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V 

1891 VOL. V. 1892 



■ 



THE 

Ottawa Naturalist. 



BEING VOL. VII. OF THE 



transactions 



OF THE 



Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. 



(Organized March, i8yg. Incorporated March,- iSSj.) 



MM?' 



W 



OTTAWA : 

T. D. Taylor, Book and [ob Printer, 48 and 50 Queen Street. 

1891. 

1 i 



an 



c\g 



Patron : 
HIS EXCELLENCY THE LORD STANLEY OF PRESTON, 

Governor General of Canada. 

President: Dr. R. W. Ells. 

Vice-Presidents : 

ist, T. J. MacLaughlin, 2nd, H. M. Ami. 

Secretary: W. H. Harrington, P. O. Department. 

Treasurer : A. G. Kingston, Dept. Public Works. 

Librarian: W. A. D. Lees, P. O. Box 4071. 

~ ... , _ /Miss E. Bolton, Miss G. Harmer, Miss M. A. Mills, 

(James Fletcher, William Scott, R. B. Whyte. 

Stanbinq (f ommittccs of Council : 

Publishing — James Fletcher, Editor ; W. H. Harrington, A. G. 
Kingston, W. A. D. Lees, Assistant Editors. 

Excursions — T. J. MacLaughlin, H. M. Ami, Miss G. Harmer, 
Miss M, A. Mills, R. B. Whyte. 

Soirees — A. G. Kingston, Miss E. Bolton, James Fletcher, 
William Scott. 

lumbers : 

Geology and Mineralogy — H. M. Ami.W. F. Ferrier, C.W. Willimott. 
Botany — James Fletcher, Wm. Scott, R. H. Cowley. 
Conchology — F. R. Latchford. 

Entomology — T. J. MacLaughlin, W. H. Harrington, J. Fletcher 
Ornithology — A. G. Kingston, W. A. D. Lees. Prof. J. Macoun. 
Zoology — |. Ballantyne, H. B. Small, W. P. Lett. 



The Librarian will furnish the Publications of the Club at the 
following rates : — 

Transactions, - 

Part 1, Not sold singly. j 

" 2, 25 cts. ; to members, 15 cts. |$i.oo for Vol. I. 

" 3, 25 " " 15 " I To members, 70 cts. 

" 4, 25 " • " l 5 " J 

IIS, 3o;; ;; 20 l -($,.00 for Vol. II. 

„ ' 4 ° " a I To members, 150 cts. 

" 7, 30 " 20 " ) ' J 

The Ottawa Naturalist, $1.00 per annum. 
Monthly parts, 10 cents ; to members, 5 cents. 
Quarterly parts, 25 cents each ; to members, 15 rents. 

Extras — Billings, W. R. Palaeontology. An elementary lecture, 
pp. 11, 5c. 
Ells, R. W. Asbestus; its history, mode of occurrence and 
uses. pp. 24, 10C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Alexander, Mrs. J. 

Alexander, Miss Isabel. 

Allan, W. A. 

Ami, H.M., M.A., F.G.S., F.G.S.A. 

Anderson, Lient.-i'ol. W. P., C.E. 

M.I.G.E. 
Anderson, Mrs. W. P. 
Angus, Miss L. 
Archibald, Miss E. 
Armstrong, John R. 
Bailey, Prof. L. W., M.A., Ph. D. 

F.RS.C, (Fredericton, KB). 
Baldwin, Miss E. G. 
Baldwin, Miss H. A. 
Balland, Rev. .1. B., O.M.I., D.D. 
Ballantyne. J . 
Ballantyne. Norman F. 
Ballantyne, Miss I. M. 
Baptie,Geo.. .!/..!.. M.D. 
Barlow, A. E., M.A. 
Barlow, Scott. 

Barnston, Duncan ( , Ceylon) 

Bate, C. Percy. 

Bate, H. Gerald. 

Bate, H. N. 

Beddoe, Chas. H. 

Bell, E. B. 

Bell.Robert, B App.Sc.M.D.,LL.D. 

F.R.S.C., F.G.S.A. 
Bennetts, F. K. 
Bethune, Rev. (J. J. S., M.A.,D.C.L 

(Port Hope, Ont). 
Billings, B. B 
Billings, W. H. 
Blancliet, C. A. 
Blanchet, W. H. 
Boardman, Win. F. 
Bolton, Rev. C. E. (Paris, Ont.) 
Bolton, Miss Eliza. 



Borden, F. W., M.D., M.P., (Can- 
ning, N.S.) 
Boulton, Arthur. 
Boville, T. C, B.A. 
Bowen, Miss Alice. (Quebec.) 
Bowerman, J. T. 
Bristow, A. A. 
Bristow, Mrs. A. A. 
Broadbent, Ralph L. 
Brodie, R. J., 11. App. Sc, (Smith's 
, Falls, Ont). 

Brodie, W., L.D.S. (Toronto.) 
Brough, James S. 
Brown, R. D. 
Brown, Mrs. R. D. 
Brumell, H. Pareth. 
Burgess, T.J. W., M.D., F.R.S.C. 

( Montreal.) 
Burland, J.H., B.App.Sc.F.G.8., 
Butterworth, Miss Maria E. 
Campbell, A.M., (Perth, Ont.) 
Campbell, Miss C. 
Campbell, R. H. 

Carstairs, J., B.A. (Iroquois, Ont.) 
Casey, M. W. 
Chamberlin, Mrs. B. 
Chant, 0. A., B.A. 
.Christie, A. J., Q.C. 
Chubbock, C. E. D. 
Cochrane. A. S., C.E. 
Code, R. G. 

Cornu, Felix, M.D. (Montreal.) 
Coste, E., M.E. (Buffalo, N.V.) 
Covisens, W. C, M.D. 
Cowley, R. H., B.A. 
Craig, Prof. J. A. (Madison, Wis.) 
Craig, John. 

Craig, Win. (Russell, Ont.) 
Crawford, Mrs. Mary. 



Creightou, J. G. A., Ji.A., B.C.L. Harrington, Mre. W. H. 
Darcy, Miss T. Harrison, Edward. 

Dawson, G.M., LL.D.,D.Sc, Assoc. Hay, George. 
R.S.M., F.G.X., F.R.S.C. Hay, W. H. 

Deeks, W. K, B.A., (Montreal). Hayter, F., B.A. 

Deeprose, Rev. C. S. Henderson, Thomas. 

Devlin, R. J. Herridge, Rev. W T., B.A., B.D. 

Dimock, W. D v B.A. (Truro, N.S ) Hilborn,W. W. (Leamington, Ont.) 

Dixon, F. A. Hodgins, John. 

Dowling, D. B., B. Apjj. Sc. Hope, Jas. 

Elkins. A. W., C.E.,R.L.S., (Sher- Ingall, E. D. Assoc. R.S.M., M.E. 

brooke, Que). Interior, Department of. 

Ells, R W., LL.D., F.G.S.A. Jarvis, S. 

Evans. Jno. D., C.E. (Copper Cliff, Jenkins S. J., B.A. 



Ont.) 
Ewart, D. 

Faribault, E. R., C.E. 
Ferrier, W. F., B. A pp. Sc. 
Fisher, S. A., B.A., J.J'. (Know] 

ton, Que.) 



Johnson, E. V., C.E. 
Johnston, Ro' t. A. A . 
Jones, C. J. 
Kearns, J. C. 
Keefer, Thos. C, C.E. 
Keeley, D. H. 



Fleming, Sandford, C.M.G., C.JJ, Kingston, A. G. 



F.R.C.I., F.R.S.C. 
Fletcher, Hugh, B.A. 
Fletcher, M iss C. F. S. 
Fletcher, James. F.E.S., F.R.S.C. 
Fletcher, Mrs. J. 
Fortescue, L. 
Fortescue, Mrs. L. 



Forward, Arthur J. (Iroijuois, Ont.)La\v, John. 



LafJamrae, Revd. J. A. K., D.D. 

F.R.S.C, (Quebec). 
Lanibart, Hon. 0. H. 
Lam be, L. M., F.G.S.A. 
Lampev, Win. G, M.E. 
Lam p man, A., B.A. 
Latchford, F. ft., B.A. 



Fuller, Thos., RAJ. A. 

Gemmed, R. E. 

Gemmill, J. A. 

Gilmour. T. 

Gironx, N.J., G.E., F.G.S.A. 

Glashan, J. C. 

Gobeil, A. 

Gordon, F. A. 



Lawson, A. C, Ph 1> '.. F.H.S.A. 

( Berkeley, Cal.) 
Lawson, Prof. G., LL.D., Ph. D 

F.R.C.I., F.R.S.C. (Halifax.) 
Lee, Miss Katharine. 
Lehinanu, A., B.S.A. 
Lees, W. A. D. 
Lees, Miss V. 



Grant, Sir J. A., K.C.M.G. M.D., Lees, Miss Jessie. 

F.R.C.S.,Edin., F.R.S.C., F.G.S. LeSueur. W. D., B.A. 

Grist, Henry. LeSueur, Mrs. W. D. 

Grist, Miss Mary L. Lett, W. P. 

Hardie, John. Lindsay, A. 

Hardie, Miss Jessie. Living, Miss A. Marion. 

Harmer, Miss G. (Hintonburgh, Loux, Win. J/.D. 

Ont.) Lovick, Aliss G. 

Harmon, Miss A. Maria. Lowe, John. 

Harrington, W. H. MacCabe, J. A., LL. D. 



MacCraken. John I. 

MacDougall, P. A., M.I). 

MacFarlane, T., M.E., F.R.S.G. 

MaoLaughlin, T. J. 

McConnell, R. G., JJ.A., F.G.S.A. 

.Mr Gil I, A., B.Sc. 

McElhinney, M. P. 

McEvov, Jan., B.App.Sc. 

Mclnnes, Wm, fl.il., F.G.S.A. 

McLaughlin, S. 

McLean, J. D. 

McMinn, W. J. R., B.A. 

McNab, Chas. 

McNaughton, H. F. 

Macoun, Prof. John, M.A., F.L.S., 

F.R.S.G. 
Macoun, J. M. 
Matheson, D. 
Matheson, W. M. 
M earns, Capt. E. A. (Fort Snelling, 

Minn.) 
Meneilly, W. J. 
Mills, Miss Margaret A. 
Moore, H. B. 
Nelson, F., B.A. 
Nicholls, William 
Nicholls, Rupert W. 
O'Brien, S. E. 
Oxley, J. M., B.A., B.C.L. 
Panet, Maurice. 
Paquet, F. X. 
Parliament, Library of. 
Parris, Miss Oriana. 
Perley, Major Henry F., C E. 
Peters, H. J. (Kegina, N.W.T.) 
Phillips, J. A. 
Plunkett, J. M. 

Poirier, Hon. P. S. (Shediac, N.B.) 
Pratt, H. O. E. 

Reed, E. Bayncs (Esquimalt, B.C.) 
Ripley, C. J. 

Robert, J. A., B.App. Sc, (Mon- 
treal). 
Robertson, N. 

Robins, R. N., (Sheibiooke, Que). 
Rondeau. Rev. S., B.A. 
Ross, Niles G. 



Ross, W. A.. J.G.G. 

Rothwell, Miss Lini. 

Ryckman, Rev. E. B., D.I). 

Saint-Cyr, D. N., (Quebec). 

Saucier,' F. X. R. 

Saunders, Fredk. 

Saunders, Prof. W., F.LA.,F.R.S.C, 

I'.G.S. 
Saunders, \V. E., (London, Unt). 
Scott, Colin A., B.A. 
Scott, D. C. 
Scott, Fred. 
Scott, W. 
Scott, W.. JJ.A. 
Sott, W. L., B.A. 
Selwyn, A. R. C, G.M.G., LL.D. 

F.R.S., F.R.S.O.,F.G.H., F.G.S.A 
Senate, The 
Senecal, C. 0., C.E. 
Shenick, Miss A., B.Sc. 
Shutt, F.T., M.A., F.T.G., F.C.iS. 
Simpson, Willibert. 
Small, H. B. 

Small, H. Beaumont, 1/. I). 
Smith, D. E. (Churchville, Ont.) 
Smith, .Miss Eloise. 
Smith, Miss Ethel M. 
Smith, W. H., C.E. 
Smithson, Miss B. H. 
Sowter, r l\ W. E. 
Steacy. Miss Isabel. 
Steck'el, R., C.E. 
Stewart, John. 
Summerby, Won J., M. A.. (Russell, 

Ont.) 
Surtees, Robert, C.E. 
Sutherland, Miss C. F. S. 
Sutherland, J. C, (Richmond, Que). 
Sweetland, John, M.D. 
Symes, Miss E. 
Syraes, P.B., A E.G. 
Tanner, R. J. 

Taylor, Rev. G. W. (Victoria, B.C.) 
Thayne, E. Stewart. 
Thompson, T. W. 
Thorburn, John, JJ.A., LL.D. 
Topley, W. J. 



Toplev, Mrs. W. J. White, W. R. (Pembroke, Ont.) 

Tread well, C. W., B.A., Jj.C.L. Whiteaves, J. F. F.G.S., F.R.S.C. 
Tyrrell, J.B., B.A., F.G.S., F.G.S.A. Whvte, Miss Isabella. 
Varlev, W. B., (Toronto.) Whvte, J. G. 

Verner, J. W. D. Whvte, Miss Ethel. 

Waghorne, Rev. A. C, (Harbour Whyte, Miss Marion. 

Grace, Nfld). Whyte, R. B. 

Wait, F. G., B.A., Whyte, Mrs. R B. 

Warwick, F. W., B. Se. (Bucking- Willimott, Chas. W. 

ham, Que.) Willing, T. N., (Calgary, N.W.T). 

Watters, Mrs. A. Wills, J. Eainson, M.E., F.G.S. 

Watters, Henry. Wilson, C. W.. M.D. (Bucking- 

Watts, J. W. H., B.C. A. ham, Que.) 

Weldon, Prof. B.C., M. P., (Halifax) Wood, Josiah, M.P., (Sackville, 
Weston, T. C. N.B). 

Wheeler, A. O., D.T.S. (New West- Wright, W 7 . H. 

minster, B.C.) Young, Rev. C. J., M.A. (Lans- 

White, Geo. R rlowne, Ont. 

W 7 hite, Lieut.-Col. Wm. 



CORRESPONDING MEM BERS. 



Edwards, Henry, 185 East 11 (5th Streot, New York, U.S. 

Hill, Albert J., M.A., C.E., New Westminster, B.C. 

Merria •, Dr. C. Hart, Department ol Agriculture, Washington, U.S. 

Ormerod, Miss E. A., F.R. Met. >Soc, Torrington House, Holywell 
Hill, St. Albans, England. 

Provanciier, Abbe, Cap Rouge, Que. 

Smith, Prof. John* B., Rutger's College, New Brunswick, N.J. 



TREASURER'S REPORT— 189 1. 

Gentlemen, — I have much pleasure in reporting that the finances 
of the Club are in a very satisfactory condition. A far larger amount 
has been collected during the past year for subscriptions than has ever 
before been the case. An amount of $25.00 not yet paid out, has been 
put aside by the Council to finish the publication of the Flora Ottawa 
ensis. I beg again to draw the attention of the members to the names 
uf the firms which assist the Club by advertising in the Ottawa Natur- 
alist. It is not too much to say that these firms are equal to, or the 
best, in their several lines, and I trusl that the members will endeavour 
to show them that it is a paying investment to assist the Club. In con- 
clusion I would draw attention to the fact that nearly $6.00 has been 
unnecessarily expended in postage by the Treasurer in writing for sub- 
scriptions. The fees are payable in advance on the third Tuesday in 
March. If this were attended to by all the members, not only would 
it save much trouble and expense ; but they would get much better 
valve for their money. During the past year owing to the fact that sub- 
scriptions were paid in more promptly, no less than 3S pages were added 
to the Ottawa Naturalist. Had everyone paid up this number 
might have been doubled and the Flora Ottawacnsis would have 
been finished. As it is impossible for me, owing to my official duties, 
to again accept the post of Treasurer I lay this matter before the meet- 
ing and beg that you will assist my successor to this extent. 

Treasurer's Balance Sheet — 1890-91. 



1890. 

March 18, 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance $ 30 52 

1891. 
March 17, Subscriptions 

1890-91 . . $212 00 
Arrears .... 48 00 

260 00 

Advertisements 37 00 

Authors' extras 9 75 

Transaction sold 18 39 

Excursion receipts. . . 159 55 



$515 21 



EXPENDITURE. 

1 891. 
March 17, Ottawa Naturalist, 
Vol. iv. . $254 49 
Postage . . 1 1 26 

$265 75 

Extras. Elora 
Ottavvaensis 26 00 
n Authors' 16 12 

42 12 

General printing. ... 2 95 

General postage.... 8 77 

Stationery Ill 

Gratuities 6 00 

Library — 

Shelves. ... 6 00 
Binding. ... 10 00 

16 00 

Excursion expenses . 157 39 
Balance 15 12 



$515 21 



Ottawa, March 17, 1891. 



JAMES FLETCHER, 

Treasurer. 



DRINKING WATER. 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THL OTTAWA CITY SUPPLY. 



A Lecture by A. McGill, B.A., B.Sc, Assistant Analyst t.. the 
Inland Revenue Department. 

A very little thought given to the subject will convince us of the 
hopelessness of seeking for absolutely pure water as a natural product. 
The great solvent power of water, together with the universal presence 
of substances, gaseous liquid or solid, which it can take into solution, 
are conditions which amply suffice to explain the contamination of all 
natural sources of supply. The whole of the fresh water on the face of 
the earth has fallen as rain on field, forest, city, street, swamp, or other 
more or less similar gathering-ground, except such insignificant fraction 
as falls directly into river or lake. The soluble impurities present in 
such gathering grounds are conveyed to the storage centres in river, 
lake or well, and it is fortunate for us that nature has provided, in the 
course of natural filtration to which such supplies are necessarily sub- 
jected, a means of reducing in a great degree the pollution due to 
organic matter, as will be hereafter explained more fully. The mineral 
content remains to give so-called " hardness,'" or other specific character 
to the supply of each locality. Even before the rain has reached the 
surface of the earth, however, it is far from pure, since there are always 
present in the atmosphere particles of organic and inorganic dust, ill- 
smelling and often poisonous gases, the products of decay, microscopic 
germs, and other impurities which are washed out of the air by the rain, 
and make it, — especially the first portion of each shower, — decidedly 
polluted and unfit, without filtration, to be used as a food supply. The 
conditions which influence the solubility of solids in water are essen- 
tially three, namely, the specific nature of the substance, the tempera- 
ture of the water, and the presence of other bodies in solution. Even 
among quite soluble substances very marked and interesting specific 
differences may be observed. In the six flasks before you I have sus- 
pended, in muslin bags, equal quantities (i ounce) of six different salts, 
themselves having important relations in the subsequent treatment of 
this subject, all of them decidedly soluble, and powdered to an approxi- 



10 

mately equal degree of fineness. I will now add to each flask one 
pint of pure water at the ordinary temperature and set them aside for 
about halt an hour. The salts I have selected are ist, Nitrate of Am- 
monia, a proximate form taken by much of the decaying animal matter 
on the earth's surface. This salt will be found to dissolve with extreme 
readiness, — 2nd, Common Salt, or Chloride of Sodium, which exists in 
vast stratified deposits on every continent and is brought to the surface 
by natural agencies, such as mineral springs, or artificially by pumped 
wells (as in the St. Clair Flats, at Goderich, Seatorth, etc.), or by mining 
as at Cracow and elsewhere. This salt forms the most universal condi- 
ment and anti-putrescent agent in the preservation of human food, and 
as a consequence is present in all sewage, forming a most important clue 
to the identification of sewage and the tracing of its course where it 
enters rivers or lakes. Although quite soluble, this salt dissolves only 
to about one-sixth the amount of the last named. 3rd. Epsom Salts, 
or Sulphate of Magnesia, and 4th. Glauber's Salt, or Sulphate of Soda, 
two substances which are very extensively found in mineral waters, and, 
in ,fact, give their cathartic properties to most medicinal springs and 
wells. Epsom Salts dissolves to about the same extent as common 
salt, while Glauber's Salt has only half this degree of solubility. 5th. 
Washing Soda, or Carbonate of Soda, and 6th. Bi-carbonate of soda, or 
Baking Soda, which occur — especially the latter — in many effervescing 
mineral waters, as in the Vichy and Apollinaris waters, although they 
art: of very much greater importance as manufactured salts. Washing 
Soda is practically of equal solubility with Glaubers Salt, while bi-car- 
bonate of soda is much less soluble. The solubility of these six salts 
is seen to be inversely in the order in which I have named them. 

As illustrations of naturally occurring salts which are difficult of 
solution, and yet dissolve to an appreciable extent in natural waters, I 
can select no better examples than gypsum and chalk, the sulphate 
and carbonate of lime. Five hundred parts of water are required to 
dissolve one part of gypsum at the ordinary temperature, so that if a 
gallon of water fully saturated with gypsum were evaporated to dryness 
the residual gypsum would weigh only 140 grains, or less than one- 
third of an ounce. Yet this salt occurring in natural hard waters in 
very much less amount than is needed to saturate them, is a most 



11 

troublesome and harmful impurity when steam boilers are supplied 
with it. Chalk is as nearly insoluble in pure water as most substances 
with which we are acquainted, one million parts of water dissolving 
only eighteen parts of chalk. That is, were a gallon of water fully- 
saturated with chalk to be evaporated to dryness the residue would 
weigh only about \)/ it grains. We shall see, however, that under con- 
ditions quite commonly found in nature the solubility of chalk may be 
increased to 880 parts per million, i. e. t a residue of 62 grains would be 
obtained from a gallon of water saturated under these circumstances. 
The condition referred to is the presence of free carbonic acid in the 
water. Before illustrating this, let me indicate the laws which govern 
the solution of gases in water. These are, briefly, (1st), the specific 
nature of the gas; (2nd), the temperature ; (3rd), the pressure. The 
two gases, of which our atmosphere is essentially composed, are soluble 
in water only to a very slight extent. At the ordinary temperature and 
pressure of the air 100 gallons of water dissolve about 3 gallons of 
oxygen, and nitrogen is only about half as soluble as oxygen. A fourth 
law of gaseous solubility applies when a mixture of gases is exposed to 
a solvent, as in the case of air and water. Each gas is dissolved just in 
such proportion as it would be were the other gas not present (the 
pressure, of course, being correspondingly reduced). A consequence 
of this is that while oxygen and nitrogen are present in air in the ratio 
of 1 to 4 they are dissolved in water in the ratio of 1 to 2. Thus the 
atmospheric gases present in water form a mixture very much richer in 
oxygen than is the air, and the important consequences that follow from 
this are not far to seek. It is from this dissolved oxygen that fish and 
all water-breathers obtain the supply to arterialize their blood, and, 
what bears more directly upon our subject to-night, it is by means of 
this dissolved oxygen that the various processes by which the harmful 
and even poisonous organic impurities of natural water are changed to 
innocent substances, are carried on. So emphatically is the presence 
of oxygen in solution an essential condition of purity in a surface 
water, that many chemists always estimate the dissolved oxygen in 
water analysis. In illustration of this point I may quote the following 
figures from a report upon the river Seine, above, at, and below 
Paris : — 



12 

Corbeil (20 miles above Paris) Dissolved Oxygen — 9.32 CC per litre. 

Epinay (below all the sewers) " " — 1.05 " " 

Pont de Poissy (49 miles below Paris). . " " — 6. 12 " " 

Pont de Meulau (58 miles below Paris!. ; ' " - 8.17 " 

Mantes (68 miles below Taris) ' " — 8.96 " " 

Vernon (94 miles below Paris) " " = 10.40 " " 

These numbers are very easy to explain when we consider that the 
decaying organic matter brought into the river by the sewage of Paris 
consumes the dissolved oxygen, and is by this consumption of oxygen, 
converted into other and comparatively harmless compounds, so that, at 
a point yo miles below the city and 70 miles below the sewer mouths, 
the river regains its normal condition as far as this factor is concerned. 

Carbon di-oxide, or carbonic acid gas is much more soluble than 
oxygen. Roughly we may say that water dissolves its own volume of 
this gas. The only other gas which I shall mention is ammonia, and 
the extreme solubility of this gas in water is well illustrated in the ex- 
periment before you, in which the first portions of water entering the 
large flask filled with ammonia gas dissolve the whole of the gas there- 
by creating a vacuum into which a fountain plays — the red liquid (a 
slightly acid solution of litmus in water) being constantly changed into 
blue in the fountain jet, and thus bearing witness to the alkaiine char- 
acter of the ammonia. 

The solubility of gases in water becomes less as the temperature 
rises. It is for this reason that water that has been boiled and allowed 
to cool makes so flat and insipid a beverage. The atmospheric gases, 
and particularly carbonic acid gas, have been expelled at the boiling 
temperature, and the water requires artificial aeration before it can 
become again a sparkling and palatable drink. Under increased pres- 
sure a very much larger amount of gas can be held in solution. Effer- 
vescing drinks like soda-water, ale and champagne are kept in strong 
bottles with corks wired down. When the bottle is opened, and ordi- 
nary atmospheric pressure applied to the surface of the liquid, the excess 
of gas which could only be kept in solution by abnormal pressure 
escapes, and gives the sparkling effervescence characteristic of these 
beverages. 

Unlike gases, a rise in temperature is usually attended with a 



13 

marked increase in solubility in the case of solid bodies. The follow- 
ing diagram (see Roscoe and Schorlemmer's Treatise on Chemistry, 
vol. ii., p. 45) will serve to illustrate graphically this point. You will 
observe that while the rate of increase in solubility for increased tem- 
perature varies with the specific nature of the salt, it is pretty generally 
true that the solubility increases as the temperature rises. In the case 
of sulphate of soda we have a peculiarity in that the maximum of solu- 
bility is found at about 90' Fah. In common salt we find another 
interesting peculiarity in that for temperatures between the freezing point 
and boiling point of water the solubility is practically constant at about 
four pounds of salt per gallon of water. In the case of sulphate of lime 
we find the very slight solubility of this salt in cold water is even lowered 
as the temperature reaches the boiling point, although the decrease in 
solubility is too small to be well marked. However, did this diagram 
indicate temperatures as high as those found in steam boilers, where 
water boils under artificial pressure, we should find that at 270 Fah., a 
temperature which corresponds to the boiling point of water under a 
pressure of two and a half atmospheres, or about 40 pounds per square 
inch — a very ordinary boiler pressure — the solubility of gypsum is 
reduced to one-twentieth part of its solubility at 212 Fah.; and as a 
consequence of this nineteen-twentieths of the sulphate of lime in solu- 
tion in a feed-water is deposited as a coherent and very hard crust on 
the inner surface of the boiler. 

The remaining condition which affects the solubility of solids in 
water is the presence of other substances in solution. There is pro- 
bably no exception to the statement that the solubility of a solid is 
influenced more or less by the presence of other dissolved bodies. All 
the phenomena of precipitation depend upon this principle. I shall 
have occasion to illustrate this in the course of the evening, but I may 
now ask you to observe how promptly chlorides are thrown out of 
solution by salts of silver, salts of iron by ammonia or other alkali, lead 
salts by carbonates or sulphates, all of which reactions are of great value 
to water consumers, whether the water be used for household or manu- 
facturing purposes. I can only make detailed reference to two cases of 
great importance in this connection. The first is the solubility of lead 
in water, and is of great importance from the extensive use of lead 



H 

pipes for conveying water in dwellings. The conditions under which 
lead is dissolved by water are very complicated, and by no means 
perfectly understood, but the following broad generalizations are justi- 
fied by facts. Where water contains nitrates in any considerable 
amount, and in general where water is essentially soft in character — 
such as rain-water — the danger of lead being dissolved from the p ; pe is 
very great, and poisoning has frequently occurred from this source, as 
little as one-tenth of a grain per gallon being a poisonous quantity 
when the water is continually used, since lead is a cumulative poison. 
Water containing less than one-fourth of this amount has been known 
to cause serious and dangerous illness. In presence of carbonates, 
sulphates or phosphates, a thin coating of the carbonate, sulphate or 
phosphate of lead is formed on, and adheres to, the inner surface of 
the pipe. Since these salts are practically insoluble they protect the lead 
pipe from contact with the water and render its use quite sate. Fortu- 
nately most natural waters contain a sufficient amount of dissolved car- 
bonic acid or carbonates to prevent danger from the use of lead pipes 
in their conveyance. It is. however, advisable always to allow water to 
run freely for a short time where it has been stored in lead service 
pipes over night, or for any considerable time, especially at a tempera 
ture such as is usual in dwellings. 

The second illustration of increased solubility due to the presence 
of a substance in solution is the case of chalk in water containing free 
carbonic acid. The large glass vessel before you contains water par 
tially saturated with slaked lime. On passing carbonic acid gas from 
the generator into this water the first effect is the conversion of some 
of this lime into carbonate of lime or chalk ; and the great insolubility 
of this compound causes its separation with formation of a dense white 
precipitate which gradually settles down to the bottom of the vessel if 
allowed to stand at rest. On continuing, now, to pass the carbonic 
acid gas, after all the lime has been converted into carbonate, we 
observe this curious effect. The liquid gradually loses its turbidity, 
and in a few minutes is as clear and transparent as at the first. The 
excess of carbonic acid gas has raused the precipitated chalk to 
pass into solution. We have now what is known as hard water, 
and its effect with soap will he apparent from the following 



15 

experiment. In the first of these two cylinders I put a pint of 
ordinary soft water ; in the second cylinder I put the same qnantity 
of the hard water which we have now prepared. To each cylinder 
I now add the same volume of a solution of soap and shake vigorously 
half a minute. A bulky and persistent lather, nearly filling the cylinder, 
is formed by the soft water, while the hard water shews merely a thin 
pellicle of scum, the product of the destruction of the soap added. You 
will observe that it is necessary to add nine or ten times as much soap 
to the hard water in order to get a lather comparable with that obtained 
ii: the first cylinder. Tt is evident that hard water causes a waste of 
soap, and the amount ot waste is strictly proportional to the amount of 
lime in the water, since a perfectly definite decomposition takes place 
between the soap and the lime salt present. Were the lime present as 
sulphate the destruction of soap would still occur, with this difference 
that in that case no simple and inexpensive mode of softening the 
water could be applied, and the water would be what is usually called 
petmanently hard. The only practicable remedy in such a case is the 
use of washing soda, for although such remedies as soluble barium salts 
are very effective in throwing the sulphates out of solution, yet the 
poisonous character of barium salts, to say nothing of their cost, makes 
them unavailable in ordinary circumstances. In the case of water 
which possesses only temporary hardness, i.e., hardness due to car- 
bonate of lime, not only may we use washing soda to cure the evil, but 
two other processes deserve mention. By boiling the water we drive 
out of solution the carbonic acid gas, in virtue of which the carbonate 
of lime is held in solution. On now allowing it to settle, the almost 
insoluble chalk is deposited, and the soft water may be drawn off. The 
second and very ingenious plan of softening such water is due to the 
late Prof. Clarke of Aberdeen, and is usually known as Clarke's pro- 
cess. It consists in adding slaked lime to the water in proper amount 
to form chalk with the free carbonic acid, which is therefore withdrawn 
from solution and precipitated along with the now insoluble lime salt 
originally present in the water Many large towns and cities in Eng- 
land and elsewhere now soften their whole supply in this way. The 
water of the Ottawa River is remarkably soft since the gathering ground 
is essentially free from limestone rocks. The Upper Ottawa region is 



16 

characterized by its granites and allied siliceous rocks, with a soil which 
has resulted from their weathering and destruction by glacial and other 
agencies. The peaty character of large areas of this gathering ground 
is evidenced in the brownish colour of the water of the river ; a colour 
which is due not to the presence of dissolved salts, but to the products 
of decay of vegetable matter. The results of many analyses of the 
Ottawa River shew it to contain less than one part of solid matter for 
ten thousand parts of water, or less than seven grains per gallon in solu- 
tion. At certain periods of the year it, however, contains solid matter 
suspended in the water, causing a turbidity which you must often have 
remarked. This is particularly characteristic of the river in spring, 
when the swelling of the smaller streams which feed it and the fine 
particles of clay and sand washed down from fields and roads, suffi- 
ciently account for its muddy appearance, while its current is rapid 
enough to prevent the settling of this mud to the bottom. In respect 
to suspended solid matter, however, the Ottawa River compares very 
favourably with many others — I might say with any other river of its 
size. The sources of the Ottawa are situated for the most part in a 
rocky region where there is comparatively little soil to be washed into 
its waters by spring freshets. It is quite otherwise with such rivers r.s 
the Red River at Winnipeg, which gets its name from the highly 
coloured ferruginous clay, which it carries in suspension ; or with the 
Missouri and Mississippi, whose waters, joining at St. Louis, sometimes 
contain the enormous amount of 1,225 grains of solid matter (or nearly 
three ounces) per gallon. Yet it is from this water that St. Louis takes 
its supply ; and it will not surprise you to learn that four settling basins 
of large size have to be provided, so that while one is being drawn 
from another is being filled, and the other two are settling for use in 
their turn. Either by subsidence, as at St. Louis, or by simply con- 
structed filter beds, such suspended matter may be got rid of. Of 
the principles involved in the construction of filter beds, I shall 
speak later. 

From what has been said it will appear that absolutely pure water 
is not to be sought for in nature. In order to prepare it we must 
resort to the process of distillation ; and one method of carrying out 
this process is illustrated by the apparatus before you. The water 



17 

which is boiling in the flask upon the left contains sand and clay in 
suspension, sulphate and carbonate of lime in solution, as well as salts 
of ammonia and common salt. We shall look in vain in this distillate 
(the condensed steam) for any traces of these, and although we may 
find traces of carbonic acid and ammonia, since these readily volatile 
substances may come over with the first portions of the water vapour, 
yet if we reject the first portion of distilled water, we shall find the 
remainder to be absolutely pure, since the salts mentioned above are 
not converted into vapour at the temperature at which water boils, and 
they therefore remain behind in the flask. Even the ammonia might 
have been prevented from coming over had we taken proper precau- 
tions in treating the water before applying heat. It will, however, be 
evident that distillation is too expensive a method to be practically 
available on the large scale for water purification ; and it is only in such 
cases as on shipboard that water for drinking purposes is obtained in 
this way. A process quite analogous to this is, nevertheless, carried on 
by natural agencies on the large scale. The formation of clouds, and 
the precipitation of their watery burden, as rain, snow, etc., is but a 
vast distilling of the surface waters of the earth ; and were it not for 
the impurities washed out of the air by it, rain water would be quite as 
pure as the distilled water flowing from this condenser. Indeed, were 
proper pains taken to reject from cisterns the first portions of each 
shower, as containing the bulk of the impurities of the air, and the dust 
and dirt from the ror fs on which it falls, rain water might be collected 
and stored so as to form a perfectly wholesome and even palatable 
drinking water, since it is well aerated, and the insipidity due to absence 
of dissolved solids is less and less noticed as people become habituated 
to its use. I have figured in this diagram two original devices, by 
means of either of which a definite portion of each rain-fall may be 
automatically prevented from entering the cistern, and only the later 
portions of the shower allowed to flow into it ; and I think that every 
cistern should be provided with a contrivance fitted to effect this 
separation of the earlier from the later portion of each rain-fall. 

For purposes ot brevity I shall omit any mention of sea water, or 
lake water; and devote the remainder of the evening to some remarks 
upon river and well waters ; and in order to make it possible to define 



18 



the character of a sample from the results of its analysis, I propose to 
indicate here the essential features of the operations collectively known 
as Water Analysis. — 

Naturally the first tests made are those which require only the 
direct use of the senses : taste, smell and sight. 

i. Taste.— It is only in rare instances that this character is suf- 
ficiently definite to be of any value. When the taste of a sample is so 
markedly unusual as to attract attention, as, for instance, to its saltiness 
or its sulphur flavour, or its sharpness or pungency, as is the case of 
come mineral springs, it may be safely asserted that such a water, how- 
ever useful medicinally, is unsuited to ordinary household purposes. 

2. Smell.— It is rare that a natural water exhibits any smell at 
the ordinary temperature. Certain spring waters contain sulphurous 
gases in solution and these have a more or less nauseating smell, at 
times intense enough to remind one of rotten eggs. Many samples, 
however, which are quite odourless when cold, become distinctively-^ 
smelling when heated. A pint or so of the water may be placed in a 
glass stoppered bottle and the whole heated to about ioo° F., when, if 
the stopper be withdrawn and the bottle immediately applied to the 
nose, peaty waters will often betray themselves by a characteristic smell, 
and water from surface wells to which sewage has access will frequently 
be found to have quite a stinking odour. 

3. Colour.— It is perfectly wonderful how many different tints of 
colour are exhibited by natural water from different sources; indeed it 
would scarcely be overstating the case to say that no two water samples 
have the same tint. True it may not always be possible, even with the 
refinements of science, to distinguish with absolute exactitude the nice 
differences that occur, yet, when we employ a colour comparer of the 
model exhibited, and look through a column of water 24 inches deep, 
it becomes possible to distinguish very slight differences indeed. The 
first of these tubes contains distilled water, and seems quite colourless ; 
the second contains ordinary Ottawa river water and looks quite brown 
by comparison. In the third tube I have a sample of Ottawa water 
which has been treated with 10 grains of common alum to the gallon, 
and you will note that although not as colourless as distilled water, it 



19 

has been very greatly improved in this respect. The brownish tint of 
the Ottawa river water, in common with many other Canadian rivers, as 
the Richelieu, the Yamaska, etc., is due chiefly to dissolved vegetable 
matter of peaty origin. Alumina has the propert) of precipitating such 
colouring matter, hence the improvement on adding alum. In reference 
to this feature, namely, colour in water, I may say that while it is 
desirable on aesthetic grounds that a drinking water should be as 
colourless as possible, we know of no positive reason for condemning a 
highly coloured water as unwholesome. I shall show later that the pre- 
sence of much organic matter, even though only of vegetable origin, and 
innocent enough in its character, is cause for anxiety and possible dan- 
ger, and of course so far as colour helps us to ascertain the presence of 
such matter it becomes a valuable factor in the analysis ; still we must 
remember that it is only as potentially, not as actually dangerous, that 
we object to the use of peaty waters, and we cannot therefore condemn 
them on the ground of high colour alone. The observation and record- 
ing of colour in water is of greatest consequence when the same water 
snpply is studied from day to day. Then indeed, a change in tint cor- 
responds always to a change in character ; and the cause of this change 
must be looked for, if necessary, by a complete analysis of the water. 
For purposes of registering the observed depth of colour nothing better 
is known to me than the scale devised by 1 ovibond, in which a set of 
glass slips of fixed and comparable colour values is employed. I am 
able to shew you the standard glasses, but a full illustration of the mode 
of using them would require more time than we have to spare. The 
depth of colour is expressed in terms of this scale in Bulletins 15 and 
18 of the Inland Revenue Department. 

4. Turbidity and Clearness are due to matter in suspension or its 
absence, and vary according to conditions which have already been 
explained. 

5. Oxygen in Solution becomes a valuable factor in the analysis of 
the water of the same stream at different points of its course, as I have 
already illustrated in the case of the Seine at and below Pans. The 
estimation is, however, of no value when a single sample is concerned> 
since the amount which may be present in a perfectly pure water varies 



20 

with so many conditions. Water from deep artesian wells is sometimes 
nearly free from dissolved oxygen, and is yet of the purest possible 
description. 

6. The Dissolved Solids are estimated by evaporating a known 
volume of the water to dryness in a platinum dish and weighing the 
residue. The drying of the residue is effected at ioo c C. (=212° F.), 
a temperature high enough to drive off all except chemically combined 
water. This residue is then ignited in the dish, and the resulting ash 
is weighed ; the loss of weight is usually stated in a separate column in 
reporting the analysis, although a much less value is attached to this 
number than was the case some years ago. The loss was then supposed 
to be essentially due to organic matter which had been burnt away, and 
was hence thought to be a measure of the impurity of the water 
analyzed. Now, we know that far more importance must be attached 
to the kind of organic matter present than to the total amount of it, 
and since the loss on ignition gives no information on this point its 
indications are of correspondingly small moment. Besides this, the 
loss is partly due to escape of carbonic acid gas from carbonates, and 
to loss of water which has been combined in such a way that it was not 
driven off by heating to 100° C. 

I may here mention that it is possible to burn away the organic 
matter from the residue in such a way as to collect the products of 
combustion, and from them to calculate the amounts of carbon and 
nitrogen which the residue contained. Since nitrogen is, as a rule, 
present to a larger amount in organic matter having an' animal origin 
than in that having a vegetable origin, it is possible from the relative 
amounts of nitrogen and carbon to get an idea of the proportion of 
animal impuriiies existing in the sample analyzed. This process is a 
very tedious and troublesome one, and requires the utmost care in its 
execution that results of any value may be obtained. It was employed 
by Dr. Frankland in the analysis of the waters of Great Britain (1868 — 
1876), and he concludes that surface water or river water containing 
2 parts of organic carbon, or 0.3 parts of organic nitrogen per million, 
should be rejected where possible. I have not employed the process in 
the analyses ot Canadian river and well waters which I have made within 



21 



recent years, nor am 1 aware that it is in use by any Canadian analyst 
at present. Prof. Marsan, in December, 1888, found 9 parts organic 
carbon and 0.47 parts nitrogen per million in the Ottawa city supply, 
and did not consider these numbers to condemn the water for domestic 



use. 



The ignited residue contains the inorganic salts, sand, etc., which 
were present in the water. Unless these are in excessive amount their 
discrimination is not necessary, since in ordinary water samples they 
consist of lime, magnesium, or soda salts, quite harmless in character, 
unless, as I have already explained, the water is wanted for boiler 
supply. Many analyses of the Ottawa river water shew the ignited 
residue to vary from 20 to about 80 parts per million, according to the 
season of the year, and the part of the river from which the sample is 
collected. Other rivers show a much higher inorganic content, as, fur 
instance, the Grand River, at Brantford (Nov., 1889), 348 parts per 
million, and the Assiniboine, near Winnipeg (May, 1888), which gave 
1088 parts per million. 

In this residue, however, we always look for phosphoric acid, since 
phosphates are highly characteristic of sewage, and their presence in the 
minutest traces is a very suspicious indication. 

7. Nitrogen existing as ammonia in water is present in consequence 
of the fact that whenever organic matter containing nitrogen undergoes 
decay a considerable proportion of this nitrogen takes the form of am- 
monia, and the exceeding solubility of this gas in water causes it to he 
at once dissolved. You are. many of you at least, acquainted with the 
fact that the atmosphere of a stable, unless kept very thoroughly cleaned, 
has a decided smell of spirits of hartshorn. This odour is due to the 
decomposing nitrogenous matters present, and the formation of ammo- 
nia as one of the products of decay. The universal occurrence of organic- 
decay makes, it practically impossible that a natural water should be 
absolutely free from ammonia. When, as in some tables of analysis, 
you find nitrogen as ammonia stated to be absent, you must understand 
this to mean that the amount present is too small to make its quanti- 
tative estimation possible. Yet it is wonderful with what certainty we 
can measure minute traces of ammonia. When you find tables in which 
the nitrogen existing as ammonia is stated to three places of decimals, 



_■-■ 



the results being given in parts per million, this mean,, that we aim at 

estimating one part of nitrogen in one billion parts of water, or less than 
one-ten thousandth ot a grain per gallon. In order to give you some 
idea of how this is done I place in one of these tubes a column of 24 
inches of water quite free from ammonia, and in another I place an 
equal quantity of water to which I have added ammonia in the propor- 
tion of one part nitrogen to one million parts of water. The two sam- 
ples as reflected to you from the mirrors are of course quite indistin- 
guishable from each other. To each 1 now add a small quantity of 
a prepared test liquid called Nessler's solution, and you will observe in 
the course of a minute or two that while the contents of the first tube 
are unchanged in colour, a faint brownish yellow colour gradually 
developes itself in the second tube. Of course it is possible in the 
laboratory to apply this test in such a way as to obtain still greater 
sensitiveness, but the illustration will serve to give you confidence in 
numerical statements of the results of analysis even when fractional 
parts of a million are expressed. 

8. While the simpler organic bodies containing nitrogen yield this 
nitrogen as ammonia during decomposition, many of the more complex 
substances which enter into the composition of animal structure, such 
as albumen, fibrin, etc., form other proximate products of decay, these 
possessing the common property of being converted into ammonia when 
boiled with a strongly alkaline solution of permanganate of potash. The 
ammonia obtained by treating a sample in this way, after the ammonia 
already present in it has been taken off, is called "Albuminoid" am 
monia, as suggested by Wanklyn, the author of the process, and is pro 
perly considered as a most important factor in the analysis. Indeed, if 
it were ever allowable to adjudge a sample of water for drinking pur- 
poses upon the indications of a single factor in the analysis I would 
select this estimation as the critical one. The author of the process, 
who in conjunction with other analysts, worked upon a very large 
number of samples of all degrees of badness, concludes from his experi- 
ence that "0.10 per million begins to be a very suspicious sign, and 
o. 1 5 per million ought to condemn a water absolutely." This standard 
would go hard with Ottawa river water, which in 1888 gave from 0.12 
to 0.27 in different samples ; in March and April of last year gave 0.15 



and 0.16; and in .August last gave 0.125 albuminoid nitrogen per mil- 
lion. We must not forget that these are English standards and on that 
account are questionably applicable to American rivers, which flow for 
very great d.stances over forest and marshy regions where contamination 
by sewage-in the ordinary acceptance of this term-cannot occur. 
W e must, I think, concur in the wisdom of Prof. Mallet's decision tha t 
"local standards of purity should be adopted, based on sufficiently 
thorough examination of the water-supply in its usual condition 
Unfortunately no systematic and continuous examination of our city 
supply has yet been undertaken, and it is impossible for me to state, 
except in a very imperfect way, what the normal composition of the 
Ottawa water is. It must, of course, be expected to vary for different 
months ; but we should have a series of analyses made at weekly inter- 
vals for a number of years ; and from the averages so obtained it would 
be a simple matter to determine the mean character of the water for 
any period. When we consider that water is a universal food substance 
that it enters into the preparation of every article of food ; that from the 
nature of its production and storage, it is peculiarly liable to contamina 
tion in vaiious ways, and that the most fatal diseases have been fully 
proven to have become epidemic, through its agency, we shall, I think, 
agree that a constant and careful examination of the supply of a city 
like ours is but a reasonable and necessary precaution. 

9- When organic matter containing nitrogen has been exposed for 
a sufficiently long time to the ameliorating influences that are always 
at work in nature, the nitrogen takes the form of nitric acid, and when 
this is once formed and enters into combination with bases as nitrates, 
the condition of the nitrogen is fairly stable, and the nitrates so formed 
may exist as such fur an indefinite length of time. Complex organic 
substances like albumen are thus changed into simple inorganic sub- 
stances, perfectly harmless, and only interesting to the analyst as serving 
to measure the previous sewage contamination of the supply. For 
where much sewage has found entrance to a well-water, for example, 
although little or none may be now present as sewage, the tell tale 
nitrates serve to prove past contamination. I need scarcely say that 
such wells as those quoted below are undoubtedly infected by 
sewage : — 



24 



Inland Revenue De|)artinent, bulletin 5, 

page 8, No. 16 

Inland Revenue Department, bulletin 5, 

page !S, No. 17 

Inland Revenue Department, bullet in 13, 

page 6, No. 6761 

Inland Revenue Department, bulletin 13, 

page 15, No. 43 



NITROGEN l'EK MILLION PARTS, Am 



Ammonia, 
Free, &c. 



0-033 
0.090 
0.000 
trace. 



Albuminoid 


Nitrates and 


Ammonia. 


Nitrites. 


0.305 


1 1 . 967 


0.165 


15.909 


0. 148 


^7 357 


050 


39.000 



In order to guard against miscomprehension I must mention here 
that nitrates although fairly stable compounds, are not absolutely such ; 
but may, under certain conditions, be again resolved into ammonia or 
nitrogen. 

to. I have already referred to the universal employment of com- 
mon salt as a condiment and preservative ; a fact which accounts for its 
presence in sewage, and makes a search for it in water analysis a very 
important step in the examination. The readiness with which minute 
traces of kitchen salt can be recognized will be evident to you from 
this experiment. When nitrate of silver solution is added to this solu- 
tion of chromate of potash, a few drops of this weak solution is sufficient 
to produce a decidedly reddish tint, due to the bright red chromate of 
silver formed in the re-action, the particles being suspended through 
the water in the tube. I will now repeat the experiment, taking the 
precaution to add a very small amount of common salt to the chromate 
solution, before adding the silver, drop by drop, for a very long time 
without producing any red colour in the liquid ; in fact, no chromate of 
silver will be permanently formed until enough silver has been added 
to decompose the common salt present. On this principle is based a 
method by which we can detect less than i part of salt in i million 
parts of water. Wherever sewage is present chlorides will be found. 
In the four wells whose nitrates indicated past sewage contamination, 
the chlorine in chlorides was found to be 148, 134, 65 and 143 parts 
per million respectively. A large number of good wells whose analyses 



25 

arc to be found in the bulletins of the Inland Revenue Department 
will be seen to contain chlorine in varying amounts from i to 10, or 
more parts per million. We must not, however, forget that in many 
parts of Canada salt is found in the soil, and in various deep-seated 
springs, and it is therefore absolutely essential that the location and 
surroundings of the well should be known to the analyst before he pro- 
nounces an opinion on the results of chlorine estimation. Many wells 
in Winnipeg and other parts of Manitoba contain from 200 to 300 parts 
of chlorine per million, and are yet free from sewage pollution. 

11. The only other feature in water analysis to which I need refer 
is the estimation of dissolved organic matter essentially non-nitrogenous 
in character, in other words, of vegetable origin. Such organic matter 
is with difficulty destroyed by oxidation and requires the employment 
of the most powerful oxidizing agencies we know to effect its decomposi- 
tion. For the purpose we always use permanganic acid, a sample uf 
which I show you in solution. Observe its beautiful deep purple colour 
and see how the addition of a very small quantity of water, impure fioni 
decomposing organic matter in solution, serves at once, or at least in a 
very short interval of time to cause the purple to become less and less 
intense, and shortly to disappear altogether. Now, by using a solution 
containing a known amount of permanganic acid, and adding it in 
excess to a measured quantity of the water to be examined, we can 
easily, at the end of, say four hours, estimate the excess of permanganic 
acid by chemical means, which need not be here explained, and thus 
obtain by difference the quantity used up in oxidizing the organic matter 
present in the sample of water. Since pemanganic acid gives up a 
definite amount of its oxygen to this purpose, it is convenient to state 
the results of the examination as so many parts by weight of oxygen to 
the million parts by volume of water. The observation is usually made 
for two periods, viz., intervals of 15 minutes and 4 hours; the more 
easily oxidized organic matter being attacked in the shorter interval, 
and this part always includes any animal or more objectionable matter 
present. The following uumbers quoted from Bull, v of the Inland 
Revenue Department will serve to give an idea of the indications 
afforded by this test : — 



26 



OXYGEN CONSUMED I'ER 
1,000,000 PARTS WATER. 



Lake Ontario, at Hamilton 

River St. Lawrence, at Brockville 

River Richelieu, at St. John's, Que 

Bay of Quinte, at Belleville 

River St. Maurice, at Three Rivets, Que, 

' >lta\% .1 River, February, 1888 

Moncton Supply, New Brunswick 



15 Minutes. 


4 Hours. 


0. 120 


0.440 


0.27b 


0.612 


0.740 


1.668 


1 .420 


3.040 


2.612 


4-456 


2.808 


5.760 


5-43° 


10.444 



The place occupied by Ottawa river water in this list is certainly 
one of bad eminence. As this water has been examined at irregular 
intervals since 1888, I may add the following results : — 



Ottawa River, April, 1X90. . . 
" August, 1890. 




It will be seen from these numbers that while the amount of 
oxidizable organic matter in the river varies from month to month as 
might be expected, and according to a law which we have not the 
necessary data to to discover, the amount is at all times very large, and 
it behoves us to examine the conditions under which a water 
containing so large a quantity of dissolved organic matter is safe as an 
article of food. That the organic matter is not pet se of an injurious 
nature is sufficiently evident from the fact that we and our fathers do use 
it and have used it with impunity. Let me ask your attention for a few 
moments to another matter. There is a large class of diseases generally 
spoken of as zymotic which have this property in common. Whenever 
a single case of such a disease occurs in a locality we may be pretty 
sure that immediately in its vicinity, and gradually further and further 
from that point as a centre, we shall find the disease spreading until it 



27 

becomes an epidemic. That is to say, such is the nurnial tendency of 
this class of diseases, and I may instance cholera, typhoid fever, diph- 
theria, influenza and la grippe as examples. There can be little doubt 
that the plagues and pestilences, such as the Black Death which visited 
England in the 14th century after having spread all over Europe and 
caused the death of twenty five millions of people, were other instances 
of zymotic diseases; and the fact that such plagues and pestilences arc 
of so much less frequent occurrence nowadays, and so much less malig. 
nant when they occur in the more civilized parts of the world than else- 
where, gives us the first important clue to their comprehension, and we 
may hope to their extermination. For it has been and is just in pro- 
portion to the cleanly habits of a people that these diseases lose their 
fatal character. This suggests a close connection between filth and dis- 
ease, and the more carefully that we look into the matter, following this 
clue, the more fully are we convinced that such is the case ; that clean- 
liness of person and surroundings is the first law of health. Still, this 
does not fully explain the phenomenon of zymotic disease, since the 
advent of a specific case of disease is necessary that the evil effects of 
uncleanly habits may be fully emphasized. This would seem to imply 
the existence of a specific disease virus or poison for each of these epi- 
demics, the spread of which poison was favoured by the prevalence of 
uncleanly habits. Reasoning on this line led Pasteur, Koch, (John and 
cithers to the discovery of what will hereafter be regarded as the most 
important generalization of medical science in our century, namely, that 
which points to the existence of a special microbe, bacillus or living 
germ for each of the so-called zymotic diseases. The next step was to 
attempt the isolation of this germ, and with certain diseases this has 
been done. In the case of Anthrax, Koch has cultivated the bacillus 
and studied it throughout its complete development. The chart before 
you will serve to give an idea of the appearance of this enemy of man- 
kind, as magnified about 15,000 times linear. In the next diagram I 
shew you both in situ, and isolated the bacillus tuberculosis from photo- 
graphs by Koch. It is the study of this bacillus which has made Koch's 
name so widely known within the last year ; but my purpose in empha- 
sizing the matter is to draw your attention to the explanation which this 
theory of zymotic diseases offers of their sudden spread. The specific 



28 

biu illi arc found in the waste matter from the bodies of patients, and 
may, and must, if the greatest care be not taken to make the thing im- 
possible, find their way into the atmosphere, and into open water 
courses, into wells by surface or sewer drainage if such drainage finds 
access to them. And while the taking of these disease germs into the 
lungs in respiration is unquestionably the most effective way of spread- 
ing the disease yet experience has proved beyond a doubt that taking 
them into the system in our drinking water or our food is only second 
in danger. I might quote many historical instances in proof of this if 
time permitted, You will find such in the Sixth Report of the Royal 
Commissioners (1868) on preventing the pollution of rivers. The im- 
portance of immediate attention to the destruction of the dejecta of 
patients suffering from any of these zymotic diseases will be evident; but 
how are we to protect ourselves when by chance such infection pollutes 
our streams and wells ? There is but one safe rule, and it is this : 
Use no water for domestic purposes which at any time contains sewage ; 
because although normal sewage may not contain actually poisonous 
substances, and may, when sufficiently diluted, be drunk with impunity, 
as proved by Dr. Emmerlich and others : yet we can never know when 
diseased sewage containing morbific germs may enter such a water 
course, and the only safe way is to have nothing to do with it. As I 
have said this is really the only safe rule, but what shall we do when 
we cannot help ourselves. To take our own case ; there is apparently 
no other source from which we can obtain a supply than the Ottawa 
river, and this receives the sewage of places like Aylmer, Quyon and 
others; together with the drainage of fertilized fields all along its course, 
and the fertilisers used are, as we know, not unlikely to contain disease 
germs. Fortunately nature furnishes, in dissolved oxygen and through 
other conditions, the means of self purification for such contaminated 
waters. Only give time enough and the most dangerous sewage con- 
tamination will be converted into harmless matter by natural agencies. 
Still, it is reasonable to suppose that water containing much organic 
matter in solution is more likely to furnish a suitable and congenial 
nidus, or nourishing ground for bacteria than water that is more nearly 
free from organic matter. This is the disadvantage at which we are 
placed ; and I have no hesitation in saying that not only on aesthetic, but 



29 

also on hygienic grounds some method should be provided for pre- 
cipitating, or otherwise separating from our river water the large amount 
of organic matter it contains before supplying it to the citizens for 
household use. 

Returning now to the consideration of well >vater, it will appear 
that the chief differences in character to be expected between deep 
well waters on the one hand, and shallow well, or surface waters on 
the other hand are such as may result from the influence of filtration 
through deep layers of soil. The most effective way of presenting 
these differences will be by asking your attention to the following table 
in which a few shallow wells, and a few deep wells are contrasted as 
regards the results of their chemical analysis : — 





6 


Total Solids. 


Xitrogen. 


c. . 


u 

X. 
PL, 


Oxygen Con- 
sumed. 




So 

&»°o 

a 2 


V 

"c. 
to 


i 


Alb. 


Free. 


2 




s. 
In 

X. 


Shallow Wells . 
Deep Wells .... 


I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

s 


128 

424 

148 

424 

1312 

552 

993 
1112 


84 
312 

99 
320 
1 136 
404 
692 
640 


44 
1 12 

49 
104 
176 
148 

301 
472 


0.066 
0.016 
0.250 
0.1S1 
0.080 
0.060 
0.640 
0.21S 


0.016 
0.090 
0.020 
0.946 
0. 140 
O.090 
0.200 
1 1 . 190 


OI33 

0. 109 
450 

I-I54 
0.260 

O.OIO 

37-oco 

5.910 


3-o 

66.0 

9.6 

4.0 

330.o 

10. 

10S.0 

260.0 


none 

« 

tr. 

none 

heavy 

traces 

traces 


O.I6S 

O.I94 
I.83O 
2.412 
O.O76 
O. l60 

3-39° 

0-55 2 


0.440 
0.232 

3-645 
5.042 

0.244 

1 .600 

8.670 

1 55 



No. 1 A well in the suburbs of Hamilton, Ont. 

No. 2 — A well at Ashbumham, Ont. 

No. 3 — A well in a bog at Joe's Point, St. Andrews. \. B, 

No. 4- -A well at Brandon, N.W.T. 

No. 5 -A public well in Winnipeg, Man. 

No. 6 — An artesian well at Goderich, Ont. 

No. 7— A well at Three Rivers, t^ue. 

No. 8 — A well in a large tenement house, Sherbrooke, C^ue. 



30 

Numbers i and 2 in the above table give a very fair idea when 
contrasted with numbers- 5 and" 6, of the differences which exist between 
shallow and deep wells. The solids in the latter are much higher, and 
although chlorides are present- even in large amount, they need not 
indicate sewage contamination, since their presence may be due to 
chlorides in the soil or in rock strata through which the water has passed. 
Albuminoid nitrogen should be low in these deep waters; that it happens 
to be still lower in amount in the shallow wells quoted indicates their 
freedom from sewage. Number 3 shews sewage contamination not 
only in its albuminoid nitrogen but in its traces of phosphates, and this 
is corroborated by its chlorine, for while 66 parts chlorine does not 
indicate anything wrong in No. 2, one-seventh part as much chlorine is 
a bad indication in No. 3, since its sewage origin is borne out by other 
features of the analysis. The free ammonia in No. 4 serves to indicate 
sewage, and the nitrates here shew past sew.ige contamination. Num- 
bers 7 and 8, although deep wells, shew in many items of the analysis 
that sewage has found entrance to them, and they cannot be safe or 
desirable sources of domestic supply. 

I had intended interpreting for you the results of analysis ot Ottawa 
river water for some years past, so far as I have been able to collect 
statistics ; but this would require at least another half hour, and it is now 
past ten o'clock. I must therefore defer this portion of the subject 
until some future opportunity. There remains also the important 
question of how, by artificial means, the quality of a natural water sup- 
ply may be improved. This is in itself a subject large enough to 
occupy a whole evening in its treatment, and must therefore be left to 
be dealt with in the future. 



31 

THE BIRDS OF OTTAWA. 

The appended list of birds found in the neighbourhood of Ottawa 
has been compiled by the leaders of the Ornithological Branch of the 
Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, from the records of the Club, and 
embodies the work of the Branch from its establishment in the begin- 
ning of the year 1881 to the end of the year 1890. 

A list was published in 1882 (Transactions O. F. N. G, Vol. I., 
No. 3, p. 29), enumerating one hundred and sixty-nine species. Of 
these the following were afterwards struck off the list, having been 
inserted by mistake: — 12, Harporhyncus cinereus ; 329, Glaucidium 
passeri)ium,\zx. Californicum ; 398, ^Egialitis V/ilsonius ; 609, Podiceps 
cristatus. The following substitutions were also made : — 33, Parus 
Hudsonicus for 34, P. rufescens ; 125, Vireo gilvus for 132, V. pusillus ; 
467, Rallus Virginianus for 470, Porzana Jamaicensis : 556, Lanes 
Philadelphia for 555, L. Franklinii. Of those remaining, or since 
added to the list, it is now thought advisable to drop the following, 
either because of mistakes in identification, or because sufficient evid- 
ence cannot now be adduced to support the records: — Cotumiailus 
passerinus, Transactions O. F. N. C, Vol. I., No. 3, p. 30: Ibid., 
No. 4, p. 85 : Stegatiopus Wilsonii, Ibid., No. 3, p. 32 : Larus 
atrialla, Ibid., p. 44 ; Cistotlwrus stellaris, Ibid., Vol. II., p. 141. See 
also Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. IV., pp. 93, 162. Buteo Swainsoni, 
Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. II., p. 49 : Acanthis linaria rostrata, Ibid., 
p. 150: Geothlypis agilis, Ibid, p. 150; Tardus aliace, Ibid., p. 150. 
With these changes, the additions made to the old list since its publica- 
tion bring the number recorded to two hundred and twenty-four. This 
number includes two species now recorded for the first time by the 
Club, viz.: No. 11, Urinator I limine, and No. 301, Lagopus lagopus, 
besides those mentioned in the Report for the year 1890, which has 
not yet been published. 

The district covered by this list is embraced within a circle of 
thirty miles radius, with the City of Ottawa as its centre. It includes, 
roughly speaking, the Counties of Carleton and Russell, in Ontario, and 
the Southern portion of the County of Ottawa, in Quebec, and lies 
between 45 J and 46' N. lat. The Northern portion of this district is 
covered by what may be termed the first range of the Laurentian Hills, 



32 

one of which, known as King's Mountain, has an elevation of 1,125 ^ eet 
above sea level, and rises about 900 feet above the large alluvial plain 
lying between it and the Ottawa River. These hills are covered with a 
great variety of deciduous and evergreen trees, and among them are 
numerous mountain lakes, varying in size from mere ponds to lakes of 
five miles and upwards in length. Flowing from the North through this 
range of hills, the rapid river Gatineau empties, opposite the city, into 
the Ottawa, which flows from the West across the centre of the district, 
widening above the City, with a Southward sweep into a broad and 
beautiful sheet of water known as Lake Des Chenes, and again narrow- 
ing at the City where, falling over a limestone ridge, it forms the well- 
known Chaudiere Falls. Below these its course is straighter and nar- 
rower, and about twenty miles down it receives from the North the 
waters of another rapid stream, the Du Lievre. South of the Ottawa is 
a somewhat undulating tract of country, drained principally by the 
Rideau, which joins the Ottawa at the City. It is rather a sluggish 
stream in its upper reaches, through being dammed back at various 
points for canal purposes, and thus affords several excellent resorts for 
marsh birds. Much good farming land, with occasional hardwood 
ridges, is to be found in this part of the district, as well as swamps 
overgrown with tamarac, cedar, and other cone-bearing trees. The 
largest of these swamps is a peat-bog in Gloucester Township, known as 
the Mer Bleue, which covers several thousand acres of land, carpeted 
to a great depth with sphagnum moss, and produces immense quantities 
of berries of many kinds, notably cranberries and blueberries. Thus it 
will be seen that the district in its various parts offers attractive breed- 
ing and feeding grounds for many diverse forms of bird life, and 
as there are parts of it as yet little explored by the ornithologist, it may 
still be looked to to yield new records, as well as much valuable 
information, of the breeding and other habits of many species of which 
too little is now known. 

It is too much to expect that the list has escaped the errors 
to which a compilation of the kind is so liable, but the compilers trust 
that when it shall have passed through the purifying fires of criticism, to 
which it is hoped it will be subjected, it will form a useful basis for 
future work and study, at least for our local workers. 



33 

LIST OF BIRDS OF THE OTTAWA DISTRICT. 

The following abbreviations are used : — " S.," summer resident or 
visitant; "W.," winter resident or visitant; " R.," resident; " M.," 
migrant; " B.," known to breed; "a.," abundant; " c," common; 
" m. a," moderately common ; ; ' r.," rare. The numbers prefixed and 
the nomenclature are those of the A. O. U. Check-list. 



ORDER, PYGOPODES— DIVING BIRDS. 

Podicipid.e — Grebes. 
i. ^chmopJiorus occidentalism Western Grebe. Casual. A pair were 
shot at the mouth of the North Nation river previous to 1881. 
The skins spoiled before they could be attended to. (G. R. 
White.) 

2. Colymbus holbcellii, Holbcell's Grebe. M. r. A young male was 

shot by Mr. W. F. Whitcher in October, 1881, out of a flock of 
eight, in Campbells Bay, about 28 miles down the Ottawa. It 
was also reported in 1885 and 1889. 

3. Colymbus auritits, Horned Grebe. S. m.c. B. 

6. Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe. S. c. B. 

Urinatorid/E — Loons. 

7. Urinator imber, Loon. S. c. B. 

11. " lumme, Red-throated Loon. M. r. A young female was 

shot on the Ottawa 12th November, 1885, by Mr. T. R. 
Coursolles and presented to the Museum of the Geological 
and Natural History Survey. 

Alcid.e — Auks, Murres, Puffins, Etc. 
13. Fratercula ardica, Puffin. Casual. A young bird of this species 
was shot on the Ottawa towards the end of October, 1881. It 
was probably blown inland by a severe storm which took place 
some days before. 
ORDER, LONGIPENNES -LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 
Larid/e— Gulls and Terns. 
47. Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull. Casual. One was 
seen May 2nd, 1885, near Kettle Island on the Ottawa, in com- 



34 

pany with ten or twelve American Herring Gulls. (G. R. 

White.) 
5itf. Larus argentatus smithsonianus, American Herring Gull. S. 

m.c. B. Most common in spring and fall. Found breeding 

in the lakes north of Ottawa. 
60. Larus Philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull. S. m.c. May be found to 

breed, as it has been seen as late as June 9th (1885.) 
70. Sterna hirundo, Common Tern. Casual. A male shot near St. 

Louis dam, on the Rideau Canal, June 29th, 1885, and another 

on the Ottawa, August 27th, 1887. 
77. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis, Black Tern. Casual. Six, 

including both males and females, were shot 28th May, 1888, 

on the Ottawa, by Mr. E White. 

ORDER, STEGANOPODES— TOTIPALMATE BIRDS. 
Phalacrocoracid.e — Cormorants. 
120. Phalacrocorax dilophus, Double-crested Cormorant. Casual. A 
young bird of this species was shot about 1st October, 1890, at 
Shirley's Bay, near Britannia, on the Ottawa, by Mr. C G. Rogers. 

ORDER, ANSERES— LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS. 
Anatida; — Ducks, Geese and Swans. 

129. Merganser americanus, American Merganser. M.c. 

130. " serrator, Red-breasted Merganser. M. r. 

131. Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser. S. a. B. 

132. Anas boschas, Mallard. M. r. 

133- " obscura, Black Duck. S. c. B. 

Note. — Two ducks, a male and female, apparently hybrids 
between the two last named species, were shot by Mr. G. R. 
White on the Ottawa in 1882. 

135. Anas strepera, Gadwall. Casual. A female was shot on the 
Ottawa, from a small flock, October 29th, 1885, by Mr. W. F. 
Whitcher. 

137. Anas americana, Baldpate. M. r. 

139. " carolinensis, Green-winged Teal, M. m.c. 



35 

140. Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal. M. m.c. A few may breed. 

142. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. Casual. A few were shot on the 

Rideau in the Fall of 1882; two were seen on the Ottawa in 
October, 1883, (both females), and two were shot by Mr. W. P. 
Lett in 1886, one at Richmond and the other at Brigham's 
Creek. 

143. Dafila acuta, Pintail. M. r. 

144. Aix sponsa, Wood Duck. S. c. B. 

146. Aythya a?nericana, Redhead. M. a. 

147. " valltsneria, Canvas-back. M. r. 

148. " marila nearctica, American Scaup Duck. M. m.c. 

149. " affinis, Lesser Scaup Duck. M. c. 

150. " collaris, Ring-necked Duck. M. c. 

151. Glaucionetta clangula americana, American Golden-eye. W. r. 

Common in migration. 

153. Charitonetta albeola, Buffle-head. M. c. 

154. Clangula hyemalis, Old Squaw. M. c. A pair in full breeding 

plumage were obtained by Mr. E. White in the Spring of 1887 
from a person who had just shot them on the Rideau. 

160. Somateria dresseri, American Eider. Casual. A young male in 
the plumage of the female was shot by Mr. G. R. White on the 
Ottawa, below the City, 9th November, 1889. A male in 
mature plumage, said to have been shot on the Gatineau, was 
seen on the By Ward market about the same time. 

163. Oidemia americana, American Scoter. M. c. 

165. " degla?idi, White-winged Scoter. M. c. 

166. " perspicillata. Surf Scoter. M. r. 

167. Erismatura rubida. Ruddy Duck. M. m.c. This species ap- 

peared in large numbers in the fall of 1882, arriving early and 
staying late. 
169*7. Chen hyperborea nivalis, Greater Snow Goose. M. r. On 
November 1st, 1884, Mr. S. Herring, the Taxidermist of the 
Geological and Natural History Survey, " put up " a bird of this 
species from a stubble field on the Ontario side of the Ottawa, 
and, although he did not secure it, is quite positive as to its 
identity. The late I )r. Van Cortlandt shot one just above the 



3G 

Chaudiere Falls about 1867, the head and wings of which were 
in the possession of the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society 
until destroyed by moths. 
1 69. 1. Chen aerulescens, Blue Goose. Casual. Two geese and a 
gander of this species were shot nth October, 1886. within a 
few miles of the City. (G. R. White.) The bills and feet were 
black instead of being lake-red as in Dr. Coues's description, 
but the birds corresponded with it in every other particular. 

172. Branta canadensis, Canada Goose. M. c. 

173. Branta bernicla, Brant. Casual. One was shot by Mr. P. 

Thompson on a sand-bar some thirty miles down the Ottawa in 
the fall of 1887, and identified by comparison with Audubon's 
colored plate of the species. 

ORDER, HERODIONES— HERONS, STORKS, IBISES, &c. 
Ardeid.e — Herons, Bitterns, &c. 

190. Botany-its lentiginosis, American Bittern. S. c. B. 

191. " exilis, Least Bittern. S. r. B. 

194. Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron. S. c. B. For accounts of 
visits to the heronry of this species, near Thurso, see Transac- 
tions O. F. N. C, Vol. I., No. 4, p. 81, and Vol. II., p. 141. 

202. Nycticorax nycticorax mtvius, Black-crowned Night Heron. S. 
m.c. B. Young of this species have been taken here in July. 
(G. R. White.) 

ORDER, PALUDICOL.F:— CRANES, RAILS, &c. 

Rallid/e— Rails. 

212. Rallus virghiia?ins, Virginia Rail. S. m.c. B. 

214. Porzana Carolina, Sora. S. c. B. One found dead in Mr. R. B. 

Whyte's garden in the City, 13th July, 1889, apparently having 

flown against some object in the night. 
219. Gallinula galeata, Florida Gallinule. S. c. B. A nest of this 

species, with seven eggs partly incubated, was taken near Kars, 

on the Rideau, 9th July, 1890, by Messrs. W. E. and F. A. 

Saunders. 
22i. Fulica americana, American Coot. S. c. B. 



37 

ORDER, LIMICOL-E— SHORE BIRDS. 
PHALAROPODID;£ — Phalaropes. 

222. Crymophilns fulicarius, Red Phalarope. Casual. One shot 21st 

October, 1886, at Cummings's Island, in the Rideau, by Mr. E. 
White, and another, a young one, on the Ottawa, 1st September, 
1888, by Mr. G. R. White. 

223. Phalaropus lobatus, Northern Phalarope. Casual. One was 

obtained by Mr. A. G. Kingston, on 10th September, 1890, 
which had just been shot near Burritt's Rapids on the Rideau. 

Scolopacid^e — Snipes, Sandpipers, &c. 
228. Philohela minor, American Woodcock. S. m.c. B. 

230. Gallhiago delicata, Wilson's Snipe. S. m.c. B. 

231. Macrorhamfihus griseas, Dowitcher. Casual. A pair were shot 

May 22nd, 1890, by Mr. E. White. 

234. Tringa canutus, Knot. M. r. A male in full breeding plumage 

was shot by Mr. E. White 4th June, 1890. 

235. Tringa maritima, Purple Sandpiper. Casual. One shot on the 

Rideau 29th October, 1885, by Mr. W. Forbes. 

239. Tringa maculata, Pectoral Sandpiper. M. c. 

240. " fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper. M. r. One shot in 
1883, and five in 1884. Of the latter Mr. E. White got two on 
8th October and one on 18th, and Mr. S. Herring two on 27th. 

242. Tringa minutil/a, Least Sandpiper. M. m.c. 

243*7. " alpina pacifica, Red-backed Sandpiper. M. r. One shot 

2nd October, 1885. 
246. Ereunetes pusilius, Semipalmated Sandpiper. M. m.c. 
248. Calidris arenaria, Sanderling. M. m.c. 
251. Limosa Jurmastica, Hudsonian Godwit. M. r. 
154. Totanus metanoleuats, Greater Yellow-legs. M. c. 
2 55- " flavipes, Yellow-legs. M. c. 

256. " solitarius, Solitary Sandpiper. S. c. B. 

262. Tryngites subrufi colli s, Buff-breasted Sandpiper. M. r. One shot 

on an island in the Ottawa, near Templeton, by Mr. E. White, 
24th August, 1886. 

263. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. S. a. B. 



38 

Charadriid/E — Plovers. 

270. Charadrius squatatoia, Black-bellied Plover, M. c. 

272. " dominicns, American Golden Plover. M. c. 

273. .-Egialitis vocifera, Killdeer. M. r. A few breed (G. R. White.) 

274. " semipalmata, Semipalmated Plover. M. r. 

Aphrizid/E — Surf Birds and Turnstones. 
283. Arenaria interpres, Turnstone. M. 1. 

ORDER, GALLING— GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. 

Tetraonid/e — Grouse, Partridges, &c. 

298. Dendragapus canadensis, Canada Grouse. R. m.c. B. 
3ootf. Bonasa umbellns togata, Canadian Ruffed Grouse. R. a. B. 
301. Lagopus lagopus, Willow Ptarmigan. Casual. One shot on the 

Gatineau in the winter of 1885-6 is now in the collection of Mr. 

G. R. White. 

ORDER, COLUMB.-E— PIGEONS. 

Columbid.e — Pigeons. 
315. Ectopistes migratorius, Passenger Pigeon. S. r. B. 

ORDER, RAPTORES— BIRDS OF PREY. 

Falconid.-e — Hawks, Falcons, Eagles, >bcc. 

327. Ela?wides forpicatu s, Swallow-tailed Kite. Casual. One was seen 
by Lt.-Col. White and Mr. G. R. White, perched on a flagstaff at 
the Rideau Rifle Range. Though not secured it was closely 
examined through a glass, and no doubt exists as to its identity. 
The date was not noted, but it was previous to 1881. 

331. Circus hudsonius, Marsh Hawk. S. c. B. 

332. Accipiter velox, Sharp-shinned Hawk. R. c. B. 

333. " cooperi, Cooper's Hawk. S. r. 

334. " atricapillus, American Goshawk. W. r. 
337. Buteo borealis, Red-tailed Hawk. S. r. B. 

339. " lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk. S. r. This species was 
not recorded here till 24th September, 1888, when Mr. G. R. 
White shot one near the quarries on the Montreal Road. 

343. Buteo latissimus, Broad-winged Hawk. S. c. B. 



39 

^la.Archilndeo lagopus sancti-johannis, American Rough-legged Hawk. 
M. r. 

349. Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle. R. r. B. A female was shot 
30th October, 1883, near Casselman, by Mr. J. S. Castleman, 
and another was seen near the same place shortly afterwards. 
There are other records of its occurence in the district. It 
breeds in the Laurentian Hills (G. R. White.) 

352. Haliteetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle. R. r. B. On 21st March, 
1888, one was seen flying low over the Rideau Rifle Range. 
Several have been shot or taken alive in the Gatineau district, 
and its nest has been seen at Lake Wilson, near Wakefield. 

^^a. Falco rusticolus gyr/alco, Gyrfalcon. Casual. One was shot by 
Mr. E. White on the bank of the Rideau, below Cummings's 
Bridge, on 23rd December, 1890. One was shot here before, 
but not recorded as the skin was lost (G. R. White.) 

356. Falco peregrinus anatum, Duck Hawk. M. r. One was seen 

flying low over the Rifle Range 28th April, 1889, by Mr. G. R. 
White and others, and another was seen at King's Mountain 
nth July, 1890, by Messrs. W. E. and F. A. Saunders. A third 
was shot and wounded, but not secured, by Mr. F. A. Saunders, 
22nd September, 1890. 

357. Falco columbarius, Pigeon Hawk. M. r. One was seen in the 

City 19th December, 1890, eating an "English" Sparrow (W. 

A. D. Lees.) 
360. Falco sparverius, American Sparrow-Hawk. S. c. B. A winter 

record for this species is 26th January, 1890. 
364. Pandion haliaelus carolinensis, American Osprey. S. m.c. B. 
Bubonid.e — Horned Owls. 

366. Asio wilsonianus, American Long-eared Owl. S. r. One shot by 

Mr. F. A. Saunders near the Experimental Farm 7th July, 1890. 
This is the only record. 

367. Asio accipitrinus, Short-eared Owl. R. r. A pair were shot 6th 

October, 1883, by Mr. (i. R. White, and one was seen on 28th 
of same month by Mr. W. L. Scott. It has not been reported 
since. 

368. Syrm'um nebulosum, Barred Owl. R. m.c. 



40 

37i- Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni, Richardson's Owl. W. r. Shot 
by Mr. G. R. White January ist and November 29th, 1884, and 
seen by Mr. W. A. D. Lees and others February 21st, 1889. 

372. Nyctala acadica, Saw-whet Owl. R. m.c. 

375. Bubo Virginian us, Great Horned Owl. R r. 

376. Nyctea nyctea, Snowy Owl. W. r. 

yiia.Surnia nlula caparoch, American Hawk Owl. W. r. 

ORDER, COCCYGES— CUCKOOS. 
Cuculid^e — Cuckoos, Anis, &c. 

387. Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo. S. r. B. A pair 

nested in Lt.-Col. White's garden in this City in 1890. The 
female was shot June 27th, but the male and young escaped. 

388. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo. S. c. B. 

Alcedinid.e — Kingfishers. 
390. Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher. S. a. B. 

ORDER, PICI— WOODPECKERS. 

Picid.e — Woodpeckers. 

^^a.Dryobates vdlosus leucomelas, Northern Hairy Woodpecker. R 
c. B. 

394. Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker. R a. B. Most abund- 
ant in the spring migration. 

400. Picoides arcticus, Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. R. m.c. 

Probably resident in the Laurentian Hills, as it is seen here in 
September and October. 

401. Picoides americanus, American Three-toed Woodpecker. R. r. 

One shot 5th November, 1883 (G. R. White.) Probably also 
resident within the district. Seen 28th and 29th September and 
1 2th and 13th October, 1890, in company with the last, (F. A. 
Saunders.) 

402. Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. S. c. B Com- 

moner in migration than at other times. 
405. Ceophhrus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker. R. r. B. It is not 
uncommon in the hills north of us, where it known as " Wood- 



41 

cock," and is occasionally sent to our game dealers braced with 

" Pa'tridge" (Ruffed Grouse). 
406. Melanerpes ery/hrocepha/us, Red-headed Woodpecker. S. c. B. 
412. Colaptes auratus, Flicker. S. a. B. 

ORDER, MACROCHIRES— GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, &c. 

Caprimulgid.e — Goatsuckers, «x:c. 

417. Antrostomus vociferus, Whippoorwill. S. c. B. 
420. Chordeiles vtr^itiianus, Night Hawk. S. a. B. 

Micropodid.e — Swifts. 
423. Chatura pehigica, Chimney Swift. S. a. B. In the first week of 
February, 1883, a Chimney Swift came down a chimney in the 
house of Mr. J. F. Whiteaves, Assistant Director of the Geolo- 
gical and Natural History Survey. It was caught and examined 
by him, and remained alive for several days. A similar instance 
is known to have occurred in Toronto. 

Trochilid.e — Hummingbirds. 
428. Trochilus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird. S. c. B. A 
nest with two fresh eggs was taken 12th July, 1S90, by Messrs. 
W. E. and F. A. Saunders. 

ORDER, PASSERES— PERCHING BIRDS. 
Tvrannid/E — Tyrant Flycatchers. 

444. Tyrannus tyratmus, Kingbird. S. a. B. 

452. Myiarchus crinitus, Crested Flycatcher. S, m.c. B. 

456. Sayor?ris p/nrbe, Phoebe. S. c. B. 

459, Contopm boreahs, Olive-sided Flycatcher. S. r. A pair were 
shot near the City 24th May, 1883, and it has been occasionally 
seen since. 

461. Contopus virens. Wood Pewee. S. c. B. 

463. Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow- oellied Flycatcher. S. r. B. The 
taking of the nest of this species is recorded in the Report of the 
Branch for the year 1881, but the bird is not mentioned in the 
old list, appended to that report. It is added as a species new 



42 

to the list by the report for 1884, one having been shot by Mr. 

E. White on May 26th of that year. 
^bda.Empidonax pusillus traillii, Traill's Flycatcher. S. m c. This 

species seems to have become rather common here in the last 

two years. It was considered rare before. 
467. Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher. S. c. B. 

Alaudid^e — Larks. 

474. Otocotis alpestris, Horned Lark. M. a. The Horned Larks of 
this district were, for the first time, satisfactorily determined and 
distinguished in the spring of 1890. This species arrived 19th 
April, and remained together in flocks till May 25th, when it 
departed. It was again present in the fall, from September 
26th to October 28th. 

^l^b.Otocoris alpestris praticola, Prairie Horned Lark. S. c. B. This 
sub-species arrives in the end of February or beginning of 
March, remains all summer to breed, and leaves about the 
beginning of November. 

Corvid/E— Crows, Jays, Magpies, &c. 

477. Cyanocitta cristaia. Blue Jay. R. c. B. 

484. Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay. R. c. B. This species rarely 

visits the immediate neighborhood of the City, though common 

in the hills to the north of it. 
486*7. Corvus corax principalis, Northern Raven. R. m.c. B. 
488. " americanus. R. B. Abundant in summer but scarce in 

winter. 

Icterid/E — Blackbirds, Orioles, &c. 

494. Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink. S. c. B. 

495. Molothrus ater, Cowbird. S. a. B. On nth July, 1882, two 

eggs of this bird almost hatched were found in the nest of a 
Vireo (presumably V. olivaceus), no eggs of the latter being 
present. A similar case, with three eggs instead of two, is 
recorded in The Canadian Sportsman and Naturalist for June, 
1883. 

498. Agelaius phwniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. S. c. B. 

501. Sturnella magna, Meadowlark. S. m.c. B. 



43 

507. Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole. S. c. B. 

509. Scolecophagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird. M. a. It probably 

breeds sparingly. 
5110. Quista/us quiscula teneus, Bronzed Grackle. S. a. B. 

Fringillid^e — Finches, Sparrows, Sec. 
515. Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak. W. Irregularly abundant. 

It appeared in immense numbers in the winter of 1882-3, 

and again in 1888-9, as did many other of our winter birds. 
517. Cqrpodacus purpureas, Purple Finch. S. c. B. Abundant in 

migration. There are a few winter records of this species, one 

of which is 29th December, 1885. 

521. Loxia curvirostra minor, American Crossbill. W. c. Summer 

records are as follows: — 10th May, 1882 ; 4th August, 1887 ; 
1 9th* June, 1889 ; 3rd July, 1890. 

522. Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill. W. c. A large flock 

was seen near Beech wood Cemetery in June, 1882. 
$21 a. Acanthi s hornemanii exilipes, Hoary Redpoll. W. r. Specimens 
of this bird, taken by Mr. W. L. Scott in the spring of 1883 
were identified by Dr. Coues. It is also included in the list of 
arrivals for 1887 on March 19th. 

528. Acanthis linaria, Redpoll. W. a. Summer records are 6th June, 

1882 ; 3rd June, 1888 ; 22nd May, 1890. 

529. Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch. S. a. B. It occasionally 

winters here in large flocks. It did so in 1888-9. 

533. Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin. W. c. Somewhat irregular in its 

visits like most of our winter birds. Summer records are as 
follows: — 10th May, 1882; 15th May and 15th August, 1884; 
2nd May, 1888; 1 6th May, 1890. 
. Passer domesticus, European House Sparrow. R. a. B. Intro- 
duced. An intolerable nuisance. 

534. Plectrophenax ?;ivalis, Snowflake. W. a. 

536. Calcarius lapponiais, Lapland Longspur. M. c. This species 
was first recorded here in the spring of 1890, when, in company 
with Horned Larks, (O. a/pestris), and Snowflakes, it remained 
in flocks till May 25th, It was again present in the fall from 
October 3rd to November 18th. 



44 

54°. Pooaetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow. S« a. B. 

l\za. Anunodramus scwdwichensis savanna, Savanna Sparrow. S. c. B. 

549. Ammodramus caudacutus. Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Casual. One 
shot in 1882 and identified by Dr. Coues. It would probably 
now be referred 10 549A A. c. subvirgatus, Uwight. 

554. Zonotrickia /eucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow. M. c. 

558. " albicollis, White-throated Sparrow. S. c. B. 

559. Spizella monticola, Tree Sparrow. M. c. 

560. " socialts, Chipping Sparrow. S. c. B. 

563. " pusilla, Field Sparrow. S. r. In each of the years 1888, 

1889 and 1890, at least one of this species has been observed 
several times through the summer. 

567. /unco hyemalis, Slate-colored Junco. S. m.c. B. Abundant in 
spring and fall. 

581. Melospiza fasciata, Song Sparrow. S. a. B. 

583. " lincolni, Lincoln's Sparrow. Casual. A male of this 
species was shot 16th May, 1884, near the East end of the 
City, by Mr. G. R. White. 

584. Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow. S. m.c. B. 

585. Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow. M. m.c. 

595. Habia lndovicia?ia, Rose-breasted Grosbeak. S. m.c. B. 
598. Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting. S. m.c. B. 

Tanagrid^e — Tanagers. 
608. Piranga erythtomelas, Scarlet Tanager. S. m.c. B. 
Hirundinid.e — Swallows. 

611. Ptogne subis, Purple Martin. S. c. B. 

612. Petrochelidon lunifrons, Cliff Swallow. S. c. B. 

613. CAe/idon erythrogasler, Barn Swallow. S. a. B. 

614. Tachyctneta bicolor Tree Swallow. S. a. B. 

616. Clivicola riparia, Bank Swallow. S. a. B. A set of spotted eggs 
of this species was taken here in 1881. 

Ampelid^e— Waxwings. 

618. Ampelis garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing. W. It is now many 

years since this bird has visited us in large numbers. 

619. Ampelis cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing. S. c. B. 



45 

Laniid/e — Shrikes. 
621. Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike. W. m.c. 
622a. " ludovicianus excubitorides, White-rumped Shrike. S. r. B. 

On 22nd July, 1890, Mr. A. G. Kingston received from Capt. 

Veith a shrike which seemed about midway between this variety 

and the typical ludovirianus. 

VIREONID.E — VlREOS. 

624. Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo. S. a. B. 

626. " philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo. S r. As this species is 
not easily distinguished from the next it may be commoner than 
is generally supposed. 

627. Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo. S. a. B. 

628. " flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo. S. r. 

629. " solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo. S. m.c. 

Mniotiltid.e — Wood Warblers. 
636. Mniotilta varia, Black and White Warbler. S. c. B, Commoner 
in migration than in summer. 

645. Helminthophila ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler. S r. B. A nest 

of this species with four eggs was taken in Dow's Swamp 13th 
July, 1881. In 1882 the bird was noted as " quite common." 

646. Helminthophila celata, Orange-crowned Warbler. Casual. A 

male was shot by Mr. E. White 27th September, 1885, near the 
Eastern end of the City. 

647. Helminthophila peregrina, Tennessee Warbler. M. r. One was 

shot on the bank of the Rideau 9th April, 1882, by Mr. G. R. 
White. Another was shot May 16th, 1888. 

648. Compsoihlypis americana, Parula Warbler. M. m.c. 

650. Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler. M. r. A pair were shot 
by Mr. E. White near the Rideau 24th May, 1883. Further 
records are 7th June, 1885; nth May, 1887; 16th May, 
1888. 

652. Dendroica tcstiva, Yellow Warbler. S. a. B. 

654. " aerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler. M. m.c. 

655. " coronata, Myrtle Warbler. M. a. Has been seen all 
through the summer and probably breeds in the Mer Bleue. 



i<5 

657- Dendroica maculosa, Magnolia "Warbler. M. ni.c. Found at the 
Mer Bleue 3rd July, 1890 (W. K. Saunders). 

659. Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler. S. c. B. 

660. " castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler. M. m.c. 

661. " striata, Black-poll Warbler. M. m c. 

662. * " blackbiirnice, Blackburnian Warbler. M. c. A male in 

full plumage was seen in Dow's Swamp June 24th, 1890 (F. A. 
Saunders). 
667. Dendroica vireus, Black-throated Green Warbler. S. m.c. 

671, " vigorsii, Pine Warbler. S. r. 

672. " palmarum, Palm Warbler. S. c. B. This species was 
found common and breeding in the Mer Bleue 3rd July, 1890, 
by Messrs. W. E. and F. A. Saunders, and several of the young 
were shot. It was again seen there August 9th. 

6"] 2a. Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea, Yellow Palm Warbler. M. r. 
Latest record May 6th and 8th, 1888. 

674. Seiurus aurocapillus, Ovenbird. S. c. B. 

675. " noveboracensis, Water Thrush. S. m.c. B. 
679. Geothlypis Philadelphia, Mourning Warbler. S. m.c. B. 
681. " trichas, Maryland Yellow-throat. S. c. B. 

685. Sylvania pusilla, Wilson's Warbler. S. m.c. B. Found breeding 

in the Mer Bleue 3rd July, 1890, by Messrs. W. E. and F. A. 
Saunders. 

686. Sylvania canadensis, Canadian Warbler. S. m.c. B. 

687. Setophcu/a ruAicilla, American Redstart. S. c. B. 

MOTACILLID^E — WAGTAILS. 

697. A nthus pensilvanicus, American Pipit. M. a. 

Troglodytid^; — Wrens, Thrashers, &c. 

704. Galeoscoptes carolinensis, Catbird. S. c. B. 

705. Harporhyncus rufus, Brown Thrasher. S. m.c. B. 

721. Troglodytes acdon, House Wren, S. a. B. 

722. hiemalis, Winter Wren. S m.c. B. 

725. Cistothorus palustris, Long-billed Marsh Wren. S. c. B. 

Certhiid^e — Creepers. 

726. Certhia familiaris americana, Brown Creeper. M. c. Winter 



47 

records are 8th December, 1883, and 18th February and 5th 
December, 1885. 

Parida: — Nuthatches and Tits. 

727. Sitta ca roll ne asis, White-breasted Nuthatch. R. c. B. 

728. " canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch. R. c. B. 
735. t'arat; atricapillus, Chickadee. R. c. B. 

744. " hudsonicus, Hudsonian Chickadee. Wi m.c. Early fall 
records for this species are 31st October, 1883, and 20th Octo- 
ber, 1889. 

Sylviid.e — Kinglets, Gnatcatchers, &c. 

748. Reyidus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet. M. c. 

749. " caleudida, Ruby-crowned Kinglet. M. c. 

751. Polioptila c&rulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Casual. One was 
shot by Mr. G. R. White previous to 1881. The skin has since 
been lost, but was seen at the time by Mr. W. L. Scott, who is 
satisfied of its identity. 

Turdid^e — Thrushes, Bluebirds, &c. 

755. Turdus mustelinus, Wood Thrush. S. r. B. 

756. " fitscesceus, Wilson's Thrush. S. c. B. 

758a. " ustalatus swaimouii, Olive-backed Thrush. S. r. 

7596. " aoaalaschkce pallasii, Hermit Thrush. S. c. B. 

761. Merula nuyratoria, American Robin. S. a. B. Winter records are : 
20th December, 1881, 8th March, 1882, and 15th November, 
1883. Mr. G. R. White has in his collection a peculiarly colored 
robin, a description of which is to be found in Transactions 
O. F. N. C, Vol. II., p. 356. 

766. Sialia sialis, Bluebird. S. c. B. 



EXCURSION No. 1— To Kingsmere, Saturday, May 16. Members' 
tickets 50c, Non-members 60c, Children 30c. 



4? 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 



To the Members of the Ottawa Fieb I -Naturalists' Club : — 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — It has been the pleasing duty of the 
Council — since the formation of the Club — to report its affairs in 
a more prosperous state each succeeding year, but at no previous 
period has the condition of the Club been so satisfactory, or the success 
achieved during any year, been equal to that which has attended it 
duiing the one just ending. 

At the close of last year the membership was 232, and now — after 
revising the list and deducting the lapses through death, removal and 
resignation — it stands at 296. There were 66 new members elected 
during the year. 

There were five general excursions held during the summer ; the 
first was on the 31st of May, to Butternut Grove, near Old Chelsea; 
the second on the 21st of June, to Casselman ; the third on the 
19th of July, to Montebello ; the fourth on the 9th of August, to 
Eastman's Springs, and the fifth on the 6th of September, to Kirk's 
Ferry, on the Gatineau River. Besides these excursions a number of 
the members availed themselves of the invitation given by the Montreal 
Natural History Society, and met the members of that body at Lachute, 
P.Q., on the 7th of June- 

Sub-excursions were also carried on throughout the season, as 
usual, to different points of interest within easy reach of the City. 

The winter course of meetings was arranged as formerly, and 

consisted of Soirees and Afternoon Lectures. The Soirees were held 

on alternate Thursday evenings, in the Lecture room of the Normal 

School building, and the papers read at them were as follows : — 

1890. 

Dec. 11. — Science as an Aid to Education, by Dr. McCabe. 

The President's Inaugural Address, by Dr. Ells. 
1891. 

Jan. 15. — Report of the Zoological Branch. 

Asbestus, by Dr. Ells. 

" 29. — Report of the Ornithological Branch. 

The Chimney Swift, by Mr. Kingston. 



49 

Feb. 12. — Report of the Botanical Branch. 

The Development of Cultivated Fruits from Wild Varieties, 
by Mr. John Craig. 
" 26. — Canadian Gems, by Mr. Willimott. 
March 3. — Report of the Geological Branch. 

Additional Notes on Geology and Palaeontology of Ottawa 
by Mr. Ami. 
" 12. — Report of the Entomological Branch. 

Mineral Phosphates, by Mr. Lainson Wills. 

The Monday afternoon elementary lectures were commenced on 
1 2th January, and continued every Monday afternoon at 4.15 up to the 
9th of March, and were nine in number, as follows : — 

The Study of Natural History, by Miss M. A. Mills. 

The Geographical Distribution of Plants, by Prof. Macoun. 

The Educational Value of Botanic Gardens, by Mr. Fletcher. 

The Physiology of Plants, by Mr. W. Scott. 

The Migration of Birds, by Mr. Lees. 

The True Bugs, by Mr. Harrington. 

Two Lectures on the Chemistry of Food, by Mr. Shutt. 

Beneficial Birds, by Mr. Kingston. 

The large attendance at these lectures of teachers and students 
of the Normal and Model Schools, especially at the afternoon lectures 
was very gratifying. 

In addition to the courses of lectures, a series of sub-excursions to 
the Geological Survey Museum took place on the 2nd and 4th Saturday 
afternoons of each month, from November to March, at which interest- 
ing addresses were kindly given by the following officers of the Survey 
on the Geological and Natural History exhibits in that building : Mr. 
Whiteaves, Prof. Macoun, Dr. Dawson, Mr. Ami and Mr. Ferrier. 

From the Treasurer's report, which will now be submitted, it will 
be seen that the collection of membership and other dues has been one 
of the features of the year's success. Many members who were in 
arrears have paid up, which has considerably swollen the receipts, and, 
after settling all claims against the Club, there will remain a compara- 
tively large balance to be carried to the incoming year's account. 



50 

The Librarian's report shows that this important department is also 
in a very satisfactory condition, and that the small appropriation which 
was made through the judicious management of the Club's finances, for 
binding, has been expended in that way to the very best advantage. 

The authority given to the Council at the last annual meeting, to 
use its own discretion as to the manner of publishing the Ottawa 
Naturalist, was promptly acted upon at the beginning of the year ; 
the monthly number was adopted, and the Editor and his assistants 
deserve much credit for the satisfactory manner in which the journal 
has been conducted, and for its prompt issue throughout the year. 

As the members have been kept well posted through the pages of 
the Naturalist, on all matters of interest in connection with the work 
of the Club, it is not considered necessary to further enlarge this report. 

In conclusion, your Council cannot too strongly emphasize the 
importance of, and the advantages which have accrued to the Club, by 
the acquisition — through the kindness of Dr. MacCabe — of the use of 
rooms for lecturing and library purposes in the Normal School building. 
When this and the other important changes and features of the year's 
success are taken into consideration — such as the enlarged range of the 
Club's operations, the addition of lady members on the Council, the 
successful publication of the Naturalist in monthly parts, the great 
addition to the membership, the large attendance at lectures, and the 
increased activity in the working ranks — the twelfth year may well be 
considered as marking an epoch in the Club's existence. 

It is considered well to state here —in order that it may be dis- 
cussed at this meeting if necessary — that the International Congress of 
Geologists has invited the members of this Club to take part in, or send 
delegates to, the meeting of the Congress which is to take place on the 
26th of August next, at Washington, D.C. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council. 

T. J. MacLaughlin, 

Secretary. 



. 51 

ON THE NICKEL AND COPPER DEPOSITS 
OF SUDBURY, ONT. 

By Alfred E. Barlow, M. A., Geological Survey Department, 

(Read before the Logan Club, Ottawa, March 6th, i8qi.) 

Published by permission of Dr. Selwyn, Director Geological Survey. 

The presence of large deposits of nickel and copper in the District 
of Algoma, Ontario, has of late years attracted world-wide attention, in 
the first place on account of their immense and apparently inexhaustible 
character, but latterly because of the proposed application of nickel in 
alloy with steel to improve the quality of the latter. The existence of 
workable deposits of copper in this region was a fact that had long been 
known, and as far back as 1770 a company had been formed and 
attempts made to mine this metal, but the difficulty of procuring and 
maintaining miners at so great a distance from any centre of civilization, 
the remoteness of any market for the ore, as well as the absence of 
facilities for transportation, rendered these first attempts abortive. 
However, in 1846, owing to the activity in prospecting and locating 
mineral lands on the southern shore of Lake Superior, and a favourable 
report by Mr. W. E. Logan, then newly appointed Provincial Geologist, 
some enterprising Canadians banded themselves together into two 
associations called "The Montreal Mining Co'y," and the "Upper 
Canada Mining Co'y." The former company having purchased, amongst 
others, what was then known as " The Bruce Mines" location, and on 
account of the richness of the deposit decided to commence active 
work at this locality, while the Upper Canada Co'y proceeded to develop 
and work what was known as the " Wallace Mine," at the mouth of the 
Whitefish River. The Montreal Mining Co'y continued their operations 
from 1846 to 1865, when, from a variety of causes, the work proving 
unremunerative, they sold out the whole of their claim to the "West 
Canada Mining Co'y," who had previously leased and worked the 
western half of the location under the name of the Wellington Mine. 
This company continued working till 1876 when, owing to unsatisfactory 
results, work was suspended and has not been resumed since. The 
Wallace Mine was chosen on account of its promising character and 
proximity to civilization, and is chiefly remarkable as having been the 
first place in Canada in which the presence of nickel had been detected 



52 

According to Mr. Alex. Murray, of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, who made an examination of. the location in 1848, "No 
true vein can be discovered, but the ore occurs at the contact of quartz 
ose and chloritic slates with diorite, as bunches and strings of pyritous 
matter, interlaminated irregularly with the slates, and distributed in 
specks and patches in the diorite. Abundant evidence of disturbance 
is displayed in irregularities of dip and intrusion of the diorite. The 
material collected for assay was chosen as free as possible from copper 
pyrites, but nearly two-fifths of the specimen consisted of earthy mate- 
rials which might readily be separated by dressing," (See Report 
Geological Survey of Canada, 1848-49, p. 42 — 45.) Dr. T. Sterry 
Hunt, in his report on this ore, says that " the specimen is a steel grey 
arseniuret, the species not determined, with white iron pyrites and 
probably some arsenical sulphuret of iron. The mass, weighing 45 oz., 
was reduced to powder and submitted to analysis, with the following 
results : — 

Iron 24.78 

Nickel, with trace of cobalt 8.26 

Arsenic 3.57 

Sulphur 22.63 

Copper 06 

Earthy materials 40.01 



99-31 
In the process of washing the ore, the earthy parts being removed by 
washing, the composition of the ore in 100 parts, as deduced by 
calculation from the above, would be — 

Iron 4*-79 

Nickel and cobalt r 3>93 

Arsenic 6.02 

Sulphur 38.16 

Copper 10 

From the small proportion of arsenic the nickel must, in part at 
least, be present in a state of sulphuret, a fact which is, indeed, made 
evident by the spontaneous oxidation of the ore. The nickel from this 



53 

source contained about three parts in a thousand of cobalt. In con- 
clusion, he remarks that in the same bands of rocks we may detect the 
presence of nickel and cobalt, a prophecy which has since been amply 
verified. 

A mass of copper pyrites from the same mine weighing 9 ^ lbs. 
was also assayed, which yielded 11.6 per cent, of metallic copper. 
Acting on these and other favourable reports, the company began to 
sink shafts to test the extent and the quality of the ore, and one of 
these shafts at least attained a depth of 10 or 15 fathoms. Work was 
carried on energetically for some years, but the enterprise was finally 
abandoned, as the quantity of ore did not seem sufficient to justify 
further expenditure. 

In his report for 1856, Mr. Alex. Murray (see Report Geological 
Survey of Canada, 1853-56, p. 180,) mentions the occurrence of a 
" dingy green magnetic trap " associated with red syenite in the north- 
west corner of the Township of Waters on Salter's meridian line. 
Specimens of this trap were given to Dr. Hunt for analysis, and the 
result of his investigation showed that it contained magnetic iron ore 
and magnetic iron pyrites, generally distributed through the rock, the 
former in very small'grains ; titaniferous iron was found associated with 
the magnetic ore and a small quantity of nickel and copper. The 
variation of the magnetic needle near this mass was from ten to 
fifteen degrees west of the true meridian. It can thus be seen that even 
at this early period of its history the officers of the Geological Survey were 
aware of the existence of nickel in this region, and had pointed out the 
probability that workable deposits would be found. Years passed by 
and the inaccessible nature of the country deterred prospectors from 
making very detailed exploration or examination, so that it was not till 
1883, when the Canadian Pacific Railway was in course of construction, 
that the first discoveries of any consequence were made, since which 
time the whole belt of the Huronian district has been overrun with 
eager prospectors and miners. A not infrequent accident in newly 
settled districts led to the first important discovery. Judge McNaugh- 
ton, stipendiary magistrate at Sudbury, had been lost in the woods to 
the west of that village, and diligent search was at once instituted for 
him. A party consisting of Dr. Howey and two others found the judge 



54 

seated on the small eminence which then marked the site of what is 
now known as the " Murray Mine." Early in 1884 the Canadian Pacific 
Railway made a cutting for their main line through this small hilh 
about 3^-2 miles northwest of Sudbury, and on July 12th of the same year 
Dr. Selwyn made a careful examination of the location and pronounced 
the lode to be one of the most promising he had yet seen in Canada. 
Other discoveries soon followed, and the McConnell, Lady Macdonald, 
Stobie, Blezard, Copper Cliff and Evans Mines were all located. At 
first the wildest notions were entertained as to the extent of these de- 
posits, and the most exaggerated reports circulated as to their value. 
It was even confidently asserted that these were immensely important 
discoveries, and would revolutionize the whole copper trade and render 
other mines then in operation quite unremunerative. Rounded hills 
of gossan, indicating the presence of the more solid and unaltered ore 
beneath, occur at intervals for miles in a southwesterly direction, con- 
forming rudely to the strike of the rocks in the vicinity. This circum- 
stance is all that seems to have justified the early discoverers in describ- 
ing the deposits as veritable mountains of solid ore, many miles in 
extent and hundreds of feet thick. Closer investigation revealed the 
fact that these surface gossans everywhere indicate the presence of the 
ore beneath, and that the ore itself occurs in lenticular masses, entirely 
separated from one another, whose longer axes correspond with the 
strike of the enclosing rock. This gossan has resulted, as is usual, from 
the formation of peroxide and hydrated peroxide of iron, due to the 
decomposition of the pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite which gives a prevail- 
ing red or reddish brown colour to the upper portion of the deposit. 
This covering of iron oxide is sometimes as much as six feet in depth, 
although usually it is only two or three feet, gradually merging itself 
into the unaltered ore beneath. During the last few years prospectors 
have not been idle, and at the present time about twenty very promising 
deposits of these ores have been " located " and " taken up." The 
McAllister Mine, now called the Lady Macdonald Mine, was the first 
property on which any work was done in the summer of 1885, although 
later in the fall the Evans Mine was opened up and some preliminary 
tests made. On January 6th. 1886, the Canadian Copper Company 
was formed with a subscribed and paid up capital of $2,000,000, which 



55 

was afterward increased to $2,500,000, to operate the Copper Cliff, 
Stobie and Evans Mines. 

On May 1st, 1886, work was started in earnest at the Copper Cliff 
mine, and later on in the same year both the Stobie and Evans mines 
were opened up, and with the exception of a few months last summer, 
when, on account of some difference with the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
the Stobie was shut down, these three mines have been in active opera- 
tion ever since. The chief business of the Canadian Copper Company 
is done at Copper Cliff, for here they have prepared a well equipped 
roast yard, two smelting furnaces, laboratory and offices, and other 
things requisite for carrying on this mining on an extensive scale. The 
Stobie and Evans mines are provided with excellent rock houses, but all 
their ore is brought by branch railways to Copper Cliff to be roasted 
and smelted. In 1889 the Dominion Mineral Company was formed t 
operate the Blezard mine, and later on they purchased the Worthington 
mine from the original owners. During the past summer this company 
have had their smelter in operation, and both their mines are being 
energetically developed. During the summer of 1889 the Murray mine 
was prospected under bond by Messrs. Henry H. Vivian & Co., 
Swansea, England, and in October of the same year they purchased it. 
About the end of last September, everything being ready, the smelter 
"was blown in" and set to work on some ore which had been previously 
roasted. All three companies are now prosecuting the work vigorously, 
and the output of these mines has already reached very large propor- 
tions. The whole district has been prospected, and I think that a 
very conservative estimate would now place the number of promising 
deposits at twenty. 

The Huronian system in which these ore deposits occur may be 
regarded as the oldest series of sedimentary strata of which we have at 
present any certain knowledge. Amongst the more important of these 
rocks may be mentioned quartzites, greywackes, conglomerates, slates, 
evenly laminated gneisses, felsites, hydromica, chloritic, epidotic, horn- 
blendic and micaceous schists and narrow bands of cherty limestone. 
Most of these clastic rocks have been derived from the waste of older 
felspathic material, and hitherto it has been most generally supposed 
and stated that the Laurentian gneiss was the source from which the 



56 

sediments had been derived. The Huronian conglomerates, however, 
hold no pebbles that are undeniably referable to the Laurentian, and 
the origin of the syenitic, quartzose and jaspery pebbles is still a matter 
of doubt. The microscope can throw no certain light on the original 
character of some of these rocks, for very often metamorphism and 
recrystallization has gone on to such an extent that the former structure 
has been either partially or completely obliterated. A close study of 
these uncertain rocks in the field, aided by the use of the microscope 
in the laboratory will eventually enable us to assign them their proper 
place. We have thus numerous sedimentary rocks showing the various 
stages of this metamorphism, from the typical sandstone or greywacke, 
composed of well rounded grains of quartz and felspar, to the compact 
felsite, which contains no trace of its original clastic structure. Associ- 
ated with these sedimentary strata are certain undoubted eruptive and 
irruptive rocks, among which may be mentioned many varieties of 
diabase,, diorite and gabbro. Besides these igneous rocks, there are 
some granites and gneisses concerning whose origin many are in doubt. 
After a close and careful study of these rocks, which have usually been 
classified as Laurentian, and their relations with the true Huronian 
stratified deposits, I have been fully convinced of their irruptive nature. 
These granites and gneisses probably represent the original crust of the 
earth which has undergone refusion, and was in a molten or plastic con- 
dition at a period subsequent to the hardening of the Huronian sedi- 
ments. The earth gradually cooling from a state of original incan- 
descence, had reached that stage in the process when it admitted of 
being surrounded by an ocean nearly, if not quite, universal. Then 
began that tearing down and building up which has since gone on in 
forming the sediments which subsequently hardened into rocks. The 
first formed crust was necessarily thin and weak, and it is therefore not 
surprising that there were frequent irruptions, accompanied by the 
fusion of the lower portion at least of the first formed deposits. 

It is unnecessary here to go into all the facts of the case, as my 
yiews have already been stated at some length in a paper read before 
this club on February 27th of last year. Suffice it to say that the fuller 
examinations of last summer have served to further strengthen these 
views. Both clastic and irruptive rocks have been subjected to in- 



£7 

tense pressure, as evidenced by the extensive cataclastic structure 
which has been developed in both series of rocks. Frequently the 
rocks show a pyroclastic origin, and volcanic tuffs and breccias are very 
commonly met with. The relations of the diabase or basic irruptive 
rocks with the surrounding sedimentary strata was closely examined in 
a large number of instances, and revealed the fact that the diabase is 
apparently of later age, as it breaks through and alters the bedded 
Huronian. The occurrence of these masses of diabase with a sur- 
rounding breccia or agglomerate in many cases would seem to point to 
the fact that they are the bases of Huronian volcanoes, which continued 
in action after the latest sediments had been deposited. Some of these 
diabasic masses send out dykes which ramify through and alter the sur- 
rounding strata, these dykes frequently containing fragments of highly 
metamorphosed Huronian quartzite. These irruptive masses are 
usually lenticular, although occasionally rudely circular or oval in out- 
line, and their longer axes correspond in general with the strike of the 
enclosing rock. They vary in breadth from a few chains to half a mile, 
or even more, and frequently extend for miles in length. The origin ot 
the nickel and copper is closely connected with this diabase or gabbro, 
and the formation of the fissures containing these ores was no doubt 
due to the disruptive forces of the intrusion, and the contraction caused 
by the subsequent cooling of the igneous rock matter. These fissures 
were necessarily most frequently formed along the line of contact with 
the cooler sedimentary strata although in certain cases they were formed 
in the midst of the igneous mass itself. In nearly every case, therefore, 
the deposits of nickel and copper occur close to the contact of the 
diabase with the stratified rocks, although in a few cases they are found 
in the diabase near its junction with granite or micropegmatite. An- 
other proof of the common genesis of these ores and the enclosing 
diabase is that the diabase itself commonly contains these sulphides 
disseminated through its mass, these impregnations occasionally form- 
ing such considerable and rich deposits as to be workable. 

All geologists who have examined these deposits agree that they 
are not true fissure veins, and although at times a certain sloping sur- 
face is obtained which seems to have a uniform inclination, yet it 
seems certain that there are no regular walls in the miner's sense of the 



58 

term, and at both sides of the deposits the enclosing rock is impreg- 
nated more or less with the pyritous matter. Though mining is thus 
rendered somewhat difficult and uncertain on account of the absence 
of the walls and irregularity in the distribution of the ore, so that there 
is no means of knowing in what direction to drive the levels, this un- 
certainty is more than compensated by the extent and massiveness of the 
deposit when found. The ore bodies like the masses of diabase with which 
they are so intimately associated are lens or pod- shaped and "pinch 
out " in both directions. This structure is also characteristic of their 
downward extension, and the deposits have been very truly likened to 
a string of sausages, so that when one lenticular body of ore gives out 
another commences close at hand, which in its turn gives place to 
another, and though at the Copper Cliff they are down about 600 feet 
on a slope of 45 , the quantity and quality of the ore shows no diminu- 
tion. I have occasionally found true veins of quartz holding this pyrr- 
hotite, but such evidences of secondary action are extremely rare and 
proves nothing in regard to the origin of the more massive deposits. 
The ores and the associated diabase were therefore in all probability 
simultaneously inUoduced in a molten condition, the particles of pyrit- 
ous matter aggregating themselves together in obedience to the law of 
mutual attraction. The ore bodies were, therefore, not contemporane- 
ous with the stratified Huronian, although there is nothing to prove 
that they do not belong to the close of the Huronian period. Mr. Fer- 
rier of the Geological Survey has noticed the occurrence of this 
nickeliferous pyrrhotite in a specimen of chloritic schist and gneissic 
granite, which had been taken to show the contact between the two 
rocks. The pyrrhotite is disseminated through both rocks, and its oc- 
currence here in the Township of Dill at the junction of what has been 
called Laurentian would seem to be another proof of the irruptive origin 
of this gneiss. 

The ore itself is a mixture of pyrrhotite, a monosulphide of iron 
(Fe 7 S 8 ) and chalcopyrite, a sulphide of copper and iron (Cu Fe S 2 ). 
The two minerals are not so intimately commingled as to form a perfect 
homogeneous mass, but one may be described as occurring in pockets, 
spots, bunches or threads in the other. The chalcopyrite is not so 
closely intermixed with the pyrrhotite, but isolates itself rather in spots 



59 

and patches enclosed by massive pyrrhotite, so that it is not hard to 
separate considerable masses of chalcopyrite that will assay over 30 per 
cent, of copper, or pyrrhotite that will only show traces of that metal. 
In practice, however, careful examination and trial have proved that the 
two miherals are too intimately associated to make sorting by hand at 
all practicable, and the pyrrhotite is very often so feebly magnetic as to 
preclude the possibility of separation by magnetism. Although the 
chalcopyrite seldom occurs free from the pyrrhotite, large and massive 
deposits of the latter occur comparatively free from copper. In this 
connection Dr. Peters mentions a slope which, having furnished about 
2,000 tons of pyrrhotite, gave place, just before the end boundaries 
were reached, to a deposit which afforded nearly 20 tons of almost pure 
chalcopyrite. In some instances these ore bodies show a brecciated 
character, large angular or partially rounded boulders or "horses" of 
almost barren rock being mingled with the ore, which seem to evidence 
the disruptive force of the intrusive mass, while in others, as at the 
Worthington mine, the diabase in which the ore occurs has developed a 
concretionary structure while cooling, and large irregularly rounded concre- 
tions, which, on weathering, peel off in concentric layers, are cemented 
together, so to speak, by a very pure chalcopyrite and highly nickelifer- 
ous pyrrhotite. The concretions themselves usually contain more or 
less pyritous matter disseminated through them, but are usually cast 
aside as too barren for the roast heap. The pyrrhotite varies in colour 
from steel-grey to bronze yellow, and the chalcopyrite is the usual brass 
or deep yellow colour. Both tarnish readily, and very beautiful 
iridescent specimens can be easily obtained from the ore heap or 
scattered around the works. These sulphides, therefore, may be said 
to occur in three distinct ways — 

1st. As contact deposits of pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite situated 
between the clastic rocks, such as felsites, quartzites, etc., and irruptive 
diabase or gabbro, or between these latter and granite or micropegma- 
tite. Good examples of the former are furnished by the Evans, Stobie 
and Copper Cliff, while the Murray mine may be cited as illustrating 
the latter. 

2nd. As impregnations of these minerals through the diabase or 
gabbro, which are sometimes so rich and considerable as to form 



GO 

workable deposits. These sulphides are in no case present as dis- 
seminations through the clastic rocks very distant from the diabase or 
gabbro, which seems clear evidence that they have been brought up by 
the latter. 

3rd. As segregated veins which may have been filled subsequently 
to the irruption which brought up the more massive deposits. These 
veins are not very common, although certain portions of the more 
massive deposits may have been dissolved out and re-deposited along 
certain faults and fissures. 

The composition of the ore varies according to the preponderance 
of either the pyrrhotite or chalcopyrite in the specimen examined. The 
pyrrhotite may be said roughly to be composed of 40% sulphur and 
60% iron, with a varying proportion of the iron replaced by nickel, 
while the chalcopyrite contains 35% sulphur, 35% copper and 30% 
iron. The mines of the Canadian Copper Co'y, as the name of the 
company indicates, were first opened for their copper contents, and it 
was not until considerable work had been done that nickel was dis- 
covered to be present in the ore. A large shipment of ore had been 
made to New York, and a chemist there who was making a volumetric 
determination of the copper contents by the Potassium Cyanide process, 
was struck by the great variation in his results, which led him to make a 
more minute examination of the ore, when he found that nickel was pre- 
sent. The ore has now become of more value on account of its nickel than 
its copper contents, and Dr. Peters himself greatly doubted if the mines 
would pay to work for copper alone. The percentage of nickel and 
copper varies greatly, as might be expected, but assays of nine samples 
from the different mines of the Canadian Copper Co'y, made in Novem- 
ber 1 888, will show the usual percentage of these metals. These assays 
were made by Mr. Francis L. Sperry, and show a range in the percentage 
of nickel from 1.12% to 4.21%, with an average of 2.38%, while the 
copper varied from 4.03% to g.gS°j o , with an average of 6.44%. A 
minute proportion of cobalt also occurs in the pyrrhotite, usually about 
-^th as much as the nickel present. Mr. G. C. Hoffman assayed four 
samples from this district which I collected last summer, and these 
showed the nickel contents to vary from 1.95% to 3.10%, with an 
a verage of 2 25%. Three of these samples contained traces of cobalt, 



• 61 

which are included in the above percentage of nickel. The nickel is 
usually spoken of as replacing an equal quantity of iron in the pyrrhotite> 
but the discovery of undoubted crystals of niillerite or sulphide of nickel 
150 feet below the surface at Copper Cliff Mine, as well as the more 
recent recognition of polydymite, a ferriferous sulphide of nickel, at the 
Vermilion Mine, in the Township of Denison, seems to justify the 
assumption that in the more highly nickeliferous deposits of the region 
at least, the nickel is also present as a sulphide, disseminated through 
the ore mass like the iron and copper. 

This view is also borne out by Dr. Hunt's analysis of the ore of 
the old Wallace mine which seems precisely analogous to some of the 
richer deposits nearer the Canadian Pacific Railway. Traces of gold 
and silver, as also platinum are also usually found in these ores, and in 
this connection it was thought advisable to call your attention to the 
detection of what Messrs. Clarke & Catlett call a " platiniferous nickel 
ore from Canada." They say (see article xxxix, page 372, American 
Journal of Science, 1889.) During the autumn of 1888 we received, 
through two different channels, samples of nickel ores taken from the 
mines of the Canadian Copper Company at Sudbury, Ont. From one 
source we obtained two masses of sulphides to be examined for nickel 
and copper, from the other came similar sulphides together with a 
series of soil and gravel-like material (gossan), 7 samples in all. In 
the latter case an examination for platinum was requested, and in 5 
of the samples above mentioned it was found the gravel yielded 74.85 
ozs. of metals of the platinum group to the ton of 2,000 lbs. The 
sulphide ores submitted to us from Sudbury were all of a similar char- 
acter. They consisted of mixed masses in which a grey readily tarn- 
ishing substance was predominant with some chalcopyrite, possibly 
some pynte and a very little quartz. Two samples were examined in 
mass: one gave 31.41 % nickel with a little copper, and the other gave 
35.39 % nickel and 5.2 % copper. The nickel mineral itself proved to 
be a sulphide of nickel and iron, and as ores of that composition are 
not common, it was thought advisable to examine the substance further. 
It is steel-grey, massive and exceedingly alterable in the air with a Sp. 
Gr. of 4.5. An analysis of carefully selected material gave : — 



62 

Nickel 41.96 

Iron 15.57 

Silica 1.02 

Copper 62 

Sulphur 40.80 

These figures give approximately the formula Ni :J Fe S 6 . Neither 
cobalt nor arsenic could be detected. If we deduct silica together with 
the copper reckoned as admixed chalcopyrite and re-calculate the 
remainder of the analysis to 100% we get the following figures : — 

Nickel 43- lS 

Iron 15.47 

Sulphur 41.35 

In short the mineral has the composition of Ni 4 S 5 with about 
*^th of the nickel replaced by iron, which seems to agree with Laspeyres 
polydymite of which it is doubtless a ferriferous variety. Probably in 
most cases the niccoliferous constituent of pyrrhotite is millerite, but 
other sulphides like polydymite may occur too. The polydymite which 
was selected for the above analysis came from the mass in which the 
average of 35.39 % nickel and 5.20 % copper had previously been 
found. 

The mass weighed several kilograms and was remarkably free from 
quartz. The same mass, with two smaller pieces resembling it, were 
also examined for platinum. The results were as follows, "A" repre- 
senting the large mass in which the polydymite was determined : — 

A .... 2.55 oz. platinum per ton, or .0087 °/ o 
B.... i.8oz. " " " .0060% 

C 7 oz. " " " .024% 

Probably the platinum exists in the ore as sperrylite, although this 
point was not proved. The amount of platinum in the mass most 
thoroughly examined would require to form sperrylite only abou^ 
.007 % °f arsenic, which is too small a quantity for detection by ordin- 
ary analysis. That platinum should exist in appreciable quantities in 
an ore of such a character is something quite extraordinary, but 
whether it could be profitably extracted is an open question. Sperry- 



63 

lite was first found at the Vermilion mine in the gossan or loose 
material, and was named after Mr. Francis L. Sperry of the C. C. C. by 
Messrs. Horace L. Wells and S. L. Penfield, of the Sheffield Scientific 
School, who examined and described this new species. It is isometric ; 
simple cubes are common, octahedrons are exceptional, while the 
majority of the crystals are combinations of the cube and octahe- 
dron. H. — Between six and seven, as it scratches felspar but not 
quartz. The crystals have no distinct cleavage, but are very brittle and 
break with an irregular, probably conchoidal fracture. The chemical 
composition, according to the mean of two analyses was as follows : — 

Arsenic 40.98 

Antimony 50 

Platinum 52.57 

Rhodium 72 

Palladium trace. 

Cassiterite or oxide of tin 4.62 

The composition is therefore represented by the formula Pt As 2 ., 
a small portion of the platinum being replaced respectively by rhodium 
and antimony. The color of the mineral was nearly tin white or about 
the same as metallic platinum. The fine powder is black. Nearly all 
the grains showed extremely brilliant crystal faces, though most of the 
crystals were fragmentary in size they were usually ~j — ^hj^ 0I " an mc h 
in diameter. Sp. Gr. 10.602. 

ROASTING. 

The metallurgical treatment of this ore commences at the roast 
yard whither it is conveyed, and, being piled in convenient heaps on 
previously laid cordwood, is exposed at high temperatures without 
fusion, or, at most, incipient fusion, to the action of a current of air. 
The objects of this roasting are, 1st, an oxidation of the iron, and, 
incidentally, of the sulphur, as complete as is possible without involving 
an undue loss of copper in the slags of the following smelting, and 2nd, 
the expulsion of arsenic if there is any present. If the oxidation be 
very imperfect the resulting matte will contain so much iron that 
its bringing forward will be unduly costly, while, if the oxidation be too 
thorough, an undue loss of metal will occur on smelting the roasted ore. 



04 

At Copper Cliff the Canadian Coppsr Company have spared neither 
trouble nor expense in the construction and equipment of their roas 1 
yard. The natural rough and uneven surface has been cleared and 
levelled, and the whole given a gentle slope, which, with carefully made 
drains, serve to remove at once any rain or surface water. These 
precautions have to be taken to prevent loss of copper as soluble 
sulphate of copper, which is liable to be washed out by the rain. 

At the Murray mine a large shed has been erected to roast ore 
during the winter months, with openings in the roof to allow of the 
escape of sulphurous fumes, but during last summer they had no regular 
roast yard, and the few heaps burnt could only be placed where the 
surface of the ground would permit. This was also the case at the 
Blezard and Worthington mines, and the mechanical loss alone from 
this carelessness must have been of considerable moment. The shaft 
of the Copper Cliff mine, on an incline of 45 °, has reached already 
a depth of nearly 600 feet. It is provided with a double skip 
road, the skips dumping automatically at the mouth of the breaker 
in the top of the rock house. Here the ore is sledged to a proper size 
for the 15x9 in. Blake crusher set to about 1^ inches, which has a 
capacity of nearly 20 tons an hour. It is then passed through a 
revolving screen where it is sized into three classes for the succeeding 
operation of roasting. The coarse size passes a 4-inch ring, the medium 
or ragging, a i^-inch ring, while the fines pass through one ^ of an 
inch in diameter. Each of these sizes falls into a separate bin under 
which a car runs. Thus the ore is loaded automatically into cars 
holding 1^2 tons, whence it is transported to the upper story of 
the ore shed. There it falls into a series of bins from which it is 
loaded by means of inclined steel shutes into the cars and taken 
up a rather steep grade to a high trestle which extends the whole length 
of the roast yard. The only wood that can be obtained is dead pine, a 
good deal of the surrounding district having been burnt over about 20 
years ago. This can be procured very cheaply, and although it does 
not roast the ores as thoroughly as hard wood, it makes very fair and 
economical fuel, and serves on account of its short fierce heat to ignite 
the pile, and this once started continues burning on account of its 
sulphur contents. These piles are built as follows : — The place selected 



65 

is first covered with about six inches of fine ore distributed as evenly as 
possible over the clay soil. Sticks of cordwood of nearly uniform size 
should be placed side by side across both sides and ends of the rect- 
angular area. The whole interior of this can be filled in with old stumps 
roots, ties or cordwood, but in such a way as to form a level and solid bed 
for the ore to rest on. Overall this is placed small wood and chips to fill 
up all interstices, care being taken to provide small canals filled with 
kindlings at intervals of 8 or 10 feet leading from the outer air to the 
chimneys along the centre of the heap. These chimneys which assist 
in rapidly and certainly kindling the whole heap are usually built of 
four sticks or old boards, so fixed together as to leave an opening and 
communicating below with the daaught passages. Five or six of these 
chimneys suffice for each pile, and they should project 2 feet above the 
upper surface of the heap, so that no pieces of ore could fall into the 
flue opening. The coarsest class of ore is first thrown on, then the 
ragging or medium, on top of which is scattered a layer of rotten wood 
or chips, and lastly the whole heap is covered over with fines till it 
reaches a height of about 6 feet, The whole structure should then 
form a shapely rectangular pile with sharp corners and as steeply slop- 
ing sides as the ore will naturally lie on without rolling (about 45°). 
Only a portion of the fine ore is put on at first, the rest being shovelled 
on after the fire is fairly started. The best way to light the pile is to 
place a quantity of ignited cotton waste saturated with coal oil down 
each of the chimneys. About 12 hours after firing the whole heap 
should be pouring forth dense yellow fumes of sulphurous acid. Great 
attention is at first paid to the pile to prevent undue local heating 
which frequently causes partial fusion of the ore, and this can at once 
be prevented by covering the place with more fines. This heap should 
then burn from 50 to 70 days when the outer covering of raw or partially 
roasted ore is removed, and the remainder of the heap conveyed a few 
yards in wheelbarrows to a sunken railroad which runs alongside of the 
roast-yard. When filled, the cars are pushed up another steep grade 
along a track running over the bins back of the smelter. The slop- 
ing sides and corners of a pile are frequently covered with almost 
raw ore, this evil being often remedied by placing ignited sticks 
of cordwood around the whole structure, or by building a new pile in 



66 

the passageway between two others which have been almost burnt out, 
the latter plan adding very materially to the capacity of the roast yard. 
After this operation the ore is invariably so thoroughly roasted that it is 
necessary to add from 10 to 25% of raw fine ore during the smelting to 
prevent the matte from being too rich. Each pile usually contains 
about 600 tons of ore, and requires 30 cords of wood to roast it. The 
roast yard at Copper Cliff is nearly half a mile long by 100 feet wide, 
while each pile occupies a space of 40 x 80 feet, room being left to get 
round them, and for drains. The present capacity is about 60,000 tons, 
which, with a little extra work, could be increased to 90,000 tons. 
Working full power each roast bed can be used four times a year, 
counting the time in making, roasting and clearing the beds. The yearly 
capacity would therefore be 240,000 tons, and by increasing the space, 
360,000 tons. The unroasted ore contains from 35 to 40% sulphur, 
and assays of a large number of samples of the roast heaps have varied 
from 2j4 to 8% of sulphur. One analysis taken at random which may be 
taken as a fair sample of all the rest, gave 5.40% copper, 2.43% nickel, 
7.92% sulphur and 25% iron, lime, magnesia, etc., and the residue 
chiefly hornblende. Up to October 1st, 1890, 56,534 tons had been 
taken to the roast yard. 

SMELTING OF THE ORE. 

There are two smelting furnaces at Copper Cliff, and the building 
which contains these is 65 feet long by 40 feet wide. Thirty-five feet 
of this length is on a level with the ground, while the rest of the floor is 
8^ feet higher, and it is on this upper flat that the ore and fuel bins 
are situated. The daily capacity of each of these furnaces is 125 tons, 
although one of the furnaces has reduced 187 tons of ore in one day, 
and the furnace manager says that 135 tons could be reduced without 
much forcing. The furnace itself is a steel plate water jacket of the 
Herreshof patent, made in Sherbrooke, P. Q., by the Jenckes Manu- 
facturing Co'y. It is nearly oval in form, the longer diameter at the 
tuyeres being 6 ft. 6 in., while the shorter one is 3 ft. 3 in. There are 
n 2}4 in. tuyeres through which the blast enters from a Baker's rotaiy 
blower under a pressure of about 9 oz. per square inch. It is 9 feet 
high from these tuyeres to the charging door, and is an unbroken water 
jacket from the cast iron bottom up. It is made of rolled steel with 



67 

lly a 2 inch water space, and not a single brick of any description. 
lie well is a circular, cast iron water jacketed vessel, mounted on four 
rong wheels for convenience of moving it when repairs are necessary, 
id so made that the hole in one side connects with the outlet hole of the 
rnace, which is also thoroughly protected by water and it is through this 
at the matte and slag flow out of the furnace as rapidly as form- 
I They thus escape the influence of the blast, and prevent what 
ivian calls " the sole objection to blast furnaces " the so-called 
sows " or " salamanders " as great masses of metallic iron which choke 
> the furnace and tie up large quantities of copper and other metals, 
le charging door is situated on the upper floor, as also the bins for 
ast ore and coke. The coke used is from Connellsville, Pa., and is 
ought by way of the Great Lakes and the Sault Branch of the C.P.R. 
ne charge for the furnace consists of 1,800 or 2,000 lbs. of ore and 
ike mixed, one ton of coke usually sufficing for eight tons of ore. The 
ass as it melts gathers at the bottom of the furnace, and flows through 
e outlet into the well or reservoir, where the heavier and metallic 
>rtions sink to the bottom while the lighter slag remains on the sur- 
ce, running in a continuous stream over the jacketed spout into pots 
1 wheels, which are removed when filled, an empty one always being 
ady to take the vacant place. The matte is drawn off at intervals of 
; or 20 minutes through a separated bronze water-cooled tap-hole 
sting, near the bottom of the well, and which is filled as usual with a 
ly plug that can readily be removed with a few blows from a steel 
ir. The smelting of the ores is greatly facilitated by the basic char- 
ter of the accompanying gangue rock, for instead of quartz and acid 
icates there is chiefly hornblende and very fusible felspars. This 
rcumstance, as well as a judicious mixture of the different qualities of 
e obviates the necessity of any flux, which is a very fortunate circum- 
ance, as limestone is somewhat distant and suitable iron ore difficult 
procure. The slag buggies or pots are made as strongly and lightly 
possible, are case-hardened and shaped like inverted hollow cones, 
id before each tap are thickly washed with clay water to prevent the 
atte from welding to the iron mould. This matte is sampled and 
sighed and allowed to cool before being dumped from the pots and 
ie slag also is sampled and assayed once every 24 hours, so that an 



68 

accurate record can be kept of the composition of both. An average 
of two analyses of this matte in February and March, 1889, will prob- 
ably give us the usual composition : Copper, 26.91 ; nickel, 14.14 ; 
iron, 31.335 ; sulphur, 26.95 > cobalt, .935. Mr. F. L. Sperrysays that 
platinum exists in quite appreciable quantities, so that the matte con- 
tains some ounces per ton of that rare metal, while gold and silver 
occur in strong traces. The first blast furnace was started on the 24th 
December, r888, and with slight interruptions has been running ever 
since. The second furnace was built in the summer of 1889, and was 
started on the 4th of September of the same year. On October 1st, 
1890, there was about 6,500 tons of matte, and the ore on the roast 
beds would produce about 6,000 tons more, containing 922 and 852 
tons of nickel respectively, or a total of 1,774 tons of metallic nickel, 
and 3,362^ tons of metallic copper. 

ihe average daily output of matte for the month of September, 
1890, was 25 tons, but the full capacity of both furnaces would be about 
60 tons of matte. If the former average was kept up, the yearly 
production of matte would reach 9,125 tons, but if the furnaces were 
run at their full capacity they would average nearly 8^ tons of nickel a 
day, or nearly 3,066 tons of metallic nickel and 5,913 tons of copper a 
year. At present the matte is piled in heaps outside of the smelters, 
and, when wanted to be shipped, is broken up in pieces and placed in 
old oil barrels, the chinks between the larger pieces being filled with 
smaller fragments, so that the whole is packed tolerably firm and close* 
It is then sent to the various refiners in Europe or the United States 
according to their respective bids. So far no refining works have been 
built at Sudbury, but the vast quantity of material to treat, the tedious 
and costly process for the further refining of the ore, consisting as it 
does of alternate roastings and smeltings, in addition to the great 
expense incurred at present in shipping the matte to such long 
distances, seem great incentives to the early erection of refining works, 
so that the ore could be fully treated on the spot. The proposition to 
build nickel steel works was lately submitted to the Government by the 
Canadian Copper Company, and it is to be hoped that some satisfactory 
arrangement will be arrived at to give a further impetus to our present 
mining activity in this region. 






69 

Nickel is a comparatively new metal for it was not recognized as 
an element till 175 1, when Cronstedt, the Swedish mineralogist, in 
examining the ores of certain veins in the German Copper mines made 
the discovery of the two new metals, nickel and cobalt, which names 
he retained as they were in use amongst the miners. Nickel in its 
pure state is silver white in colour, hard, tough, fusible with difficulty, 
and is susceptible to magnetism, although not to the same extent as 
iron. Its use in the industrial arts has rapidly increased since it has been 
produced in a pure state, as it formerly existed only as an impure alloy 
and so could not be so suitable for the pnrposes for which it is now 
used. The demand has only grown at a moderate rate as compared 
with the growth and demand for other useful metals, and a decrease in 
price from $2.60 per pound in 1876 to the present price, which varies 
from 50 to 60 cents per pound, seems to have had no very important 
influence in increasing that demand. The supply of late years has 
been more than sufficient for the demand and new deposits have always 
been found in advance of any necessity for their product. The first 
chief demand for this metal was for making nickel or german silver as 
a substitute for the more precious metal in making spoons and forks 
and other ware in general for which silver had been previously used' 
and its whiteness and the facility with which it received and held the 
silver, after the process of what is known as electro-plating was intro- 
duced cause it to be still more widely used. It is also made use of to 
plate iron, zinc, &c, and also in alloy with copper for the manufacture 
of small coins, which are used so extensively in the United States, Ger- 
many, Belgium, and other countries. The proposition to use rolled 
nickel plate as an advance over ordinary tin plate, is one which is re- 
ceiving attention at present. It has also been recommended for making 
nickel crucibles to replace those of silver used in chemical manipulations 
as they would cost less and have the great advantage of melting at a 
higher temperature. 

Nickel plated kitchen utensils are coming into general use as in 
Germany, and as it is well known that acids have a more or less solvent 
action on nickel, an investigation was undertaken which showed that 
7% grains of nickel could be taken into the stomach and repeated for a 
long time without any noticeably bad effects. There is thus no ground 



70 

for uneasiness in the use of such utensils, especially if the same 
precautions are used as in the case of copper vessels, namely, thoroughly 
cleaning them and avoiding the storing of food in them. The proposi. 
tion to use nickel in alloy with steel to increase the strength and quality 
of the latter, will, if carried out, increase the consumption very mate- 
rially, and all have been eager to know the result of the recent experi- 
ments undertaken at the instigation of the United States Government. 
A French invention has effected the means of regulating the composi- 
tion of such an alloy, and subsequent experiments in Glasgow revealed 
the fact that this alloy could be made in any good open hearth furnace 
working at a fairly high temperature as well as in the crucible. In obtaining 
a correct idea of the value or usefulness of alloys of nickel with iron or 
steel it should be borne in mind that the composition is complicated 
by manganese, carbon, silicon, sulphur and phosphorus, whose influence 
must be carefully watched, requiring a long series of experiments. A 
comparison of steel alloyed with 4.7 % nickel raised the elastic limit 
from 16 up to 28 tons, and the breaking strain from 30 up to 40 tons, 
without impairing the elongation or contraction of area to any notice- 
able extent. A further gradual increase of hardness was noticed until 
20 % is reached, when a change takes place, and successive additions 
of nickel tend to make the steel softer and more ductile. The alloys 
polish well, and the colour of the steel is lightened as the proportion of 
nickel increases. They do not corrode as readily as other steel. The 
1 % nickel steel welds fairly well, but this property lessens with each 
addition of nickel. It can, therefore, be seen that considerable 
advantage may be expected from these alloys, especially where the 
percentage of nickel is less than five. 

The consumption of nickel and nickel alloy in the United States 
has increased from 294,000 pounds in 1880 to 421,000 pounds in 1888 
while the total consumption of the world was estimated not to exceed 
700 or 800 tons of the pure metal. The chief supply at present comes 
from New Caledonia, a penal colony of France (long. 165 E., S. lat. 
22 ). M. du Peloux states that the cost of production at this place 
could be so reduced that the company could sell at from 37 to 46 cents 
per pound, and yet have a good profit. Dr. Peters in his evidence before 
the Ontario Mining Commission states that the Canadian Copper Com- 



71 

pany could sell it from 25 to 30 cents per pound with a handsome 
profit. A commission appointed by the United States Government to 
examine the probable quantity of nickel in the Sudbury district has 
given a very glowing report to their government. It is highly probable, 
however, as can be seen from the above figures that our mines could 
supply the whole demand, even if the other sources of supply did not 
produce anything. It has been decided by the United States Govern- 
ment to make use of nickel steel armour plates, and already the con- 
tract has been awarded so that there is every prospect of a brilliant 
future for this mining industry around Sudbury. In view of our im- 
mense deposits it will be necessary to increase its consumption in every 
possible direction. 



fo: 



BOOK NOTICE. 



Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part V. Acrogens. By John 
Macoun, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.C. 1890. 

The fifth part of Prof. Macoun's great work appeared last autumn 
and would have been noticed sooner but for promises made previously 
with regard to other matter printed in The Naturalist. As already 
stated, we consider Prof. Macoun's catalogue the most important work 
which has appeared on Canadian botany. Nor is this appreciation of 
our Canadian Linnaeus confined to ourselves. J. E. Bagnall, writing 
in the Midla?id Natmalist, published at Birmingham, England, says in 
the February number : "This concludes Vol. II of this valuable work, 
the first 45 pages being devoted to an enumeiation of the ferns and 
fern allies, with a full account of their geographical distribution through 
the Dominion of Canada; and as in the preceding portions of this 
work, the treatment throughout is excellent, and characteristic of the 
scientific acumen and indefatigable zeal of the author. The remain 



72 

ing portion of Part V is devoted to additions and corrections to Part 
I-IV, which occupy 103 pages, and record 155 species added to the 
flora of Canada since the publication of Part IV, raising the total num- 
ber of flowering plants, ferns and fern allies found in Canada to 3,209 
species; of these, 2,340 are Exogens, 771 ore Endogens, and 98 are 
Acrogens." 

In the serial literature of this continent, the following taken from 
the March number of the "Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club" may 
be taken as a sample of many similar articles which have appeared : — 
" We congratulate Prof. Macoun on the very successful progress of his 
work. He is contributing more at the present time to our knowledge 
of North American botany than anyone else, and through his en- 
deavours the distribution of Canadian plants is becoming thoroughly 
worked out." 



73 

THE BEHRIXG SEA SEAL COMMISSION. 



Every member of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club mus* 
feel proud that one of our most highly esteemed members, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, First Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, 
should have been chosen as one of the two British Commissioners en- 
trusted with the investigation of the habits of the Fur Seal in the Behring 
Sea. The United States Commissioner is our corresponding member, 
Dr. C. Hart Mercian), of Washington, who won such golden opinions 
from all who had the good fortune to meet him in Ottawa a few years 
ago when he attended our spring outing to Kingsmere, on the occasion 
of the excursion given by the Club to the Fellows of the Royal Society 
ofCai.ada. There are no two men in America better fitted to carry 
out this important investigation, and the association of their names with 
that of Sir George Baden-Powell, the English Commissioner, ensures 
that the work will be done in a thorough and scientific manner. Dr. 
Dawson is the eldest son of Sir William Da.vson, Principal of McGill 
University. He was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, August ist, 1S49. 
Although a comparatively young man, his career has been a brilliant and 
useful one. Educated at McGill University, Montreal, and the Royal 
School of Mines, London, England, to the associateship of which he was 
admitted in 1872, and where he held the Duke of Cornwall's Scholarship, 
given by the Prince of Wales, and took the Edward Forbes Medal in 
Palaeontology and the Murchison Medal in Geology. He was appointed 
Geologist and Naturalist to Her Majesty's Boundary Commission in 1873, 
and investigated the country along the boundary of Canada and the 
United States, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. 
In 1875 he issued his report under the title of "The Geology and Re- 
sources of the 49th Parallel," and in the same year received an appoint- 
ment upon the Geological Survey ot Canada, since which time he has 
done much valuable work in exploring the unknown regions of British 
Columbia and the North-West Territories. In 1877 he commanded the 
Yukon river expedition to Alaska, mnking a boat voyage of '300 miles, 
with one portage of 50 miles, from the basin of the Liard to the Yukon. 
Dr. Dawson has travelled extensively and studied in Europe. He is a 
member of many scientific bodies, and was one of the original Fellows 
of the Royal Society of Canada. He is a Doctor of Science, and is also 
an LL.D. both of Queen's University, Kingston, and McGill Univer 



74 

sity. In recognition of his services to the science of Geology, he was 
this year awarded the Bigsby Medal by the Geological Society of Eng- 
land, and on June 4th was elected a Fellow of the K.oyal Society of 
England, the highest honour which can be conferred on a scientific man. 
As a writer, Dr. Dawson is clear, terse and simple, and the chief char- 
acteristics of his work are accuracy and thoroughness. 



EXTINCT CANADIAN VERTEBRATES 

FROM THE 

MIOCENE ROCKS OF THE NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES 
OF CANADA. 



The following is an abstract of a most interesting address delivered 
by Mr. H. M. Ami, First Assistant Paloeontologist of the Geological 
Survey Department, upon one of the afternoon excursions, to the 
Museum last winter. There were about 80 members and friends 
in attendance. 

Amongst the more recent and interesting additions to the collec- 
tions in the National Museum on Sussex Street, Ottawa, Canada, are 
the mammalian and fish remains from the Tertiary rocks of the Cana- 
dian North-West. These collections, which were made by Messrs. R. 
G. McConnell and T. C. Weston especially, have been recently studied 
by Prof. E. D. Cope, ot the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the result of his observations will soon be made known in a memoir 
now in print, published by the Geological Survey Department. The 
specimens in question are now on exhibition in the upright cases of 
the Museum, and from the labels attached the following interesting 
forms are noticed of special interest. 

Extinct Rhinoceros. 

Menodus angustigenis — This is the name which Prof. Cope has 
given to the largest species of hoofed animal analogous to the rhino- 
ceros that has ever yet been discovered, and which, in early Tertiary 
times, was roaming about in the extinct forests of the now treeless 



75 

prairie regions of Canada. The best portion of the skull of one indi- 
vidual may be seen about three feet long and eighteen inches acros s 
with the frontal bones and snout preserved ; also the two horn-cores 
and port'ons of the upper jaw with several huge molars in situ. The 
lower jaw of the same individual was also found with the teeth beauti- 
fully preserved. Some of these teeth are nearly four inches across and 
three inches in thickness, being nearly four inches in length, with 
lengthened roots and sharply cut crowns. The humerus, femur, tibia and 
many horn-cores, bones of the pelvic arch, and of various other portions 
of the skeleton were also found, making in all a beautiful display of 
fossil bones belonging to as huge and ferocious a beast as any of those 
which to-day are found in the jungles of an African or Indian forest. 

Besides this form of Menodus, Prof. Cope has recognized a number 
more to which he has given separate specific designations, so that we 
find that there existed in Canada not only this huge and ferocious 
individual, but other allied creatures. These included A/enodus syceras 
Cope; M. Proutii, Cope: M. Americanus, Cope, and M. Selwyni, Cope. 
They all belong to Miocene Tertiary strata, occuring in the vicinity of 
Swift Current, N.W.T. These belong to the family of the Titanotheridae 
and forma group of animals analogous to the modern rhinoceros. 

Extinct Boar. 
Elotherium Mortoni, Leidy. Amongst the specimens on exhibition 
and collected by Mr. Weston, may be seen an almost perfect lower left 
ramus of this extinct mammal, allied to the modern wild boar and 
domestic pig, all of which belong to the family of the Chaeropotamidae. 
This creature was of huge dimensions, the specimen in question being 
nearly 10 inches in length, and the teeth are beautifully preserved in a 
spotted grey and yellowish coloured lime-rock. This is the first time 
that this form has been found so far north on the American Continent. 

Extinct Deer. 

Leptomervx mammifer, Cope. This new species, and a member 
of the family of the Tragulidce, appears to be one of the ancestors of the 
deer tribe, baing both a ruminant and ungulate mammal, a very well 
preserved portion of the lower jaw, with several teeth in situ has per- 
mitted Prof. Cope to establish its relations and affinities, and it forms 



7 

a valuable addition to the fauna of those times which preceded the 
advent of the great ice age, when all these types disappeared and made 
room for the mastodon, the mammoth and other creatures, including 
the megalonyx and its allies. 

Other Extinct Forms. 
Besides the above, may be seen a large incisor belonging to a 
large carnivore allied to the modern dog or wolf, the tooth of an 
oreodont, an extinct hare : Paheolagus Hirgidus, Cope, belonging to 
the family of the Lep :ridte, also a species of Trionyx, which Prof. 
Cope has called T. leucopotamicus from the fact that similar forms 
occur also in the so-called White River series or formation in the 
Territories of the United States to the south. Rut besides the above, 
we find also extinct forms allied to the squirrels : Hypertragidus refor- 
ms, Cope, and also a large number of bones of siluroid fishes belong- 
ing to the genera Aminrus, Ehineastes, etc. 

Amongst these we find Aminrus McConneUi, A. cancellatus, all 
described by Cope ; also Amia maerosp&ndyla, and Amia Sehoyniana, 
and Rhineasies rhceas, Cope. 

Then come the remains of a species of Stylemis, an extinct turtle 
belonging to the family of the Testadinata, one of the Chelonians. 

Last but not least 
come the representatives of the two genera Chalicotherium and 
Hemipsalodon. The latter form, described under the name of B. 
graaidis Cope, affords another example of an extinct type of hyaena 
much larger than any of the modern living forms. R belongs to the 
family of the Hycenodontida and forms part of a sub-order of that 
family with very large representatives. The genus Chalicotherium, one 
of the family of Chahcotheridae, has certain affinities to the rhinoceros, 
which in size and proportions it greatly resembled. 

Thus it will be seen that from the Miocene Tertiary strata of the 
Swiit Current River not far from the line of the Canadian Pacific Rail 
way as well as from the treeless prairie region, there was once a large 
fauna, the remains of which are entombed in these beds, and some of 
which now adorn the cases of the National Museum of the Capital. 



77 

REPORT OF THE ORNITHOLOGlCAl , BRANCH FOR THE 

YEAR 1890. 



To the Council of the Ottawa Field- N at w a lists' Club : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — The leaders of the above named 
branch have the honour to report that during the year 1890 five observ- 
ers reported their observations in this district, covering one hundred 
and fifty species and sub species, seven of which are new to our list. 
One of these observers, we are glad to say, was a lady member, Miss 
Gertrude Harmer, who, though beginning when the summer was half 
over, and with scarcely any previous knowledge of the birds, made a list 
of sixty-five species. It is also gratifying to note that four of the seven 
new records were made by a new hand, and one of our youngest work- 
ing members, Mr. F. A. Saunders. With some assistance from his 
brother, Mr. W. E. Saunders of London, Ont., he made a list during 
the year of 122 species, whilst the two leaders who worked in the dis- 
trict made but 107 and 108 respectively. These figures are given to 
show the members of the Club what may be done during spare hours 
by a novice in the first year's work, and it is hoped they may encourage 
others to follow the example set by the members above referred to. 

The additions to the list are as follows, the numbers prefixed being 
those of the A. O. U. Check-list :— 

120. Phalacrocorax dilofihus, Double-crested Cormorant. A young 
one was shot about Oct. 1st at Shirley's Bay, near Britannia, by Mr. C. 
G. Rogers and sent to W. J. Henry, taxidermist, to be mounted. 

223. Phala-ropus lobalus, Northern Phalarope. One obtained by 
Mr. A. G. Kingston, Sept. 10th, near Burritt's Rapids on the Rideau. 

354#. Fa I co rusticolus gyrfalco, Gyrfalcon. One shot by Mr. E. 
White, Dec. 23rd, at the foot of Lt.-Col. White's garden on the bank of 
the Rideau in the city. 

366. Asio wilsonianus, American Long-eared Owl. One shot by 
Mr. F. A Saunders in a piece of woods north of the Experimental Farm, 
July 7th. 

474. Otocoris alpestris, Horned Lark. This species was found by 
Mr F. A. Saunders to be quite abundant on the Experimental Farm 



78 

from April 19th to May 25th, and again from Sept. 26th to Oct. 28th 
and easily distinguishable from its variety praticola, which arrives here 
about the end of February, remains to breed, and leaves about the 
beginning of November. Though both were nominally recorded before 
this is virtually a new record, as they were never satisfactorily distin- 
guished till 1S90. 

536. Cakarius lapponicus. Lapland Longspur. Mr. F. A. Saun- 
ders also found this species abundant at the farm in company with the last 
species and with Snowfiakes (Plecirophenax ?uvalis) till May 25th, an 
unusually late date for winter birds in this latitude. The Longspurs 
were again seen in the fall from Oct. 3rd to Nov. 18. Till 1890 we 
were without a record of this species. 

672. Dendroica palmarum. Palm Warbler. This species was 
found by Messrs. W. E. and F. A. Saunders on 3rd July, breeding and 
rather common in the Mer Blue. Both adults and young were secured 
and carefully identified by Ridgway's Manual as true palmarum and not 
var. hypochrysea which occurs sparingly here as a migrant. The former 
were again seen in the same locality by Messrs. Kingston and Lees, 
Aug. 9th. 

Besides the above, the following more or less rare birds were 
observed, the common names and A. O. U. numbers alone being given: 

231. Dowitcher, May 22nd, E. White. 

234 Knot (full breeding plumage), June 4th, E. White. 

239. Pectoral Sandpiper, Oct. 2nd, Miss G. Harmer. 

272. American Golden Plover, Oct. 18th, F. A. Saunders. 

337. Red-tailed Hawk, April 18th, G. R. White. 

356. Duck Hawk, July nth, F. A. Saunders. 

357. Pigeon Hati'k, Dec. 19th, W. A. D. Lees. 

387. Yellow-billed Cuckoo, June 27th, G. R.White. A pair nested 
in Lt.-Col. White's garden and raised young. The male and young 
escaped. The female was shot. 

401. American Three-toed Woodpecker, Sept. 28th and 29th, Oct. 
1 2th and 13th, F. A. Saunders. 

405. Pileated Woodpecker, Oct. 13, A. G. Kingston. 

466a. Train's Flycatcher. This species seems to have become 
quite common here in the last two years. 






79 

52i. American Crossbill. On July 3rd Mr. W. A. D. Lees saw a 
small flock of these birds, apparently young of the year, with bills not 
quite fully developed. They seemed to be picking up something from 
the sand of a newly made road in Ottawa East. 

528. Redpoll, May 22nd, F. A. Saunders. A late date for the 
species. 

533. Pine Siskin, May 16th, F. A. Saunders. Also late. 

563. Field Sparrow, May 6th, W. A. D. Lees. 

622a. White-rumped Shrike. On July 22nd Capt. Veith handed 
Mr. Kingston a shrike which seemed to him about midway between 
this variety and the true ludovicianus. 

628. Yellow-throated Vireo. May 10th, A. G. Kingston. 

672a. Yellow Palm Warbler. May 10th, A. G. Kingston. 

758. Olive-backed Thrush. Oct. nth, A. G. Kingston. 

The following warblers have been rather unexpectedly found here 
during the breeding season, viz. : — 657 Magnolia: 662 Blackumian : 
685 Wilson's. 

A nest of the Florida Gallinule (219) were taken by Messrs. W. 
E. and F. A. Saunders near Kars on the Rideau, July 9th, containing 
seven eggs, partly incubated. The same gentlemen also discovered on 
July 7th, that gem of all ornithological prizes a nest of the Ruby-throated 
Hummingbird. It was in process of building and they had the rare 
privilege of watching the bird working at it for about an hour. On the 
1 2th the completed nest with two fresh eggs was taken. 

As there is some doubt among the leaders as to the comparative 
abundance in this district of the Wood Thrush and the Hermit Thrush, 
the members of the branch will confer a favor on the leaders by making 
a careful investigation of this question during the coming year, taking 
especial care in the identification of each species. 

The leaders are glad to be able to announce that they have in 
preparation for the pages of The Ottawa Naturalist, and almost 
completed a list of all the birds recorded for this district up to the 
end of 1890." In view of this fact it has been thought better not to 
publish the usual list of dates of arrival and departure. This list has, 



This was published in the June number. 



80 

however, been compiled and may be consulted by members interested. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WM. A. D. LEES, 

A. G. KINGSTON, 

JOHN MACOUN, 
Ottawa, 27th January, 1891. Leaders. 



THE BIRDS OF OTTAWA. 

Readers will please make the following corrections in the list of 
birds published in the Naturalist, Vol. v, No. 2: p. 42. No. 474, 
after "1890" read "by Mr. F. A. Saunders": No, 48, after "americanus" 
read "American Crow." p. 43, No. 536, after "November 18th" read 
"(F. A Saundeis)": p. 46, No. 685, strike out the word "breeding". 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL BRANCH, 1890. 

To the Council of the Ottaiua Fietd-Naturalisti' Club. 

Ladies and Gentlemex, — The leaders beg to report that active 
work in this branch has been maintained in a satisfactory manner 
throughout the season. Fresh plants have been added to the Flora 
Ottawaensis, and good work has been done by new botanists in 
confirming past records and discovering new localities. Many of 
these have already been recorded in the Flora now being pub- 
lished as a supplement to the Ottawa Naturalist. This work 
which has been of considerable assistance to beginners, will, we 
trust, be finished early next year. Efforts have been put forth by the 
leaders at the General and Sub-excursions to make their branch popu- 
lar and useful to all who attend those meetings. The addresses have 
been attentively listened to, and the interest shown has been very en- 
couraging. One of the series of Sub-Excursions to the Geological Survey 
Museum, which have been such an instructive feature of the Club's work 
during this winter, was ably conducted by Prof. Macoun. The leaders 






81 

take the liberty of specially drawing the attention of the members of the 
Club to the exceptional advantages we derive from having the Geologi- 
cal Survey Department located at Ottawa. This, however, we feel it 
our duty to mention, would be only of comparative value were it not for 
the great courtesies which are at all times extended to our members by 
the Director and officers of the survey. As leaders of the Botanical 
Branch, we have particular pleasure in testifying to the cordial and 
ready assistance always given by Prof. Macoun and his assistant, Mr. 
James M. Macoun. During the past season the leaders, assisted by 
Prof. Macoun, have been devoting some time to the study of mosses. 
Prof. Macoun has during the winter worked out the collections of 
Sphagnum and has furnished us with the list which is appended to this 
report. Prof. Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Plants has been com- 
pleted during the year and will be of inestimable value to our Botanists. 
Mr. Fletcher and Mr. Scott have made a special study of the willows 
found in this locality with good results, which will be given in the 
Flora Oliawaensis. 

The leaders beg to call the attention of members to the newly 
formed Canadian Botanists' Correspondence Association, which has been 
formed by Mr. J. A. Morton, of Wingham, Ont., Mr. J. Dearness, of 
London, Ont., and some other botanists. The object of this association 
is to help botanists by giving them facilities for exchanging herbarium 
specimens and becoming acquainted with other botanists in different parts 
of the country. We anticipate that much good will result from this 
organization and recommend it to the notice of our botanical members. 

The following plants of interest, but not new to the list, may be 
referred to here : 

A fine fruiting specimen of the curious introduced crucifer Neslia 
paniculata, which has flowers resembling Erysimum cheirati t/ioides, a 
sparse stellate pubescence and small roundish seed-pods, was found in 
an oat field near the Hog's Back. 

Nuphar Advena + Kalmiana. Fine flowering specimens of this 
magnificent hybrid were found in Brigham's Creek in August. 

Bellis perennis. The English Daisy has been several times 
observed for one or two years after lawns have been sown with English 
seed, but like Plcmtago lanceolate, seldom lives many years. 



( 'henopodium Botrys. An interesting sub-excursion was held by 
the branch, and the members visited an excavation on Sandy Hill at 
the invitation of Lt.-CoJ. White, to examine the flora .vhich had ap- 
peared subsequent to the carting away of the surface sand. An interest- 
ing feature was that, several plants not observed as growing in the imme- 
diate locality before, now appeared, and the above named attractive 
goose-foot was the most conspicuous amongst these. 

Cornus sericea was found at Billings' Bridge. 

Gornus paniculata. Several nice bushes were observed on the 
light-house Island above Aylmtr. 

Aspidium Goldianum. A new locality for this grand fern was dis- 
covered near Kingsmere in the Chelsea Mountains. 

Asplenium anqustifolium. A pleasing and somewhat novel record 
has to be made with regard to this beautiful fern. Some 15 years ago 
a few plants were discovered near Hemlock Lake. When this same 
locality was visited las'" autumn the delicate and pale green fronds could 
be seen in large clumps extending over nearly an acre. 

Amongst the new records two of the Orchids are worthy of special 

mention Habenaria virescens was found in abundance at Thurso by Mr. 

Scott, Spiranthes Romanzoffiana a beautiful and highly-scented Ladies 

Tresses was found by Mr. Scott at Templeton, and on Kettle Island 

soon afterwards by Mr. Robert B. Whyte. 

JAMES FLETCHER, 

R. B. WHYTE, 

W. SCOTT, 

Leaders. 



FLORA OTTAWAENSIS. 

The following is a list of the additions to the local list discovered 
since the last report which have not already been recorded : — 

Brassica camptstris var. oleifera, Elgin Street, Sept. 1, W. Scott. 

Fragaria Virginiana, Duch, v. Illinoensis, Gray, Rockcliffe, May i2> 
J. M. Macoun. 

Dianthus Atrueria, L. Hartwell's Locks, July 10, J. Fletcher. 

Amarantus blitoides, Wat., Hartwell's Locks, Sept. 3. W. Scott. 

( cntaurea nigra, L , Thurso, Aug. 7, W. Scott. 



i 



83 

Helianthus decapetalus, L., Casselman, Aug. i6, W. Scott. 

Monotropa hypopitys, L., (ripe fruit), Kirk's Ferry, Sept. 6, T. J. 
McLaughlin. 

Scrophularia nodosa L., v. Marilandica, Gray, Casselman, June 21, 
W. Scott. 

Physostegia Virginiana, Benth, Billings Bridge, Sept. 20, W. Scott 

Lobelia Kalmii, L., Skead's Mills, Aug., R. B. Whyte. 

Spiranthes Romanzoftiana, Cham., Templeton, July 23, W. Scott. 

Habenaria virescens, Spreng., Thurso, Aug. 7, W. Scott. 

Allium Canadense, Kalm., Billings Bridge, July, J. Fletcher. 

Streptopus amplexifolius, D.C., Kingsmere, May 24, J. Fletcher. 

Elatine Americana, Arn., Brigham's Creek, Sept., J. Fletcher. 

Eatonia Pennsylvania, Gray, Stewarton, Hull, July, J. Fletcher. 



List of the species of the Genus Sphagnum found at Ottawa. 

1. Sphagnum Girgenshonii F.uss. McKay's wood. 

Var. hygtophyllum Warnst. Beechwood. 

2. S. fuscum, (Schpr.) von Klinggraeff. Var. fuscescens. Warnst. 

Abundant in Mer Bleue. 

Var. pallescens, Warnst. Abundant in Mer Bleue. 

3. vS. tenellum, (Schpr.) von Klinggraeff. Var. rubellum Wils. Very 

fine and abundant in Mer Bleue. 

4. ,S. acutifohum, (Ehrh in part.) Russ. and Warnst. Very common in 

peat bogs Mer. Bleue, etc. 

Var. versicolor, Warnst. Common in Mer Bleue. 

Var. pallescens, Warnst. Mer Bleue. 

5. S. recurvum, (Beauv.) Russ. and Warnst. Var. pulclnum, Lindb. 

In woods by the Mer Bleue. 

Var. mucronatum, Russ. Wet woods near Beechwood. 

Var. amblyphylluni, Russ. Abundant in pools in the Mer 

Bleue. 



84 

Var. pa>vifolium, (Sendt.) Warnst. In woods along the 

Mer Bleue. 

6. 5. squarrosum, Pers. Var. speciosum, Warnst. Woods near McKay's 
Lake. 

Var. semisquarrosu??i, Russ. In woods along the Mer Bleue 

7- 6". Wulfianum Girg. Var. macrodanm, Warnst. Woods near Beech- 
wood. 



Var. vitide, Warnst. Race Course, Oct. nth. 

8. 5. cymbi/olium, Ehrh. Var. lave, Warnst. Abundant in Mer Bleue 
also at the Race Course. 



EXCURSION No. i. 



" When is the first excursion to be ?" is the question asked, by many 
anxious enquirers, every spring as soon as the leaves begin to unfold 
and the genial smile of nature once more greets the eager naturalist who 
has been impatiently waiting for snow and winter to pass away, that he 
might lay aside his books and dried specimens and go to the woods to 
worship his goddess and learn more of her creatures, and thus find the 
only true rest from the cares and worries of the every day world. 

The first excursion is always one of the best attended of the whole 
year, and that held this spring, at the end of May, was no exception to 
the general rule. King's Mountain, in the Chelsea Mountains, has now 
become recognized as " the best place " for the first outing. 

Tne weather, early in the morning of the day chosen, looked rather 
doubtful, and this had the effect of keeping some who would have at- 
tended from doing so. However, more than ioo ladies and gentlemen 
turned up and left the rendezvous at 9.15 in six large vans. The day 
was decidedly hot, but the cool breeze which all day blew from the 
mountains, rendered the trip to the woods most agreeable. Kingsmere 
was reached by noon, and after lunch the president, Dr. R. W. Ells, 



85 

announced the programme and gave the names of the leaders who were 
present. Nearly the whole party ascended the mountain, under the 
leadership of Mr. R. B. Whyte, who in his usual genial way answered 
the questions of all enquirers. The steep slopes and glades resounded 
with merry laughter as the eager excursionists spread out over the 
mountain side and vied with each other in trying to find something new. 
When the party re-rssembled before leaving, the usual addresses were 
given. Mr. William Scott, the botanical leader, was first called upon 
by the president. He spoke of many plants in an easy and instructive 
manner and imbued his hearers with some of his own enthusiasm as he 
drew attention to the various points of interest in the various flowers 
exhibited. The delicate mauve bells of Clematis verticillaris were 
admired by all, as well as many other floral treasures. Mr. A G. 
Kingston told of the habits of the birds seen, and described their notes. 
The attractive manner in which he treated his subject held the attentionof 
all present. Mr. Fletcher spoke of the insects collected, and also on some 
fungous diseases and edible fungi. The edible ~Slore\\(Morchella escalenta) 
was shown, as well as a somewhat similar fungus of the genus Helvetia. 
Mr. H. P. Brumell gave a simple and most interesting account of some of 
the more important minerals in the Laurentian formation at the con- 
clusion of which he was loudly applauded. Before leaving, Dr. Ells 
congratulated the members on the success of the meeting, which every 
one present felt was largely due to the excellent management of the 
excursion committee, and also to the kindness and attention of the 
President and Mrs. Ells, who were untiring in their efforts to make every 
one present enjoy the day thoroughly. 



EXCURSION No. 2. 

The secend general excursion of the Club was held on Saturday, 
the 27th June, when Montebello was visited. Notwithstanding the 
somewhat unfavorable weather for a river trip — the morning being very 
cool with a high wind— about sixty of the members and their friends 
availed themselves of the opportunity of again visiting the village so 



8G 

famous in civil, military, and natural history. Among those who have 
not been seen at previous excursions of the club were noticed Dr. 
Wilson and his three sisters from Cumberland, and the Rev. J. F. and 
Mrs. Gorman, of Ottawa. 

Montebello is about 45 miles from Ottawa, on the left bank of the 
Ottawa River, and was during the rebellion of 1837-8 the scene of con- 
siderable military action. Here stand the old homestead and grounds 
of the Hon. Mr. Papineau, whose father figures so prominently in Cana- 
dian history on account of the part he took in that struggle. The 
house stands in a park which, to all appearance, is a primitive forest 
beautifully laid out in drives, foot-paths and flower beds. In this park are 
several other buildings, including a chapel, a museum and a lodge, each 
in a separate stone building kept scrupulously clean and in good order 
by a staff of workmen continuously employed. As the morning wore 
away, the day became warm and the trip enjoyable, and after a run of 
four hours on the " Empress" the excursionists were landed safely at 
the wharf Ample justice having been done to the contents of the 
baskets, the party proceeded to the grounds mentioned, where the Hon. 
Mr. Papineau was waiting to receive and welcome them, and in his 
usual courteous manner threw open the museum and explained the 
arrangement of the armory and the various implements of war, as well 
as the meaning and uses of the numerous curiosities there to be seen. 
The whole place presents a sight of antiquity, and to those familiar 
with the early history of the country calls up reminiscences of the 
gravest nature. After viewing the many objects of interest in the 
museum and park, the botanical section, under the leadership of Mr. 
R. B. Whyte, went to the woods and mountains to the north of the 
village, where many rarities of the vegetable world were collected and 
brought back to the landing barely in time to catch the boat on her re- 
turn trip from Grenville at 3 p. m. When Mr. Whyte had finished 
arranging his plants, Mr. T. J. MacLaughlin, First Vice-President of 
the club, addressed the members and passengers, and after explaining 
to the latter that it was customary for the leaders to give addresses on 
the collections and observations made by them during the day, and that 
the Captain had given them permission to do so on the boat, he called 
on Mr. Whyte to speak on botany. Mr. Whyte, in his usual forcible 



87 

and earnest manner, enumerated the various plants, which were of un- 
usual interest, and gave interesting accounts of their habits, medicinal 
qualities and other uses known to science, answered questions and gave 
much valuable information to eager and numerous inquiries among the 
passengers. Mr. MacLaughlin again addressed those present, and after 
expressing his regret at the absence of so many of the leaders, spoke at 
length on the advantages of a knowledge of natural history and of the 
good work the club was doing for science in cultivating a taste for the 
subject, and emphasized the affirmation that although the club was not 
aided by Government, nor by any other source outside of its individual 
membership fees, it was doing as much for the cause of science, if not 
more, than any other institution of the kind in North America. The 
party returned to the city at 7.30, well satisfied that they had spent a 
pleasant and profitable day. 



HEXRY EDWARDS. 

It is with deep regret that we have to announce the death of our 
highly esteemed corresponding member, Henry Edwards, who died of 
dropsy in New York, 9th June last. By his death, one of the most 
devoted lovers of science and art has passed away. As an Entomolo- 
gist, Mr. Edwards had few equals, and he possessed one of the largest 
private collections of insects in the world. His courtesy in naming 
specimens, and his generosity in helping others were well known by all 
his correspondents. His death will be deplored by many grateful and 
loving friends. 

Mr. Edwards was an Englishman, and was born at Ross in Here- 
fordshire, August 27th, 1S30. When quite young he showed much 
talent as an actor, and frequently took part in amateur theatricals. 
In 1853 he sailed for Australia and took to the stage as a profession. 
From Australia he went to South America and lived for some time in 
Peru and Panama. In 1867 he reached San Francisco, where he 
stayed ten years, during which time he took an active interest in th 



California Academy of Sciences, and marie many friends. In 1877 he 
moved to the east where he made his first appearance in Boston. In 
1879 he went to New York and was for many years manager of Wallack's 
Theatre. In 1889 he left New York for his old home in Australia, but 
returned again in 1S90. 

As an Entomologist, Mr. Edwards had a world-wide reputation, 
and was recognized as one of the highest authorities in North America. 
Through his own generosity, we have in our club library most of his 
valuable papers. Amongst these his " Descriptions of Pacific Coast 
Lepidoptera," and " Bibliographical Catalogue of the Described Trans- 
formations of North American Lepidoptera," are very valuable to the 
working Entomologist. His death will deprive many of an able and 
kind helper, as well as of a friend, who even through his correspondence 
had endeared himself to those who never had the pleasure of meecing 
him. 



A. A. A. S. 



Beginning August 12th next, a series of meetings extending over 
two weeks is to be held at Washington, D.C These meetings will be 
of the utmost interest. On August 12th the first meeting will be held of 
the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. 
August 17th the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science begins 
its sessions, and also on the same day the meeting of the Association of 
Economic Entomologist, of which Mr. Fletcher of this club is the 
President for the year. These meetings will take two days, and on the 
19th the American Association for the Advancement of Science begins 
its week of meetings and entertainments. Washington is undoubtedly 
now the scientific centre of the North American continent, and great 
preparations have been made to ensure the success of these meetings. 
Everyone who could possibly attend them should make a special 
effort to do so. 



89 

THE OTTAWA COLONY OF CHIMNEY SWIFTS 
(CH.ETURA PELAGIC A). 

By A. G. Kixgstox. 

(Read 2Qth January, i8gi.) 

Among the many different physical powers exhibited by animal life 
in its endless variety of forms there is none which has so much im- 
pressed the mind of man in every age as that one so widely character- 
istic of the feathered class, the gift of flight. In the systems of the 
ornithologists a bird may take higher or lower rank according to the 
development or simplicity of its internal structure ; but in the eyes of 
mankind at large, let but the power of rapid and untiring flight be 
shown in a high state of perfection, and just in that measure will its 
possessor approach the ideal bird. Throughout the whole class there 
are few, if any, families which in this respect can rival the Swifts. 

The Albatross and the Frigate Bird can indeed sweep over immense 
stretches of ocean in an hour's time, but, after all, the sea and the earth 
enter largely into the life of these birds. Their food is sought amid the 
waves, their nests are placed among the rocks along shore ; but the 
home of the Swift is in the upper air where he delights to spend every 
moment of the long summer days. By him every function of life, except 
sleep and the incubation of the egg, is performed upon the wing ; 
and every organ of the body, as we shall see, is specialized to fit it for 
this purpose, almost to the disregard of all others. 

In most parts of Eastern Canada and the United States the Chim- 
ney Swift is one of our most common city birds, often an uninvited 
guest within our houses and spending the short summer nights within a 
few feet of our beds. 

Here in Ottawa every stroller upon Parliament Hill during the pleas 
ant evenings in spring, and again in the later summer months, is 
amused by the merry twittering and rhythmic whirling motion of that 
countless cloud of little birds circling round one of the towers of the 
Government Buildings. And in the height of summer no better example 
can be found of the power and grace of motion than to see one of these 
same swifts, after soaring for some time high in the air, descend and, 
hurrying along just over the roofs of the houses, wheel once or twice 
about the chimney where his nest is hung, and suddenly arresting his 



90 

onward motion, with wings raised high above the back like a shuttlecock, 
drop down into the datkness. This habit of theirs of nesting in chim" 
neys, it may as well be admitted, seems at first to detract much from 
their claim to an etherial nature as dwellers in the aii, but it should be 
borne in mind that the swift never makes his habitation amongst soot 
and smoke, for he is always careful to choose a chimney that is not in 
present use. Moreover, in the days when the human lord of this con- 
tinent was living in a wigwam filled with soot and smoke, the home 
of the swift was the shaft of a tall and hollow tree. 

The CypselidcB or Swifts are a family of swallow-like birds of medium 
size and generally of dull plumage. In the classification of the older 
ornithologists, on account of many superficial points of resemblance 
they were closely associated with the true swallows ; and as popular 
language even in the present day applies the name "swallow" indis- 
criminately to all those birds of graceful flight which live on insects 
caught upon the wing, it may be well to consider for a moment the 
reasons that have led to the modern classification ; for now while the 
swallows are closely linked with the finches, tanagers and other singing 
birds of the Passerine order, so unlike them externally, the swifts on 
the other hand are placed in a distinct order and as intimately coupled 
with a family of entirely different appearance, the humming birds. For 
a vindication of what seems at first an unnatural classification it 
would be hard to find anything more satisfactory or conclusive than the 
words of Prof. Garrod as quoted in CasselPs Natural History. At the 
same time they will give us a glimpse of the internal structure of the 
swifts which may serve to explain some of their curious habits. I give 
them in abridged and somewhat modified form : 

' Most of us know that unlike the hair upon a quadruped the 
feathers of a bird are not distributed evenly over the body, but grow 
in linear clusters, called tracts, with narrow naked spaces between. 
A similarity of the arrangement of these feather tracts in different 
species has been found to be closely associated with that general simi- 
larity of the important organs of the body which leads to the grouping 
of species together under one order, while the different orders frequently 
show different patterns in this respect. Now the arrangement of the 
feather tracts on the swift is found to be almost identical with that of 






91 

he hummingbird, while the swallow shows an entirely different pattern, 
closely resembling that of the finches. 

' Again, the breast-bone, or sternum, is a bone of great importance in 
all flying birds, as it gives origin to the powerful muscles which move 
the wings. Here, too, the swift and the hummingbird show a similar 
model, the swallow and the finch another. 

' The swallow is not a singing bird, yet upon dissection, the syrnix, 
or origin of voice, at the lower end of the windpipe, is found in one of 
its most highly developed forms, as in the true songsters. Ages of dis- 
use do not seem in this instance to have caused a degeneration of the 
organ. Upon the swift and the hummingbird, on the other hand, no 
reproach can be cast for neglect of musical talent. In them the syrinx 
is of an entirely different and much simpler form. 

' The foot of a swallow is, though comparatively small and feeble, 
that of a true percher. It is covered with scutella, or scales, and has 
the power of moving the hind toe independently of the other toes ; 
this is indispensible for the grasping of a perch. The swift's foot, 
unlike that of all other birds, is covered with smooth skin. The hind toe is 
lacking in the power of independent motion, and in some of the genera 
is turned forward alongside the others, instead of having an opposing 
action like a thumb. Accordingly the posture of a swift when at rest is 
either clinging to a vertical surface or squatting flat upon a level 
one ; whereas, a swallow rr.ay often be seen perching on a twig or 
wire. 

' Lastly the swifts and hummingbirds have ten primary feathers in 
the wing and ten in the tail, while the swallow and the singing perchers 
have only nine in the wing but twelve in the tail.' 

For these reasons, then, among others, the swifts have been removed 
from their old proximity to the swallows, and grouped with the hum- 
mingbirds and the goa:suckers, or nighthawks, under an order called 
the Macrochires, or long-handed-ones, in allusion to the great length, 
comparatively, of the outer joint of the wine, corresponding to the hand 
in man. 

The Cypselidse are world-wide in their distribution, species of one or 
more of their six genera being found in every continent and in Aus- 
tralia, all remarkable for their wonderful power of flight and for their 



92 

excellence as architects. Their styles of nest-building are very various 
indesign, but there is one characteristic running through all which dis- 
tinguishes their nests from those of all others birds. Owing to the ex- 
treme weakness of the feet and to the great length of the wings these 
birds are excessively awkward in any situation but their native element, 
the upper air. They cannot build of grass, feathers or hair mixed with 
mud as so many other birds do. To collect the materials would be diffi- 
cult to weave them together impossible. Neither can they nest upon 
the ground — a common alternative, especially with non-perching birds. 
ge: him on a solid, level surface and the swift is almost helpless. He 
Rounders awkwardly about until he can launch himself over the edge 
of a rock or bank, and spread those long wings again on the free air. 
But if nature has condemned this race to make bricks without straw, 
she has herself shown them how to provide a substitute, and that from 
a most unique source. The whole family are gifted with an unusual 
development of the salivary glands which in nesting time secrete within 
the mouth a thick viscous fluid. Of this material, wholly or in part, 
the nests of all the various species of swift are composed. On ex" 
posure to the air it soon dries into a glue-like substance, hard, light 
and elastic. So tenacious is it that in removing the nest of our own 
North American species from a chimney the very brick itself will often 
come away in scales before the nest will break. Thus equipped these 
children of the air are almost independent of the earth, and can fix 
their homes and rear their young in the most inaccessible places, far 
from the dangers of this lower world. 

In Ceylon and the islands of the Indian Archipelago several species 
of the genus Collocalia fasten their little saucer-shaped egg-baskets 
against high over-hanging cliffs, or on the walls of caverns running in 
from the sea. These furnish the famous Salangane, or edible birds- 
nests, so dear to the heart of the Chinese epicure. The best samples, 
that is, the first of the season, are composed wholly of the salivary 
gum, and are so difficult to obtain that they are frequently sold in the 
Celestial Empire as high as three guineas ($15) a pound. In general 
shape they resemble the nest of our own chimney swift, but are of a 
translucent white colour, and appear as if woven of threads of 
isinglass. 



93 

In the West Indies the long flower-spathes of the cocoanut palm often 
hang on the trees in a withered state for many months ; and up inside 
of these the Palm Swift finds a safe and convenient place to affix its 
nest, composed of feathers glued together with the same salivary gum. 
This plan of fastening the nest to the inside of a hollow tube or shaft 
seems to be a favourite one with several of the American species. Not 
only is the idea shown in the choice of the chimney swift, but there are 
two species which actually construct the protecting tube for themselves. 
Paniptila Sancti Hyeronimo: inhabiting Guatemah, attaches to the 
underside of an over-hanging rock a tube some feet in length, composed 
of the seed-down of plants caught flying in the air and glued together 
with saliva. Entrance to this is from below and the eggs are laid on a 
k ind of shelf near the top, Very similar is the nest of a Brazilian 
species, Chaetura po/iura, only in this case the tube is suspended 
from the branch of a tree and is covered with bright coloured feathers. 
There is no shelf within to receive the eggs, and it is believed that 
these are cemented against the side of the tube and brooded on by the 
bird while in an upright position. 

Having thus referred to the characteristics of the family in general, 
and to some of its more interesting members in other lands, we will 
perhaps be better prepared to consider the peculiarities of our own 
bird, the American chimney swift (Chcetura pelagica). This bird is 
about 5 inches in length and 12 to 13 in extent of wings. The general 
colour is a dull dark gray, considerably lighter on the throat and breast 
and having a faint gloss of metallic green on the back. On taking 
either of the specimens on the table in the hand one is at once struck 
with the singular appearance of the tail, each of the ten quills ending 
] n a strong sharp spine formed by the shaft being produced abc*Jt a 
quarter of an inch beyond the vane. Such a form of tail is almost 
valueless as a steering apparatus during flight, but serves admirably the 
purpose for which it is used — that of a prop to support the weight of 
the body while at rest ; for the only position of rest ever assumed by 
this bird is a vertical one, as it clings to the inside of a chimney or 
hollow tree braced up by this strong spiked tail. A woodpecker at 
work on the outside of the tree would assume much the same position, 
but in his case the spineous nature of the tail is less marked, while the 



94 

foot is suitable for climbing, that of the swift being weaker and fitted 
mostly for clinging. 

The next striking feature is the great length of the wings, the dis- 
tance from tip to tip when fully extended being more than 2\ times the 
extreme length of the body. The ratio of these two measurements in 
most land birds is about as i^ to i. In the swallows it only reaches 2 
to 1 ; and the proportion shown in the chimney swift is only exceeded, 
if at all, by one or two of the hawks and some of the long-winged sea- 
birds, as the frigatebird and the wandering albatross. 

Referring to the latter it is worthy of notice that in these seabirds 
the great stretch of wing is due to the lengthening of the inner joint 
or humerus, the other bones being comparatively short, while in the wing 
of the swift and all birds of the same order the proportion of the bones 
is exactly reversed. The radius and metacarpals, or forearm and hand, 
make up almost the whole of the wing, the inner joint being so short 
that the carpal angle is almost covered by the feathers of the shoulder. 
And there is a corresponding difference in the style of flight. The sea- 
bird propels itself by long measured sweeps, or soars for whole minutes 
without a movement, whereas the wing of the swift is constantly a- 
quiver as he darts and dives hither and thither after the insects that 
make up his food. Much as the swallows resemble the swifts in colour, 
size and habit, it is not difficult to distinguish between them when on 
the wing. The motions of all the swallows are more measured and 
graceful, being guided by the long rudder-like tail, while the swift might 
be compared to a short boat without a rudder but having very long 
oars, not quite suited for following a perfectly straight track, but making 
splendid time and brilliant steering on a very tortuous course. The 
small flattened and curved bill looks at first sight ill-suited for its duty 
of capturing insects in rapid motion, but it will be noticed that the 
mouth is cleft far beyond the base of the bill, reaching to a point just 
below the eye, and when wide open the gape is really very great There 
is an eyebrow or shade over the eye to protect it from the glare of the 
sun. A similar feature is seen in some eagles, which have a prominent 
bony shelf above the eye. That of the chimney swift, however, is 
formed entirely of feathers. 

These birds are late comers with us, most of the swallows generally 



95 

appearing some time before them, but they atone for tardiness by remark- 
able regularity. The records of a number of years show that they may be 
looked for in Ottawa almost with certainty on one of the first six days 
of May ; and when they come they come altogether. To-day, perhaps' 
not a swift is to be seen, or at most but a couple of pioneers; to-morrow 
the whole colony is with us. They take up their abode at first in what may 
be called the swifts' immigrant shed. I call it by that name because none 
of the birds have any intention of making it a home in which to bring up 
a family. This temporary shelter is a ventilating tower at the northeast 
corner of the Western Departmental Building. Here on any fine evening 
in May they may be seen in countless numbers, sporting and chas- 
ing each other high in air, at first extending their gambols over the 
who c of Parliament Hill, waiting for the stragglers to come home, per 
haps from an afternoon's trip to the St. Lawrence, or far back over the 
Laurentian Mountains, for distance is nothing to them . As the even- 
ing advances, however, the whole flock commences to take up a circling 
motion round the favourite tower, though still high above it. Gradually 
the circle becomes narrower and a few birds will now and then dash 
down at the windows of the tower as if about to enter ; but these are 
only " false offers," for the birds sheer off and rejoin the twittering 
stream above, which is all the while drawing lower down and closer 
together, until now the sun has fallen behind Chelsea Mountain, and 
just as the twilight comes on, the stream narrows to a living whirlpool 
whose vortex is the tower window. Then with the roar of many wings 
beating together they pour into the opening. There are four such 
windows within a few teet of one another, but the swifts use only one, 
the eastern ; and as it is too narrow for the multitude of birds pres 
sing in, many flutter against the stone work and eddying off at the sides 
heighten the resemblance of the whole to a whirlpool. These fall 
into the main current again when its force slackens, and soon the last 
swift has entered for the night. 

The great Audubon and several other ornithologists describe the 
chimney swifts as prolonging these gambols after sundown far into 
the dusk, and Nuttall even calls them nocturnal birds ; but with us 
they always retire with, or soon after, the setting sun, and when the last 
straggler has disappeared there is still light enough to read a book without 



96 

much difficulty in the open air. The observations of most of these 
naturalists were made in the Central and Southern States, where even in 
summer the nights are of considerable length. In our northern lati- 
tude, on the other hand, the short duration of the hours of darkness 
at this season compels the birds to seek more promptly the rest so much 
needed after the incessant activities of the long bright day. 

At this hour the inside of the ventilating shaft is too dark to permit 
one to see anything of its occupants, but on the 20th of May last I was 
fortunate enough to find them almost all at home in the daytime. The 
weather was cold with a light rain, and, as the swifts are very suscept 
ible to a fall in the temperature, only a few score ventured out to circle 
round the building or take a short turn over the city. Entering one of 
the ducts through a trapdoor in the attic, a journey of a few feet on 
the hands and knees was well repaid by the view within the shaft. The 
tower is an octagonal one, built of stone lined with bricks, the space 
within being about 8 feet across. Up through the centre passes an iron 
smoke-pipe from the furnaces in the basement. This is about 3 feet in 
diameter, so that the intervening space leaves ample room for a view of 
the wall lighted by the little windows at the top where the swifts find 
entrance. All round the inside the birds were clinging against 
the wall, shoulder to shoulder, covering every available inch from a 
short distance below the windows down to about 10 feet above my 
head, a -space of probably 18 feet in height. Many were continually 
fluttering in and out, knocking each other off and beating about in the 
dim light with endless flapping and twittering. The wall surface covered 
would be about 470 square feet. Audubon in making a rough computa- 
tion of the number of a flock roosting within a hollow tree which he 
visited near Louisville, Ky., allows 32 birds as the number resting on 
each square foot of surface. At this rate the census of the Ottawa 
colony would reach 15,040. I believe, however, that this is consider- 
ably over the mark. On several evenings I took the time occupied by 
the flock in entering the tower, which proved to be about 16 minutes. 
If there were as many as 15,000, it would require something over 15 
birds to pass in during each second, The opening is a small one, about 
1 foot by 3, and it seems hardly possibly that they can crowd in at such a 
rate, though they certainly go faster than one can count. Probably 9,000 



97 

or 10,000 would not be far from the true number of the flock. There 
is at the bottom of the shaft a mass of droppings and feathers, evidently 
the accumulation of several years, but no sign of a nest anywhere. 
This place is not made use of by them for that purpose. 

Inspection of the tower during daylight on a number of other 
occasions when the weather was fine showed not a single swift within. 
It is well known that they never rest in the open air, and as there 
appears to be no other roost in this neighbourhood the conclusion is 
almost unavoidable that these tiny creatures spend the whole 16 or 17 
hours of the summer day upon the wing. What restless energy in those 
little pinions ! And what a vast quantity of insect food, in the aggre- 
gate, must be consumed in order to sustain such untiring muscles ! 

In the year 1869 the late Lt.-Col. Wiley read a paper on "Swallows' 
before the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, in which he gave an 
interesting account of this same colony. Their favourite rendezvous 
was then a tower in the Eastern Block, from which they were afterwards 
excluded by placing a wire netting over the openings. It is to be hoped 
that they may long remain undisturbed in their present quarters. The 
good work done by such a flock in clearing the atmosphere of insects 
must be almost incalculable. And for this we are now more than ever 
dependent upon the swifts, since almost all the swallows and other 
insect-eating birds have been driven from their city homes by the Euro- 
pean sparrows. 

There are several other similar towers about the Government 
Buildings, but none of these are ever occupied by the swifts, so inten- 
sely gregarious are they in disposition. When nesting time comes, 
however, the case is exactly reversed. The birds are scattered over the 
city and probably far into the country, and seldom, I believe, is there 
more than one pair found nesting in any one chimney. 

Amongst all the feathered tribes, at the nesting season, the males 
are endowed with some distinguishing mark of beauty or some acces- 
sory power of display which serves to point out to the other sex the 
most vigorous and desirable among many suitors. The brilliant colours, 
the wonderful growths of ornamental plumes, the sweet songs or extra- 
ordinary calls of many birds in spring time are all to be accounted for 
upon this principle. In other species the same end is served by curious 



feats executed, generally on the wing, but sometimes on land or water. 
The drumming of the partridge is a familiar instance of this kind of 
performance ; and though very different in style, the courtship of the 
chimney swift may be classed under the same head. At all other 
seasons they hunt singly or in pairs, twittering frequently ; but during 
the latter half of May they are almost always to be seen in groups of 
three. The twittering becomes almost a continuous trill, and the lines 
of flight more graceful. Neglecting those zigzag darts after insects 
which mark their course at other times, and keeping for a long time the 
same relative positions, the little trio sail low down over the houses and 
tree-tops in long sweeping curves as if conscious of being on exhibition. 
By the first week in June these preliminaries are over. The unfortunate 
rejected has given up the suit and has retired to spend the summer in 
celibacy, with others equally unlucky, at the tower; and the mated ones 
at once set about the selection of a suitable chimney, free from fire and 
smoke, and tolerably clean from soot for the firm attachment of the 
nest. The few necessary building materials are supplied by any tall 
tree having dead twigs at the top. The birds while on the wing seize 
the twigs, and by a sudden twist break off short pieces and carry them 
away to the site already chosen. These are glued to the side of the 
flue and to each other with the mucilage secreted in the mouth of the 
bird as already mentioned, and are formed into a light and strong 
saucer-shaped nest. No down or other soft material is placed within, 
but the eggs are laid upon the bare framework of the nest. 

On the 3rd July, 1890, I was fortunate enough to discover the 
nest of a pair of these birds in one of the chimneys of my house. By 
removing the stopper of a stove-pipe hole and placing two small 
mirrors in suitable positions in the flue I was able to see a good deal of 
the household management of my little guests. The nest was about 
three and a half feet above the pipe hole and eight feet from the top 
of the chimney ; and was when unoccupied nearly hidden from sight 
by a slight "jog" in the chimney. Although during several weeks before 
that the birds had been heard in the flue and careful watch had been 
kept, the operation of building had not been seen ; and indeed the 
exact location of the nest was only made known by the long wings of 
the bird projecting from it after egg-laying or, perhaps, incubation had 
begun. 



Whethei both birds or only the female took part in the nest-build- 
ing is uncertain, but it appears to have occupied more than a fortnight. 
During the nine or ten days of incubation the mate did not appear to 
roost in the chimney and seems to have been rather remiss in his 
attentions. Indeed, I did not see the two birds together in the chim- 
ney during all this time. After the young were hatched, however, 
which took place on the 13th July, the male became less neglectful of 
his family duties, taking a fair share of the task of feeding the young, 
and always spending the night within the flue, not far from the nest. 
These observations are in accord with the fact that the birds resorting 
to the tower of the West Block, though somewhat reduced during the 
latter part of June and the first half of July, still formed a large flock, 
perhaps half of the original number ; while after the time of hatching 
out they rapidly dwindled. — no doubt, by the calling away of the males 
to assist in the care of the young. On the evening of the 2nd of 
August not more than forty or fifty were seen to enter the tower. 

For the first week the young were kept constantly covered by one 
or other of the old birds, who relieved each other at intervals of half 
an hour or an hour. Contrary to the descriptions given in most of the 
books treating of the swift, these birds seemed to be but poor climbers. 
They would flutter down from the entrance with wings half open above 
the back and alight at some little distance from the nest, generally 
below it. Then after a moment's rest, they weuld scramble up to the 
nest, half climbing, half flying, being never seen to ascend the wall 
without the assistance of the fluttering wings. 

There was something about their manner of feeding the young 
which struck me as remarkable. When one of the parent birds returned 
from hunting and took its place on the nest, as I have just described, it 
would not proceed to feed the nestlings until after an interval of several 
minutes. Then without uncovering the nest it would put its head 
down and make a sort of contortion of the whole body, and at the 
same time the young would be heard to peep. This action would sug- 
gest that the food, instead of being carried in the bill, as is done by 
other birds when feeding their young, is disgorged from the crop after 
the manner of the vultures and some seabirds. And may it not be 
possible that the mucilaginous secretion, so useful to these birds in 



100 

nest-building, plays just as important a part in the nourishment of the 
young ? What yields such delicious soup for a Chinese mandarin 
ought suiely to make good pap for a young swiftlet. Something analo- 
gous to this is well known to take place in the pigeon family where the 
nestlings are fed with a material disgorged from the crop of the parent 
and consisting largely of a milky and nutricious fluid secreted by the 
walls of the crop. 

In such works as treat of the swifts the subject of nourishment of 
the young is touched but lightly, if at all, though some writers express 
a suspicion — it is never stated positively — that they are in the habit 
at this season of hawking during the night for insects to supply the 
often recurring demands of the nestlings. It is true that the roaring of 
wings in the chimney and the voices of both old and young birds are 
to be heard several times every night ; but I believe this may be 
accounted for by the movements of the parent birds in exchanging 
places as they take turns in the care of the young. The mate generally 
roosts at some little distance from the nest, and, as remarked before, 
they always move either by actual flight or by a half flying, half-climbing 
movement which is sufficient to occasion all the noise that is heard. 
Moreover, though bats and night-hawks are visible enough any summer 
night, I do not know any record of a chimney swift having been seen 
in pursuit of prey, eren by the brightest moonlight, after nine o'clock ; 
and so far as my observations extend they seem to show greatest activity 
and highest flight during the sunniest hours of the day. The presence 
of the shade over the eye, too, seems to mark this bird as a lover of 
sunshine rather than of dusk. 

The regular complement of eggs is from 4 to 6, but only three were 
hatched out in this case. The young grew rapidly, however, and soon 
tilled the nest to overflowing. 

By the of 4th August the stiff tail feathers were plainly visible, and as 
the young seemed to be crowding each other over the edge, I took a stick 
and dislodged the nest, catching it and its contents on a cloth fastened 
across the flue for that purpose. The little birds weie not at all injured 
and started at once to climb up the side again, using claws, wings and 
tail with much vigor. One taken out and kept in the room a few 
minutes proved to De about half fledged and was in colour and mark- 



101 

ings exactly a miniature of the old birds. On the floor it struggled 
about helplessly, but when put near the window curtain it would climb 
quite rapidly with outspread and fluttering wings. The parent birds on 
returning and finding the nest fallen and the family scattered did not 
make as much commotion as most other birds would do under 
like circumstances. Such accidents are said to be a matter of common 
occurrence with them, especially in rainy weather when the water trick- 
ling down softens the gum which holds the nest to the wall. I replaced 
the third nestling in the chimney, and after he had crept up a little dis- 
tance, one of the old ones came down and, putting its head under the 
angle of the outstretched wing of the little one, helped it up to the 
ledge above, on which the nest had formerly stood, and where all 
three seemed now much more comfortable than when crowded together 
in the nest. 

I had hoped that after the fall of the nest the young would 
remain below where, having a better view of them, I should be able to 
see the process of feeding more plainly. On the contrary, I saw but 
little of them from this out, as they were continually moving 
from place tc place and only one mirror could be brought to bear on 
them. They soon grew so large as to be almost undistinguishable from 
the parents, though they did not yet attempt flight in the outer air 
On the 14th and 15th of August, however, I noticed them mounting on 
the wing toward the top of the flue and then settling down again. Per- 
haps this is their usual manner of learning to fly. Unable as they are 
to rise from a flat surface, a first lesson in the open air, which would 
probably result in a fall to the ground, might prove disastrous, or even 
fatal, to them. 

About this time the numbers resorting to the tower were rapidly 
increasing again, showing that the nesting season was almost over. On 
the 19th of August I was called away from town, and on my return at 
the end of the month my little visitors had disappeared. Even at tht 
rendezvous of the tower only a few remained, and these soon followed 
the main army to its winter quarters. 

Where do they go when they leave us ? 

A poet tells us that when these northern shores become bleak and 
stormy : 



102 

"Far over purple seas, 
They wait in sunny ease 
The balmy southern breeze 
To waft them to their northern homes once more." 

Ornithologists, however, though able to point out with a fair de- 
gree of certainty the winter resort of each of the American swallows, 
as well as of most of the other birds on the Check-list, have nothing to 
tell us of the wherabouts of the chimney swift at this season. He has 
never been reported from Central or South America, and from the 
beginning of November, when he is last observed at the southernmost 
stations of the United States until his reappearance there about the 
middle of March, his written history is a blank. To account for this 
mysterious disappearance the old theory of hibernation has been parti- 
ally revived by some ornithologists. 

In the days when the swallows were supposed to spend half the 
year buried in the mud at the bottoms of lakes and ponds, the chimney 
swifts were assigned winter quarters somewhat more congenial in the 
hollow tree from which they used to he seen issuing in such vast fiocks 
on the sunny mornings in spring. Alexander Wilson writing in i8io-i3 
found it necessary vigorously to combat these ideas. But our know 
ledge has made but little progress in this direction in the meantime, 
and Dr. Coues in his " Birds of the Colorado Valley," discusses the 
question of possible hibernation seriously and at some length. The 
trouble is that nearly all the evidence on either side is negative ; and to 
this shadowy array of facts we in Ottawa can add our little quota — that 
the swifts cestainly do not spend the winter in the tower which is their 
favourite home in spring and autumn. This has been proved by in- 
spection for two successive winters. 

Before saying farewell to this little bird let us again place him for 
a moment side by side with his rival and imitator, the swallow. Even 
in the points of superficial resemblance, which at the beginning of this 
paper we took such care to overlock, there is, I believe a lesson for the 
student of natural history; for they show how creatures of very different 
origin and structure may take on a great degree of external similarity 
through living upon similar food and under similar outward conditions. 
The swifts are probably the older family in their present form, and as we 



103 

have seen, have become almost perfectly adapted to the life which they 
have chosen. But apparently they had not taken up the whole ground, 
for in the course of time there appears another family radically different 
in structure and belonging to a much higher order, the Passeres. It 
covets the food of the swifts, which can be taken only in one way — on 
the wing, as those birds take it ; so it adopts their manner of life, and 
in time, without losing its passerine characteristics, the swallow becomes 
superficially so like the swift that to the casual observer they are both 
as one. Not only does the resemblance of these families cover the gen- 
eral colour of the plumage, the shape and proportion of the wings and 
consequent style of flight, the form of head and wide-gaping mouth, 
adapted for scooping in the fluttering prey, but even the voices of the 
two, in spite of the great difference in the structure of the syrinx, are 
really so much alike as to be easily confounded. A still more interesting 
point of similarity is seen in the way both the swift and the swallow 
have changed their manner of nesting to suit the change caused by the 
advent of civilized man. As long as this continent was under the 
domain of the red man the chimney swift, as has been shown, found a 
place both for roosting and nesting in a hollow tree, closed at the 
bottom and with a narrow opening at the top. The barn and cliff 
swallows fastened their castles of mud and straw against a lofty rock, 
while the purple martin and the white-belly nested in crevices of the 
rock or in deserted woodpecker-holes in the trees. The white man 
came upon the scene, and long before his progress had cleared away, 
even, any large fraction of the forest, the swift had found out the sup- 
erior advantages of protection and stability afforded by an empty 
chimney; for even Wilson at the beginning of the century knew the 
bird only as the chimney swift and spoke of the hollow-tree habit as a 
thing then long passed away. The barn swallow and the martin were 
almost as prompt in seeking the shelter offered by the outbuildings of 
the farmer ; and now the cliff swallow, the white-belly and the rough- 
wing, though a little behind, are fast following the example. The bank 
swallow alone still clings to the home of his fathers, a burrow in the 
side of a bank of sand or gravel. The tunnelling out of such a nesting 
place must often involve heavy labour. Perhaps those little feet of his, 
feeble as they look, have retained something of the strength of his pas- 



104 

serine ancestors, and, if so, he is in this respect less swift-like than his 
brethren who have, with the swifts, adopted the ways of civilization. 

Other examples could be cited of this principle by which a super- 
ficial likeness is produced in really different birds by similar environ- 
ment, as for instance the resemblance of the shrike or butcher-bird to 
the hawks ; but, perhaps, in the whole class there is no case where 
the real difference and the apparent similarity are at once so great as in 
this of the swift and the swallow. 



EXCURSION No. 3 (1891). 

The completion of the first section of the Gatineau Valley Rail- 
way, running into the heart of the Laurentian Mountains, will afford 
easy access to a district which has always possessed great attractions for 
the collector and observer in almost every branch of natural history. 
The excursions of the Field-Naturalists' Club to King's Mountain have 
usually been amongs} the most satisfactory outings of each season both 
from a scientific and financial point of view ; but attempts to penetrate 
en masse further into the hills have generally proved unsuccessful owing 
to the wearisome length of the drive. The Excursion Committee 
expect shortly to complete arrangements with the Railway Company 
for an excursion of the Club to the village of La Peche, or Wakefield, 
which is pleasantly situated in a widening of the valley, at a point where 
a smaller stream, the Riviere de la Peche, empties into the Gatineau, 
about twenty-one miles from Ottawa. Several members of the Club 
can vouch for the beauty of the scenery upon the route, running, as it 
does, in and out of the hills along the river bank. 

To be transported to the midst of the Laurentians in an hour's 
time will be a novel experience for Ottawa excursionists, and it is 
hoped that a large number of members and their friends will attend. 
The event will probably take place within the first fifteen days of 
September. Due notice will be given by circular. 



luo 
MONDAY AFTERNOON POPULAR LECTURES— BOTANY. 

THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF BOTANIC GARDENS. 
By James Fletcher. 

Read January 26th, 1891. 

One of the influences which has affected materially the progress of the 
science of Botany, has been the instution in various parts of the world 
of Botanic Gardens. The importance of public Botanic Gardens has 
for centuries been recognized by the governments of civilized states. 
In an article on this subject in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find as 
follows : " The foundation of Botanic Gardens during the XVI and 
XVII centuries did much in the way of advancing Botany. They were 
at first appropriated chiefly to the cultivation of medicinal plants. This 
was especially the case at universities, where medical schools existed. 
The first Botanic Garden was established at Padua in 1545. The 
Jardin des Plantes at Paris, was established in 1626. The Botanic 
Garden at Oxford was founded in 1632. The garden at Edinburgh 
was founded by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald in 1670, 
and, under the name of the Physic Garden, was placed under the 
superintendence of James Sutherland, afterwards professor of Botany in 
the university. The park and garden at Kew date from about 1730. 
The garden of the Royal Dublin Society at Glasnevin, was opened 
about 1796. Gesner states that at the end of the 18th century, there 
were 1600 Botanic Gardens in Europe." (Ency. Brit. IV, 80.) 

"The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew originated in the exotic 
garden, formed by Lord Capel and greatly extended by the Princess 
Dowager, widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and by George III., 
aided by the skill of the Aitons, and of Sir Joseph Banks. In 1840 
the gardens were adopted as a national establishment, and transferred 
to the department of woods and forests. The gardens proper, which 
originally contained only about n acres, have been increased to 75 
acres and the pleasure grounds and arboretum adjoining extend to 270 
acres." (Ency. Brit. XIV. p. 55.) 

It may be well now to consider what a Botanic Garden is. In a 
report of a committee appointed by the British Parliament, in 1838, to 
enquire into the management, etc. of the Royal Gardens at Kew 



106 

previous to their being taken over by the Government as the National 
Public Botanic Gardens, we find that Dr. Lindley, who signed the 
report, defines a Botanic Garden as "A Garden of Science and 
Instruction," which means, I take it, a garden where science, that is 
knowledge, concerning plants may be accumulated and there applied 
for educational purposes. In order that these objects may be attained 
in the most satisfactory manner, there are certain features of the work 
which must always be borne in mind. The means of gathering 
together the material to be grown in the garden, by purchase, by 
exchange, by communication with correspondents at other gardens or 
who live in different parts of the world, although of great importance 
x n the management of a botanical garden, do not come within the 
scope of my subject to-day. One of the chief sources of supply 
however is, of course, by exchange with other Botanical Gardens, of 
which there are many, both public and private, in all parts of the 
world where education and culture are cherished. In the first instance 
Botanic Gardens were merely collections of plants which were deemed 
useful for their medicinal qualities, later general utility, beauty, variety, 
or even curiosity were considered, and it is only comparatively lately 
that the most important development of all, the educational value of 
these institutions, has been recognized. One thing which should be 
conspicuously apparent on entering a Botanic Garden is systematic 
arrangement, not necessarily any particular arrangement, but an ar- 
rangement by which something is illustrated. A feature of the utmost 
importance also, is that every plant should be labelled plainly, both 
with its scientific and vernacular names. In addition to this any 
further information should be given which can be put on the label 
without confusion, such as its native country and date of introduction, 
for foreign plants, and more definite localities in the case of indigenous 
species. When a plant is the source of some useful product, and this 
is not shown by the name, it should be indicated on the label. In 
short the label should give as much information to a visitor as is 
possible without loss of clearness. In a scientific garden record 
books, giving full particulars, must of course, be kept, as to the source, 
age and condition of every individual plant grown. This is of great 
value and may be the means of saving much loss by preventing the 



107 

introduction of trees or other plants into districts unsuitable for their 
proper development. Many plants are peculiarly affected by climate, 
the fact that such will grow even luxuriantly in a certain locality makes 
it by no means sure that they will produce in paying quantities any 
useful products derived from them in their natural habitat. Most 
plants show impatience of being grown in unsuitable soil or climate by 
their behaviour as to flowering or fruiting. Many of our wild plants 
when grown in England, flower very seldom or not ac all, as the 
Virginian Creeper and Wax Works Vine (Celastrus sca/idens). The 
charming British Columbian shrub Nuttallia cerasiformis although it 
flowers frequently and profusely in England, will not produce the 
exquisitely beautiful waxy berries, with their shades of pure white, 
yellow, pink and black, all growing on the same bnsh and 
at the same time, which make it such an attractive object in the 
Vancouver Island hedgerows and woods. Similarly the produc- 
tion by plants of alkaloids, aromatic oils, and other products 
which may be utilized in the various arts and sciences, is much affected 
by change of climate. But, on the other hand, many most useful 
members of the vegetable kingdom can, and have been introduced 
from one part of the world to others where they were not found natur- 
ally. Tea from China, and coffee from Arabia, the banana from Africa, 
the peach from Persia, and many other luscious fruits ; our own indian 
corn, the sugar cane and numerous grasses are now grown over far 
wider areas on the globe's surface, than were originally adorned with 
them by nature. Forest trees and trees and shrubs for hedges and 
ornament, are frequently being imported from one country inio 
another or from other parts of the same country. But all plants, even 
from the same locality, do not thrive similarly when placed under the 
changed conditions of soil and climate consequent upon their introduc- 
tion into another country or locality. In this way thousands of plants 
have been destroyed and much capital squandered, which might have 
been obviated had there been a botanic garden, where careful experi" 
ment could have been made beforehand with all the parf'culars record- 
ed for reference when required. Certain trees will thrive well in some 
localities for a few years and then suddenly their development wil 
cease — instances of this are found in the attempted cultiration of certain 



108 

kinds of apple and pear trees in some parts of Canada, where they 
seldom attain to any great age or size. The black walnut again is a 
tree which has disappointed some of its admirers. For a few years 
after germination, being a vigorous grower, the rapid production of 
wood gave so much promise that experimenters were induced to devote 
considerable areas to its cultivation, only to find after 10 or 15 years 
that the trees rapidly decreased in vigour and retrograded. This may 
be due to their having penetrated through the upper layer of suitable 
soil and reached a colder or less congenial stratum ; but, I do not wish 
to discuss that point now ; the unnecessary outlay would not have been 
made, had it been possible to examine trees of a known age, grown 
under similar circumstances in a botanic garden. Again on the other 
hand, a botanic garden would be the means of introducing and distri- 
buting through the country new and valuable plants, with the great 
advantage that those who acquired them would know beforehand 
whether they were likely to succeed. Botanic Gardens to be'of the 
greatest educational utility should be, of course, thrown open to the 
public as much as possible, and for that reason should be laid out in an 
ornamental manner, so that not only botanists, gardeners and specialists 
may be satisfied when they visit them to study and examine new or 
rare plants, but, also that they may form attractive places of recreation 
for the large and important class of mechanics and other labouring 
classes and their families, consisting in this country of people possessed 
of considerable education, and, who, when once attracted to one of these 
gardens, could not but find in it an efficient instrument for refining the 
taste, increasing their knowledge and augmenting in a very high degree 
the amount of rational and elevating pleasure available to them. A 
fertile source of interest in Botanic Gardens is the cultivation and 
exhibition of the various plants from which foods and other economic 
products are derived. Interest in these will soon extend to other plants 
In the same line of thought is the fostering of a love for flowers in 
children, and I believe that every child should be taught to wish for a 
garden of its own. I know of nothing at all which will give such con- 
tinued and wholesome pleasure to a child as a small plot of garden of 
which it considers it has the sole proprietorship. If any one wishes to 
see true pleasure, let them take a seedsman's catalogue, about the 






109 

month of May and give it, together with a small amount of money to 
spend on seeds, to a child who has had a garden of its own and learnt 
to love flowers. Do not give any help in the choosing unless especi- 
ally asked to do so, and limit the choice to about three or four packets- 
For a child to get the most pleasure out of a garden it should not have 
too much assistance, either in plants or work. The soil should be well 
due up to begin with, all else should be done by the juvenile proprietor, 
and for the garden to be of the most use, it should not be made too easy 
to get plants, so that each one may be cherished and new ones grown 
from seeds or cuttings. I know from my own experience when a child, 
what a source of delight my garden was. On coming home from board- 
ing-school to spend the holidays, the first thing to be looked at was my 
garden. The associations with flowers are all good and enlightening, 
and a love for them should be most carefully engendered and cherished 
in those unhappy children where it does not exist naturally. Such how- 
ever, "are exceedingly rare. The greatest encouragement to a child who 
has a garden of its own, is for the elders to take an interest in it, never 
decline to go and look at it whenever asked to do so, and above all things 
do not interfere in the arrangement and management except to prevent 
disastrous mistakes ; small mistakes will do good, by teaching their own 
lessons. Now, what these gardens are to children, public gardens are 
to the masses, furnishing them with, at the same time, innocent and 
beneficial and also engrossing and satisfying occupation. 

All public gardens should be scientific to the extent of having 
everything properly named and plainly labelled. The first demand when 
anything creates interest is to know its name, and it is a great dis 
appointment when this cannot be obtained. As a matter ot history it 
is interesting to learn that the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, now the 
most extensive scientific garden in the world, was far from being scien- 
tific at the time it was taken over, and the committee appointed to 
investigate the matter, when referring to the fact that few plants were 
properly labelled, expressed the following opinion of a garden in that 
state : " It is not easy to discover what advantage except that of a 
pleasant walk has been derived, by the public, from the privilege of 
visiting the garden." 

The value of plants as food and medicine is a legitimate field of 



110 

enquiry for the botanist and the one by means of which he comes most 
frequently in contact with the unscientific public. Now, there is no 
place where such investigations can be carried on so conveniently as at 
a properly equipped Botanic Garden, where plants can be grown 
under observation and examined, at all stages of development, by in- 
vestigators specially trained to understand and make the most of what 
they see, and also fully equipped with the necessaiy apparatus and 
literature. Such knowledge as we have, as to the value for food of 
most of the more important products of the vegetable kingdom, has 
been derived from the aboriginal inhabitants of the countries where the 
plants producirjg them occur in a state of nature ; but the scientific 
botanist has added very much indeed to this list of useful plants from 
his knowledge of oiher species in the same or closely allied families. 
On the other hand in medical botany the useful knowledge derived 
from aboriginal sources is comparatively small, by far the larger 
proportion of the valuable vegetable remedies having been discovered 
by the scientific chemist as a result of direct chemical analysis of plants, 
aided by experiment or actual knowledge of the effects produced upon 
the human frame by the various products obtained. 

A subject of great interest to everybody and one which is 
frequently made an excuse by ill-informed people for not studying wild 
plants, is the fear of being poisoned. Strangely enough this fear never 
troubles them with regard to cultivated and greenhouse plants where a 
much larger proportion of poisonous species is to be found than is the 
case in the woods around us. As a matter of fact poisonous plants in 
Canada are exceedingly rare. The Poison Ivy (Rhus Toxicodendron ) 
is the only plant in this part of Canada, which is poisonous to the 
touch, and even with regard to this, although it is so virulent in the 
southern states it is, as you all know, an extremely rare thing to find 
anyone affected by it here. There are, also, far fewer plants than most 
people think which are actually poisonous, even when taken internally ■ 
and anyone with a very small amount of knowledge and common sense 
is warned against these by their acrid taste or nauseous odour. This. 
I have no doubt, is the reason why cattle and wild animals which feed 
on vegetation are so seldom poisoned. The poisonous plants are dis- 
tasteful to them and are not eaten in any quantity when their dangerous 



Ill 

nature has been detected by the keen senses of taste or smell. For this 
reason I can make no excuse for people, who are old enough to think, 
who allow themselves to be poisoned, and I do not believe any sensible 
person ever will. 

I quite agree with my friend Professor Macoun who a few years 
ago, in speaking of the vast supplies of good wholesome food going to 
waste all round us every year in the shape of various fungi, touched on 
this subject and speaking of the small number of poisonous plants in 
any locality said: "I have no patience with the stupid people who 
allow themselves to starve to death in a country clothed with grass, 
plants, and trees, nearly all of which are capable of sustaining life." 
With regard to such plants as contain noxious principles there are a few 
general rules, which may be borne in mind by those who travel in the 
wilds and are liable to require such knowledge, and to which, without 
going into undue detail, it may not be amiss to refer here. Plants 
belonging to the same natural order, as a rule, contain similar constitu- 
ents. There are large orders of plants every member of which makes 
wholesome food, notwithstanding the occasional presence of acrid 
principles ; such we find in the cress family which may always be 
recognized by their cruciform flowers, made up of four separate petals 
The same may be said of all the rose family which have the stamens 
standing on the calyx as we find in the rose and apple. All grasses as 
wheat and corn, and all plants bearing papilionaceous flowers as the 
bean, the pea, and clover, produce wholesome food for man and beast. 

Mrs. Lincoln in her "Familiar Lectures en Botany" says "Such 
plants as have five stamens and one pistil, with a corolla of a dull livid 
colour, and a disagreeable smell, are usually poisonous ; the thorn apple 
(Stramonium) and tobacco are examples. The umbelliferous plants, 
which grow in wet places, have usually a nauseous smell : such plants 
are poisonous, as the water hemlock. Umbelliferous plants which grow 
in dry places, usually have an aromatic smell and are not poisonous, 
as caraway and fennel. Plants with labiate corollas, and containing 
their seeds in capsules, are often poisonous, as the foxglove {Digitalis) ; 
also such as contain a milky juice, unless they are compound flowers. 
Such plants as have horned or hooded nectaries, as the columbine and 
monk's hood are mostly poisonous. Amongst plants which are seldom 



112 

poisonous are the compound flowers as the Dandelion and Boneset 
( Eupatorium ) ; such as have labiate corollas, with seeds lying naked in 
the calyx, are seldom or never poisonous, the mint and thyme are 
examples of such plants." 

Plants containing mucilaginous matter are. as a rule wholesome' 
and in British Columbia the Indians eat almost any bulbous root, making 
regular annual trips to districts where certain liliaceous plants abound 
Amongst those roots which they collect in this way are the camass 
( Camassia esculenta ) Lilium Columbianum, Frilillaria, the small 
bulbs of Ca/ypso borealis and, as Professor Macoun tells me, the bulbs 
of nearly all bulbous-rooted plants, which they designate by the genera 
name of muck-a-muck. Another article of food to which they are very 
partial is the inner bark of young trees of Pinns Mwrrayana. 

A\ ith regard to the poisonous properties of the parsley family referred 
to above, Dr. Trimen says, " The properties of the Umbelliferce. are of 
three principle and remarkably different kinds. In one section a watery 
and acrid matter is present; in a second a milky gum-resinous secretion ; 
and in a third, an aromatic and oily one. When the first of these pre- 
dominates, they are poisonous ; the second in excess converts them in- 
to stimulants ; and the third renders them carminative and serviceable 
as pleasant condiments. If both the acrid and gum-resinous secretions 
be absent they are often useful articles of food, as happens with the 
sweet roots of the carrot and the parsnip, and the foliage of the sam- 
phire, fennel, chervil, parsley and celery." 

Before closing I should like to say a few words concerning the 
Botanic Garden and Arboretum at the Central Experimental Farm. I 
have there in my charge a tract of 65 acres of rolling land admirably 
suited to the purposes of a Botanic Garden. The higher portion is 
virtually a plateau with a wide bottom running round three sides of it and 
with banks sloping down to the bottom land. This variety of aspect 
is very convenient for the purposes to which it has been assigned. The 
soil is not particularly good but will improve with treatment. The differ- 
ent natural orders and families of plants will be represented by groups' 
many of which have been already located. There are at the present 
time about 400 species of trees and shrubs planted out, and of most of 
these there are two specimens — all are labelled and a record has been 



113 

taken of their time of planting. Special efforts will be made to hav-e the 
collection illustrating the Canadian flora as complete as possible, and I 
now appeal to the members of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club to help 
me in securing roots of as many as possible of our native plants for cultiva- 
tion. Every working botanist knows the difficulty of deciding specific 
limits from dried herbarium specimens. I shall, therefore, make a speci- 
alty cf trying to clear up some of the botanical problems, which now 
bother botanists, by growing several specimens from seed, where possible 
from various localities. I have already several species under cultiva- 
tion, the seeds of which were collected by Professor Macoun, myself or 
some of my correspondents, and I shall be glad to experiment with any 
seeds sent to me for that purpose. I would particularly request now 
the seeds of Asters and Solid igoes, as I am convinced there is yet much 
to be done, in working up the Canadian representatives of these two 
genera, which can only be satisfactorily accomplished by growing them 
from the seed. 

Besides the solution of such scientific problems as the above, 
economic plants from other parts of the world will be tested as to their 
suitability for profitable cultivation in Canada. Forestry now becoming 
so important in Canada, will also receive attention. Already enormous 
numbers of young trees have been grown from the seed and distributed 
to settlers on the treeless praries of Manitoba and the North-West 
Territories. Before long it will become necessary in Canada to grow 
trees for timber, in the same way as is now systematically done in Ger- 
many. This however will not be done for many years to come and by 
that time, I hope, valuable data will be available from the growth of 
the specimens on the Experimental Farm to show what kinds of trees 
can be profitably grown. 

Many other benefits, 1 trust, will come from this Botanic Garden 
now begun, by which general botanic? 1 knowledge, economic and scien- 
tific, will be advanced, and I look forward to the time when the Botanic 
Garden of Ottawa, shall be one of the chief attractious of this part of 
the Dominion. 



11-1 

LIBRARIAN'S REPORT, 1890-91. 

To the Council of the Ottawa Field- Naturalists' Club 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I have the honour to report that since 
our last annual meeting the library of the Club has been removed from 
its old quarters in the Literary and Scientific Society's rooms to a room 
kindly provided for that purpose in the Normal School building by 
Principal MacCabe, Partly owing to lack ot time on my part and 
partly to the delay of a carpenter intrusted with the making of a set of 
shelves, the books have not yet been placed in order, for which an 
apology is due and is hereby tendered to Principal MacCabe as well as 
to the Council of the Club. I am assured, however, that the shelves 
are now being made and will shortly be completed. Their cost is not 
to exceed $6.00. An appropriation of $10.00 has been made for bind- 
ing periodicals received in exchange for the Ottawa Naturalist, and 
arrangements will be made for the binding of fourteen volumes, which 
will probably contain upwards of twenty volumes of periodicals, as 
some of them are small enough to be bound two or more together. 
Eight names have been added to our exchange list during the year, as 
follows : — 

Botanische Gessellschaft, Munich, Bavaria. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences, Des Moines, la. 

Jardin Botanique, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Natural History Society of British Columbia, Victoria, B.C. 

Natural History Society of P. E. I., Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

Rochester Academy of Sciences, Rochester, N.Y. 

Scudder S. H., Cambridge, Mass. 

Victoria University, Cobourg, Ont. 

The total number of exchanges now on our list is 71. 

A list of publications received as donations and exchanges during 
the year is appended to this report. 

Respectfully submitted. 

WM. A. D. LEES. 

Librarian. 
Ottawa, 17th March, 1891. 



115 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 1890-81. 

Auk, The (organ of the American Ornithologists' Union). 

American Museum of Natural History — Annual Reports and Bulletins. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science — Proceedings. 

American Geologist. 

Botanical Gazette. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 

Boston Society of Natural History — Proceedings 

Canadian Entomologist. 

Canadian Record of Science. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History — Journal. 

Central Park Menagerie — Report. 

California Academy of Sciences — Proceedings and Occasional Papers. 

Department of Agriculture, Canada — Reports of Experimental Farms. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society — Journal. 

Entomological Society of Ontario — Annual Report. 

Entomologica Americana. 

Essex Naturalist. 

Geological Survey of Canada — Reports and Maps. 

Hummingbird, The. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences— Proceedings. 

Illinois State Laboratory — Bulletin. 

Johns Hopkins University— Circulars. 

Journal of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Archives. 

Kansas Academy of Sciences — Transactions. 

Kansas Naturalist. 

Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society — Transactions. 

Massachusetts Historical Society — Transactions and Prize Lists. 

Meteorological Service of Canada — Weather Review. 

Nautilus, The (Conchological). 

Natural History Society of New Brunswick — Bulletin. 

Natural Science Association of Staten Island — Proceedings. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science — Proceedings. 

New York Microscopical Society -Journal. 

New York State Entomologist — Sixth Report. 



116 

North Staffordshire Field Club — Annual Report. 

New York Academy of Sciences — Transactions. 

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station — Bulletin. 

Ornithologist and 06 T ogist. 

Ormerod, Miss Eleanor A. — Reports on Injurious Insects, 18S9, 1890. 

Physik-Oekonomischen Gessellschaft (Konigsberg, Prussia) — Schriften. 

Psyche (Entomological). 

Queen's College — Calendar. 

Royal Society of Canada — Proceedings and Transactions. 

Rochester Academy of Sciences — Transactions. 

Smithsonian Institution — Reports and Price List of Publications. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture — Insect Life — Journal of Mycology — 
Bulletins and Circulars. 

U. S. Geological Survey — Monographs I, XV, XVI — Mineral Re- 
sources of the U. S. 1889 — Bulletins 54 to 66. 

Universite Laval — Annuaire. 

West American Scientist- 
Wisconsin Naturalist. 

Non-periodical publications have also been received from the 
following : — 

American Ornithologists' Union. Ormerod, Miss E. A. 

Chamberlain, Montague. Piers, Harry. 

Edwards, Henry. Scudder, S. H. 

Ells, Dr. R. W. Smith, John B. 

Forster, Dr. E. J. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Farlow, Prof. W. G. White, Lt.-Col. William. 

Geological Survey of Canada. 



WTNTER SOIREES. 

The Soiree Committee requests such members of the Club as are 
willing to read papers during the coming winter to send in the titles to 
the Secretary as soon as possible, and at the same time to indica 
approximately the date when they prefer to present them. 



117 
CANADIAN GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES. 

By C. W. WlLLlMOTT. 

{Read January 2gth, i8gi.) 

The subject of this paper is Canadian Gems and Precious Stones ; 
and although I shall touch briefly on such materials, available for the 
purposes of the Lapidary, as have come under my observation during 
the past nineteen years, I cannot hope to accomplish anything more 
than a general outline of their distribution, together with some of their 
most important characters. Before I begin the enumeration of the 
various minerals, I had better first of all define what a gem really is. 

For the sake of convenience I shall divide the various minerals 
into two classes — ist, Gem material ; 2nd, Semi-Gem material. Now it 
sometimes happens that the conventional value put upon a gem of the 
second class, through richness of colour, transparency, etc., is much 
higher than belongs to a gem of the first class : hence to draw a line 
between these two classes may often be attended by some difficulty. 
The real gems are represented by the Diamond, Sapphire varieties, 
Chrysoberyl, Spinel, Beryl, Topaz, Zircon, Garner, Tourmaline, Iolite 
Quartz and Chrysolite. All others are considered as semi-precious 
stones. 

The origin of the taste for gems is lost in the most remote ages ; 
it is very evident that the gems mentioned in the scriptures, and other 
early accounts, do not correspond with ours of to-day. Pliny describes 
a Sapphire as a stone spotted with gold ; this is thought by some 
authors to be the mineral we call Lapis-Lazuli. 

The ancients must have included a number of minerals under the 
same name. Carbuncle, for instance, included all gems of a red 
colour, such as the Hyacinth, Ruby, Garnet, etc. Much superstition 
has existed in all ?ges regarding the various gems. The following 
extracts from Emanuel's " Book of Gems " may be interesting : — 
•' Serapius," he says, "ascribes to the Diamond the power of making men 
courageous ; also, if this gem is placed in contact with a loadstone, it 
nullifies its power. According to Boetius the Ruby is a sovereign 
remedy against the plague and poison ; it also drives away evil spirits 
and bad dreams. The Jacinth procures sleep and brings riches, 
honour and wisdom. The Amethyst dispels drunkenness and sharpens 



118 

the wit. The Balais Ruby is a protector against lightning. The 
Chrysolite was said to cool boiling water and assuage the thirst, and if 
placed in contact with poison it lost its brilliancy until removed." 

It was not until chemistry began to be fairly understood that the 
system of classifying all stones of one colour under the same name was 
abandoned, and although science has made rapid strides and much 
light has been thrown on this subject, yet the investigators of the near 
future may look upon our labours and theories with the same doubtful 
appreciation as we now entertain of those of our forefathers. I have 
been diverted somewhat from my original intention, in pointing out the 
superstitions of the ancients regarding certain gems, but in so doing 
we are enabled to see the existing link still unbroken, with the 
superstition of the present day. Concerning the Opal you will find 
that not two ladies out of six will wear this stone, because they say it is 
unlucky. 

The present time may be considered an age of artificial gems, 
owing, no doubt, to their insignificant value and bright colours, which 
frequently almost equal those of real gems, and thanks also to the skill 
of the artificer, whose designs have been immortalized by the apprecia- 
tion they have received. I know of no more unpleasant business than 
to be called upon to give an opinion of an old family heirloom, perhaps 
a ring or a brooch, from the age or make-up of which one could infer 
without much doubt that the setting once contained a costly gem ; 
years of wear had, however, weakened the delicate claws, and it was 
then handed to a workman for repair, so as to avoid its loss ; but alas, 
too often some unscrupulous person had abstracted the jewel and 
replaced it with one of glass. The imposition may remain unnoticed 
for a great many years, and at last, when the fact is known, it is then 
too late to recover the gem. The workman that was guilty of such 
fraud had either left for other parts of the world or was dead — (personal 
experience). 

Another way in which the unsuspecting public can be defrauded is 
known to the trade as "Growing a Diamond." This consists of 
abstracting a Diamond from a piece of jewellery that has been left for 
repair and replacing it with a smaller stone. Another fraud which is 
very prevalent, is the substitution of a "doublet'' for a real gem. In 



119 

this instance the top of the stone is genuine and the under part glass, 
joined together neatly hy transparent cement, or in other casts the top 
may be Sapphire and the bottom a less expensive gem, such as the 
Garnet. In these cases, when set, they are difficult to detect, and often 
deceive the most experienced. Doublets are sold by the Cingalese to 
Europeans, and even plain blue glass is cut into facets, and sent there 
from Birmingham and Paris, and palmed off for the real stones. 

In throwing out these hints I am convinced that to no jeweller in 
this city can these prove prejudicial, but on the contrary, as the public 
are enabled to test for themselves the truth of statements made to 
them, so also are they able to appreciate the genuine gems. We must 
not forget to mention the coloured glass, or " pastes " as they are 
usually termed, which are made to do duty for all the different gems, 
and which vary in brilliancy according to their mode of production. 
Some are merely moulded and their angles sharpened on the wheel of 
the Lapidary : others are cut direct from blocks of crystal glass, which 
are sometimes very brilliant, termed " Rhine Stones," etc. You will, 
perhaps, say, how are we to know a real gem from the artificial, we 
cannot submit it to the chemist, who must break it up before he can 
pronounce on its nature ; it is true he can take its specific gravity, but 
in this he may fail to identify the mineral after all. Dr. Feutchwanger 
says he took the specific gravity of an artificial Topaz and found it tully 
corresponded with the Brazilian Topaz. He, however, found that by 
employing the simple breath test he was enabled to pronounce on its 
true character. If an artificial and a real gem be breathed upon at the 
same time, it will be found that the genuine will become clear much 
sooner than the false. Having drawn your attention to the dangers of 
a gem I will now pass on to Nature's storehouse where the original or 
crude minerals lie hidden, ready to be fashioned into the coveted jewel. 

We shall first of all consider such minerals as constitute, when cut, 
gems (proper). 

Sapphire. — In the Geology cf Canada is mentioned the occurrence 
of light rose-red Ruby and blue Sapphire in grains, on lot two of the 
ninth range of Burgess. I should imagine, however, that the quantity 
is not very considerable, as I examined the rocks myself on two 
different occasions without finding a trace. 



120 

Beryl. — This mineral has been noticed at a few places in Canada, 
more particularly in the County of Berthier, where crystals several 
inches in length occur in a granite vein, and although these are often of 
a yood colour (various shades of green), they are net transparent 
enough for cutting, except, perhaps, in small portions of a crystal 
which will sometimes cut into small gems. The pale bluish-green 
transparent varieties of this mineral are called Aqua-Marine ; the 
emerald-green, Emerald. Sometimes the name Aqua-Marine Chrysolite 
is applied to the yellowish-green varieties. The Emerald and the 
Aquamarine are sometimes introduced as oriental, which, of course, 
enhances their value considerably, and, if genuine, are really the green 
and the light bluish-green Sapphire. 

Tourmaline is another gem of some importance, and although its 
name is seldom heard from the jewellers, it is nevertheless often sold 
under various names The )ello\v transparent variety is often sold in 
Ceylon for the Topaz. The blue variety is sometimes sold for the 
Brazilian Sapphire, the green variety as the Brazilian Emerald, and the 
greenish-yellow as the Ceylon Chrysolite. The carmine or hyacinth- 
red variety (Rubellite), which is, perhaps, the most valuable, retains the 
name of Tourmaline. 

This mineral is widely distributed in the Laurentian rocks either 
in crystals or crystalline masses ; its predominating colour is black, 
although such colours as hair-brown, various shades of green, light 
rose-red and \ellow also occur. The black crystals from the Township 
of Bathurst will cut into fine mourning gems. Small stones of one to 
two carats, of transparent green of various shades, sometimes a bright 
emerald, also a yellow and a \ellowish-green variety, have been cut 
from the Tourmaline of Wakefield. The crystals at this locality are 
seldom more than a quarter of an inch across, but often many inches in 
length, aggregating together in large masses. I have seen bunches of these 
slender crystals that would measure eighteen inches in length, exhibit- 
ing such colours as black, red, green, yellow and colourless in the same 
crystal, and graduatirg from opaque to transparent. Light yellowish- 
green crystals of Tourmaline are met with in the Township of 
Chatham in a vein of quartz, but these are opaque and too small for 
cutting. 



121 

Some of the brown varieties found at Lachute, Calumet Island, 
and other places, might contribute small gems. 

Zircon is of frequent occurrence in Ontario and Quebec, and 
constitutes such gems as the Hyacinth, Jacinth, and the Jargoon. The 
latter variety has not been met with in Canada. It comes principally 
from Ceylon, it is perfectly transparent and almost colourless, and 
on account of its peculiar smoky hue is sometimes passed off for a 
Diamond. At the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London speci- 
mens were shewn under the name of Ceylon or Matara Diamonds. 

In the Counties of Renfrew, in Ontario, and Ottawa, in Quebec, 
magnificent crystals of the brownish- red variety have been found from 
time to time, but with the exception of a ew very small hyacinth 
coloured crystals from Sebastopol, not fit for cutting. 

Independent of the cutting qualities of this mineral, and partly on 
account of its crystalographic forms, single and twinned, it has been 
greatly sought after by mineralogists. Forty dollars has been paid for 
a single crystal from the Township of Brudenell. Small crystals of an 
inch and under have no value, but large and well-defined crystals 
command a good price. 

Spinel is thought to have been included under Carbuncle by the 
ancients, and even to-day it is often sold in Ceylon for the Ruby. This 
mineral is known to jewellers and others under various names, such as 
Spinel Ruby, when of shades of red; Balais Ruby, when pale led or 
rose-pink : Almandine Ruby, when red bordering on shades of blue; 
Sapphirine. when blue, and Pleonast, when black. 

In the Township of Wakefield large cubical crystals of a dark 
green and purplish colour occur in a vein cf Calcite, and at times 
afford small dark green and blue transparent gems. In the same 
neighbourhood octahedral and cubical crystals of pink Spinel (Balais 
Ruby) occur sparingly, sometimes three-quarters of an inch across, and 
although marred with numerous cleavages, afford small pieces from 
which fair transparent c^ems may be cut. The blue variety is said to 
occur in limestone in the Seigniory of Daillebout. Black octahedral 
crystals, often grouped together, are mentioned in the Geology of 
Canada as occurring in Burgess in flesh-red limestone. 

Garnet, which is introduced to us under various names by jewellers 



122 

and others, is of frequent occurrence in Canada, distributed through 
the Laurentian rocks in crystals and lamellar pieces, as well as con- 
stituting veins and bedded masses of some magnitude. Garnet, how- 
ever, as a mineral, is one thing, and Garnet, as a gem, is another. 
Many persons are, perhaps, not aware that this mineral, owing to its 
various colours, is often made to represent such minerals as the Ruby, 
Topaz, Chrysolite, Amethyst, or, in fart, any gem that its shade of 
colour happens to imitate. This imposition is generally confined to 
closed settings. Independent of the several gems it may be said to 
represent, it is itself known under various names in the trade according 
to its colour. 

The brownish-red variety known as Almandine is found at several 
places in Canada, and will at times afford gems. On the river Rouge 
this mineral occurs in a highly feldspathic rock, in light pinkish-red 
cleavable masses or imperfect crystals. At Bay St. Paul it occurs of a 
good colour in mica schist, and in the neighbourhood of Ottawa the 
red Garnet that is frequently met with in the gneissic rocks probably 
belongs to this variety. This is the Syrian, also the Oriental or 
Precious Garnet of the jewellers. 

The blood-red Pyrope, Bohemian or Ceylonese Garnet, has not 
yet been, to my knowledge, found in Canada. 

The variety Essonite, or Cinnamon Stone, and at one time called 
Hyacinth, occurs in the Township of Wakefield of a yellowish and 
brownish-red colour, from which small gems might be cut. This 
mineral is mentioned in the Geology of Canada as occurring in the 
Township of Orford, but is not of geai quality. Another lime Garnet, 
in well-defined crystals, occurs in limestone in the Township of Wake- 
field, the crystals of which are sometimes two to three inches across, 
and vary in colour from colourless through various shades of yellow 
and green, pieces of which, perfectly tree from cleavage joints, will 
often cut into two carat stones, which are exceedingly brilliant, and 
might often be mistaken for the Topaz or Chrysolite. 

The variety known as Spessartite, a manganesian Garnet, occurs 
in Muscovite, in flattened brownish-red transparent crystals, in the 
Township of Villeneuve, and may yet possibly contribute a handsome 
gem. 



123 

Chrome Garnet, which occurs in large aggregated masses of 
minute emerald-green ciystals in the Township of Orford, has not yet 
presented specimens large enough for cutting. In the Township of 
Wakefield, however, this mineral presents more promising prospects 
from a gem point of view. During the past summer preliminary 
preparations were made with a view of developing a property in this 
township for gem material. 

If crystals of a large size were found, I think it doubtful if they 
would be cut, as the demand for fine mineralogical specimens of this 
mineral is very great, and they would realize a greater price than the 
cut stones, although, if this mineral is perfectly transparent, it would 
surpass the Emerald in value. 

The largest crystal obtained last summer would be about a quarter 
of an inch, but translucent, yet some of the smaller ones were perfectly 
transparent. 

Chrysolite. — This mineral is mentioned in the Geology of Canada 
as occurring in well-defined yellowish-green crystals in Basalt, in 
Rougemont. This is the Peridote of jewellers and lapidaries. 

The yellowish grains mentioned in the same work as occurring in 
the Dolorites of Montarville and Montreal are the Chrysolite proper, 
although jewellers will persist in confining that name to Chrysoberyl. 

No gems have thus far been cut from either of these varieties. 

Mr. A. F. Low mentions the occurrence of a yellowish-grey opaque 
variety in rock masses in the Shickshock Mountains, but this is of no 
value as an ornamental stone. 

Quartz. — Several varieties of this mineral suitable for cutting are 
found in different parts of Canada, foremost of which is the Quartz 
Asteiia, found in the neighbourhood of the Gatineau. It occurs as a 
constituent of a granitic vein, in pieces the size of a pea to that of a 
pigeon's egg, together with other translucent quartz. The quantity of 
the gem material to the quartzose mass would not be more than one 
per cent., and even with the available material much of it is marred by 
inclusions of web-like markings, which often escape observation until 
after the stone is cut. This stone is perfectly transparent, and by 
transmitted or reflected light exhibits a star of six rays. This may also 
be seen in a first-class stone in ordinary light. 



124 

The name Asteria applied by me to a certain variety of Quartz, 
will require some explanation, as individual opinions are somewhat 
diversified on this point. I will endeavour to give my reasons for 
adhering to this name. I have been informed by one scientist that I 
could call these gems Asteriated Quartz, but not Quartz Asteria, which 
certainly seems to me a distinction without a difference. 

Pliny described the Star Sapphire under the name " Asteria." This 
latter name is still retained to designate varieties of Asteriated Corun- 
dum, such as the Sapphire Asteria, Ruby Asteria, Topaz Asteria, etc. 
I think we may safely infer that the word Asteria was used to particu- 
larize a variety depending on physical properties, which were then 
known to occur only in the corundum mineral, and as Cats-eyes are 
described under Quartz by many authors, when the real stone is Chyrs- 
oberyl, Asteria applied to Quartz would be no more misleading. Em- 
manuel says the Quartz Cats-eyes are frequently confounded by jewel- 
lers with the true or Chrysoberyl Cats-eye, which they persist in calling 
the Chrysolite Cats-eye. The Corundum Asterias or star stones are 
peculiar to Ceylon. By skilful cutting the natives produce a star of six 
rays, which by sunlight or artifical light is vividly shown. A top light 
is best to judge them by. Fine stones command a high price. 

Dr. Feuchtwanger says that certain translucent varieties of Sap- 
phire, when cut convex, and when the principal axis of the crystal 
stands perpendicular to the base of the convex cut stone a white light 
running in six rays, resembling three white planes or stripes crossing one 
another at one point is seen. 

We feel assured as the properties of the Canadian Asteria become 
better known to jewellers and others, and the prejudice against its being 
Canadian is overlooked we shall have more admirers of this handsome 
gem. It compares in some way with the Ceylonese Moonstone, but is 
much harder and will retain its polish much longer, and on the other hand 
the Moonstone does not come within the category of true gems. 

Probably if these stones had been introduced by some organized 
ring as new Ceylonese gems and high prices asked for them, they would 
have been held in higher estimation by some persons. Take for in- 
stance the Moonstone, above referred to, which material is far more 
plentiful, and more easily cut and polished and cheap enough in its 



125 

j\vn country, and yet for a two-carat store and not perfect at that, I was 
asked the moderate sum of $7 by a prominent jeweller in Montreal- 
This stone would be worth in Ceylon about twenty five cents. 

Vou will perhaps rely more on the weight of my statement if I 
read you an abstract from the Hand-book of Exhibits of Ceylon at the 
Colonial Exhibition : '• Moonstones were credited to other countries 
in past ages, besides Ceylon, and were known to the ancients, who as- 
sociated the moonlike lustre with the phases of the moon. These 
stones are found in large numbers in several places and are not of any 
considerable value ; indeed the large quantities found prevent their 
commanding a high price." I do not mention this to throw any more 
reflection on the Moonstone, but merely as a comparison between the 
intrinsic value of it and the Quartz Astena. 

Tiie taste for the one has been acquired : for the other it has yet 
to be acquired. You will say, if the stone with its attractive qualities is 
what you claim for it, why is it not more in demand ? To which I 
would reply, that vendors of precious stones are not generally min- 
eralogists, the)- therefore decline handling; gems that are not known in the 
market until the demand on the part of the public forces them to do 
so : and again, the introduction of a new stone may perhaps seriously 
retard the s-ale of a large stock of gems on hand, not to mention the 
many vexatious questions that might be put by customers concerning 
its durability, etc. 

Besides the above variety, the colourless transparent crystals of 
Quartz found in many parts of Canada will afford at times clear gems. 

1'iie brilliant crystals found in the neigbourhood of Quebec and 
known as Quebec Diamonds look well when mounted in their natural 
state, and when cut as brilliants are exceedingly bright. 

The lose and smoky varieties of Quartz are occasionally met 
with, and according to Prof. Howe, some years ago, large crystals of 
the latter kind could be found in the stone heaps of the fields in the 
neighbourhood of Paradise Village, N.S. I have also seen some fine 
crystals of this variety from British Columbia, lit for cutting. 

Rose Quartz although occurring at a number of places in Canada. 
has not yet to my knowledge been mei with as a gem material. 

The perfectly transparent variety, Rock crystal, referred to above 



126 

as occurring at several places in Canada, has not, however, been found 
sufficiently large, I think, for the needs of the optician, who designates 
this mineral pebble, and who prefers it to glass on account of it? 
superior hardness and coolness to the touch. 

I shall here call your attention to some erroneous ideas concerning 
different coloured Quartz. 

The Cairngorm (named from the Cairngorm Mountain in Scot- 
land) is a smoky variety of Quartz — although this name is often applied 
to the same mineral of other tints. Such names as the Brazilian Topaz 
Mexican Topaz, Spanish Topaz, False Topaz, Citrine, Smoke Stone 
Cairngorm, etc., are all applied in turn to coloured Quartz by jewellers 
and others, who appear to have a name always ready, according to the 
shade ot gem in demand. If this loose nomenclature were confined 
to varieties of Quartz it would not be of so much consequence, but re- 
gardless of their composition, they call all stones of a pale green 
colour Aquamarine, and all pale yellow ones Topaz. 

Amethyst is another variety of Quartz, found principally at Lake 
Superior and Nova Scotia, although at the former locality it is much 
more abundant and is found lining cavities in groups of large crystals 
that are often coated with Jasper, Pyrite, Fluorite, etc. Its colour is of 
various shades of purple in blotched markings, which prevents their use 
to any extent as gems, owing to the difficulty of getting an evenly 
coloured stone. On the Bay of Fundy a more uniformly coloured stone 
is met with, although comparatively rare, which will at times cut into a 
costly jewel. 

Amethyst is valued according to the depth, richness and uniformity 
of colour, and its transparenc}. "This stone like most gems appears 
less brilliant at night, but when surrounded with pearls it appears at all 
times to its best advantage." In 1652 Emmanuel says that an Amethyst 
ras worth as much as a Diamond of equal weight. 

Cats-Eye Quartz is reported to have been found on the Bay of 
P'undy. Sometime ago I was shown a rolled specimen from Partridge 
Island, X.S., which the owner prized very much, but which I was con- 
vinced was nothing but a pebble of Heulandite. However, notwith- 
standing this single mistake, we are informed on good authority that the 



127 

real mineral does exist on Partridge Island. But no specimen of 
it. as yet, has come before our notice. 

Opal has been found by Dr. G. M. Dawson in British Columbia 
in small faintly iridescent pieces in Tra( hyie. They, however, were too 
small for cutting. But possibly if this locality were examined more 
closely for gem material the result might prove more favourable. The 
same gentleman found the variety Hyalite in small globular aggrega- 
tions also in British Columbia. 

Kyanite. — This mineral has been noticed at two or three places in 
Canada. In the Sudbury district it occurs in light sky blue crystals in 
a triclinic felspar, and would cut into handsome gems if found trans- 
parent. 

Topaz. — According to the late Prof. Howe, of Nova Scotia speci- 
mens of this stone were exhibited in London in 1862, both rough and, 
cut, by Mr. McDonald — the locality given was Cape Breton, and the 
cutting is said to have been done in Pictou. The cut stone was rather 
more than half an inch in length, its colour yellow. 

Having come to the end of trie gems proper, we will now refer to 
those minerals which constitute Semi-precious stones, and which form 
a much larger proportion of our gem material than the former. 

We will first notice the siliceous varieties. 

Quartz. — This mineral has been referred to as a real gem : we shall 
now consider it in connection with other minerals, such as — 

Gold Quartz. — When native gold is dispersed through a white 
translucent quartz it makes a very pretty gem. 

Thousands of dollars worth of this material have been cut up in the 
United States during the last few years. We have not as yet been 
fortunate enough to see much of our Canadian gold quartz fit for the 
purpose, although, no doubt, suitable specimens are often consigned to 
the crushers. It is not the scarcity of gold in our Canadian specimens 
that makes this material hard to obtain : they are too rich if anything, 
but it is due to the rusty coloured nature of the quartz. A few stones 
have been cut, with small nuggets attached, from the Nova Scotia 
quartz. 

Silver Quartz will often afford good material for cutting when th? 
base is evenly coloured. 



128 

Thetis Hair Stone. — I noticed this mineral some years ago filling a 
vein in the Township of Hull. In the rough state it is not a very 
preposse-sing mineral, but when cut tolerably thin it displays its 
peculiar hair-like markings, floating in a greasy transparent quartz 
These inclusions are filaments of Actinolite, and when sparingly 
distributed and less defined they would assist in producing Catseye 
Quartz. 

Chalcedony. — Under this heading we must include a number of 
minerals that differ only in their translucency and colour, such as 
Agates, Onyx, Sardonyx, Hornstone, Chrysoprase, Plasma, Prase, Jasper, 
Bloodstone and Cachelony, which will be described separately. 

Chalcedony includes those clear, translucent varieties of bright red, 
yellow and white, often called Carnelian : when of brownish red it is 
called Sard. 

These varieties may frequently be found in rolled pebbles on the 
shores of the Bay of Fundy, Baie des Chaleurs and Lake Superior, also 
at a few places in British Columbia. 

Hornstone is improperly applied to a cellular cherty mineral from 
Grenville, of no value for cutting ; but in the neighbourhood of Two 
Islands, Xova Scotia, a beautiful white translucent variety occurs, 
whicn, owing to its extreme toughness and its susceptibility to a high 
polish, is well suited for Signet rings, i;tc. 

Agate. — A description of this mineral alone would fill a good- 
sized volume were we to make any attempt to elaborate on its varieties 
and occurrence. The three principal localities where it is obtained are 
Xova Scotia, Lake Superior region in Ontario, and British Columbia 

From Two Islands, in Minas Bay, to Cape Chignecto. in the Bay 
of Fundy, and from Digby Gut to Blomidon, on the south side of the 
Bay, may be called the home of the Agates, occurring at intervals in 
veins and pebbles, the latter being generally the finest. The varieties 
mostly met with on the Bay are the variegated and brecciated Agates, 
although the Fortification and Moss Agates are frequently found, the 
latter both yellow and green. 

In the neighbourhood of Lake Superior the Fortification Agates 
predominate, although pretty Moss Agates are often found. In British 
Columbia the Agates are also of the Fortification type, but generally 



129 

light coloured or white : not unfrequently stalactitic markings may he 
seen in a transparent hase. 

It is a pity that our Agates, which have been so lavishly distributed 
over the Dominion, beautiful in their natural colours, should be 
ignored for the more spurious and gaudy articles imported, and palmed 
off on tourists and others at the Lake Superior and Niagara resorts as 
Canadian. These Agates come principally from Brazil and India, and, 
according to some authors, may be recognized from the German by 
being water worn, whereas the German are generally coated externally 
with delissite. They are, however, all cut in Germany, and after being 
polished are steeped in oil, and finally boiled in sulphuric acid, by 
which process they are often converted from the pure white Fortifica- 
tion Agate to the black Onyx with its white concentric rings. This is 
caused by the oil entering the more porous portions of the stone and 
then being carbonized by the sulphuric acid. 

Oti) x. — This variety is found occasionally at the Agate localities 
before mentioned, and differs only from that mineral by its colours 
being arranged in parallel layers, which are either black, brown, red, 
yellow, etc., striped so as to exhibit alternate colours, arranged like a 
sandwich, it is then termed Sardonyx. However, rarely more than two 
colours are seen in the imported stones It is on this particular 
mineral that some of the finest masterpieces of art are still preserved in 
some of the European museums. A marvellously fine antique Sard- 
oynx Cameo of five strata, representing the bust of Faustina, was said 
to have been sold at the sale of the effects of the Marquis of Dree for 
7,000 francs. 

We often hear from jewellers and others of the " Oriental Onyx.' 
This name enhances its value considerably, and yet these are identical 
with the German stones, and as there is every reason to suppose that 
the same process coloured the stones from India as those from 
Germany, their quality and translucency is identical, and more particu- 
larly as no lapidary or jeweller can tell one from the other, why should 
there be any difference ? 

Some fine Onyx pebbles were brought from Q^een Charlotte 
Island, B.C., by the Marquis of Lome. They were of a pale yellowish 
colour striped with white. But perhaps the finest specimens of this 



130 

variety have lately been found by Dr. G. M. Dawson in British 
Columbia. These are made up of several strata, and as these layers 
are exceedingly thin, of different colours, conspicuous among which is 
a bright green, they would cut into handsome Sardonyx gems. 

Chrysopiase occurs of various shades of green, and is translucent. 
Its colour is due to the presence of a little nickel. This stone was 
formerly greatly esteemed in Europe, but now is almost valueless. 
This may be owing to the fact that its colour gradually fades in the 
course of time. The mineral was found by Dr. Bell, of the Geological 
Survey, in the Hudson Bay Territory. 

Prase \\u$ been noticed by Dr. Dawson, in British Columbia, of a 
dark green colour. It would contribute a curious gem, but although it 
takes a good polish, it is said to become spotted by long exposure to 
the air. 

Jasper. — Another mineral of the many varieties of Quartz, may be 
said to be quite common in Canada, and indeed only a tew miles from 
our doors, a band of variegated Jasper occurs, from bright red to various 
shades of brown and yellow, with often the three colours intermingled. 
Ribbon Jasper is of frequent occurrence in the Bay of Fundy, often of 
a brownish base with yellow bands. At Two Islands, Minas Basin, in 
Nova Scotia, a peculiar white porcelainous looking Jasper, interspersed 
with rose coloured markings, occurs in veins of Basalt. It takes a high 
polish and some specimens resemble hand-painted Porcelain. Jasper 
of various colours may be found almost anywhere on the Bay of Fundy, 
either in loose pebbles among the debris of the shore or in veins inter- 
secting the Basalt. 

The occurrence of this mineral at Sherbrooke and Riviere Ouelle 
in the Eastern Townships in beds and veins is mentioned in the Geol- 
ogy of Canada. This is, however, very uncertain in its polish at the 
former locality, where this mineral is of various shades of red. Specular 
Iron ore, together with numerous small holes, render it entirely useless 
as an ornamental stone. The Riviere Ouelle specimens, which are 
often beautifully variegated, will occasionally take a good polish. The 
so-called " Gaspe Pebbles " are generally Jasper. In the Lake Superior 
district, in Ontario, Jasper of different colours is found, both in veins 
and pebbles, the latter enclosed in a translucent quartzite, forms large 



131 

beds, and were it not for its vessicular nature would make a handsome 
ornamental stone. However, small pieces, sufficiently compact, may 
be obtained which work up into a curious and pretty gem. 

In British Columbia, Jasper is often found of a green colour, 
constituting Heliotrope ; also at the Lake Superior district and Two 
Islands in Nova Scot'a a similar mineral occurs, sometimes interspersed 
with thin seams and dots of red Jasper, called Bloodstone. 

Silicified Wood is merely wood that has been saturated with Silica, 
either in the form of Quartz or Opal, and some varieties of which are 
very handsome. It is frequently found in the Tertiary and Cretaceous 
rocks of the North-West and British Columbia in large pieces. 

Cachelony is a hydrous variety of Quartz or Opal occurring at 
several places on the Bay of Fundy, associated with Agate. This 
stone would cut into small gems cf a white translucent colour. 

Chiasio/ite. — This mineral is worthy of a place among the gem 
materials ; if its sombre colour does not introduce it as a general 
favourite, its quaint dark coloured cross, which is revealed when the 
crystals are cut at right angles to the longer axis, would obtain for it 
some admirers as a curious gem. This mineral, according 'o the 
Geology of Canada, is found on Lake St. Francis, and boulders of a 
schistose rock of some hundreds of pounds in weight, thickly studded 
with these crystals, were observed by Dr. Ells in the Eastern Town- 
ships. 

Stauroliie, is another mineral that may be mentioned in this connec- 
tion as it is sufficiently hard and takes a good polish, and when of a 
reddish-brown colour and translucent, will make rather a pretty gem- 
Crystals of this mineral occur at Moore's Mills in New Brunswick, and 
it has also been observed in Nova Scotia and the Eastern Townships, 
but judging from specimens I have seen, none of gem quality. 

Feldsbar, is made to include a number of minerals such as 
Orthoclase, including Adulario, (Moonstone) and Porphyry ; Microcline ? 
including Amazon Stone and Perthite ; Albite, including Moonstone 
and Peristerite ; Oligoclase, including Sunstone and Moonstone ; 
Labradorite and Ohsidian. You will therefore see that the Moonstone 
may consist of three different feldspars. The transparent variety from 
Ceylon is Oligoclase. The milky variety from St. Gothard is Ortho- 



132 

. and the similar Canadian variety is Albite, although some of our 
( )rthoclase is quite luminous when cut. 

Ortheclase occurs in Canada of different colours the more conspi- 
cuous of which are pinkish, white and brown, the latter variety often 
beautifully crystallized in the Townships of Sebastopol and Ross, 
and sometimes the crystals when cut parallel with certain planes are 
quite luminous. They at the same time, reveal minute spangles of a 
glistening yellow colour, thus combining the properties ot the Moon- 
stone and Aventurine. This constitutes a neat and pretty gem, and it 
is a pity that prejudice should prevent these stones from taking the 
place of the gaudy imitation trash that is at present glutting our market. 

It is stated in the Geology of Canada that a reddish-brown- Ortho- 
clase with cleavages of half an inch across, which exhibits golden-bronze 
reflections of great beauty, was brought from the coast of Labrador. 
Another Aventurine variety was noticed by Dr. Bigsby on the north 
east shore of Lake Huron, twenty miles east of the French River. 

Porphyry, more properly is a rock mass composed of two or more 
minerals. This material of various colored bases, interspersed with 
white, rose red, and greenish spots is found at many places in Canada. 
A rock of this description covers a number of acres in Grenville and 
Chatham, and could be utilized for ornamental purposes, and also, as a 
gem stone, portions of it being as pretty as a Bloodstone. 

Felsite. I should here mention another rock that occurs at Cham- 
cook, N.B., under the name of Felsite. It is thoroughly homogenous 
and takes a high polish. Its colour is of various shades of brown, some- 
times veined with lighter or darker shades, giving to the mass the aspect 
of rosewood. 

Microcline or ' ; Amazon Stone," is found in the Townships of Hull. 
Wakefield, Sebastopol and in the neighbourhood of Paul's Island, 
Labrador, of various shades of green, often verging on blue. This 
stone from the neighbourhood of Wakefield when cut convexly often 
reveals a bright, silvery lustre and in artificial light has a pretty effect. 

Ferihite, is the name given by Dr. Thompson to a variety of Feld- 
spar from the Township of Burgess, and according to Bauerman, is 
made up of different lamina? of Albite, Orthoclase and Microcline, the 
latter being rendered iridescent by inclusions of Specular Iron. This 



133 

compound mineral together with Quartz forms a granite vein, which 
covers a large area, although the proportion of the Perthite to the 
rock mass would not be very great. Its colour varies from a light flesh- 
red to a dark brown and it will at times cut into very handsome gem 
stones, the surfaces of which are brilliant with golden reflections. Mr. 
George F. Kunz the author of " Precious Stones in America," says : 
" Perthite forms a very curious and rich coloured gem, with its bright 
Aventurine reflections/' This mineral has not been observed at any 
other locality lhan that given above. 

Albite has been found at several places in Canada, but there is 
reason to suppose it has a much wider distribution than we are aware 
of at present. In the townships of Wakefield, Hull and Villeneuve, in 
Quebec, and Drummond and Bathurst in Ontario, this mineral oc- 
curs with broad and striated cleavages, the surfaces of which are beau- 
tifully chatoyant with such colours as blue, green and yellow and will 
rarely cut into fine Moonstones with pearly and bluish reflections, and 
first-class stones will compare with those from St. Gothard. 

Peristetite is a name given to the opalescent Albite at Bathurst, 
where it occurs associated with Quartz. The mineral from this locality 
although pretty with its bluish reflections is nevertheless marred by 
being generally stained by the oxidation of the Pyrites that is associated 
with it. 

Oi^oc/ase — This mineral constitutes the Ceylon Moonstone, and 
although a vein of this material occurs in the Township of Hull it has 
not proved to be of gem quality. 

Sunstone, possibly Oligoclase associated with Titaniferous Iron 
Ore, was bi ought in by a farmer from the Gatineau region. 

Labia Jorite — Although abundant throughout Northeastern Canada, 
as a constituent of the Anorthosite rocks, and at times affording large 
cleavages, ;s neverthele.-s devoid of those bright coloured reflections 
which so characterize those specimens bi ought from Paul's Island, 
Labrador. Some specimens from the reighbourhood of Perth, gave 
fiery red reflections, but not so vividly as those from Labrador, which 
at times are entirely blue, at others green, sometimes the two colours 
are interblendLd with the addiiion of purple and bronze, but the rarest 



134 

colour is the coppery or fiery red, and in cut sto .es, with convex sur- 
faces, this mineral will vie with the Fire Opal. 

Obsidian is a volcanic glass, often beautifully n ft : led with various 
colours. The Canadian varieties, however, are usually dark. It is 
found in British Columbia and Nova Scotia, at the latter place in small 
rounded pebbles, coated with a blue mineral embedded in Amygdaloid. 
These when cut lake a brilliant lustre and are jet black, sometimes 
bordering on blue. 

Chrome Pyroxene^ which is found associated with the Chrome 
Garnet in the Township of Orford, is occasionally of an emerald green 
tint and semi-transparent and m ; ght afford small gems. In the Town- 
ship of Wakefield, at the other Chrome Garnet locality, a massive sea- 
green variety interspersed with emerald green dots occurs. It takes a 
h'gh polish and could be utilized for ornamental purposes. 

Scapolite. This mineral is found widely distributed in the Lauren- 
tian, of various colours, such as pink, lilac, bluish, yellow and vvl ite, 
and when sufficiently clear from cleavages, cracks and foreign minerals, 
takes a good polish, making rather a neat and pretty gem stone. 

Wilsotiite, which is mentioned as a material suitable for gems, is 
occasionally found of a pink colour, associated with Scapolite and from 
which, according to some authors, it has resulted. The difficulty with 
th s mineral, is to get it sufficiently frte from foteign inclusions, which 
are generally of a harder nature, and consequently after being polished, 
stand out in relief. I have also noticed that its colour after exposure 
to the air for some time becomes much paler. This mineral is of fre- 
quent occurence in the Apatite deposits of Ottawa County, the best 
specimens however, come from the Township of Bathurst. 

Hypersthene as a gem material was introduced some time ago by 
the French jeweller-. It is said to take a high polish, with an 
ridescence of copper, red, bright brown, gold yellow, and greenish 
shades. Dr. Feuchtwanger says he saw a stone of this nature, twelve 
lines long and six broad, sold in Paris for 120 francs. 

This mineral is of trequent occurrence in the Anorthosite rocks of 
Canada. 

Idocrase or Vesuviantte is cut occasionally at Naples, and there 
sold under the name of Italian Chrysolite, where it occurs in trans- 
parent green and brown crystals. The Canadian Idocrase, observed in 



135 

the Townships of Grenville, 'Wakefield, Templeton and the Calumet 
Islands, is usually in hair-brown crystal?, except in the first named 
Township the colour is a yellow, all of which are translucent only on 
their edges, except in the case of some very small crystals from 
Wakefield, which were semi-transparent. No gem material of this 
mineral has yet been met with in Canada. 

Lazulite. — This mineral was found by Dr. R. Bell on the Churchill 
River ot a cobalt- blue colour. This material is sometimes employed as 
a substitute for Lapis-lazuli, which it resembles somewhat in colour. 

Socialite is another blue mineral, which occurs associated with 
granite on the R< cky Mountains in British Columbia. It varies in 
colours from light to dark blue, from translucent to opaque. From a 
large number of specimens examined 1 should think that fair-sized 
blocks of the Granite, interspersed with veins and patches of Sodalite, 
could be obtained which would make a very handsome ornamental 
Htone. As a gem material it compares with the Lapis-lazuli, is the 
same hardness, and takes a higher polish. The largest stoi e of this 
materia], free from any adhering reck, that has been cut ii Canada, 
would be about one and half inches by three-quarters, and three-quarters 
of an inch thick. 

Chlorastrolite was thought, until recently, to be confined to Isle 
Royal, but has lately been found in a place I believe on the Canadian 
side. In the neighbourhood of Lake Superior they are often called 
Turtle Agates, owing to the markings of the stone, resembling the 
grotesque designs often seen on some species of turtles. They occur 
in rounded pebbles of various sizes, of dark green colours mottled and 
veined with white ; they are perfectly opaque, and a stone of a good 
colour and marking makes a very pretty gem. 

Preh/rite, of which the former Chlorastrolite is supposed to be a 
variety, occurs at several places in the Lake Superior district, also at 
the Baie des Chaleurs in New Brunswick, and at the Bay of Fur.dy ir 
Nova Scotia. In the first named area, independent of the important 
veins of this mineral which sometimes form the fjangue ot rich i 
Copper deposits, pebbles of \arkus colours, sometimes radiating, are 
found among the debris of the shore, generally enclosing scales of the 
ame mineral. The pale greenish variety of the Baie des Chaleu-s, and 



13G 

the somewhat darker shade from Nova Scotia, also afford material for 
cutting. This stone, when translucent and prettily mottled, will cut 
into curious and pretty gems. 

Jade or Nephrite is a tough compact translucent mineral graduat- 
ing from a greyish white to dark shades of green. It takes a high 
polish, having a somewhat greasy lustre. This is not much known in 
this country, but is very popular in Asia. It is found in Corisca, China, 
Egypt and New Zealand, in the latter country it is called Greenstone. 

In British Columbia numerous implements and tools, fashioned 
by the Indians out of a beautiful translucent variety of this mineral 
equal to that from New Zealand, are often found, but no occurance of 
this mineral in situ has yet been observed. 

Epidote, when in translucent crystals and of a good colour will 
sometimes cut ito a very curious gem. Our Canadian mineral is gen- 
erally of a hue ot greenish or yellowish colour; some small crystals, 
however, from Wakefield are translucent, but not of gem quality. The 
massive variety although widely distributed in the Pre-Cambrian rocks 
is rarely met with in large pieces, but as an accessory to the Gneissic 
rocks it sometimes lends a pleasing tint when these are polished. Fine 
slabs of a reddish colour, veined or clouded with light green Epidote, 
might be cut from the Gneiss of Ramsay. Epidosite from the Shick- 
Shock Mountains will also cut into fair stones of a pale yellowish green 
colour somewhat resembling Chrysoprase. According to the Geology 
of Canada this mineral is also of frequent occurence in the Silurian 
rocks. 

Rutile is mentioned as a gem material, sometimes cutting into 
Ruby red stones, and others of a black colour, more closely resembling 
the Black Diamond then any other known gem. Some of the lighter 
coloured ones cut into gems closely resembling the common Garnet. 

This mineral occurs in Canada in Ruby red grains distributed 
through the Ilmenite at Bay St. Paul, but I have not heard of any 
pieces being found large enough for cutting. It also occurs in geni- 
culated crystals of a reddish colour in a mixed bed of Barite and Cal- 
cite at Templeton, but not of gem quality. 

Chondrodite occurs of various shades of yellow to hyacinth red, 
also green and brown in masiive varieties. In Canada the only occur- 



137 

rence of this mineral I am aware of is in the Township of South 
Crosby where it is found as yellowish grains dispersed through a crys- 
talline limestone, but not large enough for cutting. 

Pyrite, which is occasionally cut abroad, and was formerly much 
used in jewellery, is of very common occurrence in Canada. But 
material suitable for cutting is much more limited although sufficient 
quantity is available to supply the demand for some time to come. The 
Townships of Wakefield and Elizabethown probably afford the best 
material for this. 

Hematite and certain varieties of Limonite will at times cut into 
curious and pretty gems. At the Iron mining districts of Michigan 
large quantities of these stones are sold to tourists and others as 
souvenirs of the locality, but it is said that they are cut abroad from 
foreign material. Some of the Limonite from Londonderry, N.S^ 
will cut into curious stones of brown colour with concentric markings 
of yellow and a metallic lustre. They also take a high polish. 

Titaniie, which is found in Tyrol and the United States, in trans- 
parent yellowish and greenish crystals, will at times cut into fine gems, 
and although Canada has probably afforded the finest twin and single 
crystals of this mineral found in any part of the world, the sales of 
which in the United States have netted the various dealers thousands of 
dollars, even today good crystals of this mineral command a high pr.ee 
but small and inferior crystals are of little value. Their colour is usually 
hairbr^wn to black, and from translucent to opaque, with, occasionally, 
aventurine reflections on itieir planes. The Townships of Sebast< pel. 
Grattan and Ross, have probably afforded the best specimens, although 
it is also quite common in mai v of the Apati e deposits, in single 
crystals. No material fit for the Lapidary's use has yet been observed 
from any of the above localities. 

Nattoliie cccurs in the Amygdidoids of Nova Scotia and may be 
met with, in some form or other, almost anywhere on the Bay of Fundy, 
where this rock is found. At < ne remarkable locality on Stronach 
Mountain, near Margaretville, large masses of this mineral in radiating 
acicular crystals, may often be found piled up with the stones of the 
field. The largest individual crystal that I have -een is about one- 
fourth of an inch across, and translucent, but not fit for cutting, A 



139 

often banded or zoned with lighter or daiker lints. This mineral, like 
the Agate, seems to offer facilities for the introduction of the skill 
of the artificer, as the manufactured articles often seen are not of 
natural hue, but are brought to that state cf perfection by subjecting 
them to a certain degree of heat before polishing. 

Crystals of this mineral are often found of large size and lichly 
coloured, and have been em; lo\ed in making rings, stones, etc., known 
in the trade as False Amethyst, False Emerald, False Ruby, False 
Topaz, etc., according to the colour. This mineral is much too sr ft for 
any purposes of jewellery. 

At Lake Superior large cubical crystals of a dingy green colour ar c 
often found associated with Amethyst. Emerald green and purpl 

;ble varieties are often met with in the brecciated veins that 
are now being worked for Silver in the Fort Arthur district In 
the Township of Ross, in Ontario, a beautiful purplish-red granular 
variety occurs, with a more compact semi-transparent whitish fluor. In 
ihe Township of Hull a single crystal of semi-transparent green colour, 
and which must have been four cubic inches, was iound by a fain 
developing an Apatite deposit, who, being of a liberal disposition, broke 
up the crystal to give pieces ol it to his friends, thereby robbing 
the scientific world of one of the finest crystals ever found in Canada. 

A portion of this crystal is in the Geological Museum. 

Several other localities in this and the neighbouring Townships 
afford this mineral. 

Arag07iitt\ Satin Spar and Alabaster, are minerals used to a large 
extent abroad for making fancy ornaments, and as the two latter are 
often represented by various minerals, it may be as well to point out 
their difference. 

Satin Spar, or fibrous limestone, is found largely in the coal 
formations of Cumberland and Derbyshire; it is also found in 
Hungary. United States and Canada. I have seen several specimens 
from the Lake Superior district that would cut into beads and other 
ornaments. Beads of this mineral were, some years ago, in great 
favour in England, but owing to the introduction of an imitation, made 
from hollow glass globes, filled with fish scales, which very nearly 
resembled the originals, they have of late years gone out of fashion. 



138 

more compact fibrous variety, often zoned with pink, found at Cape 
Split and elsewhere on the Bay, will sometimes cut into neat and pretty 
gems. 

Thomsonite is reported to have been found on the Bay of Fundy, 
in N.S., but these spt cirr.ens are considered by some auihors to be a 
variety of Mesotype. The pretty little pebbles of Thomsonite that are 
brought from hake Superior, are really from the State of Minnesota, at 
a place called Grand Marais. They occur as pebbles in the Amygda- 
loid, and are often beautifully variegated with such colours as flesh red, 
zoned and mottled with green, red, brown and white, and when per e< t- 
ly free from holes, make very handsome gems. 

Apatite, which is destined to become the backbone of the Ottawa 
Valley, cannot be left altogether out of this category. If we have not 
yet found any material from which gems or ornaments may be cut ; 
and though we have seen during the past \<:\\ years so many different varie- 
ties developed, we may si ill look forward to better n suits in the fu;ure, 
and ] ossibl) some of thim may yet yield a more compact variety suit 
able for this purpose. I have seen both yellow and blue transparent 
crystals, but too small for cutting, from the Township of Wakefield. 

Since writing the above, some fine olive iueen transparent gems 
have been cut Irom this nrneral from Portland. 

Apophyllite, sometimes called Fish-eye Stone, (this name is also 
applied occasionally to Adularia,) is met with at several places on the 
Bay of Fundy, the more noticeable of which, for gem purposes, is on 
the Blomidon shore, where it occurs in greenish-white, semi-transparent 
to translucent crystals often an inch across. On the other side of the 
bay, at Cape D'Or, large modified white crystals, two inches in diameter 
are found. These are however, perfectly opaque and unfit for cutting. 
This mineral also occurs at Lake Superior, of a reddish colour, but of 
no value as a gem. 

Fluor. — Derbyshire Spar, or Blue John, as it is sometimes called, 
has been employed extensively in England for the last century, and 
even to-day there are more manufactories of this material in Derby 
than anywhere e'se, engaged in making such ornaments as vases, cups, 
plates, candlesticks, etc. The variety from which the above articles are 
made occurs in compact and granular masses of some shades of blue, 



140 

Safin Gypsum, sometimes called Satin Spar, which bears a strong 
resemblance to the former, is much softer, and consequently not so 
often used. 

Fine specimens of this material are found at various places on 
Minas Basin, more particularly at Cape Blomidon, Cape Sharp and 
Swan Creek. 

Alabaster is represented by Limestone (carbonate of lime), and 
Gypsum (sulphate of lime). The purest material used in Italy, and 
from which source many of the ornaments of this mineral come, 
is derived from a bed 2co feet deep at Castelino, in Tuscany, One of 
the principal manufactories of Alabaster ornaments is at Valterra, 
thirty miles from leghorn, where about 5,000 persons are dependent 
upon this industry. This \ariety of Limestone has not yet been 
observed in Canada. 

Gypsum Alabaster is found at Hillsborough, X.B., and is suscepti- 
ble of a good polish. Large blocks, hundreds of pounds in weight, are 
often taken out, consisting of translucent white anhydrite, which are 
generally veined with Gypsum ; the latter mineral, being softer, wears 
away faster in the polishing, leaving a somewhat uneven surface. This, 
however, should not be sufficient to detract from its value as an 
ornamental stone, as the effect produced by the sunken veins is often 
very grotesque. 

MalaJiiie. — This beautiful carbonate of copper which comes to us 
from Australia, Hungary, Tyrol and Siberia is also met with sparingly 
in Canada associated with other ores of copper. In the County of 
Hastings nodules of this mineral as large as a cricket ball are said 
to be found occasionally in the loose soil. From some of the copper 
mines of tne Eastern Townships and New Brunswick, handsome small 
. pectimens are sometimes met with and would contribute small gtms. 

Serpentine. — This mineral with its rich colour has always been an 
attractive ornamental stone. In Saxony several hundred people are 
employed making boxes, trinkets and other ornaments out of this 
material. Our Canadian Serpentines, more particularly those occurring 
in the Laurentian, are often of rich yellowish ar.d greenish colours and 
might be utilized for all purposes of interior decoration. Some years 
ago an enteiprising machinist established himself in the vicinity of the 



141 

Grenville Serpentines, where he turned by a fcot-lathe a number of very 
pretty ornaments such as vases, doorknobs, etc., but owing to his 
method of cutting up the stone with a hand-saw we netd hardly men- 
tion that this enterprise was not attended with much success. 

Calumet Island, Wakefield, Templeton, Bowman and Grenville 
probably afford the best translucent variety, although it is largely distri- 
buted ever ether parts of Canada, especially the Eastern Townships. 

Amber is occasionally found in rounded pieces in the lignites of 
the cretaceous and may possibly afford material suitable for beads, etc- 
The North-West Territory and British Columbia have both contributed 
small specimens. 

Jet is a variety of cannel coal, not yet observed at any Canadian 
locality, and judging from the many so-called imported Jet ornaments 
that 1 have seen lately, if the Whitby mineral is much used, black 
enamel and glass constitute the Jet of the present time. 

I have now called your attention to the various minerals 
available for gems and semi-gems scattered over the Dominion and 
given the localities of the more important material, and at the same time 
have drawn comparisons with those of other countries. Some per- 
sons have an idea that our crude material has no value before cutting 
and that it might be sold by the ton or hundredweight instead of by the 
carat, as most European or Oriential gems are. Now this vague idea 
might lead some persons to infer that our gems in Canada are compara- 
tively worthless, owing to the great abundance of cutting material, 
and only after being polished are they of any value. 
Certainly several of our semi-gems, such as Agate, Jasper, Amazon 
Stone, &c, might be obtained by the ton, and consequently are of little 
value, and even after being cut are quite inexpensive. But before we 
begin to guage our material for gem cutting, we must provide ourselves 
with certain facts, respecting its uniformity of colour and transparency, 
and its freedom from flaws and cavities ; then when blocks of six inch 
cube of such material can be obtained, we may talk of selling it by the 
ton. It is true of certain minerals, that large masses often occur, and 
perhaps one per cent, of this might be utilized, but then this large per 
centage only applies to a very few of our semi-gem minerals. And, on 
the other hand, the uncertainty of some minerals makes it almos- 



Ml' 

impossible to tell whnt sort of gems they will produce, and consequent- 
ly only about twenty -five per cent of the cut stones may be considered 
fair samples. This therefore raises the price of manufacture one hun- 
dred per cent. Neither does it follow, that the few selected stones are 
equal in value, as one, through richness of colour, transparency, &c, 
may realize more than ten of the others. This system of valuation will 
serve to illustrate the low prices of certain e;ems in the market ; and 
those who are in the habit of buying these grades of stones, and at the 
same time are unaware that the low prices, are caused by the sale of a few 
called No. i at fancy prices, should understand that the price of pro. 
duction of each stone is often greatly in excess of the prices paid by 
them for this class of gems. 

In mentioning the word Oriental, many persons, I presume, would 
infer that it signifies gems from the east. Many authors, however, apply 
this appelation to the Corundum species, such as Blue Sapphire, 
(Oriental Sapphire,) Gret. n Sapphire, (Oriental Emerald,) Yellow Sap- 
phire, (Oriental Topaz,) Red Sapphire, (Oriental Ruby,) &c, and others 
apply the word Oriental to the Emeralds from Peru, which are neither 
Corundum species, nor yet from the east, and as the word Oriental as 
applied to certain gems, is somewhat ambiguous, it should not be con- 
sidered in purchasing a gem, except from very reliable dealers. 

As to our crude material being of no value, this must depend 
entirely on the collector, who should be the best judge of the requisite 
material available. Now, as some of our local stones are sold by the 
carat on account of their scarcity, you will understand why the eironeous 
idea, that they may be obtained by the ton, should be pointed out. I 
can assure you we have not yet arrived at that stage when we can build 
our houses of Tourmaline, Mounstone or Quartz Asteria. 



113 
MONDAY AFTERNOON LECTURES. Nos. 7 & 8. 



The Chemistry of Food. 

By Frank T. Shutt, M.A.. F.C.S., F.I.C. 

(Two Lectures delivered Feb. 23rd, and March 2nd y iSgi.) 

He, indeed, would be an unreflecting and unthankful individual 
who would not be willing to admit that the higher civilization of later 
times has given us great and innumerable blessings. We might, per- 
chance, find such an one among those who have grown up amid the 
comforts and luxuries of wealthy modern life, an unconscious re- 
cipient of good things and ignorant of the life of our forefathers ; or 
among those who, from long-continued poverty or degradation, can 
hardly he said to enjoy those blessings. ■ To recount the triumphs of 
science and enterprise — not to speak of other and not less important 
factors of our civilization — during the last fifty years would be a 
more than Herculean task. Triumphs of the Natural and Applied 
Sciences — great triumphs in the art of healing and no less great in 
electricity, and mechanics, and agriculture, and a host of sister sciences 
— triumphs that have added to our comforts and have alleviated our 
sufferings, attend and surround us on every side. 

But yet, while confessing; all this with ready lips, a moment's serious 
reflection tells us that there is scarcely a blessing without its concomi- 
tant evil — an evil too often the result of the abuse of the blessing. 
Evils whose origins may easily be traced to the wrong or excessive use 
of things in themselves good and wholesome, pervade all ranks of 
society. It is only when we view exclusively this side of the picture — 
as too many of us occasionally do — that we are apt to conclude tha t 
our boasting of the achievements of the nineteenth century and the 
so-called betterment of the race, is worse than vain. 

But whit has all this to do with the subject under discussion — the 
chemistry of food ? A little careful thought may show us the applica- 
bility of these remarks as an introduction to a lecture on such an 
irn >ortant matter as food ; for although my title might be considered, 
strictly speaking, to confine me to the composition of foods, I propose 
to incorporate with the chemistry somewhat of the physiology of food. 



144 

In this way I hope to make these lectures not only more interesting but 
more instructive than they otheswise might be to a general audience. 
By learning the functions of the constituents of foods in the system we 
may— as we shall see more clearly later on — be the better able to prac- 
tise economy and preserve health. 

To many of us civilized life has brought with it the accumulation 
of wealth, and wealth grants us comparative leisure and the means of 
obtaining not only necessities but luxuries in abundance. It gives us 
plenty of good, nutritious 'and palatable food, but it also gives us the 
opportunity of indulging in those luxuries of the table, the excessive use 
of which is so disastrous to our health. Leisure takes from us the 
necessity of that wholesome amount of exercise, which promotes a nor- 
mal and healthful condition of the system. 

On the other hand the conditions of society make us ambitious and 
encourage us to strain every muscle and nerve towards the attainment 
of more money and power, and thus it is that often we overwork our 
selves, body and mind — become physical wrecks, not from the want of 
an ample supply of food, but because from the mode of our living we 
have not allowed it to nourish us properly. 

I, therefore, wish to emphasize the great and, I may say, vital 
importance that a knowledge of the requirements of the human body 
and of the composition and character of our daily foods is to everyone 
nowadays. In the first place we are confronted with the statement on 
good authority that more suffer from over eating than from over-drinking, 
though the number of victims of the latter vice, we must all admit, is 
not small. Over-eating is a term used not only to designate the more 
than sufficient use of simple, wholesome food but also to include the 
taking in excessive quantities of rich and concentrated foods, most of 
which may be called luxuries, and lastly, one-sided diets adopted either 
from necessity or from mere fancy. Such diets are sooner or later 
inevitably followed by disease or a disordered system. That dyspepsia 
and allied ailments, especially on this side of the Atlantic, are very 
prevalent, and that the same are due to an abnormal or excessive diet, 
is well known, but that probably over fifty per cent, of the common dis- 
orders now afflicting mankind are from the same causes, and which are 
preventable by a proper care of the body and a judicious diet, is cer- 



1*5 

tainly not widely recognized by the la : ty, though the medical profession 
have repeatedly attested the truthfulness of the statement. 

From a hygienic standpoint, therefore, we must admit the useful- 
ness of that knowledge which tells of the true nu ritive value of the 
different foods and the amounts of them required to sustain health and 
vigour — a knowledge that will enable us to use with discretion those 
foods best suited to our wants and as a result experience mens sana in 
corpofe sano. 

But the importance of the subject may be urged from another 
aspect — the economic one. " Half the struggle of life is a struggle for 
food," says Edward Atkinson, and though this may appear an extreme 
statement, reflection assures us of its truth. Evidence in its support is 
supplied in abundance by our large cities where competition is rife and 
the inhabitants are massed together. When the scourge of famine 
overtakes a country, the misery and horrors which attend such a 
catastrophe emphatically attest its accuracy. Surely, then, food-econ- 
omy is a subject well worthy of study, lor from it governments and 
individuals may learn how to obtain the most nutritious food for the 
least outlay, and thus in times of distress be enabled to alleviate much 
suffering. But nearer home there seems to be ample room tor improving 
our own condition in this matter of food-economy. I do not here refer 
to that wilful waste of food in our homes, which I must designate a sin 
against mankind, nor to that excessive use of food that engenders 
disease. I wish, rather, to direct your attention to the study of con- 
trasting the money value of foods with their nutritive value. For by 
such we shall be enabled to make choice of the most nutritious and 
palatable viands at the least cost. Then, perhaps, while spending a little 
less on our stomachs, we should have somewhat more to expend on 
other and no less noble objects in life — the improvement of our 
faculties and mental enjoyments — to say nothing of the noblest of all, 
the benefitting of our fellow man in one or other of the many ways now 
open to us. 

And there is yet a third side to the question— that of pleasure. 
This is, undoubtedly, a legitimate one for our consideration. The 
pleasure of eating and drinking of the good things provided for us is 
assuredly a right one, and one that has been so recognized from all 



146 



times. But my subject is rather with foods themselves, and I must 
hasten on, having briefly outlined the reason why I deem a knowledge 
of what we eat so important, so necessary as to warrant my impressing 
upon you so urgently the value of its study. 

It is the food we eat that forms the tissues and developes the 
heat and energy of our bodies. The body creates nothing, neither 
matter or force. The physical life is dependent directly upon the 
digested food, water, and the oxygen we breathe. The changes the 
food undergoes in the life functions are simply and truly transforma- 
tions. We shall therefore do well at the outset to consider briefly those 
elements and compounds that compose the body structure. 

The Chemical Basis of the Human' Body. 

Chemical analysis has proven that only fifteen, or at most seventeen, 
of the elements enter into the composition of the tissues of the body. 
In the following table, from Brubaker's Physiology, they are enumerated 
together with the relative quantities in which they exist and the tissues 
in which they are found. 

Chemical Composition of the Human Body. 

O. H. C. are found in all the tissues and 

fluids of the body, without exception. 
O. H C. and N found in most of the fluids 

and all the tissues, except fat. 
In fibrin, casein, albumen, gelatine of the 

tir-sues, in sweat and urine. 
In brain, saliva, blood and bones. 
In bones and teeth, in blood, saliva and 

chyle. 
In all the fluids of the body. 
In muscles. 

In bones, associated with calcium. 
In the fluids and solid tissues. 
With calcium in bones and teeth. 
In blood corpuscles and in muscles. 
In blood, bones and hair. 
Frobably in hair, bones and nails. 



Oxygen, 


72.00 ^1 


Hydrogen, 


9.10 | 


Nitrogen, 


2 -5° 1 


Carbon, 


1350J 


Sulphur, 


.147 


Phosphorus, 


i-i5 


Calcium, 


1.30 


Sodium. 


•10 


Potassium, 


.026 


Magnesium, 


.001 


Chlorine, 


.085 


Fluorine, 


.080 


Iron, 


.01 


Silicon 


traces, 


Manganese 


traces, 



147 

These elements do not exist in the body in the free state, if we 
except traces of uncombined Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen, but in 
various combinations with one another forming exceedingly complex 
compounds. These, for the sake of convenience, fail into two great 
classes: — Organic and Inorganic, though the distinction is no longer 
a strictly accurate one. The organic compounds may be considered 
under the divisions, (a) Nitrogenous, (b) NoN-NrTROGENOUs, accord- 
ing as to whether Nitrogen enters into their composition or not. Many 
of the elements above cited are common to both the Organic and 
Inorganic compounds. 

The Nitrogenous compounds are the most numerous as to their 
number as well as most complex as to their quantitative composition, 
though they are made up of but four elements, Carbon, Hydrogen, 
Nitrogen and Carbon, with occasionally small amounts of Phosphorus 
and Sulphur. We can here only mention certain large groups ot 
these compounds. 

Albuminoids or Proteids, a generic term including a number of 
substances having the same percentage composition but different physical 
properties. Sub-divisions comprise, (i) Native Albumens, of which the 
white of egg is an example ; (2) Globulins, chief among which is 
Myosin, the organic b tsis of muscle ; (3) Derived Albumetis, the casein 
or curd of milk and certain substances formed in the stomach during 
digestion; and (4) Peptones or Soluble Albuminoids, formed by the action 
of the digestive fluids on food, and which pass into the blood to nourish 
the body. Besides these there are the Gelatins found in bones, etc., 
and certain other waste products formed by the life functions ot the 
various organs of the body. 

The Non-nitrogenous organic compounds are made up entirely 
of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. They consist of (a) Carbo-hydrates, 
in which the Oxygen and Hydrogen are in proportion to form water ; 
(b) Fats, richer in Carbon and Hydrogen than the Carbo-hydrates, (e) 
Fatty acids and (d) Alcohols. 

Carbo-hydrates, Sugar, Starch, are represented in comparatively 
small quantities in the body, though found in many of the fluids and 



148 

tissues. The forms of sugar are G ycogen of the liver, Lactose or sugar 
of milk, Glucose (grape sugar) and Inosite or sugar of muscle. 

Fats and Oils — Palmitin, Olein and Stearin. These are really salts 
of the alcohol Glycerins with the fatty acids Palmitic, O'eic and Stearic. 
The fat of the body is made up chiefly of Palmitin and Stearin (solids) 
with small quantities of Olein (liquid). 

The fatty acids require no special discussion he*e. Mention of 
the three principal ones has already been made. These with Butyric 
acid in miik and Propionic acid in sweat, exist in combination with 
certain bases, e.g., Potassium, Calcium and Sodium in various parts of 
the body. 

Alcohols: — Glycerine, a true alcohol has already been spoken of 
under ''fats;" it is also produced during digestion; Cholesterine, a 
crystallized uncombined alcohol, is present chiefly in bile. Ordinary 
alcohol has been detected in the body — probably the result of a 
fermentation in the digestive tract. Under normal conditions, however, 
it is doubtful if it is produced. 

Inorganic or Mineral Compounds. — The chief of these is 
Water (Oxygen and Hydrogen), present to a very large extent in every 
fluid and tissue. Its great importance and function will be spoken of 
later on. Calcium phosphate (phosphate of lime), another esse-.tial 
compound, is the basis of bones and teeth, but also found in other 
parts. Chloride of Sodium (common salt) is to be met with in all 
tissues and fluids. Iron in minute quantities enters into the com- 
position of haemoglobin, the colouring matter of the blood. It is also 
to be detected in many of the body tissues. 

The foregoing outline may serve as an enumeration of the moie 
important body substances. Their origin and physiological function 
will be discussed when speaking of the nutritive ingredients of foods 
and the processes of digestion and assimilation. A knowledge of the 
relative amounts of the chemical elements and of the compounds already 
alluded to, as they exist in the body, will be found to be of 
interest and value. I, therefore, subjoin the following admirable tables 
compiled for the United States National Museum, Washington, by 
Messrs. Welch and Pomeroy. 



149 



WEIGHTS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE B3DY OF 
A MAX WEIGHING 1 48 LBS. 

Oxygen 92.4 pounds 

Carbon 31.3 

Hydrogen 14,6 

Nitrogen 4.6 

Calcium 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

Sulphur 

Chlorine 

Sodium 

Magnesium 

Iron 

Fluorine 



2.8 
1.4 

•34 

.24 
.12 
.1 2 
.04 
.02 
.02 



Total 148.00 



COMPOUNDS IN THE BODY OF A MAN WEIGHING 
I48 POUNDS. 

Water 90.0 pounds 

Protein (Albuminoids) 26.6 

Fats 23.0 

Carbo-hydrates (starch, sugar) .1 

Mineral matters (inorganic) 8.3 



Total 148.0 



The Nutrients cf Food. 

Having learnt somewhat of the compounds of the body and that 
the latter is built up by the functions of the organs of the body from 
the digested food, we may go on to consider the composition of foods, 
vegetable and animal. In view of what has already been said we shall 
not be surprised to hear that the edible and nutritive portions consist, in 
varying proportions, of those ingredients or compounds already consi- 
dered, viz: Albuminoids, Carbo-hydrates, Fats and Mineral matters 



150 

(including water). These are termed Nutrients, and the composition of 

the three classes of organic compounds is roughly as follows : 

Albuminoids. Fats. Carbo-hydrates. 
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Carbon 53.0 76.5 44.0 

Hydrogen 7-o 12.0 6.0 

Oxygen 24.0 11.5 500 

Nitrogen 16.0 None None 

100.0 100. o 100. o 

These Nutrients are by no means equally distributed throughout 
the food materials. The animal foods — meats and fish — while very 
rich in albumino:ds and fats, possess but traces of the carbo-hydrates. 
They may be considered, therefore, essentially nitrogenous. Vegetable 
foods as a rule contain a large percentage of Carbo-hydrates, starch 
and sugar, and small quantities of albuminoids and fats, and conse- 
quently may be considered as essentially ncn nitrogenous. An exception 
to the latter is to be found in peas and beans, which contain a notable 
amount of albuminoids. Very tat meats on the other hand, by reason 
of the large amount of fat they possess, cannot be considered as highly 
nitrogenous. 

This great distinction between these classes of foods is one 

worth remembering as helping us to arrive at their true nutritive value. 

To enable us to do this the better, however, we may no.v proceed to 

state the physiological functions of these nutrients, whether they be 

derived from animal or vegetable foods. For this purpose I shall take 

the liberty of placing before you another chart from the National 

Museum. 

Uses of Food in the Body. 

Food supplies the wants of the body in several ways. Food fur- 
nishes : 

1. The materials of which the body is made. 

2. The materials to repair the wastes of the body and to protect 

its tissues from being unduly consumed. 
Food is consumed in the body as fuel to 

3. Provide heat to keep it warm ; 

4. Produce muscular and intellectual energy for the work it has to do 



151 

The body is built up and its wastes repaired by the nutrients. The 
nutrients also serve as fuel to warm the body and supply it with 
strength. 

Ways in which the nutrients are used in the body : 

| Form the nitrogenous basis of blood, muscle, sinew, 
Thealbuminoid I bone . s < in , &c. 



ol food 



Are chtnged into fats and carbo-hydrates. 
Are consumed for fuel. 



The fats of ( Are stored in the body as fats. 
f°°d ( Ar<e«c®asu»ied for fuel. 

The carbo- f Are changed into fats, 
hydrates of rood ! Are consumed for fuel. 

f Are transformed into the mineral matters of bone 
The mineral I and other tissues, 

matters of food ! , . . , 

Are used in various other ways. 

This is a very instructive table, and it will be well before passing 
on to consider in more detail what it means. It emphatically tells us 
in the first place that we cannot exist for any length of time on any one 
class of nutrients — a fact amply proved by actual experiment No 
one nutrient is a complete diet. A diet consisting entirely of albumi- 
noids, or of carbo hydrates, or of fats, is an impossible one, though a 
glance at the table shows that the albuminoids are more universal in their 
functions that the other two nutrients. We shall learn later on some- 
what of the proper ratio in which they should be used in order to 
preserve health. The tissues of the body are continually undergoing 
disintegration, heat is being dissipated and muscular and intellectual 
energy constantly expended. Let us examine for a moment the different 
classes of food as to their power to supply these wants. 

We have already said that animal foods — meats of all kinds and 
fish — are principally nitrogenous. The albuminoids they contain are 
often called flesh formers, because such go to form in the body the 
muscle and the blood. They also possess more or less fat, which may 
be laid up or converted into adipose tissue or used up in the production 
of heat. 

The vegetable foods consist largely of the carbo-hydrates, and 



152 

cannot be said to assist in the formation of new tissue — muscle, blood, 
&c, but are of service as fuel in developing the necessary heat and 
energy. Of course, the fats they contain may be so used, or deposited 
as such in the adipose tissues. 

Water and mineral matters are common to both classes of foods. 
While both are absolutely nece-sary, they can scarcely be called nutrients. 
Water is the universal solvent. Dependent upon its presence are the 
processes of digestion and assimilation. The blood and lymph are 
largely water, and by them the nutri ive matter is conveyed to every 
part of the body. It also takes part in the elimination of waste 
products. Mineral matters, especially common salt and phosphate 
of lime are required for tissues and bones. " The salt in the blood 
holds the albuminoids in solution, and by regulating the amount of water 
in the blood corpuscles and the cellular elements of the tissues, preserves 
their form and consistence." Phosphate of lime gives solidity to the 
bones and teeth, and is also present in muscle, milk, &c. 

Composition and Digestibility of the More Common Foods 

We may now consider the composition and digestibility of some of 
the mote common foods. In the subjoined table, obtained from the 
same source as the preceding, the percentage indigestible, as well as the 
total amount of each nutrient is given. It is a very instructive 
chart and one that well deserves a careful study. It shows most clearly 
the large amount of albuminoids, entirely digestible, in the animal foods 
(meats and fish), and that in such, increased fat generally means 
decreased water. This is exemplified in the case of fat pork. The carbo- 
hydrates (starch and sugar) are practically absent in these foods. Eggs 
we see to be a highly concentrated food, being rich in albuminoids and 
fat, but containing no starch or sugar. Fish, generally speaking, is a 
very nutritious food, being easy of digestion. Its value as a brain food 
will be spoken of later on. Cod may be considered albuminoids and 
water. Milk is shown to be a well balanced food — i. e. it contains all 
the materials in good proportions and approaches most nearly the com- 
position of a ' perfect food.' Its almost total digestibility makes it a 
most important factor in the diet of the young and aged. It has been 
found that boiling milk somewhat impairs its digestibility. Butter may 



153 



Table showing composition and proportion of i idigestible materials of 
the more ordinary foods. 



Beef, rather lean . . . . 

" rather fat 

Mutton, fat 

Pork, very fat 

Cod 

Salmon 

Mackerel 

E gg s 

Milk 

Butter 

Cheese, whole milk . 

Wheat, flour 

" bread 

Oatmeal 

Pease 

Cornmeal 

Sugar 

Potatoes 

Turnips 



Album 


inoids. 


Fats. 


Carbo- 
hydrates. 














S 














Total. 


V 


Total. 


Indi- 
gestible 


Total. 


Indi- 
gestible 




c 


23.0 


0.0 


9.0 


0.9 


0.0 


0.0 


i-3 


20.0 


00 


19.0 


i-9 


0.0 


0.0 


1 .0 


15.0 


0.0 


40.0 




0.0 


0.9 


1 .0 


3 


0.0 


80.5 


6.0 


0.0 


0.0 


6.5 


15.0 




1.0 




0.0 


0.0 


i-5 


22.0 




14-3 




0.0 





i-7 


18.8 


00 


8.2 


0.8 


0.0 


0.0 


1.4 


13-4 


0.0 


11. 8 


2.4 


0.7 


0.0 


1 .0 


3-4 


0.0 


3-7 


0. 1 


4.8 


0.0 


0.7 


1 .0 




87.5 


i-7 


0-5 




3.0 


27.1 


0.0 


35-5 


0.9 


2-3 


0.0 


3-9 


n. 6 


2. I 


0.8 




72.2 


1.8 


0.4 


8.9 


I .2 


i-9 


.... 


55-5 


0.6 


1 .0 


15.0 




5.0 


.... 


69.0 




1 .0 


22.9 


3-2 


1.8 


.... i 


57-8 


2.1 


2-5 


9i 


I .2 


3-8 


.... 


71.0 


2-3 


1.6 


03 




0.0 


0.0 


96.7 


0.0 


0.8 


2.0 


o-5 


0.2 




21.3 


1.6 


1 .0 


1 .0 


03 


0.2 




6.9 


i-3 


0.7 



66.7 

60.0 

44.0 

10. o 

82.5 

62.0 
71 .6 
73-1 
87.4 
9.0 
31.2 
15.0 

32-7 
10. o 
15.0 

14-5 
2.2 

75-5 

)1.2 



154 

be considered pure fat, which is easy of digestion and assimilation if 
the condition of the stomach be normal and too much be not taken. 
Cheese is a highly nitrogenous and exceedingly valuable food. It not 
only is easily digested but also assists in the digestion of other foods. 
Its price, when we consider these important desiderata, recommends it 
for more extensive use than it at present enjoys. 

The vegetable foods are characterized by low albuminoids and high 
carbo-hydrates. The amount of fat in most of them is small, and need 
hardly be taken into account as a nutrient. Peas and beans (fruit of the 
Leguminosas) stand out as exceptions in containing large percentages 
of albuminoids. Oatmeal also more closely approximates animal foods 
than any of the other cereals. The starch and sugar of vegetable foods 
is as a rule very digestible. The vegetables proper consist largely of 
starch, or allied substances, and water. Potatoes, cabbage and many 
other vegetables are also valuable for the mineral salts they contain. 
Asparagus, lettuce, celery and some others contain but little nutritive 
matter, bu 1 ; play a very important hygienic role, aiding the digestion 
of other viands, diluting the more concentrated foods, and thus render- 
ing them more easily assimilable ; the salts and active principles many 
of them contain have a beneficial and medicinal effect on the sys- 
tem. Vegetables must form a large part of every wholesome diet. 
Fruits are largely water, and are divided into (a) Sweet, in which sugar 
predominates when ripe ; {b) Acid, containing tartaric and citric acid, 
generally refreshing and giving a healthy tone to the organs ; (c) Starchy; 
and (d) Oily, the essential oils in wmich give the peculiar flavour 
Fruits, though having a low nutritive value, are, when ripe, easy of 
digestion. The pectose of green fruit is indigestible. This as the fruit 
ripens turns to pectin, akin to sugar, which, as before stated, is easily 
digested. The odour and flavour of fruits, due as before mentioned to 
oils and volatile ethers, chiefly abundant in the pericarp, seem to 
enhance their palatability. 

Here a word may be said of a large class of substances which 
act rather as stimulants than nutrients. Tea, coffee, spices and alcohol 
come under this category. They act as appetisers, and in moderation 
as useful and proper excitants of the digestive organs, especially in 
cases of enfeebled digestion. 



155 

Amounts of the Nutrients Required. 

The quantity and kind of food eaten must depend largely on 
the age, the weight, and the kind and amount of work of the in- 
dividual, taking into consideration the climate and the peculiar char- 
acteristics of the person's digestion — a most important factor. The 
amount of food required per diem by the body is measured by the 
amount of carbon and nitrogen eliminated daily from the system. 
These represent the final and waste products of the food compounds. 
The weight of carbon excreted by a healthy person in one form or 
another doing a fair amount of work is about fifteen times heavier than 
that of the nitrogen. The carbon daily eliminated is about 4,600 
grains, the nitrogen about 300 grains. These numbers are the results 
of many experiments, but for many reasons are only approximate. In 
order to retain health it is necessary to preserve as closely as possible 
this ratio in our diet, for not only do we wish to avoid an excess or 
lack of food, but also the excess or lack of any one ingredient. If we 
supply the nitrogen (Albuminoids) altogether from vegetable foods< 
such a large quantity has to be consumed that there would be a large 
excess of carbon — a state of affairs seriously affecting the health. On 
the other hand, if the required amount of carbon is to be obtained 
from an exclusive meat diet, about four times as much nitrogen as 
needed would be furnished. This would seriously impair the digestion 
and be apt to induce disease. 

As I have before emphasized, no one class of nutrients is in itself a 
complete food, and it is only when they are in proper proportions that a 
healthy and vigorous system can be maintained. Though there is 
strong tendency in the system to eliminate any excess of food, yet, 2s 
I have pointed out before, too much food acts deleteriously. The 
habitual use of large quantities of meat and albuminous foods induces 
a diseased condition of the liver, gout, &c, while excessive amounts of 
the fats, starch and sugar cause obesity and dyspepsia. :.. 

Professor Ranke found that when doing no muscular work, his 
weight was maintained with the following per day. 

Albuminoids, 3.5 ozs. ; Fats, 3.5 ozs.; Carbo-hydrates, 8.5 ozs. 
Professor Voit, an eminent German scientist, gives the following 



156 

amour ;s per day for an adult doing an ordinary day's (muscular) work, 
supposing neither to gain nor loose weight. 

Albuminoids, 4.2 ozs. ; Fats, 2 ozs.; Carbo-hydrates, 17.6 ozs. 
Professor W. O. Atvvater, of Washington, U.S.A., who has written 
a splendid series of articles in the " Century" for 1887, on the subject 
of foods, to which I am largely indebted for material in these lectures, 
estimates that an average man doing muscular work requires — 

For moderate work, Albuminoids, 4.4 ozs. ; Fats, 4.4 ozs. ; Carbo- 
hydrates, 14.4 ozs. 

For hard work, Albuminoids, 5.2 ozs. ; Fats, 4.4 ozs. ; Carbo- 
hydrates, 14.4 ozs. 

Professor Parkes says that the food required for a healthy adult is : 
For laborious occupation, Albuminoids, 6 to 7 oz ; Fats, 3.5 to 4.5 oz ; 
Carbo-hydrates, 16 to 18 oz ; Salts, 1.2 to 1.5 oz. 

At rest, Albuminoids, 2.5 oz; Fat, 1 oz ; Carbo-hydrates, 12 oz; 
Salts, .5 oz. 

The harder the work the more nitrogenous (albuminoids) should 
the diet be. 

The heat of the body in order to be maintained necessitates the com- 
bustion of a large proportion of the food, probably about y of it. This 
heat, together with the work expended internally in the functions of the 
heart, respiration, &c, and the external muscular action in locomotion 
and other voluntary work, represent an amount of energy calculated at 
about 3,400 foot-tons, i.e., the force required to raise 3,400 tons 1 foot 
high. The heat of the body represents in amount that required to raise 
48.4 lbs. from the freezing to the boiling point, or in mechanical power 
would be sufficient to raise 150 lbs. through a vertical height of 8£ 
miles. All this must be provided for by food and oxygen before making 
any demands on the system for muscular or brain labour. 
Fish as a Brain Food. 

I may here allude very briefly to the common, but erroneous, opinion 
that brain work requires or is benefitted by a liberal fish diet. This has 
arisen from statements made to the effect that thought and brain work 
in general used up a large quantity of phosphorus, and secondly, that 
fish supplied in abundance this element. Neither of these assertions 
appears on investigation to be true. The brain tissue consumed by 



157 

mental activity contains no more phosphorus than that of other parts of 
the body — -not so much as the bones and teeth. Fish does not furnish 
this element more abundantly than other animal foods. Good head 
work like good hand work requires a good digestion, and as fish is eas'ly 
assimilated it may, for this very reason, be found of great value to 
brain workers, especially if such do not take sufficient muscular exercise 
to induce a vigorous digestion. 

Before bringing these lectures to a close I wish to gire you an 
outline of the process of digestion, the changes that take place in 
cooking food, and a few practical remarks drawn from a consideration 
of the whole subject. 

Digestion. 
Mastication or trituration of the food in the mouth serves by a 
thorough division of the material to present a greater surface to the 
solvent action of the digestive fluids. An increased digestion is the 
result. Saliva, secreted by certain glands of the mouth, softens and 
moistens the food and converts the insoluble starch into soluble 
sugar. In this reaction the active principle is Ptyaline. 

The gastric juice, the secretion of the true peptic glands of the 
stomach, has a physical and chemical action. It dissolves and d ; sin- 
tegrates the food, reducing it to a liquid condition, and converts tne 
a'buminoids into peptones, which are assimilated by the blood. Its 
composition is : — 

w *ter 97.5 

Pepsin 1.5 

Hydrochloric ucid .5 

Salts .5 

100. o 
It has an acid reaction. 

The intestinal digestion is promoted by the pancreatic juice, which 
has an alkaline reaction. It has a fourfold function : — 

(1) Converting starch into sugar. 

(2) Converting albuminoids into peptones. 

(3) The emulsification of fats. 

(4) Conversion of cane sugar into grape sugar. 



158 

Bile, formed in the hepatic cells, assists in the emulsification of fats 
and promotes their absorption and stimulates the secretions ef the 
intestinal glands. It also serves to prevent putrefactive changes in the 
food. The digested food or chyme is absorbed by the blood as 
the food passes through the intestines, the undigested portion entering 
the large intestines. 

The Chemistry of Cooking. 

The changes induced by cooking are manifold, some increasing, 
others decreasing the digestibility of the food, while others only serve 
to render the same more tasteful by the production of certain substan- 
ces which pleasantly excite the palate. 

Meats are more readily digested when "underdone" than well 
cooked, though undoubtedly very tough meat by its disintegration is 
rendered more tender and easy of mastication by the process. Certain 
empyreumatic substances are developed by roasting and boiling meats 
which give agreeable taste and savouiy odours. These act rather as 
stimulants than nutrients, and render the food more palatable than in 
the uncooked condition. Roast beef, beef tea and soups ow; their 
piquancy to these compounds. Eggs and milk are rendered less 
digestible by cooking, for the reason that coagulated albumen is not 
readily acted upon by the digestive fluids. 

On the other hand, most vegetable foods require cooking to in- 
crease their digestibility, The cells containing the staich in the raw 
material have walls of cellulose, difficult of digestion. By cooking, this 
cellulose is softened and the starch grains are burst. The contents then 
are more completely exposed to the digestive fluids. 

In summing up I would offer the following remarks and deductions- 
Their importance, I think, merits your consideration. 

i. That in the choice of viands care should be taken that the diet 
consists of both vegetable and animal foods. The proportion of 
nutrients may roughly be stated at three times the weight of carbo- 
hydrates to equal weights of fats and albuminoids. Excess of any one 
nutrient is likely to be injurious to health. 

It would seem that nature teaches what science confirms— a 
proper combination of materials. The Irishman with his potatoes 
(carbo-hydrates) and buttermilk (albuminoids), the Englishman with 



159 

his bread and cheese (carbo hydrates, fat and albuminoids), and many 
others, exemplify this inference. 

2. Starch, sugar and fats are essentially heat and energy producers. 
As heat producers fats are ab >ut 2 '4 times more valuable than carbo- 
hydrates. In cold climates we find the inhabitants existing largely on 
fatty foods. Esquimaux and lumbermen are notable examples. 

The albuminoids are the most cosily of all the nutrients. While 
performing to some extent the functions just mentioned, they have for their 
chief office that of building up the tissues of the body and repairing 
the waste continually going on. The albuminoids cannot be replaced 
in the diet by any other material. 

3. Fruits and many vegetables while not rich in nutritive material 
should form a large part of the diet, as they assist in digestion and, 
acting medicinally, give a healthy tone to the system. Salads of lettuce, 
celery and beets, if not too rich, have a cooling and refreshing effect. 

4. Condiments and stimulants are often desirable as appetisers 
and in moderate amounts excite the flow of the digestive fluids, and 
thus aid digestion. Excess of alcohol, tea and certain other articles of 
this class is well known to have injurious physiological action. 

5. Cooking, while, as a rule, rendering the animal foods rather less 
digestible, makes vegetable foods more fit for consumption. 

6. Mastication should be thorough in order that the food may be 
well mixed with saliva, and for this purpose slow eating is to be 
recommended. 

7. The process of digestion is a continuous one. Active work 
retards somewhat the digestion of a heavy meal, and such should, 
therefore, be taken rather after the work of the day than during it. The 
times of meals must largely be regulated by the amount and kind of 
work. It is better to eat a little and often than to overload the digestive 
apparatus at any one meal. Though the digestive process is not so 
vigorous during sleep as in the day time, light refreshment is to be 
recommended before retiring — the stomach thereby is kept from being 
totally void of food in the morning. To those who are not robust eaters 
this advice is more particularly given. 

8. The blood which conveys the digested food to every part of the 
body is largely water. On this account and because all the tissues contain 



160 

a large amount of this compound, and the waste of the body is partially 
eliminated in a fluid form, it is necessary that as such, or under the 
guise of some drink, a considerable quantity of water be daily taken. 
Very cold water lowers the temperature of the stomach, retarding diges- 
tion. In excess, water dilutes detrimentally the gastric juice. The 
aged, therefore, and those whose digestion is not vigorous should avoid 
too much water, especially of a low temperature. For such, a light wine 
or other stimulant in moderation is undoubtedly beneficial. In drinking 
as in eating the appetite is a safe guide. As a rule it is wise not to satiate 
the appetite for solids or fluids. The old adage " Rise with an appetite 
and you will always sit down with one," is a wise one. 

9. Pastry and sweetmeats. Hot rich pastry and cake are exces- 
sively indigestible, and in no sense can be considered as complete 
foods. They should be sparingly eaten, if at all. Excess of sugar, as 
in sweetmeats, deranges digestion. 

10. Many "made dishes" are very rich and concentrated, and can 
scarcely be considered as having a place in a wholesome diet. 



PROGRAMME. 
1891. 

Dec. 17 — President's Inaugural Address, (The work of the Geological 

Survey) Dr. Ells 

1892. 

Jm'y 14 — Notes of a trip in Japan, ..... Mr. Harrington 

Report of Ornithological Branch. 

Jan'y 28 — The Educational value of Natural Science, . . . Mr. Cowley 

Feb'y 11 — Microscopical Soiree. (Normal School Students particularly invited). 

Four short papers of not more than ten minutes each, by Messrs. Ferrier, 
Harrington, Shutt and Fletcher, to be illustrated by microscopes. 

Feb'y 25 — On some New Chazy Fossils, . . . Mr. J. W. E. Sowter 

The Spring Flowers of Ottawa and Vicinity, . Mr. James Macoun 
Report of the Entomological Branch. 

March 10 — Water: its properties and functions, . . . Mr. Lehmann 

Report of Zoological Branch. 
Report of the Geological Branch. 



161 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 
The Work of the Geological Survey of Canada. 

(R. W. Ells, LL.D.) 

(Delivered December ijth, iSgi.) 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, — In attempting to prepare 
the opening leture of the course for the present season, I have been 
considerably exercised as to what subject would be of most interest to 
the members of die Club It has, however, been suggested to lr.e that 
to those of us who live in this city, where the Geological Survey has its 
location, as well as to many of our members abroad, some facts relative 
to the work of such a department, as annually carried out, might be of 
interest. Very often it has been asked : What is the work of the 
Geological Survey? What does its staff find to do year after year, and 
what great purpose does it serve in the country's progress and welfare? 
To di>cuss this subject fully would require a very long chapter, but I hope 
to be able to lay before you a few ideas regarding the general character of 
this work that may to some extent at least be an answer to the ques- 
tions propounded. 

In the open ng raper which I had the honour of giving before this 
Club two years ago, I reviewed very briefly the subject of geological 
progress in Canada lor the fifty years subsequent to the first recognized 
work done in this country in connection with that branch of science. 
In this, the work was divided into three periods, viz: ist, that prior 
to the estal lishment of the Geological Survey; 2nd, that under the 
direction of tie late Sir William Logan, and 3rd, that subsequent to his 
retirement; the latter of which could not, owing to lack of time, be 
then con-iaeicd. 

The confederation of the Lower Provinces with Ontario and Que- 
bec in 1S67 ver\ greatly extended the field of the Survey's labours, and 
changed, very materially, the then existing arrangements of the staff 
and methods of operation. It brought into the work of the Depart- 
ment the study of the geology of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; 
and this was spe< dily followed by the extension of this work into British 
Columbia and the great Northwest; thus furnishing a field for geologi- 
cal exploration of the most magnificent dimensions, comprising an area 



162 

second to th it of no o'her colonv or nation in the civilized world. This 
enormous and sudden increase in the work thrown upon the Survey 
necessitated an almost complete change not on!y in methods but a very 
considerable change in the personnel of the staff itself; an amount of 
work, in fact, which can scarcely be estimated by anyone without careful 
study and comparison with similar work done in this branch of science 
by other countries. For while the importance of a systematic geologi- 
cal survey has for many years been recognized by all nations and 
regarded as a very considerable factor in connection with the national 
progress and development, the areas embraced in the several countries 
in which such surveys have been carried on are, for the most part, 
of very limited extent as compared with the great stretch of country 
called Canada, and the entering upon the geological study of half a 
continent by sd comparatively young a nation may well be regarded as 
one of the greatest and most important events in the history of the 
science. 

Probably one of the most elaborately conducted surveys in recent 
times is that of the British Islands, in which we have an area embraced 
in the three divisions of England, Ireland and Scotland, scarcely two- 
thirds the extent of the Province of Quebec alone ; densely populated 
and so arranged that the work of the geologist was facilitated to the 
utmost degree by the open character of the whole country and by the 
presence of the most carefully constructed large scale maps possible to 
he obtained; yet for more than half a century the combined skill of the 
geologists of England, Scotland and Ireland, aided by the most recent 
improvements in instruments and in appliances for conducting all 
necessary examinations, and by a financial backing sufficient to meet 
every requirement, has been devoted to the determination of their 
geological structure and mineral resources. Even the great Geological 
Survey of India, which, with the exception of the United States and 
Canada, is probably on the most extensive scale of any in the world, 
embraces in the whole fndan Empire an area of only one and a half 
million square miles, while the gigantic colony of Australia, even were 
the confederation there complete, would still in the whole island fail to 
approach the area embraced in the Survey's operations in Canada by 
half a million of square miles. In point of fact we here in Canada 



1 63 

have so acqu'^d the habit of looking upon such immense areas as of 
every day occurrence, that an initial journey of three or four thousand 
miles to begin operations is regarded with no greater feeling of excite- 
ment or uneasiness than one of a tenth that distance in a much smaller 
country. In Australia, however, the work of the geological surveys has 
been comparatively local, and has never been applied to the enormous 
areas with which we are familiar in this country. The only survey, then 
which in point of extent can at all compare with that of Canada is that 
of our gigantic neighbour to the south, where the area of surface to be 
covered by its operations is not very different from our own, but where 
certain conditions exist which render a comparison of the work of the 
two surveys interesting from several standpomts. Thus, in the United 
States, owing to their more southerly position, field parties are enabled 
to spend a very much longer period in exploration than in Canada; in 
fact there is no reason why their field work cannot, in many portions, 
be carried on throughout the entire yeat. In Canada, on the other 
hand, owing to an early and often excessive sn nvfall, and to the extreme 
cold or winter, the period in which field operations can be carried on 
with profit in some years scarcely exceeds a third of the whole time. 
Then again, in many of the American states local or state geological 
surveys are, or have been, carried on, by which the structure and min- 
eral resources of each have- been investigated by the state authorities 
and at the slate's expense, and thus the work of the general survey has 
been greatly facilitated. It is true, in the earlier days, before the con- 
fed-, ration of ( ur own provinces, local surveys were carried on, to a 
limited ex ent only, in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward 
I d, but the amount of time and mone) expended in these was com- 
paratively insignificant, although the work done by the local geologists 
>f very considerable value; while in the provinces of Ontario and 
Quebec, which have enjoyed legislative union for half a century, the 
work was done by the Geological Survey of Canada with a very limited 
staff indeed, for years scarcely exceeding in number more ihan half a 
dozen persons in all. Contrasting also the facilities for work of the 
British surveyors, and to a certain extent of the Americans as well, 
with the difficulties which the members of the Canadian staff have to 
encounter, the unfavourable position of the latter becomes most striking 



164 

Thus, instead of a thickly settle 1 country, opened up in all directions, 
and easy of access by railways or by ordi jary roads, millions of square 
mi es '( our Domini t the present tin; imcc -s-able, except by 

means of canoes or boits and by the help of the ur or 

hunter ; and not only :n ^ the means of transp >rt ' e provide 1 for, but 
the means of obtaining subsistence, either from the woods <n waters, by 
hunting and fishing, must also be taken into the account ; and, in 
point of fact, with the exception of the more thickly settled portions of 
the older provinces, this mode of exploration must of necessity be con- 
stantly employed. To most people unacquainted with our country, and 
to many even in our mid^t, it will perhaps be news that even here in the 
Ottawa district, in the exploration of the area to the n rth of the rivers 
Ottawa and St. Lawrence, beyond a distance of twenty to twenty-five mile*, 
where occasional settlement roads penetrate, the only means of carry- 
in he work to day is by the aid of the canoe and the Indian guide, 
by traversing the several rivers and the many lakes which be s-o thickly 
scattered over the surface of the mountainous Laurentian country, com- 
munication between which is made by numerous and often exceedingly 
difficult portages, over which canoes and supplies must be carried upon 
men's backs wherever the route of the survey m iy lead ; and all this in 
the very heart of the oldest province of our Dominion. 

If now we compare the personnel and the financial outlay of the 
world's two grea - est surveys in point of extent of area to be surveyed, 
we can see more clearly under what additional disadvantages the Cana- 
dian brethren of the hammer labour. Thus the expenditure for the 
i S87 S8 of the American Geological Survey.' of publication, 

was about half a million do'lars; that of the Canadian Survey for the 
same year about one-fifth of that amount, including publication and all 
expenses of management. A portion of this sum, amounting to about 
$20,000 only, was divided among sixteen parties, whose operations ex- 
tended from eastern Nova Scotia to Alaska, and included surveys in 
all the provinces, with special examination of the country east of Alaska 
and the Mackenzie River Basin, Hudson and James Bays and Lake 
Winnipeg and vicinity. In numbers the staff of exp'oration comprised 
in all, including assistants, thirty-five persons. In addition, work was 
carried on in the branches of Paleontology, Botany, Chemistry and 



in:, 

Natural History, tl ; of that year being comprised in twelve 

scientific repoi :s that of the Director, :vhich were published in 

two volumes of 1364 pages, in addition to the bulletins on Paleontol- 
ogy and Botar , nerican Survey during the same year employed 
in the Geographical branch alone eighty-five assistants, in addition to 
the chiefs of the several divisions, of whom there were fifteen in con- 
nection with the outside or geological work proper, and twelve lor the 
associated branches, among whom are many of the leading professors 
in the different universities, men most distinguished in their special 
lines of work. With such a command of men and money magnificent 
results may be confidently looked for, yet in the published volume for 
the year mentioned there are only four scientific reports, besides that 
Director, with twenty-four administrative reports, corresponding 
with the summary reports of the Canadian Survey, and describing only 
the season's operations as carried on by the different parties, but not 

_- the scientific results, the whole being comprised in a magnifi- 
cently printcl and illustrated volume of 710 pages. In addition to 
this, as in the Canadian Survey, bulletins containing special reports on 
the work o the \arious a-sociated subjects were also published. Com- 
paring results, then, in so far as these can be ascertained, it is evident 
that the Canadian Survey has continued to maintain the high standard 
rk which it has ever enjoyed from its commencement and is 
giving at least full the amount of money expended thereon. 

But many pen e asked the question: Of what does the 

work of the G Survey consist? and what is the object of send- 

urties of exploration all over the Dominion? what prac- 
tical benefit does the country receive from such exploration- ? Some 
even appear to consider the fitting out of the field parties each spring 
as something pre, aratory, on the part of the staff, to going on some 
grand pic-nic, in which all that the persuns engaged have to do is to 
enjoy themselves in the most perfectly epicurean manner. Now, while 
to the scientific explorer who enters upon the work in hand with the 
pr per amount ot interest there must ever be a certain amount of en- 
joyment, and that often of a very high order, in the unravelling of the 
complicated problems which are presented in the study of the wrinkled 
face of old mother earth, there is very little of the pic-nic character ob- 



16fi 

servable, takinq that word in its ordin irv acce ' f r'on. The work of 
the Geological Survey is of various kinds. In its inception it was held 
to include more particularly the study of the rock crust of the earth, 
and the determination of its miner. d resources, since the relations 
between these two subjects are exceedingly clo^e. Gradually attention 
was directed to the study of plants an 1 insects, collections of these 
being occasional!/ made by some assistant attached to one of the 
regular exploring parties. Chemistry, which embraced not only the 
analysis or the assay of important ores, but of rocks as well, to.'ether 
with the analysis of mineral waters, and other kindred subjects also 
received a large amount of attention. But the rapid development and 
extension of the country and its various interes's have in time necessit- 
ated a corresponding change in the operations of the Survey, so that it 
has gradually come to embrace not only Geo'.oj.v. Pa'eontology, Chem- 
ind Topography, but the Natural History of the country as well, 
including the subjects of Botany, Ornithology, Entomology, Zoology, 
Ethnology, Mining Statistics, and other kindred subjects— the proper 
carrying out of which is, however, af the present time very seriously 
interfered with, not only by great lack of space for disp'aving collec- 
tions when made, but by a lack also of workers in the several fields. 

In the American Survey the different lines of work are carried on 
in much the same way as the Canadian department, though on a much 
more elaborate scale. Thus the work of the interior department is ar- 
ranged under certain divisions, of which the principal are those of 
Topography or Geography, Geology, Paleontology, Mining S atistics 
and Technology, Chemistry and Physics, Illustrations, Library and 
Documents, &c. Of these the topographical division has charge of the 
surveys proper, and the preparation of the maps connected therewith, 
with the care of the instruments, &c, and for the year 1887-88 their 
field parties were distributed over twenty states, extending from the 
Atl intic to the Pacific. The geological work is also arranged in 
divisions, of which there are thirteen, named principally on grounds of 
location, as the Atlantic Coast division, the Mountain division, &c, but 
also in some cases from the character of the work, such as the division 
o. Ai aaean geol 1 

In paleontolosv also the work is specialized, and instead of pla- 



1G7 

cing upon the shoulders of one man the work of half a dozen, the Ameri- 
can Survey has this subject so arranged that to one person is entrusted 
the division of the vertebrates as distinct from the invertebrates, the latter 
also being divided into the Paleozoic or ancient and Cenozoic or recent 
divisions, while in the case of fossil plants, fishes and insects, these are 
for the most part assigned to specialists in each of these branches, and 
in this way the very highest results are attained in each subject. 

The division of geography or topographic work is one of the most 
important of the whole. Finding, as in Canada, the exceeding diffi- 
culty of doing accurate geological work without a good ground plan or 
map en which the observations made can be systematically recorded 
this division has been organized to meet the required want. This work 
employs nearly one hunJred persons alone in the scientific work rela- 
ting to the making and arrangement of the surveys, including ten 
draughtsmen, but the very great utility derived from having good and 
reliable maps of the country ready to hand for the work of the geologi- 
cal staff proper is such that whatever extra expense is incurred in their 
construction is amply repaid Of course, in the comparison of countries 
like the Unit d States and Canada, the condition- of which are alike 
principally as regards area, while the one has already an enormous 
development of wealth and population and the other an immense terri- 
tory and a scattered population, such comparison appears to place 
Canada in a very unfavourable aspect unless the diverse conditions are 
thoroughly com; irehended. 

Although the work of the Geological Survey of Canada has been 
going steadily lorward for almost half a century, it is surprising how 
few persons r« ally understand what is the legitimate scope of the labours 
undertaken by its staff or in what direction the field work should 
actually extend Thus many persons apparently have the impression 
that one part ..t least of its duties should be the examination of every 
locality where mi erals may be fancied to exist by any person who 
may indulge the often foolish notion that there should be unlimited 
wealth in the rocks which may constitute a large part of his real estate. 
Such persons entertain the idea that not only should surface indications 
be carefully explored for their own particular benefit, but that even 
excavations, shafts or bore holes should be put down, and in fact that 



168 

the Survey should completely develop their parf'if.r m'n ■ ■ ; reas rnd 
open up their properties at the government expense. The absurdky 
of this method or the fallacy of their logic never appears to be con- 
sidered by these individuals, since two very important obstacles would 
be presented at the very outset, the first of which would probably be 
the protest made by every mining engineer against the encroachment 
on the part of the government, through its staff, upon the rights of 
the private individual and the consequent interference with his oro- 
fession ; and secondly, the tact that very few treasuries could be found 
which would stand the enormous drain put upon their resources if the 
government should attempt the development of every mining location, 
real or fancied, and at the instance of every proprietor or company, 
while the staff necessary to undertake so extensive a system of work 
would speedily assume such enormous dimensions as to be beyond 
control. Thjie are, however, certain cases where the advice of the 
government geological expert may be sought, and that with propriety, 
although it frequently happens that when such advice has been asked 
and obtained, the person giving it receives very little credit for ability 
either as a mining expert or geologist. Very often this by no means 
flattering result arises from the fact that some mining quack has already 
visited the spot, and in the hope or expectation of finding a job, more 
or less permanent, in the development of the property, has, by means 
of a judicious employment of certain technical terms, concerning the 
meaning of which he is very often ignorant, done his best to persuade 
the owner that great stores of mineral wealth lie just beneath the sur- 
face, waiting only for the application of the skill which he may possess 
for their successful extraction How often this s.ory has been told 
concerning certain areas, when upon a careful examination not the 
slightest indication of mineral wealth has been revealed, but su< h is 
the credulity and the peculiar bias of the human mind that the opinion 
most in accord with its own desires, is accepted, no matter how great 
its improbability. 

It would appear desirable, also, that government advice should be 
given when requested in cases where large interests are involved, which 
are of more than a merely private importance ; as, for instance, where 
the mineral resources of an entire district are in question, as in the case 



169 

of the great deposits of nickel at Sudbury, of asbestos in Quebec, of 
coal in Nova Scotia, or the North-West, or the mode of occurrence and 
geol igical horizon of apatite or any other mineral of great economic 
value, in which the welfare of lars;e portions of the country is involved ; 
or on the other hand the conducting of certain lines of assays where the 
fullest and most reliable tests should be made for the common good, 
such as the assays of gold bearing rocks or of silver bearing veins from 
certain areas not yet entirely passed out of the public domain. To 
those of you who have examined the great collections in the Geological 
Museum the wonderful variety of our mineral resources from every 
province of the Dominion must have been matter for astonishment, yet 
in very many cases these great stores of mineral wealth are even yet 
lying idle and undeveloped, owing to lack of capital or enterprise on 
the part of our investors. 

Were the immense territorial extent of Canada which has been 
traversed in the collecting of these representatives of our economic 
mineral resources, often at large expense and with much labour, as 
easily accessible as the countries of Great Britain, France or Germany, 
the work of the geologist, hot mist and naturalist would be a compara- 
tively easy matter. I say comparatively easy, for while the intricate 
problems of structure would yet remain to be solved by the geologist, 
the facilities presented for their solution would be so great that much 
of the hardship and uncertainty which now prevail in the examination 
of a new and unsettled country would be done away with. 

In the absence of such aids, however, to geological exploration, 
and in fact very often without any aids at all in the shape of maps, 
even over many portions of the older provinces, much of the time of 
the geologist in charge must now be devoted to deciphering his path 
through the tangled wilderness, and in getting together sufficient 
materials as regards topography as will enable him to place on paper 
and to render intelligible the scientific observations, geological or 
otherwise, which it is his peculiar province to obtain; for it can be 
readily understood by anyone, even but slightly conversant with the 
subject, that to attempt to delineate the geology or structure of any 
country on a projection, without the topographical features of river, lake 
or mountain, is almost a hopeLas task. Thus it comes about that, 



170 

Owing to the necessity of obtaining topographical data, which has been 
laid upon the staff of the Geological Survey, over very large portions of 
Canada, the ground work for many of our best maps h is been derived 
from their labours, and great areas in all the provinces from the 
Atlantic to the Picific have been mapped in detail, first of all 
by the officers of that staff, as can be seen in the large published maps 
of eastern Nova S "on'a and in New Brurnwick, in each of which many 
thousands of miles of roads, streams and coast lines were carefully 
measured and platted before the map necessary f>r the depicting of the 
geology of these countries could be laid down with any attempt at ac- 
curacy. In the newer and western sections, the well executed map 
of the Sudbury district, the Lake of the Woods, large portions of the 
Northwest plains, and great areas in the Rocky Mountains and B itish 
Columbia, testify to the labours of the Geological survey in this capacity. 
In the province cf Quebec even, the celebrated map of the Eastern 
Townships, which includes also a large portion of the province west of 
the St. Lawence as well, has formed the foundation of all subsequent 
maps of that province since it was first carefully compiled in the 
Geo'ogical Survey office from materials drawn from Crown band plans, 
supplemented and bound together with infinite pa : ns and lab >ur, by 
surveys made by the different officers of that department, a work the 
difficulty of which can only be properly understood by those who have 
attempted similar compilations. 

Probably in no country under the sun do more complicated geo- 
logical problems exist than in Canada, nor are such problems anywhere 
on a grander scale. A territory embracing three and a half millions of 
square miles, or very nearly the extent of the whole of Europe, and 
•extending from the 49th parallel of latitude to far within the arctic 
circle, and embracing the extremes of heat and cold, in the northern 
part especially, where the fierce heat of the short summer is sufficient 
to ripen wheat almost to the 60th degree of latitude. I-iere we have 
the oldest known rocks of the globe, the solid backbone of the western 
hemisphere, extending from Labrador, in a great V shaped area, to near 
the mouth of the Mackenzie River, and including in its survey large 
portions of the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and with great over- 
lying a eas of all '.he systems and formations of rock strata down to 



171 

the Cretaceous, with the finest opportunities for the study of the more 
rec-nt geologica' phenomena, such as pertain to the glacial and 1 ost 
glacial times. Here we h ive the broad areas of the Silurian lying 
against the bu'tresses of the old Laurentian hills in as horizontal a 
posit'on as when first deposited, and there we have the same scries of 
rocks, folded and tw ; sted, overturned and faulted, and metamorphosed 
to such an extent that all traces of their early and original character 
have apparently departed. Wonderful displays of the enormous foldings 
to wh' i the earth's crust has been subjected are visible in the Rocky 
Mountain uplift on the west, and in the fractured and crumpled char- 
acter of the rocks in the sections east of the St. Lawrence with their 
tangled complex of strata of widely separated horizons. 

To attempt to give even an outline of the work of the Survey 
durmg the past twenty years would require a far longer time than we 
have at our disposal this evening, and we can but point out some of 
the most prominent points in the policy of exploration which have been 
pursued. Prior to the admission of the North-West Territory into the 
Dominion we were practically destitute of any knowledge of that great 
country. What information we possessed was derived from the travels 
and explorations, principally, of the Palliser-Hector exp-dition of thirty, 
five years ago, from the Hind Saskatchewan expedition of the same 
date, as well as from the journals of Hudson Bay Factors and the 
story of search parties in the quest after Franklin. At best it was 
sufficiently meagre. Its great wealth of soil and minerals was almost 
entirely unknown, and the general concensus of opinion appeared to be 
that the greater part of the immense plain country, bounded by a sea 
of mountains on the west, and with its great inland seas and streams, 
navigable for many hundreds of miles, as fitted only for the support 
of the Indian, the buffalo and the fur bearing animals, and likely t i be 
of but little prospective importance to the white settler Directly 
following its incorporation i ■>- i Dominion, exploratory parties were 
fitted out by the Geological Survey which traversed the great plains, the 
passes of the Rockies, the country of the Peace River, and the 
Saskatchewan. Year after year has this policy been carried on till now 
these scientific explorations, geological and botanical, have explored a 
very large area indeed, reaching north. vard nearly to the mouth of the 



17-2 

Mackenzie River and traversing the hitherto unknown area between 
that river and the Pacific Ocean. As the result we know very 
accurately the botany, th : natural history and to a large extent the 
general distribution of the several geological formations which there 
occur. We now have ascertained the welcome fact that in acquiring 
the North-West Territories we have become possessors of millions of 
acres of the choicest soil, adapted to the raising of the finest cereals, while 
its mineral wealth is widely distributed and practically inexhaustible, as 
we can witness in the great coal seams of the eastern Rocky Mountain 
slopes in which hrger and even more important seams have recently 
been discovered, which will furnish a supply of the most excellent fuel, 
sufficient for the wants of the country for thousands of years. Consider 
also thewonderful extent of the great petroleum basin of the Athabasca 
River district where, for many miles the sands and gravel are cemented 
by thickened oil, and present a succession of black cliffs along the 
course of that stream, with indications which point to this area as 
probably, in the near future, likely to become one of the greatest oil 
producing districts in the world. Consider also the rich silver mines in 
the western section of the Rocky Mountain chain, along the Illicillawa:t, 
and more recently the great developments of the Kootenay district and 
vicinity which bid fair to rival the great Comstock deposits south 
of the boundary, with the great deposits of salt, the rich areas of placer 
gold, and the great masses of iron ore, concerning the existence and 
importance of all which but little was known prior to the labours of the 
Geological Survey fifteen years ago, and in some cases even at a much 
later date. 

You will remember two years ago, in a lecture before this club by 
Dr. G. M Dawson on "the unexplored areas of Canada," the fact was 
pointed out that there yet existed in our Dominion, at least one 
million of square miles of which it may be said we know practically 
nothing. While this is true, it may also be said of many other hun- 
dreds of thousands of square miles, that our information has been 
obtained only by traverses along river courses or lakes, and that the 
great resources of these portions must as yet of necessity be practically 
unknown. But such a lack of information about so much of our 
Dj.uimon in spite of the fact that the labours of the Geological Survey 



staff and of various explorers from the other departments have heen carried 
on for nearly fifty years, as well as of hundreds of pr vate parties, will 
cease to be matter for astonishment when we consider the enormous 
extent of our territory and the limited force available to carry on such 
work. Even in the older provinces of Quebec and Ontario, where 
these operations have been carried on most continuously, the great 
succession of mountain country to the north of the St. Lawrence and 
Ottawa, constituting the height of land between these rivers and those 
of Hudson and James Bays, is to a large extent comparatively 
unknown. True, sections have been made across this country here and 
there along the various water coursts but these only afford us a know- 
ledge of our mineral wealth over limited areas. Exploration under 
such conditions is necessarily slow and great areas must remain practi- 
cally unknown until greater facilities of transport are presented, an 
instance of which is presented in the discovery of the mining district of 
Sudbury, within a short distance of Ottawa, a discovery due to the 
opening up of the country by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and in 
Quebec also in the discovery ot the asbestos mines of the eastern town- 
ships, in a section opened up by the passage of the Quebec Centr.,1 
Railway, the localities in both cases being; practically inaccessible prior 
to the building of these roads. It is not yet twenty years since the 
importance of the phosphate mines of the Buckingham district was 
ascertained. When such wonderful stores of mineral wealth at our 
very doors have so recently been brought to light, who can say what 
further enormous developments may be looked for in the extension of 
those mineral bearing rocks which have so enormous a development in 
our country, and which owing very often to present difficulty of access 
are entirely unknown. Thus if we contemplate the situation ever so 
briefly we find be r ore us a problem pertaining to the development of 
our country and its mineral wealth which requires clear heads for its 
inception and brave hearts and strong hands for its successful accom- 
plishment. In the elucidation of this problem it is needless to say the 
staff of the Geological Survey, in making known to the world at large 
the mineral and agricultural resources of our land, has performed and 
must continue to perform no unimportant part. With the utmost 
cheerfulness, in the simple discharge of their duty, the members of that 



174 

staThnve neve" hesitated to penetrate into the most forbidding area';, 
fertile in resources to find or invent means by which unexpected 
difficulties may be overcome. In canoe, in cart, by boat, or on the 
trail they have gone forward year after year, "by dint of thought and 
hammering - ' they have collected great stores of information and have 
by their collections and researches made easily accessible to any who 
may choose to examine, the geology, the mineral resouices, and the 
natural history of the northern half of this continent from ocean to 
ocean, and have displayed all this informal ion in the most attractive 
and instructive form in the rooms of the Museum in this city. 

But the geological aspect of the work of the Survey department, is 
at the present day only one of many. Here, stowed away ;n cases and 
high presses can be found one of the largest and finest collections of 
plants, illustrative of the botany of all parts of our Dominion possible 
to be obtained. Much of the work of this branch of the department 
is invisible to the ordinary visitor to the Museum, since, unlike rock 
specimens or masses of ore, dried plants are perishable things and 
cannot endure exposure to the light and open air. They must be 
carefully laid away and precautions taken to guard against the ravages 
of insects and other enemies of the botanist's handiwotk. Vet here 
in the cases of the Museum are stored more than 100,000 specimens 
illustrating the distribution of our flora fro n the foggy shores of 
Anticosti to the green valleys of the Island of Vancouver. The flora 
of the Peace River district, of the great plains, and of the Rocky 
Mountain steeps on the west, of the shores and islands of the Atlantic 
on the east, as well as of the country about the great inland 1 .kes and 
ot distant Labrador, are here rendered available for study to any one 
interested in the botany of our country, and who may wish, for purposes 
of comparison or for any other cause, to examine the plant growth of 
any district whatever. The enormous value of such a collection can 
scarcely be overestimated, and its practical utility in determining the 
fitness of certain areas for the growth of wheat or other cereals, as 
determined by the flora ot the district is an admitted fact, not now called 
in question by anyone at all familiar with this branch of science. To 
the botanists of the Survey, then, great credit and praise are due lor 
the magnificent collections made and lor the careful way in which this 



17o 

branch of the Survey w "k has been executed, and the publications 
on this subject are regarded as of the greatest value by the learned 
societies, both of Kurope and America. Equally inc mspicuous with 
the botanical collection in the rooms of the Museum building are the 
magnificent collections, illustrative of the insect life of our country ; and 
probably mist of those who wander through the corridors of that 
building are unaware that such beautiful specimens are there stored. 
These have been brought together in various ways, since the resources 
of the Survey have not yet permitted the employment of a regular 
entomologist. The great importance of this branch of science is, how- 
ever, acknowledged by the Government, and at the Central Experi- 
mental Farm the study of the insect lie.', ol certain areas at least, i-> 
carried out and their benefit or injury to plant life carefully ascertained ; 
hut while these studies are of the greatest practical importance to the 
agriculturist they cannot, of course, fill the place which the science of 
entomology requires in a purely scientific department. 

In the division of ethnolcgy a'so much work has been done. 
Extensive collections, illustrative of the manneis, customs and institu- 
tions of the various Indian tribes which now inhabit our country, have 
been made, as well as large quantities of remains and relics of former 
race-;. The ornithology and to a certain extent the zoology also of the 
Dominion are well illustrated by means of a good collection of the 
principal birds and mammal-, the further expansion of which is sadly 
hindered by a lack of space for their display. The various species of 
land and marine shells are exhibited and though in but few of these are 
the collections by any means exhaustive, and though the Museum 
space at the disposal of such branches of the department's work is of 
necessity utterly inadequate, sufficient has been done to show that the 
comparatively newer branch of natural history has not only not been 
neglected, but that the results already obtained are large and im- 
portant. 

But while the main purpose of a geological department may be 
held to lie in the work of the geologist, very frequently that work is so 
clearly associated with the investigations of his confrere, the paleontolo 
gist, that the work of the one generally involves the assistance of the 
other. In this branch, and in mineralogy also, the Geological Survey of 



176 



Canada has always maintained a hie;h place among similar institu 
Thirty-five yean ag ) Billings set himself earnestly to the task of 
deciphering the history ol our country as written in its fossil remains 
How well he succeeded is evidenced by the tact that the work of E. 
Billings not 01 ly reflecied the highest lustre on the Survey in his branch 
while he remained a member of its staff, but the determinations then 
made have never ceased to be regarded as authoritative. Since his day 
the opening of the North West has introduced a new feature into the 
study of Canadian paleontology by the accession of great collections of 
fossils from the Cretaceous and other closely associated format ons of 
that area, and less attention has in consequence been directed to the 
study of the older paleozoic tossils ; but this change in policy has only 
been in accordance with the rapidly growing importance of our western 
country. The result of the fifty years' colecting in this branch of the 
Survey work has been to gather together one of the finest and most 
comprehensive collections, illustrative of the life of past ages " : n the 
earth's history, that can anywhere be found; a collection of such value 
to the scientific world that if by chance it should be destroyed its loss 
would be regarded as a great calamity by everyone interested in science 
the world over. 

Of the internal eeonomy of the Survey we have as yet spoken but 
in general terms. Here much work of the highest importance must be 
carried out. The collecting of facts relative to structure and the 
making of surveys in the field would not possess one- f .enth of their real 
value, were no provision made by which these surveys and tacts could 
be presented in compact and visible shape to the general as well as the 
scientific public. Hence the necessity of a to ,1 corps 

whereby not only can the work of the field staff be arranged in map 
form for publication, but connecting surveys can be made to render 
these more intelligible. Then there is the careful arrangement of the 
Museum by which everything deemed worthy of exhibit can be so 
placed as to show to the best possible advantige the relation between 
the rock structure and the contained fossils where such exist, and 
the minerals or ores also which may therein be contained; in order 
that anyone in quest of information can most readdy obtain such to 
the fullest possible extent and with the least possible delay. 



177 

The library division also is one of importance, in which the working 
scientist ran find the most recent helps to enable him the better to profit 
by the researches of his brethren in other, but similar, fields, and so 
become the better fitted to work out the problems he may himself 
encounter; and here it may be said that the library of the Geological 
Survey is probably by far the most complete in scientific literature of 
any of the libraries in the Dominion, and, in as far as practicable, is 
kept well abreast of tie age as regards the current literature in the 
subjects concerned. 

The financial management of such an institution is also a most 
important item in its general scheme ot successful work and the 
proper disposition of the funds by which the necessities of the several 
widely scattered parties can be best met, calls for a wise discrimination 
of the needs of each, and the expense peculiar to each locality to be 
explored ; the prime object being the most judicious expenditure of the 
binds at the disposal of the department consistent with the highest and 
most satisfactory results obtainable. 

I trust in this very imperfect description of the work done by the 
Geological Survey department I have shown you that in the old 
building on Sussex Street many kinds of work of great importance to 
the nation are being carried on. The structure and contained wealth 
of the rock masses from the Laurentian or fundamental crust of the 
eartli to the most recent formation of drift sand, gravel and peat are 
bein'-; systematically studied and their actual valu°, in so far as this is 
pi ssible, ascertained. The importance of each system as a source of 
mineral supply is carefully weighed and the mode of occurrence and 
probable extent and value of each element of economic importance 
sought out where practicable, to "ome extent in the field and in more 
detail in the laboratory of the Museum. Not only are the analyses of 
the rocks and of the contained ores there conducted and their probable 
value, from many localities carefully proven, but the chemical composi- 
tion of the mineral waters from various provinces of the Dominion is 
carefully ascertained and their probable beneficial effects noted. Many 
of tnese h ive proved already to he large and important sources of 

ue to the localities in which they occur, as at St. Leon, Caledonia 
St. Catharines and other points. Much of this work though presented 



annually in published volumes fails to reach the general public, being 
by some curious reasoning apparently regarded as of more importance 
to scientific bodies and institutions of learning abroad than to those 
who are most directly interested in the development and growth of our 
country's mineral wealth—a condition of things which doubtless to a 
large extent accounts for the oft repeated question : " What is the work 
of the Geological Survey ?" In the present arrangement of publication, 
however, far greater facilities now exist for obtaining; desired information 
on any particular area. 

While it would be folly to assert that the work of the Canadian 
Survey or of any other similar institution has always been free from 
mistakes, since that would imply a degree of infallibility and accurate 
scientific knowledge, not yet enjoyed by mortals, it will, 1 think, be 
admitted by anyone conversant with its method of operations that the 
attainment of the truth, in regard to the geological questions presented, 
has ever been the chief aim of those associated in the work. That the 
Geological Survey has ever borne an excellent reputation both at home 
and abroad is due probably, first of all, to the excellent reputation of 
its founder, the late Sir William Logan, and secondly to the fact that 
the great majority of its staff have laboured to their utmost with hearts 
filled with a love for the profession and with the desire to achieve great 
results. While we may now be able to say that we have a fairly good 
general knowledge of the geology of our country, and can dep ct on 
the map the lines of the several systems, and in some cases even of the 
geological formations, yet as settlement and advancement increase, 
new fields will be constantly opened up which will call for further de- 
tailed examinations. The geological stud/ of a country embracing 
three and a half millions of square miles may be truly said to be i great 
work. The field certainly is large and the labourers are lamentably few 
to accomplish it, and many more years must elapse before we can hope 
to see a complete geological and topographical map of this our great 
Dominion. The work which as members of the present staff we can- 
not hope to see successfully accomplished will we trust be handed 
down to our successors, who, imbued with the true scientific spirit and 
under more favorable conditions, as the development of this great 
country progresses, and with accommodations enlarged, and better 



179 

adapted "> t u e necessity of the work and the preservation of the 
valuable records belonging to the department, will continue to do still 
nobler deeds in the cause of geological science. 



SOME NEW MOSSES FRO VI THE PRIBYLOV ISLANDS, 
B EH RING SEA. 

(Jas. M. Macoun.) 

While with the British Behring Sea Commission last summer a 
number of plants were collected among which were several mosses new 
to America and a few new t:> science. 

Dr. N. C. Kindberg has already described six new species and 
varieties which are given below. All were found on St. Paul Island, in 
about 57' N. Lat. and 170' \Y. Long. 

Ceratodon heterophyllus, Kindb. n. sp. Agrees with Cem- 
todun purpureas in the shape of the capsule and the stem leaves, the 
not excurrent costa and the revolvable annulus, but the capsule is often 
more curved and distinctly strumose ; agrees with Ceratodon conicus 
(Hanipe.) in the peristomial teeth having few articulations ; differs from 
both in the blunt perichetial leaves, is also very peculiar in the short, 
concave, sub-oval leaves ot the long shoots. 

Didymodon Badkn-Powelli, Kindb. n. sp. Differs from Didymo- 
don rube'lus in the dioecious inflorescence, the blunt, conic, very short 
lid, scarcely 1 of the capsule, and the distinctly dentate leaves (as in 
Didymodon alpi^e/ius. Vent.) The tufts arc compact, about 2 cm. high, 
the leaves revolute nearly all around, short-acuminate, the lower pale 
brown, perichetial ones longer acuminate or subulate entire. The 
capsules are (unripe) more or less curved, the pedicel pale red. Named 
for Sir George Baden Powell, one of the commissioners. 

Webera caxaliculata, C. M.& Kindb., var. microcarpa, Kindb. 
n. var. Differs only in the much smaller capsule. 

Bryum f.rachyxeuron, Kindb., n. sp. Agrees with Bryum 
pendulum in the syncecious inflorescence, the peristomes orange, the 



180 

segments adhering to ' e teeth, the ap ; n 'ate lid and the targe spores 
(about 0.04 mm.); differs in the decarrent leaves, short -ovate, the 
costa broad, abbreviate, not excurrent, the sterile shoots bearing globose 
buds (gemmae), the very much broader peristomial leeth. Stem red,. 
very short, the pedicel about 1 cm. long or shorter, often scarcely 
emerging above the tufts; costa of the lowest leaves red, percurrent 
only in the leaves of the shoots and the perichetial ones : capsule 
ventricose, short-necked constricted below the mouth. Bryum fallax, 
Milde., resembling it in habit, is dioecious ; the segments are free, the 
spores smaller. Bryum lacusire differs in not having decurrent leaves, 
the capsule not being constricted below the mouth, the pedicel longer, 
the peristome pale, etc. 

Bryum Froudei, Kindb., n. sp. Habit of Webera nutans. 
Agrees with Bryum inclination in the syncecious inflorescence and the 
symmetric capsule, etc. ; differs in the leaves being long-acuminate, cells 
long and narrow, the upper sublinear (nearly as in Webera), costa 
very long-excurrent, peristomial segments quite free from the teeth, 
spores smaller, scarcely 0.02 mm. ; the cilia are wanting. Named for 
Mr. Ashley Froude, secretary to the commission. 

Polytrichum (Pogonatum) alpinum, Roehl., var. microdon- 
tium, Kindb., n. var. Differs in the leaves being nearly entire or 
indistinctly denticulate. 



181 



NOTES OF TRAVEL IN JAPAN. 

(By \Y. Hague Harrington.) 

( Delivered January 14th, 1S92.) 

On Thursday, the 14th of January, Mr. W. Hague Harrington 
delivered an address on some of the physical and natural history 
features of Japan as observed by him in his visit to the Sunrise King- 
dom during the preceding summer. Hilly and well-wooded land was 
seen from the E/np/ess of India on the nth August, some three hun- 
dred miles northward of Yokohama. The following morning at day- 
light the Gulf of Tokio was entered, and the run up this capacious bay 
about thirty miles to Yokohama (Tokio lying at the head several miles 
beyond) was very charming, the shores on either side being clothed 
with foliage and with a succession of villages lining the bays at the foot 
of the hills. Great numbers of junks and fishing craft enlivened the 
waters, and when the steamer anchored off Yokohama, the water being 
shallow, she was immediately surrounded by scores of sampans and 
other craft, with military, police, customs, medical, post-office and 
other officials, and the scene was very animated and interesting. Mr. 
Harrington was met by his two brothers (Rev. F. G. Harrington 
and Rev. C. K. Harrington), who reside in Yokohama, and fiom 
his landing to the termination of his visit, ten weeks later, enjoyed 
every moment and found ever new features of interest To be in a 
country where the people, dress, customs, dwellings and almost every- 
thing observed are so strikingly different from those of America was in 
itself a guarantee of pleasurable excitement. 

An early visit was made to Flakone, the favourite summer resort 
of many foreigners, and a district of a very beautiful character. The 
village of Hakone is situated on a lake (nearly four miles long and 
2,400 feet above sea level), which apparently lies in the crater of an 
ancient volcano, and which is surrounded by fine wooded or grass- 
covered hills. In the vicinity are many hot springs of varied tempera- 
ture and qualities, while about two miles from the head of the lake is 
an extensive solfatara or volcanic gorge from which rise steaming 
vapours. The native name is Ojikoku (Big Hell), and beneath the de- 
composed suiface may be hear J the boiling waters. It ; s necessary to 



182 

walk carefully, as the ground is often undermined and lives have been 
lost here. 

Japan exhibits many of these and other forms of volcanic action, 
and there are several important volcanoes still more or less active. The 
principal of these is Asama, nearly one hundred miles N. W. of Yoko- 
hama. Mr. Harrington and his brother ascended this mountain 
(8,280 feat high), and found that the present crater lies in the centre of 
a much larger and older one, the broken rim of which is well marked, 
although it has been nearly filled up. At the time of their visit the 
volcano was more than usually active, the vapours filling the craier 
(said to be one-quarter of a mile in diameter) and rising sevtral hun 
dred feet above it. After the great earthquake of 2Sth October the 
mountain was emitting flames and ashes. This mountain, like many 
of the others, evidences that the craters of re note times were much 
larger than present ones, and in some cases a series of cones and 
craters has been built up. 

Among the other mountains climbed by Mr. Harrington was the 
sacred cone of Fuji, which rises to a height of 11.365 feet, with the 
outline of an inverted fan. Although the slope is not very great, the 
footing is for much of the way very trying, and toward the summit the 
climb becomes difficult. Starting from Gotemba at 6.30 a.m., the top 
was reached about 5.30 p.m., and the night was passed there. This 
mountain is climbed annually by great numbers of pilgrims during the 
months of July and August. It has not been in eruption since 1707, 
but although the crater is partly filled with snow and ice, there are 
signs that it is not completely extinct, as steam sometimes issues from 
cracks outside the crater on the east side. 

Japan at first sight appears to be a very fertile country, but 
closer examination shows that tillable land forms the smaller part of the 
Empire, and that much of the land cultivated is of a very poor quality, 
being largely composed of volcanic tufa and debris. According to 
recent authorities, it was found that 37% (not including Yezo, which is 
sli.nly populated), is classed as desert, including volcanoes, solfataras, 
scoriae covered plains, etc. Mountain forests cover 23%, so that these 
two divisions include about two-thirds of the country. Cultivated 
forests cover iS %, and are an evidence of the attention paid to forestry, 



183 

the Japanese in this respect being much in advance of Americans. 
Along the sand dunes of the coast Mr. Harrington observed the ex- 
tensive planting of pines, showing specimens from a few inches upward, 
while older forests showed by the regularity of the trees that they were 
planted by man. Farming lands proper occupy 15% of the country, 
and are classed as Ta and Hata, the rice fields and the dry fields. To 
these may be added 5% of land under other forms of cultivation, such 
as fruit and nut trees, etc., making in all 20%, or one filth of the land 
devoted to agriculture of all kinds. 

From this area, careful and systematic tillage furnishes food for the 
large population of 40 000,000, besides a considerable quantity for ex- 
port. Wherever water can be obtained, rice is the staple crop, and the 
plains and valleys are carefully levelled and irrigated, so that they may 
be kept wet during the growth of the rice. When Mr. Harrington 
arrived, the young rice covered the plains with a beautiful verdure, and 
before his departure the harvesting was well advanced. The annual 
yield in favourable years is about 200,000,000 bushels. No fences are 
needed, and as the farmers chiefly live in villages on the edges of the 
rice plains, these present a wide expanse of vegetation. 

Along the ridges which bound the rice plats are generally planted 
beans, which are also extensively grown in the dry-fields, and form a 
large element of the food. They are generally known as Soy-beans, 
because certain varieties are used in making the sauce of that name 
(Shoyu), so much ustd as a relish. Of other crops, the mulberry was 
described as largely grown in some districts where the silk worms are 
bred, an industry employing a large part of the population. In other 
districts, tea was a chief product, and the plantations of these shrubs 
we e described as being very attractive in appearance. The cotton 
which in some districts is very largely grown, and for the spinning of 
which several large mills were seen, is a smaller plant apparently than 
that cultivated in America. 

Mr. Harrington regretted that his knowledge of geology was not 
sufficient for the full appreciation of the phenomena which, in a land 
where the forces of nature are so actively in operation, must be of a 
most instructive character. The Hakone district exhibits both well 
wooded hills, and others covered with a very vigorous tall grass, a 



184 

species of Eulalia, several feet in height, and in the north, as at Nikko, 
the country is mountainous and wooded. At Nagano (in the Shinshiu 
district) he had seen hills of chalk or plaster and described how hot 
had been the road cut along the face of those hills. In the south the 
ranges of hills were largely barren, sometimes formed apparently of 
coarse diluvial drift and conglomerate, at others largely of sand. 

The rivers from the mountains frequently do great damage in the 
plains when suddenly swollen by the rains, or melting snows, and large 
sums of money are spent yearly on embankments and improvements in 
the channels. On some of the plains the rivers have been raised by the 
silt deposited by their waters, and the continual heightening of the 
embankments, until (as at Lake Biwa) the railway across the plain goes 
under the beds of the rivers by tunnels. When unusual floods, or earth- 
quakes occur the embankments may be burst and much loss cf property 
and life result. 

The flora and fauna of the empire were described by Mr. Harring- 
ton as very rich in interesting species, and he had often thought how 
the botanists especially of the Field-Naturalists' Club, would have 
revelled in the scenes presented. Trees were very numerous, of great 
variety of foliage and often of very large size. Of conifers the most 
striking had been seen at Nikko, where the famous temples and tombs 
in honour of the first and third Shoguns. are embowered in magnificent 
groves, and the avenues and courts are lined with gigantic specimens, 
with trunks four, five, six or even up to eight feet in diameter. These 
trees are about 250 years old, showing that the growth of this species is 
rapid. At one of the shrines at Nikko stands a beautiful Koya-maki, 
or umbrella pine (Sciaiopitys verticillata), now several feet in diameter, 
which is said to have been a pot plant belonging to Iyeyasu, the first 
Shogun. The old highways of Japan were generally lined with fine 
trees forming veritable avenue?, thronged by the travelling multitudes. 
Such an avenue of Cryptomerias (C.japonica) leads up to the sacred 
groves of Nikko, the last six miles being especially imposing. 

It is a favourite habit of the Japanese to train out on supports the 
branches of one of the species of pines, until the extent of their spread 
is wondenul. Such a tree was seen at the Kurodani monastery (Kyoto), 
upon which, the priests relate, Nazane hung his armour when, abcut 



185 

8oo years ago, he abandoned the military for the monastic life. The 
most famous, however, of such trees is that at Karasaki on the shore 
of Lake Biwa, which is of great unknown age, and hence very sacred. 
The trunk has a circumference of 37 feet and gives off nearly 400 
branches, the spread of which from east to west is 240 feet and from 
north to south 2SS feet. There are many varieties of cedar, cypress, 
pine and fir, and the residences of foreigners in Yokahama are much 
beautified by well trimmed hedges and shrubberies. 

Next to the conifers, the traveller's attention is arrested by the 
abundance of glossy leaved trees and shrubs, which present in summer 
a bright vigorous foliage, and which are chiefly evergreens. The 
camellias grow to considerable size, and blooming late in the year are 
a feature of the winter scenery. The cinnamons are represented by 
several species, the most important being C. camp/iora, which is widely 
distributed and of great economic value, as it grows to a large size, 
and yields wood very valuable for cabinet and box making, in addition 
to the camphor obtained by distillation. A camphor tree seen near a 
t-jmple on the path from Hakone to Atami was found to have a cir- 
cumference of of fifty feet. It was centrally split and decayed, but was 
a majestic tree, and the priests stated its age to be some eight hun- 
dred years. 

Keyaki (Zelkoiva keaki) was another large tree, yielding very valu- 
able timber in demand for many purposes. At a new temple being 
built at Kyoto fine sticks of this wood had been seen, about four feet 
square, and the pillars supporting the roofs were of the same material. 
When new, the Japanese buildings exhibit very well the different beau- 
tiful woods used in their construction, but, not being varnished nor 
painted, all outside work soon becomes dingy from the effects of the 
weather. 

A very remarkable tree is the Icho, a member of the Taxacese or 
yew family, the scientific name being Salisburia adiantifo/ia, the 
specific name derived from the great resemblance of its leaves to those 
of the maiden-hair fern. It is a large tree of handsome growth and in 
autumn the leaves turn of a fine golden colour. It has probably been 
introduced into Japan, as the trees are usually near the temples. Good 
specimens were seen in Kyoto, etc., but the largest was at the Hachi- 



186 

man temple at Kamakura, which is claimed to be over a thousand 
years old, and of which the trunk has a circumference of twenty feet. 
The fruit is about the size of a damson, and the nut-like kernels are 
used as food. This tree is also called Ginks bi/oba, the word gin sig- 
nifying gold in Japanese, The Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) is a 
fine tree, and furnishes a much valued and beautiful wood. 

Among the many interesting trees observed were several varieties 
of oak ; fine walnuts, magnolias (the wood of M. hypohuca being very 
close-grained and valuable); maples of various species and very pretty 
foliage, much prized for the autumn tints, which, however, do not equal 
those of Canadian maples ; birches, like our white birch, upon the 
mountains ; and a wonderful variety of other fine trees. 

A remarkable feature of the forests is the great abundance of 
strong climbing plants, which festoon the trees, and frequently entirely 
hide them. Of these the Fuji ( Wisteria chinensis) is the most striking 
species and winds its thick coils high around the lofty trunks, or even, 
when support is absent, about itself. This fine vine is much admired 
and forms a fine screen for verandahs and summer-houses, and when 
the immense clusters of bloom are pendent from it the effect is very 
fine. Curious trees are Stuartia and Lagerstrcemia, which have red 
smooth trunks, and in Japanese are called Sarusuberi (from Saru a 
monkey and suberu to slide), because the trunks are so slippery. 

Of fruit trees the principal are peach, plum, pear and persimmon. 
Peaches are by no means equal to American ones ; plums are large 
and of good appearance, but the flavour is not so good as might there- 
from be expected. Of pears enormous numbers are grown, and many 
of these are of large size and very pleasing colour, often a rich golden 
hue. They are much esteemed by the natives, but foreigners accus- 
tomed to other varieties find them very insipid, although when one is 
thirsty their juicy flesh is very refreshing. The persimmon, or kaki, is 
very largely grown and appears to be the favourite fruit of the Japan- 
ese. The fruit ripen late in the year, and until perfectly ripe are 
dreadfully astringent. When ripened fully, however, they are very 
good, especially those in which the flesh becomes a soft juicy pulp that 
has to be eaten with a spoon. Many of these fruits are dried and 
pressed like figs for winter use. The Japanese oranges are said to be 



187 

very good, but were not ripe when Mr. Harrington left. In the south- 
ern provinces the Pompelo or Shaddock {Citrus decumana) is abundant, 
the fruit being very large and the pulp very agreeable. Pomegranates' 
are very handsome in flower and fruit, but the latter does not offer 
much except the acid pulp around the seeds. 

Although the time of Mr. Harrington's visit was not the period of 
flowering for many plants, he saw, especially in the mountains, some 
fine species in bloom. Of these may be especially mentioned the 
lotus, which grows luxuriantly in the temple ponds, and often in moats 
or ditches, lifting its large leaves and beautiful flowers high above the 
water. On the Hakone hills the grand white lily (Lilium auratuni) 
grows in abundance, and the root bulbs of this and of other fine 
species are largely gathered for food. Near the foot of Asama had 
been observed a beautiful yellow lily on a stalk some three feet high, 
and in the hara (dry plain) below Fuji many examples of fine tiger-lilies 
occurred. Other smaller lilies, and other closely related forms had 
frequently been seen, showing how extensively these beautiful plants 
are distributed. 

A very conspicuous species in the early part of October, from Kobe 
to Yokohama, was one about ij4 to z)A, feet high, with a fleshy stem 
and no leaves. Each stem bore several bright cardinal or scarlet blos- 
soms of a lily-like furm, but with the petals narrow and twisted. This 
plant grew in abundance along the irrigation ditches or in any unculti- 
vated spot, aid its bright co'our sometimes showed in large vivid 
patches. Of flowering shrubs Hydrangea paniculata was a good 
example, as it was seen in large masses along the mountain paths, and 
showed at once its relationship to the cultivated form, although in 
nature flowering in the fashion of our Canadian Viburnum lanianoidcs. 

Of the varied flora perhaps no plant is so attractive in appearance 
as the giant of the grasses, the bamboo, which is also as useful as it is 
beautiful. Fine groves were seen, especially in the south, where the 
stems rise forty or fifty feet, and have a diameter of three to six inches, 
ddie uses of these stems are innumerable, and it would be difficult for 
the people to get along without them. Upon the mountains the under- 
brush often consisted almost solely of a dwarf species, forming an 
almost impenetrable scrub. 



188 

But little time remained to say anything of the fauna, although this 
had been found of the greatest interest. As was to be expected, very 
few mammals were seen in their native haunts, the exceptions being a 
large black squirrel and weastls. In the northern portion of the coun- 
try, however, especially in Yezo, there are many deer, bears, etc., and at 
Nikko the fur shops exhibited great quantities of pelts, largely martens, 
with otter, badger, fox, monkey, etc. The monkey, Saru {Inuus speci- 
fisus), is one of the most interesting species, inhabiting a large portion 
of the country even well northward, and is said in some places to be 
rather a serious pest of the farmers, It was frequently observed in 
captivity at the temples, theatres, etc. In the beautiful parks surround- 
ing the temp'es at Xara are numbers of tame deer which feed out of 
the visitor's hand, and assemble at the call ot a trumpet. The stags are 
handsome animals of brownish colour, the fawns and does lighter and 
spotted. Great numbers of hairpins, chopsticks and other trifles are 
manufactured from the horns. This town was also a great producer of 
ink, enormous numbers of tablets having been seen. 

Next to agriculture, the fisheries of the kingdom are of the greatest 
importance, and the immense fleets of boats engaged in this industry 
afford beautiful pictures all along the coasts; many hundreds of them 
may at all times (except in heavy gales) be seen reaping their harvest 
from the capacious waters of Tokio Bay. Fish and vegetables form 
almost the entire food of the inhabitants, and of the former a great 
variety is fortunately found, it being stated by some authorities that 
about 700 species frequent the Japanese waters. Many of these are 
very valuable for food, including some forty species of the mackerel 
group, of varying size and quality, some of them very good. 

A favourite fish is the Ta', a beautiful deep red gold-bream 
(Chrysopus cardi?ialis), the delicate flesh of which is most delicious. It 
is frequently served up raw in delicate flakes, and is very palatable in 
this fashion. The Japanese are, however, very skillful in cooking fish, 
and the traveller enjoys this part of his diet, 

Herrings occur abundantly, and some species are much used in 
the manufacture of fertilizers for the rice fields, for in Japan the art of 
manuring is well understood, and every available material is made use 
of and nothing allowed to be wasted. The odour arising from this 



18D 

fish guano is far from pleasant, as was experienced by Mr. Harrington 
at B.ikan, where the steamer up the Inland Sea had a large quantity of 
sacks of it on board. 

M Vilusca are also largely used for food, especially cephalopods, 
haliotis, and the larger shell fish, of which immense numbers are taken 
for home consumption and export to China. 

A visit had been made to Enoshima, where a large trade is done 
in shells and other marine productions, and many articles manufactured 
from shells, corals, etc. Specimens of the celebrated glass-rope sponge 
(Hyalonema Sieboldii) can always be obtained in this interesting place, 
and form favourite souvenirs for visitors. 

The waters of Japan contain great numbers of crustaceans, the 
most remarkable of which is Macrocheims Kccmt>fen\ called by the 
fishermen Taka-ashi (long legs) the limbs extending ten or more feet 
from tip to tip. A very large specimen was seen in the Ueno Museum, 
Tokio. A curious little crab found down in the Inland Sea has on its 
back a striking resemblance to a human face, and has connected with 
it interesting legends. At Yokohama and elsewhere small crabs may 
be seen running about the roadways, and scuttling into their burrows 
in the damp ditches. At Chofu a larger and more handsomely marked 
species abounded so much that, despite its agihty and wariness, many 
were killed on the road by passing jinrickshas. 

Of reptiles the most frequently observed were two species ot lizards, 
one of which has the hinder part of the body and the tail of a very 
bright greenish blue. In 1-lakone lake a red-bellied newt was very 
abundant in shallow water. Other species of newts also occur, and, 
like the lizards, are caught in large numbers and dried for medicinal 
purposes. A curious little Gekko (Pteroiactylus Yamori) frequents 
houses, subsisting upon insects and hiding by day in crevices. Snakes 
of several species abound, but only one poisonous species is found, 
viz., Trigonocephalies Blom/wffi, which is considered to be a good nerve 
strengthener when skinned and cooked. Small green tree-toads were 
common, and one specimen was seen of a very large toad with whitish 
belly, white blotches along the sides and reddish markings on the 
head. 

In the ponds and tanks which frequently adjoin temples may be 



190 

often seen great numbers of turtles (a species of Enys) which are feJ 
by the visitors with small fish, lizards, etc., purchased for a few tin from 
the attendants. The turtle is a very frequent object in Japanese art 
work, and is often represented as if with spreading plumose tail. This 
is apparently meant to represent old individuals in which the shell is 
often covered with confervas that stream out behind as the animal 
swims along. 

Birds also furnish abundant themes for the Japanese artist, who 
knows so well how to depict them in lifelike attitudes, and with the 
greatest fidelity to nature. In the cities great numbers of a large kite, 
the Tombi IMtlvus govinda), may always be seen circling slowly round, 
and acting the part of useful scavengers, without fear of man. In 
Yokohama they were very numerous about the harbour, seeking their 
food from land and water, and resting in the rigging of the ships. 
Ravens are also abundant, and with the sparrows are very troublesome. 
The latter {Passer montanus) swarms in the rice-fields in spite of scare- 
crows, nets, traps and rattles, and much resembles in appearance and 
destructiveness the English sparrows. The most interesting birds are 
perhaps the storks and cranes, of which several fine species abound. 
They are protected and hence may be seen more frequently than might 
be expected. Tsuru is the name applied to the cranes, but each 
species has likewise a special name, as the Tancho (G'-us leucauchen), a 
noble white bird with a red crown, black neck and tail. There are three 
species of silver heron, Sagi, very beautiful birds, seen upon the mud 
flats near Tokio, at Hiroshima and elsewhere. 

In the moats surrounding the castle at Tokio were seen great 
numbers of ducks, which of course are never molested, and swim about 
in all the beauty of their various plumages. Jays, thrushes, finches, 
wagtails, doves and many others were observed, including pheasants, of 
which two species are common, and in some districts so numerous that 
great numbers are killed. 

* Insects were very numerous and about 600 species had been col- 
lected, about half of which were beetles. There was no time to discuss 



* A pnper had already been read by Mr. Harrington before the Entomological 
Society of Ontario upon the Japanese Insects and is being printed in the annual 
report of the society. 



191 

these collections or the many fine insects observed, but reference was 
made to the abundance of large wasps, and to the Semi or Cicada, 
whose noise is so obtrusive during the hot weather, and which is cap- 
tured by the children with slender bamboos tipped with rice glue. 

The address having occupied an hour and a half it was moved by 
Mr. Kingston, seconded by Mr. Lee?, "that the reading of the 
Ornithologcal Report be deferred until the next soiree." Carried. 

At the request of the members Mr. Harrington attired himself in a 
Japanese costume, explaining, however, that fine feathers do not make 
fine birds, and .hat he was afraid the clothes would not make him look 
like a Japanese, or show to advantage their graceful qualities. 



CORRESPOXDEXCE. 

THE JAPANESE GLASS-ROPE SPONGE. 

To the Editor of the Ottawa Naturalist. 

Dear Sir, — In anticipation of any report you may make of my 
"talk" upon Japan will you permit me 10 briefly supplement the 
reference then made to the.exhibited specimens of Hxnlotiema Sieboldu 
I find that some of those present received the impression that this 
iiteresting form is an artificial "plant" instead of a natural curiosity. 
The specimens shown, of which one was complete and the other stripped 
of the sponge proper, were obtained at Enoshima, where they may be 
had in abundance, of varying sizes and degrees of perfection. The 
trifling price at which they are sold would at once negative the idea 
that they are manufactured, even were the object of such manufacture 
apparent. They are obtained by dredging, in about 200 lathoms, on 
rejfs situated near the mouth of the Gulf of Tokio. During my stay in 
Yokohama I read in a volume of the transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan a very interesting paper on these sponges, and the only point 
on which the author asked for further investigation was the relationship 
borne to the sponge by the polyps surrounding the stalk. Various 
theories have been held by naturalists as to the growth of these 



192 

sponges but they were based upon imperfect specimens. The 
first specimens examined consisted merely of the stems with the 
sponge scraped off, and were supposed to be the skeletons of the 
parasitic polyps (Palythoa). Later it was supposed that the stalk 
grew upward from the sponge. As more perfect specimens were ob- 
tained, and closely allied species were obtained in other seas, the true 
method of growth was determined. I have no time to refer to author- 
ities, but will quote from the brief account of Prof. Hyatt in the 
Standard Natural History : 

" The sponge itself is * * * of a light brown colour, and friable 
when dry. The top is usually occupied with a number of cloacal aper- 
tures surrounding a central prominence which is in reality the end of 
the stem. The stem is spun by the tissues, as a supporting column, of 
elongated spicules bound together and growing in a spiral as the 
animal progresses upwards. The lower end of the stem becomes 
frayed out, and sinks into the mud as the animal grows, but constant 
additions to the upper end compensate for this and form a column 

which sometimes leaches a foot in length. 

W. Hague Harrington. 
O tawa, Jan. 15, 1892. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL BRANCH FOR 1891. 
(Read March 12th, iSgi.) 

To the Council of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. 

Gentlemen. — The leaders are pleased to announce an increased 
interest in this branch. Several of the younger members have collected 
regularly throughout the season, and have been remarkably successful 
in obtaining rare and valuable species. 

In this connection special mention may be made of Mr. Willibert 
Simpson, Mr. Reginald Bradley and Masters Tommy and Beverley 
McLaughlin. The joint collection made by the last named took the 
prize at the Central Canada Exhibition. With reference to this 
association and the prizes that have been offered at the annual exhibi- 
tions, the leaders trust that greater efforts will be made to exhibit larger 



193 

collections and thus keep up the interest of the public in this important 
branch of study. 

A large part of the collections of Messrs. C. P. Bate, W. Simpson, 
and R. Bradley was made at Kingsmere in the Chelsea mountains. 
Amongst the beetles collected were some not previously recorded as 
having been taken in this locality, e.g., Myas cyanescens, 2 specimens 
Mr. Bradley, Encydops ca&mleus and Xylol rech us Sagittarius Mr. Bate. 
Mr.Simpson took a fine female of Pityobius anguinus, another specimen, 
a male, was taken by Mr Fleteher and Mr. Harrington bred a female 
from a larva found in a decaying log in Beechwood in May, showing 
that this insect, one of the finest and largest of our Elaters is not so 
rare here as previously supposed. Saperda calcaraia the la-ge poplar 
borer was found in injurious numbers by Messrs. Simpson and Bradley 
at Kingsmere. They have now a barrelful of infested poplar stems 
containing many of the larvae. 

The leaders regret exceedingly the loss this branch has sustained, 
by the return of Rev. G. W. Taylor to British Columbia. Before leaving 
he had made a critical study of the Carabidiz with good results ; many 
of the doubtful species in this difficult order were satisfactorily deter- 
mined and several additions were made to the Ottawa list, particularly 
in the genus Bembidium. In the early spring diligent search was made 
for the members of this order and large series of specimens were taken. 
Amongst those not before recorded were Cychrus Brevoortit, Lachnocrepis 
par a tie I us, Nebria pall i pes, and Lor ice r a ca'rulescens. 

Two interesting occurrences of exotic insects imported with fruits 
were brought to the nctice of the leaders by Mr. C. P. Bate. Blaps 
mortisaga, a California beetle, he had found alive walking across a floor 
in the city. This, from what we could learn, had probably been intro- 
duced in a case of dried fruit. A small scorpion was also found by Mr. 
M. AlcVeity in a consignment of pineapples from the West Indies. 
In taking them out of a barrel he was stung on the hand. The weather 
was cool and the scorpion was sluggish or he would probably have suf- 
fered more severely than he did from the sting. As it was, the wound 
was extremely painful for several hours. 

Some attention has been given to the local Hemiptera, and Mr. 
Harrington gave an afternoon lecture on this order and submitted a 



194 

preliminary list, which will appear in a future number of the Ottawa 
Naturalist. The large families of Aphididae and Coccidse, which em- 
brace a large proportion of the species of this order, have not so far 
been much studied and must for the present b_ omitted. The study 
of some families of the Hymenoptera has been so far advanced that 
the leaders hope soon to begin the publication of the list of this order 
which was promised in a previous report ; but the printing of which has 
been postponed, owing to the great number of new species constantly 
turning up and the difficulties attending their accurate determination. 

Mr. McLaughlin has collected several new species of dragon fles 5 
but they are not yet identified. 

In the order Lepidoptera several rare species have been collected. 
A few specimens of Nisoniades Horatius, not previously recorded from 
this locality, were taken at Beechwood by Mr. Fletcher, ovipositing on 
Aquilegia Canadensis. 

A small but interesting collection of moths was taken at the 
dynamo house of the Electric Light Co. This contained two speci- 
mens of Hepialus argoiteomaculatus, Sphinx Kalmicz, Smerintlms mo~ 
destus, S gemi/iatus, S. excxcalus and Tolype velleda. Two of the large 
sphinx caterpillars, Philampelus Achemon and Sphinx Chez-sis, were 
injuriously abundant on the Experimental Farm, the former on grape 
vines and the latter on ashes. 

A serious attack on the wheat crop by a small fly (Osdnis vari- 
abilis) has to be recorded. It is being specially studied by Mr. 
Fletcher. 

t. McLaughlin, \ 

JAMES FLETCHER, \-La,d,,s. 
W. H. HARRINGTON, j 



195 
SOME NEW MOSSES. 

(By Nils. C. KindWg. Communicated by Mr. J. M. Macoun.) 

i. Dicranoweisia obliqua, Kindb., n. sp. 

Differs from D.crispula in the capsule being asymmetric, obliquely 
curved, substrumose in a dry state, the leaves with an excurrent costa, 
the perichetial ones being longer acuminate the peristomial teeth longer 
subulate, cleft above. 

On rocks along Asulcan Creek, near the Asulcan Glacier, Selkirk 
Mountains, B. C, Aug. 7th, 1S90 (Macoun). 

2. Dicranella polaris, Kindb., n. sp. 

Tufts dusky green not shining, fuscescent below; stem 1-3 mm. in 
height. Leaves rigid, nearly straight, erect-patent from the ovate- 
oblong base narrowed to the subulate acumen, which is furnished with 
2-3 indistinct teeth; lower marginal cells narrow, upper sub-oblong; 
costa broad, often f 3 of the lower part, faintly marked, filling the whole 
acumen ; perichetial leaves larger, entire, broader at the base, with more 
numerous marginal cells. Capsule asymmetric suboval, finally sub- 
clavate, curved, smooth, short-necked, orange; lid with a long oblique 
beak ; peristomial teeth nearly entire, slightly cleft above, orange with 
p iler tips; annulus not distinct; pedicel yellow, 10-12 mm. long. 
Spores small, about 0.015 mm. Calyptra short dimidiate. Dioecious. 

This species differs from D. hcteromalla in its smaller size, the 
rigid leaves, the broad costa (broader than in the European Mclrleria 
alj>ina, Schimp., and resembling it in habit) and the smooth capsule. 

St. Lawrence Island, Behring Sea, 15th August, 1891 (J. M. 
Macoun). 

Ncte. — S:. Lawrence Island, situated in N. Lat. 63'3o', W. Long. 
170 , is a barren rocky island covered with a scanty growth of vegetation, 
principally lichens of a few species. At the date of our visit there snow 
s'.ill filled the ravines and covered the northern slopes. 

3. Dicranella cf.rviculatula, Kindb., n. sp. 

Agrees with Dicranella cerviculata in the strumose capsu!e, the 
yellow pedicel and the dioecious inflorescence, differs in the leaves not 
suddenly acumina'.c, the cells short quadrate, only the inner basal 



196 

rectangular, and the costa narrow, well defined and not filling the 
acumen, only in the perichetial ones distinctly excurrent. The tufts 
are very dense and compact, dark green, the leaves not spreading, rather 
sub-erect or patent, the stem about 5 mm., the pedicel 7-8 mm. 

Nottingham Island, Hudson Strait, August 24th, iSS4(R. Bell.) 

4. Barbula subcuxeifolia, Kindb., n. sp. 

Differs from Barbula cuneifolia in very much larger subacute 
leaves, reddish in the older state, co^ta very stout, elevate and blood- 
red, larger capsule with more twisted teeth, very twisting and dark-red 
pedicel ; inflorescence probably dioecious. 

Mixed with Pottia Heimii ; St. Matthew Island, Behring sea, 
August 10th, 1891 (J. M. Macoun.) 

Note. — St. Matthew Island, 6o°3o' X. Lat, 1 73°3o' W. Long., 
resembles St. Lawrence Island in general appearance, but theie is on 
it a much greater variety of plants. The interior of the island is hilly 
and covered with grass. 



:o: 



MICROSCOPICAL SOIREE. 
On Thursday, the nth of February, at S |..m., a microscopical 
soiree will be held in the N jrmal School, to which the students of that 
institution are particularly invited. Four short papers, of not more 
than ten minutes each, will be read by Messrs. Ferrier, Shutt, Fletcher 
and Harrington. The subjects discussed will be illustrated by micro- 
scopes. 

:o: 

SUBSCRIPTIONS. 
The Club year having nearly expired (the third Tuesday in March 
being the date of the annual meeting), any members who have not yet 
paid their subscriptions will oblige by sending them to the Treasurer, 
Mr. A. G. Kingston, Dept. of Public Works, Ottawa. 



197 
A BOTANICAL EXCURSION TO "THE CHATS." 



AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BY MR. R. B. WHYTE JAN. 28, 1 892 

Mr. Robert B. Wbyte gave an account of a botanical excursion 
he had taken with Mr. R. H. Cowley to the Chats Rapids, Falls and 
Island during the past summer. The address was illustrated by a map 
of the county of Carleton showing part of the Ottawa River, upon 
which the various places mentioned were pointed out. The Missis- 
sippi River divides south of the Chats Island, one branch flowing 
straight north, and the other called the Snye, flowing east, and empty- 
ing into the Ottawa River at Fitzroy Harbor. The interest attached to 
the Chats is not only on account of the many plants found there ; for 
just at the northern point of the island a series of wild rapids begins, 
which ends near Fitzroy Harbor in a lovely waterfall of thirty feet. 
This extends right across the river, and is of great beauty, being a 
succession of falls with wooded islands between them. Indeed Mr. 
V\ 'hyte thinks it is the prettiest fall in Canada. Some years ago the 
1 instruction of a canal was started on the north side of the rapids, and 
nearly half-a-million of dollars were expended on ir, but the rock was 
found to be so hard that the builders decided it was not worth the 
trouble, and gave it up. This is the original Laurentian rock which 
forms the islands at the falls, and from there runs down past Galetta 
and Perth to the St. Lawrence. Near the proposed route of the canal 
there was formerly a horse tramway from Pontiac to Bristol, but it is 
now almost in ruins. About twenty-five years ago Mr. Whyte took a 
trip on this railway, and was then struck by the profusion of wild 
flowers of all kinds which lined both sides of the track. On this 
occasion Messrs. Cowley and Whyte took the train to Arnprior, 
from which place they proceeded by steamer. The water was too 
shall <w to land on the island, but through the kindness of Mr. Cowley's 
brother, they were set down about a mile from shore, and rowed in a 
small boat to land. Here they met Capt. Cowley, who accompanied 
them in a walk along the north shore, a beach formed of shingle and 
broad flat stones, amongst which they found some of their most inter- 
esting specimens, a previously unrecorded Aster and the shrubby 
Potentilla, with yellow flowers, which would be well worthy of cultiv.i 



198 

tion as an ornamental shrub in gardens ; also the beautiful Lobelia 
Kahnii, Prenanthes racemosa, Pycnanthemum lanceolatum, and other 
interesting plants. After lunch they walked down an old road which 
Capt. Cowley said was made to connect Deschenes Lake with Chats 
Lake, completing the line between Aylmer and Portage-du-Fort. This 
was the only road between 1837 and 1847. He also said that where 
Mr. Whyte had found some of the rarest plants he had once had an 
old storehouse, which in those days was used for storing merchandise 
from Montreal, and he suggested that some of the seeds might have 
been brought from that region. Subsequently they rowed up the 
Mississippi River to Galetta, where they spent the night. Starting 
early the next morning before breakfast they went out to search for the 
Ceanothus Americanus, which Mr. Whyte had found growing there the 
year before, but at this time they could not discover a single specimen, 
although a great many were discovered later in the day. After break- 
fast they had a delightful row down the Mississippi again to the Snye, 
where both banks of the river were lined with arrow heads, water lilies, 
cardinal flowers and many other beautiful flowers. After rowing for 
some time down the Snye they landed on the north side, where they 
found Helianthus, divaricatus, Helenium autum?:ale, Pycnanthemum, 
and Ceanothus in great abundance. Before returning to the boat they 
visited a Galena mine which is situated to the south-west of the island ; 
it is worked by a man from Montreal, and sends out many dollars 
worth of lead every year. After leaving the Snye they rowed down the 
Mississippi to a place on the lake called " The Camp," where people 
from Arnprior and Galetta often spend the summer. Here within one 
hundred yards they found almost all the plants seen during the two 
days. Mi. Whyte then described the new plants, of wliich he had 
mounted specimens with him. The first was Aster ptarmicoides, which 
has not been found before east of Belleville, but it is known in many 
places in the North-West. It is however scarce and local, and the 
Chats Island may be the nearest place to Ottawa where it grows. The 
Potentilla fruticosa, or Shrubby Cinquefoil, which grows on the rocky 
margins of rivers, is common in Eastern Canada, having been found 
e^en in Northern Labrador. Another plant was the Prenanthes race- 
mose, or Rattlesnake-root, which is found at Montreal and Lake Huron ; 



199 

it is common also in the lower provinces, and would likely he found a 
little north of the city, The Helianthus divaricates has never hefore 
been found by any member of the club in this locality, but in McGill 
College Herbarium there is a specimen of it, said to have been found 
in the vicinity of Ottawa. It is common at Prescott, and to the west 
of this place. The Pycnanthemum lanceolatum, commonly called 
Mountain Mint, was found at Montreal fifty years ago, and in later 
times at Weller's Bay, Lake Ontario, by Prof. Macoun, although it has 
not been found here. Lobelia Kalmti is a pretty little plant which 
grows on rocky points below waterfalls. There were fifteen new plant s 
found last year, most of them near Ottawa, and Mr. Whyte thinks they 
would have been found before if they had been looked for more 
closely, and he reminded the members that there is plenty of work for 
many years yet in places that have not been thoroughly gone over. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Whyte's interesting address, remarks 
were made by some of the members present. Mr. Fletcher thought 
it was hardly likely that the seeds of the plants found by Mr. Whyte 
had been introduced in stores taken to Capt. Cowley's depot, and he 
agreed with Mr. Whyte that although the locality had been well worked 
up, there was still plenty of opportunity for the members of the club to 
distinguish themselves by finding plants as yet unrecorded from this 
locality. Mo>t of the collecting so far had been done in only a few 
different localities, and there were many large districts close to the 
city which were never visited. He congratulated Messrs. Whyte and 
Cowley on their success, and felt sure it would spur others on to use 
their eyes better next year. 

Mr. Ami spoke of the peculiarities of Montreal Mountain as a 
botanical locality. 



N< he. — The above excellent report of Mr. Whyte's lecture was kindly prepared 
by one of our lady members, to whom the Editor begs to tender his thanks. J.F. 



200 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL SECTION, 1891 

(Read Jan. 28th, 1892.) 

To the Council of the Ottawa Field- Naturatisti Club : 

Gentlemen,— The leaders in botany have pleasure in reporting 
that there has been continued activity in this branch during the past 
season. Some additional plants have been added to the local list, new- 
localities discovered for rare species previously recorded, and interest- 
ing observations made in growing native plants from ^eed. In this 
connection the leaders would draw attention to the work now being 
carried on at the botanic garden on the Central Experimental Farm, 
where a large number of native plants have been grown from seed from 
various parts of the Dominion, and which are always available for study 
by visitors and students. A magnificent collection of seeds o( prairie 
flowers has during the past season been presented to the botanist in 
charge by Mr. T. N. Willing, of Calgary, X.WT, a member ot the 
club. Some of these have been sown, and many others are ready for 
planting in the spring. All members are invited to assist with seeds 
and roots of rare plants. The importance of studying plants in a grow- 
ing condition cannot oe too strongly urged. Of particular interest to 
botanists are several plants, the seeds of which have been presented by 
Prof. Macoun, concerning which there was some doubt as to specific 
identity, or for the observation of other points of scientific interest. 
As an instance of the value of this work mention may be made of an 
investigation made by Mr. J. M. Macoun last spring, by which it was 
found that the Camassla, abundant around Victoria, in Vancouver 
Island, is not, as was supposed, Camassia esculenta but C. Leichthnu, 
a fact which had previously been suggested by Prof. Macoun. The 
true C. esculenta was collected by Mr. Macoun near Sproat's Landing, 
and grows in low land quite close to the river, growing, in fact, in the 
etrly part of the season when discovered, in the water by the riverside. 
C. Leichilinii has larger and darker purple flowers with the lowest 
segment of the perianth conspicuously deflexed. A collection of great 
interest to the botanical student is the large collection of native and 
foreign grasses - about 150 different species— which are being culti 
vated at the Experimental Farm. 



201 

Sub-excursions by members of the branch to localities at some 
distance from the city have been made during the past season : to 
High Falls, on the Lievre ; to Templeton and Buckingham down the 
Ottawa River ; to Casselman, on the Castor River ; to the Chats 
Rapids, to be specially reported upon by Mr. R. B. Whyte, and also, as 
well, to less dis'.ant points. At High Falls Epigcea repcns, the May- 
flower, sometimes miscalled the Trailing Arbutus, was found in magni- 
ficent profusion, and large bunches of the exquisite flowers were brought 
back to the city. The lovely Calypso borealis, a deliciously-scented 
but very rare orchid, was also obtained there in unusual abundance by 
Mr. R. B. Whyte. At Templeton Mr. W. Scott found Spiranthes 
Romanzoffiana in profusion in a hay field close to the East Templeton 
wharf, and between the wharf and the lighthouse keeper's house ; also 
Thalutrum purpurascrns. Casselman, and Moose Creek a few miles 
beyond that place, have again this year provided rich treasures for those 
who went to seek them. Cardamine rhomboidea, the tall erect form, 
with stiff and almost sessile leaves, only previously recorded from Hull, 
was there found in great abundance. A violet taken to be Viola rotun- 
d'folia, was found at Moose Creek. Perhaps the most interesting find 
of the year was Fioerkca prose 'pinacoides, found by Prof. Macoun at 
Casselman early in the season. A trip to Buckingham by Prof. Macoun 
and Mr. Scott in October gave new localities for Potamogeton Robinsii, 
and what also is very rare here, Polygonum dumetorum var. scandens. 
On the mountain at the back of Old Chelsea Carex Hitchcockiana and 
Aspidium Braiimi were discovered, while on the slope of the mountain 
running up from the north shore of Kingsmere, Carex Houghtonii was 
collected. This is the only locality yet found near Ottawa, and it is 
very rare here. Nearer home some other interesting discoveries were 
made. Prof. Macoun collected Eleocharis intermedia near Leamy's 
Lake, and Mr. J. M. Macoun at Hull found Viola rostrata, the rarest 
of all our violets in this locality. It has only once previously been 
collected here, when two plants were found growing in the Governor- 
General's Bay at New Edinburgh Mr. Scott found undoubted 
specimens of Ranunculus circinatus, the stiff water crow-foot, in Patter- 
son's Creek. Claytonia Virginica frequently sought for unsuccessfully 
in this locality, was last spring found in abundance in the woods 



202 

running from Billings Bridge to Dow's Swamp by both Mr. Fletcher 
and Mr. J. M. Macoun. In a field near the same place Mr. Fletcher 
also found this season large numbers of plan's of the yellow-flowered 
form of Verbascum Blatiaria, the Moth Mullein. This field he had 
passed through several times the previous year at the same season, but 
did not observe a specimen. Mr. R. H. Cowley also found a similar 
occurrence near Skead's Mills on the Ottawa River. Mr. Scott found 
several fine specimens of Goodyera pubescens, the Rattlesnake Plantain, 
at Ironsides, and in Dow's Swamp Cypripedium aridinum and Micros- 
tylis monophyllos, two of our rarest orchids. Mr. Fletcher collected at 
Rockcliffe true and very characteristic specimens of the Glaucous 
Meadow Grass, Poa ccesia. This resembles somewhat Poa compressa, 
the Canada Blue Grass, but the whole plant is covered with a bluish 
white and conspicuous bloom, and the stems are round instead of 
flattened. The following introduced plants have been collected in the 
neighbourhood of the city by Mr. W. Scott : 

Sisymbrium Sophia. A fine plant of this very distinct crucifer was 
found on made ground near the artificial lake on Major's Hill Park. 

Sisymbrium AlHaria. A colony of this European plant has 
established itself and spread considerably during the last few years in 
Beechwood. 

North-West Prairie Flowers. An interesting instance of western 
plants having become well established is found near Capt. Cowley's 
house at Skead's Mills, on the banks of the Ottawa, where the following 
plants were found by Mr. R. H. Cowley : 

Gtindelia squarrosa, m large numbers, extending for about an acre 
in all directions from a deserted house. 

Lepachys columnaris, a handsome composite of a distinctly west- 
ern type, in almost as great abundance as the above. 

Erysimum parvifiorum. Several specimens were collected by 
Mr. Scott on the Canadian Pacific Railway bank near the Union 
s:ation and submitted to Prof. Macoun. 

Conium maculaium. — To the north of Beechwood Cemetery and 
between it and the lake hundreds of specimens of this intensely poison- 
ous plant vvere found growing in great luxuriance. This is the true 
Poison Hemlock, and it would be well for all members of the Club to 



203 

mike themselves fimiliar with its appearance, so as to avoid it them- 
selves and warn others against its poisonous properties 

Mr. R. H. Cowley discovered new localities for the Walking Fern 
{Gamptosorus rhizophyllus) and the Maiden hair Spleenwort (Asplenitim 
Trichomanes). These were growing together on rocks to the west of 
the Beaver Meadow at Hull. 

It will be noticed that no less than fifteen new plants have been 
added to the Flora Ottaivaensis during the past season, and these 
were all found in localities which had been previously worked over. 
There are still several plants which should occur in this district, but 
which so far have not been discovered. The leaders would suggest 
the advisability of a special systematic search being made for these one 
by one in the most likely places. 

A curious case of poisoning in the city of Hull, Province of 
Quebec, was traced up by the leaders to the rare introduced plant 
Datura Tatula or Purple-flowered Thorn-apple. Thn plant is of rare 
occurrence here ; but when once introduced seems to be able to live 
and spread. This was the case in the streets of Stewarton some years 
ago. Specimens kindly procured for the leaders by a gentleman con- 
nected with the Ottawa Daily Citizen were distinctly recognizable as 
this species by their purple stems. Datura Stramonium is not uncommon 
in waste places about the city, but D. Tatula is rare There appears to 
have been a large patch growing on a piece of waste land in the city of 
Hull, and some five or six children ate the seeds, and all of them were 
made extremely ill, so that it was feared for some days that all would 
die. Ultimately, however, all recovered. The curious part of this 
case is that anyone, even children, should eat the seeds of this unin- 
viting plant. Not only are the pods covered with sharp spines ; but 
the whole plant has a most nauseous and sickening odour. 



x:her, ) 
:ott, \ 

EY. ) 



TAMES FLETCHER, 
WILLIAM SCOTT, 
R. H. COWLE 



204 
FLORA OTTAWAENSIS. 

ADDITIONS MADE SINCE LAST REPORT. 

Ranunculus circinatus, Sibth. Patterson's Creek, W. Scott. 

Erysimum parviflorutn, Nutt Chaudiere, 

Sisymbrium Alliaria Scop Beechwood, "' 

Sisymbrium Sophia, L., Major's Hill, " 

Viola blanda, var. palustriformis, Gr J. M. Macoun. 

Viola rotundifolia, Mx Moose Creek, . . .John Macnun. 

Flcerkea proserpinacoides, Willd., Casselman, . . .John Macoun. 

Claytonia Virginica, L., Dow's Swamp, J. Fletcher. 

.„ , . T _. T , , ( R. B. Whyte. 

Potentilla fruticosa, L., Chats Island, • ) ,,> jr Cowley 

Aster ptarmicoides, T. & G., Chats Island, . . 

Helianthus divaricatus, L., " 

Prenanthes racemosa, Mx., 

Pycnanthemum lanceolatum, Pursh, . .CI ats Island, . . 

Poa cassia, Smith, Rockcliffe J. Fletcher. 

Aspidium aculeatum, Svvartz var. Brnunii, Koch., Chelsea. . 



CANADIAN LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSCA. 

A very complete list of the shells of the Ottawa valley was pub 
lished in the Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. IV, p. 52. A list of the land 
shells of Vancouver Island was also published in this periodical (Vol. 
Ill, p. 84 et seq.) and I have in MSS. a list of the fresh water shells of 
the same district. 

If we add together the numbers of the species named in the above 
papers we have a total of about 160 species of Canadian mollusca. 

There are a number of species, however, occurring in Canada 
which do not find a place in either the Ottawa or Vancouver Island 
lists — probably some 40 or 50 kinds — and I am trying to compile for 
publication a catalogue that will include all these. 

I have already in hand a good deal of material for such a compila- 
tion ; for instance, Mr. Whiteaves's early papers ; a capital list of Ham- 



205 

ikon shells by Mr. A. W. Hanham; several smaller lists in the Reports 
of the Geological and Natural History Survey; a list of Manitoba shells 
by Mr. Christy ; and a most interesting little collection of specimens 
from near Winnipeg received from Mr. N. H. Cowdry through the 
kindness of Mr. James Fletcher. 

Much, however, remains to be done before a complete check list 
can be prepared, and I am writing this note in the hope that the mem- 
bers of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, who are scattered through 
the length and breadth of the Dominion, will co-operate with me. 

I should like observers in different parts of Canada to send me, 
not names merely, but actual specimens of all the species they can find, 
no matter how common, and in return I will name the specimens sent, 
as far as I can, for those who are not able to do this for themselves, and 
will also try to reciprocate by sending Western specimens, if so desired. 

If the members of the Club will help me in this way during the 
coming summer, I think that in the autumn, all being well, I can pub- 
lish a tolerably complete catalogue of our Canadian mollusca. 

GEO. W. TAYLOR, 

Victoria, B.C. 
:o: 

MICROSCOPICAL SOIREE. 

On Thursday, the 18th February, a very successful microscopical 
soiree was held in the Normal School, for the students of which it was 
in a large measure arranged, in acknowledgment of the courtesy shown 
to the club by Principal MacCabe. A large number of the students 
availed themselves of the invitation to attend, and with the members 
present completely filled the lecture rcom. By request of the com- 
mittee brief elementary papers were prepared by the following members 
in explanation of the preparations exhibited : — 

Mr. Harrington — Entomology. 

Mr. Ferrier — Petrography. 

Mr. Shutt — Forms of Animal and Plant Life in Swamp water. 

Mr. Lehmann — Parasitic fungi. 

At the close of each paper an interval of fifteen minutes was 
allotted to the examination of specimens illustrative of the subject 
introduced. Messrs. Whiteaves, Weston, Ferrier, Ami, Craig, Shutt, 



206 

Lehmann, Odell, Whitley, Tyrrell, McConnell and Fletcher supplied 
and arranged the microscopes and slides, and explained to the observers 
the objects exhibited. The Club if. much indebted to these members 
for the assistance given, and the Council tenders them its sincere 
thanks. 



THE MICROSCOPE IN ENTOMOLOGY. 

Br W. Hague Harrington. 

(Read at Microscopical Soiree, 18th February, iSg2 ) 

To the student of Entomology a good microscope and the know- 
ledge of its use are indispensable when he desires thoroughly to 
decipher the characters upon which are based the determination and 
classification of his specimens. Many insects are so small that the 
naked eye can scarcely determine even the order to which they belong, 
and even the large species are separated frequently by the formation of 
the mouth parts, or other structures which require to be much magni- 
fied before they can be satisfactorily distinguished. The microscopist, 
therefore, can always, in the extensive field of Entomology, find ample 
scope for the useful employment of his valued instrument, and can 
always obtain abundant interesting slides for his cabinets. Hundreds 
of the smaller species can advantageously be mDunted whole, and will 
make very fine slides. Especially suitable for this treatment are the 
minute parasitic hymenoptera, many of the smaller diptera, the plant- 
lice and scale-insects among hemiptera, various families of minute 
colceptera, etc. All the orders will, in the earlier stages of the egg and 
the larva, furnish unlimited supplies of curious, beautiful and instruc- 
tive mounts. 

Of special organs or structures which may form worthy objects of 
-examination, there is a wonderful variety, a portion of which only can 
be now indicated. Each insect, as you are aware, is composed of three 
distinct regions — the head, the thorax and the abdomen — although in 
some species these may be so modified and consolidated as not to be 
readily apparent. The insect also bears externally certain appendages, 
and is furnished with an elaborate apparatus for digestion, sensation, 
respiration, motion and generation. 



207 

The head varies endlessly in size and shape, and the mouth-parts 
are correspondingly diversified. In some orders they consist of man- 
dibles and maxillae, which work transversely between the labrum and 
labium, and there are also attachments known as maxillary and labial- 
palpi. Several of these parts are again subdivided, and in all there are 
nearly a score of parts, each with its distinguishing name, to be studied 
m connection with the mouth alone. Then there occur many modi- 
fications of these organs, in which certain parts are so altered that the 
entire form of the mouth is changed. Then the lepidoptera, diptera 
and hemiptera have the mouth-parts transformed into a rostrum or 
proboscis which serves to suck the nectar from flowers, or the vital 
juices from plants and animals. The head also bears the eyes, which 
consist generally of two large aggregations of facets, often to the number 
of several thousands, besides which the majority of insects have two or 
three simple eyes, or occelli. The antenna?, also placed upon the head 
are movable sense organs which perform very important functions, 
and which vary in form. They are composed of small rings or segments 
the number of which varies in the different groups, and averages perhaps 
ten or twelve. In the simpler forms of antennae these joints are merely 
short cylinders placed end to end, but in numerous families one or 
more of these joints may be enlarged or modified so much, that the 
antenna becomes very different in appearance, and many terms are 
employed to indicate the modifications, such as serrate, flabel.'ate, pec- 
tinate, clavate, lamellate, etc. 

The thorax is formed of a number of plates, more or less solidified 
and united, and bears the organs of locomotion, usually three pairs oj 
legs and two pairs of wings. The legs consist of several segments, 
ending usually in a pair of small claws, and may be variously armed or 
ornamented with spines and hairs. The wings are formed of two thin 
transparent membranes stiffened by an interposed net work, more or 
less complicated, of nervures or veins, and upon this venation of the 
wings is based the classification of many groups. In beetles one pair 
of wings is modified and hardened to form protecting sheaths for the 
hinder pair, and a somewhat similar, but partial, thickening is observed 
in grasshoppers and bugs. Butterflies and moths have the wings great 
ly developed and covered with scales and pubescence, which are so 



208 

coloured as frequently to make these insects marvellously beautiful. 

The abdomen is composed of several ring-like segments, but in com- 
mon with the other regions of the body, is often greatly changed, and 
has the segments welded together or atrophied. From the tip of the 
female abdomen frequently projects the ovipositor, which is most 
conspicuous in some hymenoptera, and which is modified in many 
interesting directions. The male abdomen in a large number of insects 
differs in shape from that of the female, and the sexual organs are more 
or less conspicuously developed. 

In addition to the structures which have been so briefly indicated, 
there is often much of interest in the sculpture or vestment of the body. 
Some insects are smooth ard highly polished, deriving their beauty 
from brilliant metallic or other colours of the body wall ; others depend 
for their adornment on dense coverings of pubesence or scales, which, 
as in the case of those which beautify the butterfly, make exquisite 
objects for microscopical examination. 

The internal anatomy of insects is no less a favourite study for 
those who desire to see the mechanism which enables each of these 
tiny creatures to fulfil its destiny in this world. For anatomical study 
with the microscope insects are peculiarly well adapted, as they can 
always be obtained, are easy to kill and handle, and have elaborate 
muscular, nervous and digestive systems. 



209 

A BIOLOGICAL STATION IN JAMAICA. 
A letter has been received from the Hon. Adam Brown, Dominion 
Commissi >ner at the late Jamaica Exhibition, enclosing a copy of the 
following letter from Lady Blake, which will be read with much interest 
by the readers of the Ottawa Naturalist. The Marine Biological 
Station at Naples, now under the able direction of its founder, Dr. 
Dohrn, is the most important in the world, and students attend the 
course of study from all parts of Europe and America. The following 
is from Science, of Sept. iSth, 189 1, and will show how highly the work 
of these stations is valued : 

" At present, as we learn from a statement recently made by Pro- 
fessor Sclater in Nature, the zoological station at Naples rents contin- 
uously about twenty tables, each at $500 a year. These tables are 
rented to different States and universities of Europe, as follows : Prussia, 
4; Baden, 1; Bavaria, 1 ; Saxony. 1 ; Hesse, 1 ; Wurtemberg, 1 ; Italy, 
7 ; Switzerl md, 1 ; Hungary, 1 ; Holland, 1 ; University of Cambridge 
(England), 1; British Association, 1. Besides these twenty-one regular 
rents, a number of others, varying from eight to sixteen, are made 
every year to some or all of the following governments : Russia, Belgium, 
Austria, Spain, and some Italian provincial governments. The aver- 
age number disposed of in this way is estimated at ten, making the 
total number thirty-one. The annual income from the tables would 
thus amount to about $15,000 a year. The revenue from the sale of 
preserved specimens amounts to about $3,500, while the receipts from 
the admission of visitors to the aquarium amounts to about $5,000. 
The whole income is thus approximately $24,000. But the annual 
expenditure of the station has now reached $32,000, so that there is a 
deficit of from $8,000 to $10,000 to meet. This heavy deficit is met 
every year by a subsidy from the German government. 

'This is a good example,' says Professor Sclater, 'of the liberal way 
in which science is encouraged and supported in the " Fatherland," 
and is the more noteworthy because the object of its well-bestowed 
bounty in this instance is localized on foreign soil.' 

Indeed, this is a splendid example of the high appreciation in 
which pure scientific research is held by an enlightened government — 
an example which we should be glad to see followed in this country." 



210 

Lady Flake's letter is as follows : — 

King's Housk, Jamaica, ist Feb., 1892. 
Dear Mr. Frown, — ■ 

My husband and I are at present much interested 
in a scheme on behalf of which I am anxious to enlist your energetic 
assistance. It is proposed to. establish here a Marine Eiological 
Station, on the lines of the Stations at Plymouth and Naples. The 
Station is to be founded as a Memorial of the fourth Centenary of the 
discovery of the New World, and to be named " The Columbus Ma- 
rine Eiological Station." In England the scheme is supported by 
Professor Huxley, Professor Ray Lankester, M, A., Professor Flower, 
Gunther, (British Museum) Dr. Ball, F. R. S., and many other eminent 
scientific men. The Hon. Walter Rothschild has undertaken to act as 
Honorary Secretary ; Messrs. Coutts & Co. to be Bankers and the 
Editor of the " Times" has promised a prominent position to correspon- 
dence on the subject. We have also promises of support from many 
leading scientific men in America and are most anxious to secure the 
assistance and countenance of leading men in Canada. We shall be so 
much obliged if you will do anything in your power to push the scheme 
there. We are anxious that the Institution should be as international 
as possible in its scope, and it would be a great matter to have a meet- 
ing place in common for scientific students from the old and new worlds. 
Jamaica is within easy reach of both, and appears to offer every 
advantage for the proposed institution. Your advocacy of the plan in 
Canada would be of great value. Please let me know if you think we 
may hope for any assistance from there. 

Believe me, 

Yours truly, 

EDITH BLAKE. 
Adam Brown, Esq., 

Hamilton, Canada. 

The value of such a station is undoubted and the Island of 
Jamaica is particularly suitable for its location. The accessibility and 
convenience of this station for American students would assure its 



211 

being appreciated and made use of by the large number of specialists in 
the United States. 

His Excellency the Governor of Jamaica, Sir Henry A. Blake, and 
Lady Blake, have received so many promises of help from eminent 
Biologists in Britain and elsewhere that they are sanguine as to the 
feasibility and great value of such a station, which is to be international 
in its objects. The Hon. Adam Brown with his characteristic energy 
in patronizing and helping measures tending towards scientific advance- 
ment is corresponding with the leading students in Canada asking for 
their co-operation in forwarding this important project which has our 
fullest sympathy. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

The Month is the title of a neat little monthly magazine which 
has been sent to us by the editor, Rev. A. Dontenville, O.M I., who is 
now living in New Westminster and is presiding over St. Louis College. 
The Month is an attractive li:tle magazine, well printed and well ed ted, 
and we feel sure will be well patronized. Father Dontenville who was 
a frequent attendant at our botanical and entomological lectures when 
in Ottawa, is well known to many of our members; and we wish him 
every happiness and success in his new home and hope to see in the 
pages of the Mojith some papers upon the natural history subjects 
which he made so attractive to his students when teaching at the 
Ottawa University. 

Extom: logical Society of Oxtario.— Twenty-second annual 
report. The last annual report of this flourishing and useful society has 
just come to hand. It is one of the most valuable from the standpoint 
of the agriculturalist and fruit-grower which the society has ever issued. 

The annual address of the president, the Rev. Dr. Bethune of Port 
Hope is full of useful information. Notice is first taken of the various 
injurious insects which have been most troublesome throughout the 
Province during the year and the best remedies are suggested for each 
in turn. The reports of the London sections and the Montreal branch 
show that the work is being pushed vigorously and that good results are 
being obtained. A subject which is being studied by the ornithological 



212 

section is the food-habits of -wild birds. In the present report is given 
a list of birds known to breed in Middlesex County, Ont., and a classi- 
fication is made under the heads: A, Beneficial ; B, Xeutral or nearly 
so ; C, Open to doubt as possibly injurious. Of these three classes there 
are A 78, B 12, C 7. Interesting papers read at the annual meeting by 
Messrs. H. H. Lyman, Rev. T. W. Fyles, G. Geddes, J. A. Moffat and J. 
Fletcher are printed as well as a most entertaining article by Mr. \V. H. 
Harrington entitled "Notes on Japanese Insects." This paper forms 
with the paper already published in our February number a very com- 
plete record of Mr. Harrington's trip to Japan. The proceedings, 
together with the papers read, at the meeting of the Association of Econ- 
omic Entomologists held last August at Washington under the presidency 
ot Mr. J. Fletcher of this Club are printed in full, from Insect Life. 
These proceedings are of great value and were excellently reported by 
the secretary Mr. L. O. Howard, the assistant United States Entomol- 
ogist. They contain concise papers by some of the most eminent 
Entomologists in America. 

This report is made to the Ontario Government, and besides being 
issued to the members of the Entomological Society will also be sent to 
members of the Fruit-Growers' Association. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

Members are reminded that the annual meeting will be held on 
the afternoon of the third Tue5TJay~rrr March— (tire 16th inst.) It will 
be held in the Normal School lecture room at 4.15 p.m. The impor- 
tance of every member attending the annual meeting is manifest. The 
officers for the ensuing year are then elected, and arrangements made 
for carrying on ibe work we have undertaken in the most satisfactory 
manner. Unexpected matters of interest always turn up at the annual 
meetings, and the Council is particularly anxious that every member 
should consider that he has a voice in directing the management of 
the Club. 



INDEX 



Annual Meeting PAGE 

o 2 I "* 

A. A. A. S. Meeting at Washington 88 

Annual Report o 

Ami, H. M., on Extinct Vertebrates ............... ' " ' ' ' ' t, 

Barbula snbcuneifolia, Kindb. x. sp IQ 5 

Barlow, Alfred E., on the Sudbury Nickel and Copper' Deposits . . li 

Behring Sea Seal Commission , I7n ,,. 

Birds of Ottawa ..'.'...'.'.'.' ?' So 

Book Notices. Macoun's Catalogue. Part V '.'.'.'. ' 7 ° 

Botanical Branch. Report for 1890 80 

Botanical Branch. Report for 1891 200 

Botanical Excursion to the Chats ' iQ7 

Bryum brachyneuron, Kindb. x. sp 170 

Bryum Froudei, Kindb. N. sp " " jg^ 

Canadian Land and Fresh water Mollusca 20 , 

Geratodon heterophyllus, Kindb. x. sp 170 

Chemistry of Food ' ' 

Chimney Swifts. The Ottawa Colony of. .... . ^q 

( Council, Annual Report 

Dawson, Dr. G. M. Appointed Commissioner to visit Behring 
Sea * 

Dicranella cerviculatula, Kindb. x. sp I( l- 

Dicranella polaris, Kindb. x. sp ,^ 

Dicranoweisia obliqua, Kindb. x. sp ick 

Didymodon Ba;en-Powe//i, Kindb. x. sp. j?X 

Drinking Water of Ottawa ( 

Edwards, Henry. Obituary Notice 88 

Ells, R. W. President's Inaugural Address ^1 

Entomological Branch. Report for 1890 IQ , 

Excursion No. 1. To King's Mountain si 

Excursion No. 2 To Montebello 8 - 

Excursion No. 3 ' D 

Extinct Vertebrates from the Miocene . ..... ^t 

Flora Ottawaensis g 

Fletcher. J. Educational value of Botanical Gardens. . . ... . .' roc 

Treasurer's Report 8 

Geological Survey of Canada, W,.rk of JOJ 

Harrington, W. Hague. Notes of Travel in Japan ,8i 

Japanese Glass-rope Sponge n;r 



214 

i6i 

Inaugural Address 

Japan, Notes of Travel in 

* apanese Glass-rope Sponge 

Kindberg, Nils C. Descriptions of New Mosses *95 

Kingston, A. G. On the Chimney Swift 9 

Lees, W. A. D. Librarian's Report ■ *** 

Librarian's Report, 1890 

Members, List of 196 

Microscopical Soiree .. 195 

Mosses, New *'.;,"", Y " jl 17Q 

Mosses (New) trom the Pnbylov Islands 79 

McGill, A. On Drinking Water ._ ■ • - • • • 

Macoun, Tohn. Catalogue of Canadian Plants 7 

Monday Popular Lectures. Botany ■> 

Chemistry Mj 

Nickel and Copper Deposits of Sudbury 5 1 

Officers. List of • • • • 77 

Ornithological Branch. Report of, 1890 • >' 

Polytrichum alpinum, Roehl var. microdonlium, Kindb. , N. var . . . 180 

Programme l x 5 

Publications received 

Shutt, F. T. The Chemistry of Food ."..'.'."..'.'.". .' .' .' 116 

Some eS New Mosses from the' Pribylov Islands * 7 9 

Sphagnum, List of Ottawa Species .'..'.'.'.'.'.'.. 196 

Subscriptions 

Taylor, Rev. G. W. On Canadian Land and Fresh-water Mol- 

lusca 

Treasurer's Report. 1891 

Webera canaliculate, C. M. and Kindb. var. macrocarpa, ^ 

Kindb. K. var i"r*iL' t iQ7 

Whvte R. B. Botanical Excursion to the Lhats. yt 

Wniimott, C. W. Canadian Gems and Precious Stones «7 



204 



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