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1901. VOL. XV. ig02. 



THE 



OTTAWA NATURALIST, 



Being Vol. XVII. of the 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



OTTAWA FIEI/D-NATURAI.ISTS' CI^UB. 



Organized March, 1879. Incorporated March, i! 



OTTAWA, CANADA: \j \ 

Ottawa Printini; Co.mi'Anv ( I^imited. ) 



J^J^loi 



1 90 1 



ah 



asi-^ 



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■l.\§ 



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THE OTTflWft FIELD-NflTUR/\LlSTS' CLUB, I90i-I902. 

patron : 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EARL OF MIXTO, 

GlUKRNOR-CKNKRAL OF CANADA. 

prcsiDcnt : 

Robert Boll, M.D., F.R.S., LL.D. 

l'icc=lprc5iDcnti5 

W. T. MaLOiin. D. A. Campbell, B.A. 

librarian : 

J. HaroUl I'ulman, H.A. 

Secretary : Crcaeurcr ; 

W. J, Wilson, Ph. B. Dr. Jaincs Fletcher. 

(Geological Survey Dept.; (Cenlral Kxpcrinieiital Kami. 

Committee : 



\V. H. Harrington. 
F. T. Shutt. 
A. E. Attwood. 



Mrs. A. E. Attwood. 
Miss i\L-irion I. Wliyte. 
Miss .^L .McKav Siott. 



StanDing Committees of Council : 

Publishitiff : J. Fletcher, W. T. Macoun, F. T. Shutt, W. J. Wilson, D. \. 

Campbell. 
Excursions: W. H. Harring-ton, W. J. Wilson, J. Fletcher, J. H. Pulman, 

Mrs. .Attwood, .Miss Whvte, Miss Scott. 

Soirees: D. A. Campbell, F. T. Shutt, W.' T. Macoun, A. E. Attwood, .Miss 

Whyte, Mi.ss Scott. 

XeaDers : 

Geology : H. M. Ami, R. W. Ells, L. Lambe, W. J. Wilson, T. J. Pollock. 
Botany : J. .M. Macoun, Cephas Guillet, D. A. Campbell, A. E. Attwood. 
Entomology : J. Fletcher, W. H. Harringfton, C. H. Younj;^, A. Gibson. 
Cotichology : J. F. Whiteaves, F. R. Latchford, J. Fletcher, R. Bell. 
Ornithology : W. T. Macoun, A. G. King-ston, .^Iiss Harmer, C. Guillet. 
Zoology: John Macoun, W. S. Odell, E. E. Prince, Andrew Halkett. 
Arclueulogy : T. W. E. Sowter, J. Ballantyne. 

THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 
EOitor : 

James ^L Macoun (Geological Survi-y Department.) 

associate JEDitors : 

Dr. R. W. Ells, Geological Survey of Canada. — Department oi Geology. 
Dr. H. M. Ami, Geological Survey of Canada. — -Department o( Paliponfology. 
Mr. a. E. Barlow, Geological Survey of Canada. — Depi. oi Petrography. 
Dr. Jas. F"lktcher, Central Experimi-ntal Farm. — Department of //«/«« y. 
Ho.n. F. R. Latchford. — Department of Conchology. 

Mr. W. H. PL\RRI.\c;to.v, Post Office Department. — Dept. oi Entomology. 
Mr. W. T. ALvcoln, Central Experimental F"arm. — Depl. of Ornithology. 
Prof. E. E. Prince, Commissionerof Fisheries tor Canada. — Dept. of^Wogv. 

Membership Fi-c to O. (>.<'., mIIIi *'Olt.iMii >aliirulKt, " )<(I.<HI pir iiiiiiuin. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



OF THE 

Ottawa Kield-Naturalists' Club, 
April, lOOl. 



Adams, Prof. F. D., M.A.Sc, Ph. D. 

Alexander, L. H., M.A. 

Allen, Hon. G, W., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 

F.L.S.,P.C. (Toronto.) 
Allen, S. S. 
Ami, H. M., iM.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., 

F.G.S.A 
Ami, Mrs. H. M, 
Ami, S. T. 

Anderson, James R. (Victoria, B.C.) 
Anderson, Lieut. -Col. W. P., C.E., 
Attwood, A. E., M.A. 
Atiwood, Mrs. A. E. 
Baldwin, J. W. 
Ballantyne, James. 
Barlow, A. E., F.G S.A. 
Bate, H. Gerald. 
Bate, H. N. 

Beaudry, Amable E. (Aylmer, Q.) 
Bell, Robert, B.A.Sc, M.D., LL.D., 

F./^.S.,F.P.S.C., F.GS., F.G.S.A. 
Belliveau, A. H. 
Bethune, /^ev. C. J. S., M.A., D.C.L., 

F.P.S.C. (London, Ont.) 
Billings, C. 
Billing-s, W. R. 
Blackadar, Lloyd. 
Boardman, Wm. F. 
Boddy, Mrs. H. M, 
Bolton, Miss Eliza. 
Borden, Hon. F. W., 3/.D., A/.P. 
Bostock, Mrs. H. (Monte Creek, B.C.) 
Bowen. .Miss Alice. (Quebec.) 
Bowerman, J. T., B.A. 
Boyd, Miss M. 
Boyd, W. H., B.A.Sc. 
Brainerd, E. Dwight. (Montreal.) 
Brewster, W. (Cambridge, Mass., U..S) 
Bronson, F. G. 
Bronson, Mrs. F. G. 
Brock, R. W. 
Brown, Mrs. R. D. 
Breckenridge, R. Stuart. 
Burgess, T. J. W., M.D., F,/^.S.C. 

(Montreal). 
Burland, Lt.-Col. J. H. (Montreal.) 



Burland, Mrs. G. B. (Montreal.) 

Burland, G. L. 

Burman, Rev. W. A. (Winnipeg.) 

Campbell, D. A., B,k. 

Cameron, E. R., M.A. 

Campbell, A. M. 

Campbell, R. H. 

Campbell, Miss B. 

Carter, Mr. J. J. 

Chalmers, Robert. 

Charlton, H. W., B.A.Sc. 

Charron, A. T., B.A. 

Chubbuck, C. E. 

Clarke, T. E. 

Cobbold, Paul A. (Hailevbury.) 

Conklin, J. D. 

Connor, M. F., B.Sc. 

Cooke, C. A. 

Cornu, Ft^lix, M.D. (Angers, Que.) 

Cot^, J.L. 

Coubeaux, Eug. (Prince Albert, Sask.) 

Cousens, W. C., M.D. 

Cowan, Miss E. 

Cowlev, R. H., B.A. 

Craig,' Pao/. John. (Ithaca, N.Y.) 

Curry, Miss E. E. 

Dawson, S. E., Lit.D. 

Denis, Theo., B.A.Sc. 

Dixon, F. A. 

Dohertv, T. Keville. 

Dowling, D. B., B.A.Sc. 

Dresser, J. A., M.A. (Richmond, Que.) 

Dulau & Co. (London, Eng. ) 

Dunne, J. P. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., M.D. (N. York) 

Edwards, A. M., M.D. 

Ells, R. VV., LLD., F.G.S.A., F.R.S.C. 

Evans, J no. D., C.E. (Trenton, Ont.) 

Ewart, D. 

Ferrie-, W. F., B.A.Sc, F.G.S., F.G. 

S.A. (Rossland, B.C.) 
Fisher, Hon. S. A. 
Fleck, A. W. 
FI em i ng , Sir San ford . A'. C. M. G. , C.E., 

F.R.C.I., F.R.S.C. 
Fletcher, J., LL.D.. F.L.S., F.R.S.C. 



igoi] 



List of Members. 



Fleury, Prof. J. M. 

Forward, A. J. 

C'.erin, Leon, B.A., F.R.S.C. 

Ciibson, Arthur. 

Gilmour. T. 

Glashan, J. C. LL.D. 

Gorman, W. J., Ll^.B. 

Graham, \V. 

tirant, Sir J. A., k'.C.M.G., M.D., 

F.R.C.S. Ed in., F.R.S.C. F.G.S. 
Gregson, Percy B. (Waghorn, Alta.) 
Grisdale, J. H., B.Agr. 
Cirist, Henry. 
C»rist, Miss Marv L. 
Guillet, Miss Elise. 
Guillet. Cephas, B.A., Ph.D. 
Halkelt, Andrew. 

Harmer, Miss G. (Westboro', Ont.) 
Harmon, Miss A. Maria. 
Harrington, W. Hague, F.R.S.C. 
Harrison, Edward. 
Hav, George, Sr. 
HaV, G. U., M.A., Ph.B., F.R.S.C. 

(St. John, N.B.) 
Hayter, F. 
Holland, Miss Ira. 

Honeyman, H. O., B.A. (Granby, Q.; 
Hope, J. 

House of Commons Reading Room. 
Hughes, Charles. (Montreal) 
Ide, \Vm. 

Irwin, Lt.-Col. 1). T. 
James, C. C, M.A. (Toronto.) 
Jenkins, S. J., B.A. 
Johnston, Robt. A. A. 
Joly de Lotbiniere, Hon. Sir Henry. 
Jones, C. J. 
Jordan, J. Wolfred. 
Kearns, J. C. 

Keefer, Thos. C, C.E., F.R.S.C. 
Keele, Joseph. 

Kells. \V. L. (Listowel, Ont.) 
Keeley, D. H. 
Kendall, E. \V. 
Kennedy. R. A., B.A., M.D. 
Kenny, Thos. 
Kemp, E. 
Kingston, A. G. 
Klotz, Oskar. 

Laidlaw, J. C. (Victoria Road, Ont.) 
Lambart, Hon. O. H. 
Lambe, L. .M., F.G.S. , F.G.S. A. 
Latchford. Hon. F. R., B.A. 
Lee, Miss Katharine, 
Lees, Miss V. 
Lees, \V. A. D. 
Lees, Mrs. W. A. D. 



Legg, A. B. Rowan. 

Lemieux, E. E. 

LeRoy, O. E. (Montreal). 

LeSueur, W. D., B.A. 

Library, Leg. Assembly (Quebec). 

Library of Parliament. 

Lindsay, A. 

Low, A. P., B.A.Sc. 

MacCabe, J. A., LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

McCalla, \V. C. (St. Catharines.) 

McConnell, R. G., B.A., F.G.S.A. 

MacCraken, John I., B A. 

McDougall, A. H., B.A. 

McElhinney, M. P. 

McEvoy, James, B.A.Sc. 

McGill, A., B.A., B.Sc. 

Mclnnes, Wm., B.A., F.G.S.A. 

Mac Kay, A. H., LL.D., B.Sc, F.R.S.C. 

(Halifax). 
McLaughlin, S. (Los Angeles, Cal.) 
MacLaughlin, T. J. 
McLean, D. L. 
McLeod, H. A. F., CE. 
McLeod. Rev. Norman, M.A., B.D. 
MacN'icholl, Miss C. 
McPhail, Mrs. J. A. (Montreal ) 
Macoun, Prof. John, M.A,, F.L.S., 

F.R.S.C. 
Macoun, J. M. 
Macoun, W. T. 
McOuat, Miss Marv E. 
McOuat, Miss E. J.' 
Macrae, J. A. 
Marshall, John. 
Matheson, D. 
Matthews, Miss Annie L. 
May, Dr. S. P. (Toronto). 
Mearns, Dr. E. A. (Washington, D.C., 

U.S.) 
Meneilly, W. J. (Toronto.) 
Metcalfe, W. 

Miller, Prof. W. G. (Kingston.) 
Morris, Miss F. 
N'elson, H. M. 
Newcombe, C. F., M.D. 
Northrop, B M. 
O'Brien, S. E. 
Odell, W. S. 

Ogilvie, Wm., D.L.S. (Yukon Ter.) 
Orde, J. F. 
Poirier, f/on. P. S. .J/.. L (Sht^-diac, 

N.B.) 
Pollock, T. J. (Aylmer, Que.) 
Prevost, L. C. M.D, 
IVince, Frof E. E., B.A., F.L.S. 
Putman, J. H., B.A. 
Richard, Mr. A. E. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



[April 



Robertson, Prof. J. W. 
Ross, Hon. G. W, (Toronto.) 
Rothwell, Miss Lina. 
Sanson, X. B. (Banff, Alta.) 
Saunders, Wm., LL.D.. F.L.S., F.C.S. 

F.F.S.C. 
Saunders, W. E. (London, Ont.) 
Scott, Miss Mary McKay. 
Scott, W., B.A. (Toronto.) 
Senate of Canada, The. 
Shore, John W. 

Shutt, F. T., ALA., F./.C., F.C.S. 
Sifton, W. 
Simpson, Willibert. 

Sinclair, S. B., B.A. 

Small, H. Beaumont, M.D. 

Smith, Ccrpt. W. H. (Halifax, N.S.) 

Sowter, T. W. E. 

Spence; J. C. 

St. Germain, Theodor. 

Stewart, Archibald. 

Strachan, Miss V. 

Summerby, Wm. J., M.A. (Russell, 
Ont.) 

Sutherland, J. C. (Richmond, Que.) 

Taylor, F. B. (Fort Wayne, la., U.S.) 

Thompson, Miss Bessie. 

Thompson, E. Seton. (New York.) 

Thorburn, John, M.A., LL.D. 

Topley, Mrs. W. J. 

Tucker, Walter. 



Tyrrell, J. B., B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S. 

F.G.S.A. (Dawson, Yukon.) 
W^ait, F. G., B.A. 
Walker, B. E., F.G.S. (Toronto.) 
, Walker, Bryant. (Detroit.) 
Warwick, F. W., B.Sc. (Buckingham, 

Que.) 
Watters, Henry. 
Weston, T. C, F.G.S.A. 
Whelen, Peter. 
Whelen, Miss A. 
White, George R. 
White, James. (Snelgrove, Ont.) 
White, Lf.-Co/. W., C.A/.G. 
Whiteaves, J. F., LL.D., F.G.S., F.R. 

S.C, F.G.S.A. 
Whitley, Thomas. 
Whyte. Miss Ethel. 
Whyte, Miss Ida. 
Whyte, Miss Isabella. 
Whyte, Miss Marion I. 
Whvte, R. B. 
Williams. J. B. 

Willing, T. N. (Regina, Assa.) 
Wilson, Miss M. F. 
Wilson, W. J., Ph.B. 
Wood, Hon. Josiah. (Sackville, N.B.) 
Young, Rev.C. ]., M.A. (Wolfe Island, 

Ont.) 
Young, C. H. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 
Hill, Albert J., M.A. C.E., New Westminster, B.C. 
Holm, Thf,odor, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., U.S. 
Mkrriam, Dr. C. Hart, Department of Agriculture, Washington, U.S. 
Omkrod. Miss E. A., LL.D., F. R. Met. Soc, Torrington House, St. Albans, 

England. 
Smith, Prof. John B., Sc.D., Rutger's College, New Brunswick, N.J. 
Taylor, Rev. G. W., M.A., F.R.S.C.. F.Z.S., Nanaimo, B.C. 
Wicrham, Prof. H. F., lov/a City, Iowa, U.S. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 

Vol. XV. OTTAWA, APRIL, 1901. No. i. 

THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE OTTAWA 

FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING MARCH 19TH, 1901. 



Membership. 

Thirty-one members have been added to the Club during- the 
year and nineteen names have been struck off, leaving- the present 
membershy? two hundred and sixty-fi\e. 

Dr. H. M. Ami, the president, represented the Club at the 
meeting of the Royal Society of Canada, held in this city in May, 
at which he read a summary report of the work done by the Club 
during the year 1900. 

Special Lectures. 

Dr. James Fletcher delivered two lectures on "Nature Study, 
with special reference to Birds," before the Normal School 
students, and Dr. Ami one on " Soils and their Origin, with 
special reference to those of the Ottawa Valley." 

SoiRiiES. 

The prog^ramme of Winter Soirdes, as printed on pag'^e 176 of 
The Ottawa Naturalist for December, 1900, was carried out 
with the following exceptions : The meeting for the 22nd of 
January was postponed for one week on account of the death of 
Her Majesty Queen Victoria ; and the meeting for 6th March was 
put off till 1 2th March on account of the death of Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, a former president and an active member of the Club. 
In consequence of the latter postponement, the two papers that 
would have been read last Tuesday have been presented to-night. 



8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

Owing- to the absence of Mr. W. T. Macoun from the city, his 

paper was taken as read, and Mr E. D. Ingall was unable to 

give his. 

Excursions. 

The first sub-excursion of the season was held on the 28th 
April at Rockliffe and Beechwood. About twenty were in attend- 
ance. The afternoon was pleasantly spent, but the backwardne.ss 
of the season made it very difficult to find specimens of interest. 
Hepaticas, a few Ttilliums and Dogtooth Violets, with Aspens, 
Willows, Red and Silver Maples, together with a few common 
spring flowers were all that rewarded the botanists. Mr. Gibson 
secured some specimens of Grapta Fannus^ an uncommon butterfly 
in this district. 

Three sub-excursions and one general excursion were held in 
May. The weather at all of these was perfect, and most pleasant 
and profitable outings were enjoyed. 

Saturday, 5th Ma3^ Some sixty members and their friends 
visited McKay's Grove and Beechwood. That portion of the 
grove adjoining Clarkstown is being rapidly denuded of its wild 
character, but the botanical students found a variety of early- 
spring flowers. The geologists examined the Keefer Bluff" at the 
forks of the roads leading to the cemetery and found a series of 
typical fossils belonging to the Black River formation. Several 
large masses of the Cor-d Tetradium fibratumw^'CQ. obtained in the 
upper layers of limestone in the old quarry at this spot. 

On re-assembling, Mr. Odell described and exhibited the 
larvEeofsome Mosquitoes, and also some Crustaceans he had cap- 
tured. Mr. Attwood spoke on the plants found during the after- 
noon, and Dr. Ami described the geological formations. 

Saturday, May 13th. Seventy-five members of the Club, 
Normal School students, teachers and friends visited Beaver 
Meadow, Hull, P.Q- The botanists found many desirable species 
of plants and the entomologists captured several good specimens, 
while the geologists visited " the Heap " on the Aylmer branch of 
the C. P. R., where they found and listed over thirty species of 
fossils of the Trenton formation. Dr. James Fletcher, Mr. A. 
G. Kingston and the President addressed the members before 
separating. 



iQoi] Report ok the Council. g 

Saturday, 19th May. Over eiy^hty excursionists spent the after- 
noon at Hemlock Lake and vicinity. Two small colonies of 
Columnaria Halli were found in the upper strata of the Black 
River formation at Reefer's Bluff, and both fresh-water and 
marine shells were found in the Pleistocene deposits round Hem- 
lock Lake. These and other specimens were described by the 
various leaders before the party returned to the city. 

On 9th June a successful meeting- was held at Britannia, and 
many summer flowers and insects were secured. 

The first o^eneral excursion was held on May 26th to Ciil- 
mour's Grove at Chelsea and was, as is always the case, a delight- 
ful and instructive excursion. The weather was very fine and the 
attendance large. Many interesting specimen,s were collected in 
all branches of Natural History. 

The second general excursion was to Cumberland by the steamer 
Victoria, in which over one hundred members left Ottawa at one 
o'clock and returned in the evening by the steamer Empress, after 
spending several pleasant hours at the beautiful village of Cum- 
berland. This locality is a new field for investigation, and several 
discoveries were made. The entomologists were much pleased at 
securing a specimen of the larva of the Large Tortoise-shell Butter- 
fly, Grapta J-albuni, which had been sought for unsuccessfully for 
many years. The geologists found several valuable species of 
fossils, and the botanists succeeded in collecting representatives 
of no less than sixteen species of ferns along the side of the cliff. 

The third general excursion was to Kirk's Ferry on the 15th 
September, when about 150 were present. The d:iy was a perfect 
type of our Canadian autumn weather, and many interesting 
specimens were collected and observed. An unusual feature was 
the large number of plants which were in bloom at this late season, 
and many of the party were able to regale themselves with ripe 
raspberries, which were growing in profusion along the railway 
embankmer.ts. 

At all these excursions the members assembled and listened 
to addresses by the various leaders on the collections made during 
the day and on the natural features of the places visited. 

Volume XIV. of The Ottawa Naturalist, containing eleven 
numbers and 240 pages of text has been completed, under the 



lo The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

editorship of Dr. James Fletcher, The volume has several illus- 
trations and many interesting articles. Among the more im- 
portant papers published this year are the following : 

Some Interesting Moths taken at Ottawa, by Arthur 

Gibson. 

Contributions to the Natural History of the Northwest Terri- 
tories. The Birds of Southern Saskatchewan, by Eug. Coubeaux. 

Soils and the Maintenance of their Fertility through the 
Growth of Legumes, by Frank T. Shutt. 

The Labrador Flying Squirrel, by J. D. Sornberger. 

The Two-lined Salamander, by Walter S. Odell. 

Notes on Rare Birds occasionally Breeding in Eastern On- 
tario, by Rev. C. J. Young, 

Ornithology 'in several numbers), by W. T. Macoun, 

Additions to North American and European Bryology (Moss 
Flora), by N, Conrad Kindberg, 

On the occurrence of a Species of Whittleseya in Nova Scotia, 
by H, M, Ami, 

An Ornithological Incursion into Florida, by W. E. Saunders. 

A Condensed Summary of the Field-work annually accom- 
plished by the Officers of the Geological Survey of Canada from 
its commencement to 1865, by D, B. Dowling. 

Notes bearing on the Devono-Carboniferous Problem in 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, by Dr, H. M, Ami. 

Fauna Ottawaensis, Diptera, by W. Hague Harrington. 

The Finding of a Flamingo's Nest, by W. E. Saunders. 

Dr, Nansen's Scientific Results, by Prof. E. E. Prince. 

Gannets and Cormorants, with special reference to Canadian 
forms, by Andrew Halkett. 

Hemphillia glandulosa. by Geo. W, Taylor, 

Catalogue of the Recent Marine Sponges of Canada and 
Alaska, by Lawrence M. Lambe, 

Description of a New Species of Unio from the Cretaceous 
rocks ot the Nanaimo Coal Field, V, I,, by Dr. J. F. Whiteaves. 

A Preliminary Note on the Amygdaloidal Trap Rock in the 
Eastern Townships of the Province of Quebec, by John A. 
Dresser. 

The Nesting of the Caerulean Warbler, by W. E, Saunders, 



190'] Report of the Council. ir 

The Annual Address of the President of the Ottawa Field- 
Naturalisls' Club, by Dr. H. M. Ami. 

Notes on the Acadian Owl {Nyctala Acadica) in captivity, by 
F. Norman Beattie. 

Notes on some Land and Fresh Water Mollusca from Fort 
Chimo, Uncjava Bay, by Dr. J. F. VVhiteaves. 

Notes taken in the Peace River, Athabasca, and adjacent 
country, by J. A. Macrae. 

Two Warblers new to Canada, by W. L. Kells. 

Besides these long^er papers there aie numerous short notes 
on scientific subjects, book reviews, etc. 

The Treasurer reports that after paying- all expenses he has 
$256.46 on hand. 

The Council recommends that the following- gentlemen be 
made corresponding members of the Club in recognition of valu- 
able services they have rendered to the Club and to science, viz : 
Prof. H. F. Wickham, of Iowa State University, and Mr. 
Theodor Holm, Assistant Botanist of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D.C. 

A special prize was offered by the Hon. G. W. Ross, Minister 
of Education, to the student of the Normal School doing the best 
work in Natural History in connection with the Club's work. The 
prize was awarded to Miss Elma Cannon, of Athens, Ont., for the 
best collection of botanical specimens made during the season. 
A second prize was given by the President, Dr. Ami, and was 
awarded to Miss May E. Robson, of Grey Co., Ont. 

A memorial portrait of the late Elkanah Billings has been 
presented to the Geological Survey Department by a committee ot 
the Club, as recorded in the Ott.\w.\ N.^turalist for January 
last. 

The hearty thanks of the Club are again due Dr. J. A. Mac- 
Cabe for giving the use of rooms in the Normal School for our 
library and for holding Council meetings, and tor the use of the 
Assembly Hall and lantern on two evenings. We have also to 
acknowledge our indebtedness to the Young Men's Christian 
Association for the free use of their Assembly Hall for ordinary 
meetings ; to Mr. D. B. Dowling, Mr. Putman and other gentle- 
men who assisted in operating the lantern at different lectures, 
and to the daily newspapers for inserting notices of our meetings. 

Henri Ami, W. J. Wilson, 

President. Secretary. 



12 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

TREASURER'S REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1900-01. 

To the President and Members of the Ottawa Field- Naturalists" 

Club. 

The Treasurer begs to report that the finances of the Club 
are in a satisfactory condition. It will be seen by the statement 
submitted herewith that about 225 members have paid their 
subscriptions. The advertisements realized a little more than 
last year, and the Treasurer wishes again to speak emphatically 
to the members of the Club of the duty we owe to those 
firms who help us every year by advertising in The Ottawa 
Naturalist. It will be seen by examining the list of firms who 
advertise with us, that they are all first-class houses, which will 
supply goods at least equal in quality to those obtainable any- 
where else, and it is only reasonable that these firms should expect 
to receive an increase of business from the members of the Club, 
whose interests they serve by advertising in the Club organ. I 
am quite well aware that many members of the Council do make a 
point of dealing with these firms, but I believe even more can be 
done by other members of the Club. For my own part, I always 
make a point, occasionally even at some little inconvenience, to 
deal with those who have shown a substantial interest in this Club 
because it is in an organization in which I am keenly interested. 
Most matters in this world are arranged on a quid pro quo basis, 
and I leave this matter with the members ot the Club, asking 
them to bear it in mind. 

The Ottawa Naturalist has contained many valuable 
papers, several of which were well illustrated. The printers have 
done their work satisfactorily, and the cost of the monthly 
magazine, including illustrations, extras for authors, postage and 
editing, has amounted to $400.16. Miscellaneous printing has 
cost $24.55. '^h^ conversazione and soirde expenses have this 
year cost us only $10.82, and there is now a satisfactory balance 
on hand of $256.46. From this a small amount must be deducted 
for illustrations which have been ordered but have not yet been 
received. 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES FLETCHER, 

Treasurer. 

N.B. — All subscriptions are payable in advance, and are due 
each year on the day of the annual meeting. 

— We pati'onise our advertisers. — 



1901 



Treasurer's Report. 



13 



THE OTTAWA FIELD-XATURALISTS' CLUB. 
The Treasurer s Statement for the year ending March 79, /90/. 



RECEIPTS. 

1900. 

March 20 — To balance $146 30 

Subscriptions, 1900-01 $136 50 
,, arrears 89 00 

225 50 

Advertisements 76 10 

Extras sold 21 30 

Otta\v.\ \atiralists sold . . 3 70 

Government grant 200 00 

Profit on excursions t and 2 . . 1 1 80 
Electrotypes sold 8 00 



$692 



EXPENDITIRK. 
1 90 1. 

March 20. — By print- 
inijOTTAWA Natir- 
ALisT, Vol. XIV.. .$256 go 

Illustrations 39 40 

Authors' extras 33 9° 

Postage and wrapp- 
ing 19 Q6 

Editor 50 00 

400 16 
Less 5% allowed on 

printing a/c $297 05 15 15 ' 

385 o' 

Miscellaneous printing 18 95 

Programmes 2 00 

Receipt books 3 60 

24 55 

Stationery 2 25 

Conversazione expenses .. . 10 82 

Typewriting of report 2 00 

Telegram * 31 

Postage 5 80 

Loss on excursion 3 5 '5 

Elxchange on draft.s 35 

Balance in Bank . ... 256 46 

$692 70 



Audited and found correct. 

J. Ballantyne, ) . ,., 
•i, „ ,,. ' - Auattors. 

R. B. \\ hvte, ) 



lAMES FLETCHER, 



Treasurer. 



THE LATE DR. G. M. DAWSON, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club here places on record an 
expression of its deep sense of sorrow and loss at the death of 
Dr. George M. Dawson, CM G., F R.S., F.G.S., F.R.S.C, &c., 
Director and Deputy Head of the Geological Survey of Canada, 
who was President of the Club for the years 1892, 1893 and 1894. 

By his death Canadian science loses one of its most brilliant 
and distinguished leaders; one who by his varied intellectual gifts 
and ceaseless labours substantially advanced the scientific and 
material interests of the Dominion during the last quarter of a 
century. 



14 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

NATURAL HISTORY IN YUKON TERRITORY. 



A letter has been received from Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, now living 
in Dawson City but formerly of Ottawa, and who has published 
several very valuable papers in The Ottawa Naturalist, stating- 
that Mr. William Ogilvie and some of the other residents of 
Dawson are making an effort to start a Yukon Museum in 
which all the natural products of the country are tobe repre- 
sented: — rocks, minerals, plants, animals, birds, insects, etc, 
The local Government is much interested in the undertaking, and 
a building has been promised for this spring. 

Mr. Tyrrell has been chosen as curator for the time being, 
and there is no one in the Yukon so well fitted to fill this post. 
Mr. Tyrrell's long experience as a traveller and collector, and in 
the Museum while on the staff of the Geological Survey, will 
enable him to do most valuable service in organizing and starting 
the wo^rk at the outset in a systematic and useful manner. 

J. F. 



BOTANICAL NOTES. 



Rattlesnake Plantains. Goodyera repejis, supposed to be 
a common plant in the vicinity of Ottawa, is not represented 
among the specimens so named which I have seen. G. tesselata, 
G. repens var. ophioides and G. ptibdscens have all been collected 
within the area covered by the Club's work. The true 
G. repens is a northern species and may yet be found in the 
Gatineau Valley. G. Menziesii may also be found here as it has 
been collected in New Brunswick, Quebec and Western Ontario. 
A revision of this genus was published in Rhodora, Vol. I, No. i. 

Aster vimineus. We have in the vicinity of Ottawa both 
A. vinimeiis and the variety saxatiUs, Fernald. The variety is a 
slender plant and easily separated from the species by its stiff, 
ascending branches terminated by a solitary head. It has been 
collected at Paugan Falls and Casselman. 

J. M. M. 



igoi] Gould — Bird Notes. 15 

BIRD NOTES FROM POINT PELEE, ONT. 



B\- Harry Goild, London. 

(Road bofore the London Ornitholog-ioal Section of the Entoinolotcical 

Society of Ontario.) 

Point Pelee, in Essex County, is a narrow spit of land jutting 
out into the lake at the west end of Lake Erie. It is interesting 
in many ways ; looking at it from Leamington, about 1 2 miles 
distant, one might imagine that a huge Cleopatra's needle had 
ages ago toppled over and was now lying on its side with the tip 
stretching out into the lake. Judging from the chips cf flint and 
other indications this point was in times gone by a favourite resort 
for Indians. Fish and game of all kinds would be plentiful and it 
is known that many years ago a number of whites were murdered 
here by thq red-skins for the sake ot their belongings. It was not, 
however, to study the archaeology of this interesting locality that 
my friend Mr. W. E. Saunders and I visited it on Sept. igth and 
20th 1900, but on account of it being such a favourable place for 
the crossing of birds during migration. There is perhaps nothing 
so interesting in connection with the study of our native birds as 
their arrival in spring and departure in autumn. VVe listen with 
delight in early spring to the first sound of the Bluebird or Robin 
and with sadness in the fall, to the chirp of the little bird overhead 
at night as he seems to say good bye. Point Pelee is 10 miles from 
the base to the tip and 4 miles across the base, from which it 
gradually tapers the whole distance to the tip. A great part of 
the base has a government ditch or dyke running through it ren- 
dering it very good farm land. On the east side towards the tip 
is a marsh which is rented to a gun club for duck shooting, but on 
the west side is natural wood-land, which gets more stunted in 
growth as the tip is approached. Across the lake to the west, 
about 8 miles distant, is Pelee Island and further south are several 
smaller islands called the Sister Islands making it a very easy 
passage for birds crossing the lake into Ohio. With all these 
advantages it is only natural to suppose a great many of our birds 
cross at this particular point. Upon the evening of September 



1 6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

19th last Mr. Saunders and I arrived at Leaming^ton about 7.30 
p.m. and started on our tramp by going about 5; miles towards 
the lake on the east side of the point and camping for the night near 
the road in a little wood where our first bird the Great Horned 
Owl was noted, as well as a small bird or two journeying over- 
head. At daylight we were on the move tor the lake shore but 
before reaching it we saw a number of Marsh Harriers and a small 
flock of ducks, possibly Black Ducks. Feeding in a weedy patch 
near the road were a number of Dickcis^els. The lake was 
soon reached and having a nice sandy beach we expected to find 
waders and gulls. The first to be noted were the Herring, the 
Ring-billed and Bonaparte gulls, Black-billed, Semipalmated, 
Golden and Kill-deer plovers, Sanderlings and Baird's Sandpiper. 
Skimming past the Common and Black Terns were seen. By noon 
the tramp is beginning to tell and we halt to rest and get dinner. 
The lake water has to be boiled, and the drifting sand plasters the 
bread and butter but being hungry everything goes and we are soon 
off again. In passing the open water of the Marsh we were able by 
the aid of glasses to identify the Horned Grebe. Evening found us 
at the point and having walked all day in the sliding sand and 
thinking that enough was as good as a feast, we camped for 
the night under a scrubby red cedar. Next morning, breakfast 
over, a start was made back up the west shore, where owing to 
the woods we expected to find very different birds ; the first 
specimens noted were a pair of Cooper's Hawks and Sharp- 
shinned Hawks vv^ere to be seen all day while the small birds which 
they caught napping were many, as was evidenced by the bunches 
of feathers found here and there through the woods. Warblers 
were numerous, including Black and White, Black-throated Blue, 
Black-throated Green, Bay-breasted and Chestnut-sided, also the 
Black-poll with a few Golden and Ruby-crowned Kinglets. The 
Gray-cheeked and Olive backed Thrushes seemed to be the 
favourite food of the Hawks with once in a while a Cuckoo. On 
nearing Leamington we saw a number of Bald-headed Eagles 
sailing aloft and on the shore found a number of dead Shad 
which had been discarded by fishermen. These accounted for the 
presence of the eagles. A walk of 3 miles back to the train at 
Leamington finished a very pleasant two days outing. 




pre- <3iitee<«/ CA^ftn»/s. 



MAP OF THE OTTAvA-A RIVER BASIM 

PREbENT AlvID PRE-GLACiAL CHANNELS 



iQoi] Ells — Ancient Channels. 17 

ANCIENT CHANNELS OF THE OTTAWA RIVER. 



By R. W. Ells, LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

The Ottawa may well be regarded as one of the great historic 
rivers of Canada. For hundreds of years it formed the favourite 
means of communication between the Indian tribes of the west and 
those of the east. It was ascended by Champlain in 1615. At 
that early date he crossed the height of land at Lake Nipissing, 
and was presumably the first white man to gaze upon the vast 
expanse of our inland seas. 

Following the advent of this great explorer,, this river became 
the chosen route of the voyageurs on their way inland to the great 
unexplored country of the western plains. On the coming of the 
Hudson Bay Company it formed the principal channel for carrying 
on their immense business, their brigades of boats and canoes 
passing year by year, carrying eastward the annual harvest of furs 
and bearing westward into the wilds of our vast interior the 
various kinds of merchandise suitable to the trade with the 
savages of the great west. Later, by means of steamboats on 
the deep stretches and by portages round the falls and heavy 
rapids, it formed the chief means of communication between the 
east and the numerous settlers who were scattered along its 
route. 

The river itself is of very ancient date. When the continent 
was young, its valley was outlined, and for countless centuries the 
drainage of a large part of eastern and northern America followed 
approximately the present course. In support of this statement it 
may be said that along the present channel of the stream, ex- 
tensive deposits of the oldest Palaeozoic formations ot this part of 
Canada are found, ranging from the base of the Potsdam sandstone 
upward into the Silurian, comprising many hundreds of feet of 
strata, the greater portion of which, over many thousands of 
square miles, has long since been removed by the various pro- 
cesses of denudation. 

The finding of these formations at many points in the bed 
of the present channel shews that, before they were deposited, the 
granite and gneiss hills were formed and the principal river channels 



i8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

were excavated. The general course of the river must have been 
defined at an early date in the world's history, and, though since 
that time many changes have taken place, the causes which led to 
these may in some cases be readily seen. 

The distance from Montreal on the St. Lawrence River to 
Georgian Bay on Lake Huron may be given as 431 miles. Of this, 
the part between the junction ot the Ottawa and the St. Law- 
rence at Ste. Anne and the mouth of the Mattawa is 286 miles. 
This portion of the river has an almost direct course of fifteen 
degrees south of east. It is, however, deflected from this course at 
several places. Thus in the lower hundred miles it sweeps south- 
ward around the great mass of the crystalline rocks from a point 
a few miles above the city of Ottawa down to the mouth of the 
River Rouge, south of which to the St. Lawrence the surface of 
the country is generally level and occupied for the most part by 
rocks of the fossiliferous formations or by great areas of drift sand 
and clay. 

The portion of the river above the Mattawa may be divided 
into two parts. From the source of the stream, which lies near 
the heads of the Gatineau and the west branch of the St. Maurice, 
it pursues a course a little south of west, with several large lake 
expansions and large bends, for about 250 miles, to the head of 
Lake Temiscaming. Here the direction of the river abruptly 
changes. Temiscaming Lake is about sixty-one miles in length, 
with a width diminishing from some six miles at the northern end 
to only a few hundred yards at the southern extremity. The 
general course of the lake and the connecting stretch of river to 
the forks of the Mattawa, which is some thirty-five miles lower 
down, is thirty degrees east of south. 

The drainage basin of the Ottawa is not less than 60,000 
square miles. On the south the height of land ranges from 1,400 
feet near the sources of the Petawawa and the Muskoka, to 417 
feet at the divide near the head of the Rideau Lakes, while further 
east to the north of Prescott, the height of land is within one mile 
and a half of the St. Lawrence and the country is comparatively 
level. Many large streams flow into the main river from either 
side, the channels of which form deep furrov\ s in the area which 
they now traverse. The most easterly on the south side is the 



'9oi] Ells— Ancient Channels. 



19 



South Nation which rises near the St. Lawrence not far from the 
town of Brockville, and after a somewhat tortuous course of 100 
miles reaches the Ottawa about forty miles east of Ottawa city. 
The descent of the river in this distance is not more than 100 feet, 
so that, allowing for the Hio^h Falls near Casselman and several 
rapids between that place and the Ottawa, it will be seen that for 
the greater part of its course the waters of the South Nation must 
be comparatively sluggish. 

The elevation of the height of land to the north which divides 
the waters of the Ottawa from those flowing into James' Bay is 
rarely more than 1,000 feet above sea-level. Over a large part of 
this area to the north, embracing many thousands of square miles 
in this direction, the surface is covered with heavy deposits of sand 
which overlie thick beds of clay. These deposits extend from the 
lower Ortawa and the St. Lawrence nearly, or in places quite, to 
the height of land. In the absence of fossils in these higher clays 
positive evidence of their marine origin cannot be obtained, but it 
may be stated that they are continuous northward with those 
which do contain such organisms, and therefore the assumption 
may be made that the sea, at some date prior to or at the time of 
their deposition, had invaded all the northern country to a depth 
of some hundreds of feet. 

The denudation of the old crystalline rocks, which were the 
first to appear throughout this area, must have been enormous. 
How many thousands of feet have thus been removed, cannot be 
surmised. But along portions of the lower Ottawa, as in the 
stretch below the Joachims Rapids, known as the Deep River, 
the present bottom of the channel is now many feet below the sea- 
level, the surface of the river being about 370 feet above tide, while 
soundings made several years ago are reported to have reached 
a depth of over 500 feet. 

In Lake Temiscaming also, certain portions have been 
sounded and show that here the excavation has been very great. 
At one point a depth of 470 feet was obtained, while the surface of 
the lake is 591 feet above the sea. There must therefore have 
been a large amount of denudation throughout this part of the old 
river basin, though certain parts of this old channel have 
since been to a certain extent hlled in by glacial deposits. 



20 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 



It is interesting to note that, as one ascends the Ottawa, the 
lower beds of the Palaeozoic series fail to appear. Thus, in the 
lower portion of the river and as far west as the foot of the Chats 
Falls about thirty-five miles west of Ottawa, the lowest formation of 
the series, viz., the Potsdam sandstone, rests directly upon the 
Archaean rocks. This is succeeded upward by the higher members 
of the series. But even in early times there must have been heavy 
breaks and uplifts, since, on the crest of the ridge of crystalline 
rocks which extends eastward from Arnprior to within a few miles 
of Ottawa on the south side of the river, a deposit of the Potsdam 
sandstone is seen several hundreds of feet above the beds noted 
near the river bank at Quyon, while a couple of miles further 
south, this part of the series has been thrown down again by a 
heavy break, to about the same distance. 

West of Arnprior the lowest beds seen along the river are of 
Calciferous age, and these are last observed at the west end of 
Allumette Island, above which no outcrops of this formation have 
yet been recognized. 

Further up the river, above the Roche Capitaine, which is 
thirty-six miles below the Mattawa, the lowest beds are of the 
Chazy formation, while on several of the islands in Lake Nipissing 
beds of Black River age are found. On some ot the islands in 
the northern part of Lake Temiscaming fossiliferous limestones of 
upper Silurian age occur which are about the horizon of the 
Niagara formation The Black River beds of Lake Nipissing are 
at nearly one hundred feet greater elevation than the Niagara beds 
just mentioned, and about ico feet lower than similar limestones 
seen in the vicinity of Clear Lake to the south of the Bonnech^re. 

In all descriptions of the country toward the height of land, 
north o^ the Ottawa, the occurrence of great areas of sand has 
been pointed out. The origin of this sand deposit has never been 
satisfactorily explained. The material appears to be largely the 
result of the decomposition, or breaking down to a fine slate, of 
the underlying granite and gneiss which are the predominating 
rocks of the area. From the generally level character of the 
country along this height of land isolated peaks rise to consider- 
able elevations, though over long distances these are rarely more 
than low hill features, scarcely exceeding a hundred feet in height, 
above the general plain. 



igoi] Ells — Anciknt Channels. 2i 

It is scarcely to be supposed that the decay of the i,'-raiiitic 
rocks alone could give rise to the extensive deposits of clay which 
spread over so wide an area of the Ottawa valley underlying- the 
sand. These clays are seen at elevations up to the summit of the 
dividing ridge, at several points reaching a height not far from 
1,000 teet above the sea. The source of this clay must also be 
largely conjectural. It may be safely assumed, however, that the 
amount of denudation throughout the entire area has been some- 
thing enormous. In the Eastern Townships of Quebec this has 
been undoubtedly more than 1,000 feet. In the area around 
Ottawa city it has been iully as much, since at the faulted contact 
ot the Calciferous and the Utica the upraised beds have been 
entirely removed and the rocks reduced to a uniform level. It is 
quite possible that there was at one time a regular succession of 
the Palaeozoic formations throughout the Ottawa valley, extending 
over the whole country both north and south to the present height 
of land, since even now we find at many widely detached points, 
patches of these rocks which have in some way escaped the 
denuding agents. It is therefore quite possible that much of the 
clay throughout the district has been the result of the decomposi- 
tion of the more recent formations. 

While therefore this grand scheme of denudation has been 
going forward from the earliest times, this has been supplemented 
by the agency of ice in the glacial period. How many of these 
periods of glaciation have been in operation in this area we can 
not say, but we have distinct evidence of at least three which are 
presumably the most recent, and the traces of other and earlier 
ones are probably long since removed. That ice moved over the 
area in different directions and at different times is shown from 
the direction of the stride and groovings now seen on the rock 
surface. The presence of a third and apparently last set of mark- 
ings with a western trend seems to indicate that a series of large 
floating ice-pans moved westward up the Ottawa in a direction 
almost opposite to that recorded for the earliest known glacier 
which would seem to have followed down the present channel of 
the river. 

In discussing the history of this valley therefore several 
periods of upheaval and depression must bo considered, and some 



22 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

of these must have affected the surface or crust by a vertical uplift 
of many hundreds of feet. The amount of the latest recorded 
movement can be, to some extent, estimated by the present 
position of certain terraces which occur along- the Ottawa and 
St. Lawrence rivers. These are found at elevations ranging- as 
hig-h as 900 feet above sea-level on the the slopes of the mountains 
east of Montreal, while on the upper Ottawa and around Lake 
Nipissing- terraces are recorded at even g-reater heights. Thus 
high level beaches in the vicinity of North Bay were recorded by 
Mr. F. B. Taylor* at elevations cf 1100 to 1200 feet and were 
regarded by him as of marine origin. Along the Ottawa, below 
Mattawa, Mr. R. Chalmers records beaches and sand terraces at 
elevations of 1000 feet and more, and further adds "Extensive 
deposits of sand and silts, implying submergence are spread over 
this part of the country up to a height even greater than that of 
the beaches referred to which have been described in earlier reports 
of the Geological Survey as Algoma sands*. 

These sands were formerly supposed to be due to fresh-water 
agencies, but subsequent investigation has shewn that portions of 
the deposits thus styled contain marine organism, especially along 
the lower Ottawa, while their similarity in many respects to those 
which have been styled Saxicava .<-ands in the lower St. Lawrence 
basin and which are held to be of marine origin, is very remark- 
able. 

While therefore the Ottawa at some time flowed in a tolerably 
direct line from the mouth of the Mattawa to the St. Lawrence, 
certain causas have interposed at different periods to deflect the 
waters from their original course and to cause them to excavate 
other and newer channels. In an examination of the valley of the 
river these interruptions will be found at various points. Thus in 
that portion of the river between the Mattawa and the head of the 
Deep River, a distance of fifty-four miles, the channel is fairly 
straight. Several heavy rapids and falls however occur among 
which may be mentioned Des Joachims, Roche Capitaine, Deux 
Rivieres, La Trou, L'Eveille, &c. 

'Bulletin Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. V, 1893. 
*Kep. Geol. Sur. Can.. Vol. X. p 18 J. 



igoi] Ells — Ancient Channels. 23 

At most of these the banks are hii^h and the river still 
apparently follows its original course. At the Roche Capitaine 
however, and at Des Joachims, secondary channels have been 
made and the waters diverted. This feature is especially well seen at 
Desjoachims where the present channel of the river is comparatively 
new and the course of the old channel lies to the north following- the 
depression occupied by McConnell Lake and coming into the 
present channel at the head of the Deep River, to the north of the 
village of Desjoachims in a well defined depression, while the 
shallow nature of the present channel is indicated by the long line 
of foaming rapids which come in from the south. The difference 
in elevation between the foot and the head ofthe.se rapids is about 
forty feet. It is probable that at some time in the histoiy of the 
river, perhaps at the close of the Glacial period, great accumula- 
tions of sand, gravel and boulders blocked the old channel at a 
point some three miles above the present foot of the rapids or near 
the mouth of the Dumoine river, and thus diverted the stream. 
Possibly the same thing occured at the Roche Capitaine, since 
here the second channel is seen to the north of the large island in 
the river, this channel being now largely dry at ordinary stages of 
the water. 

Indications of this blocking of the old course of the Ottawa is 
seen in the great accumulations of boulders near the village of 
Mattawa, which represent terraces of morainic origin, modified 
by the agency of the waters of the river. This evidently had 
some effect upon the river channel at this place, since Dr. A. E. 
Barlow in his report on the region says that "a well defined old 
river-channel occurs running through the rear portion of the 
village between the main street and the railway station which has 
evidently been followed by the Mattawa or its antecedent stream. 
It leaves the Mattawa about a mile above its mouth and reaches 
the Ottawa at the foot of the rapid nearly three-quarters of a mile 

below"* 

About twenty miles west of Pembroke the river makes 

a sudden bend to the south at what is known as High View. 

Just above this on the north side is a bold headland known as 

Oiseau rock, which rises abruptly from the surface of the stream 

Rep. Geol. Sur. Can. 1897 ^'o'- X, p. 178. I^art I. 



24 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

for a height of nearly 500 feet. The southern shore of the river 
for several miles above High View is a rocky ridge which divides 
the Deep River channel from a long chain of lakes which starts 
from the south shore ot the Ottawa about ten miles west of High 
View and cuts across to a point about three miles south of High 
View point. The surface of the country around this chain of lakes 
is heavily sand covered and these deposits extend south towards 
Chalk River. The lakes evidently indicate a former channel 
of the Ottawa which became choked up by sand subsequent 
to the glacial period. 

The shore of the river opposite High View is indented by 
bays. The north shore of the main stream east from Oiseau rock 
conlinues in a bold range of hills for some miles eastward, and an 
old channel apparently followed a straight course from the deep 
bay eastward from High View. This channel evidently became 
choked up by great deposits of sand and gravel, thus diverting the 
stream past the east end of what is now known as the township of 
Buchanan, southward. The old channel thus blocked extended 
across the southern part of the townships of Sheen and Chichester, 
and probably reached the Culbute channel of the the Ottawa which 
flows along the north side of Allumette Island, below che Culbute 
Fall. 

On both sides of the river opposite this place and for some 
miles to the ea-t and west, the surface is covered with great de- 
posits of sand and gravel, many feet in depth. In that part of the 
township of Chichester, north of the village of Chapeau, these sand 
ridges are well defined, continuing for several miles till they reach 
the foot of a bold ridge of granite and gneiss. This ridge is con- 
tinuous from the foot of Deep River to the mouth of Rouge River 
about sixty miles below Ottawa city, and at one time undoubtedly 
formed the the north shore of the Ottawa River for this portion 
of its original course. 

A great part of Allumette Island is occupied by these reddish 
granite sands. They form extensive ridges along the centre of the 
Island from east to west and they were at one time doubtless con- 
tinuous with the broad areas north of the Culbute channel through 
which that channel has since been cut. The upper end of this channel 
for some miles is narrow and rocky, but the portion below the 



igol] Ells — Anxient Channels. 25 

Culbute fall is much broader and rocks rarely appear along^ its 
course except at the crossing- of the road north from Chapais. 
Below this the shores are of clay or sand till the end of the Island 
is reached where the Pembroke channel joins the Culbute, flowing 
over broad ledges of Black River limestone, and forming what is 
known as the Paquette Rapid which is about a fourth of a mile 
south of the junction of the two channels. 

The Pembroke channel which flows past the south side of 
Allumette Island is not deep. At the upper end rapids extend 
partly across the river and there are many small granite islets. 
Along the south shore of the river especially above the mouth of 
the Petewawa the banks are entirely of sand and in some places 
are from fifty to eighty feet high. 

At the town of Pembroke a depression comes to the river 
from the south and the Musquash River here joins the Ottawa. 
This stream flows north-west against the regular course of 
the Ottawa and discharges the Musquash and Mud Lakes, the 
former of which is about ten miles in length. The stream is for 
the most part sluggish, flowing through a clay flat for some miles. 
On the north side of Musquash Lake a ridge of crystalline rocks 
rises abruptly, and on the south side Pala;ozoic rocks, mostly of 
of Black River age, form outliers, which have steep scarped 
sides towards the north as if cut down by the agency of running 
water. 

At the upper end of Musquash Lake a stream flows in 
which discharges a chain of long and narrow lakes, and these 
continue for some miles in a depression into the township of Morton. 
Along these lakes, which are surrounded by great masses of sand 
the action of water is very evident. Some of them are long and 
very narrow but have a depth of over a hundred feet, though only 
a tew chains in width. They present all the features of an old 
river channel which has been blocked up by great deposits of sand, 
gravel and boulders, so that the original channel is now defined 
simply by the line of the depression and the remnants o( the old 
river left in the narrow series of lakes. 

This depression extends out to the river again, reaching it 
near what is known as the Chenaux rapids, about four miles below 
the junction of the two channels which surround Calumet Island, 



26 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

and which join a short distance above the villag-e of Portage du 
Fort. 

Of these two channels the south or Roche Fendu, is very 
rough and rocky. The north channel from Le Passe around the 
north end of the island and down to Bryson, flows for the mest 
part of the distance through great beds of sand which show on 
both sides of the river but are very largely developed on the 
island, especially on the northwest portion. 

Below the Chenaux Rapids the Chats Lake forms the river i 
and extends down to the head of the Chats rapids and Falls about 
three miles east of the town of Arnprior. The shore on the north 
side opposite Sand Point and thence to a point opposite the mouth 
of the Bonnech^re River is largely drift covered, and this feature 
is well seen at Norway Bay where great banks of sand form the 
shore line for some distance. Inland also these deposits are 
largely developed to the east of Shawville, where they overlie a 
great thickness of clay, which extends northward to the main 
ridge of crystalline rocks. 

The Chats Falls are caused by a large dyke of reddish 
granite which cuts across the crystalline limestone of the Arnprior 
and White Lake belt, here several miles in width. The falls 
are among the most beautiful on the river, extending across the I 
whole breadth of the stream which is here about two m.iles 
in width. The total rise from the foot of the falls to the waters of 
Chats Lake is about fifty feet. 

Just below the Chats Falls on the south side is the village of 
Fitzroy Harbour, It is built on a clay bluff about forty feet 
in height and this rests on the Calciferous dolomite, which in turn 
reposes on the gneiss and crystalline limestone at the foot of the 
falls. These newer rocks are seen on both sides of the river. 

The Carp river enters the Ottawa a short distance below the 
village, and has a course of about twenty miles. It also flows 
westerly against the general course of the Ottawa in a depression 
through the northern part of the townships of Huntley and 
Fitzroy and is on the whole a very sluggish stream. About four 
miles above its mouth there is a rapid formed by a ridge of granite. 
Elsewhere the bed of the stream is a clay flat, in places very 
marshy, to its source, which is in the northern part of the township 
of Goulbourn. 



igoi] Ells — Ancient Channels. 27 

Between the Carp and the present channel of the river, a well 
defined ridge of crystalline rocks extends eastward from the 
vicinity of Fitzroy to within nine miles of Ottawa city, where it 
sinks down nearly to the level of the river and becomes covered 
over with Potsdam sandstone. The south side of the ridge is 
marked by a well defined line of fault which brings the Black River 
limestones against the crystalline rocks. It is supposable there- 
fore that an old channel of the river flowed eastward along the 
depression in which the Carp River now lies. 

To the north of the crystalline rock ridge just mentioned a 
second line of depression occurs also south of the Ottawa and 
separated from it by another rock ridge formed of Chazy shale 
and limestone. In this depression lies Lake Constant, and 
Constant Creek flows thence westward to the Ottawa into a deep 
depression known as Sand Bay. The elevation of the Creek and 
Lake is but a few feet above the present level of the river, the 
waters being sluggish throughout, and the depression extends 
eastward through a swampy tract into the Ottawa again at Shirley 
Bay a few miles west of Britannia. Great areas of reddish sand 
occupv the shores of the Ottawa about the mouth of Constant 
Creek and for several miles to the east and west. 

The north side of the Ottawa between Hull and a point some 
miles west of the Chats Falls, practically as far west as the Ottawa 
opposite the east end of Calumet Island near Campbell's Bay above 
Bryson, is generally low and largely occupied by great deposits of 
clay or sand. Occasionally well defined beaches are seen, as in the 
area to the north-west of Quyon near the village of North Onslow, 
where they are crossed by the road betw.-en these two places. 
Occasional ridges of rock occur, as in the rear of the town of 
Aylmer and north of Bristol station, but the main shore of the 
river- was at one time undoubtedly marked out by the great ridge 
largely composed of reddish grey granite which rises in Kings 
Mountain, west of Chelsea, and extends westerly for many miles 
forming the northern limit of the great Ottawa plain. 

The lower part of the Ottawa must have been at one time 
much broader and more delta shaped than at present. On the 
north side the range of the crystalline rocks must have de- 
fined the river much as at present, as far as the mouthy of the 



28 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

Rouge River, but below this place the hill range trends off more 
to the north-east and a broad plain occupied partly by sand and 
largely by clay, extends southward to the St. Lawrence. The 
northern part of this area is treversed by the North River, which 
betv^een St. Jerome and the town of Lachute has but little current 
and follows a westerly course till the latter point is reached when 
it bends abruptly to the south and meets the Ottawa near the 
village of St. Andrews, near the upper end of the Lake of Two 
Mountains. 

To the south of the North river and east of Lachute a rock 
ridge formed of the Potsdam and Calciferous rocks comes in and 
extends eastward for some miles. South of this a broad well 
terraced valley extends across to the lower portion of the Ottawa, 
but this area is again traversed by a granite ridge which 
rises just to the east of St. Andrews and extends eastward for 
four to five miles. Between these two ridges the depth of clay 
and gravel is great. At one point several borings have been 
made, one ot which reached a depth of over 120 feet without 
touching the underlying rock, so that the bottom of this old 
channel is many feet below the present level of the river. 

On the south side of the Ottawa below Ottawa city, the 
country between the river and the St. Lawrence is generally level 
or broken by low ridges, sometimes ot rock but often of gravel or 
boulders which have come from the north side of the Ottawa. 
Over a large part of this area great deposits of clay, overlaid in 
places by sands and gravels, are seen, and a peculiar feature of 
these deposits is noted in the fact that while the clays are undoubt- 
edly of marine origin they rarely show marine fossils, while the 
overlying sands and gravels contain these in immense quantities 
at very many places. These marine shells however apparently 
cease west of a line drawn from Smith's Falls to Prescott or have 
not yet been noticed in the western area, though there is no 
apparent break in the character of the surface deposits in this 
direction. 

South of the Ottawa also the evidences of an old river channel 
are very clear. A large number of borings have been made in the 
last half dozen years both in the vicinity of the river itself and in 
the areatp the south. Some of these are in %he course of the east 



1901] Ells— Ancient Channels. 



29 



and west stretch of the Nation river. The holes were sunk only 
to the rock in most cases, through clay with occasional thin 
deposits ol sand or gravel. The deepest of these was 210 feet, 
and in the township of Plantagenet on the north bank of the 
Nation, and in Alfred about two and a half miles east, two holes 
were sunk to the underlying- Utica, to depths of 180 and iS6 feet. 
On a line extending westwardly along what is known as the Brook 
in the direction of Eastman's Springs a number of similar holes 
have been bored, the depths of which ranged from 100 to 150 feet, 
following a fairly direct line. The most easterly of these was put 
down at Caledonia Springs to a depth in the clay of 132 feet. 
Beyond this to the north-east the country is flat and clay covered 
in the direction of L'Orignal at which point {Presumably this 
ancient channel reached the river. Recently in the area south-east 
of Ottawa city, near Ramsay's Corners, a boring has been made 
which passed through 186 feet of clay and 18 feet of underlying 
gravel to the Lorraine shah^s. 

This line of excavation may be the continuation of that already 
described for the Carp valley, since in the eastern portion of the 
Carp area there are great deposits of clay, gravel and sand which 
extend beyond the Rideau a few miles south of Ottawa in the 
direction of the deep borings just referred to. The old channel 
should cross the Rideau not far from the centre of the township of 
Gloucester and extend towards the Mer Bleue, since rock escarp- 
ments appear a short distance north of that place in the direction 
of the Ottawa, and rock ledges are seen to the south in the 
direction of Bear Brook on the line of the Canada Atlantic Ry. 

On the lower Ottawa between Grenville and Lachute the 
surface is generally flat. Deposits of clay, covered in places with 
a great thickness of sand, occur in the area between the bold 
escarpment of the crystalline rocks and t'le river, and near the line 
of the Grenville canal the accumulation of boulders over the 
surface is very great. The whole area for some miles is heavily 
drift covered, and great masses of ice must have discharged 
immense loads brought from the high lands to the north and north 
east in this direction. These accumulations of boulders are found 
at intervals over a large extent of country south of the Ottawa, 
spme of the blocks being of immense size. Near Vankleek Hill 



30 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

great numbers of these loose rocks can be seen, one of which 
measures 20 feet by 15 feet and is 4 feet out of the g-round. 

Among channels of more recent date but which are now 
closed except at periods of high water on the river, two at least 
may be mentioned. East from Coulonge village a depression 
in the surface extends to the Ottawa at the north west angle 
of Calumet Island. The eastern portion of the depression to the 
west of the river is known as the Grand Marais or Big marsh ; 
and while at ordinary stages of water in the Ottawa much 
of this is comparatively dry, in the spring it becomes a regular 
water-course cutting off the great point which extends south-west 
from Coulonge village to La Passe. 

Further east below Ottawa at the mouth of the Nation river 
a depression also occurs forming the bay in front of the village of 
Papineauville, and separating that place from what is known as 
the Presqu'ile. This latter is a long ridge or tongue of gravel 
and sand which extends east from the mouth of the North Nation 
River for about six miles. At high water stages the current passes 
over the narrow barrier at the west end of the Presqu'ile Bay and 
flows directly past the village. It is quite possible that close 
investigation in the Ottawa basin would disclose other channels 
which are now partly filled. 

In this paper it has been the intention to indicate only the 
most prominent of these old channels. That the submergence of 
the whole basin has been sufficient to cause the waters of James 
Bay to unite with those of the Ottawa basiru is indicated by the 
presena of well defined terraces and clay deposits at elevations 
greater than the present height of land north of Lake Temiscaniing. 
It is probably due to this great spread of inland or ocean waters 
over this area that the sands and gravels which have been so 
instrumental in choking up the ancient valley of the river are so 
widely distributed. That these upper level deposits of clay and sand 
have not yielded organic remains is only negative evidence against 
this theory. On similar grounds much of the typical marine clay 
of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence basins would not be of marine 
origin since inthe whole stretch north and west of Ottawa city 
they yield marine fossils only in very lare cases. 



THE OTTAWA r^ATURALlST. 

Vol. XV. OTTAWA, MAY, 1901. No. 2. 

NOTE ON A SUPPOSED NEW SPECIES OF LVTOCERAS 

FROM THE CRETACEOUS ROCKS AT DENMAN 

ISLAND, IN THE STRAIT OF GEORGIA. 

y^ By J. F. Whitfavks. 

In 1 87 I Mr. James Richardson, then of the Geological Survey 
of Canada, collected a frag^ment of the inner whorls of an 
Ammonite with numerous slender and finely costulate volutions, 
a wide, open umbiljcus, and rounded venter, from the Cretaceous 
rocks at Norris Rock, south of Hornby Island, in the Strait of 
Georgia. This specimen was described by the writer, referred 
with a query to Ammonites Jukesii, Sharpe, and figured, in the 
second part of the first volume of " Mesozoic Fossils," published 
in 1879. The type and only known specimen of A. Jukesii, it 
may be mentioned, is a mere fragment from the "hard Chalk of 
the county of Londonderry," Ireland, described and figured by 
Sharpe in his monograph of the Cephalopoda of the Chalk, pub- 
lished by the Pakeontographical Society of London in 1853. 

Much larger, more perfect and beautifully preserved specimens 
of the same shell as the specimen from Norris Rock, were collected 
at Denman Island, near Hornby Island, four in 1892 and thr^e in 
1895, ^y M''- Walter Harvey, who also obtiiined a characteristic 
fragment at Hornby Island in 1892. Three of these specimens 
from Denman Island are now in the Museum of the Survey, and 
two of them were described by the writer, under the name Lvto- 
cems Jukesii {Sharpe.), and figured, in a paper "On some Fossils 
from the Nanaimo group of the Vancouver Cretaceous," published 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for 1S95. 



32 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

When this paper was written, the writer had not seen the 
first part of Dr. Kossmat's memoir on the Chalk formation of 
Southern India, published at Vienna in 1894, in which the sup- 
posed A. Jukesii horn Norris Rock is placed among the synonyms 
oi Lytoceras {Gaudrycei as) Kayei (Forbes.) On receiving a copy 
of this publication, it seemed to the writer that the large and fine 
specimens from Denman Island that had been referred to L.Jukesil 
present several points of difference from the L. Kayei, as therein 
figured, and one of the best of the Denman Island specimens was 
sent to Dr. Kossmat, for comparison with the Indian species. 
The conclusions arrived at on this point by Dr Kossmat, after 
this comparison had been made, and as embodied in a letter to 
the writer, dated March 9th, 1896, are as follows: 

"Your Lytoceras Jukesii must, be distinguished from L. Kayei, 
as you already supposed. "Specimens that are not full grown 
(as that figured in Mesozoic Fossils, vol. i, pt. 2, pi. 13) agree re- 
markably well with all the Valudayur specimens seen by me, and 
it would be quite difficult to distinguish them. "But, in the adult 
state, the Denman Island specimens are quite different. "The body 
chamber of L. Kayei, as shown in Plate 3, fig. 2, of my publication 
is ornamented with very delicate striai, even thinner than in the 
inner whorls, and of almost silky appearance ; whereas, on your 
L. Jukesii the ribs of the last volution become very strong and 
sharp, and are separated by broad intervals. "There is no doubt 
that such specimens are very similar to Lyioceras [Gaudryceras) 
Jukesii, Sharpe, but considering the incompleteness of Sharpe's 
type specimen, their identification with it will always be disputable. 
"Judging from the figure and description of Sharpe's specimen, 
the ribs of the type oi L. Jukesii, in middle stages of growth, are 
sharper, somewhat more distant, and not so strongly curved for- 
ward on the sides ; the increase of the whorl in thickness is more 
rapid, and the whorls are perhaps less numerous. "I think that 
it will be best to give a new name to the fine specimens from 
Denman Island. "Their septa are typical Gaudryceras septa, 
with descending auxiliary lobes." 

The writer, accordingly, begs to propose for these specimens^ 
which have already been described somewhat in detail and figured, 
the provisional name oi Lytoceras {^Gaudryceras) Denmanense. 

Ottawa, April i6th, 1901. 



igoi 



Chalmers — Gold-Bear inc. Alluvions. 



33 



THE SOURCES AND DISTRtbUTION OF THE GOLD- 
BEARING ALLUVIONS OF QUEBEC. 

By R. Chalmers, Geological .Survey of Canada. 

(Read before (he Club. March 19th, 1901.) 

The few remarks which I have to offer this evening-, refer to 

the g-old-bearing: river gravels of south-eastern Quebec, in the 

Eastern Townships and County of Beauce, Alluvial gold has 

been found here in the valleys of the 
two principal rivers which drain the 
region, the Chaudiere and the St. 
PVancis. In the bottoms of the val- 
leys along which these rivers and 
their tributaries flow, it occurs in 
scattered grains and nuggets in the 
gravels and sands and frequently in 
crevices in. the underlying rocks. It 
is, however, most g-enerally found in 
paying quantities in old river chan- 
nels now partially or wholly filled 
with boulJer-clay. these often being 
at a lower level than the present 
water-courses, and usually on one 
side or the other, though in the same 
valley. The general succession of 
the deposits in these river valleys is 
much the same throughout the re- 
gion, and is as follows in descending 
order, (fig. i ) : 

1. Surface gravel and sand, carry- 
ing fine gold in places. 

2. Boulder-clay, including in some 
valleys, an interglacial deposit. 

3. Stratified clay and sand, often 
in alternate beds; " the pipe clay " 
and " quick-sands "of the miners. 

4. Stratified gravels, usually rusty, 
or oxidized, the materials belonging to IochI rocks. Gold-bearing, 
especially in lower strata. Gold often coarse. 







Fig. 1. General Section of the 
Gold-Bearing Deposits. 



34 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 



5. Rotten rock, contains particles of gold. 

6. Decomposing rock surface, uneven, non-glaciated. Gold 
in the crevices. 

It is in division 4, the lowest member of the stratified beds, 
that the gold is found in greates quantity, though often met with 
in the overlying series, as well as in the decomposed rock beneath. 
Where these stratified, oxidized gravels rest on the bed rock, the 
gold is most plentiful in the lowest strata, and in the clefts, or 
between the folia, of the rocks. 

The enquiry as to the origin of these gravels and how they 
came to be gold-bearing takes us back to an early period in the 
geological history of the region, — soon after it emerged from 
beneath the sea and became dry land. Subaerial denudation 
then began and has been in incessant operation ever since. About 
this time the larger rivers probably had their origin and began to 
carve out their valleys. Throughout the long ages which have 
intervened since, these forces of nature, under varying conditions, 
have been wearing away and reducing the surface of the land. 
This reduction has been unequal because of the unequal hardness 
of the rocks, and the difference in-their power of resisting erosiont 
The degradation from these agencies must have been enormous, 
amounting to several hundreds, perhaps several thousands, of 
feet, entirely changing the appearance of the country, the existing 
residual forms of relief being, in no small degree, the result of this 
wear and waste of the land surface. Regional and orogenic move- 
ments have taken place during these ages, the effects of which 
are evidenced by uplifts and downthrows in several places and in 
the dislocation of the river valleys ; but no cessation in the action 
of the decomposing and transporting forces seems to have occurred 
till a much later period, when it was interrupted by the ice age. 

Coming down to the Tertiary period we can, perhaps, form 
some conception of the appearance of this region then, though in 
an imperfect degree, if we suppose it stripped of all the boulder- 
clay and overlying deposits. Except on some of the more promi- 
nent hills and summits, the surface of the rocks would be mantled 
by a thick sheet of its own debris. On the slopes and in the river 
valleys this material would be largely denuded and portions of the 
decomposed rock would form stratified beds, especially where it 



igoi] Chalmers — Gold-Bearing Alluvions. 35 

had undergone transportation and modification by the action of 
rivers and streams. Prolonged shifting of the gravels and their 
gold content in this manner, assorting and reassorting the materi- 
als and the sifting out of the least weighty, allowing the gold and 
other heavy particles to settle to the bottom — were the processes 
which brought about the conditions which we now find existing as 
regards these auriferous deposits. 

In the glacial period which followed, these river beds were 
buried beneath sheets of boulder-clay. The thickness of the boul- 
der-clay in the Chaudiere valley is 100 feet or more. The ancient 
valley of the Gilbert was likewise filled with it to a depth of 25 to 
50 feet. 

On the withdrawal of the ice of the glacial- period the rivers 
began to clear out their ancient channels cutting down into the 
boulder-clay and other beds, and in many places eroding the gold- 
bearing gravels beneath, and once more exposing them to view. 
But in some valleys, as for example in that of the Gilbert, the 
river was diverted from its original channel and caused to form a 
new one, and the auriferous gravels in the pre-glacial channel have 
thus been preserved" from erosion. In these valleys the ancient 
channel is generally at a lower level. The pre-glacial channel of 
the Gilbert is from 30 to 85 feet below the bed oi the present river 
in that part wrought for gold, and from 100 to 400 feet or more to 
the south of it. All the river valleys have, however, undergone 
dislocations during and since the glacial period, so that while some 
parts of a pre-glacial river channel may be considernbly lower than 
the present one, in other places it is not. 

From all the facts which have been obtained it would seem 
that the alluvial gold is entirely of local origin, that is, the gravels 
and the gold they contain belong to the rocks of the particular 
valley in which we now find them. But just from what rocks the 
gold came, whether from the pre-Cambrian or Cambrian or both 
is by no means evident. There is no question but that it is de- 
rived from some of the quartz veins in the vicinity of where it now 
occurs ; but as little or no quartz mining has been carried on, no 
new tacts were obtained by us which would elucidate the problem. 
Logan and Hunt regarded the gold as belonging to the oldest 
rocks of the region, that is to the crystalline schists of the Notre 



36 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

Dame rang-e. But the gfold of southeastern Quebec is not confined 
to the oldest rocks. Thoug^h occurring in these, it is also found 
in quartz veins which traverse Cambrian slates. Indeed, the 
largest quantities of alluvial gold have been obtained in districts 
occupied by these slates, where they are cut by diorite dykes, a 
fact brought out by Ells. On the supposition that the original 
source of the precious metal is in the pre-Cambrian schists, how- 
ever, these, in their disintegration and waste, may have yielded 
gold to the sediments which, doubtless, entered into the composi- 
tion of the Palceozoic rocks. This gold would be in a fine state of 
division, but would be concentrated in the quartz veins at a later 
date. 

The total gold production of southeastern Quebec, as been 
valued at two millions to two and a quarter million dollars. Of this 
amount probably from one million and a quarter to a million and 
a half dollars worth have been taken from the Gilbert river beds 
alone. Ditton is said to have yielded from seventy-five to one 
hundred thousand dollars. The remainder has been obtained 
from the gravels of Du Loup, Famine, Des Plantes and 
Mill rivers, tributaries of the Chaudi^re, and from Dudswell, 
Magog, etc, on the St. Francis. 



A New Horse Gentian. — In the March number of Torreya, 
Dr. Bicknell describes a new species of Triostetim which he names 
T. aiiraiitiacnm. An examination of the specimens in the herb- 
arium ot the Geological Surve}' shows that while those from 
Western Ontario are T. perfoliatum those collected at Casselman, 
near Ottawa, are T. aurantiacum. Though there are many strik- 
ing differences between the two species, the most obvious one is 
to be seen in the main leaves "which broadly perfoliate in true 
perfoliatmn are in the new species conspicuously narrowed into a 
merely sessile base." As the two species have much the same 
range T. perfoliatum should be looked tor in this vicinity. 

J. M. M. 



igoi] Holm — Allies of Stellarlv Medium. 37 

ALLIES OF STELLARIA MEDIA (L.) Cyrillo. 



By Tiiix"). Holm. 
(With two plates.) 

Plants as common as the " common Chickweed " are seldom 
collected by botanists, very seldom studied, and as a rule, but 
poorly represented in herbaria. Authors of manuals, especially in 
North-America, have usually paid very little attention to the 
plant, and no variety or subspecies has, so far, been recorded 
from Canada or the United States. Being" considered as a weed 
infesting- gardens, and being- so very abundant everywhere in damp 
soil, it has escaped attention in this country-, althoug-h other 
plants of similar frequent occurrence, and with much the sai-ne 
behaviour as weeds have been g-ranted a good deal of attention, 
and have been treated quite elaborately by systematic botanists. 
But Stellaria media appears always to be the same, a single 
species with no characteristic forms or varieties appended, yet it is 
recognized as being equally common in the boreal and temperate 
regions of both the old and new world, and to produce its flowers 
from earliest spring to late autumn or sometimes even throughout 
the winter. 

Judging from a geographical range such as this, one 
would naturally suspect that the species would hardly be 
equally uniform and constant in appearance, as it is noted 
to be common nearly everywhere. We all know that it 
may be met with in our wandermgs through woods and thickets, 
along borders of creeks, in old river-bottoms, very often remote 
from inhabited places, yet it is always looked upon as an intro- 
duced plant of no interest whatever. Whether it was introduced 
to this country from Europe or Siberia, no one knows, but the 
probability is, that it has existed on the Pacific Coast a sufficient 
time to develop into several varieties, or perhaps even subspecies 
with power to spread towards more distant regions in eastern 
direction. It would be interesting to know something about its 
geographical distribution in the boreal parts o'i America, where 
it, no doubt, extends beyond the Arctic circle as it does in Siberia 
and Europe, Russia for instance ; that it extends from the Pacific 



38 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

to the Atlantic In the British provinces, has been recorded in 
Professor Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian plants, and it shows a 
similar wide range in the United States, even as far south as 
from California to the coasts of Florida. But it does seem strange 
that we actually know so little about this plant in America, and 
that no one has, so far, attempted to illustrate the species as it 
occurs in the north and south, east and west, in cultivated 
grounds, in woods, thickets, etc.. instead of being contented 
with the idea that it is always the same introduced " common 
Chickweed." 

In Europe the plant is known much better. Already Linnaeus 
distinguished between " pentstemon " and, "decastemon" as two 
forms of the species, both of which were then figured in Flora 
Danica by M. Vahl and O. F. Mueller (1769-70) ; the locality for 
"pentstemon" is given as everywhere in cultivated grounds, 
while the other is said to be frequent in springy places. A corres- 
ponding variation in the number of stamens from 3 to 10 is, 
furthermore, recorded by Lightfoot^ and Rafn.- Meanwhile 
Father Bernardinus of Ucria^ described an apetalous Stellaria, 
which he consequently named S. apetala, and which in many 
reS'pects looks like a depauperate or abnormal form of our Chick- 
weed. This is the plant which Dumortier^ described as Alsifie 
pallida and Jordan^ as Stellaria borcrana, and which Pir^*^ finally 
figured under the name S. pallida. "Pentstemon," "De- 
castemon " and " apetala " thus signify two distinct plants of 
which the two first were at that time supposed to represent 
Stellaria media, while " apetala" was a species distinct from this. 
However, some years later we find the Linnaean form "decastemon" 
elevated to specific rank as Stellaria neglecta Whe.,'' a suggestion 

' Lig'htfoot, John. Flora Scotica. 1777, p. 172. 

^ Rafn, C. G. Danmarks ojf Holsteens Flora, 1800, p. 381. 

^ Father Bernardinus of Ucria. Plantae ad Linna^anum opus addendae 
et secundum Linnaei .systema noviter descriptae. " Roemer's Archi% fiir die 
Botanik," \'ol. I, 1796, p. 68, 

* Dumoriier B. Prodromus florae Belgicas, 1827, p. 109. 

* Jordan, A., Pugillus planlarum novarutn, 1852, p. 33. 

'■ Pir^, Louis. Xotice sur F Alsine pallida Dmtr. " Bull, de la soc. 
Roy. de Botanicjue de Belgique," Vol. 2, 1863, p. 43. 

' Wcihe in " Bluff et Fingerhulh : Compendium florae Germania;,'" 1825, 
V'ol. I, p. 560. 



igoi] IIoLM — Allies of Stellarl\ Medium. 39 

that was folkiwed by several botanists, amonj^ them Elias 
Fries/ who recorded it fror;-. Sweden and Denmark, and Babingf- 
ton,-' who reported both this and S. pallida from the British 
Isles. There are not a few authors, however, who have felt more 
inclined to consider these plants as representing a sing'le species, 
" A', media'' with the others as merely varieties. Thus Fenzl'" 
enumerates three varieties, decandm, oligatidra and apelala, 
besides four others, which are less characteristic ; a similar classi- 
fication is given by Langa, ' ' who distinguishes between var. vul- 
garis with 3-5 stamens, var. neglccta with 10 stamens and var. 
apclala without petals, or as suggested by DcelP - var. dccandra 
and var. apetala. 

Sicilaria media is, thus, with European botanists the plant 
with 3-7 stamens, S. neglccta the one with 10 stamens and S. 
apetala with 2-5 stamens, but with no petals. Of these the 
typical form has been described as being very frequent in 
North-America, while none of the others have been cited. It 
would, however, be desirable to knovv a little more about this 
plant as it is represented in this country, and we thought there- 
fore, that some more information might be obtained by presenting 
this brief notice about the European plant with its allies, whether 
these be considered as varieties or species. And there is good 
reason for supposing that the species, S. media, in this country is 
actually an aggregate ot several well defined forms or even 
species, which may naturally be looked for in the cold temperate 
regions or farther south. So far the writer has succeeded in 
detecting Weihe's .S". neglccta in the vicinity ot Washington, 
D.C, where it grew iir shady places in deciduous forests, more- 
over, some specimens in Dr. E. L. Greene's herbarium, collected 
in California proved to be this species, besides that the herbarium 
of the Geological Survey Department of Canada, contains several 



" Fries, Elias. Corpus florariim provinciarum Suecije I. Flora Siaiiica. 
1835, P- 88- 

" Babington, C. C. Manual of British Botany, 1874, p. 57. 

'" Fenzl in " Ledebour's F"lora Rossica.' 1841, Vol. I, p. 377. 

'^ Lang-e, Joh. Haanclbog iden Danske Flora. 1S64, p. 342. 

12 DcEll, I. Ch. Flora des Grosslierzogthums Baden, \ol. 3, 1862, 
p. 1224. 



40 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

specimens of the same from British Columbia, Manitoba and Sable 
Island.* As reg'ards S. apetala we have seen no specimens from 
North America, but it would be very strange if this should not be 
found here also. 

In order to facilitate the identification of S. apclala and 
S. neglecta, we have thoug-ht it worth while to illustrate these 
besides g-iving- a few notes upon their principal characteristics. 

Stellaria apetala Bernard. (Plate i, fig. i.) 
This has the general aspect of ordinary forms ot S. media in 
reg^ard to the leaf-shape and inflorescence, but it is pale green and 
the flower has no petals ; however, rudimentary petals may 
occasionaly be found in the earliest developed flowers ; the num- 
ber of stamens varies from two to five, and the styles (fig-. A.) are 
diverging horizontally from near the base, while in S. media (fig. 
B.) the styles are erect and only recurved at the apex. The seeds 
are of a pale yellowish-brown colour, minutely tubercled like 
those of S. media. The figure (i.) is drawn from a Swedish 
specime*!, natural size. 

S. 7ieglecta Whe. (Plate 2, fig. 2.) 
Generally taller, but more slender than S. media, deep green. 
The lower leaves have long petioles (fig. C) and the blade is very 
distinctly pointed in contrast to the leaf ot .S'. media ; the inflor- 
escence is more lax and the flowers are borne on long, very slender 
peduncles, which bend downwards after the flowering, but become 
erect soon after the seeds have fallen. The petals are as long as 
the calyx or even a little longer, while they are shorter than the 
calyx in S. media. The stamens are ten in number, but the styles 
are erect with recurved apex, as in S. media. The seeds (fig. D.) 
are larger than those of 5". media (fig. E) and the tubercles are 
much more prominent and often cone-shaped. The figure (a) is 
drawn from a specimen collected near Washington, D.C. 
S. neglecta is, according to Murbeck,i' a well marked type in 
North and Middle Europe, but specimens from the Mediterranean, 

* These specimens are labeled: Cedar Hill near Victoria B.C.; Biirrard 
Inlet B.C.; Killarney Man.; Sable Island, N. S. 

'•■' Murbeck Sv. Die nordeuropasischen Formen der Gattung- Stellaria. 
Bolaniska Notiscr. Lund. 1899, p. 193. 



igol] Hold — Allies of Stellaria Medium. 41 

for instance North Africa, are less distinct, passing- gradually over 
into vS". media. Dr. Murbeck feels, therefore, more inclined to 
consider S. 7ieglecta as a subspecies of 5". 7nedia, rather than an 
independent species. While the plants from Washington and 
Canada show the characteristic habit of Swedish and German 
specimens, we must state, however, that the seeds of our speci- 
mens did not show the tubercles quite as prominent as we 
observed in the European plant, of which the seed (fig. D) has 
been illustrated. 

These characters seem sufficient for distinguishing these 
plants, but it would be interesting to know whether S. apetala 
occurs in this country, and whether the characters are constant. 
It may be that S. neglecta is more typically" developed in the 
northern countries than in the south. In regard to the flowering- 
time, 5". media is known to bloom and produce seeds nearly through" 
out the year thus several generations may appear in the same year 
under favourable conditions. S. apetala and S. neglecta are, on 
the other hand, known only to bloom in the spring, and their 
seeds do not germinate until the following autumn, as has been 
observed in Europe. Our specimens from Washington of the 
latter were, however, collected in the last week of September with 
ripe seeds and a very few flowers, which might indicate a second 
generation. 

Explanation of Plates. 
Plate 1, fiK- I.— Flowering specimen of Stelluria apcluhi, Bernard, .\atiiral 
size. 

Fitf. \. — Pistil of same. 

Fig-. B. — Pistil of 5". jnedin. 
Pl.Hte 2, fig. 2. — Inflorescence oi Stellaria neglecta, Whc. Natural size. 

Fig. C. —Stem-leaves of same, natural size. 

Fig. D. — Seed of same, magnified. 

Fig. E. — Seed of 5. media, magnified. 



42 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

NEW PLANTS FROM ALBERTA. 



• By Edw. L. CiREKNE. 

Berberis brevipes. Allied to B. nana but every way smaller, 
the foliage of a deeper green and merely glaucescent rather than 
glaucous ; leaves with very short petiole, not longer than the inter- 
nodes of the rachis ; leaflets usually seven, rather broadly elliptic- 
oblong, I to I ^ inches long, sharply and closely spinulose-serrate, 
very acute, conspicuously though minutely reticulate, in texture 
comparatively thin ; racemes short and few-flowered, but in fruit 
surpassing the petioles ; berries small, subglobose, blue and very 
glaucous. 

Collected at Crow's Nest Pass, Rocky Mts., August, 1897, by 
Prof. John Macoun; No. 18,080 of the Canadian Geological Survey 
Collection, It is next of kin to the more southerly B. nana, 
Greene, which so long passed, by mistake, under the name of B. 
repens; but it is wholly distinct by several characters, among the 
best of which is the short-stalked foliage. In B. nana the petioles 
are so long as to surpass even the long fruiting racemes. 

Stfllaria subvestitx. Numerous suberect stems densely 
tufted, slender though firm, 5 to 10 inches high, very leafy below 
the middle, the dichotomous cyme notably narrow and strict ; 
leaves linear-acuminate, 3^ inch long, i-nerved, erect, sub- 
tomentose beneath, otherwise more or less pilose-pubescent, the 
stem also pilose, the peduncle and pedicels less so ; bracts of the 
cyme ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, scarious, often villous- 
ciliate; sepals oval, obtuse or acutish, scarious-margined, i-nerved 
and the nerve often pilose; petals little exceeding the calyx ; cap- 
sule not seen. 

Obtained at Devil's Head Lake and Banff, National Park, 
July, 1 89 1, by Prof. John Macoun ; the specimens distributed for 
S. longipes var. ; but the species is of diff'erent habit, and is well 
marked by the strong pubescence, the strict and narrow cyme, etc. 



igoi] Ami — The late George M. Dawson, 43 



thp: late ghorge mercer DAWSON. 

The world of science and especially of o^eolog-y received a 
severe shock on the evening- of Saturday, the 2nd day of March 
igoi, when the news of the death of Dr. G. M. Dawson was 
announced. This sad event was altogether unexpected and leaves 
the ranks of the Canadian Geological Survey minus one of its most 
distinguished men, one who had always taken a foremost part in 
carrying on the good work of his predecessors in the position of 
Director. 

Not only as a geologist, but also as an ethnologist and 
naturalist Dr. Dawson was well known, and his too early loss 
will be felt by the whole scientific world. 

The immediate cause of the death, was a severe attack of 
capillary bronchitis which set in subsequent to a somewhat pro- 
tracted but apparently only slight cold. Dr. Dawson had been 
attending to his official duties all day Thursday Eeb. 28th and had 
thus been only a whole day absent from the Department when he 
breathed his last at five minutes after six in the evening, at his 
rooms in the Victoria Chambers, Ottawa. 

His loss to Canada cannot be overestimated. His place can 
never properly be filled. He will be missed most by the various 
members of the Geological Survey of Canada with whorh he was 
in constant communication regarding the advancement and welfare 
of every part of the Dominion of Canada. 

The earl)i training he received with his father, Sir William 
Dawson, at McGill University, subsequently in London, England, 
at the Royal School of Mines, eminently fitted him for the distin- 
guished positions which he held during his lifetime and at the time 
of his death, as Director of the Canadian Geological Survey. 

By his demise there is removed from this sphere of activity 
one of the greatest lights and intellects of the last progressive half 
of the century just ended. His numerous and important writings 
are a monument which will ever be a crown of glory and renown 
to his life-work, for his industry, talent and painstaking accuracy. 

He was a Nestor in Canadian geology and the grasp which 



^^ The Ottaava Naturalist. [May 

his strong intellect had of all problems relating to the economic 
and natural resources of our vast Dominion, made him master of 
his Department and a centre of distribution of the most valuable 
information. With a diminished staff at his disposal, he guided 
the Department under his care with unsparing as well as inspiring 
efforts, and was thus producing more results and giving out more 
information than ever before in any period of the history of the 
Survey in all its different branches. 

With the ever increasing demands for exact information con- 
cerning the mineral and other economic resources of Canada, with 
the increase of labour and attention to official matters, he was kept 
more than usually busy for the past six years. Through his 
personal efforts and that of his staff, he did much to disseminate 
such information regarding Canada's mineral resources, that the 
mining interests of the Dominion may now be said to be fairly well 
established upon a firm and non-speculative basis. 

Dr. George Mercer Dawson was the eldest son of the late Sir 
William Dawson who was the honoured Principal of McGill 
University for upwards of forty-four years, and who preceded the 
subject of this sketch by a few months only, having died in Mont- 
real, his home, on the 19th day of November, 1899, at the advan- 
ced age of 79. 

" Doctor George," as he was wont to be called, was born in 
thetowirof Pictou, N-ova Scotia, Aug. ist, 1849. His early training 
was at the Montreal High School, then subsequently, at home 
under tutors, and in McGill University, where however, he did not 
graduate, but went to Edinburgh and London. There he carried on 
studies and researches in Mining and Geology, especially at the 
Royal School of Mines, London, from 1869 to 1872, carrying off 
the highest honours of his class and the Duke of Cornwall's prize 
in his year, also the Edward Forbes gold medal for palaeontology, 
ranking first, and subsequently became an "Associate of the Royal 
School of Mines," a much coveted title. 

On his return to Canada he spent some time investigating the 
copper and iron deposits of Nova Scotia, his native province, and 
later lectured in Morrin Col'ege. In 1873, he was appointed 
geologist and botanist to Her Majesty's British North American 
boundary commission, of which Major D. R. Cameron, R.A., was 



iQoi] Ami — The late George M. Dawson. 



45 



Chief Commissioner for Britain. His excellent report upon the 
Geolog-y and Mineral Resources of the 49th parallel from the Lake 
of the Woods to the Pacific Ocean marked him out as a scholar 
and an eminent observer. He was only twenty five years of age 
when this report was prepared. This volume was so eagerly 
sought, that it is now out of print, the edition being soon ex- 
hausted and a copy is conceded to be actually worth its weight in 
gold. 

Then it was that were laid down the lines upon his subsequent 
career and researches lay, for in July 1875, when he received from 
the Dominion Government an appointment on the Geological Sur- 
vey staff, as Chief Geologist, his explorations and researches led 
him into the vast and then practically unknown Northwest Terri- 
tories, and in British Columbia. In the mass ot his voluminous 
and much-sought-for reports upon the" resources of the districts 
which he examined and explored will be found the most authentic 
and useful information on those now rapidly developing and flour- 
ishing districts. In his Yukon explorations of 1887 and 1888, he 
examined and reported upon that most valuable and important 
district to which the world has been and is still looking for most 
years for a goodly share of its source of supply of gold. He was 
the real discoverer and describer of that now famous gold-bearing 
belt in which there is happily left as a monument to his indefatig- 
able researches in the eighties the capital tO\vn or city of the 
Yukon Territory, which now bears his name. 

Not only were his mental strength and intellectual vigour 
remarkable but even his powers of physical endurance were great. 
As an ins'ance of the latter, may be mentioned a boat journey of 
1,300 miles and a portage of fifty from the Valley of the Liard to 
that of the Yukon, as one of the feats which his zeal and energy as 
an explorer accomplished. It would be superfluous here to give 
even a synopsis of his numerous reports, suffice it to say that they 
are all most readable and full of useful information on the regions 
traversed. 

Besides being an eminent geologist, he was also a foremost 
naturalist. Amongst his contributions to the Empire may be 
mentioned his work as one of the Commissioners appointed by 
Her Late Majesty Queen Victoria, as one of the arbiters in the 



46 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

Behring- Sea seal fisheries. The conditions and real facts concern- 
ing- seal life were studied by him and have been Britain's most 
powerful argument in the case. In 1S83 he was appointed assis- 
tant director to the Geological Survey Department. In 1892, 
after his work on this commission was ended, Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria was pleased to create him a C.M.G., and in 1890 and 1891 
respectively, Queen's and McGill Universities conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor of laws honoris causa. 

In 1891 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Eng- 
land, the highest scientific body in Britain, for his eminent work 
in geological science. In 1893 he was elected President of the 
Royal Society of Canada ; in 1S94, corresponding member of the 
Zoological Society of London ; in 1895, Fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science ; in 1896, chosen 
President of Section "C" in Geology of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and in 1897 delivered a masterly 
inaugural address upon the Archaean geology of Canada. In the 
same year, the Royal Geographical Society of London presented 
him with their highest award, a gold medal ; and in 1891 had 
been awarded the Bigsby medal for eminent researches in 
geology by the Geological Society of London. The recipient of 
this medal must not be older than 45 years at his last birthday. 

As an ethnologist and archceologist, Dr. Dawson stood fore- 
most in Canada and was an eminent authority. Many of his spare 
hours were devoted to this most important subject. His report 
upon the manners and customs of the Haidas in the Queen Char- 
lotte Islands and the numerous and interesting specimens he 
brought with him have laid the foundations of the ethnological 
department of the National Museum at Ottawa. The Geological 
Survey of Canada was fortunate in having so able a scientist and 
geologist as Dr. Dawson for its director. He has done much in 
disseminating exact knowledge regarding the vast regions of the 
west chiefly, whilst his attention and care has led him to take a 
most prominent part in the economic prosperity and development 
of the eastern or older provinces. His courteous and practical 
replies to the constant stream of correspondence which, in his 
position as chief of the Geological Survey department, he received, 
have done much to place Canada's mining interests on a solid 



igoi] Ami — The late George M. Dawson. 47 

basis. He had successfully carried out the work of his predecess. 
ors, Sir William Logan and Dr. Selwyn, in investigating- the 
resources of Canada, both far and near. His death is an irrepar- 
able loss to Canada, to science, but especially to the Geological 
Survey Department. 

Dr. Dawson was by nature of a retiring disposition, though 
exceedingly sociable and amusing as well as always interesting in 
company, yet more so in the case ot geologfists, and above all 
in the field. He was unmarried, and a foremost member of the 
Rideau Club, where he was most popular and highly appreciated. 
He proved to possess a perfectly inexhaustible fund of ready 
knowledge upon questions of Canadian or of world-wide interest. 

His writings are to be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Geological Survey department, in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society of Loudon, in the American Journal of Science 
and Arts, in the Canadian Naturalist, the Ottawa Naturalist, &c. 
In 1894 he was unanimously elected President of the Royal Society 
of Canada, the theme of his address being "The Future of Science 
in Canada." He was Associate Editor of the Journal of Geology 
of Chicago, and for three years he was President of the Ottawa 
Field-Naturalists' Club, during which term he did all in his power 
to advance and promote the interests of the Club. His was a lite 
constantly devoted to the best interests of his official work. He 
combined indomitable energy with will power which did much to 
keep up his vital strength as against what might be termed a 
weakly physique. Close attention — possibly too close attention— 
during late years, to office work, and a lack of outdoor physical 
exercise, which he was wont to enjoy in his arduous mountain 
climbings and in his explorations of many unknown regions of this 
great Dominion, possibly combined to weaken his constitution. 

He was called away most suddenly and will be missed by all 
who knew him personally or through his writings; but he has left 
behind him a noble monument of his industry as an explorer and 
of his skill as a practical geologist both in his official work and in 
the personal influence which he exerted in the advancement of 
science and scientific thought for twenty-six years. 

As a geologist Dr. Dawson's reputation was world-wide. He 
was one of those investigators into the realm of geological science 



48 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

who sought not only to point out the at once practical and 
economic side in the resources of the earth's crust of Canada, his 
native land, but one who diligently and intelligently hammered 
away at the numerous problems oi pure geological science. They 
are numerous the problems in the geology of North America 
which are as yet unsolved ; and, wherever an element of doubt 
came in, as to the truth or validity of the results propounded by 
this or that investigator, or whenever intricate bits of geology 
presented themselves to his mind and eye for investigation, he 
made it his sacred duty to closely examine and carefully study their 
various relations in the field as well as in the office, thus seeking 
to ascertain all the facts of the case to enable him to arrive at a 
satisfactory conclusion of the difficult points involved. He never 
rested until the problem which he had before his mind was solved. 
In other words he was thorough. His reports, maps and papers 
are models of excellence and description. He had a facile pen, 
an intelleect ready and lucid, which could grasp the situation at a 
glance. His love for thoroughness and the best possible work 
came forth time and again in his endeavors, as the head of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, to present to the Hon. the Minister 
of the Interior, and to Parliament, the reports under his care, as 
well as the innumerable correspondence of the department making 
enquiries on the resources of every quarter of our great Dominion 
as models of care and attention. The reports issued during his 
regime as Deputy Head and Director can truly be said to be the 
pride of the Department. As regards quality as well as quantity 
of work brought forth and exact information published and dis- 
seminated by him during the six years and two months of his 
administration, it can not be denied that they were both un- 
paralleled in any previous period in the history of this now old 
and established institution. 

xA cursory sketch of the various regions examined by Dr. 
Dawson during his connection with the Geological Survey of 
Canada will serve to shew the amount of territory which he covered 
and the nature of his extensive researches. 

After completing his explorations and surveys in connection 
with the British American Boundary Commission, and writing his 
priceless memoir on the same, he contributed several reports which 



igoi] Ami — The late George M. Dawson. 49 

are noted in the Reports of Progress of the Geological Survey of 
Canada for 1873-74, tor 1874-75. These include reports on the 
hematite deposits of Pictou County, Nova Scotia ; on the limo- 
nites of the same county and on the spathic ore deposits of the 
Sutherland's River, N.S.; also on the clay-iron stones of the 
Tertiary, along the 49tL parallel, and the limestones of the Creta- 
ceous of the Swan River and Thunder Hill in Manitoba ; together 
with the results of his botanical researches along the 49th parallel. 

In the Report of Progress for 1875-76 comes his report on 
Chilco and Nazco rivers and trail to Fort George, B.C., and in 
the next year's report his results in the basins of the Blackwater, 
Salmon and Necchacco rivers and of Fran(;:ois Lake, B.C., along 
with a reconnaissance report ot Leech River and vicinity on 'V^an- 
couver Island. This report includes a statement of the condition 
ot mines and mining in British Columbia at this early period. 
Coals and lignites and many minerals of economic importance 
were obtained by him along the route and analyses made by the 
department which have helped to lay down the foundation of the 
mineral wealth of that once remote province, hut one whose re- 
sources, thanks to Dr. Dawson's work, is to-day well known and 
appreciated. 

In 1877 and 1878 Dr. Dawson's field of explorations was in 
the Queen Charlotte Islands. It would suffice to obtain an estimate 
of the subject of this sketch to peruse the most interesting report 
on the resources and possibilities of these hitherto unknown islands 
from his pen. It was a practically virgin district tor him and the 
excellent maps which he prepared that were published by the 
Department reflect greatly to his credit however young he was at 
that time. Not only as a geologist did he excel in this report, but 
he distinguished himself also as an ethnologist of repute. He 
shewed the world of science what an abundant field for research 
and enquiry there was open on that west coast. Even with the 
languages and vocabularies of the different tribes of the 
aborigines which he visited and examined, he made himself 
familiar, and has contributed much of value to the Philology of 
the western tribes of British Columbia. 

Dr. Dawson's reports are usually accompanied by an exten- 
sive series ot Appendices. He was a most prolific collector of 



50 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

facts and specimens. Accordingly, his reports sometimes' contain 
as many as a dozen appendices on all kinds of subjects of import- 
ance and interest to our country. The floras and faunas met with, 
the insects and Crustacea, the shells of the land and of the sea, 
weather reports and other interesting meteorological observations; 
as well as the fossil organic remains of the district which he visited, 
he ever looked after most carefully, for he truly knew their great 
value as horizon markers. He not only submitted these various 
collections to specialists and authorities throughout the country 
and abroad from whom he received further information from time 
to time but examined and described them himself. 

Later, in the Report of Progress for 1878-79, he gives notes on 
the geology of areas drained by the Red and Assiniboine River^ 
in Manitoba, and also describes the Coal deposits of the Lignite 
Tertiary of the Souris River, trom the Great Valley and Porcupine 
Creek. The report of his explorations on the Skeena and down 
the Peace in 1879 are embodied in the Report of Progress for the 
year 1879-80, which is entitled "A report on exploration from Port 
Simpson to Edmonton, by the Peace River." Much important 
astronomical data has been furnished the government by Dr. 
Dawson during his numerous voyages and explorations which 
serve to fix the latitude and longitude of distant places on our Map 
of the Dominion. 

In 1882 Dr. Dawson visited Europe where he carried on 
studies having for their object the utilization of the lignites of the 
West as fuels, and the results of his researches were embodied in 
a subsequent report. 

For a knowledge of the forests of British Columbia the 
country is under a great debt to Dr. Dawson. He sought not 
only to bring forward the immense value which they prove to 
possess but also to point out the best means to preserve such a 
grand heritage. In the Districts of Alberta and Assiniboia he did 
much to reveal their hidden geological structure and economic 
resources, especially as far as coal is concerned. Up to 10,000,000 
tons of coal to the square mile for hundreds of square miles of 
territory he has described and reported, and time will only serve 
to emphasize the accuracy of his carefully sought out facts from the 
bosom of Nature which was ever ready to yield her secrets to him 



logi] Ami — The late George M. Dawson. 



5' 



who knew her heart and appreciated her bountiful stores. His 
report on the i,'eolog-y of Bow and Belly Rivers in the Report of 
Progress for 18S0-82 affords a condensed summary of his explora- 
tions in the districts just east of the Foothill country. 

In 18S3, Dr. Dawson was engaged along the western slope of 
the Rocky Mountains proper and had with him as assistant that year 
Mr J. B. Tyrrell who examined the geology and structure of the 
Crow's Nest Pass with its great possibilities for Coal. In 1884 he 
carried on explorations farther north in the Rocky Mountain and 
Selkirks region and prepared a reconnaissance map and a report 
giving the results, together with notes on the geology of the Red 
Deer River country. 

In 1885, Dr.Selwyn was appointed as Canadian Commissioner 
to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition and Dr. Dawson superin- 
tended the work of the survey as Acting Director, and his time 
was fully occupied in attending to the duties of the office, to the 
shipment of the minerals and ores of the Dominion and cataloguing 
the same as well as of editing the first Annual Report of the Sur- 
vey's new series. However, he found time to write and publish 
his own report on the Rocky Mt. region, and Dr. Selwyn makes 
the following kindly allusion to his work : — 

"I wish here to record my high appreciation of the very able 
" and efHcient manner in which Dr. Dawson has performed all the 
" work." 

Dr. Dawson was officially appointed to the staff of the Geol- 
ogical Survey of Canada in 1876, as we read on page 7 of the 
Report of Progress for 187:^-76, where Dr. Selwyn, then Director, 
informs us as follows : — "Mr. G. M. Dawson, late Geologist and 
Naturalist on the International Boundary Survey of the 49th 
parallel was appointed and has since been actively engaged in 
exploration in British Columbia." It was during this first year 
of Dr. Dawson's connection with the Canadian Survey that the 
Centennial Exhibition was held in Philadelphia and on page 2 of the 
report just quoted one can see that even at that early date he had 
the material welfare and prosperity of British Columbia at heart. 
He contributed, we read, not a little towards the proper repre- 
sentation and display of the then little known mineral resources of 
the Pacific province, and not only were the minerals attended 
to, but also the vegetable as well as the animal products of 
British Columbia. 



52 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 



His recent reports on the Kamloops District of British Colum- 
bia, those on the Southern Interior of the same province, on the 
Northwest Territories, on the Yukon Territory (containing in 1888, 
as this last mentioned report did, nearly 400 pages of description 
of that now famous region including its gold-bearing gravels,) 
also his Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Island reports, are all 
replete with the greatest interest and afford the best works of 
reference upon these important regions. 

A list of Dr. Dawson's writings has been prepared from 
various bibliographic sources and references to original papers 
from his pen, in geology, natural history, &c. These comprise 
hundreds of reports, memoirs and papers on economic as well as 
scientific subjects. It is reserved for a subsequent issue of The 
Ottawa Naturalist. 

Dr. Dawson was President of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Club for three years, from 1891 to 1S94; and as much as lay in his 
power he worked in the interest of our Club, not only by contri- 
buting important papers to the pages of its Transactions but also 
by encouraging others to do the same. His love for science and 
scientific work was' unbounded, and of him it may be truly said 
that he spent himself for his country and his country's good. 
Especially in the West he will be greatly missed. 

I cannot more fitly close this sketch than by quoting part of 
that admirable 

Ode to " Dr. George" by Capt. Clive Phillipps-Woolley.* 

" Hope she has fooled us often, but we follow her Spring- call yet, 
And we'd risk our lives on his say so and steer the course he Set, 
Down the Deaso and the lonely Liard, from Yukon to Stikine ; 
There's always a point to swear b\-, where the little doctor's been, 
Who made no show of his learningf. But, Lord ! what he didn't know 
Hadn't the worth of country rock, the substance of summer snow. 
I ^uess had he chosen, may be, he'd have quit the noise and fuss 
Of cities and high palavers to throw in his lot with us. 
He'd crept so close to Nature, he could hear what the Big- Thing's say, 
Our Arctic Nights, and our Northern Lig-hts, our winds and pines at play. 
ME loved his work and his workmates, and all as he took for wage 
Was the name his brave feet traced him on Northland's newest page — 
That, and the hearts of the hardfists, though I reckon for work well done, 
He who set the stars for guide lights, will keep him the place he won, 
Will lead him safe through the Passes and over the Last Divide, 
To the Camp of Honest Workers, of men who never lied. 
■And tell him the boys he worked for, say, judging as best they can. 
That in lands 7vhich try manhood hardest, he was tested and proved A Man.'' 

Ottawa, 19th April, 1901. H. M. Ami. 

•Ex. Briti.sh Columbia Mining Record for Ain-il, liKlI. 



igoi] Macoln — Ornithology. 53 

ORNITHOLOGY. 



Bird Notes. 
By W. T. M.vcoi N. 

Although the winter was unusually long and the ground 
covered with snow until the second week of April the Robins, 
Song Sparrows and Bluebirds, three of the first migrants, were 
here several days earlier than either in 1899 or 1900. Although 
not birds, the frogs, which are among the first spring songsters, 
were heard near the Experimental Farm on April loth. Mr. 
White reports seeing them on the 14th.' By co-operation the 
records of the arrivals of birds become more reliable, and we have 
begun well this year, several members of the Club having sent in 
their notes. As space will not permit of publishing all the notes 
only the earliest dates are recorded. Observers in other parts of 
Canada have also contributed notes, but as these are not yet com- 
plete their publication in tabular form has been postponed until 
next month. Notes intended for the Ornithological Editor should 
be sent to him not later than the 20th of the month. 

1901. 
Jan. 12 — Saw-whet Owl, Xyctala acadica. Mr. C. II. Young-. 
Feb. 20 — Rlffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus. Mr. A. G. Kini^ston. 

20 -Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata, Mr. Kingfston. 

20 — A.meriCjVN Crow, Corvus ameticanns. Mr. Kingston. Spring- 
migration, March 13th. Mr. White. 

20 — Chickadee. Pants atricapilhis. Mr. Kingston. 
March i — Prairie Horned Lark, Otocoris alpestris pmlicola. -Mr. Young. 
Not seen at the Experimental Farm until March 19. 

13 — Evening Grosbeak, Coccothranstes vesperlina. Three specimens 
seen near Xormal School by the caretaker and reported by 
Mr. Alexander. 

22 — ROBI.N, Merida migratoria. Heard by -Mr. h. Gibson at Experi- 
mental Farm March 24th ; seen by Mr. W. Harring-ton. Nest 
almost built at C. E. F. April 24th. First records of previous 
years : 1898, March 15th; 1899, April 6th; 1900, April ist. 

23 —Song Sparrow, Melospiza fasciata. Mr. \V. .\. D. Lees, at 
Russell, Ont.; March 24th, Mr. Young; March 24th, Mr. White. 
First records of previous years : 1S98, March iith; 1S99, .\pril 
6th; 1900, March 31st. 

24 — American Rough-legged Hawk, Archihutco lairopus Sancti- 
Johannis. Mr. Young. 

26 — Bluebird, Sialia sialis. .Mr. Lees. March 27th, Mr. Young. 



54 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

1901. 

March 27 — Pigeon Hawk, Falco coliniihaiiin. Mr. Young, 

28 — Slate-COLOI'RED JiNCO, y^wco hyemalis. Mr. Young-. 
29 — Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter velox. Mr. White. 
30 — Bronzed Grackle, Om'sra/its quisciila ceaeus. Mr. King-ston. 
April 2 — ^VST\ ^hXCKBiKH, Scolecophagus carolimis. Mi. Young. 

2 — Red-winged Blackbird, Agelahis phceniceiis. Mr. Young. 
2 — American Goshawk, Accipiter atricapiUus. Mr. Kingston. 
5 — Meadowlark, Sturnella magna. Mr. Kingston. 
9 — Phcebe, Sayornis phaebe. Mr. White. April nth, Dr. Fletcher. 
10 — Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor. Mr. Kingston. 
13 — American Golden-eve, GJancioyietta rlangitln amcriccnia. Mr. 

White. 
13 — Vesper Sparrow, Pooccetes gtainincus. Mr. W. T. Macoun. April 

14th, Mr. Kingston. 
13 — American Herring Gull, Lams aigenfalus sviithsonianus. Mr. 

White. 
13 — Belted Kingfisher, CeryU alcyon. Mr. Kingston. 
15 — Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpicreiis. Mr. Macoun. 
15— White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia alhicollis. Mr. Macoun. 
16 — Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo borealis. Mr. White. 
18 — Cow-bird, Molothms ater. Mr. Macoun. 

18 — Yellow-bellied Sapsucker,' Sphyrapicus varius. Mr. White. 
18 — Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa. Mr. Kingston. 
18 — American Osprey, Pnndion halliaetus caroUnensis. Mr. Young. 
19 — Northern Shrike, Lanius borealis. Mating at Experimental 
Farm. Seen at intervals during the latter part of the winter. 
21 — Flicker, Colaptcs aurafus. Mr. Young. 

22 — Canada Goose, Brautn canadensis. Three birds. Mr. Macoun. 
22— Buffle-HEADED Di^CK, Charitonetta albeola. Mr. White. 
23 — Purple Martin, Prague subis. Mr. White. 
23 — Barn .Swallow, Chelidon erythrogaster. Mr. White. 
22, — Tree Sparrow, Spizella monticola. Mr. White. 



Meadow-sweet. — It is doubtful whether the true Spircea 
salictfolia occurs in Canada. At least two varieties have been col- 
lected near Ottawa and others will probably be found. The most 
common form is var. hdi/olia, Ait., with obovate or elliptical 
dentate-serrate leaves; the inflorescence is broadly pyramidal. 
Another variety is lanceolaia, Ait., with finely serrate oblanceolate 
leaves. 

J. M. M. 



iQoi] pRiNXE — Ross's Gull. 55 

ROSS'S GULL {Rhodostethia rosia, Maegill.) 



By Protessor E. E. Prinxe, Ottawa. 

My brief account of the scientific results of Dr. Nansen's Polar 
Expedition, which appeared in The Ottawa Naturalist last 
November, has broug"ht me many kind and interesting- communi- 
cations none more so than a letter from Dr. Otto J. Klotz who 
generously loaned to me a volume of the Report of the Interna" 
tional Polar Expedition sent out by the United States Government 
in 1 881. In this volume Dr. Klotz pointed out to me, occur two 
fine coloured plates of Ross's Gull, or the Roseate Gull [R/iodos- 
tefhia rosea, Maegill.) and my statement on p. 143, vol. 14 of this 
publication demands correction. I ventured to say that in the 
conjoint report of Dr. Nansen and Dr. Collett, on birds observed 
in the polar regions, there is given for the first time a fully detailed 
description of Ross's Gull with exquisitely tinted illustrative plates 
and I am indebted to Dr. Klotz for calling my attention to the 
real facts, and for enabling me to correct my statement. In 
matters of this kind rigid accuracy is above all things necessary 
and it is only just to the United States observer, Mr. John Mur- 
doch to state that on pp. 123-4-5 ^^ '"'i'^ report on the birds noticed 
during the International Polar Expedition, 1881-2-3 he gives a des- 
cription of this rare species, and accompanies it by two tinted 
plates. Mr. Murdoch states that a large series of specimens was 
secured, and they appeared not sporadically and in scattered num- 
bers, but in abundance on certain dates. Thus from September 
28th to October 22nd, 1881, small flocks were seen moving north- 
east, their total numbers being so considerable that the observer 
speaks of them as exceedingly abundant. Next year about the 
end of September these gulls again appeared plentifully ; but, cur- 
iously enough, they were all young birds as far as could be 
ascertained. Mr. Murdoch pertinently remarks that it is diflicult 
to say what becomes of the thousands coming west, and proceed- 
ing along the Alaskan coast taking a north easterly course. Of 
course the point of observation (Point Barrow) was nearly nine 
degrees of latitude south of Nansen's, which as I pointed out was 
in the Hirtenland waters, and its nesting grounds as Nansen sur- 



56 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

mised are no doubt in these more remote and inhospitable reg-ions. 
I may add that Mr. Murdoch's beautiful plates occur in a volume 
mainly consisting- of meteorological and other physical records, 
and less likely on that account to meet the eyes of the naturalist. 
My indebtedness to Dr. Klotz is on that account greatly increased. 
I have already sent a note of correction to the New York Sun, 
which newspaper, as our President, Dr. Ami informed me repro- 
duced almost complete the article published in these pages last 
November. 

Ottawa, February, igoi. 



THE GOLDEN EAGLE. AN ADDITION TO THE FAUNA 
OF MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



By J. E. Keays, London, Ont. 
(Read before the Ornitholog"ical Section of the Entomological Society 

of Ontario.) 

On Saturday, December ist, 1900, a large bird was noticed 
in the vicinity of Lambeth and towards evening was seen pursuing 
and finally capturing a turkey from the flock of Mr. Jas. Cassidy. 
Carrying the bird to some distance it lit on the low branch of a 
tree and commenced its repast at which it remained so engrossed, 
that two boys, sons of Mr. Cassidy were able to approach close 
enough to strike it on the head with a rifle, slightly injuring its 
skull and stunning it so that it was easily carried to the house 
where it was placed in the cellar apparently dead ; but after two 
hours it was found to be a very lively bird, and on Monday or 
Tuesday was brought to the city for sale, and is at present in the 
possession of Mr. Davey. It proves to be a Golden Eagle, in fine 
young plumage, and as far as we can learn a new record for 
Middlesex Co. 

This eagle breeds sparingly through eastern Canada and is 
seldom seen far from the courses of large rivers or the shores of 
lakes, where it follows and preys upon the flocks of water-fowl. 
Mr. Mclllwraith mentiones two taken at Hamilton and severil at 
Toronto but a capture this far inland I think is somewhat unusual 
in Ontario. In the west it is much more numerous an(^ there 



igoi] Keays — The Golden Eagle. 57 

breeds in the mountainous parts from New Mexico and Arizona 
to tar north in British Columbia and Alaska. 

Its food consists of mammals and large birds, such as rabbits, 
racoons, gophers, squirrels, grouse, waterfowl, etc., and unlike 
the Bald Eagle sparingly, if ever, partakes of fish, but will fre 
quently f&ed upon carrion. 

From time to time we see newspaper reports of children being 
carried away by Eagles, fortunately, however, the majority of such 
are sensational, but in sections of the south these birds are con- 
demed by the sheep farmers, from the havoc they play among 
their flocks by feeding on the very young lambs, one firm alone 
reporting in 1889 the loss of from 400 to 500 lambs. 

A comparison of the Golden Eagle with its near relative, the 
Bald gives the latter a slight advantage in size as the following 

table will show. 

Length. Expanse. Wing. 

Male Golden, 30 to 35 in. 78 to 84 in. 23 to 24^ in. 

Male Bald, 30 to 35 in. 84 in. 20 to 25.9 in. 

Female Golden, 35 to 40 in. 84 to 90 in. 25 to 27 in. 

Female Bald, 34 to 43 in. 84 to 96 in. 25^ to 28 in. 

The Golden Eagle in Adult plumage is nearly uniform dark 
brown, the feathers of head and hind neck and tarsus tawny, tail 
darker than body and banded with grayish ; Voting similar to 
the adult but with basal half of tail pure white, and feathers of 
tarsi paler sometimes nearly white or with portions white, head 
and neck same as in adult. In any plumage it may easily be dis- 
tinguished from the Bald Eagle by its tawny head and by having 
the tarsus thickly feathered down to b.ise of toes. 

Note. — The specimen referred to above has since come into 
my possession and I have made a skin of it. The bird was ex- 
ceedingly fat. weighing about 10 lbs. with an alar expanse 6 ft. 11 
in. from tip to tip. Beneath the skin was found one pellet of shot 
about No. 6, which was very much out of shape as though it had 
hit a bone.' This pellet was embedded in the fat. The ulna, (the 
large bone in the wing) had been broken about an inch from the 
wrist, but was entirely healed over, making a very strong join. 

W. E. Saunders. 



58 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

REVIEWS. 
The Physical Features and Geology of the Paleozoic Basin 

BETWEEN THE LoWER OtTAWA AND St. LaWRENCE RiVERS. 

By R. W. Ells, LL.D. (Trans. R. S. C, Sec. IV, 1900, 

pp. 99-120.) 

This paper may be looked upon as a continuation of one read 
before the Royal Society in 1894, in which many additional facts 
relating- to the structural features of the PalcEozoic formations 
exposed in what may be called the Ottavva Basin. This infor 
mation is believed to be especially important and opportune at the 
present time, in view of the boring operation which have lately 
been undertaken for the purpose of securing- a supply of natura' 
gas and oil which would be economically valuable. The formations 
exposed range in age from the Potsdam sandstone which rests 
upon the uneven surface of the Archaean to the Medina shales 
which here represent the lowest member of the Silurian proper. 
These constitute in general a broad synclinal basin whose bound- 
aries are defined and note is made of their extension across the St. 
Lawrence into the state of New York. The various railways 
traversing and giving access to this area are mentioned as well as 
certain details in regard to the elevation above sea level at certain 
points. These have been secured through the kindness of Mr. 
Jas. White, Geographer to the Department of the Interior from 
advance proofs of "Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada," 
which it is expected, will be published shortly. These levels have 
evidently been quoted only approximately and many of them will 
be corrected in Mr. White's forthcoming volume. The determin- 
ation of the various lines of demarcation between the several 
formations is very difficult owing to the thick and widespread cover- 
ing of drift. A few general remarks are made in regard to ice 
movement, the striae representative of these showing no less than 
three such periods. The thickness of the several formations vary 
considerably at different points and the presence of numerous 
extensive faults prevents any very definite statement. . 

The following estimates are furnished and will doubtless be 
found valuable in any future boring operations which may be 
undertaken. The figures represent what is believed to be the 
greatest thickness. 



igol] Reviews. 59 

Potsdam, 300-700 feet. 

Calciferous, 300 feet about. 

Chazy, 175 feet about. 

Black River, 38-100 feet. 

Trenton, 600 feet. 

Utica, 100 feet. 

Lorraine, ?. 

Medina, 75 feet. 
Descriptions of the trend of some ancient channels of the 
Ottawa are given as revealed by borings and the general 
topography of the area. 

Details in regard to the position and extent of the main lines 
of dislocation are given and the fact noted that .both vertical dis- 
placements and horizontal throws are represented. 

It is believed by the author that the question of the occur- 
rence of natural gas or oil in the Ottawa basin has never yet been 
actually tested. The borings already made have been placed in 
locations quite unfavourable for this purpose or in the case of those 
to the south of the Ottawa river have penetrated the rock at but 
few points. Gas has been found in considerable quantity in several 
of the deep borings which have been made in the clay along the 
ancient channel ot the Ottawa. The location of favourable anti- 
clinal folds is rendered very difficult owing to the thick overlying 

mantle of drift. 

A. E. B. 



Synopsis of the Geology of Canad.\, Being a Summary of the 
Principal Terms Employed in Canadian Geological No.men- 
CLATLRE. By Henry M. Ami, M.A., D. Sc, F.G.S. (Trans. 
R. S. C, Sec. IV, 1900 pp. 187-225.) 

This extract from the transactions of the Royal Society, with 
its hundred names newly coined to mystify the reader and to re- 
place others well known and more appropriate, justifies an obser- 
vation made by a Committee ot the House of Commons that such 
purely scientific researches seem devoted rather to upsetting 
theories of antecedent scientists, than to the discovery of new 
principles or the addition of new information. The author 
divides the 3,616,980 square miles of British North America into 



6o The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

five regions, the Acadian, Laurentian Highlands, Lawrencian Low- 
lands, Interior Continental Plain, and Cordilleran ; gives a list ot 
the geological systems; then, "compelled" thereto "by dire 
necessity," proceeds "to affix provisional formational names." 

Of this great area nearly two-thirds belong to the Laurentian 
and Huronian systems — names now generally adopted throughout 
the world — in which no definite organisms have been found. In 
regard to the occurrence of these rocks at Hudson Bay there is a 
vague description (p. 190) of an "undifferentiated mass of granites, 
. . . .consisting ot granites and g^>^c^sses and other crystalline rocks 

similar in structure and chemical composition to. crystalline 

limestones " ! 

The great gold-bearing series of Nova Scotia, provisionally 
called Lower Cambrian, is also barren of fossils ; while the over 
lying Etcheminian and Upper Cambrian rocks of Newfoundland, 
Cape Breton and New Brunswick hold fossils in abundance. Dr. 
Ami, misunderstanding Mr. E. R. Faribault's description of the 
mode of occurrence of the gold in Nova Scotia, speaks of "many 
anticlines superimposed one upon the other at different depths and 
intervals ;" and of strata, altered in a narrow zone by contact with 
granite masses, as a " metamorphic series" ! Three Cambrian 
fossiliferous zones have been recognized in British Columbia among 
a great series of volcanic rocks. 

Ordovician or Cambro-Silurian rocks have been determined 
by the author from their fossils in every one of the five regions 
" the Skiddaw anti Arenig, the Hartfell and Llandeilo formations 
being easily recognized in Canada." The Silurian system also 
"presents a compact fauna which in facies closely resembles rocks 
in the Kendal and Ludlow regions of England ; " yet local desig- 
nations "based upon the faunistic relations" are given by the 
writer. It is noteworthy that he now agrees with Dr. Honeyman 
to include in the Silurian the disputed beds of the Nictaux iron 
mines, called by him elsewhere Eo-Devonian. His new names 
for the Arisaig Silurian tend only to obscure the correlation of 
a regular succession of strata shown, forty years ago, to range 
from Lower Helderberg to Medina. 

In all the five regions, Devonian and Carboniferous strata 
have been met with. Many will object to the author'?? grouping 



iQOi) Reviews. 6i 

of those of the Acadian provinces, since it rests neither upon the 
ascertained stratigraphical sequence noron any inference from the or- 
ganic remains. And in justice to Dr. Matthew, Sir J. W. Dawson, 
Messrs David White and R. Kidston, authorities quoted by him, 
■le should state the evidence' by which he is "constrained to phice" 
(p. 207) in the Eo-Carboniterous ten or fifteen thousand feet of 
strata constituting- the Mispec and Little River groups of New 
Brunswick, included in the Devonian by the two first named, 
by the last in the Upper Carboniferous. On pages 211 to 213 
there is some obscurity of thought or expression concerning the 
age of his so-called Windsor formation, two widely divergent 
views being hinted at, each of which has been held in turn by Dr. 
.■\mi. The first, commonly accepted, refers that formation to the 
Carboniferous Limestone of England ; the second maintains that 
its fossils indicate the summit, not the base of the Carboniferous 
system. The confusion of ideas is thus expressed : The Windsor 
formation is followed upward by the Millstone Grit ; unconform- 
ably above the latter is the New Glasgow Conglomerate, the basal 
portion of a continuous series northward into equivalent and 
newer strata on Prince Edward Lsland called Permo-Carboniferous, 
Permian and Triassic and probably representing the Windsor and 
Millstone Grit formations of Nova Scotia ! This circular classifi- 
cation is not stratigraphical. And if the Upper Carboniferous can 
not be distinguished from the Little River formation or Middle 
Devonian by its fossils, why should it surprise us that "no charac- 
teristic fossil evidence has as yet been obtained to enable us to 
clearly separate these rocks (called Permian) from the Upper or 
Neo-Carboniferous " ? In the Geological Survey reports Upper 
Carboniferous and Permian have the same meaning. 

It was not the author who examined the Crow's Nest and Koote- 
nay passes (p. 210.) Instead of the North Saskatchewan, in the 
next sentence, he probably means the Bow River. The Albert shales 
of New Brunswick (p. 212) are not overlaid by the Millstone Grit 
as stated by him, but unconformably by Lower Carboniferous lime- 
stone, shales and conglomerate. It is also a notable fact that the 
Cretaceous beds of the Kamloops district in British Columbia 
(p. 217) described by him as "consisting of argillites, limestones 
and sandstones," contain no limestones. The author (p. 218) 
quotes the "Paskapoo series" or Paskapoo formation, or upper 



62 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

division of the Laramie," when in fact the adopted names is Pas- 
kapoo beds. Certain crystalline limestones in the Yale district 
(p. 202) are said to occur west of Lansdowne, at Adams Lake, 
whereas that lake is fifty miles north of Lansdowne. 

Triassic rocks occur, also according to the author, in British 
Columbia, Vancouver and the Queen Charlotte Lslands ; and 
Jurassic, in the Arctic archipelag^o. The Cretaceous, largely 
developed in Manitoba, the Northwest and British Columbia, 
includes important coal fields. 

The Quaternary deposits he divides into three periods ; the 
Glacial or boulder clays ; the Champlain or marine clays deposited 
during a period of submergence ; and the Recent or terrace period 
of elevation. 

He introduces three different names for the boulder clays: — 
the Labrador formation for the boulder clay of the Laurenlide 
glacier or glaciers ; the Rupert formation for that of the Keewatin 
glacier ; and the Cordilleran formation for the product of the Cor- 
dilleran ice sheet. These names are of no .practical use, and, 
moreover, are misleading and tend to confusion. For example, 
how is it to be known from the term Rupert formation that it is a 
boulder clay, without referring to Dr. Ami's paper? No geologist 
has used any other term than the descriptive one of boulder clay 
or till for the product of Pleistocene ice. As well might the Trias- 
sic be given different local names in different parts of Canada. 

Dr. Ami also adopts the term Champlain, presumably suppos- 
ing it to be the equivalent of the Leda clay and Saxicava sands. 
This is a name not in common use north of the International 
boundary, simply because neither the upper nor the lower limits of 
the deposits classed under that term as defined by Hitchcock and 
Dana correspond with those of the marine beds of the St. Lawrence 
valley and Maritime provinces. The two geologists referred to 
have made the Champlain a glacial formation, but in Eastern Can- 
ada no deposits attributable to ice action have been met with in 
the Leda clay and Saxicava sands. Further, the fossils they 
contain are really identical with torms now living in the northern 
part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the east coast of the Lab- 
rador peninsula, where no glaciers exist at the present day. 

Only in the most recent of our superficial deposits have traces 
of the aborigines been found, together with their stone or copper 
implements and remains of beav£r, deer, bear and other animals of 
the chase identical with those of to-day. H. F. 



HE OTTAWA NATURALIST. VOL. XV. 



PLATE I. 




Aucfor acl nat. del. 

STELLARIA APETALA 
(\) Pisti; of S apetala. 'B- Pistil of S. media. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST, VOL. XV. 




Aiictor ad mil. del. 



STELLARIA NEGLECTA 

<Ct Leaves of S. npglecta. 'D) Seeds of S neglecta. 

lEi Seeds of S. media 



THE OTTAWA tlATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAW.A, JUNE, 1901. No. 3. 

NOTES ON .A TURTLE FROM THE CRETACEOUS ROCKS 
OF ALBERTA.* 



By Lawrknl'E :\I. La.mbe, F.C..S., of tlic Gi'olo^ira! Survt-y of Canada. 
(Willi four plates.) 

In the collection of reptilian reniain.s, made by the writer 
during the summers of 1897 ^i"<-' '^9^. from the Cretaceous of the 
Red Deer River, Alberta, are parts of two plastrons of a Chelonian, 
of larg-e size, that evidently belong to Cope's species Compsemys 
variolosus. The specimens are in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion and throw new lii^ht on the treneric affinities of the species. 
Referable also to this species are parts of the carapace, plastron 
and endoskeleton, belonging presumably to one individual, that 
were collected in 1881 by Dr. G.M. Dawson on the Old Man River 
below Fort McLeod, and two marginal bones with some smaller 
fragments of the shell obtained by Mr. R. G. McConnell on the 
Red Deer River in 1S82. These latter specimens, taken in con- 
junction with those first mentioned, form a most interesting series 
that help to elucidate some important structural points. 

The rocks exposed on the Red Deer River, from which the 
specimens of Mr. McConnell and the writer were obtained, belong 
to the Belly River series which underlies the marine Pierre-Fox 
Hills (or Montana) formation in this region. The specimens col- 
lected by Dr. Dawson on the Old Man River are from a higher 
horizon, viz., the Willow Creek subdivision of the Laramie. 

The original description- of C variolosus. Cope, based on 
material from the Fort Union (Laramie) beds of Montana, ap- 

*Communicated by permission of tlu; Director of the Geological Survey 
of Canada. 



64 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

peared in 1876 in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. xxviii, p. 257, as follows : " One of 
the most abundant, and the largest species of the Fort Union 
beds. The carapace is convex and the plastron flat; the marginal 
bones are heavy and strongly convex on the inferior side. The 
margin of the plastron is thickened and heavy, characters which 
also belong to all parts of the carapace. The sutures of the dermal 
scuta are deeply impressed, and the suriace of the bone is strongly 
sculptured above and below, and even on the superior face of the 
thickened margins of the free lobes of the plastron. The sculp- 
ture consists of round fosss, which are deeply impressed and are 
arranged quincuncially, so that their borders never form straight 
lines. The latter are also more or less angulate on the edge, so 
that the surface has a more than usually rugose character. The 
typical specimen equals those of the large land tortoises of the 
Eocene in dimensions." The specimens that Professor Cope had 
may not have permitted a more detailed definition of the species, 
but the style of sculpture and other points of resemblance seem to 
remove beyond doubt the question of the specific identity of the 
Montana specimens with those from the Old Man and Red Deer 
rivers. 

The proportions of the component elements of the plastron 
can be seen by referring to plate III, where a restored outline is 
given, based on two specimens from the Red Deer River, which 
are represented in the figure by the dotted portions. The sutures 
between the bones are shown by the sinuous lines and the bound- 
aries of the shields by the heavy ones. The dotted lines represent 
the supposed shape of the end of the posterior lobe, the direction 
of the sulcus defining the front limit of the femoral shields, and 
the position of a sulcus that probably crossed the xiphiplastrals, 
whilst the extent of the hypoplastrals is conjectural. 

The plastron is flat except at the sides where it bends evenly 
upward, the lobes are short and broad, and the sternal bridge 
long. The entoplastral is roughly pentagonal and rather broad. 
The epiplastrals are of not unusual size and shape, whilst the 
hyoplastrals are relatively large. A divided intergular shield 
separates two small gulars, behind which are well-developed 
humeral shields. The pectorals narrow rapidly toward the sides 



igoo] Lambe— Notes on a Turtle. "65 

where they and the abdominals meet a series of inframarjjinals 
that overhip the peripheral bones. All the sulci are deep and very 
conspicuous except those marking the position of the infra- 
marginals, the inner anterior boundaries of the gulars, and the 
division of the intergular. These latter, however, are sharply and 
clearly defined. The sutural line between the hypoplastrals and 
the xiphiplastrals is shown in the smaller of the two specimens. 
As regards the sculpture, the original description is accurate and 
succinct. 

Turning to the dorsal or upper side of the plastron (fig. 2, plate 
III) it is seen that the rugose sculpture extends inward for some 
distance from the free edges of the lobes, more particularly at the 
extreme anterior end, where also the bone is verymuch thickened. 
A decided thickening also occurs in the axillary region. The oval 
outlines on the xiphiplastrals (P, plate III) show the position of 
smooth, slightly raised, flat surfaces that are apparently facets for 
the articulation of the pubic bones. 

In the two marginal bones collected by Mr. McConnell the 
rib prolongations from the adjacent costal bones are preserved. 
These marginals, with parts of costal bones collected by Dr. 
Dawson, show that the carapace had a sculpture similar to that 
of the plastron, and was covered by well-developed shields. The 
rib-heads of the costals were apparently also well-developed. 

The foregoing characters indicate a Chelonian that cannot be 
retained in the genus Cotnpsemvs, which is nearly allied to Pleuro- 
stemon and possesses a mesoplastral element. The presence of 
two small gular shields separated by a divided* or double inter- 
gular shield (in reality two intergulars), and of a series of infra- 
marginals, the absence of a mesoplastral and of a sutural union of 
the pelvis with the plastron, together with an abbreviation oi the 
lobes and a decided lengthening of the sternal bridge are charac- 
ters that suggest such close ailinities to the genus AJocus of Cope 
that this species is here referred to that genus. 

Measurements : 

M. 
Estimated length of pla.stron (28^ inches) 720 

*G. Baur. Proc, Acad. Nat, Sci. Philadelphia, vol. xliijj 1891, p. 428, The 
genus Adocus. 



66 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

Length along median line from anterior end to posterior 

border of pectoral shield 295 

Breadth from median line to lateral suture ( = half of breadth 

of plastron) 280 

Length of entoplastral 085 

Maximum breadth of entoplastral ; 123 

Thickness midway between gulars 035 

Thickness at centre of gular shields 0-53 

Thickness on median line at posterior border of pectoral 

shield 013 

Thickness at posterior edge of hyoplastral near left bound- 
ary of abdominal shield 007 

Thickness in axillary region near lateral suture 032 

Thickness midway between entoplastral and the axillary 

notch 025 

In 1882 Dr. J. F. Whiteaves had labelled the two marginal 
bones from the Red Deer River with the name Compsemys 
variolosus, and to him belongs the credit of having first noticed 
the occurrence of this species in Canada. 

The writer is indebted to Dr. O P. Hay, of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, who since the above was 
written, has compared some of the Red Deer River material, sent 
to him, with the type of Compsemys variolosus, Cope, and confirms 
the correctness of the writer's specific identification. Dr. Hay 
informs the writer that in the type there is little, if any, of the 
carapace representeid and that the anterior lobe of the plastron is 
missing. Also that the specimen shows the central portions of 
the plastron, and the posterior lobe, which latter is broadly 

rounded. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate in. 

Figure i--T1h; plaslron of ^Ulociis vuriolusus (Cope); from llie Cretact-oiis 
of Alberta. One-sixth natural size. I G, Interg-ular sliield ; G, Gular do. ; 
HUM, Humeral do.; PEC, Pectoral do.; AB, Abdominal do.; FEM, 
Femoral do.; AN, Anal do.; EP, Epiplastral bone ; ENTP, Entoplas- 
tral do.; HYP, Hyoplastral do.; MPP, Hypoplaslral do.; XP, Xiphi- 
plaslral do. 

Figure 2 — The upper or inner side of the plastron oi A doc us variolosus (Cope). 
One-sixth natural size. P, surface for the articulation of the pubis. 



igoi] Kells — Cory's Least Bittern. 67 

Plate IV. 
Lower or outer surface of specimens represented in plate IH; one-lliird natural 
size. 

I'late V. 
Upper or inner surface of specimens represented in plate III; one-third nalura 
size. 

Plate \'I. 
The lower surface of the anterior end of the plastron rii,'-ured in the preceding; 
plates; ratural size; to show the sulci of the inlert^Milar and i^'il'ir shields, 
details of scul]iture, etc. 



CORY'S LEAST BITTERN {Botaurus neoycuus, Cory). 



By W. L. Kei.i.s, Listowel, Ont. 

Many years ago, in the time of the early settlement of the 
township of Peel, the writer remembers to have seen a specimen 
of a bird which he has never since seen alive. It was at the 
time of the spring migration, and the bird, probably wearied 
with a long flight, was able to fly but a short distance at a time, 
so that being pursued it was finally captured in a pool of water into 
which it fluttered in its efforts to escape. When dissected it 
proved to be a female. It evidently belonged to the family of the 
Waders, or Shore birds, as it had a long neck and bill and long 
legs, with a slender body, but some of the colouring of its plumage 
was vepy beautiful. 

Many years afterwards, when visiting the museum in the 
University of Toronto, a specimen of the Least Bittern Botaurus 
exilis was identified as similar in size and form, but lacking 
in some of the handsome hues of the Peel specimen. When 
again in Toronto, in the spring of 1891, the writer noticed at the 
store of Thurson & Spanner a mounted specimen of a Least Bit- 
tern, which had been collected the season before in the Toronto 
marsh. In the published "Transactions of the Canadian In- 
stitute" for 1890-91, is the following reference to this bird, 
which was then regarded as the first specimen of the Florida 
Dwarf Bittern or, as it had been previously called, Cory's Least 
Bittern, unknown to science, that had been taken in Ontario. Mr. 



68 The Ottawa Naturalist, [June 

W. Cross, the writer of the article, says : " On May the iSth, 
1890, a very interesting capture was made on Toronto Island, and 
I afterwards received the bird. It was a small bittern with all the 
colouring very dark and blended with rich chestnut-brown on the 
back. It was so unlike any other Least Bittern that I had pre- 
viously seen that I put it down as a new bird, and soon identified 
it as Cory's Least Bittern. It is a resident of Florida and Mexico, 
and is supposed to have wandered here with our Botnurus exilis 
during the spring- migration." This bird was a female, and Mr. 
Cross presented it to the Canadian Institute, where, after being 
mounted, it now remains. A second specimen of this interesting 
species was taken on May 20th, 1893, ^"*^ ^ report of this capture 
by Mr. H. Brown was published in the Auk. The specimen was 
sent for examination to Mr. Wm. Brewster, a distinguished 
American ornithologist, who wrote regarding it : "It agrees 
very closely with a skin taken at Lake Flirt in 1892. The 
Toronto bird is a trifle darker on the back, and the chestnut of 
its under parts is slightly richer, but in other respects the two 
specimens are exactly alike. It, also, is a female." On May 
26th, 1894, a third specimen was shot at Ashbridge Bay, Toronto, 
by a Mr. Jacobs, who flushed it with a B. exilis from a clump of 
reeds. Both birds were secured and found to be males. On com- 
paring the three specimens it was found that the one shot in the 
summer of 1893 was identical with the one obtained in 1894, with 
the exception of the wing coverts, which are a little darker. The 
female shot in 1893 is black on the crovvn only, the back of 
the neck is a dark rufous-chestnut, the back is black with a decided 
brownish shade, not green as the other two; the remainder of the 
colours correspond with the exception of owo, or t«-o white feathers 
on the legs. It is interesting to know that up to that date this 
Toronto specimen was the ninth known in collections. Mr. Charles 
Pickering captured another specimen of this species on the 15th 
of July, 1894, and has written the following interesting account 
regarding that event: "While going through Toronto marsh I 
had the good fortune to find a Cory's Bittern. It was a little east 
of the south end, and was just in the act of lighting a little behind 
me when I caught sight of it ; I thought at first that it was a 
Virginian Rail, but on the second sight its long legs showed 



igoi] KeLls — Cory's Least Bittern. 69 

clearly that it was not. I therefore pushed my boat as close to 
the rushes as I dared, and watched it for a quarter of an hour, 
and then turned to leave it as 1 had no gun. After going' some 
fifty yards I turned as I thought to have another look at my rare 
friend when my lady companion suggested to me to hit it with my 
oar. I took the hint, but as I was about to strike, the bird arose 
and flew to the other side of the marsh, i followed, and as it 
allowed me to approach within a couple of yards, I succeeded in 
knocking it over and secured it. While watching its actions I 
noted that these were altogether different from those of any other 
Least Bittern that I had previously seen, for instead of standing 
erect when being watched, as is the habit of the other members of 
the family, it would crouch down until it seemed to be only the 
size of a Virginian Rail, its long neck being altogether out of 
sight. It had a very slow, sneaky walk, grasping a single rush 
with one foot and striding as far as possible so as to grasp 
another. It seemed to be feeding on insects on the lily leaves at 
the foot of the rushes, as it would every few seconds dart out its 
neck with great rapidity and take something off the leaves." 

In the appendix to Coues' " Key to North American Birds, 
18S4," the folio wing description of the Florida Dwarf Bit tern is given: 
'•Crown, back and tail black, glossed with green ; sides of head 
and throat chestnut, the feathers on the back of the neck tipped 
with greenish-black, breast and under parts rufous-chestnut, nearly 
uniform, shading into blackish on the sides, under tail coverts 
dull black, upper tail coverts rufous-chestnut, the under ones paler 
chestnut, all the remiges slaty plumbeous. Length 10.80 inches, 
wing 4.30, tarsus 1.40, bill 1.80; habitat southwestern Florida." 
It will also be noted by the more advanced students of Ornithology 
that while these specimens are thus described by Dr. Coues in 
"The Key" of 1884, Ardctta neoxena, yet, in " The Union Check 
List" of more recent date, the name Botaurus neoxenus is used, and 
by ornithologists it is known b) both the.se names, as well as by 
the different English names previously mentioned. In the October, 
1894, issue of the " Biological Review for Ontario," Mr. H. Brown 
writes that up to that date nine specimens of Cory's Bittern had 
been captured at Toronto, and he gives a rdsumd of its history, 
from which a few extracts are here given. "A most peculiar circum- 



7o The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

stance in the history of this bird is that it has only been recorded 
from two isolated and widely separated localities, viz., Southern 
Florida, and Toronto, Out., and it is interesting- to note that not 
until 1890 was it observed at Toronto, some four years after it 
was discovered in Florida. In 1893, another was captured here, 
and this year (1895) ^^^ have been secured. Quite a number have 
been observed, but only five taken in Florida since the type was 
obtained. 

This fact would lead to the supposition that the species 
is increasing- in numbers; or is it because greater interest has been 
taken in searching for them ? The marshy location at Toronto to 
which the birds resort and where all the specimens recorded were 
taken, is only about half a mile square protected from the waters 
of Lake Ontario by a narrow sand bar a few yards in width, and 
is situated immediately adjacent to the city of Toronto, so that 
the bird, thoug-h evidently of retired habits, could scarcely have 
chosen a more frequented piece of marsh. In Florida the habita- 
tion of Cory's Bittern extends over a swampy area about 40 by 50 
miles in extent. Of the specimens taken at Toronto, the majority 
were males, and it was found by dissection of three of this number 
that tljey feed on small bass and perch, and in one stomach there 
was found the larva of a dragon-fly. That they breed at Toronto 
seems evident from the dates at which the specimens were taken, 
and the manner in which several allowed themselves to be cap- 
tured, indicates either their stupidity or tameness. Its nesting 
modes and eggs are similar to those of the other species of Least 
Bittern. 

Note. — Since the above was written information has been received of 
several more s]iecimens of this species being- taken at Toronto, and one in the 
State of Michitran. 

W. L. K. 



190'] Macoun — Canadian Botanv. 

CONTRIBl'TIOXS TO CANADIAN BOTANY.' 



By Jamks M. Macoun, Assistant Naturalist, C"ieolo.i;iial Siirvev of Canada. 

XIV. 

Thai.ictrum confink, Fernald, Rhodora, vol. 11, p. 232. 

Rootstock 2 to 4 cm. long;-, beaiintf 10 to 12 stfongf roots: 
.stem slender, 3 to (> dm hig^h, puberulent, pale-g-reen, often 
finely mottled with purple, leafy to the summit : the four or 
five leaves g-landular-pruinose, glaucous beneath, the lower, 
including' the short petiole 3 to 4 cm. long ; leaflets sub- 
orbicular broadly obovate or flabellate, coarsely toothed, 0.75 
to I cm. long, the terminal on slender petiolules, the lateral 
short-petiolulate or subsessilc : flowers dioecious, greenish or 
purplish, the panicles i to 2 dm. high, with ascending 
branches : sepals greenish, oblong-lanceolate, caducous : car- 
pels 6 to 10, glandulai-pruinose ; stigmatose style lance-sub- 
ulate, 3 to 5 mm. long ; achenes ovate-lanceolate, excluding 
the persistent style, 4 to 5 mm, long, 2 to 3 mm. thick, plump, 
subterete, scarcely compressed or ancipital with <S simple or 
slightly branched strong ribs, the alternate ones strongest; 
seed linear-lanceolate, hardly filling the cell. 

Thickets, Hemlock Lake, near Ottawa, Ont., in flower, 
Aug. 8th, 1894. Herb No. 2,956.- {John Macoun.) Also 
collected in Maine. 

Thalictrum occidentale, Gray. 

7". (Uoicuni purpiirascenSy Can. Rec. Sci , 1894, p. 77. 

Rootstock slender, elongated : stem glabrous, i m. or 
less high, leafy to the summit, the three to six leaves glaucous 
beneath, smooth or minutely glandular, the lower including 
the long petiole 0.5 to 3 dm. long, those of the inflorescence 
often simple ; leaflets thin, reniform or obovate, with coarse 
rounded lobes, the terminal on slender petiolules, the others 



* Published by permission of the Direclor of the Geolog^ieal Survey of 
Canada. 

- These numbers are tliose under which specimens have been distributed 
from the Herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada. 



72 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

short-petiolulate or sub-sessile : flowers dicecious or polygamo- 
dioecious, greenish or purplish, the panicles 1.5 to 3 dm. high, 
with ascending branches: sepals oblong: carpels glabrous or 
minutely glandular-pruinose ; achene excluding the persistent 
style 6 or 7 mm. long, 2 or 3 mm. wide, compressed, strongly 
ancipital, with three strong or somewhat branching ribs on 
each side: filaments yellowish, greenish, or purplish, elongated, 
slightly clavellate ; anthers linear, mucronate. 

Represented in the herbarium of the Geological Survey 
of Canada by many sheets from the west and by specimens col- 
lected at Eel River, N.B., by Robert Chalmers, and on the 
St. John River above Woodstock, N.B., by John Macoun, 
Mr. Fernald has examined specimens collected by Mr. G. U. 
Hay at South Tobique Lakes and St. John, N.B., and by 
Bourgeau near Lake Winnipeg. 

Ranunculus Pallasii, Schlecht. 

Mosquito Bay, Lat. 60"^ 42', east coast of Hudson Bay. 
Aug. i8th, 1898. Herb. No. 23,003. {A. P. Lo7v.) Not 
recorded from Eastern America. 

Berberis brevipes, Greene, Ott. Nat., vol. xv, p. 42. 

Crow's Nest Pass, Rocky Mts., 1897. Herb. No. 18,080. 
[Johfi Macouti.) 

Sarracenia purpurea, L. var. heterophvlla, Torr. 

In bogs, Madawaska River, Algonquin Park, Ont. 1900. 
{John iMacoHti.) Only Canadian specimens in herbarium of 
Geological Survey. 

Dentaria geminata, Wats. 

Koksita, Vancouver Lsland. [R. /I. /a meson.) New to 
Vancouver Island. 

Viola mistassinica, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 6. 

Lake Mistassini, Que. 1885. (/. M. Macoun.) Rich- 
mond Gulf, Hudson Bay. [Wm. Spreadborough.) West branch 
of Hamilton River, Labrador. [A. P. L070.) Banff", Rocky 
Mountains. (A^. B. Sanson.) Cassiar Trail, west of Dease 



i90i[ Macoun — Canadian Botany. 73 

Lake, B.C. Lat. 58^^ 30'. [Dr. G. M. D(r.vson.) The western 
specimens dift"er slig-lnly from tliose from the cast, but seem 
referable here. This plant is readily distin<4'uished from V. 
blatula, V. retiijolia, and V. a iiiwiki by its " stout scaly-looking 
and elongated root-stock and by its notably toothed foliage, 
the leaves in all the others being crenate, the proper teeth 
never salient but on the contrary almost obsolete." The 
lowest petal is not only purple-veined but the purple colour 
is diffused over the whole petal. 

Viola Watsoni, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 5. 

Boggy meadow near Charlottetown, P. E.I. 1898. (Law- 
rence IV. Waison.) 

Viola cvclophvlla, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 7. 

Yellow Head Pass, Rocky Mountains, July 13th, 1898. 
Herb. No. 19,298. The type. {IV. Spreadborough.) 

Stellaria subvestita, Greene, Ott. Nat., vol. xv, p. 42. 

Common in the Rocky Mountains on both sides of the 
Bow River Pass. 

Stellaria media, Cyrillo. 

Attention is again drawn here to Mr. Theo. Holm's paper 
on "Allies of Stellaria media''' in the last number of The 
Ottawa Naturalist. These plants should be carefully 
studied everywhere in Canada. Among our herbarium speci- 
mens labelled .9. media, S. ne^lecta was found from Victoria, 
Vancouver Island; Burrard Inlet, B.C., Killarney, Man.; 
Sable Island, N.S. 

Radiola linoides, Gmel. 

Along a ditch near the old fortifications at Louisburg, 
Cape Breton Island, N.S. 1898. Herb. No. 20,232. [John 
Macoun.) New to Canada. Probably introduced by the 
French. 

SPIR.4iA SALICIFOLIA, L. 

The reading of Mr. Wiegand's note on S. xalici folia in 
Rhodora for May, 1900, suggested an examination of the 



74 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

sheets in the herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada. 
This examination has forced me to the conclusion that we 
have no true S. salicifolia in Canada. There are, however, 
three or four well defined varieties or species of which the 
most abundant in the east is S. salicifolia., var. lafifolia, Ait., 
common from Nova Scotia to Lake Superior but not found in 
the Northwest Territories. The form most nearly approach- 
ing S. salicifolia is var. lanceolaia, Ait., represented in our 
herbarium by specimens from Newfoundland west to Prince 
Albert on the North Saskatchewan. Though the herbarium 
material is ample no attempt will be made at present to char- 
acterize the other forms as like some other genera of the 
Rosacece, Spircca must be studied in the field. The part of the 
plant which can most easily be made into a herbarium speci- 
men is not always that most necessary for the proper deter- 
mination of the species. 

Agrimonia hirsuta, Bicknell. 

A. Eupatoria, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, vol. i, p. 142 in 
part. 

Truemanville, N.S. {H. Triieman.) Billings' Bridge, Ot- 
tawa, Ont. ; Pt. Edward, St. Clair River, Ont. (/. M. 
Macoun.) Belleville, Ont. ; Wooler, Northumberland Co., 
Ont. [John Macoun.) Edmonton, Ont. [Jas. White.) 

Agrimonia Brittoniana, Bicknell. 

Boylston, N.S. {Dr. C. A. Hamilton.) Big Intervale, 
Cape Breton Island, N.S.; Flat Rock Portage, Nipigon River, 
Ont.; Killarney, Man. {John Macoun.) The western speci- 
mens in the herbarium of the Geological Survey include 
several species. 

Myriophyllum alterniflorum, D.C. 

Golden Lake, Renfrew Co., Ont. {John Macoun.) The 
western limit of this seldom collected species. ^ 

Triosteum aurantiacum, Bicknell, Torreya, vol. i, p. 26. 

Rich soil on the rocky bank of the Nation River at 

1 The geographical limits given in these papers refer to Canada only. 



iQoi] Macoun — Canadian Botany. 75 

Casselman, Ont. (/. M. Macoun.) T. pcrfoliahun is repre- 
sented in the herbarium of the Geological Survey by speci- 
mens from Belleville and Churchville, Ont. 

EuPATORiUM BOREALE, Greene, Rhodora, vol. iii, p. 83. 

Stout, erect, 2 feet high or more, glabrous except as to the 
inflorescence : leaves ample, very thin, dark-green, feather- 
veined, the veins not light-coloured, 3 or 4 inches long, often 
3 inches broad towards the base, broadly subcordate-ovate, 
abruptly acuminate, coarsely and evenly serrate, the serra- 
tures 20 to 25 on each side, some of the larger with a second- 
ary tooth ; petioles ^ to x)/^ inches long, somewhat ascend- 
ing: cymes terminal, but with one pair fcom the axils of the 
uppermost leaves : peduncles and pedicels rather densely 
pubescent, but involucres glabrous, their bracts thin, only 
obscurely striate ; tips of the corolla-teeth somewhat hairy: 
achenes dark-brown, sharply thin-angled, the angles of those 
of the outer series remarkably setose-hispidulous, the surface 
glabrous. 

Represented in our herbarium by specimens from Bass 
River, Kent Co., N.B., collected by Prof. J. Fowler. Most 
of what has been taken to be E. agcratoides in Eastern Canada 
is probably this species. 

SOLIDAGO PRUixosA, Greene, Piltonia, vol. iv, p. 70. 

Erect, 3 feet high or more, very leafy up to the dense 
short, pyramidal panicle of short, spreading or slightly recurved 
abruptly ending and obtuse racemes of rather large heads: 
leaves ascending, 2 inches long, elliptic-lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, slightly but evenly serrate from near the base to 
near the apex, distinctly 3 nerved and canescent or almost 
hoary on both faces with a dense, rather soft puberulence or 
pubescence: pedicels and branches of the inflorescence almost 
tomentulose : bracts of the more than middle-sized involucre 
in about 3 series, the short outer ones subulate-linear, the 
inner long ones also visibly narrowed from base to apex but 
obtusish; flowers apparently light yellow. 

Moose Jaw, Assa., Aug. 13th, 1895. Herb. Nos 10,892, 
10,893 and 10,894. {John Macoun.) 



^6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

EucEPHALUS MACOUNii, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 70. 

Along fences, Sea's Farm, near Victoria, Vancouver 
Island. Herb. No. 447. {John Macoun.) Distributed as 
Aster radii linns. 

Centaurea Scabiosa, L. 

Along the Canadian Pacific Railway at Snellgrove, Ont. 
[Jus. White.) New to Canada and known from only one 
other locality in America. Determined by Dr. Robinson. 

Senecio ovinus, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 1 10. 

S. resedifolius, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, vol. i, p. 267 in 
part. 

Mountain slopes, western summit of North Kootanie 
Pass, Rocky Mts., 1883. {Dr. G. M. Dawson.) High slopes 
of Sheep Mountain, Waterton Lake, Rocky Mts. Herb. No. 
11,619. {John Macoun.) Described from the Sheep Moun- 
tain specimens. 

Vaccinium nigrum, Britt. 

V. corymbosn7ti, var. pallidum, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, 
vol. I, p. 291. 

Point Pleasant, N.S.; Englishtovvn, Cape Breton Island, 
N.S.; common in the vicinity of Ottawa, Ont., and at Niagara, 
Ont. {John Macoun.) 

Lysi.machia vulgaris, L. 

Well established on Toronto Island, Ont. {IV. Scott.) 
Only Canadian record. 

Steironema lan'CEOLATUM, Gray; Macoun Cat. Can. Plants, vol. i, 

P- 313- 

Recorded from Ontario, but such specimens as we have 
seen so named are S. quadrijlorum, Hitchc. 

Acerates longifolia. Ell. 

Dry sandy soil, southwest of Sandwich, Ont., 1893. 
{Alex. IVherry.) Our only Canadian specimens. The speci- 
mens referred here, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, vol. i, p. 563, 
are A. viridijiora var. lanceolata, Gr. 



igoi] Macoun — Canadian Botany. 77 

ASCLEPIAS PULCHRA, Elirh. 

In Mahone River bed at New Germany, N.S., and at 
entrance of West River into New Germany Lake, N.S., July 
i8gi. Herb. No. 23.581. [Dr. C. A. Ifumillon.) New to 
Canada. 

Erythr.ka Centaurium, Pers. 

Very abundant on the old land near the main lighthouse 
station, Sable Island, N.S. 1899. {John 3f(/cof(n.) Our only 
Canadian specimens. 

LlTHOSPERMUM LATIFOLIUM, Mx. 

Lorette Falls, near Quebec, Que. 1895. {^f'>- Brodie.) 
Not before recorded except from Ontario. 

Heliotropium Curassavicum, L. 

Saline soil, McLeod, Alta. Herb. No. 23,971. {John 
Maconn.) Western limit. 

Convolvulus arvensis, L. 

Open prairies, Morris, Man. [ /ohn A/acoun.) Not re- 
corded from Manitoba. 

Phvsalis ixocarpa, Brot. 

Roadsides near the hotel, Golden Lake, Renfrew Co., 
Ont. {John Macoun.) New to Canada. 

HVOSCVAMUS NIGER, L. 

Old railway ground, Banff, Alberta. 1900. (A'. B. Sanson.) 
Not before recorded from the west. 

BucHNERA Americana, L. 

Port Frank, Ont., Sept. 8th, 1891. (/ Dcarness.) Only 
Canadian record. 

Gerardia paupekcula, Britt. 

In marshy places near the main station. Sable Island, N.S. 
1899. Herb. No. 22,578. {John Macoun.) Not recorded 
east of Quebec. 

LippiA lanceolata, Mx. 

Wet places, Leamington, Ont. 1892. Herb. No. 24,- 
270. {John Macoun,) New to Canada, 



78 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

Amarantus blitoides, Wats. 

East of Brandon, Man.; Cardston, Alta. {John Macoun.) 
Not recorded west of Ontario. 

MONOLEPIS CHENOPODIOIDES, Moq. 

Cypress Hills, Assa. ; Kananaskis and Banff, Rocky Mts. 
[John Macoun.) Western limit. 

Chenopodium Botrvs, L. 

Waste places, Spence's Bridge, B.C. [JoJin Afacoun.) 
Not recorded west of Ontario. 

Chenopodium leptophyllum, Nutt. 

Sandy soil, Spence's Bridge, B.C.; Deer Park, Lower 
Arrow Lake, B.C. [John Macoun.) Not recorded west of 
Rocky Mountains. 

Chenopodium leptophyllum. Nutt., var. subgl.\brum, Wats. 

"Sandy woodlands, Pt. Pelee, Essex Co., Ont. 1886. [Dr. 
Burgess.) Neither the type nor variety recorded from On- 
tario. 
Chenopodium urbicum, L. 

Nanaimo and Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C. 1893. 
{John Macoun.) Not recorded west of Ontario. 

Chenopodium rubrum, L. 

On brackish flats near the main lighthouse station, Sable 
Island, N.S. Very rare. i8g8. {John Macoun.) 

Salicornia herbacea, L. 

Borders of saline ponds near Kamloops, B.C. 1890. 
{J. M. Macoun.) Not recorded from British Columbia. 

Salicornia a.mbigua, Mx. 

Long Arm, Skidegate Inlet, Queen Charlotte Islands, 
B.C. {Dr. C. F. Ncivcotnbe.) Northern limit. 

RuMEx Patientia, L. 

Not uncommon aoout houses and in fields, Boylston, N.S. 
{Dr. C. A. HamiUon.) Not recorded east of Ontario. 
Scleranthus annuus, L. ; Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, vol. i, pp. 
80 and 499. 

West of London, Ont., 1890; Komoka, Ont., July, 1892. 
{J. Dearness.) Our only herbarium specimens. 



igoi] Macoun — Canadian Botany. 79 

PODOSTEMON CeK ATOPHYLLUM, Mx. 

On stones near the mouth of Eel River, 12 miles below 
Woodstock, N.B. Herb. No. 22,593, 1899; Petavvawa River, 
Alt^onquin Park, Ont., 1900. [/o/iii A/dCoiai.) Our only other 
specimens are from Hull, Que. 

Cypripedium guttatum, Swartz. 

Shore of Great Slave Lake. 1899. {Dr. J^. Bell.) The 
single specimen brought home by Dr. Bell is the third from 
the Mackenzie Basin, the others having been collected by 
Richardson. 

Cypripedium passerinu.m, Rich. 

West shore of Great Bear Lake, Lat. 65° 30' to 66*^ 30'. 
1900. {/. M. Bell.) Northern limit. 

Zygadenus elegans, Pursh. 

W^est side of Gre^t Bear Lake, Lat. 65*^ 30' to 66^ 30'. 
1900. {/. M. Bell.) Northern limit. 

JUNCUS BULBOSUS, L. 

In boggy places, east end of Sable Island, N.S. 1899. 
Herb. No. 22,623. (.A'-''" Macoun.) Only Canadian speci- 
mens in herbarium of Geological Survey. Reported from 
Labrador. 
Stenophyllus capillaris, (L.) Britt. 

Wet sandy fields, Sandwich, Ont. Herb. No. 25,334. 
{John Macoun.) New to Canada. 
Fimbristylis autumnalis, R. & S. 

Wet sandy fields, Sandwich, Ont. Herb. No. 25,333. 
{John Macoun.) New to Canada. Growing with Stenophyllus 
capillaris. 
Carex leiocarpa, C. a. Meyer ; Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, 
vol. II, p. 1 10. 

Dawson Harbour, Skidegate Inlet, Queen Charlotte 
Islands, B.C. {Dr. C. F. Neivcombe.) The second Canadian 
station. 

Carex capitata, L. 

Additional stations for this species are Northern Labra- 
dor. {A. P. L01V.) Boggy places, Bragg's Creek, Elbow 
River, Rocky Mountains. Herb. No. 25,447. {John Macoun.) 



8o . The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

THE ALGONQUIN NATIONAL PARK OF ONTARIO— ITS 
RESOURCES AND ADVANTAGES. 



By Archibald M. Campbell, Ottawa. 

The Parry Sound division of the Canada Athmtic Railway 
renders readily accessible for the first time one of the most remark- 
able regions of lake and stream, primeval forest and rug-g-ed rock 
that can be found anywhere. It lies between the Ottawa River 
and Georgian Bay, and is a compact territory over forty miles 
square, with an area of nearly 2,000 square miles, comprising 
eighteen townships and six half townships in the District ot 
Nipissing, and representing in the aggregate a million acres of 
land and water. The Ontario Government has set apart and 
reserved for all time to come, "for the benefit, advantage and 
enjoyment of the people of the Province," this Algonquin National 
Park. In it, the citizens of Canada have a possession, the value 
of which they have not yet even remotely realized. It is in reality 
a huge game preserve, a fisherman's and sportsman's paradise, 
a source of water supply, a field for reforestry operations, and a 
natural sanitarium which bids fair to outdo the Adirondack region 
and other noted health resorts of America. 

RIVERS AND LAKES. 

In the valleys, between the rocky ridges of the Laurentian 
formation, are the fountain-heads of the Muskoka, Magnetawan, 
Madawaska, Petawawa, Amable du Fond, and South rivers — all 
important streams, emptying into Georgian Bay, the Ottawa and 
Mattawa rivers, and Lake Nipissing. Within the limits of the 
Park is a large part of the watershed which divides the streams 
flowing into the Ottawa river from those which empty into Geor- 
gian Bay, and there is probably not to be found elsewhere within 
the Province a tract of country which in the same limited space 
gives rise to so many important streams. Therefore, one of the 
principal objects that the Government had in view when establish- 
ing the reservation was the protection and maintenance of their 
water supply. The interests of the lumberman, who annually 
floats large quantities of timber to market down their waters, of 
the manufacturer for whose mill-wheels they supply the motive 



1901] Campbell— Algonquin Park. 81 

power, and of the farmer to wliom a continuous supply ol 
water in spring-, well and stream is an absolute necessity — 
all required that provision sho-uld be made to keep the hills 
and hii^hlands of tliis inland plateau covered with a heavy 
forest growth. .The park contains within its boundaries an 
immense volume of water in lake and river, brook, pond and 
marsh. The sprin<;- and autumn rains and the heavy snows of winter 
keep the fountain-hends of the important streams rising- there con- 
tinually replenished, the densit}- of the forest retarding evaporation, 
and the spongy layer of leaves and decaying vegetation which 
covers the ground, tending to maintain an ecjuable flow through- 
out the year. The reservation is a veritable lake land, it being 
estimated that there are about 1,000 lakes and ponds within its 
borders. Most of the large lakes find a place on the map of the 
Park that has been issued by the Ontario government, but many 
of the smaller ones have not as yet been accurately located. 
Many of the lakes are of great natural beauty — not too large to 
be picturesque, nor too small to possess many a mirrored islet. 
Great Opeongo lake in the south east corner of the Park is the 
largest body of water, being twelve miles in length. It is a truly 
noble sheet of many square miles in extent, is very irregular in 
shape, possesses numerous islands, and presents many 
picturesque features. At a certain spot oh the lonely shore ot 
this lake there are still the remains of an ancient burial ground of 
the Algonquin Indians, reminding us of that once powerful race, 
which, in days gone by. held all this norlhland as its untitled 
domain, The name of the Park is the only reminder that we 
have of this primitive ownership, for the white man has displaced 
the red, the stalwart brave has vanished to his happy hunting- 
ground, and the pale-face reigns in his stead. The superinten- 
dent of the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park writes as follows 
of the lake scenery of the region : " Each expanse of water has 
some charm peculiarly its own. On every side the forest 
primeval clothes the hills and mountains with verdure of varying 
hue down to the very shore ; deep shades are thrown across the 
Park waters of the lake, whose placid surface mirrors to perfec- 
tion every outline of cloud or hill, tree ur rock ; while the baby 
ripples from the bow of the canoe, or the congeries of air bubbles 



82 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

from each stroke of the paddles, glisten in the sunlight like 
diamonds, or as the stars on a December night. To the tourist 
the continual change from lake to river, from river to portage, 
and from portage to river and lake again, make a delightfnl 
panorama which captivates the eye and the senses, and provides 
abundant opportunity for the cultivation of the tastes in the study 
of all the varying phases of the landscape, and impels a seeking 
after more perfect knowledge of the many varieties of animal and 
vegetable life, which have their habitat in the territory. 

TIMBER. 

This region forms part of the great forest which formerly 
covered the whole Province, and which here consists of white and 
red pine, hemlock, tamarac, balsam, spruce, cedar, birch, maple, 
beech, ironvvood, ash and basswood. All the lands embraced in 
the Park limits are now covered by licenses to cut timber, and 
on certain of them, pine has been cut for nearly half a century. 
Bush fires and lumbering operations have made serious inroads 
upon the supply of pine, but it will still be many years before the 
Park can, under existing contracts, be freed from these operations. 
There are no other vested interests in the reservation, so that 
eventually the Crown will have sole ownership and control of all 
its products and resources. 

A FINE CANOEING AND CAMPING GROUND. 

For canoeing and camping, the Park offers unexcelled facili- 
ties and attractions. The rangers have already made over a 
hundred miles of trails and portages, and have cleared obstruc- 
tions from, and otherwise improved the navigation of, many of the 
streams. This work will be continued until the comparatively free 
navigation of the more important routes through the reservation 
has been secured. As a rule, the portages are short and easily 
made, and are generally welcomed by the canoeist, giving him a 
chance to stretch his legs. Forty or more log huts or cabins have 
been erected at different points throughout the Park, and this 
number is to be yearly increased. They are intended to furnish 
shelter to the rangers and others in their canoe trips through the 
reserve, and vary in distance from seven to ten miles of each 
other — the limit being a day's journey on snowshoes in the 
winter. 



igoj] Campbell — Algonquin Park. 83 

A NATURAL GAME PRESERVE. 

Mr C. K. Grigg, then a member of the Park stafT, in the 
autumn of 1897, contributed two .short articles to the " Ottawa 
Evening Journal," which contained some very interesting infor- 
mation about the inhabitants of this great game and fish preserve. 
He also proved conclusively the necessity for such an asylum for 
our game, and showed how successful the experiment had been. 
He said that prior to the inception of the Park, scarcely a beaver 
could be found outside its present limits anywhere in this province 
south of Lake Nipissing, and that in what is now the Park, only 
a few straggling and decimated colonies existed. It is estimated 
that there are now hundreds of colonies of these interesting 
animals within its boundaries. In many cases, they have not 
only erected new dams, but have also built upon the ruins of old 
ones. The beaver houses which dot the edges of the streams 
and marshes are, like the dams, marvels of engineering and 
architectural skill. The menu of this industrious little denizen of 
the forest consists principally of the tender bark of the saplings, 
and he afterwards utilizes the denuded trunks for his dams. The 
following extracts from the " Report of the Royal Commission on 
Forest Reservation and National Park," may be of interest : 

"Of the tur-bearing animals, the beaver is by far the most 
valuable. On the shore of every lake in this district are to be 
found old beaver houses, and there is scarcely a brook in the 
whole territory on which at short intervals their abandoned dams 
may not be seen. Now one may travel for days there without 
seeing a single fresh beaver sign. 

"There are two reasons why this industrious and harmless 
animal should be preserved from destruction. First, because its 
skin furnishes us with one of our richest and most valuable furs ; 
and, second, because from its habits it is perhaps the 
greatest natural conservator of water. It is probably within the 
mark to say that were this region again stocked with beaver as it 
once was. there would be in every township at least a hundred 
dams and beaver ponds, each with its family or families of beaver, 
exclusive of the large numbers in the lakes and rivers where no 
dam building is necessary. In this way the water area would be 
increased by perhaps a fifth, a very important circumstance 
from the lumberman's point of view. 



84 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

"The beaver is a most prolific creature, and, if left undis- 
turbed, the progeny of a single couple would, in a few years, 
stock a large extent of country. The young beavers remain in 
the same house as the parents until they are a year old, when they 
strike off in couples for themselves, and either build a new house 
on the same pond or select a site on some other creek, and there 
erect a dam and house. In a few weeks the dry swamp or marsh 
is transformed into a lake, and the stock of provisions, consisting 
of a pile of saplings and brush, for winter use, is laid up beside 
the house, only a few of the limbs showing above the surface of 
the water. In the interior of the house a dry, warm nest is made, 
where they remain all winter. Going out at the call of hunger to 
the pile of provisions, they drag a piece up out of the water and 
eat the bark, which, together with the roots of aquatic plants, is 
their only food, thrusting the pole back again into the water. 
Here they remain until the long, warm days of spring soften the 
ice, when, cutting a hole in it, they go out for a taste of fresh 
food. In the beginning of May they bring forth their young, 
which almost invariably consist the first year of two, after which 
the average number is from four to six." 

Otter are also now very plentiful, and the marten, mink, fisher 
and their fur-coated kin are not behind in fecundity. In fact, the 
net-work of waters that course through the dark tree-avenues of 
the reservation are becoming thickly populated with these animals, 
and this region affords grand opportunities for the observation 
and study of the naturalist. The true sportsman will certainly 
rejoice that there is now such a sanctuary for our nobler game, 
and that already the lordly moose, which has been almost totally 
exterminated in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and elsewhere, and 
which bids fair to suffer a similar fate in this Province, is again 
multiplying. It seems almost incredible with what ferocity antJ- 
wastefulness such animals as the moose have been hunted and 
killed in the past. According to an official report, in the spring 
of 1887, to give an example, the carcasses of not less than sixty 
moose were found in this district, the animals having been killed 
for their skins alone. During the preceding winter, between Lake 
Traverse on the Petawawa and Bissett's station on the C. P. R., 
a distance of a little over twenty miles, seventy moose were 



igoi] Campbell — Algoxquln Park. 85 

slaughtered after Christmas. If one-half of these were females, 
and if they even averaged only one calf each, here was game 
enougli destroyed in one season to stock the Park. Besides 
atTording noble sport to the hunter, the moose is a very valuable 
animal to the settler and the frontiersman, and it would be a pity 
to allow him to be exterminated like the buffalo of the western 
plains without at least affording him every opportunity of survival. 
A full-grown moose weighs upwards of 1,000 pounds, and will 
dress 600 pounds of beef, while his skin will make twenty pairs of 
moccasins, which readily sell at two dollars a pair. 

The nimble-footed deer are, notwithstanding the onslaughts 
of the pot-hunter in the past, and of their natural enemy the wolf, 
always, growing in numbers. For here, too, the wolf, the fiercest 
and most cunning enemy of all animal life, thrives, and claims 
many a victim, especially among the young deer and smaller 
quadrupeds. The interlocked antlers of moose and deer, which 
the rangers occasionally find in the Park, tell of forest tragedies 
where conflicts have been waged to the death and the strife has 
been ignominiously terminated by the arrival of the wolves on the 
scene. At the time of his first visit to the Park, the writer was 
shown (and got an excellent photograph of) two pairs of these 
locked antlers, which had been taken from' the carcasses of two 
bucks found the previous winter in the woods, and whose inex- 
tricable grip of each other caused their mutual destruction. It 
would, in fact, be impossible to separate them without destroying 
them. 

BIRD LIFE. 

Bird life is also being attracted to the Park. Owing to the 
wanton and useless destruction of our feathered friends, by means 
of guns in the hands of boys and young man, insectivorous birds 
r.re every year becoming scarcer in the settled portions of the 
Province, and had we not a refuge such as the Algonquin Park 
some species would probably eventually become practically extinct. 
Partridge are numerous, but are preyed upon by the foxes — 
which, however, along with the wolves, bears and other destruc- 
tive and objectionable animals and birds, are being gradually killed 
off by the rangers. Wild duck are reported plentiful on some of 
the lakes, and wild rice has been sown with the intention of at- 



86 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

tracting- these birds to other waters. It is said to be the g^overn- 
ment's intention to introduced blaci< fjame and capercailzie from 
Europe, and prairie fowl from our own western plains. 

FISH, AND FISHING. 

The disciples of good old Izaac Walton will find in the streams 
and lakes of the Algonquin Park an abundance of trout, pike, 
pickeral, and, in certain localities, white-fish and herring. Eels 
of large size are plentTful in the Opeongo branc h of the Madawaska. 
Strange to say, both black and rock bass are missing. With the 
view of introducing these excellent and gamy fish. General Manager 
Chamberlin, of the Canada Atlantic Railway, offered special 
facilities for their transportation from other lakes in the Parry 
Sound District to those of the Park. As a rule, brook trout, con- 
sidered by many as the " King of fishes," are looked for in rushing 
mountain torrent or the shining silver brook, but while the waters 
of most ot the brooks in the reservation are dark, it seems to suit 
the taste and requirements of this loveliest and gamiest of fishes. 
Mr. George B. Hayes, Prison Commissioner of the State of New 
York, claims to have fished nearly all the streams of North 
America, but says that tor game qualities as well as beauty of 
color and form, the brook trout of the Algonquin Park excel all 
others. Perhaps the biggest of these speckled beauties are caught 
in the Petawawa river, where they range on an average from half 
a pound to four and a half pounds in weight, almost, if not quite, 
equal in size to those of the famous Nepigon. Most of the brook 
trout are of a superior quality of flesh, being firm, and ranging in 
color from a rich cream to the brightest salmon tint, while the skin 
exhibits its glorious rainbow hues. In most of the lakes the salmon 
trout, commonly called grey or lake trout, abounds. To catch 
them, spoon or bait is used, as they seldom rise to the fly. To 
fish within the Park limits, it is necessary to get a permit from the 
Superintendent, and, even then, the use of rod and line and trowl- 
ing line only are permitted. Moreover, the angler is only allowed 
to take such fish as he requires for his own use, within the Park, 
and is forbidden to carry away or wantonly destroy any piscatorial 
spoils. It is not likely that the waters within the reservation will 
ever be choked with the sawdust which has proved so fatal else- 



iQOi] Campbell — Algonquin Park. 87 

where, so that, with the afore-mentioncd restrictions in force, the 
finny tribes should there have g^reat opportunities for increase. 

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION AND MINERALS. 

The hmd comprised in the Alg"onquin Park is in j^-eneral of little 
use for agricultural purposes, being, as might be expected from its 
situation on a watershed, for the greater part rough, broken and 
stony. There are few high hills, th-^ surface being mosth' com- 
posed ol rocky ridges, alternating with valleys, swamps and 
marshes. The rough ribs of the Laurentian formation everywhere 
protrude, and in granite or gneiss dip at all angles to the south- 
east, the strike of the strata being northeast by southwest. No 
limestome, so far as the writer knows, occurs," and the indications 
of mineral hitherto found are few, consisting principally ot traces 
of iron. Mining exploration or prospecting for minerals within 
the Park is prohibited except under certain conditions and pro- 
visions. The working of mines and the developing of mining 
interests would be regulated in the same way. 

A FIELD FOR EXPERIMENTS IN FORESTRY. 

Much might be said about the possibilities for useful experi- 
ment in forestry which such a region affords. The re-planting of 
burnt areas, the re-filling ot gaps in the original forest, the ob- 
taining of accurate information anent the soils, localities and ex- 
posures suitable for certain trees, the discovery of the best method 
of obtaining from a forest the maxirr.um amount of product which 
it is capable of yielding without at the same time trenching upon 
its capacity, and the solution of the problem of destroying the 
branches and tree tops left on the ground by the lumberman during 
the culling of a pine forest, are all experiments of a great probable 
value which might advantageously be made. 

CLIMATE. 

The retention of such an extensive block of forest is bound to 
have a beneficial influence on the climate of the surrounding 
country. Phoresis tend to promote humidity, and exert a temper- 
ing effect upon injurious winds, preventing the fierce hurricanes 
and "blizzards" common in unforested lands. They also help to 
equalize the atmosphere, cooling the summer air and mitigating 



88 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

its severity in the winter. Consequently, the destruction of a 
large portion of the forest growth of a country is generally attend- 
ed by a deterioration in its climate. History proves that many 
countries which once possessed forests became sterile after having 
been deprived of them. 

a natural sanitarium. 
Owing to the altitude of this region, and its bracing atmos- 
phere — redolent with the resinous odours of the pine and balsam, 
it is a great natural sanitarium, where consumptives may recover 
lost health and vigor. The idea has been shown to be well 
founded that pine forests are of specific value in the cure of lung 
disease. The old Romans sent sufferers of this class to Libra, 
where, by breathing the bal samic emanations of the pines which 
there abounded, they are said to have received much benefit. In 
the Adirondack Forest of New York State a sanitarium has been 
in operation for many years, with the special object of relieving 
patients in the early stages of consumption. It offers to such the 
benefit of climatic treatment, a systematic out-door life, hygienic 
habits and suitable medical treatment, and its reports show that 
twenty-five per cent of .the patients are apparently cured ; while 
twenty-five or thirty per cent more are sufficiently restored in 
health to resume their work or support themselves by their own 
efforts while living in a suitable climate. The Gravenhurst sani- 
tarium on Lake Muskoka is a newer institution, which has also 
attained a considerable measure of success in this sort of 
treatment, but perhaps the results obtained by the famous 
Dr. Otto Walther, at the sanitarium at Nordrach, in the Baden 
Black Forest, Germany, are better than those obtained at any 
similar hospital in the world. However, there can be little doubt 
but that a sojourn in the pine forests of this Nipissing upland, 
with its pure air, good water and aromatic breezes, would be 
beneficial to many afflicted with weak lungs. 

THE PARK HEADQUARTERS. 

The Park headquarters were at first situated on Canoe Lake, 
but, for various reasons. Cache Lake was considered a more 
suitable spot for them, and they were removed thither. Suitable 
buildings for the accommodation of the superintendent and his 



igoi] Campbell — ALooxguix Park. 89 

staff of six or seven rangers, were erected during' the summer of 
1897 on the lake shore just south of the railway track. The 
rang'ers are supposed to be travelling about most of the time, in 
or^er to keep a sharp lookout for trespassers and poachers, and 
against fires, and to watch especially the waterways and usual 
entrances to the Park. They incidentally erect shelter-lodges, 
make other improvements, and wage war on wolves and other 
noxious animals. 

On a rocky point, about fifteen feet above the water, and so 
embowered in birches and spruces that one might paddle by un- 
conscious of its presence, stands " Fort Necessity" — one of the 
shelter-lodges. It is a small, rustic, one-roomed cabin, containing 
a sheet-iron stove, rude stools and table, and a platform bed the 
width of the building. The latter will accommodate, if necessary, 
six men, three at one end and three at the other, lying feet to 

feet. 

The inlet of the lake is near by, and a paddle of half a mile 
up it brings you to White's Lake, in the vicinity of which — and 
within the sound of the locomotive whistle — a fine beaver-dam 
and other works of that exemplary animal can be seen. 

Enough has, doubtless, been said abouc the Algonquin Na- 
tional Park to give some idea of its character and resources, and 
of the great inducements which it offers to the canoeman, the 
camper, the sportsman, the seeker after rest and health, and the 
lover of Nature. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES. 

By W. T. Macoin. 

As announced in the May Naturalist, several observers in 
different parts of Canada and Michigan have agreed to send in 
their notes for comparison of records in the Ottawa Naturalist. 
This arrangement was brought about by Mr. Wm. Saunders, 
London, Ont., and Dr. James Fletcher ; the notes, however, are 
being sent to the ornithological editor for tabulation. The gentle- 
men who contributed the notes are Mr. Alex. Gow, Windsor 
Ont. ; Mr. Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. ; xMr. J. Hughes 
Samuel, Toronto, Ont.; Mr. W. P. Melville, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Mich ; and Mr. L. McI. Terrill, Robinson Bury, Que. 

The records of the common .birds should prove of most, value 
as often the rarer species are not seen until some days after 
their arrival and hence the comparison of records is misleading. 
Another table of records will appear in a later number of the 
Naturalist. 



CO 



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92 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

Ottawa Bird Notes. 
1 90 1. 
April 10 — Red-shouldered Hawk, Biiteo Vmeatus. Mr. C. Guillet. 
19 -Hairy Woodpecker, Dryohates villosus. Mr. Guillet. 
19 — Downy Woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens. Mr. A. G. King-ston. 
23 — Wilson's Thrush, Turdus fuscescens. Miss E. Guillet; April 25, 

Mr. Geo. R. White. 
23 — Brown Creeper, Certhiu faniilinns atnericana. Mr. Guillet. 
23 — Chipping Sparrow, Spizella socialis. Mr. Guillet. 
25 — House Wren, Troglodytes cedon. Mr. Kingston. 
25 — Wood Thrush, Turdus mustcUnus. Mr. While. 
26 —Wilson's Snipe, GalUnago delicata. Mr. White. 
26 — American Goldfinch, Spiuus tristis. (Full breeding- plumage. ) 

Mr. White. 
26 — Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus adcndula. Mr. While. 
26 — Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis. Mr. Guillet ; April 

28, Mr. Kingston. 
26 — Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza gcorgiana. Mr. Kingston. 
28 — RosE-BREasTED GROSBEAK, Habia ludoviciana. Mr. Kingston. 
28— White-breasted Nuthatch, Sitfa cafnlinensis. Mr. Kingston. 
28— Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo U neat us. (Nest and three eggs.) 

Mr. Kingston. 
28 — Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo latissimus. Mr. White. 
28 —Hermit Thrush, Turdus aonalaschkce pallasH. Mr. White; April 
30, Mr. Guillet. 
May 2 — Chimney Swift, Chcetura pelagica. Mr. White. 

2 — American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus. -Mr. White. 

4 — Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pcnnsylvanica. Mr. Guillet. 

4 — Brown Thrasher, Harporhynchus rufus. Mr. W. T. Macoun. 

4 — Spotted Sandpiper, Actiiis macularia. Mr. White. 

4 — Marsh Hawk, Circus hudsonius. Mr. White. 

5 — Pine Warbler, Dendroica vigorsii. Mr. Kingston. 

7 -Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus. Mr. Guillet. 

8 — Savanna Sparrow, Ammodramus sand^vir/iensis savanna. Mr. 

Kingston. 
8 — Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus yociferus. Miss Harmer. 
9 — Fox Sparrow, Passcrella iliaca. Miss E. Guillet. 
9 — Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica carulesccns. Miss E. 

Guillet. 
9 — Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus. Mr. Guillet. 
9--YELLOW W.\rbler, Dendroica cestiva. Miss E. Guillet, Miss 

Harmer. 
10 Black AND White Warbler, Minotilta varia. Mr. Guillet ; May 

II, Mr. White. 
10 — I^ANK Swallow, Clivicola riparia. Mr. While. 



igoi] Macoun— Ornithological Notes. 93 

10 — Cliff Swallow, Pcli-Dchclidon hmifrons. Mr. White. 
10 — .Myrtle Warbler, Dcndroica coronata. Mr. While. 
1 1— White-crownkd Sparrow, Zonotrichia Icucophrys. Mr. .Macoun; 

May 12, Mr. Cmillet, Mr. White. 
I i-Baltimore Oriole. Icterus ■^albula. Mr. Kiiij,'-ston, Mr. Wliite. 
II — Kingbird, Tyraunns tyannus. Mr. White. 
II — Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter Cooperi. Mr. White. 
12 — Cape May W'arbler, Dendmica tigrina. Mr. White. 
12 — Tennessee Warbler, Helminthophila percgrina. Mr. Wliitc. 
12 — Bl.ackburnian Warbler, Dendroica blackburnicc. Mr. Wliite. 
12— Nashville Warbler, Hcminthophila rujlcapilla. Mr. White. 
15 — KiLDEER, .Egialitis vocifera. Mr. King'ston. 
15 — Wood Pewee, Contopus virens. Mr. Guillet. 

16 — Catbird, Galeoscoptes candinensis. Miss E. Guiik-t, Mr. White. 
16 — A.merican Redstart, Setophaga ndilUt. Miss E. C.uillet; May 18, 

.Mr. White. 
16 —Olive-backed Thrlsh, Tunlus us/uhitus swuinsonii. Mr. White. 
16- -Bobolink, DuUchonyx oryzivvms. Mr. White. 
18— B.ay-BREASTED Warbler, Dendroica c^stanea. .Mr. White; May 19, 

Miss Harmer. 
18 — OVE.N-BIRD, Seinis aicroccipillus. .Mr. White; May 2\, Mr. 

King^ston. 
18 — Magnolia Warbler, Dendroim maculosa. .Mr. White. 
19 — Black-throated Green Warbler, Dcndroica virens. Mr. Wliite; 

May 21, Mr. Guillet. 
ig — Scarlet Tanager, Piranga erythromelas. Mr. White. 
19 — Maryland Yellow-throat, Geothlypis Irichas. Mr. Wliite ; May 

21, Miss E. Guillet. 
ig — Great-crested Flycatcher, Myiafchus crinitus. .Mr. White. 
21— Rcby-throated Humming Bird, Trochilus colubris. .Mr. White. 
21 —Night Hawk, Cliurdeilcs virginianus. Mr. Guillet, Mr. Macoun. 

Note. — The editor finds that when notes are not .sent in until 
the 20lh of the month they delay the publication of The Naturalist. 
Observers will therefore oblij,^e by sending- them on the 15th in- 
stead of the 20th. Interesting records of the nesting- of birds or 
their habits should be included, and all sent to the Ornilholog-ical 
Editor, Mr. W. T. Macoun, Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 



g. The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

EXCURSIONS. 



April 27TH.— The first excursion of the season under the 
auspices of the Club was held at Beechwood. About eighty mem- 
bers were present. Under the leadership of Dr. Bell, the presi- 
dent of the Club, and Dr. Ami, those interested in Geology 
examined the excavations for the main sewer, where 15 species of 
fossils were collected. Col. White and Dr. Fletcher took charge 
ot those who wished to study birds, plants and insects. Twenty- 
three species of plants were found in bloom. 

May 4TH.— The excursion to Britannia was more largely 
attended than that held at Beechwood a week before, a large num- 
ber of Normal School students being present. The majority of 
those who took part in the excursion were interested in Botany, 
and oinder the leadership of Dr. Fletcher, Dr. Guillet and Mr. 
Putnam the woods and fields about Britannia were thoroughly 
examined. Petasites pnlmata, a rare plant in this vicinity, was 
collected by Miss Matthews. The geologists, under the leader- 
ship of Dr. Ami, studied the rocks of the vicinity securing many 
interesting specimens. A full report of the geological work done 
at these excursions will be published later. 



Sweet Coltsfoot.— A few years ago Petasites pahnata gvevi 
at the old race-course south of Patterson's Creek on Bank street, 
but the draining of the Glebe lots and the partial clearing of 
" Stewart's Bush" have caused its extinction. It has always been 
rare in this vicinity, but has been noted in two widely separated 
localities this spring. By Miss Matthews near Britannia, as 
recorded in the report of the sub-excursion published in this num- 
ber of The Naturalist, and by the Hon. F. R. Latchford beside 
a road leading through a swamp from near Mountain View in 
Hull to what is known as "The Hollow Road." Mr. Latchford's 
specimens and his diagram showing the exact locality at which 
the plants were found are in the Herbarium of the Geological 
Survey. He reports the plant as occurring in considerable num- 
bers were found. 

J. M. M. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. VOL. XV. 





Figure 1. Low/er surface of plastron. 



ADOCUS VARIOLOSUS, (Cop^). 



Figure 2. Upper surface of plastron. 



THE OTTAWA NATURAL^ ^ 





THE OTTAWA NATURALIST- VOL. XV. 




ADOCUS VARIOLOSUS, iCopsL 
Lower surface of plastron; ons-third natural size. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. VOL. XV. 




t 



\ 




ADOCUS VARIOLOSUS, (Cope>. 
Upp3r surface of plastron ; one-third natural size. 



THE OTTAV.-A NATURALIST. VOL. XV. 




ADOCUS VARIOLOSUS, (Cope*. 
Anterior end of plastron ; lower surface ; natural size. 



ft 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. Pl. VII. 




To illustrated paper by David White on Species of Whittleseya. 



THE OTTAWA f(ATURALlST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, JULY, 1901. No. 



THE EXTINCTION OF THE ELK IN ONTARIO. 



By L. H. Smith, Strathroy, Out. 

(Read before the London Oniitliolojifical Section of the Entomological Society 

of Ontario. ) 

That the Wapiti [Cerv us canadensis), commonly called "Elk," 
once roainecl in numbers in the southern part of Ontario which 
lies between Lakes Huron and Erie, I have positive evidence, but 
as to what time they lived here or when or by what means their ex- 
tinction was brought about, I have been able to glean very little 
information. 

The extinction of some animals of our fauna is easily accounted 
for ; the wolf, the bear, the common red deer and the wild turkey 
were all indigenous to our forest ; their death-warrant was signed 
when the first settler, with his axe, felled the first tree making the 
little clearance to erect his primitive log shanty. Naturalists do 
not agree on the cause of the disappearance of the passenger 
pigeon, which used to be with us in countless millions. I am of the 
opinion that clearing the forest, and thus destroying its great 
natural food supply, was the cause. The animals I have named 
were all here when the first settlers came to the country, hut the 
great elk was not. 

The first settlers came into the township of Adelaide in i<S32. 
There were no elk here then, and I have never been able to glean 
any information from them about this great deer, although I have 
spoken to many. The most interesting information 1 have been 
able to get of this animal is from an Indian on the Kettle Point 
Reserve, in the county of Lambton. He was an intelligent man 
and acted as interpreter. He was an elderly man when I spoke to 
him, perhaps between 60 and 70 years of age. lie knows nothing 



96 The Ottawa Naturalist. U^h 

of the elk himself, but his father used to tell him stories of shoot- 
ing them in that part of the country when he was young. Figured 
out at the time, I thought it was quite 100 years ago when this 
great deer roamed in these parts. 

I have an interesting collection of elk antlers ; one, a perfect 
specimen, measures forty inches in length and has seven points, 
one only of which is broken off. Another, a broken one, a cut of 
which accompanies this sketch, must have belonged to a large ani- 
mal. This piece is thirty inches long and measures thirteen inches 
in circumference where it joined the skull. I have several small 
pieces, all of which were found in this neighborhood and in the 
adjoining county, Lambton. From the state of decay all are in, 
I can quite believe it is more than a century since they fell from 
the heads of the animals to which they belonged. 




The most perfect specimen I know of, belongs to Mr. George 
Wilson, of Strathroy. This set of antlers is in a perfect state of 
preservation and must have been carried by a noble animal. Each 
antler measures fifty-five inches in length ; one has seven points 
and the other six. The longest point is eighteen inches. The 
greatest spread is thirty-four inches, and the weight when found 
was 35 pounds. Mr. Wilson obtained this grand set on his farm, 
lot 15 in the 12th concession in the township of Lobo, about 
seventeen years ago, and now has it mounted, in good shape, in 
his hall, where it makes a fine ornament. 

This set of antlers was found in a boggy spring where Mr. 
Wilson had bored for water, of which he obtained a bountiful 
supply. Some time subsequently his sons, while digging a little 
ditch to carry off the surplus water, came on the horns. They 
also found bones which were part of the skeleton, and, as the 



I goo] Smith — Extinction of Elk. 97 

antlers were still fast to a part of the skull, it was evident that 
the animal to which they belony^ed died there. 

How this Elk skeleton came there would be a question for 
thinkinyf naturalists to solve. Mr. Wilson is of the opinion that 
it might have been driven by wolves and have mired there. Per- 
haps the most reasonable theory is that it either died a natural 
death or was killed on that spot by a pack of these blood-thirsty 
brutes. 

How these great deer became extinct here will, perhaps, ever 
remain, to naturalists, a hidden secret. The Indian did not anni- 
hilate it because they never killed to extermination. If disease 
overtook them, as it sometimes does the great white hare of the 
far north, it is only reasonable to think that others would have 
come to replace the dead, or the few, if any, left would have in- 
creased again. We are c]uite in the dark concerning them. What 
we do know, is that this grandest of North American deer once 
roamed here, but it was before the white man came. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTE. 



The P.mnted Lady Blttekflv. — An interesting occurrence 
of a butterfly suddenly appearing in numbers sufficient to attract 
general attention has taken place this spring throughout Manitoba 
and the Northwest Territories, where this insect, Ptiranwis Cardni, 
has been extremely abundant. Caterpillars produced from eggs 
laid by the females have appeared in thousands, and natur2lly 
have caused much anxiety among those growing crops of any 
kind. The I'ood plant of this butterfly in Canada is chiefly the 
Canada Thistle, but it also feeds on other plants. Owing to the 
scarcity of their natural food, the larvst had to take to a new 
plant, viz., the Blue Bur {^Echinospvnnum Lapyula). A. G. 



gS The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

THE CANADIAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS WHITTLE- 
SEYA AND THEIR SYSTEMATIC RELATIONS. 



B}' David White. 
SOURCES AND SUPPOSED AGE OF THE MATERIALS. 

The discovery ot the g'enus Whitileseya in the Upper Palae- 
ozoic of Nova Scotia was announced hy Dr. H. M. Ami, oi the 
Geological Survey of Canada, in the August number of this journal 
for 1900. This well marked Palaeozoic plant type has been found 
only within a very limited vertical range, and it has hitherto been 
regarded as characteristic of a stage in the Meso-carboniferous of 
North America. The occurrence, therefore, of the genus in the 
shales of the Riversdale formation, concerning the age of which 
there is at present great difference of opinion, is a matter ot palse- 
ontological importance and interest. Through the courtesy of 
Dr. Ami and of Dr. G. M. Dawson, the late Director of the Sur- 
vey, a series ot the specimens forming the basis of the former's 
notes has been p'aced in the writer's hands for study and com- 
parison with the types from the Allegheny region. 

The material from Nova Scotia includes a number of speci- 
mens collected by Dr. Ami in 1898, from the banks of the Har- 
rington river near the boundary between Cumberland and Col- 
chester counties, and at West Bay shore, Parrsboro', Cumberland 
county. The fossils are said to have been gathered from the 
Riversdale formation, a sequence reported to be several thousands 
of feet in thickness of sandstones and shales which, on account of 
their stratigraphic position and relation to the metamorphism in 
the region, are regarded by the stratigraphical geologists^ who 
have investigated the structure and extent of the Palaeozoic form- 
ations of this region as of undoubtedly Middle Devonian age. 

On the other hand, palaeontologists, though differing some- 
what as to ihe stage of the fossils, are entirely agreed that the 
ro;;ks are Carboniferous. According to the evidence of the 
Batrachia, Crustacea and Lamellibranchiata examined by Sir 
William Dawson, Professors T. R. Jones and Henry Woodward, 

1 Huj^h Fletcher, Ann. Rept. GeoL Surv. Canada, 1886, vol. II, p. 64P ; 
also Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Sci., vol. X, 1900, p. 242; also R. \V. Ells, Ann. 
Re|)t. Geol. Surv. Canada, vol I, 1885, p. 51K. 



igci] White — -Thk Genus Whittleseva. 99 

and by Dr. Ami, tlie conclusion is reached that tlic formation is 
sately within the Carboniferous. Dr. Ami, who has not only 
critically reviewed all the faunal evidence but who has also studied 
the structure and position of the beds in the field, refers the Rivers- 
dale formation to the Eo Carboniferous, and places it at the base 
of the Lower Carboniferous. ' 

Palajobotanists have been disposed to refer this formation to 
a still higher stag^e. Specimens from Harrington River examined 
by Sir William Dawson, were referred by him to the Millstone 
Grit Later, in December of 1S97, a small collection from these 
beds was inspected by the writer and recognized by him as indi- 
cating a position in the Carboniferous not far from the dividing 
line between the Upper and Lower Carboniferous, ?.e., in the 
region of the MHlstone Grit or the Pottsville of the Appalachian 
trough. A little later a collection was submitted to Mr. Robert 
Kidston, of Sterling, Scotland, who arrived, absolutely independ- 
ently, at nearly the same conclusion, suggesting that the plants 
might be even so late as the Lower Coal Measures. Both Mr. 
Kidston and the writer recognized the approximate contem- 
poraneity of the Riversdale plant beds with the " fern ledges" of 
the Lancaster formation at St. John. Both regions furnish 
species of Asteropliyllites, Catamites^ Spheiiop/cn's, Ancimitcs^ 
Neuropteris, Alcfhopteris, Coydaiies a.x\d Cardiocarpou, which, *after 
continued study of the Carboniferous floras of the Appalachian 
trough, I find to be characteristic of that stage. I therefore do 
not hesitate, on the evidence of the fossil plants, to reg ird the 
Harrington River plant beds as representing a level at or not far 
below the Pottsville. 

In addition to the specimens from the Riversdale formation of 
Nova Scotia the Whittlcseyn material in hand for description in- 
cludes a single specimen from the " fern ledges," Lancaster form- 
ation, at St. John, New Brunswick. On examining one of the 
specimens of Neiiropteris Selvyni, labelled by Sir William Dawson 
and now in the collection of McGill University, a small out- 
cropping plant fragment was observed whose nerves suggested 
those of Whittleseyn. The removal of the rock from the remaining 
portion of the specimen brought to light a new and very interest- 
' Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Sci., vol. X, 1900, pp. 167-178. 



too The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

ing' species, Whittleseya Daivsoniana, whose description, through 
the courtesy of Professor Penhallow of the University, I am 
enabled to include in this paper. The " fern ledges" have been, 
and are still, regarded by most Canadian geologists as Middle 
Devonian.' The composition of this flora is essentially that of 
the Pottsville of the Allegheny region, to which most of the Lan- 
caster ferns are common. In fact, the fossil flora of the "fern 
ledges" appears to be representative of the Pottsville (Millstone 
Grit in part) of the United States. The more exact distribution 
of the species seems clearly to indicate, as I have elsewhere re- 
marked,^ the reference of a portion at least of the " fern ledges" 
to the Upper or Sewanee division of the Pottsville. 

The discovery o\ ^Vhittleseya at once in the Riversdale of 
Nova Scotia and in the Lancaster formation of New Brunswick 
not only tends to confirm the conclusion as to the approximate 
contemporaneity of these formations, a relation that has long been 
accepted by most geologists, with the exception of the late Sir 
William Dawson, but it is also corroborative of the correlation of 
both of these formations with the Pottsville.'^ 



' Sir William Dawson, Fossil Plants of the Devonian and Upper Silurian 
formations of Canada; Geo!. Surv. Canada, 1871. L. W. Bailey, Observa- 
tions on the Geology of Southern New Brunswick, 1865, pp. 54-76. Hugh 
Fletcher, Geological Nomenclature in Nova Scotia, Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. 
Sci., vol. X, 1900, p. 235. 

2 20th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, Pt. 2, 1900, p. 917. 

^ The Pottsville ("Pottsville conglomerate") in the type section in the 
Southern Anthracite field of Eastern Pennsylvania covers the interval, including 
a basal transition, between the marine Lower Carboniferous and the Lower 
Productive Coal Measures. Its lower portion contains a flora apparently 
corresponding to the Ostrau-Waldenberg zone of Europe, included by many 
paUtontologists within the top of the Lower Carboniferous. The upper 
portion includes the plants of the Millstone Grit and of the Lower Coal 
Measures of the Old World. Mr. Kidston's reference of the St. John Flora to 
the Lower Coal Measures corresponds perhaps exactly to my correlation of 
the plant beds with the upper portion of the Pottsville, since, as he has pointed 
out (Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. XII, 1894, p. 225), the Millstone 
Grit flora of Europe is essentially the same as that of the Lower Coal Measures, 
from which in many cases the Millstone Grit seems not to have been entirely 
stratigraphically distinguished. 



iQoi] White — The Gen'us Whittleseya. loi 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES. 

^Vhlttleseya, Newberry, 1853. 

The g^enus Whittlescya, established by Newberry ^ in 1853, 
embraces a type of narrowly petiolate leaves, more or less flabelli- 
form in plan, whose nervation is composed of broad and thick, 
closely or even densely arranged, fascicles or bands ot nerves 
originating- chiefly from a marginal strand on either side of the 
base and sometimes forking, not far above the point of origin, 
before passing upward, longitudinally parallel, to the generally 
truncate apex, where the nerves of each band or fascicle abruptlv 
converge in a more or less distinct crenulation or tooth. 

The leaves may be oblong, squarrose, triangular, cuneate or 
linear. They are always narrowed, sometimes so abruptly as to 
give an almost round-truncate profile, at the base. The petiole 
is usually long, and olten filamentose. The lateral borders are in 
most instances nearly parallel, and the distal border is frequently 
acutely dentate. In the more cuneate forms the basal marginal 
nerves are less developed, the nerve fascicles radiating more 
directly from the summit of the petiole. In some species, and 
circumstantially in others, the vascular bahds coalesce and are so 
densely arranged in the thick leaf substance as to be hardly separ- 
able. In most species the thickened central portions of the bands 
produce low costae, though the bands are not wholly distinct from 
one another below the teeth ; or, in many examples in which the 
teeth or corrugations are obscure, they may not be distinguished, 
unless topographically, for a portion of their length. The bands 
sometimes divide once near the base. Above the base they con- 
tinue nearly parallel to the lateral margins of the leaves. Fre- 
quently the lateral margins are very slightly infolded near the 
apex. 

The branchlets or possibly the stems of this type, as shown 
in specimens of Whiltlcseya niicrophylla^ are slender, rarely divid- 
ing at a rather wide angle, apparently naked at some distance 
below the apices, and probably woody as indicated by the rather 
densely carbonaceous residue. The leaves, still attached to the 

^ Annals of Science, vol. i, Xo. 10, Clevel.intl, 185-, p. 116. 



I02 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

terminal portions of the branches, were sustained by apparently 
lax, often extremely slender petioles, sometimes several times as 
long^ as the blade of the leaf. No precise correlation has yet been 
made between the Wliittleseyce and any of the types of Paheozoic 
fruits, one or more genera of which are usually found associated 
in the same beds. 

The species already attributed to this genus are : IVhittleseya 
elegans,^ J J'. crassifolin,~ W. nndiilata,'^ W. microphylla,'^ IV. 
Caffipbe/h'/' and W. Lcscuriann.'" To these are now added three 
species from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as follows : 

W^hittleseya desiderata, n. sp. 

PI. VII, Fi£,'s. I, 2, \n. 

Leaves of moderate thickness, oblong, slightly cuneate, 9 mm.- 
14 mm. in length above the petiole, 6 mm. -10 mm. broad near the 
truncate apex, slightly rounded at the distal angles, rapidly con- 
tracted in the lower one fourth to form a round-obtuse or obtuse 
base; apex crenulo-denticulate, often obtusely denticulate, with 
short, rounded teeth ; vascular bands or costae 18-24 in number, 
often low-rounded, usually distinct, confluent and generally once- 
forked at a narrow angle at the base, the outer two or three on 
either side blending in a marginal band; petiole relatively broad 
at the top, the length and mode of attachment being unknown. 

The species here described is one of the smaller of the genus, 
of which, however, it shows well the distinctive characters. As is 
usual in this group, especially in the type, IVhittleseya elegaiis, the 

' Newberry, Ann. Sci., vol. i, Cleveland, 1S53, p. 116, fisjs. 1, 2. Les- 
querctix, Coal Flora, vol. II, p. ^21,, pi. I\', f. 1., la. 

^ Lesquereux, Coal Flora, Adas, wSjg, p. j, pi. IV, f. 2 {W. integrifolia, 
op. cit., vol. II, p. 524,) 

' Lesquereux, op. cit., \ol. II, p. 525, pi. IV', f. 3. 

' Lesquereux, o\^. cit., vol. Ill, p. 1X43. Lesley, Diet. Foss. Pa., vol. Ill, 
p. 1256, text-fijjfs. 

■'' D. While, 2olh Ann. Rept. L'. S, Geol. Survey, Pt. II, 1900, p. S67. 

*" Loc. cil., p. 867. 



moil White — The Gents Whitti.eseya. 103 

vascular hands become more distinct and separate as they ap- 
proach the teeth. In the middle of the leaf they are often more 
dilTuse, thoui^h they are i^enerally recoijnizable down to near their 
points of oriijin. 

The normal aspect ot M'hittlcxeya dcsidcraUi is shown in 
PI. V'll, Fiij. I, an enlarg-ement of whose vascular bands is pre- 
sented in Fig'. Ml. In this example the orig-in of the bands is 
easily traceable. The orif^inal of Fig-. 2 is slig^htly warped or de- 
formed in the matrix, which g-ives the apex an unduly contracted 
form. It is notable, however, that in this specimen, as is often 
the case in W. iinditlnta and ff. i'mnpbclli, the bands on the ex- 
treme borders are slightly infolded near the apex, so that one or 
two of the teeth at each corner are sometinies o\ erlapped and 
slig-htly inward inclined. In this specimen is also indicated a trace 
of a petiole, which would appear to be filamentose, as in Jf. niicro- 
ptiyllu Lx. ]Vliitflescya desiderata is disting^uished from //'. Daw- 
soniana bv its proportionately smaller and more elongated form, 
and especially by the narrow an .1 more numerous vascular bands. 
The latter, by their number and proximity, sug^g-esl /!'. DiicropJiylla, 
but they are neither so dense nor so far blended as in the species 
last named. In ]\'. micropliylla,'^ although the dimensions are 
ver\- similar, the bands are often difficult of distinction, while the 
distal marg-in appears more or less obscurely crenulate. One of 
the specimens, from West Bay Shore, Parrsboro', Nova Scotia, 
collected b\- Dr. .Ami in 1899, '•'^ somewhat narrower than the two 
examples figured, though belonging to the same species. Another 
example, from Harrington River, Station A5 of Dr. Ami's collec- 
tions, presents, apparently as the result of lateral deformation, a 
somewhat cuneate form striking^ly similar to that of IVhittteseya 
microphylla, with which it agrees in size. The same shale frag- 
ment contains a normal example to which a part of the petiole is 

still attached. 

Localities. — Harrington River beds, Harrington River, Col- 
chester Co., N. S., Stations A5 and B5 ; collected by Dr. Ami, 
1898. Also on the Harrington River in Cumberland Co., N. S., 
Station A7 ; collected by Dr. Ami in 1898. West Bay Shore, 
Parrsboro, Cumberland Co., N. S. ; collected by Dr. Ami in 1899. 

The specimens are in the collections of the Geological Survey 
of Canada. 

' PI. vii, Fig. 7- 



104 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

^A^hittleseya brevifolia, n. sp. 

PI. VII, Fig-. 3, 3rt. 

Leaf very small and very short, fan-shaped, very broadly 
triang^Lilar, less than one cm. in length, and nearly as broad or 
broader than long at the apex, truncate or slightly truncate at the 
top, and gently convex laterally ; vascular bands narrow, about 20 
or 25 in number, forking once near the base, or derived simply 
from the marginal nerve, slightly arched near the lateral margins, 
crowded, somewhat obscure in the middle portion, more distinct 
near the apex where each band contracts within the limits ot a very 
small, short, obtuse tooth. 

The salient features of this species are the somewhat dimin- 
utive size, the extremely broadly triangular form and the compact- 
ness of the narrow vascular bands. As shown in the illustration. 
Fig. 3, the lateral margins, perhaps slightly mechanically 
contracted in this instance, form nearly a right angle at the base. 
The characters of the vascular bands and of the teeth are shown 
in Fig. 3a. The specimen figured is but 7 mm. in length, exclusive 
of the petiole, and 8 mm. in breadth at the apex. 

Although the species is represented by but a single example 
in the collection, it appears to be specifically distinct from Whittle- 
seya desiderata by reason of the abbreviated triangular form and 
the narrow bands. It is possible, however, that a series of in- 
termediate phases may be discovered, which will prove this form 
to lie within the limits of individual variation in the leaves of the 
latter species. In the absence of such forms it cannot at present 
be safely included in the same species. As compared with Whit- 
tleseya microphylla, the only other distinctly cuneate species, the 
leaf in hand differs by its very short form, the more distinct costae 
and the well defined teeth. 

Locality. — Harrington River beds, Harrington River, Col- 
chester Co., N.S.; Station A12 of Dr. Ami's i8q8 collections. 

The type is in the collections of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 



iqoi] White — The Genus Whittleseya. 105 

Whittleseya Dawsoniana, n. sp. 

PI. VII, Fi.y-s. 4. 4«. 

Leaf very small, short, squarrose, broader than long-, truncate 
at the apex, round-truncate at the base, thick ; nerve bands very 
broad, 1.5 mm. -1.75 mm. in width, about 10 or 12 in number, 
parallel to the lateral borders, apparently undivided, and forming 
very broad and very low tlat costa; which are contiguous or 
slightly confluent in the interior of the leaf, each band terminating 
in a short, broad, tooth. 

While examining one of the specimens from St. John, N.B., 
labelled by Sir William Dawson as Neuroplcf^is Sekvyni, loaned 
from the collections of McGill University through the courtesy of 
Prof. D. P, Penhallow, the writer observed on the same fragment 
of shale a small portion of a leaf showing vascular bands similar 
to those of Whittleseya. On carefully removing the matrix from 
the remaining portion of the fossil, the specimen was found not 
only to belong to Whittleseya^ but to represent a new species of 
that genus This leaf, which is illustrated in PI. VII, Fig. 4, is 
about 13 mm. long above the petiole, and about 17 mm. in width 
at the top, which is slightly wider than the lower portion. The 
specimen, which is slightly deformed ancl a little crumpled at the 
base so as not to reveal the petiole, is well marked by the very 
low, broad, and flat ribs, whose terminations in the apparently 
short, obtuse teeth, are very obscurely seen along a portion of the 
distal border. The characters of the teeth are hardly positively 
determined. 

The species is named in memory of Sir William Dawson, 
Canada's most distinguished pahuobotanist and one ot the great 
palajontologists of the world. It is recognized among other 
broad-leaved species of the genus by its small size, relatively great 
breadth and proportionately very broad bands. Further, the teeth 
along the distal margin appear to be shorter and more obtuse than 
in Whittleseya elegans, while the form of the leaf is not elongate 
as in W. iindiilata, whose teeth are also short. 

The species described above is associated on the same shale 
fragment with Alethopteris and a fragment of iVie?/n>^/^r« (labelled 
Neiiropteris Selii.yni) apparently indistinguishable from a plant 



io6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

from the upper Pottsville of the Appalachian province described in 
manuscript by the writer as a variety of Neuropleris Schlehani 
Stur. 

Locality. — "Fern ledges," Lancaster formation, near St John, 
New Brunswick. 

The type of the species is with No. 73 (391) in the collections 
of the Geological Department of McGill University, Montreal, 
Canada. 

RELATIONS AND SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF THE SPECIES. 

The species of Whittteseya from Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick are closely allied to the southern representatives of the same 
genus. The Whittlesey a desiderata has the aspect of a diminutive 
W. elegans Newb., an example of which, from the type bed and 
vicinity, is, for comparison, shown in PI. VII, Fig. 5. In the 
small species the teeth are less acute, while the bands are more 
confluent, more carinate, and less ribbon-like than in the Ohio 
plant. In respect to the nervation, the former species agrees per- 
haps more nearly with the material from the roof of the Sewanee 
coal of Tennessee placed by Lesquereux in W. nndnlata. Tha 
compactness of the fascicles also approaches the nervation of W'. 
microphylla (PI. vii. Fig. 7.) In fact, the longer Riversdale 
species appears, while ranging most closely to W. elegans and 
W. undulata, to stand on the side toward the cuneate W. micro- 
phylla. 

The Whittleseya brevi/olia, though nearest to W. desiderata, 
suggests by both its form and nervation a position between ihe 
latter and the W. microphylla, an example of which, from the Type 
locality,' is illustrated in Fig 7. 

Whittleseya Dawsoniana, on the other hand, is by far most 
closely bound to W. elegans, from the Sharon coal (Upper Potts- 
ville) of Ohio, though its proportionately broader ribs and less 



^ Near F"ayettevilli>, Arkansas, in the "coal bi>aring- slialo," a formation 
representinjjf a part of the Upper Pottsville, not far from the Sharon coal, in 
the Appalachian trough. The species is also present in the Breathitt forma- 
tion of Kentucky, and the Upper Lykens division of the Pottsville in the 
Pennsylvania Anthracite region. 



igoi] White — Tiiii Genus Whutleseya. 107 

pointed tectli are comp;irable to the Sewanee form of JV. iiiidiilnla. 
It is worthy of note in this connection that the collections from 
the Upper Lykens division at the Lincoln mines in the Southern 
Anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania contain a Whiltlescya form' 
whose narrowest leaves are so similar in size and character to 
that described above from St. John as to sug-g^est slight doubt as 
to the validity of a specific separation for the Pennsylvania type, 
although the other associated leaves of the same plant are propor- 
tionately very much broader and somewhat longer. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the WhiUlcscycc thus 
far discovered in the Riversdale and Lancaster formations pertain 
to the group with numerous more compact nerve fascicles and 
broader proportions, in general characteristic of the Upper Potts- 
villc, rather than to the linear group," with comparatively few 
bands and large teeth, which prevails in the lower portions of the 
Pottsville in the Appalachian province. 

The genus Whiltlescya is regarded by most paheobotanists as 
a gymnospermous type, although some difference of opinion 
exists as to its position among the gymnosperms. As originally 
published by Di'. Newberry,' it w^as described as perhaps pinnate, 
and compared with various genera, not all gymnospermic, without 
suggestion of a definite relationship with any family. By Lesquer- 
eux,'' and Sir William Dawson.-^ it w^as referred to the 
Xoeggcralhiacccc, a lamil)' typified by Xceggerathia. The latter 
genus, the original species of which resembles ArcJucoptcrisy is 
now generally considered as most closely allied to the Cycads, 
though some writers have classed it among the ferns. Schenck," 
in 1884. placed the Wliitlleseycc in the Dole rophy Ilea- , whose type 
genus Dole rophy Hum WAS put by Dawson in the Noeggerdthiaece. 

Almost simultaneously, in 1885, in two important pala;obotan 
ical works published by Saporta,' and Renault,** Whittleseya 

' Whittlesey a elegans Nevvb., v;ir. minor D. W., 2otli .Ami. Ro|)t. U. S, 
Geol. Siirv., Pi. II, 1900, pp. 78S, 904. 

2 Whittleseya Cnmphelli H. W., op. cit.. p. 905, pi. CXL, lij^js. 9- 1 1 ; 
and Whittleseya Lcscuriana D. W'., op. lit., p. 867 (description nol yet pub- 
lished. ) 

^- -Annals of Science, vol. 1, Cleveland, 1853, p. ii() 

' Coal Flora, vol. 11, 1.S80, p. 52,^. Principles of PaUuozoic Pal.-eobotany, 
i88j, p. 97. 

' Can. Rec .Sci., vol. I\', No. 1, 1890, pp. 2f), 27. 

" InZittels Handb. d. PaUeont., vol. II, p. 253. 

" Evol. re^. vejj., Phanero^., vol. I, p. 144. 

■" Coiirs Bot. Foss., vol. I\', p. 6g. 



io8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

was referred to the Salisbiirt'acccv, in which it uas ranged with 
Dicranopliylliim, Rhipidopsis, Trichopifys, Ginkgop/iyllic»i, and 
Baiera, the earlier relatives of the living genus Ginkgo. This 
reference, which was accepted by Schenck, ^ appears to find favour 
with most foreign palaeobotanists- who have more recently con- 
sidered the relationship of the American genus, though Solms- 
Laubach,^ regards it as based on too slender evidence. 

In the absence of any precise knowledge of the florescence or 
fruits of IVhiitleseyn, any systematic reference of the genus is based 
almost wholly on the characters and analogies of the leaves, and 
must therefore be regarded as hypothetical and tentative. Yet 
the development and the nervation of the leat are such as prac- 
tically to exclude a comparison with any Cryptogamic type, and to 
at once suggest a gymnospermic nature. Further, the analogies 
between the leaf structure of ] Vhitflesey a a.nd those of Ginkgo, and 
more particularly with the more ancient forms of that type, are so 
striking as to compel a comparison with both the living and the 
fossil representatives of the Ginkgoales. These analogies are 
illustrated by the almost identical characters of the nervation and 
distal border of the leaf in IVhitileseya microphvlla and in the 
recent Ginkgo. Among some of the additional Appalachian Potts- 
ville material, which will probably receive special attention in a 
later paper, are several fragments which appear to indicate a 
probably spiral arrangement of the leaves, the latter forming, in 
W. jnicrophylla, very loose tufts at the ends of the twigs. 

There are also two conditions which favour a direct relation- 
ship of the American type to the Ginkgoales : First, there is the 
extraordinary antiquity of the genus Ginkgo which is clearly iden- 
tified in the older Mesozoic,while its antecedents or closer relatives, 
Baiera and Ginkgophylluni, are present in the Permo-Carbon- 
iferous, in which are also found a number of the immediately allied 
types. In this connection it will be of interest for the reader to 
compare the Whittleseyce with the group illustrations of Ginkgo 

' Die foss. Pflanzenreste, 1888, p. 166. 

^ See Zeiller, Elem. de pal^obot., 1900, p. 251. Also see Seward and 
Gowan, in Annals Rot., vol. XI\', 1900, p. 135. 
' Fossil Botany, 1891, p. 66. 



igoi] White — The Genls VVhittleseya. 109 

relatives amX Gifi/:o-() leaves g-iven by Saporta, ' Ward,- Seward 
and Gowan,-* and Zeiller. ^ The other circumstance, lendins,'^ some 
minor colour of probability as to the relationship, is the occurrence, 
in especial abundance in the beds containing- IV/iittlcseya of numer- 
ous types of gymnospermic fruits, some of which represent genera 
closely analogous in structural characters to those of the living 
"maiden-hair tree," Ginkgo biloba. In thejudgment of the writer the 
Whittlescycc are the oldest representatives of the Ginkgoales stock 
that have yet been discovered. The fruits of this type are prob- 
ably included in some of the American species of Rhahdociirpos^ or 
possibly in Cardiocarpon. The plant from the Upper Coal 
Measures of Baie de Chaleur described by Dawson'' as N(V£rgerathia 
dispur, although fragmentary and very incomplete, appears by its 
petiolate development, the basi-marginal nerves, and the banding 
of the parallel, longitudinal nervation to be also referable to the 
same stock, if not to the same genus. The Noeggenitliia dispar 
may perhaps, without too great an assumption, be regarded as a 
connecting link between the earlier Whittleseyas and the later 
Saportcea of Fontaine and I. C. White,'' from the Dunkard or 
supposed Permian of the Appalachian trough. Saportcea'^ through 
its allied genera, Baieniy and Ginkgophyllum, may perhaps be 
safely regarded as belong^ingf to the Ginkgo stock, while the two 
genera last named are not only closely related, but one of them is 
perhaps antecedent to the genus Ginkgo, which is unquestionably 
present with characteristic flowers and fruits in the earlier Meso- 
zoic. During this epoch Ginkgo, u-hich in the world of to-day is 



91. 



' Evol. r^g. vcg^., Phanerog-., vol. I, 1S85. pi>. 142-146. 

- Scienci.', vol. V, 18S5, p. 496. 

' .\mial> of Botany, vol. XI\', 1900, pp. 109-154. 

* Elements de Paleobolanique, 1900, pp. 248-253. 

■' Quart. Jour. Geo!. .Soc-. London, vol. XXII, 18W,, p. \^^, I'l. XIII, fig^. 

'■ Permian Flora, ]ip. 99, 101, 102, pi. X.X.W'III. tigs. 1-4. 



' Saport(ea, F. and \V., antedates and is quite distinct from Saporfia, a 
genus of Tertiar)' -Algfe, named by Squinabol in 1891, Contr. Fl. Foss. Terz. 
Liguria, pt. i, p. xx. 



iio The Ottawa Naturalist, [July 

not definitely known in a wild state, ^ appears to have enjoyed a 
world-wide distribution including' all continents and extending' 
from California to India, from Greenland to Arg-entina, and from 
Tasmania to Spitzbergen. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 2 May, iqoi. 

Plate V'll. — Canadian types. 
Figures i and 2. — U'hitflestya desiderata, D. W., Fig. \a, enlarg'ement (X4) to 

show the vascular bands of the leaf. 

Harring'ton River, N. S. ; Riversdale formation. 
F~iyure 3. — Whittlcseya brcvi folia, D.W., Fig. -^a, detail show ing the nervation 

(X4) _ 

Harrington River, N. S. ; Riversdale formation. 
figure 4. — Whittleseya Daivsoiiiaiia, D. W., Fig. 4^/, enlargement (X4) to show 

the vascular bands. 

St. John, N. B. ; Lancaster formation. 
Appalachian tvpes. 
Figures. — Wliiltlcscya clegaiis, Nevvb. , showing the average form and 

projjortions. 

Roof of Sharon coal, Akron, Ohio ; upper jjart of Pottsville. 
Figure 6. — WJtitllcseya iindiilata, Lx., slightly narrower than the normal form 

labelled by Lesquereux with this name. 

Roof of Pratt coal. Dolomite, Ala. ; Pratt group, Upper Pottsville. 
Figure 7. — Whiltleseya niicrophyUa, Lx. 

Near Fayette^ ille, Ark. ; Coal-bearing shale, L'pper Pottsville. 
Figure 8. — Whittlesey a Cainpbelli, D. W. 

Lincoln Mines, Southern Anthracite field. Pa. ; 

Lower Lykens division, Pottsville. 

SOME NEW CANADIAN GENTIANS.- 

By Thi-:o. Holm. 
Gentiana macounii. — Annual or sometimes biennial, glabrous 
except the calyx : stem strict, quadrangular, 5 to 30 cm. high, 
branched from the base : lowest leaves spathulate or oblong lanceo- 
late, the upper linear-lanceolate, acute : peduncles long and stout, 
I -flowered : calyx purplish-green, unequally cleft to near the 
middle, 4-lobed, the longer lobes lanceolate, the shorter ovate with 
broad membranaceous margins, all acuminate and carinate, 
scaberulous with minute short papillae, especially along the keels : 
corolla deep bluish, i )4 to 3 cm. long, cleft to about ^3 of its 
length, 4-Iobed, the lobes very veiny, slightly spreading, broad and 

^ The sole survivor of the genus Ginkgo, the Ginkgo tree {G. biloha), also 
known as the " Maidenhair tree" on account of the resemblance of its leaves 
to the Maidenhair fern {AdiatitiDii), is the sacred tree of the temple gardens 
of Japan and China, whence it has been introduced b\- lu>rticulturists into 
Furope and .\merica. 

- These descriptions oi new species, formerly supposed to represent 
Genfiana serrata, Gunn., have been extracted from a very valuable paper 
by Mr. Holm on " Some Canadian species of Gentiana : section Crossopetalce, 
F"roel.", with four plates, received too late for publicaiion in this number of 
The Ottawa Naturalist. The complete paper will appear in an early 
number of this journal. 

Mr. Holm also proposes G. serrata, var. grandis, and var. Itolopetala, Gra}', 
as species, viz.: G. grandis (CtVAj '^ynQ\)\.. Flora, p. 117), Holm, and G. Itolo- 
petala (Gray ibid.). Holm. — Editor. 



igoi] Holm — Canadian Gentians. im 

fring-ed along tlie sides, but merely denticulate across the summit: 
nectariferous glands 4 at the base of the corolla-lobes : stamens 4 
with broadly winged filaments, these ciliate in the middle: anthers 
at first introrse : pistil fusiform, stipitate with short but distinct 
style: stigma roundish : mature capsule shorter than the corolla : 
seeds rough with numerous long papilla?. 

Prairies, gravelly soil and margins of marshes. The Geologi- 
cal Survey specimens are from Lees Creek at Cardston, Alberta; 
Red Dctr, Alberta; along the Bow River to Banff, Rocky Moun- 
tains, where it is very abundant; Waterton Lake, Lat. 49*^ 05'; and 
Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan. 

Gentiana procera. ^Annual, glabrous except the calyx: stem 
erect, angled, 25 to about 50 cm. high, branched above : lowest 
leaves spathulate or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, the upper linear- 
lanceolate, acute: branches i — 3-flowered with ii or 3 pair of leaves: 
calyx I j5^ to 3 cm. long, unequally cleft to the middle or a little 
above, 4-lobed. the longer lobes linear-lanceolate, the shorter much 
broader with membranaceous margins, all acuminate and carinate, 
scabrous: corolla, deep blue, 2 to 5 cm. long, 4-lobed, the lobes 
very veiny, roundish with many long fringes along the sides and 
dentate across the summit: nectariferous glands as in G. Macounii: 
stamens 4, the filaments naked, otherwise as in the preceding 
species : ovary shortly stipitate with short style and a roundish, 
somewhat lobed stigma : mature capsule much shorter than the 
corolla : seeds with long papillae. 

Represented in the Herbarium of the Geological Survey of 
Canada by specimens from near Sarnia, Ont. {C. K. Dodge); Lake 
Huron [Dr. Richardson); Stony Mtn., Man. [John Macoiai); and in 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard I'niversity from Goat Island 
Niagara Falls; shore of Lake Superior, Charlevoix, Mich.; and 
Minnesota. 

Gentiana nesophila. — .Annual, glabrous: stem erect, angled, 
6 to 9 cm. high, much branched from near the root : leaves glau- 
cous, densely crowded and forming a rosette, roundish or obovate, 
tapering into the petioles, the cauline spathulate or lanceolate, ob- 
tuse : peduncles sometimes as many as 12, stout, i -flowered with 2 
or 3 pair of leaves : calyx glaucous and wholly glabrous, about i ^4 
cm. long, unequally cleft to near middle, 4-lobed, the longer lobes 
narrow and keeled, the shorter much broader with membranaceous 
margins, but not carinate : corolla pale bluish in dried specimens, 
2 to 2^ cm. long, 4-lobed, the lobes roundish with a very few 
lateral teeth, but no fringes, erosely denticulate across the sum- 
mit: nectariferous glands 4 : stamens 4, with winged filaments : 
ovary shortly stipitate, the style distinct, with a roundish stigma : 
mature capsule shorter than the corolla : seeds with short, obtuse 
papillai. 

Known only from near Salt Lake, Anticosti, Quebec, where it 
was collected by Prof. John .Macoun on low, moist ground; in flower 
August, 1883. 



112 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



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J 14 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

To the Acting-Editor of The Ottawa Naturalist : 

Having been asked by several members of the Ottawa Field- 
Naturalists' Club why I did not reply to the bitter attack made 
upon my " Synopsis of the Geology of Canada,"' published with 
the sanction of the Editor, and without any opportunity on my 
■part of replying thereto in the same May number of The Ottawa 
Naturalist, I desire to state that whilst 1 did feel strongly in- 
clined to reply to it in the same strain, and point out the errors 
and mistakes it contains as well as the evident motives for the 
words of the writer, who signs himselt " H. F." [who, by-the- 
bye, from his initials, is evidently not even a member of the Club, 
yet, was allowed to use our official organ as a medium] and at- 
tacks one who, in the course of his geological researches in the 
field and studies in the department has been compelled to state 
what he believes to be the truth regarding the geological age of 
certain strata in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick about which a 
great deal has been written by a certain writer whose initials are 
also ■' H. F." and presumably refer to the same person. These 
writings, as well as that of " R. W. E." in the January issue of 
The Ottawa Naturalist for 1900, and an unsigned article in a 
local journal, all bearing on the same subject and evidently in- 
spired from the same quarter, may be placed along with that 
^' very large mass of geological writing of the present time which 
is utterly worthless for any of the higher purposes of science, 
which might quite safely and profitably, both as regards time and 
temper, be left unread." I do not wish to enter into any personal 
controversy as that bitter attack would seem to lead. 1 merely 
desire to point out facts and natural conclusions that we can draw 
from them. I had much rather not had to write this letter in- 
tended for the members of the Club, who are certainly entitled to 
consideration in the matter. 

After over twenty years' experience in chronological geology 
in Canada, I have brought out my "synopsis" in the interests of 
geology in Canada and in accordance with the facts which I have 
examined for myself during nearly two decades in the Geological 
Survey Department — not with any preconceived notions or ideas 
to bolster up, nor yet with any vain theories of mine to uphold. 

I do not hesitate to stand by the position I have taken in my 
" Synopsis " as regards points in nomenclature. As regards nicety 
of diction and literary skill, I do not claim any. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Sgd.) H. M. Ami. 
Ottawa, June 22nd, 1901. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. PL. VIM 




Topographical Map of Red River Valley, from Model by D. B. Dowling. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. Pl. IX 




Part of Manitoba. 
Dotted lines show beaches of west side of former lake. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, AUGUST, 1901. No. 5. 

THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE RED RIVER 

VALLEY. 



By D. B. DowiJNG, B. Sc. 

A critical study of the physical features of any region is not 
complete nor is its full significance understood if there is not added 
some note referring to the great changes which have contributed 
to its history. Many of the bolder features such as mountain 
ranges show in the bending and folding of the beds composing 
their mass, a yielding to great lateral pressure and consequent 
upheaval. Similarly all the surface deformations offer evidence as 
being the result of various agencies ; whether changes in elevation, 
folding and breaking of the crust or the continued action of atmos- 
pheric or climatic conditions. 

In the district to be discussed the principal movements 
recorded are changes in elevation during which the sea advanced 
or retired and was the principal agent in the deformation and sub- 
sequent addition to the deposits on the earth's crust. 

A reference to the illustration will show the general nature 
of the valley from the height-of-land at Lake Traverse northward 
to the Manitoba lakes. It broadens toward the north and in 
Manitoba is seen to include a wide tract — the first prairie steppe — 
extending from the hills bordering it on the west, to the rougher 
country lying to the east of Lake Winnipeg. 

The general character of the country on both borders is quite 
distinct and the plain, through which the river runs, forms an area 
of a still different type. The character of each is primarily caused 
by the relative hardness and formation of the material forming the 
crust of the earth beneath. 



ii6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

To the east is a rugged plain sloping gently westward. On 
this many small lake-basins are seen and the streams winding 
through it are peculiar in that they have not of themselves worn 
down valleys but are found winding in various ways seeking the 
lowest level, passing through lake expansions which are merely 
hollows hlled to the level of the lowest outlet. This area is a part 
of the original continent formed after the molten mass of the earth 
had cooled sufficiently to have formed upon it a crust. 

A study of this area shows that the original crust suffered 
many changes — that successive sinkings into the still molten mat- 
ter beneath, modified much of it or probably remelted all of the 
original surface. The earliest littoral deposits are associated with 
eruptive greenstones, and wherever remnants of these are found 
they are nearly always surrounded by rocks which appear to have 
been at a later date in a plastic condition and to have enfolded the 
early sedimentaries. These remnants are of great economic value 
inasmuch as they have been specially enriched by veins carrying 
the precious and other metals and minerals. A long lapse of time 
enabled the surface to become firmer before additional deposits 
were placed upon it, but the surface suflFered great denudation and 
a large part of it was removed to form the earlier stratified sea 
deposits. The uneven nature of its present surface is due in a 
great measure to the varying hardness or brittleness of the con- 
stituent rocks. 

The country beneath this rough slope and the edge of the 
plateau to the west of the valley is underlain by limestones placed 
nearly horizontal and covered by coatings of clay, the nature of 
which is dependent on the conditions of deposition. 

The plateau to the west through which may be seen many deep 
river channels is composed of a series of soft, dark coloured, easily 
eroded shales or hardened clays with occasional overlying deposits 
of sand and clays of a lighter colour containing a few seams of 
lignite which were deposited in shallow, probably brackish water. 

These various deposits indicate a certain part of the history 
of the continent to be briefly as follows : — 

A subsidence of the original continent brought the sea into the 
central part of the present land area, so that its waters covered 
perhaps all of Manitoba. The advance was slow and represents a 



igoo] Den\LiNG — Reij Rivhk Valley. 117 

great lapse of time. Along the marg^in of the sea the waves and 
currents were breaking up and carrying away the loosened parts 
of the former land surface. The heavier material was left near the 
shore to form the lower rocks which are mainly of sand, while 
above are the deeper sea deposits; limestones. 

That this sea remained for a long time is evident from the 
great thickness of the limestone beds laid down over its bed, for it 
is generally supposed that limestone is not formed very rapidly. 

The commencement of an upward rise was probably about the 
time of the great coal period. Traces of rocks formed at this time 
are found in Minnesota but none so far in Manitoba. As this part 
rose above the water it probably presented a very even surface or 
that of a great plain sloping to the south-west, but the fact that 
near the shore the beds were thinner than elsewhere would cause 
them to be more easily fractured by any unequal movement of the 
crust in the general elevation. 

There was a long lapse of time during which this part of the 
continent remained above the sea and it is probable that in this 
interval the surface of the limestone was worn away and brought 
near its present contour. Along the eajstern margin there was 
probably a line of cliffs facing the east, and in front of this a line 
of lakes or a river system the fore-runner of the Lake Winnipeg 
basin. 

The next evidence of change in the elevation shows that the 
next advance of the sea was caused by a much less depression 
than in the previous case. In this instance the sea was shallow 
and apparently the waters very muddy if we are to judge by the 
amount of silt that was left by this submergence 

A preliminary sandy deposit showing the advance of the seals 
succeeded by a great thickness of shale or hardened mud which is 
characteristic of this later submergence. These shales not being 
here subject to any great pressure except the weight of the upper 
beds, are not hardened to any degree. 

Above these dark shales there is a lighter coloured series of 
sands and clays holding a few seams of lignite, but as these de- 
posits have been removed from most of the area in the vicinity of 
the Red River valley they are merely referred to ; farther west they 
are better developed and are of great economic importance. 



ii8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

After the final emergence from the sea was accomphshed, the 
country assumed somewhat the same character which it has at the 
present time but with several modifications. The plateau west of 
the present valley extended farther to the east and sloped more 
regularly eastward while the larger channel was probably also 
shifted eastward to run along the face of the limestone outcrop or 
by a series of minor streams running parallel to it corresponding 
to the basii-.s of the present lakes. 

A great change in the climatic conditions next brought about 
important changes in the surface features and also in the distribu- 
tion of the soil. Colder winters and cooler summers were succeeded 
by a long period ot continuous winter, in which all the natural 
drainage was stayed and there gradually accumulated a vast thick- 
ness of snow. The area of greatest precipitation and consequent 
accumulation of ice and snow was at first in the country to the 
north. As this ice increased in thickness it began to spread slowly 
towards its outer margin. In this way there was a movement of 
the ice southward through the valley and as the movement pro- 
gressed this mass of ice picked up and carried along with it much 
of the loose material on the surface, at the same time scoring and 
polishing the harder rocks, breaking off protruding points and 
deeply plowing along the face of the plateau of soft rocks to the 
west. When the valley was filled there might have been a halt to 
the forward movement for a time but it gradually over-rode the 
edge and spread to the west as far as the Coteau du Missouri and 
southward over Minnesota. 

Warmer conditions returned and the great mass began to 
melt along its margin. The great amount of debris carried along 
with the ice was thus left in great heaps where the edge of the ice 
was stationary for some time or if the retreat caused by melting 
was rapid the surface would be more or less evenly strewn by this 
material which is generally called boulder-clay. As the ice melted 
there would naturally be a vast quantity of water to be carried 
away, and river channels were formed which appear now to have 
little cause for origin except for this emergency. Where the slope 
of ihe country was toward the ice, large lakes along its margin 
were formed. 



igoi] DowLiNG — Red River Valley, 119 

One line alonj^ which it is evident the edge of this glacier 
m;ide a halt as shown by an extra amount of boulder-clay, is along- 
the western margin of the Duck mountains then southward skirt- 
ing the eastern bank of the Assiniboine river, crossing to the 
south side through the Brandon hills and by the Tiger hills to the 
Pembina mountain. There is evidence that a lake filled the valley 
ot the Souris and part of the Assiniboine, while the ice front was 
at this line. (This is outlined in the second illustration. ) The 
drainage of this lake was to the south-east along the foot of 
the glacier and the scouring of this large stream wore a great 
valley through which now runs a small stream — the Pembina river. 
The change in drainage was accomplished by the further melting 
of the ice so that the Assiniboine and the Souris rivers united in 
the present valley. 

The retreat of the ice down the Red River valley was accom- 
panied by the formation of a large lake at its southern margin, for 
the water was obliged to accumulate till it found an outlet, which 
in this case was to the south through what is now Lake Traverse to 
the Mississippi. As the retreating front passed farther north the 
lake grew in dimensions and beaches were formed along its shores. 
There is evidence that another great invasion ol' ice this time from 
the north-east, was threatened but its margin did not probably 
cover the entire basin. It still held the water, as a long inland 
sea, from draining to Hudson Bay. During this period the 
removal of the weight of the former glacier from the earth caused 
a gradual rising of the land at the north to probably its previous 
elevation and maintained the flow of the waters of the lake to the 
southward. This rise was continued as the second glacier dis- 
appeared and there came a time when the water found other 
outlets probably toward Hudson Bay and a gradual contraction of 
the lake ensued in which successive beaches mark the different 
stages. 

The evidence of the former occupation of this great plain by a 
vast lake is clearly shown in the beautiful beaches in Manitoba, 
Dakota and Minnesota. These have been examined, traced and had 
their levels determined. In the tracing and levelling it was dis- 
covered that instead of being laid in level rows, the surface of 
the higher ones rise to the north at a rate increasing from six inches 
to one foot in the mile. The lower ones are more nearly level as 
is the case of the lowest or those at present around the present 
lakes. This is the evidence of the upward rise of the land to the 



1 20 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

north-east which also is shown in the beaches around Hudson Bay 
at heights up to 500 feet above sea. 

As the level of the lake fell, the present lake basins became 
defined and reached their present dimensions. Examples of 
beaches at different stages might be cited but they are very nume- 
rous in the western part of the basin along the base of the Pembina 
and Riding mountains. An example of a former island in the 
lake at a low stage is to be seen at Stony Mountain where the 
crest of the hill is crowned by good types of lake beaches. 

The effect on the value of the farming lands of the valley ot 
this former lake is of great moment. The general boulder-clay 
covering, which the northern part of the continent has received 
produces some fine farming land but when this material has been 
sifted and all its finer constituents spread out over a particular 
area none but the finest land is to be expected in that area. That 
the great lake received an enormous amount of sediment especially 
from the v^-est is evident not only in the soil of the valley itself but 
in the great valleys worn down through the clay rocks of the 
plateau. An especially thick deposit would be expected at the 
mouths of all these streams and particularly of the delta in front 
of the mouth of the Assiniboine which at one time carried the 
water of the Saskatchewan river while the latter was ice-dammed 
at the north. The Pembina river as before noted was at one time a 
great stream, the outlet of a temporary lake, and brought down a 
heavy deposit. Farther north, the Valley river spread a sediment 
over the Dauphin country, while the Swan river helped to fertilize 
the country north-west of Lake Winnipegosis. Beyond the con- 
fines of Manitoba the Great Saskatchewan spread an immense 
delta deposit over the low country to the west of Cedar lake but 
the vast amount of sediment still being catried by this stream, as 
in the case of the Mississippi, causes its bed to be gradually built 
up above the surrounding country. Great stretches are therefore 
available in that region as yet as grazing or hay land only during 
low water. 

We have thus some clue to the reasons for the fertility of 
most ol the Red River valley. Other parts that have not been 
specially fertilized in this way are covered by the ordinary boulder- 
clay which when disintegrated forms good though heavy soil of 
fair quality. 

The eastern and northern parts are at present well wooded as 
well as the summits and slopes of Riding mountain and thence 
northward. The south and western parts west of Red river are 
generally open prairie though the true forest is bordered by a more 
or less wide belt of partly wooded country. 



190 1 ] ScuDDER — Mv First Namesake. 121 

MV FIRST NAMESAKE. 

By Sami i:l H. Sci noER. 

In the summer ot i860 I made a collecting trip to Lake VVin- 
nipegfand the lower Saskatchewan, interesting- to me because so 
far as I went I passed over the exact route taken by the Franklin 
search party under Sir John Richardson. It will be remembered 
that the insects collected on that occasion were published in Rich- 
ardson's Fauna boreali-americana, by Kirby, and I was thus the 
better able to determine some of his species. Among the butter- 
flies I found at the mouth of the Saskatchewan (collected with 
incredible difficulty on account of the mosquitoes) was a delicately 
marked and exquisitely pretty bluet unknown to me, and I sent it 
to Mr. W. H. Edwards, then just beginning to describe new 
American butterflies, who pronounced it new and named it Lyccena 
scudderii. It was the first insect named for me and has always 
held a special place in my affection. 

Although first described from specimens brought from the 
interior of the continent and far north, it has since been taken over 
a wide extent of northern territory, mostly in Canada, and as far 
east as Cape Breton ; it has been found also in a few isolated 
localities at some distance from "its known general range, as at 
Albany. N. Y. It was on account of its occurrence at this place 
(though it has since been recorded from New Hampshire) that I 
introduced it in my work on the Butterflies of the Eastern United 
States. Its early stages had been partly described by a Canadian 
entomologist, but, unwilling to publish my work without a toler- 
ably full account of my namesake and figures of it at every stage, 
I determined to make a visit at the proper season to the spot near 
Albany where it had been found, and get eggs from females en- 
closed over lupines, and so, by rearing it, obtain its whole history. 
The State entomologist who had first discovered it at Albany 
kindly accompanied me to the breeding ground, and with in 
absence from home of just twenty four hours I obtained the 
material afterward used in my book. 

Of course the Reporters got wind ot this ; a journey of four 
hundred miles after a butterfly's eggs was not lost upon them ! 
They learned how many eggs I had secured .ind. easily figuring 



122 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

up the probable cost of the trip, announced In large head-lines in 
the Albany papers, that the price of butterflies' eggs had risen to 
'' Sixteen Dollars a dozen." In very truth, many kinds would 
be cheap at that. 

This butterfly appears twice during the year. The first brood 
flies early in June or even late in May, and continues on the wing 
through June and often into July. It lays eggs in June, which 
hatch in seven or eight days, the caterpillars live in that stage 
for about a month and the chrysalis continues about ten days. 
Sometimes these figures must be shortened, for though the second 
brood of butterflies is normally an August brood, it sometimes 
appears by the middle of July or even earlier. The second brood 
lays eggs in August, but whether these hatch before spring, or 
whether it is the caterpillar or chrysalis which hibernates is not 
yet known. 

The turban-shaped and most elegantly chased eggs are laid 
on the leaves of lupines, usually on the under side, and on the 
stalks. The caterpillar, which is slug-shaped, eats its way out at 
the side of the egg ; it has a remarkably extensible head and neck 
and procures its food in a curious way, at least when young, 
showing its relationship to some of its brethren which are fruit- 
borers ; biting a hole through the lower cuticle of the leaf no 
larger than its own minute head, it devours all the interior of the 
succulent leaf it can reach by pushing its head through this hole 
in every direction and leaves the eaten leaf with a blistered look, 
this blister being eight or ten times larger than the hole by which 
it is entered. Later in life, it devours also the cuticle on which 
it rests while feeding, but also devours such softer parts of the leaf 
between the integuments as it can reach by its protrusile head, 
and it will bore the softer parts of a cut stem down to the rind as 
ffir as it can reach. 

The caterpillar is attended by ants according to Mr. Saunders, 
who first discovered it. He was "surprised by seeing several 
ants actively running about the leaf" on which he found his first 
caterpillar, "and repeatedly over the body of the caterpillar, 
without disturbing it in the least." The discovery of other cater- 
pillars was indeed "made comparatively easy from the invariable 
attendance of these active attendants." They attend them to lap 
up the drops of fluid secreted by glands opening externally near 
the hinder end of these caterpillars, and of which, as of the honey- 
dew Aphides, the ants are extremely fond ; so fond indeed that 
they guard the caterpillars from the approach of insect enemies, 
and thus the gain rs mutual. 



1901 1 GuiLLET — Flowering of Wild Plants. 123 

ON THE AUTUMN-FLOWERING OF VARIOUS WILD 
PLANTS IN 1900. 



By Cephas Guillet, Ph. D. 

On account ot the remarkably mild autumn of last year, one 
mig-ht have g-athered nosegays of wild flowers about Ottawa, 
not only throughout Octob.^r, but during the first half of Novem- 
ber. We had our first real snowstorm and sleighing the 13th 
November, but even for some time after that wild flowers were to 
be found in odd nooks and corners. Berries also were to be seen 
unusually late. Dr. James Fletcher tells me, he gathered as many 
ripe red raspberries as he cared to eat, at Kirk'.s Ferry, on the 27th 
September, and they were of excellent flavor. I picked a few near 
RocklifFe Park as late as the 15th October, which were, however, 
ot better color than taste. 

It is well known that different plants bloom at different 
times ; that there is, so to speak, a procession of the flowers. 
Just when or for how long we may expect this or that plant to 
bloom is not so well known. I am not aware that the order in 
which the 1,200 odd species of flowering plants, of the Ottawa 
district, put forth their blossoms has ever been determined. Here 
is a pleasant and useful task for the students of nature in every 
locality of our country. As a slight contribution to this end, I 
submit the following late autumn observations made in the vicinity 
of Ottawa, together with observations made in other parts of the 
country by several readers of this "The Ottawa Naturalist," 
who have been so good as to communicate them to me. 

Viper's bugloss or the " blue thistle" [Echiurn vu/gare) — said 
by Prof. Harrison in his "Weeds of Ontario," to be imported from 
Europe — was quite abundant on October 26th, on a limestone 
ridge three miles out the Montreal Road. Three other " weeds " 
(as the farmer justly calls them) I found on November 6th, namely, 
May-weed [Maruta cotiila) and ox-eye daisy [Leucanthemum vulgare) 
on the roadside, and treacle mustard [Ktysitnum cheiranthoides) 
in a garden, in Ottawa East. I saw a patch of white clover in 
Mr. Odell's brickyard on November 6th, and some red clover near 
the same place on the same day, and again near Hemlock Lake on 
November 8th and 12th. North of Peterboro' at Stony Lake, I 



124 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

have observed yarrow [Achillea miltefoliufn), golden rod [Sol'idago) 
and the asters begin to bloom in the order named, yarrow late in 
June, golden rod early in July, and the asters late in July. These 
flowers thereafter remain with us until winter sets in. I found 
golden rod still in bloom on a road in Ottawa East, November 6th ; 
and near Hemlock Lake, November gth ; and asters near Green's 
Creek, October 26th ; while Dr. Fletcher found fresh new speci- 
mens ot Solidago Canadensis, Asier cordifolius and Aster paniculntiis 
at Brittania on November 9th. The yarrow I found on the up- 
lands near Green's Creek, October 26th ; near Hemlock Lake, 
Lake, November 8th ; and at Rockliffe, November 12th. 

Perhaps the most familiar flowers to every child are the butter- 
cup and dandelion, and little wonder seeing that they display their 
bright yellow blossoms for seven months of the year. The tall 
buttercup {R. acris), I found on the roadside in Ottawa East, 
November 6th ; on Beechwood avenue, November 8th ; and at 
Rockliffe, November 12th; all bright fresh speciments. Dr. 
Fletcher found it also at Brittania, November gth. The dandelion 
I saw in a field three miles out the Montreal Road, October 26th ; 
near Hemlock Lake, November 8th ; and again near the same 
place one plant with two blossoms as late as November 23rd. 

The mention of strawberry blossoms and of violets reminds 
one of spring, tor they may be found as early as April, and yet they 
are also among the last flowers one finds in bloom in the fall. I 
found strawberry blossoms [Fragaria virginiana^ in a field near 
Green's Creek on October 26th, and several plants in bloom at 
Rockliffe, November 12th. The white Canada violet ( F. canadensis) 
I found in a wood out the Montreal Road on October 26th, and in 
hollows in the beech woods near Beechwood Cemetery on November 
9th and 1 2th in great numbers, while by searching under the leaves 
two plants were found in bloom even on November 23rd. The 
downy yellow violet does not commonly flower in the fall, yet last 
year quite a few were found November 8th, blooming along with 
the Canada violet in the beech woods, and one good bright speci- 
men was obtained on November 12th. 

The cultivated plants also felt and responded to the balmy 
touch of the last autumn of the century, for on November 8th, Dr. 



1901] GuiLLET — Flowering of Wild Plants. 125 

Fletcher tells me, the guelder rose and Japan quince were in 
flower on the Fxperimental Farm. 

That the late mild season was general over a great part of the 
1 'of " Our Ladv of the Snows," is shown by the following 

re-ports ci other observers in northerly regions of our country. 

^> M'r. John A. Dresser of Richmond, Que , sends the following 
froTyj^the phenological observations ot the school at Nicolet Falls, 
Oue., (15 miles from Richmoad) made by Miss Annie Dresser : — 
October 30th, buttercup ; October 31st, dandelion ; November 3rd, 
blue and white violet ; November 5th, creeping buttercup ; Novem- 
ber 6th, strawberry blossom. Similar observations, except of the 
violet, were made three miles from Richmond by Miss Bertha 
Dresser, and at Richmond in the St. Francis College School by 
Miss A. L. Beckett. 

"On the 2nd October," writes Dr. Robert Bell, "in a hrul^ 
15 miles N.E. of the town of Chapleau (on the C. P. R., N.E. of 
Lake Superior) I found the blue-berry bushes covered with a pro- 
fusion of flowers, and in the same brul^ a tew strawberry blossoms. 
Young white birch bushes, 2 to 3 feet high, had burst their buds 
and some of them showed the green of the young leaves. The 
ground in the brul6 was dry and warm with granite rocks cropping 
out near by and all well exposed to the sun and sheltered from the 
wind. We had had several days of warm sunny weather just 
before the above date (2nd October)." 

On October i6th, Mr. W. J. Wilson, collected the trailing 
arbutus {Epigea repots) in flower between Jack Fish and Manitou- 
wick Lake, on the main canoe route between Michipicoten Har- 
bour and Missinabie station on the C. P. Ry. He also saw the 
shrubby cinquefoil {PotentilLii friittcosa) in flower in several places 
up to October ist. 

Mr. J. A. L. MacMurray brought Dr. Fletcher a good large 
bunch of the flowers of the smooth blue-berry, Vaccinium 
PcHHsylvatiicum, and marsh marigold Cdllha palustris, both of which 
he had found blooming profusely in the French River Valley, 
Ontario, in the month of October. He also saw wild straw- 
berries in flower in many places. 

Mr. A. W. Hanham, writing from Manitoba to Dr. Fletcher, 
says : "At Brandon, in October, I noticed stray plants in bloom 



126 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

on the hill sides, a large percentage being summer bloomers ; a 

botanist would have made quite a decent collection ot native plants 

in bloom. We had no killing frosts until towards the end of the 

° I nt 

month. About the ist of November a flower called scarlet- ■> 

mm 

{Castilleia miniata), frequenting marshy lands, was plentiful u. 
bloom. I have this on good authority ; some were picke-.i and 
brought in. Isn't this a July August species ? I fancy I have 
seen it from the train, when en route west to Brandon." 

1 could not more appropriately close this paper than by 
quoting a little poem placed in my hands by the genial president 
of the Ottawa Field Naturalists Club, Dr. Ami. It was written 
by Albert Bigelow Paine, and is entitled "To a Violet found 
blooming in November." 

Pretty blossom, little strang-er, with your modest eye of blue, 
Why in this unusual season are you bravely blossoming ? 

Did you think the other flowers all had been deceiving you, 
And because the day was sunny that it was return of spring- ? 

Or perhaps you wished to see how the world looked at this season, 
When companions of the springtime, birds and blossoms have all fled. 

And the woods are brown and silent — tell me, have I guessed the reason ! 
And do you lament, sweet blossom, that you find your brothers dead ? 

Little violet, prett)' stranger, braveh' blossoming alone, 

Prize 3'ou well the fleeting moment, for so brief will be you stay 

That I fear it will have ended with the setting of the sun — 
For the frosts will gather thickly o'er you ere another day. 

You will wither, little blossom, when you feel its icy breath 
Fall upon your tender petals that were just unclosed to-day, 

As with me, in early youth-time, hope received a blow of death. 
By the frosts of winter falling thickly on my head in May 

I am sorry, tender floweret, that so bravely you came hither. 

When all other flowers have faded and the winter winds are nigh, 
I am sorry, but 'tis onl\- that you must so quickly wither - 

Sorry that you left the bosom of your mother but to die. 



i(.)oi] McCallum — Buff-Breasted Sandpiper. 127 

TRINGITHS RUFESCENS, BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. 



By G. A. McCalmm, M.D., Dunnville, Out. 
(Read before the Ornitholoifical Sec. of the Entomolog^ical Soc. of Out.) 

I write this at the request of a friend to report at greater 
length the capture of a female of this species and her nest, which 
I was fortunate enough to take near Dunnville, Haldimand Co., 
Ontario on June loth 1879. The only particular point of interest 
being the latitude in which this nest was found, since, heretofore, 
this bird has generally been credited with breeding only in high 
latitudes. A short report was published in Mr. Mcllwraith's work 
on the "Birds of Ontario " a number of years ago and were it not 
that the fact of its breeding in this locality is very remarkable the 
published report already given would be sufficient. However, as the 
identification of my specimen has been doubted by Prof. Macoun 
and it has been suggested by him in his Check J ist of the Birds 
of Canada that I evidently had mistaken the bird for the Spotted 
Sandpiper, Actitis rnacuhiria, I felt somewhat nettled that an old 
fellow like myself who has closely observed birds all his life should 
be credited with not knowing a Spotted Sandpiper, one of our 
most beautiful as well as one of the very commonest of our shore 
birds. 

I find however, that I am not the only observer who has been 
doubted when he reported seeing or taking the nest of this rare 
little bird the Buff-breasted Sand-piper. Dr. Heerman claimed to 
have found its nest in Texas made of grasses placed in a hollow 
in the ground and containing four eggs but Prof. Baird said "but 
as this bird breeds in high northern regions up to the very border 
of the Arctic Ocean he may have been mistaken in his identifica- 
tion." 

As far as I can make out it has always been a very uncommon 
species, only one or two birds having been seen at a time in any 
locality. It was entirely unknown to Wilson and Buonaparte and 
was first made known as a species by Vieillot from a specimen 
taken in Louisiana, but Audubon had not noticed it there and the 
first one he ever saw was a specimen in the hands of the Arctic 
explorer Capt. James Clark Ross who had received it from a 
sailor who had secured it on one of his inland excursions in the 



128 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

far north. "From all this Audubon conjectured rightly " so Prof. 
Baird says "that this bird bred within the Arctic Circle." It is 
said to winter in South America and the West Indies. Gundlach 
reports it as a winter visitant in Cuba making its appearance there 
from the north from August to November. Mr. Salvia reports 
that he received a specimen from Bogata, and Natterer obtained 
examples from Brazil between November and March. Henshaw 
reports taking a specimen in Boston harbour and Boardman found 
it at Calais, Me. The dates for these last are given as about 
August 2oth which would probably be the time of its southern 
migration. 

My capture was on June loth, 1879. While walking along 
the bank of the Grand River below the dam on the evening of 
June 9th a bird arose in a hurried manner from near my feet. 
I saw at once that it was not the common Spotted Sandpiper from 
its color, size and manner of flight. I noticed too that it evidently 
had a nest and looking where it arose I easily found it, between 
two large tussocks of coarse marsh grass which grows in such 
localities. There was a distinct depression in the soft ground and 
although there was not much of a nest, some bits of moss were 
gathered around the edge helping still more to form a nest. It 
contained three very dark colored eggs lying with the small ends 
pointing to the centre as is usual with most birds of this family. 
Being anxious to secure the bird herself I did not take the eggs 
then, but returned in the morning and having shot her I went to 
the nest and was somewhat disgusted to find that during the night 
two of the eggs had hatched and their places had been taken by two 
pretty little creatures spotted with dark spots on a light fawn-colored 
ground. They were all brought home and mounted and are now 
in my collection. The egg although far advanced, I was able to 
make a good cabinet specimen of and it also is in my collection. 
It measures 1.25 x .95, and is very pyriform in shape. The ground 
color is buff thickly covered with spots of two shades of dark 
brown or sepia, the markings being much larger on the large end, 
the general color being very dark. 

The location of the nest was on the bank of the river four or 
five feet above the water and a short distance from the edge. I 
did not see the male bird, in fact this is the only specimen I ever 
saw outside of a collection, and I was at the time naturally very 
proud of the find. The bird had little or nothing in her stomach 
besides some bits of some small insects. 



igoi] Smith — The Woodcock's Love Song. 129 

THE WOODCOCK'S LOVE SONG. 
By L. H. Smith 
(Read before the Ornithologfical Sect, of the Entomological Soc. of Out.) 

The woodcock so much admired by sportsmen as a g'ame 
bird, has traits of character which have never been read either by 
the sportsman or the naturalist. His habits being- principally 
nocturnal perhaps to some extent account for this. 

His peculiar shape and make up, so different to that of the 
yrouse or partrido^e family, or to any other game bird, mark him 
as a strangely unique specimen. His long bill, peculiarly shaped 
head, in which his large black eye is set so far back, his breast- 
heavy body, and short excuse for a tail, all mark him as a delight- 
fully curious and uncommon bird. His color is beautiful, velvet 
and russet ; none ot our game birds is clothed in richer plumage. 

The haunts of the woodcock are in keeping with his general 
character. Our deeply shaded swales and glens are the places he 
loves to make his home. He is seldom found unless in a spot so 
beautiful that the sportsman-naturalist could imagine he is the 
companion of " wood nymphs " ; no other birds frequent and live 
in such lovely sylvan retreats. 

" The woodcock's love song " is a strange performance and 
is known to comparatively few. Any fine warm evening about 
the middle of .April, if you take your stand at dusk, by the side of 
a good piece of woodcock cover, and remain perfectly still for a 
few minutes, you will soon hear a sound, perhaps not twenty 
yards from you, from some bird on the ground. If you never heard 
the same before you would be inclined to think it was a nighthawk, 
for the sound is a sort of drawn-out " pate " very similar to the 
night-hawk when on the wing. The bird will emit this note 
" pate," " pSte," several times at short intervals, and then take 
wing, when you will at once recognize the author of the weird 
notes, for no one who has ever heard the wing-whistle of the 
woodcock as he rises in cover can mistake him for any other bird. 
The bird mounts in the air by a circular flight ; you can easily 
keep track of him, although he is not visible to the eye, by the 
incessant twittering noise he is making with his wings. When 
he arrives at the summit of his flight, he commences a sharp 
twittering whistle and after describing a few circles he commences 
a rapid descent, and pitches to the ground very close to the spot 
he ro e from two or three minutes before. He soon commences 
his " pAte," " pate" again and repeats his aerial gymnastic flight 
over and over again. By listening very attentively you will hear 
a low gutteral note just preceeding the pating note; a note very 
similar to the crowing note of a hen made just as she is getting 
her chicks nestled snugly beneath her for the night. How long 
on a fine spring night he will keep his antics up I cannot say, but 
quite long enough for you to get the whole performance thoroughly 
engraved on your senses, so that at any subsequent time you 
would not possibly mistake it for that of any other bird. 



130 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 



THE LATE DR. ELEANOR A. ORMEROD. 



Press cablegrams of the 19th July announced the sad tidings 
of the death of Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod, ot Torrington House, 
St. Albans, England. This accomplished and estimable lady was 
a recognized authority on economic entoinology, and had during a 
long series of years prepared and published numerous Reports 
and Manuals upon injurious insects, and of great value to the 
agricultural interests of Great Britain, As a recognition of pro- 
longed and valuable work, she was created an LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge, and she was a fellow or honorary member of many scien- 
tific bodies. As one the few Corresponding Members of the 
Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club she evinced much interest in its 
progress and in the investigations of its members — W. H. H. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. PL. X 




From Prehistoric Camping Grounds. 



THE OTTAWA ^TURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, SEPTEMBER, 1901. No. 6. 



FAT IN THE ANIMAL BODY, ITS FUNCTIONS AND 

ORIGIN. 

Bv A. T. Chakkon, B. A. 

(Read March 12th, 1901.) 

This evening I would invite your attention for a few moments 
to the discussion of a subject that lies on the borderland between 
chemistry and physiology. We are to consider the nature of fat 
as revealed by chemistry, its origin and the role that it plays in 
the animal economy. 

What does the word fat convey to your mind ? Have you 
ever thoughtfully asked yourself what fat really is ? Ladies handle 
it every day, men are very often annoyed at the stains it leaves on 
their clothing as evident proofs of their carelessness, and yet very- 
few enquire into the very nature of that most common substance. 

If I were to ask you, what is fat ? Some undoubtedly would 
answer me with Webster that fat is " an oily substance," and if I 
were to question you further and ask what is an oil, you would 
again follow Webster and inform me that " an oil is an unctuous 
substance expressed or drawn from various animal or vegetable 
substances." Of course, I would have to be satisfied with this 
definition, which is the only one given in the dictionary. 

A true student, anxious to understand the very nature of the 
substance he has to deal with, is, however, not satisfied with such 
an ambiguous empty definition. I am positive that the members 
of this Club who are always so active in scrutinizing nature, are 
not satisfied with such a hazy knowledge. Let us, therefore, try 
to elucidate the question of the nature of fat. 

To a chemist a fat is a glyceridc of a fatty acid. In the 
formation of a fat two things therefore are necessary, namely, 
glycerine and a fatty acid. The fatty acids are a series of acids 



132 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

derived from the monatomic alcohols by oxidation. Thus common 
acetic acid which is derived from ordinary ethyl alcohol by oxida- 
tion is a fatty acid. 

Every one here present knows what glycerine is. Many 
times has it been applied to delicate hands and to charming lips to 
repair injuries caused by cruel cold winds. When applied to the 
lips that inodorous, colourless, viscid liquid is found to possess 
somewhat of an agreeable sweet taste. Several no doubt would 
have hastily thrust it away from them had they known that 
sweet, inoffensive looking substance to be an alcohol. True, 
however, it is that it is just as much an alcohol as the accursed 
beverage which brings unhappiness to so many homes. It is an 
alcohol, but of somewhat different constitutional composition, for 
it is what chemists call a triatomic alcohol. Each person carries 
stored up in his body a rather considerable quantity of that 
special alcohol. Let our prohibitionists be not alarmed, for this 
alcohol produces none of the nefarious effects of the so-called fire- 
water. Its action is only beneficient, for it combines with the 
fatty acids to form that very necessary substance : fat. 

Fat is found widely disseminated in nature. Plants contain a 
certain amount in the form of oil. It is found in most of the 
animal tissues. The following table from Gorup-Besanez gives 
the percentage in the organs and fluids of the body : — 

Sweat 0.001 Cartilage 1.3 

Vitreous humour 0.002 Bone > . 1.4 

Saliva 0.02 Crystalline lens 2.0 

Lymph 0.0^ Liver 2.4 

Synovia 0.06 Muscles 3.3 

Liquor amnii 0.06 Hair 4.2 

Chyle 0.2 Brain 8.0 

Mucus 0.3 Egg 11.6 

Blood 0.4 Nerves 22. i 

Bile 1.4 Adipose tissue 82.7 

Milk 4.3 Marrow 96.0 

Fat being found in the body must necessarily be derived from 
the food which is absorbed. All foods whether animal or veget- 
able contain three distinct classes of compounds which deserve 
special notice, namely : protein, carbohydrates and fats. 



iQoi] CuARRON — Fat in thk Animal Bonv. 133 

Protein is a class of substance characterised by the presence 
in its composition of nitrogen to the amount of about 16 per cent. 
Like the carbohydrates and the fats it contains carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen, but it stands apart from these two on account ot its 
nitrogen content. Carbohydrates consist of those substances like 
sugars, starch and fibre, which are composed of carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen united in such a way that the relation of tlie latter to 
the former is in the ratio of one atom of the latter to two atoms 
of the former, as in water. 

Fat is a substance composed of exactly the same elements as 
the carbohydrates, but whose atoms are arranged differently in 
the molecule. The atoms of hydrogen to those of oxygen are not 
in the same proportion. It contains no nitrogen and is thus quite 
distinct from protein. 

Now do you believe that fat as it is found in the animal body is a 
simple compound of always exactly the same definite composition ? 
If so, a'low me to inform you that you are mistaken. Fat 
is not a simple compound, but a mixture of three, some- 
times more compounds of analogous nature. The three 
principal compounds are stearin, palmitin and olein. The first 
two are solid at ordinary temperature and the latter is a liquid. 
The amount of olein is always more or less in excess of the other 
two, and it with the help of the heat of the living body keeps them 
in the liquid form. Olein really acts as a solvent towards stearin 
and palmitin Vou must have noticed that in the living body fat 
exists in the liquid state. As soon as death occurs there is a 
gradual tailing off in the te-nperature of the body, rigor mortis 
sets in, and the fat becomes solidified. The mixture of those three 
substances is more or less firm according to the smaller or greater 
amount of olein it contains. 

I told you that fat is one of the component parts of food. 
^'ou are perhaps anxious to know what part it plays in the 
nutrition of the body, and what transformations it undergoes 
previous to becoming an integral part of the same. 

Fat is one of the best producers of heat, in fact, it is the most 
powerful heat producer of all the food stuffs. A glance at its 
composition will convince you as to the truth of this assertion. 
The composition of one of the fats (olein) is expressed by the 



134 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

tormulaCg, Hj^^ Og, whilst that of protein is indicated by the 
formula C,o Hi a Nis ^^ss' ^""^ ^^^^ ^^ carbohydrates by 
Cp, Hj.T Og. From a comparison ol these formulae it is evident 
that in fats the ratio of the carbon and hydrog^en (taken together) to 
the oxygen is greater than in the protein and carbohydrates. Now 
you are aware that the heat in the body is produced by combustion, 
and as carbon and hydrogen are the only two combustible sub- 
stances in these compounds (with the exception of a small amount 
of sulphur in proteins), that class of compounds in which these 
two elements (not already combined with oxygen) predominate 
must necessarily be the greater heat producer. Rubner has very 
carefully estimated the relative heat value of fat, carbohydrates and 
protein with the following results : — 

IOC grammes of fat are equivalent to 211 grammes of protein, 
to 132 grammes of starch, to 234 grammes of cane sugar and to 
256 grammes of grape sugar. 

Besides being used as tuel to keep up the body temperature 
and produce energy, fats are stored up in the body as fat. 

Perceiving that fats are absorbed with the food and deposited 
in the body, physiologists have asked themselves whether there 
is a direct transposition into the adipose tissue without any 
previous decomposition. Radziejewsky, Subbotin and others 
endeavoured to solve the problem. 

Radziejewsky fed a dog with erucin, the glyceride ot erucic 
acid, but could find only small quantities of it in the tissues. 

Subbotin fed another dog with spermaceti and found none at 
all in the fat cells, and only traces in the intestinal fats and 
internal organs. What conclusions could he draw, if not that in 
the case of carnivora the fat in the food does not pass directly into 
the cells of the body ? 

These experiments were repeated by I. Munk, who fed a uog, 
which had fasted a long time previously, with erucin and he got 
contrary results finding a considerable amount of the neutral fat. 
This, however, does not prove that the fat is transferred directly 
without previous decomposition, for is it not possible that the fat 
may be saponified and absorbed as a soap, and the neutral fat of the 
same composition afterwards synthesized in the epithelium cells? 
In fact the most credited and better experimentally sustained idea 



igoi] Charron — Fat i\ the Animal Body. 135 

is that none of the fats are stored up in the body without previous 
decomposition. After the fatty material is introduced into the 
alimentary canal, the first Mquid it meets on its way is the acid 
gastric juice which, as far as we know, has no effect whatever upon 
it. This juice has the carbohydrates and the proteids to contend 
with and enough has it to do. The fat, therefore, passes unheeded, 
but a httle further it meets its most bitter enemy, namely, the 
alkahne pancreatic juice which wrestles with it until its entire 
decomposition is effected. By its action the fat is resolved into 
glycerine and a salt of the fatty acids, which salt is known as a 
soap. 

Now as you well know soaps are usually soluble. This one 
is very similar to that so often called into domestic use and like it 
is soluble. It dissolves and is readily absorbed by the numerous 
villi, cap'Uary filaments lining the small intestine, whose functions 
consist in absorbing the thus dissolved foods. In this wa\' the 
soap is introduced into the circulating system and carried to the 
epithelium cells where it in turn suffers decomposition into its 
organic acid and an alkali. The organic acid again unites with 
the glycerine which has been absorbed at the same time as the 
soap and the fat is reformed. 

The fact that the fat of an .animal fed entirely on a certain 
kind of fat is not identical in composition with the fat fed, seems 
to indicate this double decomposition and a certain power of selec- 
tion on the part of the little villi foraging for their proper food. 
Undoubtedly if an exclusive diet of a certain fat is given some of 
the reformed fat will inevitably be of the same composition as the 
one fed. 

The great objection to the absorption of fat in the form of 
soaps has been that the reaction ol the fluid in the small intestine 
where the absorption takes place is not alkaline but acid, and 
that a soap cannot persist in the presence of an acid liquid. Carb 
investigated the reaction of the intestine in three experiments on 
dogs, and found the intestinal contents to be acid all the way from 
pylorus to caecum. The indicators used were litmus and phenol- 
phtalein. Moore and Rockwood have recently studied the reaction 
of the intestine making use, besides the indicators mentioned, of 
methyl orange, which is not affected by carbonic and weak organic 



136 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

acids. With phenolphtalein the reaction was invariably acid all the 
way, whilst it was alkaline to methyl orano^e, thus showing that 
the acid reaction was due to a very weak organic acid 
probably to dissolved acids set free from fats. The alkaline 
reaction indicated by methyl orange can only be due to weak 
organic acids combined with alkalies i.e. in all probability to dis- 
solved soaps. Such a weak acid would not decompose the soap, 
and so the objection to the theory falls to the ground. 

Another objection is that the amount of the alkali required 
for the saponification would simply be enormous. Munk reckons 
that to so combine with the fatty acids of 200 grammes of fat 
about 40 grammes of sodium carbonate would be required. Now 
a dog weighing 25 kilogrammes can easily digest from 200 to 350 
grammes of fat in twenty-four hours. Supposing only 200 
grammes are digested and that all this is absorbed as soap and 
glycerine, about 40 grammes of sodium carbonate will be required 
for the purpose ; now the total blood only contains, in such an 
animal, alkali equivalent to 6 grammes ot Na^ CO3. If the other 
fluids of the body be supposed to contain an amount of alkali 
equivalent to another 6 grammes, the total alkalinity is equal to 
12 grammes of Na^ CO3. 

In this objection Munk loses sight of the fact that during the 
process of absorption of fat as soap and glycerine and its subse- 
quent synthesis in the epithelial cells, the alkali combined in the 
first portions of the soap absorbed is again set free immediately 
after absorption, and what is to prevent that alkali from being, in 
some way, in the natural course of circulation, brought back to the 
intestine there to unite again with some more fatty acid to form 
soap and thus keep up the continuous action of composition and 
decomposition ! 

Whatever may take place the consensus of opinion seems in 
favour of the theory that fats are absorbed as soaps and glycerine 
and reformed by synthesis in the epithelial cells and then deposited 
in the cells of the adipose tissue. 

Another problem about fat which has puzzled many a physiolo- 
gist is its origin. From which class of food compounds is fat 
derived ? 



igoi] Charron — Fat in the Anmmal Bopv. 137 

There is no difficulty for anyone in admitting that the fat of 
the body may be derived from the ready formed fat absorbed as 
food. But is that the only source of fat ? 

In 1742 Beccaria, in Bolo<jna, advanced the idea that animals 
take the substances which form their tissues ready made from the 
vegetable kingdom. This theory was supported by many prom- 
inent men, amongst whom may be mentioned Prout, in England, 
and Dumas, in France. The chief point of the theory was that 
animal fat is derived from the fat of plants. This appeared 
so simple and probable, that for a long time nobody questioned 
its truth. Liebig was the first (in 1848) to dispute this deep seated 
belief of over one century old. He observed that if by lack of 
exercise or otherwise, respiration is hindered in Herbivora, fat 
deposits in greater quantity and thence he argued that as there 
was no more fat absorbed in the food than previously, that greater 
deposition must be due to the formation of new fat from the 
fat free substance of the food. Hindering respiration bethought 
diminished the combustion of the carbohydrates and the protein, 
the unburnt carbon was retained in the body and used up in the 
formation of fat. 

As a natural consequence Dumas and Liebig entered into an 
active controversy, and this set them and their supporters at work 
experimenting to discover additional proofs to uphold their respec- 
tive pretentions. Milne Edwards sided with Dumas. 

It is not my intention to give you an account of all the experi- 
ments undertaken. A few will suffice to make the results and the 
conclusions drawn therefrom clear to your mind. 

Upon instituting experiments it occurred to Voit that fat 
might possibly be formed from protein. He had noticed that 
adipocere is often formed from nitrogenous tissue, muscles, etc., 
when portions of the animal body are kept under water. Wishing 
to ascertain whether really albumin could be changed into fat, he 
kept glass tubes, containing pieces of meat, in a water bath at a 
constant temperature of 40^C. for 3^4 months. At the end of this 
time he found a small increase in the fat content of the substance. 
The increase was small, but nevertheless the fact was established 
that fat could be formed from protein substances. Further investi- 



138 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

gations regarding fatty degeneration by Wettick, Forster and 
others, confirmed Voit's results. 

Dumas and Milne Edwards jointly instituted an experiment 
with bees to find out out whether fat can be produced from fat 
free substance. 

A swarm of bees were fed with hone} for 32 days with the 
following results : — 

Amount ot wax produced 1 1.51 5 grammes. 

I? lat in honey 0.667 " 

n fat produced from fat free 

substance 10.848 n 

This opened their eyes to the truth of Liebig's statemeut and 
they acknowledged that fat could be formed from fat free sub- 
stance. With Voit they supported the view that it was derived 
from the pre-existing fat and the transformed protein matter. 

Other experiments were therefore instituted with the especial 
object of ascertaining whether or not carbohydrates play a part in 
the formation of fat. 

Berlepsh experimented with bees feeding them on i 17 grammes 
of pollen and honey. The 117 grammes of pollen contained 22 
grammes of protein ; — 

22 grammes protein = at the most 12 grammes wax. 

Amount of wax produced by the bees • • • 33 " 

II 11 from other sources 21 '* 

Possible amount of wav in bodies of bees. 10 " 

Amount of wax necessarily formed from 

carbohydrates 1 1 grammes. 

v.. Erlenmeyer, in 1878, wishing to prove conclusively that the 
fat could come from carbohydrates alone, fed a swarm of bees 
solely on rock candy. From each 8 grammes of sugar consumed 
there was produced 1.589 grammes of wax, which could not have 
possibly been foroied from protein. The nitrogen and fat content 
of the bees remained unchanged during the experiment. 

Henneberg, Kern and Wattenberg experimented with sheep : 

A sheep was fed for 70 days with lucerne hay, maize meal and 
turnips : — 



i^oi] Charron — Fat in the Animal Bonv. 139 

Amount of fat formed 973o grammes. 

Possible amount of fat from fat and protein 6872 .1 

Fat from carbohydrates -858 grammes. 

The experiment whicli sets the ijuestion at rest, however, is 
that Mudertaken by Lawes and Gilbert, at Rothamstead. with pigs. 
Without giving all the details of the experiment which were 
scrupulously attended to by these most reliable experimenters, I 
may only say that they fattened the pigs during 8 to 10 weeks, 
keeping a record of their composition at the outset and at the finish 
and ot the food consumed, all of which was of accurately known com- 
position. On examining the results obtained they discovered that 
29 percent, of the fat produced must necessarily have had its origin 
from carbohydrates. 

Another experiment, deserving of special notice proving the 
same fact, has recently been made by Jordan and Jenter, at the 
New York Agricultural Station. 

The experiment was made with a young and vigorous Jersey 
cow. The cow was fed during 95 days with food from which the 
tat had been extracted : 

Quantity of fat fed during the 95 days 1 1.6 lbs. 

fi II not digested 5.9 << 



di"'ested 



D- / 



Quantity of fat in the milk 62.9 lbs. 

II II consumed 5.7 << 

57.2 lbs. 

Therefore 57.2 lbs. of fat have to be accounted for otherwise 
than by the fat contained in the food. Moreover at the end of the 
experiment the cow weighed 47 lbs. more and was much fatter 
than at the start. 

The increase in fle:,h could certainly not have been large for 
during 59 days of this period an accurate record of the nitrogen 
income and outgo showed that the nitrogen income was repre- 
sented by 124.3 ^^^- of protein and the nitrogen outgo by 125.7 
lbs. 



140 The Ottawa Naturalist] [September 

During- this period (59 days) the amount of protein digested 
was sufficient to form at the most 17. i lbs. of tat, and the fat in 
the food which was assimulated amounted to only 3.3 lbs., so that 
the total possible amount of fat from protein and ready formed fat 
was 20.4 lbs. The milk from the cow during that period con- 
tained 38.8 lbs. of fat, so that at least 18.4 lbs. of fat must 
necessarily have been derived from carbohydrates. 

Strange it seems, does it not, that I should be proving to you 
that fat must be derived from carbohydrates without having first 
told you whether it \s possible for carbohydrates to be transformed 
into fat. 

In this I have followed the emperical method which first 
establishes a fact and then endeavours to explain it. 

The observations of Hanriot and Richet, two French scientists 
of wide reputation, furnish indirect proofs of the transformation of 
the carbohydrates into fat. These observers found that with the 
administration of the carbohydrate food there is a greatly increased 
output of COo without a corresponding increase of oxygen intake. 
This fact Hanriot explained by a transformation of carbohydrates 
into fats in conformity with such an equation as the following : — 

13 (C« H,, OJ = C.,5 H,,, Og + 23 CO, + 26 H, O. 

(Oleo-stearo-palniitin) 
Fat therefore can and is derived from the three distinct classes 
of compounds absorbed for the purpose of nourishing the body. 
We can satisfactorily explain how the fat ot the food can be 
transformed into the fat of the body, but how this formation occurs 
from protein and carbohydrates is still a problem unsolved. It is 
one of those secrets which the Creator has not yet revealed to any 
human being. May we not hope that, as there are at present so 
many scientific investigations in the field of physiological chemistry 
in various parts of the civilized world, there may be worked out 
ere long a satisfactory solution of these complex problems ? 



igol] SowTER — Prehistoric Camping Grouxps. 141 

PREHISTORIC CAMPIXG GROUNDS ALONG THK 
OTTAWA RIVER. 

Bv T. W. Edwin Souter. 

The evidences of Indian occupation that are met with along- 
the Ottawa River, between the City of Hid! and Pointe k la 
Bataille, on Lake Deschenes, consist, for the most part, of the 
prehistoric camping grounds that occur at frequent intervals along 
the shores ot the lower part of the lake. 

Now, just at this point, ihe " practical man " as Huxley would 
call him, comes forward with the very pertinent query : " How do 
you know that these places were Indian camping grounds ? 

In the first place, it may be said that the grim warriors of our 
brethren of the Indian race, who repose in their ancient burial 
places on Lake Deschenes, regard not such poetic license as that 
which elicited from a Newport skeleton the weird confession of an 
armored viking ; but these lords of the forest have left behind 
them such traces of their methods of living as cannot fail to be 
profoundly interesting and widely instructive to those who wish to 
study the conditions under which a primitive people were slowly 
struggling, upward and onward, along the highway of civilization. 

In a former paper upon the t'Archieology of Lake Deschenes," 
reference was made, among other places, to the traces of Indian 
occupation that are met with at Raymond's Point, on the Ontario 
side of the lake opposite Aylmer, Que. Let us take this place as 
an example, and see if we can prove that it is the site of a pre- 
historic Indian camping ground. 

At this point, following the water-contour of Raymond's Bay, 
the lake shore consists of a well defined outcrop of Calciferous 
limestone holding in great abundance the typical gasteropodean 
fossils of that formation. 

Resting on this Calciferous outcrop, we meet with the 
ubiquitous Laurentian boulder, which the merest tyro in geology 
would recognize as the legacy of the great glacier which, in its 
descent from the Laurentian highlands, traversed at this point at 
least the present course of the Ottawa River. 

Where the alluvial soil has been washed away, at high-water 
mark, the Calciferous rocks are thickly strewn with fragments of 



142 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

black or dark-colored flints, from 2 to 3 inches in diameter down 
to the finest particles, such as may have been flaked from an 
arrow-head in the finishing process. 

Mingfled with these rough fragments are some that bear 
unmistakable evidence of having been worked, together with 
roughly as well as finely finished arrow-heads and spear-head 
shaped knives of the same material. In other words we find these 
implements, in various stages of completion, along with the raw 
material from which they were fabricated. 

The question which now arises, in regard to the presence of 
these flints, is somewhat similar to that once propounded by a 
novice upon seeing some large boulders at Deschenes station : 
" Have them stones been brought there or have they just 
growed"? 

It is evident that this flint was not '* growed " at Raymond's 
Point as it is not found in situ either in the Calciferous outcrop 
upon which it is strewn or in the contiguous Chazy, so that it 
must have been brought there, but from whence and by what 
means are other questions. 

It does not appear to have been brought there by glacial 
action, as it is not found in the glacial drift on the main land or 
adjacent islands. It is not even found in the dark boulders which 
line the opposite shore of Chartrand's Island and which, a sapient 
friend of mine once suggested, may have been pine knots which 
had been washed ashore and petrified at the time of Noah's flood. 

In the Trenton formation in the City of Hull, however, 
nodules of this flint are found in great abundance, especially along 
Brigham's Creek, both in situ and in detached masses of the same 
limestone from which latter they may have been removed with but 
little difficulty. Let some of this flint be broken up and mingled 
with similar fragments from Raymond's Point and I doubt if the 
most skilful geologist could distinguish the former from the latter 
by other evidence than the recency of the fracture. 

This, therefore seems to be one of the several obvious reasons 
for supposing that the flint from both places is identical. That it 
was picked up or quarried at Hull or Ottawa and carried up the 
river by Indians who, at Raymond's Point, among places, fashioned 
it into their arrow-heads and knives. That the aforementioned 



igoi] SowTER — Prehistoric Camping Grounds. 143 

glacier did not take up the red-man's burden is apparent from the 
fact that it moved down the river instead of up, so that the flint 
could not have been carried to Raymond's Point by its agency. 

If our practical man wishes us to give proofs of what we know 
about the direction of the glacial movement, we may show him 
the grooves below the boat-house on Mr. Watt's farm in the 
township of Nepean, Ont., and again near the Presby- 
terian Manse, at Aylmer, Que., where the glacial plough has fur- 
rowed up the rocks in its passage down the Ottawa valley. To 
prove that its passage was down, instead of up the river, a num- 
ber of places may be shown, notably among which the one on Main 
street, Aylmer, in front ot the Methodist Church. Here, where a 
section of rock was laid bare by the water-works excavations, it 
was observed that boulders had been forced under the Chazy strata 
from tbe westward, leaving large masses of these beds hoisted up 
and dipping towards the east. 

That the flint was not carried by white men is obvious, from 
the fact that the pale-tace, on his arrival in this country, was 
supplied with his musket and steel knife and the only flints he 
carried were those for the hammer of his musket or the larger ones 
for use in the preparation of his fire. 

.And the paheolithic Indian,, it is only reasonable to suppose, 
went to the nearest and most convenient place to procure such 
material for the fabrication of his implements, and where it could 
be obtained in the greatest abundance with the least expenditure 
of labor, just as his civilized descendant of to day will do when in 
search of rim ash or red willow for working into his baskets. 

It is also a reasonable supposition, that the paheolithic Indian 
had acquired such a knowledge of what was good for himself, as 
to take the precaution of carrying the raw material, for use in his 
primitive arts, to some such judiciously selected camping ground 
as Raymond's Point, where, from its strategic and secluded 
position, he would be the better enabled to stand upon his dignity 
and defend himself against an enemy, or make himself scarce as 
prudence or necessity might dictate. An Indian clun^ to life and 
wanted his days to be long in the land just the same as a white 
man, and his natural instincts warned him against sitting down in 
any exposed position to flake out his flint instruments, where 



144 The Ottawa Naturalist, [September 

attracted by the noise of his' labor, an inquisitive member of some 
hostile tribe mig'ht come and look over his shoulder to see what 
he was doin^ and, incidentally, remove some of his hair, togfether 
with any tribal prestig^e he may have acquired as a cunning 
warrior. 

And now ror the reasons which point to Raymond's Point as 
an aborig-inal camping ground. VVe have adduced what seems to 
be fairly conclusive evidence that the flint was brought there by 
Indians for purposes of palaeolithic manufacture. From the 
presence of finished and unfinished palaeolithic implements in 
various stages of fabrication, mingled with the debris of the 
aboriginal workshop, we are convinced by circumstantial evidence, 
that this primitive industry was carried on upon the spot, just as 
much so as after an examination of the flat at the mouth of 
Breckenridge's Creek, higher up the river, we would recognize it 
as the abandoned site of a modern brick-yard. We also find the 
worn out and discarded celt, or stone tomahawk, and observe, in 
its blunted and dilapidated condition, the reasons which led its 
former owner to cast it aside for a new one. 

Following the denundation edges of the alluvial soil, we find 
fragments of rude pottery made out of a mixture of clay and 
coarse sand or gravel, which has been imperfectly burnt and bears 
other evidences of crude fictile workmanship. 

If our practical friend is desirous of knowing where the Indian 
procured the material tor the manufacture of this ancient pottery, 
there is little difficulty in pointing out to him the source from which 
it was derived. 

At Noel's Bay, Coghlan's Creek, Winter Point and several 
other places in the immediate vicinity, the clay and sand on the 
lake shore are mixed together in about the same proportion as in 
the fragments of pottery already alluded to and, as our primitive 
artificer was the graduate of a rough-and-ready school of art, he 
made use ot this ready-to-hand matrix, instead of going miles out 
of his way to get better, as the fragments of his work most clearly 
indicate. 

Another important feature of Raymond's Point is the presence 
of arrow-heads of what we might term foreign manufacture, for 
although, as a rule, the arrow-tips found at this place are made; 



igoi] SowTEK — Prehistoric Campinc; Groun'ps. 1^5 

from the Trenton tlint of Hull or Ott.iwa, we sometimes meet with 
some that are made from a more compact and lighter coloured 
flint than that found in the Ottawa district. And one reason why 
these latter seem to be of foreign rather than of local manufac- 
ture is, that we do not find in the debris of the Raymond's Point, 
or any other Indian workshop on Lake Deschenes, any of the raw 
material from which they were fabricated. 

Within the memory of the generation passing away, this was 
an ideal spot for the aboriginal hun-ter. The forest was alive with 
red deer, the bay teemed with fish and the adjacent creeks were 
well stocked with beaver, otter, muskrat and other fur-bearing 
animals. So that this prodigality of nature, in thus supplying the 
wherewithal to keep the wolf from the wigwam, together with the 
evidences of Indian occupation already enumerated, seem to be 
ample proof that the place was an Indian camping ground. And 
the foreign arrow heads would favor the conclusion that it was 
also a halting place for roving bands of natives, who made use of 
the great water highway of the Ottawa River. 

Last summer, Harold Nelson, a student in Woodstock 
College, and a son of Mr. Frank Nelson of the Interior Depart- 
ment, at Ottawa, was good enough to send me some arrow-heads 
from Paris, Ont. In comparing these with those in my collection, 
I was surprised to find that some of them were of the same 
" make " as well as of the same flint, in color and texture, as what 
I have called the foreign ones, found a few weeks previously, at 
Raymond's Point. 

The presence of flint implements of foreign, as well as of local 
manufacture on these pahuolithic camping grounds of the Ottawa 
River, seems to present an interesting field of investigation in 
comparative palfeolithology, that might throw some additional 
light upon the ramifications of intertribal commerce, or the 
migratory movements of the native races which occupied this 
country in pre-historic times. 

It might be possible after an exhaustive study of the subject, 
extending over wide areas of occupation, to point with such a 
degree of accuracy either to the occurrence or to certain peculiar- 
ities of material or workmanship of pala^'olithic implements, as to 
be able to identify them as the relics of this or that particular tribe 



146 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

that may have been the temporary or more or less permanent 
occupant ot these prehistoric camping grounds. 

The palaeolithic knife found at Raymond's Point and described 
in the former paper on the "Archaeology of Lake Deschenes," as 
a " squaw's knife," is without doubt of Indian origin. This 
implement is also known as a " woman's knife" and is very otten 
mistaken for a spear-head which it very much resembles. 

This particular form of knife is not by any means peculiar to 
this part of the American continent, for it is found on the village 
sites of western Ontario and even as far south as San Geronimo, 
in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, accordini;- to an art'cle on 
Aztec relics, by Mrs. Wm. Stuart, in the Ontar'o Archaeological 
Report of 1899. It is also met with amongst aboriginal tribes in 
the remotest parts of the world. 

Since the spear, as a weapon, is supposed to have been un- 
known to our Indians, it is just possible that this implement may 
represent the survival of a knife-form that was, and is to-day, used 
by primitive peoples to serve the purposes of both knife and spear- 
head. 

As an interesting instance, in this connection, of the same 
instrument serving different purposes in a rude condition of the 
arts, H. N. Moseley, Naturalist to the Challenger Expedition, 
informs us that the obsidian-headed spears ot the Admiralty 
Islanders are used as knives, being cut off just below the ornamental 
mounting which acts as a handle. Col. A. Lane P'ox also 
observes, in reference to these same implements, that "the shapes 
of the obsidian spear-heads found, just as they happened to flake 
off, are interesting as showing the natural origin of such forms 
and the remark that these spear-heads are used as knives reminds 
us of like customs in Africa where the Kaffirs, the Watusi described 
by Grant, the Fans of the Gaboon and others use their iron spear- 
heads in a similar manner and which accounts for the form of 
knife and spear-head amongst savages being so commonly the 
same. 

Since the publication of former reports, in the Ottawa 
Naturalist, upon centers of Indian occupation on Lake Des- 
chenes, I have had the good fortune to discover two more ancient 
camping sites on the Ottawa River, one at Squaw Bay, in Tetreau- 



iQoi] SowTKR— Prehistoric Campinc; Grounds. 147 

ville, a suburb of the City of Hull, anJ the other at Powell's Bay 
about 10 miles above Ay liner, Que. 

I have also been informed by Mr. Gainsford, of March 
township, that from , to 2 miles from th& entrance to Raymond's 
Bay, on one ot the creeks that run into it, Indian relics such as 
stone celts, flint arrow-heads and pottery have been found in ^reat 
abundance at different times by people living in the vicinity. 

As the campin- -rounds so far examined have, without an 
exception, been situated on the hi-h water shore line of the river 
It would be extremely interesting: to verify the existence of an 
inland villag^e site such as Mr. Gainsford describes ; and I feel 
certain that, as my informant is a thoroughly reliable person he 
has indicated a place where we may uhimately-unearth a store of 
important information. 

The slate knife, figured in the accompanying plate, was found 
at this place on the farm of Mr. John Armstrong, and was collected 
by George Burland of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists Club. Flint 
arrow-heads were also found in the vicinity by Albert Smith. 

Second hand information is ail very well in its place if you 
know the party with whom you are dealing ; but, I met a man 
last summer who has such a loose rein on his imagination that I 
fear he sometimes allows it to run away with his better judgment 
My friend told me that he had found a large stone axe and the 
head and bust of a squaw carved in stone. When he took me to 
inspect these Indian relics, I found that the former was a piece of 
limestone that had a fanciful resemblance to an axe ; but, as it 
weighed about 15 lbs it seemed to me that, if it could be proved 
that any pre-historic Indian could have wielded such a mighty 
weapon, i^ would confirm an opinion that is current among a 
certain class of our people, that there were giants in those days. 
The graven image turned out to be a mass of w.iter-worn Calciferous 
limestone that some wag had embellished with a few arti.stic 
touches of red chalk. It occurred to me at the time that, if it were 
a true likeness, the original might have been worshipped, without 
any imputation of idolatory, as there could have been nothing like 
her in the heavens above or in the earth beneath, for she must have 
been fearfully and wonderfully made. I have merely referred to 
the above for the purpose of showing how extremely cautious one 



148 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

should be in accepting- second-hand information without verifica- 
tion. 

The worked flints at Powell's Bay, like those met with at 
similar places lower down the lake, have been derived from the 
Trenton formation at the Chaudiere. They are strewn along the 
river side of a long narrow rocky and sandy point that reaches 
down the river and shelters the mouth of a low marshy creek, which 
runs into the bay. This point, which is of Laurentian formation, 
is still a resort for trappers and fishermen. 

The north shore of the Ottawa, at the entrance to Squaw Bay, 
is a bold outcrop of limestone which rises 15 or 20 feet per- 
pendicularly from, and in places overhangs, the swift current of 
the river, a short distance below the Little Chaudiere Rapids. 
The bay, which forms an indentation in this cliff" of about 100 
yards in width, extends northward, a distance of 800 feet, to the 
southern end of Mountain street, or the foot of the declivity which 
slopes downward from the Hull Electric Railway tracks. The 
banks of both sides of the bay are bold and rocky, but not so abrupt 
as the main shore-line of the river. From the upper end of the 
bay right out to the rocky point which forms its southern extremity, 
the western shore is strewn more or less, throughout its entire 
length, with fragments of worked flint, just as we meet with them 
at similar places on Lake Deschenes higher up the river. 

So far, I have only made a casual examination of this camp- 
ing site, for the purpose of ascertaining its extent and general 
features, rather than for the discovery of such details as might 
throw some light upon its origin and subsequent history. 

To all appearance, it seems as if this spot had been a landing 
place at the foot of an old Indian carrying-path, which led up to the 
head of that break in the canoe route of the Ottawa River caused 
by theLittle Chaudiere Rapids. 

There is no doubt that, in pre-historic times, there were 
periods of tribal inactivity, during which an Indian community 
may have lived in such peace and comparative security, at Squaw 
Bay, as to have led even its younger members to indulge in the 
contemplation of making old bones ; but the situation of the 
dwelling sites of these pahtolithic people bear indubitable evidence 
that no dream of lasting peace ever found them off their guard 



igoi] SowTER — Prehistoric Camping Grounds. 149 

ag'ainst possible conting-encies, for these makers of Hint arrow- 
heads and stone axes were, as the Pathfinder would call it, 
" judgrnatical " in the selection of their campings g-rounds. 

Occupying a strategic position, between the upper and lower 
portages of the north shore of the Ottawa, this rocky and well 
wooded inlet possessed exceptional facilities for the formation of an 
ambuscade, that would not fail to be taken advantage of under the 
conditions of primitive warfare. 

Standing amidst the debris of this pre-historic Indian work- 
shop, one cannot fail to be carried back, in imagination, to a time, 
when this intricate system of islands and channels, rapids and falls 
was clothed in the sombre garments of the prirhajval forest. One 
pictures to himself the peaceful condition of this northern wilder- 
ness ere the once powerfnl Algonkin-Huron combination, that 
claimed sovereignty over it, had dwindled into insignificence before 
the superior military and diplomatic genius of the five confederated 
nations to the south of the great lakes ; ere the Algonkin name, 
which once carried terror to the council fires of its enemies, had 
become a term of contempt, through that lack of military 
organization which led to the downfall and final dispersion oi that 
nation. 

One sees a dense cloud of spi^ay hovering over the spot where 
the downward sweeping waters take their final plunge into the 
lower river, with a green tree-clad eminence in the background, 
and is reminded that this place was known to the Mohawks as 
" Tsitkanajoh," or the "floating kettle; while the Onondagas 
called it " Katsidagwehniyoh," or the chief "Council F'ire."* So 
that either of these names may have been a shibboleth on the 
Ottawa during the closing acts in that tragedy oi the middle of 
the 17th century, which resulted in the wiping out of the once 
dominant Algonkin-Huron confederacy. 

But, by the subtle magic of these names, the retrospective 
scene is changed and the inner circle of the council fire of this 
ancient camping ground is occupied by the grim war chiefs of the 
Iroquois. For this wonderful race of sagacious warriors, in con- 
formity with a well planned and far-reaching scheme of conquest, 
has sent war-parties to secure among other places the passes 
of the Chaudi^re and intercept the Huron tra fiic with the French 
*Seo Ontario Archjeologital Report of iSg8. 



150 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

settlements on the St. Lawrence, whilst the main force of the 
confederacy is directed against their tribal strong^holds in what is 
now western Ontario. 

In imagination, this romantic and picturesque spot is trans- 
formed into a cleverly constructed ambush. Wary sentinels posted 
at the upper end of the portage pass the word that the enemy is 
approaching from the upper reaches of the river and is about to 
run the rapids. The council is broken up, the canoes are manned 
and with ready musket and uplifted paddle the warriors await the 
si,gnal ol attack. Once within the rift of the Little Chaudi^re and 
all retreat, for the luckless Huron or Algonkin is out of the 
question. Retreat up the river is hopeless, for the foot of the 
portage is held by the enemy. Escape by the lower portage is 
equally futile, for the same implacable foe will intercept them 
before they can reach it, or overtake them before they can pass it. 
The attack is delivered with the usual results, and the Iroquois 
return to their concealment laden with the spoils of war, with scalps 
and prisoners. 

Now the manufacturer of yellow literature would like to 
describe the torture and death of these prisoners at the hands of 
their captors ; but we know that the Iroquois were not always 
given to vengeance and that they adopted large numbers of Hurons 
that were thus taken in battle. 

Mr. William E. Connelly, in his excellent papers on "The 
Wyandots," in the Ontario Archaeological Report of 1899, in 
writing of " the oldest branch of the Iroquoian family," informs us 
that the clan system in the Five nations was the feature of real 
strength. He goes on to say that : " The clan system was 
responsible for much of the fierce warfare made by one tribe upon 
another. It was a religious duty to keep the clan full, i.e. every 
name in the clan list of proper names. No name was allowed in 
ancient times to become wholly obsolete. The animal from which 
the clan claimed descent was always angry when these names were 
not in use, for they were not in his honor. To suffer a clan to 
become extinct was a reproach to the nation or tribe. It was 
followed by dire calamity. This both the old Wyandots and 
Senecas have often told me. War was often undertaken to 
replenish the depleted ranks of a decaying clan. White men were 
eagerly adopted and to such an extent had this practice been 
carried by the Wyandots that after the year 1820 there was not a 
full blood Wyandot alive. Few women and girls were slain in 
battle or tortured as prisoners even in ancient times. They were 
adopted into the different clans of the tribe." 

"The Wyandots claim that as late as 1800 at least, the 
Wyandots and Cherokees made war upon each other for the sole 
purpose of obtaining women and children for adoption." 



iqoi] SowTER — Prehistoric Camping Grounds. ii^i 

PLATE X. 

Fig-ure i -Side view of crvhtalliiie limestone pipe, h diameter, with perfora- 
tion at base of bowl, from Pointe A la Bataille, Lake Des- 
chencs, Torbolton township, Ont. Collector, Narcisse Noel, 
Aylmer, Ijue. 

,, i<i. — Front view of Fig- i, showing stem-hole antl ends of perforation 

at base of bowl. 
,, lb. — Section of Fig. i. Shaded portion shows stem-hole ami tob-icco 

cavity. 
,, If. — Top view of Fig. i. 
,, 2. — Flint arrow-head, l^ diameter, from Ottawa River, Bryson, Que. 

Collector, E. J. Leroy, Bryson, Que. 
,, 3. — Flint arrow-head, 3_^ diameter, of foreigfn make, from Raymond's 

Point, Ont. 
,, 4. — Flint arrow-head, natural size, from Paris, Ont. Collector, 

Harold Nelson, Ottawa. 
,, 5. — Flint arrow-head, natural size, from Raymond's Point, Lake Des- 

chenes. Out. This point and Fig. 4 .so closely resemble each 

other in size, shape and the peculiarly streaked flint from which 

they are fabricated that it is difficult to distinguish them apart. 
,, 6. -Black flint arrow-head, natural size, from Raymond's Point, Lake 

Deschenes, Ont. 
,, 7. — Dark stone celt, }4 diameter, from beach in front of Hotel X'ictoria, 

Lake Deschenes, Avimer, Que. 
,, 8. — Buff-coloured flint arrow-head, natural size, from I'ointe aux Pins 

(Queen's Park), Lake Deschenes. A recent fraction at the 

tip reveals a rind or crust which encloses a lighter-coloured 

interior. 
,, 8 — Dark slate knife, i diameter, from farm of Mr. John .Armstrong, 

March township, Carleton Co., Ont. Collector, Geo. Burland, 

Ottawa. 
,, 9.— Cross section of Fig. y. 



152 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

NOTES ON THE WINTER BIRDS OF THE CARIBOO 
DISTRICT. B.C. 



By Allan Brooks. 

I spent the winter of 1900-01 in the western portion of the 
Cariboo district, and as I was in the field the whole season, I had 
ample opportunities to note the birds of both the Upper Eraser 
river valley and the more heavily tirr.bered mountains to the 
eastward. 

The whole district, both in fauna and flora shows a decided 
infusion of the Hudsonian element, but this is less marked in the 
case of the winter birds than in the summer residents and the 
springs and fall migrants, many of which do not occur to the 
southward, except perhaps as stragglers. Such species as Bar- 
tram's Sandpiper, Tennessee, Black poll and Magnolia Warblers, 
and Empidonax alnorum probably migrate east through the 
Yellowhead pass and down the Mississippi valley. 

Many of the mammals found in the district are identical with, 
or closely allied to those found east of the Rockies, for instance 
Arcioniys monax and Microsotex hoyi. 

The southern range of the Moose in British Columbia will 
approximately define the limit of the Hudsonian element. 

The season was a very poor one for winter birds. Redpolls 
and Snowflakes, which are very abundant as a rule, were com- 
paratively scarce, and Hawks and Owls were almost entirely 
absent. The northern portion of Ontario — Algoma district — will 
approximate very closely to western Cariboo both in climate and 
physical features. 

299. Dendragaptis franklini. Franklin's Grouse. 

Abundant in suitable localities. To the northward it will probably 
interg-rade with the Canada Grouse, as many of the specimens secured 
showed a decided infusion of Canadensis blood, the tail often being nar- 
rowly tipped with fulvous or white. 
3006. Bonasa uinbelliis umbelloides. Gray Ruffed Grouse. 

Most of the Ruffed Grouse could be referred to this form, but some 
specimens were closer to typical umbellus or to togata. 
304. Lagopiis leucurus. White-tailed Ptarmigan. 

Only occurs at high altitudes. The onl\- species ot Ptarmigan ob- 
served. 
308. Pedicecetcs phasianellus. Sharp-tailed tirouse. 

The form occurring 'it Ouesnelle is apparently the typical northern 

species. 
Richardson's Grouse occurs in the district both along the Fraser river 
and at timber line in the high mountains, but not in the intervening coun- 
try, and was not observed during the winter. 
334. Accipiter atricapillus. American Goshawk. 

The only hawk observed during the winter .months. 



iqoil Brooks — Winter Birds. 



153 



,^52. Haliactus Ifucocephatus. Bald Eag'le. 

.^49. Aquila chrysa'ctos. Golden Ea^le. 
Both eaj^les occur sparing-ly. 

371. Xyctiili.- riclitirdsoni. Richardson's Owl. 

372. .Yyc/d/e aradica. Sawwhet Owl. 

366. As to 7i'ilso/iianus. American Loiig--earod Owl. 

367. Astv arripitriuus. Short-eared Owl. 

With the probable exception of the last these are resident throutifhout 
the winter. 

375. Bubo virgianiis. Great Horned Owl. 

375«. Bubo V. subarcticus. Western Horned Owl. 
375r. Bubo 71. safuraius. Dusky Horned Owl. 
All three forms occur and intergrade. 

376. Xyctea nyctea. Snowy Owl. 

Several mounted specimens seen. I also heard oS the Great Gray 
Owl being' shot near I'arkerville. 
3g3rt. Dryohates vil'osus leucomelas. Xorthern Haii'v Woodpecker. 

Tolerably common. 

400. Picoides arcticus. Arctic three-toed Woodpecker. 

Scarce throng'hout the winter; the g^reater number seemed to migrate 
southwards. 

This should be the western form lately described by Mr. Bangs, but 
specimens taken seemed to correspond in measurements with the typical 
form. 
401 Picoides amaricanus. American three-toed Woodpecker. 

Much commoner than the last. Both species are among- the hardest 
of birds to collect; they jire shy and retiring, especially the last species, 
and when shot almost invariably remain clinging- to the tree by their 
powerful claws, even if they fall the}' generally manag-e to catch on to a 
small twig or festoon of moss and remain suspended by one or both feet 
long after death. I shot a male of the Arctic species as it clung to a 
small stump; though killed quite dead it did not drop. On exaininiitiiin I 
found the feet were five inches apart and the \i\\ firmly braced. The 
head and body falling backwards had brought considerable pressure on 
the tail. It required considerable force to detach the bird. 
405. Ilylotomus pilcatus. Pileated Woodpecker. 

Scarce. This is probably the northern limit of its range. 
475. Pita hudsonica. American Mag-pie. 

Tolerably common. 
486a, Connis principalis. Northern Raven 

Common. The first crows were observed early in March. 
478. Cyanocitta stelleri anectcns, Black-Iu-aded Jay. 

Common. 
48^rt. Ptrisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Ja\-. 

.Abundant. .All my efforts to find the nest failed From ilissection 
of a number caught in Marten traps 1 came to the conclusion thai not 20 
per cent, wen- breeding birds, and that the eggs were laid about 25lh 
.March. 
5156. Pinicola enuclealor alascensis. .Alaskan Pine Grosbeak. 
Common. 



154 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

521. Luxia ritrvi rostra minor. American Crossbill. 

522. Loxia Icucoptern. White Wing-ed Crossbill. 

The latter the most abundant. Both species seemed to mig-rate from 
the district before the close of the winter. Both were common during- 
summer of 1900. 
524rt. Leticosticte tephrocotis littoralis. Hepburn's I.eucosticte. 

Typical examples taken during the winter. The form .hat breeds in 
the high mountains near Barkerville is typical tephrocotis. 
527«. Acanthis exilipes. Hoary Redpoll. 
528. Acanthis linaria. Mealy Redpoll. 

I carefully examined all flocks of Redpolls seen and only secured one 
specimen that showed any approach to exilipes. During former winters 
Mr. Sidney Williams has taken several fairly typical exilipes at Quesnelle. 
I did not observe the Pine Siskin during the winter months. 
5-54. Plectrophrnax nivalis. Snowflake. 
7c I. Cinclus mexicanus. American Dipper. 

Found in the neighbourhood of open water throughout the winter. 
"J 26b. Certhia a. montanus. Rocky Mountain Creeper. 

Tolerablj' common throughout the winter. 
728. Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

Less common than the last. 
7350. Pariis a. septentrio?ialis. Long-tailed Chickadee. 

Common. 
738. Panis gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. 

Occasionally observed at Quesnelle. 
740^. Pants Jiudsonius columbianiis. Columbian Chickadee. 

Abundant in the heavy spruce timber and on hig^h elevations. 
748^. Regiilus satrapa olivaceus. Western Kinglet. 

A few of these delicate little birds remained throughout the coldest 
weather. 

The birds enumerated in the foregoing list were all actual winter residents 
with the possible exception of the Short-eared Owl. Bohemian Waxwing-s 
were observed in large flocks during the late fall and again early in March. 
A single Butcher bird was also noticed in February, probably only accidental, 
as no others were seen between October and March. Winter Wrens 
( pacificus ) remained until the end of October and returned 6th April. The 
first Robin was seen on the 6th March, but no more were observed for some 
time, but as I went into the heavily timbered region to the northeast of Ques- 
nelle about that date I had not much chance to observe the migration of the 
spring birds, which did not begin to show up there till well on in April, the 
Winter Wren on the 6th being followed by a considerable influx of migratory 
Goidcrests and Tree Creepers. First Geese (canaaensisj ■were seen on 9th 
April, Snowfinches (Juncos) and a Pigmy Owl were seen on the same date, 
though the latter (the Californian form) might have remained all winter and 
been overlooked. A considerable number of Robins, Arctic Bluebirds and 
Red-shafted Flickers were seen on the 12th, and first Varied Thrushes on the 
17th. The big rush of spring arrivals came in after the 20th April, when the 
winter had fairly broken up. 



THE OTTAWA fiATURALIST. 



Vol. \V OTTAWA. OCTOBER, 1901. No. 7. 



SOME OF THE BIRDS OF ALGOMA. 



(Read before the Ornitholog'ical section of the EiitomoloyicHl Society of 

Ontario.) 

By C. T. Scott, Ayhner, Oni. 

We were a party of four who had planned to spend our 
summer vacation in the wilderness of Algoma. We took boat at 
Collingwc^od for Killarney, and during' this twenty-four hour trip, 
not the least of our pleasure was in watching- the gulls which sailed 
around the boat with an air of proprietorship. When doing 
justice to the excellent menu of the boat, we did not forget these 
birds, but invariably carried off some tidbits to make sport tor 
them. When a morsel was drcSpped into the water, the nearest 
gull turned in a short but e^racelul curve until he stood just tip- 
toe on the waves, deftly picked up the food, then rising would 
almost regain his place at the head of the flock. When the birds 
were close together there would be a race for the food, and some 
of them would drop with a hovering movement of the wings 
striking the water with a splash in their eagerness to be first. 
But never could we deceive them. They could distinguish a chip 
or a piece of paper at the highest altitude. Occasionally some 
noi.sy one would straighten out his neck, open a capacious mouth, 
and utter a cry decidedly irritating to the nerves. One gull, of 
dark gray colour — so dark as to look black when at a distance — 
seemed particularly anxious to exhibit his musical talents. At 
nightfall they dropped behind resting upon the water, but they 
were following us again in the morning with the earliest streaks 
of day. 



1^6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

When at Killarney we learned why the Ontario Government 
have imposed a fine of $20 upon anyone convicted of killing- a 
g-Lill. Along the shores of Georgian Bay the fishermen are pro- 
hibited from throwing- refuse into the water. All the offal left 
from a " clean-up" of the fish is dumped into barrels placed along 
the shore, where it is speedily devoured by the numerous gulls 
and the almost equally numerous ravens, which are ready to dis- 
pute title to the dainty feast. These two birds form the natural 
scavengers to this region, and doubtless are to be credited with 
helping to preserve the splendid fisheries around Georgian Bay. 

We stayed just long enough at Killarney to change travelling 
for camping suits, to rent a large birch bark canoe, and to engage 
a small steam launch to tow us, with our impedimenta, five miles 
out into a cove on the northwest shore of Killarney bay. Here 
we pitched our tent on a portage path leading back to an inland 
marsh, and prepared to spend our first night in this pleasing soli- 
tude. Whist ! What was that ? A wild duck ! But our guns 
were not at hand, so we couldn't determine the variety. As we 
lay around the camp-fire that night, our voices subdued almost to 
a whisper by the impressive silence of the forest, suddenly a shrill, 
weird cry just above our heads nearly froze the blood in our veins. 
It was the cry of a loon coming into our cove, but we scarcely 
knew how to interpret it. Was it a laugh or a wail ? We de- 
bated the question, and concluded that much depended on the 
mood of the listener. More loons passing over our camp wakened 
us in the morning. After breakfast, and the more difficult task of 
dish washing, we strolled over the trail into wooded gullies and 
up ascending tei races of quarlzite rock. Who knocked just then ? 
We looked in the direction, when lo ! I caught my first glimpse 
of the pileated woodpecker. It was but a moment, then came a 
flash of red and black in the sunlight, and he was gone. We fol- 
lowed in his direction, but our pursuit was in vain. We tramped 
all forenoon, but one or two golden-winged woodpeckers, con- 
scious of intruders, were the only other faathery friends we 
chanced to meet. 

Whilst trolling down the bay in the afternoon a wild-duck 
passed us again. This time we felt sure it was a wood-duck, ^nd 



■Qoi] Scott — Birds ok Algoma. 



157 



we concluded it mijrht have a family somewhere in the vicinity. 
We forgot all about the duck until some hours after when, pass- 
ing an inlet, we saw somethini,-^ movinq- in the reeds. Through 
the field glass we distinguished them as a whole family of young 
duck. Thinking to approach them by guile we passed the inlet, 
landed farther up on the shore, and stealing over the rocks, care- 
ful to step only on the moss so our approach could not be heard, 
we sought a closer vision. No duckling was in sight. We after- 
wards entered the inlet and searched for some trace of our game, 
but again the birds proved themselves too wary for men. Paddling 
up the cove to our camping ground a solitary kingfisher passed 
us uttering his rubber doll squeak. 

The second day we paddled up the bay for two miles in search 
of a portage that would take us into a chain of lakes which lay 
north of the mountain range. Several wild ^iucks passed us, but 
flying too high for identification. The only portage we crossed 
was one that led up precipices so steep as to preclude the possi- 
bility of carrying the large canoe across. Climbing this path we 
were suddenly halted by a covey of partridge who with ruffled 
neck feathers seemed to ask us to get out of their way. They 
finally concluded to give us the road and moved aside with no 
more tear than so many chickens. It was in climbing this eleva- 
tion that we noted the singular absence of small birds through 
this region. No other birds met our eye until we were pushing 
off our canoe to return to Killarney, when we disturbed a small 
.sandpiper who evidently felt he was the sole possessor of this 
long-stretching beach. 

The ne.vt morning, having exchanged our one large canoe for 
two smaller ones, we paddled out on a heavily rolling sea to cross 
four miles of Georgian Bay into the entrance of Collins' Inlet. 
•After three hours paddling we made the lee of the first island 
where we landed to caulk our canoes and dry our water-soaked 
cargoes. This island known as One Tree Island, proved a perfect 
rendezvous of the gulls, who protested against our lighting a camp 
fire. The castings of the birds showed that they frequently lunched 
on the blue-berries, with which these rocks abound. We cooked 
our supper five miles up the inlet, and whilst gathering some blue- 



158 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

berries a couple of chickadees took an interest in our work, and a 
hairy woodpecker rapped out his compHinents from some neigh- 
boring trees. We proceeded up the Inlet by moonlight. The 
almost oppressive silence hushed our conv-ersation, and only the 
swish of our paddles woke the echoes of the nearly perpendicular 
walls which closed us in. Once some heavy animal, probably a 
deer, broke the branches in the dark forest of the right bank ; 
again we saw a porcupine move up from the waters' edge from 
the left, but for hours these were the only sounds that broke the 
stillness. Just as we were looking about for a landing place, two 
whip-poor-wills on opposite sides of the inlet struck up a cheery 
duet. This music brought us back to the world of reality. We 
landed, made camp, and not even the droning of the mosquitoes 
could rob us ot the pleasure ot this midnight litany from the 
whip-poor-wills. 

We rested Sunday, and on Monday portaged past Collin's 
Mills, paddled up the Mahzenazing River, and by dinner time had 
had put the last habitation ten miles behind us. Whilst eating our 
lunch at a dam, made to raise the water in the river tor logging 
purposes, we enjoyed the company of about a score of cedar wax- 
wings. Up the river we went, finding that this six-foot dam had 
made miles of marsh, and "drowned" land. Nothing could be 
more desolate than this marshy stream bordered everywhere by 
dead trees holding their bare arms rebelliously towards heaven. 
Repeatedly a large crane got up in front of us and moved lazily 
on in advance. Black ducks, singly or in pairs, would start up at 
our approach and quack the announcement of others hidden in the 
reeds. Once a bittern, startled by the noise of our gun, flew away 
southward as though determined to leave the region forever now 
that man had invaded the solitude. We reached the shore of 
Johnny Lake at midnight, tired, thirsty and wet, for the rain had 
commenced to tall. To add to our discomfort the little clearing 
where we were trying to get some wet wood to burn, was literally 
choked with mosquitoes. No wonder ':he garrulous chatter of a 
flock of crow black-birds roused our wickedness. We resolved on 
a black-bird pie. They must have suspected our intentions, for we 
never got within gun range, 



iqoi] Scott — Birds of Algoma. 159 

From this point on for several days we had uniform experience 
of travel through lakes and portag"es, full of interest as a canoe 
trip, but almost void ot ornithological specimens. An occasional 
duck on the lakes, with partridyfe and golden-wings on the port- 
ages composed our whole experience with the feathery tribe. Once 
when two of us got lost in the forest and had spent the greater 
portion of the day without food, we counted it a providential thing 
that we stumbled on a little lake where two small saw-bills were 
sailing around. We killed one and wounded the other, but failed 
to reach the wounded one. When we got back to camp at even- 
tide, nearly exhausted, a loon was laughing at us from across the 
bay . 

Passing out of Lake Panache on Saturday — a large lake 
beautifully indented with promontories and sprinkled with islands 
—we entered a marshy lake known as Lake Levasse. Here ducks 
were abundant. A coot gave us so much trouble in identifying 
him, that we didn't stop to classify any other specimen. Besides, 
there seemed to be so many miles of this lake, and it was so over- 
grown with rushes that it became difficult to find the channel and 
we must get through before dark. Pushing on, we entered a 
a picturesque river which brought us, after an hour's paddling to 
the falls of Round Lake. Here a few cedar wax-wings that had 
not yet gone to roost watched us pitch our tent and prepare for 
another Sunday's rest. 

Sunday morning found a gale blowing from the east, and 
there, riding majestically above us, was a beautiful fish-hawk. 
That day whilst sauntering over rocks and tracing the boundaries 
of a great diorite upheaval, we disturbed a pair of hairy wood- 
peckers. But what was that larger woodpecker beyond ? The 
field-glass showed us that he had a bright orange-yellow crown 
and black back. To us this arctic woodpecker was such a novelty 
that we thought of collecting him. But then it was Sunday, and 
we had no fire-arm with us but a 44 calibre rifle. We concluded 
that to kill and skin a bird with one shot was too delicate an 
operation, so we only aimed our field-glass until he went dipping 
away into the depths of the forest. 



i6o The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

Two days more and we reached the C. P. R. line. We put 
our canoes on the train sending- them east to Wahnapitae station, 
whilst we got off at Sudbury to visit the mines. Here the 
ubiquitous English sparrow had followed the settlers in great 
numbers. The surrounding country, made almost as barren as 
Gehenna by sulphur fumes from the mines, seemed all the more 
desolate by being infested with great flocks of the common crow. 

At Wahnipitae station, where we rested for a day, my atten- 
tion was arrested by great numbers of the barn swallow. At times 
they seemed to fairly cover the telegraph lines for the distance of 
six or seven posts. Here, too, we saw the only attempt at farm- 
ing we had met in our journey. Between two great granite ridges 
one man had brought about forty acres of land under cultivation. 
Yet such familiar birds as the robin and bluebird did not come 
under our observation even here. Though personally not in a fit 
condition for observation during this day's rest, owing to sudden 
illness, none of the party noted any representatives of the warbler 
or sparrow families. In the twilight, as I lay on my back with 
my face to the sky, I saw the swallows gradually withdraw and 
an occasional night-hawk skim through the gathering shades. 
Now and then ths whirr of a duck passing up the river made a 
pause in the supper preparations, but soon the stars came out 
and camp-fire stories took the place of Nature's quiet delights. 

We had left ourselves but three days and a Sunday rest to 
cover the sixty miles which lay between us and French River port 
on Georgian Bay. Passing down this river with its varying 
panorama, its sudden turns enabling us to startle deer and moose, 
we found only monotony in the study of ornithology. Ducks, 
more ducks, and ducks again, at every bend of the river. 
Amongst these we identified the larger saw-bill, grey duck and 
blue-winged teal as well as black duck in abundance. These 
black ducks seemed to prefer a diet of snails, for each one we 
opened had a number of snail shells in his crop. W^hilst examin- 
ing one, some twenty miles down the river, our attention was 
drawn upward by a passing shadow. There was a bald-headed 
eagle sailing leisurely past. About dusk on Saturday evening a 
large bird crossed the river silently in front of us. We paddled 



iQoi] ScoTt — Birds of Algoma. i6i 

close to the shore to get a better look. As he sat on a tree far 
above us he looked like a snowy owl, so we thought we would put 
the matter beyond dispute by " collecting" him. The gun made 
a noisy report, but a few feathers scattered in the wind were not 
enough to confirm our identification. 

Sunday whilst resting near an interesting waterfall on the 
river I saw two flycatchers plying their calling. A dull haze made 
accurate observation impossible, from size and form I judged them 
to be olive sided flycatchers. Here the sense of my ignorance 
made me dejected. Whether from this cause, or the exciting 
rapids we had to run, or the exhausting portages we had to make, 
I found no other bird 1 could enter on my list for the districts of 
Algoma and Nipissing. 

When we turned into the middle channel of French River we 
were in the land of the loon and the gull once more. Crossing 
our last portage just before entering French River village a whole 
covey of partridges stood on the tramw ay chuckling defiance at 
our attempts to " Shoo !" them into flight. About midnight we 
stepped aboard the " Atlantic ' with tickets tor Killarney port, 
but we were such doubtful looking " birds " ourselves that the 
steward hesitated about giving us respectable berths. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTE. 

PiERis PKOTODiCE. While walking along the "perennial 
border" in the botanical garden at the Experimental Farm at 
Ottawa on September the 21st last, I was surprised to see a fine 
specimen of the Checkered White butterfly {Pieris profodice, Bdv. ) 
I had not a net with me but was lucky enough to catch it in my 
hands. It is a fine female and this is the first time the species has 
ever been taken at Ottawa or as far as I knpw so far East in On- 
tario by a hundred miles. The caterpillar, like those of most of 
the white butterflies feeds on the various cruciferous plants includ- 
ing occasionally the cultivated cabbage. 

J. Fletcher. 



i62 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

RATTLESNAKES AND SCORPIONS. 

During- a recent trip in the interior of British Columbia I fell 
in with an old acquaintance, Mr. E. Bullock-Webster, from Kere- 
meeos, on the Similkameen River, near the southern boundary of 
the province, on the mainland. This part of the country seems to 
be a continuation of the desert regions which extend through the 
adjoining States and California down to Mexico ; the theory being 
borne out by the existence of some of the plants and reptiles 
peculiar to those regions, tor instance, Purshia tridentata as well 
as various members of the Artemisia family, burrowing owls, 
horned toads, rattlesnakes, scorpions, &c. 

Being aware of the existence of scorpions in the hot rocky 
hills in the vicinity of his ranch, having seen one from there 
in captivity some years ago at New Westminster which had been 
kept in a glass jar with only some gravel, and without food or 
water for several months, I asked my friend if he could obtain a 
specimen for me. He promised he would do so when opportunity 
offered ; but the season, he said, was past for obtaining them to 
the best advantage. He then explained that during the dormant 
season the scorpions shared the dens of rattlesnakes, Crotalus 
lucifer (Baird and Girard) and in the spring time when the sun 
began to attain some power, the snakes come out to the mouths 
of their dens, in horrid coiling masses, the scorpions running over 
them on apparently quite friendly terms. Mr. Webster described 
several of these dens in the rocky defiles of the mountains of 
Similkameen very graphically. 

One, which from accounts received from Indians, seems to be 
the headquarters of all the rattlesnakes, is situated in an ideal in- 
ferno, a weird defile that would have appealed to the imagination of 
Dor6. It appears that the Indians from superstitious motives do 
not kill snakes, and from the same motives do not go near their 
dens. Mr. Webster, however, induced an old Indian to conduct 
him to the spot, which he did, but would not go nearer than about 
two hundred yards. Mr. Webster entered the horrid place alone. 
He says it is indescribably weird, the entrance of the den proper 
being partly stopped up with bunch-grass, apparently carried 
there by the snakes, presumably for protection against cold. It 



igoi] Rattlesnakes and Scorpions. 163 

was too late in the season, however, the snakes having all left for 
summer quarters, and all that was to be seen were some skins 
that had been shed and a dead snake, probably an interloper, 
which had apparently been killed by the others. Mr. Webster 
expressed the belief that the snakes belonged to different com- 
munities, and that an individual who attempted to force its com- 
pany on a community to which it did not belong, suffered the 
penalty of death at the fangs of the members of the invaded 
colon} . 

The bull snake (so-called), Pityophis catenifer, a harmless 
variety, is described as being a deadly enemy of the rattlesnake, 
which the former devours whole. The bull snake is therefore 
carefully preserved. Mr. Webster says that since the advent of 
miners and settlers the number of rattlesnakes has sensibly 
decreased. 

A curious account of a snake fight was described by Mr. 
Webster, the witness being a Mr. Richter, a man well known to 
him, and of whose veracity he can vouch. It appears that during 
a cattle hunt Mr. Richter, feeling tired, dismounted, and fell 
asleep^ but was awakened by a rustling noise in the grass near 
him. He raised himself carefully and saw a bull snake holding on 
to a garter snake, a species of Euiccniu, by the head. The latter 
was making frantic efforts to get away by winding itself about the 
body of the larger snake, nearly succeeding several times, when 
the bull snake loosened his hold in the attempt to get the smaller 
snake " end on," so as to begin the swallowing operation. At 
length the bull snake, apparently tired of this way of trying to 
capture its prey, reared itself on its head and began twirling itself 
violently with a spiral motion. This continued for about a minute, 
after which the garter snake seemed quite paralyzed, and the bull 
snake proceeded to swallow him at his leisure. 

J. R. Anderson. 

Victoria, B.C., 1901. 



164 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

BOTANICAL NOTES. 

Acer dasycarpum. — I have for seven years kept a careful 
note of the time of blooming of a healthy tree of the Silver Maple 
{Acer dasycarpum) which stands on the north side of James street, 
Ottawa, in front of my house. Thinking that these dates might 
be of interest to others as well as myself, I send them to The 
Ottawa Naturalist. On the following dates the tree was fairly 
well covered with blossoms : 

1895 — April i8th. 

First flowers April 8th. 



1896— , 


1, i6th. 


1897- , 


t nth. 


1898— , 


II 2nd. 


1899— 


II 20th. 


1 900 — 1 


II 15th. 


1 901 — 1 


1 15th. 



W. J. Wilson. 

A New Meadow-rue» — Mr. M. L. Fernald examined the 
Geological Survey specimens ot Thalictrum a few months ago and 
among them found a new species which he has named T. confine^ 
and described and figured in Rhodora for Dec. 1900. It was col- 
lected by Prof. Macoun in thickets at Hemlock Lake near Ottawa, 
in flower Aug. 8th, 1894. Fruiting specimens of this species were 
collected by Mr. Fernald in Sept., 1900, in Maine. T. occidentale 
has also been found to be common in the Maritime provinces, 
and it is not unlikely that it too will be found at Ottawa where 
T. dioicuni and T. polygajnum are common. The meadow-rues 
should always be collected in fruit. 

Agrimony. — The two species of Agrimony, A. hirsiita and 
A. Brittoniatia should both be found in the Ottawa district though 
only the former species is represented in the herbarium of the 
Geological Survey. A. hirsuia has short, turbinate fruit, the 
dilated marginal rim of the convex disk bearing numerous reflexed 
spreading hairs ; in ^4. Britiomana the disk is flat or concave, the 
bristles short, crowded, inflexed and connivent over the sepals, the 
fruit is long-turbinate. In the former species the leaves are thin 
with the margins and nerves beneath ciliate, in the latter species 
the leaves are thickish, rugose and softly pubescent beneath, the 
margins finely scabrous-ciliolate. 

J. M. M. 



1901] Reviews. 165 

REVIEWS. 

Cat.alogue of the Marine Invertebrata ok Eastern Canada. 
By ;. W. Whiteaves, LL.D., F.G.S., F.R.S.C. Geological 
Survey of Canada, pp. 271. 1900. 

The publication of this catalogue will be hailed with genuine 
delight by zoologists the world over, and especially by marine 
biologists on this continent. Dr. Robert Bell, the eminent head 
of the Geological Survey, in his introductory note, modestly ex- 
presses the hope that it may stimulate to renewed activity Canadian 
naturalists, who have taken up marine researches, and he very 
appropriately refers to the opportuneness of the appearance of this 
catalogue soon after a Marine Biological Station, has commenced 
its work on our Atlantic shores. 

Dr. Whiteaves would be the first to disclaim for this catalogue 
its title to be considered a magnufti optis, yet such it is, and as 
such it will be regarded by American naturalists in the future. 
Hitherto reliance had to be placed on scattered and fragmentary 
lists and notices by Canadian workers, or to the memoirs and 
catalogues published in the United States, and professedly dealing 
less with Canadian than with United States' local faunas. Now 
we have a faunistic list of our own so far as marine invertebrates 
are concerned. Two features at once strike the appreciative reader 
on perusing this catalogue, — first, the extensive geographical area 
it covers, and the large amount of material it embraces (the species 
enumerated being over a thousand in number) and second, the 
care and accuracy revealed on every page of the publication. This 
latter characteristic the scientific world has long recognised in all 
Ur. Whiteaves' work and any one familiar with the reports, now 
somewhat venerable for they date back thirty years, in which Dr. 
Whiteaves summarised the results of his dredging expeditions in 
the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Bay of Chaleurs, and 
the Bradelle and Orphan banks as well as parts of the coast of 
Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island during the years 1871, 
1872 and 1873, \vhich reports were published by the Department 
of Marine and Fisheries, will experience no surprise at the extent 
of the coastal waters covered by Dr. Whiteaves in the present 
catalogue. What an infinite amount of labour is represented by 



a66 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

the 27 1 pag-es of this work only those who have attempted launistic 
lists can realise. True, it is largely drudgery : but it is pioneer 
work without which no future progress is possible. That a large 
proportion of the species of Sponges, Echinoderms, Worms, 
Hydroids, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Ascidians, etc., have passed 
through the author's own hands — a considerable proportion dredged 
by himself, is clear from the references : but in the preparation of 
so ambitious a list as that covering- the invertebrate fauna of our 
Atlantic coast, reliance has also been placed upon the reports 
published by various United States workers, and many of the de- 
terminations of these workers are already undergoing revision. 
It seems, for instance, hardly credible that our Atlantic waters can 
boast at least nine distinct species of Spirorhis, the sedentary, 
almost ectoparasitic, habits of this Polychcete, when adult, favour- 
ing variations in the form and physical characteristics of its coiled 
tube, which may not justify the creation of so many species. As 
Verrill has pertinently remarked, and Dr. Whiteaves quotes the 
observation on p. 68, "The animals of the various species of 
Spirorbis are still very imperfectly known, and many species have 
been described from the tubes alone. Accurate descriptions or 
figures of the animals are necessary before the species can be de- 
termined satisfactorily." The Marine Biological Station founded 
in 1898 by the Dominion Government, freely opening its doors to 
all qualified scientific workers in the Dominion, will no doubt 
render substantial aid in confirming or in correcting- current diag- 
noses of such species, a station of this character facilitating the 
study of the animals in a living or, at least, in a fresh condition, 
and providing the needed facilities for the accurate determination 
of species. It is revealing no secret to say that several marine 
invertebrates and vertebrates secured by the staff of the Canadian 
Station at St. Andrews, N.B., in 1899 and 1890, and at Canso in 
1 901, are not referable to any recognized Canadian species, and 
will of necessity be announced as additions to our marine fauna. 
A Pnapulus dredged at Canso last August did not appear to re- 
semble any known Canadian species.* But while such additions 

* Dr. Whiteaves appears to be in doubt as to the identity of the specimens 
he secured in adjacent N. S. waters, and places a query after Priapiilus cau- 
ilafiis. Lmk. (p. 89). 



igoi] Reviews. 167 

are to be expected for some years to come, there is every proba- 
bility that many leiii^thy lists of species will be cut down, when 
the life-history of the young-, and the anatomy and morphology ot 
the adult stag^es, of manv species have been studied in detail by 
Canadian zoologists. 

The following enumeration gives a tabulated summary of the 

species set forth in Dr. Whiteaves list : 

Xo. of species. 
Protozoa. 

Koraminit'ora, 63 species 

Radiolaria, i 

64 

Sponc.es. 

36 (oxclusive of" 2 Hutison Bay species. ) . ._ 36 

ClELENTKRATA. 



H\dromcdiis;v, 66 species 
Scyphomedusa; 5 



Antliozoa, 


44 


Ctenophora 


4 


ECIIINODF.K.MATA. 




Crinoidt>a, 


3 


Hololhinioidea 


'.S 


Asteroidea 


-'9 


Ophiuroidea 


21 


Echinoidea 


3 



3 species. 



I'elecypoda, 100 species. 
Scaphopotla, 5 

Gasteropoda, 164 

Cephalopoda, 13 



119 



• 71 

MARINE WORMS. 

Pl.vtvhelmintmes 4 

Nemertea 21 

Ch.«topoda 106 

Gephyrea 7 

Brachiopooa 428 

POLVZOA . 3 

MOLLISCA 115 



282 

Arthri^poda. 

Crustacea '9^ 

-Ar.vchnida • ' 

Chordata. 

Urochordata 27 

1064 



i68 The Ottawa Naturalist [October 

Our Atlantic waters, it cannot be doubted, abound with 
animal life, indeed in some localities there is a plethora which is 
almost incredible. Those naturalists who were privileged to 
pursue researches in the new marine station at St. Andrews, dur- 
ing the two seasons when it was located there, were familiar with the 
spectacle which Dr. Whiteaves describes in a passage from Dr. 
Stimpson on p. 44. The large reddish or blackish purple sea- 
cucumbers, resembling the garden vegetable in shape, but soft, 
slimy and elastic to the touch, were so abundant that the dredge 
often came up heavy and packed tight with their plump and 
writhing bodies. Considerable areas in the waters of Passama- 
quoddy Bay are indeed black with the crowded assemblages of 
these curious Echinoderms. The delicacy so much coveted by the 
Chinese called '• trepang " is really the dried and prepared bodies 
of these interesting animals. In our utilitarian age a catalogue 
such as this may even stir some enterprising business man to 
create a " trepang" industry on the Atlantic coast. Hyrtl it was 
who showed a visitor a stamed section of a kidney under the 
microscope, and the visitor straightway designed an attractive 
wall-paper based on the stained histological section shown to him. 
Dr. Whiteaves need not be alarmed if, while his valuable cata- 
logue is of infinite worth to his brother scientists, it prove also an 
incentive to a new fishery enterprise ! In contrast with the large 
fleshy Peyitacta frondosa is the small delicate and transparent 
Pentacta niiniita of Verril, a species first distinguished as Cucu- 
maria minuia by Otto Fabricius in 1780, but which there is every 
reason to believe, now, is the small immature stage of /*. frondosa. 
Dr. Martin Duncan and Mr. Sladen suggested this, as Dr. 
Whiteaves mentions on page 44, and the numerous specimens ex- 
amined alive at St. Andrews in 1899 and 1900 support the 
suggestion. The curious " Sea Orange," Lop]iotJiiiria 
Fabricii, Duben and Koren, a congener of the sea- 
cucumbers, is recorded by Dr. Whiteaves as occurring all the way 
from Grand Manan to Temple Bay in Labrador. Its somewhat 
flattened shape, (not unlike a small shoe with the opening for the 
foot closed up) and covered with dense overlapping scales, ren- 
ders it one of the most peculiar of littoral prizes; but it is strange 



iQO'l Reviews. 169 

that the much more familiar Psoitis phantapus is recorded only 
from Grand Manan, at 40 fathoms deptli, and at Eastport and in the 
St. Lawrence estuary. Of the Sea Urchins, three Canadian 
species are here placed on record, while the Starfishes embrace 
eiofht species, Dr. Whiteaves rightly concurring in the view that 
the huge specimens of " Five fingers," measuring 12 or 15 inches 
across are simply over grown Asterias vulgaris, which usually 
measures 4 or 5 inches across. The six-rayed Starfishes, abound- 
ing" below Rimouski, have been by many observers regarded as 
abnormal "five-fingers," but they are referable to Asteria?, polaris 
Miill. and Trosch, and range fron the Nova Scotia banks to Cape 
Chidley in Labrador. Of special interest are the three species of 
Antedou occurring in Nova Scotian and southern New Brunswick 
waters. Future dredgings may add to this list of species, as well 
as extend their Canadian distribution, though the Crinoidea be- 
long to a past epoch, and of the 1500 species existing in Palaeozoic 
times a meagre remnant now remains in our seas. Their stalks 
and ovate or globular bodies abound in the ro;ks upon which 
Ottawa stands and testify to their abundance in the old-time seas. 

It IS impossible in a short notice like the present to refer even 
in the briefest way to many of the suggestive thoughts aroused by 
a perusal of Dr. Whiteaves' catalogue. One point, however, may 
be referred to as possessing a very general interest. It bears 
directly on the fascinating problems of animal distribution. A 
great proportion of species named in this list are L^nistoniam, to 
adopt the Dominion Statisticians' uncouth yet expressive adjective 
(as a substitute for the misused term American), or at any rate 
they are regarded as peculiar to this continent. Our lobster is 
Homariis americanus not the //. vulgnn's M. Edw., of Europe, yet 
the differences would be difficult to define. Prof. Knight of King- 
ston found that a small cephalic gland present in our lobster is 
absent in Scottish specimens, and Prof. Herrick states that the Euro- 
pean lobster's stages of larval development have been abbreviated, 
so that it is of larger size at a corresponding age than our species. 
Further study will show whether the differences are essential and 
specific, or unimportant and varietal merely. Certainly the com- 
mon whelk ot our shores though called Buccinum utulalurn, L., may 



170 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

ullimately justify Reeves' name -5. labradorense, for features shown 
in the egg-masses, and in early stages of development exhibit 
differences quite marked as compared with the British form. Dr. 
Whiteaves' corr parison of living adult specimens, however, from 
both sides of the Atlantic showed them to be practically undistin- 
guishable from each other. The ten species of Buccinum men- 
tioned in this catalogue would well repay renewed study, especially 
if the study included the ova and the embryonic stages. Curiously 
enough the small Dog-whelk [Purpura lapi/lus, L.) arouses such 
question. Its adult stage as well as its characteristic vase-shaped 
Q^or cases are identical with those of the European form, nor does 
the periwinkle [Litorina literea, L.) stir up any doubts. Indeed its 
identity with the East-Atlantic form has been so long recognized 
that Nova Scotian naturalists have for more than a quarter of a 
century supported its non-indigenous character. Dr. Whiteaves 
(p. 173) seems inclined to favour the view that it has been intro- 
duced from Europe. If so its dispersion and its local abundance 
everywhere are most astonishing. There are few rocky spots on 
our Atlantic shore where the periwinkle does not occur in count- 
less myriads. The allied species Li^orina rudis (Maton) is recorded 
only for our more northern coast extending into Hudson Bay, but 
no doubt it will be yet found further south. 

Just as so many of our mammals, birds and fishes correspond 
to but are not identical with European species — our moose differ- 
ing from the European elk, though not extremely so ; our white- 
fish, sturgeon, pike and trout unlike, yet in many respects 
resembling, the corresponding species in Europe, and our eastern 
salmon being according to the authorities not distinguishable from 
the British salmon {Sahno salar, L.), so our invertebrate forms 
differ in so many respects yet may in some cases be essentially 
undistinguishable. 

A recent remark by the famous British zoologist, Professor 
Mcintosh, to whom Dr. Whiteaves was indebted for diagnosing the 
Annelids, emphasizes this point and shows how much our natural- 
ists have to do before the determination of many zoological species 
can be regarded as final. Dr. Mcintosh says : "The exact relation- 
ships of the American Phyllodocida; to European forms have yet to 



1901] Reviews. lyr 

be more rii,ndl\- determined. Further, more accurate fi^fures of the 
brisfes and other parts are required." In a recent paper in the 
" Annals of Natural History" (London, September, rgoi) Prof. 
Mcintosh publishes some notes on at least six species of marine 
worms procured by Dr. VVhiteaves, and thoug-h the British autho- 
rity is the most eminent expert in that group of invertebrates, and 
has diag-nosed myriads of specimens from all parts of the world 
and established numberless new species, yet of these specimens of 
Canadian Phyllodocid^e only one species is in every detail identical 
with a European form, viz., the ubiquitous Phyllodocc _s[fa'n.landica^ 
CErsted," taken abundantly on Bradelle Bank and 15 miles south- 
east of Bonaventure Island. Other specimens closely resembled 
P. laruinosa^ Sav., and others again differed from both. Of three 
species of Eteone, one, E. spefsbergensis, Mgrn., was unquestion- 
able, but two other species approached either E. lentigera, Mgrn., 
or E. citterea, Webs, and Bened. .An appropriate means of escape 
from the dilemma so often presented by Canadian species is to call 
them Caundctisis or to do as Professor Mcintosh did in the case of 
the g'raceful Polynoid worm, Mdlnigrenui iv/iiiedvcs'/i, or as Professor 
Verrill did in naming- a pretty shell Cerilliu'lla whiteavesii^ and a 
unique zoophyte Actinopsis 'whiteavesii. 

The author \x\ his prefatory remarks points out that most of 
the invertebrates were obtained on the floor of the sea or collected 
in littoral regions, hence such widely scattered species as the 
aberrant Cha,'tognath Sagitta does not occur in the catalogue, 
though pelagic Ctenophores like Plenrobrachia , BoUna and Idyia 
are mentioned on the authority of certain United States observers, 
and the interesting occurrence of the lovely sea-butterfly [Clione 
limacma, Phipps) is recorded near Belle Isle Straits on the autho- 
rity of Dr. Deeks, other specimens being also referred to, from 
more northerly regions. 

The usefulness of this catalogue, if it is permissible to make 
the suggestion, would be vastly increased by the addition of an 
index. An index would save time and would certainly facilitate 
reference to its pages by those not familiar with marine zoological 
nomenclature, and many such, it is to be hoped, will use this 
excellent work of reference. 



1^2 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

Dr. Whiteaves in the early pages of his work adverts to the 
faunistic regions indicated by the distribution ot species included 
in the catalogue. We know too little of the local disposition of 
the marine vertebrate and invertebrate lile ot our Atlantic waters 
to arrive at any satisfactory solution of this interesting problem 
as yet. The influence of the Gulf stream on the one hand, and of 
Arctic currents bearing their annual burden of icebergs, on the 
other, complicates the problem greatly. The occurrence of Clio 
//wac/«a within the Gulf and the capture in the Gut of Canso of 
Scomberoids and other fish belonging to a southern range almost 
Mexican in its limits, sufficiently indicates the complexity of the 
conditions presented. 

It is however the difficulty and complexity ot the problems to 
be solved whiih stimulate scientific inquiry, and within the next 
decade more will he done in marine biological research in Canada 
than has been done for half a century. The scientists who will 
carry on valuable and luminous work and who will reveal to us 
more and more fully the inarvels of life in our Canadian seas will 
have no basis so ample and trustworthy — none so indispensable as 
Dr. Whiteaves' Catalogue of the Marine Invertebrata of Eastern 
Canada. It is a work in Canadian Zoology worthy to mark the 
first year of a new century. 

E. E. P. 



A Chapter on the Pleistocene Geology of Northern Asia. 
Recent Geological changes in Northern and Central 
Asia. By G. Frederick Wright. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
London, Vol. 57, pp. 244-250. 1901. 

This paper is the result of an examination of " those portions 
of the Asiatic continent which most nearly correspond in general 
superficial conditions to the glaciated portions of America.'' Prof. 
Wright has ascertained that the actual agency of wind in the 
deposition of the loess is evident throughout the mountainous 
track to the east of the border of the high plateau ; further, that 
there were other areas of loess so large and so level that wind 



iqoi] Reviews. 



173 



would seem incompetent to produce them as the writer adds, "it 
seems therefore necessary," from the occurrence of strata of gravel 
and pebbles in the loess, "to invoke both wind and water, in order 
to tuUy explain the distribution of that formation." This loess, 
over Eastern China, Prof. Wright states was deposited "at a very 
recent geologioal date." 

" The period of the loess in China corresponds ?oughly iioith 
that of the continental glaciers in Europe and North America^ No 
signs of glacial action were found in south-eastern Mongolia. 
The Amur River is compared with the St. Lawrence, which it re- 
sembles very much, besides being in nearly the same latitude. 
Prof. Wright concludes "that there was no general glaciation of 
the lower Amur Valley south of the 53rd parallel." The region 
about Lake Baikal was also examined. It is surrounded by moun- 
tains "rising from 3000 to 4000 feet above it, except at one narrow 
depression through which the Angara River carries off its surplus 
waters " Around Samarkand and west, evidence of a submergence 
was present. Lake Balkash, 1000 feet above sea, and the Sea of 
Aral have no outlets. The waters o( the former are said to be nearly 
fresh, " those ot the latter are only brackish." The saltness of 
the Caspian Sea is only one-third that of the ocean. 

These and other associated phenomena observed furnish valu- 
able data for the interpretation of the problems of post-Pliocene 
geological movements in that part of the world. At Nebizond 
on the Black Sea, Prof. Wright found direct evidence of the 
great continental submergence. Regarding the discovery of stone 
implements below the loess at a depth of 53 feet, the author re- 
marks that "thus it appears that the continental submergence 
which aided 'in the wide distribution of the loess was subsequent 
to the appearance of man, and so another chapter is added to 
those which connect the ancient history of the human race with 
the more recent phases of the geological story." The author 
thinks it likely that "the depression of the land in Asia was co- 
incident with the elevation in America." 

H. M. A.Mi. 



ij^ The 6ttawa Naturalist. [October 

On a new Ostracoderm {Etiphauerops longcBviis) from the Upper 
Devonian of Scaumenac Bay, Province of Qiebec, 
Canada. By A. Smith Woodward. Annals and Ma^. Nat. 
Hist., 7th Ser., Vol. V, No 29, pp. 416-419, pi. X, figs. 
I, la, \b. May, 1900. 

This new Ostracoderm is based on an imperfect specimen in 
the Jex collection from the Scaumenac formation (Neo-Devonian) 
of Gaspe Peninsula, at present in the British Museum. Of the 
head, " a pair of small skeletal rings " appear to indicate orbits. 
Shagreen-like granules are seen within these supposed orbits. The 
abdominal region shows small, narrow and deep scales in straight 
rows, inclined forwards and downwards instead of backwards and 
downwards, as is usually the arrangement in fishes. There is also 
a suggestion ot calcified neural spines of an endoskeletal axis. 
No traces of paired fins or supports are present. The caudal 
re<^ion is well preserved in side view and is covered with sjales 
disposed as in abdominal region, scarcely overlapping, "invested 
with enamel and marked with a few antero — posteriorly — directed 
rido-es and grooves." There is a small remote dorsal fin, low and 
triangular. This species is related to Cephalaspis, but is distin- 
guished by absence of a continuous head-shield. It is the latest 
survivor known of the earliest type of Ostracoderm armour. It 
is the " first example of an Ostracoderm in which traces of the 
axial skeleton of the trunk have been detected. Dr. Woodward 
erects the family "Euphaneropidae usually referred either to the 
Osteotraci or to the Anaspida." 

H. M. A. 



Buttercups. — The only typical specimens oi Ranunculus acris 
in the herbarium of the Geological Survey are from Newfoundland 
and Greenland. The common Buttercup found in Canada is 
R. Sh'veni bi\t it is doubtful whether this plant should rank as a 
species though it is so considered in Europe. In R. acn's the leaf 
segments are linear ; in R. Steveni they are broad. Both species 
may be common in Canada but among thirty sheets examined only 
the two mentioned above were typical, R. acris. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, NOVEMBER, 1901. No. 8. 

ON SOME CANADIAN SPECIES OF GENTIANA : SECTIO 
CROSSOPETAL.4£, FRCEL. 



Hy TiiKe\ Hoi-.M. 
(With four Plates.) 

That very natural g^roup of North American species of 
Froelich's section C'rossope^a/a-\ the so-called "Fringed Gentians," 
has long been in need of careful revision. The latest treatment of 
the g"enus, as it occurs in North America, is the one presented by 
Asa Gray in the Synoptical Flora^, wherein the species, however, 
are described with much the same distinctions as in other 
works of the same author. Writers of a more recent date have 
generally felt so much influenced by that author's decisions that 
they have not seemed to quesition the correctness of his pronounce- 
ments, and have not examined the diagnoses further. Conse- 
quently the same species are enumerated and the diagnoses 
faithfully reproduced in the manuals and local Floras, on the 
strength of which botanists abroad have finally attributed a geo- 
graphical range to some of these species extending throughout the 
northern hemisphere. 

Among these Gentimuf is Gunner's G. serrata, which by Gray 
and subsequent authors is unanimously regarded as an inhabitant 
of North America, and its geographical distribution is by Gray 
(1. c.) given as " Newfoundland, Canada and N. W. New York to 
Saskatchewan and northward, and west to Colorado and W. 

' Froelich, Joseph Al. De Genliana dissertatio Eriang'en, p. log. 1796. 
^ Gray, Asa. Synoptical Flora of .\orlh America, Vol. 2, p. 116. New 
York. 1886. 



176 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Nevada, Siberia, Norway and Greenland." Two varieties, 
grandis and holopetala, are said to occur in S E. Arizona, Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, and since Pallas' G. ciliata^ is by Gray con- 
sidered as identical with G. serrafa, the species should occur also 
in the mountains of Caucasus. 

When high northern or arctic plants are found farther south, 
they are as a rule confined to very high mountains and above the 
timber-line, but if the plant described by Gray were the true G. 
serrata it would be equally abundant much farther south and at 
low elevations, in for instance, Canada and the United States. 
It was not, however, this incredible geographical distribution 
alone that made the writer suspicious in regard to the identity of 
the American so-called G. serrata with that of Europe, but also 
the fact that our material, which we some years ago collected in 
the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, differed so very much from our 
European specimens. The difference appeared to us so striking 
that the question of considering the Rocky Mountain plant as a 
meie geographical variety was at once excluded. This view be- 
came especially strengthened when we learned from our friend, 
Professor Wille in Christiania, that none of our specimens could in 
any way be considered as belonging to the species " serrata " as 
this occurs in northern and arctic Norway. By studying the 
several specimens of the true G. serrata^ which Professor Wille 
kindly sent to the writer, we felt convinced that the diagnosis in 
the Synoptical Flora was based on specimens from America of 
some allied species without being compared with the European 
plant. In order, however, to make our investigation as careful as 
possible, the writer applied to the Geological Survey Department 
at Ottawa for the loan of the entire collection of this group, as 
represented in the British provinces, which was • courteously 
granted through the kindness of Mr. James M. Macoun. Being 
unable to find any trace of G. serrata in this comprehensive collec- 
tion we felt obliged to consult, also, the herbarium of Gray and 
of the United States' National Museum, of which the complete 
material of the American G. serrata was kindly placed at our 
disposal. 

3 Pallas, Peter Simon. Flora Rossica. St. Petersburg, 1784. Vol. i, 
p. loi, plate 92, fig. 2. 



1901] Holm — Canadian Species of Gentiana. 177 

The specimens identified by Gray were of special importance, 
and we might state at once that none of these represented the true 
G. scrrata, nor was the plant to be found in the collection of the 
United States' National Museum. How it happened that Gray 
could make such a mistake is not difficult to explain, since the 
most exhaustive diagnosis of G. serrata is not only published in 
the Scandinavian language, but, moreover, it is not very complete. 
The original description in Latin by Gunner is so short that it 
might well apply to the American plants of this group. By com- 
paring the structure of the flower and especially the stamens and 
the nectariferous glands, besides the leaves, it is not difficult to 
find important differences between the European and American 
plant, but these organs should not be studied from dried material 
alone, and especially not from specimens that are pasted to the 
sheets. The attempt to identify our Gentiana from Colorado has, 
thus, resulted in an investigation of these various collections, and 
we have reached the conclusion that G. serrata is not represented 
in any of these. Inasmuch as most of the material examined was 
from the British provinces, we have thought that Canadian 
botanists might care to learn what G. serrata is, and what it is 
not. 

In considering the literature upon this subject, there are not 
a few works to be consulted, those of Wahlenberg*, Fries®, 
Blytt" and Hartman'' being the most important as concerns 
G. serrata. 

The monographs by Froelich (1. c), Bunge** and Grisebach^ 

* Wahleiiberg-, G. Flora Siiceica. Vol. i, p. 153. Upsala. 1824. 

•' Fries, Elias. Suninia vescetabilium Scandinavia?, Sectio I, p. igo. 
L'psala. 1846. 

*■ Blylt, .M. .\. .\orges Flora, \'ol. i, \). -jiz. Cliristiania. 1861. 

" Hartman, C. J. Hantlbok i Skandinavit;ns Flora, p. 57. Slockliolm. 
1870. 

* Buiiye, .\. Conspectus g'eneris CiiMitiante, ini])rimis specicrum Rossi- 
carum. 

Nouveaiix mein. soc. imj^. iiatur. do Moscou, \'ol. 1, p. 225. Moscou. 
1829. 

" Grisebach, A. \l. R. Gimumh ci species Gentianearum, p. 256. Stutt- 
gart. 1839. 



178 The Ottawa Naturalist. [Noveirber 

are of special interest in reg-ard to the supposed synonyms, and 
Pallas' work (1. c. ) gives an excellent description and figure of his 
G. ctliata, which is known now as G. harbata Frcel. A very com- 
prehensive treatise of the various sections of Gentiana is presented 
by N. Kuznezow in Engler and Prantl's Natuerliche Pflanzen- 
familien. But as we have stated above, the diagnosis of G. serrata 
Gunn. does not seem to have been fully appreciated, and more- 
over there are some salient points in its floral structure which 
have not been mentioned by Scandinavian authors. The diagnosis 
may be written as follows : 

Gentiana serrata, Gunn. 

Annual or biennial, glabrous ; stem erect, quadrangular, 5 to 
16 cm. high, branched from the base: leaves mostly crowded near 
the root, obovate-lanceolate or the upper linear-lanceolate, acute : 
peduncles long and quite stout, i -flowered : calyx about 2 cm. 
long, unequally cleft to near the middle, 4-lobed, the longer lobes 
lanceolate, the shorter ovate, all acuminate with membranaceous 
margins, but none carinate : corolla deep blue, 3 to 4 cm. long, 
4-lobed, cleft to about ^ of its length, the lobes nearly erect, 
oblong, erosely denticulate across the obtuse summit, mostly 
without lateral fringes and destitute of basal nectariferous glands*: 
stamens 4 with slender filaments : ovary fusiform, stipitate with 
an almost sessile 2-lobed stigma : mature capsule longer than the 
corolla: seeds scabrous from short papillae. 

Said to bloom in July or August, and has been collected on 
the sea-shore of Norway from 66° 10' to 70° 50' N. lat., and on 
the west coast of Greenland at 61° N. lat., where Vahl first col- 
lected it. The plant is also said to be frequent in the northern 
parts of Iceland, but we have seen no specimens from there, and 
are, therefore, not certain whether the Icelandic plant is identical 
with the Norwegian, the former having been described by Rott- 
boell as G. detonsa. * ° 



* Hartman (1. c.) describes the flower as tetramerous or, but seldom, 
pentamerous. None of the Scandinavian authors mention nectariferous 
glands in this species, and they were totally absent in our material from Nor- 
way and Greenland. 

10 Acta Acad. Hafn., Vol. 10, p. 435. (Not seen.) 



iQoi] Hoi.M — Canadian Species of Gentiana. 179 

If we compare now the Canadian allies of G. serrata, formerly 
considered as representing- this species, we might point out at 
once some of the most conspicuous characters possessed by these : 
the frequently carinate and scabrous calyx, the very veiny and 
fringed corolla-lobes, the broadly winged stamens, the constant 
presence of nectariferous glands at the base of the corolla, the 
more or less conspicuous style, the roundish stigma and the 
strong-ly papillose seeds. These characters appear to be constant 
and taken together with some habitual differences warrant the 
segregation of the following species : 

Gentiana Macounii, Holm. 
(Plate XI, Fig-s. i and 2.) 

Annual or sometimes biennial, glabrous excepting the calyx : 
stem strict, quadrangular, 5 to 30 cm. high, branched from the 
base : lowest leaves spathulate or oblong-lanceolate, the upper 
linear-lanceolate, acute : peduncles long and stout, i -flowered : 
calyx (fig. A) purplish-green, unequally cleft to near the middle, 
4-Iobed, the longer lobes lanceolate, the shorter ovate with broad 
membranaceous margins, all acuminate and carinate, scaberulous 
with minute short papillae, especially along the keels ; corolla 
(fig. B) deep bluish, i^ to 3 cm. long, cleft to about ^i of its 
length, 4-lobed, the lobes very veiny, slightly spreading, broad and 
fringed along the sides, but merely denticulate across the summit : 
nectariferous glands 4 at the base of the corolla-lobes : stamens 4 
with broadly winged filaments, these ciliate in the middle ; anthers 
at first introrse : pistil (fig. C) fusiform, stipitate with short but 
distinct style ; stigma roundish : mature capsule shorter than the 
corolla : seeds rough with numerous long papillae. 

The specimens examined are from Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan ; 
Bow River at Blackfoot Crossing, Lees Creek, Waterton Lake 
and Banff, Alberta [Macoicn], and Red Deer, Alberta {H. H. Gaels). 
Habitat given as : Prairies, gravelly soil and margins of marshes. 
Flowers from July to September. 

Gentiana procera, Holm. 

(Plate XII, Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

Annual, glabrous except the calyx ; stem erect, angled, 25 to 
about 50 cm. high, branched above ; lowest leaves spathulate or 



i8o The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, the upper linear-lanceolate, acute : 
branches 1-3 flowered with 2 or 3 pair of leaves : calyx (fig-. G) 
13^ to 3 cm. long, unequally cleft to the middle or a little above, 
:j.-lobed, the longer lobes linear-lanceolate, the shorter much 
broader with membranaceous margins, all acuminate and carinate, 
scabrous : corolla (fig. H) deep blue, 2 to 5 cm. long, 4-lobed, the 
lobes very veiny, roundish with many long fringes along the sides 
and dentate across the summit : nectariferous glands as in G. 
Macoiinii : stamens 4, the filaments naked otherwise as in the 
preceding species : ovary (fig. I) shortly stipitate with short 
style and a roundish, somewhat lobed stigma : mature capsule 
much shorter than the corolla : seeds with long papillae. 

Collected near Sarnia, Lambton County, Ontario, by C. K. 
Dodge, and in a swampy place at Stony Mountain in Manitoba, 
with flowers from August to September. 

Several specimens from United States are preserved in the 
Gray herbarium of Harvard University from the following stations; 
Goat island and Strawberry island, Niagara Falls ; shore of Lake 
Superior ; Charlevoix in Michigan. 

Gentiana nesophila, Holm. 

(Plate XIII, Fig. 6.) 

Annual, glabrous : stem erect, angled, 6 to g cm. high, much 
branched from near the root : leaves glaucous, densely crowded 
and forming a rosette, roundish or obovate tapering into the peti- 
oles, the cauline spathulate or lanceolate, obtuse : peduncles many 
to 12, I flowered, with 2 or 3 pair of leaves: calyx (fig. K) 
glaucous and wholly glabrous, about \)4. cm. long, unequally 
cleft to near the middle, 4-lobed, the longer lobes narrow and 
keeled, the shorter much broader with membranaceous margins, 
but not carinate : corolla (fig. L) pale bluish in dried specimens, 
2 to 2^ cm. long, 4-lobed, the lobes roundish with a very few 
lateral teeth, but no fringes, erosely denticulate across the summit, 
nectariferous glands 4 : stamens 4, with winged filaments : ovary 
(fig. M) shortly .stipitate, the style distinct with a roundish stigma; 
mature capsule shorter than the corolla : seeds with short, obtuse 
papillae. 



igoi] Holm — Canadian Species of Gentiana. i8i 

Collected by Prof. John Macoun in low, moist ground near 
Salt Lake, Anticosti Island, Quebec ; with flowers in August, 1883. 
The only known locality for this species. 

These are the species which have been collected in Canada, 
and which were formerly supposed to represent Gunner's G. serrata. 
They are all very difi^erent from the plant we collected in the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, and of which we have, also, received 
some specimens from Wyoming- through the kindness of Professor 
A. Nelson, who some years ago described it as G. elegans. It is 
more than probable that this species occurs, also, in the British 
provinces, thus we take the opportunity of presenting a diagnosis 
and an illustration of this excellent species in connection with the 
Canadian. 

Gentiana elegans A. Nels. ' ' 
(Plate XIV, Fig-s. 7 and 8.) 

Annual, glabrous excepting the calyx, very robust : stem 
erect, angled, 20 to 40 cm. in height, branched from near the 
base : leaves forming a rosette, broadly spathulate, the upper 
lanceolate, obtuse : peduncles often numerous, until 20, erect, 
i-flowered : calyx pale green with purple spots, about 3 cm. long, 
unequally cleft to the middle or below, the longer lobes narrower 
than the others, all with membranaceous margins and very sharp 
and prominent keels, scabrous only along the keels : corolla (figs. 
N and O) bluish to deep purplish, until 5 cm. in length, 4-lobed, 
the lobes very broad and veiny, erose across the summit, fringed 
along the sides : nectariferous glands 4 : stamens 4, the filaments 
broadly winged, the anthers as in the preceding species at first 
introrse (fig. O), but later on extrorse (fig. N) : ovary (fig. P) 
stipitate, the style distinct, but short, stigma (fig. Q) roundish and 
4-lobed: mature capsule shorter than the corolla: seeds with 
short, obtuse papiilc'e. 

Collected in Wyoming at 9 — 10,000 feet elevation and in 
Middle Colorado near Long's peak at 8,600 feet, where it grew 
abundantly in meadows in the Aspen Zone, with flowers in August. 

It has, furthermore, been collected in Southern Colorado near 
Pagosa peak at 11,000 feet. 

'' Nelson Aven. New plants from Wvominjc. (l^iill. Torrey Bol. Club. 
Vol. 25, p, 276. 1898.) 



i82 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Var. brevicalycina Wettstein [in litteris). 

DiflFers from the type by its much shorter calyx and by the 
very deep purple colour of the corolla, the lobes ot which are den- 
ticulate, but destitute of fringes. 

Collected in a swamp on Mt. Massive near Leadville, Col- 
orado, at an elevation of ii,ooo feet, near timber-line. 

Among the other North American species, which by Gray 
were referred to G. serrata Gunn., are the two varieties : grandis 
and holopetala, none of which, however, are referable to this or 
any of the other species that occur in this country. They represent 
several vegetative and floral characters by which they appear to 
be distinct from all the others, and may consequently be consid- 
ered as independent species : G. holopetala (Gray) and G. gratidis 
(Gray). 

It would, thus, appear as if G. serrata Gunn. has not, so far, 
been collected in North America, judging from the collections, 
which have been examined, but we do not think it improbable that 
it may be found on this continent, since it occurs on the west-coast 
of Greenland ; it should be looked for on the north Atlantic coast 
in the immediate vicinity of the sea-shore and north of the arctic 
circle. 

The American species, which we have described in the preced- 
ing pages, represent members of the section CrossopetalcB Frcel., 
to which G. serrata Gunn. belongs, but they exhibit a marked 
difference from this by the carinate calyx-lobes, the presence of 
nectaries and by the winged stamens ; their habit is, also, some- 
what different, if we consider G. procera and G. 7iesophila. Small, 
one-flowered specimens have been found of all these species, but 
such individuals do not deserve rank as even varieties. Their 
small size, lesser developed foliage and the single flower may 
depend on their development from poor seeds, on their occurrence 
in drier soil or, finally, on the fact that they are developed as root- 
shoots. Such root-shoots are not uncommon in G. holopetala and 
have, furthermore, been recorded as characteristic of the European 
G. ciliata L. in accordance with Irmisch. 



igoi] Holm — Canadian Spicies ok Gentiana. 183 

EXl'LAXATIOX OF PLATES. 
Plate XI. 

Fig". 1. — Gentiana Afacoiinii, natural size. 

Fig. 2. — Same, a small specimen, natural size. 

Figf. A. — Calyx of same, laid open. 

Fig. B. — Part of the corolla of same, laid open and showing the filiate 

stamens and 2 nectaries at the base of the corolla-lobes. 
Fig. C. — Pistil of same. 

Fig. D. — Calyx of G. serrata Gunn., laid open. 

Fig. E. — Part of the corolla of same, showing the slender filaments. 
Fig. F. — Pistil of same. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 3. — Gentiana procera, showing the habit, much reduced in size. 

Fig. 4. — Same, the base of the stem and the roots, natural size. 

Fig. 5. — Same, the flower, natural size. 

Fig. G. —Calyx of same, laid open. 

Fig. H. — Part of the corolla of same. 

Fig. I. --Pistil of same. 
Plate XIII. 

Fig. 6. — Gentiana nesophila, natural size. 

Fig. K. — Calyx of same, laid open. 

Fig. L. — Part of the corolla of same. 

Fig. M. — Pistil of same. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 7. — Gentiana elegans, the base of the stem with leaves and roots, 

natural size. 
Fig. 8. — Flower of same, natural size. 
Fig. N. — Part of the corolla of same. 
Fig. O. — Part of the corolla of same, taken from a bud. 
Fig. P. — Pistil of same. 
Fig. Q. — Style and stigma of same. 



1 84 The Ottawa Naturalist [November 

AN AFRICAN DIPNOID FISH. 

( Protoptetus annectens. ) 

By Andrew Halkett. 

In an issue of the Fishing Gazette'^ a paragraph appeared 
under the title, " Digging for Fish," of which the following is the 
substance : 

" The natives of Kottiar, in Africa, are in the habit of digfg-ingf every year, 
in the summer, the dry banks of the Vergel River for fish, which they dig- out 
by hundreds, just as they would potatoes. The mud lumps are broken open, 
and the fish, perhaps eight or ten inches long, will always be found alive, and 
often frisky, as if just removed from its supposedly native element — the water. 
In the dr}' beds of several African rivers a similar practice is often pursued. 
A kind of mud fish buries itself while the bottom is still moist, and remains 
there all the summer, waking up when the rains begin again." 

Preceding this paragraph were words to the effect that the 
above was " a new fish story," a bait, in fact, " to lure the un- 
wary summer boarder to the swamps and sandhills of Suffolk 
County." But knowing better, I wrote to the editor of the 
Gazette corroborating the fact of the existence, during the dry 
season, of living fishes encased in capsules of mud awaiting the 
return of the rainy season when the pools and rivers are refilled 
with water. He published my letter- under the title, "The Dark 
Continent Fish," and the following quotation in full is its import : 

" In regard to the ' new fish' 'credited to the Dark Continent' which ap- 
peared in your issue of January 7, imder the title of ' Digging for Fish,' 
permit me the following space in your columns concerning a very remarkable 
group of fishes. 

" These are the Dipnoids, distinguished from others by the possession of 
a rudimentar)' lung in addition to the ordinary gills. This lung is simply a 
modification of the air-bladder. The group coii tains four^ existing species, 
and several extinct ones.' The names of the existing species are these : 

^^ Lepidosiri'7i paradoxa, a very rare fish of the River Amazon.* 

' The Fishing Gazette [203 Broadvvaj', N. Y.J Saturday, Jan. 7, 1899. 
- Ibid, Saturday, Feb. 4, 1899, p. 71. 

* During my \isit in Great Britain I learned of a fifth (a recently dis- 
covered) Dipnoid, but am not yet in possession of any particulars about it. 

* "Lepidosiren has recently been found in abundance in swampy localities 
of the Chaco, Paraquay." Guide to the Galleries of Reptiles and Fishes, 
British Museum, i8g8. 



igoij Halkett— African Dipnoid Fish. 185 

" Ceratodus inioJepis ami ('. forsteri, from the rivers of (j}iiei'tislantl, 
Australia. 

" Protopterus annectens, from the rivers of tropical Africa. 

" The species alluded to in your columns is the last mentioned, Protop- 
terus aiiiiectens, of tropical Africa. This fish inhabits the rivers of that continent, 
and while it has sufficient water there is nothing- extraordinary concernintif its 
function of respiration, as it breathes just like other fishes, by gills; but during 
the dry season it encases itself in capsules of mud and mucus,' and then 
breathes through its lung. While thus encased it can be transported alive to 
great distances, and wjien replaced in water the gills again assume their 
normal function. 

'The Dipnoids are a sub-order of the Cianoids, to which the siurgeons 
and garpikes belong. I have seen sturgeons bre'ithing atmospheric air by 
putting their snouts out of the water, and on examining a specimen of the 
garpike found an approach to a rudimentary lung, the air-bladder being 
cellular, thus revealing even in these North American fishes certain dipnoid 
characteristics. ^ 

" Petrified remains of other genera of Dipnoids are found in Devonian 
formations." 

Since the above was published I have been fortunate enough 
to see several living specimens of Dipnoids, during my visit some 
time ago to Great Britain. Two of Ceratodus in one of the aquaria 
of the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, London ; and one of 
Protopterus annectens in the aquarium of the Liverpool Public 
Museum, which had been successfully transported from Africa in 
its mud-capsule. Furthermore, Dr. Forbes of the latter institution 
very kindly gave me a specimert of Protopterus also encased in its 
I capsule, and which I brought with me across the Atlantic ; with 
the intention of dissolving it, and liberating the fish on my arrival 
in Ottawa. So of late I have had additional incentives for prose- 
cuting my studies of the Dipnoids. 

The group receives its name from the double character of the 
respiratory organisation : these remarkable fishes breathing not 
only under water by gills, but at times, as has been stated in the 
letter to the Gazette, when the waters dry up, atmospheric air by 
rudimentary lungs. They belong to the Ganoid group of fishes, 
and are referable to three existing genera : Ceratodus, Lepidosireti, 
and Protopterus ; and to a few extinct ones. The existing species 
differ exceedingly from other Ganoids in the character of the 
paired fins ; there being in the pectorals and ventrals an axial skel' 



i86 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

eton, which is most fully developed in Ceratodus\ these fins in 
Lepidosiren and Protopterus being filamentous. The tail, as in 
Chimaeras, is diphycercal ; but in at least one extinct species : 
Diptetus heliodiis the tail was heterocercal. The scales are cycloid, 
and in the several species they differ much in size. In general 
shape and character Protopterus approaches more closely to Lepi- 
dosiren than either do to Ceratodus. The scales in the two former 
genera are small, whilst those of the latter are very large. Again 
in the two former the vertical fin begins before the middle of the 
fish, and, as has been stated, the paired fins are converted into 
long filamentous organs ; whilst in the latter the vertical fin begins 
behind the ventrals, which are placed of course as they are in all 
Ganoids abdominally, and the paired fins nre proportionately 
shorter and paddle shaped. 

Unfortunately the specimen of Protopterus annecteiis, and 
another for Prof. Ramsay Wright of Toronto University, which I 
brought from Liverpool did not survive ; and on dissolving the 
capsule the former had all the appearance of having been dead tor 
some time. However, after placing the dead fish for a short time 
in spirits diluted with water, I succeeded in sufficiently softening 
out the specimen so as to enable me to make an examination of 
its structure. 

This species is elongated and compressed in shape. The 
gill-cleft and the eye are small. The filamentous pectorals and 
ventrals are fringed down the sides — the fringes according in plan 
with the rays of the verticle fin : which fin bears a multitude of 
close fitting rays throughout its length. Adjacent to the gill-cleft 
and immediately above the pectorals, there are branchial appen- 
dages. The scales, being small, are numerous, and embedded in 
the skin. Each jaw has a large tooth, a molar, with cusps. 

The following recorded characters of structure, in this speci- 
men were more or less obscure, owing to its shriveled condition. 
The lateral line runs nearly straight from the gill-cleft to the caudal 
portion of the vertical fin. There are two pairs of nostrils. The 
lung agrees with that o{ Lepidosiren in being " divided into lateral 
halves," and differs in that respect from Ceratodus in which genus 
the lung is single. 



igoi] Halkett — African Dipnoid Fish. 187 

Previous to dissolving the capsule of mud, that object pre- 
sented a hard and baked appearance, and had seemingly been 
firmly attached to the dried up bed of the river or pool in which 
the fish had previously carried on its gill-breathing function; and 
had been broken off by the collector. In this capsule the fish had 
coiled itself up : a circular opening communicating between its 
interior and the outer atmosphere, enabling the dipnoid to breathe. 
The opening was rounded at the entrance, and led inwards by a 
zig-zag channel. On dissolving the mud the capsule was found 
to be intermixed with vegetable fibres, which tended to support 
the capsule. 

Protoptenis annectcns is said to attain a length of six feet. 



Bird Migration. -A bird migration of exceptional magnitude 
was noticed by many people during the night of October 15th. 
Several smallpox guardians who were questioned by the writer 
informed him that birds had passed south in great numbers for 
several nights previous to the 15th, but that on that night there 
seemed to be millions of them The writer's observation covered 
from about ten o'clock until nearly daylight, and during the whole 
of that time an unbroken str'eam of birds passed over the city at a 
very low altitude. Two distinct kinds of bird-note could be distin- 
guished, one the chippering of small birds, the other the calls of 
plover, snipe, etc. It was this last sound which attracted general 
attention, but the other was just as distinct, and could be easily 
separated from the shorter call of the larger birds. All were 
probably waders. Doctor Oscar Klotz, who carefully noted the 
course of the birds, says that it was about southeast. The night 
was very cloudy and on that account the birds could fly at a low 

altitude without being seen. 

J. M. M. 



i88 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

BRUE OR SOAP BERRV^. 

My attention has been directed to an article which recently 
appeared in one of the eastern papers headed " Where they eat 
soapsuds." Evidently the writer of the article in question was not 
well informed and it always seems to me a pity that people should 
publish any information ot doubtful authenticity which if properly 
enquired into might really prove at least interesting if not of 
scientific importance. 

The berry from which the so-called soapsuds are made is that 
of a shrub, botanically known as Shepherdia Canadensis, called by 
the French Canadians " Brue " and in the Chinook jargon "Soap 
Oolalie," i.e. Soap Berry, and from which latter name I presume 
the writer of the article has arrived at " Sapoliti," a term quite 
unknown in this province. I am not aware that it is used by the 
natives on festive occasions but it is used as a common article of 
food. It has really a very pleasant flavour and is relished by 
almost everyone when properly prepared. The mode of prepara- 
tion is shortly as follows. The berries, if fresh, are strained 
through a cloth so as to separate the seeds from the juice and if 
dried they are first soaked and then strained. The juice is placed 
in a bowl, earthenware by preference, and sweetened with sugar, 
it is then beaten up either with a bunch ot twigs or an egg-beater 
until it attains the consistency of ice-cream of a beautiful light 
pink colour, when it is fit for use 

From the fact that all utensils used in the preparation must 
be scrupulously clean and free from any taint of grease to ensure 
success, it is obvious that the remark that it is prepared " in a not 
over clean manner " is to say the least not strictly according to 

fact. 

The brue berry is about the size of a red currant and gener- 
ally of about the same colour, but many are of an orange colour. 
It has the peculiarity of being sweet, acid, bitter and aromatic all 
at the same time. To some people it is disagreeable but many 
acquire a liking for it both in its natural and prepared state. 

Before concluding let me set another fairy tale at rest, viz, the 
use of a fish for light. I have no doubt the fish alluded to is the 
Oolahan or Oolachan which is about the size of a smelt, very fat and 
when dry it will burn for a time, but that it was ever used for a light 



iqoi] RitViiiws. 189 

by the natives is purely a traveller's tale. In any case the fish is 
only obtained in some of the coast rivers, and therefore to the 
majority of interior Indians it is unknown. Let me assure the 
readers of this short article that the time-honoured custom of 
a fire of wood on the floors of their abodes was the usual way of 
obtaining^ Vight and that now most of them use coal-oil lamps. 

•J. R. Anderson. 
\'ictoria, B. C. 

October loth, 1901. 
Note. — Mr. Anderson's statement regardinji;- the use of the 
candle-fish may be true enough to-day when the labour of the 
west coast indians is utilized by the whites, and they are able to 
indulge in such luxuries as parafin candles and coal-oil lamps, but 
there can be no doubt that formerly the Oolachan was frequently 
used by these indians for lighting purposes. Writing in 1866 of 
this fish Lord says, in " The Naturalist in British Columbia," : 
"It is next to impossible to broil or fry them, for they melt com- 
pletely into oil. Some idea of their marvellous fatness may be 
gleaned from the fact that the natives use them as lamps for light- 
ing their lodges. The fish, when dried, has a piece of rush-pith or 
a strip from the inner bark of the cypress-tree drawn through it, 
a long, round needle made of hardwood being used for the pur- 
pose; it is then lighted and burns steadily until consumed. I have 
read comfortably by its light ; the candlestick, literally a stick for 
the candle, consists of wood split at one end, with the fish inserted 

in the cleft." 

Editor. 



NOTE ON SOME ERRATA IN THE REVIEW OF DR. 
WHITEAVES' LIST OF EASTERN CANADIAN 
INVERTEBR.ATES. 
A number of errors, some very apparent others less so, ap- 
peared in the review of Dr. Whiteaves' Catalogue on pp. 165-172 
of the October number of The Ottawa Naturalist. Circum- 
stances, which it is not necessary to detail, necessitated a very 
hurried reading of the first proof, and absence from Ottawa pre- 
vented a careful and thorough correction of the final proof, hence 



igo The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

some errors were no doubt unavoidable, though others it is more 
difficult to account for, especially such an obvious misprint as 
" Dr. J. W. Whiteaves," instead of the correct and familiar "Dr. 
J. F. Whiteaves," in the heading of the review. "Marine Worms" 
in large type on p. 167 requires elision, as also the figures 428, 
opposite the word " Brachiopoda." Canadian waters are rich in 
Invertebrates, but they would be a veritable zoological Eldorado 
if they harboured 428 species ot Brachiopods. The actual number 
of Biachiopod species is 3, and the Polyzoa i 15, the figures 3 and 
115 being one line below their proper place. The 9th line, on 
page 170, states exactly the reverse of the fact and the sentence 
should end : " the Dog-whelk {Purpura lapillus, L.) arouses no 
such question." It is difficult to account for the statement in lines 
20, 21, and 22, that Litorma rudis is recorded only for our more 
northern coast extending into Hudson Bay, unless it is due to the 
circumstance that the review was based on notes, made while 
reading Dr. Whiteaves' Catalogue, and the author's statement 
was overlooked that the species has a widespread abundance as 
well as a northern distribution. Happily these errata do not affect 
the reviewer's attempt to express the genuine feeling of apprecia- 
tion with which the publication of the Catalogue will be regarded 
in scientific circles at home and abroad. 

Readers will do well, however, to make note of the following 
errors in the review : — - 

p. 165, Hue 5 — "J. F. Whiteaves, LL.D.," &c., not "J. W. Whiteaves." 
p. 167, line 28—" Marine Worms" to be elided. 
M ZZ—'' 3" n^^*^ "428." 
M 34—" 115" not '3." 
>> >) 35 — " 1 15 " to be elided. 

,, 43 — After Arachnida insert •'■[Pycnogonida)." 
p. 170 ,, 10 — " arouses such," to read " arouses no such." 
,, ,, 12 — " litorea " not " literea." 

,, ,, 22 and 23 to be elided and to read " not only for our more 

northern coast extending: into Hudson Bay : but is abundant almost every- 
where on rocks, sea-weeds, &c." 

p. 171, line 15 — '■'' spitsbergensis" not " spetsbergensis." 
,, ,, 19 — " Cti'iafiensis" not ^^ Canadensis.'^ 

The Reviewer. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. Pl.'X 




Gentiana Macounij Holm. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. PL. XII 




C^iS.t/-i^i!l^c6u^, 



Gentiana procera Holm. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. Pl. XIH 




C^j^ii^^'Urd^cAU 



Gentiana nesophila Holm. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV. Pl. XIV 




Gentiana eleganis Nelson. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, DECEMBER, 1901. No. 9. 



CERTAIN CANADIAN VIOLETS. 



By Edw. L. Greene. 

In a recent issue of Pittonia"* I puhlished a number of Cana- 
dian violets of that caulescent group to which the following belong, 
and the paragraphs here presented would havfe found their places 
in that paper, but that I was unable to find the manuscript, which, 
at that time, had been written more than a year and a half, and 
had become misplaced, as it then seemed quite hopelessly. 
Lately, quite unsought, ,it has come to light, and I hasten to offer 
it for the pages of The Ottaw a Natlralist. 

V. LEUCOPETALA. Perennial, caulescent, leafy, the many 
stems ascending, 3 to 5 inches high ; herbaee wholly glabrous : 
leaves cordate-reniform and ovate-cordate, )^ to ^ inch long, 
crenate ; stipules lacerate-toothed, or the uppermost ciliolate and 
entire : corolla pure white without even a coloured venation ; odd 
petal as long as the others, somewhat broader, obtuse or retuse 
or almost obcordate, spur nearly straight, obtuse, compressed 
laterally, lateral petals notably differentiated into blade and claw, 
densely bearded, the hairs narrowed upwards rather than clavel- 
late, and somewhat tangled : style papillose-hairy all around under 
the stigma. 

The above description is drawn in part from fresh specimens 
sent me by Mr. J. M. Macoun from near Ottawa, in May, 1899, 
and partly from specimens grown in my garden at Brookland, D.C., 
a year later. The species has been referred to V. Muhlenbergii 
(now called V. Labradorica) as an albino variation ; and, albino 
states of that may well occur, but this is something quite different. 
Mr. Macoun himself first intimated this, assuring me that the 

•Pittonia, V'ol. IV, p. 285 et seq. 



ig2 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

plant has its own habitat, quite apart from that of the other, and 
flowers two weeks earlier. 

While the above, and two other closely allied species, all sent 
from Ottawa by Mr. Macoun in 1899, weie flowering in my gar- 
den in May, 1900, I took the following notes as 10 their respective 
floral structures; and those notes may well be given here. 

V. Labradorica, Schrank. In this the flowers are distinctly 
smaller than in V. leucopetala. Only two of the petals are bearded, 
and these with a small tuft of straight slender somewhat flattened 
hairs ; the odd petal is here not only smaller than the others but 
also acutish rather than truncate or refuse ; the style is papillose 
on the back and sides only. 

V. SUBVESTITA, Greene. Distinguished from both the fore- 
going by its bractlets, these being linear, appendaged at base 
(laterally) with 2 or 3 gland-tipped awn-like processes, and notably 
auriculate at the very base, the whole bractlet only its own length 
below the flower: sepals faintly i -nerved, strongly auricled, the 
auricles dentate : petals deep-violet, three ot them bearded with 
slightly flattened hairs : style short, sparsely muriculate all 
around. 

Doubtless these notes may serve as a hint to others to 
examine carefully in fresh specimens the particulars of floral 
structure in other violets of this group. Only thus may we hope 
to ultimately establish firmly the limits of the species. 

Washington, D.C., Nov. ist, 190 1. 

Note. — The three species referred to above maybe found at 
Ottawa, within half a mile of one another. V. Muhlenhergii is 
common everywhere about Ottawa, but by entering Rockliff"e Park 
at Governor's Bay it will be found near the Electric Railway line, 
and by then walking to the river bank just east of Governor's Bay 
V. Labradorica will be found in abundance. V. leucopetala grows 
along the road connecting Buena Vista road with the eastern 
approach to St. Patrick's bridge. 

. J. M. M. 



iQoi] Odell — Alligator and Tlktles as Pets. 193 

ALLIGATOR AND TURTLES AS PETS. 
Bv W. S. Odell, Ottawa, Ont. 

In November of last year a small allii,'-ator {Alligator Mississip- 
piensis) and three turtles were placed together in an aquarium. 
Only a few features descriptive of the allig-ator need to be men- 
tioned. The skin is now used for so many purposes that by this 
means it has become known. 

This reptile is carnivorous, head broad, flattened and having- 
teeth of the lower jaw fitting into pits in the upper. The bright 
yellow bands so marked in the young, lose their color to a large 
extent in the adult. Tail about half the entire length of animal, 
ard laterally compressed, terminating in a blunt point. 

Approaching cold weather had a marked effect in his loss of 
appetite and vigor. During daytime the aquarium was placed in 
sunlight, at night on hot water coils in the room, with a glass 
cover, to retain heat and prevent escape. Remarking to a friend 
his loss of appetite, the suggestion was jokingly made : "Why 
not try cod liver oil ? " The alligator's mouth was forced open 
and a few drops poured in. No bad results following, this novel 
article of diet, varied at times with fluid beef, was continued 
twice per week through thfe winter. It is questionable whether 
any benefit resulted from this treatment. 

Early in May, he for the first time, snapped at a piece of meat 
which was being ted to the turtles. From this time onward all 
kinds of meat, small toads, young tadpoles, newly hatched catfish, 
etc., were fed him. Fish cut into small pieces was greatly 
relished, but earthworms were preferred above all else. On re- 
ceiving food it was carried into the water and was there eaten, 
considerable motion being made in swallowing, the throat appear- 
ing too small to admit of its passage. While feeding, his usual 
torpid appearance underwent a change. The pupils of his eyes, 
at other times contracted to a narrow slit, now become greatly 
dilated ; and with open mouth and tail gracefully curved upward 
his appearance was rather formidable. A hissing noise, when 
disturbed, and a sort of grunt in a high key, were the only sounds 
he appeared capable of making. 



194 '^"^ Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

At night he sleeps with the body hidden under the plants, 
leaves, etc., of aquarium, the nostrils and part of head only being- 
visible ; but in day time he prefers to bask in sunlight on a small 
raised landing. At this time a small common turtle, probably for 
warmth, generally slept perched on his back. 

Efforts in taming have not been very successful. One attempt 
to bite was made. 

Although considerable attention is required in changing water 
frequently in warm weather, and watchfulness in keeping the 
aquarium at all times covered to prevent escape, still the pleasure 
derived from observing his habits, more than compensates for the 
trouble taken. 

A Japanese turtle and a Chinese turtle were companions to 
the alligator. The Japanese was a fine specimen, kindly donated 
by one of the curators of the New York Aquarium. 

They would have hibernated, if given opportunity. Most of 
their time was spent hidden under the leaves, weeds, etc., of the 
aquarium. When called they only extended their necks, occasion- 
ally taking a little meat, but on bright days, they came out to 
enjoy the heat of the sun. When spring came they were lively and 
became quite tame, taking flies from the hand as long as one had 
the patience to catch them, but tearing off and rejecting the wings. 
They were called Jap and John, the former being the livelier and 
responding to a whistle or to his name when called. 

Everything of a carnivorous character seemed to suit their 
palates ; their food while in mouth was torn into pieces by the 
claws. It was great amusement feeding them worms ; each 
taking hold of an end, a tug-of-war would follow, lasting till the 
worm was torn asunder. The best sport was when a turtle tried 
to take a worm from the alligator ; if the worm were strong 
enough to stand the strain the former would be towed round and 
round the aquarium and handled very roughly. 

Some Salamanders [Spelerpes bilitieahis) were placed in the 
aquarium, as companions, but inside of an hour the turtle had 
bitten a large piece out of the tail of one : they had to be at once 
removed. Fish were placed with them as companions, but the 
turtles gave them no peace. Turtles are very courageous and 



igoi] Moore — The Woodcock's Love Song. 195 

will tackle everything that conies in their way, and will eat every- 
thing they can hold. Sag'i/iaria and lily leaves put in for shade 
were relished for food, and Vvcre supplied while available. 

Our common turtle [Chrysemys picta) is, in many localities, 
not rare. Its bright red markings along the margin of the shell 
make it an attractive object. It is hardy and easily kept. After 
a short time it will become quite tame and be a source of instruc- 
tion, and amusement as well. To any one wishing to start an 
aquarium it will be a good specimen. 



NOTES ON THE WOODCOCK'S LOVE SONG. 



By \Vm. H. iMoORE, Scotch Lake, N.B. 
(Read before the Ornithologfical Section of the Entomolog'ical Society of 

Ontario. 
[Transcript from field note-book. J 

May 17, 1898. — Woodcocks are about at nights now. They 
begin their antics soon after sunset. On the ground the male 
struts about the $ uttering a note sounding like zeet, and much 
like the nighthawk's note but finer (not so harsh and loud). Then 
with the whistling twitter takes flight, and in gradually widening 
circles mounts high in the air — to a height, I should say, of 200 
yards. Near the last of this upward flight he begins his song — 
which is a pleasant twitter, and more of a musical call than many 
song birds have — which sounds like chip-t-chee chip-t chee tweep. 
This is given forth several times, and towards the last the bird's 
flight is undulating in narrower circles, when of a sudden the song 
stops and the bird descends to its mate on the ground. Descend- 
ing in nearly a straight line, at varying angles to the earth, he 
again begins the nighthawk call and so on. The 9 evidently feeds 
while the $ is on his honeymoons. The notes, as you say in the 
O. N., are somewhat ventriloquil. I attributed this to the circling 
of the bird, and assisted by the fact that one must have things 
sort of convenient (such as light sky and distance) to see the bird. 
When I was able to see the bird during flight the ventriloquil 
effect was not so much in evidence. 

May, I, 1901 — Heard the woodcock singing this evening. 
The day was cloudless, so I could see him plainly. 



ig6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

A SIMPLE ILLUSTRATION OF THK CONSERVATION 
OF ENERGY. 



By J. C. Sutherland, B.A., Richmond , Que. 

The other day when blovvpiping some silver nitrate on the 
"charcoal splinter," I observed what seemed to be a good, 
although simple, illustration of the law of the conservation of 
energy. It is possible that the phenomenon has been observed 
many times before, but I cannot recall any instance of the parti- 
cular explanation which I believe to be the correct one having 
been offered for it. 

As possibly some readers may not be acquainted with the 
reduction process which is carried on by means of a charcoal 
splinter, it may be well to give a brief account of it before pro- 
ceeding to the particular phenomenon and the offered explanation. 
To prepare a charcoal splinter, the head of a common match 
is broken off and the wood is then smeared for about an inch of 
its length with ordinary washing soda melted in the flame of a 
spirit lamp. The smeared end is then gently heated in the flame 
for a few moments until a charred mass of wood and soda is ob- 
tained. Upon this is placed carefully a small mass of the particu- 
lar substance to be reduced, mixed with some fused soda. The 
blowpipe is then directed on the flame, the mass being held in the 
"reduction" part of it. In a few minutes separation of the 
elements is obtained, and in the case of silver nitrate a beautiful 
small sphere of metallic silver is left upon the splinter. 

But in the first few seconds of the operation, the unsmeared 
part of the match tends lo burst into flame. C^nce, however, that 
the reduction process is fully started, this does not occur. This 
is the phenomenon. What is the explanation? 

It is possible that in some instances, and then in part only, it 
is due to the formation of combustible gases at the outset which 
cease to be formed as the reduction proceeds. But I think the 
more general explanation of the fact is to be found in the consider- 
ation that during the first few seconds of the blowpiping, the only 
work that is done by the flame is that of raising the temperature 
of the mass and driving off moisture — comparatively light work 



igoi] Elliott — ^The King Eider. 197 

compared to that which immediately follows. The moment the 
real reduction begins, an enormous amount of work is being done. 
In the smallest mass of silvsr nitrate treated before the blowpipe, 
millions of atoms of silver are torn from the strong embrace of 
millions of atoms of nitrogen and oxygen. May we not conclude 
that in the first few seconds of the process, the small amount of 
work done allows a surplus of heat to raise the uncharred part of 
the match to combustion but that when the genuine work of reduc- 
tion has begun all of the available heat is required to work at the 
one point? If this explanation is tenable we have here an inci- 
dental, it simple, illustration of the correlation of the physical 
forces. 



THE KING EIDER IN MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



By Robert Elliott, Bryanston, Ont. 

(Read before the Ornithological Section of the Entomological Society of 

Ontario.) 

The capture of the first specimen of Soniater'ia spectabilis 
known to have been taken in this count}^ was effected under the 
following circumstances : — 

On the 24th November, 1900, my young friend Mr. Roger 
Hedley, of Lobo, walking for his mail, being on game intent, 
brought his gun along and visited Duncrieff mill-pond — a sheet 
of water which covers about six acres, and is near his home. That 
morning he saw one duck only, and shot it at a range of sixty 
yards. He preserved it and lately very kindly presented it to me. 

I find, after carefully consulting Ridgeway's Manual, that it is 
a genuine specimen of the King Eider. It is a young bird, and as 
the sex was not determined by dissection, I cannot pronounce on 
the question, although probably a reference to a more detailed 
work on our birds, such as that of Bainl, Brewer and Ridgeway, 
would settle this point. Mr. Hedley further inlorms me that the 
bird was in very thin condition and that strong and cold westerly 
winds prevailed at the time. 



ig8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

NOTE ON THE OVIPOSITION OF THE MUD TURTLE. 

By Mailes Cowley, Bristol, Que. 

In the month of October, 1896, my hired man was ploughing 
near the Ottawa River in the Township of Clarendon, and about 
nine feet above the level of the water he ploughed up a mud 
turtle's nest, which contained about fifty eggs. They were about 
eight inches under ground and covered with a solid grass sod, 
there being no entrance to the nest except from the top, where 
there was a hole about one inch and a quarter in diameter. The 
field in which the nest was situated had not been cultivated for 
more than forty-five years The nest was shaped like an inverted 
soup-tureen, the hole being in the top of the dome, and how the 
young turtles got out when hatched is not easy to guess. These 
eggs were seen in the fall and not a thing was found in the shells 
when the snow was going off" in the month of April, the follow- 
ing spring. Were they hatched by the early spring sun, or did 
some animal eat them ? 

One of my neighbors, Mr. John Telfer, a reliable man, who 
has done much hunting and fishing, says that some years ago he 
came across a good sized turtle about six acres from the Ottawa 
River at Clarendon Front, in the county of Pontiac, and as its 
movements were peculiar he decided to watch it. He climbed a 
leaning tree and from his position a few feet above the ground he 
saw the turtle lift up her hinder part and drop an egg. Then with 
one of her hind legs she took the egg and reaching far down in 
the hole placed it in the nest. After about a minute the same pro- 
cess was again gone through with, and so on until she had laid 
about a dozen eggs. Mr. Telfer says that he is satisfied that a 
turtle lays all its eggs at one time, not at intervals like a hen. He 
affirms that they hollow out the nest first and then cover it over, 
leaving a small hole in the top large enough to allow a hind leg 
to enter it with an egg. Mr. Telfer also expressed his wonder at 
the length to which a turtle could stretch her leg and the care she 
displays in placing the eggs in the nest. Though he never saw a 
young turtle come out of a nest his belief is that the mother 
watches the nest, and when the young are hatched, either pulls the 



igoi] BouTELiER — Birds, Sablk Island, N. S. 199 

top off the nest or puts down her claws and lifts the little ones 
out. Mr. Telfer also says that he once dug a turtle up in the 
spring in a cow-path that had been walked over daily by fifty head 
of cattle for four or five months. All that could be seen of the 
turtle was a claw sticking up out of the clay, and when he dug it 
out it was still living. 

The eggs of the turtle are richer and better flavoured than 
those of a hen. Mr. McKillop, whom I know to be a reliable 
man, tells me that he once killed a large " moss-back," and when 
he had cut her open he took from her sixty eggs, which he boiled. 
Most of them were eaten by a neighbor and himself and found to 
be excellent. 



AUTUMN NOTES ON BIRDS, SABLE ISLAND, N.S., 1901. 



By Richard Boutelier. 

The list of birds which follows, though not complete, will 
give a pretty good idea of the bird migrants which visit Sable 
Island in the autumn. We are not sure about the Knot, but the 
bird we have so named was larger than the Jack Snipe and agrees 
well with the illustration and description in the bird book we use. 

Incidentally it may be mentioned that we have a tame black 
duck here which we raised during the summer of 1900. It flies 
all over the island but always comes home again. Once it was 
away for two months, but when it flew home it came under the 
window to be fed as usual. We have two other black ducks with 
clipped wings, and attracted by them what looked like a pintail 
nearly settled down in our yard a few weeks ago. 

1. Kingbird, one, Aug. 3rd. 

2. Crossbills, in flocks, Au^f. 19th. 

3. Various kinds of hawks, in numbers, Aug. 30th. 

4. Buff-breasted Sandpiper, in numbers, Sept. 2nd. 

5. Flicker, one, Sept. 25th. 

6. White-throated Sparrow, in numbers, Sept. 26th. 

7. Orchard Oriole, one, Sept. 28th. 

8. Pine Warbler, in numbers, Sept. 28th. 

9. American Pipit, in numbers, Sept. 28th. 

10. Knots, (?) in numbers, Sept. 30th. 

11. Horned or Shore Lark, one, Sept. 30th, 

12. Hermit Thrush, one, Oct, tst. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



[December 



13- 
14. 

15- 
16. 

17- 
18, 
19. 
20. 



23- 

24. 

25- 
26. 
27. 

28. 
29. 
30- 
31- 
32- 
33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 
37- 
38. 

39- 
40 
41. 
42. 
Sable 



5th. 



Blackbird, one, Oct. ist. 

Slate-coloured Junco, two, Oct. 2nd. 

House Sparrow, in flocks, Oct. 4th. 

Yellow-headed Blackbird, one, Oct. 

Heron, one, Oct. 5th. 

Swallows, in numbers, Oct. 5th. 

Snowflake, two, Oct. 5th. 

Connecticut Warbler, one, (found dqad), Oct. 6th. 

King^fisher, one, Oct. 8th. 

Robin, one, Oct. i6th. 

Bluebill, seven, Oct. i8th. 

Pipits, ^ 

Warblers, V in numbers, Oct. i8th. Left the Island. 

Sparrows, j 

Semipalmated Sandpiper, in numbers, Oct. 22nd. 

White-rumped Sandpiper, in numbers, Oct. 22nd 

Long-tailed Squaw, in numbers, Oct. 20th. 

Ring-necked duck, five, Oct. 20th. 

Golden-eye, three, Oct. 20th. 

Vesper Sparrow, one, \ 

Juncos, in numbers. 

Golden-crowned Kinglets, in numbers, 

Hermit Thrush, one. 

King- Bird, one. 

Brown Creeper, one, Oct. 28th. 

Snowflake, in numbers, Oct. 28th. 

Kittiwake, in numbers, Oct. 28th, 

White-winged Crossbill, one, Oct. 2Sth. 

Lapland Longspur, one flock, Nov. 2nd. 

Stormy Petrel, one, (found injured in the Island 

Island, N. S., 

Nov. loth, 1 90 1. 



Leavmg- the Island. 
Leaving- the Island. 



Oct. 22nd. 



( These all 
I came diir- 
-; ing-astrong- 
I X. W. gale 

i^ (60 miles.) 



Nov. 4th. 



THE GLAUCOUS GULL IN MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

During- the last week in January, 1901, a large white g^ull 
was seen on the Thames river, six or eig^ht miles west of London. 
After staying- there for a few days it found a carcass on the farm 
of Mr. Elson, a few miles from Byron on which it fed for two or 
three days, when it was shot by Mr. Will Elson, on February ist, 
who kindly let me have it, and it is now in my collection. It 
proved to be a female g-laucous g-uU in the plumag^e of the second 
year, white, uniformly speckled with light gray all over. Consid- 
ering that there is no definite record of the herring gull in Middle- 
sex, it is rather surprising that this should be the first of the larger 
species of gulls to be obtained in the country. 

W. E. Saunders. 



igoi] The Ottawa Flora. 



20I 



THE OTTAWA FLORA. 

In working- up the flora of Ottawa the writer has been much 
impressed wilh the narrow limits ascribed to some species, and the 
few localities that have been even cursorily examined. The inten- 
tion of this note is to encourage beginners and show how much is 
yet to be done in this vicinity. 

The herbaria of those who worked in past years show that 
most of their work was done in the seventies. Mr. R. B. Whyte 
did his work chiefly in 1875, 76, 77, 78 and 79. Dr. H. M. Ami 
in 1879, Dr. James Fletcher chiefly in 1878 and 1879, though he 
has been doing active botanical work ever since. My own work 
and that of my son, J. M. Macoun, commenced in 1883 and has 
been continued ever since. Mr. William Scott, Head Master of 
Toronto Normal School, did a great deal of good work from T891 
up to the time he lelt for Toronto. 1 he above names are given 
because the collections made by each of them may still be studied. 
Each collector had apparently his own "beat." 

Mr. R. B. Whyte, first in the field, did most of his collecting 
on the east of the city, but the Gatineau river, Hull, Beechwood, 
and the Bank street road on the Glebe property, were his chief 
hunting grounds. Dr. Fletcher made his earliest collections in 
old Stewarton and the vicinity of Billings' Bridge. Later the 
writer collected in the Beaver Meadow beyond Hull, and the above 
with Dow's Swamp, Rockliff"e Park and Beechwood are the only 
localities which have been exhaustively examined by him around 
the city. 

Dr. Fletcher, in his Flora Ottaivaensis, intended to include a 
radius of 30 miles from Ottawa, but outside of five miles from the 
city scarcely anything has been done. The only points we have 
specimens from are Eastman's Springs, Casselman, South Indian, 
Carleton Place, Stittsville, Aylmer, Chelsea, King's Mountain, 
Kirk's Ferry, Templeton and Buckingham. 

Since the building of electric roads and the multiplication of 
railways there is no difficulty now in getting about, and the writer 
makes an earnest appeal to. the members of the Ottawa Field- 
Naturalists' Club to commence active work in all branches in 
the spring, and he can assure them that in no branch is the 
field exhausted. 

John Macoun. 

Nov. 30th, 1901. 



202 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF DR. GEORGE MERCER DAWSON.* 



B\' H. M. Ami, of the Geological Survey of Canada. 

In a new country like Canada, pioneer scientific work must of 
necessity be of a general rather than of a more specialized and 
restricted type, and the numerous contributions to the scientific 
lore of the Dominion from the pen of Dr. George Dawson partake 
essentially of the former type, though in not a few instances has that 
eminent geologist and thinker left behind him a record of facts of 
a particular and special nature which show clearly that he had a 
mind capable of grasping the minutest details of a critical study. 

His scientific activities extend over a period of some thirty- 
two years, and during that time not a single year elapsed without 
some contribution from his pen. His writings are chiefly geologi- 
cal, but they also include important reports and papers on the 
natural history of Canada. He devoted much of his leisure hours 
in preparing succinct reports on the economic resources of the 
Dominion, but first and foremost with regard to the mineral pro- 
. ducts of British Columbia and adjacent portions of the North West 
Territories. 

Dr. Dawson's contributions to forestry are well known and 
supply a fund of useful and ready information whose value cannot 
be overestimated. The climatic conditions which prevail over the 
wide areas which he explored have been carefully tabulated and 
described, and will seive as a permanent record of the greatest in- 
terest and value. In the varied and abundant nature of his 
researches, Dr. Dawson was ever looking to the future growth 
and development of Canada and the Empire. 

In preparing the accompanying list of Dr. Dawson's writings 
the writer has made liberal use of the bibliographies published by 
the Royal Society of England, the Royal Society of Canada, and 
N. H. Darton's Index of Contributions to the Geology and 
Palaeontology of North America, supplemented references from 
his own card Catalogue. 

* For Biographical sketch of Dr. Dawson, see Ottawa Naturalist, 
Vol. XV', No. 2. pp. 43 to 52, Maj-, igoi. 



igoij The late George M. Dawson — Ami. 203 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF DR. GEORGE M. DAWSON. 

1870. 

On Foraminifera from the Gulf and River St. Lawrence. Canada 
Naturalist, N.S. Vol. vii, Xo. 5. pp. 172-180, June 1870. Montreal. (Also 
separately, pp. i-S.) Also in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 
8vo. 4th series. Vol. V^II, pp. 83-90, Februarj-, 1S71. London, Eng. 

1874- 

The Lig^nite Formations of the West. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. Vil, No. 
5, pp. 241-252, April, Montreal. (Also separately with the next.) 

Note on the Occurrence of Foraminifera, Coccoliths, etc., in the 
Cretaceous Rocks of Manitoba. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. vii, pp. 252-257, 
April. Montreal. (.Also separately, with the foregoing.) 

Marine Champlain deposits on lands north of Lake Superior. American 
Journal of Science, 3d series, p. 143 (1-4 p.). 

Tiie fluctuations of the American Lakes and the Development of Sun 
Spots. Nature, 4to. , pp. 504-506, April, 1874. London. Also in Canadian 
Naturalist, Vol. VII, No. 6, pp. 310-317, November. Montreal. 

Report on the Tertiary Lignite Formation in the Vicinity of the Forty- 
ninth Parallel. (British North American Boundary Commission.) 8vo. pp. 
1-3 1. Montreal. 

(.Abstract, American Journal of Science, 3rd series, Vol. 8, pp. 142-143 
I and 1-2 p. 1874.) 

1875- 

Report Oil the Geology and Resources of the Region in the Vicinity of the 
Forty-ninth Parallel. British North American Boundary Commission.) 8vo. 
pp. I-XI and 1-387. Dawson Bros., Montreal. 

On some Canadian Species of Spongillae. Canadian Naturalist, Vo\. viii, 
No. I, pp. 1-5, November. Montreal. (Also separately, .same pagination,) 

On the Superficial Geology of the Central Region of North America. 
Quarterly Journal Geological Society, 8vo. pp. 603-623, November. Liindon. 
(.Also separately, same pagination.) 

1876. 

Communication in J. A. Allen's Monograph, " The American Bi.sons, 
living and extinct," 173-174, >vith map on p. 173. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Vol. 4, No. 10, 1976. 

Notes on the Locust Invasion of 1874 in Manitoba and the North-West 
Territories. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. Vlii, No. 3, pp. 119-134. Montreal. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-16,) 

Review of "Report on the Geol. & Resources, etc., Forty-niiUh Parallel.' 
(Anon.) Canadian Naturalist, Vol. VIII, No. 2, p. 118. 1876.] 



204 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

1877. 

Notes on the Appearance and Migrations of the Locust in Manitoba and 
the North-West Territories, Summer of 1875. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. VIII, 
No. 4, pp. 207-226, April. Montreal. (Also separately, pp. 1-20.) 

Notes on some of the more recent Changes in Level of the Coast 01 
British Columbia and adjacent regions. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. VIII, No. 
4, pp. 241-248, April. Montreal. (Also separately, pp. 1-8.) 

Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks of British Columbia and Chili. Relation 01 
Volcanic and Aletamorphic rocks. Geological Magazine, 8vo. pp. 314-317. 
July. London. (Also separately,, pp. 1-4.) 

Note on the Economic Minerals and Mines of British, Columbia. First 
List of Localities in the Province of British Columbia, known to yield Gold, 
Coal, Iron, Copper and other Minerals of Economic Value. (Appendix R.) 
Report on Surveys, Canadian Pacific Railway, 8vo. pp. 218-245. Ottawa. 

Note on Agriculture and Stock-Raising and Extent of Cultivable Land 
in British Columbia. (Appendix S.) Report of Surveys, Canadian Pacific 
Railway, 8vo. pp. 246-253. Ottawa. 

Report on Explorations in British Columbia. Report of Progress, 
Geological Survey of Canada. 1875-76. 8vo. pp. 233-280. (Abstract 
American Journal of Science, 3rd series, Vol. 14, page 70, 1-8 p.) 

1878. 

On the Superficial Geology of British Columbia. Philosophical Magazine, 
Vol. 4, p. 237, 1877. Quarterly Journal Geological Society, London, Vol. 34 
pp. 897123, February. Also separately, same pagination.) 

Traveling Notes on the Surface Geology of the Pacific Coast. Canadian 
Naturalist, Vol. VIII, No. 7, pp. 3S9-399, February. Montreal. (Also 
separately, pp. i-ii.) 

Notes on the Locust in the North-West in 1876. Canadian Naturalist, 
Vol. VIII, No. 7, pp. 411-417, April. Montreal. (Also separately, pp. 1-7.) 

Erratics at High Levels in Northwestern America.— Barriers to a Great 
Ice Sheet. Geological Magazine, 8vo. pp. 209-212, May. London. 

Report of Explorations in British Columbia; chiefly in the Basins or the 
Blackwater, Salmon and Nechacco Pivers, and on FranCj-ois Lake. Report 
of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 1876-77, 8vo. pp. 17-94. Montreal. 

Report on Reconnaissance of Leech River and Vicinity. Report of 
Progress, Geological Survey of Canada. 1876-77, 8vo. pp. 95-102. Montreal. 

General Note on the Mines and Minerals of Economic Value of British 
Columbia, with a list of localities, with appendix. Report of Progress, 
Geological Survey of Canada, 1876-77, 8vo. pp. 103-145. Montreal. (Also 
separately, same pagination.) Abstract, American Journal of Science, 3rd 
series, Vol. 16, p. 149. (1-2 p.) 1878.) 

1879. 

On a Species of Loftusia from British Columbia. Quarterly Journal 
Geological Society, Svo. pp. 69-75, February. London. (Also separately, 
same pagination. ' 



iQOi] The late George M. Dawson — Axfi. 205 

Notes on the Glaciation of British Cohimbia. Canadian Xa/ui-alisl, n. s. 
Vol. IX, Xo. I, pp. 32-39, March. Montreal. (Also separately, pp. 1-8.) 

Sketch of the Past and Present Condition of the Indians of Canada 
Canadian Xafiiralisf, Vol. IX, N'o. 3, pp. 129-159, July. Montreal. (Also 
separately, pp. 1-31.) 

Preliminary Report of the Physical and Geological Features of the 
Southern Portion of the Interior of British Columbia. Report of Progress. 
Geological Survey of Canada, 1877-78. 8vo. pp. 1B-187B. Montreal. 

Abstract, A?nerican Journal Science, 3rd series, Vol. 18, pj). 4S2-483. 
New Haven, Conn. , 

1880. 

Memorandum on the Oueen Charlotte Islands. Britisli Columbia. 
(Appendix, No. 9.) Report Canadian Pacific Railway, 8vo. [ip. 139-143. 
Ottawa. 

Notes on the Distribution of Some of the More Important Trees ot 
British Columbia. Canadia/i Naturalist, Vol. IX, No. 6, pp. 321-331, August. 
Montreal. (Also separately, pp. i-ii.) Reprinted with additions and correc- 
tions as an Appendix to Report on an Exploration from Fort Simpson, etc. 
Report of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 1879-80, pp. 167B-177B 
(with map). Montreal, 1881. 

Report on the Climate and .Agricultural Value, General Geological 
Features and Minerals of Economic Importance of part of the Northern por- 
tion of British Columbia an 1 of the Peace River Country. (Appendix 7.) 
Report Canadian Pacific Railway, Svo. pp. 107-151. Ottawa. 

Report on the Queen Charlotte Islands. With Appendices A to G, etc. 
Report of Progress, Geological of Canada, 1878-79, 8vo. pp. 1B-39B. Mon- 
treal. (Abstracts, American Journal of Science. 3rd series, Vol. 21, p. 243 
(7-3 p.) 1881. American Naturalist, Vol. 15, p. 647, (1-3 p.) 1881.) 

On the Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Report of 
Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 1878-79. Appendix A to Report 01 
the Queen Charlotte Islands, etc. (G, M. Dawson.) 

Sketch of the Geology of British Columbia. (See 1881.) British Associa- 
tion Report, Vol. 50. Transactions, pp. 588-589, 1880. Canadian Naturalist, 
Vol. 9, n s. pp. 445-447- 

Vocabulary of the Haida Indians. Report of Progress, Geological 
.Surve}- of Canada, 1879-79. Appendix B to Report on the Queen Charlotte 
Islands, etc. 

1881. 

Note on the Gealogy of the Peace Rivei Region. Cayiadian Naturalist, 
Vol. X, No, I, pp. 20-22, April, 1881. Montreal. Also in American Journal of 
Science, 8vo. pp. 391-394, May, 18S1. New Haven. 

Report on an Exploration from Fort Simpson to the Pacific Coast, to 
Edmonton, on the Saskatchewan, embracing -i portion of the northern part of 
British Columbia and the Peace River Country. Report of Progress, Geo- 



2o6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

logical Survey of Canada, 1879-80, 8vo. pp. iB-ryyB. Montreal, 1881. illus- 
trated. 

Meteorological Observations in the Northern Part of British Columbia 
and the Peace River Country. Report of Progress, Geological Survey ot 
Canada, 1879-80. Appendix II to Report on an Exploration from Fort 
Simpson, etc. (G. M. Dawson.) 

Note on the Latitudes and Longitudes used in preparing the map of the 
Region from the Pacific Coast to Edmonton. Report of Progress, Geological 
Survev of Canada, 1879-80. Appendix III to Report on an Exploration from 
Fort Simpson, etc. 

Der Queen Charlotte-Archipel. Petermann's Mitt., Vol. 27, pp. 331 -.•^47, 
map 4". 

On the Lignite Tertiary Formation from the Souris River to the one 
hundred and eighth meridian. Report of Progress, Geological Survey of 
Canada, 1879-80, 8vo. pp. 12A-49A. Montreal. Abstract, [Philadelphia 
Magazitie, n. s., Vol. 14, pp. 70-71. (1-3 p,) 1881.) 



The Haidas. Harpers Magazine, Vol. XLV, 8vo. pj. 401-408, August. 
New York. 

Descriptive Note on a General Section from the Laurentian Axis to the 
Rocky Mountains north of the 49th parallel. Transactions Royal Society of 
Canada, Vol. i. Sec. 4, 4to, pp. 39-44, 1883. (Also separately, same pagin*- 
tion. 

i88v 

Notes on the more important Coal-seams of the Bow and Belly River 
Districts. Canadian Naturalist, Vol. X, No. 7, pp. 423-435, March, 1883. 
8vo. Montreal. 

Note on the Triassic of the Rocky Mountains and British Columbia. 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. i, Sec. 4, 4to. pp. 143-145. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Preliminary on the Geology of the Bow and Belly River Region, North- 
West Territory. With special reference to the Coal Deposits. Report of 
Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 16S0-82, Svo. pp. 1B-23B. Montreal. 

Glacial deposits of the Bow and Belly River Conntry. Science, Vol. i, 

PP- 477-479- 

List of Elevations. Report of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1882-83-84. Appendix I to Report on a region in the vicinity of the Bow and 
Belly Rivers, N. W. T. (G. M. Dawson.) 

(Abstracts, Canadian Naturalist, n. s.. Vol. 10, pp. 423-435, Science, Vol. 
I, pp. 429-430. 

1884. 

On the occurrence of Phosphates in Nature. Transactions Ottawa 
Field Naturalists' Club, Svo. pp. 91-98, February. Ottawa, 



igoi] The late George M. Dawson — Ami. 207 

(and Sehvvn, A. R. C.) Descriptive Sketch oi the Physical Geoj^raphy 
and Geoloyy of the Dominion of Canada, 8vo., pp. 1-55. Montreal. 

(and Tolmie, W. F. ) Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of 
British Colambia. With a map illiistratingf distribution, Svo. pp. 1-131. 
Montreal. 

(Abstract. Science, Vol. V, pp. 156-157 (4-5 p.) New York City. 

Recent Geolog-ical Observations in the Canadian North-West Territory. 
Science, Vol. 3, pp. 637-648. 

Notes on the Coals and Lignites of the Canadian North-Wesl. Svo. pp. 
1-21. Montreal Printing- and Publishing- Co., Montreal. 

1885. 

On the Microscopic structure of certain Boulder Clays and the Organisms 
contained in them. Bulletin Chicago Academy of Science, Svo. pp. 59-69, 
June. Chicago. (.\lso separately, same pagination.) 13th Annual Report 
Geological and Natural History Survey Minnesota, pp.- 150-163. St. Paul. 

The Dominion of Canada (Part thus entitled in " Macfarlane's Ameri- 
can Geological Railway Guide.") Svo. pp. si-83. June. D, Appleton & Co., 
New York. (Also separateh-, same pagination.) 

The Saskatchewan Countr}-. Science, Vol. 5, pp. 340-542, with map. 
1SS5. 

Report on the Region in the vicinity of Bow and Belly Rivers, N. W. T. 
Report of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 1882-S4, Svo. pp. 1C-169C. 
Montreal. 

On the Superficial Deposits and Glaciation of the District in the Vicinit}- 
of the Bow and Belly Rivers. (Reprinted from the Report of Progress) 
Geological Survey of Canada, 18S2-84, Svo. pp. 1-14. (Abstracts, Science, 
V'ol. 6, pp. 522 (1-8 p.) Amerisan Join rial of Science, 3rd series. Vol. 29, 
pp. 408-411, American Naturalist, Vol. 21, pp. 171-172 (with comments by 
G. M. Dawson). 

1886. 

On Certain Borings in .Manitoba and the .North-West Territory. Trans- 
actions Royal Society o( Canada, \'ol. IV, Sec. 4, 4to., pp. 85-99. (Also 
separately, same pagination.) {.\\)s\ri\.c\.. Geological Magazine, ycA AQ.c.a.Ae, 
Vol. 4, pp. 278-289, 1S87.) 

Preliminary Report on the Physical and Geological Features ot that Por- 
tion of the Rocky Mountains between Latitudes 49 degrees and 51° 30'. 
Annual Report Geological Survey af Canada (N. S.) Vol. i, Svo. pp. 1B-169B. 
Montreal. (.A so separately, same pagination,) Abstracts, Americari Journal 
of Science, 3rd series, \'ol. 2?>^ P- 3'7 ('-2 p.) 1S87. Geological Magazine, 
decade 3, Vol 4, p|>. 176-178. 1887.) 

1887. 

On the Canadian Rocky Mountains, with special reference to that part of 
the Range between the forty-ninth [larallel and the headwaters of the Red 



2o8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

Deer River. Canadian Record of Science, Vol. ii, No. 5, pp. 2S5-300, April, 
1887. Montreal. (Also separately, pp. 1-16.) 

Note on the Occurrence of Jade in British Columbia and its Employment 
by the Natives. With extracts from a paper by Prof. Meyer. Canadian 
Record of Science, Wo\. II, 'bio. 6, pp. 364-378, April, 1887. Montreal. (Also 
separately, pp. 1-15.) 

Notes and observations on the Kwakiool People of Vancouver Island. 
Transactions Royal Society of Canada, Vol. IV, Sec. 2, 4to. pp. 1-36, 1887. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) (Abstract without geology, British Asso- 
ciation Report of 56th meeting, pp. 638-639.) 

Notes on the Exploration in Yukon District. Science, Vol. 10, pp. i6^-\(6i 
reproduced from Montreal Gazette. 

Report on geological examination of the northern part of Vancouver 
Island and adjacent coasts. Report Geological and Natural History Survey, 
of Canada, part B pp. 1-107, plates, map No. i, in atlas. Montreal. (Abstract 
Geological Magazine, 3rd decade, Vol. 6, 130-133.) 

Notes to accompany a geological map of the northern portion of the 
Dominion of Canada, east of th2 Rocky Mountains. Report of the Geological 
and Natural History Survey of Canada, 1886, part R, 62 pp. coloured mapj 
1887. Montreal. Abstract in Geological Magazine, 3rd decade. Vol. 6, pp. 

137-138.) 

Meteorological Observations, 1885. Appendix III to Peporton a Geo- 
logical Examination of the Northern Part of Vancouver Island, and adjacent 
Coast. Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada; New series, Vol. 2, 
1886, issued 1887. Montreal. 

1888. 

Recent Observations on the Glaciation of British Columbia and Adjacent 
Regions. Geological Magazine, 8vo. pp. 347-350, August, 1888. London. 
American Geologist, Vol. 3, pp. 249-253, 1889. (Also separately, same pagina- 
tion.) 

Report on the Exploration in the Yukon District, N. W. T., and adjacent 
Northern portion of British Columbia. Annual Report, Geological Survey of 
Canada. (N. S.) Vol. iii, 8vo. pp. 1B-277R. 1888. Montreal. (Abstracts, 
ibid., Report A, pp. 4-12 ; American Geologist, Vol. 5, pp. 240-241 (2-3 p.) ; 
Ametican Journal of Science, 3rd series. Vol. 39, p. 238 (1-2 p.), 1888.) 

Notes on the distribution of Trees and of certain Shrubs in the Yukon 
District and adjacent Northern portion of British Columbia. Annual Report, 
Geological Survey of Canada, New series. Vol. in, 1887-88, Appendix I to 
Report of an Exploration in the Yukon District, N. W. T. , etc. (G. M. Daw- 
son.) Montreal. 

Notes on the Indian Tribes of the same district. Annual Report Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada, new series, \o\. ili, 1887-88. Appendix II to 
Report of an Exploration in the Yukon District, N. W. T., etc. (G. M. 
Dawson.) Montreal (out of print). 



I got J The late George M. Dawson — Ami. 209 

Meterolog^ii-al Observations in the same district. Annual Report, Geo- 
logfical Survey ot Canada, new series, Vol. ill, 1887-88. Appendix VI to 
Report of an Exploration in the Yukon District, N. W. T., etc. (G. M. 
Dawson.) Montreal. 

Summar}- of Astronomical Observations employed in the construction of 
Maps, Nos. 274-277. Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada, new 
series. Vol. ili, 1887-88. Appendix VI to Report of an Exploration in the 
Yukon District, N. \V. T., etc. (G. M. Dawson.) Montreal. 

Account of Explorations in southern interior British Cokniibia. Report 
Geolog^ical Survey of Canada, Vol. Ill, n. s. pp. 80A-66A. Montreal. 

Note on the Cascade anthracite basin. Rocky Mountains. Anicricnn 
Geologist, Vol. i, pp. 332-333. 

The Geologfical Observations of the Yukon Expedition, 1887. Science, 
\'o\. II, pp. 185-186,4°. 

Xotes on the Indian Tribes of the Yukon District and adjacent Northern 
portion of British Columbia. (Reprinted from the Annual Report of (Jeo- 
log-ical Survey of Canada, 1887.) 8vo. pp. pp. 1-23. 

Mineral Wealth of. British Columbia with annotated list of localities of 
Minerals of Economic Value. Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada 
(N. S.), Vol. 4, 8vo. pp. 1R-163R. (Also separately, same pag-ination.) 

Views of the Archaean. Report American Committee, International 
Congress of Geolog'ists, 18S9, A. American Geologist, Vol. 2, pp. 1 46-1 84, in 
part, 1888. 



Glaciation of High Points in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. 
Geological Magazine, ^vo., pp. 350-351, August. London. (Also separately, 
same pagination.) (Abstracts, Otiaiva Naturalist, Vol. 3, pp. 1 12-1 13, (4-5 p.); 
American Naturalist, Vol. 24, pp, 771, 4 lines. 

On the earlier Cretaceous rocks of the North-western portion of the 
Dominion of Canada. American Journal of Science, 8vo. pp. 120-127, .Vugust. 
New Haven. (Also separately, same pagination.) (Abstract, Nature, Vol. 
40, p. 404 (i I lines). 

Notes on the Ore Deposit of the Treadwell Mine, Alaska. American 
Geologist, 8vo. pp. 84-93, August. Minneapolis. (Also separately, same 
Imagination.) 

1890. 

Notes on the Cretaceous of the British Columbia Region. The Nanaimo 
Group. American Journal of Science, 8vo. pp. 180-183, March. New Haven- 
(Also separately, same pagination.) (Abstract, American Naturalist, Vol. 24, 
p. 764(1-2 p.). 

On some of the larger unexplored Regions of Canada. Oltaiva Naturalist, 
8vo. pp. 29-40, May. Ottawa. (.-VIso separately, pp. 1-12.) Also printed as 
Appendix to Pike's Barren Ground of Northern Canada, 1892, London, 8vo. 
pp. 177-289, 1892, Macmillan & Co. London. 



2IO The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

Oc the Glaciation of the Northern Part of the Cordillera, with an attempt 
to correlate the events of the Glacial Period in the Cordillera and Great 
Plains. American Geologist, 8vo. pp. 153-162, September. Minneapolis. 
(Also separately, same pagination. ) 

On the Later Physiographical Geology of the Rocky Mountain Region in 
Canada, with special reference to Changes in Elevation and the History of the 
Glacial Period. Transactions Royal Society of Canada. Vol. viii, Sec. 4, 
4to. pp. 3-74 (pis. 1-3). (Also separately, same pagination.) 

Report on a Portion of the West Kootanie District, British Columbia. 
Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada (N. S.), Vol. iv, 8vo. pp. 1B-66B. 
Montreal. (Also separately, same pagination.) (Abstract, American Geo- 
logist, Vol. 8, pp. 392-394.) 

Introductory Note on an expedition down the Begh-ula or Anderson 
River, by R. Macfarlane. Canadian Record of Science, Vol. 4, No. i, pp. 28-29. 
Jan., 1890. 

The Chalk from the Niobrara Cretaceous of Kansas. Science, Vol. 16, p. 
276 (1-4 col.), 4°. 

Northern Pacific Railroad. Macfarlane's Geological Railway Guide, 2d 
edition, pp. 258-266 ; 261, 262. 

The Dominion of Canada. Macfarlane's Geological Railway Guide, 2nd 
edition, pp. 51-83. 

1891. 

Northern Extension of earlier Cretaceous in Western British North 
America. Bulletin Geological Society of America, Vol. 2, p. 207 (1-4 p.). 
(In discussion of paper by G. F. Becker, "'Notes on the Early Cretaceous 
of California and Oregon.'') 

Remarks on the Glaciation of the Great Plains Region. Bulletin Geo- 
logical Society America, Vol. 2, pp. 275-276, 1891. (Abstract, American 
Geologist, Vol. 7, p, 143, 5 lines.) Discussion of paper by W. Upham, 
" Glacial Lakes of Canada.'' 

Note on the Geological Structure of the Selkirk Range. Bulletin Geo- 
logical Society of America, Vol. 2, pp. 165-176. (Discussed by C. D. Walcott, 
p. 611 (1-4 p.) Abstracts, American Geologist, Vol. 7, pp. 262-263 ('"^ PO > 
Atnericati Naturalist, Vol. 25, p. 658, 3 lines. (Also separatel}-, same pagina- 
tion. 

Notes on the Shuswaji People of British Columbia. Transactions Royal 
Society of Canada, Vol. ix, Sec. 2, 4to. pp. 3-44. (Also separately, same 
pagination.) 

1892. 

(and Alex. Sutherland) Geography of the British Colonies, 8vo. pp. i-xill, 
and 1-330. Macmillan & Co., London. 

(and Baden-Powell, Sir G.) Report of the British Behring Sea Commis- 
sioners, London: Government, pp. i-Vli ; 1-241. London, Eng. 

Notes on the Geology of Middleton Island, Alaska. Bulletin Geological 
Society of America, Vol. iv, 8vo. pp. 427-431. Rochester. 



[Qoi] The late George M. Dawson — Ami. 



Mineral Wealth of British Columbia. Proceedings of the Kojal Colonial 
Institute, Vol. xxiv, Svo. p]?. 23S-264. 

Mammoth Remains. (Abstract and notice of papers read before the 
Geolog-ical Society, No. 8. Xature, Vol. 49, No. 1156, Xov. 23, p. 94. 

Notes on the occurrence of Mammoth Remains in the Yukon District of 
Canada and in Alaska. Abstracts and notice of papers read before the 
Geological Society, London. Quarter^ Journal Geological Society, Nov. 8th. 
Proc. of meeting, Geological Magazine, Dec, No. 354. London, Eng. 

1894. 

Geographical and Geological Sketch oi Canada, with notes on Minerals, 
Climate, Immigration and Native Races. Baedeker's Dominion of Canada 
Hand Book, i2mo. pp. 23 48. Lipsic. 

Notes on the Occurrence of Mammoth Remains in the Yukon District of 
Canada and in Alaska. Quarterly Journal Geological Society, Svo. pp, 1-9, 
February London. (Also separately, same pagination.) Also in Geological 
Magazine, Dec, No. 354, pp. 

Geological Notes on some of the Coasts and Islands of Behring Sea and 
vicinity. Bulletin Geological Society of America, 8vo. pp. 117-146. February, 
1894, Rochester. (Also separately, same pagination.) 

1895. 

Interglacial Climatic Conditions. A?nerican Geologist, Vol. 16, No, 1, |ip. 
65-66, 1895. 

Summary Report of Geological work in British Columbia for 1894. 
Printed by Order of Parliament. 'Ottawa, 1896. 

1896 

Summary Report of the Director, for the year 1874. With msip No. 554. 
(Reprint from Blue Book.) pp. 124. Annual Report Geological Survey ot 
Canada, new series, Vol. Vil. Ottawa. 

Report on the Area of the Kamloops Maji-sheet, British Columbia. 
With Appendixes I-IV, and Maps Nos. 556 and 557, pp. 427. Report B. 
Annual Report Geological Survey of Canada, new series. Vol. \'ll, 1894. 
Ottawa. 

Shuswap names or places within the area of the Kamloops map-sheet. 
Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada, new series, V'ol. Vli, 1894. 
Appendix II to Report on the Area of the Kamloops Map-sheet, Brittsh 
Columbia. (G. M. Dawson.) Ottawa. 

Notes on the Upper and Lower Limits of Cirowth of some Trees and other 
Plants in different Places within the area of the Kamloops Map-sheet. Annual 
Report, Geological Survey of Canada, n. s. Vol. vll, 1894. Appendix III to 
Report on the area of the Kamloops Map-sheet, British Columbia. (G. M. 
Dawson.) Ottawa. 



212 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

Comparative Observations of Temperatures at different Altitudes in or 
near the Region embraced by the Kamloops Sheet, Southern interior of British 
Columbia, during parts of the years i88S, 1889 and 1890. Annual Report, 
Geological Survey of Canada, n. s. Vol. vii, 1894. Appendix IV to Report on 
the area of the Kamloops Map-sheet, British Columbia. (G. M. Dawson.) 
Ottawa. 

Some Observations tending to show the occurrences of secular climatic 
changes in British Columbia. Transactions Royal Society of Canada, 2nd 
series, Sec. 4, V^ol. 2, pp. 159-166. Montreal. 

1897. 

Summary Report ot Director for the year 1895, pp. 154, (Reprint from 
Blue-book.) Annual Report, Geo:ogical Survey of Canada, n. s. Vol. Viir, 
Report A. Ottawa. 

189S. 

Summary Report of the Director for the year 1896 (Reprint from Blue- 
book) pp. 144. Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada, n. s. Vol. ix, 
Report A. Ottawa. 

Annual Report, Geological Survey ot Canada, new series, V^ol. 9, 1896 
(1898), 816 pp., maps, containing the Director's Summary Report for 1896, and 
reports by Tyrrell, Bell, Low, Bailey, Hoffman and Ingall, etc., also 20 plates. 
Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 

Duplication of geolgic formation names. (Discussion and correspondence.) 
Scietice, n. s., Vol. ix, pp. 592-593. 1899. 

Summary Report of the Geological Survey of Canada for the year 1897. 
Geological Survey of Canada, 156 pages. Ottawa. Compiled by the Director. 

1899. 

Summary Report of the Geological Survey Department, ror the year 1898 
(containing also reports of the several technical officers of the Geological 
Survey Staff, on the geology, etc., of various portions of the Dominion ot 
Canada). 208 pp. Govt. Printing Bureau, Ottawa. 

Summary Report of the Director for the year 1898 (Reprint from Blue- 
book), pp. 208. Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada, n. s. Vol. XI. 
Report A. 

(On Mammoth and musk-ox remains from the Saskatchewan gold-bearing 
gravels of the Edmonton district, Alberta.) Summary Report, 1898. Geo- 
logical Survey Department, pp. 19-20. Govt. Printing Bureau, Ottawa. 

Summary Report of the Director for the year 1897 (Report from Blue- 
book), pp. 156, with Map No. 639. Annual Report, Geological Survey of 
Canada, n. s. Vol. xx, 1897. Report A 1899. Ottawa. 

1900. 

Summary Report of the Geological Survey Department for the year 1899, 
224 pp. Printed by order of Parliament. Ottawa, 1900. 



igoi] The late George M. Dawson — Ami. 213 

Economic Minerals of Canada. Paris International Exhibition, 1900, with 
map, 54 pp. Toronto, Canada. 

Remarkable landslip in Portneuf county, Quebec. Bull. Geol. Soc, 
Amer. , Vol. x, pp. 484-490, plates 51 and 51. Rochester, N.Y. 1900. 

1 90 1. 

On the Geological Record or the Rocky Mountain Reg-ion in Canada. 
Address by the President. Bull. Geol. Soc. Araer., Vol. xii, pp. 57-92. 
Rochester, X.Y., Feb., igoi, Ahstra.ct of same m Scien/i/ic American Sitfifile- 
mcnt. No. 1307, pp. 20948 and 20499, Jan. 19th, 1901. In part published in 
Science, n.s.. Vol. xiii. No. 324. pp. 401-407, March 15th, 1901, under the 
title : " Physical History of the Rocky Mountain Region in Canada." New 
York City. 

(George Mercer Dawson), with portrait. Obituary notice by Dr. W. J. 
McGee, The American Anthropologist, n. s. , Vol. 3, pp. .159-163, May, 1901. 

(The late George Mercer Dawson), with portrait. Obituary notice by H. 
M. Ami in The Ottava Xaturalist, Vol. XV, No. 2, pp. 43-52, May, 1901. 

(George Mercer Dawson). With portrait. Biographical sketch, by B. 
J. Harrington. American Geologist, August, 1901, pp. 66-67. Bibliography 
of Dr. G. M. Dawson, by H. M. Ami. pp. 76-86. Minneapolis, Minn. 



THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB. 



Under the Distinguished Patronage of the Right Honourable 
THE Earl of Minto, Governor-General of Canada. 



PROGRAMME OF WINTER SOIREES, iqoi-1902. 
1 90 1. 

In the Assembly Dec. 10. — President's Address, " 0)i the Extinction of Useful 



Hall of the 
Normal School, 



A?ii??iats in Modern Tintes.^' 
Short addresses by Dr. J, A. MacCabe, F.R.S.C., 
Professor Macoun and others. 

Conversazione, willi exhibition of Natural Historj' 
objects and Microscope slides. 



In Y M C. A. 
HalL 



1902. 



Jan. 14. — "■O71 the Relation of Geology to Geography " illustrat- 
ed by lantern slides, bj' Professor R. A. Daly. 
Report of the Geolog^ical Branch. 

Jan. 28. — " Whales attd WhaleHiintiitg,^' illustrated bylantern 
slidtfs, by Professor E. E. Prince. 

"The Natural History of Honey Bees,""' by Mr. Percy 
H. Selvvyn. 

Report of the Entomolog'ical Branch. 

Feb. II — '■'■The Ferns of Canada,'' illustrated by lantern 
slides, by Rev. Robert Campbell, D. D. , Mon- 
treal. 
Report of the Botanical Branch. 

In the Assembly Feb. 25, — '■'The Present Position of the Evolution Theory," 

illustrated, by Professor E. W. MacBride, 
McGill UniveVsity, Montreal. 
Report of the Zoological Branch. 

-" Native Birds : their Characteristics and Habits," 
illustrated by lantern slides, by W. E. Saun- 
ders, Esq., London. 
Report of the Ornitholog"ical Branch. 



In Y. M. C. A. 
Hall. 



In Y. M. C A 
Hall. 



Hall of the 
Normal School. 

In the Assembly Mar. i 

Hall of the 
Normal School. 



In Y. M. C. A. 
Hall. 



Mar. i! 



-Annual Meeting. 
tion of officers. 



Reports of Council and elec- 



" Notes Oft the Arboretum at the Central Experi- 
mental Fat fn, Ottaiva,''' by Mr, W. T. Macoun. 

The meetings will be held at 8 p.m. on the second and fourth Tuesdays 
of the month, except in the case of the Annual Meeting 

President : Dr. Robert Bell, F.R.S. 
Secretary: W. J. Wilson. Treasurer : Dr. James Fletcher. 

(Geol. Surv. Dept.) (Central Expterimental Farm.) 

Membership Fee, O. F. N.C., with Ottawa Naturalist, $i.oo per annum. 

Admission to Lecture Course Free, 



THE OTTAWA ^(ATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, JANUAf?,Y, 1902. No. 10. 

FAUNA OTTAWAENSIS. 
Hymenoptera — Superfamily II. — Sphegoidea. 

By W. Hague Harrincton, F.R.S.C, .Ottawa. 

The proceedings of our society have recently made little refer- 
ence to the local insect fauna, but it seems important that this 
branch of our natural history should not be altogether neglected. 
Abundant material exists in our cabinets, but unfortunately records 
have to be fragmentary, as so many forms are still undetermined 
or imperfectly classified. Last winter a start was made toward a 
rearrangement ot my hymenoptera according to the admirable 
scheme of classification published by Ashmead, but the work has 
progressed slowly. Under his system the very extensive order of 
the hymenoptera is divided into ten easily recognized superfamilies 
as follows : — Apoidea, Sphegoidea, Vespoidea, Formicoidea, Proc- 
totrypoidea,Cynipoidea, Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonoidea, Siricoidea. 
and Tenthredinoidea, which are subdivided into ninety-four families 
and many hundred genera. It would be preferable to commence 
with the Apoidea and to publish the superfamilies in consecutive 
order, but this is rendered impossible by the difficulty of determining 
the numerous bees belonging to such groups as Halictus, Andrena, 
Osmia and Megachile, and the superfamily Sphegoidea has been 
selected as a commencement. The species included therein are com- 
monly known as solitary, or fossorial wasps, because they do not 
form communities as do some of the Vespoidea and because they 
usually construct their egg-cells in burrows in the earth or in dead 
wood. The cells thus formed are stored by the industrious wasps 
with provisions for their prospective young. This food supply does 
not consist of pollen and honey, as stored by the bees, but of 



2i6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

insects, which vary in kind according to the wasps collecting 
them. Any observant person may, during the summer months, 
watch the agile mother-wasp hunting for its special prey, which 
when captured is paralyzed by the potent venom injected by the 
captor's sting. Thus the grubs, when they hatch, have fresh meat 
provided for their voracious appetites, and at the same time are 
secure from injury by their victims. They are not, however, in 
all instances exempt from parasitic species, which find access to the 
cells during the course of construction and deposit eggs, from 
which larvae hatch and proceed to consume the food so industriously 
stored, and either devour or starve, the rightful occupants. 

The superfamily is divided into twelve families of which all 
but the Stizidae (which includes the great cicada-hunters) and the 
Ampulicidae (rare cockroach-catchers) have representatives in our 
district. The family Oxybelidce furnishes two small species, of 
which the commoner one was found by the Peckhams to store 
with flies its burrows in the sand. The family Crabronidas con- 
tains one-third of all our species, usually in livery of black and 
yellow. 1 hey may often be seen about old stumps and trees, 
disappearing in burrows made either by themselves or by some 
departed beetle. The food collected varies with the species. The 
Pemphredonidce are rather small and generally black and their 
habits are much the same as those of the crabronids. Of the 
Bembicidae wehaveonlythreespeciies, of which two are common and 
are easily known by the long beak-like labrum. They are strong 
active insects frequenting sandy fields in which their burrows are 
stored probably with diptera. The Larridae are more numerous 
and are more bee-like in form and in color black, with sometimes 
a red band on abdomen. In their burrows they store small grass- 
hoppers, etc. The family Philanthidee contains a half dozen hand- 
some species, of which the two speciesofCerceris are common. Some 
members of this genus have been found to provision their cells 
with beetles. The Trypoxylidie utilize the deserted burrows of other 
insects, and store up spiders for their progeny. The only represent- 
ative of the Mellinidae is very rare and probably supplies flies for 
its young as an European species is said to prey upon diptera. 
The Nyssonidae is the second of our families in number of species, 



1902] Harrington — Fauna Ottawaensis. 217 

and some of its members are very prettily marked. They oflFer a 
fine field for study of life habits as hardly anything is known in 
regfard to them. The family Sphegidae contains those species 
which are at the height of tashion as regards slimness of waist. 
The small abdomen is attached to the thorax by a threadlike 
petiole consisting of one or two segments exceedingly attenuated, 
and frequently much longer than the abdomen itself The black, 
or red and black, Ammophilas may be seen hawking up and down 
paths in fields, and collecting caterpillars for their burrows, which 
are constructed in dry light soil. The mud-daubers which build 
clay cells, often in groups, under stones or about buildings, provi- 
sion them with spiders. 

The foregoing scant remarks will give only a brief and imper- 
fect idea of the diversity of habits to be looked for among the 
Sphegoidae, and of the correspondently great interest to be derived 
from a careful observation of our species, regarding so many of 
which nothing definite or authentic is recorded. Those of our 
members who, more fortunate than the writer, are able to spend 
the summer in the country, could derive a great deal of pleasure 
in considering the ways of these wasps, and would by carefully 
recorded observations much amplify our knowledge of their life, 
histories. As a guide for such work, so suitable for ladies sum- 
mering afield, there is a delightful book on the " Instincts and 
Habits of the Solitary Wasps," by Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Peckham, 
of Milwaukee. Acquaintances could readily be made among these 
lively and industrious insects, which would make the sweet sum- 
mer hours still more enjoyable and the fields to yield new interests. 
The plates in the volume just mentioned give excellent figures of 
several of our common species, and many of our forms are por- 
trayed in the beautiful plates of "The Insect Book,"' by Dr. 
Howard, the eminent United States Entomologist. This splendid 
book should be in every household, especially in every farm house 
or country cottage, a mine of information and delightful interest for 
every youth, who desires to know somewhat of the teeming life of 
the fields, the woods and the waters. 



2i8 ^HE Ottawa Naturalist. 

Family XV. — Oxybelidse. 

1. Ox3belus quadrinotatus, Say. Our common species trom June 

to Sept.; 6 females and 7 males. 

2. Notoglossa emarginatus, Say. Four females; the male not 

yet captured. 

Family XVI. — Crabronidae. 
Subfamily I. — Anacrabronince. 

3. Anacrabro ocellatus, Pack. This interesting- form is sometimes 

very abundant on spiraea, and is seen chiefly in July, in which month 
my 9 females and 12 males were taken. 

Subfamily III. — Crabronince. 

4. S o 1 e n i u s i n t e r r u p t u s, Lepel. One of our commonest crabronids, 

occurring abundantly at the end of summer on goldenrods, etc.; 18 
females, 12 males. 

5. Solenius producticollis, Pack. Occurring with former species 

but much less common. In appearance and markings it closely 
resembles the former, but is less coarsely sculptured. Four females 
and five males collected in July and August. 

6. Ectemnius montanus. Cress, Five females and three males. 

7. Ectemnius corrugatus, Pack. A slightly smaller species; 

I female, 3 males. 

8. Crabro maculatus, Fabr. This large and handsome insect is our 

only representative of the typical genus upon which the family is 
based. As C. si ngu lar i s, Sm., it will be familiar to our collectors. 
It occurs not unfrequently upon goldenrod, the males being most 
abundant, as I have 10 males and only 3 females. Fox in his mono- 
graph of the Crabronids states that the scutellum of the male is never 
marked with yellow, but in one of my specimens it bears two yellow 
dots, as it also does in two of the females. 

9. Pseudocrabro chrysarginus, Lepel. Another fine large 

species which is quite common; represented by 4 females and 19 
males. 

10. Xestocrabro sexmaculatus. Say. One of our commonest and 

largest species of the subfamily, occurring abundantly throughout the 
summer ; 12 females, 18 males. 

11. Xestocrabro trifasciatus, Say. Very similar in appearance 

but hardly as large, and much less common ; 3 females, 5 males. 

j2. Xestocrabro paucimaculatus, Say. One female, captured 
June 2oth, 



1902J Harrington — Fauna Ottawaensis. 219 

13. C 1 yt o c li r }• s u s n i g r i f r o n s, Cress, One male at Aylmer, Aug-., 

determined by Fox. 

14. Clytochrysus obscurus, Smith. One male, on Kettle Island, 

Aug. 25, 1894. 

Subfamily IV. — Thyreopince. 

15. Synothyreopusadvenus, Smith. The males of this and of the 

four following species are remarkable for a curious shield-like expan- 
sion of the anterior tibijE, making the forelegs look as if they might 
be used as auxiliary wings. The species have all been determined 
for me by Fox. None of them are at all comhion apparently, and the 
females are very rare. Of this species i female, 3 males. 

16. Synothyreopus tenuiglossus. Pack, One female. Collected 

also by Mr. Guignard. 

17. Thyreopus c ri be 1 lifer, Pack. Two males. The tibial shield is 

very large, about one-third of it spotted and the remainder fuliginous. 

18. Thjreopus argus. Pack. Two males. The shield is smaller but 

is beautifully mottled with light spots upon a dark ground over its 
whole surface, from whence the name. 

19. Thyreopus latipes. Smith. Two males. The pale yellowish 

shield bears several radiating dark stripes. 

20. Blepharipus Harrington ii, Fox. The type female is in Coll. 

Fox, I, however, captured another female near Hull on June 9, 1895, 
and I have received from Mr. Guignard a male (labelled B. ater). 
This species is distinguished from the following by the more rugose 
metathorax, and the female is smaller. 

21. Blepharipus nigricornis, Prov. One male in my collection 

and a female (labelled B, ater, and apparently determined by Prov,) 
received from Mr. Guignard. 

22. Blepharipus ater. Cress. Two females. Easily separated from 

the foregoing by the enclosed triangular space on metanotum. 

23. Blepharipus (Crabro) niger, Prov. This species, described 

from an Ottawa female from Mr. Guignard, is probably identical 
with B. Harringtonii, Fox, but I have not seen the specimen. If 
the same, this name would have priority, 

24. Blepharipus cinctipes, Prov. Two females and one male. 

Very similar to nigricornis, but has the hind tibial distinctly annu- 
late with white. 

25. Blepharipus i m p r e s s i f r on s, Smith. Two females and. two 

males, A pretty little species easily distinguished by the yellow 
markings on pronotum, scutellum and legs. 



220 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

26. C r o s s o c e r u s minimus, Pack. Our smallest species of the sub- 

family. One female and four males, taken in June. Fox in his 
monograph of the crabronids says that he had not seen the male. It 
differs little from the female except in being- slig-htly smaller and in 
having- a little more }'ellow on the legs. 

27. Cuphopterus maculipennis, Smith. This is a not uncommon 

species, prettily marked with yellow, and easilj' recog-nized when 
living-, by the maculate wing-s, the spots upon which fade out very 
much in cabinet specimens ; 4 females, 5 males. 

Subfamily IV. — Rhopalince. 

28. Rhopalum pedicellatum, Pack. The insects in this subfamily 

are rather small, and are easily recog-nized by the petiolate abdomen. 
This species is common and forms its nests in the stems of elder and 
raspberry ; 15 females, 10 males. 

29. Rhopalum rufigaster, Pack. Only one female of this small < 

species, with abdomen partly red. 

Family XVII. — Pemphredonidae. 

Subfamily I. — Pempredonince. 

30. Stig-mus fraternus. Say. A small species, abundant ; 8 female ; 

5 males. 

31. C e m o n u s i n o r n a t u s, Saj\ A common form ; 1 2 females, 

males. 

32. Pemphredon concolor, Say. Very similar in appearance b il 

larger and not so common ; 2 females, 2 males. 

33. Passaloecus mandibularis. Cress. The triangularly produce C 

labrum and short petiole distinguishes this genus from C e m o n u 
and Pemphredon. Three females. 

34. Passaloecus annulalus. Say. Smaller, with paler leg's; 2 

females, 2 males. 

35. D i o d o n t u s a m e r i c a n u s , Pack. One female from Dr. Fletcher. 

Subfamily II. — Psenince. 

36. M i m e s a b o r e a 1 i s, Smith. Second seg-ment of abdomen red ; 

females. 

37. Mi mesa n i g e r, Pack. All black ; 2 females, i male. The species 

much resembles in general appearance the smaller individuals of 
Pemphredon concolor, but is more slender and has the 
thorax more polished. 

38. P s e n t r i s u 1 c u s, Fox. Taken near Hull in July ; i female, i mal 



1902] Harrington — Fauna Ottawaensis. 221 

Family XVIII. — Bembicidae. 

39. B e m b i ci ii 1 ,i v e n t i a 1 i s, Say. A common species upon goldonrfod 

in Au^-iist ; 4 fomales, 3 males. 

40. Bembex spinolze, Lepel. Much resembles in shape and markings 

some of the large paper-making wasps, but is easily distinguished by 
the long beak-like labrum. Common in sandy spots in fields, where 
its burrows are made, and very active ; 2 females, 2 males. 

41. M i c r o b e m b e X m o n o d o n t a , Say. A smaller and more prettily 

marked insect, of which I have received a female from Mr. Guignard 
who captured several. It has also been taken by Dr. Fletcher, but 
I have not yet met with it. 

Family XIX. — Larridse. 

Subfamily I. —Larrince. 

42. Ancistromma distincta, Smith. One female captured on 26th 

July. This species is larger and has the tibiae more spinous than the 
following species. Three basal segments of abdomen red. 

43. Tachysphex quebecensis, Prov. Although I have at present 

only I female and i male in my collection this species is not uncom- 
mon as several individuals have been taken by Mr. Guignard. The 
metathorax is more coarsely sculptured than in our other members 
of the genus. In the index published with his Add. Hym. Que., 
Provancher gives this species as — abdominalis, but the 
Larra abdominalis of Say is a Tachytes. 

44. Tachysphex compactus. Fox. One female seems to belong 

to this species ; t^e abdomen is coloured as in quebecensis, but 
the metathorax is different. 

45. Tachysphex terminatus. Smith. A species easily recognized 

by the red tip of the abdomen ; 2 females, one male. I have also a 
small (headless) male from Mr. Guignard under the name Larra 
minor, a species described by Provancher from individuals sent to 
him by that gentleman. In the description the legs are said to be 
unarmed, but the spines, though feeble, can be easily seen. The 
species is undoubtedly a synonym of terminatus. 

46. Tachysphex laevifrons. Smith (?) Provancher records a male 

which he received from Mr. Guignard as this species, and I have a 
female which I doubtfully refer to it as I have not the description for 
comparison. Fox speaks of the .species as perhaps identical with 
T. tarsatus, Say, the description of which applies pretty well to my 
specimen. 

47. Tachysphex arcuatus, Smith (?) Provancher refers to this 

species a female received from Mr. Guignard. (Add. Hym., p. 26.) 



222 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

48. T a c h y s p h e X sp. A male received from Mr. Gui§^nard cannot be 

referred to any of the descriptions accessible. It' is black with the 
exception of the reddish posterior marg'ins of segments 2 and 3 of 
abdomen. The metanotum is finely striated and the eyes are unusu- 
ally close together on the vertex. 

Subfamily II. — Lyrodince. 

49. Lyroda subita, Say. Of this elegant black species 2 females, 

3 males. 

Subfamily IV. — Pisonince. 

50. Pison 1 ae V i s, Smith. Provancher (Add. Hym., p. 269) credits Mr. 

Guignard with having taken a female at Hull. I have not seen the 
insect, as it, with others previously mentioned, are in the Provancher 
collection in Quebec. 

Family XX. — Philanthidae. 

Subfamily I. — Cercerince. 

51. Cerceris clypeata, Dahlb. This and the next are our only 

representatives of about one hundred described North American 
species. It is a common insect ; 7 females, 1 1 males. 

52. Cerceris nigrescens. Smith. The markings of this species are 

white, instead of yellow, and ii is also abundant . 4 females, 6 males. 
Subfamily II. — PhilatithincE. 

53. Aphi Ian t hops frigid us, Smith. A pretty insect and not com- 

mon ; 2 females. 2 males. 

54. Epiphilanthus solivagus, Say. Our largest and most abun- 

dant species of this family. Very numerous upon goldenrod ; 18 
females, 13 males. 

55. Anthophilus politus, Sa}'. Owe female. Taken also by Dr. 

Fletcher. 

55rt. Anthophilus dubius. Cress. Two males: the species is evi- 
dently a synonym of. politus. 

56. Philanthus bilunatus. Cress. A highly polished insect prettily 

marked with bright yellow ; 8 males. The female appears to be 
unknown. 

Family XXI. — Trypoxylidae. 

57. Trypoxylon striatum. Pro v. (T. albipilosum. Fox.) A 

fine large species which appears to be rare in this district as I have 
taken only one female. I have, however, received a male from Mr. 
Guignard who also furnished the type to Provancher. 

58. Trypoxylon f rigid um, Smith. A small species and rather 

abundant ; 6 females, i male. 



1903] Harrington — Fauna Ottawaensis. 223 

Family XXII. — Mellinidse. 

59. M e 1 1 i n u s b i m a c u 1 a t u s, Pack A neat littlo insect which seems 

to be rare here as elsewhere. One male taken many years ago on 
Aug. 6 and one female Aug. 5, 1894 ; the latter was dead in a 
spider's web, but quite fresh and perfect. 

Family XXIII. — Nyssonidae. 

Subfamily I. — Gorytince. 

60. P s e u d o p 1 i s u s p h a 1 e r a t u s, Say. A handsome species with 

clouded wings and conspicuous 3ellow markings on body and legs ; 
II females, 9 males. 

61. H o pi i s u s c a n a 1 i c u 1 a t u s, Pack. Wings and markings paler; 3 

females, 4 males. 

62. H o p 1 i s u s s i in i 1 1 i m u s. Smith. V'ery similar in appearance ; i 

female, 3 males. • 

63. Hoplisoides nebulosus, Pack. Rare ; i female, 2 males. 

G o r y t e s a r m a t u s, Pro v. , and Philanthus Harringtonii, 
Prov., described from Ottawa specimens, appear from the descrip- 
tions to be males of the same species. 

64. Gorytes nigrifrons, Smith (?) One female taken near Hull on 

Aug. 5, 1894, is referred to this species with a little uncertainty. 

Subfamily II. — AlysoiiitKX. 

65. Didineis texana, Cr. One female taken at Aylmer Sept. 10, 1893. 

Its capture was quite accidental, for it settled on the ground near me 
as I sat by the roadside watching a couple of Sphaeropthalma 
c a n d e n s i s, Blake, wandering around. 

66. A 1 y s o n G u i g n a r d i i , Prov. One female, two males. 

67. Alyson conic us, Prov. The types of this and of the preceding 

species were collected by Mr. Guignard. Three females, one male. 

68. Alyson melleus, Say. A pretty pale species ; i female. 

69. Alyson triangu lifer, Prov. One female, one male. 

70. Alyson oppositus. Say. This appears to be the commonest 

species ; 6 females, 2 males. 

Subfamily III. — Nyssonince, 

71 . X y s s o n lateralis. Pack. A stout black insect with white spots on 

abdomen ; i female, 3 males. 

72. Brachystegus nigripes, Prov. I have received from Mr. 

Guignard, who collected the type, a male, and also under the name 
Nysson rusticus, Cress, a female, which, although it has the 



224 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

base ot the abdomen red, is evidently tlie same species. It does not 
answer to the description of rusticus and belong-s like nigripes to 
Brachystegus. 

Subfamily IV. — AstatijicB. 
7-3. — A status unicolor, Say. One female, one male ; the latter is con- 
spicuous by the large ej-es meeting at vertex. Taken also by Dr. 
Fletcher and Mr. Guignard, 

Family XXV. — Sphegidae. 

Subfamily I. — SpheghicB. 
74. Isodontia philadelphica, Lepel. One male received from Mr. 
Guignard. It has also been taken by Dr. Fletcher. 

7^^. Priononyx bifoveolatus, Tischb. Mr. Guignard sent to Pro- 
vancher the types of P. canadensis, which is a synonym. I have 
not met with either of the species. Provancher also records Sp he x 
ichneumonea, Linn., as taken at Ottawa, but this is an evident 
error, as Mr. Guignard, to whom it is credited, has no recollection of 
capturing this fine species which is common westward. 

Subfamily II. — Ammophilince. 

76. Psammophila communis, Cress. Abdomen partly red ; i female, 

5 males. 

77. Psammophila luctuosa, Smith. All black ; 3 females. 

78. Ammophila gryphus. Smith. This large species appears to be 

rare. I have only one male, and Dr. Fletcher has captured only one 
individual. 

79. Ammophila conditor. Smith. This appears to be our com- 

monest species, and the males appear to much more numerous than 
the females; i female, 12 males. 

Subfamily III. — SceliphronincE . 

80. Sceliphron cementarius, Drury. This large wasp is at once 

separated from the slender-waisted species' of the previous subfamily 
by its yellow-batided legs. It may frequently be seen making its 
mud-cells under windowsills, etc., and is a common form ; 3 females, 
3 males. 

81. Chalybion cceruleum, Linn. This is a fine insect, differing from 

all our fossorial wasps in its bright blue body and dark wings. ■ Like 
the preceding form it is common and a builder of mud-cells ; 4 
females, 4 males. 



1902] Kells — Nesting of some Canadian Warblers. 225 
NESTING OF SOME CANADIAN WARBLERS. 



By Wm. L. Kells, ListowclL 



The Chestnut-sided Warbler. 

On the northern end of Wildwood Farm, which Hes on the 
northwest of the town site of Listowell, there exists a tract of hard- 
wood timbered forest of about seven acres in extent; but which, 
with that on the adjoining- farm to the north, covers an area of 
over twenty acres. Most of this tract has a good natural drainage; 
but some parts towards the centre are lew, a,nd contain pools of 
stagnant water until after mid-summmer. The greater part of 
this wooded tract is still in its primitive wildness; for though the 
larg-er timber of the forest of thirty years ago has been mostly 
removed, yet the subsequent growth is yearly increasing in size, 
though none ot the trees are ever likely to attain the proportions 
of their ancestors of the " backwoods." In most parts of this 
woodland there is a thick growth of low, young underwood; 
which, when in full leaf, as it i^ at the end of May, is very 
dense, being also intermingled in most places with wild raspberry 
vines. Amid such scenery the chestnut-sided warbler evidently 
loves to make its summer haunts and home; for here, from the 
early days of May till summer time is over, its rather plaintive 
song-notes are daily heard, and here, for several years past, I have 
noted the nests of several of the species. On May 22nd of the 
past year (igoo), not far distant from each other, I noted two 
newly formed nests of this bird. The first seen was deep in the 
underwood, and placed in the fork of a small bushy maple about 
twenty inches off the ground. This was so bulky and compactly 
built that at first I took it to be a nest of an Indigo Bird. It was 
formed of a kind of woody fiber gleaned from decayed timber, 
vines and grasses, and lined with long, black, horse-hair, which it 
must have taken the builder a good deal of time, with much 
trouble, to collect and place in position. On the above date this 
nest contained an egg of the cow-bird, which I removed and — five 
days after — it contained three eggsof the chestnut-sided warbler, and 



226 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

on these the female was incubatin_ef, and as the usual set of eg-gs of 
this species numbers four, it was evident that the cow-bird had re- 
moved one of the warbler's when she deposited her own ; this tramp 
among birds, is one of the worst enemies with which the whole family 
of the warblers has to contend : as many of their nests are found to 
contain one or more, of the cow-bird's eggs ; and there is danger 
that the progeny may destroy the whole brood in the nest of the 
species in which it is cradled. On one occasion I found a nest of the 
chestnut-sided warbler which contained four cow-bird's eggs, and 
but one of the warbler's own. The eggs of this species are of a 
whitish hue, with a very irregular wreath, or belt, of a brownish 
color, around the larger end, and some dottings, sometimes of a 
blackish hue on the middle surface ; the smaller end is unmarked. 
The other nest of this species, noted on the same date, was near 
the edge of the wood, and placed between several stalks of rasp- 
berry vines, about two feet off the ground, and composed of 
materials much similar to the other, with the exception of the 
horse-hair lining, and was not so bulky in size — this on the 30th 
of May, contained four eggs. A week after, two other nests of 
this species were noted, both deeper in the wood, and both placed 
in the forks of litile maples : but at varying elevations from the 
ground, one being about four feet, this contained four four eggs, 
the other which contained three eggs, was about two feet off the 
ground, and by the side of a pathway. In both cases these were 
evidently advanced in incubation, and were not molested. I con- 
cluded that in this tract of forest about a dozen pairs of this spieces 
were breeding, but they have many enemies among other birds 
and small animals. 

The chestnut sided warbler is among the first of the warb- 
lers to make its appearance in this part of Ontario, usually when 
the young underwood is beginning to put forth its leaves and the 
earliest of our wild flowers are in bloom. This season I first 
noticed the species on the 4th of May, and two weeks after its 
advent it begins to nest. It is probable that as more small fruit 
shrubs and vines are cultivated in the rural districts, that this 
species, as well as others of our wild woodland birds, will yet be 
found to make their summer haunts and homes in the vicinity of 



1902] Kells — Nesting of some Canadian Warblers. 227 

human habitations, and contest with the chipping- sparrow for the 
possession of a nesting site among the raspberry vines of the 
garden. 

The American Redstart. 
In the same woodland, which, with the uncleared parts of the 
adjoining farm, covers an area ot over twenty acres, the active and 
beautiful redstart is heard intermingling its notes, and found to 
have its summer home in close community with those of the chest- 
nut-sided warbler, and its nesting site is always found to occupy a 
higher elevation, and usually the more open parts of the under- 
wood, the nest being placed in rather exposed positions, the bird 
apparently depending for the concealment of the nest more on the 
fact that the material of which it is composed closely resembles the 
bark of the saplitag in the fork of which it is placed, rather than on 
the denseness of the foliage that overhangs and surrounds it. 
Many nests of this species, in past years, have come under my 
observation; but it is only of those noted the present season that 
I purpose here to speak. On May 22nd I noticed a female red- 
start flying from a partly composed nest, the site of which was in 
the fork of a small maple sapling, and at an elevation of about 
eight feet off the ground. This nest could be easily seen, when the 
searcher's gaze was directed to it, at a distance of four rods; the 
woods around it were rather open, and the leaves of the sapling 
were a yard or more above it. Eight days afcer I found that this 
nest contained four of the warbler's own eggs and one of a cow- 
bird, all of which were fresh. Of all the warblers, the nest of this 
species is about the neatest and most firmly put together, the bird 
evidently emitting a good deal of saliva upon the material of which 
the nest is composed when she is placing the fragments in position. 
All this work, as well as that ot incubation, appears to be done 
by the female, though it is probable that her more beautifully 
plumaged consort occasionally supplies her with food as she incu- 
bates her eggs; and he certainly largely assists in feeding the 
young and in trying to defend them if exposed to danger. If the 
first efforts ot this bird to propagate its species are successful, it 
does not nest more than once in the season, otherwise it will nest 
a second time. The materials of which the greater part of the 



2 28 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

nest of the redstart are composed is a kind of fibre gathered from 
decaying timber and the seed pods of various kinds of vines, and 
it is usually lined with animal hair. I have never known the set of 
eggs to exceed four in number, and generally the second set con- 
tains only three, with the addition mostly of a cow-bird's. The eggs 
are of a whitish ground hue, marked towards the larger end with 
a wealth of spotting of a flesh-colored hue and smaller dots of the 
same hue scattered over the surface. Another bird of this species 
was noticed building her nest at a much higher elevation deeper 
in the wood, and even in a more exposed position; but a few days 
after the nest was completed it wholly diappeared, and I suspected 
that an olive-sided fly-catcher that had made her nest on an over- 
hanging branch, a tew rods off", was the author of that. Other 
nests were observed, but there was nothing specially noteworthy 
about them. 

The Water Thrush. 
Near the centre of the woodland, adjoining Wildwood on the 
north, is a natural water " runway " where most of the large tim- 
ber was up-rooted in the terrible wind and ice storm of April some 
seven or eight years ago. In one of those up-turned roots, below 
which there is in the early season, a deep pool of water, I have on 
several occasions, in past years, noticed a nest of a water thrush, 
and expected this year to take a set of its eggs from a cavity in 
the sarpe old root, but a delay of several days having occurred 
after the time when I intended to have visited it for that purpose, 
I found when I did so on the 28th of May, that I was too late, the 
nest was there, but a glance at the four eggs which it contained 
showed by their galvanized appearance that they were far advanced 
in incubation, and I did not remove or revisit them. The cavity 
in which this nest was placed was small, the bird had either found 
it ready for her purpose, or had partly enlarged it, and the nest 
itself was made of weed-stems, dry grass, animal hair, and " hair- 
moss." Usually when the cavity is large, this species uses a 
quantity of dead leaves in the construction of her nest. This bird 
is not abundant anywhere in this country, though a pair or two of 
them may be found each season in suitable localities, which is 
always low, swampy woods, or along a natural water course 



1902] Kells — Nesting of some Canadian Warblers. 229 

where there is much fallen timber, and where fires have burnt 
hollows in the mucky soil, that in after years are filled with 
stagnant water during: the greater part of the year. In my boy- 
hood days I discovered that this bird, as well as several other 
species of the warblers, would nest in cavities prepared for them 
in the early spring time, and as I have often acted on this sugges- 
tion, I seldom fail — each year — to find nests in these places if, 
situated in the localities that they frequent. 

The Black and White Warbler. 
On the southeast corner of the farm lot that adjoins Wild- 
wood on the north, and but a few rods from the boundary line, 
in a stretch of low ground there stands the large turned up 
root of an old fallen tree, the top of which is over a dozen feet 
from the level ground. In what was once the "upper" side of 
this " turn-up," and about half-way in its height, I discovered on 
the 28th of May, a nest containing three eggs, which at the time, 
I took to be those of a Canadian warbler. Three days after I 
revisited the site, found the mother bird "at home" and seated on 
the nest. At my near approach she flushed off and down upon 
the ground — where with outspread and quivering wings, and the 
venting of a few notes, she attempted to draw my attention from 
her treasures. Gazing down on the interesting little creature, 
within a few feet of where I stood, I was not much surprised, 
though somewhat disappointed, to note that the specimen was of 
the M. varia species, and that it was her nest that was placed 
before me, and which now contained five beautifully spotted, fresh 
eggs. The cavity in which the nest was placed had been partly 
excavated, probably by the bird itself; but in order to support the 
foundation quite a large quantity of dead leaves and strips of bark 
had been used, and inside of this there was a lining of fine veget- 
able materials and some animal hair. So closely in composition 
and materials, as well as the situation of the nest, as also the size 
and marking of the eggs, do those ol this species resemble that of 
the Canadian warbler, that it would be difficult to decide which 
belonged to each species, unless the owners were identified on or 
close by the nest. A few points of variation may be noted, and 
this subject will again be referred to in the article on the nest of 



230 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

the Canadian warbler ; M. varia usually selects a nesting site 
in the "upper side" of the up-turned root and generally higher 
off the ground, and the eggs are usually less oblong in form than 
those of Canadensis. This species is not an abundant summer 
resident in this district, and scarcely a dozen nests of this bird have 
come under my observation in all my Wildwood rambles ; yet in all 
the low-land woods of this country some of the species may be 
found, and in such tracts it makes its haunts and home during the 
period that it remains in this province ; and here, from the early 
days of May. till towards the end of June, its song notes may be 
heard, and this period may be regarded as its nesting time ; but 
whether it nests more than once in the season I do not know. In all 
probability when the first set of eggs is taken before incubation 
begins, it nests again, but it may be taken as certam that in does 
not raise more than one brood in the season ; and considering the 
many enemies to whose depredations its nests are exposed, it is 
very probable that many of the species come and go without 
having increased their numbers ; the cow-bird is one of its worst 
enemies. 

The Canadian Warbler. 

On the 28th of May, when passing the " old root " of a fallen 
tree I discovered the newly made nest of a small bird, which at 
first I thought might be that of a mourning warbler, whose scold- 
ing notes I heard near by. On the 5th of June, when I thought 
the set of eggs would be deposited I revisited the place. On the 
nest sat the mother bird, and there she remained till I almost 
touched her with my hand, then she flushed out, making some 
attempts to draw off my attention ; and uttered a few sharp 
"chips," and I saw at once that she was a Canadian warbler. 
The nest then contained five eggs, and incubation had begun. 
The nest was placed in a cavity among the rocks, only a few 
inches above the more level earth, and was composed of dry 
leaves, strips of bark, and other fine vegetable fibers, and lined 
with some long horse-hair. When placed side by side with that 
of M. •yflj^/a previously described, I make this comparison of the 
nests and their sets of eggs, after the latter are blown. The nests 
— in composition and size — are very much alike ; both are rather 



1902] Kells — Nesting of some Canaoian Warblers. 231 

loosely put together, but there is quite a distinguishing difference 
in the eggs. Those ot M. varia are actually the largest, and 
more globular in form, and the ground color more of a chalky 
whiteness, and the spotting more of a brownish hue ; with a 
general tendency to form a wreath about the larger end, and 
be distributed over the surface, even to the smaller point. 
The eggs of the Canadian warbler have a clear white hue, 
with a beautiful rosy blush, and the coloring which clouds the 
whole of the larger end of each Q^^, has more of an orange 
tinge than either reddish or brown, the dotting on the sur- 
face is more separated, and the approach to the smaller point more 
devoid of dotting than are those of M. varia ; but in all the 
specimens the variations are so numerous that it is difficult to 
describe them. This species is very local in its distribution, being 
generally found to frequent the borders of swampy woodlands, 
having much the same habitat as the water thrush and M. 
varia ; but here it is more abundant than either of the other 
species, and seems more disposed to explore the underwood of the 
higher hardwood lands and to nest on more level ground. Alto- 
gether, about a score of the nests of this species have come under 
my observation in my woodland rambles in this vicinity in the 
past twenty years; and, as in the case of the water thrush, black 
and white warbler, and several other species, several of these nests 
were in cavities previously prepared for them. The song of the 
male of this species is generally emitted at a height of twenty feet 
from the ground, and is rather a plaintive warble than an expression 
of joyfulness, and is rapidly repeated in an emphatic tone of voice; 
and the attentive student of bird music will soon learn to distin- 
guish it from those of the other warblers. Like most other of our 
minor birds, this species is frequently imposed upon by the vaga- 
bond cow-bird. It is uncertain it the male assists the female in 
the duty of incubation, but he certainly helps to feed and protect 
the young. When the first set of eggs is taken, they nest again; 
but, if not molested, only one brood is raised in the season. The 
nesting period extends trom the middle of May to the first week 
in July. The ground-nesting warblers have many enemies; and 
it is evident that many pairs of them come to this country, and 



232 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

return again to their winter homes, without being being able to 
raise a single offspring. 

On the 15th of June I saw another nest of the Canadian 
warbler, which then contained young a few days old. This was 
placed in the upper side of a hemlock "up turn," on the lower side 
of which I had noted a nest of the species the two previous years. 
As 1 had occasion to pass that way during the following days, I 
several times saw the mother bird seated on the nest, brooding 
over her young; and I thought as I gazed on the lovely creature 
that a more perfect picture of motherly care, affection and peace- 
fulness could not be imagined, and I was pleased to think that she 
would succeed in raising her little family in peace and safety. 

The Oven Bird. 
On the 14th of June, as I was passing with a team of horses 
attached to a wagon, along a road-way through the above men- 
tioned wood, my companion directed my attention to the action of 
a small bird that was seen to flush almost from under the horses' 
feet, and by her manner of running along the ground, indicated 
that she had been disturbed off her nest. A little search discovered 
her home which contained three young just hatched out. This 
was a nest of an oven bird, otherwise known as the acceator, or 
golden-crowned thrush. It was partly sunk in the virgin mould, 
amid dry leaves and some wild flower stalks, and under a small 
branch, and composed of dry leaves and decayed vegetable stalks, 
and being covered over like a small hut, or oven, was so well con- 
cealed that the passer by even in searching for it, could fail in 
most cases to notice it ; and this site was only a few inches from 
where the horses and cattle had walked with heavy steps, and 
where the wheels of the wagon had sunk deep in the soft earth. 
It contained three young jusc hatched ; and the mother bird in 
leaving it acted more like a mouse, than a creature with wings. 
This interesting member of the warbler family is still a tolerably 
common summer resident of the remnant of our forest; and owing 
to the peculiar manner in which it constructs its nest, manages to 
secrete its eggs, and thus continues its existence in its ancestoral 
home, from which so many others of the avifaunian race have been 
driven to seek new homes in more secluded retreats. The mother 



1902] Correspondence. 233 

bird also sits very close on her nest, and will allow herself to be 
almost trodden upon or caught within her hut-like nest before she 
leaves her charge. The set of eggs usually numbers four, occa- 
sionally five; these are of a whitish hue. wreathed and dotted, 
mostly on the larger end, with spots of brownish or flesh color. 
Like most other small birds, this species is often imposed upon by 
the cow-bird. If her first set of eggs is removed she nests again, 
but only one brood is raised in the season. The oven-bird arrives 
in this vicinity about the first week of May, and its song continues 
about eight weeks. When, on a June day, as I wander in the 
wooded lands and hear the song, or see the nest of this bird, my 
memory recalls my boyhood days and early pioneer rambles in 
what was then a portion of the backwoods of Western Canada; 
and now, as then, I note that this species seerns disposed to locate 
its nesting place by the side of the cow-path, and among low 
underwood. 



NOTE ON BROOD -CARE IN REPTILES. 
To the Editor of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

Dear Sir, — In an interesting note appearing in the December 
number of the Ottawa Naturalist on the oviposition of the Mud 
Turtle, the writer quotes an observant friend as saying that 
" though he never saw a young turtle come out of a nest, his 
belief is that the mother watches the nest, and, when the young 
are hatched, either oulls the top off the nest or puts down her 
claws and lifts the little ones out." Natural History consists not 
of beliefs but of carefully ascertained facts. As nobody has ever 
observed any turtle trouble itself about its eggs once they have 
been laid and covered up, one must be excused for hesitating to 
share this "belief." The brood-care so well developed in birds, 
the mammals, and some of the highest fishes (teleosts), is a much 
simpler thing in the reptile. There is very little evidence of any 
reptilian interest in the young, and what evidence there is relates 
so far as I know, to the snake and crocodile only. Any observa- 
tions of such an instinct in the turtle would be very interesting. 

C. Guillet. 



234 T^^ Ottawa Naturalist [January 

SCUDDER'S BLUE. 

By J. B. Williams, F. Z. S. 

Dr. Scudder's interesting article in the August number of the 
Ottawa Naturalist on " My First Namesake," brought to my 
mind the fact of there being a second brood ot Lycoena scudderi ; 
and I went to High Park, near Toronto, on the evening of August 
i6th, to try and find some of these butterflies. I had secured 
quite a number of the first brood on the lupine patches there 
during the month of June. It was almost six o'clock betore I was 
able to reach the Park, and I quite feared that it would be too 
late ; however, the place was exposed to the setting sun, and a 
number were still flying about ; so that, in half an hour, two 
males and eight females of the desired species were captured. 
Several of them flew up from tall grass growing where the lupines 
flourished in the early summer. The flowering stems of the 
lupines were all dead, and the few leaves that remained near the 
ground were half withered, and did not look as if they would form 
very nourishing food for the young caterpillars, if the eggs of the 
second brood hatch in August. I therefore went again to High 
Park on December 7th, to see if any trace of eggs or chrysalids 
could be found. It was a mild, dry, afternoon, and I grubbed 
about on hands and knees among the dead lupine plants for a 
good hour ; and as a result, found two tiny white objects, one on 
a piece of stalk, and one a seed-pod, which when looked at under 
a pocket-lens, appeared to be the "turban-shaped elegantly 
chased eggs," described by Dr. Scudder. 

A mounted policeman who was patrolling the Park seemed 
rather suspicious of my movements, perhaps thinking he had 
come across an escaped lunatic, for the asylum is on that side of 
the city ; and to the uninitiated, my actions may have appeared 
rather curious. When I got back to the road, he was standing a 
short distance from the Park conferring with a brother officer, 
and as I passed, one of them saluted me with " good afternoon." 
My answer was, I suppose satisfactory, tor they made no attempt 
at an arrest, and I got safely back to the city with the two 
butterfly eggs. The price ha<= fallen since Dr. Scudder collected 
at Albany, for my trip was a cheap one, and they only cost about 
seven cents apiece ; nevertheless, that is a good price for such 
small objects, and I shall be sorry if they turn out, after all, to be 
something else, and do not hatch out in the summer as Scudder's 
Blue. 



1902] Moore— The Bobolink's Love for its Home. 235 

THE BOBOLINK'S LOVE FOR ITS HOME. 



By W. H. Moore, Scotch Lake, X.B. 

(Read before the Ornitholog^ical Section of the Entomolog-ical Society of 

Ontario.) 

In the little experience the writer has had in ornithological 
study, there is no incident more deeply impressed upon his mind 
than the love of a pair of bobolinks for their home. 

June 16th, igoo, the writer and his brother C. were clearing 
drift material from a piece of island meadow, which overflows 
during the spring freshet in the St. John River. A bobolink nest 
containing three eggs was discovered, but not until the nest had 
been overturned and the eggs scattered about; The nest and eggs 
were gathered together and put in our lunch basket and taken 
home. Next day (June 17th) we were again employed in clearing 
up the drift. As we were about leaving for home, C. inquired 
what kind of nest that was, with one egg in it? On answering 
that I did not know of any nest there, but that that was where I 
had obtained the bobolink's nest the day before, he said tnerewas 
a nest with one egg. Sure enough, in the depression where tlie 
nest had been, the birds had collected a tew of the scattered straws 
of the nest and on them deposited an egg. 

What impressed the writer most strongly was that the birds 
should repair the nest at all, for on just such occasions song and 
Savannah sparrows' nests had been partly destroyed, but the old 
birds were discouraged, and never returned to finish incubating. 
It was for this reason that the bobolink eggs were taken the first 
day. The egg laid on the 17th was taken and makes one of a set 
of four eggs, which afford an interesting bit of bobolink history. 
When cutting the grass on our island lot, young birds are 
often found which cannot fly, and when it happens to be a bobo- 
link's nest, the old female will fly about over the spot searching 
for its young. The flight at such times is undulating in small 
circles, but often Vvhen no person is near, the mother bird alights 
and searches in the grass to find the young and feed them. If the 
young are large enough to leave the nest, they are led to a place 
f safety. The male seems to be much less concerned in respect 



236 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

to the safety of the young- ; he seems to think more of saving- his 
own colours, which he changes here by the first week in August. 
After that date the plumage of male and female, old and young, 
is very nearly the same, and they congregate in flocks of hundreds 
which resort to some favorite place to roost at night. During 
the latter half of August they begin the southward journey, and 
their " pink," " pink," is often heard high overhead, so high in- 
deed that the birds are indiscernable to the naked eye. 



SOIREES. 

The first Soiree ot the season was held in the Assembly Hall 
of the Normal School on the evening of Dec 12th. In the absence 
of Dr. MacCabe, an address of welcome was delivered by Dr. 
Sinclair. 

Dr. Robert Bell in his Presidential address "On the Extinc- 
tion of Useful Animals in Modern Times," referred to the general 
tendency to extinction of all species of animals which had obtained 
throughout zoological time, and showed that while in a state of 
nature a balance was generally maintained any interference by 
man accelerated the tendency towards extinction. Prof. Macoun, 
Mr. Shutt and Mr. Halkett also spoke briefly. 

As is usual at the opening Soiree of the Club's lecture season, 
a portion of the evening was devoted to the exhibition of natural 
history objects and microscopic slides. Several members of the 
Club had loaned microscopes, and these added not a little to the 
interest and success of the meeting. 

A mounted collection ot perennial plants suitable for Ottawa, 
grown at the Experimental Farm, was exhibited by Mr. W. T. 
Macoun, and a very beautiful collection of fifty water colour paint- 
ings of Manitoba plants were shown by Dr. Fletcher with the 
artist's permission. These were painted by Mr. Norman Criddle 
of Ameme, Man., and attracted much attention not only on 
account of their artistic merit but also for their scientific 
accuracy. 

Mr. Odell's living specimens of reptiles, and Mr. Halkett's 
living fish were among the most interesting objects shown. 

The next Soiree will be held in the Y. M. C. A. Assembly 
Hall, when Dr. R. A. Daly will read a paper " On the Relation of 
Geology to Geography," illustrated by lantern slides. 



1902] To Our Ottawa Members. 237 

TO OUR OTTAWA MEMBERS. 
Half the Club's year has passed — half is before us. Each 
season should have for our members its own particular work 
and interests. Apart from the publication of The Ottawa 
Naturalist, the two chief features of our organized life are the 
summer excursions and the winter lecture course. We all regret 
extremely that owing to untoward circumstances — principally un- 
favourable weather — our general excursions were not perhaps as 
successful as in past years. The sub-excursions, at the opening 
of the season, were well attended and the leaders report good col- 
lections being made. 

The Soiree Committee appeal to the members to make the 
remainder of our year as successful as possible. Everyone can 
help towards this end by attendance at the lectures and by an in- 
telligent interest in the subjects discussed. 

The Council has made a departure this year — a most im- 
portant one, one which should commend itself to all. As will be 
seen by the programme, we have secured for three nights of the 
course several new lecturers, some from outside the city — two 
from Montreal and one from London, Ontario. These lecturers 
are well known men — specialists upon the subjects they will dis- 
cuss, and we feel there is a great treat in store for us. 

As Chairman of the Lecture Committee, may I invite, or if 
necessary, urge, regular attendance throughout the course, which 
will be found one of particular interest. But if regular attendance 
is impossible, every member should strive to be present on the 
evenings when our visiting lecturers are with us. Come and 
bring your friends. Let us have the hall full, and thus show our 
appreciation of their kindness. 

One word further. We should very much like to see fifty new 
names added to the membership roll this winter. To meet the 
increased expenditure in connection with the lecture course the 
money is needed, but altogether apart from that aspect, we want 
the members. If we all make some little effort, this increase is 
quite feasible. Every year, if the Club is vigorous and doing its 
work, should see an accession of members, but for several years 
past the proposals of new names for membership have not been as 
numerous as they might have been. 

P^inally, keep your programme where you can at all times 
refer to it, and let our Tuesday evenings have the first claim 
among your engagements. 

F. T. Shutt. 



238 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

REVIEWS. 

Sylvan Ontario. A Guide to our Native Trees and Shrubs. 
By W. H. Muldrew. William Briggs. Toronto. 1901. 
Illustrated wilh 131 Leaf-drawings. 

When Prof. Muldrew established in the grounds of the 
Gravenhurst High School an Arboretum in which he has now 
growing practically all the trees and shrubs of the Muskoka dis- 
trict he not only hit upon the best method of interesting his pupils 
in botany and especially the care and culture of trees, but he did a 
service to the town itself which might be imitated by other head- 
masters of public and high schools all over Canada. But when 
he went a step further and originated and elaborated his system of 
identifying trees and shrubs by their leaves alone he made it easy 
for any intelligent person, whether a botanist or not, to know 
them after a few minutes' study. 

His plan is simplicity itself. After first describing the dif- 
ferent kinds of leaves, their arrangement on the stem, their mar- 
gins, shape, venation, etc., and figuring 131 forms of leaves, he 
separates the Ontario trees and shrubs into groups by their leaves 
and all the knowledge required to use the " Index based on the 
leaves '' may be acquired by a careful reading of the six pages 
which precede it. But should there be any uncertainty in deter- 
mining a difficult species the index is followed by a catalogue of 
all the species referred to in the index and where it has been 
thought necessary a few words of further description are added, 
together with the habitat and distribution of the species. Students 
of botany and everyone who wishes to know cur shrubs and trees 
should possess a copy of Sylvan Ontario. 

Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada. 

By Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York. Henry Holt & 

Co., 1 90 1. 
This long expected manual, based on Britton & Br wn's Illus'' 
trated Flora of the Northern States and Canada has just been 
published, and will be reviewed in an early number of The 
Naturalist. 



THE OTTAWA I(ATURALIST. 



Vol. XV. OTTAWA, FEBRUARY, 1902. No. 11. 



MAMMALS OF THE CHILLIWACK DISTRICT, B.C. 



By Allan Brooks. 

Chilliwack lies on the south bank of the Eraser River, the 
valley proper being a very level stretch of alluvial land some 
seventy feet above sea level. On the east, the Cascades rise sheer 
from the flat land to the height of from 5,000 to 8,000 feet, Mt. 
Baker to the southward being over 14,000 feet. The fauna of the 
lower levels is typical of the coast district, the higher peaks ex- 
tending into the boreal and alpine zones, which give a great 
diversity of fauna and flora for so small an area. 

Most of my mammal collecting was done between 1894 ^"'^ 
1900, prior to that time my attention being devoted mainly to 
birds. 

I made many trips into the mountains, including the Mt. 
Baker range on 49th parallel, Tami Hy peak, Chilliwack Lake, 
and mountains to the southeast of this lake, mountains at head of 
Stave lake, Cheam peak, and many of the smaller mountains ; so 
the district was very fairly covered by me. Most of my collections 
were sent to, and identified by, Mr. Outram Bangs and Mr. Senit 
S. Miller, Jr. I have also supplied skins to the Biological Survey 
collection and a few to Mr. S. Rhoads, as well as skins of a pair 
ot most of the species enumerated to the Provincial Museum, 
Victoria, B.C. 

Many of the rodents may be intergrades with the forms occur- 
ring to the east of Cascade Range. One or two bats not enumer- 
ated may occur, for instance Atalpha cinerea and Myostis longicnis; 
I am pretty sure I have taken the last. The wolverine occurs in 
the mountains to the north and may be found in the district. 



240 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

1. Cervus Canadensis. Wapiti, or Elk. 

The elk, once numerous, is now extinct south of the Fraser, but I have 
many reliable reports that a bunch still holds out in the mountains 
at the head of Harrison Lake. 

2. Cariacus Columbia mis. Black-tailed Deer. 

Common in some localities and very scarce in others ; the mule-deer 
overlaps the range of this species on the summit east of Hope. 

3. Mazatna niontana. White Goat. 

Irreg-ular in its distribution on the highest peaks. 

4. Sciuropterus oregotiensis. Pacific Flying- Squirrel. 

Generally distributed both on the mountains and lowlands. 

5. Scitirtts doHglassi. Douglas' Squirrel. 

Abundant at all elevations. 

6. Eutaviias toivnseyidi. Townsend's Chipmunk. 

Common in the valley, and ascending the mountains to the park-like 
glades near timber line at about 5,000 feet. 

7. Eutamias quadrivittatus felix. Cascade Chipmunk. 

Abundant from about 5,000 feet to summits of the high rocky pe-^ks 
above timber line. 

The locality where I collected the type specimens was Lumsden 
Mountain on 49th parallel, due north of Mount Baker. 

8. Arctomys caligatus. Hoary Marmot. 

On all the alpine peaks, very rarely descending into the valleys. 

9. Aplodontia rufa. Sewellel. 

Very rarely seen in the valley, but more or less common on all the 
foothills and higher mountains ; very abundant on the southern 
slopes of all the higher mountains, where the ground is in some 
places completely honeycombed with their underground runways. 
It is never found away from water or small springs, and does not 
ascend above timber line. Locally known as " Mountain Beaver." 

:o. Castor canadensis, Beaver. 

I have taken specimens as late as 1900, and a few still hold out in the 
mountain streams, and occasionally in the Fraser itself. 

11. Miis decumanus. Norway Rat. 

Introduced. 

12. Mus musculus. House Mouse. 

Introduced and driving the indigenous white-footed mouse from most 
of the houses and barns. 



1902] Mammals of the Chilliwack District, B.C. 241 

13. Peromyscus aiisirus. White-footed Mouse, 

Abundant at low elevations. 

14. Peromyscus areas. Bang's White-footed Mouse. 

Abundant on mountains and in heavily timbered foothills, I took the 
type specimens on Lumsden Mountain at an elevation of about 
5,500 feet. 

15. Neotoma cinerea columbiana. Wood Rat. 

Rare in the valley, common in the mountains ; for several years prior 
to 1897 wood rats were extremely scarce. 

16. Evotomys saturatus. Western Red-backed Vole. 

I have never taken this species in the valley, but from the foothills to 
timber line it is common. I took some very pale Evotomys at Stave 
Lake in '96, which Mr. Miller identified as differing- but slightly 
from saturatus ; Stave Lake lies between Agassizand Port Moody, 
at both of which points has been taken another species of Evotomys, 
described by Mr. \'ernon Bailey in his monograph of the genus. 

17. Phenacomys orophilus. Mountain Lemming \'ole. 

Taken only on Lumsden, Mt. Baker Range, at an altitude of about 
5,500 feet, described by Mr. Rhoads as a new species {'* oramoniis ") 
from these specimens. 

18. Microtus mordax. Cantankerous Vole. 

Mr. Vernon Bailey in his excellent " Revision of the North American 
Voles." states that no form of the longicaudus group occurs on the high 
Cascades. I took three specimens of either mordax or macrourus on 
Lumsden Mountain at an altitude of 5,500 feet in August '95. These I 
sent to Mr. Senit S. 'Miller, in size they resembled marourus but in 
coloration were nearer mofdax. 

19. Microtus richardsoni arvicoloides. Giant \'ole. 

Common on all the higher peaks, being especially abundant in the 
dense growth of pink flowered Mimulus which fringes the little snow-fed 
streams. Like other voles, it is subject to epidemics which thin them out 
when they become too numerous ; in '99 I noticed numbers of dead 
ones on the mountain tops. 

20. Microtus townsendi. Townsend's Vole. 

In the fields and meadows of the valleys only, some times abundant, at 
others scarce. 

21. Microtus oregoni serpens. Creeping Vole. 

Abundant in the valleys, where nearly every log in the woods has one 
of their underground runways beneath it. I have also taken it at timber 
line in the mountains (6,500 feet.) 

Not often noticed on account of its subteranean habits. 



242 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

22. Fiber osoyosensis. Pacific Muskrat. 

Common. 

23. Zapus trionotus. Western Jumping: Mouse. 

Found in suitable localities from sea level to 7,000 feet. Most abundant 
on the mountain tops. 

24. Erithizon epixatithus. Western Porcupine. 

Very scarce. 

25. Lagomys minimus. Least Pika. 

Mr. Bangs has re-instated Lord's species from specimens I sent him 
taken near the type locality. Found in nearly all rock-slides from 100 
feet to summits of highest peaks. 

26. Lepus ■washi7igioni. Washington Hare. 

Common in the bottom lands. 

27. Lepus coltimbiensis, Columbian Varying Hare. 

This is one of the only mammals that are found in this locality I have 
never succeeded in taking specimens of. The hares north of the Fraser 
and in the mountains all turn white. 

28. Felis oreqonejisis. Pacific Cougar. 

Not uncommon and very destructive to both game and stock. In some 
localities they have about exterminated the deer. I have then noticed the 
bones and teeth of Aplodontia in their dung. The young ones are hand- 
somely spotted, differing in this respect from the form found east of the 
Cascades. 

29. Lynx canadensis. Canada Lynx. 

Now very scarce, used to be not uncommon. 

30. Lynx fasciatus. Coast Wildcat. 

Not uncommon, used to be abundant. 

31. Canis occidentalis. Wolf. 

Very scarce, both the black and gray forms occur. 

32. Canis latrans. Coyote. 

Coyotes of late years have made their appearance in the Chilliwack 
Valley. 

33. Vulpes vulpes. Red Fox. 

I have heard one or two reports of foxes, and saw the remains of a red 
one that was killed at Pitt meadows. 

34. Ursus horribilis. Grizzly Bear. 

Found in the mountains only. I saw one shot near Summit Lake, of 
an almost uniform drab gray, almost white. 

35. Ursus americanus. Black Bear. 

Once abundant but getting scarcer — still does great damage to raisers 
of hogs. Both black and " cinnamon " forms occur and intergrade. 



1902J Mammals of the Chilliwack District, B.C. 243 

36. Ptocyon psora pacifica. Pacific Racoon. 

Common at low elevations. 

37. Rutra canadensis. Otter. 

Fairly common. 

38. Mephitis spissigrada. Pacific Skunk. 

Common. Described by Mr. Bangfs from specimens sent to him by mc 
from Sumas. 

39. Spilogale phenax latifrons. Little Stupid Skunk. 

" Civets" are found from the lowest levels at all events up to 4000 feet, 
and probably higher. 

Scarce in the late winter and spring, but numbers can be taken in the 
fall and early winter months. 

40. Lutteola energumenos. Pacific Mink. 

Common. Mr. W. H. Osgood has lately described the Alaskan 
mink as a new species, larger and paler than energumenos. In this con- 
nection I may state that the type specimen of energumenos was very 
much smaller than those I took later. The color is generally very dark, 
but sometimes much paler — a warm reddish umber. 

41. Piitorius longicaudus saturatus. Long-tailed Weasel. 

Very scare, I have only noticed it at low elevations and have only 
taken one. Unlike the next species, I think it always turns white in 
winter. 

42. Piitorius cicognani. Bonaparte's Weasel. 

Common. In the valley this weasel rarely turns white in winter, at 
high elevations always does so. 

43. Piitorius cicognani streaturi. Puget Sound Weasel. 

One or two typical examples taken. 

44. Mustela caurina. North Western Marten. 

Scarce. Mustela americana also probably occurs. 

45. Mustela pennanti. Fisher. 

At one time frequently seen throughout the district, now very rare. 

46-47. Vespertilio fuscus. Brown Bat. 
Rather scarce. 

48. Vesperugo noctivagans. Silvery Bat. 

Common. 

49. Myotis evotis. Large-eared Bat, 

I have several times taken a medium sized dark brown bat which 
must be this species, though the ears seemed too short ; what I took to 
be the young were uniformly blackish. 



244 ^^^ Ottawa Naturalist [February 

50. Myotis californicus. California Bat. 

Common. Most specimens are dark enough for the form cajirinus. 

51. Myotis saturatus. 

This little bat is the most numerous of the g-enus. 

52. Sojex personatus. Masked Shrew. 

I have only taken this at very high elevations. 

53. Sorex trowbridgi. Trowbridge's Shew. 

Common in the thick woods ; I have not taken it above 2,000 feet. 
) Very hard to get good specimens, as the fur on abdomen slips within 

an hour after death. 5. vagrans and obscurus taken in same localities 
will keep for eight hours or more. 

54. Sorex vagrans. Wandering Shrew. 

Abundant in the valley, and once taken at 6,000 feet elevation. 

55. Sorex obscurus. Dusky Shrew. 

Abundant, replaced on mountain tops by next species. 

56. Sorex longicaudus. Long-tailed Shrew. 

Common at high elevations. 

57. Sorex vancouverensis. Vancouver Island Shrew. 

I have several times taken very dark seal-brown shrews with the size 
and teeth formation of vagrans which must be this species. Specimens 
taken on the foothill between the Chilliwack river and Chilliwack 
valley were all of this race. 

58. Sorex {Atophyrax) bendirei. Bendire's Shrew. 

This fine shrew is fairly common in thick woods and swamps in the 
valley. 

59. Neurotrichus gibbsi. Shrew Mole. 

Abundant in the valley in thick woods, and I took one specimen at 
timber line near 49th parallel when trapping for Pheiiacomes among the 
short juniper and heather, with banks of eternal snow all around. 

60. Scapanus tow7isendi. Townsend's Mole. 

Common in the portions of the valley not affected by Fraser floods, 
and exceedingly hard to trap, more so than a Beaver or Otter. 



1902] CouBEAUx — Birds of the Saskatchewan Valleys 245 

SYNOPSIS OF THE BIRDS OF THE SASKATCHEWAN 
VALLEYS AND TRIBUTARIES. 



By EuG. CoiBEAUX, Prince Albert, Scask., N.W.T. 

The present key is based on the recent catalogue of Canadian 
Birds by Professor John Macoun, M.A., F.R.S.C. (Ottawa, 1900, 
Part I), and on my own collection and observations. 

It includes all the species commonly found or more or less 
frequently met with ii; the two valleys of the Saskatchewan and in 
those of their tributaries. 

In order to find the name of a bird with this key, see whether 
the characters of the bird agree with those described in the key, 
beginning with No. i in the first column of figures and following 
the numbers of this column consecutively (i, 2, 3, etc.) as long 
as the characters agree until the name of the bird is reached. 

If a character does not agree, see what the number in the 
second column of figures is ; then find the same number in the 
first column lower down, and proceed as above. 

This key is based on conspicuous characters only, without 
regard to the genus, the family and the orders. It is above all 
for field use and'mainly made with fresh birds. 

AN SERES. 
Lamellirostral Swimmers. 
Three toes directed forwards, webbed. Bill flat, broad, laminated 
on sides. 

1 17 Hind toe not lobed. 

2 5 Neck rather long, bill with a soft cere extending to eye. 

3 4 Bill entirely yellow or yellowish. Length 4-5 feet. 

Olor Buccinator (Rich.) Wagler. Trumpeter Swan, 

4 3 Bill having the tip black. Length 4^ feet. 

Olor Coluinbianus (Ord.) Stephn. Whistling Swan. 

5 2 Neck shorter, bill without cere. 

6 12 Bill shorter than head. 

7 13 Hind toe very short and elevated. 

8 II Neck entirely black. 

9 10 Tail of 18 to 20 quills. Length 35 in. 

Branta Canadensis (Linn.) Bannister. Canada Goose. 



246 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

10 II Tail of 16 quills. Smaller, 30 in. 

Branta Canadensis huichtnsii(^\c\\.^ Coues. Hutchins's 

Goose. 

11 9 Neck with a white patch on each side. Length 23 to 

24 in. 

Branta beryiicla (Linn.) Scopoli. Brant. 

12 6 Bill as long as head. 

13 7 Hind toe reaching the ground. 

14 15 Forehead white. 26-27 i"- 

Anser albifrons gambeli (Hartl.) Coues. American 
White-fronted Goose. Laughing Goose. 

15 14 No white on the forehead. Entirely bluish. 

Chen cceruLescens ^Linn.) Gundl. Blue Goose. 

16 15 Adult white, bill reddish. Young more or less mottled 

with gray. About 30 in. 
Cheyi hyperhorea nivalis (Forst.) Ridgw. Greater Snow 

Goose. ^ 

17 I Hind toe long and lobed. 

18 33 Lobe of the hind toe narrow and not more than \ of an 

inch. Nostril at base of bill. 

19 20 Bill narrowed at base and much enlarged at tip 

Spatula clypeata (Linn.) Boie. Shoveller. Spoon-bill. 

20 19 Bill equally broad throughout or nearly so. 

21 24 Bill conspicuously shorter than head and the middle toe 

and claw. 

22 23 First and second quills longest; bill blue black at tip. 

Length 20-22 inches. 
Mareca Americana {Gi^mX.) Stephens. American Widgeon. 

Baldpate. 

23 22 Second quill longest, bill green, olive. Length 19 in. 

Aix sponsa (Linn.) Bonap. Wood Duck. 

24 21 Bill longer or as long as head, and longer or as long as 

the middle toe and claw. 

25 30 First quill longest; of large size, 19 to 24 inches. 

^ I do not mention the typical species, the Chen hyperhorea (Pall.), as it 
seems to be only an accidental species in the west {vide Macoun, /. c, p. 114). 



1902] CouBEAux- Birds of the Saskatchewan Valleys. 247 

27 27 Speculum white or whitish, or dusky speckled with white. 
Length 19-22 inches. 

Chaulelasmiis strepera (Linn.) Bonap. Grey Duck. 

27 26 Speculum glossy green or greenish, purple and blue. 

28 29 Male, head and neck dark, neck with a white ring. 

Alias Boschas Linn. Mallard. 

29 28 Head dusky, fore part of the neck white; middle rectrices 

longer than the other quills. 

Dafila acuta (Linn.) Bonap. Pintail. Springtail. 

Females. 

With the wings as in the male ; head, neck and under 

parts pale ochrey, speckled and streaked with dusky. 

About 24 inches. 

Anas boschas. 

With only a trace of the speculum between the white or 
whitish tips of the greater coverts and secondaries. 
The whole head and neck speckled or finely streaked 
with dark brown, and grayish or yellowish-brown ; be- 
low, dusky freckled ; above, blackish ; all the feathers 

pale-edged. 

Dafila acuta. * 

30 25 Second quill longest. Of small size, 13-17 inches. 

31 32 Wing coverts pale blue; bill slightly enlarged. 

Querqiiediila discors {Unn.) Stephens. Blue winged Teal. 

32 31 Wing coverts dusky. 

Nettioti Carolineyisis (Gm.) Baird. Green-winged Teal.- 

33 18 Hind toe short, broadly lobed; lobe broader than \ of an 

inch. 

34 51 Bill elevated at base, flat and broad towards tip which 

has a strong horny nail. 

' I put off the Anas obscura Gmel., the black duck, which is the common 
wild duck of the Maritime Provinces, though a few stragglers reach some- 
times Manitoba (vide Macoun, /. c. p. 76.) 

2 I do not include the Qiierquedula cyanoptera, the Cinnamon teal, a 
southern species, which is only a very rare straggler in Manitoba {vide 
Macoun, /. c. p. 83). 



37 


36 


38 


44 


39 


42 



248 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

35 49 Nail small, holding only the middle of the tip of bill. 

36 37 Rectrices very narrow, pointed and stiff, 18 in number. 

Erismatura Jamaicensis (Gmel.) Salv. Ruddy Duck. 

Rectrices softer. 

Of small size, less than 20 inches. 

Bill keel hollow, slightly enlarged towards tip; nail \ to 
i^ of an inch. 

40 41 Speculum white, bill blue. About 16 inches. 

Aythya affifiis (Eyt.) Stepn. Lesser Scaup Duck. Blue- 
bill. 

41 40 Speculum gray ash. About 18 inches. 

Aythya collaris [Tionov.) ^\dg\v . Ring-necked Duck, ^ 

42 39 Bill keel round and smooth, equally broad throughout, 

blue, with a very small nail. Length 15 inches. 
Charitonetta alheola (Linn.) Stepu. Buffle-head. Spirit 

Duck. 

43 42 Bill black with above white at base. 18-19 inches. 

Clangula clangula Americana Faxon. American Golden- 
eye. Whistler. 

44 38 Of large size, 20 to 24 inches. 

45 46 Head and neck black. 

Aythyamarda (Linn.) Boie. American Scaup Duck. Big 
Black-head. 

46 45 Head and neck rich chestnut or ruddy chestnut. 

47 48 Bill shorter than head (two or less), dull blue with a black 

belt at end. Nostrils within its basal half. 
Aythya Americana (Eyt.) Baird. Red-head. Pochard. 

48 47 Bill not shorter than head (two and a half or more), 

blackish with nostrils at its middle. 

Aythya Vallisneria {SN\^s.) Boie. Canvas-back Duck. 

49 35 Nail very large, larger than \ of an inch, and holding the 

whole of the end of the bill. 

^ I include thai Manitoban species, as a few stragfglers may reach 
the eastern part of the partly wooded prairie in Saskatchewan. 



1902] Ornithological Notes. 



249 



50 51 Bill gibbous at base, nostril nearly at its middle ; birds 
black or dusky. 

Oidemia Deglandi Bonap. White-winged Scoter. 
Bill straight, tip hooked. Rectrices stiff. 
Of small size, less than 20 inches, from 17 to 20. 
Lophodytes cnctdlatus (Linn.) Reich. Hooded Merganser. 
Larger, from 20 to 27 inches. 
Wing with one black bar. 26-26-)/4 inches. 
Merganser Americanus (Cass.) Stepn. American Mer- 
ganser. Goosander. 
55 54 Wing with two black bars. 23-23)^ inches. 

Merganser Serrator (Linn.) Schaff. Red-breasted Mer- 
ganser. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES. 



51 


34 


52 


53 


^?> 


52 


54 


55 



The Golden Eagle ( Aquila chryscBtos) in Ontario. 

Through the kind exertions of Mr. Edwin Beaupr^, of Kings- 
ton, two specimens of this fine species have recently been acquired 
for the Museum of the Geological Survey. One of these, which 
is said to be a female, was shot November iith, 1901, flying over 
Mud Lake, Odessa, Lennox Co., by Mr. Smith. Odessa, it may 
be added, is ten miles from Kingston. The other, which is said to 
be a male, was shot November 15th, 1901, at Westbrooke, Fron- 
tenac Co., by Mr. Redden. Westbrooke is seven miles from 
Kingston and three "from Odessa. 

In the Museum of the Survey there were previously two 
specimens of the Golden Eagle, both of which are from Ontario. 
One, which is said to be a female, was shot near Woodbridge, 
York Co., in November, 1897, and the ^ther, which is said to be 
a male, was shot near Brampton, some twenty-five years ago. 

It has long been known that in this species the sexes are so 
similar, in colour, size, &c., that it is scarcely possible to distin- 
guish them without dissection. 

Although circumpolar in its range the Golden Eagle is no- 
where very common, and it seems desirable to place upon record 
these four instances of its occurrence in the Province of Ontario. 

J. F. Whiteaves, 

Ottawa, Jan. 20, 1902. 



250 The Ottawa Naturalist. jFebruary 

SOME NEW CANADIAN SENECIOS. 



By Edw. L. Greene. 

The following members of the genus Senecio^ all apparently 
hitherto undescribed, form a part of a most rich and valuable col- 
lection of plants made by Mr. James M. Macoun in the Chilliwack 
Valley, B.C., during the summer of 1901. 

Senecio crepidineus. Perennial, low but rather stout and 
very leafy, allied to S. taraxacoides and S. Holniti, commonly 4 to 7 
inches high, lightly somewhat arachnoid or floccose-pubescent, or 
often almost glabrous : leaves mostly basal and supra basal, the 
one or two properly cauline quite similar to, and scarcely smaller 
than the others, all obovate-lanceolate, 1 5^ to 4 inches long, 
tapering to a broad petiole, acutish, saliently and sharply dentate: 
corymbose panicle of large more or less nodding heads little or 
not at all surpassing the leaves : involucres nearly ^ inch high, 
subcylindric, the linear bracts about 10 ; rays about as many, 
light-yellow, about 5-nerved. , 

Collected at an altitude of 6,000 feet; closely allied to several 
alpine and subalpine species of the more southerly Rocky Moun- 
tains, the whole forming a group of which S. Soldanella may be 
considered typical. The heads in this new one are much more 
numerous and notably narrower than in any of the allied species. 
Its number in the Geol. Surv. collection is 26,678. Its habitat, as 
given by Mr. Macoun is " damp debris on a snow-slide." 

Senecio prionophyllus. Resembling ^. triangularis, but 
leaves on shorter petioles and distinctly hastate, more gradually 
acuminate, much more deeply and sharply serrate-dentate, in 
texture much firmer and dark-green, with venation pale or whitish, 
underneath whitish tomentulose, above obscurely and sparsely 
short-hairy, but the stem densely villous-tomentulose from base 
almost to summit, this indument subfuscous : inflorescence denser 
and more fastigiate than in S. triangularis ; the rays longer and 
very narrow : achenes short and slender-columnar, not narrowed 
under the pappus, this very fine and promptly deciduous. 



1902] Soirees. 



251 



The type of this is Mr. Macoun's No. 26,675, collected 8 Aug-., 
on the southern slope of the Cheam Rang-e, with Bromus margin- 
atus and Casi'illeia miniata, at 4,000 feet. Number 26,676, col- 
lected Aug. I 2th within a few yards of No. 26,675, ' ^l^o refer to 
it though it is far less notably pubescent, while at the same time 
it exhibits quite as strongly all those peculiarities of inflorescence, 
ray flowers, etc., by which the species stands in contrast with 
S. triangularis. 

Senecio dileptiifolius. Allied to 5". aureus, the rather 
stoutish stems a foot high, from a firm short-jointed nearly 
horizontal rootstock ; herbage deep-green and glabrous, small 
tufts of white wool occupying almost the axils of the leaves and 
pedicels : lowest leaves with broadly oblanceolate incisely serrate 
blade an inch long or more, and a slender petiole about as long ; 
the lower and middle cauline considerably larger and more deeply 
incised but also petiolate, only the uppermost more nearly lanceo- 
late or linear and sessile, these merely serrate-toothed : cyme of 
middle sized or smallish narrow heads distinctly subumbellate ; 
bracts of the cylindric involucre few and broad, oblong-linear and 
merely acutish : rays about 5 or 6, long and light-yellow : • 

Mr, Macoun's label for this bears the number 26,679, ^"<^ 
indicated that the plant was collected 29 August at an altitude of 
6,000 feet, growing with Epilobium spicatum, Bucephalus Engel- 
rnannii and Mimulus Leioisii on a mountain slope, from the upper 
part of which water trickled through the roots of these plants. I 
name the species in allusion to the general likeness which its 
leaves bear to those of Lepidiuni Virginicum, the type of a genus 
Dileptium with some authors. 



SOIREES. 



The second soiree of the season was held in the Y. M. C. A. 
Assembly Hall, Jan. 14th. The lecture of the evening, by Dr. 
R. A. Daly on "The Relation of Geology to Geography," was 
mainly devoted to the illustration of the developmental idea in 
geographical study. A table showing the great scope of the geo- 
graphical sciences was exhibited, and the conclusion stated that a 



252 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

physical study of the earth furnishes a natural and necessary intro- 
duction to the study of distributions which is the larg-est division 
of the whole subject. But we must go to geology for information 
as to the real nature of the forms ot the earth's surface. The 
application of geology is gradually placing physical geography 
among the true sciences. Living organic species have no more 
surely been evolved from earlier types than have the present forms 
of the land been developed trom pre-existing forms. This recog- 
nition of streams of influence from past geological ages has a 
salutary eff'ect on the method of the geographer ; it makes clear 
to him that many apparently similar land-forms should be clearly 
differentiated and others of unlike outward appearance should be 
closely associated. The lacustrine plain of southwestern Ontario, 
the marine plain of the St. Lavvrence and the old denuded plain of 
Russia can only be finally and rigorously described by referring to 
their difference of origin. Similarly, valleys of stream erosion, 
fault troughs and glaciated valleys should not be classified together 
simply on account of their possessing the common attribute of 
being linear depressions. On the other hand, the Selkirk moun- 
tains, the Laurentian highlands and the rolling plateau of Nova 
Scotia, at first sight utterly dissimilar, are yet most fruitfully 
treated of under the one class of complex mountains at different 
stages in the process of earth-sculpture. Repetition of types form 
one of the most interesting characteristics of the new physical 
geography, greatly aiding the memory and the understanding of 
land-forcns. Thus a thorough discussion of the fiords of Norway 
renders intelligible and easily retainable in the memory the physi- 
ography of the ragged coasts of Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, 
New Zealand and Patagonia ; the fault-trough of the Rhine is 
paralleled by the fault-trough of Palestine ; the delicate topography 
associated with the vanished glacial lobes of North America, once 
recognized in this country as having that origin, suggested ex- 
planation t'01^ similar reliefs in Germany which have been moulded 
in sympathy with similar lobes. 

A few indications of the influence of his physical surroundings 
on the life of man were given during the exhibition of lantern 
slides. The geological history of the earth, the physical environ- 



1902] Soirees. 253 

ment of life and the actual distribution of the activities of life, form 
a continuous series of considerations, no term of which can be 
omitted without impairing- the interest and value of the whole 
series. 

The third soiree of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club was held 
in the Y. M. C. A. building on the evening- of Jan. 28th, when Mr. 
Percy H. Selwyn gave an address on the " Natural History of the 
Honey Bee." Attention was first called to the difference between 
the regular and uniform frames composed almost entirely of worker 
comb, which are to be found in the modern hive, as compared with 
those constructed by the bees when living in a state of nature. 
The latter are of all shapes and sizes with usually an abnormal 
proportion of drone comb. The queen bee was then spoken of at 
some length, and it was shown that while being hatched from an 
egg which under ordinary conditions would have produced a 
worker bee, stimulative feeding during the larval period combined 
with increased accommodation to allow for growth, made wonder- 
ful changes in the perfect insect. Notice was also taken of the 
fact that while the worker bees are most solicitous for the welfare 
of the drones during the time of natural increase, viz., swarming, 
no sooner has this time passed and their services are no longer 
required than the bees turn them all out of the hives to perish. It 
was also shown that while it is now possible with the aid of comb 
foundation to reduce the amount of drone comb in each hive to a 
minimum, in no case can it be entirely dispensed with. The 
natural instinct for the reproduction of the race is so strong within 
the bees that before swarming takes place a certain number of 
drones must be present in the hive, and consequently if only 
worker combs are provided, the bees will either cut out portions 
of this comb and replace with drone comb of their own building, 
or, as is generally the case, will build cells suitable for rearing 
drones along the bottoms of the frames. 

The report of the Entomological Branch was read by Dr. 
Fletcher and will be printed in an early number of The 
Naturalist. 



254 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SECTION OF 

THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, 

FOR THE YEAR 1901-1902. 

Addressed to the Council of the Ottawa Field-NaturaHsts' Club. 

In presenting- to the Council the Report of the work done by 
the members of the Geologfical Branch of the Club during the past 
year, the latter desire to state that considerable progress has been 
made, much additional material has been obtained, and reports as 
uell as papers published during the past year bearing on the 
geology of the Ottawa district, and that though there were not 
many excursions held, the number of small working parties and 
sub-excursions did not fall very short of any previous year in the 
history of the Club. 

The numerous excavations and openings for drainage and 
sewage purposes have continued to give to the student of geology 
in our midst a fine opportunity to obtain excellent material, espe- 
cially of fossils. 

A pleasurable feature of the sub-excursions has been the good 
attendance of members as well as of student of different educa- 
tional institutions in our city. Several new members were elected 
from amongst occasional attendants at our geological sub-excur- 
sions in former years. Some of the ladies and gentlemen present 
at the outings have been able to secure quite a series of interesting 
specimens, most of which have been named by one or other of the 
leaders of the Geological Branch of our Club, and they now form 
part of private or public cabinets where geological collections are 
kept. 

Amongst those who took a prominent part in the work of this 
section last year may be mentioned : Mr. W. J. Wilson, Ph.B., of 
the Geological Survey Department, who never fails to be present 
and usually brings with him quite a following ; Mr. I. Kendall, of 
the Macdonald School of Manual Training, and also Dr. F. Slater 
Jackson, late assistant in Biology at McGill University, who, 
on several occasions last summer, accompanied our branch and ob- 
tained interesting suites of fossils which were all determined for 
him before he left the city. A number of younger members of the 



1902] Annual Report — Geological Section. 255 

Club and their friends have also done excellent work. George 
Lewis Burland, Herbert Maingy, Douglas McLean, Percy Wilson, 
Willie Herridge and Otis Whelen all deserve special mention for 
the industry and care they exhibited in the collections made and 
the anxiety they evinced to have them named and labelled. An 
enthusiastic class of youthful geologists was composed of the boy 
pupils of our fellow member Dr. Cephas Guillet. The work done 
by this class is most creditable indeed. 

Besides collections of the fossils which were obtained on 
several of these sub-excursions, at some of which the president and 
other officers of the Club and leaders in Geology were present, 
notes bearing upon the stratigraphy and character of the rock 
formation were taken and a number of interesting photographs 
prepared which serve to show the nature of the strata at many 
points where they had never previously been observed. Some of 
the photographs taken during the sub-excursions of the Club are 
used in illustrating points of interest in the geology of Ottawa and 
its surroundings in Dr. EUs's forthcoming Report of the Geology 
of the Ottawa District. 

Among the more salient and important features noted may be 
mentioned the occurrence along the eastern extension of Somerset 
street, in the centre of that valley of erosion which formerly was 
used as a rifle range — the Rideau rifle range — a well-defined fault 
or dislocation in the earth's crust. This is only one of many 
faults which must. exist hidden by pleistocene or drift deposits, and 
except for the artificial cuttings made and the notes taken during 
the excavations it would have been practically impossible to say 
that there existed one there. 

This fault occurs in the Utica formation and presents the two 
limbs of a normal dislocation, in juxtaposition, the strata being 
scarcely disturbed at all, yet, both from the studies that have been 
previously made of the characters of the Utica of the Ottawa district 
and from the characters of the fauna obtained by the writer on 
each side of the fault it is evident that the lower as well as the 
upper beds of the Utica occur in the exposure. 

There was no topographic feature or indication on the surface 
of the ground or trace whatever evident to even suspect the exist- 



256 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

ence of a fault in that locality, but in the trench cut along- Somer- 
set street east between Chapel street and Goulborne avenue the 
dislocation was clearly visible. Mineralization along the line of 
fault, as is customarily the case, had taken place resulting in 
the segregation of a considerable quantity of calcite associated 
with iron pyrites. 

This fault was seen to trend in an almost due east and west 
direction heading for the western end of Sparks's rapids on the 
Rideau river. On each side of the fault and in the neighbourhood 
of the same the strata were strikingly dissimilar ; on the east side 
thin bedded limestones with interstratified black bituminous shales 
were exposed, whilst an almost compact and homogeneous mass 
of fissile and black bituminous shales holding but few fossils, com- 
pared with the lower beds of the series occurred on the east side 
of the fault. 

Lists of the fossils noted during these sub-excursions were 
prepared and will accompany this report. They will serve to 
emphasize the facts already noted of the existence at that point of 
an upper and a lower outcrop of the beds of the Utica formation. 

New Edinburgh. — At the C. P. R. crossing along the Dufferin 
road in New Edinburgh, the main drain excavations revealed fine 
sections in the Utica formation also. On the occasion of the first 
excursion of the Club to Beechwood (see p. 94 of the Trans, of 
the O. F. N. C.) the geological section examined the exposures 
as well as the dumps, and a large quantity of fossils were ob- 
tained. Your leaders were kept busy identifying and determining 
specimens from the time the excursionists reached the spot until 
time was called to meet at the rendezvous near the Cemetery 
gate, where the addresses were given on the finds of the day. 
Seventeen species of fossils typical of the Utica were listed on that 
occasion from specimens obtained by one or other of the following 
persons present for whom they were named. Leaders : Dr. R. 
Bell, Mr. W. J. Wilson, Dr. H. M. Ami; Members, &c.: Mr. 
Clark, Mr. Kendall, Miss McQuestion, Miss Ross, Mr. Baldwin, 
besides the following younger but enthusiastic collectors : Alex- 
ander Anderson, Herbert Maingy, Lloyd Blackadar, Otis Whelen , 
and Gordon Gullock. 



1902 



Annual Report — Geological Section. 



257 



List of the fossils of the Utica formation found in the excavations made for the 
Main Drain of Ottaiva, April 2jth, igoi, on the occasion of the firsi 
excursion of the Ottaiva Field- Xaturalists' Club. 

1. Leptograptus flaccidus, Hall. 

2. Orthograptus quadrimocronatus, Hall. 

3. Climacograptus bicomis, Hall. 

4. Leptobolus insignis, Hall. 

5. Lingula Progne, Billings. 

6. ,, Cobourgensis, Billings. 

7. ,, cuta, Hall. 

8. ,, obtusa, Conrad. 

9. Orthis testudinaris, Dalman. 

10. Zygospira modesta, Say. 

11. Trorholites ammonius, Emmons. (Large, fine specimen.) 

12. Orthoceras tenuistriatum, Hall. 

13. Orthoceras lamellosum, Hall. 

14. Modiolopsis, sp. indt. 

15. Asaphus latimarginatus, Hall. (=A. Canadensis, Chapman.) 

16. Triarthiirus spinosus, Billings. 

17. ,, Becki, Green, (both in the nepionic and adult stages). 

Amongst the most interesting- finds made on that occasion 
was one of the embryonic forms of Triarthrus Becki, a. 
characteristic trilobite of the Utica formation. Primordial 
features present in the specimen indicate clearly the remote origin 
of this generic form whose nearest relatives so far known belong 
to the Cambrian period, and whilst its pygidium or tail appendage 
is quite diminutive, its head or cephalic shield is comparatively 
large. Such larval forms of this trilobite are rather scarce, but 
deserve special attention. The writer has found a number of them 
during his researches in the Utica of the Ottawa district, and 
hopes to be able to put the material together some day. It may 
be added here that considerable progress was made during the 
past year in the study of the fauna of the Utica, and as soon as 
drawings can be prepared which will serve to illustrate the fine 
Utica fossils ot this region a much needed contribution to the 
palaeontology of a portion of the Ordovician succession about 
Ottawa will soon follow. 

Britannia. The second excursion of the season was held at 
Britannia. The geological section visited the extensive excava- 
tions made by the Metropolitan Light, Heat and Power Company, 



258 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

and obtained there on the huge blocks of sandstone and shale a 
series of interesting tracks and trails of marine organisms, together 
with one or two rare fossils preserved as casts of the interior of 
the animal, 

Hull, Que. About the end of May, whilst there were a few 
members of the Royal Society of Canada still in our city, some of 
the members of the geological section, acting as guides, visited the 
*' Heap " in Hull, as well as the excavations for the main drain, 
in Ottawa, where the Utica formation was well exposed. The 
species collected were subsequently determined and will serve to 
illustrate the geology of our district in remote portions of the 
Dominion. 

Besserers, Ont. The exceedingly low state of the water in the 
rivers and streams about Ottawa afforded an unusually fine oppor- 
tunity to collect nodules from the fossiliferous clays of the Green's 
Creek period or formation (as Prof. Penhallow styles it) and 
though considerably incapacitated from doing much work during 
the autumn owing to an accident which had befallen the vvriter, a 
number of collections were made. 

Rideau Sand Quarry. About two miles up the Rideau River 
above Hog's Back, along with Mr. W. J. Wilson, also a leader 
of the Club and a foremost student in Pleistocene geology in our 
midst, we visited this interesting locality and obtained four species 
of drift tossils preserved in a matrix of coarse sand. These 
comprise the well known Saxicava riigosa, Linnaeus, Macoma 
Balthica, Linnaeus, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus, and a species of 
Belanus which is difficult to identify with any of the forms now 
living in the waters of the Lower St. Lawrence or shores of 
the Western Atlantic. Its characters ally the form more closely 
to Balanus porcatus de Costa than to any other. I am indebted 
to Dr. Whiteaves, who was shown the specimens in question, 
and he thinks that this as well as most of the species of Balatius 
from Canada need revision and careful study. 

Below the residence of Mr. T. C. Keefer, Rockcliff, along the 
shore of the Ottawa river, an excellent section of the Chazy form- 
ation may be seen especially in its most arenaceous development. 



1902] Annual Report — Geological Section. 259 

Some of the lower strata consist of coarse sandstones with occa- 
sional films of shaly or argillaceous materials interstratified. 
Among^st the forms observed and not hitherto recorded from this 
locality was the Lingula Lyelli, Billings, described originally from 
the Chazy of Allumette Island. A number of new tracks and 
trails of marine organisms were also noted and a large suite of 
specimens secured which will add considerable information to the 
tauna of those seas whenever figured and described. 

Publications. As stated at the outset, a number of contribu- 
tions on the geology of the Ottawa district have been prepared 
and published during the past year whicji will enable the student 
of Geology in our midst to prosecute his researches with greater 
facility. 

A Geological Map. 1 scarcely think that I am giving out a state 
secret when I say that there is hope that before this season is over 
the Geological Survey Department will have issued from its press 
the long-looked-for map of the '* Ottawa District." 

Thanks to the energy of Dr. A. R. C. Selwyn and of his 
successor Dr. Dawson, as directors of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, the plan of issuing geological maps for the leading cities 
or centres of activity and thought in Canada will find its expres- 
sion in the issue of the first of the series in " A Geological Map of 
Ottawa and its environs;" but whilst the initial steps were taken, 
as remarked above, by Drs. Selwyn and Dawson during their 
terms of office, it was reserved to Dr. Bell, acting Director of the 
same Survey and also the President of the O. F. N. Club, to see 
the practical completion of the work. 

The Club hails with special pleasure the publication of the 
map in question, especially the Geological branch, for, within the 
area covered by the map many of the geological phenomena 
recorded and described in the Transactions of the Club for the 
past twenty-two years are therein embodied. There is nothing 
like a map on which one can lay down statements and facts in 
geology and geography which is, according to the latest definition, 
only a branch of geology, after all. Not only in the department 
of Geology will the said map be of use, but also for the Botanical, 
the Zoolosfical and other sections of the Club. Faunal and floral 



26o The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

maps can now be prepared and maps showing the distribution of 
any species, whether of plant or animal. For this purpose it is 
hoped that the Council of the Club will endeavour to secure from 
the Department of the Geological Survey at least 200 black and 
white prints or copies of the map of this district to be kept on sale 
by our Club Librarian for the use ot the members of the Club. 
They may, however, be purchased from the Geological Survey at 
a nominal price. 

The report by Dr. Ells which is to accompany the map will 
no doubt be hailed with great pleasure by all who will read it. I 
should advise the members ot ihe Club to secure copies of this 
report early if they do not wish to find the edition exhausted from 
the demands that may be made upon it when issued. 

Catalogue of the Marme Invertebrata of Eastern Canada, by 
Dr. Whiteaves, also of the Geological Survey, is a report which is 
of special interest to the members of our Club, as it deals with the 
marine invertebrates of the Lower St. Lavvrence, a goodly propor- 
tion of which are to be found in the sands, clays and gravels of 
our Pleistocene deposits in the Ottawa valley. Every year sees 
new forms added to the lists of the Pleistocene fossils, and these 
find their living representatives in the salt ^^aters of the St. Law- 
rence and adjoining basins of to-day. An excellent review of this 
most important work of Dr. Whiteaves has already appeared in 
The Ottawa Naturalist, p. 165, by Prof. E. E. Prince, and I 
shall not trouble you with a notice of it from a geological stand- 
point further than to state that the volume is most welcome and 
timely and represents the work of a life-time, the accumulation of 
vast amount of useful information all condensed for the use of 
naturalists, fishermen and others interested both in the economic 
as well as the scientific side of the subject. 

^^^ Ancient Channels of the Ottawa River'''' is the title ot another 
paper by Dr. R. W. Ells, F.R.S.C. It appeared in the April 
number of The Ottawa Naturalist, pp. 17-30 with map accom- 
panying the same, and forms a contribution which ought to 
stimulate the members of the Club to carry on the work there 
delineated, with special reference to the immediate vicinity of the 
Capital. The ancient or now abandoned river valleys are quite 



1902] Annual Report — Geological Section. 261 

common about this city, and the numerous accompanying pheno- 
mena which these valleys invariably present, afford fertile subjects 
for future study and research. There is a proposal to prepare at 
no distant date a contour map of Ottawa and vicinity, so that 
when this is an accomplished tact the interpretation of many 
phenomena, especially in Pleistocene geology, will be greatly 
facilitated and their correlation made easy. Such a map would 
fill another long-felt want. 

Pleistocene plants. The fossil plants collected by different 
members of the Club and others at different times, were some time 
ago forwarded to Prof. D. P. Penhallow of the Botanical Labora- 
tories at McGill University, and he has kindly determined them, 
and these are now all labelled by that eminent authority, so that 
as soon as there is room to exhibit them in the National Museum 
on Sussex street or in the new Museum to which we are all look- 
ing with earnest hope, the extinct flora of the Green's Creek 
period will be seen to advantage. From the last collections sent 
to Prof. Penhallow by the writer he has determined no less than 
nineteen species of plants from the marine fossiliferous clays of 
Besserers Springs and adjacent shores of the Ottawa River. 

'^^ Geology of the Principal Cities of Eastern Canada," by the 
writer. In this paper, published by the Royal Society of Canada 
last year, I have endeavoured to put together in condensed form 
the results of twenty-four years' work in the neighbourhood of 
Ottawa. A table containing lists of the formations and of the 
systems under which these fall, of the characteristic fossils they 
contain, as well as of the thicknesses of the strata, constituting 
each as known to date, are given, together with lists of the 
localities where these formations may be studied to advantage. 
This will, it is hoped, save much time and labour on the part ot 
those who will come after us in studying the geology of this part 
of Canada. Similar lists and tables are also prepared for the cities 
of Montreal, Toronto and Quebec by the writer, and by Dr. G. 
F. Matthew for St. John City, N.B. Attention is called to this 
paper on account of the reference to the Ottawa formations 
therein contained. 



262 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

The late Dr. G. M. Dawson. This report cannot conclude 
without a sHght reference to the great loss which the geological 
section of the Club has sustained in the death of one who tor three 
years was the President of the Club and the foremost Canadian 
geologist. In Dr. Dawson the Club and the members of the 
geological section had one who was ever ready to give them the 
benefit of his judgment, criticism and experience in the discussion 
of points of interest in the geological structure of our district. He 
never failed to encourage and stimulate our members to unravel 
and describe the geology of this interesting section. 

The following list of fossil sponges from the geological forma- 
tions about Ottawa has been taken from among my notes on the 
palaeontology of this district taken during the past twenty years, 
and may not be uninteresting to local geologists. 

Quaternary. 
Pleistocene System. 

Green's Creek formation (Marine fossiliferous clays, "Leda clay"). 

1. Craniella Logani, Dawson. Odell's brickyard, Ottawa East, Ont. 
Paleozoic. 

Ordovician System. 
Utica formation. 

2. Stephanella sancta, Hinde. Porter's Island, Montreal Road, 

Albert Street, near Bank Street, Ottawa City, Ont. 

3. Cyathophycus reticulatus, Walcott. Gloucester, Ont. 

4. ,, nidiformis, nobis. MS. Somerset Street East, City. 

5. ,, subsphericus, Walcott. ,, ,, ,, 
Trenton formation. 

6. Astylospongia parvula, Billings. Concession and Division Streets. 

7. Brachiospongia digitata. Marsh. Foot of Parliament Hill. 

8. Stelielia crassa, Hinde. Division Street, Ottawa. 

9. ,, Billingsii, Hinde. ,, ,, 

10. Palseospongia Trentonensis, var. Ottawaensis, n. var. Division 

Street, Ottawa. 
Birdseye and Black River formation. 

11. Stromatocerium rugosum. Hall. Hull and Ottawa quarries ; also 

found at base of the Trenton formation. 
Beekmantown or Calciferous formation. 

12. Cryptozoon calciferum, Dawson. March, Ont.; on Ottawa, Arn- 

prior Si Parry Sound Railw v. 

H. M. Ami, Leader. 
Ottawa, Jan. 14th, 1902. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Vol. XV Pl. XV. 





C. F. King- del.. 

To illustrate paper by Dr, Whiteaves on a Species of Panenka. 



THE OTTAWA f(ATURALIST. 

Vol. XV. OTTAWA, MARCH, 1902. No. 12. 

■ I 

ON THE GENUS PANENKA, BARRANDE, WITH A 

DESCRIPTION OF A SECOND SPECIES OF THAT GENUS 

FROM THE DEVONIAN ROCKS OF ONTARIO. 

By J. F. Whiteaves.* 
(With one Plate.) 
In the sixth volume ot the " Syst^me Silurien de la Boheme," 
which was published in two parts in 1881, Barrande proposed the 
name Panenka for a genus of lamellibranchiate bivalves from the 
Silurian rocks of Bohemia, and described and figured no less than 
231 species of that genus. These species are all ornamented with 
radiating ribs, which give them a certain general but superficial 
resemblance to recent shells of the genus Cardiinn. But, upon 
closer examination it will be seen that in many of the Panenkas 
the ribs are unequal in size and irregular in their distribution, and 
that their valves are usually longer than high. Their test, also, is 
said to be thin, and their hinge line to be entirely devoid of teeth 
properly so called. On the other hand, in the typical species of 
Cardiiini the ribs are exquisitely regular in their size and arrange- 
ment ; their valves are higher than long ; their test comparatively 
thick, and their hinge line provided with both cardinal and lateral 
teeth. Dr. Paul Fischer, in his " Manuel de Conchyliologie," 
places the genus Panenka in Rudolph Hoernes' family Proe- 
cardiidce, which consists exclusively ot paheozoic genera and 

species. 

Four years later, in 1885, Professor James Hall described and 
figured, or enumerated, seventeen species of Panenka from the 
Devonian rocks at several localities in the United States, in 
volume V, part I, Lamellibranchiata II, of the " Paheontology of 
the State of New York." And, in 1891, the present writer 
described and figured an unusually large and coarsely ribbed 
species of the genus, from the Corniferous Umestone at St. 

♦Communicated by permission of the Acting Director of the Geological 
Survey Department. 



264 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Mary's, Ontario, under the name Panenka grandis, in the fourth 
volume ot the " Canadian Record of Science." 

The generic name Panenka, as stated by Barrande, is a Czech 
or Bohemian word, with the same significance as puella in Latin. 
But, althoug-h the seventeen ' species of Panenka enumerated 
by Hall are included by S. A. Miller in the list of " North 
American Palaeozoic Fossils" in the first edition of his "North 
American Geology and Palaeontology," published in 1889, yet in 
the First Appendix to that list, published in 1892, he says that the 
name Panenka is " not formed according to the rules of nomen-* 
clature and should be discarded." It had, however, as already 
explained, come into use by palaeontologists on both sides of the 
Atlantic, so that its rejection would probably be attended with 
more inconvenience than its retention. 

Quite recently, in November and December, 1901, the Rev. 
Thomas Nattress, of Amherstburg, Ontario, kindly sent to the 
writer, for identification, a few specimens of a fossil lamelli- 
branchiate bivalve from the immediate vicinity of Amherstburg. 
These, he writes, were collected by Mr. Harry Hodgman from pieces 
of solid rock blasted and dredged out of the bed of the Detroit 
River, at the Old Lime Kiln Crossing, Anderdon township, Essex 
county, a " few hundred yards only within the Canadian boundary, 
in thecourse of deepening the channel." They clearly belong to the 
genus Panenka and are obviously quite distinct from P. grandis. 
So far as the writer can see, they cannot be satisfactorily identified 
with any of the known species of Panenka from the American 
Devonian, Two of them as much more perfect than the rest, and 
both of these are represented on Plate XV. The original of 
figure I on that Plate represents a specimen with a subcircular 
marginal outline, which is somewhat similar in form to P. multi- ■ 
radiata, Hall, but which has broader and more oblique umbones, 
and a much longer hinge line posteriorly. Figure 2 represents a 
specimen with an elongate subovate marginal outline, which comes 
nearer to P. robusta and P. dichotoma of Hall, but which is more 
regularly and longitudinally subovate than either. In P. robusta, 
also, the ribs are much fewer and coarser, and in P. dichotoma the 
anterior end is represented as produced and subangular above. 
Under these circumstances it seems desirable to distinguish the 



1902] Whiteaves — On the Genus Panenka. 265 

specimens from the Detroit River by a new specific name, and 
they may therefore be provisionally named and described as 
toUows. 

Panenka Canadensis (sp. nov.). 
Shell, or rather cast of the interior of the shell, of about the 
averag^e size, valves regularly and rather strongly convex, varying 
in outline in different specimens from subcircular to longitudinally 
subovate. but always at least a little longer than high. Posterior 
side rather broader and much longer than the anterior, umbones 
broad, tumid, prominent, very oblique and placed considerably in 
advance of the midlength, beaks curved inward and forward ; 
hinge line straight, horizontal, considerably prolonged behind in 
some specimens but apparently not so much so in others. 

Test unknown ; surface of the cast marked by numerous 
(about sixty) narrow but prominent ribs, with concave grooves 
between them. In the original of figure i on Plate XV, the ribs 
are slightly unequal in size. Most of them are simple but they 
occasionally bifurcate, and here and there a few shorter ribs are 
intercalated between the longer ones, that radiate from the um- 
bones. In the original of figure 2 on the same Plate, the ribs are 
more regularly disposed, and they are all a little larger posteriorly 
than anteriorly. 

Muscular impressions and hinge dentition unknown. 

Dimensions of a comparatively high and short specimen 
(fig. i); maximum length 74 mrn., greatest height (inclusive of 
the umbo) 67 mm.: do. of a more elongate specimen (fig. 2) that 
is narrower in the direction of its height, length 77 mm.; greatest 
height, which happens to be behind the umbo, 60 mm. 

Corniferous formation, Anderdon township, Essex county, 
Ontario : a few specimens collected by Mr. Harry Hodgman, U. 
S. Inspector, in October and December, 1901. According to Mr. 
Nattress they are from a brown dolomite which underlies the true 
Corniferous limestone in that neighbourhood. 

Explanation of Plate XV. 
Panenka Can.vdensis. 
Fig^. T. — Side view, natural size, of a rig^ht valve of a .specimen with sub- 
circular marg-inal outline, and comparatively long- hinge line 
behind. 
Fig-. 2. — Similar view of the rig^ht valve of a longfitudinally subovate specimen, 

with a comparatively short hinge line. 
Both of these specimens are in Mr. Hodgman's collections. 

Ottawa, Feb. 15th, 1902. 



266 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

BIRD NOTES. 
By W. T. Macoun. 

Winter birds were not numerous at Ottawa this year with the 
exception of the house sparrow, which is always here in large 
numbers. Some interesting- notes, however, have been taken and 
these should be recorded. 

The snowy owl has been much commoner than usual. Three 
live specimens in a store on Sparks street attracteii much atten- 
tion during the month of January. 

The first pine grosbeaks of which I have a record were seen 
by me on Jan. 26th at the Normal School, when two males were 
observed, and on the following day a flock ot from eight to ten 
birds were noted none ot which, however, was highly coloured. 
The birds may have been here earlier than these dates but no 
notes were sent in. They have been quite common ever since and 
were seen to-day, Feb. i8th. 

On Feb. 6th I noticed two white-breasted nuthatches on a 
shed near Concession street. 

The following notes were supplied by Mr. W. A. D. Lees and 
are of special interest : 

" On 1 8th December, igoi, I saw, near my house in Ottawa 
East, a bird which I took to be a meadowlark [Sttirnella ?7iagna). 
I was not quite certain of my identification as the bird rose sud- 
denly from near the open end of a street drain and flew some 
distance off and took refuge under some old lumber where I had 
not the time to follow it. Again, yesterday, qth January, 1902, I 
saw the same bird flitting from place to place along the railway 
embankment neaf the round-house in Ottawa East, and this time 
I satisfied myself beyond a doubt that my first guess as to the 
species had been correct. So far as I know this is the first winter 
record of this bird here, and it may interest the readers of The 
Ottawa Naturalist to know of it." 

On Feb. 6th Mr. Lees, in company with another person, saw 
a robin at the Normal School grounds feeding with a flock of pine 
grosbeaks. It seemed plump and in good health. 

On Dec. 15th I saw a specimen of the bohemian chatterer 
feeding on the berries of the mountain ash on Somerset street, 
and I carefully noted the markings of the bird, 



1902] Macoun — Contributions to Canadian Botany. 267 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO CANADIAN BOTANY. ' 

By James M. Macoin, Assistant Naturalist, Geolog-jcal Survey of Canada. 

XV. 

Anemone Hudsonian-^, Rich. 

Frenchman's Bay, near Southampton, Ont. Aug-. 28th, 
iqoi. {/o/i?i Macotai.) Southern limit in Ontario. 

AguiLEGfA cocciNEA, Small. 

Niagara, Ont. ; Cache Lake, Algonquin Park, Ont. ; 
Otterburne, Man. ; Brandon, Man. {John Macoun.) Wing- 
ham, Ont. (y. A. Morton.) Grindstone Point, Lake Winni- 
peg. (J. M. Macoun.) Our only specimens of .<4. Canadensis 
are from Ottawa, Belleville and Red Rock, Ont. A. coccinea 
is easily separable from A. Canadensis either in flower or fruit. 
In flower by its stout spur which is more than twice the 
length of that of A. Canadensis and abruptly narrowed near 
the apex. The follicles of A. coccinea are straight and much 
longer than the spreading follicles oi^ A. Canadensis. 

Aquilegia vulgaris, L. 

Roadside, Wyoming near Petrolia, Ont. (John Macoun.) 
Lesquerella nodosa. Green, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 309. 

On sand. Castellated Rocks, Milk River, Assa., July 13th, 
1895. Herb. No. 10,313.- (John Macoun.) 

Lesquerella versicolor, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 310. 

On rocky slopes. Stony Mt., Man., June 4th, 1896. 
Herb. No. 12,401. (John Macomi.) 

Lesquerella Macounii, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 310. 

On prairies at the police barracks, Medicine Hat, Assa., 
Aug. 9th, 1895. Herb. No. 10,308. (John Macoun.) 

^ Published by permission of the Director of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 

^These numbers are those under which specimens have been distributed 
from the Herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada. 



268 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Lesquerella rosea, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 310. 

On prairies at Old Wives' Creek, Assa., June 2nd, 1895. 
Herb. No. 10,309. (John Macoun.) 

Brassica juncea, Cass. 

Montrose, near Niagara, Ont. {R. Cameron.) Burnside 
Road, near Victoria, Vancouver Island. {A.J. Pineo.) 

Viola Fletcheri, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 296. 

Acaulescent, small, the simple ascending- rootstock rather 
small for the plant, closely jointed : leaves few, small, from 
ovate-reniform to subcordate-ovate, ^ to i inch long at time of 
petaliferous flow^ering, the undeveloped ones cucullate, all very 
regularly crenate, glabrous and shining above, mostly sparse- 
hirsutulous beneath and on the petioles, these in the earliest 
not longer than the blade, in the later more than twice as 
long : flowers very few, often i only ; peduncles hirsute, 
minutely bracted below the middle : sepals small, lanceolate, 
veinless, serrate-ciliolate : corolla large, more than ^ inch 
broad, rich purple ; the upper pair of petals much the largest, 
obovate, the middle pair narrower in proportion and strongly 
bearded with long cylindric hairs, the odd one as long as 
these and a trifle broader. 

Growing with V. blanda under trees north of the road 
running from Rockcliffe to Beechwood. The plants grow 
singly and are generally one-flowered. Collected in the 
spring of 1901 and in fruit in September by Dr. J. Fletcher 
and J. M. Macoun. 

Viola subviscosa, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 293. 

Rootstocks not much branched, slender, short-jointed 
and knotted ; plant 4 to 5 inches high at time of petaliferous 
flowering : leaves thin, deep-green, shining and slightly 
clammy, very sparsely appressed-hairy above, somewhat 
hirsute beneath along the veins and sparsely ciliate, in outline 
from cordate-reniform to broadly cordate with deep and often 
almost closed sinus, subserrately crenate, the more strictly 
cordate ones about 2 inches in diameter and little longer than 
broad : peduncles about equalling the leaves, bibracteolate 



1902] Macoun — Contributions to Canadian Botany. 269 

below the middle, more or less strong-ly hirsutulous, as are 
also some of the petioles : sepals oblong, obtuse, stronij-ly and 
closely ciliate with spreading or somewhat retrorse hairs : 
corolla violet, larg-e, about i}( inches wide, the petals not 
very dissimiliar, rather broadly obovate, the keel as broad as 
the others and very obtuse. 

Described from specimens collected by Dr. Jas. Fletcher, 
in open spaces among- woods at Aylmer, Que. This species 
has also been collected on Prince Edward Island, by Mr. L. 
W. Watson and in Vermont. In general appearance V. sub- 
viscosa resembles V. septentrionalis but this latter species 
"has a heavier foliage, of a light green shade, wholly devoid 
of clamminess, each leaf with a broad open sinus and each 
branch of its stout rootstock produces a considerable cluster of 
leaves and flowers." 

Viola cardaminefolia, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 289. 

Caulescent, the numerous slender decumbent or more 
depressed stems 3 to 5 inches long : leaves small, the sub- 
cordate-ovate obtuse minutely crenate blade often merely 
J^ inch, seldom ^ inch long, of firm texture, obscurely pul- 
verulent-puberulent, the slender petioles about i inch long; 
stipules lanceolate, the lowest serrate-ciliate, the upper nearly 
entire except toward the base : slender peduncles little more 
than an inch long, bibracteolate much above the middle : 
sepals subulate-lanceolate, glabrous : corolla small, deep-blue; 
spur elongated, oblique. 

In rocky woodland near Aylmer, Quebec, Canada, 6 
June, 1901, Dr. J. Fletcher. Allied to the common V. Muhlen- 
hergiana of the U. S. (now rightly or wrongly called V. Labra- 
dorica), but easily distinct by its small, thick and somewhat 
fleshy foliage always of ovate outline and obtuse ; the flowers 
not half as large, much more deeply coloured, with a diff'erent 
spur. 

Viola fulcrata, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 285. 

Cowichan River, Vancouver Island, 2 June, 1898. Herb. 
No. 19,912. {/. R Ajiderson.) 



2-jQ The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Viola petrophila, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 286. 

Crevices of rocks, Shawnig-an Lake, Vancouver Island, 
9 May, 1897. (/. R. Anderson.) 
Viola compacta, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 286. 

Crevices of rocks, Shawnigan Lake, Vancouver Island. 
Herb. No. 19,910. (/. R. Anderson.) 
Viola Andersonii, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 287. 

Thetis Lake, B. C, 29th April, 1900. {/. R. Anderson.) 
Viola orecallis, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 288. 

Mill Hill, B. C, 28th April, 1900. (/. R. Anderso7i) 
Viola Albertina, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 289. 

Described from specimens collected by W. Spreadborough 
east of McLeod River, northern Alberta, but a common 
species everywhere in the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. 

Cerastium angustatum, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 300. 

Open prairies in the sandhills north of Prince Albert, 
Saskatchewan, July, 1896. Herb. No. 12,459. {John 
Macoun.) ' Only known station. 

Cerastium campestre, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 301. 

The common species on the Canadian prairies. Our 
specimens are from Stonewall, Man. {John Macoun.) Indian 
Head, Assa. {W. Spreadborough) Cypress Hills, Assa. 
(/. M. Macoun.) 

CerastIlim vestitum, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 302. 

Dry banks at Ste. Anne, west of Edmonton, Alberta, 
June 9th, 1898. Herb. No. 19,285. [W. Spreadborough.) 
A well-marked species known only from Mr. Spreadborough s 
specimens. 

Cerastium confertum, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p, 302. 

Described from specimens collected by Prof. John 
Macoun along the old telegraph trail in Lat. 54'', British 
Columbia, June 24th, 1875, ^"^ ^^ Stewart Lake, B.C., 
June 20th. Not since collected. 



1902J Macoun — Contributions to Canadian Botany. 271 

Cerastium tomentosum, L. 

There are specimens of this species in the herbarium of 
the Geological Survey, labelled " Brant Co., Ont." but with- 
out the collectors' name. It is here recorded in the hope that 
some further information relating- to it may be secured as this 
is the first American record known to us. 

Mentzelia tenerrima, Rydberg. 

Waneter, B.C. igor. (7?. H. Jamicson.) New to Canada. 

Stenotus Lyallii, (Gray.) 

On nearly all the higher mountains on both sides of the 
Chilli wack Valley, Coast Range, B.C., at about 6,000 ft. alt. 
Always found with Solidago multiradiata, var. scopulotnim. 
(/. M. Macoun.) 

Solidago \ irgaurea, L. , var. Gillmani, (A. Gr.) Porter. 

On rocks at the extreme end of the Bruce Peninsula, 
Tobermory, Ont., Aug. 23rd, 1901. Herb. No. 26,719. 
{John Macoun.) Known previously only from the south 
shore of Lake Superior. Probably a good species. 

Solidago juncea, Ait., var. scabrella, A. Gray. 

Thickets at Leamington, Ont. 1901. {John Macoun.) 
New to Canada. 

Aster angustus, T. & G. 

At the " round house " in the M. C. Ry. yard at Mont- 
rose near Niagara, Ont. {R. Cameron.) Introduced from 
the prairies. 

Aster longifolius, Lam., var. villicaulis, Gray. 

On earth along the St. John River at Woodstock, N.B. 
Herb. No. 22,505. {John Macoun.) Our only Canadian 
specimens. 

Aster kentuckyensis, Britt. 

Toronto Island, Ont, Sept. 6th, 1901. Herb. No. 26,358. 
{John Macoun.) New to Canada. Determined by Dr. 
Britton. 



272 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Aster vimineus, Lam., var. saxatilis, Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i, 
p. 1B8. 

Paugan Falls, Que. ; banks of the Nation River at Cas- 
selman, Ont. {John Macoun.) 

Erigeron Brandegei, Greene. 
Aplopappus Brandegii, Gray. 

On mountains north of Chilliwack Lake, Coast Range, 
B. C, alt. 6,500 to 7,500 ft., 1 90 1. {J. M. Macou7t.) Not 
recorded west ot Selkirk Mts.' 

Gnaphalium uliginosum, L. 

Abundant along- ditches, Chilliwack, B. C, 1901. {/. 
M. Macoun.) Our only specimens from British Columbia. 

Xanthium Pennsylvanicum, Wallr. 

Common at Humber Bay in front of High Park, Toronto, 
Ont., 1 90 1. Herb. No. 26,807. {John Macoun.) 

Xanthium commune, Britt. 

From Quebec to Manitoba. Our specimens are from 
Casselman, Ottawa and Napanee, Ont., and Brandon and 
Killarney, Man. 

Xanthium Macounii, Britt. 

Goose Island, Lake Winnipeg, Man., 1884. The type. 
{J. M. Macoun.') Only known station. 

Xanthium glanduliferum, Greene. 

Police Point, Medecine Hat, Assa. Herb. No. 10,911 ; 
Walsh, Assa. Herb. No. 10,910, the type ; east of Hand 
Hills, Alta. {John Macoun.) 

X. echinatum and X. Canadense are not known to occur 
in Canada, but as they grow in the Northern States they will 
probably be found in Southern Ontario. 

Silphium perfoliatum, L. 

Not rare at Chatham, Ont. {John Macoun.) 



* The geographical limits given in these papers refer to Canada only. 



1902] MaCOUN CONTRIBUTIGNS TO CANADIAN BoTANY. 273 

SiLPHIUM TEREBIXTHINACEUM, L. 

Walpole Island, St. Clair River, Ont. (C. K.Dodge.) In 
thickets at Sandwich and Windsor, Ont. [John Macoun.) 

Helianthus petiolaris, Nutt. 

Along- the C. P. Ry. at Cache Lake, Ont. 1900. {John 
Macoun.) Introduced trom the west. 

Helianthus annuus, L. 

Head of Queen street, near High Park, Toronto, Ont. 
1 901 . [John Macoun. ) 

Chrysanthemum segetum, L. 

Near the tannery at Tilsonburg, Ont. 1901. [Macoun.) A 
garden escape. Not recorded from Ontario. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium, L. 

A garden escape at Tilsonburg, Norfolk Co., Ont. [John 
Macoun.) 

Artemisia caudata, Michx. 

Abundant in sandy fields at Sarnia, Lambton Co., Ont. 
Collected in recent years by C. K. Dodge and by Prof. 
Macoun in 1901. Herb. No. 26,339. The plants from Mani- 
toba referred here in Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Plants, 
vol. I, p. 256, are A. Canadeiisis. 

Artemisia Abrotanum, L. 

Roadsides at Allenford between Southampton and Owen 
Sound, Ont. 1901. [Macoun.) Not before recorded in these 
papers. 

Senecio Plattensis, Nutt. 

Woods at Sandwich, Ont. Herb. No. 26,673, ^"^^ »* 

Camlachie, seven miles from Sarnia, Ont. Herb. No. 26,674, 
1901. [Johyi Macoun.) New to Canada. 

Carduus Hillii, (Canby.) Porter. 

On shingle, Little Eagle Harbour, Lake Huron. Aug. 
23rd, 1901. Herb. No. 26,454. [John Macoun.) Specimens 
referred to Cnictis pumilus, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, vol, i, 
p. 555 are this species. 



274 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 



Saussurea monticola, Rich., App. Frank. Journ., ed. 2, 29. 

Lumped with S. alpina by Gray and others, but it pre- 
sents so Httle resemblance to that species that the most casual 
observer would at once know it to be distinct. Easily 
separated from S. alphia by its " narrower, more rigid entire 
leaves and very hairy involucre." Collected by Dr. Richard- 
son in grassy plains on the Copper Mountains, lat. 67°, and 
along the arctic coast between the Mackenzie and Copper- 
mine rivers. The specimens in the herbarium of the Geologi- 
cal Survey are from Herschell Island, west of the mouth of the 
Mackenzie, 1893. {Rev. J. I. Stringer.) West shore of Great 
Bear Lake, lat. 65° 30' to lat. 66° 30'. 1900. (/. M. Bell.) 
Lat. 62° 17', long. 103° 07', 1893 ; on Stony Island, Great 
Slave Lake, 1900. ( /. W. Tyrrell.) 

HiERACIUM PiLOSELLA, L. 

St. John and Charlos, Restigouche River, N.B. [Phthp 
Cox.) New to New Brunswick. 

HiERACIUM LONGIPILUM, Torr. 

A single specimen collected in woods 5 miles from Sarnia, 
Ont. 1 90 1. [John Macoun.) A very rare species in western 
Ontario. Seldom collected. 

Mentha rotundifolia, (L.) Huds. 

In a gravelly ravine running into the Thames near London, 
Ont., 1901. (y. Dearness.) New to Canada. 

Clinopodium Acinos, (L.) Kuntze. 

Our herbarium specimens of this plant are from sandy 
and grassy roadsides north ot London, Ont. {J. Dearness) 
and near Gait, Ont. {}V. Herriot.) 

RuMEX FENESTRATUS, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 306. 

Described from specimens collected by Prof. John 
Macoun in salt marshes at Comox, Vancouver Island, June 
23rd, 1893. Herb. No. 1,570. Also collected in 1887 by 
Prof. Macoun at Chase River, near Nanaimo, Vancouver 
Island. Herb. No. 23,723. The common large Rutnex on 
the east coast of Vancouver Island. 



1902] Macoun — Willows OF THE Chilliwack Valley, B.C. 275 

Calamovilfa longifolla, (Hook.) Hack. 

Ammophila longi/olia, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, \^OL. 11, p. 
208. 

Sand-dunes at Point Edward, Lake Huron, Ont. 1901. 
Herb. No. 26,047. {^John Macoun.^ 

Danthoxia Americana, Scrib. U.S. Dept. Agric. Div. Agros., 
Circular 30, p. 5. 

Wellington Mines, Nanaimo, Vancouver Island. June 
13th, 1887. [John Macoun.) Among a score or more of 
sheets oi Danthonia from the west coast of British Columbia, 
our herbarium contains but this one of D. Americana. 



NOTES ON THE WILLOWS OF THE CHILLIWACK 
VALLEY, B.C. 

By J. M. Macoun. 

The number of species of Salix in the Chilliwack Valley is 
remarkably small for. that region, only four species having been 
seen in 1901 in the valley itself and five on the mountains on either 
side of it. In the valley S. Sitchensis is common everwhere, and 
was the only willow growing along the river between Chilliwack 
Lake and the point at which the river enters the Eraser Valley 
with the exception of one clump of S. pseudomyrsinites Anders., 
which grew on a gravel bar in the river This species was also 
found by a rivulet at an altitude of 6,000 feet. The other valley 
species were .S". caudata (Nutt.^, collected at Chilliwack village, 
and S. Lyallii, Heller, at Sumas Lake and by a stream flovving 
into Chilliwack Lake. 



^76 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

The only common species on the mountains was S. com7nutata, 
Bebb., always by rivulets at about 5,000 feet altitude, where snow 
has lain late in the springy. S. conjuncta, Bebb., was found on 
one mountain in a similiar habitat. S. nivalis, Hook., which 
mig-ht be expected to be common, was seen only on Tami Hy 
Mountain at an altitude of 5,500 feet. S. subcordata covered a 
large boulder at 5,600 feet and S. crassijulis, Trautv , was abun- 
dant on a rocky slope on Tami Hy Mt. but seen nowhere else. 

Specimens ot all the above were examined by Dr. P. A. 
Rydberg- who has verified my determinations and named the 
species about which I was uncertain. 



TARAXACUM IN CANADA. 



About a year ago Dr. Edw. L. Greene described several new 
species of Taraxacum from Canada.* Several sheets of specimens 
have been added to the Geological Survey collection since our 
material was examined by Dr. Greene, but these are all referrable 
to one or other of the species enumerated' below. In his intro- 
ductory note Dr. Greene says : " Indigenous species will probably 
be found sufficiently numerous though perhaps only upon western 
mountain territory." It is probably true that the number of in- 
digenous species in eastern and northeastern Canada is small, 
perhaps, indeed, there is only one species which ranges from the 
mountains of eastern Quebec through Labrador and Ungava to 
Hudson Bay, but that there is at least one indigenous species in 
eastern Canada no one who has travelled through the unsettled 

*Pittonia, Vol. IV, pp. 227-233. 



1902J Macoun— Taraxacum in Canada. 277 

parts of the country can doubt. Not only is Taraxacum not rare 
on the banks of lakes and streams, but the writer has often found 
it in bogs and swamps several hundred miles from .settlement of 
any kind. 

Taraxacum Chamissonis, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 228. 

Very common on the shores and islands of Bohring Sea 
and south along- the Alaskan coast. Will pr. bahly be found 
in British Columbia. 

Taraxacum rupestre, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv, p. 229. 

Crevices of rocks, alt. 6,000 ft., Mt. Queest, Shuswap 
Lake, B C. Herb. No. 15,111; Avalanche Mt., Selkirk 
Mountains, B.C., alt. 8,000 ft. (/ M. Macoun.) Kicking 
Horse Lake, Rocky Mountains. {John Macoun.) 
Taraxacum ovinum, Greene, Pittonia, vol. iv., p. 229. 

On Sheep Mountain, Waterton Lake, lat. 49^ 05', Rocky 
Mountains. Herb. No. 1 1,71 1. {John Macoun.) 

Taraxacum lacerum, Greene, Pittonia, vol iv, p. 230. 

Canyon of the Upper Liard River, Yukon, lat. Go'' 26'. 
June, 1887. Herb. No. 15,119. {John Macovn.) 

Taraxacum dumetorum, Greene, Pittonia, vol iv, p. 230. 

A common species from As^iniboia westward to British 
Columbia. 

Taraxacum erythrospermum, Andrz. 

The reii-seeded dandelion is probably common through- 
out eastern Canada, but has been seldom separated from 
Taraxacutn Taraxacum. Our specimens are from Ottawa, 
Niagara Falls and Hamilton, Ont. 

J. M. M. 



2-8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

SOME NEW NORTHWESTERN COMPOSIT^E. 



By Edwd. L. Greene. 
Aster microlonchus. Stems about two feet high, very 
erect, divested of all lower leaves at flowering time, parted trom 
below the middle into numerous leafy and flowering branches 
forming a somewhat contracted and subpyramidal panicle ; the 
reddened bark of stem and branches glabrous or obscurely pubes- 
cent : leaves ot the panicle narrowly lance-linear, two inches long 
more or less, entire, sessile by a broad more or less perceptibly 
auricled base, thin, delicately scaberulous above, scabrous on the 
margin, glabrous beneath, marked by a delicate midnerve only, 
spreading or slightly deflexed : heads few and subracemose on the 
branches, or solitary at the ends of them, nearly an inch broad 
measuring the rays, the involucre short-campanulate, its bracts in 
about three series, narrowly spatulate lanceolate, scaberulous, at 
least marginally, and spreading or recurved at tip : rays many and 
showy, apparently pale violet. 

The types of this strikingly handsome new Aster are Mr. 
Macoun'b numbers 26,3^ 4 and 26,385 from the ChiUiwack Valley, 
B.C., collected 18 Aug., 1901. Its immediate allies are A. longi- 
folius. Lam., A. hesperius, Gray, and A. ensattis, Greene. From 
all of' these it differs not only in aspect, but in its foliage which, 
though sensibly roughened above, is yet of a texture so delicate 
that all the lower and properly cauline ones fade and fall before 
the time of flowering. It is perhaps more elegant and beautiful 
than any of its near relations, and rather smaller in stature, 
though growing in generous soil, and a climate abundantly moist 
and not severe. 

Gnaphalium macounii. Apparently biennial, the stems 
rigidly erect, about two feet high, rather loosely leafy and clothed 
with a somewhat hirsute and viscid glandular-pubescence : leaves 
narrowly oblanceolate, acute, 3 inches long, the upper decurrent, 
all white-woolly beneath, light green and merely glandular-pubes- 
cent above : branches ot the subpyramidal close panicle and the 
main stem for some distance below it densely white-woolly : invol- 
ucres of middle size, their pearly scarious bracts all ovate, very 
acute : flower and fruit not seen. 



1902] Greene — Some New Northwestern Composit.^;. 279 

Collected in the Chilliwack Valley, B.C., 29 July, by Mr. Jas. 
M. Macoun, No. 26,847 ! ^^'^o earlier at Revelstoke, No. 11,334, 
and again from the Warm Springs, Kootenay Lake, both in 
British Columbia, in the year 1890. No. 34,053 from Salmon 
Arm, J. R. Anderson, 1899, is also the same. The species is related 
to G. dcciirre7is, yet very distinct in habit and inflorescence, the 
dense white-woolly pubescence of the upper part of stems and 
branches of the panicle being very peculiar. 

Gnaphalium proximum. Annual, erect, rather slender, a foot 
high, rather amply leafy, even up to the subsessile leafy-bracted 
clusters of heads : leaves thin, equally hoary on both faces, about 
lyz inches long, from ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 
broadest at the sessile and subcordate-clasping base, somewhat 
cuspidately acute : small plants simple and With but a terminal 
cyme ; larger ones with many short but strict branches, each with 
its cyme : bracts of the rather smallish involucres greenish -white, 
the outer broadly triangular lanceolate and acute, the inner very 
obtuse : pappus rather scanty, dull-white. 

In moist ground in the vicinity of the Mammoth Hot Springs, 
Yellowstone Park, Messrs. A. and E. Nelson, 1899, distributed 
under No. 6,036 for G. Sprengelii, from which the species differs 
widely in habit, form of foliage, etc. 

Arnica l.^vig.\ta. Near A. latifolia and as large, the 
herbage of a deeper green and of much more thin and delicate 
texture : radical leaves from round-ovate and cordate to lance- 
ovate and subcordate, 2 to 3 inches long, on slender petioles as 
long, the 2 or 3 cauline pairs broad and sessile, glabrous on both 
faces and coarsely, incisely, often doubly serrate-toothed, the 
larger 3 inches long and more than 2 in breadth : peduncles 
about 3, slender, puberulent under their narrowly turbinate in- 
volucres, the bracts ot these uniserial, lanceolate, acuminate, 
scarcely pubescent except as to the villous-ciliolate margins ; rays 
light-yellow, long and narrow ; disk-corollas narrow-funnelform, 
the very short and hirtellous tube passing gradually into the 
limb, which much exceeds it in length : pappus white ; achenes 
glabrous. 



28o The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

By springs in woods of the Chilliwack Valley, B.C., 5 Aug., 
190 1, J. M. MacoLin, No. 26,926. However much like A. latijolia 
in general habit and leat-outline this may be, it must needs be dis- 
tinguished specifically by its total lack of pubescence, thin texture, 
narrow involucres, funnelform corollas, etc. In true A. latifolia 
the bracts are glandular-hairy throughout, and not at all ciliate ; 
and its disk-corollas are much larger and not funnelform, the throat 
and limb swelling out abruptly from the short tube. Mr. Macoun 
writes that this species was collected in 190 1 on Mt. Cheam by 
Mr. J. R. Anderson and Dr. Jas. Fletcher. 

Arnica aprica. Also akin to A. latifolia and like it com- 
monly more or less pubescent, but the hairs less rigid, and 
obviously jointed ; the whole plant much smaller in all its parts, 
and the heads more numerous : radical leaves long-petioled and 
broadly or narrowly cordate-ovate, the cauline oval, sessile, all 
serrate or dentate, the teeth callous-tipped : bracts of turbinate 
involucre few, thin, oblanceolate, acute or acuminate, often purple- 
tipped, nearly glabrous : rays few, rather deep-yellow, not deeply 
toothed, the teeth short and broad : disk-corollas with slei der 
tube about as long as the subcylindric but abrupt limb : pappus 
firm, white ; achenes long and slender, glabrous except a few 
obscure bristly very short hairs and as few minute glands about 
the summit. 

This is represented by Mr. James Macoun's numbers 26,284 
and 26,285 ffom the Chilliwack Valley. It is said to be a plant 
not of the woods, but of open ground along streamlets. It is 
readily distinguishable from A. latifolia not only by its smaller 
size and more numerous flowers, but by the character of its 
pubescence, and especially by its short merely tridentate rays ; 
these last, in the real A^ latijolia, being elongated, and very 
deeply cut at summit into narrow almost ligulate teeth or seg- 
ments. 

Arnica Macounii, Greene, Pitt, iv., 160. This species, 
hitherto known to me only from Vancouver Island, was copiously 
collected by Mr. James Macoun in the Chilliwack Valley, last 
season, the specimens bearing the numbers 26,927, 26,928 and 
26,929 of the Geol. Surv. Herb. 



1902] Greene — Some New Northwestern Composit.e. 281 

Arnica aurantiaca, Greene, Torreya i, 42, founded on a 
plant of Oregon collected only by Mr. Cusick until now, must be 
credited to British Columbia, Mr. Macoun's No. 26,934 ffom the 
Chilliwack region matching- perfectly the originals of the species. 

Arnica confinis. Less than a foot high, monocephalous, or 
else with also a pair of monocephalous peduncles from the axils ot 
the uppermost pair of leaves, these surpassing the terminal one ; 
herbage of a light green, viscid-puberulent as to the foliage, the 
stem with a sparse hairiness : lowest leaves obovate to oblanceo- 
late, an inch long or more and petiolate, the cauline in about three 
pairs, ovate to lanceolate, i to 2 inches long, callous-denticulate, 
or serrate-dentate, or even subentire, acutish ; heads of middle 
size, the involucral bracts biserial, acuminate, sparsely hirsute : 
rays deep-yellow, not large ; disk-corollas with, hirsute tube and 
naked limb about equal ; achene.^^ with a few hirsute hairs ; 
pappus tawny, subplumose. 

Chilliwack Valley, B.C., Mr. Macoun, No. 26,933. ^" characters 
of pubescence, flower and fruit this approaches A. ova/a, Greene, 
but in foliage and habit it differs widely. 

Arnica aspera. Stems clustered, often 2 feet high, equably 
leafy to the corymbose summit, loosely hirsute, more strongly and 
quite retrorsely so toward the base : leaves about 2 inches long, 
ovate-lanceolate, sessile by a broad base, the upper longer, the 
lower shorter than the internodes, rough-hairy on both faces, 
saliently callous dentate : peduncles several, slender ; involucres 
small for the plant, campanulate, their bracts uniserial, hispidulous 
with pustulate hairs ; rays very obtuse and only minutely triden- 
tate ; disk-corollas with Very short tube and rather longer limb 
about equally and very sparsely setose-hairy : achenes setose- 
hairy; pappus tawny, subplumose. 

The type of this species is a plant found by myself on Mt. 
Rainier, 19 Aug., 1889, and then supposed to be A. amplexicaulis, 
which I have now for some time known to be a very different 
plant. A. aspera has also been collected by Mr. Piper at 
Snoqualmie Falls, Washington, and again in the Olympic Moun- 
tains. Mr. M. W. Gorman obtained it in 1897 among his plants 
of the Washington Forest Reserve. 



282 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Arnica cana is a name needed to replace that of A. t?tcana, 
Greene, Pitt., iv, 169; there being an Arnica incana of Persoon of 
much earher date. 

Arnica crocina, Greene, Torreya, i. 42, first pubHshed in 
Piitonia, iv, 159, by the untenable name of A. crocea, is now m 
hand from two additional stations. It is Mr. James Macoun's No. 
26,931 from dry slopes north of Chilliwack Lake, 26th July, 1901 ; 
also No. 34,074 of the Canad. Geol. Surv., collected by J. R. 
Anderson, 1901, from Mt. Cheam, north of Chilliwack River, 
B.C. 



THE SPOTS ON THE EGGS OF THE GREAT BLUE HERON. 



By W. E. Saunders. 

Some ten years ago I was surprised to receive from Frank L. 
Farley, then at St. Thomas, but now ranching in Alberta, a set of 
eggs of the Great Blue Heron which bore a goodly number of jet 
black spots, and as these spots would not wash off, it was mani- 
fest that they were a part of the Qgg ! Although this conclusion 
was easily arrived at, it was not a satisfying one, as I well knew 
that all (?) herons' eggs were normally unspotted. In 1900 Mr. 
Robeftson, Aylmer West, Ont., sent me a fine set of five of this 
species, all of which show more or less of this peculiar spotting. 
y-'' At intervals this problem would recur to my mind, until at last, 
' one day it dawned on me that these herons, at St. Thomas and 
^'^' Aylmer, were within ten or twelve miles of Lake Erie, and I knew 
that the pound-nets set by the fishermen for sturgeon, etc., were 
a favourite feeding ground for these birds; and, moreover, that the 
fishermen soak their nets with a compound of pitch. This solved 
the problem. Clearly the birds got pitch on their feet, off the 
nets, and carried it home for the sole purpose (?) of beautifying 
their eggs. But if this were the case, then a solvent of this pitch 
compound, such as ether or carbon bisulphide, would dissolve and 
reinove these spots. This theory proved to be correct, and a 
diligent application of ether to one of the spots removed it. It is 
plain, therefore, that the spottecl eggs would belong to birds who 
fished in the lake, and that those who fed entirely at smaller 



1902] Saunders — Eggs of the Great Blue Heron, 283 

waters would have eggs ot clear blue. This conclusion puts one 
in a position to theorize about the inhabitants of an individual 
heronry, and lends much interest to the following- extracts from 
Mr. Farley's letter of Feb. ist, 1891, in which he says : 

" On the 24th May, 1889, B^" ^"d I went to the heronry 
nine miles northwest from here, but did not get there till late in 
the day, about six o'clock. I did not want to go up as I had 
walked the country since four o'clock that morning and was tired, 
but Ben went up one tree with six nests in it, and took two sets, 
one of 4 spotted, and one of 5 plain ones. Then when he came 
down I went up another with five nests in it. It was nearly too 
late, about seven o'clock, when 1 got up, and I did not want to 
be caught in the top of a black ash with dead branches after dark, 
so I did not get any eggs but saw into several nests and could see 
one set of 5 spotted ones and two plain sets. I went down and 
we tried Ben's to see if they were fresh, but found that one ot the 
set of 5 was broken, and it was about 18 days set on out of the 
21 days; and the bird was all formed. We got the eight eggs 
home all right and by persistent work for two weeks they were 
fit for the cabinet, and he now has them in his collection in British 
Columbia. 

" The heronry is in a big forest of black ash and soft maple 
trees, and was nearly flooded beneath. There were about 100 
nests in the place. Some of the trees had as many as eight nests 
in them, but the majority only had four or five, and some only 
one. We concluded that we were about ten days too late, and in 
1890 we would visit it. Accordingly, on the 12th May, 1890, we 
left home at 2-30 a.m. and got there shortly after daybreak. We 
each chose our tree as we both had a pair of irons. I took one 
with five nests and Ben one with seven. As soon as I got up I 
yelled out to him that I had a set of five spotted ones, but they 
were pipped so I left them and went on up to the other nests. 
From that tree I took two sets of spotted eggs and one of plain 
ones. No. i spotted contained four eggs and No. 2 contained 
three eggs. No. 2 is the set I send you. During the day I took 
three sets of spotted, one of five, one of four and one of three. I 
could only make the set of three fit for my cabinet, although I 
have the rest laid aside. During the day Ben took three nests of 



284 The Ottawa Naturalist, [March 

spotted ones and seven of the others. All told, the two of" us took 
about fifty eggs during the day. This date we also found too late, 
and this year we will visit it on the ist or 2nd May, and I hope 
you will prepare for it and have a good day up the ashes about 
70 to 90 feet above terra firma." 

From this extract it is clearly a lawful conclusion that some 
of the herons in that colony confined their feedmg to smaller 
waters, while others, nesting in the same tree, visited Lake Erie 
as well, or possibly did the whole of their hunting on its waters. 

On a careful examination of the set taken by Mr. Anderson 
in May, 1899, ^ ^"'^ \\\2X although the eggs were fresh, yet every 
one is spotted, varying from two to three small spots on what was 
probably the most recent Q^^, up to several dozen spots of various 
sizes on the earlier specimens. Therefore it is manifest that the 
eggs become spotted very soon indeed after they are laid, and 
point strongly to the conclusion that the unspotted ones belong to 
birds that confine their hunting exclusively to the smaller waters. 

As a rule it is very diflficult, if not impossible, to establish that 
there is any fixed difference in the habits of individual birds of a 
breeding colony, and a hint of individuality such as these spotted 
eggs gives, is a gratifying discovery to the student of bird life. 



THE AMERICAN SCOTER IN MIDDLESEX. 



(Read before the Ornithological Section of the Entomological Society of 

Ontario.) 
By vV, E. Saunders. 
At the last meeting I presented for inspection a specimen of the 
Surf Scoter, which was one of a flock of three, two of which had 
been shot on the Thames River, eight miles west, by Messrs. 
Murdock and Bridgeman. Only a single record had previously 
existed for the county, and no other Scoter had been recorded 
at all. 

In the early morning of Nov. 13th, while walking up from 
the waterworks, I saw a duck on the river and after making the 
usual sneak along the bank, I got a good rifle-shot at it and 
missed. It flew, but only about a hundred yards, when it lit 



1902] Saunders — The American Scoter in Middlesex. 285 

again. A passing car caused it to go a little farther and soon 
after, by a careful sneak, I got another shot, this time with 
success. In a moment or two the duck revived and began to 
swim vigorously for the shore. When it lagged, I dropped a 
bullet from a smokeless cartridge just outside ol the duck, which 
then made a fresh start for the shore, which after several such 
spurts was reached, and my prey hid among the irregular sods at 
edge of the water, out of my sight. To kill it was then the 
problem, but after carefully searching the shore from several 
points, I managed so badly as to appear right above it and it 
started for mid stream in hot haste. Before long it was dead, but 
the wind being almost directly up stream refused to bring it 
within reach, nor would the current, but the latter, on the con- 
trary, neutralized the efTect of bullet after bullet, which I dropped 
carefully from the rifle, just beyond the dead bird. Eventually the 
wind drifted it up stream past a point which was my last hope, 
and from which, standing barefooted in the icy water, I was un- 
able to reach it with a long stick, and I realized that I must get it 
from the other shore. This meant walking three-quarters of a 
mile to the bridge, and then back again. By the time this was 
accomplished the duck had nearly reached the shore and in a few 
minutes I had the pleasure of handling an unknown specimen 
which I guessed was a Scoter. Without staying to plug its 
mouth, I started in hot haste for business, the time being about 
9.30, and in a few minutes was disgusted to notice that the old 
adage, " more haste and less speed" was being proved once more 
by the numerous splashes of blood on my trousers. This necessi- 
tated a stop to wash them in the river, and once more I started 
for town, this time without further mishap. 

On examining the bird with the aid of Ridgway's Manual 
it was easily seen to be the American Scoter {Oidemia Americana), 
a bird not hitherto recorded for the county although it is a regular 
visitant, probably in restricted numbers, to the great lakes. 



286 The Ottawa Naturalist [March 

SOIREES. 
The fourth soiree of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club was 
held in the Y. M. C. A. lecture room on the evening of July nth, 
when the Rev. Robert Campbell, D.D., lectured on "The Ferns 
of Canada." The lecture was illustrated by lantern slides showing 
the various kinds of fern structure and fructification and with the 
exception of a few western species, the large series of slides shown 
included nearly every form found in Canada. In his introductory 
remarks the lecturer defined the terms used in describing the 
various parts of a fern and as each picture was thrown on the 
screen the differences between genera and species of the same 
genus were pointed out. The slides were all good, but those 
made from photographs ot mounted specimens were much truer 
to nature than the reproductions of drawings. In addition to the 
slides Dr. Campbell exhibited a very complete and finely mounted 
collection of the ferns of Canada. The lecture was of great 
interest not only to the botanist but to the many lovers of ferns 
who, though not botanists, are lovers of Nature. 

REVIEW. 
Matthew, G. F. — Are the Saint John beds Carboniferous ? 

Amer. Geol. Vol. XXVII, No. 6, pp. 383-386, Minneapolis, 

Minn., U.S.A., June, 1901. 

This brief paper is an attempt to give the evidence upon which 
the plant-bearing beds of the St. John district rest regarding their 
reference to the Devonian and Silurian systems as held by Dr. 
Matthew. Correlations with the "Millstone Grit" of England 
and the " Mauch Chunk" of Pennsylvania are given for different 
portions ot New Brunswick. Two distant series exist, says Dr. 
Matthew, one in which the sandstones occur as "free stones," the 
other in which the "sandstones are strongly cemented with silica 
and some calcite, the shales converted into slates, the limestones 
are more crystalline and the beds usually tilted at high angles." 
An unconformity exists at the point of division. Dr. Matthew 
holds with discordance of dip &c. The Mispec and the Little River 
terranes, the latter constituting the fern beds in question, accord- 
ing to Dr. Matthew, lie beneath the unconformity. Dr. Bailey, 
Dr. Ells, Sir Wm. Dawson, Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, and Dr. Selwyn 
are given as authorities for the view that the stratigraphical 
sequence is as given by Dr. Matthew. The latter claims that 
recent discoveries serve to prove that types which are usually 
referred to this " flora have been gathered from the lower horizons 
of the Carboniferous. Dr. Matthew also adds that many genera 
of plants have a wide vertical range citing a recent genus supposed 
to be found in the Dretaceous. Dr. Matthew makes the so-called 
" Millstone Grit" the equivalent of the •' Pottsville Conglomerate. 

H. M. A. 



TO THK 

OTTAWA NATURALIST, VOL. XV, 1901-2. 



Acer dasycarpiim 164 

Adocus variolosus 63 

Agrimony 164 

Alberta, \ew Plants from 42 

Alg'oma, Some of the birds of.. 155 
Algonquin Xational Park of On- 
tario, The 80 

Alligator and Turtles as pets .... 193 
Ami, H. i\I., Sketch of life and 
work of the late George 

Mercer Dawson 43 

Correspondence 114 

Review of "A chapter on 
Pleistocene Geology of 

Xorthern Asia 172 

Bibliography of Dr. G. M. 

Dawson 202 

Review of " Are the St. John 

beds Carboniferous? " 286 

Anderson, J. R., Rattlesnakes 

and Scorpions 162 

Brue or Soap Berry 1 88 

Aquila chrysoetos 249 

Arnica aprica, Greene 280 

aspera, Greene 281 

conjinis, Greene 281 

IcBvigatii, Greene 279 

Aster niicroloncli us, Greene 278 

vimineus 14 

Barlow, A. E., Review 58 

Correspondence. 114, 233 

Corresponding members of O. F. 

X. C. 6 

Cory's Least Bittern 67 

Coubeaux, Eug. , Birds of the 

Saskatchewan \'alleys 24 ^ 

Council of O. F. X. C 3 

Report of, for 1900- 1901 .... 7 
Cowley, Mailes, Xote on the 

Oviposition of the mud turtle 198 

Dawson, Dr. G. M., The Bibli- 
ography of 202 

Notice of death 13 

Sketch ot life and work .... 43 



Dipnoid P"ish 184 

Dowling, D. B., The physical 
Geography of the Red River 
Valley 11^ 

Eagle, The Golden 56 

in Ontario 249 

Eider in Middlesex Co., The 

Kin.g 197 

Elk in Ontario, The extinction of 95 
Elliott, Robt., The King Eider. . 197 
Ells, R. W., Ancient Channels 

of the Ottawa River ...... 17 

Energ\-, simple illustration of the 

conservation of 196 

Entomological Notes 97, 161 

Excursions, Records of 94 

Fat in the animal body 131 

Fauna Ottawaensis 215 

Fish, An African Dipnoid 184 

Berberis hrevipes . Greene 42 

Birds of Algoma 1 55 

of the Cariboo District ... . 152 

of Sable Island 199 

of the Saskatchewan Val'ys 245 
Birds, Comparative records of 

arrivals of 112 

Bird Migration 187 

Bird Notes. 53, 92, 266 

See Ornithological Notes. 

Bird notes from Pelee Point 15 

Bittern, Cory's Least 67 

Bobolink's love for its home. The 235 

Bo t auras neoxenns.. ... 67 

Botany, Contributions to Cana- 

diari, 71, 267 

Botanical Notes 164 

Boutelier, R., Autumn notes on 

birds of Sable Island 199 

Brooks, Allan, winter birds of 

Cariboo District 152 

Mammals of Chilliwack Dis- 
trict 23 

Brue or Soap Berry igg 

Buff-breasted Sandpiper 1 j- 

Buttercups 1 -i 



288 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



Campbell, A. M., The Alg-onqiiin 

quin National Park, Ontario 80 

Camping: grounds along the 

Ottawa River, Prehistoric. . 141 

Chalmers, R., The sources and 
distribution of the Gold-bear- 
ing Alluvions of Quebec. . 33 

Charron, A. T. , Fat in the animal 

body, its functions and origin 131 

Chilliwack District, mammals of 239 

Coltsfoot, sweet. 94 

Compositae, Some new north- 
western 278 

Fletcher. Hugh, Review 59 

Fletcher, Jas., Entomological 

Note 161 

Tre;isurer's Report 12 

Flora, The Ottawa 201 

Gentians, Some new Canadian. . 1 10 
Gentiana, On some Canadian 

species of. 1 75 

Geological Section, Annual re- 
port of 254 

Gnaphalium Macoiinii, Greene 278 

proximiiDi, Greene 279 

Gold-bearing alluvions of Quebec 33 

Goodyera Menziesii 14 

puhescens 14 

repens 14 

Gould, Harry, Bird Notes from 

Pelee Point 15 

Greene, Edw. L., New plants 

from Alberta '. . 42 

Certain Canadian Violets 191 
Some new Canadian Sen- 

ecios 250 

Some new northwestern 

Compositae 278 

Gull, The Glancous in Middle- 
sex Co 200 

Gull, Ross's 55 

Guillet, Cephas, Note on Brood- 

f care in reptiles 233 

On the autumn flowering of 

wild plants 1 23 

Halkett, H. Andrew, An African 

Dipnoid Fish 184 

Harrington, W. H., F"auna Otta- 

waensis — Hymenoptera . 215 

Heron. The spots on the eggs of 

the Great Blue 282 

Holm, Theo, Allies of Stellaria 

media 37 

Some new Canadian Gen- 
tians 1 10 



Holm, On Some Canadian species 

of Gentiana 1 75 

Horse Gentian, A new 36 

Hymenoptera 215 

Keays, J. E., The Golden Eagle 56 
Kells, \V. L., Nesting of some 

Canadian Warblers 225 

Cory's Least Bittern ....... . 67 

Lamb, L. M., Notes on a turtle 
from the Cretaceons rocks 

of Alberta 63 

Lycaema Sciidderi 234 

Lytoceras, Note on a supposed 

new species of 31 

Lytoceras Denmanense 32 

McCallum, G. A., Tringites rii- 
fescens, BufF-^breasted Sand- 
piper 127 

Macoun, J. M., Botanical Notes 14, 164 
Contributions to Canadian 

Botany 71, 267 

Notes on the \Villows of the 

Chilliwack V'alley . . 275 

Taraxacum in Canada 276 

Macoun, John, TheOttawa Flora 201 
Macoun, W. T , Bird Notes. .53, 89, 
[113.266 
Mammals of the Chilliwack Dis- 
trict 239 

Meadow-rue, A new 164 

Meadow-sweet 54 

Membersof the O.F.N. C, List of 4 

Migration, Bird 187 

Moore, W. H., Notes on Wood- 
cock's love song 195 

The Bobolink's love for its 

home 235 

Namesake, My first 121 

Nesting of some Canadian war- 
blers 225 

Odell, W. S., Alligator and Tur- 
tles as pets 193 

Ormerod, The late Dr. Eleanor A. 130 

Ornithological Notes 89, 113, 249 

See Bird Notes. 

Ottawa District, Map of 17 

Ottawa Members, To our 237 

Ottawa River, Ancient Channels of 17 

Ottawaensis, Fauna 215 

Oviposition of the Mud Turtle . . 198 

Panenka, On the genus 263 



Index. 



289 



Paneiiia Canadensis 265 

Pelee Point, Birds from 15 

Petasites pahnata • . 94 

Plants, On the autumn flowering 

of" wild 123 

Pleistocene Geology of Northern 

Asia 172 

Prehistoric Camping-grounds . . 141 
Prince, E. E., Ross's Gull {Rho- 

dostethia rosea) 55 

Review of Dr. Whiteaves' 
Catalogue of Marine In- 
vertebrates ... 165 

Programme tor Winter Soirees . 214 

Protoperus annectens 184 

Panuncuhis acris 1 74 

Rattlesnakes and Scorpions .... 162 

Rattlesnake Plantain 14 

Red River Valley, The physical 

geography of 115 

Reptiles, Note on brood-care in. 233 

Reviews 58, 59, 165, 172, 238 

Rhodostethia rosea . . . 55 

Ross's Gull 55 

Sable Island, Autumn notes on 

birds of 199 

Saint John beds ? Are they Car- 

boniterous ? 286 

Sandpiper, Buff-breasted 127 

Saskatchewan valleys. Birds of. 245 
Saunders, \V. E., Note on Golden 

Engle . 57 

The Glaucous Gull in Mid- 
dlesex County 200 

The spots on the eggs of the 

Great Blue Heron ... . 282 
The American Scoter in 

Middlesex 284 

Scorpions, Rattlesnakes and ... . 162 
Scoter in Middlesex, The Ameri- 
can 284 

Scott, Some of the birds of Al- 

^oma 155 

Scudder, S. H., My first name- 
sake 14 

Scudder's Blue . . 234 

Senecios, Some new Canadian. . 250 

Senecio crepidineus, Greene .... 250 

deleptiif alius y Greene. ... 251 

prionophyllus, Greene . . . 250 

Shutt, F. T., To our Ottawa 

members 237 

Smith, L. H., The extinction of 

the Elk in Ontario 95 

The Woodcock's love song. 129 



Soap berry or Brue 18 

Soirees, Programme of winter . . 214 

Soirees, Reports of . . . . 236, 251, 28 
Sowter, T. W. E., Prehistoric 
camping grounds along the 

Ottawa 141 

SpircEa sal ici folia 54 

Stcllaria media, Allies of 37 

Stellaria subvestita, Greene 42 

Sutherland, J. C, A simple illus- 
tration of the conservation 

of energy ... 196 

Sylvan Ontario, A guide to our 

native trees and shrubs. . . . 238 

Taraxacum in Canada 276 

Thalictriim confine, Fernald . . . 164 

Treasurer's Report for 1 900-1 901 12 

Tringites rufescens 1 27 

Triosteum aurantiacum 36 

perfoliatiim 36 

Turtles and Alligator as pets . . . 193 
Turtle, Notes on a, from the Cre- 
taceous rocks of Alberta ... 63 
Turtle, Note on the oviposition of 198 

Viola cardamincvfolia, Greene.. 269 

Fletcherii, Greene 268 

Labradorica 192 

leucopetala, Greene 191 

subvestita 192 

supviscosa, Greene 268 

Violets, Certain Canadian 191 

Warblers, Nesting of some Cana- 
dian 225 

White, David, The Canadian 

dian species of Whittleseya. 98 
Whiteaves, J. F., Notes on a 
supposed new species of 

Lytoceras 31 

Catalogue of the Marine 
Invertebrata of Eastern 

Canada 165 

The Golden Eagle in Ontario 249 

On the genus Panenka 262 

Whittleseya, The Canadian 

sjiecics of 98 

Wilson, W. J., Note on Acei 

dasycarpum 164 

Williams, J. B., Scudder's Blue. 234 

Willows of the Chilliwack Valley 275 

Woodcock's love song, The .... 129 

Notes on 195 

Yukon Territory, Natural His- 
tory in 14 



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