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Department of Agriculture^ 

Victoria, B.C., June 30th, 1916. 

7'o His Honour Frank Still^ian Barnard, 

Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia. 

May it please Your Honour: 

I have the hononu to submit for 3'our consideration herewith Bulletin 
No. 71, '^ Butter-making on the Farm," prepared by T. A. F. Wianeko, 
Provincial Dairy Instructor, under the direction of Wm. E. Scott, Deputy 
Minister of Agriculture. 


Minister of Agriculture. 

Department of Agriculture^ 

Victoria, B.C., June 30th, 1916. 
Hon. Wm. Manson, 

Minister of Agriculture^ Victoria^ B.C. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith for your approval 
Bulletin No. 71, entitled " Butter-making on the Farm," which has been 
compiled' by T. A. F. Wiancko, Provincial Dairj^ Instructor, of the Live 
Stock Branch of the Agricultural Department. 

I have the honour to be. 
Your obedient servant, 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture, 



Minister of Agriculture. 


Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 

w. T. Mcdonald, b.s.a., m.s.a. 

Live Stock Commissioner. 

Assistant Live Stock Commissioner. 

*H. RIVE, B.S.A., 

Chief Dairy Instructor. 


Chief Poultry Instructor, 

*WM. NEWTON, B.S.A., H. 

Soil and Crop Instructor. 

H. E. WALKER, B.S.A., 

Chief Veterinary Inspector. 

W. W. ALTON, V.S., 
Veterinary Inspector. 


Secretary to the Department. 
Granted leave of absence for overseas service. 


Dairy Instructor. 


Poultry Instructor. 

O. ENGLISH, B.A., B.S.A., 

Soil and Crop Instructor. 

* S. F. DUNLOP, B.S.A., 
Assistant Agriculturist. 

S. A. K. WHITE. V.S., 
Veterinary Inspector. 

B. R. ILSLEY, y.S., 
Veterinary Inspector. 

Fig, 1. Combined cliurn and worlser. 


will not be denied by any one who is at all familiar with dairy 
conditions in British Columbia that there is great room for improve- 
ment in the quality of a large proportion of our farm-made butter. 
If all the dairy butter was of finest quality the increase in consump- 
tion would be very great, and better average prices would prevail for 
all butter, and thus a tremendous impetus would be given the dairy 
industry as a whole. Creamery butter, from the fact that it has been 
made by those who have been well instructed in the art of butter- 
making in well-equipped, sanitary creameries, is of uniform grade and quality, and 
therefore has a ready sale at top prices. 

The creamery butter-maker is supplied with a full outfit of utensils and appar- 
atus, which enable him to recover a maximum quantity of butter from the cream. 
He gives careful attention to the ripening of the cream, so as to develop desirable 
flavours, and proper temperatures are carefully maintained during the ripening 
process and at the time of churning. No guesswork is allowed at any stage of the 
process, and the butter-maker who knows his business sees to it that the butter is 
carefully and thoroughly worked, packed in a neat and attractive way, and kept 
in clean and sanitary storage until marketed. 

The case is different, however, with those who make butter on the farms, where 
a large part of the butter of this Province is still being made. There is a great lack 
of proper equipment in the way of proper dairy-houses, utensils, apparatus, and 
cooling facilities, and a general lack of knowledge of the underlying principles of 
the art of making butter of first quality. 

While on some farms excellent work is done and a choice article is made, which 
brings a fancy price, yet, through ignorance of correct methods of manufacture and 
of the demands of the market, and in many instances through carelessness, the great 
bulk of farm-made butter fails to bring the price it should, entailing a loss on the 
farmers of this Province which in the aggregate is enormous. It is for the benefit 
of this latter class that this bulletin is written, with the hope that some suggestions 
may be given and some ideas advanced which will serve to improve the methods of 
the dairyman and increase his profits. 


(1.) Undesirable flavours, such as rancid, unclean, cowy, fishy, weedy, tallowy, 
etc. : 

(2.) Lack of uniformity — oversalting, undersalting, insufficient working, over- 
working, too much or too little colour: 

(3.) Churned from thin, overrii>e cream at too high a temperature, causing the 
retention of too much buttermilk, and resulting in a general lack of body 
and texture: 

(4.) Unsuitable packages and too many different styles. 


(1.) Milking in unclean stables: 

(2.) Cow's udders and teats in an unclean condition at milking-time : 

(3.) Foods that impart volatile flavours, such as turnips, onions, cabbage, spoiled 

and fermented feeds, etc.: 
(4.) Separating the milk in an unsuitable place, where there is lack of pure air 

and ventilation: 

10 Department of Agriculture. 

(5.) Improperly cleaned separators and milking utensils: 

(6.) Keeping the cream or butter at too warm temperature and in poorly con- 
structed, ill-ventilated storage: 

(7.) Cream too old or too ripe before churning and too much buttermilk retained 
in the butter: 

(8.) Impure water, cows drinking from stagnant ponds or the seepage from 
barnyards : 

(9.) Result of the growth of injurious bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. 


Like other plants, bacteria require food, warmth, and moisture for growth. 
They absorb their food from the material in which they grow. The food elements 
they require are present in the constituents of milk, and they are in a readily avail- 
able state. Nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and mineral matter are essential and are 
furnished by the casein, milk-sugar, and mineral salts. 


Milk may be contaminated by bacteria from within the udder, or introduced 
into the milk by dust falling from the stable air, by hair, small particles of skin, 
or manure falling into the milk-pail from the flanks and udder of the cow, and by 
dirt from the hands and clothing of the milkers. The greater part of this filthy 
matter dissolves in the milk, giving it not only undesirable odours and taints, but 
also inoculating it with the various kinds of bacteria. These germs may also have 
been gathered from stagnant water, muddy pools, or miry yards. While the 
majority of them may not be disease-producing or especially harmful, should they 
be transmitted to the human system, yet, to say the least, they are factors in 
bringing about decomposition of the milk. 


Filth and disease germs go hand in hand ; the same carelessness that allows 
the one is likely to give access to the other. Hence it is of the highest importance 
that the cow and her surroundings be kept as clean as possible. This can be accom- 
plished by brushing off all the loose dirt and dust from the flanks and udder. This 
will take but a moment, and will prevent large quantities of filth from getting into 
the milk. The amount of dirt that gets into the milk is one of the chief causes of 
its rapid spoiling, and the contamination from dissolved filth can never be entirely 


The first requisite for pure milk is healthy cows. Any animal suspected of 
being sick or out of condition should be at once separated from the herd and not 
allowed to remain near the dairy. Milk should never be used until five days after 
calving, nor from a sick cow nor one with a diseased udder. 


Costly barns or stables are not essential to the production of clean milk or to 
the maintenance of a dairy herd at its highest efficiency. To obtain the best results, 
however, it is important that the cows be kept comfortable at all times. The 
barnyard should be well drained and covered with gravel, stone, or cement. The 
contamination which a cow gets from muddy " manury " barn lots and stagnant 
pools of water is especially bad. A tight, reasonably smooth floor, with a gutter 
suitably located, should be provided, and the stable thoroughly cleaned and swept 
at least twice daily. It is advisable to haul the manure directly to the field from 
the barn, but if this is not feasible it should be removed at least 40 feet from the 
barn. In no case must it be allowed to accumulate against or near the dairy-barn. 

Butter-making on the Farm. 



Two things almost universally lacking, or, at least, inadequately supplied in 
dairy-barns, are light and pure air. These are easily obtained, and although 
absolutely essential to the best health of the herd and the economic production of 
clean milk, they are rarely appreciated. 

Most dairy-barns do not contain sutficient windows. If a barn is already built, 
more windows can easily be provided. There should be 4 square feet of glass for 
each animal, and the lighting so provided that the sunlight may reach all parts 
of the stable some time during the day. 

Some good system of ventilation should be provided, as the cow's feed cannot 
be properly digested and assimilated without an abundance of oxygen ; and unless 
this is supplied a great waste of good food, as well as impaired health of the cow, 
will result. 

To be sanitary, a dairy-barn should be whitewashed at least twice a year. An 
interior with a few boards or poles laid overhead at irregular intervals, with hay 
or straw hanging through, and with the sides in no better condition, cannot be 
properly whitewashed, and is one of the most prolific sources of dust, cobwebs, and 
dirt, which fall into the milk laden with injurious bacteria. The ceiling should 
be tight, excluding all dust and chaff from above, and the sides smooth, thus afford- 
ing a firm surface to which whitewash can cling. 


It is of the utmost importance in keeping cows clean that the platform on 
which they stand should be of the proper length. If too short the cows cannot 
lie down comfortably, and if too long the droppings will fall on the rear of the 
platform and the cows will become soiled when lying down. A good arrangement 
is some form of movable stanchion or manger, so that the length of the platform 
can be adjusted to suit the length of each individual cow. 


The quality of the milk is also dependent to a great extent upon the milker. 
His personal habits largely determine the cleanliness of the product. He should 
be personally clean, have cleanly habits, and enjoy 
perfect health. A bucket of clean water and a clean 
cloth should always be used to moisten the flanks and 
udder of the cow before milking. When these parts 
are dampened, the dust, dandruff, and loose hairs will 
adhere to them and minimum amounts fall into the 

Milking should never be done just after handling 
hay or hedding, or when the stable is full of dust or 
bad odours from any cause, for dust is one of the most 
common sources of the bacteria found in milk, and 
bad odours may readily be absorbed by the milk. 

A milk-pail with a small opening (Fig. 2), or one 
with the top partially covered, is always advisable. 
The pail should be held close to the udder so as to 
exiK)se the milk to the air as little as possible. The 
further the streams fall and the more they spray, the 
more dirt and bacteria they collect. Milking should 
be done only with clean, dry hands. Milking with wet 
hands is filthy. The clothing of the milker should be 
of washable material and kept properly clean. 

Fig. 2. Sanitary milk-pail. 


Department of Agriculture. 


The milk should be removed from the stable to a clean, airy place, such as 
a dairy-house which is free from dust, flies, and bad odours, as soon as possible 
after it is drawn, and strained at once. 

A good milk-strainer (Fig. 3) should be simple in its construction; all parts of 
it should be easily accessible for thorough cleaning, its meshes should be fine enough 

to remove all the solid foreign 
matter, and at the same time to 
allow the milk to pass through 
reasonably fast. All things con- 
sidered, a strainer consisting of 
a fine wire gauze and four lay- 
ers of cheese-cloth is most prac- 
tical and efficient. 

The cause of many of the 
most costly disturbances in 
dairying, such' as rapid souring, 
bad odours, and all sorts of ab- 
normal fermentations, has been 
traced to the filthy condition of 
the milk-strainer. The strainer immediately after use should be thoroughly rinsed 
in cold or lukewarm water ; then washed in hot water to which a small quantity of 
some good washing-powder has been added; then rinsed in boilng water, sterilized 
by exposure to live steam, or by boiling in clean water and dried in the sunlight, or 
in a dust-free, clean room. 

Fig. 3. Milk-strainer, showing centre removed. 


This building should be convenient to but entirely separate from the barn where 
the milking is done. It should be just large enough for actual needs, so that it 
cannot be used as a general store-room. A cement floor is to be recommended 
wherever possible, and should be constructed with a slope towards a gutter com 
municating with a drain situated on the outside of the building, so that the waste 
water can be carried off for a considerable distance. The walls and ceiling should 
be smooth, so that they can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. There should be 
plenty of light and ventilation. The windows and doors should be screened summer 
and winter. There should be convenient arrangements for washing, scalding, and 
drying dairy utensils, and an abundant supply of pure water for cooling the milk 
or cream. 

In case a special dairy-house cannot be provided, the milk or cream should be 
handled and stored in a clean, light, and well-ventilated place, free from strong 
odours of any kind. A cellar is usually a very poor place for this purpose, especially 
if also used for storing vegetables. 


When good, clean milk has been secured, the next operation is to separate 
the cream from the milk. This may be accomplished by either of three methods 
now commonly in use — viz., shallow pans, deep setting, and the cream-separator. 


The best results from using shallow pans are to be obtained by setting the milk 
immediately after milking, placing the pans in a clean, well-ventilated room, where 
the temperature ranges from 50° to G0° Fahr. Skimming should take place about 
twenty-four to forty-eight hours from the time of setting, and can best be accom- 

Butter-making on the Farm. 


plished by loosening the cream from the sides of the pan with a thin-bladed linife; 
and by tilting the pan on the edge of the cream-can just sufficient to allow the milk 
to first wet the rim of the pan, the cream by the aid of the knife may be easily 
and quickly guided into the cream-can. If possible, no milk should be taken with 
the cream, as it dilutes it and makes it more difficult to churn. 

Uniformly good results by this method cannot be obtained, for the reason that 
the milk being spread out in a thin sheet is exposed to the air, so that it is readily 
affected by atmospheric changes. The large surface of milk exposed in the pans, 
and the length of time that it stands, also favour the absorption of odours and 
infection that come from impure air, dust, and dirt. The comparatively high tem- 
perature of the milk and cream encourages souring and bad flavours, and often 
results in the cream becoming leathery and lumpy, and these in turn cause heavy 
loss of fat in the buttermilk. 

This method of creaming milk is best suited to a place where only one or two 
cows are kept. It may also be used where neither ice nor cold water are available 
for deep setting. 


This method has decided advantages over the 
shallow-pan system w^here an abundance of very cold 
running water, or water and ice, are available, in that 
there is less milk surface exposed to the air, and the 
low temperature at which the milk is held ensures an 
improved quality of cream, butter, and skim-milk under 
average conditions. 

The equipment necessary for efficient creaming 
by this method is a suitable water-tight box or tank 
sufficiently large and deep to hold the creamer-cans 
and allow space for the cooling water, or water and 

The warm milk should be immediately strained 
into the cans and the cans lowered into the water, 
which should reach up as far as the milk. To do 
efficient creaming, the icater should not he above 45° 
Fahr., and as much lower as possible. 

The best type of can (Fig. 4) to use is one with 
a slanting bottom, with a faucet to draw off the skim- 
milk. The slant carries away any sediment and per- 
mits the removal of all the skim-milk. 

The milk should always set twenty-four hours 
before the skim-milk is drawn, and in winter thirty- 
six hours is better. The longer period yields a richer 
cream, which may be churned at a lower temperature, 
resulting in a firmer-grained butter and in less loss 
in the skim-milk. 

Setting the cans in cold air in winter will not prove nearly as eflfectlve in raising 
the cream as setting them in cold water, even though the temperature of the surround- 
ing air is near the freezing-i)oint. 

Fig. 4. Deep-setting can. 


By the use of the cream-sei)arator a much more perfect separation of the cream 
from the milk may be had than by any system of gravity creaming. The increased 
product made from the saving in loss of fat in skim-milk alone over the best gravity 
methods of creaming, to say nothing of its other advantages, amounts to from $5 
to $10 per year for each cow. It is obvious, then, that the separator will soon pay 

14 Department op Agriculture. 

for itself, and will make dairy-work a source of profit and satisfaction instead of 

Other advantages are: A richer and more uniform quality of cream may be 
obtained; the skim-milk is in the very best possible condition for feeding young 
stock ; and the cream being always fresh and sweet, its care and ripening is under 
a more direct control of the butter-maker. 

Which is the best separator at the present time it is impossible to say, since no 
one separator comprises within itself all the points of merit that the ideal separator 
might possess. All the separators on the market will do efficient skimming if properly 

The chief points of merit that should be looked for in a separator are: (1) 
Strength and simplicity of construction ; (2) cheapness and durability ; (3) minimum 
need of power and maximum capacity; (4) thoroughness or closeness of skimming; 
(5) strength of foundation and steadiness of motion; (6) freedom of defects in its 
mechanism; and (7) ease of cleaning and general convenience of detail. 

Select a separator with a capacity of not less than 50 to 75 lb. per liour for each 
cow milked. A ten-cow herd would then require a machine having a capacity of 
500 to 750 lb. per hour. Larger herds at same ratio. It is a great mistake to pur- 
chase a machine that is too small, as it will take too much valuable time to skim 
the milk. 


When a separate milk-house is available, the cream-separator should always be 
found there, and never operated in the stable or any other place where the air is 
impure or the surroundings bad. A simple, clean room with a solid floor and screened 
doors and windows can be made to answer very well as a place to separate cream. 


To give a separator the necessary stability it should be fastened to a solid floor 
or foundation. Care should be taken to have the top of the separator stand level in 
all directions, and to have it securely fastened to the floor or foundation by means 
of screws or bolts. A small square of l^-ineh rubber-sheet packing placed under the 
outside edge of the base, or under each leg, before fastening improves the running 
of any separator. 

Before the separator is started all parts should be thoroughly cleaned and all 
bearings well oiled, and oil-cups and oil-holes free and in working condition. Special 
attention should be given to the oil that is used. With each machine that is sent 
out by the makers there is sent a can of oil of a quality that has been found by 
experience to answer the purpose best. Such oil can be obtained from the selling 
agents of the machine, and no other should be used. 

Two or three minutes should be taken to get the speed up to the required rate, 
which is stated on the crank of the machine. The speed of the machine must then 
be maintained according to the directions. The only reliable way to do this is to 
count the number of revolutions of the crank by the watch. 

A small quantity of water at a temperature of 110° to 120° Fahr. should be used 
to warm and wet the bowl, and after speed has been acquired the flow of milk may 
be turned on. In turning a separator by hand we should take care to have the 
motion as steady as possible. The pressure on the crank should be the same all 
the way around. 

In skimming, three things must be carefully observed— viz., the speed of the 
bowl, the temperature of the milk, and the feed of the milk to the machine. With 
the same machine and all other conditions the same, a greater loss of butter-fat 
must be expected when the separator is not run up to the required speed, when the 
milk is below a certain temperature, or when more than a certain amount of milk 
is run through in a given length of time. 

Butter-making on the Farm. 


Milk separates best when fresh or new and at a temperature of 00° to 100" 
Fahr., and for this reason the best time to separate tlie millc is immediately after 
milking. A low temperature will cause a loss of fat in the skim-milk. 

Every separator has some device for changing the test of the cream. In most 
cases the adjustment is at the cream outlet. If so, by turning the screw in the cream 
will be richer, and by turning it out the cream will be thinner. 

Variation in the percentage of fat in the cream may be caused, also, by a varia- 
tion in the temi>erature of the milk ; by the quantity of milk in the supply-can ; a 
variation in the percentage of fat in the milk; by irregular si^eed; and by the bowl 
not being properly cleaned. 


Many dairymen are neglectful in the cleaning of the separator, and some seem 
to think that it is unnecessary to wash the machine more than once a day. Such 
practice cannot be too strongly condemned. Even when the bowl is rinsed with warm 
water, there remains a coating of slime and milk on the interior parts which readily 
undergoes decomposition. When next used, the warm cream in passing becomes 
contaminated with bacteria from this source, and it is injured beyond repair. Such 
cream may be dangerous to health, and it is certainly unfit for butter-making. 


The cream-can should be of sufficient size to hold a supply large enough for one 

Cream should be churned at least twice a week during cold weather and three 
times a week during warm weather. 

When collecting cream for a churning, great care must be 
taken to keep It in a cool, clean place, and to stir it thoroughly 
from the bottom of the can every time fresh cream is added, 
and frequently until churning-time. A simple and cheap stirrer 
(Fig 5) consists of a saucer-shaped piece of hea^T tin about 3 
inches in diameter, with a long handle of ^/4-inch heavily tinned 
iron fastened to the centre of it. No amount of washing and 
hoiling can keep a loooden stirrer sweet and clean, and such' 
should on no account he used. 

When shallow-pan setting has been used, the cream is 
already ripened, or partially so, \Vhen taken off. If it has 
been kept cool and properly stirred as each skimming was 
added, it may be churned almost at any time when brought to 
the proper temperature. 

Cream from a properly conducted deep-setting system 
should be cold and sweet when skimmed. Each skimming 
should be thoroughly stirred when added to the previous lot 
and kept at a low temperature until twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours previous to churning, and no fresh cream should be added 
during the ripening process. 

If a cream-separator is used, the cream should be imme- 
diately cooled to ri5° Fahr. or less, by setting it in cold or 
running water, or by allowing it to run over a cooler (Fig. 6) 
such as are especially made for that purpose. After thoroughly cooling each 
skimming it can be added to the main supply. In no case should warm cream be 
added to cold cream. Both should be equal in temperature, and then they may be 
mixed together by efficient stirring. The cream should be kept in as nearly sweet 
condition as possible until enough for a churning has been gathered. 

Fig. 5. Cream-stirrer. 


Department of Agriculture. 


In order to ripen cream properly, the temperature must be made favourable to 
the development of the lactic-acid bacteria. This temperature is usually somewhat 
above C0° Fahr. The object of ripening or souring the cream is to produce flavour 
and aroma in the butter, to get a more exhaustive churning, and to improve the 
keeping qualities of the butter. These flavouring substances, so far as known, can 
only be produced by a process of fermentation. The best flavour in butter is obtained 
when the cream assumes a clean, pleasant, acid taste during the ripening. For this 
reason it is essential to have acid-producing germs predominate during the ripening 
process ; all other germs should be excluded, or at least retarded, if possible. 

Cream ripened at a low temperature (60° to 70° 
Fahr.) does not sour very rapidly; the germs do not 
multiply at a very rapid rate. The desired degree of 
acidity is approached very slowly, and in consequence 
the fermentation may be checked almost at once when 
desired. The chance of getting overripe cream is thus 
reduced to a minimum. If the cream is ripened at a 
high temperature (75° to 80° Fahr.) there is danger 
of getting overripe cream, which makes a strong- 
flavoured butter with poor keeping quality. Extreme 
and rapid changes of temperature should be avoided 
as much as possible. A good thermometer (Fig. 7) 
should be used in every well-regulated dairy. The 
more uniform the temperature can be kept, if suitable 
for proper ripening, the better the results. 

There are two ways of ripening cream ; the flrst 
is to allow it to sour naturally, as a result of the 
action of the bacteria which are normally present in 
the cream. By the second method the cream ripens 
as a result of the action of certain kinds of bacteria 
which are added in what we know as a " starter," or 
pure culture. 

A " starter " is milk which has been properly 
soured, has a pleasant, clean, acid flavour, and is 
capable of producing a similar flavour in the cream 
to which it is added. The object of its use is that 
the bacteria which you know will produce a fine- 
flavoured butter may take possession of the sweet 
cream before other and perhaps objectionable germs 
gain control of it. Buttermilk or sour cream from a 
previous churning are sometimes used, but their use 
for the reason that, even though the flavour is good. 

Fig. 6. A good type of cooler, 
is not to be recommended, 

there are always present some undesirable germs which will multiply in each suc- 

7. Floating dairy thermometer. Makes definite knowledge of temperature 

cessive lot of cream or buttermilk used as a starter, so that after a week's time 
the flavour may actually be bad. When cream is slightly off-flavoured, and a 
portion of this, or the buttermilk from it, is used as a starter, it will readily be 
seen that the taint will not only be transmitted, but will increase from day to day. 

Butter-making on the Farm. 17 

The best natural starters are made by allowing the bacteria normally found in 
the milk to sour or curdle it. They may be made by taking a small quantity of skim- 
milk or whole milk, produced under clean conditions from clean cows, while fresh and 
new, and allowing it to sour naturally in a well-sterilized glass jar at a temperature 
of from 70° to 80° Fahr. If it sours normally, with a pleasant, clean, acid flavour, it 
may then be added to the cream at the rate of about % to 1 pint for each gallon of 
the cream to be ripened. 

Generally speaking, the most satisfactory method of ripening cream under 
average farm conditions is to keep it as sweet as possible until about twenty-four 
to thirty-six hours before churning-time, and then slowly bring the temperature up 
to 65° to 70° Fahr. by standing the cream-can in a tub of warm water, and when 
it has ripened sufficiently to produce an acid smell and a slight acid taste and shows 
signs of thickening, it should be at once thoroughly and. quickly cooled to churning 
temperature and held until churning-time. It is always best to time the ripening 
so that the cream may be cooled ready for churning about eight to twelve hours 
before churning takes place. This is necessary to give the fat in the cream time to 
become firm, or the result will be a soft, weak-texturedi butter. 

Should it become necessary to use a starter in order to hasten the ripening pro- 
cess, as may happen during cold weather, one made from skim-milk or whole milk 
as described above will in most cases prove very satisfactory. 

One of the most difiicult things to determine is when the cream has the proper 
ripeness to be churned, so that uniform results can be obtained and one churning 
be like another. A skilful, experienced butter-maker is able to judge very closely 
the right condition of the cream for churning by its appearance. A properly ripened 
cream should have a clean, sharp, pleasant, acid taste and. smell, and should be of 
the consistency of good molasses, and when poured be free from lumps and have a 
smooth, glossy appearance. 


The proper temperature for churning cream can be determined only by the 
length of time it takes to bring the butter in a firm, granular form. This should 
be from twenty-five to forty minutes. There are a number of factors which influ- 
ence the churning temperature of cream, chief of which are: (1) Tlie percentage 
of fat in the ci*eam; (2) the period of lactation of the cows; (3) the feed of the 
cows; (4) the amount of cream in the churn; and (5) the speed of the churn. 

Richness of the Cream. 

The closer the fat-globules are to each other, the more quickly they will unite, 
with the same amount of concussion in churning. In a rich cream the fat-globules 
are very close together, which render it more easily churnable than thin cream, and 
can therefore be churned at a lower temperature in the same length of time. The 
lower temperature is favourable for a firm, icaxy-grained butter. 

To get the best results, the percentage of fat in the cream should range from 
25 to 30 per cent., or about 3 to 3l^ lb. of butter to each gallon of cream churned. 

Period of Lactation. 

The length of time the cows have been In milk influences the churning tempera- 
ture, because of its effect ui)on the size of the fat-globules in the milk. In the 
earlier part of the milking period cows produce milk containing larger fat-globules. 

Feed of the Cows. 

The effect of the feed of the cows is due to its effect upon the composition of 
the fat-globules. Succulent feeds, like pasture grass, green corn, silage, roots, etc., 
tend to increase the softness of the fat-globules, while dry feeds, such as hay, grains, 
etc., cause a harder butter-fat. 


Department of Agriculture. 

Amount of Cream in the Churn. 

The fullness of the churn affects the amount of agitation that is possible durin? 
the revolution of the churn. The best and quickest churning is secured when the 
churn is about one-third full. With more or less cream than this, the amount of 
concussion is reduced, and the length of time in churning correspondingly increased. 

Speed of the Churn. 

The speed of the churn also affects the amount of agitation the cream receives. 
It should be such that the cream receives the greatest amount of agitation or con- 
cussion. Too high or too low a speed reduces the amount of concussion. 

In general, it may be said that rich separator cream may be churned at 48° 
to 52° Fahr. in summer and 50° to 58° Fahr. in winter. Gravity cream requires a 
temperature of 55° to 60° Fahr. in summer and 60° to 64° Fahr. in winter. A good 
rule to follow is this: When the cream enters the churn, the temperature should 
be such that the cream will churn in nice granular form in from thirty to forty 
minutes. This will ensure an exhaustive churning and leave the butter in a condi- 
tion in which it can be handled without injuring its texture. Moreover, the butter- 
milk can then be more thoroughly drained off, and the butter requires less washing. 


Before adding the cream, the churn (Fig. 8) should be scalded with hot water, 
and then thoroughly cooled with cold water. This will freshen the churn and fill 
the pores of the wood with water, so that the cream and butter will not stick. 

Fig. 8. A good type of hand-cliurn. 

All the cream should be carefully strained into the churn through a finely per- 
forated tin strainer (Fig. 9). This will break up or remove all clots of cream and 

Butter-making on the Farm. 


particles of curd, and there will be less danger of white specks in the butter, 
particles injure both the appearance and keeping qualities of the butter. 


When colouring is used it should be 
added liefore churning commences. In 
summer in times of drought, and in the 
fall and winter when cows are on dry 
feed, some colouring may be needed. 
The general market now demands a 
butter with a clear, light-yellow tint. 
Too deep a shade is repulsive. From 
two to four drops of any good, reliable 
brand of colouring per pound of butter 
will be sufficient. In case the colour is 
not added to the cream (through an 
oversight), it may be mixed with the 
salt and added to the butter at the time 
of working. When the coloured salt 
has been evenly distributed through the 
butter by eflacient working, the colour 
will be found uniform throughout. 


Fig. 9. Cream and buttermilk strainer. 

Gas in Churn. 

During the first five minutes of churning, the vent of the churn should be opened 
occasionally in order to allow the cream-gases and expanded air to escape. 

When to stop Churning. 

This is a very important point which has a good deal to do with the quality of 
the butter. At the time the butter breaks, the churn must be carefully watched in 
order that the fat-globules may mass together in granular form, so that the butter- 
milk may be thoroughly removed, and this can best be accomplished if the butter 
gathers in the form of granules varying in size from that of wheat to peas. Their 
size can be best controlled by stopping the churn frequently after the butter breaks. 
If the gathering process is coming on quickly, several quarts of cold water should 
be added to the cream. This retards the gathering, lessens the chance of over- 
churning, and gives a more exhaustive churning. On the other hand, if the butter 
gathers too slowly, or remains about the size of clover-seed, several quarts of water 
which is a little higher in temperature than the cream may be added, and the churner 
revolved a few times. It should now stand for several minutes, after which a part 
of the diluted buttermilk may be drawn off and the churning continued. 

Churning is completed when the hutter stands well out on top of the huttermilk 
with froth Whhles over it, and when no hutter comes with the first drawn huttermilk. 


After churning is completed, the buttermilk should be drawn off at once and the 
butter allowed to drain for a few minutes. The butter should then be washed with 
pure, clean water, and its temperature should be somewhere near that at which the 
buttermilk was, dei>ending upon the firmness of the butter. If too soft use colder 
water, and if too hard use water which is a little warmer. The main objects of 
washing the butter are to rid it of all the buttermilk possible, to improve its keeping 
quality, and to firm or harden it so that it can be thoroughly and efficiently worked 
^vithout injuring its grain and texture. The amount of water used should be equal 
to the amount of cream churned, and this should always be carefully strained into 
the churn through a good cotton strainer. 


Department of Agriculture. 

If the butter is of fine flavour and for immediate use, one washing will gener- 
ally be suflicient ; otherwise it is well to wash twice, especially if the butter is to be 
held for some time. Bad-flavoured butter cannot be washed too much. 


After the wash-water has been thoroughly drained off the butter it should be 
salted to suit the requirements of the consumer. The butter-maker must cater to 
the market with regard to the amount of salt to use. As a general rule, however, 
for prints, % to % oz. per pound should be used, and for packed butter not more 
than 1 oz. per pound. 

Salt adds flavour to butter, serves more or less as a preservative, and assists in 
expelling the buttermilk. The butter may be salted either in the churn or on the 
butter- worker. 

Salting in the Churn. 

If the amount of butter in the churn can be fairly accurately estimated, it may 
be salted in the churn while in the granular form. This can best be accomplished 
by sifting on half of the salt evenly over the butter, then turn the butter over with 
a ladle, or by tipping the churn forward cause the butter to lap over. The remainder 
of the salt may then be sifted on, and after tilting the churn backward and forward 
several times the cover should be put on and the churn revolved slowly until the 
butter is gathered into a solid mass. It may then stand for a few minutes to allow 
the salt to dissolve, after which it may be worked. 

Salting on the Worker. 

If the butter is to be salted on the worker, it should be taken out of the churn 
in the granular form, carefully weighed, and spread evenly on the worker. The 
required amount of salt should also be carefully weighed, and sifted on the butter 
as evenly as possible, doing it in three or four applications, turning the butter each 


The best way to work butter, outside of the combined churn, is to use a V-shaped 
table worker (Fig. 10). One working at the time of salting is usually sufficient. 

Fig. 10. Lever butter-worker. 

provided the butter is firm enough when taken from the churn and worked in a 
cool place. 

Butter-making on the Farm. 


The purposes of working butter are: (1) To assist in distributing the salt 
through the butter; (2) to assist in expelling buttermilk and moisture; and (3) to 
produce a compact, firm, close-textured body. 

In working the butter, care must be taken to avoid a 
sliding or scraping motion, which makes the butter greasy. 
The lever should be pressed downward, turning it slightly over 
by a movement of the wrist; and when the butter is levelled 
over the worker, double it over with a ladle (Fig. 11) or by 
inserting the lever under the butter at one side of the worker, 
and work as before. 

The proi>er amount of working to be given to the butter 
will be best ascertained by observing the results of different 
amounts under the one system for successive days. It Is 
worked enough when the salt has been evenly distributed and 
the excess of free moisture expelled. It should have a firm, 
glossy appearance, and the texture should resemble the granu- 
lar structure of the end of a broken rod of steel. Underworking 
is generally shown by a mottled appearance in colour on the 
cut surface, and is largely due to an uneven distribution of salt, 
while overworking is indicated by a poor, greasy grain and 


Fig. 11. Wooden 
ladle. Butter should 
not be touched with 
the hands. 

Next to inferior flavour in butter, mottles are most objectionable to the con- 
sumer, since they affect the appearance and often give the impression that the butter 
is very bad, when, in reality, its flavour may be good. This defect is one of work- 
manship, and can be overcome by the application of proper methods on the part 
of the maker. 

Mottles are primarily caused by an uneven distribution of salt in the butter. 
This may be produced by insufflcient working of the butter, or by washing and 
working at a very low temperature. Extremely low temperature for washing and 
working should therefore be avoided, because they produce so firm a butter that it 
is only with great difficulty that the salt can be worked uniformly into it. On the 
other hand, high temperatures of churning, washing, and working must also be 
avoided to prevent an abnormal loss of fat in the buttermilk and the making of a 
greasy, salvy, or leaky butter. 

Generally speaking, the butter should be uniform 
in temperature and from 52° to 56° Fahr., in accor- 
dance with the weather conditions, so that It will 
stand a good deal of working without becoming too 
soft and greasy. Hard butter must be worked more 
than soft butter, and a small quantity more than a 
large quantity. 

When the churn-room is so cold that the butter 
becomes chilled before working is completed, mottled 
butter is frequently the result. To prevent this it is 
preferable to increase the amount of working rather 
than to raise the temperature of the wash-water. 


The greatest lack of uniformity in dairy butter is 
probably in the package. In the past, butter has fre- 
quently been put up in all sizes, shapes, and forms, 
wrapped in all sorts of materials, such as cheese- 
cotton, factory-cotton, towels, paper, and some not 
wrapped at all. This lack of uniformity has done much harm to the trade. It 

Fig. 12. One-pound butter- 
printer. Makes a neat, attrac- 
tive package. 

22 Department of Agriculture. 

should be the aim of every butter-maker to turn out butter that is neat and attrac- 
tive in appearance, as well as of first quality. The most desirable package, and one 
that can be always neat and attractive, is the 1-lb. print or brick, neatly wrapped 
in parchment paper. The printer (Fig. 12) should be set to give prints weighing 
full 101^ oz., and only the best quality of pure vegetable parchment paper should 
be used. The name of the farm or dairy should be neatly printed on the paper. 

Note. — In order to comply with the " Dairy Industry Act, 1914," the following 
regulations must be observed: — 

" Sec. 14. No person shall knowingly sell, offer, expose, or have in his posses- 
sion for sale — 

"(e.) Any dairy butter packed in boxes similar to those used for the packing of 
creamery butter unless such packages are branded ' dairy butter ' : 

"(/.) Any dairy butter packed, moulded, or cut into blocks, squares, or prints and 
wrapped in parchment paper unless such parchment paper is branded 
" Dairy Butter.' 

" The words ' Dairy Butter ' must be in letters at least one-quarter inch square." 

The full text of the " Dairy Industry Act, 1914," and the regulations made there- 
under are published as Bulletin No. 42, Dairy and Cold Storage Series, which may 
be obtained free upon application to the Publications Branch, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Ottawa. 

For packed butter, the 10- or 20-lb. spruce tub lined with parchment paper is 
probably the neatest and most attractive package. 

Stone crocks varying in size from % gallon up, if well glazed and in good condi- 
tion, also make excellent containers for packed butter for local trade. 


In the preparation of woodenware, such as the churn, worker, and ladles, for 
use in the dairy, the following points should be observed : They should first be 
scrubbed with a brush and scalding water, and then thoroughly cooled by pouring 
on cold water. If the butter sticks to the wood, it indicates that it has not been 
properly prepared. A thorough brushing with hot water and scouring with salt 
before cooling will remedy this trouble. 


All milk-pails and other dairy utensils used in handling milk and cream should 
be of such construction and material that they can easily be kept clean. Many are 
to be found in use with open or rough seams and joints, so that the milk can never 
be completely removed from them by any ordinary methods of washing, and it 
remains there to sour and decay, inoculating each milking with millions of the most 
undesirable bacteria. The use of sound utensils, well tinned, free from rust, and in 
a cleanly condition, is essential to good milk. Dented or battered pails, cans, etc., 
and seams that are not properly flushed with solder cannot be readily cleaned. Such 
uneven surfaces invite contamination that is readily imparted to the milk, though 
the latter is subjected to it only for a very short period. New pails and cans may 
cause an immediate improvement in the product. 

An essential requirement in any utensil for handling milk is simplicity, to which 
should be added durability. Nothing will contribute so much to the cause of better 
milk and cream as will the sanitary milk-pail, if properly used and cared for. The 
critical period in the life of milk is during the time of milking. Very few who have 
not made careful tests realize to what extent the wide-open pail invites dirt as com- 
pared with one partly covered. These assist very materially in excluding dirt and 
dust, and when we fully realize that dust-particles are the carriers of infection, the 
advantages of excluding them are obvious. Milking-pails should never be used for 
any other purpose. 

Butter- MAKING on the Faum. 23 


This is a very important question, thougli It involves l)ut a few simple considera- 
tions. Tlioy sliould i)e rinsed first of all with cold or lukt»Avarm water to remove all 
particles of milk. This step should never be omitted, for hot water tend>s to cook 
the milk fast to the tin, forming a sticky layer over the surface which is very difficult 
to remove. They should then be thoroughly scrubbed with a brush in warm water 
to which a small quantity of good wasliing-powder, such as "Wyandotte" or 
"Crescent Cleaner," has been added. The washing should be followed by a thorough 
scalding with water as near the boiling-iioint as possible, after wliich the vessel 
should be inverted on a rack to drain and dry from their own heat. With the exceiv 
tion of woodenware which might crack or warp, all utensils should if i)ossible be 
l)laced where the sun will shine on them, in a dust-fi^^e atmosphere, as that will do 
much towards keeping them pure and sweet. 

The protection of utensils from accidental contamination after they have been 
thoroughly washed and scalded has a measurable effect in reducing the germ content 
of the milk or cream. 

Printed by William H. Clllin, Printer to the King's Most ExceUent Majesty. 


THIS BOOK XS^^^---"^^^