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Calisthenic Nomenclature 



By 

JAMES HUFF McCURDY 

A.M., M.D., M.P.E. 

Director Teacheus Courses in Physical Education- 

IXTERKATIOXAI. YoUNG Men's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

College — Editor American Physical Education Re- 
view — Chairman of the Committee on Physical Edu- 
cation AND Hygiene or the National Education 
Association Commission on the Reorganization of 
Secondary Education — Special Collaborator on 
Physical Education for the United States Bureau 
OF Education 



1^ dJ. . 



AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 

Distributing Agents 

SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS 

1916 






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First Edition, Copyright. March. 1916 
nv J.\MES Hdff McCurdy 



Second Edition, Copyright, November. 1916 
BY James Hiff .McCurdy 



CALISTHENIC NOMENCLATURE. 

j. h. mccurdy, m. d. 

Introduction. 

This nomenclature furnishes a terminology for free exercises, 
dumb-bells and wands. The aim has been to include terminology 
for all of the common movements. The author would appreciate 
suggestions regarding additions or changes in the nomenclature 
which would make it more useful. This nomenclature is now 
used by the International Y. M. C. A. College in its normal 
course of physical education, and in the practice courses given 
by the students. It is also in practical use by many of the 300 
alumni of the college at Springfield who have been taught to 
select many of these terms during their senior year practice 
teaching from the calisthenic dictionary by Fish. During the 
years 1899-1901, A. L. Fish, a graduate student, under my direc- 
tion compiled a dictionary of all the common calisthenic terms. 
Since 1901 this duplicate terminology has been studied. with a 
view of eliminating the terms which (a) lacked clearness of 
description, (b) were difficult to speak clearly because of lack 
of vowels, (c) were long and cumbersome. The attempt has 
been made to use concise, clear language which could be readily 
understood by either children or adults. Credit should be given 
A. L. Fish for his careful work in compiling the dictionary of 
calisthenic terminology which has made possible this selection of 
terminology. I wish to acknowledge the helpful suggestions of 
Dr. William Skarstrom, G. B. Affleck, Elmer Berry and Louis C. 
Schroeder. The bibliography at the end gives the chief sources. 

The cordial reception given the first edition of this monograph 
has led to the printing of a second edition within a year of the 
appearance of the first edition. Many illustrations have been 
added. The author acknowledges here his grateful appreciation 
for the careful photographs taken under the direction of Louis C. 
Schroeder, by C. E. Horton, with Messrs. L. C. Schroeder, Roy 
Smith, E. Heidt, J. Morita, A. W. Globisch and Paul S. Graham 
as subjects ; and for the suggestions made by Dr. E. H. Arnold, 
A. B. Wegener, Louis C. Schroeder, A. E. Metzdorf and Elmer 
Berry for the second edition. 



357370 



General Definitions. 

1. rosniox OF Attention. (Description with quotation marks 

are from infantry drill regulations of the United States 
Army for 1911.) ' 

"Heels on the same line and as near each other as the con- 
formation of the man permits. 

"Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 
degrees. 

"Knees straight without stiffness. 

"Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting 
equally on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and 
falling equally. 

"Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of 
the trousers. 

"Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the 
axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front. 

"Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of 
the feet." 

2. The Rests. 

"Being at a halt, the commands are : Fall Out ; Rest ; At Ease ; 
and, 1. Parade. 2. Rest. 

"At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but 
are required to remain in the immediate vicinity." They resume 
their former places,* at the command fall in. On the command 
attention they, assume the fundamental position as described 
above, rcmaiuing absolutely immovable until the eoniniand right 
dress is given. 

"At the command rest each man keeps one foot in place, but 
is not required to preserve silence or immobility. 

"At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place 
and is required to preserve silence but not immobility." 

1. Parade, 2. Rest. "Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to 
the rear, left knee slightly bent ; clasp the hands, without con- 
straint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, left 
hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger 
of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position." 

To resume the attention : 1. Class, 2. Attention. 

3. Class Salute. 

1. Right (left) hand, 2. Salute. 

"Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of forefinger touches 
the lower part of the headdress (if uncovered, the forehead) 

* The army regulation is sliRhtly changed here by assuming the active fundamental 
standing position after the class falls in line. 



above the right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm 
to the left, forearm inclined at about -io degrees, hand and wrist 
straight. (TJVO) Drop the arm smartly by the side." 

4. Commands. 

Commands are of two kinds: 1. descriptive and preparatory; 
2. executive. The preparatory command describes concisely and 
clearly the movement. The executive command starts the move- 
ment, whether such movement be single or repeated with rhythmic 
continuity. 

In the case of doing single movements on command the posi- 
tion reached by the movement is held until the command for 
the next movement is given. Such command may be made in 
either of two ways : 

1. By using the noun or noun and adverb for the preparatory, 
and the imperative verb for the final command, e.g.. Trunk for- 
ward bend ! Trunk raise ! 

2. By using the name of the exercise as a whole (including all 
component parts and their return movements) as the prepara- 
tory command, and the numerals One ! Two ! or One ! Two ! 
Three ! Four ! etc., as the final commands for each part respect- 
ively, e.g.. Trunk forward bending — One ! Two ! These methods 
of making commands may be alternated or combined in various 
ways according to the character of the exercise and the conditions 
under which the work is conducted. 

In the case of rhythmic exercises the movement is started on 
the command start! (begin! or go!) and continues in an agreed- 
upon rhythm until the command stop! or class halt! is given; e.g., 
on the command fntnk forivard bending — start! the movement 
including its return is begun and repeated an indefinite or stated 
number of times until the command stop! is given. 

In rhythmic work it is a good plan to give each part of the 
exercise once or twice on command until the pupil has a clear 
idea of correct form in the exercise, then repeat it in rhythm 
on the command ready — start! 

The command stop! indicates an immediate cessation of the 
movement and the retention of the position reached, whether inter- 
mediate or final, until the command for a continuation of the same 
or the starting of a new movement is given. This applies to all 
exercises in which the movements are separated by distinct 
positions held an appreciable length of time. In exercises in 
which the momentum, or recoil, of one movement is carried over 
into the next, and no position is held, the command class halt! is 
necessary. This implies (by agreement) that the exercise con- 
tinues two additional counts before the class comes to a stop. 
Examples of this kind of exercise are: running in place, jumping 
on toes, quick knee raising, etc. 

3 



5. Marking Rhythm. 

To control, modify and guide the time in any rhythmic move- 
ment a number of devices may be used, such as : clapping of 
hands ; striking of the heel or toe or a wand sharply on the floor ; 
the use of the metronome; movements of the teacher's arms or 
body, in the form of gestures or the actual gymnastic movement ; 
sharply enunciated words such as "up," "down," "in," "out," 
"left," "right" and, most frequently, "one," "two," or "one," 
"two," "three," "four," etc. The use of the numerals for mark- 
ing time is to be clearly distinguished from their use as commands. 
In the latter case they precede the movement. In the former case 
they coincide ivith the end of the movement. To accelerate or 
slow the rhythm this coincidence may be slightly shaded through 
a few movements, the count occurring a small fraction of time 
before or after the end of the movement. Such modification 
must, however, be very gradual in order not to break up the 
unison. 



6. Fundamental Standing Position. 

The command position! brings the pupil back to fundamental 
standing position. In free hand, dumb-bell and club exercises, 
the position is identical with the position of attention. In wand 
and bar bell exercises the apparatus is held in the thigh horizontal 
position. Other "key" positions may be given when desired. 



Trunk. 

1. 

1. Position. Trunk forw. bend. pos. (Stoop st. pos.) 
(Prone st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Trunk forw. bending. 

3. CoM^rAXD. Trunk forw. bend ! Trunk raise! 

4. De.scription of Exercise. From fundamental position 
the trunk is bent forward in the hip joint forty-five degrees; 
relative position of head, shoulders and upper back unchanged ; 
knees straight. 

2. 

1. Position. Trunk forward down.ward bend. pos. (Prone 
pos.) 

2. ATovEMENT. Trunk forw. downward bending. 

3. Command. Trunk forw. downward bend! Raise! 

■1. Description of Exercise. From fundamental position 
the trunk is inclined forward as far as possible, bending at hip 
joints and lower back ; the relative position of head, shoulders 
and upper back unchanged ; knees straight. 



1. Position. Trunk downv;ard bend. pes. 

2. Movement. Trunk downward bending. 

3. Command. Trunk downward bend ! Raise! 

4. Description of Exercise. From fundamental position 
the trunk is bent forward and downward as far as possible, flex- 
ing at hip joints and entire spine; knees may be slightly bent if 
desired. 





Fundamental Standing 
Position 





1. Position. Neck backw. bend. pos. 

2. MovEiMENT. Neck backw. bending. 

3. Command. Neck backw. bend ! Raise! 

4. Description of Exercise. The head is forced backwards 
as far as possible by a straightening of the cervical and upper 
dorsal spine. Avoid extension of the head on the atlas. 

5. 

1. Position. Trunk backw. bend. pos. (Arch st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Trunk backw. bending. 

3. Command. Trunk backw. bend! Raise! 

•4. Description of Exercise. The trunk is inclined back- 
wards as far as possible. Extension should commence in the 
cervical spine and continue throughout the entire spine and hip 
joint. Avoid extension of the head on the atlas, and flexion at 
the knees. This is a poor exercise, as it emphasizes lumbar 
extension. 

6. 

1. Position. Trunk sidew. bend, pos.* 

2. Movement. Trunk sidew. bending, 

3. Command. Trunk to 1. (r.) bend! Raise! 

4. Description of Exercise. The trunk is bent to the side 
as far as possible ; the head and shoulders retain the same rela- 
tive position and the same plane as in the fundamental position ; 
avoid raising the heels from the floor, and rotation and movement 
of the hips. 

7. 

1. Position. Trunk twist, pos. (Twist st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Trunk twisting. 

3. Command. Trunk to 1. (r.) twist! Forward twist! 

4. Description of Exercise. The body is twisted or turned 
to the side as far as possible ; the movement should occur only on 
the dorsal, spine. 

8- 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. 'I'runk circliui;. 

3. Command. Trunk circling 1. (r.) — Begin! Stop! Posi- 
tion ! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the hips as the center, 
the head describes a circle with as large a circumference as pos- 
sible ; rotation should be eliminated as far as possible. Circum- 
duction may be started by forward, sideward or backward bend- 
ing of trunk. 

•.\rm raising sideways, arm bcndings and a few other exercises are added throughout 
the text to give definiteness in some of the pictures. 





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Head. 

1. 

1. Position. Head forw. bend. pes. 

2. Movement. Head forw. bending. 

3. Command. Head forw. bend! Upward raise or stretch! 

4. Description of Exercise. The head is bent forward as 
far as possible ; flexion beginning at the atlas and continuing 
throughout the cervical spine. This is a poor exercise, as it 
emjjhasizes cervical flexion. 



1. Position. Head backw. bend. pos. 

2. Movement. Head backw. bending. 

3. Com .M and. Head backw. bend! Raise! 

4. Description of Exercise. In the backward bending of 
the head the movement begins in the cervical spine and is contin- 
ued by extension of the head on the atlas. Avoid lumbar exten- 
sion. 

3. 

1. Position. Head sidew. bend. pos. 

2. Movement. Head sidew. bending. 

3. Command. Head to the 1. (r.) bend! Raise! 

4. Description of Exercise. The head is bent or flexed to 
the side without change in the position of the rest of the body. 
Avoid rotation of the head. 

■1. 

1. Position. Head twist pos. (Head twist st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Head twisting. 

3. Command. Head to the 1. (r.) twist! Forward twist ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Without bending the head or 
changing the position of the body, the head and cervical spine are 
turned to the left or right as far as possible. 

5. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Head circling. 

3. Command. Head circling to 1. (r.) — Begin! Stop! 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the base of the neck as 
the center, the top of the head describes a circle with as large a 
circumference as possible; the tendency to twist the head during 
the exercise should be overcome. 



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Arms. 

Note : Arm flinging indicates rapid movement ; arm raising 
indicates slower movement; arm stretching or thrusting indicates 
that the arms reach the new position through the bend stand; 
arms replace may be used for rapid returns from any position. 

1. 

1. Position. Arm front horizontal pos. (Reach st. pos.) 

2. MovEMEiNT. Arm raising, flinging or stretching forw. 

3. Command. Arms forw. raise, fling or stretch! Posi- 
tion ! or Arms bend ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Both arms are quickly raised 
forw. ninety degrees to the front horizontal ; palms in and width 
of the shoulders apart ; the rest of the body remains as in funda- 
mental pos. If the position is taken from the "bend st. pos." the 
command is, "Arms forw. stretch!" 



1. Position. Arm vertical pos. (Stretch st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Arm raising or flinging forw. upward or 
stretching upward. 

3. Command. Arms forw. upward raise or fling! or Arms up- 
ward stretch ! Downward sink or downward stretch ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Without change in the position 
of the body the arms are quickly raised forward and upward to 
the vertical pos. ; palms in ; hands width of the shoulders apart. 



1. Position. Arm backw. stretch pos. (Backw. reach st. 
pos.) 

2. Mo\"ement. Arm flinging or stretching backw. 

3. Command. Arms backw. fling or stretch! Arms sink or 
bend ! Raise ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From fundamental pos. the 
arms are extended directly backw. and downward ; at the same 
time the shoulders are carried well back without raising them; 
palms in. 

4. 

1. Position. Arm side horizontal pos. (Cross (c.) st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Arm raising, flinging or stretching sideways. 

3. Command. Arms sideways raise, fling or stretch! Arms 
sink ! Position !. or Arms bend ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Without change in position of 
the rest of the body the arms are quickly raised sideward and 
upward ninety degrees to the side horizontal position; arms fully 
extended and carried well back; palms down. 

10 




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1. Position. Arm side horizontal position palms up. (Cross 
(d) St. pos.) (Yard (d) pos.) 

2. AIovEMENT, Arm raising (flinging, stretching) sideways 
with palms up. 

3. Co.M.MAND. Arms sidew. with palms up raise, fling or 
stretch ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are quickly abducted, 
that is, raised sideward and upward to the horizontal position; 
as the arms reach this position the arm and forearm are rotated 
backward as far as possible. Care should be taken to avoid any 
forward bending of the head. 



6. 



1. PosiTio.x. Arm vertical pos. (Stretch st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Arm raising or flinging sidew. upward or 
stretching upwd. 

3. CoMM.xxD. Arms sidew. upward raise or fling! or Arms 
upward stretch ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are quickly raised 
through the side plane one hundred and eighty degrees to the 
vertical ; arms perfectly straight and carried back as far as possi- 
ble without changing the position of the body ; palms in ; avoid ex- 
cessive lumbar hyperextension. 

Note : The same position may be reached by the command 
Arms overhead place ! This position is reached by quick partial 
bending and immediate stretching of the arms. 





7. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Arm circling left. 

3. Command. Arm circling 1. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion both arms describe 1. circle in the lateral plane, the tips of the 
fingers making as large a circle as possible ; the body kept motion- 
less without appearing stiff. 



1. Position. 

2. Movement. Arm circling right. 

3. Command. Arm circling r. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The exercise is executed the 
same as No. 6, except that the arms describe a right circle. 

9. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Arm circling inward. 

3. Command. Arms circling inward — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. At the executory command the 
pupil does a right circle with the left arm, and a left circle with 
the right arm, the arms meeting and crossing over the head ; the 
tips of the fingers describe as large a circle as possible ; the circles 
are in the lateral plane; the trunk retains the erect position and 
should be kept as motionless as possible. 

10. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Arm circling outward. 

3. Command. Arms circling outward — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as No. 8, only the arms meet and cross in front of the hips, the 
right arm describing a right circle and the left arm a left circle. 

11. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm circling forward. 

3. Command. Alt. arm circling forward — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Arm circles forward are exe- 
cuted in the antero-posterior plane ; from the fundamental posi- 
tion the left arm starts the large forward circles ; as the left arm 
reaches the vertical position the right arm starts its circle, then 
the exercise continues with one arm one hundred and eighty de- 
grees in advance of the other ; as in the other circles, the shoulder 
enters into the movement, but the body is kept as still as possible ; 
arms kept straight. 

13 



12. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm circling- backward. 

3. Command. Alt. arm circlin^s: backward — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 10, except that the arms describe a "back" circle. 

13. 

1. Position. 

2. I\TovEMENT. Small arm circles. 

3. Command. Small arm circles — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the shoulder as center, 
the tips of the fingers describe a circle about six inches in diame- 
ter ; arm and wrist fully extended ; the rest of the body retains 
the fundamental position. The circles can be done with the arms 
at the fundamental position (1. or r.) ; at the front horizontal 
position ("in" or "out"), at the side horizontal position (front, 
back) ; at the vertical position (1., r.), etc.; the palms may be in, 
out, up, or down. 

Forearm. 

1. 

1. Position. Hand forw. raised pos. 

2. Movement. Hand raising or flinging, forw. 

3. Command. Hands forw. raise or fling! Sink! or 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From fundamental position 
the forearm is quickly flexed forw. and upward ninety degrees ; 
palms in ; arms at the side. 

2. 

1. Position. Hand outward raised pos. 

2. Movement. Hand raising or flinging outward. 

3. Command. Hands outward raise or fling! Sink! or 
Position ! 

4. Df-SCRIption of Exercise. The arm is rotated outward as 
far as possible and the forearm quickly flexed outward ninety 
degrees, i.e., bent outward and upward ; palms front ; arms at side. 

3. 

1. Position. Hand inward raised pos. 

2. Movement. Hand raising or flinging inward. 

3. Command. Hands inward raise or fling! Sink! or Posi- 
tion ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arm is rotated inward and 
the forearm is flexed inward and upward ninety degrees ; palms 
back; avoid abd. of shoulders forward; the forearms are flexed 
behind the bodv iniless otherwise directed. 







1. Position. Hand forw. upwd. raised pos. 

2. Movement. Hand raising or flinging forw. vipwd. 

3. Command. Hands forward upward raise or fling ! Sink! 
or Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same description as in No. 
1 ; the forearm is flexed as far as possible. 

15 



5. 

1. Position. Hand outward upwd. raised pos. 

2. Movement. Hand raising or flinging outward upwd. 

3. Command. Hands outward upward raise or fling! Sink! 
or Position I 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 2 ; the forearm is flexed as far as possible. 



Arm and Forearm. 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Half forw. bending of elbows. 

3. Command, Elbows half forw. bend! Sink! or Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are raised forward 
and upward to the front horizontal pos. and at the same time the 
forearms are flexed ninety degrees, or to right angles with the 
arms. The arms and also the forearms are parallel; palms in; 
wrists and fingers extended. Care should be taken to keep the 
shoulders well back. 

2. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Half forw. upwd. bending of elbows. 

3. Command. Elbows half forward upward bend ! Sink ! or 
Position I 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 1, with the exception that the forearms are flexed as 
far as possible, bringing the hand close to the head on either side. 

3. 

1. Position. 

2. Monement. Half forw. inwd. bending of elbows. 

3. Command. Elbows half forward inward bend! Sink! or 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are raised as in 1 
and 2 and rotated inward sufficiently to allow the forearms to be 
flexed in the horizontal plane ; the forearms are flexed inward ; 
the fingers of the left hand resting on the right elbow. The exer- 
cise may be continued with a more complete flexion of the fore- 
arm. 



16 





Forearms 5 



Arm and Forearm 1 





Arm and Forearm 2 



Arm and Forearm 3 



4. 

1. Position. Elbows half sidew. bending pes. (Cross (b).) 
(Yard (b) pos.) 

2. jVIovement. Half sidew. bending of elbows. 

3. Command. Elbows half sideward bend! Sink! or Posi- 
tion ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are raised to the 
side horizontal ; the forearm is flexed ninety degrees in the hori- 
zontal plane, palms in. 

5. 

1. Position. Elbows sidew. bend pos. (Yard (a) pos.) 
(Cross (a) pos.) 

2. Movement. Sidew. bending of elbows. 

3. Command. Elbows sidew. bend! Sink! or Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are quickly raised 
to the side horizontal and the forearm is flexed in the horizontal 
plane ; the thumbs touching the chest ; elbows well back and 
shoulders down. 

6. 

1. Position. Elbows half sidew. upw. bend pos. (Cross (e) 
pos.) 

2. Movement. Half sidew. upwd. bending of elbows. 

3. Command. Elbows half sidew. upwd. bend! Sink! or 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are raised as in the 
preceding exercises and the forearms are flexed ninetv degrees 
in the vertical plane; the palms turned in and elbows well back. 



1. Position. Neck grasp pos. 

2. Movement. Placing hands on neck. ' ' 

3. Command. Hands on neck — Place! Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. The arms are abducted and the 
forearms flexed sufficiently to allow the fingers to touch behind the 
head at the occipital bone; the fingers should be pressed strongly 
against the head resisting ; the elbows well back. 

8. 

1. Position. Forehead grasp pos. 

2. Movement. Placing hands on forehead. 

3. Command. Hands on forehead — Place! Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is executed sim- 
ilar to No. 8, only the fingers touch at and press against the fore- 
head. 

18 




Arm and Forearm 4 



Arm and Forearm 5 




Arm and Forearm 6 Arm and Forearm 7 Arm and Forearm S 



19 



1. Position. Head grasp pes. 

2. Movement. Placing hands on head. 

3. CoMM.AND. Hands on head: — Place! Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. Like the preceding exercises 
the arms are raised sideward and upward one hundred and thirty- 
five degrees, the forearms are -flexed, the fingers touching at the 
top of the head. The fingers are pressed down heavily on the 
head, and the whole body raised or stretched up as though to lift 
a weight. 

10. 

1. Position. Hip grasp pos. 

2. Movement. Placing hands on hips. 

3. Command. Hands on hips — Place! Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. From fundamental position the 
hands are quickly raised to the hips, resting on the crest of the 
ilium ; thumbs backward ; elbows slightly back of the plane of the 
shoulders. 



Wrist. 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Bending and stretching of wrists. 

3. Command. Bending and stretching of wrists — Start! or 
Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the arms slightly ab- 
ducted, the hands are flexed and extended at the wrist joints; 
in extension the hand should be carried beyond the line with the 
forearm. 

2. 

1. Position. 

2. ]\IovEMENT. Wrist circling. 

3. Command. Wrist circling — Start! Stop! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the wrist as the center 
the fingers describe a circle with as large a circumference as 
possible. 

Fingers. 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement, Bending and stretching of fingers. 

3. Command. Bending and stretching of fingers — Start! 
or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The fingers are flexed and ex- 
tended with arm or forearm in any of the positions. 



Arm and Forearm 9 



Arm and Forearm 10 



Arm, Forearm, Hand. 

1. 

1. Position. Bend st. pes. 

2. Movement. Arm bending. 

3. Command. Arms bend ! Downward stretch! or Position! 

4. Description of Exercise. The forearm is quickly flexed 
as completely as possible with full flexion of fingers. The arms 
are rotated backward and outward. 

Note: Arm stretchings may be used from this or any bent 
arm position backward, downward, forward, sideward or up- 
ward. If the arms are straight with an arm stretching command, 
it is understood the movement goes through the bend standing 
position. 





Arm. Forearm, Hand 1 riiH.ii i 

Thigh. 
1. 

1. Position. Leg forw. raised pos. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. leg raising or leg flinging forw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) leg raise! Sink! or L. (r.) or alt. 
leg flinging forw. — Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise, From the fundamental posi- 
tion the weight of the body is changed to the r. or 1. leg and the 
opposite thigh is flexed to a right angle with the body if possible, 
the leg and foot fully extended. The tendency to bend the trunk 
backward and flex the supporting knee should be overcome. In 
the quick rhythmic movement swing the foot up as high as 
possible while keeping the trunl< erect. 

22 





k<. 



1. Position. Leg sidew. raised pes. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. leg raising or flinging sidew. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. leg sideways raise! or L. (r.) 
or alt. leg flinging sideways — Start ! 

_ 4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the weight is changed from both to one leg, and the other 
thigh is abducted or raised to one side as far as possible, keeping 
the rest of the body in the erect position. Leg and foot extended ; 
avoid rotation of the hips. 



1. Position. Stride st. pos. 

2. Movement. Alt. foot placing sideways. 

3. Command. L. (r.) foot sideways place! or Feet side- 
ways place ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The thigh is abducted suffi- 
ciently to bring the feet two foot lengths apart; the weight is 
supported equally on both feet ; body erect ; legs extended. When 
it is desired to take the stride stand position as a starting position 
for other movements, both feet are moved simultaneously (with a 
jump) on the command Feet sideways place! 



4. 

1. Position. Leg cross raised pos. 

2. Movement. Cross leg raising sidew. 

3. Command. Leg cross sideways raise! Backw. place! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the weight supported on 
one leg the free thigh is adducted or carried across and, unless 
otherwise indicated, in front of the other thigh as far as possible 
without rotation of the hips. The rest of the body should be held 
erect; leg and foot extended. 

5. 

1. Position. Cross legged stride st. pos. 

2. Movement. Alt. cross foot placing sidew. 

3. Command. L. (r.) foot cross sideways place! Replace! 
or Position ! or Feet cross sideways place ! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is described and 
executed similar to No. 3, only adduction takes the place of 
abduction. 

6. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Leg circling. 

3. Command. L. (r.) leg circling — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the weight is carried to the r. (1.) leg; with the hip as the 
center the foot of the 1. (r.) leg describes the circumference of 
as large a circle as possible, the foot extended and the body retain- 
ing the erect position. 

7. 

1. Position. Close st. pos. 

2. Movement. Closing of feet. 

3. Command. Feet close! Feet open! or Close and open 
feet— Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. From fundamental position 
the toes are raised and the thighs are rotated inward sufficiently 
to bring the feet together in the antero-posterior plane. 



1. Position. Forw. walk st. pos. 

2. Movement. Alt. foot placing forw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) foot forw. place! Foot replace! or 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the 1. (r.) foot is raised and moved quickly forward 
twice its own length and planted without change in the angle of 
the feet; the weight of the body supported equally between the 
feet ; the plane of the shoulders unchanged. The exercise may be 
also executed with a jump. 

24 




o 




c.\ 





25 



1. Position. Forw. close walk st. pos. (Walk (c) st. pes.) 

2. Movement. Foot placing forw. from close st. pos. 

3. Command. L. (r.) foot forw. place! Foot replace! or 
Position ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the close walk standing 
position the 1. (r.) foot is moved forward twice its length and 
placed without change in the angle of either foot. The general 
descriptions in No. 8. apply in this exercise. The forward walk 
standing position may also be reached by a foot placing backward. 



10. 

1. Position. Forw. oblique walk st. pos. (Walk (a) st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Foot obliquely forw. placing. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) foot obliquely forw. place! Foot 
replace! or Position! (b) Alt. foot placing obliquely forw. — 
Begin ! Stop ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 8. The foot is moved to the forward oblique. The 
forward oblique walk stand position may also be reached by a 
foot placing obliquely backward. 



11. 

1. Position. Forw. cross oblique walk st. pos. (Walk (d) 
St. pos.) 

2. Movement. Foot placing cross obliquely forw. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) foot cross oblique forw. place! 
Foot replace! or Position! (b) Alt. foot placing cross obliquely 
forw. — Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in the preceding exercises, but the foot 1. (r.) is moved to for- 
ward cross oblique. 



Leg. 

1. 

1. Position. Foot backw. raise pos. 

2. Movement. Foot raising backw. 

3. Command, (a) Foot backward raise! Replace! (b) 
L. (r.) or alt. foot raising backw. — Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise, From the fundamental posi- 
tion the weight is carried to the r. (1.) foot and the 1. (r.) leg is 
flexed ninety degrees to a right angle with the thigh ; foot ex- 
tended ; body erect. 

26 



,.\ 







Foot, 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) alt. or toe raising. 

3. Command. Toe raising — Begin! Stop! or alt. toe raising 
— Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The weight of the body is 
supported on the heels and the feet are flexed, raising the toes 
as high as possible. Avoid flexion at the hips. 



1. Position. Toe st. pos. 

2. Movement. Heel raising. 

3. Command. Heels raise! Heels sink! or Heel raising — 
Begin ! Stop ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The weight of the body is 
supported on the ball of the foot and the feet are extended, rais- 
ing the heels as high as possible ; body well poised. 

3. 

1 . Position. 

2. Movement. Heel and toe raising. 

3. Command. Heel and toe raising — Begin! Class halt! 

4. Description of Exercise. This is a rocking movement 
done in smooth medium rhythm. It is best to start with heel 
raising. 



Thigh and Leg. 



1. Position. Knee forw. raised st. pos. (Half hook pos.) 
(Half hook (a) st. pos.) (Crook (a) one-half st. pos.) 

2. Movement. Knee forward raising. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) knee forw. raise ! Position! (b) 
L. (r.) or alt. knee forw. raising — Start! Class stop! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the weight supported on 
one foot the leg 1. or r. is flexed ninety degrees, or to a right angle 
with the thigh, and the thigh is flexed, forming a right angle w^th 
the body ; the foot extended ; body erect. 



28 





29 



2. 

1. Position. 

2. ]\IovEMENT. L. (r.) or alt. knee upwd. raising. 

3. CoMMAXD. L. (r.) or alt. knee upwd. raising — Start! 
Class halt ! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the weight supported on 
one leg the 1. or r. thigh and leg are both flexed as fully as possi- 
ble ; with complete flexion it is not practical to keep the toe 
pointed ; body erect. This exercise may be done in three ways : 

( 1 ) The ])Osition at the end of the up stroke as well as the funda- 
mental position may be held but only when the knee is grasped. 

(2) The position at the end of the up stroke is not held as in (1) ; 
this applies to the alternate as well as the 1. (r.) movement. (3) 
Xo position is held ; this applies only to the alternate movement. 
In all cases the weight should be equally on both feet at the end 
of the down stroke. 



1. Position. Knee bend. pos. (Half squat.) (Knee bend. 
St. pos.) 

2. Movement. Knee bending. 

3. Command. Knees bend! Stretch! or Knee bending — 
Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental pos. the 
knees are bent, the thigh and leg forming a right angle ; trunk in 
the same plane as in the fundamental pos.; thighs pointing in the 
same direction as the feet ; heels raised if so directed bv the leader. 



4. 

1. Position. Knee deep bend. pos. (Full squat.) (Toe 
deep knee bend pos.) 

2. Movement. Deep knee bending (heel raising implied). 

3. Command. Knees deep bend! Stretch! or Deep knee 
bending — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is executed the 
same as No. 3, except that the flexing at the knees is as complete 
as possible; heels must be raised from the floor. 

Toe Touch. 



1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching forw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching forw. — One, two! 
or Start! 

30 





Thkih Axn I E 



HI..H AXl, I, 





4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental pos. 
the 1. or r. thigh is flexed and foot extended, touching the toes 
Hghtly to the floor; weight supported on the leg that remains in 
place; trunk inclined backward sufficiently to retain a straight 
line with the moving thigh unless otherwise directed ; supporting 
knee straight or flexed as leader directs. Avoid lateral bending 
in lumbar spine. 

31 



6. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. — One, two! 
or Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is executed 
similar to No. 5, but the foot is moved backward and the trunk 
is inclined forward to keep in line with moving leg and to avoid 
lumbar extension. 

7. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. with oppo- 
site knee bending. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. with oppo- 
site knee bending — One, two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to No. G, only standing 
knee is bent. 



1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching sidew. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching sidew. — One, two! 
or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to No. 5, only the 
thigh is abducted and toe touches floor at the side ; the trunk is 
inclined sideward ; shoulders remain in lateral plane. 

9. 

1. Position. 

2. ]\IovEMENT. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching obliquely forw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching obliquely forw.— 
One, two ! or Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to No. 5, toe touching 
floor at the forw. oblique ; shoulders remain in the lateral plane. 

10. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching obliquely backw. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching obliquely backw. — 
One, two! or Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to No. G, toe touching 
the floor at the backward oblique ; shoulders in the lateral plane. 



32 





Thigh and Leg 6 



Thigh and Leg 7 




Thigh and Leg 8 Thigh 



Thigh and Leg 10 



11. 

1. POSITIOX. 

2. MovEMiiXT. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching forw. cross 
oblique. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching forw. cross oblique 
— One, two! or Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to the preceding exer- 
cises. The toe touches the floor at the forw. cross oblique; the 
trunk is inclined backward and sideward, keeping in line with 
moving thigh ; shoulders in the lateral plane. 

12. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. cross 
oblique. 

3. Command. L. (r.) or alt. toe touching backw. cross 
oblique — One, two ! or Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Similar to No. 6. Toe touches 
the floor in the backw. cross oblique plane ; trunk inclined for- 
ward and sideward ; shoulders in the lateral plane. 

Substituting "heel" and "foot" for "toe" in the preceding exer- 
cises another series of positions may be given. As in the toe 
touches, the heel or foot touches the floor but does not support 
the weight of the body. The forward foot touches are the same 
as Anderson's Reverse Charges, "Gymnastic Nomenclature," p. 
12. The backward foot touches are like Fall out (a) and (b), 
and, when at close standing pos.. Fall out (c), by Enebuske, 
"Progressive Gymnastic Day's Orders," 1894, pp. 5, 6 ; and Posse, 
"Special Kinesiology of Educational Gymnastics," 1894, pp. 
G2, 63. All the toe touches may be done with simultaneous bend- 
ing of knee of supporting leg when so specified, as illustrated in 
No. 7. 

Charges. 

13. 

1. Position. Forw. charge pos. 

2. Movement. Forw. charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) forw. charge! Position! (b) L. 
(r.) or alt. forw. charging — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the body is inclined or falls forward at the same time the 
1. (r.) foot is moved forward twice its length (some authors 
require three foot lengths) and planted in a position at right 
angles to each other ; both feet on the floor ; the knee of the mov- 
ing leg flexed and directly over the toe; the backward leg fully 
extended ; trunk in direct line with the extended rear leg ; the 
plane of the shoulders unchanged ; weight of the body chiefly on 
the forward foot. 

34 




Thigh and Leg 11 



Thigh and Leg 12 





14. 

1. Position. Forw. oblique charge pes. 

2. Movement. Forw. oblique charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) forw. oblique charge! Position! 
(b) L. (r.) or alt. forw. oblique charging — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is executed the 
same as No. 13, with the exception that the body and foot are 
moved forward obliquely. 

35 



15. 

1. Position. Forw. cross oblique charge pos. 

2. Movement. Forw. cross oblique charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) forw. cross oblique charge — Posi- 
tion! (b) L. (r.) or alt. forw. cross oblique charging — One, two! 
or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 13, with the exception that the foot is moved to the 
forw. cross oblique and the body is inclined in the same direction. 

16. 

1. Position. Side charge pos. 

2. Movement. Side charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) sidew. charge — Position! (b) 
L. (r.) or alt. sidew. charging — One, two! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 13, with the exception that the body is inclined to the 
side and the foot is moved in the same direction. 

ir. 

1. Position. Backw. charge pos. 

2. Movement. Backw. charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) backw. charge — Position! (b) 
L. (r.) or alt. backw. charging — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the body is inclined backward, and the 1. (r.) foot is moved 
backward twice its length and planted without change of angle ; 
trunk in line with thigh, which remains stationary and extended ; 
the weight supported on backward leg; backward knee bent and 
directly over the toe ; the plane of the shoulders the same as in 
fundamental position. 

18. 

1. Position. Backw. oblique charge pos. 

2. Movement. Backw. oblique charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) backw. oblique charge — Position! 
(b) L. (r.) or alt. backw. oblique charging — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 17, except that the charge is to the backw. oblique. 

19. .- 

1. Position. Backw. cross oblique charge pos. 

2. Movement. Backw. cross oblique charging. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) backw. cross oblique charge — 
Position! (b) L. (r.) or alt. backw. cross oblique charging — 
One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 17, with the exception that the foot is moved to the 
backw. cross oblique. 

36 




Thigh and Leg 15 Thigh and Leg 16 Thigh and Leg 17 





I'HUjH ASl) Ltl, 



.HIGH AND Leg I'j 



37 



Lunges. 

The lunges are executed like the charges, but only in the lateral 
and oblique planes ; when in the oblique plane the trunk is twisted 
in such a way as to make the plane of the shoulders coincide with 
the plane of the lunge. The foot is moved about three and one- 
half times its own length. The trunk should be held in the erect 
position. 

Balance Positions. 

20. 

1. Position'. Toe point forw. pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing forw. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) toe pointing forw. — Raise! Sink! 
(b) L. (r.) or alt. forw. toe pointing — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the w^eight is carried to one leg and the other thigh is flexed 
and foot extended, raising the toe to position about two inches 
from the floor. 

21. 

1. Position. Toe point forw. oblique pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing forw. oblique. 

3. Command. (a) L. (r.) toe pointing forw. oblique — 
Raise! Sink! (b) L. (r.) or alt. toe pointing forw. oblique — One, 
two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 20. The foot is moved to the forw. oblique. 



22. 

1. Position. Forw. toe point cross oblique pos. 

2. Movement. Forw. toe ]:»ointing cross oblique. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) forw. toe pointing cross oblique — 
Raise! Sink! (b) L. (r.) or alt. forw. toe pointing cross obHque 
— One, two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Same description as in No. 
20. Movement of thigh in the forw. cross oblique direction. 



23. 

1. Position. Toe i)oint sidcw. pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing sidew. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) toe pointing sidew. — Raise! Sink! 
(b) L. (r.) or alt. toe pointing sidew. — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. Same general description as 
in No. 20. The thigh is raised to the side. 

38 



o 







Thigh and Leg 21 Thigh and Leg 22 Thigh and 



39 



24. 

1. Position. Toe point backw. pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing backw. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) toe pointing backw. — Raise! Sink! 
(b) L. (r.) or alt. toe pointing backw. — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 20. The thigh is extended or raised backward and the 
trunk is correspondingly inclined forward. 



25. 

1. Po.'UTiON. Toe point backw. oblique pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing backw. oblique. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) toe pointing backw. oblique — 
Raise! Sink! (b) L. (r.) or alt. toe pointing backw. ol)lique — 
One, two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 24. The leg is raised in the backward oblique plane. 



26. 

1. Position. Toe point backw. cross oblique pos. 

2. Movement. Toe pointing backw. cross oblique. 

3. Command, (a) L. (r.) toe pointing backw. cross oblique 
— Raise! Sink! (b) L. (r.) or alt. toe pointing backw. cross 
oblique — One, two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same description as in 
No. 24. The leg is raised in the backward cross oblique plane. 

27. 

1. Position. Trunk forw. bal. pos. 

2. Movement. Trunk bending forw. on one foot. 

3. Command, (a) Trunk bending forw. on 1. (r.) foot — 
Bend! Raise! (b) Trunk bending forw. on 1. (r.) foot — One, 
two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The weight is supported on the 
right leg and the trunk is bent forward about forty-five degrees, 
keeping the left thigh in same relation with the trunk as in the 
fundamental position. The relative position of the head and 
shoulders unchanged ; supporting leg straight. 



40 




9> 




Thigh and Leg 25 








Thigh and Leg 26 



Thigh and Leg 27 



1. Position. Trunk forw. downward balancing pos. 

2. Movement. Trunk bending forw. downward on one foot. 

3. Command, (a) Trunk bending forw. downward on 1. (r.) 
foot — Bend! Raise! (b) Trunk bending forw. downward on 
1. (r.) foot — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 27. The trunk is bent forward ninety degrees; sup- 
porting knee bent. 

29. 

1. Position. Trunk sidew. bal. pos. 

2. Movement. Trunk bending sidew. on one foot. 

3. Command, (a) Trunk bending sidew. on 1. (r.) foot — 
Bend! Raise! (b) Trunk bending forw. on 1. (r.) foot — One, 
two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. With the weight supported on 
the right leg the trunk is bent to the side forty-five degrees ; 
at the same time the left leg is raised sideward, retaining its 
relative position with the trunk; shoulders in the lateral plane; 
knee of supporting leg extended. 

30. 

1. Position. Trunk sidew. downw. balancing pos. 

2. Movement. Trunk bending sidew. downw. on one foot. 

3. Command, (a) Trunk bending sidew. downw. on 1. (r.) 
foot — Bend! Raise! (b) Trunk bending sidew. downw. on 
1. (r.) foot — One, two! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 28, but the trunk is bent as near as possible to the 
horizontal position ; avoid rotation of the trunk ; knee of support- 
ing leg bent. 

Jumps. 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Jumping on toes. 

3. Command. Jumping on toes — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The body should retain the 
erect position ; spring from the ankle ; knees slightly bent ; heels 
raised from the floor. This exercise may be varied from the 
straight jump, with alternate leg flinging forward or sideways, 
or with alternate knee upward bending or with alternate foot 
raising backward, and also with foot placing sideways or forward 
backward or forward and backward, feet coming together at 
each jump or with crossing of feet each time, or alternating with 
foot placing sideways or with foot placing sideward alternating 
with foot placing forward backward (making them cross), also 
jumping on toes with toe touches, heel touches, heel and toe 
touches, etc. 

42 




Thigh and Leg 28 




Thigh and Leg 29 




Thigh and Leg 30 
43 



2. 

1. Position. 

2. AIovEMENT. Jumping. 

3. Command. Jumping (given direction) — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is described the 
same as No. 1, but at each count the person moves forward, side- 
ward, etc., one, two, or more jumps as the leader directs, return- 
ing to position with the same number of jumps. This may also 
be given with quarter and half turns. 



Stationary Run. 

1. 

1. Position. 

2. Movement. Running in place. 

3. Command. Running in place — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general principles 
should be observed here as in the ordinary run, only no ground 
is gained. This exercise may be varied by running with leg 
flinging, knee upward bending and foot raising, etc. 



Exercises on the Floor. 

1. 

1. Position. Knee bend rest pos. 

2. Movement. Taking knee bend rest pos. 

3. Command, (a) Knee bend rest — Place! Position! (b) 
Knee bend rest and return — One, two ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the position of deep 
knee bending the trunk is inclined forward, the hands touching 
the floor between the knees. 



1. Position. Front leaning rest pos. (Prone falling pos.) 

2. Movement. Taking front leaning rest pos. 

3. Command, (a) Front leaning rest — Place! Position! or 
Stand up — One, two! (b) Front leaning rest and return — One, 
two, three, four! or Begin! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the knee bend rest posi- 
tion the thighs are extended and the weight is supported equally 
by the hands and feet ; body perfectly straight ; feet flexed and to- 
gether from heel to toe. 

44 



<^^ 




Exercises ox Floor 1 



Exercises ox Floor 2 




1. Position. Side leaning rest pos. (Side falling pos.) 

2. Movement. Taking side leaning rest pos. 

3. Command, (a) Side leaning rest — Place! Position! or 
Stand up — One, two, three! (b) Side leaning rest and return- 
One, two, three ! or Begin ! 

4. Description of Exercise. From front leaning rest turn the 
.body ninety degrees left or right, supporting the weight on one 

hand and the outside of one foot; body perfectly straight; dis- 
engaged arm resting at the side. Or, from the squat rest, left or 
right hand at the side, the thighs and trunk are extended side- 
ward. 

45 



4. 

1. Position. Sitting pes. 

2. Movement. Taking sitting pes. 

3. Command. Sitting pos. — Place! Position ! or Stand up — 
One, two, three ! 

4. Description of Exercise. Do a deep knee bending 
(count 1), support weight on left hand and right leg while ex- 
tending left leg forward (count 2), extend right leg forward 
coming to sitting position, with hands touching the floor at the 
sides (count 3). In assuming the standing position bend right 
knee, placing weight on right foot and left hand (count 1), bend 
left knee coming to deep knee bend position (count 2), standing 
position (count 3). 

5. 

1. Position. Supine lying pos. 

2. Movement. Taking supine lying pos. 

3. Command. Supine lying pos. — Place! Position ! or Stand 
up — One, two, three, four ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The body is extended on the 
floor, face up ; thighs extended and parallel ; heels touching ; arms 
at the side, not abducted. The position is usually taken thru the 
sitting position by adding a fourth count for assuming the supine 
position. 

6. 

1. Position. Prone lying pos. 

2. Movement. Taking prone lying pos. 

3. Command. Prone lying pos. — Place! Position! or Stand 
up — One, two, three ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The body lies on the floor, 
face downward ; head rotated left ; thighs extended and parallel ; 
heels together ; feet extended, resting the toes on the floor ; arms 
at the side. The position is usually taken by passing thru the knee 
bend rest position (count 1) the front leaning rest position (count 
2) and arm bending to the front position with hands at side 
(count 3). 

7. 

1. Position. Kneeling pos. 

2. Movement. Taking kneeling pos. 

3. Command, (a) L. or R. kneeling pos. — Place! Position! 
(b) Kneeling pos. — Place! Position! or Stand up — One, two! 

4. Description of Exercise, (a) The 1. or r. leg is placed 
backward in the toe touch position with opposite knee bending 
and at the same time the other knee is bent until it touches the 
floor from six to eight inches back of the heel. 

(b) The knee in this method is placed opposite the other heel 
on the first count, on the second count the full kneeling position 
is assumed. Avoid lumbar extciision in both positions. 

46 




Exercises on Floor 




^i:S^^£:^^^^L^C-'^'. ' 



KxERCiSES ON Floor 6 



- 1 , . 


Mm^^' 




47 



NOMENCLATUliE OF WaNDS AND BaR BeLLS. 

The wand is carried during the marching into class forma- 
tion in the thigh vertical position. The wand may be held for 
exercise in the ordinary, reversed, or mixed grasp. 



I. Horizontal Positions, i.e., those which are in the horizontal 
axis. 

1- 

1. Position. Thigh hor. (the starting pos.) 

2. Movement. 

3. Command. Thigh hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand lies against the 
thighs in the lateral plane. 

2. 

1. Position. Feet hor. 

2. Movement. Trunk forw. downw. bending. 

3. Command. Feet hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The trunk is bent forward 
ninety degrees,, flexion occurring throughout the entire spine and 
in the hip joint. The wand is placed in front of the toes six to 
eight inches from the floor and parallel with it. 

3. 

1. Position. L. (r.) foot hor. 

2. jNIovement. Trunk forw. downw. bending with twisting 
1. (r.). 

3. Command. L. (r.) foot hor.— Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same as No. 1, except 
that the trunk rotates 1. (r.) in addition to the bending. 

4. 

1. Position. Knee hor. 

2. Movement. Trunk forw. bending. 

3. Command. Knee hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The trunk is bent forward 
forty-five degrees, the bending occurring in the hips and lumbar 
spine. The wand is placed in front of and about six inches from 
the knees. 

5. 

1. Position. L. (r.) knee hor. 

2. Movement. Trunk half bending with twisting 1. (r.). 

3. Command. L. (r.) knee hor.— Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same as No. 3, except 
that the trunk is rotated 1. (r.) in addition to the bending. 

48 



A 




^V 




ffh^ if^^^Bf- -a*? 




49 



1. Position. L. (r.) thigh hor. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) arm cross add. trunk twisting. 

3. Command. L. (r.) thigh hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is swung against 
the 1. (r.) thigh in the antero-posterior plane; the r. (1.) arm is 
slightly adducted. 

7. 

1. Position. Chest hor. 

2. Movement. Arm bending. 

3. Command. Chest hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. From the fundamental posi- 
tion the forearms are completely flexed forward. 



1. Position. Chest hor. 1. (r.) 

2. IMovement. L. (r.) arm half abd., r. (1.) half flex, with 
forearm flex inward. 

3. Command. Chest hor. 1. (r.) — Start I 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is held in the hori- 
zontal axis at the height of the shoulders in the lateral plane. 

9. 

1. Position. Front hor. 

2. AIovEMENT. Arm raising or flinging forw. 

3. Command. Front hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Both arms are raised forward 
ninety degrees to the front horizontal position. 

10. 

1. Position. High hor. 

2. Movement. Arm raising or flinging forw. upwd. 

3. Command. Pligh hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is raised from the 
front of the thighs through the front hor. to the high hor. posi- 
tion. 

11. 

1. Position. High hor. 1. (r.) hand forw. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) arm three-quarters flex, r. (1.) arm 
full flex. 

3. Command. High hor. 1. (r.) — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Both arms are flexed as far 
as possible ; the forw. arm reaches only to the three-quarters flex 
pos. Avoid trunk rotation. 

50 




w"-^ 




12. 

1. Position. Head hor. 

2. Movement. Placing wand above the head with bent arms. 

3. Command. Head hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The head, elbows and wand 
are carried backward in the lateral plane as far as possible. The 
wand is placed just above the back of the head. 

13. 

1. Position. Head hor. 1. (r.). 

2. Movement. Placing wand above the head with one arm 
bent. 

3. Command. Head hor. 1. (r.) — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. This is executed the same as 
No. 12, except that the wand slips through the r. (1.) hand until 
the 1. (r.) forearm is fully extended. 

14. 

1. Position. Neck hor. 

2. Movement. Placing wand behind neck with bent arms. 

3. Command. Neck hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is placed back of 
the neck and as far back and down as possible. 

15. 

1. Position. Neck hor. 1. (r.).' 

2. Movement. Placing wand behind neck with one arm bent. 

3. Command. Neck hor. 1. (r.)— Start ! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same as No. 14, except 
that the 1. (r.) arm is straightened at the side horizontal, slipping 
the wand through the right hand. 

16. 

1. Position. Shoulder hor. 

2. Movement. Placing wand behind shoulders. 

3. Command. Shoulder hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same as No. 14, except 
that the wand is placed back of the shoulders, with the hands 
in a wider position. 

17. 

1. Position. Back hor. 

2. Movement. Arm circumduction. 

3. Command. Back hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The hands slide out grad- 
ually to the end of the wand and at the same time are raised until 
the wand passes over the head and down to the horizontal posi- 
tion at the back of the thighs. 

52 





53 



18. 

1. Position. Side hor. 

2. Movement. Arm flinging or raising with trunk twisting. 

3. Command. Side hor. 1. (r.) — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise, The trunk twisting and arm 
flinging or raising occur simultaneously. 

19. 

1. Position. L. (r.) arm hor. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging forw. with half forw. 
inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. L. (r.) arm hor. — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The 1. (r.) arm is in the half 
flex pos. with the forward end of the wand held up by the 1. (r.) 
hand; the other end is supported by the r. (1.) hand beneath the 

I. (r.) armpit. 

Note : No. 1 is usually reckoned as the fundamental or start- 
ing position. 

II. Vertical Positions, i.e., those ivhich are in the vertical axis. 

20. 

1. Position. Front vertical. 
•> 2. Movement. Arm flinging forw. with wand vertical (1. 
then r. hand up). 

3. Command. Front vertical — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is placed at arm's 
length in front of the body in the vertical axis. 

Note : The command may be changed to include charges and 
lunges. Example: Command, Front vertical with forw. charg- 
ing — Start ! 

21. 

1. Position. Front vertical low. 

2. Movement. L. (r.) or alt. (low) arm raising or flinging 
forw. with wand striking floor. 

3. Command. Front vertical low — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The r. (1.) hand drops the 
wand, while the 1. (r.) hand swings the wand into the vertical 
axis at arm's length. The lower end of the wand is placed on the 
floor four foot-lengths in front of the body. 

Note: Useful especially with lunges and charges. 



54 







55 



22. 

1. Position. Front vertical high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging forw. tipwd. with half forw. 
imvd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Front vertical high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The 1. (r.) hand swings its end 
of the wand to its highest point in the median line, i.e., above the 
head. The r. (1.) hand swings the wand into the median line 
directly in front of the body. 

23. 

1. Position. Thigh vertical. 

2. Movement. Alt. half forw.- inwd. bending of elbow. 

3. CoMAfAND. Thigh vertical — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is placed against the 
thigh and is parallel to it. The top arm is placed across the chest, 
with the hand at the shoulder. 

24. 

1. Position. Side vertical. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging sidew. 1., then r., with 
simultaneous trunk twisting. 

3. Command. Side vertical — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is carried outward 
to the side hor. in the vertical axis. 

25. 

1. Position. Side vertical low. 

2. ]\Iovemext. Alt. (low) arm flinging sidew. inwd., wand 
striking floor. 

3. Command. Side vertical low — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. Drop the wand with the r. (1.) 
hand, allowing it to swing to the vertical axis at the 1. (r.) side 
of the bodv and at arm's length from it, the wand resting on the 
floor. 

26. 

1. Position. Back half vertical. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging forw. upwd. backw. 

3. Command. Back half vertical — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is passed over the 
head and rests obliquely across the back in the lateral plane. 

27. 

1. Position. Head and arm vertical. 

2. Movement. Alt. half forw. upwd. inwd. bending of 
elbows. 

3. Command. Head and arm vertical — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The 1. (r.) arm is held close 
to the bodv, thus pressing the wand firmly against the deltoid 
muscle; the r. (1.) arm is completely adducted with forearm half 
flex inward. 

56 





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57 



28. 

1. Position. Arm vertical high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging forw. upwd. with half forw. 
inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Arm vertical high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand rests close to the 
inner side of the 1. (r.) arm and nearly parallel to it. The r. (1.) 
hand is brought across the chest to the armpit. 

Note : Arm half vertical low or high may be used as in Nos. 
30 and 31. 

29. 

1. Position. Half vertical sideward low. 

2. Movement. Alt. (low) arm flinging sidew. with half 
forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical sideward low — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is held in the lat- 
eral plane half way between the horizontal and vertical axes, 
i.e., it points towards the floor at the side at an angle of forty- 
five degrees. 

30. 

1. Position. Half vertical sidew. high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging obliquely sidew. upwd. with 
half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical sideward high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The same general description 
as in No. 29, except that the wand is pointed up at an angle of 
forty-five degrees. 

31. 

1. Position. Half vertical forw. low. 

2. Movement. Alt. (low) arm flinging forw. with half forw. 
inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical forw. low — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is swung in front 
of the body in the median line at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
i.e., the wand points toward the floor. The wand slides through 
the lower hand. 

32. 

1. Position. Half vertical forw. high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging obliquely forw. upwd. with 
half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical forw. high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is in the antero- 
posterior plane as in No. 31, but it points upward at an angle of 
forty-five degrees. 

58 






59 



33. 

1. Position. Half vertical oblique forw. low. 

2. Movement. Alt. (low) arm flinging obliquely forw. with 
half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical oblique forw. low — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is pointed toward 
the floor at an angle of forty-five degrees, midway between the 
lateral and antero-posterior planes. 



34. 

1. Position. Half vertical oblique forw. high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging obliquely forw. upwd. with 
half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical oblique forw. high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is the same as 
No. 33, except that the wand is pointed upward at an angle of 
forty-five degrees. 



1. Position. Half vertical oblique backw. low. 

2. Movement. Alt. (low) arm flinging obliquely backw. 
with half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Plalf vertical oblique backw. low— Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The exercise is the same as 
No. 29, with the exception of the one-quarter trunk twisting. 



36. 

1. Position. Half vertical oblique backw. high. 

2. AlovEMENT. Alt. arm flinging obliquely backw. upwd. 
with half forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical oblique backw. high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. This exercise is the same as 
No. 30, with the exception of the trunk rotation. 



37. 

1. Position. Half vertical backw. high. 

2. Movement. Alt. arm flinging forw. upwd. with half 
forw. inwd. bending of opposite elbow. 

3. Command. Half vertical backw. high — Start! 

4. Description of Exercise. The wand is carried directly 
backward to the antero-posterior plane in the median line. 

Note: In positions 29, 31, 33 and 35 the near end of the wand 
is above the bent arm ; in positions 30, 32, 34, 3(i and 37 the wand 
is below the bent arm. 

60 







61 



LITERATURE. 

I. Books on Nomenclature. 

Anderson, W. G., M. D. Gymnastic Nomenclature. 

Arnold, E. H., AI. D. Gymnastic Nomenclature : Part I, Free Gymnastics. 

Freidenker Pub. Co. '15. pp. 38. 40 cents. 
Fish, A. L. Calisthcnic Dictionary. Seminar Pub. Co. '02. pp. 80. 
Gymnastic Nomenclature of the Young Men's Christian Association of 

North America. Revised and edited by Henry F. Kallenberg, M. D. 

Association Press. '08. pp. 157. 
System of English Terminology for Swedish Educational Gymnastics. 

Adopted and published bv the Physical Training Club. '11. pp. 47. 

Is. 2d. 

II. Books on Gymnastics Which Include Terminology. 

Alex.\nder, a., F. R. G. S. Physical Drill of all Nations. George Philip 

& Son, 32 Fleet St., London, pp. 165. 
Anderson, W. G., M. D. Light Gymnastics : A Guide to Systematic In- 
struction in Physical Training. Maynard, Merrill & Co., New York. 

pp. 234. 
Angerstein, E., M. D., and Eckler, G. Home Gymnastics. Houghton 

Mifflin Co., New York. pp. 94. 
Arnold, E. H., M. D. Manual of Exercises in Free Gymnastics and 

Tactics. Pub. priv. '15. pp. 42. SO cents. 
Ballin, H.-vns. Gymnastics in the School Room. Herald Printing and 

Publishing Co. pp. 172. 
Bancroft, Jessie H. School Gymnastics : Free Hand. D. C. Heath & Co., 

Boston. '08. pp. 364. $1.50. 
School Gymnastics with Light Apparatus. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston. 

'09. pp. 506. $1.50. 
Betz, Carl. A System of Physical Culture. Gymnastic Tactics. Kansas 

City, Mo., '87. pp. 80. Kansas City Press. 
A System of Physical Culture. Free Gymnastics. Kansas City, Mo. 

'88. pp. 170. Kansas City Press. 
A System of Physical Culture. Light Gymnastics. Kansas City, Mo. 

'92. pp. 131. Kansas City Press. 
A System of Physical Culture. Gymnastic Tactics. A. Flanagan, 

Chicago, 111. Copyright. '94. pp. 150. 
A System of Physical Culture. Free Gymnastics. A. Flanagan, 

Chicago, 111. Copyright. '95. pp. 16<). 
Burger, F., M. D. Manual of Educational Calisthenics and Games, Ger- 
man System, for Public Schools of Kansas City. Kansas City, Mo. 

'09. pp. 258. 
Manual of Educational Calisthenics and Games. Kansas City, Mo. '15. 

pp. 159. 
Butts, Lieut. Edmund L. Manual of Physical Drill, U. S. Army. D. 

Appleton & Co.. New York. '98. pp. 175. 
Eneruske. C. J., A. M., Ph. D. Progressive Gymnastic Day's Orders. 

According to the principles of the Ling System. Silver, Burdett & Co., 

Boston. '94. pp. 84. 75 cents. 
Handbook of Physical Training, Vol. I. pp. 393. Vol. II. pp. 207. 

Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office. '10. 9d. each. 

62 



Harvey, F. J. The Teacher's Manual of Physical Exercises (arranged to 
meet the requirements of the new code). Second edition. Longmans, 
Green & Co., London, New York and Bombay. '96. pp. 166. 

Laspee, Henry de. Calisthenics: or. Elements of Bodily Culture on 
Pestalozzian Principles. Darton & Co., London, pp. 171. 

Lewis, Dio, M. D. The New Calisthenics for Men, Women and Children. 
Ticknor & Fields. '62. pp. 274. 

Melio, George L. Manual of Swedish Drill. Excelsior Pub. House. '89. 
pp. 51. 

Newcomb, Lydia J. Muscular Exercises for Health and Grace. Edgar S. 
Werner, New York. '93. pp. 95. 

NissEN, Hartvig. a B C of the Swedish System of Educational Gymnas- 
tics. F. A. Davis, Philadelphia. '91. pp. 102. 

Physical Exercises, Syllabus for Public Elementary Schools. '09. Printed 
for His Majesty's Stationery Office. 9d. 

Physical Training for the City Schools of Michigan. Prepared by Execu- 
tive Committee, Physical Training Section, State Teachers' Associa- 
tion. Published by State Superintendent of Public Instruction. '14. 
pp. 251. 

Physical Training; Course of Study for Elementary Schools. Primary 
Grades. Newark, N. J. '14. pp. 133. 

Physical Training; Course of Study for Elementary Schools. Grammar 
Grades. Newark, N. J. '14. pp. 167. 

Physical Training; Syllabus for Elementary Schools. Adopted by the 
Board of Superintendents. '03. Department of Education, City of 
New York. pp. 204. 

Physical Training and Games for the Philadelphia Public Schools. Pre- 
pared by William A. Stecher. '10. pp. 261. 

Physical Training St. Louis Public Schools. Grades I, H, HI, IV. '08. 
pp. 230. Prepared by A. E. Kindervater. 

Physical Training for Public Schools, Springfield, Massachusetts. Grades 
I-VII. School Department, Springfield, Mass. pp. 214. 

Rasmussen, Hans. Physical Culture for Public Schools. George Sher- 
wood & Co., Chicago. '93. pp. 185. 

Roberts, R. J. Classified Gymnasium Exercises of System of R. J. 
Roberts. With notes by A. K. Jones. The W. F. Adams Co., Spring- 
field, Mass. '04. pp. 140. 

Skarstrom, William, M. D. Gymnastic Teaching. American Physical 
Educational Association, Distributers, Springfield, Mass. '14. pp. 258. 
$2. 

Stecher, William A. Educational Gymnastics. John J. McVey, Phila- 
delphia. '15. pp. 188. $1.50. 

Text-book of the German-American System of Gymnastics. Lee & Shepard, 
Boston, pp. 348. $3. 

Street, Lieut., A. G. A., and Gooderson, V. E. Handbook of Physical 
Training for Public Elementary Schools. Blackie & Son, Ltd., Lon- 
don. '10. pp. 281. 3s. 6d. 



63 



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