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PROVINCE OF BRITISH dotU=M:fir^^.: :
DEPAETMENT OF AGEICULTUEE
(LIVE STOCK BRANCH)
BULLETIN No. 71
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PRDUiNCE OF fiRiTIStl COLUMBIA.
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William H. Ccllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
a i ji
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COmMBIA
DEPAETMENT OF AGEIOULTUEE
(LIVE STOCK BRANCH)
BULLETIN No. 71
THE GOUERNMENr OF
THE PRDUINCE OF BRlflSH COLUIKIfl.
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
Printed by William II. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
• «• •'! « • •• • • •• •
• • «••!•,
Department of Agriculture^
Victoria, B.C., June 30th, 1916.
7'o His Honour Frank Still^ian Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the hononu to submit for 3'our consideration herewith Bulletin
No. 71, '^ Butter-making on the Farm," prepared by T. A. F. Wianeko,
Provincial Dairy Instructor, under the direction of Wm. E. Scott, Deputy
Minister of Agriculture.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture^
Victoria, B.C., June 30th, 1916.
Hon. Wm. Manson,
Minister of Agriculture^ Victoria^ B.C.
Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith for your approval
Bulletin No. 71, entitled " Butter-making on the Farm," which has been
compiled' by T. A. F. Wiancko, Provincial Dairj^ Instructor, of the Live
Stock Branch of the Agricultural Department.
I have the honour to be.
Your obedient servant,
WM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (LIVE STOCK BRANCH).
HON. WM. MANSOX,
Minister of Agriculture.
WM. E. SOOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
w. T. Mcdonald, b.s.a., m.s.a.
Live Stock Commissioner.
S. H. HOPKINS, B.S.A.,
Assistant Live Stock Commissioner.
*H. RIVE, B.S.A.,
Chief Dairy Instructor.
J. R. TERRY,
Chief Poultry Instructor,
*WM. NEWTON, B.S.A., H.
Soil and Crop Instructor.
H. E. WALKER, B.S.A.,
A. KNIGHT, V.S.,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
W. W. ALTON, V.S.,
WM. J. BONAVIA,
Secretary to the Department.
Granted leave of absence for overseas service.
T. A. F. WIANCKO,
H. E. UPTON,
O. ENGLISH, B.A., B.S.A.,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
* S. F. DUNLOP, B.S.A.,
S. A. K. WHITE. V.S.,
B. R. ILSLEY, y.S.,
Fig, 1. Combined cliurn and worlser.
BUTTER-MAKING ON THE FARM.
will not be denied by any one who is at all familiar with dairy
conditions in British Columbia that there is great room for improve-
ment in the quality of a large proportion of our farm-made butter.
If all the dairy butter was of finest quality the increase in consump-
tion would be very great, and better average prices would prevail for
all butter, and thus a tremendous impetus would be given the dairy
industry as a whole. Creamery butter, from the fact that it has been
made by those who have been well instructed in the art of butter-
making in well-equipped, sanitary creameries, is of uniform grade and quality, and
therefore has a ready sale at top prices.
The creamery butter-maker is supplied with a full outfit of utensils and appar-
atus, which enable him to recover a maximum quantity of butter from the cream.
He gives careful attention to the ripening of the cream, so as to develop desirable
flavours, and proper temperatures are carefully maintained during the ripening
process and at the time of churning. No guesswork is allowed at any stage of the
process, and the butter-maker who knows his business sees to it that the butter is
carefully and thoroughly worked, packed in a neat and attractive way, and kept
in clean and sanitary storage until marketed.
The case is different, however, with those who make butter on the farms, where
a large part of the butter of this Province is still being made. There is a great lack
of proper equipment in the way of proper dairy-houses, utensils, apparatus, and
cooling facilities, and a general lack of knowledge of the underlying principles of
the art of making butter of first quality.
While on some farms excellent work is done and a choice article is made, which
brings a fancy price, yet, through ignorance of correct methods of manufacture and
of the demands of the market, and in many instances through carelessness, the great
bulk of farm-made butter fails to bring the price it should, entailing a loss on the
farmers of this Province which in the aggregate is enormous. It is for the benefit
of this latter class that this bulletin is written, with the hope that some suggestions
may be given and some ideas advanced which will serve to improve the methods of
the dairyman and increase his profits.
DEFECTS IN DAIRY BUTTER.
(1.) Undesirable flavours, such as rancid, unclean, cowy, fishy, weedy, tallowy,
(2.) Lack of uniformity — oversalting, undersalting, insufficient working, over-
working, too much or too little colour:
(3.) Churned from thin, overrii>e cream at too high a temperature, causing the
retention of too much buttermilk, and resulting in a general lack of body
(4.) Unsuitable packages and too many different styles.
CAUSES OF UNDESIRABLE FLAVOURS.
(1.) Milking in unclean stables:
(2.) Cow's udders and teats in an unclean condition at milking-time :
(3.) Foods that impart volatile flavours, such as turnips, onions, cabbage, spoiled
and fermented feeds, etc.:
(4.) Separating the milk in an unsuitable place, where there is lack of pure air
10 Department of Agriculture.
(5.) Improperly cleaned separators and milking utensils:
(6.) Keeping the cream or butter at too warm temperature and in poorly con-
structed, ill-ventilated storage:
(7.) Cream too old or too ripe before churning and too much buttermilk retained
in the butter:
(8.) Impure water, cows drinking from stagnant ponds or the seepage from
(9.) Result of the growth of injurious bacteria, yeasts, and moulds.
Like other plants, bacteria require food, warmth, and moisture for growth.
They absorb their food from the material in which they grow. The food elements
they require are present in the constituents of milk, and they are in a readily avail-
able state. Nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and mineral matter are essential and are
furnished by the casein, milk-sugar, and mineral salts.
SOURCES OF BACTERIA IN MILK.
Milk may be contaminated by bacteria from within the udder, or introduced
into the milk by dust falling from the stable air, by hair, small particles of skin,
or manure falling into the milk-pail from the flanks and udder of the cow, and by
dirt from the hands and clothing of the milkers. The greater part of this filthy
matter dissolves in the milk, giving it not only undesirable odours and taints, but
also inoculating it with the various kinds of bacteria. These germs may also have
been gathered from stagnant water, muddy pools, or miry yards. While the
majority of them may not be disease-producing or especially harmful, should they
be transmitted to the human system, yet, to say the least, they are factors in
bringing about decomposition of the milk.
HOW TO KEEP MILK PURE.
Filth and disease germs go hand in hand ; the same carelessness that allows
the one is likely to give access to the other. Hence it is of the highest importance
that the cow and her surroundings be kept as clean as possible. This can be accom-
plished by brushing off all the loose dirt and dust from the flanks and udder. This
will take but a moment, and will prevent large quantities of filth from getting into
the milk. The amount of dirt that gets into the milk is one of the chief causes of
its rapid spoiling, and the contamination from dissolved filth can never be entirely
The first requisite for pure milk is healthy cows. Any animal suspected of
being sick or out of condition should be at once separated from the herd and not
allowed to remain near the dairy. Milk should never be used until five days after
calving, nor from a sick cow nor one with a diseased udder.
BARNS AND STABLES.
Costly barns or stables are not essential to the production of clean milk or to
the maintenance of a dairy herd at its highest efficiency. To obtain the best results,
however, it is important that the cows be kept comfortable at all times. The
barnyard should be well drained and covered with gravel, stone, or cement. The
contamination which a cow gets from muddy " manury " barn lots and stagnant
pools of water is especially bad. A tight, reasonably smooth floor, with a gutter
suitably located, should be provided, and the stable thoroughly cleaned and swept
at least twice daily. It is advisable to haul the manure directly to the field from
the barn, but if this is not feasible it should be removed at least 40 feet from the
barn. In no case must it be allowed to accumulate against or near the dairy-barn.
Butter-making on the Farm.
LIGHT AND PURE AIR.
Two things almost universally lacking, or, at least, inadequately supplied in
dairy-barns, are light and pure air. These are easily obtained, and although
absolutely essential to the best health of the herd and the economic production of
clean milk, they are rarely appreciated.
Most dairy-barns do not contain sutficient windows. If a barn is already built,
more windows can easily be provided. There should be 4 square feet of glass for
each animal, and the lighting so provided that the sunlight may reach all parts
of the stable some time during the day.
Some good system of ventilation should be provided, as the cow's feed cannot
be properly digested and assimilated without an abundance of oxygen ; and unless
this is supplied a great waste of good food, as well as impaired health of the cow,
To be sanitary, a dairy-barn should be whitewashed at least twice a year. An
interior with a few boards or poles laid overhead at irregular intervals, with hay
or straw hanging through, and with the sides in no better condition, cannot be
properly whitewashed, and is one of the most prolific sources of dust, cobwebs, and
dirt, which fall into the milk laden with injurious bacteria. The ceiling should
be tight, excluding all dust and chaff from above, and the sides smooth, thus afford-
ing a firm surface to which whitewash can cling.
It is of the utmost importance in keeping cows clean that the platform on
which they stand should be of the proper length. If too short the cows cannot
lie down comfortably, and if too long the droppings will fall on the rear of the
platform and the cows will become soiled when lying down. A good arrangement
is some form of movable stanchion or manger, so that the length of the platform
can be adjusted to suit the length of each individual cow.
The quality of the milk is also dependent to a great extent upon the milker.
His personal habits largely determine the cleanliness of the product. He should
be personally clean, have cleanly habits, and enjoy
perfect health. A bucket of clean water and a clean
cloth should always be used to moisten the flanks and
udder of the cow before milking. When these parts
are dampened, the dust, dandruff, and loose hairs will
adhere to them and minimum amounts fall into the
Milking should never be done just after handling
hay or hedding, or when the stable is full of dust or
bad odours from any cause, for dust is one of the most
common sources of the bacteria found in milk, and
bad odours may readily be absorbed by the milk.
A milk-pail with a small opening (Fig. 2), or one
with the top partially covered, is always advisable.
The pail should be held close to the udder so as to
exiK)se the milk to the air as little as possible. The
further the streams fall and the more they spray, the
more dirt and bacteria they collect. Milking should
be done only with clean, dry hands. Milking with wet
hands is filthy. The clothing of the milker should be
of washable material and kept properly clean.
Fig. 2. Sanitary milk-pail.
Department of Agriculture.
The milk should be removed from the stable to a clean, airy place, such as
a dairy-house which is free from dust, flies, and bad odours, as soon as possible
after it is drawn, and strained at once.
A good milk-strainer (Fig. 3) should be simple in its construction; all parts of
it should be easily accessible for thorough cleaning, its meshes should be fine enough
to remove all the solid foreign
matter, and at the same time to
allow the milk to pass through
reasonably fast. All things con-
sidered, a strainer consisting of
a fine wire gauze and four lay-
ers of cheese-cloth is most prac-
tical and efficient.
The cause of many of the
most costly disturbances in
dairying, such' as rapid souring,
bad odours, and all sorts of ab-
normal fermentations, has been
traced to the filthy condition of
the milk-strainer. The strainer immediately after use should be thoroughly rinsed
in cold or lukewarm water ; then washed in hot water to which a small quantity of
some good washing-powder has been added; then rinsed in boilng water, sterilized
by exposure to live steam, or by boiling in clean water and dried in the sunlight, or
in a dust-free, clean room.
Fig. 3. Milk-strainer, showing centre removed.
This building should be convenient to but entirely separate from the barn where
the milking is done. It should be just large enough for actual needs, so that it
cannot be used as a general store-room. A cement floor is to be recommended
wherever possible, and should be constructed with a slope towards a gutter com
municating with a drain situated on the outside of the building, so that the waste
water can be carried off for a considerable distance. The walls and ceiling should
be smooth, so that they can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. There should be
plenty of light and ventilation. The windows and doors should be screened summer
and winter. There should be convenient arrangements for washing, scalding, and
drying dairy utensils, and an abundant supply of pure water for cooling the milk
In case a special dairy-house cannot be provided, the milk or cream should be
handled and stored in a clean, light, and well-ventilated place, free from strong
odours of any kind. A cellar is usually a very poor place for this purpose, especially
if also used for storing vegetables.
SKIMMING THE MILK.
When good, clean milk has been secured, the next operation is to separate
the cream from the milk. This may be accomplished by either of three methods
now commonly in use — viz., shallow pans, deep setting, and the cream-separator.
THE SHALLOW PAN.
The best results from using shallow pans are to be obtained by setting the milk
immediately after milking, placing the pans in a clean, well-ventilated room, where
the temperature ranges from 50° to G0° Fahr. Skimming should take place about
twenty-four to forty-eight hours from the time of setting, and can best be accom-
Butter-making on the Farm.
plished by loosening the cream from the sides of the pan with a thin-bladed linife;
and by tilting the pan on the edge of the cream-can just sufficient to allow the milk
to first wet the rim of the pan, the cream by the aid of the knife may be easily
and quickly guided into the cream-can. If possible, no milk should be taken with
the cream, as it dilutes it and makes it more difficult to churn.
Uniformly good results by this method cannot be obtained, for the reason that
the milk being spread out in a thin sheet is exposed to the air, so that it is readily
affected by atmospheric changes. The large surface of milk exposed in the pans,
and the length of time that it stands, also favour the absorption of odours and
infection that come from impure air, dust, and dirt. The comparatively high tem-
perature of the milk and cream encourages souring and bad flavours, and often
results in the cream becoming leathery and lumpy, and these in turn cause heavy
loss of fat in the buttermilk.
This method of creaming milk is best suited to a place where only one or two
cows are kept. It may also be used where neither ice nor cold water are available
for deep setting.
This method has decided advantages over the
shallow-pan system w^here an abundance of very cold
running water, or water and ice, are available, in that
there is less milk surface exposed to the air, and the
low temperature at which the milk is held ensures an
improved quality of cream, butter, and skim-milk under
The equipment necessary for efficient creaming
by this method is a suitable water-tight box or tank
sufficiently large and deep to hold the creamer-cans
and allow space for the cooling water, or water and
The warm milk should be immediately strained
into the cans and the cans lowered into the water,
which should reach up as far as the milk. To do
efficient creaming, the icater should not he above 45°
Fahr., and as much lower as possible.
The best type of can (Fig. 4) to use is one with
a slanting bottom, with a faucet to draw off the skim-
milk. The slant carries away any sediment and per-
mits the removal of all the skim-milk.
The milk should always set twenty-four hours
before the skim-milk is drawn, and in winter thirty-
six hours is better. The longer period yields a richer
cream, which may be churned at a lower temperature,
resulting in a firmer-grained butter and in less loss
in the skim-milk.
Setting the cans in cold air in winter will not prove nearly as eflfectlve in raising
the cream as setting them in cold water, even though the temperature of the surround-
ing air is near the freezing-i)oint.
Fig. 4. Deep-setting can.
THE FARM SEPARATOR.
By the use of the cream-sei)arator a much more perfect separation of the cream
from the milk may be had than by any system of gravity creaming. The increased
product made from the saving in loss of fat in skim-milk alone over the best gravity
methods of creaming, to say nothing of its other advantages, amounts to from $5
to $10 per year for each cow. It is obvious, then, that the separator will soon pay
14 Department op Agriculture.
for itself, and will make dairy-work a source of profit and satisfaction instead of
Other advantages are: A richer and more uniform quality of cream may be
obtained; the skim-milk is in the very best possible condition for feeding young
stock ; and the cream being always fresh and sweet, its care and ripening is under
a more direct control of the butter-maker.
Which is the best separator at the present time it is impossible to say, since no
one separator comprises within itself all the points of merit that the ideal separator
might possess. All the separators on the market will do efficient skimming if properly
The chief points of merit that should be looked for in a separator are: (1)
Strength and simplicity of construction ; (2) cheapness and durability ; (3) minimum
need of power and maximum capacity; (4) thoroughness or closeness of skimming;
(5) strength of foundation and steadiness of motion; (6) freedom of defects in its
mechanism; and (7) ease of cleaning and general convenience of detail.
Select a separator with a capacity of not less than 50 to 75 lb. per liour for each
cow milked. A ten-cow herd would then require a machine having a capacity of
500 to 750 lb. per hour. Larger herds at same ratio. It is a great mistake to pur-
chase a machine that is too small, as it will take too much valuable time to skim
LOCATION OF CREAM SEPARATOR.
When a separate milk-house is available, the cream-separator should always be
found there, and never operated in the stable or any other place where the air is
impure or the surroundings bad. A simple, clean room with a solid floor and screened
doors and windows can be made to answer very well as a place to separate cream.
CARE OF THE SEPARATOR.
To give a separator the necessary stability it should be fastened to a solid floor
or foundation. Care should be taken to have the top of the separator stand level in
all directions, and to have it securely fastened to the floor or foundation by means
of screws or bolts. A small square of l^-ineh rubber-sheet packing placed under the
outside edge of the base, or under each leg, before fastening improves the running
of any separator.
Before the separator is started all parts should be thoroughly cleaned and all
bearings well oiled, and oil-cups and oil-holes free and in working condition. Special
attention should be given to the oil that is used. With each machine that is sent
out by the makers there is sent a can of oil of a quality that has been found by
experience to answer the purpose best. Such oil can be obtained from the selling
agents of the machine, and no other should be used.
Two or three minutes should be taken to get the speed up to the required rate,
which is stated on the crank of the machine. The speed of the machine must then
be maintained according to the directions. The only reliable way to do this is to
count the number of revolutions of the crank by the watch.
A small quantity of water at a temperature of 110° to 120° Fahr. should be used
to warm and wet the bowl, and after speed has been acquired the flow of milk may
be turned on. In turning a separator by hand we should take care to have the
motion as steady as possible. The pressure on the crank should be the same all
the way around.
In skimming, three things must be carefully observed— viz., the speed of the
bowl, the temperature of the milk, and the feed of the milk to the machine. With
the same machine and all other conditions the same, a greater loss of butter-fat
must be expected when the separator is not run up to the required speed, when the
milk is below a certain temperature, or when more than a certain amount of milk
is run through in a given length of time.
Butter-making on the Farm.
Milk separates best when fresh or new and at a temperature of 00° to 100"
Fahr., and for this reason the best time to separate tlie millc is immediately after
milking. A low temperature will cause a loss of fat in the skim-milk.
Every separator has some device for changing the test of the cream. In most
cases the adjustment is at the cream outlet. If so, by turning the screw in the cream
will be richer, and by turning it out the cream will be thinner.
Variation in the percentage of fat in the cream may be caused, also, by a varia-
tion in the temi>erature of the milk ; by the quantity of milk in the supply-can ; a
variation in the percentage of fat in the milk; by irregular si^eed; and by the bowl
not being properly cleaned.
CLEANING THE SEPARATOR.
Many dairymen are neglectful in the cleaning of the separator, and some seem
to think that it is unnecessary to wash the machine more than once a day. Such
practice cannot be too strongly condemned. Even when the bowl is rinsed with warm
water, there remains a coating of slime and milk on the interior parts which readily
undergoes decomposition. When next used, the warm cream in passing becomes
contaminated with bacteria from this source, and it is injured beyond repair. Such
cream may be dangerous to health, and it is certainly unfit for butter-making.
COLLECTING THE CHURNING.
The cream-can should be of sufficient size to hold a supply large enough for one
Cream should be churned at least twice a week during cold weather and three
times a week during warm weather.
When collecting cream for a churning, great care must be
taken to keep It in a cool, clean place, and to stir it thoroughly
from the bottom of the can every time fresh cream is added,
and frequently until churning-time. A simple and cheap stirrer
(Fig 5) consists of a saucer-shaped piece of hea^T tin about 3
inches in diameter, with a long handle of ^/4-inch heavily tinned
iron fastened to the centre of it. No amount of washing and
hoiling can keep a loooden stirrer sweet and clean, and such'
should on no account he used.
When shallow-pan setting has been used, the cream is
already ripened, or partially so, \Vhen taken off. If it has
been kept cool and properly stirred as each skimming was
added, it may be churned almost at any time when brought to
the proper temperature.
Cream from a properly conducted deep-setting system
should be cold and sweet when skimmed. Each skimming
should be thoroughly stirred when added to the previous lot
and kept at a low temperature until twenty-four to thirty-six
hours previous to churning, and no fresh cream should be added
during the ripening process.
If a cream-separator is used, the cream should be imme-
diately cooled to ri5° Fahr. or less, by setting it in cold or
running water, or by allowing it to run over a cooler (Fig. 6)
such as are especially made for that purpose. After thoroughly cooling each
skimming it can be added to the main supply. In no case should warm cream be
added to cold cream. Both should be equal in temperature, and then they may be
mixed together by efficient stirring. The cream should be kept in as nearly sweet
condition as possible until enough for a churning has been gathered.
Fig. 5. Cream-stirrer.
Department of Agriculture.
RIPENING THE CREAM.
In order to ripen cream properly, the temperature must be made favourable to
the development of the lactic-acid bacteria. This temperature is usually somewhat
above C0° Fahr. The object of ripening or souring the cream is to produce flavour
and aroma in the butter, to get a more exhaustive churning, and to improve the
keeping qualities of the butter. These flavouring substances, so far as known, can
only be produced by a process of fermentation. The best flavour in butter is obtained
when the cream assumes a clean, pleasant, acid taste during the ripening. For this
reason it is essential to have acid-producing germs predominate during the ripening
process ; all other germs should be excluded, or at least retarded, if possible.
Cream ripened at a low temperature (60° to 70°
Fahr.) does not sour very rapidly; the germs do not
multiply at a very rapid rate. The desired degree of
acidity is approached very slowly, and in consequence
the fermentation may be checked almost at once when
desired. The chance of getting overripe cream is thus
reduced to a minimum. If the cream is ripened at a
high temperature (75° to 80° Fahr.) there is danger
of getting overripe cream, which makes a strong-
flavoured butter with poor keeping quality. Extreme
and rapid changes of temperature should be avoided
as much as possible. A good thermometer (Fig. 7)
should be used in every well-regulated dairy. The
more uniform the temperature can be kept, if suitable
for proper ripening, the better the results.
There are two ways of ripening cream ; the flrst
is to allow it to sour naturally, as a result of the
action of the bacteria which are normally present in
the cream. By the second method the cream ripens
as a result of the action of certain kinds of bacteria
which are added in what we know as a " starter," or
A " starter " is milk which has been properly
soured, has a pleasant, clean, acid flavour, and is
capable of producing a similar flavour in the cream
to which it is added. The object of its use is that
the bacteria which you know will produce a fine-
flavoured butter may take possession of the sweet
cream before other and perhaps objectionable germs
gain control of it. Buttermilk or sour cream from a
previous churning are sometimes used, but their use
for the reason that, even though the flavour is good.
Fig. 6. A good type of cooler,
is not to be recommended,
there are always present some undesirable germs which will multiply in each suc-
7. Floating dairy thermometer. Makes definite knowledge of temperature
cessive lot of cream or buttermilk used as a starter, so that after a week's time
the flavour may actually be bad. When cream is slightly off-flavoured, and a
portion of this, or the buttermilk from it, is used as a starter, it will readily be
seen that the taint will not only be transmitted, but will increase from day to day.
Butter-making on the Farm. 17
The best natural starters are made by allowing the bacteria normally found in
the milk to sour or curdle it. They may be made by taking a small quantity of skim-
milk or whole milk, produced under clean conditions from clean cows, while fresh and
new, and allowing it to sour naturally in a well-sterilized glass jar at a temperature
of from 70° to 80° Fahr. If it sours normally, with a pleasant, clean, acid flavour, it
may then be added to the cream at the rate of about % to 1 pint for each gallon of
the cream to be ripened.
Generally speaking, the most satisfactory method of ripening cream under
average farm conditions is to keep it as sweet as possible until about twenty-four
to thirty-six hours before churning-time, and then slowly bring the temperature up
to 65° to 70° Fahr. by standing the cream-can in a tub of warm water, and when
it has ripened sufficiently to produce an acid smell and a slight acid taste and shows
signs of thickening, it should be at once thoroughly and. quickly cooled to churning
temperature and held until churning-time. It is always best to time the ripening
so that the cream may be cooled ready for churning about eight to twelve hours
before churning takes place. This is necessary to give the fat in the cream time to
become firm, or the result will be a soft, weak-texturedi butter.
Should it become necessary to use a starter in order to hasten the ripening pro-
cess, as may happen during cold weather, one made from skim-milk or whole milk
as described above will in most cases prove very satisfactory.
One of the most difiicult things to determine is when the cream has the proper
ripeness to be churned, so that uniform results can be obtained and one churning
be like another. A skilful, experienced butter-maker is able to judge very closely
the right condition of the cream for churning by its appearance. A properly ripened
cream should have a clean, sharp, pleasant, acid taste and. smell, and should be of
the consistency of good molasses, and when poured be free from lumps and have a
smooth, glossy appearance.
The proper temperature for churning cream can be determined only by the
length of time it takes to bring the butter in a firm, granular form. This should
be from twenty-five to forty minutes. There are a number of factors which influ-
ence the churning temperature of cream, chief of which are: (1) Tlie percentage
of fat in the ci*eam; (2) the period of lactation of the cows; (3) the feed of the
cows; (4) the amount of cream in the churn; and (5) the speed of the churn.
Richness of the Cream.
The closer the fat-globules are to each other, the more quickly they will unite,
with the same amount of concussion in churning. In a rich cream the fat-globules
are very close together, which render it more easily churnable than thin cream, and
can therefore be churned at a lower temperature in the same length of time. The
lower temperature is favourable for a firm, icaxy-grained butter.
To get the best results, the percentage of fat in the cream should range from
25 to 30 per cent., or about 3 to 3l^ lb. of butter to each gallon of cream churned.
Period of Lactation.
The length of time the cows have been In milk influences the churning tempera-
ture, because of its effect ui)on the size of the fat-globules in the milk. In the
earlier part of the milking period cows produce milk containing larger fat-globules.
Feed of the Cows.
The effect of the feed of the cows is due to its effect upon the composition of
the fat-globules. Succulent feeds, like pasture grass, green corn, silage, roots, etc.,
tend to increase the softness of the fat-globules, while dry feeds, such as hay, grains,
etc., cause a harder butter-fat.
Department of Agriculture.
Amount of Cream in the Churn.
The fullness of the churn affects the amount of agitation that is possible durin?
the revolution of the churn. The best and quickest churning is secured when the
churn is about one-third full. With more or less cream than this, the amount of
concussion is reduced, and the length of time in churning correspondingly increased.
Speed of the Churn.
The speed of the churn also affects the amount of agitation the cream receives.
It should be such that the cream receives the greatest amount of agitation or con-
cussion. Too high or too low a speed reduces the amount of concussion.
In general, it may be said that rich separator cream may be churned at 48°
to 52° Fahr. in summer and 50° to 58° Fahr. in winter. Gravity cream requires a
temperature of 55° to 60° Fahr. in summer and 60° to 64° Fahr. in winter. A good
rule to follow is this: When the cream enters the churn, the temperature should
be such that the cream will churn in nice granular form in from thirty to forty
minutes. This will ensure an exhaustive churning and leave the butter in a condi-
tion in which it can be handled without injuring its texture. Moreover, the butter-
milk can then be more thoroughly drained off, and the butter requires less washing.
Before adding the cream, the churn (Fig. 8) should be scalded with hot water,
and then thoroughly cooled with cold water. This will freshen the churn and fill
the pores of the wood with water, so that the cream and butter will not stick.
Fig. 8. A good type of hand-cliurn.
All the cream should be carefully strained into the churn through a finely per-
forated tin strainer (Fig. 9). This will break up or remove all clots of cream and
Butter-making on the Farm.
particles of curd, and there will be less danger of white specks in the butter,
particles injure both the appearance and keeping qualities of the butter.
When colouring is used it should be
added liefore churning commences. In
summer in times of drought, and in the
fall and winter when cows are on dry
feed, some colouring may be needed.
The general market now demands a
butter with a clear, light-yellow tint.
Too deep a shade is repulsive. From
two to four drops of any good, reliable
brand of colouring per pound of butter
will be sufficient. In case the colour is
not added to the cream (through an
oversight), it may be mixed with the
salt and added to the butter at the time
of working. When the coloured salt
has been evenly distributed through the
butter by eflacient working, the colour
will be found uniform throughout.
Fig. 9. Cream and buttermilk strainer.
Gas in Churn.
During the first five minutes of churning, the vent of the churn should be opened
occasionally in order to allow the cream-gases and expanded air to escape.
When to stop Churning.
This is a very important point which has a good deal to do with the quality of
the butter. At the time the butter breaks, the churn must be carefully watched in
order that the fat-globules may mass together in granular form, so that the butter-
milk may be thoroughly removed, and this can best be accomplished if the butter
gathers in the form of granules varying in size from that of wheat to peas. Their
size can be best controlled by stopping the churn frequently after the butter breaks.
If the gathering process is coming on quickly, several quarts of cold water should
be added to the cream. This retards the gathering, lessens the chance of over-
churning, and gives a more exhaustive churning. On the other hand, if the butter
gathers too slowly, or remains about the size of clover-seed, several quarts of water
which is a little higher in temperature than the cream may be added, and the churner
revolved a few times. It should now stand for several minutes, after which a part
of the diluted buttermilk may be drawn off and the churning continued.
Churning is completed when the hutter stands well out on top of the huttermilk
with froth Whhles over it, and when no hutter comes with the first drawn huttermilk.
WASHING THE BUTTER.
After churning is completed, the buttermilk should be drawn off at once and the
butter allowed to drain for a few minutes. The butter should then be washed with
pure, clean water, and its temperature should be somewhere near that at which the
buttermilk was, dei>ending upon the firmness of the butter. If too soft use colder
water, and if too hard use water which is a little warmer. The main objects of
washing the butter are to rid it of all the buttermilk possible, to improve its keeping
quality, and to firm or harden it so that it can be thoroughly and efficiently worked
^vithout injuring its grain and texture. The amount of water used should be equal
to the amount of cream churned, and this should always be carefully strained into
the churn through a good cotton strainer.
Department of Agriculture.
If the butter is of fine flavour and for immediate use, one washing will gener-
ally be suflicient ; otherwise it is well to wash twice, especially if the butter is to be
held for some time. Bad-flavoured butter cannot be washed too much.
SALTING THE BUTTER.
After the wash-water has been thoroughly drained off the butter it should be
salted to suit the requirements of the consumer. The butter-maker must cater to
the market with regard to the amount of salt to use. As a general rule, however,
for prints, % to % oz. per pound should be used, and for packed butter not more
than 1 oz. per pound.
Salt adds flavour to butter, serves more or less as a preservative, and assists in
expelling the buttermilk. The butter may be salted either in the churn or on the
Salting in the Churn.
If the amount of butter in the churn can be fairly accurately estimated, it may
be salted in the churn while in the granular form. This can best be accomplished
by sifting on half of the salt evenly over the butter, then turn the butter over with
a ladle, or by tipping the churn forward cause the butter to lap over. The remainder
of the salt may then be sifted on, and after tilting the churn backward and forward
several times the cover should be put on and the churn revolved slowly until the
butter is gathered into a solid mass. It may then stand for a few minutes to allow
the salt to dissolve, after which it may be worked.
Salting on the Worker.
If the butter is to be salted on the worker, it should be taken out of the churn
in the granular form, carefully weighed, and spread evenly on the worker. The
required amount of salt should also be carefully weighed, and sifted on the butter
as evenly as possible, doing it in three or four applications, turning the butter each
WORKING THE BUTTER.
The best way to work butter, outside of the combined churn, is to use a V-shaped
table worker (Fig. 10). One working at the time of salting is usually sufficient.
Fig. 10. Lever butter-worker.
provided the butter is firm enough when taken from the churn and worked in a
Butter-making on the Farm.
The purposes of working butter are: (1) To assist in distributing the salt
through the butter; (2) to assist in expelling buttermilk and moisture; and (3) to
produce a compact, firm, close-textured body.
In working the butter, care must be taken to avoid a
sliding or scraping motion, which makes the butter greasy.
The lever should be pressed downward, turning it slightly over
by a movement of the wrist; and when the butter is levelled
over the worker, double it over with a ladle (Fig. 11) or by
inserting the lever under the butter at one side of the worker,
and work as before.
The proi>er amount of working to be given to the butter
will be best ascertained by observing the results of different
amounts under the one system for successive days. It Is
worked enough when the salt has been evenly distributed and
the excess of free moisture expelled. It should have a firm,
glossy appearance, and the texture should resemble the granu-
lar structure of the end of a broken rod of steel. Underworking
is generally shown by a mottled appearance in colour on the
cut surface, and is largely due to an uneven distribution of salt,
while overworking is indicated by a poor, greasy grain and
Fig. 11. Wooden
ladle. Butter should
not be touched with
Next to inferior flavour in butter, mottles are most objectionable to the con-
sumer, since they affect the appearance and often give the impression that the butter
is very bad, when, in reality, its flavour may be good. This defect is one of work-
manship, and can be overcome by the application of proper methods on the part
of the maker.
Mottles are primarily caused by an uneven distribution of salt in the butter.
This may be produced by insufflcient working of the butter, or by washing and
working at a very low temperature. Extremely low temperature for washing and
working should therefore be avoided, because they produce so firm a butter that it
is only with great difficulty that the salt can be worked uniformly into it. On the
other hand, high temperatures of churning, washing, and working must also be
avoided to prevent an abnormal loss of fat in the buttermilk and the making of a
greasy, salvy, or leaky butter.
Generally speaking, the butter should be uniform
in temperature and from 52° to 56° Fahr., in accor-
dance with the weather conditions, so that It will
stand a good deal of working without becoming too
soft and greasy. Hard butter must be worked more
than soft butter, and a small quantity more than a
When the churn-room is so cold that the butter
becomes chilled before working is completed, mottled
butter is frequently the result. To prevent this it is
preferable to increase the amount of working rather
than to raise the temperature of the wash-water.
The greatest lack of uniformity in dairy butter is
probably in the package. In the past, butter has fre-
quently been put up in all sizes, shapes, and forms,
wrapped in all sorts of materials, such as cheese-
cotton, factory-cotton, towels, paper, and some not
wrapped at all. This lack of uniformity has done much harm to the trade. It
Fig. 12. One-pound butter-
printer. Makes a neat, attrac-
22 Department of Agriculture.
should be the aim of every butter-maker to turn out butter that is neat and attrac-
tive in appearance, as well as of first quality. The most desirable package, and one
that can be always neat and attractive, is the 1-lb. print or brick, neatly wrapped
in parchment paper. The printer (Fig. 12) should be set to give prints weighing
full 101^ oz., and only the best quality of pure vegetable parchment paper should
be used. The name of the farm or dairy should be neatly printed on the paper.
Note. — In order to comply with the " Dairy Industry Act, 1914," the following
regulations must be observed: —
" Sec. 14. No person shall knowingly sell, offer, expose, or have in his posses-
sion for sale —
"(e.) Any dairy butter packed in boxes similar to those used for the packing of
creamery butter unless such packages are branded ' dairy butter ' :
"(/.) Any dairy butter packed, moulded, or cut into blocks, squares, or prints and
wrapped in parchment paper unless such parchment paper is branded
" Dairy Butter.'
" The words ' Dairy Butter ' must be in letters at least one-quarter inch square."
The full text of the " Dairy Industry Act, 1914," and the regulations made there-
under are published as Bulletin No. 42, Dairy and Cold Storage Series, which may
be obtained free upon application to the Publications Branch, Department of Agricul-
For packed butter, the 10- or 20-lb. spruce tub lined with parchment paper is
probably the neatest and most attractive package.
Stone crocks varying in size from % gallon up, if well glazed and in good condi-
tion, also make excellent containers for packed butter for local trade.
PREPARATION OF CHURN, ETC.
In the preparation of woodenware, such as the churn, worker, and ladles, for
use in the dairy, the following points should be observed : They should first be
scrubbed with a brush and scalding water, and then thoroughly cooled by pouring
on cold water. If the butter sticks to the wood, it indicates that it has not been
properly prepared. A thorough brushing with hot water and scouring with salt
before cooling will remedy this trouble.
All milk-pails and other dairy utensils used in handling milk and cream should
be of such construction and material that they can easily be kept clean. Many are
to be found in use with open or rough seams and joints, so that the milk can never
be completely removed from them by any ordinary methods of washing, and it
remains there to sour and decay, inoculating each milking with millions of the most
undesirable bacteria. The use of sound utensils, well tinned, free from rust, and in
a cleanly condition, is essential to good milk. Dented or battered pails, cans, etc.,
and seams that are not properly flushed with solder cannot be readily cleaned. Such
uneven surfaces invite contamination that is readily imparted to the milk, though
the latter is subjected to it only for a very short period. New pails and cans may
cause an immediate improvement in the product.
An essential requirement in any utensil for handling milk is simplicity, to which
should be added durability. Nothing will contribute so much to the cause of better
milk and cream as will the sanitary milk-pail, if properly used and cared for. The
critical period in the life of milk is during the time of milking. Very few who have
not made careful tests realize to what extent the wide-open pail invites dirt as com-
pared with one partly covered. These assist very materially in excluding dirt and
dust, and when we fully realize that dust-particles are the carriers of infection, the
advantages of excluding them are obvious. Milking-pails should never be used for
any other purpose.
Butter- MAKING on the Faum. 23
WASHING DAIRY UTENSILS.
This is a very important question, thougli It involves l)ut a few simple considera-
tions. Tlioy sliould i)e rinsed first of all with cold or lukt»Avarm water to remove all
particles of milk. This step should never be omitted, for hot water tend>s to cook
the milk fast to the tin, forming a sticky layer over the surface which is very difficult
to remove. They should then be thoroughly scrubbed with a brush in warm water
to which a small quantity of good wasliing-powder, such as "Wyandotte" or
"Crescent Cleaner," has been added. The washing should be followed by a thorough
scalding with water as near the boiling-iioint as possible, after wliich the vessel
should be inverted on a rack to drain and dry from their own heat. With the exceiv
tion of woodenware which might crack or warp, all utensils should if i)ossible be
l)laced where the sun will shine on them, in a dust-fi^^e atmosphere, as that will do
much towards keeping them pure and sweet.
The protection of utensils from accidental contamination after they have been
thoroughly washed and scalded has a measurable effect in reducing the germ content
of the milk or cream.
Printed by William H. Clllin, Printer to the King's Most ExceUent Majesty.
THIS BOOK XS^^^---"^^^
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY