mall- i 

: 1918 \i <.hxhi ft . Central Aj 

above Salento, Cauca, Colon i! 1911; \ \ Ml. n; I. E Miller. 

In addition to the type this form is bated on na adult males 
males from the following toca M tiei Western Andes, west of 

KXX) ft., three; (ialhi MB 

mitas, alt. .".(MM) ft | .ntral Mid... ca-t of 

alt. 0800ft, MiraBores, two (Fvertes ; Central Andes, Kl Bobla, 

' F»rmi<iiora raudal 

1 lii Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX \ I, 

All the males agree in lacking the black crown-patcfa of true caudata, all 
tin- feathers of the crown ami nape being evenly and uniformly margined 

with white. The females differ foam a tingle, not fully mature, female 
from Santa Marta. in being more heavily striped above, but this variation 

may l>e due to the immaturity of the Santa Marta specimen, the only female 

of cmiilttfit available. 

Of the male of COudtda I have two adults from Santa Marta. Moth 
agree with the figure of the .Bogota type in having a black, un-treaked 

Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri subep. nov. 

Formicarius rufipectus (nee Salvin) Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXI, 1908, 
157; Carhikkh parti. Ann. Carnegie Mitt., VI, 1910, 626; RjDGWAY (parti. Hull, 
i - Nat Ifua .">•• pari V, 125. 1 

"lirnriiis rufipectus rufipectus (nee Salvin) Hellmayh, P. Z. 8., 1911, 1174. 

Clmr. subsp.— Similar to Formicarius rufipectus rufipectus Salv.. hut hack, sides 
and Hanks pronouncedly grayer; win^s somewhat grayer, breast paler averaging 
nearer orange-rufous than chestnut, as in rufipectus, the center of the abdomen much 
pakr, oehraeeotU rather than chestnut. 

Typ< X.. 113252, Am. Mus. Nat. But., * ad., San Antonio, alt. 6600 ft.. 
Cauca, Colombia, March 31, 1911; Louu A. Foerl 

'/r/.-.v. — Evidently inaufficienl material of both form- ha- heretofore 
led authors to refer this race to F. r. rvfipecblU of Veragua, but comparison 
of three specimens from Central America with thirteen from CauCfl shows 
Constant and well-marked differences. These were recognized by < aniker 
but having only a male from Costa Rica and a female from San Antonio he 
attributed them, not unnaturally, to sexual, rather than to geographic 
variation. As a matter of fact, my series of ten males and three females 
apparently shows that the sexes are essentially alike in color, the female- 
being only slightly more olivaceous above than some males, and agreeing 
exactly with others. There is no sexual difference in the colors of crown and 
underparts which is not fully covered by the range of individual variation 
in the male. 

Formieariut rufipectus carrikeri is a common inhabitant of the heavy 
forests of the 'cloud' zone (alt. 5000 to 10,000 ft.) of both the Western and 
Central Andes; hut the nature of its haunts and habits make it a difficult 
bird to secure. Our series contains specimens from the western range, west 
of Popayan, and San Antonio and ha- Lomitaa, west of ( ali. ami Salcncio 

' Doubtless references to Ecuadorian specimens which have been called rufipectus (c/. 
Hellmayr. I. c.) should also be placed here. 

Chapman, Diagmmt <>f oppo CobmMam Birds. 147 

between Cartage and Novita; and bom tne Central Andes, al Miraflores 

of Palmira, and at Kl Roble near Salento. For eompariaon with thai 

Colombian material, I have ■ male and female of mfipeehu, aecured by 

ry at ( Intra. < hiriqui. March .">, l'MU. and a male eoOected by < arriker 
hi- '" Fiirtn 'corilU eatUu at .Inan Vifias, Costa Rica. May 7, 

]'H)7. kindly loaned inc by \Y. K. ( lyde Todd <>t' the ( amebic Mti-eum. 

I bave named thk form for M. A. < 'arrikrr, Jr., in recognition of his 
important contribution! to neotropical ornithology, as well as because he 
\\a- the fir-t ornithologist to descrihe its characters. 

Grallaria milleri sp, hot. 

•parently most nearly allied to (Imllaria trythrotis BcL & Salv., but 

brownish ochraceoua n..t "distinct red"; back deep hi.-tre. not "cinera- 

No lllwl. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Q ad., baguneta. alt. 10,300ft., 
r (.^unidio Pass, Cauca, Colombia, Sept. 7, 1911; A. A. Allen; 

.7/ niiult. Uxnre, deep, rich raw-umber, crown of the same color as the 
back, lores whiti-h with a -litdit admixture of blaek; car-coverts and auricular region 
rmeeoUfl than back; rump slightly paler than upper tail-covert- which are 
or afl the hack; tail fuscous, it- exposed portions slightly more oliva- 
niore rufesccnt than hack; exjx>sed portions of wing- 
quills essentially like the tail, the wing-coverts more like the back in color, two outer 
rly uniform fuscous with little if any brownish on their outer margin; 
• r wing-o age-tawny, inner margin* Of inner wing-quills narmwly 

ochruceoiis for about the basal half, throat grayish white, sides of the throat and a 
broad breast b ■ ! flank- more olivaceous; abdomen smoke- 

gray, medianl] -white; under tail uner ti auaed pay, and olivaceous; 

■id bill blackish, the tip of the latter horn-color. Wing, S.">; tail, 
'ii. -n. 19 turn. 
'.'. — Resembles the female in color and in 

es of Juvenal plumage show that this 
nage is succeeded by the plumage of the adult. Black feathers on tin 

■ evidences of immaturity. A male taken at I.agui • 
September 16, 1011, has tin- bindcrvwa and nape .lark brown with ochraoous-hufT 

with a few similarly colored hut ochraceoii- tipped 
while the flank- and abdomen still have several da ri with broad 

iff bars, and there are black feathers at the -ides of the throat Aside 
-«• Vestiges of immaturity the hird re-embles the adult but 

of the imderparts, especialh Her. 

Thi- apparently di-timt -pe< i,-. which i- bfl even 

pe locaittj . i- dedi. Miller, 

enf management of the trail d department of the Mil- 

lion ha> contributed in no -tnall dogfCI 

Its Hullttui American Afaft H I. XXXI, 

Grallaria alleni sp. dov. 

dar. *p. — Allied to OrtBmria ratio, (Dodd.) but distinguished chiefly by its 
darker upperparts, whitish unmarked belly, black markings in the malar streak, ami 
other characters. 

'/'///«. - No. L12006, Am. Mus Nat. Hist., 9 ad., Salento, alt. 7(M)() ft.. Central 
Andes, (am a, Colombia, Oct. 2, 1911; A. A. Allen 

Description of Type. — Crown and nape to malar stripe slate-color, the feathers 

J narrowly r ing ed with black and without evident shaft -st reak.-: forehead ami 
whitish lom tinged with russet; back deep olivaceous hist re. the feathers conspicu- 
ously ringed with black, hut without evident shaft->t reak>; tail deep tawny; inner 
wing-quills and wing-covert- externally the color of the hack: exposed margin of 
outer quills browner, that of the outer primary clay-color: primary-coverts black) 
ear-coverts like the back but with a slight rusty tinge and enclosed posteriorly by 
the slate of the nape; malar streak broad, white, the feathers more or lesa margined 
with black or olivaceous; chin and upper throat mixed russet, black and olive-bistre; 
lower throat and breast somewhat paler than hack, the former with a white patch, 
the feathers of which tire narrowly margined or ■potted with black: feathers of the 
centre of the breast with median white stripes which are margined with black: 
olive-bistre of breast passing gradually into the creamy white, unmarked belly; long 
flank feathers rich ochraceous under tail-coverts, and under wing-coverts somewhat 
brighter; bill and feet brownish black. Wing, 113; tail, 3S; tarsus, 43; culmen. 
25 mm. 

Hi murks. — This well-marked species, which is represented Only by tin- 
type, appears to introduce the QraUaria porta type into the Andean region. 
I have named it in honor of its collector, Mr. Arthur A. Allen, in recognition 
of the service he has rendered science as a member of the Museum's < Colom- 
bian expedition. 

Upucerthia excelsior columbiana subsp. nov. 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Vpunrthia excelsior excelsior Scl. but bill stout. - 
longer, superciliary and light areas of underparts winter, brownish anas below h.iir- 
brown rather than broccoli-brown. 

Type.— No. 112012. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., f ad., Paramo of Santa Isabel, 
alt. 12700 ft.. Central Andes, Colombia, Sept. 15, 1911; A. A. Allen; L. E Miller. 

arks. — This well-marked race, which apparently introduces the 
genus I'pucrrthid into Colombia, is r ep r esent ed by twenty specimens, all 
collected at the type locality in September. While they show some varia- 
tion in the intensity of the color of the upperparts. dependent upon the 
fresh or worn condition of the plumage, all agree in lacking the bully suf- 
fusion of the superciliary and underparts which characterizes true exedt 
The latter is represented, in this connection, by two specimens in the Ameri- 
can Museum collection and by three males from the Philadelphia Academy 

Chapman, Diagnoses of apparently New CUmrWm Birds. 1 I!' 

ollected b; 8 N klx.a.l- Ofl Mt. I'inchincha (the type locality) 
in M;i\ . l'.M 1. The-c birds a\ erairc w ing. ! 12; tail. S4 ; tarsus. .'W; culmen 

5 nun., while five mala «»f oohmbima average, wing, ill; tail, 85; 
;i ; culmen, 27 mm. 

Synallaxis gularis rufipectus rabap. now 

r. $ub«p. — Similar to Synoflosu gularis gularis Lafr. but decidedly darker, 
re russet above, entire under; ■ :>t throat, bright rusty cinnamon, bill 

rjr.r :in<l heavii 

No 113040, Am. M B -• . d" ad, Laguneta, alt. 10,300 ft., 

.' iindioPas8,Sept.6. 1912; A. A. All- n: L.E.Miller. Wing, 
23; culmen, 1 1 rum 

ark*. — Of this bird the collection contains two specimens from La- 
nd a male taken in May by L. A. Fuertes, and four taken 
in July, at an altitude of 10,340 ft. in the Western Andes, west of Popayan. 
While it i- evidently I representative of the "Bogota" form, which may be 
to represent the type of gularis, and of which I have two speci- 
men-, it- differences are bo pronounced as to suggest specific distinctly 
Rad| Nomenclature* contains no color approaching the bright n; 

the back of our specimen*: of true gularis, as compared with the deep 
cmnamon-ruatel of the upperparts. of ru/Epeerur, while the grayish breast of 

gularis i- in strong contrast with the OChraceoUS- cinnamon which uniformly 
and abdomen of rvfiiM'ctus, the sides ln-ing slightly deeper 

in \> 

Synallaxis gularis cinereiventris -ub-p. aov, 

r. subsp. — Similar to Synallaxis gularis gularis Lafr. but darker above and 
gra\ -Ik lull slightly loosji 

inter... alt. U.J.V) ft.. n.:ir 

QabaMoa, A 

arks. '1 -juallasi.* from Merida agree \ery 

mother in having the underpart-. except the white tin. 
brown, tinged with cinnamon, which i- much stronger, nearly pore 

!i. on the Hank- and under I The\ thus differ markedly 

from 8. '/ pilaris in which the gray of the under parti i- median, and from 

bich ha- the underparl ior tO the throat, uniform 

imam. .ii \i ntris resemble- r///i/* rtu.i but a\ er- 

ages alight I y brighti 

u" of this sp. apt to l>e in such worn plumage that 

150 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

accurate measurements cannot always be obtained. However, the fol- 
lowing arc believed Ul l>e dependable as far as they go: 






6* g. gularis 





13 IMI 

S. g. rufipectus 






S. " 






S.g. cinereiventris 





11 " 

S. " 





1 1 

S. " 





1 \ 

It would thus appear that in (juUirix and cinereivenfrix the tail is as lone; 
or longer than the wing, while in rufi }»■<■( ux it appears to be shorter, but 
additional material may alter this showing. 

Picolaptes lacrymiger sanctae-marthse. 

Picolaptes lacrymiger (nee Des Murs) Salv. & Godm., Ibis, 1880, 171; Bangs, 
Proc Biol Boc. \Va>li ., XIII, 1899, 100; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Him.. X11I, 
1900, IM 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Picolaptes lacrymiger lacrymiger (Des Murs) but throat 

slightly paler, the feathers more narrowly, or not at all margined with black, uruii-r- 

partsgrayer, less brownish olivaceous, and more heavily strcake< I, the streaks broader, 

linear rather than guttata, not enclosed al the end by their black lateral border, ami 

linn to and on the under tail-coverts with little or no decrease in width. 

No 72872, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., o" ad., Valparaiso, alt. 5000 ft., Sierra 
Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia, May 31, 1899; G. H. Hull. Winn. 104; tail. ^7: 
tarMi<. Jv culmen, 27 nun. 

Remark*. — On comparison of thirty-two specimens from the Santa 
Marta mountains with twenty-two typically representing P. /. lacrymiger 
(three from 'Bogota,' the type locality, and nineteen from the Andes of the 
Cauca) the characters separating them appear to be so constant as to 
their specific distinctness, but four specimens from near Merida, Venezuela 
(which doubtless may be considered as re presen ting Picolaptes lafreenayi 
Cab. & Hein., type locality, Caracas) while clearly to be referred to /'. /. 
laerjfmi§er show some approach toward sanctcr-iiiartha: in their somewhat 
broader streaking below, but in other respects they agree with P. I. lacrp- 
>ii i (i> r. 

Xenicopsis subalaris columbianus subsp. now 

Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris (nee Scl.) Hellmayh, P. Z. 8., 1911, pp. ll'.l 
(provisional identification). 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Xenicopsis subalaris subalaris Scl. but slightly larger, 
the throat paler, maize-yellow rather than buff-yellow, the underparts paler, more 
olivaceous, the streaks paler, and, especially on the breast, wider and more numerous. 

1913 Chapman, Diagnose* of apparently New Colombian Birds. 1">1 

Differs from A*. *. pete and more heavily streaked undcrparts and 

less rufesc. nt up|>erparts. the crown being elite bisUs rather than mummy-brown. 

Ty\. » ad.. Mirations, alt. 6800 ft., 

'.lombta, April 22, 1911 ; F. M. Chapman; \V. B. Richardson. 

mens from Cerro Munehique. Gallon, San Antonio, 
Lomitaa and SaJcncio (eight in all agree with the type, and, as Hellmayr 
M d "t I specimen front the Western AihIc>, resemble the western 
Ecuador form in the color of tin- hack but an- larger. It is, however, in 
the coloration of the undcrparts that the ( olomhian bird differs most notice- 
ably from ln»th the Kcuailor and Central American fornix. Indeed in this 
tin- last-named races more nearly PflfmMt one another than they 
do raphicaHy intermediate cnluiithianu*. The range in size is not 

he following measurements of adult males show: 




•h . 72»M) ft 1 Ecuador 




tlores, alt. 6800 ft. Colombia 















Knipolegus columbianus sp. nov. 

-. »p. — A small 1"K' in'h, >kin. b* s mm.) apparently most nearly 

illy to Kiti/Hilegu» but bearing no close resemblance in color to any 
described species of that genu-; general color pay, 'I"' inner web- of the tail-feathers 
cinnamon-rufous, center of abdomen and patch 00 throat buff. 
.:7. Am. Mn 
west of Popayan. July 20. I'M 1; W H EUehaidson; 1 1 Miller. 

Description of Type. — Upperparts dark mouse-gray, the crown slightly darker, 
ilcr. the upper tail-covert- faintly tinned with brown; tail fuscous, 
webs of all but the middle pair of feather- cinnamon-rufous, except the tip 
and shaft portion of the apical half of the feather, this color of nearly the Sat 

feathers; wings fusoOUS, the inner webs of the feather- bordereau ith sfa 
moti reaxing in extent from a narrow margin OB the outer primary to about 

'hird the width of the inner web of the secondaries inner wing-quills nan. 

i -lightly tipped with whiti-h; median and g: vcrta 

i with grayish; under wing-coverts and axillars ochraceous-buff ; 
sides of the head and un-l'-rp.irtsgray, paler than the back, chin lighter, throat -p . 
tbdome n , and flanks buff, under Ufl-oover ts ochraceous-buff; bill and 

M.hble slightly brownish basally; \\ - 7- tail, 68; 

tarsus, 16.5; middle-toe and 12; bill from nostril, 9; height at 

Ith at nosti mm. 

of tin- interesting bird are have bat ■ single 
labeled a- "male, tastes enlarged/' and the haejnd pvfaMries evidence the 

L62 liullt tin American U IJUHJ History. [Vol. XXXI, 

correctness of the collector's determination of t h«- sex of the specimen. 
Were then reason to doubt this determination we might believe thai the 
bird was related to Knipolegtu aterrimut, to the female of which it bet 

■bme central resemblance, particularly in the cinnamon-rufous of the tail. 
A', attirimus, however, has a limeh more rounded wing, while the Wing in 

A', eolwmbiantu is as pointed as in A. comatut, from which, however, it 

ditfers in its primary formula, its more rounded bill, less rounded tail, 
■Jbeence of a pronounced crest, etc. In short, I strongly suspect that the 
bird here described repre s en ts a new generic type which I refrain from 
characterising at present with the hope of receiving additional material. 

Muscisaxicola alpina columbiana subsp. now 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Muscisaxicola alpina alpina (Jard.) but averaging 
slightly smaller, the upperparts darker, more fuscous, the breast grayer. 

Type. — No. 112199, Am .Mus. Nat. Hist., d" ad., Paramo of Santa Isabd. alt. 
12,700 ft., Central Andes, Colombia, Sept. 20, 1911; A. A Allen; L.E. Miller. 

Rl marks. This form, which is apparently the first representative of its 
genus to be recorded from Colombia, is baaed on five specimens collected 
at the type locality. These birds have been compared with two males 
collected by S. X. Khoads on Mt. Pinchiiicha, Ecuador, essentially the type 

locality. The latter average: wing, 125; tail, 81; tarsus, 32; oilmen, 1"> 

mm. Pour male specimens of columbiana average: Wing, 122; tail, SO; 
tarsus, 32; oilmen, 14.5 mm. 

Myiodynastes chrysocephalus intermedius subsp, nov. 

Char, subsp. — Similar to M yiodynasles chrysocephalus minor Tacz <fe Bert but. 
averaging slightly larger and with the underparts less distinctly streaked. 

Type.— No. 70845, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, cf ad., Las Nubes, alt. 5000 ft., Siena 
Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia, December 8, 1898, Mrs. H. H. Smith. 

Remark*. — The material examined in the present connection includes 
three specimens of true c k r ys oce p katm from Marcapata and Inca Mine, 
Peru, four essentially topotypical specimens of minor from Chimbo, Ecuador, 
ten specimens from the mountains about the Cauca \ alley, which agree 
with minor in color but are slightly larger, ten specimens of intermeditu 
from the Santa Marta region and a single specimen from Montana del 
Guacharo. Basteni Venezuela which is apparently to be referred to intrr- 

lll 1 ill IIS. 

The Ecuadorian form, M. e. minor, proves to be a well-marked race 
which may be readily distinguished from M. c. chrysocephalus not only by 

' gnoses of apparent' , :rds. 

it- -ma! appended measure me nta bat by its mate ilwufcid 

underpart- ami the much greater amount of rufous on the wing! and tail. 

the wing-quills arc strongly margined with cinnamon-rufou- on 

U.1I1 inner and outer webs, anil. M a rule, only the inner OM or two tertial- 
_ m-dwith yellowish ami the inm-r margins ol the webs of the tail- 
in- pronouncedly cinnamon-rufous. In ckrp&ocepkahu the areas 
which an- rinnainon-rufous in minor arc much more restricted or are huffy, 
while the yellowish margins, which are wider, appear on all the tertials, and 
the lore- an. I post-ocular region are less strongly black. In the coloration 
parts rhri/xin-1 iihnlu* more nearly resembles the Central American 
If, e. h ntcarynu than it doe- the intervening minor hut the latter is -mailer 

and yellower below. 

form here described partake- of both the characters of minor and 

nee in the comparatively unstreaked underparts it agrees 

with the former and in it- strong cinnamon-rufous markings with the latter, 
while in -ize it i- between the two. 




■ hrysocephalu* 

1 male 



21 mm. 

2 ft -males 




3 males 





3 males 



21 5 

3 females 




Tyranniscus chrysops minimus tnbsp. nov. 

r) S.M.V. <t Godm., Illis, 
XII, 1898, 175; Allen, Hull. An XIII, 

- iilar to Tyranniscus chrysops chrysops (Scl.) but very much 


.. alt. 2000 ft vada 

I irta, Colombia <i II Hull tarsus, 

.limn, 7. 

The remarkable variation in size shown In Tyrant 

nth equalled in T. chrysops. Lack of pro p erly sexed 
this from being fully demonstrated, hut the material 

tffident to show tin of two well-marked form-. 

iriation may b I from the collections lately 

n Andes i l it Thus six saatss average, wii 

17 linn., while three fen rage wing, 50; tail, n mm, 

: ■ ith this, four untaxed spreimrnn from Mima in the Santa 
■■. measure as foOov 

l.*>l Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Wing, 43 

Tail, 37 

" 44 

" 37 

" 45 

" 37 

" 48 

" 39 

DoobtlflM the largest of these birds is a male and the remaining three 
are females, hut without regard To sex the largest Santa Malta ipedmen b 
smaller than the smallest Cauea specimen. The difference in size is m>t 
well expressed by these measurements, and on comparison of gpecimcna the 
Santa Marta bird appears to be about one half the axe of that from the 
Cauca, Two unaexad specimenf from Ecuador and four from the Bogota 
region raeaiUie as follow-: 





Tail, 44 


" 44 




'• 48 




" 47 




" 48 




•' 51 

It is thus evident that the mime Tyranmtctu ekry»op§ chrytopa (£ 
(type locality, Gualaquiza, Ecuador) should be applied to the large form 
of this group, and that this name also covers Tyttttmiscus /Umfrotu Cab. 

and Hein., which agrees in size with Bogota specimens and the locality of 
which "New Grenada" — may indeed doubtless l>e interpreted aa the 
Bogota region. 

Tyranniscus nigricapillus flavimentum subsp. now 

Tyranniscus nigricapillus (nee Lafresnaye) Bangs, Proe. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, 
1899, 98; Ai.i.kx, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Mist , XIII 1900, 148. 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Tyranniscus nigricapillus nigricapillus (I.afr.) but 
superciliary, its frontal extension, and chin yellow instead of grayish. 

Type. — No. 72743, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., d" ad., San Ix>renzo, alt. 7500 ft., 
Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia, May 12, 1899; G. M. Hull. 

Remarks. — In addition to four specimens from the Santa Marta Moun- 
tains our collection contain- two examples of this form from Escorial mar 
Merida. Venezuela, showing that it is not strictly a Santa Marta form. 
These six specimens agree closely with each other, and differ as above 
indicated from five specimens of T. n. tUgrieapiUtU from "Bogota," tin- 
type locality of this race. 

A single specimen in our Cauca collections, from an altitude of 10,340 
in the Coast Range west of Popayan, has the crown blacker, the back 
darker and the margins to the secondaries greener than in true nigricapillu*. 

' i gnoses of apparently New Colombian Birds. 155 

Platypsaris homochrous canescens snfasp, nov. 
-ostomus homochrous (nee Scl.) Allen, Bull. Am. V . xiii, 1900, 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Platypsaris homochrous homochrous (Scl.) but crown 
dull bitch instead of shining jet Mack, back gray instead of black, tail and wing- 
quills fuscous margined with gray instead of black with little or gray margin, the 
underparts gray No. 'J rather than gray No. 6, ol Kidgway. 

Type.— No. 71018, Am Hist, d" ad., Cagualito, alt. 1500 ft., Santa 

(U., Colombia, May 12, 1896; Mr- H. H. Smith. 

. — An adult male of PltityjMirix homochrous from Xovita, 
whi. I li-llmayr. represents true homochrous (P. Z. S., 1911, 

p. 1143) shows thai ■ Santa Marta specimen heretofore re fe rred to that 

form constitute a well-marked rare. An adult male from Panama 
appears to be slightly darker than the form here described from which it 
-i parable as a third race. A female from Honda, Santa Marta, 
i> in too worn plumage to be of value in comparison. 

Attila fuscicauda sp. nor, 

. sp. — Below most nearly resembling Attila citreopygus Scl., but breast some- 
wha' lured, above most like Attila wighti Cherrie, but green darker, yellow 

paler and tail without rufous. 

Type — No. 109690, Am. Mn- Nat Hi- . J ad., Gallera. alt. ."(M) ft.. Andes 
weatofPopayan. June •_'••. l'.Ml: W . B. Rkhardeon; LE Miller. 

Description of >> ■ Ppperparta dark oBfe-green without rafoos tinge; erown 
will. I anteriorly with greenish yellow margins; rump and 

spper tafl-eorer t i esaary yellow; tail fuaooua, lightly margined ezteraaVj with 

Dearly Ms md OOVertl margined with olr 

somewhat paler on the latter: throat and breast of the general color of the appw* 
parts, streaked with dusky and margined wit I yellow; flanks yellow 

utreaked or wa-li< d with ohve-grcen, center of the helly whitish. under tail HUH 
lemon yellow. .71; karma, 30; eulmen, -l •"> m. 

De*< i ill Resembling the male but tail somewhat brown 

rufous basally. W 5; tarsus, 21: cwlmen, 20 


It i^ possible that thi^ bird ma\ be shoWfl later tO intergrade 

. of which Mr \\ l I Todd 1 i loaned me two specimens 

from e;i i./iicla which he ha> compared with the type of wighti. 

er, from the differences in their u pper p arti slrendj referred to, 

I / has much less white below ami the under tail-o>\ ,-rts are 

lloi ' >n the other hand fu>< •.'<•,;//./.; ma\ l>< tin -outhern form 

of i>pyfitf, though this seems haitflj probable. Until its rcilstion 

-able tO aCCOrd it speeUV rank. 

l.")ti Bulletin American Muteum of Natural II 'star;/. Vol \\\l, 

Rupicola peruviana aurea subsp. noV. 

Char, subsp. — Similar to Rupicola JN ruriaita ptruin.ia I.ath.,hut male with the 
anterior parts of tin- ami particularly the crest, more orange iu color, oral 
chronic rather than flainc-scarlct , the gray of the tertiafa more restricted not wholly 
concealing the suhapical hlack of the underlying feather; general coloration of 
female more orange. 

TyiH'. — No. IIJIJ'.i. Am. Blue, Nat. Hist., & ad., Salento. alt. 7000 f I I 
Ami. i Colombia, October 1, 1911; A.A.Allen; L.E. Miller. 

I\, marks. - Thi> form is based 00 two adult males and two adtilt females, 
taken at the type locality in September and October. Of H. p. peruviana 
our collection contain-, three males and two females taken by Keays at 
Inca Mine. Peru, in 1899 and 1900, and of R. p. "eafuraia" one male taken 
by Oarlcpp at LoOOttl, Bolivia, in 1891. 

In addition to this authentic material we have trade specimens of 
jiirac'ana from Ecuador and 'Bogota, 1 which arc decidedly more orange 
than the bird here described and which possibly may constitute a recog- 
nizable form (cf. Tacz. and BerL P. Z. S., 1885, p. 93). Fresh material. 
however, will be r« quired satisfactorily to determine whether the character 

presented by these specimens from Ecuador and the Eastern Andet 
Colombia are actual or due to fading. In the meantime, however, W€ are 
fully justified in separating this form from the North Central Andes. 

Phaeoprogne tapera immaculata subsp. nov. 

Prognetapera (necCmcl. Haiku, Rev. Am. Birds. I 286. 

Char. subsp. -Similar to l'haoprogne tapera tapera (Gmel.) hut underparts 
without the median line of spots which reach from breast to belly in that -p. 
the pectoral band generally more pronounced. 

T(//x>.— No. 112409, Am Mus. Nat. Hist.. " ad.. Chi. •oral (near Ciradot), alt. 
1800 ft., Tolima, Colombia, October 6, 1911; A. A Allen; L. E. Miller. 

Remarks. — The two forms of this genus were clearly defined by Baird 
(/. c.) who, however, employed the QMOOefueea Yieill. for the bird with the 
centrally spotted underparts to which the older name tapera al • 
applicable. Accepting the dictum of von Hcrlepsch and Hartert ' as 
definitely establishing Brazil for the type locality of tapera this name may be 
considered to cover the southern form of the species and to include fueoa as 
a pure synonym. If this view of the case be correct the northern form, 
with the unspotted belly, may be known under the above given title. 

That there arc two well-marked races, possibly species, of this dull- 

Nov. Zool., IX, 1002. J). 14. 

i/noses of (if />■ irda. \'u 

red, comparatively square-tailed Martin, seems Imt little « »j >« -n to doubt. 

Of the l>ird ti> which I a— nine the name to/urn is applicahle, I have eleven 
■ in M;iUo GroSSO, Brazil. taken in the months of January. 

February, April. September, October, November, and December, and all 
have a well-defined line of large fuscous -put-* extending bom the center of 
the breast t<> the belly. 

Of iiiiinnctihitu I have three specimens taken at < hicoral in October, 

from BogOti, and nine taken at Maripa and Snapnre, Venezuela, in 

March, April. May. ami December. Only two of these l»ird> show any 

imlieation of spots below; the Bogota 1 bird, which is immature, has ■ faint 

dn-ky -treak on the lower breast, and a female, taken at Snapnre, April _'7. 

ha- a number of -pots on the lower l>iea-t immediately adjoining the pectoral 

do not reach to the ahdomen. nor do they appear to 

■ ted to the median line, hnt extend across the l>rea-t. Tin- bird 

an unusually well-marked and sharply defined pectoral color, a character 

which i- more pronounced in the northern than in the southern form. In 

none of the remaining eleven specimen- of immaeviata are median pectoral 

lible. Thia character appeals therefore to he racially diairno-tic 
and to warrant th> tion of two form- of this genus. 

Troglodytes solstitialis pallidipectus subsfft. now 

Miml u Troglodytes sohtiiialis soixtitialix Scl., more 

clof ^ in color with T - macrourw Berl. A Btols., much teas rufeaeenl 

• being bul slightly, instead of strongly 

washed with buff; wings, tail, ami lull shorter than in T. I murrouru.s, the U pperp 
less cinnamone 

B902, \v \Iunchi(|ue. alt. 8300 

• ■lonilna. JttlU I. 1911; W. P. Richard 

\Iilhr. v. tail, 31; tarsus, 16.5; euhnea, 10 asm. 

'/r/.-.v. Three specimens of patttdipedut from the type locality. 

and nineteen from Laguneta and Santa babel, two of '/'. .v. toUHHalit type 
iKty, Riobamba, Ecuador from Ambato and two from "Guayaquil," 

an-! -mint* and of '/'. s.fntdr ha\e heeii examined in 

tin- present connection. September and October specimens of paUuHpeetu$ 

more richly colored hnt none ha- the luea-t a- hca\il\ washed with 

Thryophilus nigricapillus connsctens subsp. m>\ . 

K with Tl fy| sehsfM Hand in the 

white, the lirea.-t h-> he.iviU haired; tl -.: 

158 HiiUditi American Museum of Xalural HitU |\'<>l XXXI, 

as in T. n. nigricapillm but rest of the underparts more heavily barred, and thi 
much richer ferruginous than in that form 

TyjK.— No. 109894, Am. Mu- N al Hist., d" ad., Cocal, alt. 5000 ft ., And- 
•payan, Cauca, Colombia, June 10, 1911; \\. B. Richardson; L. E Miller. 

lit mark*. — Although one of the less strongly marked, this is one of the 
moot interesting form we have thus far received from the Cauea Region 
since it clearly shows how decrease in intensity of color follows decrease In 
rainfall. Thirteen examples from the coast at Btienax etitura and San .lo-e 
have the uniformly barred underparts of T. n. schotti (type locality Atrato 
River , while seven, including the type, from an altitude of 400* > 
on the eastern slope of the Andes, evidently reflect in their lighter colors 

the results of the lower humidity prevailing at that altitude. 

Of '/'. //. rdgricapittiu (type locality, Nanegal, Ecuador) I have two 

spec'mens from " Quit. 

Cinnicerthia olivascens infasciata aubsp. nov. 

Clmr. subsp. — Similar to Ciimin rlliin oliracens olivascens Sharpc but larger 
lull and taiMM heavier. upperpart* leal rnfi M-eiit . and pract ieally unbarred. 

Type. — No. 109687, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., d" ad., Andet weal i»f Popayan, alt. 
10340 ft, July 18, 1911: W. B. Richardson; L. B. Miller. Wing, 73; tail, 73; tarsus, 
27: culmen, 15 mm. 

Remarks. — This form may deserve specific rank but a taint trace of 
barring on the backs of two of our seven specimen il>ility 

of intergradation with C. o. oHtBtucetu (of which I have examined two 

men-, one from Antioquia, the type locality, having recently been pre- 
sented to the Museum by Sefior Francisco Escobar, Colombian Coosul- 
GeneraJ at New York) a- the range of the latter is approached. 

The white frontal patch, shown on the specimen figured in the British 
Museum 'Catalogue of Birds' (Vol. VI, pi. xi I is evidently ■ purely indi- 
vidual character. It is as well developed in one of our specimens as in the 
<>ne just mentioned, in three others it is barely evident, and in the remaining 
three it is absent. 

Planesticus fuscobrunneus sp. nov. 

< 'liar, subsp. — Related to Planesticus atrosericeus (Lafr.) and P. serrana (Tschudi) ; 
agreeing in rise with the former, slightly larger than the latter; male similar in color 
to males of atrosericeus and serrana, female nearer female of atrosericeus but much 

Type.— So. 109923, Am. Mi- N Hist., 9 ad., Cerro Munichique, alt. 8325 
ft., western Andes, west of Popayan, Cauca, Colombia, May 27, 1911; \V. B. 

Chapman, lHagno*f* of apparently Xew Colombian Birds. 150 

Description of Female. — Upperparts nearly uniform olivaceous plena biuw; 
darker, tin- former margined with the eoiot of the back, the latter 

rnally margined with dark mars-brown; underparts but slightly paler than 

• throat indistinctly etreaked with blackish; under wing-coverts like 

abdomen but faintly washed with cinnamon: bill and feet bn>wni-h-yellow. Wing. 

121 tail L07; tarsus, 32; exposed cuhnen, 19.8. Fhre males from the bum general 

wing, 1-1; tail, 108; tarsus, 34; exposed cuhnen, 22.5 mm. 

While this Tlmiah presumably represents PUmeM 
r P. .v» mum, it is not sufficiently close to either to permit of its 
ription a> a subspecies. Although geographically intermediate be- 
■ n the two, it presenta an extreme of coloration being in some respects 
■\\ related to u and M rrana tfian they are to one another. 

addition to three males and two females from the type locality, the 
collection contains a pair of birds from La Florida in the same range, and 
ml a female from San Antonio (alt. bDOO ft.) in the western 
mmediately above < ali. The last-named female is darker and 
more rusty below than the Muncliique birds and has pronounced black 
■ ak>. 

comparison with this material I have had six males and two femalo 

riceui 'type locality Caracal from Merida. and a female 

rnegie Mus. from Guarico, Estado Lara, V cneauda , and one male and 

ma from Inca Mine, Peru. 

Vireosylva chivi caucaB subsp, now 

■. eubep. — Differing from I • ill . ai re pr ese n ted by i 

■pechaenf from Chepada, Mat to Grosso, in being slightly darker. 
e-green above, with the crown deeper, more slaty, the superciliary whiter, 

more olive-gr:; ■ low) differing from Y.c.nifilis I.ieht.), 

as represented by a large series from ea- . Trinidad, and San' 

h darker above, olive-green rather than yellow-preen, with 

ular n-gion averaging more uliie giay, less yellow. Male. fail. 

nen 1J in !e, wing, 66; tail, 48; tarsus, 17. cuhnen, IS 

. o" ad. (testes slightly sahu| 
v 10, 1911 : 1' M CI. ..i'ln m; \\ ' 

I find it impossible to refer nine Vinos from tl I 

Hid adjoining to any of the recognised forms of this 

her than to d< hem as ab.c - They 

all • on which this p r op osed form is baaed and 

appa i well-marked race of this wide-ranging 

'■<iin Berl. k Tecs. 1 from Cbimbo, Ecuador, 


ItiO HiilUtni American Mum nm of Xtitunil History. |Y<>! \\\l, 

might l>c expec t ed to agree with the < atics. form, I >u t it is described bj I 

ing gray mystaral -treaks, and tin- breast washed or flammulatcd with 

gray, characters shown by do specimen in my very large series of Vino- 
tyhta rhiri. 

Basileuterus richardsoni ip. now 

char. sp. Mo-t clnscly related to BasSU uU nu ItUeoviridit (Bp.) bul upperparts 
dark o live - g reen instead of bright yellowish olive-green underparts much paler, super- 
ciliary wliitisli, instead of yellow. 

Type. — 109971. Am. Mu- Nat. Eist., ' ad., western Andes, west of Popayan, 
alt. 10.340 ft., .July 16, 1911; W. B. Richardson. 

Description of Male. — Upperparts uniform dark olive-green, external margins 
of rectriees and remiges yellowish; siipereiliaries wliitisli. underpart- dusky olive - 
green, brighter medianly, more olive on the sides and flanks. Wing, 69; tail, 61 
tarsus, •Jo.."); eulmen, 10 mm. (average two specimens 

Description of Female. Similar to the male but smaller and more dusky 
below. W inn. 61; tail, ")7."); tarsus, 20; eulmen, 10 mm. (average two Bpeeinu 

Remarks.— -Ol this well-marked species the collection contains 

specimens from the type locality and one from Laguneta in the Central 
Amies. Of true luteoviridis from Bogota we have two specimen-, while one 
from Yimgas, Bolivia, and two from [nca Mine, Peru, while nearly agreeing 
with the Bogota specimens in color, are much smaller; their wing measure- 
ments being, male, 59; female, 55 mm. 

I have named this species in honor of its collector, who, for the pa-t 
twenty-five years, has through his field work been adding to the store of 
neotropical birds contained in Museums. 

Spinus nigricauda sp. nov. 

Char. sp. — Most nearly resembling Spinus spinescens capitaneus Bangs but with 
longer wings, darker back, no yellow at the base of the tail, less yellow in the wing 
and heavily streaked under tail-coverts, etc 

Type. — No. L 12762, Am. bins. Nat. Hist., <? ad., Paramo, Santa Isabel, alt. 
12700ft., Central Andes, Colombia. Sej)t. 15, 1911; A. A Allen: L.E.Miller. 

Description of Male. — Back olive-green bordered with oil-green, hind neck, 
particularly at the sides, paler, crown-cap ami lores jet-black, auricular- and sided 
of the head olivaceous yellow; rump greenish yellow, upper tail-covertfl black bor- 
dered by oil-green; tail-feathers black to the base, except the outer pair which show a 
trace of yellow at the extreme base of the inner web. outer webfl margined with oil- 
ureen decreasing in extent outwardly and absent on the outer pair of feather-; wings 
black, crossed by a broad basal yellow band much brighter in color on the outer than 
on the inner webs of the feathers, and barely evident on the inner vane of the outer 
two or three primaries; primary coverts black, lesser and greater covin- black. 
tipped with oil-green which on the greater coverts is restricted to the outer web; 
underparts dusky olivaceous yellow, under tail-coverts the same, the longer one 
streaked medianly with black and black basally. 

19i2.| appar ently New Colombian Birds. 161 

<irk.< — While this form, which is based on two adult males is 
presumably i representative of Spina s t pin em mu , it appears to have de- 
veloped characters warranting it> recognition as a species. For comparison 
I have eight type locality' specimens of 8. *. e jw n es c rn f, and ten 

Santa Marta specimens, including the type, of N. .v. CO pHt m nU , loaned me 
l»\ Mr. Bangs. Aside from its larger hill capft a n e ns appears to be more 
dusky or olivaceous be l ow than tptnetvetu and in this respect it more 
nearly approaches nigriniiulti. Measurements of males of the three forms 

an- appended: 

Paramo of Santa Isabel 7 J 

S. t. capUaneus, 65 

San Miguel, Col. 66 




S. s. spinescens, 65 

.rota' 67 

Ammodramus savannarum caucae snbsp. nov. 

. subsp. — Similar to Ammodramus s. australis but darker, black central 
area* to feathers larger, chestnut areas smaller and dsifcsr, edging to feathers gr 
leas buffy 

No 110005, Am. Mus. " , d" ad., Cali, Cauea, Colombia, 

Augu-t ii l-Mi: v7.B Riehsrdson; I. i: Miller. \\ lag, 80; tail, 47; tarsus, 18; 
2 mm. 

— The extension of the breeding range of the Yellow -w 

irro* to the South American continent ii <>n.- oi the moat interesting 

ir Colombian expedition. In addition to the type the 

roll' otains two malea taken at Cali, December 25 and 29, n--,pec- 

i\. Both had the testes enlarged and are in slightly worn hscswlinsj, 

plumage. In the type whi lently the postnuptial molt is in ; 

interior parts of the body and lesser wing-coverts, Thii material. 

while evidently r epres e n t dent and not migrant form, would be 

moi if it contained specimens in fredi plumage. It is appar- 

. from the n<ui\ groe n feathen on the type as well ea from the 

phuaags of the two December birds, that tin- race n characterised bj the 

iek. dark chestnut ar<as. ami gnu margins of the feathers of the 



Depth of bill at base 














7 . 



i . 













162 Bulletin American Museum of Natural Hi*t [Vol XWI. 

upper surface of the body, and paleness of the underparts, the Hanks baying 
much less buff than in any other form of tin species. 

The Cauca bird appears most closely to resemble A. s. obtcttrtu Wis. 
of southern Mexico, but it is generally paler with the grayish margins 
wider, the chest is paler, and the flanks have less, or almost wholly lack the 
buff wash. 

Myospiza manimbe columbiana subsp. nov. 

Char, subsp. — Upperparts much darker and more broadly streaked than in 
Myospiza manimbe manimbe (Licht.), the crown and back of about the same polor. 

Type. — No. 10844t>. Am. Ifttf. N:it Hist., & ad., Cali, Cauca, Colombia, 
December 27, 1910; \V. B. Richardson; L.E. Miller. Wing, 66; tail, 51; tarsus, Is; 
culmen, 12 mm. 

Remarks. — Myoepua manimbe manimbe is represented in our collec- 
tions by two specimens from Bahia, Brazil (the type locality) and twenty- 
five from Chapada, Matto Grosso, which agree dpedy with the type form. 
This excellent series shows that in fresh plumage true manimbe has the 
crown and back conspicuously different in color, the former, with the nape, 
being black narrowly margined with chestnut which is widely bordered 
with gray, while in the back the black and gray areas are reduced, tin- 
chestnut increased, giving the bird, to some extent, the appearance of being 
gray-headed and brown-backed. 

In columbiana the back and crown are of essentially the same color. 
The head has little or no chestnut and the gray margins are not >o con- 
spicuous as in A. »i. manimbe, while the black areas occupy the larger part 
of the feather, and their reduced chestnut margins are distinctly different 
from the corresponding rusty areas in manimbe. From Cali we have five 
specimens of this well-marked form to which I should also refer a freshly 
plumaged bird from near Honda, Tolima. Specimens from Chicoral, how- 
ever, are paler and more nearly resemble others from Venezuela, which 
with examples from Bogota and Santa Marta, appear to be intermediate 
between true manimbe and columbiana. A study of adequate material 
of this wide-ranging species will, doubtless, result in the recognition of a 
number of additional forms. 

Atlapetes flaviceps sp. nov. 

Char. sp. — An apparently very distinct species not closely related to any 
described form of the genus; head and underparts yellow, back, wings, and tail olive- 

Type.— 'So. 112816, Am. Mus. Xat. Hist., Rio Toche, alt. 6800 ft., Quindio 
Trail, Central Andes, o", Oct. 24, 1911; A. A. Allen; L. E. Miller. 

r/in, !> ignosis of apparently New Colombian Birds. 163 

Description of Type. — Crown chrome-yellow with an olivaceous tinge, a dull 

<--green postocular streak joining its fellow on the hind-neck, sides of the head 

How extending to a narrow nuchal collar; back, rump and upper tail-coverts 

-lark olhre-green; tail, stronnly graduated, fuscous, all but the outer pair of feathers 

nmlly margined with ull»egW} wings and their coverts fuscous margined 

•nally with olive-green, the outer webs of the outer primary whitish, the inner 

.rin:- of the inner web* of all the wing-quills white, increased in extent from the 

r primary inwardly; underparts rich chrome-yellow, sides, flanks, thighs, cris- 

■nd under tail-coverts olivaceous; feet and bill brownish black. Wing, 27; 

.1 feather, 05; central feather, 82; tarsus, 34; eulmen, 14; depth of bill 

at nostril, 7.5 mm. 

<irks. — The second <>f the two specimens of this apparently well- 
marked ipecies, was taken at the type locality October 25, and is labeled 
" 9 , j tl i limhkn the type but hM the crown and sides of the head 

• ly olive-green in which appear a few yellow feathers, suggesting that 
the olive-green areas occupying the postocular and nuchal regions in the 
indications of immaturity and that in fully mature plumage the 

whole CTOWn and nape are yellow. 

Atiapdet fianceja has the tail more strongly graduated than any species 
of the genua known to dm while the bill is almost as stout as in A. futturaKt. 

Cyanocompsa cyanea caucae subsp. nov. 

r. subsp. — Similar to Cyanocompsa cyanea cyanea (Linn.) but base of maxilla 

tied laterally, azure frontal band in male narrower, female decidedly paler, 

general tone of the back being cinnamon wood-brown rather than ru-set niars- 

. of the rump and underparts, cinnamon rather than russet. 
Type.— Sn l 1 Mus. Nat. Hist., c? ad., La Manuelita near Palmira, 

Q ft., Cauca Valley, Colombia, April 14, 1911; F. M. Chapman; \V. B. 

In addition to the type we have a female topot\ pe. two 
adult- and one immature male and two females from Cabins in the western 

ii of the Valley Zone on the Pacific -lope of the Western Andcn 

comparison with the' peehnens 1 have three topotypesof C. c. 

roin Bahis (an adult male ami two birds in female plumage having 

sv blue feather- about the head , an adult male ami female from the 

. two female- from Ma< lio and San I'aulo,, and an adult 

male from San Antonio, northern Venezuela. Thi- la-t-nained bird, which 

6 represent I ' with males from the 

.< a and the adult male from llahia, but has the azure frontal hand 

more prominent than in either, and it extend- backward as pronounced 

-uperciharie- |n the ihape of the bill thi- -pe< imen agrees with true 

cyanea rath, i than with causer, but the maxilL lit approach 

164 Bulletin Atnerican Museum <>f Xatural History. [Vol XXXI, 

toward the bulbous, inflated condition which BO Strongly characterizes the 
latter. So far as cyamn is concerned the form here described is clearly 
separable, but in the absence of females of the Venezuela bird I am unable 
to determine its exact relationships to minor, assuming this form to be 
worthy of recognition. 

I fully agree with Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., XII, 1905, p. 277) that Cyano- 
compsa rothschildi is a representative of the cyanoides rather than of tin 
ciiiDiiii group, indeed the differences between the two groups, which are 
shown chiefly in the character of the bill and coloration of the female, imp! 
me as being of at least subgeneric value. (On this point see Ridgway, 
Bull. 50, I, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 594). While representatives of the two 
groups are found in the same general locality I believe that cyanea, like its 
northern congener parallina, will be found to inhabit open scrubby growths 
or savannas, while cyanoides is a bird of the forests. 





Bahia, Brazil [d" im.] 




[<? im.] 








San Antonia, Venezuela c" 




Cauca, Colombia o" 
















Diglossa cryptorhis sp. now 

Char. sp. — Mostly closely related to Diglossa indigotica Scl. of Ecuador but 
nostrils more concealed, plumage of a different texture, firmer, more glossy and of a 
brighter color; tail shorter. 

Type.— So. 110091, Am Mus. Nat. Hist., 9 ad., Gallera, alt. 5700 ft., And* 
west of Popayan, Cauca, Colombia, July 2, 1911 ; W. B. Richardson; L. E. Miller. 

Description of Type. — Uniform dark blue, nearest Berlin blue of Ridgway's 
Plate IX; upper and under tail-coverts and lower abdomen somewhat less inr . 
and nearer the shade of the exposed blue margins of the black wings and tail; lores 
and feathers at the base of the lower mandible black. Wing, 61 ; tail, 37; tarsus, 18; 
culmen, 11 mm. 

Remarks. — This species is so unlike its nearest known relative in its 
nearly concealed nostrils, firm, shining plumage, and proportions of tail to 
wing as to suggest the possibility of an even greater than specific distinctness. 
In addition to the type the collection contains one adult male, collected by 
Allen and Miller, December 12, 1911, at an altitude of 7200 ft. on the trail 
between Cartago and Xovita, which agrees with it in color. 

;<man, Diagnose* of apparently New Colombian Birds. 165 

Diglossa gloriosissima sp. nov. 

. sp. — Most closely related to Diglossa gloriosa Scl. & Salv., but much larger, 
Mack areas less sooty, lesser wing-coverts and rump bluer, rufous of underparta 
blighter, thighs black, no superciliary line. 

No. 110078 Am. Mu- Nat. Hist., <? ad., Andes, west of Popayan, alt. 
;o ft., July 18, 1911; W. B. Richardson; L. E. Miller. 

Description of Male. — Upperparts, wings, tail, throat and breast shining black; 

lesser wir. i.luish gray of the same shade as in D. lafresnayi, a faint wash of 

<:une color on the rump; no superciliary line; lower breast and abdomen bright 

cinnamon-rufous; thighs, sides, mainly under the wings, and center of some under 

tail-coverts black; bill black. Wing, 75; tail, 65; culmen, 12 mm. (average of four 


Description of Female. — Similar to the male, but rump w'th more bluish gray, 

-lightly grayer. Wing, 70; tail, 62; culmen. 11.5 mm. 
Descripti' <</. — Similar to the adult but black areas duller, lesser wing- 

rts and rump black; rufous of underparts man OK less marked with black due 
to shaft-streaks and to exposed blackish bases of feathers; lower mandible yellow, 
it at tip. 

'irks. — This well-marked representative of Diglossa gloriosa is 

r e pr esen ted by ten specimens, five adult males, one adult female, and four 

young, all from the type locality. For comparison with this series I have 

an adult female of gloriosa, from Meridu. Venezuela, the type locality. It 

lire-, wing, 60; tail, 52; culmen, 9.o mm. 

Sporathraupis cyanocephala margaritse snbsp. nov. 

-.gra cyanocephala auricrissa (nee Sclater) Au.i.v Bull. Am. M Hist., 

XI I J. 1U00, 168. 

r. subsp. — Similar to Sporathraupis cyanocephala auricrissa (Scl.) but some- 
what smaller, the olive-green areas suffused with orange, the throat and breast 
ily washed with the blue color of the head, the rati of the underparts slightly 

km kftM \ .• !!>• , f ad.. Valparaiso, alt. 50<K) ft., 
L, Colombia. April 1, 1880; Mn I! II Smith Wing, 
"us, 19; culmen, 18 mm. 

'tries. This l»inl i- represented l»y only tw<> specimens but its 
characters are so pronounced sad I have so satis fa ctory i -cries (30 speci- 
men- repwiatnting all the other form- of the ipeciei thai I have no doubt 
«»f it-, validity. 

al pleasure in dedicating this, the most itroogly charac- 

SSd race of its group, to it- CoDectOf Mr-. Herbert H. Smith, whose 
work in Brazil. Me\i. ... and ( oloinhia ha- added so greatly to our knowledge 
of the bird-life of tropical Aim lira. 

166 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. X'.WI 

Chlorospingus albitempora nigriceps subsp. now 

Char, subsp. — Most nearly related to Chlorosiringus albite mp o ra m 
(Berl.) of Venezuela, but throat paler fulvous and with no postomlar mark 

Type.— No. 109326, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., ad. 9, Miration- alt. lisiM) ft , 
Central Andes, east of Palmira, Cauca, Colombia, April 29, 1911; Frank M. Chap- 
man. Wing, 65; tail, 60; tarsus, 19; culmen, 11 mm. 

Hi marks. — In addition to the type Mr. Fuertes secured a male (coll. 
L. A. F., No. 2398) at the same locality, while Allen and Miller wcured 
specimens in the Central Andes at the following localities: above Salento, 
alt. 9000 ft., one; Rio loche", alt., 6800 ft., four; El Eden above Ibague, alt. 
8300 ft., two. The form therefore occurs on both slopes of the Central 

Although in color this bird is separated from its nearest ally only by the 
absence of the white postocuhir mark, the facts in regard to its distribution 
strongly suggest its specific distinctness, the range of albitempora extending 
from Bolivia to Costa Rica and Venezuela. Our collection contains speci- 
mens from all these regions but none is without the postoeular mark. 

\ M \ II 

Vol XXXI. Plati XII 


mm or mum 

1 , t, f S 2 

' - • 

\l M OP Wl I I \. 

(Dnwnb) ' iir.vti..n of Kmnk M Chapman.) 

mte of ■ un'i expedition. Colled 



Br Babwi m Bbowm. 

Puna xni -win. 

Whfle travelling in Mexico in l'.UO the writer examined a deposit of 
early Pleistocene? age fairly rich in \ ertebratc remain- near the town of 

Ainica in the state of Jalisco. 

Th« Ameca River valley at t hi-- point is enclosed by moderately high 

■ftOtml the base of which, on either side of the river, Post Tertiary 

ments ;trr exposed in terraces to a height of two hundred feet. 

Tin- escarpments, of limited extent, are composed chiefly of volcanic 

•ah, rhyoUtic debris and gravd with an admixture of diatomaceous clay 

g the appearance of a river sediment. Apparently the outlet of the 

valley ua> obstructed daring Pleistocene times when a shallow lake was 

formed over a considerable part of the \ alley. 

h water sheila, fish teeth and hones, and turtle shells were found in 
situ in the highest clay strata hut vertebrate remain- were chiefly found in 
Is. Many of these remains arc identifiable only as to families. 

Yalrata and Amnicola. 


- uroidfi, spines and jaws. 

ni<la', pharyngeal teeth, vertebrae and bones 

Sciurids?. teeth. 
Geomyida-. testa. 
ha-rodont, radius. 
<iu, sp. teeth, jaws and separate bones. 
him columbi, tooth. 

Qr/ptedont, eoaapleta arapaoeand part of skeleton. 

Th« ' liicf intcrc-t aa it tonus a new genus and establishes 

baa poattioa <.f the Mexican rej haa order. 

Daaiag the - ■ drainage canal in the valley of Mexico in 


]t'.s Bulletin American " >f Xatural Histm;/. \..l VWI 

1869? two nearly complete carapaces of (dyptodonts wen- found new 
Tequixquiac one of which m preBerved in the National Museum of Natural 
History, the other in the National School of Engineers in Mexico < Sty. 

In 1S74 two civil engineers, Sefiors J. N. Cuatapam and Santiago 
Kainirtz, de scr i bed ' the specimen now in the Museum of Natural History, 
giving to it the name Qlyptodon mexieontu. No reference is made to this 
publication in Hay's 'Bibliography' or in the 'Zoological Record, ' so far 
as I can find. 

In 1<S84 Professor K. I). Cope, 2 referred to these specimens as pertaining 
to a species indeterminate and attributed the first mention to Dr. Mariano 
•ia, who simply mentions the specimens and their occurrence with 
other boo 

In 1903 in an article on the fossil fauna of the valley of Mexico, Dr. 
Manuel M. Yillada '' mention- the carapace and gives a faulty mechanical 
drawing of the one in the National Museum collection, a delineation in 
which the periphery of each plate is round, obviously an incorrect drawing. 

The original description of the species (loc. cit.) was based on a nearly 
complete carapace, skull, and sacrum and is accompanied by a restoration. 
In this restoration the carapace is r eve rs e d, end for end, and the delineation 
is very faulty giving an incorrect reproduction of the sculpturing. The 
border plates where missing are restored in approximately uniform size and 
pattern while a solid caudal sheath has been supplied, apparently without 
existence as it is not mentioned in the description. 

The description though meager and insufficient serves to establish t In- 
validity of the species. 

Through the courtesy of Doctor Jose G. Aguilera, Director of the 
Instituto Geologico, I was able to make notes and photograph the carapace 
of the type specimen in the National Museum of Natural History. I am 
further indebted to Dr. Aguilera for the accompanying beautiful photo- 
graphs of this specimen (Plates XIII-XV), which are the firs* published 
and introduced here for comparison. Neither skull nor sacrum ;r 
hibited with it at present and I am informed that those parts have been 

The original description and these new photograph- show at once that 
it belongs to the genus herein described though i distinct species. 

It is distinguished from the following species by the form of the anterior 
premolars which are more distinctly molariform; central figure of plates 

' Boletin Soctedad de Geografla y KstadNtica. Vol IF [8 . pi 1875. 

•Proceedings American Philosophical Society. Vol XXII. p. 2, 18S5. 

» Revista Cientifica de Mexico, Vol. I. p. 3, 1882. 

* Anales del Museo Macional de Mexico. Vol. VII, pp. 441-451, 1903. 

Bn> \ \ G ...-...■ i.lyptodonts from Mexico. 169 

rowi in.! i ontinued as tar beyond the border and the 
tiniily united; border plate*, larger and more pendant. 
In the order. < dyptodontia. the pattern of the teeth in the upper series 
i> quite faithfully reproduced in opposing teeth of the lower series. 

Where they have heeonie inolariform the anterior faces of the upper 

teetli present a plane at right angles or -lightly oblique to the longitudinal 

while the posterior face b curved. 

The lower teeth are reversed, with anterior faces eurved or obtusely 

posterior faces plane or rounded and directed at right angles or 

oblique to the longitudinal axis according to the position in the series. 

The obliquity of the plane face in both upper and lower teeth in- 

>s. going forward in the series through molars and premolars. 
In the earliest known GlyptodontS, PropalmokoplophonB, and allied 
i from the Santa Crui ' Miocene), the fir-t premolars are cylinders; 
d compressed cylindroidj third faintly trilobate; fourth distinctly 
trilobate and molariform. 

In the late! Gtyptodott, PtmOCttUM, and Srlr rocal )/j>( US (Hop- 

/.*i of the Pampean Pleistocene) the premolars have all become 
niolariforin with trilobate condition of first premolar, moat pronounced in 
the genua Glyptodon. 

In I'lohnphoru.* from Monte HennOM (Pliocene) the first premolar 
the primitive cylindrical form while the second premolar shows 
irtite di\ ision only on one side. 

to these relations, determined l>y a comparative study of 
iknus r ep res en ti n g most of the South American genera, I have placed the 
loose teeth <>f the following described ipeeiei in their respective positions 

00 by the length and curve of each tooth. Future 
u that I have confused the position of premolars but 
rue molar- follow in perfect sequence. 

Brachyostracon cylindricus m, nov. 

Type of genw \>> 15648, Am. Ifos. Coll., a complete carapace, 

cephalic platen, atlas, hyoids, several ribs, a ahsv ro n and 20 separate t. 

rhnraelera. Carapace shorter than wide, OUt aJ d c measure- 
\ pr«.iiiiii.-nt hump above the sacrum divides the 
carapace into a short posterior ami a long interior |> art Posterior eml of carapace 
back of pelvis sh i <■ | upward. Anterior end greatly ileeurve<l and lower 

than posterior en d - .r lateral border of carapace without forward extension. 

PbUes of carapace inside of border with a round central figure surrounded l>> a single 
row, composed of from eight to twelve marginal poryg ona l figures. Border plates 
pendant. A rcmolars eylindrokl. Vaso-dentme ndges feebly brai 

Sacrum and posterior lumbars fused in a long tubs composed of sixteen vertebra. 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI. 

'h. — The teeth of Brachyostraeon rylindricus in size and length are 
equal to those of Glyptodott. They increase in size from the .interior end 
of both series up to the fifth. The fifth and sixth are equal and largest. 
The .seventh is smaller than the sixth and the eighth is distinctly >uialle>t 
of the true molars. The last molar in the lower series ia considerably larger 
than the opposing tooth of the upper series. 

A VaSO-dentme ridge within the dentine subdivides with faint rainifiea- 
tions according to the lobation of each tooth. 

The teeth preserved are, as I place them, L. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, R. 4, 5, 6, 8; 
L. 5, 6, 7, 8, R. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 

In the serial outlines (Figs. 1 and 2) teeth from the right upper side 
have In en transposed to the left, and from the right lower to the left 
lower, in order to complete each series as far as possible. 

7 6 5 4 

Fig. 1. Brachyostraeon cylindricus. Left upper series, first molar al 

Fig. 2. Brachyostraeon cylindricu*. 
posed, third and fourth absent 

2 1 

L°ft lower series, first and seconrl teeth trans- 

In the upper series all premolars present are distinctly trilobate hut the 
second and third are considerably smaller than succeeding teeth with outer 
sulci shallow. 

In the lower series the first premolar takes the form of a compn 
elongate cylinder. A shallow sulcus impresses the posterior half of the 
outer border but the tooth is in no sense lobate. 

The second premolar is distinguished by a wide deep sulcus on the outer 
face and a sharp prismatic column on the inner middle face, flanked on 
either side by faint sulci, so that in a manner the grinding surface is trilobate 
on the inner half and bilobate on the outer half. 

The last molar is smaller than preceding molars and the posterior face 
of the last lobe is marked by a faint vertical sulcus. 

The above characters at once distinguish this from described species. 

1912.) Brown, A Sew Genu* of Glyptodonls from Mexico. 171 

They mark a stage of tooth development less progwaBivc than in Glyptodon, 
fcfuf or Selerocalyphu {Hoplophorm) and comparable to that of 

The teeth of Brachyostracon (Glyptodon) mexicanus (loc. cit., pp. 358-59) 
art- all -ai<l to be trilobate but with lobation lea marked in anterior teeth, 
muter that ililtingllilhf ■ it from the present species. 

measurementa given by < uataparo ami Ramirez, partly borne out 

by the projec t ed outline of the skull, are most remarkable. As described 

kul differs from the usual Glyptodonl form chiefly in extreme elonga- 

I the facial portion. similar to that of Etd&hu, in the angulation of the 

jaw . and in the position of the teeth in the lower jaw. According to 

and outline all teeth in the lower jaw are visible from the 

Ik nas in Glyptodon only the anterior four, and a half of the fifth, are 

visible. In Panocktus, Sri, rocalyptus [Hoplophonu), and Plo ho pkor * 

of the anterior teeth are visible. If these measurements are correct and the 

skull \ iated with the carapace described, Brachyostracon (Glyptodon) 

and Brachyostracon cylindrical represent not only ■ new irenusbut 

unily of Glyptodon! 

pace in the Mexican Gryptodontfl is distinctive, being peculiarly 

short and high with a greater width than length measured from border to 

bonier over the carapace, Near the lateral border vertical and horizontal 

.re defined but over the greater part of the carapace the rows 


In the carapace of the primitive Miocene geniU Propalaokoplophorus 
and in the I'ln i- f it y plot hi rium the plates are di>posed in trans- 

rom border to border. 

In the more specialized later genera, Pmocktut and Plokopkonu, the 

rows are retained near the border but are broken a short distance within 
r therely increasing the solidity of tin- carapace. 

In the highly specialised genera there is a greater diversity of pattern. 
I.ydekker '• has noted this great diversity of pattern in plates, tiom the Banc 

carapace, their various gradations ami individual dif fere n ces, in the genus 

The complt • ce of Brurhi/ostnicnii still further exemplifies this 

he impossibility of establishing valid ap 


The form of the carapace (Plate XVI) is ellipsoidal in 
outline and root /.but amen shorter with poataro superior 

border reciir\ .-d and Ugh; anterior portion long, declined and ' 

* Coatrlbuttoas to • knowledge of the FohU TnHmlwuw of Argentine. 1804. 

17-' liiillitin AmtHt M ■urn of Xutiiml History. Vol \\.\I. 

\ convex hump above the sacrum reaches it- highest point above the 
ilia .iikI divides the carapace in two parts. This is also true of Panockhu 
and D&dicurtu, l»ut in these genera the part anterior t<> the hump is sh 
w he leas in Brtukyottraoon it is much longer. 

Plates from widelj separated |);irts of the carapace show a great variety 
in external sculpturing l>ut all arc characterised by a central, rounded 
figure surrounded by a single row of polygonal figures which vary from B to 
12 in number. 

The plates are quadrilateral, pentagonal and hexagonal, the form being 

determined by the number of adjoining plates in contact. Near the lateral 

border, where vertical and lateral rows are well defined, they are quadrilateral 
with central figures large, peripheral figures small and not well denned. 

Some distance within the border where vertical rows arc not defined the 

platen are pentagonal or hexagonal. 

The central figure in each plate is flat or slightly excavated except near 
the border of the carapace where it is slightly raised, convex, and SO large 

as to nearly or quite cover the whole plate. 

Toward the top of the carapace the plat' thoroughly united that 

the peripheral border figures of adjoining plates fuse acro>- the sutures 

forming pentagonal figures nearly as large as the central figure of each plate. 

The border plates (Plates XVI, XVI I, XVIII) are pendant and vary 
in form and size in different positions. Five plates in the middle of the 
lateral border project scarcely at all. Posteriorly they gradually UK 

in size, becoming very pointed. As the line of the posterior border rises 
they become less projecting hut more massive reaching the greatest rise 

and thickness on the reflexed superior surface. 

Anterior to the lateral center the border plates increase in size but never 
reach the size of the posterior ones. 

Several loose plates are preserved from between the carapace and the 
head shield; four of these arc long, finger-like points similar to those in the 
first row of the head shield in Glyptodon figured by Lydekker (lor. rit., 
PI. V, a). Twenty-four others composed a part of the succeeding rows 
of the head shield. They are of irregular form and thin without border 

Atlas. — The atlas is of the same general form and proportion as in Qlypto- 
don but a third smaller with articular surfaces for the axis actually and 
relatively larger. The vertchrartcrial canal is twice the size of that Qlyjjto- 
don and the spinous process is entirely obsolete. 

The ribs and anterior chevron show no characters by which they can 
be distinguished from Glyptodon. 

Pelris. — The sacro-lumbar tube (Figs. 3 and 4) is composed of 16 verte- 

Hroxi ■ Genus of Glyptodont* from Mexico. 


br« solidly united, with rature linai between eentn ami apnea faintly 

indicated. Of then the anterior 7 arc free, 1 an- united with the ilia, '4 
in the ncra! anli are free and tin- la>t - an- united with thr isehia. 

Th«- deal of thr ipintt form an arc, conforming to thr rarapacr, with 
t diameter at thr point of union with the ilia, while the lower 

lwtnlrrs of thr centra form an accent ua ted cornpoand carve. < loneeqututly 

inea of thr anterior verteltnc arr nrarly thrrr timm higher than than 
or to thr ilia. Thi> c ha racter i^ more pronounced than in any 
descrihed Glyptodont. 

Brathyoitraeon cyl: BMTQ -lunilur tube. |. 

tral -i»in< utded and rufon lor union with 

it apparently thoM iu thr extreme anterior and posteri or 
lid not unite with the carapace. 

an not ;■- amative a> in Gtyptodo* l>ut are inclined aUghtJy 
in thai genua, with raperior bord 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX \ I. 

The pubes arc relatively larger than in Gltjptorfon with the croSB-bur mOTC 
massive than in any described form. 

The isehia are broad thin expanded plates with superior b ot dctl con- 
siderably higher than the line of vertebral contra reaching a inneh greater 
height than in (ili/jitodun; intermediate in this respect between Ptmoekhu 

and Lo wtap ko nu , 

The characters of the pelvis in QlypMkeriuin were only partly set forth 

Fig. 4. Brachyostracon cylinttricut. Sacro-lumbur tubr, ri^'llt 

in the original description by Osborn (Hull. Am. Mm Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX. 
pp. 491-94, 1903) and it is described here in order to show the marked 
distinction between it and Brackyostracon. 

In Ghiptofhrrium the compound curve of the sacrum is not more marked 
than in Olyptodon, so that anterior spines are not more than twice the height 
of posterior ones. Apparently there were 16 vertebra? in the sacrum bol 
only three vertebrae united with the ilia and only one with the isehia. The 
pubes are reduced to very thin rods and there is no indication of a cross bar. 

19121 Brown, A New Genua of Glyplodonts from Mexico. 175 

mnry.— From the known characters of the internal skeleton Brachy- 
h« related t<> the family Sclcrucalvptidae chiefly in the 
piiinit of the teeth, in the elongate skull assigned to it and described 
by Cuataparo end Kamirez. and in the general development of the pelvis. 
Bohm eharacten of the eaoekeleton, as the lack of a lateral anterior pro- 
ion of the carapace and the disposition of known head shield plates 
in row-, indicate an affinity to the family ( Jlyptodontidse. 

Measurements of carapace. 

Greatest length Greatest width harder to border 

Bnichyontriicou rylindricus 1 72 meters 2.44 meters 

mus 1.83 " 2.40 " 


In all members of this suborder the endoskeleton is modified for the 
support of ■ highly complex enoskdeton in which striking characters of 

eric importance are present. But the tail sheath, usually made the 
chief basis of distinction, does not show characters of greater value in 
•ion than any other part of the skeleton. 

The order js separated at present into three families, the genera of which 

re many characters in common, chiefly of the exoskeleton. Were the 
endoskd) veil known less difficulty would l>e experienced in classifi- 

on. Without doubt the Glyptodontidie and Sclerocalyptidce include 

• ra that pertain to other families but they cannot at present be separated. 

In the following ke) I a the chief characters by which the known 

mitting those of doabtfol standing. 

(A) GlTPTODomi: 

: with nasals short and small. Teeth trilobate 

if with vaso-dentine markedly braiieh.-d DuUkfJMS without entepieondy- 

l:ir ! I» four digits. Pet with five digits. Pubis comparatively 

small with crossbars united >>y cartilage Head -hi. M plates separate. Carapace 

.ml nearly spherical, without anterior lateral prolongation. Cauda! 

shriii 1 1 short and oonieel, eosBposed of ( .»-10 rings with distal plates of each ring large 

tina and Bra il; I 

'othrrium. I'll i i^' K i. luced, ero«s-bar vestigeal or absent. Carapace 

mediuiDHuaed and elongate, without anterior prolongation. Plans in transverse 

>mposc«l of 7 movable rings and a tube of 4 fused rings. 

176 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History . [Vol \\\|, 

Propalaohoplophorus. Premaxillaries with vestigeal teeth. Anterior premolars 
si m pit- cyliDdere. Sacrum composed of 7 or 8 vertebrae. Pubis small, cross-bar 
small or absent. Manus and pes with five digits. Head shield plates separate 
Carapace small, without marked anterior lateral prolongation. Plates in transverse 
rows. Caudal sheath composed of 5 or 6 rings and a terminal tube of two rings 
closed by a single plate. 

Santa Cruz of Patagonia; Miocene. 

Cochlops. Skull and teeth similar to Propalaiohoplophorus. Head shield plates 
separate but smaller, thicker and more numerous than in Propalaohoplophorus. 
Carapace small, plates rough and punctate, with a wide transverse band near the 
middle, and some over pelvis tuberculate. 

Santa Cruz of Patagonia; Miocene. 

Eucinepeltus. Head shield composed of 11-15 plates coossified, with suture line- 
raised and no sculptural pattern. Carapace medium-sized with plates marked as in 
Propalaohoplophorus, but with central figure not elevated and border plates non- 

Santa Cruz of Patagonia; Miocene. 

Neothoracophorus. Anterior premolar of lower jaw small and conical. Cara- 
pace medium-sized. Plates small, thick and united by tissue, only the central ele- 
vated figure surrounded by plane surface. Caudal sheath composed of rings as 
in Glyptodon. 

Argentina; Pleistocene. 


Sclerocalyplus (Hoplophorus). Anterior teeth elliptical. Carapace medium 
sized, long, straight and cylindrical with anterior lateral prolongation. Manus and 
pes with four digits. Plates large, with central figure very large and peripheral 
figures small. Caudal sheath composed of 5? anterior movable rings and a long 
tube ornamented with elliptical figures. 

Argentina and Brazil; Pleistocene. 

Lomaphorus. First anterior premolars in each jaw cylindrical. Carapace 
medium-sized and elongate with anterior lateral prolongation. Plates with Urge 
round central figure surrounded by single row of polygonal figures. Caudal sheath 
composed of 3 or 4 rings, terminal tube short and wide. 

Argentina; Pleistocene. 

Panochlus. First lower premolar an elongate ellipse, perpendicular angles present. 
Manus and pes with four digits. Carapace largest of order, an elongate oval with 
anterior lateral prolongation. Dorsal region raised above pelvis in a hump. Plates 
marked by polygonal figures of equal size and complete; central figure sometimes 
present. Caudal sheath with six rings and a long flattened tube ornamented with 

Argentina; Pleistocene. 

Plohophorw. Carapace medium-sized with anterior lateral prolongation. Plates 
thin with central figure surrounded by two lines of peripheral figures. Caudal 
sheath terminating in a cylindrical tube. 

Argentina (Araucanian formation); Pliocene 

Palceohoplophorus. Carapace medium-sized. Plates with large central figures 

1912] Brown, A Xew Genua of Glyptodontt from Mexico. 177 

surrounded by two lines and a third incomplete line of peripheral figures. Caudal 
sheath with _" movable rings and a conical elliptical tube as in ScUrocoIyptus. 
ft (Patagonia formation) ; Miocene. 
Bntchyostrocon. Two anterior lower premolars elliptical, vaso-dentine ridges 
feebly branched, sacrum composed of 16 vertebra?; 4 united with ilia and 2 united 
I'ubis large and cross-bar massive. Carapace large and elliptical; 
a pr medium hump divides it into a short posterior recurved and a long 

anterior decurved end. Plates of carapace inside of border with round central 
figure surrounded by angle row of eight to twelve peripheral figures. 

(C) D<edicuridjE. 

yurm. Anterior premolars small and elliptical. Carapace medium to 
large sue. Plates of carapace small and disposed in transverse rows; surface ele- 
vated in center and pit ted, without figures Caudal sheath ending in long depressed 
!K>sed of plates similar to those of carapace excepting on lateral face when 
plates are elliptical and 111 

i'>razil, Pleistocene. 

Donli Head convex as in Panochlus and orbit completely enclosed by 

ring. First premolars smaller than succeeding teeth and semi-elliptical. 

Humerus with entepicondylar foramen. Manus with three functional digits. Pes 

with four digits Head shield formed of small plates not suturally united. Carapace 

large, with anterior literal prolongation. Plates polygonal, no figures pitted, and 

h three or five large openings on surface. Caudal sheath a large 

■ long, depressed and thickened transversely at the end where it is orna- 

• h large epi 

i and I'ruguay; Pleisto* 









By John Tkkvdwki.l Nichols. 

I. A small Fresh-watm Collection made by Mr. Barxum Brown 

in 1911. 

Mr. Barnuin Brown writes: "While collecting fossils in the Province of 
Santa < lara. < uba, in 191 1. my work took me to Baiios de Ciego, Montero, 
30 mile- north of Cicnfuegos. Here occur three hot springs having a 
temperature respectively of 93$, 96$ and 99$ degrees Fahrenheit. These 
gs are grouped close together, not more than 20 yards apart and 
about .'(Ml yards from the Analla River into which they drain. The springs 
of 98$ and 96f degrees temperature ate wmfled in and the latter is surrounded 
by I hotel. The one of 99$ degrees temperature is of largest volume and 
has direct communication with the river. In this spring as well as in the 
drainage water of the other springs and the cold water of the river, I found 
a great many fishes, mostly viviparous. 

"The following species have been identified from the spring: 

nbnmekui marmoratus Bloch. 
(iiimbii.tia puncticulata Poey. 
(iluridichthys fnlcatu.* Eigenmanrf. 
(Jirardinus wnttillicux Pot 
Its rittata Guiehenot. 
Ih rof fiinictinfhitx (Cw. ft Vill. . 

of these the eel-like Symbttmchu wtarmonhu was found only in the hot 

The other species SO far as I was able to ol en common to 

Ixith the cold water of the river and that of the ln>t springs, an<l it seemed 

evident thai they, in pai flowed np hn me cold river 

through the 'I' the hot springs, Incoming acclimated by degrees, 

until they were finally able to live in the hottest water, 37° Centigrade, 
approximately that of blood temperature. 

" I WSJ C Br io U S tO know if it were |>ossible for these fishes to live equally 

well in the hot ipring water of W.ty degrees teinjM-rature and the ri\er water 

•ire without fij through a process of acclimatization, 

i Dumber of experiments. It was quite evident that fishes 

ooold gradually come from the cold water into that «»f the hottest tempera- 

tooh I number from the hot spring, carefully catching them in a 


I'M) Iiulh tin American M ■' II lory. [Vol. XXXI. 

net so as to avoid injury and placed some in river water and others in water 
from the other springs. Those placed in water of 93$ degrees temperature 
seemed to live in it as well a> in that of 99$ degrees, but of those placed in 
liver water, out of eleven fishes, nine died within ten minutes. The other 
two lived. 

"This experiment was repeated several times with similar results; mote 
than two thirds failing to resist the sudden change of temperature. 

"I am unable to tell whether those used in the experiments w< 
busia puHclicttlatu, Ulnridichthys falcatus, Ginirdin US nn lull tens, or Pceciliu 
vittata but probably they were mostly the latter genu- and species, as this 
form was most abundant in the Chapapote spring. 

" While living in the hotel during a heavy storm the Analla River over- 
flowed, sending a brand] across this Chapapote spring. The follow im; 
day we pumped out the water finding a great many viviparous fishes, 
probably all of the four determined small species and a number of viajecos, 
fferOS t'trantnthu.s. Evidently they had all become acclimated to the hot 
water during the time of this overflow." 

Besides the species be mentions, Mr. Brown's collection contains two 
species which were not found in the warm spring he is discussing, Qambu 
punctata, Poey, of which he obtained two from the Bio Analla and several 
from a tributary of the Zaza, and Qlafidichtkys torralbasi Kigenmann, of 
which he secured one specimen from the latter locality. 

II. Market and other Fishes, i\< luxhmo two New Species, observed 

in 1912. 

The following annotated list, including notes on two hitherto unde- 
scribed species, is of the fishes observed in Cuba during a short stay about 
March 1, 1912. It is based largely on those seen in the markets but, with 
due allowance for this fact, should give some idea of the rich Cuban 
marine fauna at that season and be of service to students of Cuban fishes. 
It should also have economic interest. 

From February 21 to March 2, and again from March 7 to 9, the writer 
was in or near Havana, examining the markets and doing a very little 
independent collecting; March -i at Matanzas. March 5 at Aguada in 
Sta. Clara Province, and March C and 7 at Cienfuegos. 


1. Dasyatis sp. 

One seen gliding over the bottom at Marianao. One or two small ones 
cut up for sale in the Havana market, March 8 and 9. 

1912.] i Fithe*. 181 

• [ || 

Lepisosteus tristaechus I Block «v r). 

the <'ul>;m garptke were taken for me from the 

Anabana Rr g uada l>y Dr. Carlo- M. Campos. March .">, the largest 

feet long. Some <»f then were full of developed eggs. The 

species is considered identical with the alligator gar from the Mississippi 

and these Cuban specimen! reaembled it in their robust bodies, sculptured 

ad arrangement of teeth, differing markedly in these respects from 

Homu*. They were browner, i. ft., less greenish, and smaller than 

affigator ^i\r> from Mississippi in the museum collec ti ons, and unspotted, 

the>e Mississippi fi>h have spots on the posterior fins. 

\\'.i axiom. 

Anguilla chrysypa (Hafinesque). 

uncommon in the Havana market. 


Lycodontis funebris (Jtawaa* 

II specimen in the Havana market. The dealer from whom I 
bought it had probably laid it out for me, as he said it was poisonous, and 
I wanted it for a mnseam specimen. 


Tarpon atlanticus (Cur. d- Pip 

This Bah, whi«h I benta e u seldom eaten by the sportsmen who capture 
it in Florida, was seen once or twice iii the Havana market. 

Elops saurus I. inn. 

' oimiioti m th*' mark*' 

A i.m I 

Albula vulpes i Linn.). 

imcommon in the Havana mark 


Clupanodon pseudohispanicus I 
Abundant in tin- Havana market. 

182 Hull- \! mm <>f Natural History. [Vol. \\.\l, 

9. Sardinella sardina /'•■ 
Abundant in the Havana market. 

10. Sardinella macrophthalmus (Ranzani). 

Tolerably common in the Havana market. A fisherman was seen 
catching them with small hook and fine line, Havana Harbor, February 25. 

11. Opisthonema oglinum (Le Sueur). 
Common in the Havana market. 


12. Stolephorus browni (dunlin). 
Abundant, Havana market, etc. 

13. Stolephorus productus (Poey). 
Common, Havana market, etc. 


14. Rivulus marmoratus Poey. 
Common in brackish water at Marianao. 

15. Cyprinodon variegatus riverendi (Poey). 
Common at Marianao. 

16. Gambusia puncticulata Poey. 

Common in a mangrove grown lagoon at Marianao. 

17. Poecilia vittata Qvichenot 

. Abundant in brackish water at Marianao. A little ditch which ran from 
the mangrove swamp to the shore was alive with these robust active fishes. 
It is interesting to find them in waters of different salinity as did Mr. Brown 
in waters of different temperature. 


18 Tylosurus raphidoma (Amu 

Fishes of this genu-- were common in the markets; a small specimen 
purchased proved of this species. 

Hi .uihami'HIDjE. 

19. Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Linn.^. 
Tolerably common in the Havana market. 

1912 ] ■ Fishe*. 183 

Si \..\ OHDI. 

20. Siphostoma torrei n. sp. 

and only specimen obtained, No. 8350, American Museum of Natural 

tory, was taken in brackish water don t<> the wall along the San Juan River in 

f Matansas, March 3. Itisa 9 150 mm. long to base of caudal. Head 5 

s in this measure Depth 3.8 in head. Snout 1.6, eye 8.2 Poatorbital part 

of head 3.4. Snout -1. ruler. Tail equal to trunk without head. Ridges on head 

low, those on body distinct, moderate. 19 + 23 rings. Dorsal on 2\ + 6, low, with 

about 42 rays. Color in spirits mottled brownish, whiter on the back, with a narrow 

• ak on the flanks, running almost the entire length of the trunk. 

The ring Formula separates this species from other members of the genus 
With the exception of Sijifwitf imin posfl Jordan & Evermann, from which 
it differs in the higher dorsal count and minor characters. In naming it 

Fig. 1. Siphotloma torrei n. sp. 

for Dr. Carlos I)e La Torre, formerly of Matanzas, the type locality, now 

ie University "f Havana, tl" - writer renturea to hope that this paper 

ne ilighl service to 1 )i Torre in the thorough study of 

< iil.aii fishes he ifl undertaking. 

Aim mana. 

21. Atherina stipes Mulhr <{• FraeeM [.Vhrinn latin j* Poey]. 

I salted f<>r l>ait at Marianao. where I was told they were eaten fresh. 

Mi (.it mx.. 
Mugil gaimardianus Damon 

Tht> |entn wa> COmmOO in the market-, and JFOOl 

ana> i identified b to this species, which was probably not 

the ■ nt. 

184 Hull, (in A m, acini MtUSUm <>J Natural History. [Vol. \\.\l 


23. Sphyrwna picuda Block & Schneider, 

Small specimens vrere Been in the markets several times; a larger one 
caught by fishermen at Marianao, a large one in the CienfuegOS market. 

It is considered one of the four most poisonous < ut>an fishes, and its salt- is 
prohibited in Havana and Matan/as. The others are Curmi.r Uitttx, the I. 
Si riiiln, and LyCodontU funrbris. Jt is said that by no means all the fish of 
these species arc poisonous and the smaller ones are safer. The symptoms 
are sometimes alimentary disorders, sometimes skin troubles. The cause 
is not known. 

24. Sphyrsena guachancho Cur. &■ Val. 

A much prized food fish very abundant in the markets. 


25. Polydactylus virginicus (Linn.). 
A few. Havana market. 


26. Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbcck). 
Tolerably common in the Havana market. 

27. Holocentrus coruscus Poey. 

One small one taken in a pool at Marianao. 


28. Upeneus maculatus {Block). 

Several small ones seen in the Havana market. 


29. Scomberomorus regalis {Block). 

Common in the Havana market. Mostly small ones. Not in very . 
repute. One of the leading fishermen said it is sometimes poisonous. 

30. Scomberomorus cavalla (Cur. & Val.). 
Abundant in the Havana market; and mueh prized. 

31. Acanthocybium solandri (Cur. & Val.). 

Seen once in the Havana market on February 22; two or three large 

1912.1 kes. 185 

TliN III! 1(11' 

Trichiurus lepturus Linn. 
■ in tin- Havana market, Marco 9, called " sabe." 


Elagatis bipinnulatus {Quo$ S: Chdnard , 
One in the Havana market March 8. 

Trachurops crumenophthalmus {Block). 
Abundant in the Havana market, both large and small ones, the latter 
mixed with Clupeida ami Gerrids, the Chipeidfl forming the bulk of, and 
iohispameui being the most abundant species in these 

Caranx ruber I Block). 
Under the Cuban name of " <il>i," this fish and Coram bartholomwi are 
ndered unsafe for food and their sale in the Havana market prohibited. 

the writer baa two specimens idected to -how extremes of variation 

from a lot averaging about s inches in length which were for sale there March 

r of these is 210 mm. long with a depth of .'>.."> in length to notch 

audal fin; the other L'tH) mm. with depth of 3.4. They are thus almost 

the same rise a- a Caranx bartholomai l'l'o mm. long from Ctenfuegos, and 

on carefully contracting them with tin- specimen they -how tin- distinguish- 

The mix r arc slightly more slender, with 

more graceful line-, their lower jaws project -lightly instead of being slightly 

included, their gillrakcr- ate « ! ider and nuineroii-. 32 in- 

'ii tin- lower limit of the arch. The peduncular -cute- form a 

lower keel posteriorly and appeal broader anteriorly. There i- a distinct 

batch band diagonally from the top of the peduncle backward and downward 

along 'I" upper margin of the lower caudal lobe. The writer ha- not 

mark in Imrll .lit a -mall -pccinieU of ruin r (HI nun. Ion- depth 

to notch of can'! rOOJ the llu--ell J. < oleS, < ape Lookout North 

bai it well marked. Tin- -mall fish ha- the recumbent 

dorsal iptne lomewhal better developed than the larger one-, which 
• it. 
Caranx bartholomasi Cm. <(• I'al. 

from the ( ienfucgos market ha- the depth of 

th to notch of caudal fin 3.1. A specimen *>."> mm. long from 

th< market I !ia- tin- -aim- inca-urciuent 2.3. I'oin 

■it- from - collections from North Carolina, 100 

186 Hull* tin Awmiem Museum of Natural HUb [Vol. XXXI, 

to 140 mm. long, have it about 2.5. All the specimens have a recumbent 
spine at the front of the spinous dorsal, which is small and concealed, excepl 
in the 55 mm. one. 

37. Caranx hippos (Linn.). 

Small specimens abundant in Havana and Cienfuegos market-. 

38. Caranx crysos (Mitch ill). 

Three specimens were found in the Havana market March 8 and !». 

Table of Variation. 

Length of fish about 120 mm. about 240 mm. about 280 nun. 

Depth to notch of 2.9 3.3 3.5 


Body compressed less compressed still less compressed 

Pectoral length equal to head £ longer than head more than £ longer 

than head 

Scutes 51 46 45 

The lesser depth and greater thickness of the body are unquestionably 
age characters. 

39. Caranx latus Agaui 

Three small specimens from the Havana market 140 to 170 mm. long, 
have the depth 2.6 to 2.7 in length to notch of caudal fin. A large one about 
950 mm. long seen in the Cienfuegos market had the depth 3.5 in this 
measure. Caranx foster i Cuv. and Yal. seems after all to be the adult of 
Caranx latus. From the Hawaiian " ulua " this species differs in the more 
rounded forehead outline, fewer vertical fin rays, fewer and larger scutes, 
and more abruptly arched lateral line. The "ulua" is probably Caran.r 
peronu Cuv. &Val. It is not Caranx paraputei Richardson, the type figure 
of which is readily identifiable as Caranx fosteri Cuv. & Yal. = Caranx latus 

40. Vomer setipinnis (Mitchill). 

One specimen found in the Havana market. 

41. Vomer gabonensis Chdekenot 

A single specimen found in the Havana market with a specimen of V. 
ietipinnu. Five specimens found in the Cienfuegos market. 

42. Selene vomer (Linn.). 

A few specimens seen in the Havana and Cienfuegos mark' 

43. Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linn.). 
Common in the Havana market. 

44. Trachinotus falcatus (Linn.). 

' See Nichols. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. HUt.. Vol XXVIII. Art. XV. 

19121 on Cuban Fishe*. 187 

( fete large one of perhap- HI lbs. cut into -trips, was seen at the Havana 
market, ami also two or three young. 

Coil III ■■III! 

45. Coryphaena hippurus Linn. 

[mens, each of abort twenty pounds weight, seen in the Havana 
market under the name of " dorad." 


Centropomus pedimacula Poey. 
Thi- genua wa- common in the market- ami -mall ones were seen swim- 
ming alone the water front of the San Juan River at Matanzas. Those 
tified belonged to this species. 


17. Petrometopon cruentatus (Lac). 

union in the Havana market. 
48. Bodianus fulvus ruber HI. .v s 

Abundant in the Havana market whert* B. f. punctata* was not un- 

Epenephelus adscensionis " 
Abundant in the Havana marl 

Epenephelus striatus I Block . 
Abundant in the ll i ani 
."•1. Mycteroperca venenosa {Lin*.). 

D in the market-. 

Diplectrum radiale (}ui»i t {- Qm'wutrd). 

( )m •, Hai ana market. 

Diplectrum formosum I 
: market. 

Prionodes phoebe / 
One taken b) fishermen at Marianao. 

i win.E. 

55. Neomania griseus I 
Abundant in the I 

188 Bullitin I lory. [Vol. XXXI, 

56. Neomaenis apodus (Walbmtm). 
Several seen in the Havana market. 

57. Neomanis bucanella (Cuv. & VaL). 
Not uncommon in the Havana market. 

58. Neomaenis aya (Block). 
Common in the Havana market. 

59. Neomanis analis (Cur. <C- VaL). 
Abundant in the markets. 

60. Neomaenis synagris ( Liu?}.). 
Abundant in the Havana market. 

61. Ocyurus chrysurus (Block). 
Abundant in the Havana market. 

62. Aprion macrophthalmus (Mailer & Troschel). 
Not uncommon in the Havana market. 

63. Etelis oculatus (Cur. it- VaL). 

Not uncommon in the Havana market. 


64. Haemulon album Cur. & VaL 
A few seen in the Havana market. 

85. Haemulon parra (Detmarett). 

A tew in the Havana and many in the Cienfuegos market. 

66. Heemulon sciurus (Shaw . 

Seen in the Havana market, and one caught on hook and line at 
Marianao. This fish Jittered a short grating sound suggestim: a squirrel 
gnawing a nut. 

67. Haemulon plumieri (Lac). 
Tolerahly common in the Havana market. 

68 Bathy stoma rimator (Jordan &• Sicain). 

A specimen •"> inches long from the Havana market February 26, has the 
depth 2| to base of caudal. Though this species appears not to have been 
previously recorded from Cuba, it seems highly improbable that so small a 
fish would be brought ac t u al from Florida. 
09. Bathystoma striatum (Linn.). 

Two or three specimens caught by fishermen at Marianao had no 
noticeable red or yellow color in the mouth when fresh. 

70. Anisotremus virginicus (Linn.). 
Seen once in the Havana market. 

71. Orthopristis poeyi 8eudder. 

A few seen in the Havana market. 

1912.) ; >ols, Soles on Cuban Fishes. 189 


Calamus proridens .Ionian £ (HI 1 

Calamus bajonado I BL d> Srhn.). 
Tic tUmui was commonly r ep r esen ted in die markets. Speci- 

uf these two species wen obtained ami identified. 

Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch). 
Tolerably common in the Havana market. 


Eucinostomus harengulus Coode & li 
A ipecimen 150 mm. long from the Havana market agrees admirably 

with descriptions of this species. 

Eucinostomus gula T/yr. & VaL). 

ral specimens obtained from among the small Gerrids common in 
the Havana market proved to be tin- >p» i 

77. Xystaema havana n. sp. 

itural History, was caught at M.tri- 
anao Beach, Havana, February 28, on sandy bottom, from a small pier, with hook 
and line, at night. It is 127 nun. long to base of caudal. Depth 2.7 in this measure. 

ry large, the head broad 

andbl'iir I h small, so that the maxillary barely reaches the eve. The diaine- 

[htiy greater than tin- length of snout which equals the distance 

-ceond anal .-pine, stouter than the thin! which it equals 

ngth, i- o the head. Don-al I 8 I'ninaxil- 

lary grove, rial. The scales running forward along its aides to just beyond 

Ming it. Broad scaly sheathes at bases of dorsal and anal. 

Scales 4 larged interha-mal spine long, narrow and solid like that of 

\y*t<Tmn irhal differently shaped, a deep lateral fuiTOW running 

entire. Ooloe when fresh rih rows 

of scales i of sides with faint longitudinal streaks. Spinous dorsal tit 

with black 

Tin . >inallcr mouth ami le-- trenchant outlines 

than eitl lur'utttstomus harm gain.*. It i- narrower 

than the former, ladrj it- cross bars, and hm the naked area on the head 
narrower with leaf Daring ride*. It ha- the top of the head much broader 
and lam pointed than the latter. It rnaemblei Eucinostomus tiotci (Jill 
dearrilM-d from t! ami would probably bt ca-ily mi-taken for • 

specie-, but Mr Hart.. i, A. Hean of the I 9 National Mii-eiim ha- kindly 


liulh '■.' ■mi nf Natural Hittcry* . \\\I. 

examined one <>f the oo ty pci of !■'.. <l<>>ri and found the enlarged interiuemal 

as it shoul<l be in Eucmo$tomu». The large eye and plain color would be 

Fig. 2. Xystama harana n sp. 

appropriate for a nocturnal species. The name is for the steamship ' Ha- 
vana ' on which we made two comfortable trips between New York and that 

In going over the Museum's material for comparison the writer finds 
three specimens of this new species collected at Miami, Florida, by the 
Fabbri Tekla Expedition in 1910. They are 120, 82, and 60 mm. long, 
and agree well with the type. The largest of them has a somewhat longer 
maxillary, 3.3 in the head. 

78. Xystsema cinereum (WaJbatm). 
Common in the Havana market. 

79. Gerres olisthostomus Goode & Bean. 
Tolerably common in the Havana market. 

80. Gerres brasiliensis Cur. & VaL 

A number seen in the Cienfuegos market. 


81. Bairdiella ronchus (Cur. & Vol.). 
Not uncommon in the Havana market. 

82. Micropogon furnieri (Dcsmarest). 
Common in the Havana market. 

1912.1 on Cuban Fishes. 191 

< K HI.ID.E. 

Heros tetracanthus (Cm. A l'<il.). 
A few from the Anabana Rarer St Aguada. 

Pom\< I \ ii:id.«. 

M. Chromis multilineatus (Omekemd). 

Appar«iiT!_\ caught commonly l>y the fishermen at Marianao. The 
eolor of a specimen VU livid purplish, whiter on chest and fuscous on nape, 
with indistinct streaks alone the rows of scales. Dorsal blackish with a 
narrow orange tip and the last one or two rays lighter, a lemon yellow 
blotch on the hack ahout the base of the last ray. Caudal white with 
blackish upper and lower borders and the tips of the lobes orange, a narrow 
yellow >treak from the orange tips outside the blackish borders. Pectoral, 
ventral and anal fins more or less orange. A jet black blotch at the axil of 
the pectoral. 

Eupomacentrus fuscus (Cm «v Vat,). 

Abundant in SOUM what brackish water along the water front at Matan- 

zas. No specimens were secured, but color variations of the living fish 

rved at close range. Their caudal fins were varyingly dusky or 

yellowidi. but none of the fish had the yellow color running forward on the 

under parts as it fre qu e n t ly does in leucostictus. Some small ones were 

- (I which were bright blue on the head and front part of the back 

and had one or more dark lengthwise >tripes on the head, — somewhat 

different from any coloring of Icucostictu.*. A few large ones swimming 

ely hail the baek and fore part of the ndef pale ashen, but the 

individual! became uniform dusky when they ceased their activity. 

The motion^ of this species seem less gliding and wrassedike than those of 

' ■narrntru.i h '■iirontirtu.t. 

Eupomacentrus leucostictus (Jfttfbr & Troschel). 
moo in roek p Marianao. 

^7 Abudefduf saxatilis I 

Small ones eouunoii in rock pools at Marianao and Havana. 


88. Lachnolaimus maximus (fPtAm 
Tolerably common in the Havana marl 

89. Harpe rufa / 

One in the Havana market. 

192 liulh Hit Aim-rican Museum of Natural Hixtory, [Vol. XXXI. 

90. Iridio cyanocephalus {Block). 

Identified once in the Havana market. 

91. Iridio maculipinna (Mailer & Troschrl). 

Two or three very young wrasses in pools at Marianao were probably 
this species. 

92. Iridio bivittatus (Bloch). 
One in a small pool at Marianao. 


93. Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider). 
Identified once in the Havana market. 

04. Scarus ceeruleus (Bloch). 

Identified once in the Havana market. 


95. Ch®todipterus faber (Brows). 

Not uncommon in the Havana market. 

96. Teuthis sp. 
Seen once or twice. 



97. Balistes vetula Linn. 

A dead specimen at Cojimar, Feb. 25. One in Havana Market March 
8 or 9. 


98. Scorpsena plumieri Bloch. 

One seen in the Cienfuegos market. 


99. Guavina guavina (Cue. & Vol.). 

One specimen from the Havana market Feb. 26. 

100. Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas). 

1912.] ioU, Notes on Cuban Fishes. 193 

Two specimens from the Havana market Feb. 26. 
101. Gobius soporator C</r. <v I'd/. 

Generally abundant along the shore. 
lii_\ Gobius boleosoma Jordan & Gilbert. 
• nil in brackish water at Marianao. 

103. Gobius oceanicus Pallas. 

Commonly sold en masse in the Havana market. 


104. Opsanus tau (Linn.). 

union in the Havana market, alive. 


106. Arbaciosa rupestris (Poey). 

These little Belies, less than l£ inches long, were common, pressed against 
the rocky bottoms and sides of spray-whipped pools, just beyond reach of 
the surf at the edge of a jutting rocky shore at Marianao. Taken out of 
water th»-y seemed little inconvenienced and made some progress by wrig- 
gling and clinging. The colors of a living specimen were as follows: Pale. 
Six more or less bilaterally divided dark saddle-like blotches along the back. 

upper parts marked with a fine network or orange and dusky mottling 
which leaves conspicuous shining white spaces on the sides. 


106. Ogilbia cayorum Emrmmn & Kendall. 

One specimen two inches long from the Havana market in r-Yhruary 
The species was described from Honda but it seems very improbable that 
mull specimen was brought from there. 


li >7. Platophrys maculifer (Posy). 

One specimen from tin- Havana market Feb. 26. 

108. Syacium micrurum Ranzani. 

• small 9 specimen f nun the Havana mar 26. 

109. Citharichthys spilopterus GUniher. 
Common in tin- Havana marl 

194 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. X XXI 


110. Achirus lineatus (Linn.). 

One in the Havana market March 9. 


111. Antennarius sp. 

One minute specimen at Marianao. 




By L. Hussakof. 

Plates XIX and XX 



Introduction 195 

Historical review 196 

Correlation of the Cretaceous chinworoid horizons of America and Western 

Europe 198 

Systematic revision 202 

Genus Edaphodon 202 

Notes on the species referred to E. mirificus Leidy .... 206 

. us Leptomylus 218 

Genus Isotonic 222 

Other Chimseroid remains from the American Cretaceous . . . 223 

1 . The so-called genus Bryactinus 223 

2. The upper Cretaceous chima;roid egg-case .... 224 

3. The supposed chinueroid fin-spine, Sphagepcea aciculaia Cope 224 
tnary of general conclusions ......... 225 

Papers cited 226 

Intrude tion. 

The < ■hiiiwi-roids reached their maximum evolution during the Cretaceous 
period. They were then represented by a larger number of genera, by a 
greater abundance of individuals, and by huger forms than at any other 
m|. Among them were fishes ten and fifteen feet in length, to judge 
by their dental plates as compared with those of living forms. Unfortu- 
nately the>e remarkable ehim:i>roids lived under conditions unfavorable to 
their preservation as fossils, so that they are known to us only from frag- 
mentary remains — dental plates and fill-epilftes. And upon these elements 
•lone the morphology and evolution of the group in the Cretaceous must, 
for the present at least, be based. 

reviews of Cretaceous chimneroids, both dealing chiefly with Euro- 
pean forms, have been published. B.T. \<wton's classic memoir '( 'hirnse- 
hes of the British Cretaceous Rocks,' appeared in 1878 [22], and 
I >r. A S. W oodward's revision in his 'Catalogue of the Fossil Fishes in the 
British Museum,' in 1891 [27]. In the following pages the American 
fornix BR n\ i.w.-.l. upon tin- OoBoction hi the Ameriran Mumiiui of 
II • as a basis. Uns collection includes nearly all of Cope's 


1 '.••'• Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX \ I. 

types, without which, indeed, this review would have been impossible. 
It may be mentioned that this is the first of several reviews, of groups 
of fossil fishes extensively represented in the American Museum collection-, 
which the writer has planned. They are intended as contributions toward 
a revised check list of American fossil fishes. Such a check list, in which 
every item has been carefully scrutinized, is indispensable as ■ basis for 
all studies on the evolution, the migration and the geological range of the 
American fish faunas. 

The determination of species of chiimeroid dental plates is very difficult, 
owing to their wide range of variation due to age, sex and other circum- 
stances. All who have dealt with this group have found the same difficulty. 
E. T. Xewton, for instance, in his discussion of the British forms, says 
respecting one species: "Examination of a large series of specimens has 
shown that Edaphodon sedgwickii varies very considerably in the form and 
size of its teeth; so much is this the case that at first I was inclined to regard 
some of them as distinct species; gradation of intermediate forms, however, 
■compels me to regard them as merely varieties." [22, p. 8.] And Pro- 
fessor Bashford Dean, writing of the dental plates of living form 
""Considerable judgment is necessary to determine accurately species of 
chinueroids when dental plates alone can be studied, e. g., in the case of 
many fossil forms. Indeed, with so wide a range of variation, it is quite 
conceivable that Chimcera colliei, if known only by its dental plates, might 
be described under several species, and possibly two genera." [9, p. 20.] 

In judging the validity of species, in the following pages, I have tried to 
evaluate all the characters — to separate those which may be due to age, 
sex or individual variation, from those which may be regarded as specific. 
Each species has been carefully considered; and more satisfactory results 
are hardly to be expected, except with the accumulation of much new 

Historical Review. 

Dental plates of chinueroids must have been known in Europe, and 
especially in England where they occur in the Chalk formations, from times 
immemorial. But their nature was long not understood: they were re- 
garded as the beaks of turtles or the teeth of reptiles [2]. Their true rela- 
tionship was discovered by William Buckland, in 1835, who compared 
them with the bones of various fishes and other animals, and at length 
recognized their resemblance to the dental plates of Chimaera. He read a 
paper on the subject before the Geological Society of London (first pub- 
lished in 1836 [2]); and his view was at once accepted by Louis Agassiz 
[2, p. 6]. 


Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of North America. 


In America, the earliest reference to fossil chinueroids occurs in a paper 
by Richard Harlan, published in 1835. He figured a dental plate, which 
bad been found with some sharks' teeth and reptilian vertebrae in New 
JccMQ • and believed it to be the tooth of a reptile — this was before the 
nature of these dental plates had yet been made out. His figure clearly 
represents tin- anterior half of an Edmpkodtm mandibular [14]. 

The first description of an American fossil chimseroid was published by 
iy. in 1856 [18]. He based a new species, Edaphodon viirificus, upon 
• upper and lower "maxillary plates." That he appreciated the real 
ire of these elements is evident from the fact that he referred this 

rial to Edaphodon. 

Sobeeqoeal discoveries in America have resulted in the description of 

Other -jH*cies of Cretaceous chimseroids — by Cope in 1869 [5, 6, 7]; Marsh, 

1 > [21]; and Leidy, 1873 [19]. The number of American forms at present 

on ncord i- twenty-one, representing nine genera. A list of these is given 

in the following table. 

Original Names Proposed by Authors for American Cretaceous Chimaroids. 

Original Name 


Bryactinus amorphus 
Diphrissa latidens 

Dipristis tneirsii 
Edaphodon mirificus 
Eumyl'xiu* Impti at'is 
Itchyodus divaricatus 
" longirostris 

" tripartitus 

tmtmmlt Meeaesrimeii 

Leptomylus cookii 

fljpftafJpM •inculnln 

Cope, 1875 

Marsh, 1869 

Leidy, 1856 
" 1873 

Cope. 1869 



M I 



Small fragmentary dental plate 223 

Imperfect left mandibular 211 

I.< ft mandibular 210 

Large dorsal fin-spine 207 

BigM dcaftal platei 204 

Left vomerine 217 

Right mandibular 210 

Eight mandibulars 208 

Small left mandibular 206 

Imperfect rigbt mandibular 207 

Left tn:iti<lil .ulur 211 

One mandibular and one palatal 208 

Right and left mandibulars of differ- 
ent fish 208 

Several mandibulars 

Pair of mandibulars 213 

Pair of mandibulars and a left palatal . . 215 

Left palatal 222 

Right mandibular 219 

One mandibular and one palatal 218 

Right mandibular ttl 

Small spine 224 

1US Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI. 

Several writers have shown the necessity for changes in some of these 
names. A. S. Woodward [27, p. 84] has pointed out, that the apt 
ascribed by Cope to Ischyodus belong in Edaphodon, Cope having confused 
the definitions of the two genera. Hay has shown [15, p. 324] that Leidy's 
Eumylodus belongs in Edaphodon. 

In 1908, the writer published a preliminary review of these fonu in 
his ' Catalogue of Types and Figured Specimens ' [16, pp. 37-41 ], and figured 
Cope's types which up to then had remained unillustrated. Several of 
Cope's species, also, were shown to be mere synonyms. 

In 1911, Henry W. Fowler, in a review of the Cretaceous and ESoeeae 
fishes of Xew Jersey, republished the original descriptions of the chimseroids 
of that State, and gave valuable data on the geological horizons of the 
different species. He also illustrated some of Leidy's types which had 
remained unfigured. 

Correlation of the Cretaceous Chim.eroid Horizons of America 
and Western Europe. 

There are three localities in America from which Cretaceous chimseroids 
have been obtained: New Jersey, Mississippi and Wyoming (map, Fig. 1). 
All are of upper Cretaceous age. The first has yielded the greater number 
of forms, the others only one each. 

The stratigraphy and correlation of the American Cretaceous have been 
studied by a number of authors, more especially by Charles A. White, 1891, 
[26], Stuart Weller, 1907, [25], Kummel, 1911, [17], and Schuchert, 1910, 
[24]. The exhaustive study of the faunas of the Atlantic and Gulf borders 
by Stuart Weller, has demonstrated that these formations are divisible 
into two horizons: a lower, Ripleyan, which occurs in the entire Atlantic 
and Gulf borders; and an upper, Jerseyan, which is best developed in New 
Jersey, and gradually thins out and disappears south of Maryland. The 
upper, or Jerseyan division, is correlated by Weller with the Danian of 
Europe, more especially, with the Maestricht division of the Danian. 
The lower, or Ripleyan, he correlates with the Scnonian. The chinueroida 
from Xew Jersey, occurring as they do in the Jerseyan formation, are of 
Danian age. In Europe, on the other hand, Cretaceous chimceroids are 
unknown later than the Senonian. 

The following table of Cretaceous horizons in Xew Jersey shows the 
stratigraphical range of the American chinueroids, and their time relation- 
to European forms. 

Hiuaakof, Cretaceous Chimceroids of North America. 


Correlation of Upper Cretaceous of America {Atlantic Border) and Western Europe. 1 


America r^urupe 



uaaquanmarl 20-30' 
Vincentown sand 25-70' \ - Dakian 
( Hornerstown marl 30' (Maastricht 




Tinton bed 10'-20' ' 
Red Bank sand 0'-100' 
Navesink marl 25'-40' 
Mount Laurel sand „, „, 
Wenonah sands 

shalltown clay 30'-35' 
Knglishtown sand 30-100' 
Woodbury clay 50' 
Mcrvh.'intville clay 60' 
Magothy formation 25'-50' 

(includina Cliffe- 

wood clay) 

► = Senoxian 


Raritan formation 150-250' 

— Aluian 


In 1 1 1# - .arlirr recordl the chima-roid horizons of New Jersey are usually 
ad No. •")." In the present classification 1 1 i i -— i- equiva- 
lent to Ribdivirion K of the Hor n et e t o wn marl [11, p. 112]. One or two 
• roids have been round at Binnmghtja and at HnrffviDe, Nei Jersey. 
At dVbm lociKtiii 'Ik- Hornentown marl rots directly upon tin- Nave-ink 

with which it forms a continuous bed. It is pos>il>|c, therefore, that at 

these Iixalm. the chinueroidi an- from the Nnvednk, ami not from the 
bj analogy with the otb tt, tbii 

improbable, ami all the I imaroi.K may. provisionally at least, 

i to the Hornentown. 
following table pvei tb of tin- European ami 

i himaroids so far as at present known. 

- »tr»tl*r» P hlc .utxllvUloo. m accordlnc to Stuart Weller |2A|: the thkkni— m. 
•eoordlae to KOmmH |17|. 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX \ I , 

Geological Range of Cretaceous Chimaroids on Both Sides of the Atlantic. 



fschyodus incisus 
" lotus 
u -planus 
" thurmanni 

Elasmodectes xviUetti 

Elasmodus crassus 
" grcenoughi 

Edaphodon crassus 
" laminosus 
" mantelli 
" reedi 
" agassizi 
" sedgwicki 
" laquealus 
" laterigerus 
" mirificus 
" stenobryus 

Isotamia neocmsariensis 

Leptomylus cooki 
" densus 



This table brings out the following points: 

1. Only two species of chimeeroids are common to the Cretaceous of 

Europe and America — Edaphodon agassizi and E. sedgwicki. 

2. The dominant genera in the European Cretaceous are Ischyo- 

dus and Edaphodon; in the American, Edaphodon and Leptomylus. 

3. In Europe no chimaeroids are known from the final stage (Danian) 
of the Cretaceous, whereas in America they are known almost 
exclusively from this horizon. 1 From this it appears that condi- 

1 The only American form whose horizon is doubtful is Edaphodon (Eumylodut) 
laqueatu* Leidy, which is probably of Senonian age since at the locality where it was found 
(near Columbus. Mississippi), the uppermost division of the Cretaceous appears to be 


Hussakof, Cretaceous Chitrurroids of North America. 


tii »ns especially favorable for chimieroid life developed on the 

Americas coast later than on the European; that is, with the 

gradual subsidence of the coast line and the consequent deepening 

of the American sea, toward the close of the Cretaceous. The 

center of chiimrroid radiation appears then to have shifted from 

Europe to America. 

In connection with the distribution of Cretaceous chimaeroids, it is 

worth noting that no species are at present known from the southern 

hemisphere, although the group was doubtless represented, since chimae- 

Rlg. 1- Map showing American localities from which Cretaceous chimserolds have 
been obtained. 

1 \ sjsj Jersey: Bdaphodon. Leplomylu$. Iiotania. 

I. War Columbus. Mississippi: Edaphodon (Eumylodui). 

1. Near Laramie. Wyoming: Egg-case of a chimsr 

roidi <>«ciir in the tertiary formations of Australia and New /.aland. A 

•pedes of /-.V/Vi/zWon has been recorded from Amuri Mlntf, New /..aland 

p. 31], and credited to the Orel hut it really belongs in early 

.iry times, as has recently Keen strongly maintained h\ Chapman and 

hard. They >a. unfortunate that reference to the Amuri 

202 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI. 

Bluff deposits as Greensand should have been made and perpetuated, 
considering that the fauna is so distinctly tertiary." [4, p. 64.] 

Systematic Revision. 
Genus Edaphodon Buckland. 

Edaphodon Buckland, Proc Geol. Soc. LondoD, II, 1838, p. 687. 

Passalodon Buckland, Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., II, 1838, p. 687. No description. 
(Name applied to only.) 

Psittacodon Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., Ill, 1843, pp. 340, 348. (Name applied to 
mandibulars only.) 

Dipristis Marsh, Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1869, p. 230. (Spine only.) 

Diphri8sa Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, XI, 1869, p. 244. (Mandibular only.) 

Eumylodus Leidy, Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., I, 1873, p. 309. 

Bryactinus Cope, Vert. Cret. Formations West, 1875, p. 282. (Fragment of a 

A genus known only from dental plates and dorsal fin-spines. Type species, 
Edaphodon bucklandi Agassiz. 

Dental plates, large, massive, in natural association suggestive of a bird's beak; 
composed of a pair of mandibular, a pair of vomerine, and a pair of palatal etemi 

Mandibular, beak-like and more or less laterally compressed anteriorly; post, ri- 
orly, expanded upward and outward. No definite thickening on outer face. Sym- 
physeal facet broad, extending i to J the length of the mandibular and varying from 
£ to the entire depth of the inner aspect of the beak. Tritors usually four in number: 
a small one (sometimes two) at tip of beak; one very large tritor (the "median") 
occupying the inner posterior half of the tooth; and two smaller tritors, along the 
outer margin, one situated near middle of tooth, the other a short distance posterior 
to it. 

Palatal, subtriangular when viewed from oral face. Upper surface with a deep, 
broad, longitudinal furrow, which extends almost to the anterior margin of the 
tooth. Symphyseal face smooth and almost vertical; lateral face sloping outward 
and downward. Tritors large, three in number: two along the symphyseal margin 
one behind the other; and one situated in the posteroexternal angle of the tooth. 

Vomerine, triangular in side view. A row of tritors along the biting edge, 
on the inner side of the element, extending to the upper surface of the tooth. 

Fin-spines, large, gently arcuate, and laterally compressed. Anterior margin 
with a sharp keel; posterior, with a double row of small, sharp, downward-pointing 
denticles. Lateral faces with faint longitudinal striatums. 

Fifteen species of Edaphodon have been described from the Upper 
Cretaceous of North America, but only six are valid, the others being 
referable to them (Fig. 2). These six species are: 

Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimctroids of North America. 


1. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. 

2. " laterigerus (Cope). 

3. ."trnobryus 

4. agassizi (Buckland). 

5. sedgvricki (Agassiz). 

6. laqueaius (Leidy). 

Flf . 2. Diagram-key to the American apodes of BdopKodon of which tln« mandibular 
U known. Left mandibulars In outer view, x J. 

A, Edaphodon mirifitui Leidy: B, B. agauizi (Buckland): 0, E. lattrigtrut 
(Cope); D, B. todovicki (Agassis): I, B. »ttnobr VU > (Cope). 

204 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. 

1856. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, p. 221. 

1869. Ischyodus mirificus Leidy, Cope, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, p 314. 

1869. Ischyodus monolophus Cope, Ibid., p. 314. 

1869. Diphrissa solidulus Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, XI, p. 244. 

1869. Dipristis meirsii Marsh, Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 18th meeting, 
p. 230. (Fin-spine only.) 

1873. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., I, p. 306; 
pi. xxxvii, figs. 6-12. 

1875. Ischyodus mirificus Cope, Vert. Cret. Format. West, p. 291. 

1875. Diphrissa latidens Cope, Ibid., p. 283. 

1875. Ischyodus longirostris Cope, Ibid., p. 287. 

1875. Ischyodus incrassatus Cope, Ibid., p. 289. 

1875. Ischyodus gaskillii Cope, Ibid., p. 290. (Juvenile mandibular.) 

1875. Ischyodus fecundus Cope, Ibid., p. 290. 

1875. Ischyodus miersii (Marsh) Cope, Ibid. p. 292. (Fragmentary spine and 

1878. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, Newton, Chim. Fishes Brit. Cret. Rocks, 
p. 24. 

1908. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, Hussakof, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
XXV, p. 38, pi. ii, fig. 3. 

1911. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy, Fowler, Geol Surv. N. J , Bull 4, p. 121, 
figs. 72-75. (Figures of the type specimens.) 

Type. — Eight mandibular and palatal teeth. In the collections of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Horizon and locality. — Jerseyan, probably "Hornerstown K." (The Jerseyan = 
Danian of Europe). Hornerstown, New Jersey. 

This species is known from the dentition and from fragments of dorsal 
fin-spines, and may be defined as follows: 

Mandibular (Fig. 3), over twice as long as deep; its anterior half, in outer view, 
gradually tapering anteriorward ; tritoral prominence at middle of oral margin 
either present or absent. Middle portion of outer surface concave in the longitudinal 
axis of tooth. Symphyseal facet, which is usually a smooth, flat area i to 1 centi- 
meter wide, and rarely only a line, extends over half the length of the tooth. Tri- 
tors four: a small one, sometimes elongated into a narrow band, at tip of tooth; one 
very large inner tritor and two smaller outer tritors. 

Palatal, relatively massive, and more or less triangular when viewed from oral 
face. A broad furrow, which deepens anteriorward, extends from the posterior 
margin of tooth to within a short distance of its anterior edge. Externo-lateral face 
of tooth sloping downward from the outer edge of the furrow. Tritors three: two 
inner and one outer. Anteriormost tritor begins back of anterior edge of tooth, a 
distance equal to 1 or J the length of the tooth. Posterior inner tritor the largest. 

Vomerines, similar to those of other species, differing only in trivial characters. 
Eight tritors along oral edge; the four nearest the symphysis long and slender, the 
next three somewhat shorter, the eighth and last, relatively large and oval. These 
tritors extend up through the element to its dorsal margin. 


Htusakof, Cretaceous Chimctroids of North America. 


Thi> is the most common American < retaceous chimseroid. Over half 
the dental plates in collection- belong to it; and to it, also, should be re- 
ferred at least eighl of the forms which have been described as distinct 

Fig. 3. Bdapkodon minjfrm Letdjr. 
Mu*. X |. 

Right mandibular. In oral (a), and outer (6). 

of these were based on smfle elements, some on mn frag- 

f juvenile, .iii.l on on a I'm— pine. All these "spe- 

.in unbroken leriei from the small form, 

to the ! ,ile form. *' incrassatus." The range of 

ion in this M than in the material- of I '. : i [ ihodon 

*edgv\i in the British Museum, which I had the opportunity of « \amin- 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

ing, in 1909. A detailed discussion of the forms referred to E. mirificus it 

given below. 

The mandibular and palatal elements of Edaphodon mirificus have been 

so carefully described and figured by 
Leidy [19] that little need here be said 
regarding them; one small point only 
should be referred to. From Leidy's 
figures [19, pi. xxxvii, figs. 6, 7], it might 
appear that the mandibular was devoid 
of any tritoral prominence. A compar- 
ison of a number of specimens shows, 
however, that the prominence is gen- 
erally present; and that its size depends 
upon the degree of development of the 
anterior outer tritor, and, like it, is 
very variable. It is not well developed 
in the specimen figured by Leidy; but 
it is well shown in several specimens in 
the Cope collection, particularly so in a 
beautifully preserved right mandibular, 
No. 7206. 

The vomerines of E. mirificus were 
unknown to Leidy and are here figured 
from a pair in the Cope collection in the 
American Museum (Fig. 4). They 
were found associated with the rest of a 
dentition of this species, and probably 
belong with it. Their characters are 
Fig. 4. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. summarized in the diagnostic descrip- 

Right vomerine, in outer (a), inner (6), ^ion gj ven above. 

and top (c). views. No. 2223 Amer. 6 

MU8. X i. 

Notes on the Species referred to E. mirificus. 

1 . Edaphodon " gaskillii " (Cope) [Plate XIX, fig. 3 and text-fig. 6, A).— 
This supposed species was based on an imperfect left mandibular (No. 
7196, Amer. Mus.), which, as I have already shown [16, p. 38], represents a 
young individual of E. mirificus. The diagnosis of it was based on the size 
and position of the tritors; and these seem to be only variations, due to 
immaturity and individual peculiarities, of the characters shown in E. 
mirificus. Apart from these features, there are none of specific value. The 


Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of North America. 


curvatun •> of the outer and of the inner margins of the oral face agree 
entirely with those of E. mirificus. 

;>h»don (Dipristis) "raeirsii" Marsh.— In 1870 Marsh [21] 
described a large denticulated spine from the Upper Cretaceous of New 
. which he correctly identified as the dorsal fin-spine of a chimseroid, 
and named Dipristis rneirsi. In 1875 Cope [8, 
icribed a fragment of a similar spine 
which had been found associated with a man- 
dibular; and as this mandibular belonged un- 
edly in Edaphodon, 1 he relegated the 
genus Dipristis to the synonymy of Edaphodon. 
Marsh's type is preserved in the geological 
un of Vale University, and through the 
kindness of Professor R. S. Lull, a photograph 
of it ■ here reproduced (Plate XX, fig. 1). It is 
a once that Cope's view was correct; that 
the spine named Dipristis i- similar to that of 
hodon; indeed, it is very like the spine of 
ihodon agassizi figured by Newton [22, pi. 
iii. fig. 3]. 

[>e's specimen of this spine (Fig. 5) and its 
accompanying mandibular are preserved in the 
American Museun Q . The mandib- 

ular b identical with that of Edaphodon mirificus, 
the characters said by Cope to be peculiar to 
/ rti being only variation-. .f tnoteseen in /•.'. 

mirificus. Ibn<. Dipt mvirsi 

be considered ■ ^ynonyin of A', mirificus. 

hodon " incrassatus" (Cope) [Plate XIX, figs. 8, 9; text-fig. 6, D). 
— Tli was based <>n an imperfect right mandibular V 2284 Am. 

Mu> uished from thai of E. mirificus by the greater thickness 

of the "beak.'' In other respects it is similar to mirificus. Atiother and 

right mandflmlai . / !), in the Cope eoOaeti 7198) 

panitil by both palatals, is comparable with Cope's E. incrassatus. 

larger, heavier and thicker than the latter, the tritoral area is 

almost flat and half again as wide ^ in | tvpical E. mirificus mandibular. 

rthdeai this tooth issosugp the latter species, in arrangement 

°f tri* cmation of outer face, d ir ec ti on of oral and j>ost-4>ral margins, 

that if should not l»e separated spec iii, all > . The pair of palattJs •aaoofciad 

Fig. 5. Fragment of a chl- 
maeroid dorsal fin-spine of tbe 
form named Dipri*ti$ m*irti by 
Marsh: found associated with 
a mandibular of Edaphodon 
mirificui. No. 7202 Amer. 
Mus. Natural size. 

•Through a confusion of definition- vrred this spine to l»ekyodu$. not to 

Edaphnj., obvious that he had the In' ■ min.i 

208 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXM 

with it, and presumably belonging to the same individual, differ from those 
of E. in in funis only in size and in some minor points. It seems probable 
that these heavy specimens represent senile individuals of E. mirificus, and 
that with age the dental plates of this species increased greatly in thickness 
without a corresponding increase in length. This is borne out by arranging 
a series of mandibulars leading from the smallest, slenderest form to the 
largest and presumably oldest form (Fig. 6). 

4. Edapkodon "monolophus" (Cope). — A species founded l>\ Cope 
in 1869 [5, p. 314] on right and left mandibulars (Xo. 2229 Am. Mus.) 
belonging to different fishes. The right mandibular is fragmentary, 
lacking both anterior and posterior portions including the second outer 
tritor; nevertheless there is no doubt of its identity with the same element 
in E. mirificus, from which it does not differ in any essential feature. 

The left mandibular is more perfect and shows characters suggestive 
of both E. mirificus and E. " longirostris " ; indeed it may be regarded as a 
gradation between the two. 

5. Edapkodon "longirostris" (Cope) [Plate XIX, figs. 6, 7]. — The types 
of this species were a mandibular (No. 2230 Amer. Mus.) and a palatal. 
The former differs from E. mirificus only in minor points. The "beak" is 
rather longer and narrower than is usual in E. mirificus; but the arrange- 
ment of tritors is exactly as in mirificus, except that the outer anterior one 
is situated "on a horizontal step, which forms a strong angle of the outer 
border. This border is, therefore, abruptly excavated from that point 
forward, while the inner border descends gradually from the inner angle." 
The symphyseal facet occupies about three-fourths the length of the entire 
element. On the whole its characters do not differentiate it from E. mirificus. 

The palatal mentioned by Cope as accompanying the type mandibular 
is characterized by "the small size and posterior position of the anterior 
[tritoral] area, so that the bone appears to be more produced. The poste- 
rior areas are large." A palatal answering to this description is No. 2239, 
American Museum; but it is not certain that it is the identical one described 
by Cope; and on the whole there is doubt whether its characters are really 
of specific value. 

6. Edapkodon " fecundus " (Cope) [Plate XIX, figs. 4, 5 ; Plate XX, figs. 2, 
3; text-fig. 6, B]. — The types of this species are seven mandibulars and one 
palatal (No. 2225 Amer. Mus.) from the Greensand at Hornerstown, New 
Jersey — probably Hornerstown "K." The mandibulars are not well- 
preserved, being weathered along the oral faces so that the tritoral areas 
are imperfectly delimited. Comparison of these elements with those of 
E. mirificus, especially the " meirsiV form, proves that they grade into 
the latter and cannot be separated specifically from it. 


Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of North America. 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Cope's diagnosis was based chiefly on the size and form of the tritors — 
diameters at present not regarded valid criteria of species. He mentions 
the fact that some of the eight type mandibulars are accompanied by 
"maxillary plates", /. , ., palatals. In the American Museum collection 
there are seven of these mandibulars and one palatal ; ami it is not entirely 

certain that the latter belongs with the man- 
dibulars. The characters of the palatal as 
given by Cope are too general to be of value 
in separating species. He says: "The maxil- 
laries [i. e., palatals] are narrowed and truncate 
in front; the areas are large, especially the 
posterior. The superior groove is deep, and 
the outer face extensive and longitudinally 
ridged." This description would apply to the 
palatal of any species of Edaphodon . 

7. Edaphodon "divaricatus" (Cope) [Fig. 
(i, A). — Founded upon a right mandibular 
preserved in the Museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences [see Fowler, 11, p. 124, 
fig. 76]. Three mandibulars which Cope sub- 
sequently referred to this species are in the 
American Museum (No. 2229). A careful 
study of these referred specimens shows that 
they grade nicely into E. "fecundus"; and 
this form as shown above belongs in E. 
mirificus. The symphyseal facet of the man- 
dibular is usually narrower in the" divari< at \u " 
form than in typical E. mirificus; in one of Cope's three referred specimens, 
however, it is as broad as in E. mirificus. Other differences, such as 
the shape and the lateral arching of the oral face, may be passed over as 
variations rather than specific characters. 

8. Edaphodon (Diphrissa) "solidulus" (Cope) [Plate XIX, figs. 1,2].— 
This genus and species were founded on a unique left mandibular (7193 
Amer. Mus.), which is smaller than that of E. mirificus, resembling, in this 
regard, the mandibulars of Edaphodon "divaricatus," with which it agrees 
almost exactly in other regards. The type is hardly distinguishable from 
a mandibular of E. "divaricatus" in the American Museum collection 
(one of three mandibulars, No. 2229). Concerning this form Cope wrote: 
"This species is nearest the /. [Edaphodon] divaricatus m. It differs in 
many respects, among which are the absence of anterior outer [tritoral] 
area, and of prominence of the inner lip, and the greater reduction of the 

Fig. 7. Edaphodon "lati- 
dens'" (Cope). Type mandibu- 
lar in oral aspect. No. 2232 
Amer. Mus. X $. 

Hustaknf, CntaeeouM Chimaroids of North America. 


terminal column. Its lack of dental development allies it to the Lepto- 
j in " 'ti, p. 2 
Whence it appears that the only differences Cope found between this 
mandibular and that of E. diwaricatni were in the tritors and oral configura- 
l in 1 these Features, as shown above (p. 196) are not important enough 
.rrant specific separation. 
9. Edaphodon (Diphrissa) "latidens" Cope [Fig. 7]. — The mandibular 
i by < lope DipkruM laHdent, I refer, with some hesitation, to Edapho- 
don WtirificUM. The type and only specimen is an imperfect left mandibular 
\nier. Mus. I. It is poorly preserved, the outer face having been 
mpletely weathered away; and the element has been much dis- 
torted by vertical and lateral pressure, so that the oral surface has become 
aed out in the region of the tritors and distorted anteriorly. None 
is dental plate has considerable resemblance to the "divaricatus" 
rificus; and it seems best to refer it to that genus and species. 

Edaphodon laterigerus (Cope). 

1869. Ischyodus laterigerus Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, XI, p. 243. 
1875. Ischyodus laterigerus Copk. Vert. Cret. West, pp. 284, 288. 

Kdapkodo* lattrigtrut (Copo). Left mandibular In outer (o). and oral (6), 
Hew. .„ 2338 Amer. Mus. X ». 

1891. Edaphodon laterigerus (Cope) A. 8. Woodward, Catal. Foe. Fish.- II. 
p. 85. 

1908. Edaphodon laterigerus (Cope) Hossakof, Hull 
i. figs. 7, 8. 


Bulletin Amnion* Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

1911. Edaphodon latcrigerus (Cope) Fowler, Geol. Surv. N. J., Bull. 4, p. 113, 
fig. 65. 

Type. — A left mandibular (Figs. 8, and 2, C). Cope collection, No. 2238 Ameri- 
can Museum. 

Horizon and locality. — Jerseyan, Hornerstown "K" ( = Danian of Europe); 
Hornerstown, New Jersey. 

This species is known only from the type specimen; but this offers such 
marked characters that there is no doubt of its specific validity. 

Anterior portion of mandible elongated and laterally compressed. Sympl 
facet nearly half the length of entire element. Anterior outer tritor much elongated 

antero-posteriorly; posterior 
outer tritor small, suboval; 
inner tritor large, elongated, 
extending forward a distance 
equal to about three-fifths the 
length of the whole element, 
with its greatest width con- 
tained about two and one-half 
times in its total length. Tri- 
toral prominence greatly elon- 
gated, presenting, in side view, 
an almost straight line, more 
than half the total length of 
the dental plate; at its anterior 
end this line curves downward, 
considerably in advance of the 
tritor. Oral face, in front of 
anterior tritors, occupied by a 
shallow depression which slopes 
gradually from the outer prom- 
inence to the symphysis. If the 
two mandibulars were placed 
in natural association, the an- 
terior median portion of the 
"beak" would be, as noted by 
Cope, occupied by an elongated 
excavation walled in laterally 
by the two anterior outer 
prominences, and extending 
backward as far as the anterior 
termination of the tritors 

Fig. 9. Edaphodon ttenobryua (Cope). Right man- 
dibular in outer (a), and oral (6). views. Type. No. 
7204 Amor. Mas X J. 

■*urcment8 of thu Mandibular* 

Total length of mandibular (slightly restored) 140 mm. 

Depth in region of posterior outer tritor 68 

Depth opposite middle of anterior outer tritor 40 " 

Length of anterior outer tritor 43 

Length of posterior outer tritor 17 

Length of inner'outer tritor 80 

1912.) Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of North America. 213 

Edaphodon stenobryus (Cope). 

Ischyodus stenobryus Cope, Vert. Cret. West, p. 285. 

iaphodon stenobryus (Cope) A. S. Woodward, Cat. Fos. Fishes, Part II, 
p. 85. 

1908. Edaphodon stenobryus (Cope) Hcssakof, Bull. Amer. Mus., XXV, p. 39, 
pi. ii, figs. 6, 7. 

L91 1 K'laphodon stenobryus (Cope) Fowler, Geol. Sun-. X. J., Bull. 4, p. Ill, 
fig. 63. 

Type. — A pair of mandibulars (Figs. 9, and 2 E). Cope Collection, No. 7204 
American Museum. 

Horizon and locality. — Jerseyan, probably Hornerstown "K" [= Danian of 
Europe); Hornerstown, New Jersey. 

A well-marked species distinguished by its form, height as compared 
with length, and by its lateral compression. As remarked by Cope, this 
species has considerable resemblance to Leptomylus, more so than any 
other >pecies of Edaphodon. 

Edaphodon agassizi (Buckland). 

European Materials. 

1835. Chimara agassizi Buckland, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, II, p. 206. 

Ischyodus agassizi (Buckland) Egerton, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, IV, 
p. 156. 

' imara (Ischyodus) agassizii Buckland, Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., Ill, 
pi. xl. a, figs. 3, 4, (?5); pi. xl, c, fig. 16. 

• imara agassizii Buckland, Geinitz, Pakeontogr., XX, p. 206, pi. xxxix, 
figs. 8-10. 

1878. Edaphodon agassizii (Buckland) E. T. Newton, Chim. Fishes Brit. Cret. 
Rocks, p. 12, pi. iii. 

1891. Edaphodon agassizi (Buckland) A. S. Woodward, Catal. Fos. Fishes Brit. 

icrican Materials. 

1869. Ischyodus smockii Cope, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 1 1 1 -• XII, p. 316. 
1875. Ischyodus smockii Copb, Vert. Cret. West, pp. 284, 288. 
1891. Edaphodon smockii (Cope) A. S. Woodward, Catal. Fos. Fishes, II, p. 85. 
1908. Edaphodon smocki (Cope) Htssakof, Bui! . \.\V, 

I>l ii, figs. 4, 5. 
1911. Edaphodon smockii (Cope) Fowler, Geo! J., Bull. 4, p. 115, 

fig. 66. 

zon and locality. — Jerseyan, probably Hornerstown "K" [- Danian of 
BoTOfft <w Jersey. 

The three mandibulars on which Cope based his Ischyodus smockii are 
preserved in the American Ifmemn No, 7199 . They differ from all other 
American species by the pretence of very large angulated oral prominences 
which ■ppcar bin stepi m outer view (Figs. 10, and 2,B). These angula- 


Bulletin American Museum of Xulural History . [Vol. X.Wl, 

tions vary with agr from 90° to 105°. On comparing these mandibulars 
with the accounts of European species it is Found 
that they agree with the description and figures of 
Edapkodon agassizi (Buckland); indeed, the figures of 
this species given by Newton [22, pi. iii, figs. 4, 5] 
might almost have been drawn from Cope's typi 
/. smocki. It appears, therefore, that Ischyodn.i 
smockii Cope must be considered a synonym of 
Ediijthodon agassizi (Buckland). This species and E. 
tedgwieki (= E. tripartitus Cope), are the two Euro- 
pean species represented in the Upper Cretaceous of 

The mandibular of this species 
resembles to some extent that of 
/.'. laterigenu Cope: the trit<»rs 
show a similar tendency to become 
elongated, and there are "steps*" 
in outer view. Nevertheless the 
two species are undoubtedly die* 
tinct. E. laterigerus is much 

Fig 10. Edapkodon agassiz, (Buckland). ,ar S er > the beak is greatly «,.,„- 

Right mandibular in oral (o), and outer (6). pressed and elongated, whereas ill 
views. One of the co-types of E. "smockii " 
(Cope). No. 7192 Amer. Mus. X \. 

E. agassizi (smocki) it is abbreviated. 
In the former the anterior marginal 
prominence ("step") is rounded at 
the angle, whereas in the latter it is 

A pair of well-preserved palatals 
of this species are also in the Cope 
collection (No. 7194 Amer. Mus.). 
They were found associated with 
mandibulars so that it seems reason- 
ably certain that they belong to this 
species. Their form, in oral aspect, 
and the size and arrangement of the 
tritors is shown in Fig. 11. These 
palatals are relatively wide and shal- 
low, grooved along the dorsal surface; the groove occupying about two- 
thirds of the width of the upper surface. The lateral walls of the elements 
do not converge rapidly anteriorly. 


11. Edaphodon agassizi (Buck- 
Pair of palatal elements in oral 
No. 7194 Amer. Mus. X J. 

1912.] Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimcerouis of North America. 215 

Length of right palatal . . . . .80 mm. 

ii of tritoral surface, at middle of element 27 " 

Depth at anterior extremity of outer tritor .17 

Edaphodon sedgwicki (Agassiz). 

European Materials. 

1843. Chimaera {Psitlacodon) sedgwickii Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., Ill, p. 349, pi. xl, 

7. 18. 
1843. Ischyodus sedgwicki (Agassiz) Egerton, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, IV, 
p. 156. 

1847. Edaphodon sedgwicki (Agassiz) Egerton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, III, 

1878. Edaphodon sedgwickii (Agassiz) Newton, Chim. Fishes Brit. Cret. Rocks, 
;.l i, ii. 

laphodon sedgwicki (Agassiz) Woodward, Catal. Foss. Fishes Brit. 

1906. Edaphodon sedgwicki (Agassiz) Lericue, Poiss. Cr6t. du Nord de la 

American Materials. 

1875. Ischyodus triparlitus Cope, Vert. Cret. Formations West, p. 286. 
1891. Edaphodon triparlitus (Cope) Woodward, Catal. Fos. Fishes Brit. 

II. p. 85. 
1908. Edaphodon tripartitus (Cope) Hussakop, Bull. Amcr. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

10, pi. iii, figs. 5, 6. 
1911. Edaphodon tripartitus (Cope) Fowler, Geol. Surv. N. J., Bull. 4, p. 112, 

<zon and locality. — Jeraeyan I- Danian of Europe]; Hurffville, New Jersey. 

It has long seemed doubtful to DM whether l'.<{<iphodon tripartitus 

!><•) should stand as a distinct species, or be merged in Edaphodon scdg- 

idering all the evidence, it appears that the two 

i lil Ik; merged. Cope's types of B. tripa rt& ui (Figs. 12, and 2, D) were 

iir of mandibles and a left palatal (Co|M collection. No. 2224 Amer. 

Mn-. . On ^oiiiK over tli >tkXM of Edapko&Om stdyirichii given by 

ton -'_'. p. 7] with one of Cope's specimens of E. tripartita* in hand, it 

is seen that there is hardb a character mentioned in the description which 

is not to be found in this mandibular. Cope's types resemble figures 1 and 

■uon's illustration- of /.. igdjyi 22, pi. ii]; but it should be 

borne in mind that tin- mandibulars of /•.'. srdij irirlci, as pointed out by 

■ ton, are exceedingly variable, lad an exact correspondence between 

the American form and the European specimens he figures is hardly to be 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

expected. Cope mentions the fact that the median tritor of his E. tri- 
pariHu.t is divided into three parts. This agrees with the European species 

Fig. 12. Edaphodon sedgwicki (Agassiz). Left mandibular in outer view (a), and 
both mandibulars in oral view (6). Types of E. "tripartitus" (Cope). No. 2224 Amer. 
Mus. X J. 

in which the large median tritor is made up of two, and sometimes even of 
several, divisions. 

The palatal element associated in the Cope collection with the mandibu- 
lars of E. tripartitus, differs somewhat in shape from the palatals figured 
by Newton [22, pi. ii, figs. 12, 13]; but there is no certainty that this palatal 
belonged with these mandibulars; it may be of a different species. 

HussakoJ, Cretaceous Chimctroids of lerica. 



Edaphodon laqueatus (Leidy). 1 

Is7 ; B Hn'/loius laqueatus Leidy, Extinct Vert. Fauna \Y. Terr., p. 309, pi. 

pi. xxxvii, figs. 13, 14. 
Is;:. Kumylodus laqueatus Leidy, 
Con . P- 282. 

1891. Edaphodon laqueatus (Leidy) 
Woodward, Catal. Fos. Fishes Brit. 
II. p. 86. 

! >iphodon laqueatus I ! 
Hay. Bull. U. 8. Geol. Surv., No. 179, 

Type. — ■ Right vomerine (Fig. 13). 
Philadelphia Academy of 

ind locality. — Cretaceous 
sandstone [? ■ Senonian of Europe]; 
near Columbus, Mississippi. 

The type n the only el e m e n t of 

iimn. It undoubtedly 

aus Edaphodot 

was long ago point ei 1 out by Wood- 

7, p. 86], and not in a <lis- 

In trivial characters 

thi> vomerine diffen from all others 

tnd nana! be retained, 

for tl ■, a- a distinct 

species, It-* ehtel characters are 

shown in Rg. 1.5. The salient 

parts of Leid y * e d ei c ripti on of it may 
hen- be qooted: 

"The outer surface is marly flat, 
but slightly depreawd be l ow , and 
bent outwardly behind from the 

trituratin- surface. The inner surface is flute.l; the anterior third presents 

a succession of three curved rid g e a acparated by two groove*; the BaedSen 

thinl forms a wide, concave groove; and the posterior third forms a nearly 
square plan.-, doping from the triturating surface backward and inward, 
and defined by a subacute border from the outer surface of the bone.'" 

ly speaks of three tritors along the cutting edge, but four are present, 
the very small, lowermost one ha\ing been apparently overlooked. 

• I km indebted to Dr. Wltraer Stone for very kindly having permitted me to study 
the type of this species, which Is In the collections of the Academy or Natural 8dencee, 


Edaphodon laqutaiut (Leidy). 
Uluht vomerine in outer (a), and inner (6.) 
views. Type of Bumylodu* laqutatu* Leidy, 
No. 5324 Acad. Nat. Sd. Philadelphia. X |. 

218 liulhtiu American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

Genus Leptomylus Cope. 
Leptomylus Cope, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, 1869, p. 313. 

A genus of chimeeroids known only from mandibular elemental founded 

on Lcptomylux densus as the type species. Its distinguishing character 
is the presence of only a single tritor on the oral face of the mandibular, 
instead of the four or more in Edaphodon and Ischyodus. The type species 
has never been figured and the whereabouts of the type specimen 
is unknown. Two other species, however, — L. coolci and L. forfex — re- 
ferred by Cope to this genus, are available for study and these are described 
and illustrated in the following pages. Leptomylus forfex illustrates espe- 
cially well the characters of the genus. From it one sees that Leptomylus 
represents a stage leading from the Edaphodonts, with typical crushing 
dentition, to the more modern type of chimseroid with typical cutting-and- 
biting dentition. In the mandibular the outer oral margin has risen 
above the rest of the oral surface into a sharp cutting edge. And con- 
commitantly with this change the tritors, which functioned in attrition, 
have become reduced to a single small area. However, on account of its 
large size, Leptomylus cannot be regarded as the connecting form leading 
from Ischyodus and Edaphodon to the modern chimaeroids such as Ccdlo- 
rhynchus; the transition was probably through forms like Elasmodu* and 
Elasmodectes. But Leptomylus represents an interesting side branch 
of the Edaphodonts, which developed a more or less cutting-and-biting 
dentition instead of the grinding one. None the less it became extinct 
owing, apparently, to other specializations which had arisen. 

The three species of Leptomylus may be distinguished, according to 
Cope [8, p. 281], by the following key: 

I. Mandibular tooth without apical tritor: 

Large, massive, and not compressed L. densus 

II. Mandibular tooth with apical tritor: 

a. Outer margin much elevated; inner much depressed; large. . L. forfex 

b. Outer margin less elevated; inner equally so; smaller L. cooki 

Leptomylus densus Cope. 

1869. Leptomylus densus Cope, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, p. 313. 

1875. leptomylus densus Cope, Vertebr. Cret. N. Amer., p. 281. 

1891. Leptomylus densus Cope, Woodward, Catal. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., 
II, p. 86. 

1911. Leptomylus densus Cope, Fowler, Geol. Surv. New Jersey, Bull. 4, 
p. 138. 

1912.] Hussakof, Cretaceous Chitrueroids of North America. 219 

Type. — A mandibular tooth. A palatal tooth was found at the same locality 
but Cope was not certain that it belonged with the type mandibular. 

son and locality. — Cretaceous marl pit (probably Hornerstown "K"); 
Birmingha: rsey. 

writer has not seen the type specimen, which has never been figured. 

< riptiun of it is as foil' 

"Ant.rior extremity [of mandibular] prolonged, and slightly narrowed. 

tenor face is plane, transversely concave longitudinally. When 

the externa] margin rises, the internal falls off, and the narrow area of 

dentine i- directed obliquely upwards and inwards. The inner face, above 

an anterior thickened margin as deep as the prolonged beak, is concave, 

but near the superior margin. It is marked with coarse 

and obscure curved lines, which are parallel to the posterior outer margin. 

inferior or anterior margin is a contracted ridge, its inner plane vertical, 

while the superior part of the inner face expands inwards. The dentinal 

.inn supporting the tubercle is as large as a goose quill. There are no 

Leptomylus cooki Cope. 

70. Leptomylus cookii Cope, Proc. 
Philos. Soc. XI. p. 384. 
1 s 7 ."> leptomylus cookii Cop I 

.p. 382. 
1899. Leptomylus cookii Cope, Wood- 
ward, Catal. Foas. Fishes lint . fttui 11 

1906. Leptomylus cooki C< 

sakof, Bull amei II 


1911 Leptomylus cookii ( 

New Jersey, Bull. 4. 

An i mp erfe ct right mandihu- 
i CopeCollf 71'*. 

Horizon and locality. — "Greenaand 
K"; prob- 
ably t to tli< Danian of 
Molly, New Jersey. 

Cope's description of this species 

isSS folio Ft*. 14. l.rptomylut co. Kltfht 

m m . . - mandibular In oral (a), and outer i<>). vtowa. 

In general form the ramus re- Type. No. 710d Atner. Mm. x|. 

■ambles that of faoayodas \E<Ui phodon] 

ditii riot portion being Carved outwards from the tj mphy- 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

seal. The latter region is much compressed and moderately prolonged, 
the inner face quite concave; posteriorly the outer face is also slightly 
concave. There is a single external crest, which is obtuse, and descends 
gradually to the plane of the beak, and presents no dentinal area. A single 

Fig. 15. Leptomylus for/ex Cope, 
views. Cotype. No. 2233 Amer. Mus. 

Right mandibular in outer (a), and oral (6), 
X i. 

small oval area represents the internal, so large in Ischyodus. It lies 
along the inner margin. This margin is much thickened, and rolled over 
inwards; symphyseal face very narrow. The extremity of the beak is 
broken away, and the section shows that there is no inferior plate-like 
column, which produces the terminal area in most species of Ischyodus, 
but a round column, which issues on the upper surface of the beak, behind 
the apex. 

" The apical dentinal column of this species, distinguishes it from the L. 
densus, Cope, where no such column exists. It may be noted that at the 


Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of Xurth America. 


posterior fractured section of the jaw, the apical column is seen, while 
[the] internal dental ana i> not, the latter occupying only a pocket, not a 
column. '" 

Leptomylus forfex ( 

1 B75. Leptomylus forfex Cope, Cret. Verteb. \. Amer., p. 281. 

1891. Leptomylus forfex Cope, Woodward, Catal. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., II, 
p. 87. 

1908. Leptomylus forfex Cope, Hussakof, Bull. Amer. Mm \.' Him.X.W, 
p. 41, pi. iii, figs 

1911. Leptomylus forfex Cope, Fowler, Geol. Burr. New Jersey, Bull. 4, p. 139, 
fig. 86. 

Colypes. — (1) A right mandibular (Fig. 15); (2) a mandibular and palatine 

(Fig. 16) of another fish; Cope Collection, \ ind 7207 American Museum. 

zon and locality. — "Greensand No. .">" (now Bomeratown marl, "K," 

which is equivalent to tlie Danian of Europe). (1) is from Hornerstown, New 

Jersey, and (2) from near Barnesbo rough, X. J. 

This i- a well-marked spe< ; 
characterized l.\ CopeasfoUl 

" Tin's chima-roid i> represented 

wo mandibles from distant local- 
ami probably by a maxillary 
[palatine] bone. The form of these 
is highly characteri 
mandible is much el.\ ated; but 

fined ti> the outer 
which rises as a lamina, can 
the masticating face to be nearly 

vertical for much of its length; but 

levd to the ape\. 

re is a slight marginal swelling 

where the anterior outer dentinal 

mould DC, and an abrupt 
in the margin to the position occu- 
pied in laeAgmmv by the posterior 
r area. The mncr border of the 
masticating surface is parallel to the 
inferior border of the jaw, e\, ■ 

,l " - tWU to the ape\; here tile entire face included betw.eli 

them is occ up ie d by the large r/mphyseal meet The inner dentinal area 

is represented by a narrow a.iiminate patch on the inner ancle ,,f tln-masti- 

otforj fl,< ' ''■ the taberasitg which representa the anterior outer. 


KU. 10. Ltptomyl 

palatal \ i. w I from 

X |. 

M c,.|„ 


I., ft 


liullt tin A miriam Museum of Natural History, 

[Vol. XXXI, 

The apical ares M \ «-r\ narrow, and extends for some distance along the 
exterior angle of the superior fa 

Genus Isotaenia Cope. 

•inia Cope, Verteb. Cretac. Formations West, 1875, p. 293. 

The genus Isotamia is known only from a unique dental plate — a palatal 
— described and named by Cope in 1875. It represents, apparently, a good 
genus although little is yet known concerning it. This palatal differs from 
that of Edaphodon, (1) in the absence of a furrow on the upper surface; (2) 
in having only two tritors; these extend the entire length of the oral face 
and are separated from each other in the median line of the element by a 
thin lamina of bone. Type species, Isotcenia neoccesariensis Cope. 


Isotaenia neocassariensis Cope. 
Isotaenia neoccesariensis Cope, Vert. Cret. Forma. West, p. 293. 

1908. Isoicenia neoccesariensis Cope, Hussakof, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
XXV, p. 41, pi. iii, figs. 3, 4. 

1911. Isotamia neocassariensis Cope, Fowler, Geol. Surv. N. J., Bull. 4, p. 135. 

Type. — A left palatal (Fig. 17). Cope Collection, No. 7208 American Museum. 

Horizon and locality. — Cretaceous " Greensand No. 5 " [Hornerstown marl, " K " ; 
equivalent to Danian of Europe]. Hornerstown, New Jersey. 

The principal characters 
of the species are given 
above under the generic 
description. Other trivial 
features are well brought 
out in the figures (Figs. 17, 
18). Comparative cross- 
xctions of the l-'.daphodon 
and Isotamia palatals are 
shown in Fig. 18. To 
facilitate reference to the 
original description, Cope's 
account may here be 

" The solid planes of the 
maxillary bone of this spe- 
cies are three; the widest is 
opposite to the dentinal col- 
umns and parallel with 
The lateral planes are not parallel 

Fig. 17. Isotcenia neocatariensii Cope. Loft pal- 
atal viewed from above (a), and in oral aspect (6). 
Type. No. 7208 Amer. Mus. X J. 

them; it is nearly as wide as they. 

Hussakof, Cretaceous Chimceroids of North America. 


with each other: the wider forms an acute angle with the last described; 
the narrower, ■ very obtuse angle, so as to be nearly continuous with the 
same, running out into it posteriorly. The more vertical side retains the 

\ B 

IS. Craas-soctions of Edaphodon (A), and of Ixot&nia (B), palatals. Natural 

same depth throughout. One end of the bone is rounded and truncate; the 
oth< I directly at right angles to the dentinal arese, and then 

continued as an edentulous plate, which is soon broken off in the specimen. " 

U inurements. 

Total length 90 mm. 

j*!i of the dentinal columns 66 " 

Width of the dentinal cohmtni 30 " 

Depth on the vertical side 20 " 

Orasa Chulboio Remaini ram m American Cretaceous. 

1. The So-called Genoa BrpaeHmu Cope. (Figs. 19, 20.) 

The fragmentary dental plate on which Cope based the genus Brijnctinus 
\ ormatinn-. West, p. 282, pi. xlv, figs. 13-13b), is preserve.! 

■i-'iii of an Edn- 
Of tin* genu* 

i lowed fn.ii; 
(a), and frum Hi.- - > (> . 7197 

Amer. Mm. X |. 

20. Diagram showhik' tin- part of 
the Edaphodont VOOMrtM BMMd '•> Cope, 

Brynctinu*. X \. 

ill the Aineri,.,,! Mii-mm OoOectioitt ( \... 7107). It was refi-ured l.y the 
writer in 1006 Id, p. :;;, |i k r. \g^ vv h«.„ j, s true nature was still not under- 

224 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

stood. It is clearly part of a chinueroid dental plate, but one so fragmentary 
that it should not have been made a type, certainly not the type of a genus. 
While restodying the element recently, its true nature became apparent. 
It is • fragment represf Siting the postero-lateral angle of a left vomerine of 
Edaphodon, as indicated in Fig. 20. Three of the six to nine tritors 
preaenl in a complete vomerine, are preserved. 

As a result of this interpretation, Bryactinus is to be considered a syn- 
onym of Edaphodon and not a distinct genus. 

2. The Upper Cretaceous Chima?roid Egg-case. 

A fossil egg-case has been described from the Upper Cretaceous of 
Wyoming, which should here be briefly referred to. A preliminary notice 
of it was published by Gill [13], and an analysis of its principal characters, 
accompanied by an excellent photograph, by Dean [10]. The genus to 
which the capsule belongs cannot, of course, be definitely determined. 
All one may conclude is, in the words of Professor Dean, that " it presents 
features which recall the capsules of what have generally been regarded 
as the older forms [among recent genera] of chimaeroids, — callorhynchids, 
harriottids and rhinochima>roids." [10, p. 265]. Professor Dean con- 
siders that " Elasmodus (possibly the closely related EUumodeelet) might 
well have been the parental form" of this egg-case. 

The main value of this capsule, from the standpoint of the present 
study, is the evidence it affords of the existence of chimseroids in the Cre- 
taceous sea of the western portions of North America — the so-called 
Coloradoan sea [Schuchert, 24] ; possibly, too, it may indicate the existence, 
in American waters, toward the close of the Cretaceous, of another genus in 
addition to those described in the preceding pages. 

3. The Supposed Chimseroid Fin-spine, Sphagepcea aciculata Cope. 

(Fig. 21.) 

In 1869, Cope [6, p. 241] described a very small, incomplete spine, 
which he thought might represent a pyenodont, a chimseroid, or even a 
plectognath, which he named Sphagepcea aciculata. The type is preserved 
in his collection in the American Museum (So. 2235), and was figured by 
the present writer, in his ' Catalogue of Types and Figured Specimens,' in 
1908 [16, p. 50, fig. 22]. The only reason for referring to this spine here is 
the opinion expressed by Cope that it might belong to a chimaeroid, and the 
statement by Woodward [27, p. 84] that it might "possibly" belong to 

The spine is well represented in Fig. 21. It is very small, probably 
not over 1$ or 2 centimeters in length when complete, and armed on the 

1913.] Hussakof, Creiaceous Chimaroida of North America. _'_'•" 

interior margin with small, sharp, upwardly-pointing denticles. The 
lateral faces bear several st nations which extend the entire preserved por- 
tion of the spine; and posteriorly it presents two ridges separated by a deep 

To the writer it has seemed doubtful whether Spfuigepora represents a 
ehimaroid, and in the 'Catalogue' mentioned above, he placed the genus 
among the Ichthyodorulites. This view has 
adopted by Fowler [11, p. 144]. In all 
chinueroids, from Mt/riucaiithux tip, the dorsal 
fin— pines are Angularly constant in general 
character. The anterior margin is a sharp edge 

bout denticles; whereas the posterior face 
is armed with two rows of small denticles, 

separated from each other by a furrow extend- 
arly the whole length of the spine. (Cf. 
figure of Ednphodon spine, Fig. 5). Now in 
the small spine, Sphagepota, both these chanc- 
re lacking: the anterior margin, instead 
of being smooth, has a row of denticles, and 
the posterior face lacks the double row of 

•ides always present in chimseroid spines. fig. 21. Sphagtpaaadcuiata 
-ems best, therefore, not to express any Co p*' laooiapte* fln-spine. 

• <r* - - . Typo. No. 2235 Amor. 

positive opinion regarding the affinities of x 4. 
Sphagepcpa, but to place it, for the present at 
least, among the Ichthyodorulites. 

SUMMAKY <>l \i. <ONCLU8Io\- 

ihoWD in this paper tl 

l. The eom chimtsrotds which have been described 

from North America are reducible to three Ednphndnn, LtptomfJUi, 


the moal nn s nmnn form. The 12 spoon which have 
been referred to it are reducible to six. 

3. Of these six, the two named by (ope, Ednphodon Smocki and /-.'. 

trtihu, are identifiable with the European forms /•;. agasrizi and E. 

I ■ ived to a later time Daman in America than 

111 Bnwj iaii . The time relations between Ku rope and America 

at the close of th< I imilar to thOM of the present day; 

certain species still living in America which had but recently' (in a 
geological sense) become extinct in Europe, 

L'-'ti Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [\o\. XX XI, 

5. Leptomylus represents the advancing line with a tendency to dev 1< >p 
cutting, instead of crushing, dental plates. This genus, however, is too 
specialized to be considered ancestral to the modern forms. Their ancestor 
is probably a genus like Elasmodus or Elasmodcctes. 

6. There are three localities in America from which Cretaceous chimee- 
roids are at present known: New Jersey, Mississippi and Wyoming. The 
first has yielded 9 of the 1 1 American forms, the other two localities only 
one species each. 

Papers Cited. 

1. Agassiz, L. 

1837-44. Recherches sur lea poissons fossiles, Tome III. 

2. Buckland, William. 

1836. Notice on the fossil beaks of four extinct species of fishes, referable to 
the genqs Chima?ra, which occur in the Oolitic and Cretaceous formations of 
England. Proc. Geol. Soc. London, III, pp. 205-206 (read in 1835; Philos. 
Mag. and Journ. Sci., 3 ser., VIII, 1836, pp. 4-6, with note by Prof. Agassiz, 
pp. 6-7. Gives interesting history of his identification of these " beaks " as 
chimaeroid dental plates. 


1838. On the discovery of fossil fishes in the Bagshot sands at Goldworth Hill, 
1 miles north of Guildford. Proc. Geol. Soc. London, II, pp. 687-688. 

4. Chapman, F., and Pritchard, G. B. 

1907. Fossil fish remains from the tertiaries of Australia. Part II. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Victoria, N. S., 20, pp. 59-75, pis. v-viii. 

5. Cope, E. D. 

1869. Descriptions of some extinct fishes previously unknown. Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, pp. 310-317. 




1869. Second addition to the history of the fishes of the Cretaceous of the 
United States. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., XI, pp. 240-244. 

1870. Supplementary notice of a new Chimacroid from New Jersey, Leptomylus 
cookii Cope. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., XI, p. 384. 

1875. The vertebrata of the Cretaceous formations of the west. Rep. I 

Geol. Surv. Territories, II, Holocephali, pp. 281-293. 
Dean, Bashford. 
1906. Chimreroid fishes and their development. Carnegie Institution of 

Washington. Publication No. 32. 

1909. Studies on fossil fishes (sharks, Chimseroids, and Arthrodires). Mem. 

Amer. Mns. Nat. Hist., IX, pp. 209-287, pis. xxvi-xli. 
VI. A Chimaeroid egg-capsule from the North American Cretaceous, pp. 265- 

267; pi. xxxvii. 
11. Fowler, H. W. 

1911. A description of the fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene and 

Miocene formations of New Jersey. Geol. Surv. N. J., Bull. 4. 

II issakof, Cretaceous Chimaroids of North America. 227 

U Carman, Samuel. 

1911. The Chismopnea (Chimaroids). Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XI, pp. 81- 

Gill, Theo. 

An interesting Cretaceous Chima?roid egg-case. Science, N. S., XXII, 
14. Harlan, R. 

of Plesiosaurian and other fossil reliquise, from the State of New 
Jersey Medical ami Physical Researches: or Original Memoirs .... Phila- 
delphia, 1835. Pp. 382-385, with 1 plate. 
Hay, O. P. 
1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil vertebrata of North America. 

Hull. V .8 . ( ieol. Surv., No. 179. 
Hussakof, L. 

1908. Catalogue of types and figured specimens of fossil vertebrates in the 
American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXV, 
part 1. 
17 Kummel, H. B. 

1911. The Cretaceous and Tertiary formations of New Jersey. Geol. Surv. 

. Bull. 1. pp. 7-21. 
Leidy, J. 

Notice of remains of extinct vertebrated animals of New Jersey, collected 
Prof. Cook of the State Geological Survey under the direction of Dr. W. 
Kitchell. I'roc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, VIII, pp. 220-221. 


l ^7ii. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the western territories. 

B. Geol. Surv. Territories, 1. 
Leriche, M. 

1906. Contribution a l'ctude des poissons fossiles du nord de la France etdes 
regions voisines. Mtm.Soc. Geol.duNord, Y, MemoireNo. 1. 430pp., 17 pis. 

SI. Marsh, O. C. 

ls7<> \..ti. e of some new Tertiary and Cretaceous hshes. (Abstract). Proc. 

Amer. Assoc . 18th meeting, pp. 227-230. 

Newton, E. T. 
1878 Cliima ruid fishes of the British Cretaceous rocks. Mem. Geol. Surv. 

United Kingdom, IfoaofT. IV, pp. viii-62, pis. i-xii. 
Sauvage, Emile. 
1867. Catalogue des poissons des formations secondaries du Boulonnais. 8*, 

100 pp., pis. i iv B<>ulogne-sur-M< r 
Schuchert, Charles. 
1910. Paleography of North America. Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 20, pp. 427- 

606, pla. 46-101. 
Weller, Stuart. 

1907. A report on the Cretaceous paleontology of New Jersey. Geol. Surv. 

Psltontolofj . IV, 871 pp., cxi pis. (bound separat. 
26. White, Charles A. 

1891. Correlation papers. Cretaceous. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 82. 
Woodward, A. S. 

l Ml. Catalogue of the fossil fishes in the British Museum (Natural History). 
Part II Holocephali, pp. 36-92. 




Plate XIX. 

Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. X \. 

Figs. 1,2. Type of " Diphrissa solidulus " (Cope). Left mandibular in outer 
(1), and oral (2), views. No. 7193 Amer. Mus. 

Fig. 3. Type of Edaphodon "gaskilli" (Cope). Left mandibular in oral Mpoct 
No. 7196 Amer. Mus. 

Figs. 4, 5. Two of the types of Edaphodon "fecundus" (Cope). Left mandibu- 
lar in outer (4), and oral (5), views. No. 2225 Amer. Mus. 

Figs. 6, 7. Type of Edaphodon "longirostris" (Cope). Left mandibular in 
outer (6), and oral (7), views. The tip of the mandibular is restored. No. 2230 
Amer. Mus. 

Figs. 8, 9. Type of Edaphodon "incrassatus" (Cope). Right mandibular 
in outer (8), and oral (9), views. No. 2234 Amer. Mus. 

All from the Jerseyan, probably Hornerstown "K" division [= Danian of 
Europe]; mostly Hornerstown, N. J. 

Plate XX. 

Fig. 1. Large chimaeroid dorsal fin-spine, type of Marsh's genus Dipristis (D. 
meir8ii); probably identical with Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. den., posterior denti- 

Upper Cretaceous (Hornerstown, "K"); Hornerstown, New Jersey. No. 292 
Yale University Museum. X f • 

Figs. 2, 3. Edaphodon mirificus Leidy. Palatal plate in oral (2), and lateral 
(3), views. Cotype of Edaphodon "feci'Mus" (Cope). No. 2225 Amer. Mus. X f. 

Jerseyan, probably Hornerstown " J*, division [ = Danian of Europe]; Horners- 
town, New Jersey. 

I \ \l \ II 

\ \\i Plati XIX 

* M 

Craunou Dbmtal Plaim (MopAolMi) 

\ M \ II 

Vol. XXXF. Platb XX. 

CHI1IJCK..II, |, Pal\T\i 

56.4(118 7 



By T. D. A. < '<>< kkkki.i, wi) Junius Hem 

Plato XXI urn XXII. 

Tin- American Museum of Natural History lias in tin- course of a number 

brought together a small hut important collection of land and 

lollusca from the mammal-hearing horizons of the western 

lateriaJa have been sec u red incidentally while searching 

for mains, and it is prohahlc that they do not adequately 

the Mi'lliiM-an fauna' of the several localities, the smaller species 

tving been frequently overlooked. Nevertheless, considering 

it\ knowledge we possess of the Tertiary land and freshwater 

molhiM a of North America, and the fine species now added to the short 

the collection must be considered a very valuable one; especially since 

the species come from horizons the precise relative age of which is known. 

We in greatly indebted to Dr. \Y. I). Matthew for the opportunity to 

I describe the collection. 

LAND Moid.! - 

Basai dVm i 
Helix nacimientensis II 

WI. I 

imienien* U. S. Ck*>l. Burv. (1886), p. 26; pi. 5, 

Lytinoi nacimienten$i* (White) Coceehell, Hull. Am.r. M . \ V 1 1 

(1906), p. 459. 

oUeeted in the Torrejon l>eds, 

\I.\ico (liromt, 1896). 

described from the Puerco, at i time when the Torrejon 

.rate name. Probably all the Pnerco moQuaca 

' iiite in the Bulletin cited come boa the Torrejon. 

^'"' ""- iboi the sculpture of the upper whorls, mntfcting of 

: ' rM " ,,li M"<-i owth. In Bomesheus there is an appearance 

of 1 tainlj due to veatherini Wn young 

230 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. (Vol XWI. 

shells, less than 8 mm. diameter, have a sharp keel. Adults vary consider- 
ably in form, some being higher and more compact than others; it is possible 
that the flatter and broader ones represent a second species, but we believe 
not. Pilsbry (Manual of Conchology, part 58, p. 68) remarks that this 
species is "apparently referable to the Mexican genus Lysinoe, judging by 
the size, the circumumbilical angle, etc." There is a superficial resemblance 
to Helix spatiosa Meek & Hayden, from the Lower Eocene, but the latter 
has rounded whorls and a wider umbilicus. 

With the H. nacimientensis is a single specimen of another species, 
crushed and very imperfect. It seems too large for //. adipis White, and 
so far as can be seen does not differ from //. rip<iri<i White, described from 
the Green River Eocene. It probably represents an undescribed species, 
which if complete would be found to differ from //. riparia. 

Lower Eocene. 
Oreohelix megarche sp. nov. 

Plate XXII, Figs. 4-6. 

Shell depressed, the spire broadly subcorneal; whorls about 5\, flattened above 
and below, the last whorl with the periphery obtuse, broadly rounded, but the Mutter 
ones angular, a strong keel extending as far as the fourth; sutures rather prominent; 
umbilicus widely open, with a diameter of about 10 mm.; aperture apparently as 
usual in Oreohelix, but not perfectly preserved in any of the specimens. Embryo 
(about two whorls) with strong, regular, close oblique ribs, following the lines of 
growth, about eight in one mm.; rest of shell rather coarsely obliquely strigose, the 
sculpture more or less irregular, the ribs increasing in size on the later whorls, where 
they are moderately sharp, about ten in five mm., but not distinct or even enough 
to count accurately. Diameter, max. 41, min. 35 mm.; alt. about 23 mm.; spire 
10 mm. or considerably less. 

Locality. — Wasatch beds, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, five specimens. The type 
and three others were collected three miles southeast of Otto (W. S., Aug. 14, 1910). 

This very fine species is larger than any living Oreohelix, but in spite of 
its great antiquity, we feel confident in referring it to that genus. The 
sculpture and form agree exactly, and in particular the very characteristic 
sculpture of the embryonic whorls reproduces accurately the condition 
found in such species as 0. ehirieahuana Pilsbry from Arizona. The spiral 
sulcus or depression above the suture, characteristic of the upper whorls 
of Oreohelix, is distinctly visible. 

1912.) Cockerell and Henderson, Western Tertiary Mollusca. 231 

Oreohelix grangeri sp. now 

Plate XXI. Kigs. 5-9. 

Shell depleted, the specimens crushed, but apparently originally at least as flat 
as O. elrodi Pilsbry; whorls about 4g (probably not quite adult); periphery very 
sharply keeled; surface coarsely obliquely irregularly strigose; embryo shell with 
regular fine sharp ribs as in other species, about 12 in a mm.; no distinct spiral 
lines, above or below. Max. diam. about 21 mm. 

Locality. — Ralston Beds; Lower Eocene of Big Horn Basin, Wyoming (Sinclair 
and Granger). Three specimens. 

Thi> i> very like 0. elrodi Pilsbry, but the nuclear whorls are more convex, 
with finer sculpture, and without the depressed line above the suture. 
With regard to the general sculpture of the shell, the fossil may be compared 
more closely with 0. chiricnhxuuin /» rmririata P. & F., which only seems to 
differ in the more evident traces of spiral lines. 

Gastrodonta (?) evanstonensis (White). 

.r evanstonensis Whitk. Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr., IV, 1878, p. 

Described fn>m the Evanston beds, supposed at the time to be Laramie 
Cretaceous, but now considered to be Eocene. 

Gastrodonta | ! | evanstonensis var. Sinclair! v. now Cockerell. 

Plate XXI. F&JL I. J. 

nearly 9 mm., diam. 9 mm. Differs from the typical form by the more 
elevated spire. Whorls six; base Battened; last whorl obliquely striate. Appar- 
mtrodonta of the type of G. lioera (Say). It fa very likely a distinr 
•semblance to //. evanstonensis is such that it seems better at present to 
regard it as a varii 

— "About three miles north of Ralston; f Vfantflk (Ralston Beds 
Collected by \\ .1 Sm.lair, Aug. 12. 1911. 

U found with a couple of Phyxa ph ro White and a quantity (> f 

Pinpora pohttkntsftrwrn Hall. 

Glyptostoma (?) ipatiosum U 4 llnydm). 

• spatiosa Meek A I la. for 1861, p. 446. 

Maeroeydis spatiosa (M. AH U. S. Geol Surv T. rr IX 1876), 

i» BM 

I specimens from the Wind River Beds, 
mflti west of M„,.k Spring, Alkali < f ming, collected by Walter 

Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Granger, Aug. 23, 1909. The shell has the closest possible resemblance to 
the living (Californian) Glyptostoma ?icwbcrryanuni (\Y. (J. Binney), which 
was formerly referred t<> MacrocycUs, the genus Glyptostoma not having been 
separated when Meek wrote. Our largest specimen of spatiosum has a 
diameter of 47 mm. which happens to be exactly the diameter of Binney's 
largest G. nru-bcrri/anum. The modern shell is considerably more depro 
than G. spatiosum. 

Helix leidyi Hall it Meek. 

Plate XXII, Figs. 1-3. 
Helix leidyi Hall & Meek, Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., IX (1876), p. 604. 

This is a species having much the form of the Mexican Helix buffoniana 
Pfeiffer. The shells vary from alt. 28, diam. 29 mm., to alt. 23, diam. 30 mm., 
but this appears to be a matter of individual variation. The moredepra 
form occurs along with the subglobose form in the Protoceraa beds. 

The localities represented are (1) Protoceras Beds, Cheyenne B 
Dakota, and (2) Oreodon Beds, White River, one mile north of Grover, S. 
Dakota, 1902. In the original description, this species was ascribed to the 

Omphalina oreodontis sp. nov. 
Plate XXI, Figs. 10, 11. 

Shell depressed, with about 3£ whorls, the last near the mouth as broad as the 
whole spire; upper surface not well preserved, but showing feeble oblique striae 
following the lines of growth; under surface of last whorl smooth and shining, 
porcelain-like, without evident sculpture; columella apparently rather robust; 
umbilicus reduced to a chink, or at least small and narrow; aperture nearly 12 mm. 
high, 13 broad; periphery rounded. Max. diam. 24, alt. 13 mm. 

Locality. — Oreodon Beds, Pawnee Buttes, Colorado. 

Except that it is more depressed, this seems to correspond very closely 
with 0. laevigata (Pfeiffer) of the Southern States. 

Polygyra dallii Straws. 

//( lix (Monodon ?) dallii Stearns, Bull. 18, U. S. Geol. Survey (1885), p. 14. 
Polygyra dalli Stearns, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II (1900), p. 655. 

John Day Formation, John Day Basin, Oregon, collected by Wortman, 
Sternberg and others, about 1879. 

This should not be cited as of "Stearns ms., White," as the whole of the 
description is by Stearns, and is properly credited to him. 

1912. 1 Cockerell and Henderson, Western Tertiary Mollusca. 233 

Eot i 
Planorbis militaris White. 

One, in the same material as the types of Oreohelix grangeri. Ralston 
Beds (Lower Eocene), Big Horn Basin, Wyoming. 

Planorbis utahensis Meek. 

In iptte ol it> name, this species was originally described from Wyoming. 
Thr excellent material has two labels, the field label stating that it 

bakie B, upper l>«ds, below white stratum, Haystack M., east 
; collector P. M.. Oct 2. 1906. 

other, later, label says Washakie horizon ? A. 

Physa pleromatis White. 

Two collected with Gaatrodonta (?) sinclairi, Big Horn Basin, about 
three miles north of Ralston (W. J. Sinclair). 

Vivipara paludinaformis Hall. 
Mam collected with Physa pleromatis, as tfiven above. 

Vivipara wyomingensis Meek. 
tin.- ihefl; I'ppcr Bridger, Bridger Basin, Wyoming {W. G., 1904). 

Goniobasis tenera Hall. 

Good mat. rial from thr Wa>atch, one mile lOUth of St. Joe, Wyoming 
r, 1910). There is some other material in the colleetion which 
cannot now be determined definitely. 

(1.) Tatman Mt., Big Horn Ba-in. \\ '\ ..iiiin-. al>out 200 ft. below top; 

poesihly White River formation. Ganoid Bbh scales and very im pe rfect 
Deluding a lirijxtra of the type of wyomingenaia Meek and a 
emliliiig floriaaantcnai* Ckll. See also Bull. Am. Mus. N. 
H . \\\. p. no. 

Ltnm S Dakota; "locality unknown; with White 

Brver CoOed \ Vitifxira in very poor condition; it may 1><- I'. /, <j 

M I EL, so far as unwhim 



Plate XXI. 

Fig. 1. Gastrodonla evamlonensis sinclairi Ckll. Big Basin, Wyo. Type 

it n " " " " " " " " '. 

" 3. Helix nacimientensis White. 70 miles W. of Nacimiente {. 

** 4. " " Depressed form. 70 miles W. of Nacimi< ntc ;. 

" 5. Oreohelix grangeri C & H. Big Horn Basin, Wyo. r. 

«( r> tt It It It tt " W !_ 

H n it it it It tt tt tt 1 

it q M it tt tt tt tt tt 

" 9. " " Spire enlarged. Big Horn Basin, \\ v.. 

" 10. Omphalina oreodontis C & H. Pawnee Buttes, Col. Type \. 

tt || tt U » " " " " *. 

Plate XXII. 

Fig. 1. Helix leidyi Hall & Meek. Young. ]. 

tt n tt it l 

&. j. 

tt q (< ii 

" 4. Oreohelix megarche C. & H. Big Horn Basin, Wyo. 

It e It It I 

O. ,- ^ 

" 6. " " Spire enlarged, j. 

\ M V II 

Vol. XXX I Pn: 

l\H\ MoLLI HCA Ht«'\| TH1 WEST. 

::-. \ M \ II 

Vol. XXXI, Plate XXII 


fi0.83.4O (67. 6) 



By Frank M. < hm-mw 
Plates XXIII and XXIV. 

Mr. and Mr>. ( arl E. Akeley have recently presented to the American 
Museum a pair of Ibises, together with their nest, a portion of an egg-shell, 
and three young, which they collected on the south slope of Mt. Kenia, 
British East Africa, at an altitude of 9000 feet. They also observed the 
eeiei <>n the higher parts of Mt. Elgon and of the Aberdare Moun- 
tains. It appears to represent an undescribed generic type for which, with 
relation to its range and in honor of its discoverers, I propose the name 

Oreoibis akleyorum gen. et sp. now 

gen. — Most nearly related to Hagedashia, but pileum with a conspicuous 
emit of rounded feathers, 90 to 100 mm. in length; entire orbital and loral space bare 
and not papillose, resembling, in this respect, Lophotibis (which, however, has the 
tarsus scutellate not lotsmlell M in the present genus). Related also to Lampribis 
but with the forehead and the base of the mandible feathered, the bill shorter and 
heavier, tin- erest more ptouounoed. Type, Oreoibis akleyorum. 

r. »p. — Agreeing in Use with Hagedashia hagedash, in color most closely 
res em bling Lampribis oliracea, but crest wood-brown, malar stripe buffy, greater 
wing-coverts externally bronzy as in ffsfSSSaUs, bark greener. 

Tyj* v. ill-Ms. An M. Nnl il -• r sd., sit. 9000 ft* south steps of 
Bast Africa, Sept •">. 1010; Mr end Mrs. Carl K. Akes 

De*< / Bead and neck all around rich wood-brown, the anti tut 

I the Crest slightly darker mcdinnly, the longjSf feathers with faint silvery 

• il margins; an evident but sol sharply dnHnjnl buffy malar strips; back 

interscapular* OUTS gTSSB with bSBUSS reflections, the former margined with wood- 
brow ii ; lower back, rump, and upper ts fl -OOTCT U 'lark blue with greenish rsflsst 
wmg-<pulb dark purple, the exjxis«><| por ti ons richer, the color increasing in intc: 
on the mi iiiiued with greenish on the terminal port ioi 

• uter vine-, while the tertial- become bronzy olive-green; primary and greater 
wuii.' purple, toe outer vanes of the Isttei I the tip, golden bn 
producing, in the proper light, a well-defined area of this color; remaining wing- 
eoverU highly metallic vivid green with, in certain lights, strong purplish reflections; 

olorooeupisi about the basal half of the closed wing and is sharply defined from 

the wing; breast dark wood-brown with green reflections, 

rest of underpsrte ottYfrfrsu sj the flanks, lbs feslhsn all more or less 

ghwd with brownish; thighs purplish wood-brown; lower IsJl OUHrtl much 


'_' 36 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Ufce Upper tail-coverts; under wing-coverts and axillars purplish black; t >il 1 dark 
maroon, brownish basally; bare areas on the head dull black; feel brownish born; 
in life "bill red, bare portions of head ashy black, legs olive; iris dark brawn" 

Culmcn, 119; mandible from gonys, 48; distance from gonydeal angle lo inter- 
ratiial feathers, 49; depth of bill at posterior margin of nostril, 27; width at same 
place, 17; from posterior margin of nostril to posterior margin of bare orbital space, 
48; wing, 368; tail, 168; tarsus, 65.5; middle toe and claw, 7.">; hind-toe and claw, 
36; bare portion of tibia, 30 mm. 

Description of female. — Resembles the male in color but is slightly smaller. 
Culmen, 113; mandible from gonys, 46; distance from gonydeal angle to inter- 
ramal feathers, 48; depth of bill at posterior margin of nostril, 24.5: width at same 
place, 16; from posterior margin of nostril to posterior margin of bare orbital space, 
48; wing, 336; tail, 162; tarsus, 64.5; middle toe and claw, 69; hind-toe and claw, 
32; bare portion of tibia, 26 mm. 

Description of young in natal down. — Uniform brownish black; the orbital and 
loral region bare as in the adult. 

Description of egg. — (Based on part of shell figured). Ground-color pale pea- 
green more or less stained with cinnamon-rufus and with irregular blotches of chest- 
nut more or less evenly distributed. Much less heavily marked, therefore, than the 
egg of Hagedashia as figured in Cat. Eggs B. M ., II. pi. i, fig. 5. 

Remarks. — Any opinion in regard to the generic status of [bines depends 
largely upon the relative classificatory value given to the manner in which 
the head is feathered. To ignore this character would result in the union 
of genera whose distinctness has long been recognized, while the consistent 
application of similar standards leads us to the view of Reichenow ■ who, 
in a recent article, places Lampribis and Hagedashia in the genus TherisUctU. 
The two former are forest-inhabiting, the latter frequents plains and pastures 
where its more active habits, both on the ground and in the air. are appar- 
ently reflected in its longer legs and tail and markedly more pointed wings, 
while its color scheme is evidently related to the open nature of its haunts 
and is as different from that of Lampribis and Hagedashia as plain is from 
forest. There is, therefore, abundant reason for the numerous generic 
differences which exist between the American and African birds, and ire 
imagine that few ornithologists will endorse Reichenow's estimate of their 
generic relationships. To have referred Lampribis to H a rpi p rion would 
have been more to the point. When, however, it comes to a consideration 
of the African birds inlet sc, the lines are more tightly drawn. 

Having no material with which to discuss the standing of the various 
races of Lampribis olitaeea, I may simply state that my single specimen 
of this species (collected by Du Chaillu on the River Muni in Western 

' Ornith. Monatsb., 1903, pp. 132-136. 

19121 >man, A Sew Ibis from British East Africa. 237 

Africa and loaned BM by tin- Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia) 
with Klliot's plate (P. X S .. I s ", PI LI) hut lacks the purplish 
on the lesser wing-covert> which, as Salvadori x has said, was probahly 
added for artistic effect 

The brownish margins of the feathers of the underparts of this specimen, 
which are accurately shown by Elliot's plate, are said to indicate immaturity, 
hut it is worthy of note that the hare forehead and face are similar to those 
of the adult, evidence of tin- genetic value of this character. More striking 
proof of this belief is furnished by the newly hatched young of OreoSrit 
which, as the accompanying plate shows, have the bare areas of the head 
similar in extent to those of the adult. As an alternative, therefore, to 
placing distantly related Ihises under one p'nib. I feel that we are here 
warranted in accepting the pterylosis of the head as of significance in 
crca* ric distinctions. 

hid, Lampribis, and Oreoibis form a group of closely related 
generic forms which agree in possessing certain characters in common 
(e. g., rounded wings, short tarsi, and I more or less well defined malar 

pe) while other characters (e. g., crested pileum and pattern of wing 
coloration) are shared by only two of the three, and in the feathering of the 
head no two are alike. In some respects Oreoibis is intermediate between 
Lampribis and Hagcdashia, having the crest and general color of the former, 
and tin of hill and pattern of wing-covert coloration of the latter; 

hut in its hare facial areas and feathered chin it is unlike any other Ihis 
except Lopko HM i, from which it is widely differentiated by possessing 
date in place of scutellate tarsi. 

It is not often that in puhlishing a description of a new generic type of 
hinl <>m may also include a photograph of its nest and young, and a descrip- 
tion of its habits. Thanks, however, to Mr. and Mr>. Carl K. Akeley, the 
discoverers and collector- of thai line new [bin, I can present the accom- 
panying plate and append the following field-notes written by Mr. Akel. g : 

" \\. fir r obsenred this Il>i> when camped in the l»aml>oo forest at about 

8000 feet altitude on the Aheredare Mountain-. Night after night, ju-t 

at dusk, a pair of them would My over our (amp always in the same direction. 

It was rare that we could get a glimpse of them as they flew high above the 

t, I. ut their load, raucous cries seemed to drown all other forest sounds. 

•hi> time we supposed them to he Carter Ihises (Hagedashia), which we 
had collected on Laki «sha and Bfemeuteita, noma 8000 lent lower 

down in the Rift Valley. The calls seemed to me to he precisely -imilar 

those of tl d we assumed that the hi rds were coming up into 

the mountain fore id the night. 

> Ibli. 1903. p. 182. 

LJo* Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XWI. 

"Later, while hunting in the forests of Mt. Kenia, we flushed a small 
flock that were feeding on the ground in the dense jungle where the bamboo 
and forest proper meet. This is at about 10,000 feet. On this occasion, 
as the birds flew from the ground, they perched for an instant on low branches, 
throwing out their crests and we realized that they were not Hagedaikim. 
Then for many weeks we had no opportunity to observe a specimen, though 
every evening a number of pairs would fly over high above our camp deaden- 
ing all other sounds with their extraordinary clamor. 

"At last one of them, hard pressed by a hawk, after curving and dodging 
above our camp until nearly exhausted, took refuge between our tents and 
it was secured. This was the only specimen collected on that trip. 

" In 1910, when camped in dense forest at about 9000 feet on Kenia, Mrs. 
Akeley observed a nest within a hundred yards of our camp. It was loosely 
constructed of dead branches on the limb of a small tree about 25 feet 
from the ground, and contained three young and a fragment of an egg-shell. 
We secured the birds, old and yonng, after photographing them and their 
nest. The stomach of the male contained only a few fragments of beetles 
while that of female contained a large quantity of vegetable matter — appar- 
ently green leaves, beetles, and segments of Myriopods. The abdomen 
of the female was less denuded of feathers than that of the male. 

"This is a mountain-inhabiting Ibis and we observed it only in the 
Aberdare Mountains at 9000 feet; on Mt. Kenia from 6000 to 12,000 feet 
(timber line); and on Mt. Elgon from 8000 to about 10,000 feet, while 
Hagedashia was not found to range above 6000 feet." 

- * 
: - 

= - 








By W. DeW. Miller. 

Plates XXV and XXVI. 


The purpose of the present paper is mainly two-fold, first: To establish 
the proper subfamily divisions of the Alcedinidae; second, to bring out the 
characters and relationships of the three genera currently united under 

Hie (oik ln-ions are based on all available material both in the form of 
-kin- and skeletons, and lists of the species examined are appended. The 
fir-t li-t includes members of every currently recognized genus of the family. 

I >r. P. Ghafanen Mitchell's paper 'On the Anatomy of the Kingfishers' ' 
ha- 1>< < ii drawn upon for the myological characters. 

The greater part of the material used is in the collection of the American 
Mn-< inn of Natural Hi-tory. For the loan of additional specimens I am 
much indebted to the United States National Museum, through Dr. Charles 
\\ . Richmond, to the Brooklyn In-titute of Arts and Science-, through 
Mr Robert < Murphy, and to Mr. .lain.- II Fleming of Toronto. 


. re 


List of Species examined 240 

Summary of Conclusions Ml 

Classification adopted Ml 

Classifications of Sharpe and fasdevafl 242 

Diagnoses of the Subfamilies ... 243 

Cerylina- 243 

Al<-e<lininie ... 244 

Ditcelonina- .... ... -Ml 

Table of SoJbfattJfr Characters 245 

Table showing relative Den <f Characters 246 

Characters of the Subfamilies ml 247 

- IMI, \> »7. 



Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \\.\l 

Cerylinae . . . . 


The position of Ramphakyon 
Remarks on other Genera 



List of Species Examim id. 

I. Skins. 

Ramphalcyon melanorhyncha 


capensis (races) 
Megaceryle (all species, not M. 

Ceryle (all forms) 
Chloroceryle (all species) 
Alcedo ispida 





Corythornis vintsioides 

Alcyone azurea 

Ceyx euerythra 


Ceycopsis fallax 
Ispidina picta 

Myioceyx lecontei 
Syma torotoro 
Lacedo pulchella 
Melidora macrorhina 
Clytoceyx rex 
Dacelo gigas 

Choucalcyon gaudichaudi 


Halcyon coromandus 





















Todiramphus recurvirostris 
Cittura cyanotis 
Monachalcyon monachus 
Tanysiptera nympha 






II. Skeletons. 

Ramphalcyon capensis (palatines im- 

Megaceryle torquata 

Chloroceryle americana 

amazona (skull, palatines imperfect) 

Alcedo ispida (skulls) 
Dacelo gigas 

Halcyon chloris (palatines imperfect) 
" concretus (sternum and shoul- 
der girdle) 

1912.] ler, Classification of Kingfishers. 241 


family Alcedinkbe is divisible into three subfamilies, Cerylina? 

lininae (7 genera). Dacelonhue (12 currently recognized 

i; probably one or two more definable). 

pkalcjfon a tin- only genus in regard to the position of which there 

can be any uncertainty. It is lure placed in the Daceloninse, which I 

believe to be its proper place; the only alternative is to create an additional 

subfamily for it. 

The < • rylime constitute a well-defined group separated from the two 
Other subfamilies by a number of excellent characters. These are carried 
to an extreme in MegaceryU which is also characterized by seven] remark- 
able |« •< iiliaritics in which it differs not only from Ceryle and Cfdoroceryle 
but from every other genus in the family. These characters are both 
rnal and internal, but the latter are not known in Ceryle which may 
pro omewhat intermediate lietween the two related genera in its 

and myology as it is in several external features. 
Alcedinhue combine some of the characters of the Cerylina- with 
Other* of the Dacekmines, and possess several marked peculiarities of their 
own. They arc less closely related to the ( erylime and more closely to the 

Dnrclonina than usually eoneidered. 

current names 8amromarptU and Cartintutei must be replaced by 
icaleyon ' and Laeedo* respectively. Iloth the older names were re- 
ii grounds of purism. Dacrln ami Lacedo are both anagrams of 
Aieedo and if the former il accepted the latter must be also. 

< i ,\»in< vnm Aix'i'i n>. 

Ltion here adopted is set forth below. It should be under- 
d that no attempt has In-eti made to revise the genera of the second 
and third sul also that the order of genera in the I >aceloninie — 

the nine ai thai of Sharpe's I land-LisI n itli the addition of RampkaUyon) — 
while unsatisfactory || probab! .my that can he devind with 

our pr.-. tit knowledge and perhaps us natural as any linear arrangement 

vna. Trait* D< 248. Type by aubaequcat deaUnation (Grmy. MM). 

AUtdo gaud. > «t (iaim Tbta genua originally contained two apwica: I ' . 

taudir). ac«nad aperies la the aaroe aa DaetU **•«»*•« (Latham). 

whlrh \- eqn i»y monotypyi of t) actio Leach. ISM 

« Rcichenbarh. Handlmcb. . ih.ii. 41. Type by subsequent designation 
1S&5). DmttU pmUhtlla HorsAeid 

242 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 



Megaceryle Chloroceryle 



Alcedo Ceycopsis 

Corythornis Ispidina 

Alcyone Myioceyx 



Sj-ma Ramphalcyon 

Lacedo Halcyon 

Mclidora Todirhamphus 

Clytoceyx Cittura 

Dacelo Monachalcyon 

Choucalcyon Tanysiptera 

Classifications of Sharpe and Sundevall. 

The classification of the Alcedinidre currently recognized is that of 
Sharpe's 'Hand-List of Birds,' and this is based on his ' Monograph of the 
Kingfishers' published in 1871. 

This author recognized two subfamilies, Alcedinince and Dacelonin;e. 
The former comprises Ramphalcyon, Ceryle (including Chloroceryle and 
Mi (inn ryle), and the three genera of small, short-tailed species with com- 
pressed bills, Alcedo, Corythornis and Alcyone. The four genera of small, 
short-tailed forms with broader bills are placed with the remaining genera 
in the Dacelonince. 

Hn m i > halcyon is an isolated genus, and its exact position is still somewhat 
uncertain, but from consideration of both its internal and its external 
structure I believe it much more naturally located in the Daceloninre than 
next to Ceryle (or Alcedo) to which its resemblances, I believe, are largely 
due to convergence. 

The separation of the genera of the Alcedo-Myioceyz group in two sub- 
families is, in my opinion, altogether artificial and unnatural. The d 
interrelationship of all these genera is indicated by their strong mutual 
resemblances in size, color, and form (particularly the dorsal feathering, 
the very short tail, and the proportionate length of the toes), and it is quite 
evident that the breadth of the bill alone is insufficient for more than 
generic definition. Furthermore, the two groups are nearly, if not quite, 
connected by certain species of Ceyx and Alcyone, while Ispidina lcnro~ 
gastcr is said by Sharpe to approach Corythornis. 

Mdler, Classification of Kingfishers. 243 

These seven genera taken together appear to be sufficiently well char- 

rised to form a subfamily of their own, combining to some extent cer- 
tain eharacters of the two other subfamilies lmt pom «ral peculiar 
to this group. 

The arrangement of subfamilies here proposed resembles that of Sonde* 
vall nmeh more than it does that of Sharpo, differing from the classification 
of the former author only in the separation of the ( Yrylina' from the Alcedi- 
nime. Sundevall, as did Cabanis and Heine, placed Ramphalci/on with 
tin- Daeelonime. The primary division in Sundevall's classification is 
based on the size of the scapulars. In the HalcyooJnse (= Dacelonina?) 
these are -aid to l»e "large, forming a mantle, which hides the whole of 
the back," while in the Alcedinime the scapulars are said to be "small, not 
hiding the back." 

\ shown beyond, the conspicuousness of the dorsal plumage in Alcedo 
and related genera is due largely to the fact that the dorsal tract is continu- 
ous and equally developed, all the feathers much elongated. In the Daeelo- 
nime the dorsal feathers are much shorter. At the same time, however, 
in some at least of the genera of the latter group, the scapulars are unusually 
well developed. 

DlAGNOan of the Subfamilies. 

The three subfamilies proposed may be diagnosed as follow-. A- the 
ological characters are known in but few genera, and some of them will 

probably prove inconstant, they are not enumerated in the diagnoses but 

are given in detail beyond. 

Cerylina. — Alcedinidse of both hemispheres, unrepresented in the Australian 
Region or in the In do- Malayan subregion. the bill long or rather long, compressed, 

• •nth primary' always longer than the fourth except in some specimens of one 

es (C. ctnea), the tail of moderate length or rather long (much more than half 

the length of the wingi, the lower end of the tibia completely l>are for a di-tance equal 

to or greater than the short chord ' of the hallux claw (sometimes for slightly less in 

individuals <>( one or two species — C. ctnea and If. lugubris), the tarsus short or 

hkIv short, shorter than or equal to the inner tOS without daw (sometimes in 

species, C. amea, slightly longer) the toes short or very short, the second toe 

ivelv longer than the others, being (with its claw) never shorter than the third 
toe without claw by as much as the short chord of tin- claw of toe NO _\ tad usually 
equal to or longer than the fourth toe without claw (sometimes a trifle shot- 

lorsal tract somewhat interrupted anteriorly; the lull is never wholly or la:. 

r yellow, the plumage wholly without changeable Line, the entire UppSt surface 
including winn* and tail of one ground color or pattern 

or rectrices always marked with white indicated by thl B of 

the upp. that of the uadsrparta, the sheet "f the s ale always 

from tit! to base of lowir aide of claw. 

244 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

rufous when, as usual, it differs in color from that of the female (which is i- 

Alcedinince. — Small or very small Old World Almdmida, with the tenth primary 
never shorter than the fifth, the tail very short (less than half the length of the wing), 
the bare space at lower end of tibia shorter than the short chord of the hallux claw on 
at least the outer side of the tibia, the tarsus rather short but always decidedly longer 
than the inner toe without claw, the third and fourth toes long, the second short. 
greatly reduced or absent, always (with its claw) much shorter than the third and 
fourth tins, without claws (by more than the short chord of the claw of toe No. 2); 
the dorsal tract perfectly continuous, the feathers being long and conspicuous, tin- 
plumage always with more or less blue or violaceous, the crown spotted or barred 
with blue (in at least some of the species of each genus), the upperparts, remiges or 
rectrices without spots, bars, or conspicuous areas of white, the sexes alike; in the 
color of the upperparts, but occasionally unlike beneath. 

The Alcedininse may be distinguished from both of the other subfamilies at once 
by the following brief diagnosis: Small, very short-tailed Kingfishers, with all the 
feathers of the dorsal tract elongated, the second toe very short or absent . the orbital 
proeessof the quadrate practically wanting. (The last character possibly inconstant. ) 

Dacelonince. — Rather small to very large Alcedinida) re-t rioted to the Old World 
and, with the exception of one genus, to the Australian and Indian Regions, with the 
tenth primary usually much shorter than the fifth (longer only in certain specie- of 
Halcyon), the tail long or rather long (rather short in one species of Halcyon but always 
more than half as long as the wing), the tibia feathered to its extreme lower end 
(partly bare in Ramphalcyon, but the bare space on outer side much shorter than the 
short chord of the hallux claw), the tarsus relatively rather long or long (decidedly 
longer than inner toe without claw), or (in Ramphalcyon) rather short (equalling or a 
trifle exceeding the inner toe without claw), the toes long, the second toe with claw 
shorter than the third without claw (but never by more than the short chord of claw 
of toe No. 2), and shorter than or barely equal to the fourth toe without claw (thflM 
toe proportions not holding in Lacedo); the dorsal tract interrupted near its anterior 
end; the plumage always with blue or greenish blue, the primaries never spotted or 
barred with white and the secondaries and scapulars thus marked only in Lacedo, 
the sexes usually differing more or less in the color of the upperparts or tail, rarely 
(in a few species of Halcyon and in Lacedo) in the color of the underparts. 

Table of Subfamily Characters. 

In the accompanying table (page 245) the characters peculiar to any 
one subfamily are given in italics. 

Relative Development of Characters in the Genera and 

In the following table the genera and subfamilies are arranged according 
to the development of the various characters in each. It is evident that 
the Cerylinae, particularly Megaeetyle, represent one extreme in the majority 
of cases, while in several respects the Alcedininte are the most divergent. 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 








1 Is 

8 . o 

?! f ! 

12 - - 

la : £ 

| 2 - £ | g 

• - — * c as 

5 3 S 

IB = | =5 

- - H 

IIS! 3 ! 

S • » -2 ti ? * * * 
Z.9) ' = 2 

2 If. 

Bulletin American Museum <>J Sutuml History. [Vol. XX XI, 

Iliac process 


Post-palatal spine 

Clavicle process 

Orbital process of quadrate 

Junction of pars plana and d. p. 
of lacrymal 

Tibial feathering 

Length of tarsus 

Length of 2nd toe 

10th Primary 

Length of tail 

Megaceryle, targe. 
Chloroceryle, smaller. 
Daceloninae, vestigial. 

.\ 1 1 'iz'n'cr vie f 

p., | > conspicuously expanded. 

K.unphalcyon, slightly approaching (Vrylin.T. 

] ):n'i loninae (part), Alcedininae, not expanded. 

Megaceryle, vestigial. 

Chloroceryle, short. 

Dacelo, long. 

Alcedo, very long. 

Megaceryle, absent. 

Chloroceryle, moderate. 

Alcedo, Dacelonime, large. 

Alcedo, absent. 

Chloroceryle, slender, sharp. 

Megaceryle, sharp. 

Daceloninae, stout, blunt. 

Megaceryle, upper corner. 

Chloroceryle, near upper corner. 

Alcedo, above middle. 

Halcyon, Dacelo, below middle. 

(Vrvlinae, conspicuously bare all around. 

Alcedininac, average (some like Ramphalcyon, 

some like Daceloninae). 
Ramphalcyon, bare in front, feathered on inside. 
Daceloninae, feathered to or beyond joint. 
Megaceryle, extremely short. 
Chloroceryle, Ceryle, Ramphalcyon, short. 
Alcedininae, slightly longer. 
Daceloninae, relatively rather long and long. 
Megaceryle, Ceryle, Chloroceryle amazona, 

Lacedo, long. 
Chloroceryle (3 species), Daceloninae (exc. 

Lacedo), medium or rather short. 
Alcedinina), short, vestigial or absent. 
Halcyon, part, = 9. 
Cerylinae (exc. 2 Chloroceryle), Alcedininae, 

Halcyon, part, = or > 5. 
Chloroceryle, 2 species, Dacelo, Todirhamphus, 

Halcyon, part, > 3 to = 5. 
Dacelonina?, 9 genera + Halcyon, part,= or < 

3, often < 1. 
Alcedininse, very short. 
Halcyon concretus, short. 
Cerylinae, Daceloninae. part, moderate. 
Daceloninae, part, long. 

r, Classification of Kingfishers. 


Dorsal tract 

.land tuft 

Sexual coloration 

Aleedinuue, continuous, all feathers long. 

CVrvlirue. feathers moderate, short in inter- 
scapular spot. 

• nin:e, part, feathers shorter, short in 
interscapular spot. 

Daceloninie, part, practically bare in inter- 
scapular spot. 

Ramphalcyon, dorsal feathers all very short. 

Cervlinie, Alcedinina?, Daceloninae, part, large 

or moderate. 

ichalcyon, Clytoceyx, rather 

I^acedo, Melidora, vestigial 
Cittura, Tanysiptera, absent 

Cervlinae, Alcedinina?, few, Halcyon, 

(different below). 
Lacedo, (different below and above). 
Alctilinina;, most, Halcyon, most, Todirham- 

phus, Ramphalcyon, Tanysiptera, most, 

(scarcely or not different). 
Daceloninse, most, including Halcyon, few, 

(different above). 

nina>, part. 



The characters of tin- subfamilies in greater detail are given below . 
dina (3 genera). — The only subfamily represented in tin- Western 
i>phere, to which one of the genera i> restricted. It is wholly absent 
from th- on, \<u Zealand, the Philippines, East Indies 

ami Kurope. 

Size exceedingly variable, one of the species almost as small and tun 
nearly as large as the extnin. ■ in the family. Hill long or rather lone. 

ipressed; the proximal half of th.- culmen may be flattened but is not 
« \panded basally as in Ramphalcyon; the gnnys not keeled as in the latter 

A crest always present; short, blended, occipital; longer, less blended, 
occipital, or (in one genus) large, conspicuous, compressed, occipital and 
Vertical, With linear or narrowly linear lanceolate feather-. It is always 
narn.^. unlike tin- wide Hat <n-t of 1 >acelonime and Coriithornis. 

The tenth pritnai ■ r >liorter than the third, and is always l« 

than tin- fourth except in MOM individuals of one species; loBfO 'han the 
seventh in only one species fin which it is often !«•>> . 

Tail rather long (always much more than half as long as the wing), 
graduated for one fifth of its length or less, soineti rly even. 

248 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI 

The lower end of the tibio-tarsus is not feathered to the joint on any ride 
and in front is conspicuously bare. This unfeathered space at its most 
restricted point always at least equals the short chord of the claw of the 
hallux, except in some examples of one or two species. 

The tarsus and hallux are short, extremely short in Megareryle which 
stands alone in the family in this respect. 

In the other genera the tarsus is shorter than that of any of the 
Dacelonin» except Ramphalcyon and slightly shorter than most if not all 
of the Alcedininse. 

All the toes are short (particularly in Megaceryle and Ceryle) differing 
from both other subfamilies. The second toe is moderate or long compared 
with the other anterior toes. 

The second toe with claw is usually equal to or longer than the fourth 
toe without claw, sometimes a trifle shorter; and equal to or longer than the 
third or slightly shorter, never falling short of the third by as much M the 
short chord of the claw of toe No. 2. 

The bill is always black, the lower mandible partially paler (probably 
orange in life) basally in two species of Chloroceryle. These arc al><> the only 
species with red or orange feet. The dorsal feather tract is intermediate 
in character between that of the two other subfamilies. It is interrupted 
in the interscapular region as in the Daceloninae but somewhat less < <>nspicu- 
ously so. The feathers of the lower back and rump are longer and more 
fully developed than in the latter group, but shorter than in the Alcedinina'. 

The Cerylinae are wholly without the blue or greenish blue present in 
every genus of the two other subfamilies and very characteristic of them. 
The upper parts are glossy, metallic green in Chloroceryle, lustreless black 
and white or gray and white or wholly bluish gray in the two other genera. 

In each species the entire upper parts including the crown, wings and 
tail are always of one color or style of coloration — i. e., the ground color 
is similar throughout and any variegation takes the form of markings on the 
individual feathers, no large areas of a different color being present. 

The inner webs of the primaries are usually spotted or indented with 
white. This is more or less marked in all species except Ceryle nulls in 
which the lage white patches give no indication of being broken up into 
spots, and in C. amea in which the inner webs are plain, or at most with a 
fulvous margin. The outer webs of the primaries are also usually marked 
with white. The secondaries and scapulars are always more or less spotted 
or indented and the rectrices barred or otherwise marked with white. 

The sex in all three genera is invariably indicated by the color of the 
underparts (and never by that of the upperparts or tail), particularly by 
the chest or breast band. In both sexes the chest is crossed by a band 

1912.) Her, Clarification of Kingfiahers. 249 

which is of tin .lor as the upperparts (females of nil species, and males 

of two 1 , or rufous (males of all species except two), though in the rufous 
betted speci es tin- rufous of tin- cheat i- continnon- with that of the breast 
ami Ivelly. Thus the color of the ch<xt-l>aii(( usually distinguishes the sexes 
(always in Chlor never in Ccrylc). In one species of Chloroccrylc 

-exes also differ in the color of the throat and breast. In all the species 
• n/h the males may In- distinguished from the females by the color 
of the axillae ami i \eept in one species) by that of the under wing-coverts, 
while in two species there is also a difference in the color of the belly. While 
.-male never has rufous on the chest ami in Mcgaccrylc and Chloroccrylc 
the male p ith one exception) is always rufous there, when there is a differ- 
ence in the color of the axillar-, under wing-coverts, throat, breast or belly 
as above noted the coloration is reversed, and where the male is white the 
female i- rufousor butf. »Vn//c, unique in the absence of rufous in both sexes, 
i- aleo peculiar in having two black bands across the breast of the male. 

Ootaide of the < erylime ■ sexual difference in the color of the underparts 
occurs in only two or three species of Alcedinimc {Alotio and Alcyone) and 
in Lncrdo and one section of Hnh-yon of the Dacelonina-. In none of these, 
how cepl in Laetdo) are the differences of the same nature as in 

Mf(j' nd Chloroccryh Of ' md they have therefore undoubtedly 

•i independently acquired and do not indicate any particular affinity 

he Cerylina?, nor weaken the value of thi- character in the latter group. 

Tin- oil-gland ahrayi ha- ■ well developed tuft in this subfamily. The 
secondaries an- eotaade in Caformtrjffe, dia-tataxic in the two other genera. 

era! Other lllim Unions "negative" characters may be mentioned, 

each of which Mrvei to distinguish this group from one or more genera of 

the other -ubfainilie-. The bill i- never wholly red, and the cuhnen is not 

hooked. The teetherag of the loiei il normal or not very remarkable. 

BT bare or bristly; the number of let'tlJCOJ i- always twelve an<l the 

ral pair i- \\> gated beyond the other-. The second toe is al- 

eeenl and well de v eloped. 

The billow u I character- are, as previously mentioned. 

based on only a few Species (Monging to six genera ■ | and doubtless will not 
all prove to be constant distinctions between the (Yrylinir and the other 

The cuhnen i- not depressed back of the nostrils, and the latter are 
Cooperatively short not reaching very far backward-. The me-ethmoid 
is prodt; iorly in a more or h ihtf or pointed plate. The 

par- plana of the me-ethmoid meets the descending process of the lacrymal 

MtvaetryU CklorotrrfU. Alerdo (akull). Rampkalryon. HiUyon. DfU. 

_\">(l Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI. 

decidedly ibove the middle of the latter, sometimes at tin- upper corner. 
The lacrymal i> rather narrowly oblong and has no backwardly produced 
process. The maxillary is conspicuously expanded into a thin, flat plate. 
The posterior palatal spine is vestigial or short. The orbital proceai of 
the quadrate is long or rather long, slender and pointed. The sternum is 
relatively long and narrow, the coracoids and furcula short, the last orach 
wider toward the upper end. The pointed process arising from the upper 
end of the clavicle is either moderately developed or wholly absent. The 
sternal keel is high and prominent. The scapula is not broadened at the 
bend near its distal end, and without a prominent angle on the inner side 
at that point. The pelvis is wide and ample without abrupt angles; the 
ilia narrowed anteriorly, their inner edges not sharply defined and not 
separated by a deep groove from the sacrum, and the latter is flattened OB 
top. The ilia bears a small pointed process on its margin, (Plate- XXV 
and XXVI.) 

AleedinilUB (7 genera). — Restricted to the Eastern Hemisphere; one 
weakly characterized genus confined to the Celebes, three to Africa, the 
others chiefly Austro-Malayan and Asiatic. 

Size rather uniform, small to very small. Bill long or rather long, 
varying from compressed to much depressed or flattened. Cutanea not 
flattened and expanded basally as in Ramphalcyon. The vertical < 
when present (as in Corythornis) differs in form and in the shape of the 
individual feathers from that of Megaceryle, the crest being wide and 
depressed, the feathers linear-oblanceolate or somewhat clavate. In the 
species examined (representing all the genera) the tenth primary is never 
shorter than the fifth, and is sometimes equal to the seventh. The tail is 
very short (always less than half the length of the wing) and of remarkably 
uniform length throughout the group. In this respect the subfamily is 

The lower end of the tibia is more extensively feathered than in the 
Cerylinat, the feathers extending to the joint in at least three genera. 
Alcedo and Alcyone are intermediate, there being a decided bare space in 
front, above the joint, in at least some species; but on the outer side or 
rear of the tibia, if not in front, the feathers always extend further down than 
in the Cerylinse, the bare space at its most restricted point being shorter 
than the short chord of the hallux claw. 

The tarsus is always short or rather short, always decidedly longer than 
that of Megaceryle but never as long as in the longer-legged genera of Dace- 
loninse. It is slightly longer than in Chloroceryle and about equal to the 
shorter-legged forms of Daceloninse (excluding Ramphalcyon). The tarsus 
is always decidedly longer than the inner toe without claw. 

The anterior toes (except the second) are longer than in the Cerylinse 

1912! Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 251 

j better with the Dacelonimc. The second tor with daw is always 
much shorter than the third toe without claw (l>y at least a trifle more than 
the chord of the claw of toe No. _' ; it is sometimes markedly reduced and 

in t .1 wholly absenl or re pr esen ted by a mere vestige. It is thai 

decidedly shorter than in the ( 'erylina' and, with the passible exception of a 

feu species of Halcyon, always shorter than in the Dacdoninse. 

Tin' hill in at least some species of every genua is more or less red. at 
least five of the seven genera containing species with wholly red hills. The 

also are usually red or orange, this coloration represented in mis. 

The dorsal feather tract differs decidedly from that of the two other 
Subfamilies in U'ing perfectly continuous, not interrupted in the inter- 
scapular region. The feathers of the lower hack and rump also are very 
long, in-;, so even than in the ( 'erylina?, and conspicuous, not hidden by 
th< scapulars as in the Daceloninss. 

In all the species the characteristic blue of the Kingfishers (except the 
lime) is present, varying, as in the Dacelonina*, from deep blue to a 
light silky opalescenl or greenish blue. 

The upperparta are almost limited to these shades though sometime- 

tded by rufous which in a few specio overspreads the entire upper sur- 

I ii the latter the blue i- represented by a strong lilaceous luster. 

lily as universal as blue is rufous, which is found OB the underparts 

in at least some species of each genus. The scapulars, remiges or rectrices 

are sever spotted, barred or Otherwise marked with white. 

The crown i- often barred or spotted with black on a blue ground, or 
with light blue on a dark blue or blackish ground. Thi> runs through the 

various genera and is very characteristic <>f the group. 

Tin re i-. ordinarily, little if any SBXUal difference in the color of the 

plumage. T • • r indicated b\ the color of the upperparts or tail, 

as in Some Dacelonime. except that the female may be duller and greener 

in Rtiniphalciitm. and rarely by the banding of the che-t or general 

color of the underparti as in the 4 feryhnse. In at leasl two species, however, 

the male ha- a blue che-t-band which i- absent in the female. This is the 

case in Alcyont ejftmoptchii in which the blue of i ,nd Banks i- also 

more extensive in the male, and in Main SBVysSM in which the ground 

Oolor of the underparti b white in the male and except the throat^ oelira- 

IS-ruf0US in the female. Tim- in these specie- the OOlOf «>f the cl: 

b:m<l i- exact]] t! ■ of th<- normal < terj base stg kv 

In Aletdo 'urijznmi, lio\\e\er. the general color of the posterior under- 
parts in each sex (white in male, rufou- in female i- the same as in M> 

'■ masma and to ■ ntin M bIbbo*. This. how. -I\ 

be comidered aa other than a chance resemblance or more properly a case 

252 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI, 

of parallel development or convergence. Only one other species of Al< ■»•- 
diniiue appears to have a banded chest. This ifl .Undo berylUna in which 
the underparts are white with ■ l>hi«' tlitst -ham I in both sev 

In all the species of Alccdo there is a curious difference in the color of 
the bill according to the Bex. This is wholly black in the males while in the 
females more or less of the proximal half of the lower mandible is red. 

The tuft of the oil-gland is always well developed. The status of the 
fifth secondary has been recorded only in Alccdo (2 species) and Ceyx. 
These are both eutaxie, and in all probability the other genera are the same. 

Of miscellaneous characters may be mentioned the color of the bill, 
which is often entirely red; the tomia are always smooth, and the tip of the 
maxilla is never hooked. The loral feathering is normal and the rectrices 
always number twelve. 

The osteological characters are presumably rather uniform throughout 
the group, but unfortunately I have had for examination only the skull of 
Alccdo ispida, and the following notes are based on this species. 

The culmen is not depressed back of the nostrils and the latter are longer 
and extend further back than in the Cerylinse, agreeing better with the 
Dacelonina\ The mesethmoid projects somewhat anteriorly, most re- 
sembling the Cerylinse in this feature. The pars plana of the mesethmoid 
meets the descending process of the lacrymal a trifle above the middle, 
being thus intermediate between the Cerylinse on one hand and / 
and Halcyon on the other. The lacrymal is shorter than that of the Cery- 
lime but agrees in its truncate posterior margin, and is not at all produced 
backwards as in Dacclo and Rauiphalcyon. 

The maxillary is not conspicuously expanded, agreeing with the Dace- 
lmiina' and differing from the Cerylinae. The posterior palatal spine is long 
and slender, much like that of Dacelo but even longer and very different 
from that of Chloroccryh and Megaeeryle. (In the skulls of Ramphaleyon 
and Hateyon examined the palatines are imperfect and this character can- 
not be determined.) (Plate XXV, Fig. 1.) 

The orbital process of the quadrate is remarkably short and blunt. 
This condition is very different from that found in most genera, but is 
doubtless most closely related to that seen in Chloroceryle (in C. amcricana 
more than in C. amazona) in which the orbital process is a very slender spine. 
The disappearance of this spine would result in a quadrate much like that of 

As no part of the body skeleton has been available for examination, I 
am unable to describe the sternum, shoulder girdle or pelvis in detail. 
Fiirbringer's figures, however, show that there is a process near the proximal 
end of the clavicle as in Halcyon, Dacelo, etc., but even larger and more 

1912. 1 Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 253 

abrupt, differing in being broad and ro u nded terminally instead of tri- 
angular and pointed. Pnrbrmger itafea thai in this genua the procoracoid 
i- united with the acrocoracoid by ■ bony bridge. This peculiarity 
probably confined to the present subfamily. 

The figures of the sternum show that the keel is high and prominent 
bul leas so than in MegaeeryU more as in Chlorociryh >, the upper or anterior 
end decidedly concave as in all the genera examined except Mcgaccrylc. 

ma at least VI genera). — Restricted to the Old World and, 

with the exception of the large and widely distributed genus Halcyon, 
to the Australian and Indian Regions. Only two other genera (Fiam- 
phaieycm ;md Laeedo) are found at all outside of the Australian Region and 
e mostly confined to the [ndo-Malayan subregion. Laeedo is the 
only one of the group not represented in the Australian Region. 

mall to very large, the smallest species about equalling the 
largest species of the Alcedjnhue. 

Rill extremely variable in length and general shape, varying from long 

bolt, and from very deep to much depressed, hut compressed only 

in Rampkakyon. In all tin- others except Halcyon the form of the bill is 

dedly different from that found in the other .-ubfamilies and in some. 

■ura and Clfftoceyz, it is remarkably modified. 

oecipital feathers are always more or less lengthened, though slightly 

so in ftamphalcytm and many Halcyons. Often, as in Dado, M,lidora, 

and Monackalcyon, the feathers of both the occiput and vertex 

iderably elongated and form a wide flat crest, quite ditFerent from 

the narrow crest of the C.n/'.'na. There ■ nothing approaehing the high. 

coin ertieal crest of Megaeeryle, nor the peculiar form found in 

i BsnaHy broad and rounded at the tip. 

The fring HJ usually decidedly rounded. In BOme ipecsal of Halcyon 
the tenth primary i- at long SS the ninth, these tWO <|uill> being the long) 
but in all other getters the outermost qnill i- Ittorter than the fifth, usually 
l>i< -uoiid;. -o. and shorter than the fourth in all but TixHrhamphus and 

With tt ore. of Halrynn the I >a« elonitue differ ill thi> 

from all the AlcedminsB and from the (erylime except certain spe- 

| CUonCt ryli . 

The variation in the primary formula in Haley. t remarkhale. 

The tenth primary i- in BOOM inueh shorter than tin- fir-t. while 

in other- the tenth and ninth are equal and longest Tl ioubtless 

few if any other genera of bird- in which this range of variation i- i O jtta llcd . 

There i> little doubt, however, that tl, • bus of over eighty form-. 

by far the largest in the family, i- divi-ihle into at least iwo genera, ;i 

_'."i 1 Hull of Natural Hitt [Vol XX XI. 

includes botli eutaaric Bud diastataxic groups, and there arc also differa 
in form and coloration. 

The tail is always rather long or long (rather short iii Halcyon coneretui, 

but always more than half the length of the wing) and attains the great 

length in the family in Cittura, Monockalcyon, ami Tanyriptera, in which 

it is nearly afl long as the wing. The last genu- is unique in the presence 
of only ten rectrices, the middle pair greatly elongated, linear, widening 
at the tip. In four genera — Tanyriptera, Cittura, Lacedo and Symm — 
the tail is graduated for one third or more of its length (leaving <>nt of 
account the central rectrices of Tanyriptera). 

The lower end of the tibia is always completely feathered to the joint 
except in Ramphalcyon, which is intermediate between the other genera 
and the Cerylinas in this respect, the lower end of the tibia being bare in 
front for more than in any other non-Cerylinse genus (for a distance about 
equal to or longer than the short chord of the hallux claw), but on the out- 
side it is bare for much less than this distance, thus differing from the 
( 'erylhiav 

In the following genera the feathers extend beyond the joint, small 
feathers growing on the upper end of the tarsus: Clytoceyx, L<i<<<l<>, 
Syma, Cittura, Dacelo, Choucaln/oH, and some species of Halcyon. In 
Melidora the feathers fall over and beyond the joint. In all the other 
genera except Ramphalcyon the feathering extends right down to the joint, 
densely in all the species of Halcyon examined, but sparsely in Monachalcyon. 

The tarsus is comparatively long in all except Ramphalcyon, in which 
it is of about the same length as in Chloroceryle, equalling or a trifle exceeding 
the inner toe without the claw. In all the other genera the tarsus is de- 
cidedly longer than the inner toe without claw, sometimes {Clytoceyx, 
Monockalcyon, Tanyriptera and Syma) equalling or exceeding the toe and 
claw combined. 

The following measurements, in millimeters, all taken from the bones, 
show well the relative length of the tarsus in several genera: 



Megaceryle torquata 



Chloroceryle americana 



Ramphalcyon capensis 



Halcyon chloris 



Dacelo gigas 



It will be observed that in Megaceryle the tarsus is much less than half 
the length of the femur; in Chloroceryle and Ramphalcyon a trifle more than 
half; in Halcyon and Dacelo much more than half. 

The second toe with claw is always (excepting in Lacedo) shorter than 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 255 

the third toe without daw, though sometimes only i trifle shorter. The 

sole exception to this very uniform proportion i- l.iiciilo, in which the 

lightly exceeds tin- third (thus agreeing with Megacer% 
The second toe (with claw) is, however, never much shorter than the third 
liout daw), as i- the case in all the Alcedminae, never falling short of 

the third by more than the short chord of the claw of toe No. 2, except 
probably in Halcyon coromandtu and possibly a few other species. The 
nd (with claw h always (again excepting Laeedo) distinctly shorter 
than the fourth without claw) or barely equal to it. In Laeedo the second 
is a trifle longer than the fourth. 

Thus in this subfamily the second toe is relatively longer than in the 
Alcedininse and shorter than in most Cerylince; but Laeedo agrees with the 
latter, while tin- two or three small species of Chloroceryle agree with the 

The dorsal feather tract resembles that of the Cerylinse in being inter- 
rupted by a spot on the interscapulum in which the feathers arc very short. 
This is carried to the extreme in the present group, as, in most genera, this 
area is conspicuously bare, with only a few small downy feathers growing in 
it. In several genera as in Rampkalcyon, Halcyon and Dace'o the tract 
i- continuous, a single line of -mall, weak feathers connecting the anterior 
tad posterior part- of the tract. In Ram phalcyon and to a greater or less 

nt in Halcyon and Daedo this interscapular spot is densely covered with 

i low n. 

The feather- of the lower back and rump are shorter than in the Cery- 
linse, but then- i- some variation in their length in the different genera. In 
RaMphaleyon all the donal feather- are notably short. 

The bill rarely entirely black and in the majority of genera is 

Wholly red or yeliowi-h in at lea-t SODIM ipedes. <Thi- i- al-o the case in 

the Alcedininse but never in the Ceryhnss.) 

In • U "t 'hi group, and indeed in every -penes (at least of 

tfaflSe examined the characteri-t ic blue or greenish blue i- pre-ent , though 

illy hardly more than a trace i- evident. 
Tli- barred only in Daodo and Laeedo, and the remigee and 

scapular- onl\ in the latter, the entire npperpart- of w hich an- barred. The 
crown never exhibits the bine handing or Spotting SO characteristic of the 

In all but two geners Ramphalcyon ami roesrsaatpasis) in mbm spi 

at lea-t. the M'\rs ditTer more or IsM from each other in the coli.r of BOOM 
part or part- of the upper Surface i 1 1 « 1 1 1 < i i 1 1 l. crown, cheeks. wfefcfHSOVVJ 
ami particularly the tall) which are ii-uall\ blue in the male, this wholb 

or partl.v replaced by rufous or. less frequently, black in tin- female. Spats 

2~>f> liullvtin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. WW I. 

is peculiar in having the bead cinnamon in the male, and with a large Mack 
patch in the center of the crow D in the female 

] )ifferences in coloration of this nature are wholly absent in the < 'erylina- 
and Alcedinina?. Moreo v er in the Dacelonina 1 (excepting in a few species 
Of llalci/nn and in l.acido) the sexes never differ in the color of the under* 
porta M do those of the ( 'erylina?, no chest-hand being present. 

Lacedo, in addition to presenting greater sexual differences in the color 
of the upper parts than in any other genus also differ> in the color of the 
underparts almost exactly as do the species of Megaceryle and CUona rule. 
In the male the breast and sides are fulvous or ochraceous-bufT, while in the 
female these parts are almost white, narrowly barred with black. 

In Tiun/siptcra the sexes are described as similar except in T. Bjfhia 
in which the female has a buff instead of white dorsal patch and the proximal 
portion of the outer web of the central rectrices blue (wholly white in the 

In Halcyon the sexes are usually alike, the female sometimes somewhat 
duller in color but there are well marked differences in two groups of the 
genus. In //. rinicn tus and //. I'ntil.smji the distinction is much as in the 
majority of genera of the subfamily, blue on the upperparts of the male 
being replaced by greenish in the female. 

In the group containing //. hi-.uH and several other species tin 
differ in the distribution of blue and white on the underpaid or the presence 
or absence of a white collar, or in both respects. The male may be entirely 
white or entirely blue below, the female white with a blue chest-band, or 
the abdomen may be blue in the male and white in the female. 

In //. (ilbirrntris, which belongs to another group, the female is said to 
be much duller than the male (black above replaced by brown), the blue 
parts greener, the white or buff of the hind neck and portions of the under 
surface deeper buff or more rufescent. 

In Torfirhamphu.s there appears to be no sexual difference. This genus 
is closely related to Halcyon, particularly to a section in which the sexes are 

In Ramphalcyon also the sexes differ in coloration only in the duller, 
more brownish or greenish (less blue) upperparts of the females, a- in some 
species of Halcyon. 1 In this genus moreover the color pattern is as 
different as possible from that of the CeryUnat, and both color and pattern 
agree much more closely with those of the Daceloninn? and Alcedinina-. 

Skeletons of the following genera of Dacelonina? have been examined: 
Dacelo, Halcyon (chloris, and sternum and shoulder girdle of concrehu), and 

i Cf. Oberholser. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXV. 1909. 658. 

1912] Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 257 

R mmp ka Upon . rnfortunately tin* palatines are imperfect in all the speci- 
men- except that of Ditfiln. These have been compared with skeletons of 
Mey slri/uti and ton/uatn\ and Chlnrocrrylr (amcricana. and skull of 

Sting the ( 'erylina*. and skulls of Alc$do ispida (also 
figures of sternum and shoulder girdle) representing the Alcedinime. It 
must be understood that the following statements refer only to the genera 
enumerated, and, as already remarked, some of the minor characters de- 
scribed will probably be found inconstant when all the genera are examined. 

There u DO reason to believe, however, that the essential characters of 
the < erylina' as here set forth will have to be changed when the osteology 
//<• rudu has been investigated. 

In the Daoelonuue the culmen is bent down or depressed at its base; 
thi- i- not the esse in the other groups. 

The DOStrfla are long, extending far backwards, but Ramphalcyon is 
intermediate between Daedo and Halcyon on one hand and the Cerylinae 
on the other. Alcedo is little different from the Dacelonina*. 

The mesethmoid is not produced forwards in a pointed plate as in Mega- 

'■<• and to nt in CUoTOCerpU and Alcedo. C. am azon a apparently 

agrees with the Daeelonina* in this re sp e ct hut I am not certain that this 
. »f the -kull is perfect in the specimens examined. 

The par- plana <>f the ine>ethmoid meets the descending process of the 
lacrymal a little below the middle of the latter, not slightly above the 
middle a- in Alcedo nor much above as in the < "erylina*. In Ramphalcyon 

the descending pr o c esa of the lacrymal n so peculiar that its relation to the 

pars plana cannot be ca-ily compared with that in the other genera. 

In Daeelo and Ramphalcyon the lacrymal has a conspicuous backward 

•lian the anterior part of the bone in the 
former, much -dorter in the latter. Thi-— i- altogether absent in 

The maxillary, a- in Alcedo, U normal, not expanded into a plate as in 
the < "erylina*. Ilalrynn M farthe-t from the latter, \\ hile Ramphalcyon shows 

approach to the ( eryhnee type. 

As above Stated the palatines are imperfect in all the -peciinen- of Dace- 

loninSS examined except in Pur,!,,. In thi- he pos- 

r palatal -pine i- highly developed, being more than one-third the length 

of the pterygoida nearer one-half in Alcedo). Thifl process is vestigial in 

nd -hort abool one-eighth the length of the pfc in 

Odoroceryle n> 

In tin- hsSftOO of the posterior portion Of thfl palatine- along their promi- 
nent internal lamina- Ramphalcyon n lie ( Ynliir.e ' the union being 

I r tun in \i. | : ,r V u aUyon "th«- ini.-rval between the anterior coda" of 
the palatines ("of itoM two millimeters") "is continued backwards to a point well within 

258 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. |Y<>1. XXXI. 

even more extensive) and is quite different from Danlo in which the in- 
ternal lamina? are completely separated. Halcyon is somewhat intermediate, 
the extreme posterior ends being fused. In Rampkalcyon, however, the 
angle formed by the lamina* as they approach each other is wider and more 
rounded than it is in the CeryUnOf. 

In Alcedo the fusion of the post-palatines is nearly as in the Cerylin/r, 
but the internal lamina? are scarcely raised above the main expanse of the 
palatines, differing in this respect from the other groups examinee!. The 
palatines, however, agree with those of Dacclo and differ from the Cerylina 
in being nearly in one plane, while in the latter they slant strongly down- 
wards from the median line towards the outer edge. (Plate XXV, fig. 1 . | 

The orbital process of the quadrate is very similar in the three genera of 
Dacelonina? examined, being stout throughout, blunt and thick at the 
distal end. In Alcedo it is extremely short and obtuse, in fact it might 
almost be said to be absent. In the Cerylina? it is slender, tapering to a 
point anteriorly, being particularly slender and weak in ChloroceryU, evi- 
dently approaching the condition found in Alcedo. 

The sternum averages shorter and wider than that of the Cerylina-. 
the coracoids and furcula longer. This is conspicuously so in Halcyon 
concretus, while Megacerylc is the other extreme. 

The process arising from the clavicle, near its upper end, is abrupt and 
large as in Alcedo (but pointed rather than broadly rounded terminally 
as in the latter). This process is smaller and less abrupt in CkhroeeryU, 
absent in MegaceryU. (Plate XXVI, fig. 1.) 

The sternal keel as in all the genera examined except MegaceryU is con- 
cave on its anterior (or upper) end (most so in Halcyon), and compara- 
tively low. (Plate XXVI, fig. 2.) In none of the genera examined is the 
precoracoid united with the acrocoracoid by a bony bridge as in Alcedo. 
The foot of the coracoid is normal, without the curious upstanding proc- 
ess on the inner edge found in MegaceryU. The scapula, unlike that of the 
Cerylina?, is widened at the bend and with a prominent angle on the inner 
side at that point. (Plate XXVI. fig. 1.) 

The anterior end of the pelvis differs from that of the Cerylime ai 
described under that subfamily, but in Rampkalcyon there is some resem- 
blance in the ilia to the Cerylina?. There is only a slight indication of the 

the articulation of the heads that articulate with the pterygoids. " This condition is shown in 
the figure accompanying Shufeldt's article, the internal laminae of the palatines being separated 
to their extreme posterior ends. ( Journal of Anatomy. Vol. XVIII, 1884, pp. 279-294; 
Amer. Naturalist. Vol. XXXVII. 1008. 707 and 708.) 

In my opinion this description and figure must be erroneous for in the two skulls of It. 
alcyon and one of It. torquatu examined by me. the posterior ends of the internal laminae are 
solidly fused together for a distance of three mm. in the former species and five and one-half 
In the latter. 

1912.1 Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 259 

11 process on the margin of the ilium which is better developed in Ckloro- 

aryh and conspicuous in Mrgarrrylr. 

Thk Position of Rampbalctom. 

Fiirhrim that Ram phalcyon appears to occupy a special position 

and to connect the Alcedinime (= Alcedinime -+- Cerylinae doubtless) 
with the Halcyoninie (= Dacelonime). He remarks that in external char- 
acters and tin- majority <>f osteological characters this genus agrees better 
with tin- Alcedininas than with the Halcyoninae, but that in some particular 

nil of the osteology and particularly of the musculature it agrees better 
with the Halcyonina*. Fiirhringer states that if it were not for Ram phalcyon 
he would agree to the separation of the Aleednudes into two families, but 
that. M the matter stands, further investigations are required to settle the 

I cannot agree with the Btatemenl thai in external characters this genus 
agrees better with tin- Alcedinime (of Fiirhringer i than with the Halcyoni- 
na-. As regards the skeletal resemblances the material available is too in- 
complete for positive conclusions yet I believe that Ram phalcyon is more 
distinct from the < Vrylime than from the Dacelonime (in the restricted 

The following tabulation of the characters of Ramphalryon shows the 
mdfl f«>r placing tin- genua in the Dacelonime. It agrees best with 
thai subfamily in sixteen of the characten enunserated (also in several im- 
portant muscular peculiarities), witli th<- Alcedinime in eight characters 

and with the < Vrylime in fi 

In almost all of tlit- features in which M, <i<i<; ri/h and Chtorocrryh dihVr 

from each other, Ramphaicyon snore ne ar ly agreei with the latter than with 

the former. This N the OaSS not only in the character- here enumerated, 

l»nt also in the sternal keel, the fool of the eoracoidi and the crest, in all 
of which I 

my In-lief that the resemblance in certain reSPCCti of Ramphalcyan 

to the CeryKnss u due largely if not wholly toconverj used bj simi- 

•\ of habits. These likenessei while more or less striking are imperii 

and the details in which they arc imperfect are sugp nid 

• of common descent. 

Thui the hill while compressed, though to a less extent than that of 
M the form of the cnlnien. gOBJI an<l mandibular rami. 

UK ftcn.-d and widened l.asdl} UJOJM . the fOQyi decidedly 

eled broader and flatter in the Cer yhna i). The saa ndlb u l ai rami are 

;dcdl\ thinner and not conspicuously l*nt inwards as in the ( Vr\ ! 

12* »0 Bullitin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

and form a rounded symphysis, not a narrow V-shaped angle as in the Utter. 
The interrainal space is broader, and the feathers (like thoee of t } i « - under- 
parts in general) are less linn, dense and scale-like than in the Ceryline 
group. In all these respects the resemblance to certain DacelcfiinaB, for 
example Halcyon jiilcatus, is striking. The bill is of the same red color in 
that species as in two of the three species of Rampkaleyon (a feature unknown 
in the Cerylinae), and except for the form of the culmen the bill of Ramphal- 
cyon differs from that of Halcyon only in being more strikingly com- 
pressed. (Plate XXV, fig. 2.) 

The loral feathering and the tibial feathering have both evidently been 
modified by the aquatic habits, yet in both respects there is a decided defer- 
ence from the Cerylince. The feathers of the lores areextremely small and 
very closely appressed. 

Neither the form of the wing nor the coloration are Ceryline, but much 
more Dacelonine. A significant point of resemblance between Rampkal* 
cyon and the Daceloninse is the nidification. Little has been published 
regarding the breeding of any of the species of this genus but it is certain, 
at least, that the nest is often placed in trees. M< (iregor describe- a i 
of R. gouldi "in a deserted termite's nest which was built approximately 
thirty feet from the ground, in a small dead stub. It was probably exca- 
vated by the birds, as there is no other way in which the hole could have 
been made." As far as is known all the members of the Cerylnue In- 
variably nest in holes excavated in sand or clay bank-. 

While some of the resemblances of Rampkalcyon to the ( Vrylime may be 
due to convergence, others are probably explainable by descent from a 
common ancestor, for the genus is unquestionably an old and isolated one. 
The short tarsus and fused palatines are two of the most important resem- 
blances to the other piscivorous Kingfishers. 

Of the differences from the Alcedininae the most important are: length 
of second toe; proportion of primaries; character of dorsal feathering; form 
of lacrymal and of orbital process of quadrate; size; length of tail; and 
probably the form and arrangement of certain muscles. 

Nearest Dacelonine 

Length of second toe (also agrees with aberrant Cerylina>) 

Proportion of primaries 

Dorsal feathering (much nearer Cerylinae than to Alcedininae) 

Gonys and mandibular rami (equally near Alcedinina??) 

Lacrymal (like Dacelo; unlike Halcyon which is like Alcedo and Cerylina?) 

Quadrate, orbital process 

Base of culmen depressed (in skull) 

Pelvis (that of Alcedo not seen) 

Certain muscles (important) 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 261 

Nearest Dacelonina and Alcidmina 

General coloration (blue present, remiges and reotrioM unmarked) 

Sexual coloration (no difference below; no chest-band) 

h <>f thin! and fourth toes (little different from Chloroceryle) 
!:irv not expanded (slightly approaches Cerylinje) 
•ii. il end of furcula (nearest Daceloninie, not far from Chloroceryle) 

Nearest Dacelonina and Cerylina 

■h of tail 

rest Cerylina 

■ h of tarsus (like Chloroceryle) 
pressed bill (also deep) 

>st Alcedinina 

Feathering of tibia (intermediate !>• rvlina? and Daeelonirae) 

-.■</ Alodinina and Cerylina 
ii more exten.sive) 

RKU UDCfl OM Othkr GeMI i:\. 

While the question of generic distinction in the Aleecfcninea and Dacelo- 
ninie is beyond the scope of the present paper, some random remarks on 
the subject suggest thfmSfitvfW and ■ lew characters often overlooked in 

niatic srorka may be mentioned. 

large and dominant gCOM Huh-i/mi is remarkable not only for 

three Off four times that of Tanysiptera, the 

nus of Daceloninn* and vide geographical distribution (the 

genua of the >nhfamily found in Africa, win-re it i^ well represented >, 

l.ut siso rbf the Striking variations in the relative length of the primaries 

and the presence or <«f tin- fifth secondary. 

///; idently a generalized form and approaches the other sub- 

famili- losdy than any other gBJMSJ of its group. In the al>sence of 

I backward proeem to the la cry a ial it dhfsn from Dastio and Hamphalcyon 

(and doubtless nth.' with Alcedinime I/. - do at least) and 

the < <r\ I 

ineutet) is distinguished by several peculiarities, the strik- 

barred up perp at ti and remarkable diffleieaoc butnw the ssssj being 

tin- MK.-t eonsni cu ous. In the proportionate length of the toes Lacedo 

differs from all others of the group and agrees With the t\ piea! < Vryline 

262 Bulletin American Museum of S'attmil History. [Vol. XX XI, 

proportions. The second toe with claw) is a trifle longer than the third 
and fourth toes (without claw r); in other genera the second is shorter than 
the third and barely or not as long as the fourth. 

It is curious that in the barring of the upperparts, the sexual difference 
in the coloration of the underparts and the relative length of the toes this 
genus should so strongly recall the (.Vrylimr, but the resemblance cannot 
be considered a> anything but a coincidence. The resemblance of the female 
to Burro mdiutits, a bird of another suborder, i> quite striking, and in its 
conspicuous fulvous collar the Bucco is even more Kingfisher-like than 
Lacedo itself. 

The tuft of the oil-gland is well developed in about half of the genera 
of Dacelonina?. In Clytor, yz and Monackaleuon it is rather small and 
sparse, in Lacedo and Mrlidora reduced to a mere vestige and in Tnnyxiptern 
and Cittura it is altogether wanting. The absence of the tuft in Tmni- 
tiptem has been previously recorded by Beddard and in Cittura by Mitchell, 
and my observations confirm their statement-. 

The character of the tarsal podotheca is a useful generic character but 
too variable to use in delimiting the subfamilies. It is constant in the 
Alcedinina? in all of which the tarsus is covered with skin only, without a 
suggestion of scales. In the ( lerylime we find that Chloroceryle differs from 
the two other genera in its unsealed podotheca. In the Dacelonina- it is 
naked only in Cittura, covered with a single row of broad plates as in 
Halcyon, a double row as in Monachalcyon, or with three or more rows as 
in Dacclo. 

The extent of coherence between the anterior toes is very constant 
throughout the family, and the form of the external nostrils is of no more 
than generic value. The nostril is a narrow slit in the Cerylina? and Alcedi- 
nina?, wider and more open in most of the Dacelonina?. 

The natural grouping of the genera in the Dacelonina? is a matter of 
considerable difficulty and no arrangement can be considered final until 
the internal anatomy has been examined. 

It is obvious that Halcyon and Todirhampku* are very closely related, 
while Dacelo, Choucalcyon, and probably Clytoceyx form a natural group, but 
the exact positions of the remaining genera is a question for future determi- 

Tanysiptera is highly remarkable in the form of it> tail hut in no other 
respect, though the almost perfect agreement of the sexes in coloration is 
worthy of note. In his 'Map of the Family Alcedinida?' Sharpe places 
Monachalcyon between Halcyon and Tanysiptera, a position almost certainly 
wrong in my opinion. Monachalcyon fulgidus recognized by Sharpe in his 
Monograph as a distinct genus, Caridonax, I have not seen. It is apparently 


. Classification of Kingfishers. 


imik h likt Monackalcpom in form hut strikingly different in coloration and 
closer examination may disc ov er characters of generic value. 

The Alt ■•-« lini n.-t- is a very compact group, the genera all being closely 
related. They are based on the form of the bill, compressed in some, more 
or lea depressed in others, and in the development of the second toe, which 
i- always short and often vestigial or absent. Ceycopsis is a weakly char- 
1 genus being perfectly intermediate between Ispidina and Ceyx, 
differing from the former only in the slightly shorter second toe. 

Megaceryle and Chloroceryle 
Megaceryle and Chloroceryle 


Intnxiuctory remarks on the generic names 
Generic synonymy (annotated) 
D iff erential characters . 
Tables of differences 

terns] characters . 
Osteological differences bet ween 
logical difference between 


Crest .... 
[ntemmal feathering 
Primary formula 
Fifth secondary 


Bareness of tibia 
Tarsal and toe covering 
Length of tarsus 
Length of hallux 
Anterior toes 

iseles and tendons 

>ns of the Cerylina- 
Genus Megaceryle 

Species of Megaceryle 
Genus CeryU . 

Species of Ceryle 
Genus Chloroceryle . 

Species of Chloroceryle 












\ \ME8. 
rkablfl thai with all the minute generie MilwliviMon of 

recent years the old genu* C> ryh has thus far remained intact 

204 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. \\.\l. 

The obvious differences between the Neotropical green Kingfishers, the 
large, crested blue-gray species found in both hemispheres, ami the black 
and w bite Afro-Indian Crrt/Ic rudis (the type of the genus), were first ro 
nized in nomenclature by Kaup in IMS, when he distinguished the firsl tun 
mentioned groups as Chloroecri/h and Megacerylt respectively. In tin- 
same paper Kaup proposed names for three other groups of Kingnsh* 
Ix/iidind, Conjthornis and Cittuni. All of these names were used subgeneri- 
cally by Kaup, but while the last three have been universally accepted SS 
genera, most authorities have continued to treat Megaceryle and Chloro- 
ceryle merely as subgenera. These two groups, however, are actually mora 
distinct than either Itpidina or Cori/thorni.s and arc distinguished by char- 
acters of ample importance to entitle them to the rank of genera. Several of 
the more important differences are not obvious or do not exist in the museum 
skin and this fact has retarded the recognition of the distinctness of thi 
group-. Kaup's choice of names for his sections of Ceryle was felicitous as 
both are most appropriate; the dark glossy green of Chloroceryle is unique 
in the family, while the large size of the specie of Megaa ryle distinguishes 
them from the others of the Ceryline group. 

Generic Synonymy. 

In addition to the three valid generic names, four others have been pro- 
posed in this group which cannot be used, one of them being preoccupied 
while the three others are either absolute or virtual synonyms. The com- 
plete list of these names follow >: 

Ceryle Boie, Isis, XXI, 1828, 316. Type by subsequent designation, the first 
species, Alcedo rudis Linn. (Gray, 1840). This species is also the type by elimi- 
nation (Kaup, 1848). Ceryle originally contained five species: rudis, amazona, 
americana, alcyon, and bicolor ( = inda). By the recognition of Chloroceryle and 
Megaceryle this genus is restricted to a single species (divisible into three sub- 
species), characteristic of the Afro-Indian Region. 

Chloroceryle Kaup, Verh. naturhist. Vereins Hessen, II, 1848, 68. Type, by 
subsequent designation, Alcedo amazona Latham (Gray, 1855). The first speei' 
Alcedo superciliosa Linn. (= Alcedo amea Pallas). By elimination either amazona 
or americana could become the type. The original species of t his genus were the same 
four as at present recognized, with the addition of "bicolor," a synonym of inda. 
Four very distinct species, with four or five subspecies, all confined to the Neotropieal 
Region. A very natural genus, of which the following is a synonym. 

Amazonis Reichenbach, Handb. Alced., 1851, 28. Type, by subsequent designa- 
tion, the first species, Alcedo superciliom Linn. = Alcedo cenea Pallas (Sharpe, Jan. 
1871 and 1892). Not Amazona Lesson, 1831. This was proposed as a subgeneric 
term to include Chloroceryle amea and C. inda and was used generically for the same 
two species by Bonaparte. These scarcely differ from C. americana except in colora- 
tion and in my opinion are not even subgenericallv separable from the latter. 

These three species collectively, however, differ in several respects from C. 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. -i\'t 

amazix m (the type of Chloroargl* t and the DIM AsMSMM might be used subgeneri- 
calh - tlu< difference. Th« utility of subgenera, however, with the small 

present-day genera is very doubtful. Moreover, Amazonis is perhaps invalidated by 
Lesson, 1831. 
Megaceryle K ittp, Verb, naturhist. V e reins Hessen, II, 1848,68. Type, by sub- 
sequent designation. Alccdo maxima Pallas (Gray, 1855). The first species is "gul- 
prcsumably guttata Vigors, 1830 (not of Boddaert, 1783 = Alcedo maxima 
Pallas . ( '■ r ,!'• guUulata Stejn. Klimination would fix the type on guttata (guitulata) 
for though this was the tir-t sjM'eies to l>e removed from the genus (by Reichenbach 
in IS is DOl placed ID a new genu.-, but merely transferred back to the old 

The original genus contained the same species now referred to it. 
with the exception of the slightly distinct lugubris. 

»uxof them very strongly marked, and three subspecies, one or two 

(•f winch may be specifically distinct. The only genus of Kingfishers found in both 

generally speaking each of the four great continents is inhabited by a 

lime other generic names have been used for the various 

'his very natural and compact genus, as follows: 

hi Bwainson, daastf. Birds, II, l\.J7, .'5:it>. Type, by subsequent designation, 

■Kin alcyon Linn. (Sharpe, Jan. 1871 and 1892), not Ispida 

Contained alryon, bitorquata ( = rudis) gigantea ( = maxima) and 

<tta. This is tin- earliest name for the genus Mtgaceryle but is invalidated by 

Oame for those who accept the genera of that author. 

Consp. Vomer. Anisod., 1854, 10. Type, by subsequent 

on, the first species, Alcedo torquala Linn. (Gray, 1855; Sharpe, Jan. 1871, 

This genus was quite inuieeesaariiy Established by Bonaparte (as a full genus) 
for tnrauata and alcyon, the \. u World s p e c ies of Megaceryle. They are both, 

tly c.nncniTic with M. maxima, 
'i us Cabanisand Heme. Mn> Bern., Th. ii. lStM), 150. Type, by mono- 
ln max i ma Pallas. 

,"tn ri/li , having the same species a8 its type. 

,nomus was published Gray had, in 1855, designated maxima as 

i/aceryle, although this is the last mentioned of the four species given by 

pacifying t he last species a.s the type Gray was probably 

influenced l.y |{i n lienhachVs ill-advised action (in 1S51) in transferring guttata 

( — f laceryle back to tru- .nd by Bonaparte's removal 

(in 1854) of torquala and alcyon to his genus St leaving only the single 

species maxima in Megaceryle. Possibly also the fact of then being ,w " guttatas, 

of Boddaert (- maxima Pallas) and that of Vigors (— guitulata Stejn.) made it 

seem undesirable to Gray to fix guttata as t lie t 

lie other hand Cabanis and Heine in founding (lie genus Ichthi/tiom 

ip '-guttata as the guttata of Vigors (guttulata Stejn.) in which they 
were umiucxtionably correct, and considered it as the type of Megaceryle (doubtless 
because of its being the first species), ignoring Gray's citation of maxima as the type 
of the latter genus. 

Unfortunately the nomenclature in tlii- group i- -till un-ettled. for it is 
uncertain whether it will not be necessary to replace Alndn by Ispida ami 
B the former name in place of M> gnrmjh . 

2<»ti Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \\\I, 

The type of the Linnaean genus Alcedo (1758), by subsequent < Insinua- 
tion, is the first species, A. ispida (Lesson 1828, Gray 1840). The type of 
Brisson's Lipid a (1760) is, by absolute tautonymy, its first species, /. ispida. 

If the fact that the types of these two genera are the same renders lepida 
a synonym of Ahrdo then Ispida is thereby canceled and removed from 
further consideration, and the changes above mentioned are averted. How- 
ever, at the time Itpida was established Ahrdo had no type, as this was not 
fixed until 1828. For this reason some maintain that Ispida cannot be 
canceled but must be used for Alcedo ispida. Ahrdo would then be tenable 
for one of the other species of the original genus, and should probably be 
used either for A. imymemeie, which is a species of Halcyon (Swiinson, 
1820), but is not the type of this or of any other genus, or for A. alcyon, 
a species of Megaceryle (Kaup, 1848), and the type of Ispida (Swainson, 
1837, nee Nrisson, 1760), by special designation (Sharpe, 1871). 

By pure elimination the type of Alcedo Linn, is A. alcyon. 

As there is a decided difference of opinion among the systematists whom 
I have consulted as to the interpretation of the rules bearing on this case it 
seems best to leave these names as currently understood, particularly as 
there is a strong probability that no change will be necessary. The ques- 
tion may well be left for decision by the International Zoological Commis- 

Differential Characters. 

In the accompanying tables the differences between the three genera are 
briefly stated. 

Unfortunately the osteology and myology of true Ceryle (and, excepting 
the skull, of Ch. amazona) do not seem to have been investigated. When 
these are known the exact relation of Ceryle to Megaceryle and Chloroceryle 
will be much clearer than at present. 

In external characters, at least, it will be observed that both Mega- 
ceryle and Chloroceryle possess a number of unique characters, while Ceryle 
has fewer strongly marked peculiarities, being mainly characterized by a 
combination of the characters of the two other genera. In the texture 
and coloration of its plumage, however, it stands quite alone. 

Megaceryle is unquestionably the most strongly characterized genus, 
as several of its characters (form of crest, extreme shortness of tarsus and 
hallux, and coloration) are found in no other genus of the family. It is 
highly probable that several of its skeletal or myological peculiarities are 
also unique, but some of these may prove to be shared by Ceryle. 

Of the nine exclusive characters of Chloroceryle only four are constant, 
the five others failing in G. amazona, the aberrant member. This species 

Miller, Clarification of Kingfishers. 


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. Classification of Kingfishers. 


marly agrees With Crnjlr in all five of these points and with Mrgdreryle 
in three <>r four of them. In the appended table the characters peculiar to 
ii italics; those enclosed in parentheses are diagnos- 
tic except for Chloroceryle amazona. 

In all of the above skeletal characters (except outer corner of foot of 
icoid and form of costal process MtgaceryU is unique in the family as 

Table showing the myological differences between Megaceryle and Chloroceryle. 1 

Latissimus dor-si anterior 

Expansor secundanorum 
Ilio-tihialU | \t.-rnus 


l-flio femoralis, pars 
caudal U 


Deep plantar ten 


Alar 1 1 

Mk«;a» EKYl.K 

nt, but feeble 
Hclly nairow (maxima) or 
rather narrow (alcyon) 
•tabular part well 

Comparatively narrow 
Moderately reduced 

Vinculum forked 

(Ch. americana rantablei 
M • gaceryle) 

I generalized 


Auti-rior very thin, jx)ste- 

rior enormous 

Represented by a band 
of fascia* with only a 
few muscular fibres 
near proximal end. 

Bornewhal aider 

Greatly reduced, merely 
a long tendon. 

Vinculum simple. 

(Ch. imln differs from Ck, 
(umrianta M well as 
from Mi </.;< » ryle) 
I >pccialixed 

known, while Chloron ri/h is intermediate between M '• ijiirrrylv and the 
other in- 1 1 -« ct\ line genera, being n< irrrylr in m<> ta, hut 

in the form of the clavicle, Menial keel and OOCaCoid agreeing more closely 
with the 1 )ace|oniiia . 

three BmaUa 1'hlnrix; rylr I particularly ('. imlti and ('. 

b the other subfamilies in several chal ind in no other 

Ceryliiue. Thus in the relatively short MBOOSd tOC tl I with the 

1 >a< cloiiin.e and approve h the Alcedinina-; in the more rounded whig they 

earer the DacetOnilMB, and in the orange of feel and lower mandible 

they resemble many members of both those groups. 

On the other hand in two skeletal peculiarities iiicm-i humid and pala- 
ces with hi fU while ('. amnznmi jg distinctly 

• Taeae charartcra are Ukeo from Mitchell, and arc baaed wholly upon it. atcyon. \t 
idiximi. CK. amtrieama, and Ck. ind<x. 

270 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

The following list shows how Chloroceryle combines many of the charac- 
ters of Megaceryle (though often to a less degree) with others agreeing better 
with those of the Alcedininae or the Daceloninae or both. 

Agreements with Megaceryle. 

Markings of remiges and rectrices. 

Tibial feathering. 

Nostrils (in skull). 

Form of pelvis (Alcedo not known). 

Form of scapula (Alcedo not known). 

i rest Megaceryle but shouring approach to others. 

Primary formula. 

Length of third and fourth toes. 

Relative length of second toe (C. amazona agrees with Megaceryle, others with Daeelo- 

Bill, depth and tomia (depth between Megaceryle and Alcedininre)- 

General color, no blue (the glossy green perhaps nearer blue of other subfamilies than 
to gray of Mn/aoryle). 

Sexual coloration (agreement with Megaceryle in chest color, but no sexual differ- 
ence elsewhere). 

Maxillary (very noar Megaceryle). 

Palatal foramen (C. americana like Megaceryle, but C. amazona apparently like other 

Post-palatal spine (Halcyon and Ramphalcyon not known). 

Pars plana and desc. process of lacrymal (between Megaceryb- and Alcedo; Daeclo- 
nime still more different). 

M< -ethmoid [C. americana nearest Megaceryle; C. amazona apparently like Dacelo- 

Quadrate (approaching Alcedininae). 

Iliac process (very different from Daceloninae). 

Nearest Alcedininae or Daceloninai or both. 

Absence of vertical crest. 

Length of tarsus (between Megaceryle and Daceloninse, like Ramphalcyon, nearly 

like Alcedininae). 
Tarsal podotheca (like Alcedininae). 
Foot of coracoid (normal, differing from Megaceryle). 
Sternal keel (normal, differing from Megaceryle). 
Process of clavicle (less highly developed, approaching Megaceryle). 
Symphysis of furcula. 

Bill. — The bill in all three genera is straight and compressed The 
variations in size and form are as marked within the limits of each of the 
two larger genera as bet\ve< n any two of them. 

As a basis of comparison the distance from the bend of the wing to the 
tips of the lower primary coverts has been adopted. The following figures 
show the length of the bill relative to this distance. 

1912. 1 'let, Classification of Kingfishers. 271 

Ratio of length of bill to distance from bend of wing to tips of lower primary coverts. 
Megaceryle alcyon 1 . 50 


lugubris ) 
ata ) 


torquata 1 . 15 

maxima 1 . 14 
Ceryle rwlis (excluding C. r. insignis) 1 . 15 

Chloroceryle inda 1 . 05 

umazona 'is 

■MM .9S 

americana .91 

The liill i> relatively S toutest (deepest compared to its length) in Mega- 

ccryh , hut M. alcyon agrees in this respect with Ch. inda which has decidedly 

toutesl hill of its group. Ceryle has a strikingly slender bill, slenderer 

than that of any other -j>«< i<> though closely approached by Ch. americana, 

there being in fact only an average difference between these two species. 

The relative depth of the hill is shown by the following statements. The 
figure indicate tin- Dumber of millimeters by which four times the depth of 
the hill at gonydeal angle (alb ^hort of or exceeds the length of the bill from 
the anterior end of the m»tril. 

In Ci rul> length of hill from nostril a MOfi than four times depth of bill at 
gonydeal ancle constantly and decidedly, 2 B bud. more, averagn 

mm . 

In M'1/ii'i ri/h length of hill from HOStrfl i^ tcM than four timc> the depth 
Bydeal angle 1 6 mm. in alcyon. a- 12 mm., av. 7, '.I, 11, in 

thr< ■ 

In Ckla the hill averagea more -lender than in Mx/nciryh ami 

nCl rylc. 

Rdat ■ M «f lull. 

At. Mfl 


— 2. to — 8 

— 4.2 

Chloroci rylr 

— 4. to -J- .5 

— 2 

— (5.5) 2.3 to +2 

— .6 


— 3 to +2.5 

+ .8 

+ 1 

+ 2.8 

U- ■ .' < '(//» 


(— 4) 4- 1 to 6 

+ 2.8 

, in 

+ 7. 


+ 9. 


+ 10 m 12 

+ 11. 

272 Bulletin American Museum of Katwrai Hittory. [Vol. XXXI, 

The variation in the outlines of the hill ami in its exact proportions 

furnish specific rather than generic characters, hardly am two sp« 
closely ■freeing in the pr e cise form of the hill. 

In its serrated tomia Megaceryle differs from both the other genera. 

These serrati<>n> ire usually <li>tinct in all the species of Megaceryle, hut in 
some individuals of M. alcyott, M. lugubrit, and M . gvttulata they are obsolete. 

In Chloroceryte the tomia are never distinctly serrate, only an occasional 
individual showing a very slight approach to this condition. 

In Cerylc the edges of the mandibles are perfectly smooth. 

Crest. — Megaceryle differs from both other genera in its highly developed 
occipital and vertical crest. Ceryle and Ckloroceryle amaxona have a mod- 
erate occipital crest, hut the three other species of the latter genus are prac- 
tically (restless. 

A striking feature of all the species of Megaceryle is the long compn 
crest. No other genus of Kingfishers has a crest of similar form. It covers 
the entire pileum from the forehead to the nape, extending forward to the 
extreme base of the hill. The feathers as far forward as the anterior end of 
the eyes are conspicuously elongated. Those of the vertex are as Ion. 
those of the occiput or even longer in some species. Those between the 
eyes are longer than half the length of the hill. It is the high development 
of the feathers of the anterior part of the crown that mainly distinguishes 
the crest of MegOCeryU from that of the allied genera which altogether lack a 
vertical crest. The individual feathers are long, narrowly linear or lineal- 
lanceolate, the web not as consp'cuously frayed out as in Ceryle. 

In Chloroceryli there is no vertical crest, but in all the species the feathers 
of the crown are of ample length and breadth. Those of the occiput are 
decidedly lengthened, rather broad, very soft and blended, and of somewhat 
hairy texture, forming a short bushy crest. In Ckloroceryle amaxona the 
crest is more conspicuous, the feathers longer and narrower, yet scarcely 
linear, more distinct from each other (less blended) and firmer (less hair; 
They are broader than in Megaceryle; and compared with Ceryle are much 
firmer, less soft, and slightly shorter and broader. In this genus and in 
Ceryle the feathers of the vertex are much less than one-half the length of 
the bill. 

Ceryle has a crest most like that of Ckloroceryle amaxona hut the occipital 
feathers are slightly longer and narrower. They are also very soft and 
hairy, being conspicuously frayed out along the margins into long delicate 

I ntrrramal feathering. — In Ceryle the feathering of the interramal space 
is peculiar. The long, soft feathers bordering each fork of the mandible 
curl outwards and upwards, overlapping the ramus and completely hiding 

Miller, Classification of Kingfisher*. 273 

it> lover sides. In the other genera die feathering i- normal, the over- 
lappiii. xhibited to only ■ slight degree at m 

nary formula. — In the proportionate length of the primaries, aside 
from the usual individual variations, there arc specific differences between 
certain members of each genus and average difference- bet we en the three 

era. This amounts to a sharp di-tincti<>n only Cryle and 

In Cerjfle the tenth primary is normally longer than the sixth while in 
CUoroceryb it i- invariably *horitr than the sixth. 

In MegaceryU alcyon the tenth primary is even longer, relatively, than 

that decidedly exceeding the sixth; it is always nearer the 

• nth quill than the sixth and often excee ds the seventh. In the remaining 

species of MegaceryU the tenth primary is always nearer tin- sixth than the 

nth and i> always longer than the fifth. 

ted in condensed form the proportionate length of the tenth primary 
in the various species is as follow 

always nearer seventh than sixth, often longer than seventh. 
Ceryle rudis longer than sixth, not nearer seventh than sixth. 

M. torquata 
St. maxima 
U lugubrie 
At. guttulata 
C. amazona 

... ,. [ never longer than fifth. 

C. ttnea (Honduras southward) ) 

ondary. — The presence of the fifth secondary (fiattngUJehei 

CUoncerpU from l>oth dry!, and M> ijm; ri/lr in l>oth of which this quill 
i- mining, in other \\<>nU. the fir-t-named gaBM i> eutaxic or <|uintixul»ital 
while the otluTsare diaMataxic or aquintocuhital. Hui eharaeter QM i 
determined in all the well marked sp< BUS. 

raft (1899) gave M. maxima, M. nhumi, M . loffwSBi and ('. rudis 

as d e and stated that " f hr i Humming pjiwfci of thti fnim CWyft, 

as currently recognised] are eiita\i< " 1 have carefully examined e 
spe« ;>t .1/. luyuhrLi, which unquotionaMy agrees in thi-* reaped with 

3/. guttulata) and my determinations confirm those of IN craft except as 
regard- if. i/uttulata of whkh I have examined two qpeCJWMDfl and find that 
it agrees with the other members of Migacrrylr. Mitchell .rds 

the (he fifth secondary in M. maxima, M. ah rricana, and 

I and hi> oh . th the afa 

ii fifth and sixth (rarely longer than sixth in \f . torquata, 
rarely shorter than fifth in ('. americana and C. ctnea). 

L'7 1 Btdk '■' ■ 'i in qf Natural History. A. XXXI, 

The exact value of this CurioUS character in tlie Kingfishers ifl iiiicertain 

because of it-- variation in Halcyon, but in the Ceryle group, at least, it coin- 
cides with other characters of full generic value. 

The majority of large groups of birds (orders or suborders) are consis- 
tently either eutaxie or diastataxic. without any exceptions as far as they 
have Keen examined. In only three families are both styles of wing known 

to occur. These are the CohimbidsB I Peristeridse of Sharpe), the Alcedinidse 

and the Micropodidie. 

In the PigeOttS and Swifts the character always coincides with the limits 

of currently recognized genera but varies within the subfamilies. 

With the recognition of MegaceryU and Chloroceryle as genera there 

remains in the Kingfishers only a single melius containing both forms of wing. 
This is the large and polymorphic Halcyon the species of which fall into 

several minor groups, differing remarkably in the wing formula as well as 

in the form of the hill and in coloration, and the character of the fifth second- 
ary holds good in each of these sections as far as it has been investij 

•raft remarks: "There is no known exception to the rule that, though 
a genus may include both forms of wings, it will he found that the species 
constituting that genus will group themselves, invariably, into two sections, 

— those with eutaxie and those with diastataxic wings; for, a- yet, individ- 
ual variation in this particular is unknown." 

Mitchell, in his paper 'On the Anatomy of the Kingfishers, with Special 

Reference to the < Conditions in the Wing known as Eutaxy and I tfastataxy,' 
generically the name Sauropatu for the four diastataxic species exam- 
ined by him. 

As Halcyon is at present the only genus among birds known to contain 
both styles of wing there is little doubt that when this character is deter- 
mined in all the species it will be practicable and desirable to recognize 
generically one or more of the many names, including Sauropati*, currently 
synonymiced under Halcyon. 

According to Pycraft the Swifts are mostly eutaxie. Of the forms hav- 
ing this type of wing he mentions specifically only one — AcantkyUis ( = 
Chaiura or Hirvndaput) eomdaada. At least two genera, he states, possess 
both forms, Dendrochdidon (= Hcmiprocnc) mystacea and AcantkyUia 
collaris (= Chaiura or Strepioprocnc zonaris) being diastataxic 

As regards ('hafimi, the large Neotropical fork-tailed Swifts {Strepto- 
procne) are generic-ally separable from the species formerly associated with 
them. 1 

Whether any of the Tree Swifts {Hcmiprocnc) are eutaxie as stated by 

' Cf. Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XIX, 67. 

1912.) Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 275 

raft, ia doubtful. Of tin- four more distinct species of the genus I have 
1 1 iri«-t 1 three //. long la and //. myitacea and find 

them diastataxic. 

n find no published statements in regard to the condition of the fifth 
ondary in any particular species of Hemiprocne. Wray remarks that 
"the Swifts are quinto-cubital," while Sdal more definitely thai 

"In true Cypst '<•>. as stated by Wray, the fifth t. r. i- present, as it is also 
in the TVee Swifl DendrockeHdon). But I find it absent in ■ specimen of 
i, which is certainly a member of this family." 
It may be inferred that Sclater based his remarks 0O hi> own examination 
ome species of the genera and if this was H. eoronota his statement may 
be correct as regards thi> one species. As the matter -tands, 
however, there is need of a careful examination of the latter, and it is proba- 
ble that it will turn out to he diastataxic like its congeners. 

fh of tail. — Xo generic characters are furnished by the length of 

•ail. MegaeeryL alcyon has the shortest tail of the group and Chloro- 

ma the longest, hut the other species are \ ariously intermediate 

and perfectly connect them. The difference between the extremes is not 

it, amounting to only one-third of the distance from the bend of the wing 

the lower primary coverts. In each of the two larger genera 

the • ariation i> almost as j^reat as in all three genera combined. 

The tail averages longer in ChloroceryU than in MegaceryU hut as shown by 

the two genera widely overlap. 

■ tly in this character with Ch. ttWUOOna, the shortest 
fail- us, ami these fall between tin- two longer ami the two 

The following table shows the relative length of the tail in the various 
The figures were ohtaiiied by dividing the actual length of the 
in bend of wing to tip of longest lower primary cov< 

Ditti ; to tip of longest ofseeera 1 r primary coverts relatirs 

It length of tail 

\tr,J,ir, /'. 


guttultita > 
lugubru ) 

There i- I noticeable ariation in the relative length of the central pair 
I those 01 i<- of it. In CilonceryU the median pair 

1 40 

' hloroceryle 



<rt:> n 




1 17 





Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI 

is nearly always distinctly (often decidedly) shorter than the longest tea til- 
ers; in Mkjuci rt/lr this is less frequently the case. 

In the Kingfishers, at least in this particular group, there seems to be less 
uniformity in the relative length of the rectrices than in m<»t birds; often 
one or two quills will he longer or shorter than they should he Further- 
more, the proportion of specimens with one or more growing rectric. 
unusually large. 

Form of rectrices. — In the form of the rectrices there are slight hut 
noticeable differences. 

In Ccrylc they are wider terminally and more broadly rounded at the 
tip than in the other genera. 

In MegaeeryU they are not obviously widened terminally nor broadly 
rounded at the tip but rather (especially in M. alcyon and M. tonjuata) 
are somewhat pointed, particularly the middle pair. In the latter two spe c ie! 
the rectrices are probably slightly narrower than in the three other spec i< - 
of Mcgaceryle. 

In Chloroceryle the ends of the rectrices are rounded, but are relatively 
narrower than in Ceryle, particularly the short outermost feathers. 

Graduation of tail. — The differences in the graduation of the rectrices 
are more pronounced than those in the length of the tail, but the variations 
in each respect are, to a large extent, correlated. 

As shown in the accompanying table the outer rectrices in MegaeeryU 
and particularly in Ceryle are only slightly shorter than the longest ones, 
while in Chloroceryle, with the exception of C. amazona, the shortening of the 
lateral quills is much more pronounced. 

In Ceryle the average amount of graduation amounts to less than one- 
fifteenth of the length of the tail. In Mcgaceryle and in Chlorocrrt/lr 
amazona it is more than one-fifteenth but less than one-eighth, while in 
Chloroceryle (excepting C. amazona) the graduation exceeds one-eighth. 

The following figures express the proportions borne by the total length 
of the tail to the distance between the tips of the outermost pair of rectrices 
and the longest pair. 

C. americana 


M. liii/ubris ) 


C. inda 


M. gutlulata ) 

C. " a- n 


M. alcyon 


C. amazona 


M. maxima 


M. torquala 


C. rudis 


Feet (general). — The characters of the feet are considered in detail under 
the following separate heading: Feathering of Tibia, Podotheca, Length of 
Tarsus, Length of Hallux, Relative Length of Fore Toes. 

1912. 1 Btr, Classification of Kingfishers. - ~ 

Some general comparisons may fir-t be made. The group as a whole is 
distinguished for the bare tibia and abort tanua. 

unique in the family in it- -mall feet, with extremely short 

ub and hallux in particular. In tin- ( Yrylina* the inner anterior toe 

relatively longer compared with the third and fourth toes, and in 

,l> this becomes a constant difference, distinguishing this genus 

from all other DOn-Ceiyline Kingfi-hers with the exception of CsJOsdb (Cor- 

The characters of the feet are remarkably similar in the four 

species of the genus. 

CUorocerpU and Ceryle differ from each other in the nature of the podo- 
theca; and in the proportions of the toes Ctri/lr, Mcgacerylr, and Chloro- 
ith <a<h other and differ from the three smaller species 
of Chlnrorrryh . 

'hiring of the tibia. — The ( Yrylina* differ from all other Kingfishers 

though closely approached l>y two or three of the other piscivorous genera) 

in the completely bare lower end of the tibia-tarsus. Between the three 

ryhnse there i- no constant nor even distinct average difference 

in thi- !• The tibia i- not feathered to the joint on any side and is 

ahrayi eonspicuously hare in front. The unfeathered space at its most 

tricted point IS always equal to or greater than the lower (short chord 

of the daw of the hallux except in BOOM -p«'< miens of CMoTOCeryU <i 

where the tiny leather- shghtly encroach on this space. 

tut anil to e- co t e rin §. — The lower part of the tarsus ami upper side of 
t|„ red with BCales in < '< r>/lr and Mnjanriilr, with skin only in 

Chtoroa ri/h . 

In Ci r;/l> the scales are perhaps not BO Strongly marked as in Mrtjac, rt/lr, 
; ,t |, nal specimens of ('. ruii$ there are no distinct BCalei \ i-ihle. 

However, in such individuals, the lower end of the tarsus is all red 

ii the thicker, hardened outer -kin of which the Males are formed. 

Xhu H whoD in Chlnronrijli in which the entire tar-u- i- l.»n^itu«li- 

nally wrinkled, as i- the upper end in Ci r;/l> . Mr. I.. A. Fuerte- teUsiM that 

the feet of CUofOC* ryh nimizumt, in the bird in fle-h. are |>eculiar and -trik- 

■ n.l with xiniHtth, un wrinkled, intrtmly black •-kin ai though a black 

kid glove were drawn tightly over the foot. 

•iih of t<ir.*,i.«. In its emeedinglj ihort tar-u- Ifsfoesryft differs not 

only from tin- related geners but from all other member- of the family. 

The relative length «>f the tarsua was determined by oomparison with the 

gth of the claw of the hind fa 
In all tour -i ryle tht almost exactly 1} time- the 

length of the lone ehord of the hind claw, always decidedly less than 1} 
this distal 

'_'7S Hull) I in Aim riant Mli9$um <>/ Xnttirtil History. Vol X X X I . 

In Chliimn riih and Ceryk the tarsus is I ] to very nearly twice the length 
of the claw. In Ceryle, however, tin- tarsus is relatively slightly shorter 
than in Chloroccrylr, as it is decidedly shorter, absolutely, than in ('. amaaona 
(which does not greatly exceed Ceryle in size) and of nearly the saint- length 
as in C. inda (a considerably smaller bird). 

Measured in the skeleton, the tarsus (tarso-metatarsus) of a specimen 
of Megaeeryle torquata is 12.6 nun. long, while the femur is 33.4, or much 
more than twice the length of the tarsus. In an example of CUoroeeryle 
americana the tarsus is 9.3, the femur 17.5, or slightly less than twice tin- 
length of the tarsus. 

In several species of the three geners the metatarsal bone measun 

follow >: 


.^ / 1 ijaceryle torquata 1 2 A i 

" alcyon 10. 

Ceryle r. leucotn elan urn 

Chlorocerylc a ma zona 12. 

" 9.3 

Megaeeryle alcyon and Chloroceryle amazona are birds of equal 
Ceryle r. levcomelanvra being distinctly smaller than either. 

These figures confirm the results obtained from skin measurements, 
CUoroeeryle having a considerably longer metatarsus than Megaeeryle 

while that of Ceryle is intermediate. 

Comparison of the length of the tarsus with that of the inner toe (with- 
out claw i is not altogether satisfactory because of the variation in the 

relative length of the latter. 

In all the species of Megaeeryle the tarsus is distinctly shorter than th- 
inner toe, fully one millimeter shorter in alcyon and torquata. 

In Ceryle the tarsus about equals the inner toe. 

In Chlorocerylc there is more variation than in Megaeeryle, ranging from 
C. amazona, in which the tarsus is always distinctly shorter than the inner 
toe, to C. a in a in which it is equal to or sometimes slightly longer than the 
inner toe. 

Length of hallux.— The length of the hallux is correlated with that of 
the tarsus, consequently it is relatively shorter in Megaeeryle than in the 
two other genera. 

& ryle radix, though a decidedly smaller bird than Megaeeryle alcyon. has 
an actually slightly longer hallux, while in Chlorocerylc amazona, which is 
practically identical in size with alcyon, the hind toe is decidedly longer than 
in the latter. 

In Megaeeryle the hallux with its claw is not so long as the inner toe 

1912.1 Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 279 

the claw. In CUoroceryU these measurements are equal or 
the hallux i- a trifle longer than the innef 

oparing the upper or Long chord of the claw of the hind toe with the 

_rh of the toe itself (the latter measured either along Its upper -Me or 

ter side from the Beam crossing its base to the end, above) we 

results: In Me gac cryL the hallux is distinctly to decidedly 

(rter than its claw: in Ceryle and CkloroeerjfU the hallux is decidedly to 

KareK longer than the claw. This i> most pronounced in C. iinht. and 

perhaps in C 

On comparison of CcryU ru<li.«, ChloroccryU- amaaona ami Megace ry le 
llowing jxiints of interest in the proportions of the tarsus and 
be remarked. 

ing, alcyon has the shortest tarsus and hallux. M. 
"/ and Crryh have very short fore toes, amaaona distinctly longer. 

.// has the ant . and. to a U- the tarsus (and hallux) ' 

lively shorter than in amazona. 

These general proportion- hold good for all species of the three genera. 
genus may be summarised as follow-: 

!id hallux extremely short, anterior toes short. 
abort, toes abort. 

OS short, toes (third and fourth at 
rly long. 

The proportionate length of the anterior I 
. with the third and fourth) distinguishes Megaceryle ami 
all the non-( eryline Kingfishers excepting the genus /." 

intermediate between Mefaee r jfU and the 

the family, hut ( actually agrees with 

id toe invariably reaches beyond the 
ba> I the fourth I ud eight 

of / it ; in fir 

■ ption, an I m of the fi 

amined also \ iolates the rule . 
In ( ! ami fourth 

og from this standard, 

!i i- found in 

only one bird in the ten examined being aberrant. 
In the tl eryts das second toe is r ihorter. 

In C l rule, the clan of the second toe just 

reaches the I the fourth toe, sometimi - slightly exceeding this 

290 liullttin Aim i Id tum "f Xiituml llixlonj. [Vol. XXXI, 

and sometimes falling ■ trifle short ft i»<l<i (six skins) and f. cpw/ (nine 
skins) agree practically with ft (MM rirmm, hut the second toe avenges per- 
ceptibly shorter, its claw rarely passing l>eyond the hase of that of the fourth 
inc. hut equalling or falling a trifle short of it. 

The genus Laccdo agrees with Mefoeerytein this raped but in no other 
Old World genus of Kingfishers does the claw of the second toe pass beyond 
the hase of the claw of the fourth toe. 

< 'otnparing the second and third toes we find much the same proportions 
exhibited. In Meg ac er y le (except M. maxima) and in CeryU the second 
toe with claw almost always equals or slightly exceed- the third toe without 
daw. In If. maxima it is more often a trifle less than the third, than ■ trifle 
more, and ft amazona agrees with M. maxima in this respect. 

In the three other species of Chloroceryle the claw of the second toe falls 
short of the hase of the third toe-claw , though sometimes only very slightly 
so in ('. amerioana. In all non-Ceryline genera except Lncrdo the claw of tin- 
second toe falls short of the hase of the claw of the third toe. In Lot 
it slightly passes this point. 

Thus, hroadly speaking, MegaeeryU, Ceryle, and Chloroceryle amassona, 
on the one hand, agree in the proportionate length of the anterior fa 
while on the other hand, the three smaller species of ChloroceryU essentially 
agree with each other. These two groups, however, are practically con- 
nected by the more or less intermediate species, M. maxima, ft amazona, and 
C. americana. 

Coloration. — While a particular style of coloration characterize- each 
of the genera of Cerylinse, color characters of greater importance distinguish 
the entire group from the Alcedinina- and Halcyonina?. 

The ( Cerylinse entirely lack the changeahle blue or greenish blue so char- 
acteristic of the other subfamilies, being found in every genus, if not, indeed, 
in every species of those groups. 

The entire upperparts, including the head, wings and tail are of one color 
or pattern throughout (except for a white or ochraceous collar) frequently 
variegated on the body plumage and always on the remiges and recti 
with white or buff (and sometimes with black), in small pattern, or often, 
on the wings and tail, in large areas. The sexes never differ in the color 
of the hear! or tail as is so frequently the case in the Daceloninse. 
sexual difference in the color of the underparts, particularly in the handing 
of the chest, is found throughout the Cetylhue and is very characteristic 
of the group. A chest-hand is always present, though in the three species 
in which the male (at least) is rufous-bellied, the rufous of the chest-hand 
is continuous with the rufous of the abdomen. The female always has S 
conspicuous chest-band of the same color as the upperparts, >'. e., of a non- 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 281 

reddish shade green, blue-gray, slate color, or blade*— very different From 
the white or rufous ground color . In CeryU and in one specie- of Mega- 
/ the male has a hand of the same color aa that of the female. 

All the other species of MegaceryU and all those of CU o roce ryU arc rufous 
or a similar shade on the chest, usually in the form of a conspicuous band 
on a white ground, hut in three species the entire underpaid, except the 

throat, are rufous. A- these characters will he discussed in greater detail 
ond, the distinctions between the three genera of Cerylinae may now 
be considered. 

Th< • MegaceryU are of some shade of gray above, varying from 

slate-gray to grayish brae, usually more or less varied with spots or bars 
of white and sometimes with black. The rectrices are barred and the 
remigea and scapulars arc more or less spotted or barred with white or (on 
the inner webs of the primaries in two species) with large white spaces, bul 

neither on the tail nor on the secondaries or -capillar-, nor SCTOSS both webs 
of the primaries an- there any large continuous areas of white. The under- 

parts always have more or lets rufous or cinnamon in at least one sex, the 

amount and distribution of this color being a SCXUal character. The 

female hi ish chest-band -olid or composed of spots), replaced by 

rufous in the male, except in M . alri/on in which it is gray in hoth sexes. 
The axillar- an- always white in the male and rufous in the female, hut in 
the color of the under wing-COVertS anil helly the sexual differences are less 

// i- wholly black and white, the upperpart- marked in larger 
pattern than in MegaceryU. The basal two-fifths or more of the tail i> 
white (sometimes -potted with black), and a narrow white hand crosses the 

tip; the primark ondariei and scapulars are al-<> marked by lai 

of white, which cros- hoth weh- and occupy the gre a ter 
pail of the feather-. The lower part- are without a trace of rufoUS, the 
being indicated DJ the presence of one Mack hand in the female and two 
in the male 

ChhroeeryU i- remarkable for the uniform dark gk reen of the upper- 
The pattern of the re 'id remig< ording to the 

ait the central two p.. m\er white hasalh ; the 

juie always bi nsptcuous amount ,»f black 

minally, and the outer webs of the primaries are plain or at most spotted 

with white, while the inner web never has a large -olid white area reaching 
the -haft \t least lOme of tin capillar feathers have eon-pinion- white 

eas. ( nestnut or rufous is present below in at least the male of all 
i green chest-band which ed bj rufi 

in the male, l>ut there i no -exual difference m the color of (he axillar-. lower 

_' s _' linllttiii American ' pf Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

wing covert- or abdomen, as there is in Megaceryle. In ('. americanaj how- 
ever, the Bezel differ slightly in the color of the throat 

Aside from the differences in coloration there are differences in the tex- 
ture of the plumage. 

In Ceryle the plumage is notably soft and silky, and the white of the 
underparts has a satiny lustre particularly noticeable on the throat; the 
feathers of the upperparts arc long and (except those of the crest) broad, 

with broadly rounded or almost truncate tips, and more frayed out and hairy 
than those of the allied genera, the barbs very soft and fine. 

The glossy, metallic green of the upperparts in Chloroceryle has already 
been described. In MegaceryU the plumage is more opaque and lustre] 
and seems particularly harsh in torquata and aleyon. 

allude* mid tendons. — The anatomy of the tendons and muscles of the 
Kingfishers has been particularly investigated by Dr. Chalmers Mitchell. 

Of the particular group under consideration two species of Chloroceryle 
(americana and inda) were examined and compared. The following to 

are condensed from Mitchell's account. 1 

It should he premised that Mitchell's studies were made for the purpose 
of determining which of the two conditions of the wing, the entaxic or the 
diastataxic, is the original and which the secondary condition. The conclu- 
sion i- reached that the entaxic forms are the most modified in their anatomy 
and hence that the entaxic condition has been derived from the diastataxic. 2 

Latins' in n.s dorsi, anterior if posterior. — In its original condition the 
anterior and posterior parts of this muscle are fully and equally developed. 
In the more modified Kingfishers the anterior division tends to he reduced. 

"Tims in the eutaxic Ceryle americana and C. inda, as compared with 
the diastataxic ('. maxima and ('. aleyon, the anterior division is very thin 
and weak; the posterior is enormous, broad and strong, and with a con- 
siderable forward extension of its origin" (/. C, p. 106). 

Expantof weeundariorum. — This alar tendon is present, though feeble 
in M. aleyon and M. maxima, hut altogether absent in C. americana and C. 
inda. Its absence is an obviously secondary condition (/. c, p. 112). 

-tibialis cxicrnus sen sartorius. — The belly of this muscle is narrow 
in M. maxima, somewhat broader in M. aleyon. In C. americana and ('. 
inda "the increase in breadth is enormous" (p. Ill' . 

Ilio-tibialis sin (jintirns maximus. — In .1/. aleyon and M. max' ma the 

i I!)is. 1901, p. 97. 

• Pycraft believes that while the eutaxic is the original condition in birds the diastataxic 
made its api>earane e very early in the phytogeny of the Class, and that the Xeognalha is a 
diastataxic group in which various orders, suborders, families, genera, and even subgenera, 
have beeome eutaxic through closing up of the gap and loss of the coverts (Transactions of 
the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. VII. 32. r >. 

Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 283 

]>rt ;n t r.iltulnr portion of this muscle i> well developed. In C iimrrirtimi and 

\da "tin- muscle is represented by ■ band of fascia- with only ■ fen 

muscular fit >rt- mar the proximal end" 'I. c, p. 11 

id-ilio-femoralU.— 'Ihe /*»r.v coudalu i- comparatively narrow in 
yle alcyon and J/, maxima, somewhat wider in ('. itmcricntui and ('. 
in da. 

,tu]M rficialis. — This muscle i- in a degenerate state in birds. 
" In I)iir,l<> it arises from the external corner of the tibial crest as a narrow 
tendon, instead of the more norma! broad origin by muscle or fasciae. It i- 
joined by a few fibres from the tibia along the region of the fibula, and is 
inserted to the knee-capsule without the usual slip to the flexor of the middle 
digit. The same condition exists in all tin- diastataxic form- and in some 
of the eutaxic form-. Hut in other eutaxic forms, notably Ceryle americtma 
and C inda, in the HaicyOM$, and Ceyx it i- still more reduced, being simply 
a long round tendon with tin- mere of muscular fibres in it" (/. c, 

p. 116 

;> plantar tendon*.— A well marked difference in these tendons 
between Mi and CUoroceryU is clearly shown in the figures given 

Mitchell of the foui ounined by him. 

"The typical Kingfisher condition, that most strikingly different from 
ore common in other birds, is for the so-called kqUueu to supply 

digits three ami four, and for the so-called communis to supply the hallux 
and < I i u i T two. This i- extremely well seen in the eutaxic forms; only a 
narrow vinculum connect- the two tendons. In Dacelo and Sauroi 

cially in the diastataxic a- contrasted with the eutaxic the 

amunts retain- a more strong hold on the third and fourth digits by means 
i branching vinculum, so that in these Kingfishers the peculiarity is not 
so acutely m. c, p. 1 1'.' . 

In other words, in Chlor... imph- vinculum i- -cut off from well 

. .«• the bifurcation of the communis and join- the halluci- ju-t above the 

t which the latter branches; while in.'./ the vinculum sprit 

mi about the point at which the cotninuni- fork- and divides into two 

branches ea< h of \\ hich rui .ranch of the halluci- joining it far below 

the point of forking. 

Judging by the figures, Chloroctryh pie vinculum with 

urn, Hal I". In these 

the vinculum springs from about the point at which the 

communis fork- a- in Mi or from below the fork, while in CUofth 

the communis decidedly above the fork. 
jMilinjiali.t. In tin- mu-cle the differences do not coincide 
with tin- limit- of fh with the 

28 \ Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

two species of MegaceryU while V . hula is quite distinct, and more closely 
resembles Cittnra and Ahrdo. 

Alar tendons. — M. maxima and M. alcyon agree in the general form of 
the bn\ is tendon while ('. americana and C inda are markedly different 
from them and at the same time ess e nti a lly similar to each other. 

In the former there is "a broad diffuse band of fascia' stretching from the 
dcltoides to the extensor muscles, and receiving the pectoralis tendon," the 
tendons being blended proximally in this band. 

In C. ami rirana and C. inda there is a single rounded tendon proximally, 
without fascia?, and one of the tendinal branches well developed in tin- 
species of MegaceryU is absent in C. inda and very small in C. ami rirana. 
These differences are also well shown in Mitchell's plates. 

Osteology. — As no skeleton of Cerylr radix could be obtained it is only 
possible to contrast the osteology of MegaceryU with that of ChloroceryU. 
The material available for this comparison consists of one skeleton of M. 
torc/aata, one, and part of another, of M. alcyon, one of Ch. americana and 
an imperfect skull of Ch. amazona. 

Owing to the somewhat intermediate nature of Ch. amazona, judging 
by its external characters, it is much to be regretted that the sternum and 
shoulder girdle of this species were not available. Furthermore, the exact 
relation to the two allied genera of the somewhat ambigUOUS genus CeryU 
cannot be determined until its osteology has been examined. 

In the following notes the more important skeletal differences between 
MegaceryU and ChloroceryU are pointed out. These differences are probably 
found in all the species of the two genera with the exception, perhaps, of C. 
amazona in which it is possible that the Important characters of the sternum 
and shoulder girdle may show an approach to MegaceryU. Most of the 
distinctions have already been pointed out by Shufeldt in his papers on the 
'Osteology of Cerylr alcyon,' ' and 'On the Osteology and Systematic 
Position of the Kingfishers (Halcyones) ' 2 , in which he compares M. alryon 
with i '. a m er ic a n a eabanisi and AUedo ispida. 

Shall. — The palatal foramina are larger in C. americana than in Mega- 
ceryU, but absent in C. amazona, the latter thus agreeing with AUedo, 
Dacdo, and most other Kingfishers. 

The posterior palatal spine, i mspicuous in AUedo and Danlo, is 
vestigial in MegaceryU but somewhat better marked in C. americana. The 
outline of the outer edge of the palatines of C. americana closely agrees with 
that of Alcedo ispida. 

MegaceryU and Chloroceryle differ from most if not all other KinghMier-^ 

' Journal of Anatomy, Vol. XVIII I S84, p. 279. 
'American Naturalist, Vol. XXXVII. 1903, 697. 

1912.1 ! ler, Classification of Kingfishers. 285 

eptioo of i i the abrupt and conspicuous widen- 

of the maxillary or anterior portion of the jugal bar. Thus in If, 
m this I- expanded horizontally in a Hat, thin plate of bone, 4.") mm. 
wide at it- broadest part. 

In Megaeeryh tin- widening begins rather abruptly at a point opposite 
the anterior end of the pterygoids, involving fully the anterior half of the 
jngnl bar. In Chloroccryh the widened portion of the maxillary does not 
run back so far as in Hefner rj/U, and in ('. amazonn, with a skull equaling 
that of M. nlnjnu in >izc the actual width of the expanded part is slightly 
leu than in that species. (Plate XXV, fig. 1.) 

Tin- posterior end of the ramus of the mandible seen from the rear is 
much thicker and clumsier in M. RiresMM than in C. amazona and C. ameri- 
M. alcjfon is intermediate. 

There i- 1 distinct difference in the form of the temporal fossa> between 
the ra. In Mraan ryl, the anterior line of the fossa runs slightly 

forward as it approaches the median line, while in Chloroceryle this is not 
the ease. In MeyaeeryU the descending process of the lacrymal is not so 
high as in Chloror, ryle, leaving a large transversely oval or elliptical vacuity 
above it, and i> joined by the pars plana of the me-ethmoid at its upper inner 
corner. hkCUoroa rjfo particularly inf. americana, the vacuity is decidedly 
-mailer and the pars plana meets it b el o w the upper edge. (In Alcrdo, 
Halcyon, and Dnnlo the su|>erior vacuity i> very small; in the former the 
par- plana reaches the hierymal almost in its middle and in the latter two 

r;i considerably below the middle, showing the widest d iv er g ence from 

In Megaeeryh the mesethmotd i- produced forward- in a painful plate, 
vestigial in Chloroceryle americana, and wanting in at least Alcnfo, Dacelo 
and Halcyon. At the base of the maxilla there i- on each -ide a conspicu- 
ous impression or hollow both in Ifsfwcsryfi and in Ck. amazonn but this 
is almo-t wanting in Ch. americana. 

■mm mid xhonhl, r girdle. — In If - the anterior end of the 

rnal keel u very Ugh and prominent (somewhat as in ■ Gaanet <»r Mer- 

the anterior edge, Ketween the spina sterni and the point of the 
approximately -trait'lit a-eending line. 
In f'hliiroi-i njl, mm n, nun the anterior point of the keel i- lower ami less 

pronounced, and the edge ■ i I the ease also in Hal, 

\ and limn {ihulri/, in -termini of Al<;,l,, not D 

The costal processes are relatively sh orter , wider and blunter in Mega~ 

irenera examined, longer, narrower and more pointed 
iti ChlonH;ryl, a>ii,ri,;in<i. In the former they are somewhat Passerine, 
in the latter more sj in the Pi. i. The ra agree (to a large extent 

Hit!' ■: lory. Vol \\\! 

at least ' in having shorter and broader furcula, more curved on ;i side view. 
There is, however, an important difference between these genera in the 
form of the furcula. In MegaceryU the proximal end is broad and brant, 
in CkhroceryU amerieana it is narrower and more pointed. Furthermore, 
in the latter genus, the clavicle bears near its upper or proximal end a con- 
spicuous upward process that articulates with the front upper end of the 
coracoid. In MegaceryU there is a slight angle at this point but no pro- - 
This process is even more highly developed in Halcyon, Ramphalcyon, 
Daeelo, and Aleedo than in Ckloroceryle, being longer and rising more ab- 
ruptly. The absence Of this process is probably therefore peculiar to 

MegaceryU, unless CeryU also prove to he without it. 

The widening of the clavicles toward the upper end is much more pro- 
nounced in MegaceryU and ChloroceryU than in other genera. They are 
also broadened and flattened at their symphysis in MegaceryU but not in 
ChloroceryU amerieana nor in other genera. In MegaceryU the coracoid 
hears a remarkable and conspicuous upward process, springing from the 
inner edge of its foot. This is wholly absent in ChloroceryU amerieana 
as well as in all other genera examined, and it> presence in MegaceryU 
overlooked by Shufeldt. In M. torquata the projection is 3.5 mm. long, and 
about equally well developed in M. alcyon. (Plate XXVI. fig. 1.) 

The opposite or outer end of the coracoidal foot also presents a decided 
difference. In MegaceryU the corner is obliquely cut off. which is not at all 
the case in Chloron ryU amerieana nor in Halcyon ooncrehu, but //. chL 
and Ramphalcyon resemble MegaceryU. 

No important characters are presented by the scapula but it is observ- 
able that in MegaceryU the basal or proximal portion is somewhat wider 
relatively than in ChloroceryU, the distal end le>- conspicuously bent out- 
ward and the angle at the bend sharper. 

Pehis. — The process on the outer margin of the ilium characteristic of 
the Ceryline Kingfishers is somewhat smaller in ChloroceryU than in Mega- 
oeryU, thus reaching its highest development in the latter genus. 

Feet.— The remarkable shortness of the "tarsus" in Mrgaceryle is very 
obvious in the skeleton. Thus in M. alcyon the metatarsus (measured along 
front of inner side) is 10 mm., much less than one-half the femur which is 
25.9; while in C. amerieana the metatarsus is 9.2, or distinctly more than 
one-half the length of the femur, which measures 17.4. Though so little 
longer than that of C. amerieana the metatarsal bone of M. alcyon is much 
stouter, particularly at its lower end, across which it measures 4.5 mm., 
against 2.8 in C. amerieana. 

I can find no character in the wing-bones worthy of note. 

Basing our comparisons only on the genera examined, it is obvious that 

1912.1 (far, Clarification of Kingfishers. 287 

tands quite alone in certain skeletal characters, and in certain 
ted by CUoroeeryU with the other genera. The moat 
markable characters of Megaceryh ;ir«- the vestigia] palatal spine, the 

Ulded maxillary, the relation of pars plana and lacrymal, t he- sternal 

'. form <>f furcula (two difference s ), form of coracoids, and shortneet 
us. In all of these there i> ■ wide difference between MegaceryU 

OH the one hand, and />" ikull . Halcyon i »;tl:i r i i j. - : . liiim- 

palatines 'i . on the other. In all these characters except the form 

id, symphysis <>f furcula, and perhaps the sternal keel, and t<> ■ 

•f the form of proximal ends of the furcula, Chloroceryie strongly 

•erylt and differs from the other genera mentioned. The 

culiar to Megaet ryle and Chloroceryie lint is slightly better 

I in the former. 

t that the geographical ranges of tie of Ch'oro- 

ost identical, all four of them being found together throughout 
the greater part of Central and South America. This fact doubtless 

triking differences in sise, the species having become adapted 
for; lifferent -i/.«-s. Hie species of Megaceryl an- much more uni- 

form in sire and their ranges an- strictly complementary. It is noteworthy 
Chloroceryli i> absent from the Antulean subregion. 

In the succeeding pages the various divisions of the ( lerylinss an- treated 
in detail. I ndtr each genus and species a short diagnosis, including only 
culiar t<> the group in question, is tir>t presented. Fol- 
lowinj and more detailed description. 

this subfamily fall naturally in the following 

M' - le nidi- 

( hloroccM le amazona 
maxima annrieana 

tori|i inda 


Tin- only uncertainty in • enl i- in regard to the relative 

•ion of tin- last ti pproachesC. 

I more closely than uia. 

m- Megaceryle 

Large and rather large Cerylim- KitiKlishi-rs (the wing <>vrr 1 -l."> nun long), 
with finely serrate hill. • ,.rt 

L'S.s HuUitiii American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI, 

tarsus and hallux; the upperparts wholly or partly bluish gray (without green), the 
axillars white in the male, rufous in the female. 

Large or (one species) rather large Ceryline Kingfishers of both Eetnvpheree, 
with wing more than 145 mm. in length, stout, deep bill (moderate in on 
with serrate maxillary tomia (sometimes obsolete in one species), conspicuous vert ical 
and occipital crest, the tenth primary always longer than the fifth, diastataxic second- 
aries, nearly even tail (the outermost pair of re ctri oea falling short of the Ion. 
by between one-eighth and one-fifteenth of the length of the tail (the central pair 
not shortened), the rectrices more or less pointed at the tip, the front of the i., 
with distinct tremely short but stout tarsus and hallux, the second toe 

with claw usually equal to or longer than the third toe without claw (often ■horter 
in one species) and always normally longer than the fourth toe without, claw; the 
plumage lustreless, above solid bluish gray, 01 slate-gray edged with bluish gray 
(either plain or varied with spots or bars of white), the scapulars not extensively 
white basally, and no large white areas on the tail nor across both webs of t he prima- 
ries, more or less rufous on the underparts in at least one sex, the axillars always white 
in the male, rufous in the female. 

Hill. — According to the size and form of the bill the species fall into three 
groups. Maxima and torquata agree in having a large stout bill, much 
longer than the head; the up-curve of the gonys more prominent than the 
down-curve of the culmen which is nearly straight; that of alcyon is much 
smaller, being shorter and relatively more slender, the curves of oilmen 
and gonys about equal. 

In lugubris and guthdaia the bill is short as in alcyon (about equalling the 
head) but much stouter, even more so, for its length, than that of maxima 
and torquata; the maxilla is more decurved, while the gonys u stnufhter, 
and the tip of the maxilla is thicker and less attenuated than in the other 
species. Furthermore, the tomial serrations which are always evident in 
the long-billed species are often less decided in lugubris and guUulaUk and 
frequently indistinct or obsolete in alcyon. 

In the following table the figures in the first column indicate the relative 
length of the bill compared with the distance from the bend of the wing 
to the tips of the lower primary coverts. Those in the second and third 
columns give the extremes and the average respectively of the relative depth 
of the bill, the figures expressing the number of millimeters by which four 
times the depth of the bill at the gonydeal angle exceeds the length of the 
bill from the anterior end of the nostril. 

Relative length 

Relative Depth 



1-6 2.6 

lugubris ) 
gultulata ) 


10-12 11. 



4-10 9. 



5-10 7. 

1912.1 Millrr, Clarification of Kingfishers. 289 

In ;i single specimen Bf o/cyon, which has a long and oddly slender bill, 

four tuna it- depth is l mm. lets than the length instead of from 1-6 mm. 

is in all the other specimens examined. The measurements given for 

the typical form; M. t. st> lluta has a shorter and relatively 
r hill, hut lark of good adult specimen prevents me from giving the 
hill proportions of this race. 

'. The essentia] character of the er<^t in Megaceryle, as compared 
with other . is the high development of the anterior part or vertical 

and tin- i- well shown in all the species. 
Ii M. lugvbru and M. guttulata the frontal crest feathers attain their 
i development both absolutely and compared with those of the occi- 
ontrasted with M. torquata). They are more elongated 
anteriorly than in M. maxima, particularly in lugubris. The crest is com- 
of narrow, linear, broadMpped feathers (their ends truncate or very 
By rounded , the webfl of which are moderately firm, not conspicuously 
i a- in d ryle. 
In M na the crest is similar to that of M. lugubris in development 

and form of the feather- hut i- not quite so long (at least relatively), particu- 
larly the vertical feather-. The latter are strikingly rlongalui forward to the 
rior end of the eye. 

In If. ton/Hutu the cresl i- noi BO highly developed as in the other species, 
athers shorter, less linear, distinctly narrowed towards the tip, and 

more or l< as pointed. 

M ulri/oti has a very well developed crest; the feathers relatively longer 

of M. torqttaia, !>ut narrowed terminally and pointed as in the 

latter, and somewhat more hair-like than in any of the other sp eci es , owing 

to th- paration of the l»arl»s. The crest i- distinctly douhle, 

nt midway between the front and the rear where 

orter than elsewhere. The crest of this species does 
• all approach that of either Csrjiif or OAssroesrjsV. 

Feathering of the lores is correlated with th<- devesopnenl of the 

The loreal feathen are largest and de ns est -lined andap- 

pressed, in M. and particularly in if. iup Ar u , and are well n ove l - 

oped in If. alcyon; in Jbf. torgutda they arc -mailer and more appressed than 

in an;. Otbd US. 

7. If. alcyon i- aberrant in it- lo ng »pot n ted wing, the truth primary 
nearer I th than the sixth and often exceeding the seventh. 

In none of the otl the truth primary longer than the -i\th 

l ipecimenj of torquata), and it is normal)} ihorterthan 
the fifth, how be proportionate V 

of the prunaries is shown by the foUowii 

290 Bulletin American Museum of Nalural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

alcyon (25 specimens), P. 10 always nearer 7 than 6, often > 7. 

torquata (14 specimens), P. 10 decidedly > 6 to decidedly < 6 (usually — or < 6; 

always nearer 6 than 7, sometimes nearer 5 than 6). 
lugubris and guttulata (7 specimens), P. 10 decidedly < 6 (from nearer 5 to much 

nearer 6, always > 5). 
maxima (4 specimens), P. 10 < 6 (nearer 6 than 5 in three specimens; always > 5). 

Tail. — M. alcyon has the shortest tail of the genus and if. torquata the 
longest, but even between these extremes the difference is slight and unim- 
portant. The proportion that the tail bears to the distance from the bend 
of the wing to the tips of the several outer lower primary coverts is as 

alcyon 1 . 33 

maxima 1 . 37 

lugubris \ 

guttulata ) 

torquata 1 . 54 

The difference in length between the outer pair of rectrices and the 
longest ones ranges between one-fifteenth and one-eighth of the length of 
the tail. The graduation is greatest in torquata and least in maxima. 

No. of speci- 

Average length 

Am rage amount 

Graduation in 


of tail 

of graduation 

length of tail 





9.6 times 

lugubrit ) 




12.3 " 

guttulata ) 





12.8 " 





14.3 " 

Feathering of tibia. — The lower end of the tibia is completely bare in all 
species, the unfeathered space being least extensive in M. lugvbru in which 
it is only equal to the short chord of the claw of the hallux. In aieyon tin- 
bare space always exceeds this distance and usually equals or exceedl the 
long (upper) chord of the claw. In torquata and maxima the bare area is 
distinctly greater than the long chord. 

Tarsus. — In the length of the extremely short tarsus there is remarkable 
uniformity. The tarsus in all five species is almost exactly equal in length 
to one and one-half (I5) times the long chord of the hallux claw. Com- 
pared with the inner toe (without claw) the tarsus is always distinctly 
shorter, fully one millimeter in alcyon and torquata. 

Toes. — The hallux is distinctly to decidedly shorter than its claw (the 
toe being measured either along its upper surface or along its outer ride 
from the seam crossing its base to the end, above); and the hallux and 
claw combined are shorter than the inner toe without claw. 

1912] Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 291 

Hm proportionate length of tin- anterior toes is very constant. The 
second toe with its claw is always longer than the fourth toe without its 
claw. At least thi> rule is so nearly invariable that in the forty-six speci- 
Buned there i- only one complete and one partial exception. 
paring the second toe with the third we find that the second (with 
claw | i> normally, except in M. maxima, equal to or a trifle longer than the 
third without < law . This proportion holds in four-fifths of the specimens 
of torqvata and alryon examined, and in all eight individuals of lugubris and 
gutt ulata. 

In maxima the second toe averages a little shorter than in the other 
species, being as often shorter than the third as longer. In all the species, 
however, except in the single aberrant individual of torquaia and (one foot 
only in one specimen of maxima, the second toe (with claw) never falls 
>hort of the third (without claw) by more than a mere trifle. 

By means of the appended table the variations in this character may be 

ly seen. 

Second toe with daw compared with third and fourth toes without daws. 

, 1R j * or rather slightly > 3 

( always distinct ly > 4 (exc. two birds and one foot of two more). 
^^ .. \ — or very slightly >3 (except in three birds). 

( almost always >4 (< 4 in one bird). 
lugubris, 1 spec. ( - or slightly > 3 
guitutata, 7 spec., ( always > 4 

maxima 5 spec \ " ° r * light,y > 3 or &&& < 3 

' ( always > 4 (except in one foot of one bird). 

if, The essential color characters of the genus have already been 

hrirfh mentioned. They are, fir>t : the geneftJ lu>terle>s gray coloration 

lie upper part-, the female with I ehe>t-l»arid of the same color (a 

The \\h the -capillar-, remigeS, and Metrical and of 

the iipiK'rpartS (when not unifonn i- alwa\ I in the form of -mall -pot- and 

er in large areas, excepting «»nl \ on the inn.: he primaries 

In the male tin- a\illars and lower wing coverts are alwa> - pure white 

! with pmy in M, maxima dMrsaOi in the female 

.ert- in \j 

m the chest-band of the male is mfoui <>r 
ru-n . but tun/uata, luijuhri* ami <juthilata are actually intermediate betl 
in t hi- reap) 

202 Bulletin 1 ol II fury. [VoL XXX] 

The uniform unspotted grayish blue of If. aleyon and typical If. for- 
gua/a a e emj at fir>t sight v«fy differenl from the gray and white barring of 

if. htfiuhris and M (jiitttthitti, but the latter do not differ em iiliaHi/ from true 
.V. mashuti, and this is connected with If. t. torquntn by If. /. tteUata and 
M. maxima thorpei. 

In alcyoii and /. torquaia the upperparts are uniform grayish bhte, B few 
small white spots tipping the wing coverts, and the upper tail coverts more 
or less spotted; but in torquatn the former are usually obsolete and the latter 

In If. t. xtilluld the feathers of the upperparts are slatey-black basally 
and along the shaft, and more or less marked with small spots of white. 

This is a close approach to M. m. maxima, in which the entire basal 
portion and center of the feathers are blackish, the gray remaining as a wide 
border. The entire upperparts are conspicuously dotted with small spots 
of white. In M. m. sharpei the white spotting is greatly reduced, absent 
from the interscapulars and barely indicated on the crest. 

In M. futhdata the white markings, except those of the wing covi 
take the form of broad bars, rather than small spots, usually reaching or 
crossing the shaft; and in If. htffubrii this barring is even more pronounced. 
It is obvious, however, that the bars of these specie- correspond to the spots 
of maxima and may have been developed from that type of marking. 
In the Asiatic species the ground color of the upperparts is a slatey gray; 
the bluish -hade so characteristic of the other members ol the genu- i- 
evident and exists only in light bluish-gray margins. 

In the pattern of the primaries there is essential agreement between the 
three Old World species. Each web of all the quills is symmetrically marked 
with a series of white spots, which, on the outer web at least, extend well 
towards the tip. 

The New World species are decidedly different and do not agree so 
closely with each other. The primaries are more extensively black terminally 
(without spots), while proximally there is a large white area on the inner 
web of each feather, particularly extensive in alri/on, in which the outer 
half dozen quills are practically wholly white on the basal half of the inner 
vane. In torquaia the shaft is bordered by black, which runs out irregularly 
into the white area, and in extreme cases breaks it up into four or five smaller 
patches which, however, are always coalescent along the inner edge of the 
In alcyon the outer web of all the primaries i- more or less irregularly 
spotted, barred or even longitudinally marked with white, while in torquaia 
at least the first three primaries and usually several others are wholly un- 
marked or at most with a mere indication of some of the spots on the mar- 

Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 293 

Both iry greatly in the extent ami character of these 


The differences in the coloration of the nnderpeita presented by the 
four more distinct species of the genus are curious and interesting. 

only invariable characters in cither sex are the rufous axillars and 
gray chest-band of the females, and the white axillars of the males. This 
difference in the axillars is tint- the only sexual color distinction that holds 
in all th The coloration of each sex may l>e summarized as fol- 

Mult. — Under wing co v er ti and axillars always white </. <■., without 
rufous; in M. m. ikarpei the coverts, at least, are barred with dark gray 
and white . Chest-band rufous paler, with slatey spotting, chiefly below 
the in lugubri.t and guttulata; encroached upon by the blue gray 

the sides in torqtmt ■ in oteyoa in which it is blue-gray h in the 

;ile. Belly white, except in ton/unfa, in which it is rufous, continuous 
with the rufous chest-band. Sides of the body with a longitudinal slatey 

tch in tdeyon, barred with slatey in the other white-bellied species; in 
guttulata and lugubri.i thi> extends as a zone of spar>ely barred feathers 

DM the abdomen, ami in Jbf. ///. .sharp- i the entire underparts posterior 
to the chest-band are closely barred. 

band always gray solid in the New World, spotty in 

Old World 3] i\illar- always mfottS; under wing-COVertS llsO 

DOS in all but ulryim. The belly solid rufous in maxima and tan/nata, 
■ •lly white in liKjiilir'.x and guttulata ami intermediate in alnjon, l*>ing 
white with a narrow band of rufous across its anterior border ami broadly 
the coloration of the ■nderparta the species may In- diag- 
nosed as folio. 

cF with gray chest 1 white belly); » with belly partly rufous 

• under » s 

■ i belly wholly rufous) .... 

(cfwithw!.. . with belly wholly white .... 

(d* with wl ? with belly wholly rufous) 

9 with 

< lugubris 

< SSBSsisSS 

The character^ e n c i oeed in parentheses are those not confined to any 

I - Men that alctjon may Ik* diagnosed by the color of the 

underpart- in each mx, tnrnuaia by that of the male, luguhri.i ami guttulata 

that of the female. In maxima, only the combination 

• neither aex alone being dUtim • 

294 Bulletin American Museum of Xatural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Megaceryle alcyon. 

Small Megaceryle (wiag under 170 mm.), with slender bill, long wing tip (tenth 
primary always nearer seventh than sixth), the male with blue-gray rihft hand and 
no rufous, the female with white under wing-coverts and white belly bordered an- 
teriorly and on the sides with rufous. 

Small Nearctic Megaceryle (wing under 170 mm.), with short and slender bill, 
the tomial serrations sometimes obsolete, the crest distinctly double, the vertical 
portion well developed, composed of narrow, pointed feathers, the barbs of which are 
extensively disconnected, the wing decidedly pointed (the tenth primary always 
nearer the seventh than the sixth in length, often longer than the seventh), the tail 
rather short, the reel rices somewhat pointed, the outermost pair falling short of the 
longest by about one-thirteenth of the length of the tail, the second toe with claw 
almost always equal to or longer than the third toe without claw, and always dis- 
tinctly longer than the fourth without claw; the entire upperpaits uniform bluish 
gray without white markings except on the wing- and tail-coverts, the basal half of 
the inner web of the outer five primaries almost entirely white, a solid blue-gray 
chest-band in both sexes, the adult male without rufous, the female with rufous 
sides and narrow band across lower breast, large white abdominal area and white 
under wing-coverts. 

M. alcyon is the most distinct species of the genus, possessing several 
characters separating it at once from all its congeners. Its small size, 
slender bill, pointed wing, the pattern of the primaries, the absence of 
rufous in the male, and its peculiar distribution in the female (particularly 
its absence from the lower wing-coverts), are all diagnostic of this ■pedes. 

It is a typical Megaceryle, however, in the essential generic characters, 
showing no approach in these respects either to Ceryle or to Chlorocerylr 
amazona. While it agrees with these in size and with the former in its 
pointed wing, it is probable that both these resemblances are due to parallel- 
ism or convergence and do not indicate any particularly close relationship 
between those species and M. alcyon . 

It is undoubtedly most nearly allied to M. torquata with which it agrees 
in the clear ashy-blue coloration. This relation is also shown in the pattern 
of the remiges and rectrices, by the presence of rufous on the under side of 
the body in the 9 and by the form of the crest feathers. It is distinguished 
from M. torquata chiefly by the same characters in which it differs from the 
other species (particularly from M. maxima), i. e., the characters peculiar 
to M. alcyon. 

While the presence in the male of a chest-band of the same color as the 
upperparts and wholly without rufous, separates this species not only from 
all its congeners but from all the species of Chloroceryle as well, M. torquata 
and the Asiatic species show an approach to this style of coloration. In 
M. torquata the sides of the chest are blue-gray; in M. lugubris and M. 

1912] Miller, CUumfication of Kingfithert. 295 

guttulata the sides of the chest are slate-gray and the feathers of the chest are 
■MHJJ -late-color b elo w tlic miff ft (viable to a slight extent ), while 
the rafooa j, reduced to ■ pale superficial wash. 

Probably the most remarkable variation in If. alcyon is found in the 
marking of the outer irebl of the primaries, which present very diverse 

;>itr it> wide range the geographic variations in this species are so 
it that it i> unnecessary to enter into them here. One geographic race 
has been described. 

Megaceryle torquata. 

MegaeeryU with eat ire lower breast and belly solid rufous in both sexes. 

Larv : >ical MegaeeryU with long or moderately long, stout bill, the culmen 

only slight ly deeurved for its distal one-third, relatively rather short crest the feathers 
of whi«*h are narrowed terminally, the tenth primary varying from decidedly shorter 
than the sixth to decidedly longer than the sixth, but always nearer the sixth than 

• venth, the tail rather long, the rectrices somewhat pointed, the outermost pair 
falling short of the longest by between one-ninth and one-tenth of the length of the 
tail, the second toe with claw usually equal to or very slightly longer than the third 
toe without claw and almost always longer than the fourth without claw; the 
ground-color of the upperparts bluish gray, the crest never spotted with white, the 
primaries not symmetrically spotted with white on both webs, the outer three with, 
at most, vestigial spots on the outer web, the white on inner webs in large areas, not 
in isolated spots, the entire lower breast and abdomen uniform rufous in both sexes, 
the female with rufous under wing-coverts and a solid blue-gray chest-band, the male 
with the sides of the chest blue-gray. 

M. torquata i> distinguished from all its congeners l»y the uniform solid 
rufous of the bread and U-lly in both sexes. It has few if any other peculiar 

,aller than in the other specie-, its feathers 
terminally narrowed and jx»int<-d M in M. alri/ou. 

The tail average! relatively longer than that of an\ other species, and 
with the shortest outermost rcctric. > The difference in length is most 
P rnfll inrmd. though nut important, between torquata and alri/on, which, 
however, agree most closely in the form of the reet rices, thcac l>eing more 
|M»inted ami apparently narrower than in the other species. 

In .1/. torquata the tenth primary averages slightly longer than in the Old 
World ;••' • -. thus approaching M. alcyon, ami thaColOFllJOBlhoifliaTMaJ 

• led jM.ints of resemlilam-e t<» the latter. This b 81 ident in the color of 
the upperparts, the pattern of the remigesand rectrx •< •-. and the presence of 
rufoiis on the belly of the fen 

On the other hand, in the rnfow ehe-t <»f the male, in general size, and 
in the size and form of the hill, torquata agrees with maxima and, in the 

396 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. (Vol \\.\l, 

first two respects, to a less extent, with hujuhris aii<I pMulata. M. tor/junta 
therefore connects M. alcyon with the Other specie of the genu-. 

At least three races of M. torquata ire recognizable, hut the geographical 
variations in this species have never been thoroughly worked out. A* this 
b beyond the scope of the present paper no attempt has been made to 
revise the subspecies 

True If. torquata inhabits Middle America; the form of northern and 
eastern South America is probably the same. M. f. gteilata is accredited 
to western and southern South America (Chili, Bolivia, and IVrm. but its 
range ami characters have never been thoroughly determined. Its char- 
acters are supposed to be a shorter bill than true torquata, the uppefparta 
spotted with white, the slatey centers of the feathers broader. These aUef 
color characters, however, may be due, to a certain extent at least, to 
immature birds exhibiting the coloration above described. On the other 
hand, it is possible that two races of torquata with short bills are recognizable, 
one colored like true torqttata, the other marked as above. Of most interest 
in the present connection is the short bill, relatively stouter than in M. f. 
torquata (but of which I have given no measurements owing to lack of 
perfect adult specimens) and the coloration suggestive of M. maxima. 

M. t. sUcUpenms Lawrence, of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, of which 
I have examined two adult males, including the type, is, judging by these 
specimens, an easily distinguished form, chiefly characterized by the Is 
amount of white in the plumage. The white bars on the rectrices are much 
better developed than in true torquata, there is a greater amount of white 
on the primaries and primary coverts (usually little or none on the latter 
in true torquata), and more white specks and narrow bars on the upper parts 
(largely concealed). The rufous of the underparts probably averages de- 
cidedly deeper and of a slightly different shade. The slatey stripes of the 
crest feathers are reduced to a minimum. 

This form, while included in the British Museum Catalogue, is omitted 
from the Hand-List of Birds. 

Megaceryle maxima. 

Megaceryle with the belly white (with or without gray bars) in the male, solid 
rufous in the female. 

Large African Megaceryle with large, stout bill, the culmen gently decurved for 
its terminal third, long vertical and occipital crest with broad tipped feathers, the 
tenth primary ranging between the fifth and sixth in length, the tail rather short, 
the outermost pair of rectrices falling short of the longest by about one-fourteenth 
of the length of the tail, the second toe with claw about equalling the third toe with- 
out claw, usually longer than the fourth toe without claw; the feathers of the upper- 
parts with conspicuous slate-colored or blackish centers, those of the crest and rump 

1912] Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 

(at least) more or less spotted with white, the primaries symmetrically spotted with 
•n both webs, the male with a rich rufous chest-band but no rufous slsewhsfO, 
with the chest heavily marked with slate-gray, the entire abdomen and 
der wing-coverts rufous. 

M. maxima i- well characterized by the coloration of the lower parts, 
no other -p« ■< -it - ooinbining a rufous cliot-ltaiul and wliite belly in the male, 
with a rufous belly in the female. (In the male of M. maxima sharpri 
efly is luavily marked with slate color but it is never rufous.) The 
male i> essentially similar in pattern to the males o r M. lugubris and .1/. 
guttulala. the females of which have no rufous on under surface of body; 
while the female resembles that of M. torquata, the male of which has a 
rufous belly. M. maxima is therefore the only species in which the male 
-■ entire belly wh . without rufous) while the female has it 

entirely rufotl 

Aside from the coloration of the underparts M. maxima has no Strongly 
marked peculiar characters. In the coloration of the upperparts it . 
certain extent intermediate between the two New World species on one hand, 
and the two Asiatic forms on the other hand. In the pattern of the remiges 
and rectrices, and in the >ize of the crest and its feathers it agrees with M. 
gultulata, while in the size and form of the hill it is similar to if. torquata. 

In the proportions of the primaries, the length and form of the tail, and the 

form of the rectrices there is close agreement with M. luguhrix and M. 
gutiuiata, but torquata does not differ importantly in any of then 

The anterior tOCS the Megaceryline proportions less Strongly than 

in otli and toe with claw being fre qu en tly shorter than the 

third toe without claw, which i> only rarely or abnormally the case in the 

In addition to the typical mi .1/. ///. maxima, one well marked 

Bed, M m. .sharp, of \\.-t ind Kquatorial Africa. This 
form, of which I have mi no specimens, dsffsfl from true maxima in its 
r coloration, the white Spots of the upperparts nuich restricted and 
wholb absent from the intencapuium; the abdomen, rrissum, under wing- 
id axUlars doubtlsm) of the male, heavny barred with slate-gray. 
\\ bether or not there are sjsj lliaTlHllfrl iii form or pro|M>rtions between 
<» race> I am unable to Mate, but it i> probable that there are none 

Megaceryle guttulata. 

Msaareryli with short, stout bill, the maxilla decidedly decurved for more than 

il third and with laterally thick tip -< conspicuously barred 

with K ray and I rest will bSfl of almost wholly white feathers. 

the male with pale rufous chest-band which in spotted with slate-gray below the 

2 l JS Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

surface, and a pale rufous spot on posterior malar region, the female with no rufous 
below, except on axillars and under wing-cov< I 

Ten or eleven white spots on outer web of outer reetrix (including base and tip), 
the spots on proximal half of quill not wider than the dark interspaces, mostly much 
narrower; the distance between the distal white spot on inner web of outer three 
primaries and the tips of the quills greater than the depth of the bill; the white bars 
of the upperparts (including the scapulars) narrower than the dark bars, those of the 
rump little if any wider. 

Rather large Asiatic Megaceryle with short but stout bill, the maxilla decidedly 
decurved for more than its distal third, and with laterally thick tip, very large ei 
the vertical part highly developed, the feathers with broad truncate tips, the tenth 
primary ranging in length between the fifth and sixth, the tail of moderate length, 
the outermost pair of rectrices falling short of the longest by about one-t welft h <>f the 
length of the tail, the second toe with claw usually equal to or slightly longer than tin- 
third toe without claw and always (?) longer than the fourth toe without claw, the 
upperparts conspicuously barred with dark gray and white, some of the crest feathers 
pure white with, at most, one or two small black spots at the tip, the primam - 
symmetrically barred with white on both webs, the male with pale rufous chest-band 
(spotted with slate-gray below the surface) and pale rufous spot on posterior malar 
region, the female with white underparts, only the axillars and under wing-cov 
pale rufous, a band of gray spots or bars crossing the chest. (To this may be added 
the minor color characters, distinguishing guttulata from lugubris, given in the second 
paragraph of the diagnosis.) 

Megaceryle lugubris. 

Megaceryle similar to M. guttulata, but differing in greater amount of white in the 
plumage. About thirteen white spots on the outer web of the outer rectrix (including 
base and tip), the spots on proximal half of quill much wider than the dark interspaces; 
the distance between the distal white spot on inner web of outer three primaries and 
tips of quills less than the depth of the bill: the white bars of the upperparts (including 
the scapulars) mostly as wide as or wider than the dark bars, much wider on the rump. 

M. lugubris and M. guttulata are very closely related, differing from each 
other only in the relative amount of slate color and white in the plumage, 
while agreeing exactly in several important characters not found in any other 

The short but thick bill, with decurved maxilla and thickened tip, is the 
only marked structural peculiarity. In coloration the unique features are 
the broad, white barring of the upperparts, the pallor of the rufotu shade and 
its restriction in the female to the under wing-coverts and axillars, and, 
in the male, the presence of a rusty malar spot and a concealed slatey chest- 
band, superficially rusty. The last feature is an approach to the unique 
blue gray chest-band of M. alcyon, and the shortness of the bill is another 
resemblance to the latter. 

It is probable, however, that these resemblances are due to convergence, 
for the nearest ally of the Asiatic species is unquestionably M. maxima. 


Miller, Classification of Kingfisher*. 


This relationship i> shown in the crest, the proportions of the primaries, 
the length and form of the tail and ract rices, and to a considerable extent 
in coloration, particularly in the pattern of the remiges and rectrices. The 
barring of the upperparts is only an exaggeration of the spotting of M 

i white coloration of tin- Oriental species bears a superficial 
resemhlum ■«• to (he Mack and white of Ceryle, and the similarity i-> in< Teased 
he pallor and re stri c ti on of rufous on the underparts. It was for this 
>n. doubtless, that Reiehenbach separated them from their congeners 
ami plae«d them in Ceryle, Even in coloration, however, M. lugubris and 
M. pnfrWafu are essentially Megaceryline and differ in important respects 
from ('• ryle, particularly in the pattern of the individual feathers. 

While M. lugubris and M. guttulata are very nearly related I have fol- 
lowed 1 >r Stejneger l in considering them as specifically distinct. M. lugu- 
bris appears to be an island form confined to Japan, and as far as known the 
differences separating it from the continental M. guttulata are constant. 
The two species are distinguished by the relative amount of gray and 
white in the plumage. I have a single fine specimen of lugubris and six 
ree from India and four from North China) of gut'ulata for comparison. 
K exhibit the following differences. 


10th primary 

Inm-rni.-t laflji 


M. lugubris. 

hite spot on inner web 
opposite the subterminal 
spot on outer web of outer 
three or four primaries 

or ten white spots on 
inner web (including base). 
Nine past tip of spurius 
Distance of last spot on inner 
web from tip is less than 
greatest depth of ImII 

narrower than dark bars, — 
fully three-fourths ss wide. 

broader t han t he dark one*. 

Central rectrices White base reaching shaft. 

M. guttulata. 

So white spot on inner web 
opposite the subterminal 
spot on outer web of outer 
t hree or four primaries. 

Kight white spots on inner 
web (including base). Seven 
or eight past tip of spurius 

Distance of last spot on inner 
web from tip is more than 
greatest depth of hill 

White bars much narrower 
than dark bars, only about 
one half as wide. 

The white bars are always 
narrower than the dark 
ones (except near the base 
of some feathers). 

White bars not reaching 

• Proc. U. 8. KM . 1893. 884. 

Bullet iii Anurican Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

Muter web of 
< »iit«T rectru 


Upper tail-coverts 

If, lugubris. 

Thirteen well ■ defined spots 
including base and tip. 

On basal half the white spots 
are much wider than t he- 
dark spaces, often twice as 

Many of the white bars are 

nearly or quite twice as 

wide as the dark ones. 

White bars mostly equal or 

exceed dark ones in width. 

it. '/uttulata. 
Ten or eleven well-defined 

•pots, including base and 


On basal half the white Bpotll 
are not wider than the dark 
space-, mostly much nar- 

White bars little if any wider 
than i i 

White bars are narrower than 
the dark ones. 

Genus Ceryle. 

Medium need Ceryline Kingfishers with slender bill, the sides of the mandibular 

rami overlapped by the interramal feathers; coloration wholly black and white, the 

hers of the upperparts black with at least the tip< white, the wing with a large 

white area covering both we' ral adjacent primaries, the plumage of the 

throat with a satiny lustre, the male with two black bands crossing the breast. 

Medium rised Ceryline Kingfishers of Africa and wing less than 1 1") 

mm. long) with rather loni r , slender, non-serrate bill, the interramal feathers over- 
lapping the sides of the mandibular rami, well developed occipital but no vertical 
crest, rather long, pointed wing (the tenth primary longer than the sixth), dia-tataxic 
secondaries, nearly even tail (the outer pair of reetrices fallingshort of the longest by 
less than one-fifteenth of the length of the tail), the reetrices with broad, obtuselv 
rounded tips, the tarsus short hallux moderately short , the front of the tarsus covered 
with scales except at its upper end, the second toe with claw longer than the fourth 
without claw, and not shorter than the third; the plumage very soft, the feathers 
of the upperpartsand crest with the barbs disconnected terminally and very fine, the 
throatand to a lessextent the rest of the underparts with a satiny luster; the plun 
wholly black and white, the feathers of the upperparts neither uniform nor marked 
with small spots or bars, but black with a white terminal margin and often more or 
less extensively white proximally, some of the primaries and secondaries and all of the 
reetrices with large continuous areas of white across both webs, one black band on 
the breast in the female and two in the male. 

The exact relationship of Cerylr to Mrcjaceryle and Chloroceryle cannot 
be satisfactorily determined until its muscular and skeletal anatomy have 
been examined. 

Coloration is the most distinctive feature of Ceryle. This differs so 
markedly in several respects from the characteristic styles of the allied 
genera that it may be considered an excellent distinction. Aside from 
coloration there are no very strongly marked characters separating Ceryle 
at once from both of the other genera, but the slender bill with its rami 
overlapped by feathers, and the soft, satiny texture of the plumage are 
also diagnostic. The scaled podotheca and diastataxic wing are the most 

1912] Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 301 

important charai t to afi and distinguishing it 

frniii CUoroceryU, while in the absence of I vertical crest it agrees with 
the last-named genua and differs from the first. Its differences from 
roeeryU would be much more pronounced were it not for the inter- 
mediate nature of C. tmumma. 

be following li>t of characters may be added "Geographical distribu- 
tion"' as a distinction between CtryU and Chloroceryle. 

Ceryle agrees with 

i>oth torn in (but approached by .V. alcyon). 
gtfa of tarsus and hallux (but former closely approaching Megaceryle). 

• ler feet. 

Cre*t i with C. amazona only and is a little further from the three other species 
than is C. amazona). 


Primary formula. 

<1 podotheca (but approaching Chloroceryle). 
nth of bill (but differing less from Chloroceryle than from the two short- 
hilled species of Megaceryle). 

• -toes; second relative to third and fourth (but agrees with C. amazona also). 
gtfa of anterior toes. 

der hill but only averaging slenderer than the slenderest billed species of 

i tail (but little dim-rent fr<>m M<i<iceryle and C. amazona). 

of plumage, very soft, hairy and with a satiny lustre. 
ten of upperparts, wings and tail. 
:in< 1 patten of nndarparts (sexual eoloratioa sad absence of rufous). 

' and i-« much more lieodeT than tha' ryle 

iticularlv the largi and Chloroe ryfs imlu; from the three othat 

loroeeryk then- i> only an average difference but. except in «'. 
mounts almost to i con tmctioB. 

In the graduation of the tail CeryU differs bat -lightly from CkhnetryU 

izona and the species of Mryanryh, M. mtijcimn approaching it snotf 
arc noticeably and more obtuse at the | 
than in the alli< ■ The dill \lcyon and M. tnruttata 

U BMSl pronounced, and. particularly in the outer pair of rcctriccs. from the 
three -mailer 

The overlapping of thi the mandible by the mtermnatJ feathers 

isuallj conspicuous in CeryU, ami slightly if at all developed n the other 

'MV2 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

The plumage of the upperparts is soft and smooth in Chlorocrryle but 
even more so in Cirylc The more or leu disconnected barbs are extremely 
fine and soft, giving the crest, in particular, a hairy aspect. The plumage 
<»f the throat is satiny white with a strong lustre, and this is shown to a 
less extent by the rest of the underparts. 

Most of these characters, peculiar to Ccrylc, are not very important, yet 
collectively they emphasize the distinctness of the genus. As already stated, 
however, it is by coloration and by a different combination of the characters 
found in the related genera that Ccrylc is best distinguished. 

The single species constituting the genus Ccryle stands quite alone in 
coloration. It is wholly black and white, with no rufous or fulvous in either 
sex or at any age, differing in both respects from all the species of Megaarylc 
and Chloroccryle. It is unique in the conspicuous white terminal margins 
to all the feathers of the upperparts and the large white areas in the primaries, 
secondaries, and rectrices (and the wing- and tail-coverts also). An approach 
to this condition (in the secondaries and tail only) is seen in Chloroccryle 
cenea and particularly in C. ttWU ricuiia, but the resemblance is by no means 

While the sexes are distinguished by the banding of the underpart- SJ 
in other Cerylina?, there is an important difference in this respect between 
Ccrylc and the two related genera. Both sexes have a broad black chest- 
band narrowing towards the median line and there interrupted in the 
female, while the male has, in addition, a second, narrower hut complete 
Land crossing the lower breast. 

Thus the female agrees with the female of all the species of both Chloro- 
ccryle and Mcgaci rylr in having a chest-band of the same color as the upper- 
parts (the resemblance to the female of C. amazona is particularly close, in 
the white underparts, interrupted chest-band and dark-marked sides). 

In these genera, however (with the exception of M. tdeyon), the dark 
chest-band of the female is replaced by a rusty band in the male. In M. 
alcyon the band remains as in the female, while in Ccrylc this band becomes 
complete and there is a second band back of it. This is a feature unknown 
in the other genera. 

There was formerly some uncertainty as to whether or not there ia a 
sexual difference in coloration in Ccrylc, and as late as 1905 ' doabtl wen- 
expressed as to there being any difference in this respect between the male 
and female. In my opinion there can no longer be any question but that 
the sexes differ as above described. The uncertainty was caused by the fact 
that the immature male has but a single band as in the female. 

i Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mas.. XXVIII, 1905, 851. 

1912.) Miller, Classification of Kingfishers. 303 

Sharpe, in his ' Monograph,' quoted the opinion of Dresser, based on 
" a very large series," that the sexual differences are as above described. 
II- also quoted 1 >r. Tristram as follows: " I preserved twenty-one specimens 
an«l inaii\ were OoUeeted by others of the party. In all the sex was carefully 
noted and the ride laid good of the male having a second band, which was 
wanting in the female and young bird." 

Sharpe adhered to these distinctions in the 'Catalogue of the Birds in 
the British Museum' (1892), and as he there listed 183 specimens of Ccryle 
nidi* and mria, the material on which to base his conclusions was surely 

The small series available in the present connection includes only ten 
specimens in which the sex was determined by the collector, and, I believe, 
includes those on which Mr. Oberholser based his remarks. Of these, five 
ar< double-banded and these are all marked d" ; five have but a single band, 
and four of them an- marked 9 , while one, an immature bird is sexed as a (?. 
,U- nulix rudis and C. r. h uronirlnnitni (rtiria of authors, in part, 
not of Strickland which is based on the South African bird; cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zoo!., XVII, 1910, -lt'.i are strongly marked subspecies. The series 

mined included birds from Cape Colony (1), Natal 1 1 >. British East 
Africa I . Eg) ]»t _' . India (6), and China (2). The latter belong to C. r. 
Hartert. distinguished by its longer bill. 

Tin- Asiatic specimens may be invariably dist'llgui bed from the African 
by the characters given below, but as I have seen no specimens from the 

'.n lying b e tw e en Egypt and India (Palestine, Persia, and Baluchistan), 

in which the ranges of the two forms meet, it sCeUM better to treat them as 

>ub->|>ccies. That intergradat ion is not improbable is Indicated by the 

in Egypt which diow a decided approach to C. r. Iniroiiultmura 

in both HSC and colorat ion. Indeed there ifl probably 00 material differ- 

in -i/e between birds from Egypt and India. 

Then u little doubt thai Ctoyh nssVi rasas is a composite form and 
separable into at least rem races, '.lit as die single skin from ("ape Colony 
squall the Egyptian i>inl> in sias it seems madTJaable to describe anj new 

form- from tin- DM ailablc. 

be dietmguiabed from the tun Asiatk aees bj the fol- 
low ing charae; 

White areas less extenshrs t hrou ghout taaa >n die other forms. 
Basal two-fifths ol the tafl ssore or last msrlntd with Mater, 1ht shaft < ■ » * tliis space) 
slwa) - partly <>r wholly blackish or dusky. \\ lute of the primaries and secondaries 
le» i broadly pure white, • <>mpieteiy sessei both 

webs is the shrth or fifth. TheU raadeonl 

u to one web. Throat never spotted with black 

304 Bulletin American Mus- i .' // [Vol \.\.\1, 

C. r. /et«»m«/anMro et tn«V w **- — White areas everywhere more extensive than 
in C. r. rudis. Basal two-fifths of the tail always pure, immaculate white, the shaft 
(in this space) with no blackish or dusky. White in primaries and secondaries mure 
extensive; the first primary that is hroadly pure white completely across both Web* 
is the eighth (more rarely the ninth or seventh). The black spots on the sides are 
rounder or broadly cordate and spread nearly equally on both webs. Lower part of 
throat usually spotted with black. 

Genus Chloroceryle. 

Kutaxic Ceryline Kingfishers with glossy green upperparts and scaleleeg 

Very small to medium-sized Ceryline Kingfishers of the Neotropical Region (the 
wing less than 145 mm. long), with rather slender to rather stout bill, the tomia 
perfectly smooth, without vertical crest, a short blended occipital crest pretest 
(longer and less blended in C. amazona), the tenth primary shorter than the sixth, 
the secondaries eutaxic, the tail graduated for one-fifth or one-sixth of its length (or, 
in C. amazona for only one-thirteenth), the tarsi covered only with skin and wholly 
without scales, the tarsus and hallux moderately short, the second toe with claw 
shorter than the third without claw and rarely longer than the fourth without claw 
(excepting in C. amazona); the plumage uniform, glossy, metallic green above, the 
chest always rufous in the male; no sexual difference in the color of the axflhus. 

Excluding C. amcaona the short di. an be enlarged as follow-: 

Very small to rather small eutaxic Ceryline Kingfishers (the wing less than 1M."> 
mm. long i. with short, blended occipital crest, the tail graduated for more than one- 

•ith of its length, the podotheca scaleless, the second toe with claw shorter than 
the third without claw and rarely longer than the fourth without claw, the upper- 
parts glossy green. 

BUI. — The bill is not exactly alike in form or proportions in any two 
species of Cftloroccrylr. C. amazona ami ('. n m a closely agree in the length 
of the bill (proportionate to the bird itself), and in its relative depth. 
They hold ■ central position in these respects, as in C. inda the bill is 
decidedly shorter and thicker, while in (imcricmta it varies equally in the 
opposite direction being the longest and most slender. 

In the following table the figures in the first column give the relative 
length of the bill compared with the distance from the bend of the wing to 
the tips of the lower primary coverts. The second and third columns give 
the extremes and average of the relative depth of the bill, the figures express- 
ing the number of millimeters by which four times the depth of the bill at 
the gonydeal angle is less than or exceeds the length of the bill from the an- 
terior end of the nostril. 





+ 1 to 4 

+ 2.8 



— 2.3 to +2 

— .6 



— 3 to +2.5 

+ .8 



— 4 to + .5 

— .2 

1912.] Miller, Clarification of Kingfishers. 305 

In ■ single aberrant specimen of C. a w tO Mma the bill is distinctly slenderer 
than in I luded in the above table, four times its depth being less 

than the length by 5.5 mm. 

'.In the three smaller speciei the feather- of the occiput are 
■dedly lengthened and form a short Mended crest In C. amazona they 
are considerably longer, narrower and less blended and the crest is more 
e o n a pi cooua . 

Wing. The outermost (tenth) primary normally ranges between the 

and fourth, rarely reaching the third in one species. 
In C (mamma the outer primary is always longer than the fifth and in 
usually longer; in C. iudn and more southern specimens of C. 
crura itdoes not exceed the fifth, while more northern specimens of the latter 
agree with C. a The proportions in more detail are as follows: 

tnazona (13 specimens) 1*. 1() -lightly > 5 to nearly = 6 (averaging nearer 5). 
C. americana (22 specimens) P. 10 a trifle < 5 to a trifle < 6 (usually between 5 
and 6. Birds from Texas and Mexico do not differ from South 
American specimens). 
(6 specimen-; p. 10 distinctly > 4 to = 5 (averaging about half way 
1 and 5). 
MM 1. [4 specimens from Vera Cruz, Mex.) P. 10 a trifle < 5 to < 6 (equi- 
distant between "> and 6). 

mens from Honduras southward) P. 10 = 3 to = 5 (usually 
distinctly > 3). 

' < ricmm is the longest tailed species and C. amazona and 

C. a In- sh ortes t ; C.indais intermediate hut i- decidedly nearer 


The following figures express the relative length of the tail in each 
specie-, comparison being mads with the distance from the bend of the 
irinf lO the tip- of the longer lower primary C O VCr tS . Thus in C. am- 
azonn the tail i> equal to one ami four-tenths of this distance, in americana 
to one and two-thirds. The entire range of variation, therefore, amounts 
to only one-fourth of the ibov* measuren 


i 10 

irrn n 

l it 





In th«- three -mailer • niter pair of rectrices is conspicuously 

shortened, the graduation of the tail amounting ?.. oin -fifth of its length in 
americana and mim, and to one--i\th in amea. In amazona the abbre\ 
of the outer quills i- much less — not quite one-thirteenth of the length 
of the tail. 


Bulletin American Museum 

of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

No. of 

Av. length 

Av. amount 

Graduation in 


of tail. 

of Graduation 

Length of Tail 





13.4 times 





6.0 " 





5.1 " 





5.0 " 

Thus in the smaller species the graduation of the tail is correlated with 
its length, amerie<ma having the longest tail and the shortest outer rectri' 
while cenea has the shortest tail and the longest outer rectrices. 

Feathering of the tibia. — The lower end of the tibio-tarsus is perfectly 
bare in all species. The unfeathered space is, at its most restricted point, 
always equal to or greater than the lower (short) chord of the claw of the 
hallux, except in some specimens of C. omea, in which the tiny feathers 
slightly encroach on this space. 

In C. cenea, usually, and in some examples of C. americana, the bare 
space is equal to the short chord of the claw, in C. inda and most specimens 
of C. aynericana the unfeathered area exceeds the short chord of the claw; 
in C. amazona this area always equals or exceeds the upper (long) chord 
of the claw. 

The length of the tarsus is about one and three-fourths to very nearly 
twice the long chord of the hallux claw. 

Tarsus. — The tarsus compares with the inner toe (without claw) as fol- 
lows : 

amazona Tarsus distinctly shorter than inner toe. 
inda " usually shorter than, sometimes = , inner toe. 

americana " =, sometimes slightly shorter than, inner toe. 
omea " «=, sometimes slightly longer than, inner toe. 

C. amca has a slightly longer tarsus than the other species. 

Toes. — In the proportionate length of the anterior toes the three smaller 
species virtually agree. The second toe with claw is always shorter than 
the third toe without claw, and equal to or shorter than the fourth toe 
without claw. 

In C. amazona the second toe with claw averages equal to the third 
without claw, and is almost always longer than the fourth without claw. 
C. americana shows a distinct approach to amazona. The exact proportions 
in each species are shown in the following table. 

Second toe with claw compared with third and fourth toes without claw. 
= 3, (a trifle < 3 in 4 bin Is. 

perceptiblv > 3 in 2 birds). 
amazona, 10 specimens, < . . , .. J\. ; ... . . . , . , 

> 4, (slightly to very distinctly; in 1 bird 

= 4 in one foot, a trifle < 4 in other foot). 

1912.] Ml Classification of Kingfishers. 307 

americana, 14 specim 

< 3, (slightly to very distinctly; 

— 3 in one foot of one bird). 

- 4, (10 birds - 4, 

2 " slightly < 4, 

2 " slightly > 4.) 

•_j ft S < 3 always. 

' ° 8 P ecimon> ( .l^htly < 4 to = 4 (in one foot of 1 bird a trifle < 4). 

\ ( < 3 always 

iea, v specimens, - ( glight , y < 4 to « 4 j in 5 birds „ 4> in 4 birds a trifle< 4)> 

r . The aniform, dark, l ustrous , metallic green of the entire upper- 
parts, io unlike that of any other genus, is remarkably similar in all four 
■pedes. It is lightest and most brassy in mnazona and averages deepest or 
most saturated in nufa and awa, but there are no well marked constant 

The plumage is soft and blended and the color changes, according to the 

itioo in which the bird is held, from yellowis h -g r e en or brassy to deep 

The wings, tail, and scapulars are spotted, barred or otherwise marked 

with white, chiefly on the inner webs or beneath the surface. The pattern 

pecies. The spotting sometimes invades other parts of the 

upper plumage as concealed marking below the surface of the dorsal 

feathers, or as spotting on the wing-c ove rt s , rump, and upper tail-coverts. 

The central pair of rectrices is unmarked fan saMSOflfl and cenea and, at 

It, with a few small spots in in da and (timricana. 

t more or less barred or spotted in all species but 

Off not at all on the outer wel> except on the outer one or two quills 
in iiinirjinii, nasally in smaaj and ext e n siv ely in aawrMaws in which the outer 

three pairs are mostly white. 

There ■ no sexual difference in the color of theaxwars, lower win. 

I»ell\. II- in «'. nun rinuiii, of the throat, the SOS being ordinarily 

indicated only l>\ the color of the chest. 

The coloration of the underparts furnishes well marked specihecharnt 

Thu ' lorn- in the pure white ground color of the under- 

parts, the >ir|es and flanks broadly striped with green and the green chest- 
hand of the female interrupted in the middle. In ('. am, rJoSSM the male has 

pun- white underparta but in the female the throat and breast are more or 
less tinged with bnff. The sides are spotted with green sad the 

upp. r baflj h crossed by ■ band of un-en spots. 

'/" and C. ctnea agree in the general rufous color of the underparts, 
including the exilian and under i ing-coi erti the throat pain , o< hraceous), 
but in emeu the entire center of the abdomen bwh 

The l-ill and feet an- wholly hla< k in amazona and MM riainn except for a 

30S liulhiin Auuriaiu Must urn <>f Xnturnl Hislmi/. [Vol. X \ \ I, 

touch of lighter color at the junction of the mandibular rami. In hula 
and triiKi th<- feet and part of the lower mandible, including the proximal 
half of the gonys and i stripe along the lower edge of each ramus are light 

colored in skins and in life arc probably red or orange. 

Chloroceryle amazona. 

Large Chloroceryle with well-developed occipital crest, the tail graduated for 
about one-thirteenth of its length, the second toe with claw not shorter than the 
fourth without claw, the primaries combining absence of white on their outer webs 
with large, continuous white areas on the inner webs, the green chest-band of the 
female incomplete, the sides broadly striped with green. 

Large Chloroceryle with bill of moderate length and thickness, well-developed 
occipital crest, the feathers narrowed and not blended, the tenth primary longer than 
the fifth, the tail rather short and graduated for about one-thirteenth of its length, 
the second toe with claw not decidedly shorter than the third without claw, and not 
shorter than the fourth without claw, the dorsal plumage with no concealed white, 
the outer webs of the remiges without white, the inner webs with large, continuous 
white areas, rectrices without decided white basal area, with no rufous below except 
the chest-band of the male, the green chest-band of the female incomplete, the sides 
with broad stripes of dark green, the bill and feet wholly black. 

C. amazona is the type of Chloroceryle and therefore of necessity "typi- 
cal," but in the sense that it differs in certain characters from those shared 
by all the other species, it is a decidedly aberrant member of the genu-. 

In its well-developed occipital crest, nearly even tail, proportion of the 
anterior toes, and in general size it virtually agrees with CeryU, though in 
the first mentioned character Cerylc is somewhat nearer MegaceryU than i- 
Ch. amazona. 

In its more pointed wing also it recalls Cerylc. In all these characters 
it also approaches or agrees with Meg ac e ry U though the resemblance in 
the crest extends only to the occipital part. 

In the most essential generic characters, as the eutaxic secondaries, 
glossy green upperparts, and rufous chest-band of the male, and in other 
more variable characters as the bill, this species is a typical Chloroceryle, 
showing no approach to Ceryle. 

In the details of coloration there are well-developed specific features. 
The outer webs of the remiges are unicolorous green with no white spotting 
whatever. On the inner webs are extensive and continuous areas of pure 
white, never taking the form of spots. The tail is spotted with white on all 
but the central pair of rectrices, but there are no large white areas on any 
of the feathers, only the outer pair being completely crossed by white at the 
extreme base. 

The metallic green chest-band of the female is wholly interrupted medi- 

1912.) Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 309 

■fly, taking the form of a blotch on etjdi aide of the chest Both this feature 
and the green stripes on the aides arc prrnKar to tin In the dis- 

tribution of the rufous on the under parts, ft swas o wa agrees with ft assert* 

i in having only ■ rofous chest-bend in tlu- male and no rufous whatever 
in the female, l>ut C. amazona altogether lacks the buff shade present on the 
underparta <>t' ('. american*. 

The range of C. amazona extends from Mexico through Central America 
ami over the greater part of South America to the Argentine Republic. 

er, are recognized and the geographical variation, if 

Chloroceryle americana. 

Rather small ChlonKerylc, with rather long, slender bill, at least the inner pri- 

I with white on both webs, the miter three or four pairs 

iefly white, the underparts combining a complete green chest-hand in 

;<• with a rufous chest-band (and no rufous elsewhere) in the male, the 

flanks and a band across the upper belly spotted with green, the throat and breast 

of the female tinged with buff. 

oeeryle with rather long, slender bill, slightly developed 

the tenth primary never more than a trifle shorter than the fifth, the 

tail nlat i\ ely long and graduated for one-fifth of its length, the second toe with claw 

shorter than the third without claw and averaging equal to the fourth without claw, 

iorsal plumage with concealed white, at least the inner primaries conspicuously 

spotted with white on both webe, the inner secondaries with entire basal portion 

■ three or four pairs of rect rices chiefly white, the rufous 
confined to a chest-band in the male and absent in the female, the sides and flanks 
spotted with green and a band of green spots across the upper belly, the throat and 
brea male tinged with huff, the bill and feet wholly black. 

well marked lated much more closely to 

■ a than to ft <iinii-jm,i, but differing from them coospics- 

ooaly in the re str ic ti on of rufous on the underparti (as in ('. amazona), 

the white motting of both nebs of the reunges, ami the Inrge white areas 

on the in: I on the i 

The coloration of the undarparti b very distinctive. In the l>uiT throat 

ami .ipproa< h to the deeper coloration <■ 

I ft SSMO, but nmcricaua is unique in the genua in exhibiting any 
. in color other than that of the client-hand. 

endsf than in any ot! SB an<l. while the 

li of the to. illy SgrSSI with that of indu and rnea, 

then it approach to the proportions found in ft amazona. 

is distributed over the greater part of South America and 
north to Texas. Pour nib ire at present recognized, differing noma 

what in Color and size, and to a alight extent in the thickness ..f the bill. 

310 Iiullctin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI 

The proportionate length <>f the primaries i> very constant, specimens from 
as ;ni(l Mexico agreeing in this res p ect with those frjpm South America 

(Colombia; Trinidad; Ma t to Grosso, Brazil . 

Chloroceryle inda. 

Medium sized Chloroceryle with short, thick bill, and with no white on the under* 
parts, the entire belly rufous. 

Medium sized Chloroceryle with short, thick (both horizontally and vertically) 
bill, slightly developed occipital crest, the tenth primary not exceeding the fifth, the 
rather long tail graduated for one-fifth of its length, the second toe with claw alv 
shorter than the third without claw, and not exceeding the fourth without claw, the 
outer webs of the primaries and retrices unmarked or with a few minute white specks, 
the inner webs of the primaries with fulvous spots, no basal light areas on the outer 
webs of the secondaries, the feathers of the eliest-band of the female white, crossed 
by two dark bars, the throat fulvous, the belly entirely rufous, the feet and lower 
edge of the mandibular rami orange in life. 

C. inda is obviously related to C. a-nra but is easily distinguished by its 

much greater size, spotted inner web of primaries, absence of light ai 
on basal portion of inner secondaries and rectriceSj and of white on center 
of abdomen, and shorter, thicker bill. In none of these character- except 
the spots on the inner webs <>t' the primaries >\>>r< it show any approach to 
C. amcricana. 

C. inda is distributed over much of South America and north to Nica- 
ragua. Nn subspecies are at present recognized. With the possible excep- 
tion of C. cP7ua this is the rarest of the four species of Chloroceryle. 

Chloroceryle aenea. 

Very small Chloroceryle without distinct light spots on the primaries, the abdomen 
rufous on the sides, white in the middle. 

Very small Chlorociryle, with bill of moderate length and thickness, slightly 
developed occipital crest, the tail rather short and graduated for one-sixth of its 
length, the second toe wit h claw shorter than the third without claw, and not longer 
than the fourth without claw, no distinct light spots on the primaries, a light 1' 
area across the inner secondaries and on the outer three or four pairs of rect rices, the 
feathers of the chest-band of the female barred, the throat fulvous, the abdomen 
rufous on the sides, white in the middle, the lower edge of the mandibular rami 
orange in life. 

C. amca is abundantly distinct in its extremely small size and unspotted 
primaries. Additional differences from C. inda are the presence of light 
basal areas on the inner secondaries and several outer rectrices, and the 
presence of a large white area on the center of abdomen. 

It agrees closely with americana and inda in most details of form but 
has a distinctly shorter tail than americana, inda being intermediate. In 

1912.] Her, Classification of Kingfishers. 31 1 

tlu> roaprcl itk nearest C. amazona, and also slightly approaches that species 
in the graduation of the tail. Its bill is intermediate in length and form 
slender hill of americana and the short, thick bill of inda. 
Three races are currently recognized, C. cenea cenea with an extensive 
South American range, C. ce. cequatorialis of Ecuador, and C. ce. sticioptera 
ranging from Panama to Mexico. It is probable, however, that the last- 
nainrcl race does not extend as far south as Panama. The only important 
diff erence in form between northern and southern specimens is in the wing 
formula. In the Mexican birds examined (four from Vera Cruz) the outer- 
most (10th) primary varies from a trifle shorter than the fifth to decidedly 
than the sixth (equidistant between the two). In twelve birds 
from Honduras and further south the tenth quill ranges from equal to the 
thin! to equal to the fifth, usually distinctly longer than the third. 



\ \ \ I Plat* XXV. 

a b 

■gfchm, p*i»t«i 

Mpcct (J n»t. 4m). 

«. Itacrioiriiu. 

*>• Mf«wwjrto ak-yon. 

•orrylc nm«rir»i)» 
I loUpkU 

»w|i. • tint «tm>. 

«. Halcyon rhlurt* 

Kamphalryon rtpnril. 
Ma M CT j If aJcyoo. 
rf. Chkwtjcrr) > amrrii-ana 

Bcllitis A M \ H 

Vol. -\WI Pi mi. XXVI. 

Fl* 1. < 'ormcoldn. acapnia*, and clavlcli-. of Kinit- 
fiahi-n. -IlKhlly i-nlari. 

a. Coraookl <>t • aJcjroa 

6. . lo Klxax 

Scapula <if M(icaOT> li- nl<\\ <m 
d. '• Dm* ft 

cia\irir ..( , aJcjroa 

/. " Dacrto Kivat 


if KlnjtriHhrrx rnlantt>«l 
fegaceryli' alr\<>ii 



By Abbott H. Thayer. 

I" i r- t as regards the conspicuousness of white. There is an almost 
universal idea that white has an intrinsic power to be conspicuous under 
all circumstances. This conies from the fact that it is conspicuous in the 
very situation- to which mankind devote almost their whole attention. 
The materials of man's occupations lie mainly l>elow the level of his eye. 
Tables, desks, tool-benches, the soil of the farm, and the haunts of most 
of man's game, all habituate his eyes to looking more are less downward, 
and white seen, among these things, from a higher /< r- /. is the brightest color. 

Hut there are many ereatures that look mainly upward, in the getting 
of their living. These SK >ueh as live right ON tin- ground; toads, snakes, 
and field-mice, for instance, and as constantly see things against the sky 
as we see them against the ground. 

Hut to return to man's view-point. Even 1 1 1« - 'TitanicV disaster ii 
pov Jill attention to the truth. People all think, as Roosevelt does, 

that white has some intrinsic power to be seen. Here at least, \\ 1 
thousands of lives are at would pay for schools to work up this 

matter of optics. Here, H in the former case of the 'Arizona,' a ship ran 
into an iceberg, beonm \\t refle ct ed Bin 

;it th»- minimum of visibility. The 'Titanie's' lookout failed 
to see the mountain of white ice till ih> 'most upon it ; yet a boat- 

load of nrvivon saw from two miles away the 'Titanie's' "great hulk 
outlined ii gainst the itarry iky" ttaKoi mine . 

principle seems to Im- known in the Norfolk Unpads, when- they use 

a used so many collisions l>> bsJBg hard to see 

at night. Will the world never begin to learn why this is? I >i>tin^ui-lia- 

hilin means g in appearance, — as light on dark, or dark on light, — 

and then- ifl the whole of it. 

In the Hulletin of the Am. Museum of Natural H Theodore 

attack on <»ur book on Concealing Coloration i-, without a 

EOSption that 1 can, as wrong at every scientific point as it is 

> Revealing and Conci-iUng Coloration. By Theodore Roosevelt Hull Amir. Mut. 
Nat I .31. August 23. 1011. 


8] l Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

possible to be. He has blindly attacked all the purely optical statements, 
and these are open to absolute demonstration.) 

For my assertion that white on objects' upper slopes, under an open 
starry sky without tin- moon or any artificial light far or mar, ban absolute 
match for the sky, Col. Roosevelt can hardly find words to expresi his 
contempt, saying many things which must some day look very funny to him 
when he finds out his .nor. 

To test this sky-matching power of white, place in a wide open field, 
under such a sky as I have described above, any darkish colored rotund 
thing, like a sofa-pillow or a stuffed gunny-sack, a few feet above the ground, 
as a deer's body would be. Then sit down on the ground a few yards off, 
anil look at it against the sky. It will silhouette dark and strong. While 
you watch it from this position, have some one cover all of it that sticks up 
above the horizon with a smooth white cloth. The whole white expanse 
will vanish into the sky, so that you can hardly believe the pillow ifl DOl 
cut off. For another example, try in the same way an imitation skunk 
(you can make him out of a stuffed black stocking, with a white patch 
pinned onto his crown, and a white streak down his nose) out in the same 
field at night with no light but star-light. Lie down nose to nose with him, 
so that you seen his white against the sky, and you will Bee how the real 
skunk's white shears off his top, passing it off for the sky, to the sight of 
mice and turf insects as he gobbles them up. 

Now as to Roosevelt's scoff at the idea that a zebra's white stripes reduce 
bis distinguishability: The accompanying photographs are a total answer. 

It only remains to show that thifl is the view a lion gets when he U near 
enough to be dangerous; and it is this danger-or-difficulty-moment that cos- 
tumes in general prove to fit. Safe out on the veldt the zebra may or may 
not happen to show against the watching lion's sky, according to the rein/ire 
level of the two animals, but when the lion is dangerously near he and tin- 
zebra are nearly on one level. Take a staff that will stand up a little over 
four feet when you stick it into the ground. This represents a sebra'a 
shoulder-height. Set it up, out of doors, in a score of situations in both 
level and hilly country, sitting down within a lion's spring of it (say ten or 
fifteen feet) and looking at it from the height of a lion's eyea (anywhere 
from three feet down to his crouching height of one foot) and you will see 
its top practically always against the .<?/.-//. The only exception will be a 
view doicn on it from a very s'eep hill-side, or, of course, toward a very near 

And it is n't that the lion can't see a moving zebra, but, at a reedy 
drinking-place such a costume as the zebra's throws all possible difficulties 
in the lion's way; since so perfect a counterfeit of sky and reeds must cause 

1912. 1 Thayer, Concealing Coloration. 315 

the lion the greatest proportion of failures to aorta the s e bra when he is 

Mill, or to keep his outline in Bight M he kfWMh away. 

To prove that these sky eoanterfeita work still better, if possible, in the 
woods, try your gunny-sack deet and your skunk there, looking at them 
still from the lower level a> Iwfore. You will see that their wbjfc 

i l n.l< : .eUi. a one-color ooki like the drawing on the left. 

If it Is colored after I the one in the mi Ml<- the effects cancel each other and the 

result is the drawing on the right. 

. either for light vistas in the forest top, or for actual sky 

glin ording to how much light they get- Also in the woods they 

tly help the animal not to silhouette dark when he i> in >hadow 

against light ground. In the woods, especially, any kind of night will do. 

t, take what <>f oountershading which, after the 

rince I published it he has never grasped at all. Be writes me: 

"So al interahading. Unquestionably under certain condition- of 

life, an objecl colored black or very dark above ami white b elow disapp* 
from view. Hut when you come practically to apply this, and put a man 
in a black frock coat and a pair of white duck trousers, you will find that 
under ordinary conditions you have not by this sp. , intershading 

:•• him invisible, you have on the eon t r ar j made him extremelj c o nsp ic n> 

ous under ordinary conditions." The word coiintershading is an t 
description of the real principle. It htJ to do. ^ my diagram show-. 
ly with the chiaroscuro-law of rotind objects the law that these 

I the tight and -i and countershad- 

to c .in. . I tl What ha> the eoloTUIg of a 111:111- iron • 

all in th> -<Uj. to do with this wonderful law. 

i there l.e a completer failn; \> a principle' 

•eveh llso sa\ s that its part in the eoneeahnent of the higher animal 
gBgible"; and ftpwitWy dial when an animal is graded from 
tery dark al*i\e to white helow he; M<l wears a wr- 

ing coloration. 

• three pairs of decoys, made of woolen, Stuffed like a rag-doll, and 

316 Bulhtiii Amirican ' .// Natural History. Vol XXXI, 

each mounted on a wire pedestal firmly ititched to its back side. Get an 
artist (or try yourself) to color these as follows. Set one pair of them on 
very light colored beach sand (or some imitation of such a ground . and color 
them with pastel all on r with the exact tone of this light ground (oil colors 
on the upper side would be too shiny). In spite of wearing absolutely tin- 
color of the ground, if they are six inches long they will be visible i quarter 
of a mile away. Then have your artist change the color of one of them, 
until, at a distance of five or >i\ yards, it is almost or quite effaced. He will 
do this by grading it lighter and lighter from the back down to the belly 
in a color-gradation from sand color above to cold white below. Do the 
same thing to one of your other pairs, on a medium colored ground, the road 
or the bare earth of a garden, covering one all over as before with the very 
tone of the soil it stands on, and effacing the other. Do also the same thing 
to the third pair on some very dark soil or burnt over patch. In every case, 
choose, to increase the severity of the test, as smooth and hare a place as 

You will find that while in each case the eounterahaded one, in ordi 
vanish, has to have the top median line even a little darker than the ground 
it stands on, the bottoms of every one of them, even of the black one, have to 
be done with purest white oil paint (tube colors). Nothing less white over- 
comes the shadow at that point. 

By these operations you will find yourself producing delicate sand-colored 
plovers on the pale sand and, on the darker ground, birds like many darker 
species that haunt this middle colored ground; while on the black earth you 
will evolve a beautiful imitation of some bird like the purple sandpiper or 
the common oystercatcher: and you will see how wrong is all that .Mr. 
Roosevelt says on the subject. 

In open land this necessarily pure white belly is constantly subject to 
the temporary revealing tendency of the sky's shifting luminosity, which, 
owing to moving clouds, repeatedly shines, now for a few minutes too far 
down the gradation, making it for the moment too bright, or else not far 
enough, making it show too dark, though always magical in it.s ghostliness 
compared to the monochrome one. However, when the shifting light does 
slightly reveal the under white, the animal's aspect is merely a caricature 
of non-existence: the brightest possible stripe of white in this, so to speak, 
wrong relation to the animal's body, refusing to give away the animal. 
The idea that it reveals him is purely theoretic. It does serve for identifi- 
cation, and for keeping him in view, after detection. I have repeatedly 
proved this upon my spectators, and learned that one of these caricatures, 
with both its dark top and white belly lighted so as to show, is .still wholly 
deceptive, passing merely for a dark mark and a light one on the ground 
beyond. Stilts and oyster-catchers, being done merely in two tones — black 

Thayer, Concealing Coloration. 


and white In-low even cominonh show this white ■long its upper 
here the sharp black of the wing cuts it. Roosevelt and the naturalists 

wholly confound detection with identification nflrr detection. In fact this 

is their main difficulty. 

Afl i" Rooeevelt'a saying that the white beOy of the white tailed <l- 

Fig. 2. Zebra and Am from the average viewpoint of a man. The Zebra conspicuous. 
the Ass inconspicuous. A man average* abou a zebra's level. Th." Z.*bra coggplcuoua be- 
cause seen against tthe ground, the Ass for the same reason inconspicuous. 

cuous in the woods where he lives, the truth i> the contrary. In 

extensive ..■ illumination ifl absent: the lijjht ti irli t domi; 

and there an animal's Ix-lly i m the dark. If you can't watch wild 

or tame deer in -uch | wood, take \onr medium colored decoy in there, and 

it, at the height of ■ deer, exactly pluuih, on one twig after another. 

and look at it from a few \ards away, and you will begin to know that 

Roosevelt is ahsolutek wTOBg ill this matter You will liud that the 

btightesl that the pure white l»ell\ caii then diow onl> suffices to cause it 

MBit* l»y al>sohitel\ in.-itchiii;: it- beckgRMMd, (Of course you 

detect it now and then ■gmfafctt an extra Mack trunk or shadow sj>ot.) 

I read Roosevelt's whole dissertation OB countersluuling. ami turn 


Bulletin American Museum »f Natural History. Vol. XXXI, 

again to your six decoys all in place on their respective soils. The three 
iliat are colored all over exactly like the soil they stand on you can see from 

Fig. 3. Zebra and Ass from viewpoint of a near, stalking Hon. The Zebra Inconspicu- 
ous, the Ass conspicuous. The lion looks from a lower viewpoint than the Zebra. 

afar. If they are six inches long you can see them a quarter of a mile away. 
The three countershaded ones, if well painted, ere totally invisible at five or 
six yards, and ghostly at two yards. You will see that the dark ground one, 
with its black top and purest white belly, is just as perfect on its particular 
soil as the pale topped one on its soil; and that for vanishing, the most nec- 
essary thing of all, in all your cases, is the perfection of the pure white below. 

Ftg. i Artificial Zebra and Am from viewpoint of a near, atalkinx Hon. vli.. a U**r 
MMM; tii.- \ss 
Mptai in* why one or another species does not waar 

the colors one would expect him to. I feel conAdent that in Africa I could aoon discover In 
the habit* of hartcbeeats and «nu» were neither counterahaded nor white-topped, 

i *.. why they approach the mall daw of the buffaloes and pachyderm* that have no color 
arranceoMot at all. The first task, however. Is to show the optical effect of these color, 
schemes, where they are fbun 

320 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX XI, 

In the United States this countershading is the color-scheme of all but 
about twenty of our birds and mammals together, and if Roosevelt could 
suddenly see them bereft of it, he would see them pass at one bound from the 
average aspect of your invisible three to your quarter-of-a-mile-away visible 

You will perceive that since your effaced models can stand there invisible 
not six yards away on bare land. That the place might be covered with simi- 
larly colored ones, or, just as well, with similarly colored live birds or mam- 
mals of any kind, and you be none the wiser; and that what Mr. Roosevelt 
says about countershading failing on a bare plain merely shows his extraor- 
dinary ignorance both of its universal operation, and power, and even 
apparently of many phases of animal life. Many men are well aware that 
a salt mud flat may be covered leifh unseen wadere, bo that unless you watch 
it an hour, or flush them all by a gun-shot, you often fail to detect the main 
numbers. It is the same on the beach, the same on the sea with the gulls, 
and how much more on the forest floor where no side light can interrupt! 
Try all this. 

The idea that one of these white-bellied creatures crouches to conceal 
hi* white becomes rather a joke to those who have discovered that purest 
white at that point is the eoneealef. What crouching does is to reduce their 
inevitable risk from momentary silhouetting, now light, now dark. 

I shall be happy to show to any one coming to Monad nock the equally 
demonstrable /afo/rt/ of every other optical statement in Roosevelt's leritings. 

Naturalists seem unable to see that this subject is pure optics. This 
has cost them all their mistakes. Optics discovers that each of these ani- 
mals' costumes is a perfect generalization of one of the animal's typical 
backgrounds. Instead of inferring from this optical fact that many thus 
costumed individuals of the animal kingdom must often escape one's sight, the 
unthinking scoff at it, and for all argument merely tell how many creatures 
they have seen. This is like denying that woodchucks go into burrows, 
because you have often seen them sitting up in the clover, or that your 
neighbor ever steals, because you have often seen him not stealing. 

The zebra and ass pictures in this article serve to point out how entirely 
conspicuousness and inconspicuousness depend on the point of view, and 
show how necessary it is to investigate each animal's habits in their possible 
relation to this point of view. They point out, too, how entirely conspicu- 
ous in many familiar viewpoints an animal may be, while at the same time 
he is the most concealed of animals the moment you look at him from the 
s't nation of his most dangerous ene*my 

Cryptic coloration, then, is only the imitation of the immediate or the 
typical background. 

1912 J Thayer, Concealing Coloration. 321 

An animal awn from a level above his own has the dark earth for back- 
ground, while, at the very same moment, seen from two or three feet lower 

D he has the bright sky instead, or is, at least, seen in the direction in 
which sky or glimpses of sky are to be expected. The moment this is under- 
stood, it becomes obvious that there is no such thing as a cryptic coloration 
per se, an<l that any amount of con* picuousncss from all other viewpoints 
has nothing whatsoever to do with the question. The thing to be expected, 
. was that all species in any way dependent on not being seen (or not 

tig toell seen) by some other species will prove to wear an imitation of the 
background against which that species would see them. And it would be 
! that this imitation would be unmixed with other background- 
imitation in proportion to how much more important it was for the wearer 
to escape those particular eyes than to escape those of less dangerous and 
• lit!- <Hi foes; and whenever naturalists will go through the 

tremendous study that this field requires they will discover that this is 
case. They will discover a perfectly astounding correspondence, 
throughout the animal kingdom, of the cryptic effect of each costume, 
however gorgeous and elsewhere conspicuous, with the background against 
which the wearer's most dangerous foe or his most necessary quarry sees 
him. Tins c orrespondence is so unintermitting throughout class after 
class and order after order (and ever] where so exact as to be only appreci- 
able by colorists), that the naturalists' present idea that it is accident is 

| <\y a j< >k<-. The number and the perfection of the cases are the evidence, 
and no naturalist has yet even attempted to acquaint himself with either 

bass things, though some of them may suppose that they have, till they 
witness what I have to show. 

Monadnock, V. // ., 
.lust 29, 1912 



H\ -loiiN A. 6l088BBl k. 
Bj !'• TiiiN-inii of the U. S. Commissioner of ITriiHlfH ' 

material listed below was secured by Dr. Chas. EL Townsend in 
Lower California while in eommand of the 'Albatross' Expedition (1911), 
and was collected in the Cape Region between San Jose* del Cabo and 
Triunfn, near sea level. 

determined from the collections in the Ameri- 

Museum of Natural History, but all such determinations were verified 
wh.0 also identified the remainder of the material. 

Mr. A. V < laudeU of the United States National Museum, Washington, 

]> I possible for the determinations in the Orthoptera ; Mr. S. A. 

Etohwer of the 1 Fnited State- 1 tepartmenl of Agriculture, Washington, 1 >. C, 
inilarly responsible for those in the Hyrnenoptera; Mr. H. <;. Barber 

e, \ I . has determined or verified the Hemipteta. and Messrs. 

g and l'»' Jfock City have likewi-e determined or verified 

all the Co leopter a. To these gentlemen, as well a> t<> Dr, L 0. Howard* 
Chief of the Bureau of Entomology at Washington, through whom Messrs. 

dell and Kohwer made their determinations, the compiler of this list 

resses bis uncere thank 

1 of Spec 


Periplaneta amcricatm I .inn. 
PycnoBcelu* turinamensu Linn. 
(Hryllus mexieanus Sauw. 
GrytluM galapageiu* Scudd. 
GryOode* tigillntus Walk. 
TrimtroptropU vinadala Scudd. 




> Scientific ReaulU of the Expedition n> ihu Gulf of California In ( hand' of > I 
"y the U. 8. Flsheriea Sttwmahlp A matron*/ Commander O. II. Uurra*c. t 

< • •minaiwilng. 


Bulletin American Museum of No, 

furaZ fl 

'istory. [Vol. XX XI. 

Schislocerca vaga Scudd. 



Schislocerca tnaya Scudd. 



Melanoplus complanatipes Scudd. 




Deinosloma dilatatum Say 



Ambrysus parvulus Mont.? 



Conorhinus maximus Uhl. 



Lygceus reclivatus Say 



Oncopeltus gutta H. S. 



OncopeUu8 faeciala Dall. 



Oncoplatus varicolor Fabr. var.? 



Largus cinctus H. S. 



Leptoglossiis zonatus Dall. 



Pachylis gigas Burm. 



Mozena lurida Dall. 



Loxa flavicoUis Dru. 



Brochymena obscura H. S. 



Pachycoris lorridus Scop. 




Telracha Carolina Linn. 

21 i 


Calosoma palmeri Horn 



Plochionus timidus Hald. 



Anisodactylus piceus Men. 



Rhanlus anisonychus Cr.? 



Thermonecte8 marmoratus Hope 



Megadytcs fraternus Sharp 



Hydrophilus insularis Lap. 



Hydrophilus californicus Lee. 



CoccineUa sanguinea Linn. 



Dermesles vulpinus Fabr. 



Chalcolepidius rubripennis Lee. 



Dicrepidiu8 corvinus Caud. 



Ludius texanus Lee. 



Chry8obothris merkelii Horn? 



AcnuBodera flavomarginata Gray 



Sitodrepa panicea Linn. 



AmpAtoertts punciipennis Lee. 



Dinoderus truncaius Horn 



Polycaon punctatus Lee. 



Atamius strigatm Say. 



Lacnosterna nitida Lee. 



Pelidnota lucoz Lee.? 



Cyclocephala dimidiata Burm. 



Ligyrus gibbosus De G. 



Ligyrus sp. near gibbosus 



Megasoma thersiles Lee. 




Grossbeck, Insects collected in Lower California. 


Derobrachus forreri Bates 


Eburia ulkei Bland 



Dendrobius numdibularis Serv. 



Lisonotus muHifasciatus Dup. 


■ 1 

Stenaspis solitaria Say 


• < 

Tragidion simulatvm Lee. 



SUnosphenus novatus Horn 



Cyllene antennatus White 



AeanMo&rus peninsularis Horn 



Lagochirus obsoletus Thorn. 



Metacycla insolita Lee. 



Triorophus subpubescens Lee.? 



Zabrotes pectoralis Sharp 



Emmenastus crosus Horn 



Cenirioptera *piculifera Lee. 



Centrioptera angularis Horn 



Asida agrota Lee. 



.4«da ccmnii-ens Lee. 



.4*i<ta confluent Lee. 



Conionius subpubescens Lee. 



Eusaithm laevis Lee. 



Ccrcnopu* concolor Lee. 



Eleodes eschschoUzii luces Lee. 



Blapstinus sulcatum Lee.? 



TYi&o/ium fenugineum Fabr. 



Cactophagus valid us Lee. 



Calandra orza Linn. 



Dasymutilla gloriom Sauas. 



Dasymutilla up. 



£/i* «p. near hamatus Say 



£/i* sp. 



Catnpsomeris dorsata Fabr. 



Pepsts "/onuow" Say 



Pepsis sp. 



Psammochares sp. 



Arachnophroctonus ferrugineus unicolor Vii-r. 1 
Chalybion californicum Sauas. 1 

S/>fux sp. near femur*rubra Vox 1 

Eucerceris angulata Kohwor, new species 1 
'xrmoex monodonta Say 2 

Notogonia sp. 1 

Pottstst sp. 1 1 

Xi/lnCo/xi K|l 

1 Two of the apedmon* from thi* lot wit*' of th<- irWi >■ 

32G Bulletin American Mu*> (fund ffuA [\'<»1 XXXI. 

Eucerceris angulata Rokwer, new species. 

Judging from the descriptii»n the following new species ifl related to 
Encerceri* pmuHfront (Cameron), described as an Aphilanthops, but the 
clypeus does not project outwardly, the relation of the ocelli with the i 
and each other Lb different, and the color is somewhat different. In tome 
respects Etteeroerit ekapmanm Viereck and (oekerell, seems to be related 
to this species, but the description of chapnuma does not fit the present 
insect in all ways. 

Female. Length 11 nun. Clypeus flat, median portion with a short, flat, 
truncate process which narrows apically and is on the same plane as the face; nasal 
eye margins distinctly diverging beneath; facial quadrangle much broader beneath 
than high; frontal carina uniform in width, not impressed; mandibles of the narrow 
type; antennae rather short, the third joint much shorter than the two following; 
postocella line somewhat shorter than the ocelloccipital line and much shorter than 
the ocellocular line, neither of the latter are equal with the third and fourth atitennal 
joints as in punclifrons; lateral anterior angles of pronotum obtusely, distinctly 
dentate; propodeal enclosure punctured similar to the propodeum, with the usual 
longitudinal sulcus; entire insect closely, rather coarsely, distinctly punctured; 
abdomen normal, pygidium about two and a half times as long as broad, rounded 
apically, broader basally, hypopygidium with a very deep U-shaped notch. Black: 
spot on median part of clypeus, frontal cariba, large spot on sides of face, spot on 
superior orbits, line on pronotum, metanotum, angles of propodeum, bands of first 
to sixth dorsal segments, uniform in width on first, narrowed in middle on following 
and interrupted on four and five, yellow; legs black, four anterior tiba- beneath pale, 
teguke black, piceous, and yellow, wings subhyaline, radial and subcostal cells 
fuscous; costa and stigma reddish-yellow, rest of venation dark brown, pubescence 
sparse, silvery. 

Lower California, between San Jose del Cabo and Triunfo. One female collected 
by 'Albatross' Expedition, 1911. 

Type: American Museum of Natural History. 




Embryos of oeedingly rare, and until recently very little 

known regarding their appearance, structure or the size they attain 
by the time of birth. Bloch, 1 in 1786, published a colored figure of an 
embryo with ■ yolk sac, and referred to it briefly in a few lines. But this 
re is rather poor, it shows no details, and the sword is erroneously 
represented with teeth in its anterior third, despite the statement in the 
that " das Sehwerdt ist Doch weieh, mid die Zalme liegen in der Haut 
verborgen." ( (won, 1 in 1846, briefly described an embryo in the Hunterian 
collection, in the following words: It is "eight inches in length, including 
the saw, and has the duct of the external vitellicle [yolk stalk] attached." 
These appear to be the only descriptions of sawfish embryos that have been 
published until recently. Giinther, 3 in 1870, mentioned several embryos 
of Pristu pectmatus in the British Museum collections, but gave no descrip- 
tion nor any date r especti ng them. 

In view of this paucity of information regarding sawfish embryo-. 

ial interest attaches to a short paper published by Dr. T. Southwell,* 

in 1910, in which he briefly describes an embryo of Prisftl CUtpidotUS 

tham. This was one of a brood of twenty -three taken from a female 

sawfi-h l-'il feet long, which was caught on the coast of Ceylon. Through 

the kindne-> of 1 >r. Southwell, the American Museum has received as a gift 

three of these embryo American Museum). And inasmuch as 

DM description appeared in | ( V\ loiiese journal and w ill probably escape the 
• ution of many ichthyologist- who would be i n teres te d in these einbi 

iaable to HH tBa MTlbf one of them briefly, and to give a good 

figure of it.' 

The cm and 2) of FrtsiM eutpidaku hen- described, is 

mm. in total length. It clonal) res emb les the full-grown sawfish, 

' XaturgeMchichte der auslandl Merlin. s c . ,1 17H6, p. 66. 

an. I p| I_mi 

1 lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate animals. 
Part I — Fishes. London p nil 

'Catalogue oT Oabea in Hi. i ill.p 438. 

•A deacrti nin- of a large sawfish (I'mtu eutpidatui) containing 

Intro-uterine embryos spoils Zeylanica. VI, 1010 pp I pi 

* Dr. Southwell's paper was illustrated by a plate kKIiik two photographic views of an 
embryo: but the photograph* do got show all the characters clearly. 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XX XI, 

except (1), for the presence of a large yolk sac which is attached by a yolk 
stalk; and (2), the circumstance that the teeth of the saw have not yet cut 
through the membrane enveloping them. 


The yolk sac is very large (95 mm. in length), somewhat pear-shaped, 
and attached by its smaller end to the stalk. A cross-section at its middle 
(Fig. 2, a) is elliptical, with axes 72 mm. and 55 mm. respectively. The 


Huuakof, Embryo of Pristis cuspidalus. 


stalk is 1 1 cm. long; widest at its juncture with the sac, where it is 8 mm. in 
ifillffl trr, and gradually decreasing to 4 mm. at its point of insertion in the 

tralwallof tin- ••ml»r\«», midway between thegilU. A dark blood vessel* 
probably the vitelline artery, stands out <l< arly on the surface of the sac, 
and a network «.f v. r> defieate vessels is also to be seen. Tin- eoloc of the 

330 Ihilhlin American IfttMWM Off Xnturdl Hislory. X X \ I , 

sac when fresh, ftcoordmg t<> Dr. Southwell, i- that of the yolk of ■ hen's 

egg. 1 

The saw is 117 nun. long and still flexible. The teeth are completely 
enveloped in membrane, their points forming a series of crenulatioQa at the 
margins of the rostrum. On holding the saw to the light they can be 
clearly seen; they are yellowish, sharply pointed, and average f> nun. in 
length. In the specimen figured there are 25 teeth on the left side and l' 1 
on the right. They are not arranged strictly opposite one another in pairs. 
The toothless basal portion of the saw measures l'l' nun., or about one-sixth 
of the entire >a\v. 

The embryo has all openings to the exterior — gills, spiracles and pores — 
completely formed, as was noted by Southwell. A lateral line is present; 
it extends along the side as far back as the < ■andal. There is a row of fine 
pores arranged in a horizontal line, extending from a point below the eye to 
near the origin of the pectoral fin. The eyes are completely formed, large 
and protruding. 

Respecting the disposal of the embryos in the mother fish, Dr. Southwell 
says: "The embryos all lay horizontally, i. e., parallel to the axis of the 
parent. There still remained a small quantity of a serous fluid in the ovi- 
duct, the bulk of which had probably been lost prior to examination .... 
Some embryos lay with the rostrum close to the cloacal opening, whilst 
others were exactly opposite." 2 

Measurements of an Embryo of Pristis cuspidatus. 

Length (tip of saw to end of caudal) f 355 mm. 

Width across pectorals 95 " 

Length of saw (from line of junction with head) 117 " 

Greatest width of saw 24 " 

Length of proximal untoothed portion of saw 22 " 

Average length of rostral teeth 6 " 

Base of saw to origin of first dorsal 113 " 

Origin of first dorsal to origin of second 50 " 

Width of head (in region of eyes) 31 " 

Length of yolk sac 

Greater diameter of yolk sac 72 " 

Lesser diameter of yolk sac 55 " 

Length of yolk stalk 1 10 " 

Greatest diameter of yolk stalk 8 " 

» In the two other embryos in the American Museum, the yolk sacs have been removed, 
and only the stalks remain. 

'Southwell, loe. nt.. p. 139. 



By I<.\ \z M \t\i -( ii. 

The material described in the present paper was collected at Newark, 
Montdair, and Elisabeth, N. .1., in the year 1910, with the exception of 
the him • 1,11. ami 1 7, a> otherwise noted. I succeeded in rearing 

all <>f the form-. 

Ceresa A% v albescens Van J>. 

Plate XWII. Fi^ 1. 

Size about 7 mm., of a whitish-yellow color and fuzzy appearance. I 
did not find any in 1910; the figure represents an insect collected on July 13 
of last year. It Beems t«» l»e a rather Bcaroc insect for it is not mentioned 
in the report of the insects of N. u Jersey, 1909. 

Ceresa bubalus Pair. 
Plate XXVII. Rg. 2. 
mm., of a more or Icsi 'lull s^eenish-broi n. While collect- 

near Kli/.aheth last ytOM I found the first nymph of tin- in a 

thicket of Viburnum, Sambueua, and SofiaVsjo, so that I was nnsHu to make 

out with which plant it WSJ SSflOCIltcd On July 21 I found another and 

on the following day two more UHSCtS. The latter died on .luly 25, hut the 

former was kept alive until August 19, when it died like the others without 

to maturity. The fact that the intSCt ffllllillinf ali\e leSBCtcd 

IS as a food plant, ami it> rather dark bfOWIl coloring led me to 

believe that it was the nymph of Ceresa tkctrat which hi nsnssty found in 

the adult Btageon Sniiihuriis; hut while collecting neat Newark on .lul\ .'II, 

and one nymph near an adnh in nsasaVesroton li<>f>iniii. Hence 

1 wss convinced it was the nymph of ti mentioned an. I was Quite 

surprised when it matured, on August 1 1. without ihowing the dark brown 

-"lor for which 1 \ainl\ waite.l. it proved to he a IniuV of CsfSSS SSJOSStlf. 


332 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX \ I. 

Ceresa taurina Fitch. 

Plate XXVIII, Fig. 3. 

Size 7\ mm., sometimes of a very bright green color. On July 1 of this 
season while collecting near Newark, I found two nymphs of a large size on 
Sambucus fully surrounded by very high plants of Solidago; and on July 5, 
three more were found near Elizabeth. The former became mature females 
on July 6, while of the latter only one adult male appeared on July 7. 

Ceresa palmeri Van D. 

Plate XXVIII, Fig. 4. 

Size 6^ mm., of a light green color. The first nymphs were found on 
Liquidambar near Elizabeth on June 4 and 5. Additional specimens were 
collected on the 12th of the same month, the first of which matured on 
July 5. I found this species very abundant but less so than in the previous 
year. In its earlier nymphal stages it displays peculiar thorn-like promi- 
nences which are characteristic of this genus. This insect also has been 
found probably for the first time in the State, because in spite of its abun- 
dance it has not yet received mention in the report of insects of New Jersey. 

Acutalis Fairm. semicrema Say. 

Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 5. 

Size 5£ mm. of a light yellowish-green; on July 5 a single nymph which 
became a mature female on July 8 was found under similar circumstances 
as the previous year namely, on Solidago occurring under 8ambucMM. In 
breeding this species I have obtained so far only females, but I am quite 
certain that the Acutalis tartarea of Say is the male of this form; and I am 
inclined to believe that the male described by Van Duzee is probably the 
variation of the same. This, however, needs to be confirmed by further 
observation. In the New Jersey list only the male was mentioned and the 
female is stated as "not yet actually taken." 

Carynota Fitch mera Say. 

Plate XXVII, Fig. 6. 

Size 1\ mm., of a light or dark brown color marbelled with gray. The 
specimens were found near Newark on Juglans. A single specimen taken 
on May 22, I could not rear; later this species was found in large numbers, 

1912] Matauseh, Nymphal Stages of Membracida. 333 

hut owing t" the difficulty in rearing, I selected in collecting on June 18, 
19 and 20, only larger specimens of which three matured on July 2; one of 
these was a male and the other two were females. 

Thelia Am. ■ Scrr. bimaculata Fabr. 

Plate XXIX, Fig. 7. 

v} mm., varying in color between light and dark brown marbelled 
with yellow or gray. I vainly tried two years ago to bring some of these 
iiiM-cts to maturity. This season I found them in great numbers near 
Newark on Rubin ia pseudacacia and in both adult and nymphal stages; 
several of the latter were taken for experimentation and on July 4, three 
adult females developed. It was on this occasion for the first time that I 
found ants among them in abundance. Whereupon I am inclined to believe 
that the ants care for them only when they occur in large numbers. 

Telamona Fitch (species not determined). 

Plat. XXIX, Fig. 8. 

8J mm., found together with adult insects on Liquidambar near 
Elizabeth. Last year I vainly tried to bring this form to maturity; in 
one specimen the skin of the nymph split, but the insect died without 
t loping further. On August 11 of this season while collecting at the 
same spot I finally obtained one female still fresh and soft after emergence 
together with the recently shed skin of the nymph; hence all doubts con- 
cerning tin- relationship were removed. 

Telamona barbata Van D. 

Plat. XXIX, Fig. 9. 

7 ii i tn, of a dark grayish brown color. The only nymph of this 
small and rather hairy species I found on Querctu near Newark on July 1; 
it became a mature male on the 5th of the same month. This insect also 
seems to be scarce, as it is not mentioned in the report on the insects of 
New Jersey. 

Telamona unicolor Fitch. 

Plat. \\\. Fig. 10. 

Size 1\ mm., of the same color and appearance as Carynota mrra (Plate 
X X \ II. Pig. 6). From a collection of Carynota nymphs taken on Juglans 
and believ<-<! to be ull of the same species I was greatly surprised to obtain 

liitUitin American \i (dry. Vo\ XXXI, 

on June I."), a nymph collected ten day- eariier which l>ecame ;i male T<la- 

motui of ;i species unknown to inc. On the 19th I obtained another male 
mikI on the _'l-t two additional males ami one female; the latter is an entirely 
different color from that of the male, being a clear green especially imme- 
diately after maturity. Later the individuals of thi- -ex become yellow ish- 

green while the males have a prothoras of a purplish green-yellow with dark 

brown markings. 

Cyrtolobus Godg. (species not yet determined). 

Plate \\X, Pig. 11. 

Size A\ mm., of a greenish-brown color. The specimen was found on 
QutTCUi, the first insect taken on a collecting trip in New Jersey on May 30, 
190S; in addition one adult in-ect was taken hut was later lost. On June 6 
of the same year in the Bronx, New York, I found on tin- same plant two 
more nymphs which were quite similar to the above mentioned specimens 
as regards structure and color hut were -omewhat -mailer in size; one 
developed the next morning, l>ut the other from which the figure was made 
died. In HMO I obtained nymphs of this genu- as early as May ]."> while 
collecting with Prof. A. Pctrunkeviteh at Montclair, N. J., where we found 
three different -peeie- on Qm nut. One of these was rather -mall, green in 
color, and densely haired; this specimen escaped. The second which died 
was a very brilliant green and red and po ss e sse d a very long anal tube. 
The third which was the largest of the three, developed into an adult female 

on May L'ti; its ahdoniinal prominences were more strongly developed than 
in the case of the nymph next described and differed also as an adult, but 
in my opinion it is probably a variant and not a distinct species. 

Cyrtolobus sp. 

Plate XXX, Fig. 12. 

Size b\ mm., of a green and red-brown color. On June 4 or 5 I found a 
nymph of this form in addition to three adult insects, all males, on the same 
oak tree at Elizabeth, from which during the previous year only female- 
were taken. It was the only nymph that could be discovered and was 
doubtless of the same specie- as the adult-. Similar insects had Keen found 
on Qiu reus at Newark, which varied only slightly in so far as prominences 
were somewhat thinner. The adult- had the same colors and pattern with 
the dark marking on apex of prothoras a little larger. The first insects were 
found on May 22 and although most of them died, the members of a series 
collected on May 29 and 30, with very few exceptions, matured on May 30- 

1912.] nbracida. 335 

Hie figure represents the specimen collected at 
h which is between the nymph from Montdair and the nymph from 


Cyrtolobus ip. 

Plate XXXI. Rg. 13. 

The figure r ep r es en ts ■ specimen of mother species of Cyrtolobus which 

is burger than the foregoing to the extent <>f <; mm. This I collected at the 

• time as the former on the tame plant at Newark. The insed <liffers as 

regards the abdominal prominence-; the entire body is densely hairy and i^ 

lighter in color. The specimens were fewer in number but none the lea 1 

obtained both sexes mi May .'>() to 31. 

Cyrtolobus [Atywma Stil querci Fitch. 

Plate XXXI, Kg. 14. 

6 mm., of a vivid light K r «' t>n color. These were collected at Newark 
on I ith the foregoing speeimeiis and were found on quercut. The 

fir-r imenfl had died on the 25th, while the other became mature 

females on \! I intended to keep the latter until this green color 

became fixed, hut it escaped daring feeding. More were collected on May 
30 and 31, all of which matured producing three females ami five mild 
Thi lands in the li^t of the insects of New Jersey as "not yet found 

intl : hence tins is the first record of its occuirauci 

Ophiderma Fninn. (not determine 
Plat XXXI, Fig. 16. 

~>\ mm., of a green and brown eolor. Only a single nymph was 

found among the specimen! of Cyrfo/otm on Querent on May 30, at Newark; 

this sjM-cimen matured the next day as a female. 

Vanduzea G'odg. arquata Say. 
PUte \\\ll. I ;. 16.) 
\\ mm. of a more or le->s fighter or darker bfOWfl eolor. I fouml the 

nymphfl of tl ei on July .'51 at Newark <»n Robmiu ptemdaottim, on 

the lower branches «»f which tl, red in great abundance, when male 

adults bad been onlj ma rs el j re pr es en ted. Ob I, nymphi In all 

r with adult insectfl males -till predominating. 

336 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. \ I \ I . 

On August 27 another extensive series of nymphs of different stages were 
collected, and from these adults of both sexes were obtained. As already 
known this species of Membracidse is one of the greatest favorites of ants; 
I uniformly found them to be herded by the latter. 

Campylenchia St&l curvata Fair. 

Plate XXXII, Fig. 17. 

Size 6 mm., of a green and brown color. This I found in 1910, only here 
and there an adult insect, on Solidago. I received two from Mr. H. Mueller, 
taken in the Bronx, New York City, which after several days developed into 
female adults on July 1. 

Enchenopa binotata Say. 

I found this species near Newark on Qucrcus and Juglans as reported in 
the 'Journal' of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. XX, pp. 58-67. 
Not having time to color the drawing of nymphs from life, I had to use the 
shed skins for the many features and to put in the colors from memory. 
Like the green examples, so the darker nymphs for the ventral part of 
abdomen are more or less dull green, as a rule. The insects with more than 
one color usually have the abdomen green; the prothorax wing pads and 
abdominal prominences and the anal region exhibit darker colors. After 
shedding its nymphal skin the adult insect seems at first to display a light 
yellow, green or whitish coloration, but after a short time it assumes its 
characteristic darker colors. 

In the season of 1910 I obtained altogether specimens of some twenty- 
eight species at Newark, Montclair, and Elizabeth, N. J., and at Woods 
Hole, Mass. ; through the kindness of Prof. W. M. Wheeler, I also received 
specimens of Entylia sinuala Fabr. in different variations. One Telamona 
ampelopsidis Harr., a female, was collected by Mr. C. Buchholz in August. 
Mr. R. Dow favored me with Membracidse collected by him in New Mexico. 
Among these I found a variation of Glossonotus univitiatus (Harr.) including 
four examples equally divided as to sex; a very interesting species of a 
small Telamona represented by five examples of which one was a male; 
two different species of Stictocephala (St&l) both represented by a single 
male, and three other exceedingly small insects, two males and one female, 
which I could not determine. From Mr. C. L. Pollard I also received several 
interesting insects collected in the Ramapo Mountains, and at Lakehurst, 
N. J. 

\ \| \ H 

\ X \ 1 1 





'Mr, I ' 


• Van D. Slac 7 mm , bubalui Pihr. StM 8 

6. Carynola mrra Say. Site 7 } mm 

rrix A. M. X. H 

Vol. XXXI. Plat.: XXVIII. 

htm Aan 

CrrtMttaun. /,- 7 Hun ,Htlmrr, Van D. »!»• ' 

6. Aeutali* itmicrtmn Say. Slip 5 J mm. 

Bulletin A M \ II 

\\\l P l« WIX 

iriiAL Stager op North Amend »n MembbacidjB. 
Tkilta bimaculata Ymbr. Sire M J mm. N. Trhi mona «p. Slxc. Si nun 

0. Telamonm borbata Van D. slxo 7 mm. 

\ M N H 

\ \\l I' \ \.\ 




I rn A m kiii 
10. Ttlamona mni- dm Kltrh Wm» 7$ mm II Cyrt„l<,htn up. Size 4j mm. 


iin \ M N II 

Vol. XXXI. Plati \ 

\ x 





iui »p. 81m Omm. it r V rfofo6tt« »**r, , Hi.h si/. . r, mm 

15. Opht.Urma up. 81m 6) mm 

:is A M \ H 

Vol. XXXI. Plate XXXII 



HTM AmKNi h U IO.K. 

ir tf u<ifa Say. Si«r4lmm 17. C«*pffM ■ Fahr. 8I1 

59.57,71 B 

By A. L Mklander, Pullman, Washington. 

In the ' Proceedings' of the Entomological Society of Washington, D. C, 
volume VI. Dnmbei :* (July 30, 1904) Mr. D. W. Coquillett erected the 
genu- Btbiodei, describing one species, B. halteralis, from California 
specimen-. No other species of the genus has since been described, and 
the gem. not to have been again recognized. Even Williston's 

' Manual' includes it with a query. 

Recently on reviewing the Bibionidre in my collection I noticed two other 
>f Bibiodes. As some of the specimens belong to the American 
Mu>< win. and it is desirable to return them at this time, I will present their 
description herewith. 

Bibiodes resembles a small Bibio, but it can be at once recognized by its 
peculiar venation. The third vein bends down meeting the fourth where 
the anterior cross vein is usually located, and then both continue coalesced 
for some distance before separating. Thus the small cross vein is absent, 
costa, first and third veins are distinct, blackish, the base of the auxili- 
ary and of tin- fourth vein brownish, the other veins faint. Discal cell 
emitting three posterior veins, of which the anterior two sometimes are 
joined forming a short petiole to the second posterior cell. The anal cell 
open Byes of the male contiguous between the ocelligerous tubercle and 
the antenna*, the upper facets moderately coarse, the facets of the lower- 
most sixth, below the level of the antenna*, fine. Antennae short, 9-jointed. 
Palpi 4-jointed, moderately long: proboscis rudimentary. Front tibiae 
with a sharp exterior edge and ending in a strong spur, within with a 
minute >pur. sjsjo. Kmpodium broad; pulvilli absent. 

three species at present known are western. Evidently like other 
member- of tin- family, they are locally common. The following summary 
of characters will help to identify them. 

Costa extending half way Iran tin- sterna i<> the apex of the wing; front femora 
robu>t; Imnl metatarsi short; haltcres and legs black; pubescence conspicu- 
ous; hy po py g U aa large; second posterior cell petiolate femoratasp.n. 

Costa extending more than half way from stigma to apex of wing; legs less robust; 
hmd metatarsi nraefc lonpr then the following joint; legs of 9 reddish; pu- 
bescence more sparse; second posterior cell sessile or short petiolate 

• Contribution from th« 7x>6l<Htlc»l Laboratory of the SUM College of Washington. 

338 Bulletin Atmricart Muxeum of Natural History. [Vol X.W'I, 

'black; halteres yellow; eyes hairy; hind tarsal joints rounded; pit 

strigose; hypopygium moderate; stigma oval halteralia CoquiOett. 

Legs cf Tnirirajstnd; battens black: eyes bare; hind tarsal joints cylindrical; 
pleurae smooth; hypopygium closed ; stigma excised above. . sestiva sp. n. 

Professor J. M. Aldrich has called my attention to a genus Synneuron 
described by Carl Lundstrom from Finnland. 1 A reference to this genus 
occurs in the 'Wiener entomologische Zeitung' for January, 1911, page 18, 
but the paper is not listed in tin Zoological Record' for 1910. I have 
been unable to secure a copy of Lundstrom's article and cannot therefore 
state what relationship the Finnland genus bears to our forms. The name 
Synneuron is suggestive of the essential characteristic of Bibiodes, the 
fusion of the third and fourth veins, but may, of course, not refer to this 

Bibiodes aestiva sp. nov. 

Mule. Length 2.5 mm. Jet black, shining, sparsely covered with compara- 
tively short, golden hairs, the hairs of the abdomen whitish. Antenna compara- 
tively long, measuring about equal to the front metatarsus, the individual joints 
but little wider than their length. Eyes bare. Pleura and front femora plainly 
8trigoM\ The thoracic hairs are arranged in two single rows dividing the mesonotum 
into thirds, and in loose hunches above the root of the wings ami on the seutelhun: 
pleura bare. Hypopygium with a pair of laterally moving forcipate valve- 
lower inner edge of which is provided with a fuscous thumb-like process t lie two 
interlocking. Knob of halteres black, the pedestal fuscous Legs shining black, 
except that the spur of the front tibia?, the basal half of the posterior tibia-, and the 
base of the individual tarsal joints, rufous. All the femora moderately incrai 
the front ones but little more thickened than the other-: front legs comparatively 
longer than in femorata: outer edge of the hind tibiae a little sinuate so that the wid- 
est part of the tibia is before the tip: hind tarsi nearly as long as the hind tibia-, the 
metatarsus nearly as long as the following two joints together, the outline of the 
individual joints rounded: pubescence of the legs short, in length less than one-half 
the diameter of the tibia. Stigma oval saturate fuscous, costa extending three- 
fourths the distance beyond the stigma to the wing-tip, second posterior cell often 
broadly sessile with the discal cell, the faint veins broad and brownish. 

Sixteen males. Almota, Washington, June 24. 1011. < Ioun- 

tain and Lewiston (June 11, 1904), Idaho, from Professor Aldrich. < arbon 
County, Wyoming, received from Mr. William Beutennniller from the col- 
lection of the American Museum of Natural History. Copperopolis, Mon- 
tana, July 23, 1902, elevation 5400 feet; and Gallatin Valley, Montana, 
July 6, 1903. The last two were received from Professor R. A. Cooley, 

1 Beitraege zur Kenntniss der Dipteren Fiunlands. V. Bihionid.-n. Acta societatls 
pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. vol. 33, nr. 1. 15 pag., 1 pi. Hclsingfors, 1910. 

Afelandcr, The Dipterous Genus Bibiodes. 


Explanation op Plate. 

Ifiodea femorata <? . i <K- 3. Ihbiodesastiia, hind kg. 

lixbiodu halUralis hind leg Pig. I liibiodu halteraliit, wing 

340 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

of the Montana Agricultural College. These types have been distributed 
among the collections of the American Museum, New York City, the 
Montana Agricultural College, Professor J. M. Aldrich, and myself. 

A female from Craig's Mountain, Idaho, presents the following pecu- 
liarities: Hairs shorter, coarser and deeper golden-yellow. I>egs including 
coxae reddish, darker at tips of the femora, posterior tibiae and tarsal joints 
(except immediate base of individual joints of posterior tarsi), and front 
tarsi almost black; front coxae and femora greatly thickened. Abdomen 
plump, broad, nearly bare, possessing eight tergites, and with a pair of oval 
brown terminal flaps. 

Bibiodes femorata sp. nov. 

Male. Length 2.5 mm. Jet black, shining, provided with conspicuous pale 
golden hairs, the hairs of the abdomen almost white. Antenna; short and thick, 
measuring about two-thirds the length of the front metatarsi, the individual joints 
much wider than long. Eyes pubescent. Pleime very faintly strigose, almost 
smooth. The thoracic hairs long and golden, arranged as in cestiva in two longitudi- 
nal rows and bunches along the sides, front and back of the notum, but the hairs 
much more numerous and also longer: pleura? also provided with hairs. The thumb- 
like process of the hypopygial valves not pale in color. Halteres entirely black. 
Legs very robust, shining black, the spur of the front tibia fuscous: the front femora 
greatly thickened, the front tibia; shorter and stouter than in cesliva: hind tibia? 
gradually enlarged to the end: hind tarsi plainly shorter than the tibiae, the meta- 
tarsus much shorter than the two following joints together, the profile of the indi- 
vidual joints quadrate; pubescence of the legs evident, nearly as long as the diameter 
of the tibia;. Wings lightly infumated, stigma brownish, oval; costa extends half 
way from the stigma to the tip of the wing; veins faint, inconspicuous, brownish. 

Female. Like the male except for the differences of sex in the eyes and abdomen, 
the legs are less purely black. 

Described from nine males and two females, collected by myself at 
Austin, Texas, December 13, 1899. The types have been placed in the 
collections of the American Museum of Natural History, of Professor 
J. M. Aldrich, and of myself. 

Bibiodes halteralis Coquillrtt. 

The type species of the genus differs from the two here described in 
having yellow halteres. The legs of the male are entirely black. In the 
female the front coxae, all the femora, and the front and hind tibiae are reddish. 

This, like femorata, is a winter species. Mr. Coquillett's specimens came 
from California, and were taken December 19 to March 18. I have two 
males before me from Professor Aldrich's collection, caught by Professor 

1912.] Meander, The Dipterous Genus Bibiodes. 341 

C. F. Baker at Claremont, California. These specimens permit the follow- 
ing additions to Mr. Coquillett's characterizations. 

Mesonotum provided with rather long hairs, becoming sparse on the abdomen 
Eyes conspicuously hairy Antenna' comparatively slender, as in (estiva. Pleura 
smooth, polished, and hairy. Hypopygium small., not open., nor enlarging the end 
of the abdomen. Hairs of femora very fine, some of them longer than the femoral 
diameter; the hind tibia; gradually enlarged to the end; the hind tarsi compara- 
tively slender, their joints cylindrical, and with the upper side less rounded in outline, 
the hind metatarsus but little longer than the following joint. Wings not at all 
in/umated, the faint veins milky white, inconspicuous; the strong veins blacker 
than in the other species, the costa curves around the tip of the wing ending four- 
fifths the distance beyond the stigma to the tip; the blackish stigma does not include 
the end of the marginal cell: the second posterior cell touches the discal cell or else 
short petiolate 





By K. Bergroth. 

Blaena setosa Walk. 

Distant has placed Maerymmui membranaceus Sign, as a synonym of 
Bbrna setosa, hut if I have interpreted Walker's species correctly, as I 
think I have, they are specifically distinct. In membranacea the hind tibiae 
of the male are curved hasally and api( ally, the basal curvature turning 

oneavity inward, the apical curvature outward ; in setosa the hind tibiae 
are perfectly straight in both sexes. The head and pronotum are also more 
longly setose in setosa. Walker says in his description: "corium bilobed 
on the exterior border," meaning the apical margin with the expression 

•.•rior border." New South Wales. 


Hyocephalus aprugnus Bergr. 

Brachypteroua form: Pronotum slightly narrowing from the base to the apex, 
b narrower than the width across the hemelytra, slightly broader than its median 
length, at the apex as broad as the head, lateral margins a little rounded, slightly 
reflected from the apex to beyond the mi. Mir. then scarcely reflected at all, basal 
margin tn sinuate, posterior part of propleune not visible from al>ove out- 

side tin- pmnotal lateral margins. Hemelytra about twice the length of the 
■cutellum, with no imtubrane, lateral margin of corium rounded, more strongly so 
behind the middle, apical angle rounded, apical margin somewhat sinuately oblique, 
forming jointly with the apical margin of the other corium a continuous arched 
>sity. Length 9 12 mm Hm third antenna! joint, which tacking in the 
type, is about half the length of t he second joint. New South Wales. 

After a renewed study of this extraordinary genus, for which even a 
separate family has been proposed, I find that, the very aberrant venation 
and the position of tin- intennfl notwithstanding, it can be included as a 

344 liulhtin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. X.WI. 

division in the family Coreidn?, to be placed near St&l'.s 1 >i\ isioo C'yllararia, 
founded on the single genus Cyllarus Stal, with which Hyoccphalus has the 
fades and several characters in common. The male sex of Hyocephulus 
is still unknown. 

MYOI XX mi >.]■:. 
Ceenocoris augur Stdl. 

In fresh specimens the ground-color of the membrane is blue and the 
sterna are covered with a bluish bloom except the hind borders of the pro- 
pleura and mesopleura which are velvety black. Queensland (Brisbane, 
H. Edwards). 


Henicocephalus aerius n. sp. 

Fuscous, the knees broadly pale testaceous, the head, pronotum, and scutcllum 
thickly pilose. The postocular lobe of the head narrower than the breadth across 
the eyes, about as long as broad, seen in profile more elevated than the anteocular 
part, antenna? shortly and rather densely pilose with scattered exserted long hairs 
intermixed especially on the fourth joint, first joint passing the apex of head, third 
joint shorter than second and fourth which are of equal length. Pronotum with the 
fore lobe half as broad as the median lobe, which has a 1-shaped impression in the 
middle and on either side an oblique impression emitting a short branch outward 
and forward, hind lobe three-fourths broader than the median lobe, longitudinally 
feebly carinated in the middle, its basal margin very slightly obtusangularly sinuate. 
Scutellum moderately convex. Hemelytra rather longly passing apex of abdomen, 
discal cell closed. Wings longer than abdomen. Abdomen on the sides fringed with 
hairs. Legs pilose, fore femora moderately incrassated, fore tibia at apex almost 
as broad as the femora in the middle. Length with hemelytra 7 mm. New South 

Allied to //. tasmaiiicu* YVestw., but with the pronotal base less sinuate 
and unicolorous hemelvtra. 


Piestolestes now gen. 

Body strongly depressed. Head horizontal, longer than pronotum, postocular 
part shorter than anteocular part, transverse impression between the eyes curved, 
antennae a little farther distant from the apex of the head than from the eyes, first 
joint shorter than the head, second joint much shorter than first, third a little longer 
than second, rostrum reaching base of head, first joint much shorter than anteocular 

1912.] Bergroth, Hemiptera chiefly from Australia. 345 

part of head, reaching base of antenna or even shorter, second joint two times longer 
than first. Pronotum constricted and transversely impressed near the middle, 
anterior lobe at the base foveately longitudinally impressed with the apical angles 
acutely prominent, basal margin of posterior lobe confluent with the posterior lateral 
margins without forming an angle, narrowly reflected, lateral angles rounded, not 
prominent. Fore femora with a double series of spines beneath, much longer than 
the tibia-. Middle and hind femora and tibia; subequal in length. 
Type: P. lineatus. 

To this genus also belong Havinthus obscurus Bergr. and, in all proba- 
bility, //. trochanieratus Dist., in the description of which the shape of the 
pronotal apical angles and the length of the rostral joints and of the tibiae 
are not mentioned. 

The genus is allied to Havinthus St&l, from which it differs by the much 
shorter basal joint of the rostrum, the acutely prominent pronotal apical 
angles, the spined fore femora, and by the tibiae, especially the first pair, 
being much shorter. 

Piestolestes lineatus n. sp. 

Piceous black, corium a little paler, connexivum through its whole length traversed 
by a longitudinal very densely and shortly tomentose whitish ochraceous line, 
trochanters red. Head with a short but rather deep impressed longitudinal line 
between the eyes in front of the transverse impression, distance between eyes and 
base of antenna: as long as the longitudinal diameter of the eyes, the whole underside 
and the sides and upper surface of the postocular part granulated, second antennal 
joint about as long as the distance between the inner margins of the eyes, last two 
joints tawny, first rostral joint reaching base of antenna'. Pronotum as long as 
broad, anterior lobe smooth, its apical border slightly wrinkled and granulate, 
posterior lobe finely but not densely transversely rugulose. Scutellurn with a 
median triangular impression which is covered with a thick but short grayish 
tomentosity. Hemelytra (9) reaching base of dorsal genital segment. Connexi- 
vum longitudinally strigose, entirely exposed but not broad. Venter very finely 
transversely strigulose. Fore femora granulated, middle and hind femora more 
sparingly so. Length Q 13 mm. Queensland (// Edwards). 

Allied to /'. obscurus Bergr., but differently colored with basal joint of 
rostrum distinctly longer and the pronotal apical angles a little less acutely 

I{. In the genus Havinthus the ro.strum reaches the fore coxae, its 
basal joint is but slightly shorter than the anteocular part of the head, the 
•econd joint much less than two tinie> longer than the fir>t, the apical angles 
of the pronotum are rounded, the fore femora are not spined, the fore tibiae 
reach the trochanters, and the middle and hind tibiae are longer than the 
femora. As type of this genus I herewith fix //. longicrps Stal, with which 
//. pentatomus II. S< h. is apparently congeneric. 

.'v}». Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI. 

Ectomocoris ornatus Stdl. 

Apterous form: Lobes of pronotum of equal breadth, anterior lobe almost four 
times longer than posterior lobe. Scutellum much broader than long, reaching the 
middle of metanotum, its sides rounded, the apex prolonged in a short robust upturned 
spine. Mesonotum with a lateral tubercle on each side. Hemelytra rudimentary, 
forming two blue scales which are exteriorly rounded and transversely wrinkled 
behind the middle and do not reach posterior margin of pronotum, with the surface 
of which they are fused. 9. New South Wales (//. Edwards). 

Hermillus edo n. sp. 

I'in-ous, a spot on each side behind the upper part of the eyes, a narrow apical 
ring to the first antennal joint and the second joint beneath testaceous, corium with 
an oval orange-yellow spot touching the middle of the apical margin, veins of mem- 
brane obscurely testaceous, abdomen brownish testaceous, apical half of fore and 
middle femora and apical third of hind femora cinnabar red, base and apex of tflna 
and the tar-i testaceous; slightly shining, hemelytra, except basal part of costal 
margin, opaque. Head as long as posterior pronotal lobe, beneath with a dense but 
very short pilosity intermixed with scattered long hairs, above remotely and shortly 
pilose, posterior margin of eyes viewed from the side rather deeply sinuate below 
the middle, antennae pilose, first joint subglabrous, as long as the anteocular part of 
the head, second joint as long as the pronotum, linear from the apex to the middle, 
then somewhat inerassated toward the base, rostrum above with a few long erect 
hairs, beneath more densely but rather shortly pilose, basal joint reaching base of 
antennae, second joint a little longer than first. Pronotum one-fifth broader than 
long, anterior lobe bluntly remotely sculptured, apical angles obtusely tuberculate, 
posterior lobe smooth, median longitudinal impression not reaching base with a 
series of large impressed points, intrahumeral longitudinal impressions transversely 
rugose, lateral angles rounded, a little prominent. Scutellum at apex produced in a 
rather robust, compressed, slightly upturned spine. Hemelytra reaching apex of 
abdomen. Wings somewhat infuscated. Venter transversely rugulose, the last 
three segments moreover very finely punctured in places, male genital segment 
transversely impressed before apex, genital styles inerassated toward apex. The 
spongy pit of the fore tibia; occupying their apical fourth. Length o" 19.5 mm. 
Africa (Liberia, Miss Mahoney). 

Broader than //. geniculatus Sign., differently colored and with the b 
joint of the antennae shorter. 

X. B. Hermillus rufipes Schout. (December, 1902) is identical with 
Cerdocus histrio Dist. (September, 1902). It was correctly placed in Ceri- 
locus by Distant. Dr. Schouteden is not to blame for having placed it in 
Hermillus, for I had seen his species before it was described and had by an 
oversight marked it as " Hermillus n. sp." Schouteden described the species 
from Cameroon, but he has informed me that the label was probably wrong; 
it is an East African species. 

1912.) Bergroth, Hcmiptera chiefly from Australia. 347 

Stenotsemus edwardsii n. sp. 

ground-color of body, including hcmelytra antennae and legs, 
whi* i with two pa!«- fuscous vitta- on the upper side of the post ocular part, 

- entirely palely i nf m as t ed, postocular part with two conical tuber • 

or less ini r black e ned, especially the shining second joint, 

nnal joint a little longer than prothorax, with four brownish annuli, second 

join' r than first, its apical half and the two last joints infuscated, 

thin! joint a little longer than the fore tarsi, fourth joint somewhat longer than 

third, acuminate at apex; pilosity of first antennal joint and of the basal half of the 

second joint moderately long and thick with very long apically curved hairs mixed 

in with it. apical half of second joint and the two last joints shortly pilose. Prono- 

tum with four pale brownish vitta- on the anterior tumid part of the fore lobe, in- 

•jb broad, exterior vitta- narrow, posterior petiolated part of this lobe a 

he apical rior lobe, except the blunt median ridge and 

the basal margin, suffused with pale brown, its disk armed with two strong slightly 

•gent conical tubercl 3 liar and postocutellar spine obliquely ascending. 

ra glabrous exo margin which is fringed with rather abort curved 

socorium margined with fuscous along the veins bordering it interiorly 

and apically, anterior cell of membrane more or less palely infuscated in the middle 

iut transvi posterior membranal cell with a large oblique subtriangular 

fuscous 1>! -ing an irregular ramose whitish vein, interior apical cell broadly 

infuscated at the interior bonier with two or three cretaceous white transverse veins, 

lor apical cell infuscated except at the interior border and sometimes in the 

•nl with an irregular median ramose whitish vein, terminal cell fuscous, 

separating the apical cells from the posterior cell and from each other 

bite. Abdomen beneath more or less infuscated at the sides and toward 

p with very long whitish pilosity. the hairs of the middle and hind 

oming gradually shorter toward the apex, femora with four bfOWB annuli, 

with three and the other tibia- with two brown annuli in their basal half, 

base of middle and hind femora and extreme apex of middle and hind tibia? also 

brownish, apex of fore tarsi and the whole middle and hind tarsi fuscous, the btOWB 

annuli of the four posterior legs bearing, besides the ordinary long pilosity, a shorter 

and • roam tomentosity; fore coxa? as long as i tumid part of the 

■orax, fore femora a little shorter than the pronotum, their .-pineh-t- and those 

of the tiba or at least their tips black, basal spine of femora rather strong; slightly 

ubrane o" 8.S-0, 9 10mm.. with membrane <? 10.5 1 1, 

stance between inner margins of eyes as broad as an eye; ab<! 
narrow, linear, the angles of its segments not prominent, genital segment at apex 
with two straight slender parallel processes claspers slender, curved at apex, passing 
apex <>f the processes. 

ale: distance between inner margins of eyes almost twice broader than an 

D dilated, elongately suboval, with the margin triangularly lobed at 

the junc' •' segments (except the junction of s e gm ents 1 and I), the two 

median lobes on each side being larger and more prominent and each lobe const- 

of an outer and an inner portion belonging respectively to the outer and inner margin 

koria // Kdwardt) 

848 HulUtin American Mxtseum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI. 

Seems to he allied to the insufficiently described S. bispinosu* We-tw., 
but as the markings of the hemelytra in that species are apparently quite 
different, there can be little doubt that it i- distinct. 

N. B. In this genu the posterior part of the outer apical cell is sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the cell by an oblique vein running from near 
the end of the narrowly prolonged outer apical part of the corium to the 
apex of the membrane; this cell I call the terminal cell. — Signoret, St&l 
and Horv&th in their descriptions of species of this genus have misinter- 
preted the females as males. The male sex was obviously unknown to 
these author-. 

Lygus neovalesicus n. sp. 

Pale greenish testaceous, sometimes slightly rufescent beneath, extreme apex 
of cuneus and apical half of last tarsal joints fuscous, membrane subhyaline with 
pale greenish or testaceous veins, a spot at the outer apical angle of the inner cell and 
at the apex of the outer cell, and a short oblique fascia behind the apex of the cuneus 
pale fuscous gray. Head transverse, more so in the male, vertex margined, slightly 
narrower (d 1 ) or a little broader ( 9 ) than an eye, clypeus separated from forehead 
by a distinct impression, its base opposite base of antennae, eyes viewed from the 
side almost perpendicular, occupying the whole (d 1 ) or three-fourths ( 9 ) of the 
head's height, rostrum slightly passing base of abdomen, antennas longer than the 
body (without membrane), first joint as long as the distance between the scrobes, 
second joint more than three times longer than first and one-third longer than breadth 
of pronotum, sublinear, last two joints together a little shorter than second, fourth 
a little longer than half the length of third. Pronotum finely transversely striolate, 
scarcely punctured, with very short pale pubescence, more than one-half broader 
than its median length and three times broader posteriorly than at apex, lateral 
margins scarcely rounded, collar very narrow. Scutellum very finely transversely 
wrinkled. Hemelytra passing apex of abdomen by half ( 9 ) or three-fourths (d") 
the length of the membrane, finely punctured, clothed with decumbent pallid hairs, 
cuneus somewhat (9) or considerably (d") passing apex of abdomen, inner cell of 
membrane a little longer than cuneus, its inner apical angle rounded. Abdomen 
beneath with whitish decumbent hairs. Femora with two short divergent bristles 
at apex, spinelets of tibiae brownish testaceous without darker points at their base, 
hind tibia? four times longer than the tarsi. Length d" 3.9, 9 4.3 mm., with mem- 
brane d" 9 5.2 mm. New South Wales. 

Closely allied to the cosmopolitan L. apicalis Fieb. and very similar to 
its variety prasina Reut., but readily distinguished by the considerably 
longer second antennal joint and some other details of structure. 



Br Bashford Di 

The presence of hair-like appendages in a batrachian, first noted by 
Boulenger in 1900, is in itself so extraordinary a morphological fact, that 
;mnot wonder that it has already been commented upon by several 
observers, — especially as to the probable function of these organs. Thus 
Do< Gadow ('00) points out that the appendages could hardly have 

been Misory in function, for he found no nerve terminals in them: he 
<-r. that they contain lymph spaces and insignificant blood 
vessel-. 1 1« later states (1901) that they were studied by Mr. F. F. Laidlow, 
tell- us that "their most remarkable feature is the presence in them 
of a great number of ordinary flask-shaped cutaneous glands, while such 
glands are scarce on the surrounding skin," and he repeats his statement 
that the hairs ire lacking in sensory structures. Mr. Boulenger in a second 
paper ('OJ make- it dear that the "hairs" occur only in the male, but he 
s us no clue as to their significance. And very recently (Feb. 1912) Dr. 
Kukenthal, examining the specimens in the Museum of Comparative 
• »f Cambridge, Mas-., states that the hairs are to be regarded as 
highly developed tubercles of the skin and he interpreted them "as second- 
ary tenia] organs, charged with Benaory functions." He comments upon 
th«-ir appearance "only on those areas of the surface where, according to 
M< rk«I. in other frogs these tactile cells ('Tastflecken') form aggregation-." 
Kukenthal givei in his paper a transverse section of one of the "hairs" in 
which appear blood-vessel, cutis ;nnl epidermis. an<! he figures also a portion 
of a longitudinal (radial) section in one of the cutis ridges: in this are » 
ehromatophl fiber, and "tactile cells." The la-t, we infer from 

hi- text, wen- noted only after impregnation of the ti--ue by Bielscl 


n Mii-eiim has recently received from Doctor Thomas 
hour, in an exchange with the MEoteuni of Comparative Zoology of 

Cambri-:. ■<( the -pecimens of Astylostcrnus, which Kukenthal 

■Mined; and the study <>f the disposition of the "hairs" nnd of their struc 

ture has led to recording the present notes: 

• «»f all, assuming that these '" hair-" are d ev eloped l>y the male and 
only at -pawning time, and that they attain, a- Kukenthnl's figti re shows, 
great length in certain speeim< : led to correlate tin- with a habit of 


350 Hullitin Amu \ B lory. (Vol. \\.\l. 

brooding not u n< -« >n 1 u •< >h among amphibians generally. It is known, for 
rxiuiiplr. that in various salamanders, — Cryptobrancinu, Ampkiuma, — in 
leJUkyopku, Alyies, in various Hylids and in Rhacophortu reticulatus, the 
eggs when extruded are wrapped about or attached to the body, i" each 
species in one sex only, usually the male. In the case of the present ;' 
th er efo re , it ia but nreessary to compare the condition with that of such a 
form as Ahjtes (cf. Figs. 1 and 2) in which it is known th. are 

attached to the sides of the body and the thighs, to obtain more than i 
suggestion as to th<- function of these hair-like processes, i. • .. that tl 

ns i 

Fig. 2. 

used for retaining the egg-strings in such position that they could be readily 
transported, guarded, and probably oxygenation as well. It will be recalled 
in this connection that the lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, which has also 
the brooding habit, develops on its ventral appendages hair-like proo 
which are suffused with capillaries, and admirably adapted to bring oxy- 
genated blood in close contact with the mass of eggs. In this instance we 
can safely conclude that the hair-like processes function as an accessory 
respiratory organ for the developing young. 

In fact the histological notes which Kukenthal has given are not opposed 
to the present view. Each hair is vascular: its core of cutis is made up of 
spongy tissue; furthermore, from the arrangement of the surrounding epi- 
dermis in curious ridges, we suggest that the circumference of the hair could 
have been notably dilated; we note also that pigmentation is largely aban- 
doned and that the number of delicate nerves with terminal cells, which 

1912.1 Dean, Hair-like A pondages in a Batrachian. 351 

Kiikenthal has described, would be no more than one would expect in a 
ructure of this kind, — for after all, the appendages are dermal 
ami s. < n-tory and as such would be apt to be provided with nerves and 
! If, however, their function wm- exclusively or even 
larp :y, as Kiikenthal maintains, we would reasonably — by numer- 

ous analogies in the appendages of amphibia and fishes, — expect that the 
organs should be far more conspicuous. Then too, if the former 
view is to be accepted, one would expect to find among amphibia sensory 
structures developed seasonably. But this is a condition which apparently 
does not occur 

'My sections show that nerve endings are demonstrated only with difficulty — as 
one would expect in the case of nerve terminals in cutaneous glands. 

59.57:03 (74.7) 





By John* A. Grossbk 

Five lists of the types of insects in the possession of the Museum have 
thus far been published, all of them I>y Mr. Win. Beutenm tiller. The 
fir>t 1S92) was a list of the types of Lepidoptera described by Grote and 
:i, the second (1892) comprised a list of the types of the same 
order in the Edwards collection, the third (1904) listed the types of Cyni- 
pkbe, the fourth 1 1904) those of the Lepidoptera added to the collection since 
the publication of the previous two bats, and the fifth (1904) those of the 

The present paper h an enumeration of the hitherto unlisted types of 
all orders excepting the Formicidae, the collection of which is in the hands 
of the honorary curator of social insects, Dr. Win. M. Wheeler of Boston, 
and the additions in the lepidoptera, a list of which will be prepared at a 

A number of types were added in the Diptera by the purchase of the 
Wil! nth American collection. The acquisition of the Krausse col- 

I European liombu* and ■ duplicate collection of Coccida? from Mr. 
Geo. B. King also added a number. Others, from time to time, were do- 
nated or < aim through tin- Museum's policy of loaning materal to mono- 
graphers and ipeciahata, the types of new species always l>eing returned to 
euro. And finally, the work, of Mr. Beutenmuller on the Ceci- 
domyida- ami ( mcreated the total by not a few more. 

In the following hat the genus in which the species were originally de- 
scribed is first given, and win n this has later l>een referred to another genus 
thfl fad M indicated l.y the new genu - being bacfaecd in parentheses after 
the older one. 

expressi< pe and paratype as here used have not always 

tin- saUM meaning OWUIg DO the laek of uniformity among systematists in 
the use of these terms Thus the \\<>rd "type" is hen- ><>metimes equiva- 
lent to "cotype" and a, and "cotype" to "paratype." No rule 
is followed in tin- lUt and wliate\, r the author called ami labelled his speci- 
mens, so they have been beted here. In one instance it was necessary 


354 liiillttiit America* Muatum of Natural Hittory. [Vol. XXXI, 

for pa t«» label the types ourselves, but this was done according t<> directions 
received from the author of the species. 

Finally it should be mentioned that there are in the Mum inn".- ooUeo- 
tions a number of "types" of Cynipide and Dipters which are apparently 
manuseript types and whose descriptions will undoubtedly never be pub- 
lished. These have not been included in the present list. Where, however, 
manuseript names are to 1><- published in the near future they have been 


Family Perlid*. 

Perla carolinensis Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 215, 1905. Seven 

Leuctra grandis Banks, Can. But, XXXVIII, 338, 1906. Eight types. 

Family Panorpid^:. 

Panorpa carolinensis Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. EBst., XXI, 216, 1905. 
Three types. 

Panorpodes carolinensis Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 215, 1905. 
Three types. 

Family Sericostomatid.*:. 

Atomyia modesta Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 217, 1905. Ten 

Goera fuscula Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist , XXI, 216, 1905. Two types. 

Family Hydropsychid.«e. 

Plectronemia auriceps Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 218, 1905. 
One type- 

Polycentropus carolinensis Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., XXI, 217, 
1905. One type. 

Arctopsyche irrorata Banks, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 217, 1905. 
One type. 


Family AgrionidjE. 

Hetaerina infecta Calvert, Biol. Centr.-Am., Neurop., 38, 1901. Two cotype*. 
Hetserina rudis Calvert, Biol. Centr.-Am., Neurop., 40, 1901. One cotype. 
Axgia ulmeca Calvert, Biol. Cent.-Am., Neurop., 80, 1901. One cotype. 

\ .' II lory. 


Family Blattid.«. 

Aphlebia Hololampraj inusitata Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Bat, XXII, 
1906. < toe type. 

Epilampra Heterolampra) structilis Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. 
XXVI, 178, 1909. Two types. 

Epilampra Heterolampra wheeleri Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. i 
XXVIII. 78, !'»10. One type. 

Eurycotis bahamensis Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Hist . XXII, 110, 1906. 
Two t ypes . 

Attaphila fungicola Wheeler. Am. Nat., XXXIV, 860, 1900. Eight types. 

Family M actios. 

Hierodula athene Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 180, 1909. One 

Toxodera pluto Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 182, 1909. One type. 

Citharomantis falcata Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 185, 1909. 
One type. 

Family Phasmid.«. 

Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Hist., XXII, 114, 
1908. One type. 

Family Achxttdjb. 

Nemobius affinis Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI, 249, 1894. Two types. 
(Ecanthus quadripunctatus Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hi t . \ I, 250, 1894. 

(Ecanthus pinl Beut., Jour. X. Y. Ent. Soc., II, 56, 1884. Two types. 
Crystallomorpha sumatrensis Rehn : Bull Am Mus Xat. Hist , XXVI, 209, 
1908. Two *\ [><•■>. 

Family Phasookcrios. 

Pseudorhynchus calamus Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist \ \\ I, 203, 1909. 
One t 

AJrroBcia aberrans Rehn, Bull Am Mus. Nat. I VI, 204, 1909. One 


Cyrtophyllus (Lea) floridenais Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 637, 
190. pe. 

Qryllacria larrata Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1 1 \ I 887, 1909. Three 


Belocephalua sabalis Davit, Jour. N *W , XX, 188, 1912. Three 


Belocephalua hebardi Davit, Jour. N. Y Ent. dm Five 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

Belocephalus rehni Davis, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XX, l_'4, 1912. Three 

Timanthes superbus Beta, BulL Am. Mus. Nat. I li-t . XXVI, 106, 1909. 

( NM i> ]»•■ 

Timanthes quadratus Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist , XXI I. 198, 1909. 
One type. 

Cymatomera orientalis Bthm, Hull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist . XX VI, 200, 1909. 
one type. 

Ephippithyta biramosa Rrhn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist . XXIII, 455, 1907. 
One type. 

Holochlora prasina Rihn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 193, 1909. One 

Isopsera scalaris Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 195, 1909. < >no 

Scudderia fasciata Beat., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI, 251, 1894. One type. 
Though this species was described from three males and three females in the collec- 
tion of the Museum only a single specimen so labelled can at present be found. 
Four additional females of the same species and bearing similar data to that on the 
type specimen are in the collection but it is uncertain which if any of these are types. 

Scudderia truncata Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat . Hist., VI, 252, 1894. We are 
unable to discover the single male specimen from which this species was described. 
It is not in its place in the eoDeetkm; nor does it appear to be in any of the m i eo al - 
laneous small collections not as yet incorporated into the general collection. 

Neduba carinata var. convexa Catidell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXII, 300, 
1907. One type and one cotype. 

Eremopedes brevicauda Caudell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXII, 336, 1907. 
One type. 

Family Locustid.*. 

Orphulella graminea Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 78, 1904. Two 

Orphulella olivacea Morse, Psyche, VI, 477, 1893. Six types. 

Scyllina pratensis Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 100, 1904. Two 

Scyllina brasiliensis Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 100, 1904. Two 

Cryptobothrus chrysophorus Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 444, 
1907. One type. 

Chortoicetes affinia Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 445, 1907. 
One type. 

Chortoicetes pusillulus Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., XXIII, 447, 1907. 
One type. 

Arphia saussureana Bruner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 63, 1890. Two 

Spharagemon aequale scudderi Morse, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 
225, 1894. Four types. 

Spharagemon sazatile Morse, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 229, 1894. 
Four types. 

1912.1 Itbtek, Type* of Insect* in Amer. Mus. X„t. History. 357 

Eoscyllina inexpectata Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 187, 1909. 

Desmoptera sundiaca R,hn, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVI. 188, 1909. 

Atractomorpha australia fidta, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.. XXIII. 449, 1907. 
One type 

Tropinotus Diedronotus gracilis Bruner, Ent. News, XVI, 21t>, 1905. 

Quilta pulchra Rekn, Bull Am. Mm.] -. VI, 190, 1909. One type. 

Chrysopsacris Inusia inornatipes Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 

Anniceris meridionalis Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 271, 1908. 

Omalotettix Abracris signatipes Bruner, Proc. U I M . XXX, 673, 

1906. On> 

Omalotettix Abracris; meridionalis Bnmtr, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop., II, 
BOB. Two .-..types. 

Leptomerinthophora smaragdipes Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am., Orthop , II, 
287, 1908. Two ...types. 

Sitalces ovatipennis Bruner, Biol. Centr.-Am , Orthop., II, 292, 1908. Two 

Azelota diversipes Rehn, Bull. Am. Mus. \ Will. 450, 1907. Two 


Exarna rugosa Bekn, Bull. Am. M Will. 162, 1907. < m..- type. 

Macrotona gracilis lt>hn, Bull. Am. Mus Nat. Hi^t . XXI II, 453, 1907. One 

Paratylotropidia beutenmuelleri Morse, Psyche;, XIV, 14, 1907. 

Melanoplus herbaceus Aimer, Bull. V. S. Dept. Afri., Km., XXXIII. 25, 
1893. pes. 

Melanoplus fluviatilis Bruner, Ann. Ilept. Ent., Nebraska State Bd. Agric., 
136, 1896. One cotype. 

Order HI MI P 1 KKA. 
Family Cicadid.e. 

Cicada sayi Cm**., Ent. News, XVI 1 1, i.'i I ive cotypes. 
Cicada linnei Gross., Ent. News, XVIII, U7 TlVM cotypes. 

Family CoccidjB. 

Amorphococcus mesuae <■ M.mth. Mjg., WW III, 261, 1902. 

One cotype of gall on twig. 

Kermeskingii I tan. Man N 

Cryptokermes brasiliensis //<"*/»/, Rev. Mus Paul., I 
cotype ami another ■pecimen mark. of type." 

Phenacoccus acericola K >>,,,, CSut Bnl \ W l\ . HI, 1902. One cotype on 

366 liullitin American Museum of Natural History. \ ■■', XXXI, 

Phenacoccus cockerelli King, Can. Ent., XXXV, 195, 1903. Several cotypes, 
loose and on twigs. 

Phenacoccus clearness! King, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 180, 1901. One type on 

Pseudococcus claviger King and Tinsley, Psyche, VIII, 150, 1897. Several 
cotypes once obviously in alcohol but now dried. 

Pseudococcus cockerelli King and Tinsley, Psyche, VIII, 297, 1898. Several 
cotypes in alcohol and one on slide. 

Dactylopius (Pseudococcus) kingii Ckll., Science Gossip, n. s., Ill, 240, 1899. 
One cotype on slide. 

Ripersia flaveola Ckll., Can. Ent., XXVIII, 224, 1896. Several cotypes in 
alcohol and one on slide. 

Ripersia kingii Ckll., Can. Ent . XXXIII, 122, 1896. One cotype on slide. 

Ripersia lasii Ckll., Can. Ent., XXVIII, 223, 1896. Several cotypes obviously 
once in alcohol but now dried, and one on slide. 

Tackardia glomerella Ckll., Ent. News, XVI, 52, 1905. Several specimens on 
twig marked " part of type." 

Pulvinaria cockerelli King, Psyche, VIII, 417, 1899. Several cotypr- on 

Pulvinaria erhorni King, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 145, 1901. Several cotypes, 
loose and on twigs. 

Pulvinaria tiliee King and Ckll., Psyche, VIII, 286, 1898. Several cotypes. 

Pulvinaria tinsleyi King, Can. Ent., XXXII, 360, 1900. Several dry speci- 
mens marked " part of original lot." 

Pulvinaria vinifera King, Mittl. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., X, 481, 1903. Two 
cotypes on slide. The specific name on the type label is erroneously spelled vinealis. 

Pulvinaria simplex King, Mittl. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., X, 475, 1902. Several 
cotypes. The type label bears the generic name Eulecanium. 

Ceroplastes candela Ckll. and King, Entomologist, XXXV, 113, 1902. Two 

Ceroplastes schrottkyi Ckll., Ent. News, XVI, 162, 1905. Two specimens 
marked " part of types." 

Eulecanium fraxini King, Can. Ent., XXXIV, 158, 1902. Several cotypes, 
loose and on twig. 

Eulecanium guignardi King, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 334, 1901. Several cotypes. 

Eulecanium rosae King, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 336, 1901. Several cotypes. 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) hoferi King, Mittl. Schweiz., Ent. Ges., X, 478, 
1903. Several cotypes. 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) pulchrum King, Allg. Zeits. f. Ent. VIII, 410, 1903. 
Several cotypes. The name on the type label is written Eulecanium pulchristce. 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) kingii Ckll., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) II, 322, 1898. 
Several cotypes on twiffc 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) pallidior Ckll. and King, Psyche, VIII, 350, 1899. 
Two cotypes on twigs. 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) rehi King, Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst., XVIII, 5, 
1900. Several cotypes, loose, and one on slide. 

Lecanium (Eulecanium) websteri King, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 106, 1901. 
Several cotypes on twig and one on slide. 

Saissetia nigrella King, Psyche, IX, 296, 1902. Several cotypes. 

1912.] Grossbeck, Types of Inxects in Amer. U 'ory. 359 

Chionaspis furfurus var. fulvus King, Psyche, VIII, 334, 1899. Several 
cotypex OH twigs. 

Chionaspis gleditsiae Sanders, Ohio Naturalist, III, 413, 1903. Several 
cotypes on twigs. 

Chionaspis sylvatica Sanders, Ohio Naturalist, IV, 95, 1904. Several cotypes 
on tv- 

Aspidiotus coniferarum var. shastaa Coleman, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XI, 67, 
1903. Several cotypes on twigs. 

Aspidiotus osborni Newell ami Ckll., Rept. Iowa Acad. Sci., V, 229, 1898. 
Several cotypes on twig. 

Aspidiotus piceus Sanders, Ohio Naturalist, IV, 96, 1904. Several cotypes 
on tv. 

Aspidiotus Chrysomphalus paulistus Hempel, Rev. Mus. Paul., IV, 504, 
1900. Several retypes on leaf, and leaf with several other specimens marked " part 

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) kelloggii Kuana, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., (3) III, 
71, IMS. Several cotypes on twig. 

Cyrptophyllaspis liquidambaris Kotinsky, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., V, 149, 
1897. Several cotypes on leaf. 

Stictococcus sjostedti Ckll.. Can. Ent., XXXV, 64, 1903. Two specimens on 
slide marked " one of type lot." 

Family Notonectid.«. 
Notonecta raleighi Bueno, Can. Ent., XXXIX, 225, 1907. Two types. 

Family Hknkocki-halid.e. 
Henicocephalus »rius Bergroth, MS. One type. 

Family Reduviid*:. 

Piestolestes lineatus Bergroth, MS. One type. 
Hermillus ©do Bergroth, MS. One type. 
Stenolsemus edwardaii Bergroth, MS. Two types. 

Family Xaucorida. 
Pelocoris carolinensis Bueno, Can. Bnt \ \ \ I \. 227, 1907. Two types. 

Family Miiudag. 
Lygus neovalesicus Bergroth, MS. Two types. 

Family Lxo.vad.k. 

Emblethis vicarius llamith, Ann U Hung.. VI, 563, 1908. 

One cotyi 

300 Hull, Un American ' '"/.</. [Vol. XXXI, 

Family CoreidjE. 
Hyocephalus aprugnus Bergroth. MS. One type (brachypterous form). 

Family Pentatomid^e. 

Chlorochroa (Pentatoma) persimilis Horvath, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist Hudr., 
VI, 555, 1908. One cotype. 

Platycoria scutellatus Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist , XXI, 190, 1905. 
One type. 

Platycoris rufescens Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 191, 1905. 
One type. 

Poecilometis stigmatus Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 198, 
1905. One type. 

Poecilometis edwardsi Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 198, 1905. 
Two types. 

Menestheus brevia Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 200, 1905. 
One typo. 

Dictyotus pallidus Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 203, 1905. 
Two type-. 

Antestia oliva Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 206, 1905. One 

Opines geminata Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 206, 1905. 
One type. 

Cuspicona carneola Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Hist., XXI, 207, 
One type. 

Cuspicona beutenmulleri Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 208, 
1905. One type. 

Andriscus cinctus Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 213, 1905. 
One type. 

Andriscus terminalis Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 213, 1905. 
One type. 

Stictocarenus subrufescens Van Duzee, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI, 
214, 1905. One type. 

Family CiciNDELiDiE. 

Omus edwardsii Crotch, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, V, 73, 1874. Two types. 
Omus sequoiarum Crotch, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., V, 73, 1874. One cotype. 

Family Carabid.e. 

Cychrus viduus var. irregularis Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 513, 
1903. Three types. 

Cychrus aeneicollis Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 515, 1903. Four- 
teen types. 

Nomaretus debilis var. alpinus Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 512, 
1903. Three types. 

1912.1 Grossbeck, Types of Insects in Amer. Mus. Not. History. 361 

Trechus Carolina Schceffer, Bull. Am. Mu.<. Xat. Hist., XIV, 212, 1901. One 

Platynus trifoveolatus Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 516, 1903. 
One t 

Platynus gracilentus Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 517, 1903. 
Sixteen types. 

Family Parnid.e. 
Elmis columbiensis Angell, Ent. News, III, 84, 1892. One type, two cotypes. 

Family Elaterid.k 
Corymbites weidtii AngeU, Ent. News, III, 84, 1892. One type, four cotypes. 

Family Buprestid.e. 

Chrysobothris edwardsii Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XIII, 74, 1886. One 

Chrysobothris nixa Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XIII, 98, 18S6. One type. 

Chrysobothris cyanella Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XIII, 102, 1886. One 
typo, two cotypes. 

Family Scarabaeid.f.. 

Trox gemmulatus Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, V, 8, 1874. Three cotypes. 
Plusiotus beyeri > Int. News, XVI, 289, 1905. One cotype. 

Family Cerambycidi 


Molorchus longicollis Leconte, Smith. Miscell. Coll., XI, paper 264, p. 193, 


Anthophilax hoffmanii BmtL, Bull. Am. Mus .V. IX. 518, 1903. 

Three t\pes. 

Megacriodes Batocera guttata Yoll., Tidj. IV, 110, 1871. < >ne 

Family Bruchid.e. 

Bruchus faba- bird Ann Bept Ins. Mo., 52, 1871. Two types. These 

specimens bear the following label written apparently in Riley's hand, "Bruchus 
faba* Riley, original ire without locality label or other data save an Osten- 

Sacken collection label. The species was described from many specimens and we 
infer that these came from the original lot and are therefore types. 

Family Meloid.e. 

Epicauta alastor Skinner, Ent. New^ ,1901 Three cotypes. 

Cantharis pilibryi \ 1 1. 217, 1906. Om o.type. 

Colospasta wenzeh ,*». 

Tegrodera aloga > \ I. 168, 1903. One oot 

.".♦•L' Bulletin American Museum of Xaluml Hitttfjf. [Vol XXXI, 

Family Cynipid,e. 

Dryophanta polita Bass., Can. Ent., XIII, 99, 1881. One type of adult. 

Dryophanta pedunculata Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XVII, 72, 1890. Two 
types of adult. 

Cynips (Holcaspis) quercus-mamma Walsh and Riley, Am. Ent., I, 102, 
1869. One type of gall, pinned. 

Cynips (Andricus) pattoni Bass., Can. Ent., XIII, 98, 1881. Four types of 
gall, pinned. 

Cynips (Andricus) quercus-medulla Ashm., Trans. Ent. Soc. Am. XII, 
Prop. p. VIII, 1885. Several cotypes of gall, pinned. 

Cynips (Andricus) quercus-formosa Bass., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Ill, 679, 
1864. Three types of gall, pinned. 

Cynips (Dryophanta) papula Bass., Can. Ent., XIII, 107, 1881. One type 
of gall, pinned. 

Holcaspis rubens Gill, Ent. News, IV, 29, 1893. One type of adult. 

Holcaspis monticola Gill, Ent. News, IV, 30, 1893. One type of adult. 

Holcaspis brevipennata Gill., Ent. News, IV, 31, 1893. One type of adult. 

Acraspis undulata Gill, Ent. News, IV, 28, 1893. One type of adult. 

Andricus pruinosus Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXVI, 311, 1900. Four 
types of adult, and many of gall on twigs and bits of leaves, pinned. 

Andricus kingi Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XXVI, 316, 1900. Six types of 
gall, pinned. 

Andricus perditor Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXVI, 313, 1900. Three 
types of gall, pinned. 

Andricus texanus Beut., Ent. News, XX, 248, 1909. Four types of adult and 
nine of gall, pinned. 

Andricus aciculatus Beut., Knt. XYws. XX, 247, 1909. Five types of adult 
and one of gall, pinned. 

Andricus howertoni Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XVII, 82, 1890. One type 
of gall, pinned. 

Andricus coronus Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 464, 1907. Four 
types of adult. 

Andricus wheeleri Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Hist., XXIII, 464, 1907. Three 
types of adult and two of gall, pinned. 

Andricus davisi Bad., Bull. Am. Mus Xat. Hist., XXIII, 463, 1907. Twelve 
types of adult and many of gall, pinned. 

Callirhyctis pustulatoides Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XVII, 74, 1 890. Two 
types of gall. The specific name on the type label is spelled puatuloides, but the 
specimens agree well with Basset's description of the species. 

Amphibolips melanocera Ashm., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XII, 299, 1885. 
One adult bearing note " cut from type gall." 

Antistrophus rufus GUI., Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Ill, 195, 1890. Six 
adults bearing note " cut from type galls." 

Antistrophus leavenworthi Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXVI, 310, 1900. 
Seven types of adult. 


Diastrophus niger Bass., Trans. Am Km Eta , \ Wl. 8M, 1900. One type 
of adult :m<l two of gall. 

Diastrophus minimus Bass., Trana. Am. Ent. Soc XXVI, 325, 1900. One 
type of adult and one of gall. 

Synergus atripes GUI., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 96, 1896. Two types of 

Synergus incisus Gill, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 92, 1896. Two types of 

Synergus punctata GUI., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 94, 1896. Two types 
of adult. 

Synergus erinacei Gill, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII. '.»». 1S96. Two types 
of adult. 

Aulax chrysothamni li, ,//.. Jour X V. Km Boc., XVI. 45, 1908. Two types 
of adult and four of gall, pinned. 

Rhodites nodulosus Brut., Km. News XX, 247, 1909. Five types of adult 
and nine of gall, pinned. 

Rhodites gracilis roc. U. S. Xat. Mus.. XIX, 135, 1897. One type 

of gall, pinned. 

Rhodites nebulosus Bass., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc . XVII, 63, 1890. One type 
of gall, pinned. 

Rhodites arefactus GUI., Can. Ent., XXVI, 1", 1894. One type of adult 
and one of gall. 

Rhodites globuloides Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. II XXIII, 638, 1897. 
Two types of adult and many of gall on twigs, unpinned. 

re are a number of other galls in the collection labelled as types with museum 
type labels but there is no name attached to show what they are types of. There 
are also " types " of a few other species the descriptions of which seem never to have 
been published. These manuscript types are not recorded in the present enumera- 

Family K\ wiidjB. 

Evania urban* Bradley, Trans. Am. Km S.., VWIV, 141, 1908. Two 
p tiaiyp ei 

Acanthinevania ssepligeti Bradley, Trans. Am Km So, \\\l\ . i:t,. 1908. 
One type. This species was described under the above generic term but the type 
label bears the name Mrgalyra. Tin- unique type, also, on which the name is based 
is, in ption, said to be in the collection of Cornell lniver>it> . There is no 

douht, however , bol that the type in the Mu>cum is the original 

Family Chalcididac. 
JBnasius cseruleus Bnm Bull. Am. Mus Nat II, • WVI1I. 84, 1910 

Anusioptera aureocincU Bnm, Hull. A WVIII, 83, 


Pheidoloxenes wheeleri Ashmewl, Hull Am M . Mil. 17, 1907. 

' I lie genua Pheidoloxenes is diagnosed by Aahmead in Vol. I, page 

28, of the Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, and wheeleri is cited as type* but Uie 

;;til liulh tin American M [Vol. XXXI 

specific name is only given standing in Wheeler's paper on 'The Polymorphism of 
Ante' (Hull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 17) where in addition to an adequate 
description a figure (pi. iii. f. 36) of the species is given. The species is ciedited by 
Wheeler to Ashmead. 1 

Family Proctotrupid.e. 

Idris quadrispinosus Brues, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVIII, 80, 1910. 
One type. 

Opisthacanthus striativentrus Brues, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVIII, 
81, 1910. Two tjpm 

Dryinus nigrellus Brues, Can. Eat., XXXVI, 117. 1904. One type. 

Oxylabis bifoveolatus Brues, Can. Ent. XXXVI, 119, 1904. One type. 

Family Platygasterid.e. 

Metanopedius sicarius Brues, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXVIII, 79, 1910. 
Dolichotrypes hopkinsi Crawford and Bradley, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., XIII, 
124, 1911. Two paratypes. 

Family Sphegid,e. 

Mimesa myersiana Rohwer, Ent. News, XX, 324, 1909. Two cotypes. 
Eucerceris angulata Rohwer, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hi-- . XXXI. 326, 1912. 
One type. 

Steniolia sulphurea Fox, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, LX, 84, 1901. Two types. 
Bembex beutenmulleri Fox, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, IX, 83, 1901. Four types. 

Family APiDiE. 

Halictus synthyridis Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 427, 1906- 
Two types. 

Halictus scrophularia CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 428, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Parasphecodes tilachiformis Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 234, 
1907. One type. 

Andrena cyanophila CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 431, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Andrena vicina argentinia Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 432, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Andrena micranthophila Ckll., BuU. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 432, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Andrena runcinat» Ckll., BuU. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 434, 1906. One 

Andrena lewisii Ckll, BuU. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 435, 1906. One 

Andrena synthyridis CkU., BuU. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 436, 1906. 
One cotype. 

» I am indebted to Dr. Wheeler for calling my attention to the reference in his paper. 

Grossbeck, Types of Insects in Amer. Mus. Nat. History. 365 

Andrena lappula CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 437, 1906. One 

COt> : 

Andrena winkleyi Yiereck, Ent \ III, 283, 1907. Two paratypes. 

Andrena braccata Yiereck, Ent. News, XVIII, 284, 1907. Two paratypes. 

Andrena weedi I XVIII, 284, 1907. One paratype. 

Andrena mustelicolor huardi Viereck, MS. One paratype. 

Andrena cheyenneorum Yiereck-, MS. One type. 

Andrena idahorum Vitrwck, MS. One type. 

Andrena beutenmulleri Yienck, MS. One type. 

Andrena edwardsii Viereck, MS. Three types. 

Andrena huntingtoni Yiereck, MS. One paratype. 

Andrena alleghenyensis Yiertck, MS. One paratype. 

Nomia amboinensis CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 234, 1907. 
One I 

Perdita florissantella CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat Hist . X X 1 1, 440, 1906. One 


Perdita tortifolia CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 440, 1906. One 

Perdita wilmatt® CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Xat. Hi-- . WII, 441, 1906. Two 

Nomada rohweri CkU., Bull. Am. Mus Xat. Hist., XXII, 438, 1906. One 

Crocisamacleayi CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI (1,232, 1907. One type. 

Melissodes hymenoxidis CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 443, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Anthophora wallacei CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hi>t ., XXIII. 22ft, 1907. 
One t 

Colletes polemonii CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 425, 1906. One 

Titusella pronitens CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 446, 1906. One 

Megachile giliw CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 452, 1906. One 
Megachile wootoni rohweri CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 453, 

1906. One cotype. 

Megachile macleayi CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXI 1 1. 222, 1907. 
One type. 

Megachile beutenmulleri CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist . Will 222, 1907. 

Megachile henrici CkU., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. II ; • . 1 1 1 1 1 . _'. '.:. 1907. One 

Megachile maculariformis CkU., Imll Am Mus. Nat. Hist , XXIII, 223, 

1907. One type. 

Megachils devadatta CkU., Bull Am Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 224, 1907. 

Megachile doleschalli CkU., Mull. Am Mus. Nat. II. • , Will, 224, 1907. 

Megachile darnpieri CkU, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. II Will, 225, 1907. 

One type. 

3G(» Unit ican Museum of S'atural History. XXXI, 

Megachile funneUi Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 226, 1907. One 

Osmia cyaneonitens Ckll, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 448, 1906. One 

Osmia chlorops Ckll. and Titus, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 448, 1906. One 

Osmia wheeleri Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,., XXII, 449, 1906. One 

Osmia florissanticola ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 450, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Osmia albolateralis Ckll, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 450, 1906. One 

Osmia pentstemonis Ckll, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 451, 1906. 
One cotype. 

Osmia giliarum Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, 451, 1906. One 

Euryglossa edwardsii Ckll, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 230, 1907. One type. 

Euryglossa fasciatella Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 230, 1907. 
One type. 

Ooniocolletes morsus Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 231, 1907. 
One type. 

Xylocopa chionothorax Ckll., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 228, 1907. 
One type. 

Xylocopa mohnikei CM., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 228, 1907. 
One type. 

Bombus soroensis quattricolor Krausse, Intern. Ent. Zeitschr., II, 133, 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus pratorum aureus Krausse, Intern. Ent. Zeitschr., II, 133, 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus terrestris dettoi Krausse, Intern. Ent. Zeitschr., II, 132, 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus terrestris limbarae Krausse, Ent. Wochenbl., XXV, 78, 1908. One 

Bombus terrestris galluras Krausse, Ent. Wochenbl., XXV, 78, 1908. One 

Bombus terrestris duplex Krausse, Soc. Ent., Zurich, XXIII, 186, 1909. 
One type. 

Bombus terestris ruber Krausse, Soc. Ent., Zurich, XXIII, 185, 1909. One 

Bombus terrestris simplex Krausse, Soc. Ent., Zurich, XXIII, 186, 1909. 
One type. 

Bombus terrestris tener Krausse, Soc. Ent., Zurich, XXIII, 186, 1909. One 

Bombus lapponicus pulchrior Krausse, Ent. Wochenbl., XXV, 76, 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus hortorum arborensis Krausse, Intern. Ent. Zeitschr., II, 139, 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus hortorum wolffl Krausse, Ent. Wochenbl., XXV, 94, 1908. One 

1912] Grossbeek, Types of Insects in Amer. Mma. \'<>t. History. 367 

Bombus hortorum ichnusae Kraussr, Ent. Wochenbl, SJLV, 174, 1908. 
One t; 

Bombus hortonim hseckeli Krausse, Ent. Wochenbl., SJLV, 174. 1908. 
One type. 

Bombus hortorum fertoni Krausst, Soc. Ent., Zurich. XXIV, 86, 1909. One 

Bombus hortorum eleonorae Krausse, Intern. Ent. Zeitschr., Ill, 15, 1909. 
One type. 

Order DIPTEH \ 
Family TipulidjE. 

Atarba puella WtiL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 288, 1896. Three types, two in 

pOOf condition. 
Teucholabis annulata Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 290, 1896. Two types. 
Mongoma manca Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 293, 1896. One type. 
Eriocera austera Doane, Jour. N V Ent. Soc. VIII, l'.t2. 1900. One type. 
Eriocera fasciata Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 226, 1900. One cotype. 
Tipula sulphurea Doane, Jour. NY. Ent. Soc., IX, 99, 1901. One type. 
Tipula carinata Doane, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., IX, 103, 1901. Two types. 
Tipula retusa Doane, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., IX, 109, 1901. One type. 
Tipula acuta Doane, Jour. N V Bat Soc. IX, 116, 1901. One type. 

Family Pstchodid^e. 
Pericoma albitarsis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 284, 1896. Two types. 

Family Chiroxomid.«. 

Ceratopogon flavus If A, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 280, 1896. Three types. 
Chironomus anonymous Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond ., 274. 1896. One type. 
Chironomus longimanus Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 274, 1896. One type. 

Family Culicidje. 

Culex sylvicola dross., Can. I • \ \ \ \ 1 1 1 . 27, 1906. Three cotypes. 
Culex pretans Qnm* Ent. .News, XV, 332, 1904. One cotype. 
Aedes pertinans Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 271, 1896. Two types. 
Hasmagogus splendens Will , Trans Ent Soc. Lond., 272, 1896. Two types. 

Family ICtH I rornii.ioJB. 
Platyuragenualis ./.'<;• Hull. 172, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 262, 1910. Three 

Macrocera concinna Will , Trans I int. Soc. Lond., 266, 1896. Two types. 

Sciophila glabana var. germana Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 
137, 1910. Two cotypes. 

Sciophila nugax Johan., Hull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 137, 1910. One 

868 Jiullilin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XX \ I, 

Sciophila impar Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 140, 1910. Three 

Polylepta obediens Johan., Hull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 147, 1910. One 

Neoempheria indulgens Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 162, 1910. 
One ootype. 

Mycomyia littoralis var. frequens Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 
171, 1910. Three cotypes. 

Mycomyia imitans Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 177, 1910. 
Five cotypes. 

Mycomyia sigma Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 180, 1910. One 

Mycomyia nugatoria Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 183, 1910. 
One cotype. 

Mycomyia recurva Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 185, 1910. 
One cotype. 

Mycomyia recurva var. chloratica Johan., Bull. 180, Maine Agri. Exper. 
Sta., 185, 1910. One type. 

Gnoriste macra Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 257, 1911. One 

Boletina melancholica Jofian., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 271, 1911. 
One cotype. 

Boletina gracilis Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 271, 1911. Four 

Boletina notescens Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 272, 1911. 
One cotype. 

Boletina delicata Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 276, 1911. One 

Boletina nacta Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 277, 1911. Three 

Leia plebej a Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 285, 1911. One cotype. 

Leia dryas Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 287, 1911. One type. 

Neoglaphyroptera (Leia) nitens Will, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 259, 1896. 
One type. 

Coelosia gracilis Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 294, 1911. One 

Coelosia lepida Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 294, 1911. One 

Coelosia modesta Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 294, 1911. One 

Rhymosia imitator Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 312, 1911. 
One cotype. 

Rhymosia akeleyi Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 312, 1911. One 

Allodia falcata Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 317, 1911. Five 

Allodia delita Johan., Bull. 196, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 320, 1911. One 

Exechia perspicua Johan.. Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 67, 1912. One 

Grossbeck, Types of Insects in Amer. Mus. Nat. History. 380 

Exechia quadrata Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 69, 1912. Four 

Exechia nugatoria Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 70, 1912. One 

Exechia palmata Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 71, 1912. Two 

Exechia auxiliaria Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 71, 1912. Two 

Exechia bella Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 72, 1912. Two 

Exechia capillata Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 73, 1912. Thiee 

Exechia obediens Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 73, 1912. One 

Exechia attrita Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 73, 1912. Three 

Exechia casta Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 74, 1912. Nine 

Mycothera mitis Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 82, 1912. One 

Mycothera fenestrate v:ir. prsenubila Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. 
Sta., Si, 1913. Two cotypes. 

Mycetophila perita Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 90, 1912. 
One cotype 

Mycetophila anomala Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 96, 1912. 

Mycetophila foecunda Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 99, 1912 
One cotype. 

Mycetophila imitator Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 99, 1912. 
One cotype. 

Mycetophila lenta Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 102, 1912. 
One cotype. 

Mycetophila endura Johan., Bull. 200, Maine Agri. Exper. Sta., 103, 1912. 
One cotype. 

Mycetophila dolosa Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 264, 1896. Two types. 

Sciara concinna Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 266, 1896. Four types. 

Sciara germana Will , Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 266, 1896. Two types. 

Sciara debilia Will., Trans. Ent Boo. Lond., 266, 1896. One type. 

Sciara zygoneura Wtll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 267, 189t> 

Family Ocioomyid.e. 

Laaioptera tumiflca Bent, Mull Am. Mus \ Will, 394, 1907. 

types <»f adult and four of (all, pinned. 

Lasioptera cornicola H>ut, Hull Am Mus. Nat. II ■■■ Will, 394, 1907. 
Sixteen types of adult ami four of gull, pinned. Thirteen twigs with galls, unpinned. 

Lasioptera asterifoliw II Am Mus. Nat. II Will. 395, 1907. 

Ten types of adult . A cmfolut instead of asterifolia is written on the type label. 

Lasioptera nodulosa Boa, Mull Am Mus. Nat. H WIN, 397, 1907. 
Nino types of adult and four of gall, pinned. Twenty twigs with galls, unpinned. 

370 Hull, tin Ammicm Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXX I 

Lasioptera viburnicola Beui., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 398, 1907. 
•v-two types of adult and three of gall. 

Laaioptera linders Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 398, 1907. 
Four types of adult and ten of gall, pinned. Numerous twigs with galls, unpinm <i 

Asphondylia menteelia Ckll., Entomologist, XX X 1 1 1 , :502, 1900. Two galls 
labelled " part of type lot." 

Asphondylia betheli Ckll., Can. Ent., XXXIX, 324, 1907. Two adults and 
one gall labelled " from type lot." 

Asphondylia autumnalis BtuL, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. I ! \ XIII, 386, 1907. 
Ten types of adult. 

Asphondylia patens Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 386, 1907. 
Three type? of adult. 

Rhopalomyia betheliana Ckll, Can. Ent., XLI, 150, 1909. Four types of 
gall carded on one pin. Three adults are associated with these galls and may also 
be types but they are not so labelled. 

Cecidomyia clavula Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., IV, 269, 1892. Four 
types of adult. 

Cecidomyia ulmi Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 387, 1907. Fifteen 
types of adult. 

Cecidomyia nysseecola Brut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 387, 1907. 
Two types of adult. 

Cecidomyia unguicula Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 388 ; 1907. 
Seven types of adult and two of gall, pinned. 

Cecidomyia rudbeckiae BeuL, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist , XXIII, 388, 1907. 
Six types of adult, and eight of gall, pinned. 

Cecidomyia chinquapin Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 389, 1907. 
One type gall. 

Cecidomyia vernoniae BeuL, Bull. Am. Mas. Nat. EBst., XXIII, 389, 1907. 
Four type galls, pinned, and others unpinned are labelled with this name; six other 
galls of apparently the same species are labelled as types of " Lasioptera " vernonice 
and with these are associated three "types" of adults. The species was described 
from the larva and gall only, so whether these latter " types " prove to be the same 
species or not the adults at least cannot be types. 

Cecidomyia meibomiae Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 390, 1907. 
Ten galls pinned, and numerous others unpinned, are labelled types; in addition 
thirty-nine adults under the label " Hormomyia " meibomue are marked as types. 
The species was described from the larva and gall alone, and whether these adults 
were bred from the type galls or not they cannot stand as types in the ordinary 
sense of the word. 

Cecidomyia pustuloides Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 390, 1907. 
Several type galls on fragments of leaves, pinned. 

Cecidomyia ramuscula Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 392, 1907. 
Eleven types of gall, pinned. 

Cecidomyia lysimachiae Beut., Can. Ent., XXXIX, 305, .1907. Nineteen 
types of adult and seven of gall. 

Cecidomyia verbena Beui., Can. Ent. XXXIX, 306, 1907. Six types of 
adult, one of gall, pinned, and six twigs with type galls. 

Cecidomyia meibomiifoliae Beut., Can. Ent., XXXIX, 306, 1907. Five 
types of adult and five of gall, pinned. 

I M <nj. 

Cecidomyia myricse lieut., Can. Knt ., X.WIX, 306, 1907. Thirty types of 
adult and thirteen of pall, pinned. 

Cecidomyia semenivora Beut., Bull. Am Mu- Will. 390, 1907. 

Eight* lult. 

Diplosis Cecidomyia) partheniicola Ckll., Entomologist, XXX II I. 301, 1900. 
.1 palls on a card labelled " part of type lot." 

In addition to the types of Cocidomyida' listed above there are in the collection 
a few other specimens labelled " types," but of what they are types there is no in- 

' Ml). 

Family Mihionid k 

Plecia quadrivittata Witt., Biol. Centr Am, Dipt. I, 222, 1900. Two cotypes. 
Bibiodes sestiva Mdandtr, MS. Two types. 
Bibiodes femorata \!> l<i>ul< r, MS. One type. 

Family Stratiomyid.k. 

Hermetia ceriogaster Witt., Trans Am. Km. Boa . XV, MS, 1888. One type. 
Analcocerus hortulanus Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 288, 1900. One 

Ptecticus concinnua Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 238, 1900. Three 
Merosargus spatulatus Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 884, 1'»<m>. Eight 

Merosargus gracilis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc . XV. 240, 1888. One type. 
Merosargus concinnatus Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 235, 1900. One 

Chrysonotus analis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc . \\ . 261, 1888. One type. 
Chordonota nigra WttL, IV. - ■ ■ , XV 256, 1*88. One type. 

Cyphomyia lasiophthalma Will.. Biol. Centr. Am. Dipt I. 2\i. 1900. 
Myxosargus braueri Witt., Trans. An \\ . 264, 1888, Three 

from " C'oruml)!. Brazil " WilhstOO in his des cripti on of the species says t|i< 1 I 

bare no doubt he intended to write Corumba as the -i 
mens labelled type are obviously the ones from which be drew up the description. 
Euryneura elegans Will ., Trans An 1888 0i 

Nemotelus wheeleri M 182,1008 

Nemotelus bellulus M ■ OOtjpe. 

Nemotelus trinoUtus sfd obe, IV. i^'» 1008 

Nemotelus bruesi W. h> . IV. I7'». L008 Tw. .-..types. 

Dicranophora astuta Will 

Dicranophora afflnis Wilt. 1,1888 

Promerisana cylindricornis 11/7/ , Trans \ m Enl Soc., XV, 268 1888 <mc 

!\ Tmiwid*. 

Pangonia fllipalpis Quart., W \ pes. 

Pangonia arcuata Witt., Kane. Univ. Qoarl . III. 100 vpee. 
Pangonia bullata n* I'mv Qu irl Ml. I'M. 180 
Pangonia pavida M ./ \m. 

372 Bulletin America, Milium of Xatural History. [Vol XXXI, 

Chrysops intrudens Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., Ill, 191, 1895. Four types. 
Chrysops bistellatus Daecke, Ent. News, XVI, 249, 1905. One type. 
Chrysops shermani Hine, Ohio Nat., VIII, 229, 1907. Two types. 
Dichelacera scutellata Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., Ill, 193, 1895. Four types. 
Dichelacera pulchra Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 263, 1901. One cotype. 
Tabanus hyalinipennis Hine, Can. Ent., XXXV, 244, 1903. One type. 
Tab anus pumiloides Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 260, 1901. One cotype. 
Tabanus haemagogus Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 261, 1901. One cotype. 
Tabanus plenus Hinr, Ohio Nat., VIII, 225, 1907. Four types. 
Tabanus minusculus Hine, Ohio Nat., VIII, 226, 1907. Two types. 
Tabanus longuisculus Hine, Ohio Nat., VIII, 226, 1907. Three types. 
Hadrus parvus Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., HI, 192, 1895. Two types. 

Family Leptid^g. 

Dialysis aldrichii Will, Kans. Univ. Quart., Ill, 265, 1895. Four types. 
Chrysopila plebeia Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt., I, 264, 1901. Four cotypes. 

Family CYBTiDiE. 

Pterodontia misella Osten Sacken, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr. 
(Hayden), III, 277, 1877. Mr. Beutenmuller in his list of types of Diptera, referring 
to the number of types in the collection says, " Two specimens." The two specimens 
in the collection are labelled respectively "Oregon" and "Alameda Co., Cal."; 
the former is marked " cotype "; the latter has nothing on it to indicate its being a 
type. The species was described from a single specimen from Oregon, and so our 
cotype is really a type while the second example is nothing more than a specimen. 

Opsebius agelen® Melander, Ent. News, XIII, 180, 1903. Two types. 

Family Bombyliid^;. 

Exoprosopa sackeni Will, Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 271, 1901. One cotype. 

Exoprosopa brevirostris Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 272, 1901. One 

Anthrax edwardsii Coq., Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, II, 102, 1894. Four types. 

Anthrax diana Will, Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 280, 1901. Two cotypes. 

Anthrax orbitalis Will, Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 281, 1901. Four cotypes. 

Anthrax nigrofimbriata Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 282, 1901. One 

Anthrax maria Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 283, 1901. Four cotypes. 

Stonyx (Anthrax) lelia Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. 1, 274, 1901. One cotype. 

Pantarbes capito Oslen Sacken, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr. (Hay- 
den), III, 256, 1877. One cotype. 

Bombylius clio Will, Biol Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 285, 1901. Two cotypes. 

Bombylius io Will., Biol. Centr.-Am.. Dipt. I, 285, 1901. Four cotype*. 

Bombylius dolorosus Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 286, 1901. Three 

Oncodocera analis Witt., Bbl. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 283, 1901. Five cotypes. 

Phthiria dolorosa Witt., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 290, 1901. One cotype. 

1912.] U \ il i<,ry. 373 

Phthiria sororia Hi//. Bid Centr.-Am., Dipt. 1,291, 1901. Three cotypes. 
Eclimus fascipennis Will., Biol. Centr.-Am , Dipt. I, 1901. One cotype. 
Epibates muricatus Oaten Sacken, Bull. V. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr. 
Ill, 272, 1S77. Two cotypes. 

Family Mydaidjs. 

Mydaa cingulatua Will., Trans. Kans. Acad. Sri , XV, 87, 1895. Though «.ur 
single specimen was labelled " type " by Wilhston himself it is probably not a type. 
species was described from " Rio Paraguay below Concepsion "; our specimen 
bears the locality label " Chapada." 

Mydas clarifumia Will.. Trans. Kans. Aead, Bd . W 66, 1886. I Nm Typ.-. 

Family Abiud.e. 

Leptogaster triungulata Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 299, 1901. One 


Leptogaster concinnata Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 300, 1901. One 


Leptogaster crocea Will., Biol. Centr.-Am. . Dipt I, 300, 1901. Four cotypes. 

Leptogaster intima Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 300, 1901. Five cotypes. 

Leptogaster dorsalia Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 301, 1901. Two cotypes. 

Leptogaster micropygialis Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 301, 1901. Five 

Damalis occidentalia Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 309, 1901. One cotype. 
The specific name fuscipennis is written on the type label. 

Townsendia niger Back, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., WW, 17."), 1909. One type. 

Townsendia pulcherrima Back, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, WW, 177, 1909. 
One t 

Dioctria vera Back, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXXV, 256, 1909. One type- 

Stichopogon abdominalis Back, Trans. Am. Ent S... . WW, 332, 1909. 
Three cotypes. 

Saropogon pulcherima Will., Biol. Centr.-Am , Dipt. I. 812, 1901. One 

Taracticua similis Hi//., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I. 813, 1901. Eight cotypes. 

Taracticus nigripes Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 313, 1901. Six cotypes. 

Cophura pulchella Will , Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 314, 1901. One cotype. 

Atomosia anonyma Will , Biol. Centr.-Am , I >ipt 1, 316, 1901. One cotype. 

Eraz concinnatus Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 323, 1901. Two cotypes. 

Asllus tenebrosus Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 328, 1901. Two cotypes. 

Asilus nigrocaudatus Will, Biol Centr.-Am., Dipt 1, 888, 1901. Four 

Asllus xanthocerus Will., Biol. Contr-Am . Dipt I, 329, 1901. Four cotypes. 

Asilus melanocerus Hi// , Biol. Centr.-Am , Di; 1901. Two cotypes. 

Asllus dolichomerus Hi//. Biol. Centr.-Am., . 1901. Four co- 


Asilus alterus Will . BU ( '• ntr - \m . I >ipt 1. 330, 1901. Three cotypes. 

Asllus anonymus 1,330,1901. Four cotypes. 

Asllus capillatus Will., Biol. Centr -Am , Dipt. I, 330, 1901. Two cotypes. 

374 BuUi 14 ■ ■ •• a -''"'.'/■ [Vol \.\ XI. 

Family I )< il.K'HOPODID^. 

Psilopus Psilopodinus bellulus Aldrich, Tnu «. Lond., 343, 1896. 

Two cotypes. 

Psilopus (Psilopodinus) insularis Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 344, 1896. 
Four cotypes. 

Gnamptopsilopus (Agonosoma) flavidus Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

341, ls'.m. Two cotypes. The generic name Psilopus is written on the type label. 
Gnamptopsilopus (Agonosoma) fiavicornis Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

342, 1806. One ootype. 

Diaphorus palpiger Wheeler, Psyche, V, 360, 1890. One type. In a former 
list of types of Diptera three types are said to be in the Museum. This is an error. 

Diaphorus parvulus Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 321, 1896. One cotype. 

Diaphorus contiguus Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 323, 1896. Four 

Diaphorus fiavipes Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 323, 1896. Four cotypes. 

Diaphorus dubius Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 324, 1896. Four cotypes. 

Asyndetus syntormoides Whtder, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 3d ser., II, 32, 1899 
Three types. 

Porphyrops effilatus Wheeler, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 3d ser., II, 34, 1899. 
Seven types. 

Anepsius (Anepsiomyia) linearis Aldrich, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 317, 1896. 
Four cotypes. 

Hydrophorus philombrius Wheeler, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 3d ser., II, 65, 1899. 
One type, not four as is mentioned in a previous publication. 

Dolichopus amnicola M dander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 130, 1900. One type. 

Dolichopus paluster Melander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 136, 1900. Ten types. 

Dolichopus pantomimus Melander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 142, 1900. One 

Dolichopus renidescens Melander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 143, 1900. Three 

Dolichopus opheles M dander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 144, 1900. One type. 

Dolichopus amphericus Melander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 146, 1900. Five 

Dolichopus partitus M< lander and Brues, Biol. Bull., I, 135, 1900. Two types. 

Dolichopus henshawi Wheeler, Psyche, V, 340, 1900. Three types. 

Hygroceleuthus (Dolichopus) crenatus Oslen-Sacken, Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr. (Hayden), III, 312, 1877. One type. 

Family Empidid^e. 

Drapetis flavidus Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 308, 1896. Five types. 

Drapetis apicis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 442, 1896. Two types. 

Phoneutisca simplicior Wheeler and Melander, Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. I, 
375, 1901. One type. 

Hemerodromia defessa Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 439, 1896. One type. 

Clinocera lecta Melander, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXVIII. 243, 1902. Two 

1912.] -tbtck. Types of Insect* in Amer. U ory. 375 

Leptopeza disparilis Melander, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXVIII, 258, 1902. 
Three types. 

Empis enodis Melander, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XX\ III, 303, 1902. Four 


Parathalassius aldrichi Mi tan* X \ 1 1, 374, 1906. Three types. 

Thinodromia inchoata Mtlandtr, Knt. News, XVII, 370, 1906. One type. 

Family Syrphid.e. 

Microdon mirabilis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV, 257, 1888. Two types 
labelled respectively Chapada and Rio de Janiero, Brazil. Williston gives Chapada 
onl> ility from whence the types came. The specimens, however, which 

differ considerably from each other are both covered by the original description. 

Microdon inermis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV, 258, 1888. One type. 

Chilosiac hrysochlamys Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 8, 1891. Two 

Baccha stenogaster Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV, 266, 1888. One type. 

Baccha exigua Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Sue ., XV. 857, 1888. Two types. 

Baccha placiva Will., Trans. Am Knt. Soc., XV, 269, 1888. Two types. 

Baccha rubida Will., Biol. (Yntr.-Am ., Dipt. Ill, 34, 1891 One cotype. 

Baccha punctifrons Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 36, 1891. One cotype 

Baccha dolosa Will ., Biol. Centr -Am., Dipt. Ill, 37, 1891. One cotype. 

Baccha lugubria Will., Biol u , Dipt. 111. 37, 1891. Four cotypes. 

Melanostoma longicornis Will., Trans. Am. Knt. Soc., XV, 263, 1888. Four 

Melanostoma scitulum Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV, 264, 1888. One 

Melanostoma catabombum Will., Biol. Centr -Am., Dipt. Ill, 12, 1891. 
Four cotypes. 

Didea coquilletti Will., Biol. Centr.-Am , Dipt. Ill, 19, 1891. One cotype. 

Syrphus erraticus Will., Trans. Am Knt. Soc., XV, 264, 1888. Six types. 

Syrphus bisinuatus Will., Biol. Ontr-Am ., Dipt. Ill, 17, 1891. One cotype. 

Syrphus decipiens Will., Biol. Centr -Am . Dipt. Ill, 18, 1891. Pour cotypes. 

Volucella aemula Will., Trans. Am. Ent. So. _', 1888. Two types. 

Volucella meretricias Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV. 272, L88G >k types. 

Volucella prescutellaris Will., Iran- 9m . X\ . -'73, 1888. Eight 


Volucella persimilis Will , Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., !^> Eleven 

types. The species was described from eleven specimens taken in three different 
localities. Only two of the localities are r ep res en ted by our specimens, but Dr. 
Williston says nevertheless that all our specimens are types. 

Volucella muaU Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XV, U \. 1SS8. Eight typos. 

Volucella mus Will., Trans. Am. Ent Soc., XV, 274, 1888. Eleven types, all 
except one from Chapada, the type locality for the species. The odd one from 
Piedra, Brazil, Dr Williston says is also a type. 

Volucella virldis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc . TV, -">, 1888. Five types. 

Volucella omata Will, Bid (cntr-\..i, Dip! III, 49, 1891. One cotype. 

Eristalis ochraceus W,ll , Trans. Am I J79, 1888. One type. 

EristalU Tolaticus Will , Traos. Am Knt Boo . XV, 280, 1888. Five types. 

Hulhtiti American Museum of Xatural History. [Vol \\\I, 

Eristalis precipuus Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 280, 1888. Nine types. 

Eristalis parvulus Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 282, 1888. One type. 

Eristalis montanus Will., Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, XX, 322, 1882. One type. 

Pteroptila semula Will., Trans. Am. Bat Soc, XV, 283, 1888. Two types. 

Mallota margarita Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 70, 1892. Three cotypes. 

Mallota smithi Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 70, 1892. Four cotypes. 

Xylota genuina Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 284, 1888. One type. 

Xylota rufipes Will.. Biol. Centr.-Am.. Dipt. Ill, 71, 1892. One cotype. 

Ceriogaster foscithorax Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 286, 1888. Two 

Sphecomyia occidentalis Osburn, Can. Ent., XL, 12, 1908. One cotype. 

Ceria wulpii Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 290, 1888. Five cotypes. 

Ceria brauerii Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 289, 1888. One cotype. 

Ceria mikii Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 288, 1888. Four cotypes. 

Ceria bigotii Will, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 291, 1888. Two cotypes. 

Ceria lynchii Will.. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 287, 1888. One cotype. 

Ceria roederii Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 289, 1888. One cotype. 

Habromyia coeruleithorax Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 284, 1888. Two 
types, male and female. The female is from a locality not mentioned in the original 
description and this specimen also exceeds by several millimeters the greatest meas- 
urement given. Dr. Williston says in regard to these types, however: " I am confi- 
dent that both specimens are types. The probable explanation is that I described 
originally the species from the male, and intercalated the female description without 
making all the additions in the note." 

Apophysophora scutellata Witt., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 277, 1888. 
Eleven types. 

Trichopsomyia puella Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 260, 1888. Three 

Trichopsomyia tuberculata Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 260, 1888. 
One type. 

Trichopsomyia polita Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 260, 1888. Two types. 

Trichopsomyia longicornis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV. 261, 1888. One 

Lepidostola pulchra Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 261, 1888. Four types. 

Lepidostola abdominalis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 262, 1888. One 

Lepidostola similis Will., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XV, 262, 1888. One type. 

Family Conopid*;. 

Tropidomyia bimaculata Will., Can. Ent., XX, 11, 1888. Three cotypes. 
Conops argentifaceis Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 43, 1892. One cotype. 
Conops parvus Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 46, 1892. Two cotypes. 
Conops rufus Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 44, 1892. Two cotypes. 
Conops xanthopareus Will., Trans. Conn. Acad., IV, 332, 1885. One type. 
Conops magnus Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 43, 1892. Four cotypes. 
Conops inornatus Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 45, 1892. Two cotypes. 
Conops grandis Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., I, 44, 1892. Three cotypes. 
Conops fronto Will., Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., VI, 378, 1885. One type. 

\nt. History. 

Conops discalis Will.. Biol. Contr -Am . Dipt. III. SO, 1892. One cotype. 
Conops anthreas Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 80, 1892. One cotype. 
Conops angustifrons Will., Kans. I'niv. Quart., I, 44, 1892. One cotype. 
Physocephala sororcula Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. III. S3, 1892. One 

Physocephala xanthops Will., Biol. Centr.-Am., Dipt. Ill, 83, 1892. One 

Family Tachinii. 

Cistogaster insularis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 351, 1896. One cotype. 

Atrophopoda (Paradidymal townsendi Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 356, 
1896. Two cotypes. 

Atrophopoda (Paradidyma) braueri Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 357, 1896. 
Two cotypes. 

Family Dexid.k. 
Phynchodexia sororia Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 360, 1896. Three types. 

Family Sarcophagid.e. 
Sarcophaga micropygialis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 363, 1896. Two 

Sarcophaga otiosa Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 364, 1896. Two cotypes. 
Sarcophaga chsetopygialis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 366, 1896. Four 

Family Muscid.e. 

Chrysomyia desvoidyi Hough, Kans. Univ. Quart., IX, 208, 1900. One type. 
Morellia nigricosta Hough, Kans. Univ. Quart , IX, 216, 1900. Two types. 
Mucina brunnea Hough, Kans. Univ. Quart., IX, 220, 1900. One type. 
Mucina varicolor Hough, Kans. Univ. Quart., IX, 226, 1900. Two types. 
Mucina latipennis Hough, Kans I'niv. Quart., IX, 229, 1900. One type. 

Family Hktkroneuridjc. 

Heteroneura flavipes Will . Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 387, 1896. One type. 
Heteroneura lumbalis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 388, 1896. Two types. 
Heteroneura valida Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 388, 1896. Two types. 

Family Borborid.v. 
Limosina dolorosa Will , Trans, fat Soc. Lond., 432, 1896. One type. 

Family S uuomyzid.«. 
Sapromyza angustipennis Will, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 381, 1896. Two 

Sapromyxa puella Will., Trans fat Soc. Lond., 381, 1896. Four cotypes. 
Sapromyza octovittata Will ., Trann Ent. Soc. Lond., 382, 1896. Four 

378 Built hit Anitriain M Ml „ m of Xatitrul History. Vol \\\I, 

Sapromyza exul Will, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 382, 1896. Three cotypes. 
Sapromyza sordida Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 483, 1896. One type. 
Sapromyza venusta Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 384, 1896. Two cotypes. 
Sapromyza sororia Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 385, 1896. Four cotypes. 
Sapromyza ingrata Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 385, 1896. Four cotypes. 
Sapromyza picrula Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., VI, 10, 1897. Six cotypes. 

Family Rhopalomerid^e. 

Rhopalomera ciliata Will., Psyche, VII, 186, 1895. One type. 
Rhopalomera xanthops Wtll., Psyche, VII, 213, 1895. One type. 
Apophorhynchus flavidus Will., Psyche, VII, 186, 1895. Two types. 

Family Trypetid.e. 

Spilographa setosa Doane, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, VII, 178, 1899. One cotype. 
Trypeta straminea Doane, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, VII, 179, 1899. One cotype. 
Rhagoletis ribicola Doane, Ent. News, IX, 69, 1898. Two cotypes. 
Tephritis variabilis Doane, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, VII, 188, 1899. One cotype. 

Family MiCROPEziDiE. 
Calobata mellea WUl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 373, 1896. Two types. 

Family Sepsid.e. 
Sepsis insularis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 431, 1896. One type. 

Family EPHYDRiDiE. 

Notiphila bellula WUl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 390, 1896. Two types. 

Notiphila pulchifrons Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., VI, 5, 1897. Two types. 

Notiphila stricta Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., VI, 5, 1897. One type. 

Paralimna multipunctata Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 390, 1896. Two 

Paralimna obscura WUl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 391, 1896. Five types. 

Gastrops niger Will., Kans. Univ. Quart., VI, 3, 1896. Thirteen types. The 
generic name Ventrops is written on the type label. 

Hecamede (Allotrichoma) abdominalis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 398, 
1896. Three types. 

Discomyza dubia Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 392, 1896. Two types. 

Discomyza nana Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 396, 1896. Two types. 

Ilythea flavipes Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 403, 1896. One type, in poor 

Discocerina obscura Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 397, 1896. Two types. 

Ochthera humilis WUl., Kans. Univ. Quart., VI, 6, 1897. One type. 

Ochtheroidea atra Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 401, 1896. Three types. 

Pelomyia occidentalis Will., Proc Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 461, 1893. One type. 

Ephydra pygmaea Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 402, 1896. Two types. 

Grossbeck, Types of Insects in Amer. I History. 379 

Family OsciNH>.e. 

Hippelates proboscidens Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 418, 1896. Three 

Elachiptera flavida Witt., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 417, 1896. Three types. 
Oscinis incipiens Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 424, 1896. Four types. 
Oscinis fur Witt., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 425, 1896. Two types. 

Family Drosophilid.e. 

Drosophila omatipennis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 407, 1896. Two types. 
Drosophila vitattifrona Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 408, 1896. One type. 
Drosophila coffeata 117//., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 409, 1896. Two types. 
Drosophila annulata Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 409, 1896. One type. 
Drosophila fasciola Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 410, 1896. One type. 
Drosophila bellula Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 410, 1896. One type. 
Drosophila opaca Will ., Tr:m>. Km Soc. Lond., 411, 1896. One type. 
Drosophila pallida Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 415. IS'.*}. Two types. 
Drosophila similis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 415, 1896. Two types. 

Family Aoromyzid.e. 

Agromyza lateralis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 428, 1896. One type. 
Agromjza. sorosis Will., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 429, 1896. Three types. 



By John A. Grossbeck. 

Tin ipeck which I have here collectively called, for convenience, the 
Glaucina-Cmiocharis group do not comprise a compact and homogeneous 
assemblage. The name might appropriately be applied only to the first 
three genera considered, which, however, contain most of the species. The 
others are more or less distantly related but are more nearly so to Glnucina 
and Ccenocharis than to any other genera. However, as a whole, where the 
species do not agree in the curious frontal protuberance, they do agree in 
the elongated wings. All the species with the exception of Exelis pyrolaria 
and two species of the genus Tornos, namely scolopacinaria and cincturius, 
which occur chiefly in the southeast, are confined to the more arid regions 
of the Southwest — Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, 
southern California and the western extension of Texas. 

It was the intention of the author in commencing the revision of this 
group of genera to carefully monograph the entire series, and for this reason 
material was sought from all available sources. The net result was the 

.(nidation of over five hundred specimens of the>e insects which as a 

rule are rare in collections. Unfortunately the condition of the specimens 

was on the whole unsatisfactory; and the further fact that many new 

. r e pr ese nted by only a few, frequently poor, specimens, were among 

the material rendered the task impracticable. 

the loan of specimens I have to thank I>r. Wm. Barnes ot Ucatur, 
DHnoi . Mr l; I PearsaO, of Brooklyn, N J . Mr Geo. EL Field, of S 

<>, California ami Mr. Jacob DoD of the Brooklyn Institute Museum. 
To I>r If G. Dyar of the United States National Museum, likewise, my 
thanki are due fur having kindly compared specimens for me with types 
in the National Museum. 

Table for the separation of the genera considered in this /><.■ 

Posterior tibia with oat/ one pair of spurs 

•iit strongly tubercled, costs of primaries arched, the anal angle rounded 

. costs of primaries straight or slightly concave, anal angle pro- 
nounced ff*lt*Af*S 

■ >VJ liulltliii Amiiiciin Musi inn of Xutiiiiil llistoni. (Vol XXXI, 

Posterior tibia with two pairs of spurs 
Front rabarcied or strongly prodim-d 

Costa nf prim ■rifts straight or almost so, anal angle pronounced 

Wings rather short and broad, palpi short . . Merino, 

Wings long, palpi long and slender . . 8tenochari$. 

Costa of primaries arched, anal angle not pronounced 

Anterior tibia armed with a claw .... Glow 

Anterior tibia unarmed Camoc/mris. 

Front smooth, not produced 

Discal spot composed of long, erect scales, male antenna; bipectinate, 
female antenna; simple ........ Tornos. 

Discal spot not noticeably raised above level of real of wing, male and 
female antenna' bipectinate 8 

Glaucina and Camocharis arc structurally alike except for the daw on 
the anterior tibia of the former. The type of Qlaucina is escaria Grt. and 
of Canocharis, vn&erruptaria Grt. I have examined the type male and female 

of the first named species and the type female of the last named and find 

the following additional differences which however do not hold when other 

specimens of the same genera and even of the same species are examined: 

the truncated cone of the front in Glaucina is slightly more developed than 
in Cemoekaris, and the tongue seems stronger, in Glaucina there is no 
accessory cell and Rg, R 3 , 4 and R% are on one stem, whereas in Ccenocharu 
an accessory cell is present and all four branches of the radius are on one 
stalk. In venation, however, I am inclined to believe that the female type 
of mterruptaria is an anomaly for in no other specimen referable to either 
of the two genera have I been able to discover an accessory cell. 

8ynglochi» is nearly allied to the above two genera, differing chiefly in 
the absence of the upper pair of spurs on the hind tibia, the much longer 
trunca t e d cone on the front and in the tongue which is rudimentary; from 
rhnris it differs further in the presence of the tibial claw. 

Morina is widely different from any of the foregoing in wing shape, 
which is broader, and, in the primaries, more pointed at the apex, with a 

straighter, almost concave costa, and with the anal angle produced-. The 

antenna] pectinations in the male, also, are much shorter, being bipectinate 
but not plumose, and elavate apieally. From Synglochis it may be dis- 
tinguished further by the presence of a second pair of spurs on the posterior 
tibia, which, however, arc only half as long as the apical pair, and from 
Canockaru by the presence of the tibial spur. There is a distinct accessory 
cell and the Bubcosta of the secondaries instead of approximating the radius 
in the region of the discal cell for two-thirds the length of the cell, touches 
or almost touches this vein only on the second fourth. 

Stenocharis is a long-winged genus with the costa of the primaries 

Grossbeek, Review of the Glaucina-Ccenocharis Group. 883 

_rli t <>r slightlj concave and the anal angle developed. It is unique in 
by having both thoracic and abdominal tuftings, and long slender 
palpi, and, with Holochroa, in having twelve instead of elev en veins, Rj 
and R« being separate. In the charaeter of the front it stands between 
the fore. and Tornos, being neither smooth nor markedly tu- 

bercled, but rather between. It is bulged outwardly and has a circular disk, 
but neither the rim nor the center appear to be raised, though there is a 
misleading clump of dark colored scales in the center of the disk of the 
that has so far been assigned to the genus which might easily 
be construed as an eminence. The antennal pectinations of the male are 
quite long and clavatc and again resemble those of Tornos. The fore tibia 
is unarmed; there is no accessory cell but a tendency for one to form be- 
tween R< and Rs. and the subcosta of the secondaries approximates the 
radius on the second third of the discs] cell. 

VOf and Exdis, though so different in the character of the female 
una-, are much alike in other l Both have absolutely smooth 

Fronts, and are so listinguishable from all the preceding. Both have heavy, 
orrect palpi, strongly developed tongues and a similar venation. 
cell was present in every specimen of Tornos examined, but 
in Exelis this proved variable and in the two specimens in which this char- 
r could be dearly seen one had tin- cell and the other lacked it. Pack- 
swing of the venation of Tornos (MoDOgT. Geom., pi. II, f. 4), 
I may add, does not -how ;m a ccess ory cell. 

Holochroa may be distinguished from all the genera treated lure, except 

awing only 1 tingle pair of spun <>n the posterior tibia. 

From t 1 mu> it differs in many particular-: in the small slender, 

palpi, long-haired beneath, which are closely applied to the head and there- 

itly upturned, in the smooth front and heavily bipectinate instead 
of plumose antenna?, and also in wing shape which in the primaries though 
loaf ight on the costs and somewhat produced at the anal 

angl' m with Synglocku in having ■ rudimentary tOttf 

Then- are twelve vetttl in the f< in thi> respect with 

1 list! veins of the primaries with the subcosta are 

nd the costs and in the specimens examined the subcosta 

formed ■ second 1 ceUbj its union with Ki in the region of the 

normal accessory cell. 

Tli- i.laurimi and I a BOUTCS of much p«-r- 

plexity to me. True, from a comparative study of then 

light differencei in the strength of the ton -II as in the 

lopment of the prottnV m the front wen- found ho addition to the 

chief differentiating character, the tibial claw, but these minor differences 

884 Bulletin American Museum of Nalural History. [Vol. XXXI 

practically disappear when all the species of each genus are studied, and are 
therefore of no generic value. From an examination of many specimens 
of Glaucina epiphysaria I was at one time led to believe that even the tibial 
claw was variable, but this proved later to be an error. It appears to be 
constant and as a convenience in dividing an unwieldy group I have kept 
the genera distinct on this character despite the fact that the type of Coeno- 
charis inter ruptaria, certainly having no claw, is in general appearance almost 
precisely like some specimens of Glaucina mormonaria, a species with a well 
developed claw. 

Glaucina Hulrt. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 352. Type, escaria Grote. 

Nine species referable to this genus have already been described : eupethe- 
ciaria, pygmeolaria, escaria, elongata, golgolata, puellaria, erroraria, mormon- 
aria and epiphysaria. The last 
named is a very distinct species 
allied to golgolata. Mormonaria, 
likewise, is an easily recognizable 
species which in general appear- 
ance finds its nearest ally in 
Copnocharis (interru)>f(iriuK The 
remaining species are closely re- 
lated, differing chiefly only in 
Fig. l. Fore leg of Glaucina. size. In color all the sizes vary 

from pale gray to dark brownish- 
gray and as the style of maculation is practically identical in all it is 
impossible to draw distinct lines between the different ones. Yet that 
several species are concerned is evidenced by the structure of the genitalia. 

Glaucina escaria Grote. 

1882. Gbote, Can. Ent., XIV, 186, Tornos. 

1883. Grote. Can. Ent., XV, 24, Tornos. 
1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., Ill, 11, Lepiodes. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 352, Glaucina. 

All manner of species have been passing current as escaria and not one 
as far as I have seen them are identical with Grote's types. It is possible 
that one or two of the specimens I have identified as escaria may not be that 
species, the Phoenix, Arizona, specimen for instance being whiter than the 
types and almost without markings, while the Redington example is gray 

1912.] Grossbeck, Review of the Glaucina-Catnocharis Group. 385 

instead of brownish in tint and is apparently smoother in the texture of the 
wings; but these differences, I believe, are within the range of variation of 
the species. 

Habitat : All the specimens I have seen are from Arizona, — Yuma Co., March 23; 
"South Arizona"; Redington; Rio Verde Mts. (Phoenix), Aug. 

Types: One male and one female in the Brooklyn Institute Museum; one female 
in Rutgers College collection. 

Glaucina erroraria Dyar. 

1907. Dyar. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XV, 106, Glaucina. 

Thi- specks is closely allied to escaria and, indeed, may yet be found 
to 1m- identical with it. The chief points of difference seem to lie in the 
whiter color of erroraria and the absence of the broad marginal band on the 
hind wings beneath. I have not seen the types, but Dr. Dyar has compared 
specimens which I had i< hut if ied as his species with the types and pronounces 
them identical. 

Habitat: Arizona, Hot Springs, June 21, and Tucson, July 19-20; California, 
Walter's Station, April. 

Types: Four females in the National Museum one of which formed part of the 
material from which Hulst earlier described "Camocharis" elongata. 

Glaucina eupetheciaria Grote. 

1883. Grote. Can Knt XV, 24, Tornos. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am. Ill, 11, Lepiodes. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 353, Canocharis. 

pygmeolaria Grote. 

1883. Grote, Can Ent , XV, 24, Tornoa. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am. III. 11 — Lepiodes escaria. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 352, Glaucina; bon. sp. 

All my efforts to make two speeies out 
of the types of these names have been 
fiit i 1« - and I am firmly <»f the belief that 
but OM ipt i lied. In size they 

are practically alike; all the markings on 
m be traced on the other; and they 
are from the same locality. The only dif- 
farei the color, tupciheciarin being 

a little paler than S ffS H O / Of ii , and thi> i i g . 2 . OtoiuXim ot Olaucina #n- 

ehara triable in all the members of naWsfSs, 

the ,-st list Hulst places 

these speei. > in different genera, but an examination of the types shows 

886 Ihilkiin American U B lory. I XXXI, 

them to be congeneric. It will lie best t<> regard tin- tw< one, 

and as pygmeuhirin i^ described second on the same page with eupethecia 
it falls to this latter name. 

In niaculation tupetheciaria is practically identical with puellaria Dyar, 
a much larger species, and. as intermediates occur, it is almost impossible 
to draw a line between them. The genitalia likewise arc much alike in both 
species as the figures show, but that only one species should he involved 
would seem incredible when we compare the sues of the extremes, t In- 
largest puellaria having double the expanse of the smallest eupetheciaria. 

Habitat: Arizona — Oracle; Phoenix, April 30, May 16, July 11; Baboquivaria 
Mts., July 15-30; South Arizona, Aug. 15-30; Santa Catalina Mts., July 24-31, 
Aug. 1-7; Redington; Prescott, May 29, July 23. New Mexico — Deming, July 

Types: The type of eupetheciaria, a unique male, and the male and female type 
of pygmeolaria are in the Brooklyn Institute Museum. Another "type" of pygmeo- 
laria is in the Hulst collection at New Brunswick hearing a locality label "Phoenix, 
Ariz., June 5, '97." Obviously this is no type. 

Glaucina puellaria Dyar. 

1907. Dtar, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XV, 105, Glaucina. 

My determination of this species has been verified by Dr. Dyar after a 

comparison of our specimens with 
the type. The typical form, a large 
robust species with heavy mark- 
ings, is apparently not common; 
but I have associated with it spec- 
imens of a smaller form which 
merges into puellaria on one hand 
and into eupetheciaria on the other; 
this form is evidently the one 
mentioned by Dyar in his original 
description of puellaria as a 
smoother, more silvery-gray spe- 
Fig. 3. Genitalia of Glaucina puellaria. cies with the markings less defined 

and more broken. It may repre- 
sent a new species, but in spite of my long series I am unable to satisfac- 
torily decide this point and for the present leave it undescribed. 

Habitat: Typical form. Arizona — Baboquivaria Mts., Pima Co.; Phoenix; 
Catalina Springs; South Arizona. Colorado — Glenwood Springs. Smaller form. 
Arizona — Paradise, Rio Verde Mts. (Phoenix) Aug., Sept.; Yavapai Co.; Yuma Co., 

Grossheck, Review of the Glaucina-Cctnocharti Group. 387 

April 1 J- March 28; Baboquivaria Mts., July S-30; Rcdington; South Arizona, 
1-15, • Sept.; Colorado desert. New Mexico — Deming California — 

I males in the U. S. National Museum; one female in collection. 
F. 11 Snow (Kansas). 

Glaucina elongata Hulst. 

1896. Hi i.>t. Trans. Am. Eat Bofc, XXIII, 353, Catnocharis. 
1907. Dtar, Jour. X. Y. Ent. Soc., XV, 106, concerning type. 

In describing this specks Bnlst does not say how many specimens 

band, but from the fart that two localities are given, Texas and 

Ari/ know that more than one specimen was before the author. 

! labelled as such in existence, a male and female 

in Hoist's own collection, S female in the Brooklyn Institute Museum, and 

imens in the National Museum, one of which as above mentioned, 

male from Arizona, formed part of the material from which Dyar de- 

hn Glaucina e r ror ari a. The other type in the National Museum 

trio. 1 )yar rejected the Arizona type because 

it had a spur on the fore tibia and so went into the genus Glaucina whereas 

Bnlst describe ' hurts. As a matter of fact all the types 

whether from Texas <>r Arizona have the tibial spur. The Texas types, 

howe\er, differ from those from Arizona in their clay-yellow rather than 

gray color which renders the insect very different in general aspect; i 

I presume, ■ distinct Hied to anaffarts. Dyar has already limited 

Holsft name to thi> form by using an Arizona specimen as the type of 


itat: San Antonio, Texas. 

m: The location of these is indicated above. 

Glaucina pearsalli. new spai 

:mse, 33-35 mm. Head, body and primaries dark ash-gray; ■ 
white, except the inner area which is dark ash gray. Intradiscal line of primaries 
more than one third out, blackish, rather broad and diffuse, crenulate, as a whole 
rather straight except at costa where it bends in toward costal margin liscal 

line blackish, more defined, crenulate, extends from less than ens fonts in from 
apex to middle of inner margin. Occasionally thesp lines are obsolete or. on the other 
hand, emphasised on the veins. Discal spot round, black, diffuse. Fringe gray. 
Secondaries with a blackish median line showing on inner area. Terminal line 
blackish. Discal spot moderate in sixc, conspicuous on the clear white groun.i. 
Beneath, waft I sparse scattering of fine gray scales which 

gather particularly on the costa and toward the apex of primaries and on inner area 
of secondaries. Discal spots present on all wings and usually conspicuous. 

388 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol XXXI, 

Types: Four males from Mr. R. F. Pearsall, one cotype of which is in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. 

Habitat: Parker, Arizona, March 7, 12, 13 and 14. 

Pearsalli resembles puellaria in size and markings but the secondaries 
except for the inner area are glistening white, not smoky, and the primaries 

Fig. 4. Genitalia of Glaucina peartalli. 

are a soft ash-gray rather than brownish-gray. The genitalia show that 
we have here a valid species and not a mere variety to contend with. 

Glaucina abdominalis new species. 

Expanse, 23-24 mm. Head, thorax and all wings whitish, rather sparsely 
sprinkled over with fine blackish scales. Abdomen whitish, becoming brownish 
apically, and with a moderate sized spot bordered with brown on each of the first 
two segments. Intradiscal line indicated by an obscure, irregular shade. Extra- 
discal line brown, narrow, denticulate, extending in a rather straight line from 
one-fourth in on costa to one-third in on inner margin. Subterminal line absent. 
Terminal line brown, fine, continuous. Discal spot a small obscure, linear spot. 
Fringes white. Secondaries with a faint indication of an irregular fine running 
through the center. Discal spot small, round, distinct. Terminal line and fringes 
as in primaries. Beneath, uniformly whitish, the discal spots and terminal lines 
faintly indicated. 

Described from two male specimens collected by Mr. Geo. H. Field. Type in the 
American Museum of Natural History; eotype in Mr. Field's collection. 

Habitat: San Diego, California, July 31 and August 1. 

With its pale color, almost straight denticulate line, and spotted abdo- 
men this species should be rather easily distinguished from all other de- 
scribed species of the genus. 


Groesbeck, Review of the Glaucina-Comocharis ' 


Glaucina bilineata, new species. 

an. Head, body and fore-wings an even brown-gray. Primaries 
crossed by two contrasting, narrow, black lines. The inner or intradiscal begins one- 
third out on costa and extends to diseal cell, then follows the radial vein outwardly 
to almost the middle of the cell, crosses the cell at this point and runs inward again on 
ubital vein to just below the origin of the line, extending thence sinuously to 
inner margin. The outer or extradiscal line begins less than one-third in on costa 
and • irplv denticulate to one-third in on inner margin running suhparallel 

e outer margin. Subtennmal tine scarcely visible as a denticulate whitish shade 
running through the center of the outer area. Terminal line black, continuous. 
Diseal spot moderate in size, oval, not defined. Fringes concolorous with ground 
color of wing. Secondaries smoky, paler on disk, of the same color as primaries on 
inner area. A clearly marked, black denticulate line, extends from the middle of 
the inner margin to a short distance from Cut ending abruptly at this point. Termi- 
nal line black, continuous. Diseal spot as in primaries. Fringes smoky becoming 
whitish toward apical angle. Beneath, pale gray, smoky outwardly on all wings. 
Diseal spots large, conspicuous, especially on secondaries. 

Named from one female in Dr. Wm. Barnes's collection. 

Habitat: Redington, Arizona. 

A wry marked species readily known l»y its two contrasting lines, the 
inner of which is singular in that it runs outwardly along the veins of the 
I cell through the center of which it crosses. 

Glaucina epiphysaria Dyar. 

1908. Dtar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., X, 55, Glaucina. 

This seema to be a common species in southern < California, no less than 
one hundred and eighn ipeCinWBI 

I before me from this region. 

The dates 00 the varioii- tpeCnXMM 

would seem t<> indicate that there 

are two flights annually, one from 
mid-March <.r slightl} earlier to the 
end <>f April, ami another from the 

latter part of June through -Inly, 
i^t and September to Into, however, the spe- 

tlio < -ontimioii 1\ from Man h I) 

that this species may equal Street 

golgolata described from Nevada but I am OjOttt convinced that the two 
are distinct. 

Fig. 5. Genitalia of (7liu,ma tpiphyttrta. 

390 Bulb tin American ' htrai Hittory. [Vol. XXXI, 

Habitat: California — San Diego, March 11-Apr. 26, June 21-Octobei 7-29; 
Pasadena, Apr. 29; V side, October 1-28. 

I ypes: One male and two females in the l". S. National Museum. 

Glaucina golgolata Streaker. 

1899. Strecker, Lep. Rhop. I let.. KtppL 2, 11, Eupelhecia. 
1902. Hulst, Bull. 52, U. S. Nat. Mus., 272. Tephroclystia. 
1905. Dtar, Proc. f]nt. Soc. Wash., VII, 93, Glaucinat 

I cannot satisfactorily identify anything before me with this species. 
Dr. Dyar says (see above) that it may be the same as his epipkysaria and 
certainly it approaches this species more closely than any other; yet in all 
the series of epipkyearia before me not one matches it in all respects. That 
the two species arc distinct I have little doubt. 

Habitat: Nevada. 

Type: One female in the Field Columbian Museum. 

Glaucina magnifica, new species. 

Expanse, 28-33. Head, body and fore-wings dark gray, tending to brown. Col- 
lar of thorax black. Primaries crossed by two blackish lines sometimes continuous, 
but usually broken up into spots or dashes; rarely one or both are absent or almost 
so. Intradiscal line extends obliquely from one-third out on costa to center of discal 
cell, then, forming an acute angle, extends irregularly inward to near the base of the 
wing on inner margin. Extradiscal line extends inwardly curved from one-third in 
on costa to Ms, thence runs irregularly inward to inner margin ending close to the 
termination of the intradiscal line. A diffuse median shade is sometimes present 
on the inner margin between the two primary cross-lines and this rarely extends in- 
wardly toward the center of the wing, where it fades out. Subterminal line whitish, 
distinct, strongly scalloped between the veins. The spaces formed by the subterminal 
line inwardly are filled in with blackish lunules, more or less defined. Terminal line 
blackish, fine, complete. Discal spot absent or represented by a faint oval shade. 
Secondaries smoky, gray on inner area where three lines extending a short distance 
into the wing are more or less sharply marked. Beneath, even smoky-gray on pri- 
maries, a discal spot usually showing, whitish and finely irrorate on secondaries, a 
small round discal spot showing quite conspicuously. 

Described from many specimens of both sexes from the collections in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History and in those of Mr. R. F. Pearsall and Dr. Wm. 

Habitat: San Diego, California, August 15 to October 9; and West Riverside, 

Several specimens too badly rubbed to be made types are dated February 28 and 
October 1 to Nov. 2. 

Though scarcely to be associated with mormonaria at first sight the geni- 
talia indicate that these species are closely allied, this structure being practi- 

'" the (ilmicina-Catnochari* Group. 391 

cally alike in both. A closer examination shows also that the pattern of 
the wings i^ roughly similar though much more definite in magnified. The 

id far darker coloring of this new Species will further distinguish 
it from the wnitisn-grj •'inoiuirin. 

Glaucina hulstinoides, new spei 

inse, 24.5-27 mm. Head, body and all appendages with mixed white and 
black scales, sometimes one, sometimes the other color predominating. The pos- 
terior part of the head, the collar, and the second abdominal segment are usually 
almost entirely black. The maculation of the abdomen is various, rarely (in one 
specimen) assuming double dorsal spots on the posterior segments. The primaries 
appear oddly longitudinally strigate, and are crossed diagonally (from apex to inner 
margin) with more or less indefinite cross lines. The longitudinal strigation is 
brought about by the veins being narrowly lined with clear white. The intradiscal 
line, narrow and bl nly obvious from near the base of the inner margin to 

ibmedian cell, and even here is often broken or obscured. The 
extradiscal line is geminate, blackish, and like the intradiscal line begins on the 
inner margin mar the base and extends only partially across the wing; usually con- 
tinuously to vein cubitus 1 and theme continued in a series of two or three spots above 
eternally this line is bordered by a white line which extends beyond the 
black intradiscal line to curving sharply inward on vein radius* and then 

extending ght line to the costal margin. A second narrower white line, con- 

stituting ininal line, runs parallel to this from tin- inner margin to If* 

in. Terminal line fine, Made, continuous. Fringe with a 
broad blackish hand running through the center. The secondaries are quite uni- 
i. with the terminal line and fringe m in the primaries and 
three blackish straight nding from the inner margin 

partly into the wing. Beneath, the primaries arc whitish or grayish with the cost* 
black specks; I hite with profuse scatterings 

of black scales, particularly hasally; the terminal line and fringe on both wings 
are an on the upper surf* 

males and tares females r ece i ved from Mr. EL F. Pearsall, several 
cotypes of which are in the American Museum of Natural History. 
i, California, October 10 t< 

This tpecies roughly resembles HvUtina ttrlmmta Dyai in s up erfic ia l 

aspect, but is I true Glaucina hai ing both a tibial spine and tubenulated 


Glaucina mormonaria Dps 
1907. Dyab, J too., \ V, 108. Glaucina. 

This i" ily not uncommonly in Utah in association with 

Cceii' h rrujitmiit GrOte from mid-May to mid-September, the speci- 

mens found toward the end of the season bl Her than those which 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

emerge earlier. In general the maculation of the wings is more or less 
broken up and suffused but occasionally becomes definite and then we get a 

pattern so similar to that of itttrrruptu- 
ria that for a time I was almost misled 
into believing that both sped, were 
one. The chief superficial difference 
between the two seems to be in the 
cxtradiscal line of the primaries which 
in mormonaria tends to break up into 
spots while that of interruptaria breaks 
up into dashes on the veins. 

(iciiitiilia of Glaucina mor- 

Habitat: Utah — Stockton, May 16,26, 
June 21, 23, July 30, August 3, 4, Sept. 6-12; 
Eureka, May 6 to June 9, August 1. Ari- 
zona — March 16-23; Redington. Colorado — Durango, July 8-15. 

Types: Three males and two females in the U. S. National Museum; one cotype 
in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Coenocharis Hulst. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 353. Type, interruptaria Grote. 

Four species belonging to 
this genus have been described. 
They are in the order of 
their description : interruptaria, 
ochrofuscaria, ignavaria and 
denticularia. Eupetheciaria and 
elongata referred to this genus 
in Hulst's 'Classification' do 
not, as I have shown in the 
foregoing, belong here. 

Fig. 7. Fore leg of Ccenocharis. 

Coenocharis interruptaria Grote. 

1882. Grote, Can. Ent., XIV, 185, Tornos. 

1883. Grote, Can. Ent., XV, 24, Tornos. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., Ill, 11. Lepiodes. 

1888. Hulst, Ent. Am. IV, 49, = Lepiodes behrensala. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 353, Coenocharis; bon. sp. 

This species was described from a female taken in Arizona. In general 
appearance it is extremely close to Glaucina mormonaria Dyar and since 
this name has been proposed interruptaria has been masquerading under it. 

Grossbeck, Renew of the Glmicina-Cctnocharis Group. 393 

The ipecMfl t urn s to be quite common in I tali where in Stockton we have it 
as occurring continuously from May 16 to Sept. 12, and in Eureka from May 

Fig. 8. Genitalia of Canocharit interruptaria. 

9 to Aug. 1 . slapping how ev er the month of July. It occurs also in Arizona 

— Preecott, Aug. 30, and Redington — and in Blanco Co., Texas. Dr. 

a (Proe. Ent Soc. Wash.. Y. 226, 1903) records it also from Williams, 

Ariz.; but it u very doubtful whether this record really refers to aaferruj)- 


Huhitat: As above. 

iale in the Brooklyn Institute Museum. 

Coenocharis ochrofuscaria G 

1882. Grote, Can I \ 1 V, 186, Tornot. 

1883. Grote, Can. En Tornot. 

MB7 II V r 1 1 . III. 1 1. var. of Lcpiodet interruptaria. 

1896. Hrurr. Trans. Am Bat Soc Will 808, Coenocharia; bon. tp. 

Tlii libed from a single specimen and tin- fact that the 

mat -illation i- BCanl and indistinct may account for its having bean unrecog- 

i was natmd. I am pleased to l>e able to any therefore 
imeni unqiwatkwiaWjF of thi red. 

Arisona — Prescott, S. pt 16 is; Plxenix, April 18, 19; Pari 
9.12,15; Christmas. Gila Co.; EUdtagtOB. 

itute Museum. 

There are e v ide ntly leveraJ closely a1li< uprising th<- aeaW* 

i|> The typical form from Arizona expand* 28 J7 mm., 

394 Buli icon Museum of Natural History. XXXI, 

averaging about 25 HUD., and has the markings more or less diffuse; mnc- 
dunnoughi ranges between 26.5 ami L )( .) mm. ami lias the cross lino empha- 
sized on the veins with the intervening space more or Less filled in with dark 
scale-; indistincta is the smallest ranging between 20 and 24 mm. with the 
markings diffused exactly as in oehrofuioaria; while obacura i-> much the 
largest, expanding 30-34 mm. and has the markings even more obscured 
than either indistincta or ochrofuscaria. Maedutmoughi occurs with the 
type form in Arizona, and in distinct a seems to be confined to southern ( ali- 
fornia, from whence many specimens have been received. 

Ccenocharis indistincta, new species. 

Expanse, 20-24 mm. Head, thorax, abdomen, primaries and inner margin of 
secondaries whitish, in the male densely, ir. .he female sparsely scattered over with 

blackish scales. This scattering of scales is very 
uniform. Primaries with two blackish cross lines, 
more or less indeterminate, sometimes entirely 
absent. When present the inner or intradiscal 
line irregular, begins on inner third or fourth of 
costa, extends outward in the region of the discal 
cell, then runs irregularly to inner fourth of pos- 
vs\ §T\ J\ jjjgif/ terior margin. The outer or extradiscal line also 

irregular, begins on outer fourth of costa, extends 
inwardly curved to center of wing, then forms a 
V-shaped mark on the crotch of Cm and Cui and 
Fig. 9. Genitalia of Ccnochari* mns inward to inner third of posterior margin. 
indistincta. Iwteroally this line is bordered by a whitish line 

of ground color. Subterminal line white, formed 
by a series of scallops between the veins. Terminal line black, continuous. Discal 
spot absent. Secondaries except inner margin an even smoky gray (male) or whitish 
(female). Beneath, primaries pale smoky; secondaries whitish, sparsely irrorate 
with fine brown atoms. Discal points evident in some specimens. 

Types: Thirteen males and eight females collected by Mr. Geo. H. Field. Types 
and cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History; and cotypes with Mr. 

Habitat: San Diego, California, July 11-August 1. 

This species is very close to ochrofuscaria but is uniformly smaller and 
lacks that distinct ochreous color which led Grote to apply the name ochro- 
fuscaria to his species. It is possible that the two may eventually be found 
to be the same but since a number of specimens, all similar in size and color, 
have been identified with Grote's species, I prefer to name the present 
species rather than unite it doubtfully to another. 

I912.J Grostbeek, Review of the Glaueina-Camocharia Group, 395 

Coenocharis macdunnoughi, new species. 

Expanse. 2G .5-29 mm. Head, body and ground color of wings whitish or brown- 
ish, the latter color produced by a profuse scattering of fine brown scales. Primaries 
with in t radiscal line represented by black dashes on the veins about one-third out on 
wing. Extradiscal line similarly represented, but occasionally the dashes are feebly 
connected by a brown diffuse band; together they form a scalloped line, the black 
dashes constituting the apices of the individual scallops. In its course it extends 
from one-fourth in on costa irregularly to middle of inner margin, being drawn in 
between veins Cut and the anal vein and connected at this point with the intradiscal 
line by an intervenular black dash. A diffuse brownish dash also occupies the discal 
cell. Outer area pale at extradiscal line, darker outwardly, and with a brown shade 
running through the center. Terminal line black, continuous. Fringe gray. Sec- 
ondaries with a moderately broad median line, quite regularly curved, rather feebly 
defined anteriorly and pronounced at inner margin. Terminal line and fringe as in 
primaries -pot absent. Beneath pale gray or pale brownish, the second- 

aries somewhat irtorate with pale brown. 

es: Two females from Dr. Barnes, the cotype of which is in the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

Habitat: Christmas, Gila Co., Ariz., and Redington, Ariz. 

This species may be easily recognised by the two cross lines being heavily 
marked on t! and between which tie ifl in part darker than 

the rest of the wing.* I take pleasure in naming Una species after Dr. 
Jas. McDunnough, the indefatigable curator of the Barnes collection of 

Coenocharis obscura, new spec* 

i iniu. Head, body and primaries with mixed brawn and whitish 
scales rather evenly distributed. Two blackish lines usually only vaguely indicated 
cross the primaries Tl .'times practically absent, extends out from costa 

to center of discal cell then bends acutely inward and runs slightly irregularly to inner 
margin ending one-fifta of km <>ut from ban argrn. The neond begiaa on 

osta less t 1 .urth in from apes and extends subparallel to outer margin, 

irregular to near the middle of ini This line is 

Usually emphasized on tl ad may bl entirely lost except on the veins and in 

• areely traceable in f tea as a waved 

ish h imal line deep I lent. Second- 

aries pale yeftowisb-brown inner margin when- they are 

grayish hi Mings. A single median brown line M indicated at the middle of the 

inner area. Discal spot absent. Beneath, 1 1 1. primaries are very pale yellowish- 
brown; the secondaries w hi te with fin c brown atoms evenly scattered over the surface. 
Discal spots absent. 

Types: Five males from I >r Barnes, two cotypes of which are in the American 
■Museum of Natural 1 1 

Habitat: South Ariaona, tprfl l 15 and September. 

806 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

In style of inaculation this species ia much like indutmeta and oekro* 
fuscaria but differs greatly in size and is abo more uniform in coloring. 
From inilist'uirtii it may be further distinguished by the lack of the pure 
white color on the wings which tends to emphasize the more definite mark- 
ings in that qM I 

Coenocharis ignavaria Peartatt. 

1906. Pearsall, Sci. Bull. Brook. Inst. Mus., I, 216, Coenocharis. 

A large species with the same general type of maculation as Olauema 
eupcthrciaria and (!. ftueUaria bu1 larger than either and of a dark grayish- 
brown or blackish color throughout. The original description reads as 
though only one specimen served as type but in the list of species taken in 
Utah, Arizona and Texas preceding the description two males are recorded. 
June is given as the date of their capture though the cotype in Mr. Pearsall's 
collection is labelled July. In addition to the type there are two other speci- 
mens of the same species in the Brooklyn Museum both according to Mr. 
Doll collected with the types at Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Ariz. Dr. Barm- 
has the insect also from the White Mts. and the Huachm a Mt>., both in 
Arizona. Still another specimen which appears to be this species hut is 
somewhat paler in color is from Texas (Brooklyn Museum). 

Habitat and types: As above. 

Coenocharis denticularia Dyar. 

1907. Dyar, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XV, 107, Coenocharis. 

This species still remains known to us by the unique specimen from which 
it was described Dyar compares it to Glaucina golgolata Streck. but from 
the description I would say it was nearer my Olauema magnified in appear- 
ance. The species was described from the Chirichua Mts. in Arizona and 
the type, a male, is in the National Museum. 

Coenocharis eureka, new species. 

Expanse, 27-28 mm. Entire moth ashy-gray, caused by the even distribution 
of fine black scales over a whitish ground. The secondaries, except the inner area, 
appear smoother and very slightly browner than the primaries. Intradiscal line of 
primaries represented by an obscure dash at one or two places about one-fourth out 
from the base of the wing. Extradiscal line brown, begins on costa one-fourth in 
from the apex and extends irregularly denticulate to the middle of the inner margin, 
being emphasized on the veins, and lost or faint between them above Cui, but contin- 

1912.] Grossbeck, Review of the Glaucina-Ccmocharis Group. 397 

■ below Cui. Sub terminal line barely traceable as a fine denticulate white line. 

•ninal lino brown, continuous, slightly extended inwardly on the veins. Discal 
spot absent. Fringes concolorous with ground color. Secondaries with a short 
distinct line in center of inner area, which may sometimes be traced across the wing 
as a more or less interrupted denticulate brown line. Discal spot absent. Terminal 
line brown, oven, continuous. Beneath, uniform, ashy-gray. 

Types: Two females received from Mr. R. F. Pearsall, one of which, the cotype, 
is deposited in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Habitat: Eureka, Utah, May 9 and 31. 

iUtinct and characteristic species distinguished from all others 
of the genus by the ashen-gray color and the single line obliquely crossing 

the fun-wiiij:-. 

Synglochis Hulst. 
1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 351. Type, perumbraria Hulst. 

Synglochis perumbraria Hulst. 
1898. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 352, Synglochis. 

A -species with a characteristic robust, rough-scaled appearance by 
which it can usually be identified. The two broad, diffuse lines cro> 
the primaries somewhat irregularly will also serve as aids in determination, 
though one <>r both of these ma\ l>e wanting. The peculiar truncated cone 
on the front i- <.nly equalled in BUM by Marina conifrraria Gross., while the 

le -pur on the bind tibia diatinguiahca it from all other species of the 
group except hTofoearoi Uttodoriut Unlet. 

The onK type- that I ha\e been able to locate are one male and 
female in the Rutgers College collection at New Brunswick. The 
female i> from San Bernardino, ( alifornia, and coming from the region from 
whence the M deaeribed South California- is undoubtedly a 

type; but the male (and this sex also was before the author when describing 
the species as is shown by the generic diagnosis is from Colorado d- 

ami then 'ably BO! ■ type. Though the s|>ecies was described from 

specimei d from both Bdwaidl and Rile\ no t\ pes are in either the 

American Museum or the National Museum eoflectBOnt; nor have I I 
able to find any in the Brooklyn Institute collection where Hulst placed a 

Morina. aei gonna. 

Palpi short, not exceeding the front, vortiturc loose at base; head when denuded, 
corneous, vertex high, two small, lobe-like processes beneath each eye, front strongly 



\l "i a/ Natural li 

[Vol. XXXI, 

tubercled, circular, consisting of a disk with an elevated rim and with a higjb corneous 
truncated cone in the center; tongue developed; antentue of male bipectinate, tip 
simple, the pectinations moderately long and clavate; of female feebly serrate. 

Fig. 10. Morina: 1, venation; 2, 3, 4, fore-, mid-, and hind-leg; 5, head in 
profile; 6, section of male antenna. 

Thorax and abdomen untufted. Anterior tibia short, the apex extended into a long 
heavy spine; posterior tibia not swollen, without hair-pencil, with double pair of 
spurs. Primaries rather broad, costa straight, apex rounded; secondaries normally 
broad. Venation: primaries 11 veins, Rj, Rj + « and R s on one stalk, Mi from discal 

Grossoeck. Review of the GUi ■•charts Group. 399 

accessory cell present; secondaries, Sc separate, approximating R for a short 
distance near center of discal cell, M| absent. 
Type: Marina coniferaria Gross. 

distinct from the others of the Caenocharis-Glaucina group by 
This difference is correlated by differences in head and 

iial structure. 

Morina coniferaria, new species. 

- 1 mm. Head, thorax and abdomen pale brown tending to whitish. 
Abdomen with double dorsal brown spots on the posterior part of each segment. 
Primaries reddish-brown over a whitish background. Intradiscal line brown, fine, 
originates on costa one-third out and extends irregularly outward to near base of winfr; 
at inner margin being acutely angled inwardly on anal vein. This line is preceded 
more or less distinctly by a ferruginous shade. Both lines are occasionally lost in 
part by the deepening of the ground color. Extradiscal line brown, fine, originates 
on costa one-fifth in from apex and extendi very irregularly to middle of inner margin. 
To • - line is somewhat broken and runs slightly outwardly toward outer 

margin; from this point on it is com pi • -nally it is bordered by a deep fer- 

ruginous shade. RuHtllllttiel line whitish, irregular, usually only vaguely showing. 

mine] line brown, scalloped. Discal spot small round and usually distinct. A 
blackish subapical dash in outer area. Secondaries pale, whitish in anterior part, 
pale brown posteriorly. A distinct median brown line preceded by a brown shade 
and succeeded by a ferruginous shade is present on the inner margin, and extends 
only partly into the wing. Subterminal line showing only on posterior half of wing, 
.inal line as in primaries. Discal spot small, black, sometimes absent. Beneath, 
whitish or brownish and more or less speckled with brown. Discal spots usually con- 
spicuous, though sometimes absent. 

Types: Two males and two females from Dr. Barnes, a pair of cotypes of which 
are deposited it ican Museum of Natural History. 

Habitat: Baboquiv.ui.-i Mountains, Pima Co., Ariz., and "Sooth Arizona." 
. July 16-23 and Aug. 1-15. 

A Very OOrifl til Miincwliiit the aspect of the ineliil'. 

Boannime group ta structural characters, however place it in with 


Stenocharis. tie. 

Palpi moderately long, terminal joint long, slender, drooping; tongue strongly 
developed; front produced, consisting of a circular disk slightly elevated in the 
center; u ate almost to tip, the pectinations rather short 

and clavate. Thorax tufted posteriorly. Abdomen long, with dorsal 

tufts on first four segments, and lateral tufts on the apical segments. Anterior tibia 
unarmed; posterior tibia slender, without hair-pencil, with two pairs of spurs 
Primaries long and narrow, costa rather straight, apex pointed, angle of outer margin 


Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

at center and anal angle distinct as compared with Caenocharis and Glaucina; second- 
aries moderately broad, slightly excavated between veins Mi and M». Venation: 

primaries, 12 veins, Ri and R4 
stalked with R»; Rs and Mi from 
discal cell, no accessory cell, though 
there is a tendency for one to form 
near the base of R« and R»; secon- 
daries, Sc separate, approximating 
cell to beyond middle, M t absent. 
Type: Stenocharis permagnaria 
( 'iross. 

Though belonging to the 

(ilmiriiia-Canocharu group this 

genus differs widely in the shape 

of the wings, which have a far 
more squarish rather than ellip- 
ti< ;tl shape, in the short instead 
of plumose antennal pectina- 
tions, in the thoracic and ab- 
dominal tufting and in the 
venation; in addition the style 
of pattern on the wings is quite 

Pig. 11. Venation of Stenocharis different. 

Stenocharis permagnaria, new species. 

Expanse, 37 mm. Head and body grayish-brown. Thorax with a jet black spot 
in center near posterior margin, and abdomen with a black tuft on each of the first 
four segments. Antenna? yellowish-brown, strongly pectinated but not plumose 
as are those of the other members of the group. Ground color of wings light grayish- 
brown, the inner area and parts of the costal area of primaries external to the extra- 
discal line whitish. Intradiscal line blackish, narrow, crosses inner fourth of wing; 
is rounded outwardly from costa to middle of submedian cell, and, forming a rather 
sharp angle extends outward again to inner margin. Extradiscal line in width and 
color similar to intradiscal line; originates on costa beyond the middle and extends 
in a slightly inward and then broadly outward curve to Cu?, then turning slightly 
inward extends wavedly to inner margin. A distinct black apical and three subapical 
dashes, the central of these latter the largest, are present quite close to the costa. 
A faint brown and ocherous cloud is also present in the outer area near the anal 
angle. Terminal line fine, deep brown, continuous. Median and outer areas, es- 
pecially the median, finely strigate with dark brown. Secondaries pale smoky 
inwardly, becoming darkly so outwardly. Discal spot faint, lunular. Beneath, 
pale yellowish-gray becoming on the primaries smoky apically. Cross lines absent, 
but the apical marks of the upper surface reproduced. Secondaries with terminal 
line fine, but very contrasting. Discal spot moderate in size, round, brown. 


Groesbeck, Renew of the Glaucina-Cctnocharis Group. 


•nale from Dr. Barnes and in his collection. 
Chiricahua Mts., Cochise Co., Arizona, June 16-23. 

The unique type is a handsome species with the style of ornamentation 

approaching that of Tornos nearer than any other group or species consid- 

I in this paper, yet is widely different even from this. Its large size, 

g wings, pale grayish-brown color, distinct apical dashes and abdominal 

tufta should render this a very easily distinguishable species. 

Tornos Morrison. 

1875. Morrison, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, 217. Type, scolopaci- 
naria Gn. 

1876. Packard, Monogr. Geom., 214, pi. II. f. 4. 
1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XXI 1 1, 351. 

drew up his description of the genus Lepiodet (Spec. Ge*n., X, 
urn two species of moths, one African and the other American, 

Fig. 12. Tomo$: 1. 2. 3. fore., mid., and hln-1 I- « (.aPCUonofi 
>r male antenna. 

which apparently were quite imilar in structure except that in th< 

the African ■MoJei had fascictiled antenna 1 while tin- American i>n 

402 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXXI, 

them strongly pectinated. Hulst regarded the differences between the 
species as of generic value and, as infectaria, the Eastern species, is first de- 
scribed under the genus and also the one figured, he limited the name Implo- 
des to infectaria and restored Morrison's name Tornos for our species. 
Marked differences in antennal structure are generally used by Americans 
as criteria for generic separation, and as a disregard of such difference! would 
lead to the needless fusion of many of our genera, I am following Hulst in 
regarding Tornos as distinct from Lepiodes. 

Table for the determination of the species of Tornos. 

Extradiscal line of primaries absent or represented by a series of dots on the veins 

Extradiscal line of primaries usually well marked, continuous. 

Ground color reddish-brown, cross lines heavy, discal spot large and composed 

of long erect scales cinctarius. 

Ground color yellow or very pale brown, rarely scattered over with deep brown, 
cross lines narrow, discal spot 1 mm. or less in diameter, and composed 
of rather short erect scales. 
Expanse 23-24.5 mm., ground color of 9 yellow, of d" checkered yellow 

and brown erectarius. 

Expanse 26.5 mm -32 mm., ground color of both sexes a modest dull yellow 
or pale brown fieldi. 

Tornos scolopacinaria (iuenec. 

1857. Guenee, Spec. Gen., X, 360, Lepiodes. 

1862. Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus.. XXIV, 1250, Lepiodes. 

1867. Packard, Mongr. Geom., 565, Lepiodes. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 351, Tornos. 

1912. Barnes and McDunnough, Psyche, XIX, 16, early stages, 
robiginosus Morrison. 

1875. Morrison, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, 218, Tornos. 

1876. Packard, Monogr. Geom.. 214, pi. IX, f. 39, Tornos; 564, pi. XIII, fs. 3, 
3a, larva. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., Ill, 11, = scolopacinaria. 

1895. Hulst, Ent. News, VI, 103, = scolopacinaria. 
abjectarius Hulst. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., II, 192, var. of Tornos robiginosus. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 351, Tornos; bon. sp. 

1907. Gro88beck, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXXIII, 342, = d" scolopacinaria. 

In describing this species Guenee commented on the dissimilarity in 
the color of the sexes as did also Morrison in diagnosing robiginosus. Packard 
further spoke of the extreme variability of the form, and said three species 
could easily be made out of the twelve specimens before him. The third 

1912.] Grossbeck, Review of the Glaudna-Cctnocharis Group. 403 

"species," however, would have been based on size and not color. Yet, 
in spite of all this, Hulst, having evidently only females before him to repre- 
sent scolopacinaria, redescribed the male as a variety of robiginosus. Later, 
in his 'Classification' this variety was accorded specific rank. 

The metropolis of the species seems to be in Texas from whence it is 
constantly being received, but its range extends eastward to Florida, west- 

Fig. 13. Genitalia of Tornoi icolopacinaria. 

ward to Arizona and northward to Wisconsin (Milwaukee), and Pennsyl- 
vania (Harrisburg). It is rare in the northern part of its range and this 
probably accounts for its larva never having been adequately described. 1 
Abbott in his manuscript drawings figures the peculiar tubercled larva on 
its food plant ("Coreopsis [Primula] auriculata or probably grandiflora") 
together with the pupa and both sexes of the adult, and Packard in his 
monograph drew up his description of the larva from this figure. As to 
the habits of the adult we have merely the statement by both Riley 1 and 
Grote 1 (the latter e\ idently referring to this species) that the abdomen is 
raised above the thorax in repose. 

In Texas the species flies from February 18 (the earliest date I have 
f<>r its occurrence) tflfawnnfjr to October, unless for some reason it does 
not occur in Septeml»cr for which month I have no records. From Arkansas 
I have a specimen labelled as occurring in June; from Missouri it is recorded 
as occurring on April 10. and from Harrisburg, Pa., on tag. 21. 

Ǥ: Gnenee described his specie! from a male and female specimen 
in his own colleetion, Ifouisfni'l types, tuo of snob >e\. should be in either 
the Boston Society of Natural EGstOfJ or in the Museum of Comparer 

• Barnes and McDunnouith (am refere n ce above) have dee er lb ed the larval iHfaa 
atom that paper waa written. Food plant : Aater. 

• Packard. Monoar.. 216. 

• Can. En' 1883. 

404 Hullelin American Museum of Natural History. (Vol. XXXI, 

Zoology at Cambridge though my notes on the collections in these Institu- 
tions make no mention of any being there; Hulst's types arc distributed one 
each in his collection at Rutgers College, in the Brooklyn Institute and 
in the National Museum: all are males. 

Tornos cinctarius Hulst. 

' 1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., II, 192, var. of Tornos robiginosus. 
1904. Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., VI, 225, Tornos; bon. sp. 

1908. Pearsall, Can. Ent., XL, 133, Tornos, bon. sp. 

The status of this species has now been well worked out. Like abjcc- 
turius it, too, was originally described as a variety of robiginosus, but unlike 
it was retained as a variety by Hulst in his ' Classification.' Five speci- 
mens only are known, four from Florida and one from Georgia. Nothing 
is known of its habits or of the early stages. 

Type: One female in Rutgers College collection. Mr. Pearsall has 
labelled a male specimen in Mrs. Slosson's collection "c? type." The 
specimen was used for the purpose of drawing up a description of the male 
many years after the original description was published. It is therefore 
merely a plesiotype. 

Tornos erectarius Grossbcck. 

1909. Grossbeck, Can. Ent., XLI, 155, Tornos. 

Originally described from five specimens taken in Pinal and Pima Coun- 
ties, Arizona. The species has not since been taken to my knowledge. The 
dates for its time of flight range from July 15 to September. 

Types: Male and female in the American Museum of Natural History; cotypes 
in Dr. Wm. Barnes's collection. 

Tornos fieldi, new species. 

Expanse, 26.5-32 mm. Palpi with mixed yellow and brown scales, front to the 
antenna? usually entirely dark brown, vertex yellowish. Thorax and abdomen dull 
yellow, the former marked on the collar and across the posterior part of the patagia 
with brown, the latter more or less distinctly marked with white and brown at the 
posterior edge of the segments. Primaries dull yellow or pale dirty-biown sparsely 
speckled with dark hrown atoms. Intradiscal line dark brown, narrow, irregular in 
its course across the inner fourth of the wing, never entirely complete and sometimes 
reduced to a few spots. Extradiscal line concolorous with intradiscal, fine, usually 
contrasting, continuous, and slightly emphasized at the veins. From the costa one- 
third in from apex, it extends in a broad outward curve to about vein Ma, then turns 
inward and extends obliquely to the inner margin ending close to the intradiscal line. 

1912] Grossbeck, Review of the Glaucina-Cctnocharis Group. 405 

Subterminal lino fine, whitish, rather evenly dent iculatc, preceded and succeeded near 
the costs by a brown shade, and sometimes lost in the ground color near the inner 
margin. Terminal line dark brown, usually interrupted at the veins. Fringe faintly 
checkers! Discal spot round, deep brown, conspicuous. Secondaries with ground 
color paler than primaries except on inner and outer areas. Extradiscal line when 
present runninR parallel to outer margin, usually obsolete toward costa. Terminal 
line brown, continuous. Discal spot oval, much smaller than in primaries. Beneath, 
pale dull yellow, sometimes shaded with dusky brown outwardly. Terminal 
line and discal spots as on upper surface but less pronounced. 

Types: Two males and four females received from Mr. Geo. H. Field of San 
Diego, Cal., after whom the species is named, and three males received from Dr. 
Barnes. Type male and female in the American Museum of Natural History; co- 
type with Mr. Field and Dr. Barnes. 

Habitat: San Diego, California, June 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 21, July 3 and Sept. 9. 

Afl indicated in the table this species differs from erectarius by its larger 
and the uniformity of tint in the ground color of the sexes. There is a 
tendency on the part of the female to assume a color slightly yellower than 
in the male, but this is scarcely apparent as compared with rrrrtnrins. 

Tnrnos incopriariux described by Hulst in ' Entomologica Americana,*" 
vol II, p. 210 (1&S7) and referred by him to Glaucina (Trans. Am. Ent. 
XXXIII. 352, 1896) has been shown by Pearsall (Can. Ent., XI., 
906) to be identical with the species described as MUtyeU ra lincata. 

Exelis Curnir. 

1857. Guenee, Spec. Gen., IX, 323. Type, pyrolaria Gn. 
1860. WALitER.Cat Lep Bet Bi \l.477. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. F.r.t Boa, .Will 
I'ntridava Walker. 

' M . On I. MM *aria. 

1895. Hulst. Ent. News, \ 1. 108, - Exelis. 

Exelis pyrolaria Cucnfe. 

1857. Gobnee, Spec. G lis. 

1860. Walk i Exelis. 

1867. 1*.\« KM(i). Monogr. Gcom., 565, Exelis. 

tensaria Walker. 
1862. Walkek. CV I'atridava. 

1805. Hulst, Ent. News, VI, 103, - pyrolaria. 

approximaria Packard. 
1876. Packard, Monogr. Gemn . 215, pi IX. f I" 
HUMT, Enl \ hi . IV, 50, - pyrolariat 

406 Bulletin American Museum of Natural History. [Vol \ \ \ I . 

1895. Hulst, Ent. News, VI, 103, - pyrolaria. 
infumataria Grote. 

1877. Grote, Can. Ent., IX, 90, Tornos. 

1887. Hulst, Ent. Am., Ill, 11, = approximaria. 

1895. Hulst, Ent. News, VI, 103, = pyrolaria. 

The generic characters will serve to separate this species from all others 
txmsidered in this paper, especially when a female is in hand which is unique 
in the group in having pectinated antennae. The close approximation of the 
median and extradiscal lines of the primaries in the region of the anal vein, 
a character which led Packard to apply the specific name approximaria to 
the species, will also aid in identifying this form. 

The species is evidently not common being included in practically none 
of the many published local lists of Geometridse. Grote records it from 
Texas and Packard from Kentucky. These apparently are the only definite 
localities published. I can add Kirkwood, Ga., July 6 and 12, and Lake- 
land, Florida, March 28 and May 5. From Texas I have seen perhaps a 
dozen specimens, some of which were taken in May. The species probably 
occurs throughout the Gulf States, and more rarely northward to the Ohio 

Types: Pyrolaria was described from a single male in Boisduval's col- 
lection and is probably now with M. Oberthiir at Rennes, France; tensaria 
also was described from a male which according to Hulst is in the British 
Museum; approximaria was named from two males and both specimens 
are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge; infumataria 
was apparently named from two females as Grote gives two dates, June 3 
and 5; one of the specimens is in the British Museum but the other has not 
been located. 

Exelis ? fumida Warren (Novit. Zool., XI, 581, 1904), described from a 
single male taken at South Park, Colorado, belongs to none of the groups 
considered here, but is referable to Selidoscma as that genus is defined by 
Hulst. For an examination of this species I am indebted to Dr. K. Jordon 
of the Tring Museum, England, who through the kind offices of Mr. L. B. 
Prout, very generously loaned the unique type to me. 

Holochroa Hulst. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXIII, 352. Type, dissociarius Hulst. 

1912.) Groetbeck, Review of the Glaucina-Ccmochari* Group. 407 

Holochroa dissociarius Hukt. 

1887. Huujt, Ent. Am., II, 192, Tornos. 

1896. Hulst, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXIII, 352, Holochroa. 

As with I-'xclis pyrolaria this species can be easily told by the strong 
generic characters. A good specific character however is found in the extra- 
<lis( al lint- which beginning far out on the costa near the apex curves inwardly 
to a point on vein Mi near outer margin and then forming a very acute 
angle runs wavedly to far in on inner margin. In this regard it slightly 
approaches Marina ronifcraria. It was described from a single male speci- 
men, and no locality was given. The type at New Brunswick bears a 
California label. I have been able to identify three specimens from the 
Barnes collection with the species, a male from White Mountains, Arizona, 
and two females taken at Glenwood Springs, Colorado, July 1-7 and 24-30. 


I nam "s of genera, spades, and subspecies an- printed in heavy-face type, also the 
main references In a series of references. 

AnniKHiiK saxatilis, 191. 
Acanthinevania szepligoti, 363. 
Acanthorybiuni BOlandri, 184. 
Acanthrod<Tii< penimularis, 32 
Achirus lineatus, 194. 
A<'iiueodera navomarjnnata. 324 
mdulata, •• 
.lis semicrema, 332. 
tartarea, 332. 
Aedes pert in an.*, 367. 
iEnasuis eatul 
JSpeornys fuscatus, 89. 
para, subep. indel 
virgata. . 

Apnda abemns, •{•*>•"). 

Agromyza lateralis, 

KWOdb, '!7'' 
AUmla vulpes, 191. 

Allen, .1. A . historical an«l nomencla- 
(ik American -liccp. 
1-29; mammals from Wc-t.-rn Co- 
lombia. 7! I Pfkl from 

Allodia .l.lita 


• •ruua, 94. 


Ainl.r\ -u- | | iiiu- 

Ammodmnui -av.umanim cauc», 161. 
Ainmos|KTmopliilus leueuna inMilarii), 
leucurua ; 127. 

AiiioriilKM'OoeiU nw> 

Amphibolips melanocera, 362. 
Ampliiccrus punctipennis, 324. 
Analcocerus hortulanus, 371. 
Andrcna allcghenyensis, 365. 

beutenmulleri, 365. 

braccata, 365. 

'•lifvenneorum, 365. 

cyanophila, 3<il 

edwardsii, 365. 

huntingtoni, 806. 

idahorum, 365. 

lappuke, 365. 

lewkH, :>tii 

micranthophila, 364. 

mustclicolor huanli, 365. 

runrinata-. 364. 

-yntliyridi-. 964 

vicina arni-iitini:!'. 

Andriciis aciculatu-. 
rinctiH, 1 


davi-i. :■ 




frrminalis. 86 


\ik |i-.ii»ni\ia lim-ai 
Anguilla <-l»r> -\ pi. 181 

m- \ iivmi. B l^ s 
Aimiifris meridionals, .357. 
Aiitiimarius astroscopus, 108 




Anthonomus rohweri, 48. 
Anthophilax hoffmanii, 361. 
Anthrax diana, 372. 

edwardsii, 372. 

maria, 372. 

nigrofimbriata, 372. 

orbit ul is, 372. 
Anthophora wallacei, 365. 
Antilocapra americana mexicana, 119. 
Antistrophus leavenworthi, 362. 

rufus, 362. 
Antrozous pallidus minor, 127. 
Anusioptera aureocincta, 363. 
Aotus griseimembra, 33, 95. 
Aphlebia (Hololampria) inusitata, 355. 
Aphredoderus, 99. 
Apion confectum, 46. 

exanimate, 46. 

rcfrenatum, 47. 
Apophorynchus flavidus, 378 
Apophysophora scutellata, 376. 
Aprion macropthalmus, 188. 
Arachnophroctonus ferrugineus uni- 

color, 325. 
Arbaciosa rupestris, 193. 
Archosargus unimaculatus, 189. 
Arctocephalus townsendi, 129. 
Arctopsyche irrorata, 354. 
Argia ulmeea, 354. 
Arphia saussurcana, 336. 
Artibeus jamaicensis sequatoralis, 94. 
Asida tegrota, 325. 

confluens, 325. 

connivens, 325. 
Asilus alterus, 373. 

anonymus, 373. 

capillatus, 373. 

dolichomerus, 373. 

nigrocaudatus, 373. 

tenebrosus, 373. 

xanthocerus, 373. 
Asineops, 99. 
Asphondylia autumnalis, 370. 

betheli, 370. 

mentzeliae, 370. 

patens, 370. 
Aspidiotus coniferarum, 359. 

(Chrysomphalus) kelloggii, 359. 

(Chrvsomphalus) pauJistus, 359. 

Aspidiotus osborni, 359. 

piceus, 359. 
Astylosternus, 349. 

roebustus, 349. 
Asynedetus syntormoides, 374. 
Atsenius strigatus, 324. 
Atarba puella, 367. 
Ateles ater, 95. 
Atherina laticeps, 183. 

stipes, 183. 
Atlapetes flaviceps, 162, 163. 
Atomosia anonyma, 373. 
Atomyia modesta, 334. 
Atractomorpha australis, 357. 
Atrophopoda (Paradidyma) braueri, 377. 

(Paradidyma) townsendi, 377 
Attaphilu fungicola, 355. 
Attila fuscicauda, 155. 
Aulax chrysothamni, 363. 
Azelota diversipes, 357 

Baccha dolosa, 375. 

cxigua, 375. 

lugubris, 375. 

placiva, 375. 

jninctifrons, 375. 

rubida, 375. 

stenogaster, 375. 
Bairdiella ronchus, 190. 
Balaninus extinctus, 53. 

minusculoides, 54. 

minusculus, 54. 

restrictus, 54. 
Balistes vetula, 192. 
Baris hoveyi, 52. 

matura, 53. 

schucherti, 52. 
Basileuterus richardsoni, 160. 
Bassaricyon medius, 93. 
Bathyopsis sp., 60. 
Bathystoma rumator, 188. 

striatum, 188. 
Belier de Montagne, 6-8, 23. 
Belocephalus hebardi, 355. 

rehni, 356. 

sabalis, 355. 
Bembex beutenmulleri, 364. 
Bergroth, E., new or little known 
Hemiptera, chiefly from Australia, in 

IN I), 


the American Museum of Natural 
Hit; U8. 

Bibiodee, 337-341 

astiva, 338,371. 

femorata, :>»<>. 371. 

halteralis, 337, 338. 
Bfcena setosa, 84 
Blapstinus sulcatum, 325. 
Blarina (Crypt ot is; squamipes, 93. 
Bodianus fulvus punrtatus, 187. 

fulvus ruber, 187. 
Boletina <i»'li<-ata. 368. 

gracilis, 368. 

melanchnlica. 368. 

nacta. 368. 

notescens, 368. 
Bombus hortorum arborensis, 368. 

hortorum ela O PO f, 

hortorum fertoni, 367. 

hortorum hieckeli, 367. 

hortorum iehnusa\ 

hortorum uolffi, 366. 

lapponini.-, pulchrior, 366. 

pratorum aureus, 366. 

sorcensis quat tricolor, 366. 
toi, 366. 

terrestris duplex, 366. 

terrestris gallune, 365. 

terrestris limbanr, 366. 

terrestris ruber, 366 

terrestris simplex, 366. 

t.-rn-stri- t.-n.-r. 180 
Bombyliu-s clio, 


io, :;. 
Brachyostracon, 169 1 77 

-.icon cylindricus, 169, 175. 

ptodoo) mexicanus, 171, 175. 

Brown, Barnum, the osteology of (he 

manus in tin- family Tra<lio<lontidn\ 

10."> 107: ■ m-tol Dinosaur from 

tin ! ii Cretaceous, 131— 

■hyotlraeon, a new genus 

from Mexico, 167- 


Bryactinus, 202. 

amorphus, 197 
Buffalo Basin section, BJ| Horn Basin 
(Wasatch), 60. 

Buffalo, small white, 27. 
Buthraupis aureocincta, 140. 

Cactophagls validus, 325. 
Ca?nocoris augur, 344. 
Calamus bajonado, 189. 

proridens, 189. 
Calandra orza*, 325. 
Callirhyctis pustulatoides, 362. 
Calobata mellea, 378. 
Calosoma palmeri, S3 1 
Campsomtri- <lorsata, 325. 
Campylenchia curvata, 336. 
Cams jamesi, 130. 

peninsula*, 130. 
Cantharis pilsbryi, 361. 
Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis, 

Caranx bartholonuei, 185. 

crysos, 186. 

fosteri, 186. 

hippos, 186. 

latus, 186. 

parapistes, 186. 

jxTonii, 186. 
Carcineut.->. 2W. 881. 
Carynota mrra. 

Cebus capucinus nigripectus, 95. 
Cecidoin\ia chiiu|ii:»pin, 370. 

«■ la vii la. 

lysiniailiia . 870. 

inril>oiiiia\ 370. 

m«il>omiifolia\ 370. 

mvrira . 871. 

nv-vsa-cola. :17<> 

pustuloi'l) •-. 870 

ramusoula. 878 

rudlHH'ki.i . 870 

semenivora, 37 1 


unguii ul:. 


veronia 1 , 370. 
Centrioptera augularis, 325. 

spiculifi i 
Ontropomus pedimacula, 187. 
Ceratopogon flavus, 367. 
Cerenopus eonoolor, 325. 



Cercsa buhalus. 331. 

pulmi'ri, 332. 

taurine, 332. 
Ccria bigot ii, 376. 

bramrii, 878 

lynch ii, 376. 

miUii, :'.7C>. 

!<i iiciii, 370. 

wulpii. 370. 
OerUoeoi bfotrio, :'■ 16. 
Ceriogastcr fosci thorax, 37i>. 
Ccroplastt's candcla. 

-chrottkyi, 358. 
CVrylc. 261. 300. 
CeryHwe, 243, 247, 263. 
Ce yo opsig, 263. 
Chstodiptcrufl fiber, 192. 

Chalcolcpidius rul>iipcnni>, 324 
Chalybion califoinicum. 826. 
Chama'pctcs sancta'-martha\ 141. 
Chapman, Frank M , diagnoses of ap- 
parently new Colombian birds, 139- 
100: a new Ibis from Mt. Kenia, 
British Fast Africa. 236-288. 
Chilosia chysoclil amy-, 876. 
Chimara, 86. 

agassizi. 213. 
coffiei, 3">, 196. 
mits\ikurii, 35. 
munstrosa, 35. 

Bathyalopex) mirabiha, 36. 
l-> IimkIus) agassizii, 213. 
I'.Mttacodon) sedgwickii, 215. 
Chinweroids, Cretaceous, 196-228 
Chiona>pis gfelHtaUB, 359. 
furfural var. fahrus, :>•">'.• 
sylvatica, 359. 
( 'hironectcs minimus. 7 I 
Chironomus anonymou.-. 

longimanus, 367. 
CUocoeeryle, 264, 304. 
a?nea, 310. 
amazona, 308. 
americana, 309. 
inda, 310. 
Chlorochroa (Peatatoma) persimilis, 

Chloroscombrus chrysurus, 186. 

Chlorospingus albib-mpora nigriceps, 

Chordonota nigra, 371 . 
Chortoicetes affini-*. 

pusillulus, 356. 
Choucalycon, 211. 
Chromis multilineatus, 101 . 
Chrysobothris cyanella, 361. 

• dwardsii, 361. 

merkelii. 824. 

nixa, 361. 
Chrysomyia desvoidyi, 377. 
Chrysonotus analis, 371. 
Chrysopila plebeia, 372. 
Chrysops bistellatus, 371. 

intrudens, 372. 

shermani, 372. 
Chrysopsacris (Inusia inornatipes, 357. 
Chubb, S. H., notes on the trapezium 

in the Equida>, 113 1 1 6 
Cicada linnci. 357. 

sayi, o"»7. 
Ciehlida\ 08, 99. 

Cmnicerthia o livaa e aM infasciata, 158. 
dstogaster insularis. 377. 
Citharomantis falcata, 355. 
( 'itharichlhys spilopterus, 193. 
Claosaurus ( = Traehodon) annectens, 

Cleouufl degeneratus, 18. 

estriatus, 47. 

hiTsicri. 18. 

primoris, 48. 

rohweri, 47. 
Clinocera lecta, -J7 i. 

Clupanndon pseudohispanicus, 181, 186. 
CoccuwOa sanguinea, 324. 
Cochlnp-. 176. 

Cockerell, T. I). A., and Junius Hender- 
son, inollusca from the Tertiary strata 
of the West, 229-231. 
Coekwia gracilis, 368. 

lcpida, 368. 

modest a, 368. 
Ccenocharis, 382, 383 

denticularia, 396. 

elongata, 387. 

eureka, 396. 

ignavaria, 396. 

/ \ DEX 


Ccenocliari- indistincta 
macdunnoughi. 395. 
obscura. 395. 
oabrofaacaria, 393. 
paaolaria, 385. 
OoUetM polemooii, 365. 
Coloapasta winztli, 361. 

.linn coloration, 313-321. 
differens. 46. 
Coniontus Mihpulx - 
pe angustifrons, 
argent ifaccis. 376. 

front o. 376. 



mi us. : i T « » . 

hopareus, 376. 
rimmui maximus, 324. 

1 rlorissantensis. 10. 

ura pokhella, 373. 
Itii. 361. 
hippurus, 187. 

Cratoparb> ad umbra' u-. .", I 
Creodont, i n« l« * 




( tophyUaapu liquidambaria, 359. 
< tophylllU I l.«a. floridfiiM 

rh\ in hits coloradensis, 50. 

1 I Id 

A cauctB. Ill 

1 v prctan>. 

1 una Ix-utriiinulli-n 

•compwa ryatw caucar I 

lischlMl, 164. 

iirus viduus var. irregularis, 360. 
Cyclocephala dimidiata, 324. 
Cyllenc antrnnatu.-. 
Cymatomcra orientalis, 356. 
(Vnips (Aiidricus) pattoni, 362. 

<lricus) quercu8-formosa, 31 
lii«u> ((iifrcus-medulla;, 362. 
(Dryophanta) papula, 31 
lioleaspis) quercus-mamma, 362. 
Cyphomyia lasiophthalma, 371. 
Cyphus subtcrramus, 45. 
Cyprinodon variegatus riverendi, 182. 

D\. wuma v.. 244,253. 

Dactylopius (Pscudococcus) kingii, 358. 

Damalis occidentalis, 373. 
Dapednlossus, 90. 
Dasyati> >p., ISO. 

pitMSte columbiana, 76. 
varicgata columbiana, 76. 
variegata variegata, 76. 
tCHM afa xatithinus 127. 
Dasypus novcmcinctu>. 71. 
Dean, Bashfonl. on the hair-like ap- 
piinlan«-s in the frog. Astyloslcrnus 
robust us (Blgr.), 349-351; orthog 
in the egg capsules of Chin 
35 Hi 
Deinoatoma dilatatom, 83 

Dcmlrobiiis mandibular!-. 

Dannaftai vulpinu- 

I )<rol)raclni- forrcri. 
Desinnptera sundiaea, 
I halvsis aldrichii, 879 
Diaphorus cmitiguus. 


II. i\ ip- i7 I 


phlM minmiu- 
Dichclaccra poll 

acuteil , 

■ ophora atlniiv 
aatuta. 371. 

Dictvotu.- pallhlu- MO. 



Didea coquilletti, 375. 
Didclphis marsupialis etensis, 74. 

paraguaycnsis andina, 74. 
Diglossa cryptorhia, 164. 

gloriossissima, 165. 
Dinoderus truncatus, 324. 
Dinosaur, Crested, 131. 
Dioctria vera, 373. 
Diphrisaa, 202. 

latidens, 197, 204, 211. 

solidulus, 197, 204. 
Diplectrum formosum, 187. 

radiate, 187. 
Diplomystus, 99. 

DiplosLs (Cecidomyia) partheniicola, 371. 
Dipodomys insularis, 123. 

merriami, 123. 

merriami melanurus, 123. 

merriami simiolus, 123. 
Dipristis, 202. 

meirsii, 197, 204, 207. 
Discocerina obscura, 378. 
Discomyza dubia, 378. 

nana, :i7s 
Doeirhynchus culex, 43. 

terebrans, 43. 
Dcedicuridse, 177. 
Doedicurus, 177. 
Dolichopus amnicola, 374. 

amphericus, 374. 

henshawi, 374. 

opheles, 374. 

palu.-t-i. :;7 J 

pantomimus, 374. 

partitus, 374. 

renidescen8, 374. 
Douchotrypes hopkinsi, 364. 
Dorytomus vulcanicus. 48. 
Drapetis apicis, 374. 

flavidus, 374. 
Drosophila annulata, 379. 

bellula, 379. 

coffeata, 379. 

fasciola, 379. 

opaca, 379. 

ornatipennis, 379. 

pallida, 379. 

similis, 379. 

vitattifrons, 379. 

Dryinus nigrellus, 364. 
Drymophila caudata striaticeps, 1 Ul 
Dryophanta pedunculata, 
polita, 362. 

Eburia ulkei, 325 
Eclimus fascipennis, 373. 
Ectomocoris ornatus, 346. 
Edaphodon, 199, 200, 202, 222, 225. 

agassizi, 200, 213, 214. 

bucklandi, 202. 

cra&sus, 200. 

divaricatus, 210, 211. 

fecundus, 208, 210. 

gaskillii, 206. 

incrassatus, 207. 

laminosus, 200. 

laqueatus, 200, 217. 

laterigerus, 200, 211, 214. 

longirostris, 208. 

mantellj, 200. 

meirsi, 207. 

mirificus, 197, 200, 206, 208, 210, 

monolophus, 208. 

reedi, 200. 

8edg^vicki, 2O0, 214, 215, 225. 

smocki, 213, 225. 

stenobryus, 200, 213. 

tripartitus, 215, 216, 225. 
Elachiptera flavida, 379. 
Elagatis bipinnulatus, 185. 
Elasmodectes, 199, 224. 

willetti, 200. 
Elasmodus, 199. 

crassus, 200. 

greenoughi, 200. 
Eleodes eschscholtzii lucae, 325. 
Elephas columbi, 167. 
Elis, sp., 325. 

Elliot, D. G., new species of monkeys of 
the genera Seniocebus, Alouatta,*and 
Aotus, 31-33; description of a new- 
species of CEdipomidas, 137. 
Elmis columbiensis, 361. 
Elops saurus, 181. 
Emblethis vicarius, 359. 
Emmenastus erosus, 325. 
Empis enodis, 375. 



Enchenopa binotata, 336. 

Entylia sinuata, 336. 
Eohippus, 59. 

Eoscyllina irx-xpectata, 357. 
Epenephelus adscen&ionis, 187. 

Ana, 187. 
Ephippithyta biramosa, 356. 
Ephydra p\ urnaea, 378. 

nuricatus, 373. 
Epicauta alastor, 361. 
Epilanipra (Hcterolampra)8tructilis,355. 

•rolampra) wheeleri, 355. 
E<]uu- qp . M7. 

aasinus, 114. 

caballus. 111. 115. 

grant i, 114. 

jtn-vyi. 114. 

bearionm, ill 

Erax mnrinnatus, :{73. 

opedei brevicauda, 356. 
Eriocera austora, 367. 

ilia iiiontanus. 3 

od 78 


prr.ipiiiis, 376. 

vdlaticus, 375. 
Estnonvx >\> indesc., 60. 
Etcles <><mi! 

ris angulata 326, 364. 

Eurin«Mtoinu.H gulu, IK'.J 
Eugnamptidea 13 
tertiaria. 13 

iiiiuni fraxini. 358. 

nam, 888. 

Eumvlodua, 200. 

laqueatus, 197, J 1 7 
l.up'thecia golgolata, 390. 
Ku|M>macentrus fuacus, 191. 

Im 191. 

banamoturis, 355. 

faaciatella, 366. 
ucura elcgans, 371 

Evania urban*, 363. 
Exarna rugosa, 357. 
Exechia at trita, 369. 

Exechia auxiliaria, 369. 

bella, 369. 

capillata, 369. 

casta, 369. 

nugatoria, 369. 

obediens, 369. 

palmata, 369. 

perepicua, 368. 

quadrat a, 369. 
Exelis, 382, 383, 405. 

fumida, 406. 

pyrolaria, 405. 

tensaria, 405. 
Exoproeopa brevirostris, 372. 

8ackeni, 372. 

Feus jaguarondi, 93. 
Formicarius castaneiceps, 147. 
rufijMH-tus carrikeri, 146. 

Gambrusia punctata, 180. 

pvmcticulata, 179, 180, 182. 
Gastrodonta (?) evanstonensis, 231. 

evanstonensis, var sinclairi, 231. 
Gastrops niger, 378. 
Geophagus braziliensis, 167. 
Geralophus antiquarius, 45. 

foamcius, 46. 

lassatus, 46. 

occult U-, t"i 


n-tritus. 46. 
>axuo.«.ii>. lt>. 
scudderi, 46. 
Gerres brasiliensis, 190. 

• >li>thoatomufl, 190. 
Girardimw mat alliens, 179, 180. 

GBaridtohthyi talnfea, 179, 180. 

torralbasi, 180. 
Glaucina, 382, 888, 384 

abdominalia, 388. 

bilineata. 389. 

tldiinata, 8B7< 
<-pi|ili\-ana, 884| 888v 

• rmraria, 888. 
escaria, 384. 
eupetheciaria, 385. 




(daucina hulstinoides. 391. 

magninca, 390. 

mormonaria, 391. 


poeDaria, 386. 
(dobieephalus scammoni, 118. 
Glossonotus univittatus, 336. 
Clvptodon, 169, 175. 

mexicanus, 168. 
(llyptodontia, 175. 

< rlyptqdontkbft, 175. 
Glyptodonts, 167. 
Glyptostoma (?) spatiosum, 231. 
Glyptotherhun, 171. 
Gnamptopsilopus (Agonosoma) flavi- 

< nrnis, 374. 

(Agonosoma) flavidus, 374. 
Gnoriste macra, 368. 
Gobius boleosoma, 193. 

oceanicus, 193. 

soporator, 193. 
Goera faaeula, 
Goniobasis tenera, 233. 
Coiiiocollctos morsus, 366. 
Gtaflaria alleni, 148. 

milleri, 147. 

< Irataeap, L. P., an unusual specimen of 

,'ilus middendorffi Grewingk, from 
Alaska, 69, 70. 

Grossbeck, John A., list of insects col- 
lected in Lower California, 323-326; 
types of insects, except Lepidoptera 
and Formicidse, in the American 
Museum of Natural History addi- 
tional to those previously listed, 
353-379; a review of the species com- 
prising the Glaucina-Coenocharis group, 

Gryllacris larvata, 355. 

Gryllodes sigillatus, 323. 

(iryllus galapageius, 323. 
niexieanus, 323. 

Guavina guavina, 192. 

Habromyia cccruleithorax. 
Hadrostomus homochrous, 1 ■">•">. 
Hadrus parvus. 872. 
Hsemagogus splendens, 367. 
Hsemulon album, 188. 

llamulon parra, 188 

plumieri, lss 

sciurus, 188. 
Hagedashia, 238. 
Halcyon, 261. 
Halictu8 scrophulariae, 364. 

synthyridis, 364. 
Il.upe rufa. 191. 
Haseman, J. D., the relationship of the 

gains Priscacara, 97-101. 
Haiarina rudis, 354. 
Havinthus longicrps, 345. 

obscurus, 345. 

pentatomus, 345. 

trochanteratus, 345. 

mede (Allotrichoma). abdominalis, 
Ilcliastus aridus, 323. 
Helix evanstonensis, 28 1 . 

leidyi, 232. 

narimienteiisis. 229. 

riparia, 230. 

■M.modon?) dallii, 
Henierodroinia defessa, 374. 
Ileinidenna perspieillatuni, 94. 
Hemiramphus brasiliensis, 182. 
Seniooeephakn aerius. 344, 359. 
Hermetia ceriogasler, 871. 
Hermillus edo, 346. 

rufipes, 346. 
Heroe tetracanthttft, 179, 191, 180. 
Uetarina infecta, 354. 
Heteromvs lomitensis, 77. 
Heteroneura flavipes, :!77. 

lumbalis, 377. 

Hierodula athene, 355. 
Bippelatee proboscidexts, 379. 
Holcaspis brevipennata, 362. 

inonlieola. 882. 

rubens, '■'■■ 
Holocentrus ascensionis, 184. 

coruscus, 184. 
Holochlora prasina, 356. 
Holochroa, 381, 383, 406. 

dissociarius, 407. 
Hoplophorus, 169, 171, 176. 
Hussakof, L., the Cretaceous Chima> 
roids of North America, 195-228; 



note on an embryo of Pritti* cuspida- 
tus, 327-330. 

philas califoraicus, 

! rut philombrius, 374. 

ooehuthui Dulichopus) crenatus, 

• phalu- aprugnus, 343, 360. 

Idris quadri.spin<>>us, 364. 
Ilythea flavipe* 
Iri<lio bivittatus. 1" 


mai'iili pinna, 198. 

198, 199, 200. 

agaasizi. 2 

divariratus. 1 

feouiulus. 197 


incLxus, 200. 
in<ra»atus. l'.)7. 204. 
laterigeru*, 197.21! 

lonfcir«>>tn>. 197, 204. 
ini«-r>ii. '204. 
inirificus, 204. 
mnnolopliu>. 197, 304 
plana*. 200. 
■edg»i<ki. 197, 213, 214 
thunnanni, 200. 

;«era scalaris, 356. 
I«>t»-ni». 223, 235. 
neocnarietwtM, 197 

!,.-a all.-ni 

Kermks killKli 

•lumbianus, 151. 

hid.*, 98, 99. 

nolaimu* maximi- I'M 
I.arncwtrrna niti«la, 8M 

Lagochtrus obsoletus, 325. 

Lampribis olivaeea, 236. 

Largus cin< 

Lasioptera asterifolia', 369. 

comieola, 369. 

lindene, 370. 

nodulosa, 369. 

tumifica, 369. 

viburnieola, 370. 
Lecanium (Euleeanium; hoferi, 358. 

(Euleeanium I kinjjii, 358. 

(Euleeanium) pallidior, 358. 

(Euleeanium) pulchrum, 358. 

(Euleeanium) rehi, 358. 

(Euleeanium) webeteri, 358. 
Leia dryas, 368. 

plebeja, 368. 
Lepidosiren paradoxa, 350. 
Lepidostola abdominalis, 376. 

pulchra, 376. 

simiUs, 376. 
Lepiodes behrensata, 392. 

eaearia, 384. 

eupetheciaria, 385. 

interruptaria, 392, 393. 

seolopacinaria, 402. 
Lepisoeteus platostomus, 181. 

trintu rims. 181. 
Leptogaater conoinnata. 373. 

croeea, 373. 

dorsalia, 373. 

intima, 373. 

micropygialifl, 373. 
UfftOglMMI /<>natu>. 394 
Lept«)in*rintl.oph<>ra smaragdipes, 357. 
Lepton.v!u>. 309, 218. 226. 
UpUxayhm <„<,k.i. 197, 2<*>. 318, 219. 


forfrx. I SI. 

Opan <lisparilis, 375. 
Leptotila v.rnauxi occidentalia, 142. 
LepuH alien i tiburonenaia, I 

raliforniru* magdalenir. ' 

cal: iiiti. 120. 

insulari*. 130 
Leuctra grandia, 354. 
Ligyrua gibbosua, 3. 

l.mios-ina .loloroaa, 377. 
Lbonotus mult ifaadatua, 325. 



l.ithology of the Tertiary sediments, 

Big Horn Basin, 63. 
Lomaphorus, 176. 
Lophogobinus cyprinoides, 192. 
Lophotibis, 237. 
Loxa flavicollis, 324. 
Ludinus texanus, 324. 
Lycodontis funebris, 181. 
Lygajus reclivatus, 324. 
Lygus neovalesicus, 348, 359. 
Lynx ruffus californicus, 130. 
Lysinoe nacimientensis, 229. 


Macrocera concinna, 367. 
Macrocylis spatiosa, 231. 
Macrorhinus angustirostris, 128. 
Macrotona gracilis, 357. 
Macroxus medellensis, 92. 
Macrymenus membranaceus, 343. 
Magdalis striaticeps, 48. 
Malacomorpha androsensis, 355. 
Mallota margarita, 376. 

smithi, 376. 
Marila nationi, 140. 
Marmosa murina zeledoni, 73. 

pha?a, 73. 
Masteutes saxifer, 42. 
Matausch, Ignaz, observations on some 
North American Membracidse in their 
last nymphal stages, 331-336. 
Mazama tschudii, 74. 
McGillivray, Duncan, his discovery 

of Wild Sheep in Canada, 2-7. 
Megaceryle, 244, 265, 287. 

alcyon, 294. 

guttulata, 297. 

lugubris, 298. 

maxima, 296. 

torquata, 295. 
Mcgachile beutenmulleri, 365. 

dampieri, 365. 

devadatta, 365. 

doleschalli, 365. 

funnelh, 366. 

giliaj, 365. 

henrici, 365. 

macleayi, 365. 

maculariformis, 365. 

Megachile wootoni rohweri, 365. 
Megacriodes (Batocera) guttata, 361. 
Megadytes fraternus, 324. 
Megasoma thersites, 324. 
Melander, A. L., the dipterous genus 

Bibiode*, 337-341. 
Melanomys, 87. 
Melanoplus complanatipes, 324. 

fluviatilis, 357. 

herbaceus, 357. 
Melanostoma catabombum, 375. 

longicornis, 375. 

scitulum, 375. 
Melissodes hymenoxidis, 365. 
Membracidae, last nymphal stages of, 

Menestheus brevis, 360. 
Merosargus concinnatus, 371. 

gracilis, 371. 

spatulatus, 371. 
Mesohippus, 113. 

Metachirus opossum melanurus, 73. 
Metacycla insolita, 325. 
Metanopedius sicarius, 364. 
Miacid, 59. 

Microbembex monodonta, 325. 
Microdon inermis, 375. 

mirabilis, 375. 
Micropogon furnieri, 190. 
Microxus affinis, 89. 
Miller, W. DeW., a revision of the classi- 
fication of the Kingfishers, 239-311. 
Mimesa myersiana, 364. 
Molorchus longicollis, 361. 
Monacanthus, 110. 

ciliatus, 111. 

hispidus, 111. 
Mongoma manca, 367. 
MoreUia nigricosta, 377. 
Morina, 382, 397. 

coniferaria, 399. 
M ozena lurida, 324. 
Mucina brunnea, 377. 

latipennis, 377. 

varicolor, 377. 
Mugil gaimardianus, 183. 
Muscisaxicola alpina Columbiana, 152. 
Mus musculus, 77. 
My-attic, 4-7, 23. 



Mycetes discolor, 

•etophila anomala, 369. 
dolosa, ■ 
endure, 369. 

m<l:i. 369. 


pent a. 369. 
imyia imitans, 368. 
■Morals, var. frequens, 368. 
nugatoria, 368. 
recurva, 368. 

recurva var. chloratica, 368. 
xipina. 868. 

afyeothera fenestrate var. pranubila, 
initis, 369. 

venenoea, 1S7 
us cingulatus, 373. 
clarifumis. 373. 
"lynastes chrysocephalus chryso- 

ilus, 153. 
e far j a oes p hahM intermedius. 152. 
i hrysocephalus minor, 153. 

mmnimbe columbiana, 1 83. 
i peninsularis, 1J7. 
Mytilus miililcndorflS, 69. 
-argus braueri 

\ , 

Neacomy* pusillus, B 1 

. v;ir convexa, 365. 

.t>inu> :ifl 

'(•Ins l«-lliilii-, 371 
linioi, 171. 
trinotatus. 871. 

Neoc tora (Leia) nitons, 368. 

apodus, 188. 
aya, 188. 

griseus, is? 
synagria, 188 

■dulfeos, 368. 

ilbigula aarl, 125. 

■ma insularia 

intermedia, 194 

intermedia arcnacea, 124. 

intermedia gilva, 124. 

intermedia perpallida, 124. 

intermedia pretiosa, l'.M. 

intermedia vieina, 124. 

nudicauda, 124. 
Xeuryurus, 177. 

Nichols, John Treadwell, notes on West 
Indian fishes, 109-111; notes on 
Cuban fishes, 179-194. 
Xomada rohweri, 365. 

maretus debilis var. alpinus, 360. 
Nomia amboinensis, 365. 
Xotiphila beiluda, 378. 

pulchifrons, 378. 

•trieta, 378. 
Xotogoneus, 99. 

Notonecta raleighi, 359. 
N'vctibius longicaudatus, 140. 

Ochotona figginsi, 103. 

saxatilLs, 103. 
Ochthera humilis, 378. 
Ochtheroidea atra, 378. 
Ocyurus ekrjsurus, iss. 
Odoeoilcii> orrosensis, 120 

homionus WTWlVmS. ISO. 

peiiin.MiLr. 1 l'.» 
(Ecanthus pini, 355. 

quadripunctatus, 355. 
Qkiipomidas geofTro\i, 1 

Ogilhia cjivonim, 18 

Omali brasris) m e ridi o na ls, 867. 

(Al' /natipes, 357. 

Omphalina oreodontis. . 
Onnw edwanUi 

sequoiarum, 360. 
Oneodocere analk 873 
Onoopeltus fasciata, 


Ophiderma sp., 335. 
Ophryastes champion!. 1 1 
< 'pliryastites eonereua, 44. 
miocenus. it 



< tpiuM giwn'nft^j 800 

bacanthua striathcntrus, 364. 
Opisthoncma o^linum. L82 
Opsanus tau, 103. 
Opsebius agelMMB, 872 
Oreohelix gr anger i. 281. 

megarche, _'.{() 
Oreoibis. 2:i7. 

akeleyorum, 23f> 2 
OreothraupU airaneoops, 140. 
Orphulclla gramin«-a, 356. 

olivaoea, 356. 
Orthopristris poeyi, 188. 
Oryzorays albigularis, 85. 

palmirae, 83. 

pectoralis, 83. 

phax>pus obscuroir, 88. 

(Melanomys) obscurior, 87. 

(Melanomys) obscurior afflnis, 88. 

(Melanomys) phaeopus, 87. 

(Oligoryzomys) fulvirostris. 86. 

(Oligorvzoinvs) munchiquensis, 
Oscinis fur, 370. 

iiuipiens, 370. 
Osculatia purpurata, 140. 
Osmia albolateralis, 366. 

chlorops, 366. 

cyaneonitens, 366. 

flotissanticola, 366. 

giliarum, 366. 

pentstemonis, 366. 

wheeleri, 366. 
Otiorhynchites florissantensis, 45. 
Ovb urn ii ii in. 24. 

canadensis, 2-15, 0-15, 23, 25. 

canadensis dalli, 28. 

canadensis fannini, 20. 

canadensis gaillardi, 20, 27. 

canadensis liardensis, 22. 

canadensis mexicanus, 26. 

canadensis nelsoni, 26. 

canadensis stonei, 28. 

canadensis typica, 23. 

cervina 2-15, 0-15, 23, 25, 26. 

cervina auduboni, 22, 25. 

cervina californiana, 22, 25. 

cervina californianus, 20-25. 

cervina calif ornica, 25. 

Ovis cervina cervina, 23. 

oenrina erenuaobatot, 20, 23, 27, 110. 

dalli. 27, 28. 

dalli dalli. 28, 27. 

dalli fannini, 23, 28. 

dalli kenaiensis, 28. 

dalli stonei, 23, 28. 

fannini, 20. 

liard»n>i-. 28. 

montana, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 

montana dalli, 27. 

nelsoni, 20, 26. 

pygargus, 24. 

stonei, 28. 
Oxylabis bifoveolatus, 364. 

Pachvcori8 torridus, 324. 
Pachylis gigas 324. 
Palaeohoplophorus, 176. 
Palaxmictis sp., 60. 
Pangonia arcuata, 371. 

bullata, 371. 

tilipalpis, 371. 

pavida, 371. 
Panochtua, 160, 171, 176. 
Panorpa carolinensls, 354. 
Panorpodes carolinensis, 354. 
Pantarbes capito, 372. 
Paralimna mullipunctata, 378. 

(ih^cura, 378. 
Parasphecodes tilachiformis, 364. 
Parathalassius aldrichi, 375. 
Paratylotrophidia beutenmulleri, 357. 
Passalodon, 202. 
Patridava, 405. 
Pelidnota luca, 324. 
Pelocoris carolinensis, 350. 
Pelomyia occidentalis, 378. 
Pepsis sp., 325. 

formosa, 325. 
Perdita florissantella, 365. 

tortifolia?, 365. 

wilmattae, 365. 
Pericoma albitarsis, 367. 
Periplaneta americana, 323. 
Perla carolinensis, 354. 
Perognathus baileyi insular is, 122. 

baileyi rhydinorhis, 121. 

fallax, 122. 



irenarius, 121. 
illaiu- goldmani, 122. 

M sirens. 121 . 

spinatus bryanti, l 

nelsoni. 122 
tiis peninsube, 121 . 

icua carmeni 126. 
niDQi eadroaoenaia, 125. 

icua polyoplius, 125. 

mieus tiburonci 
guard ia 126 

manicuhitu- ooo&igH, 125.' 

.«'t<i|M>:» cruental us, 187. 
progne taper* immaculata. 156. 
Pheidoxem-s irfaeekri, 
I'lii-nacoccua acarin 

daaroaaai, ;"> s 
aacodont, 59. 
Phena< i x I > . 

prii '.ii 

PheuR(j[H-<ii 1 id 

Phoneutisca riaapBeior, .'.71 
Pbtturia dolor 

Phgrnohodcoda aororia, ^77 

i plerotnati 

•cephala aocoKula, -<77. 

bops, ;j77 
vptna tacrymigar sanct» marthae, 

Piestolestes. .'ill 
lineatus. 346 
Plonopaitta fuertesi. 1 1 •; 

- heaperus australia, 127. 
una rtiMonljerto, 1 to 

-ii<u> fuscobrunneus. Lfl 
Plaaocbii wQk 



warn gracil)! 

I'lutypsaria homochmus caneicens 

Plecia quadrivittata. 

roncinia auri<-<>p>. 884. 
Plochioniis timidus.>, 160, 171. 17 

Pfaaiotai bayeri, 
Poaaifia nttata, 17'». 180, 
I'ticiloimti- (viwardsi, 360. 


I'olvcaon puaetatna, 

l'c>l\.laitylu> virKini<u-. 184. 

atropua <an>linensis, 354. 
.ra.iallii. . 
1'<.1> lapta obediens, 368. 
rVamuiiliidai, 98, 99. 
Porphyrop* cffilatu-. 
1'otamotrynoii, 99. 
Potoe fla\ us caueensis, 93. 
Priono<lc< pbxaba, 187. 
Priaeaeara, relationship of, 1(7-101. 
serrata, ( .»7. 100. 
oxyprion. 1(H). 

ooapidi :«). 

peotinatu-. IS 

pp.. psora paffidna, I - 
Proaekhnya atBaiapaaoaai aafidi 

PNaacriaaaa qrlndrieoniia, 871. 

archoplophoraa, 188, 171, 171. 
PaammocharaB I 

bm -lax iger, ^. r >8. 

BJM :iniphiox\>. 1 10 
!■ 'rhymliu- «alainu>, 355. 
PaUopocHDOi) Im-UuIu 
P a fl opo ttnua) baalaria, 
• loodoa, 20 

PtecticUH coiiciiinu-, 171 
Ptetodixitia rni«flla, 
Pteroptil.i aimila, .;. 

I'ulviuaria rm-km-lli. 

-implex, 358. 
tfaca, 358. 

I'utnriu* B 



Pycnocelu8 Biriitfiimr*fffi. 323. 
Pyrolaria approximaria. 405. 

Quilta pulchra, 357. 

Ramphhalcyon, -Ml. 242, MS, 259. 

Reithrodontomys milleri. 77. 
Rhacophorus reticulatus, 350. 
Rhagoletis ribicola, 378. 
Rhamphocrenus rufiventris griseodorsa- 

Us, 145. 
Rhantus anisonychus, 324. 
Rhipidomys cocalensis. 79. 

mollissimus, 78. 

similis, 79. 
Rhodites aref actus, 363. 

globuloides, 363. 

gracilis, . 

nebulosus, 363. 

nodulosus, 363. 
Rhopalomera ciliata, 378. 

xanthops, 378. 
Rhopalomyia bethcliana, 370. 
Rhymosia akeleyi, 368. 
Ripersia flaveola, 358. 

kingii, 358. 

lasii, 358. 
Rivulus marmoratus, 182. 
Rupicola peruviana aurea, 156. 

Sai88ETia nigrella, 358. 
Sapromyza angustipennis, 377. 

exul, 378. 

ingrata, 378. 

octovittata, 377. 

picrula, 378. 

puella, 377. 

sordida, 378. 

sororia, 378. 

venusta, 378. 
Sarcophaga chsetopygialis, 377. 

iiiicropygialis, 377. 

otiosa, 377. 
Sardinella macrophthalmus, 182. 

sardina, 182. 
Saropogon pulcherima, 373. 
Saurolophus osborni, 131. 
Sauromarptis, 241. 
Scarus caruleus, 192. 

Schistocera ina\ .■.. 82 I 

vaga, 89 I. 
Sciara concinna, 369. 

debilis, 369. 

germana, 369. 

zygoneura, 369. 
Scdophila glaban.i \;ir ncrinaiia. 367^ 

impar, 368. 

nugax, 3(i7. 
Sciurus aestuans caucensu, 91 , 

gerrardi, 90. 

hoffmanni, 90. 

mUleri, 91. 

(Microsciurus) palin<ri, '•_'. 

(Microsciurus) similis, 93. 
Sclerocalyptida 1 , 176. 
Sclerocalyptus, 169, 171, 175, 176. 
Scomberomorus cavalla, 184. 

regalls, 184. 
Scorpama plumieri, 192. 
Scudderia fasciata, 356. 

truncata, 356. 
Scyllina brasiliensis, 356. 

pratensis, 356. 
Scyphophorus fossionis, 54. 
Selene vomer, 186. 
Seniocebus inarlinisi, 31. 

meticulosus, 31, 95, 137. 
Sepsis insularis, 378. 

Shaw and Nodder's 'Natanfiate' Mis- 
cellany,' collation of, 11-14. 
Sibynes whitncyi, I'.t. 
Sinclair, W. J., and Walter Granger, 
notes on the Tertiary deposits of the 
Bighorn Basin, 87 67. 
Siphostoma torrei, 183. 
Sitalces ovatipennis, 357. 
Sitodrepa panicea, 82 1 
Sparisoma chrysopterum, 192. 
Sphagepaea, 225. 

aciculata, 197. 

articulata, 224. 
Spharagemon «quale scudderi, 356. 

saxatile, 356. 
Sphecomyia occidentalis, 376. 
Sphex sp. near femur-rubra, 325. 
Sphyra?na guachancho, 184. 
Spilogale lucasana, 129. 
Spilographa setosa, 378. 



Spinus nigricauda, 160. 
Sporathraupis cyanocephala margaritae, 

i.spis solitaria, 325. 

•lia sulphurea, 364. 
Stenocharis, 382, 399. 

permagnaria, 400. 

osphemia novatus, 325. 

•;i nius edwardsii, 347, 359. 
Stichopogon abdominalis, 373. 
bocarenue subrufescens, 360. 

.cephala, 336. 
tococcus sjostedti, 359. 
Stnlt-phorus browni, 182. 

ptodoctus, 182. 
Stonyx (Anthrax) lelia, 372. 
Streptoceryle, 265. 
Syacium mi<-rurum, 193. 
Syhilagus (Tapeti) fulvescens, 75. 
Symbranchus marmoratus, 179. 
Synallaxis gularis cinereiventris, 149. 

gularis, 150. 

rufipectus, 149. 
SynorniK utripes, 363. 

• •riiKicci, 363. 

in<-i.Mi», 363. 

punctata, 363. 
Synglochia, 881, 397. 


tunena picu 
Syrphus bbsinuatus, 375. 


Tabam m Immagogus, 372. 



iintiu- uliw, 372. 

plenus, 8 

pumiloides, 372. 
Tackanli:i Klomerella, 888. 
Tanysiptora, 262. 
Tarn : ipea, 373. 


hi lit Ian ticus, 181. 

Taye of California, 17-20. 

<>f the Monquin Indians, 27. 

Tegrodera aloga, 361. 
Telamona ampelopsidis, 336. 

barbata, 333. 

sp. indet, 333. 

unicolor, 333. 
Tephritis variabilis, 378. 
Tephroclystia golgolata, 390. 
Tetracha Carolina, 324. 
Teucholabis annulata, 367. 
Teuthissp., 192. 

Thayer, Abbott H., concealing colora- 
tion, an answer to Theodore Roosevelt, 
313-A2 I 
Thelia bimaculata, 333. 
Thermonecte8 marmoratus, 324. 
Thinodromia inchoata, 375. 
Thomasomy8 cinereiventer, 80. 

pop ay anus. 81. 
Thomomys bottaj anitae, 123. 
Thryophilus leucopogon, 140. 

nigricapillus connectens, 157. 
Thylamys cauca», 73. 
Thyroptcra tricolor, 94. 
Timanthes quadratus, 356. 

.-upcrbus, 356. 
Tipula acuta, 3<»7. 


rctusa, 867. 

Titusella pronitens, 365. 
Tornos,: <>1,404. 

abjectarius, 402. 

<iliit:illi|-. till 

erectarius, 404. 

escaria, 384. 

euprtlir. i:irtus, 385. 

fieldi. 404. 

imopii.irius, 405. 

intrrniptttriiis, 392. 

ochrofuscarius, 393. 

pyrolarius, 405. 

robiginosus, 402, 404. 

scoloparinariuH, 402. 
Townscnd, Charles Haskins, mammals 
collected in Lower California, with 
descriptions of new species, 117-130. 
Townsendia niger, K 

pulchcrrima, 373. 

/ \ DEX 

Toxodera phito, 
Toxorhynchua p a ndi t , H. 

miiiusfiilus, i 1. 
Trachiaotui fakatua, 186. 

Trachodon annt'ctens, l()s. 
niiral>ili», 1<><<. 

TrachodontSda), osteology of maim of, 

Trachurope oramanophthaJmua, 185. 
Tragklion rimalatum, 

TnotkUfl Carolina', 361. 
Tribolimn ferrugineum, 325. 
Triohiunw bptums, 186. 

'I'richopsomvia kmgioonUB, 376. 
puclla, 376. 
tuhcmilata, 376. 

Trimeroptropu vinvulata, 823. 
Triorophua mbpubeaoane, 826. 

Troglodytes solstitialis pallidipectus, 

Tropadomyia bimaculst*, 376. 
Tropinotus (Diedronotua) gracilis, 357. 
Trox gcminulatus, 361. 
Trypeta straininca, 378. 
Tursiops ^illi, 118. 

nuuanu, 1 1 v 
Tylosurus rapliidoma, 182. 
T\ raiiniscus chrysops minimus, 153. 

nigricapillus flavimentvim, 154. 

I'l'I.M.I - Ill.irulutUS, 184. 

Opuroerthia excelsior columbiana, 148. 
(Jrocyon cinereoargentatus ealifornicus, 

I'nitlnaupi- -tol/manni, 1 to. 

V \m>i n i arquata, 

VeniBonni nigrioepa equifasciatus, 

1 H. 
\ ircosylva rliivi caucae, 169. 
Vivipara tea, 2 

paludina-formis, 233. 

wryoraingenaH 233. 
VbhiceHa mnula, :'.7.v 

meretriciaa, ">7.">. 
VohioeUa mot, 876. 

must a. M7."). 
ornata, 375. 

preactiteUarie, 375. 
Vomer gabonensia, 186. 

sctipinnis. L86. 

W'ickuam. II. I"., (in -.line fossil Rlivn- 

ehophoroua Cofeoptera from Floris- 
sant, Colorado, 11 

XxNiooms subalaris columbianus, 

Xylocopa chionothorax, 366. 

mohnikei, 366. 

sp. 325. 
XysUema oneream, 190. 

havana, 189. 
Xylota genuina, 376. 

rufipes, 376. 

Zabrotks pectoralis, 
Zaloplms californianua, 12 




American Museum of Natural 
History, New York 

k M«fcc«|