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7 



igoS. 



VOL. XX. 



1907 



THE 



OTTAWA NATURALIST, 



Being Vol. XXII. of the 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



OTTAWA FIEI/D-NATURAUSTS' CLUB 



Organized March, 1879. Incorporated March, 1884. 



A. q 



OTTAWA, CAN AD 
Ottawa I'rinting Company (Limitko) 
1906. 




UH 



Cl5i 
i,20 



O 



THE, OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' GLUB, 1905-1906. 

patron : 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EARL GREV, 

Ci(.n'ERNOR-GRNERAL OF CANADA. 



president : 

W. J. Wilson, Ph.B. 

IDicesprcBiDcnts : 

A. E. Attwood, M.A. Fr.ink T. Sluitt, M.A.. F.R.S.C. 

Xibrariaii : 

J. \V. Baldwin. 

Secretary : treasurer ; 

T. E. Clarke. Arthur Gibson. 

^47° O'Connor Street.; (^('entral Experimental Farm.) 

Committee : 

Mr. A. G. Kin^erston. | Mr. A. Halkett. 



.Mr. j. M. Macoun. I Miss M. McK. Scott. 

Mr. \V. T, .Macoun. Miss A. L. Matthews. 

Dr. U. M. Ami. I Miss R. B. McQuesten. 

auditors : . 

R. B. Whyte. A. H. Gallup. 

StanDinc? Committees of Council : 

Publishing : .\. Gibson, J. M. Macoun, H. M. Ami, F. T. Shutt, J. W 

Baldwin, Miss ^L .McKay Scott. 
Excursions: H. M. Ami, A. Halkett, A. Gibson, A. G. Ki.ngston, T. E. 

Clarke, Miss R. B. McQuesten, Miss A. L. Matthews. 
Soirees: F. T. Shutt, W. T. Macoun, A. E. Attwood, Miss R. B. Mc- 
Questen, Miss .\. L. .Matthews. 

Xea^ers : 

Geology : H. M. .Ami, \V. J. Wilson, D. B. Dowling, J. Keele, W. H. Collins. 
Botany : John Macoun, D. A Campbell, A. E. Attwood, S. B. Sinclair, T. 

E. Clarke. 
Entomology : J. Fletcher, W. H. Harrington, C. H. Young, A. Gibson, J. W. 

Baldwin. 
Conchology : F. R. Latchford, J. F. Whiteaves, J. Fletcher, S. E. O'Brien 
Ornithology : G. Eifrig, W. T. Macoun, A. G. Kingston, A. H. Gallup. 
Zoology: E. E. Prince, .A. Halkett, W. S. Odell, E. E. Leinieux. 
Archteology : T. W. E. Sowter, J. Ballantyne. 
Meteorology : Otto Klotz, Jno. Macoun, A. E. .-Vttwood, D. A. Campbell. 

THE OTT.AWA NATUR.ALIST. 
BiMtor : 
James .M. Macoln. (Geological Survey of Canada.) 

associate BOitors : 

Dr. R. W. Ells, Geological Survey of Canada. — Department oi Geology. 

Dr. J. F. Whiteaves, Geological Survey of Canada. — Dept. of Ptilteonto'ogv. 

Dr. .a. E. Barlow, Geological Survey of Canada. — Dcpi. of Pelrogrci/>/iy. 

Dr. Jas. Fletcher, Central Experimental Farm. — Botany and Xaturc Study, 

Ho.N. F. R. Latchford. — Department of Concholoqy. 

Mr. W. H. HARRlNt;TO.N, Post Office Department. —Dept. of Entomology. 

Mr. .a. G. Ki.sgsto.n, Public Works Department— Dept. of Ornithology. 

Prof. E. E. Prlnce, Commissionerof Fisheries for Canada. — Di:\^i. of Zoology. 

Dr. Otto Ki.otz — Dept. of Mctei>rulogy. 

MeiulMTnblp Fer to O.F-.N.I'., wilh "Ottawa .\aluraliHl, " $I.<MI :Mr aiiiiuui 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Ottawa Kield-Naturalist! 
April. 1906. 



Club, 



Adams, Prof. F. D., M.Sc, Ph. D. 

Airth, Miss E. 

Ami, H. M., M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., 

F.R.S.C. 
Ami, Mrs. H. M. 
Ami, S. T. 

Anderson, Miss Constance. 
A^nderson, James R. (\'ictoria, B.C.) 
Anderson, Lieiit-Cul. W. P., C.E. 
Ashman, Geo. H. 
Attwood, A. E., M.A. 
Baker, J. C. 
Baldwin, J. \V. 
Ballantyne, James. 
Barbour, \V. C. (Say re, Pa.) 
Barlow, A. E. M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S.A. 
Bate, H. Gerald. 
Bate, H. X. 

Beaupre, Edwin. (Kingston.) 
Bell, VLohevt, B.A.Sc.,M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S , F.R.S.C, F.G.S., F.G.S.A. 
Bell, Georg-e. 
Belliveau, A. H. 
Billings, C. 
Billings, W. R. 
Blackadar, Dr. E. H. 
Blackadar, Llovd. 
Borden, //o?i. SirF. W., M.D. 
Bowen, Miss .Alice. (Quebec.) 
Bowles, Miss Sibvl M. 
Bovd, Miss M. 
Boyd, \V. H., B.A.Sc. 
Brainerd, Dwight. (Montreal.) 
Brennan, .Mrs H. H. 
Bre wst ei-, W . ( Cam bridge, Mass. , U. S ) 
Brock, R W.. M.A., B.A.Sc. 
Brown, Mrs. R. D. 
Brown, \V. J. (Westmount, O. ) 
Bruce, L. (Rossland, B.C.) ~ 
Burgess, T. J. \V., .I/.A, F.R.S.C, 

(Montr, il. I 
Burland, G. 1,. 

Burman, Rev. W. .\. (Winnijieg. ) 
Calder, Alex. (Winnipeg.) 
Cameron, E. R., .I/..I. 
Cameron, Roy. 
Casson, A'ci'. C. W . 
Campbell, D. .A., //..J. 



Campbell, .\. M. 

Campbell, R. H. 

Chalmers, Robert, LL.D. 

Clark, G. H., B.S.A. 

Clarke, C. K., M.D. (King-ton.) 

Clarke, T. E. 

Cobbold, Paul .\. (Haile}hury, Ont.) 

Cooper, H. W. 

Cole, H. W. 

Cole, John. (Westboro', Ont.) 

Cole, Mrs. John. (\Vestboro\ Ont.) 

Collins, J. Franklin. (Providence, R.I,) 

Collins, W. H. 

Connor, M, F., B.Sc. 

Coli, J. C. 

Courtney, Harold D. 

Cousens, W. C, M.D. 

Cowan, Miss E. 

Cowley, Miss Mary A 

Craig, Pro/. John. (Ithaca, N.Y.) 

Criddle, X. (Aweme, Man.) 

Currie, P W. 

Curr)-, Miss E. E. 

Daly, R. A., M.A., Ph.D. 

Daubney, Edwin. 

Dawson, S. E., Lit. D. 

Dearness, J., M.A. (London, Ont.) 

Dempsev, J. H. C. (Hamilton, Ont.) 

Denny, J. D. 

Dixon, F. A. 

Dixon, Miss M. F. 

Dohertv, T. Keville. 

Dowling, D. B., B.A.Sc. 

Dul.du & Co., (London, Eng. ) 

Dunne, J. P. 

Durnford, F, G. D. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Ir. , .^f.D. (Xew 

York.) 
Edwards, A.M., .V.D. ( Xewark,N,J.) 
Eitrig, Rev. G. 

Ells, R.W., LL.D., F.G.S.A., F.R.S.C. 
Evans, Jno. D., CE. (Trenton, Ont.) 
Ewart, D. 

Farley, F. L. (Red Deer, Alia.) 
Fisher, Hon. Sydney. 
Fitzp'itrick, Hon. Ch.is. 
Fleck, A. \V. 
Fleming, J. H. (Toronto.) 



1906 1 



List of Members. 



Flcniinif, 5i> Sjiiidford, A'.C.U.d'., 

C.£.',F.P.C./., F./^.S.C. 
FlctcluT. J.. L/../)., F./..S., F.A\S.C. 
Gahoiir\-, \'. H. ( IMaiilngenel, Out.) 
Gallup. A. H. 
Gibson, Arthur. 
Gibson, J. W. 
Glashan. J. C. /./../;. 
Gorman, M. J., /J../i. 
Graham. \V. 
Grant, .Sir J. A., A'.C.UJ^., .l/.A, 

F.R.C.S Edin. F.R.S.C., F.G.S. 
Gregson, Percy H. (Blackfalds, -Alia. I 
Grisdalo, J. H., B. Agt. 
Grist, Honry. 
(".ii>t. Miss Mary L. 
I'll censlelder, M. B. (Co'nmbia.Mo ) 
Unlki-tt, Andrew. 
Hamilton, Robert. 
Hamilton, Mrs. F. L. H. 
Hann, H. H. (Summit, .\.J.) 
Hargrave, Miss I. (Siierbrooke, O.) 
Harmer, Miss G. (Mosgrove. Ont. I 
Harrington, \V. Hague. F.R.S.C. 
Harrison, Edward. 
Hay, George, Sr 
Hav, G. L'., D.Sc, M.A., Ph.H., 

F.R.S.C, (St. John, N.B.) 
Herriot, W. (Gait, Ont.) 
Hewit, H. O. 
Hodge, C. F., Ph.D (Woreester, 

Mass.) 
Hodson, F. W. 
Hodson, Mrs. F. \V. 
Hodson, Ronald. 
Hop', James. 

Hotson, I. W., .l/.J. (Guelph, Ont.) 
House of Commons Reading Room. 
Hughes, Charles. (.Montreal.) 
Hughes, Miss Katherine. 
Ide, \Vm. 

Irwin, Lt..Col. D. T. 
Jackson, Miss Queenie. 
Jacobs, .MissC. -M. (Hamilton, Ohio.) 
Jameson, R. H. (Victoria, B.C.) 
James, C. C, M..A. (Toronto.) 
Jenkins, S. J., n..A. 
Joly de Lotbiniere, Hmi. Sir Flenry. 

(Victoria, B.C.) 
Jones, Harold. (.Maitland, Ont.) 
Kearns, J. C. 
Keefer, Thos. C, C.M.G., C.E.. 

F.R.S.C. 
Keele, J.. B.A.Sc. 
Kells, W. L. (Listowell, Out.) 
Kendall, E. \V. (Guelph, Ont.( 
Kingston. .A. G. 
Klotr, Dr. Otto. 



Labarthe, J (Trail, B.C . 

Laidlaw, G. H!., (Victoria Ro.ul, v.>nl.) 

Lajeunesse, Rev. J. A. 

Lambart, //"//. O. H. 

Lambe, L. .M., F.G.S. , F.G.S. A. 

F.R.S.C 
Latchford, Hon. F. R., /i.A. 
Lawrence, H. (Vegreville, Alta.) 
Leavitt, T. W. H. (Toronto.) 
Lee, .Miss Kath. (Walertown, N.V). 
Lees, .Miss \'. ' 

Legislative Library. (Toronto.) 
Lemieux, E. E. 
LeSueur, VV. D., B.A. 
Lewis, J. B., CE. 
L'brary Dept. Ont. .\gr. College. 

(GuJiph.) 
Library, Leg. .Assembly (Quebec.) 
Library of Parliament. 
Liebner, E. O., B.A. 
Lochhead, \V., B.A., .U.Sc. 

(Guelph, Ont.) 
Lym-in, H. H., .J/..1. (Montreal.) 
McCallum, Frank. 
.McCreadv, Prof. S. B. (Guelph.) 
-McDougrill, .Miss J C. 
.McDunnough, Jas. (Glasgow, Scot.) 
M.:Elhinnev, -M. P. 
McGill, A.; B.A., B.Sc. 
Mclnnes, Wm., B.A. 
MacLaughlin, T. J. 
McLeod, Miss. 
McNeil, Alex. 
McXibb, J. 
McNicol, Miss C. C. 
McOuesten, Miss Rubv B. 
MacCraken, John L, B.A. 
Macfarlane, Rev. J. A. (Bristol, Que. ) 
MacKav. A.H. ,LL.D ,B.Sc.,F.R.S C 

(Halifax.) 
Macoun, Pro/. John, .]/. . 1 . , F./..S., 

F.R.S.C 
Macoun, J. M. 
Macoun, \V. T. 
Matthews, Miss .Annie L. 
Maxwell, Miss S. (Montreal.) 
Mearns, Dr. E. .A. ( Washington, D.C. ) 
Megill, \V. IL T., B.A. 
.Metcalfe, \V. 
Millar, H. H. 

Miller, Pro/. W. G. (Toronto.) 
Milne, Wm. 

.Moore, W. H. (Scotch Lake, N.B.) 
.Morris, F. J. A. (Port Hope, Out.) 
.Murray, James, /i.S..l. 
Nash, C. W. (Toronto.) 
Newcombe,C. F., .J/./A (\'ictoria,B.C) 
Newman, L. H., Ji.S.A. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



■April 



O'Brien, S. E. 

Odell, W. S. 

Orde, J. F. 

O'Sullivan, Owen. 

Owen, Beverley. 

Perrin, \'incent, C.E. 

Pollock, T. J. (Aylmer, One.) 

Pop"^, Arthur. 

Pitcher, Rev. T. 

Pitts, H. H. 

Prince, Prof. E. E., B.A., F.L.S. 

Putman, J. H., B.A. 

Raine, Walter. (Toronto.) 

Richard, A. E. 

Ritchie, Miss Isabella. 

Robertson, Prof. J. W., LL D. (St. 

Anne de Bellevue, Que.) 
Robinson, Miss M. 
Rodman, Miss A. E. 
Ruddick, J. A. 
Rush, M. L. 
Saunders, Wm., C.M.G., LL.D., 

F.G.S., F.L.S.,F.R.S.C. 
Saunders, W. E. (London, Ont.) 
Schmitt, Dr. J. (Anticosti.) 
Scott, Geo. Inglis. 
Scott, Mrs. G. I. 
Scott, Norman M. 
Scott, John A. 
Scott, Miss Marv McKav. 
Scott, W., ^.^. "(Toronto.) 
Scott, Rev. C. T. (Montreal, Que.) 
Senate of Canada, The. 
Seton, E. Thompson, (Coscob, Conn. ) 
Shannon, Frank. 
Shearman, F. J. \V. 
Shore, John W. 
Shutt, F. T., M.A., F.I.C.. F.C.S., 

F.P.S.C. 
Simpson, Willibert. 
Sinclair, S. B., B.A. Ph.D. 
Skales, Howard. (Mt. Forest. Ont.) 
Small, H Beaumont, M.D. 
Snider, W. W. 
Sowler, T. \V. E. 
Souliere, O. 
Spence, J. C, B.A. 



St. Jacques, H. 

Summerby, Wm. J., M.A. (Russell, 

Ont.) 
Sutherland, J. C, B.A, (Richmond, 

Que.) 
Sutton, Mrs. L. L. 
Sullivan, J. F. 
Symes, P. B. 
Taylor, F. B. (Fort Wayne, Ind., 

U.S.) 
Terrill, L. M. (Montreal.) 
Thompson, M. 

Thomson, Evan. (Red Lodge, Aha.) 
Thorne, James, B.A. 
Topley, Mrs. W. J. 
Tucker, Walter. 
Tyrrell, J. B., B.A., B.Sc. F.G.S 

F.G.S.A. 
Wait, F. G., B.A. 
Walker, B. E., F.G.S. (Toronto.) 
Walker, Bryant. (Detroit.) 
Wallis, J. B. (Winnipeg, Man.) 
Warwick. F. W^. , B.Sc, (Buckingham 

Que.) 
Watters, Henr}-. 
Weston, T. C, F.G.S. A. 
Whelen, Peter. 
Whelen, Miss A. 
White, E. G. 
White, George R. 
White, James, (Snelgrove, Ont.) 
White, J. F., M.A. 
White, L/.-Col. W.. C.M.G. 
Whiteaves, J. F., LL.D., F.G.S., 

F.P.S.C., F.G.S. A. 
Whyte, Miss Ida. 
Whyte, Miss Isabella. 
Whyte, R. B. 
Wilkie, Miss Jean C. 
Williams, J. B., (Toronto.) 
Willing, T, X. (Regina, Assa. ) 
Wil.son, W. J., Ph.B. 
Winchester, H. S. 

Wood, //<^«. Josiah. (Sackville, N.B. 
Young, Rev. C. J., M.A. (Madoc, 

Ont.) 
Young, C. H. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 
Bethine, Rf.v. C.J. S., Af.A., D.C.L., F.R.S.C, London, Ont. 
Gree.nr, Dr. E. L. United States Nat. Museum, Washington, D.C. 
Hii.L, .-Xi.BERT J., .U.A., C.E., New Westminster, B,C. 
IIOL.M, TiiEODOR, Ph.D., Brookland, Washington, D.C, U.S. 
.Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, Department of Agriculture, Washington. U.S. 
Smith, Prof. John B., D.Sc. Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J. 
Tavi.ok, Rkv. G. \V., Af,A., F.R.S.C, F.Z.S., Wellington, B.C. 
WiCKHA.M, Prok. H. F., Iowa City, Iowa, U.S. 



THE OTTAWA t(ATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, APRIL, 1906. No. i 

THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE OTTAWA 

FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING MARCH 20, 1906. 



The past year has witnessed great interest in the work of the 
Club, as is shown by the large increase in membership. Sixty- 
two new ordinary members have been elected. The present mem- 
bership is 293, composed of 285 ordinary members anJ eight 
corresponding members. 

Soirees. 

The programme of Winter Soirees published in the December 
number of The Ottawa Naturalist has been carried out with some 
slight omissions and changes in dates. The attendance at all the 
meetings has been most gratifying 

Since the Normal School course has been lengthened to a 
year, the students have been able to engage in the field work of 
the Club during the spring and fall months and also to attend the 
winter soirees The result has been that the students, having 
become interested in the field work, have attended the soirees 
almost in a body. The Club realizes that through the teachers it 
has a most valuable medium of disseminating its influence, and 
therefore it keenly appreciates the interest that has been displayed 
throughout the year. 

Excursions. 

Sub-excursions were held as usual during the spring and early 
summer to localities in the immediate vicinity of Ottawa, viz. : 
RockcliflFe, Blueberry Point, Victoria Park. Leamy Lake, and 
Beaver Meadow. RockcliflFe Park and Beaver Meadow were 
again visited in October. 



8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

The Council favors the continuance of outdoor work through- 
out the year, and to that end had planned two snowshoe tramps, 
which, however, were cancelled for lack of snow. Three general 
excursions were held as follows : May 27, to Chelsea ; June 10, 
to Carp ; September 23, to Chelsea. The excursion to Chelsea 
on \hiy 27 was perhaps the most largely attended excursion in 
the history of the Club, due to the fact that both the Royal Society 
and the Carleton County Teachers' Association met in Ottawa 
during that week. Such distinguished visitors as Dr. C. F. 
Hodge of Clark University, Dr. A. H. MacKay, Superintendent 
of Education for Nova Scotia, and Dr. G. U. Hay, editor of the 
Educational Review, were present and delivered able addresses. 
Detailed accounts of all the general excursions have appeared in 
The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The Ottawa Naturalist. 

Volume XIX of The Ottawa Naturalist, the official organ 
of the Club, hns been published under the editorship of Mr. J. M. 
Macoun. It consists of twelve numbers which contain in all 249 
pages and four plates. The following are among the papers that 
appear in this volume : 

1. A New Marine Sponge from the Pacific Coast of Canada. 
Lawrence M. Lambe, F.G.S. 

2. Notes on Fresh-waler Rhizopods. W. S. Odell. 

3. Food_Value of Certain Mushrooms. Prof. Shutt, M.A , 
and H. W. Charlton, B A. Sc. 

4. Popular Entomology. .Arthur Gibson. 

5. Glaciation of Mount Orford. R. Chalmers, LL. D. 

6. Nesting of Night-hawk in Ottawa. Rev. G. Eifrig. 

7. Notes on Fresh-water Shells frotn the Yukon Territory. 
Dr. J. F. Whiteaves. 

8. Nature's Method of R'-seeding the Red and White Pine. 
P. Cox. 

9. A Naturalist in the Frozen North. .Andw. Halkett. 
10. Eggs of the Scarlet Water-Mite. Prof. E. E. Prince- 
I I. Sthenopis ihule at Ottawa. .Arthur Gibson. 
" 12. Bird Migration. Jas. Bouteiller. 



hmC| Rei'okt ok the Councii.. g 

13. Out. Oniilliological Notes (Winter 1904-05). A. B. 
Kliigh. 

14. Notes on the Fauna and Climate of the Lievre River. 
E. E. Lemieux. 

15. Why our FieKI and Roadside Weeds are introduced 
species. W. T. Macoun. 

16. The Hair-eel {Gordius aqnaticus). Prof E. E. Prince. 

17. The Red-breasted Nuthatch. Wm. H. Moore. 

18. On So-Called Silene Menziesii. Ed. L. Greene. 

19. A New Northern .Antennaria. Ed. L. Greene. 

20. A New Goldenrod from Gaspe Peninsula M. L. Fernald. 

21. Elxtracts from Diary of the late Robt. Elliott. W. E. 
Saunders. 

22. De.scriptions of New Species of Tesludo and Baena with 
remarks on some Cretaceous forms. Lawr. M. Lambe. 

2-^. Notes on Some British Columbia Mammals. Wm. 
Spreadborough. 

24. The Fly Agaric, and its effects on Cattle. Norman 
Criddle. 

25. Birds New to Ontario. W. Saunders. 

26. Eggs of the Fresh -water Ling. Prof. Prince and .Andrew 
Halkett. 

27. Eupithecia V'oungata. George W. Taylor. 

28. Cultivation of Native Orchids. J. H. C. Dempsey. 

In addition to these, there have been published several short 
notes, book reviews, accounts of branch meetings, etc 

The series of articles on Nature Study, edited by Dr. Jas. 
P'letcher, has been continued. In this volume the following papers 
appear : 

1. Nature Study. Dr. Sinclair. 

2. The Clouded Sulphur Butterfly. Dr. Fletcher. 

3. Short Introduction to some of our Common Birds. Rev. 
G. Eifrig. 

5. Field Work at the Ottawa Normal School Summer Course 
for Teachers. A. E. .Atlwood. 

4. Ottawa Summer School for Teachers. J. H. Putman. 

5. Woolly-Bear Caterpillars. Arthur Gibson. 

6. Nature Observations at Home. Prof. Lochhead. 



lo The Ottawa Naturalist. | April 

7. Mother Nature and Her Boys. An Institute that brings 
them together. G. J. Atkinson. 

8. The School Garden and the Country School. Geo. D. 
Fuller. 

In all, some 30 articles on Nature Study have appeared in 
The Ottawa Naturalist during the past three years. They are 
of a popular and decidedly practical nature, and have added much 
valuable material to the current literature on this subject. The 
papers published during the past year have all been contributed 
by scientists and educationists actively engaged in working out 
the best courses and methods in Nature Study. 5,500 of each of 
these papers have been printed in pamphlet form and distributed 
thoughout Canada ; 2,200 of these go to the teachers of Toronto, 
500 to the Macdonald Institute of Guelph for use in the Nature 
Study Department of the Ontario Agricultural College, and 1,000 
to Dr. Robertson, 500 of which are distributed among his Nature 
Study Instructors in various centres. 

Reports of Branches. 

Reports showing the work done throughout the year by the 
various branches have been read before the Club. The report 
of the Geological Branch has been printed in The Ottawa 
Naturalist, and the other reports will appear at an early date. 
Most of the branches are now holding fortnightly or monthly 
meetings at the homes of the members for the purpose of discuss- 
ing subjects of especial interest to the respective branches. 

Entomological Branch. 

The members of the Entomological Branch have made some 
notable additions to the local lists during the past summer. 
Mr. Arthur Gibson made, on July 6, the catch of the year, a per- 
fect specimen of the very rare and local moth Hepialiis ihule, 
Strkr. Up to the present time this is the only specimen which is 
known with certainty to have been taken at any other place than 
Montreal, from which locality the species was originally described 
and where a few specimens are taken yearly. Mr. C. H. Young 
has continued his studies of the micro-lepidoptera and has added 
many new species to the Canadian fauna. All of these have been 



1906] Report of the Couniii.. 11 

described by Mr. W. D Kearfott, of Montclair, N.J., who is 
making a specialty of these beautiful insects. Mr. W. Metcalfe 
has continued his studies of the local hemiptera and has added 
many new records. Mr. J. W. Baldwin made a very remarkable 
capture of the West Indian moth, Melipotis fasciolaris, Hbn. It 
can only be surmised that the chrysalis of this handsome molh 
may have been introduced, as has been the case with many other 
insects, in a bunch of bananas. The Ottawa Fruit Exchange 
building is close to Mr. Baldwin's house, where the insect was 
taken in the garden. Six specimens of the handsome elater, 
Pityobius angiiinus, Lee , figured in the first Transactions of the 
Club under the name oi Pt'fyobius billiugsu, were taken by Messrs. 
Baldwin and Gibson at the electric light on the 28th June. A 
month later a fine female was taken by Dr. Fletcher, floating on 
the surface of water, into which it had fallen. Many other insects 
oi more or less interest were taken during the summer and the 
interest in this branch of work has been kept up steadily. Good 
work has been done by the leaders in working out life-histories 
of beneficial and injurious insects. 

Geological Br.^nch. 
Members of the Geological Branch have make special study 
of some interesting localities in the Ottawa district. The sands 
and gravels of McKay Lake have been examined and special 
study has been made of the geology of Strathcona Park, where 
the excavations in the Utica have afforded an excellent oppor- 
tunity for studying that formation ; the Chazy at Rockcliffe has 
yielded an excellent series of slabs exhibiting tracks and trails of 
marine organisms. The most interesting local find, however, was 
the discovery of a large number of curved hornblende crystals in 
a vein of mica at Carp. These curved crystals were new to the 
geologists and hitherto unrecorded in Canada. 

Botanical Branch, 

The Botanical Branch has held fortnightly meetings through- 
out the year except during the summer months. The most im- 
portant matter taken up was the publication of a complete list of 
the plants of the Ottawa district. Since Dr. Fletcher's "Flora 
Ottawaensis " was published many new species have been added to 



12 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

local list, and the work of specialists has made a thorough study 
of the local flora necessary. This list is to be issued as a publica- 
tion ot the Geological Survey. The Botanical Branch invite the 
co-operation of all local botanists in this work o/ revision, and 
would call special attention to the Rosaceae ; the study of this 
large order of plants will certainly result in the addition of several 
species to the local list. 

Zoological Branch. 

The Zoological Branch held two very profitable meetings 
during the winter. At the first meeting Prof. Prince read an in- 
teresting paper on the function of the swim bladder of fishes, an 
outline of which appears in the report of the branch. At the 
second meeting Prot. Macoun pointed out the great amount of 
work that can be done in procuring specimens of the numerous 
species of small mammals to be found near Ottawa, and also 
pointed out the ease with whi.h this could be done. 

The report of the Zoological Branch contains a list prepared 
by Mr. Halkett of the fishes of the Ottawa district preserved in 
the Fisheries Museum with the localities were they were taken. 
It also records a number of interesting observations made by 
members of the branch during the year. 

Ornithological Branch. 

The Ornithological Branch, although small, consibls of a 
number of enthusiastic workers. Monthly meetings have been 
held since early last fall at which much systematic work has been 
planned. The vicinity of Ottawa is to be divided among the mem- 
bers of the branch for active field work, and the antiquated local 
list published by the Club many years ago is to be thoroughly 
worked over. Some interesting additions have already been made 
to the local records, such as the appearance of the Short-billed 
Marsh Wren, a breeding record of the Screech Owl, and the casual 
occurence of the Glaucous Gull. The Great Grey Owl, a rare 
visitor from the north, has been seen this winter. One specimen 
was secured in East Templeton and another near South March. 
One of these, a very fine specimen, is now in the collection of 
Rev. Mr. Eifrig. 

Mr. W. E. Saunders of London, who is an active member of 



1906J Report ok the Coincil. i-; 

tlie Club, has done valuable uork in compiling' a list of birds new 
to Ontario which have been taken in the Western Peninsula since 
the issuance of Mcllwraiih's revised work. This list appears in 
No. II of the volume of the Ottawa Naturalist just com- 
pleted. 

The Treasurer's Report shows a balance on hand of $61.62. 

A Summer School for Teachers was held in Ottawa last July. 
Several members of the Club delivered lectures in the Nature 
Study Course and aided in the field work. Dr. White did prac- 
tical field work wiih the class in Physical Geography. Mr. Put- 
man delivered illustrated lectures and conducted experimental 
work in Botany, Mr. Attwood delivered lectures on minerals and 
did a great deal of field work, Dr. Fletcher gave two lectures on 
birds and two on insects, Prof. Prince lectured on Fish Lite, Dr. 
Ami on Ferns, Dr. Saunders on Evergreens, Mr. R. B. Whyte on 
the pleasures of gardening and other members on various other 
subjects. 

The Council desires to call the attention of the Club to the 
large number of unbound magazines in the library and would 
suggest the binding of such of these as a committee appointed to 
make a selection would consider most worthy of preservation. 

The thanks of the Club are again due to Principal White for 
so kindly placing the Normal School at its disposal, and also to 
the press of the city for its efforts in furthering the work of the 
Club. 

Respectfully submitted. 

T. E. Clarke, 

Secretary. 

The Library Coinmittee, acting under instructions from the 
Council of the Club, has almost completed the arrangement of the 
periodicals in the Library with the object of having them bound. 
A good many numbers are missing, and the members who have 
borrowed them are asked to return them to the Library as soon 
as they conveniently can, so that the Committee may conclude its 
work It is hoped that this notice will make it unnecessary t<< 
apply directly to those who have the borrowed numbers in their 
possession. 



'4 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



I April 



TREASURER'S STATEMENT FOR YEAR ENDING 
20TH MARCH, 1906. 



Receipts. 

Balance from previous year 

Subscriptions - 1905-1906 $167 00 

Arrears 65 00 

Advertisements in Ottawa Naturalist 

Author's extras sold, including separates of Nature 

Study articles 

Ottawa Naturalists sold, including postage 

Maps of Ottawa sold 

Proceeds Gen. Excursion to Chelsea, May 

Government Grant 



Expenditure. 

Printing Ottawa Naturalist, V^ol. XIX, 12 Nos., 249pp. 286 20 

Illustrations 29 92 

Author s extras, including Nature Study separates .... 147 15 

Miscellaneous printing — wrappers, post cards, etc 30 08 

$493 35 

Postage 22 03 

Editor 5000 

$565 38 
Less 5 per cent, for cash on printers' accounts .... 24 30 

Secretary 

Treasurer .... 

Soiree expenses 

Library expenses (binding set of Ottawa N.\turalist). 

Sundry expenses, postage, etc 

Balance 



$53 43 



2^2 


00 


75 


60 


106 


08 


6 


62 




«5 


21 


90 


200 


00 



$696 48 



541 


08 


25 


00 


25 


00 


9 


50 


6 


00 


28 


28 


61 


62 


$696 48 



Examined and found correct. 



ARTHUR GIBSON, Trr^asurer. 



R. B. WHVTE. \ . ,., 
A. H. GALLUP. ]A''d't"'-'- 

Subscriptions for the new club year, beginning with this number of the 
Naturalist, are now due, and shvHild be paid to the Treasurer as soon as 
possible. 

The Treasurer would direct attention to the advertisements in our new- 
volume. Some of these appear for the first time, and members are specially 
asked to remember these different firms when making purchases. They are 
all good reliable firms, and, as they are helping the Club by giving advertise- 
ments, we should all make it a point to deal with lliem. 



1906 J Collection of Fossil Fruits from V'ermont. 15 

xoTES ON AN intp:rksting collhction of fossil 

FRUITS FROM VERMONT, IN THE MUSEUM OF 
THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA.* 



By H. M. Ami, Geological Survey of Canada. 

.Amongst the specimens exhibited at the first January meeting 
ol the Botanical Club was a collection of fossil fruits from Bran- 
don, Vermont. These specimens appeared to have been in the 
collections of the Geological Survey Museum since the days of the 
late Sir William Logan, having been brought to his attention, it 
is thought, by the elder Hitchcock in the early fifties. It was in 
1853 that these fossil fruits were recorded for the first time by 
President Edward Hitchcock, in the Amer. Jour. Sc, vol. xv, 
p. 95 (1853), as occurring in "a bed of brown coal connected with 
the white clays and brown hematite of the place," referring to 
Brandon, Vermont, which he had visited in the spring of 1852. 

During the visit of the Geological Society of America held in 
Ottawa in December, 1905, Prof. G. H. Perkins, Director of the 
State Geological Survey, Vermont, was good enough to look 
over the collection of these fruits, which were shown to him by 
the writer, and he there and then undertook to identify every 
recognizable species, most of which he had himself recently 
studied, and more particularly described, not only before the 
Geological Society of America, at the Philadelphia meeting, but 
also in the Report ot the State Geologist for \'ermont for the 
years 1903- 1904. 

The geological horizon or formation to which these fruits 
have been referred by many geologists practically agree in ascrib- 
ing them to the "Lignite Tertiary," the Brandon Lignite or Brandon 
formation, specially designating the horizon or formation to which 
they are referable. Professor Perkins is inclined to think them as 
" Miocene Tertiary" in age. Their age was compared by Edward 
Hitchcock with those of the fossil fruits from the London clay 
figured by Bowerbank, and he (Hitchcock) further states that 
" the Brandon deposit is the type of a Tertiary formation hitherto 
unrecognized as such extending from Canada to Alabama," add- 
ing : "This deposit belongs to the Pliocene or newer Tertiary.' 

* Published by permission of the Oitector of the Geol. Survey of Canada. 



i6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

Lesquereux referred the species to the " Upper Tertiary," noting 
that they agreed specially with the flora of Oeningen, adding : " I 
have no doubt that the Brandon lignites belong to the same epoch 
as the upper bed of the lignite of the Tertiary." (Geol. of \"ermont, 
p. 250. 1861.) 

From 1861 to 1902, when Prof. F. H. Knowlton's paper on 
these Vermont lignites appeared in the Torrey Bulletin of Novem- 
ber of that year, pp. 635-64 r, plate 25, in which that authority 
compared the Brandon lignite w'th the Pityoxylon inicroporosum of 
Schmalhausen from the Eocene of the Braunkohle of southwestern 
Russia, naming the Vermont form: Pityoxylon microporosum Bran- 
donianwn^ nothing was written or published concerning these 
fruits. They are being studied by Dr. E. C. Jeffrey, of the Botan- 
ical Department at Harvard at the present time, and in a forth- 
coming Report of the State Geologist of Vermont it is confidently 
expected that Dr. Jeffrey's views will be given publicity. Mean- 
while, writing of the lignite, Jeffrey states that it " is a species of 
Lauroxylon in a more or less good state of preservation. There is 
one small piece of coniferous wood and a good deal of dicotyle- 
denous material in which only the medullary rays show any struc- 
ture." 

The shafts sunk through the clay to the lignites have been 

closed, as, also, the diggings for the Brandon paint in the clays 
themselves, so that it is practically out of the question now to ob- 
tain any more specimens of these fossil fruits from this locality. 
Formerly, as President Hitchcock pointed out, there were out- 
croppings of these lignites, but they have been covered up by 
the dumps and waste materials from the clay pits. 

A paper on the " Brandon Clay " appears in the Report of the 
State Geologist for 1903-1904, by Prof. J. B. Woodworth, pp. 
166-173. ^"'^ '" '^'^ '^ given an analysis of the lignite copied from 
the original description in 1861. 

Volatile matter 4 . 50 % 

Carbon 93 5° % 

Ash 2 . 00 % 

Total 100.00 

Prof. Woodworth then gives notes on the various collections 
examined from the different Museums of the State ot \'ermont and 



i9o6| Collection of Fossil Fruits from Vermont. 17 

other New England Museums, points out the difficulties in com- 
paring these fruits with those of to-day, indicating that "it is 
among the tropical and subtropical living species that we should 
expect to find that the most close allies to the Tertiary forms." 
He also compares a collection of Australian fruits in the Univer- 
sity Museum at Harvard with those from Brandon, Vermont, and 
adds that they closely resemble them. 

From pages 174 to 212 of the same valuable Report of the 
State Geologist of Vermont, Prof. G. H. Perkins himself describes 
these fruits and accompanies the descriptions with excellent illus- 
trations on Plates Ixxv, Ixxvi, Ixxvii, Ixxviii, Ixxix, Ixxx and Ixxxi. 

The following is a list of the species identified by Prof. Per- 
kins from the collectio'.i in the Geological Survey Museum at 
Ottawa, Canada, to which is added the number of specimens 
representing each species : 

1. Glossocarpelites Brandonianus, Lesquereux. Fourteen specimens, 

2. ,, elong^atus, Perkins. Four specimens. 

3. ,, obtusus, Perkins. Nine specimens. 

4. ,, grandis, Perkins. Two specimens. 

5. „ parvus, Perkins. One specimen. 

6. Monocarpelites eleg^ans, Perkins. One specimen. 

7. Bicarpelites Grayana. (Lesquereux, sp,). One specimen. 

8. Nvssa ascoidea, Perkins. One specimen. 

9. ,, Lescurii, C. H. Hitchcock. One specimen. 
10. ,, elongata, Perkins. Two specimens. 

ir. Apeibopsis Heeri, Lesquereux. Six specimens. 

12. ,, Gaudinii, Lesquereux. Fourteen specimens. 

13. Aristolochia obscura, Lesquereux Eiglit specimens. 

14. Aristolochites majus, Perkins. Five specimens. 

25. Sapinoides Americanus, (Lesquereux) Perkins. Six specimens 

In all, these fossil fruits, as determined by Prof. Perkins, 
have yielded sixty-eight specimens distributed in eight genera and 
fifteen species. Ihey were all identified by Prof. G. H. Perkins, 
and the Geological Survey of Canada is under special obligations 
to him for his kindness in looking over the material submitted to 
him, which he so willingly classified. 

As the Brandon formation of clays and lignites is supposed 
to cross the Canadian boundary, it has been deemed of interest to 
make a note of the collection which Sir William Logan had ob- 
tained years ago, and must serve to throw light upon the geolog 
ical history of our Eastern Townships. 

Ottawa, Jan. 25, 1906. 



i8 The Ottawa Naturalist. | April 

ON THE STRUCTURE OF ROOTS. 



By Theo. Holm. 

It is a general belief that plant-roots exhibit but very lew 
modifications in regard to function and structure, and almost as a 
rule the histology of this organ is silently passed by in works on 
plant-anatomy. Furthermore, it is a very common feature of 
herbarium specimens that the parts underground, for instance the 
roots, are either totally absent or poorly preserved. It is, there- 
fore, often very difficult to study roots in herbaria, and the student 
is mostly obliged to secure the material himself and to make alcohol 
preparations. When roots are dried and pressed they may in some 
cases be made useful to histological research by being placed in 
boiling water and then preserved in strong alcohol, but many 
roots, especially the fleshy ones, loose their delicate structure to 
such an extent when they are dried and pressed, that they are not 
suitable for this purpose. If the herbalists would preserve parts 
of the various organs of plants in alcohol as an appendix to their 
herbaria, the plants might be studied more carefully and from 
other points of view than merely systematically. 

To give some illustration of the various functions performed 
by roots, we might refer to a modern and very suggestive paper by 
our excellent friend Dr. August Rimbach,* in which the following 
four types are proposed: "nutritive," "attachment," "con- 
tractile," and " storage-roots." 

Roots of the first type possess no pronounced power of resist- 
ance, since they have no mechanical tissues, nor are they con-, 
tractile nor especially adapted " to store " nutritive matters. 
They are generally very slender and certain plants possess only ; 
this type, for instance : Dentaria, Tulipa, the Graminece and many 
others. 

The second type, the attachment-roots, needs no further ex- 
planation, and these we know from the epiphytic Rromeliaccce. 

The contractile roots have th power of contracting, thus 
drawing the shoot deeper and dee,)er into the ground, as for in-" 
stance : Scilta, Crocus, Gladiolus, some species of O.xalis, etc. 

Storage-roots are, on the other hand, such roots as possess 

* Berichte Deutsch. Bot. Gesellsch. Vol. 17. Berlin 1899. 



1906] On the Structure of Roots. ig 

a larg'e persistent parenchyma in which nutritive matters are 
"stored." They often become tuberous by the excessive develop- 
ment of this parenchyma, and these are well known from the 
Orchideic : Orchis, Spinint/ws, Platanthcra, etc., also from 
Hemerocallis, Acouitum, Delphinium, etc. 

The structure of such roots offers really a number of interest- 
ing^ modifications, which are very little known so far, and it would 
be an excellent study to undertake the investig^ation of their struc- 
tures, instead of confining ourselves to the other organs alone. It 
is not, however, an easy matter to study such roots, but by be- 
ginning with the more simple types, for instance the annual 
among the nutritive, the various tissues may be readily perceived 
and distinguished. The most difficult ones are the tuberous 
storage- roots, and these must always be studied at the various 
stages of their growth and during several seasons. There are, 
also, certain types which are called anomalou-;, as for instance 
the beet, which is quite difficult to understand, unless the succes- 
sive stages have been observed. 

With ihe object ot giving some examples of different root- 
structures we may begin with an ordinary, annual nutritive root 
of Streptopus roseus, of which we have drawn part of a section on 
Plate I. In this drawing the central cylinder is complete, but the 
cortex and epidermis is only shown in part. The structure is as 
follows : 

The epidermis {Ep.) consists of a single layer and many of 
the cells are extended into root-hairs (^A.); beneath this tissue is 
another single layer, the cells of which are quite thickwalled, and 
this is the so-called exodermis (£'a-. ). The cell- walls are more or 
less suberized, thus the membranes are almost impermeable to 
water and render thereby an important protection to the interior 
tissues. In many cases the exodermis possesses, al.so, the power 
of contractility, which may be seen from tangential sections, 
where the radial cell-walls show foldings or undulations, which 
continue in the longitudinal direction of the root, resulting in con- 
traction. 

Inside the exodermis follows a parenchyma of several layers, 
the cortex (6'.); it is in this tissue that nutritive matters are stored 
in storage-roots. The cells are often loosely connected, thus we 



20 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

may frequently observe quite broad intercellular spaces, often to 
such an extent as deserving the term " lacunes," which are very 
common to roots of plants that grow in moist situations. 

The innermost layer of the cortex is differentiated into an 
endodermis [End ), the structure and function of which suggests 
that of the exodermis, and forms a closed sheath around the cen- 
tral cylinder of the root. 

Bordering directly on the endodermis, thus representing the 
outermost tissue of the cylinder, is a layer, and mostly a single 
one, of thinwalled cells, which is called the pericycle or pericam- 
bium (/*.). The cell walls are never suberized nor do they show 
any foldings. It is a tissue of great importance, since the lateral 
roots become developed from this, and usually also the root- 
shoots. 

Inside the pericycle we find the leptome (Z. ) with sieve-tubes 
and companion-cells, and the hadrome [H.) with the vessels. 
These two elements, the leptome and hadrome, are in the root 
arranged in separate groups, side by side, alternating with each 
other in contrast to the stem, where they are located in the same 
radius, the leptome outside, the hadrome inside. The vessels are 
of different width in proportion to their age, the narrowest being 
the earliest developed. The sieve-tubes and their companion-cell:? 
are, as already stated, located between the rays of the hadrome, 
and their delicate structure makes them readily distinguished 
from the thick-walled vessels and conjunctive tissue, the last of 
which occupies the centre of the root; it is parenchymatic and cor- 
responds well with the pith of the stems. 

This root represents the annual type, and no increase in 
thickness takes place, thus the root remains unchanged until it 
dies at ihe end of the season. But if we now examine perennial 
roots, we notice that an increase in thickness generally takes place 
which results in greatly modified structures of which the following 
is the most frequent and may be considered the normal. 

The first sign of change in structure is to be observed in the 
central cylinder where a cambial tissue becomes formed in the 
shape of arches and on the inside of the leptome ; this cambial 
tissue thus originates in the conjunctive (issue bordering on the 



1906] On the Structure of Roots. ai 

leptome. The canibium commences then to develop new groups 
of leptome outwards and new groups ot hadrome inwardly. By 
continued growth the cambial arches extend towards the pericycle 
and meet outside the rays of the liadrome, thus a completely closed 
ring of cambium becomes formed, and this is able to develop lep- 
tome and hadrome throughout its entire width. The original 
structure of the root has, thus, become very considerably changed, 
since the secondary groups of leptome are located in the same 
radius as the secondary hadrome, while the primary were arranged 
in alternation with each other. At this stage the structure is very 
much like that of 4 stem (Dicolyledones and Gymnosperms) ex- 
cept that the primordial hadromatic rays are yet to be observed. 
But besides resulting in the formation of secondary leptome and 
hadrome due to the cell-division of the cambial ring, the pericycle 
possesses, also, the power of developing secondary tissues by 
similar cell-divisions. This new tissue is, on the other hand, 
parenchymatic, and is called the secondary cortex, since it agrees 
in all respects with this particular tissue. It is easy to under- 
stand that the primary cortex with epidermis and endodermis are 
not able to follow the continued growth of the elements in the 
central cylinder, but become split, die off and are finally thrown 
off altogether, thus the secondary cortex formed by the pericycle 
takes the place of the primary. 

We may pass now to the structure of the beet. In a fully 
developed root of this plant we notice in a cross-section a number 
of concentric rings, resembling the annual rings of a perennial, 
woody stem. However, these rings are all made in one summer, 
and by following their structure gradually from month to month, 
the structure is shown to have originated in a very different way 
from that of a stem. The fact is that the secondary cortex is here 
able to develop continuously new strata of leptome and hadrome 
separated by medullary rays in concentric rings and in centrifugal 
direction. As soon as one stratum of leptome and hadrome has 
performed its function for some time, it ceases to grow any fur- 
ther, and a renewed formation of another ring outside the first 
one takes place and so on, so that a number of rings are formed 
during the season ; the most conspicuous portion of each of these 



22 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

rin^s is the hadrome, which consists of a few lignified vessels, the 
only lignified elements of the root. The rings which we thus ob- 
serve in the beet are not to be compared with the annual of a 
stem, since they are developed in one season and since they are 
developed independently of each o^her, while in the stem the an- 
nual ring's depend upon the cell-divisions of the same cambium. 

Brookland, D.C., January, 1906. 



A MAY MORNING WITH THE BIRDS IN NEW 
BRUNSWICK. 

By W. H. Moore. 

The morning was truly delightful. The pulse of Nature was 
throbbing in ecstacy under the genial rays of old Sol, who had 
seemingly neglected his charges here upon the earth for some 
days before. The northward sway of bird migration had been at 
a standstill for a few days, but upon this morning of May (1905) 
the wave was fast advancing. 

A walk of about a mile was taken through woods and along 
a highway a short distance across clearings. Birds were plentiful 
in all places. In trees about the lawn near the house was a num- 
ber of self-naming birds, namely, Tom-Peabody, known to the 
scientific world as Zonotrichia albicollis. In a thickly grown 
spruce by the side of the path, a pair of robins were building a 
nest, and just as I walked past, one came with a great mouthful 
ot grass. In some ha?el shrubbery, nearby, were a few song-spar- 
rows, and one Mrs. Peabody, busily engaged searching among 
the stranded leaves. Among the young foliage of a small yellow 
birch beside a brook was a redstart flitting and tumbling after 
various insects, and now and then stopping to sing his song of 
thanksgiving for being permitted to ba alive this beautiful Sunday 
morning. Among a growth of young conifers, was a Magnolia 
warbler singing to his mate, who was no doubt thinking what a 
good locality that would be in which to breed. A black and-vvhite 
warbler was a short distance farther along among i mixed growth 



icioO] A May moknini; with the liiuus. 23 

ol maples, hirches and conifers. His presence was first made 
known by his son^ of 7vre-sct', ivee-see, n<ee-see. Constantly there 
could be heard the lively, pleasing song of the purple finch, which 
at this time of year is singing its best. From numerous tall dead 
trees came the calling and tap-tap-tap, tap-tap-tap-tap of the yel- 
low-bellied sapsucker. The beating tatoo of this species is more 
interrupted in its course than is the continuous roll of other 
woodpeckers. Twittering barn swallows were flying high in the 
air. Farther on a stop was made to write down some notes and 
take in the songs of one Cape May warbler, three hermit thrushes, 
four Magnolia warblers, one robin, one white-throated sparrow, 
three black-throated green warblers, two black-throated blue 
warblers, two ovenbirds, one junco, one goldfinch, and three 
Nashville warblers, .\fter a short walk along an old lumber road, 
a stop is again made, and notes taken of such songs as some of 
the above, in addition to two Parula warblers, four least fly- 
catchers, two purple martins and the voluminous songs of two 
winter wrens. As I sit here upon an old stump, the first olive- 
sided flycatcher of the season alights upon the topmost tower of a 
birch stub and calls out, JLook, /';« here, or Pii/ me down. The 
song of the olive-side when heard from a distance easily sounds 
Take care, with emphasis upon the first and last of the two 
syllables, the first note or" Look, ftn here is heard only when one is 
near the bird. 

The olive-side was answered by a chebee which had been 
present for some days and which enthusiastically called out Go- 
back or Go-beck. Thus it could be interpreted by the genus Homo, 
but among the aves it was probably a call of love, while for cer- 
tain insecta it may have been a warning of danger. Some bird 
behind me gives a twittering, and, turning about, at length I dis- 
cover in a tangle of raspberry, small maple sprouts and dead 
brush, a male Maryland yellow-throat while an olive-back thrush 
calls attention from another tangle nearby. A small flock of 
crows fly cawing past, just above the tree-tops, and in the distance 
is heard the calls of a pileated woodpecker. 

As no chickadees had yet been heard, I whistle their love song 
of sweet weather, and am answered by the same notes from one 



24 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

of these birds. In returning homeward the Blackburnian warbler 
is added to the list of birds observed in a walk of a mile. Through 
the meadow by the rear of the house were numerous chipping, 
Savanna and vesper sparrows, and a pair each of flicker, bluebird 
white-bellied swallow, and several eave or cliff swallows. In a 
swamp by the edge of the clearing the waterthrush lives. 

This was the banner day of the season, as eight new arrivals 
were recorded. Insects of many species were likewise alert; 
among numerous blooming plants were identified the white and 
blue violets, dandelion, goldthread, swamp honeysuckle and 
moosewood. 

Scotch Lake, N.B. 



Spergula arvensis, L. In Rhodora for August, 1905, Mr. 

M. L. Fernald notes the occurrence of Spergula saliva, Boenn., at 

New London, Conn. When examining the material of 5". arvensis 

in the Gray Herbarium he found plants collected by Dr. James 

Fletcher ot Ottawa in 1892 and distributed in Halsted's American 

Weeds as Sk arvensis that are S. saliva. I have just examined all the 

Spergula in the herbarium of the Geological Survey and find that 

the only representatives of S. saliva there are from Denmark and 

Norway, and are so labelled by the collectors. All our other 

specimens from Canada, the United States and Europe are 

S. arvensis, our Ottawa specimens being from Wakefield and 

Pickanock. It is possible that in Halsted's distribution he mixed 

material from some other locality with that received from Dr. 

Fletcher, but 5" saliva should be looked for in this vicinity. S. 

saliva " has minutely punctulate, margined seeds, and in a living 

state can be distinguished by its decidedly viscous, dull grey-green 

leaves and branches; on the other hand, in S. vulgaris [S. arvensis) 

the seeds are obscurely margined, or totally devoid of wing, and 

beset with club-shaped papillae, generally quite black in fully 

matured seeds." 

Jas. M. Macoun, 



igo6] Nature Study — No. 33. 

NATURE STUDY'.— No. XXXIII. 

Definite Problems in Nature Study, 
S. B. Sinclair, M..\., Ph.D. 



25 




HuNTO Island, Miskoka, Ont. 
Eighteen years of unassisted forest growth. 



The following elementary experiment is submitted in the hope 
that it may be suggestive of others, and also emphasize the funda- 
mental principle that in beginning Nature Study the main diffi- 
culty lies in selecting a suitable problem and making a definite 
and sequential study of the subject chosen. 
forest development. 

The island of Hunto in Portage Lake, twenty miles south- 
east of Parry Sound, Ontario, has an area of about seven acres, 
and, like other islands of the Muskoka region, is simply the sum- 
mit of an upheaved mountain of Laurentian granite, the highest 
point being about 80 feet above the level of the surrounding lake. 



26 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

About two-thirds of the surface is covered with soil varying from 
one inch to thirty inches in depth. 

In the year 1887, the island, which was then beautifully 
wooded, was swept by a fire which completely destroyed all vege- 
tation, except a few straggling pines at the water's edge. Those 
who saw the island during and after the fire, say that the desola- 
tion wrought was so complete that it was scarcely possible that 
any young plants or even seeds could have survived the intense 
heat. Since that time no new timber has been cut, no domestic 
animals have been on the island, and with the exception of a few 
hares, deer-mice and squirrels, there apparently has been nothing 
to interfere with the development of the smallest herb. 

This situation seemed to present a problem which, if worked 
out, might cast some light upon the kind of vegetation which 
under similar conditions — of climate, soil, non-interference, etc. — 
might reasonably be expected to develop in a period of eighteen 
years, and with a view to the solution of this problem a somewhat 
careful investigation has been carried on for two consecutive 
summers. 

Altogether there were found on the island forty-seven differ- 
ent varieties of trees and shrubs, and .a number of these were 
evidently new comers. The following is a comparative statement 
of the height and circumference of a few of the largest trees in 
ic,04 and 1905 : 

1904 1905 V 

Height Circ. Height Circ. 

feet. inches. feet. inches. 
Popuhis tremuloides, American Aspen - 

Poplar 35 12 37 14 

Beiitla papyri/era, Paper or Canoe Birch 30 19 32 18 

Pruntis Peniisylvanica, 'WWd KedCherry 29 16 305 16 

Pintis Strobus, \\h\te Pine 22 13 24 13 

Acer rubnim, Soft Red Maple 22 9 22 13 

Quercus rubra, Red Oak, Black Oak. ... 20 14 20 16 
Thuya Occident alia. American Arbor- 
vitas, While Cedar 20 14 20.6 16 

Piniis resinosa, Red Pine 19 11 '0.5 13 

Larix Americana, American Larch, Tam- 
arack 16 8 17-. S 9-5 

Quercus alba, While Oak 15 8 16.5 9.5 

Abies bahatiiea. Balsam Fir '3 5 9 '5 9-5 

Tsuga Canadensis, Hemlock Spruce . . 11 5 11 8 



1906] Nature Study — No. 33. 27 

The time and labor requisite for collecting, identifying and 
mounting specimens and for measuring trees in such an investi- 
gation is not great. Nor is the collection of specimens a neces- 
sary condition of satisfactory work. The study of the living 
organism from the genetic functional standpoint is of much 
greater value than the mechanical examination of dead specimens. 
One of the best features of such work is that it presents obstacles 
which furnish a natural stimulus to endeavor and which when 
overcome afford genuine satisfaction. Where serious difficulty is 
presented and individual observation and text-books prove inade- 
quate, the Canadian Government has wisely made provision for 
all emergencies by providing trained specialists, who are able and 
villing to answer questions submitted to them and to whom in- 
quiry can be sent postage free. In this connection my best thanks 
are due to Dr. Fletcher, of the Experimental Farm at Ottawa, 
who not only supes vised the classification made, but also made a 
personal inspection of the locality studied. 

The essential requirement of a university post-graduate dis- 
sertation is that it must add something, no matter how little, to 
the sum total of human knowledge. Measured by this criterion 
such an investigation as the foregoing, be it ever so limited in 
scope or unpretentious in character, at once becomes important,, 
for one finds oneself doing that which has been done by no one 
else, and if the work be honestly performed and the records ac- 
curately kept, the information gained (although apparently trivial) 
may prove to be of genuine public service in future interpretation. 

Another of the advantages of such definite research work is 
that it is adapted to the stage of development reached by the 
adult learner who, although he has omitted Nature Study in early 
life, has acquired as the result of natural growth and activity in 
other studies a scientific attitude of mind which causes hira to • 
appreciate the meaning and value of the laboratory method and. 
to prefer it to a more superficial treatment. 

The experience of the Ottawa Normal students in the study 
of birds affords practical illustration of this fact. For a number 
of vears each student has been asked to learn the identification 



28 The Ottawa Naturalist. [April 

and general characteristics of sixty species and to make a careful 
and thoroug'h study of one species as regfards life-history, life- 
relations, care, etc. The invariable opinion expressed by the 
students is that they find the intensive study more interesting- 
than the more extended observation. 

From the standpoint of the learner, the actual knowledge 
gained is of genuine value, being in a very especial sense his own. 
It is probable, however, that what may be called the indirect 
results of such an investigation are really of most worth to the 
student. The attention is sure to be attracted to a thousand in- 
teresting phenomena which otherwise would have passed un- 
noticed. For example, in the foregoing investigation certain 
kinds of trees were found to be grouped in favorable places in 
their own special habitats. There was a preponderance of ferns, 
fungi and mosses on the northern exposure where there was least 
evaporation, and swamp plants were found in the lowest parts of 
the island. 

Many other interesting phenomena in connection with soil 
formation, heat and moisture conditions, were similarly incident- 
ally noted. 

Further, in such study one is sure to become impressed with 
the fact that the investigation of sequential life history is more 
interesting than the study of a cross-section. " What have we 
here?" is seldom as productive a question as " How did it get 
here ?" or '* Whither does it tend ?" 

While carrying on the foregoing investigation, such problems 
as the following naturally suggest themselves : *' How were the 
seeds brought to the island?" " In what order did the trees ap- 
pear?" " What other trees will come and how will they come?" 
" Will the struggle for supremacy leave conditions as at present, 
e.g.^ will the poplar continue to rule the pine ?" 

The narrow limits of such a paper will not admit of further 
reference to the more fascinating and productive studies of struc- 
ture, function and life-relations. The interest in such work is 
always cumulative, the Nature Study attitude soon becomes 
habitual, and after that all is clear sailing. 



THE OTTAWA f(ATURALlST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, MAY, 1906. No. 

LIST OF SOME FRESH -WATER SHELLS FROM 
NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO AND KEEWATIN.' 

By J. F. Whiteaves. 



(A.) From the English River, in Norih-7ves/ern Ontario 
above Lac Seul ; collected by 1 1'. Mclnncs, of the Geo- 
logical Survey 0/ Canada, in igo^. 

Pelecypoda. 
*Sphwriutn Jlavum, Prime. 

English River, below Manitou Fall ; one specimen. 

Gasteropoda. 

Planorbis ( Pierosoma ) corpulenfuSy Say. 

English River, below Manitou Fall ; three specimens, the 
largest of which is fully an inch in its maximum diameter. 
The adult shell of this species, which corresponds to the 
variety macrostomiis of P. trivolvis, has not yet been described 
nor figured. 

(B.) From various localities on the boundary be tivcen On- 
tario and Kee7vatin, or in Keeivatin ; collected by IV. 
Mclnnes in igo=). 

Pelecypoda. 

LAtmpsilis luteola (Lamarck). 

•Albany River, between lakes St. Joseph and Eabemet ; five 
specimens. 

* Communicated by permission of the Director of the Geological Survey 
Department. The species with an asterisk prefixed to their names. Iiave 
been kindly determined bv f3r, V. Slerki, 



-o The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

Anodonta Kennicotti (?) Lea. Var. 

Lake St. Joseph, one specimen ; Albany River, two speci- 
mens; and West Branch of the Winisk River, two specimens. . 

* Sphwriutn Jlavum, Prime. 

Root River, Lac Seul ; one specimen. 

Sphoermm rhomhoideum (Say). 

Lake St. Joseph, two specimens ; and Albany River, three 
specimens. 

* Pisidmm variabile, Prime. 

Like St. Joseph, at two localities, three specimens from each; 
and Albany River, two specimens. 

* Pisidium Mainense, Sterki. 

Root River, nine specimens. 

* Pisidiu VI "a bditu ;« , H a 1 d e m a n . " 

Albany River, thirteen specimens. 

* Puidimn Roperi, Sterki. 

Albany River, five specimens. 

* Pisidium politum, Sterki. 

Root River, one specimen. 

* Pisidium rotiindattuii , Prime. 

Lake St. Joseph, one specimen. 

* Pisidium pauper en liuuy var. crys/allense, Sterki. 

Root River, one specimen. 

* Pisidium spleudidu/um, Sterki. \^ar. 

Lake St. Joseph, at two localities ; seven specimens. 

* Pisidium vesicularey Sterki. 

Head of Lake St. Joseph, fourteen specimens. 

* Pisidium medianuiii, Sterki. 

Lake St. Joseph, one specimen. 

* Pisidium inilimn^ Held. Small \'ar. 

Head of Lake St. Joseph, one specimen. 



ioo6) Fresh WATER Shells from N. VV. Ontario, &i. 31 

Gasteropoda. 

/ '(tlvtifa In'carittaia, Sa)'. 

Albany River, four specimens. 

/ alvata sinccra. Say. 

Lake St. Josepli, at two localities ; four specimens.' 

Aninicoia limosa, Say. 

Root River, several specimens. 

Limrucn stagnalis, L. 

Trout Lake, Severn River, Keewatin ; two specimens. 

Linincea catascopium. Say. 

Albany River, six specimens ; and Trout Lake, two speci- 
mens. 

Plaiiorbis ( Helisomn) btcarinalus. Say. 
Albany River, one specimen. 

Planorbis ( GyraulusJ albus, Muller. 

Albany River, four specimens ; and West Branch of the 
Winisk River, seven specimens, 

Physa heterosiropha, Say. 

Albany River, three specimens. 

Ancyliis parallcbiSy Haldeman. 
Root River, one specimen. 

(C.) From Knee Lake, Keewaim, on the If ayes River 
route from Noi-vjay House to York Factory, in iMt. 
55° X., arid Long, gj' IV. ; collected by O. O' Sullivan, 
of the Geological Survey of Canada, in igo-^. 

Pelecvpoda. 

Sphoerium simile (Say); 

One adult and perfect specimen. 

* Spluvrium emarginatutn (?) Prime. 
(Or S. stamineum, Conrad, var.) 
Several specimens. 



^2 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

*Pis7(iium fallaxy var- errans, Sterki. 
One specimen. 

Gasteropoda. 

AmnicoLa liviosa. Say. 
One specimen. 

Limncca stagnahs^ L. 

Three specimens (two broken in transit). 

LimncBu catascopium^ Say. 
Six specimens. 

Planorhis ( Helisoma ) bicaritiatus, Say. 
Eight specimens, 

Planorhis (Pierosoma) frivolvis, Say. 
Three specimens. 

Planorbis (Pierosoma) corpnlentus, Say. 

One larg-e adult specimen (unfortunately broken in transit). 
Planorbis ( Planorbelhi ) cavipaniilatiis^ Say. 

One specimen. 

Planorhis ( Menetiis) exaciiliis, Say. 
One specimen. 

Physa heterostropha. Say. 
Two specimens. 

Ottawa, April 17, 1906. 



EARLY NESTING OF THE VESPER SPARROW. 

To-day, May ist, I found a \'esper Sparrow's nest contain- 
ing three eggs. I was rather surprised at this find, as these birds 
very seldom have full sets in this district until about May 24th. 
The nest was built of grasses and stems, with a heavy lining ot 
horse-hair, and was placed in a clump of dead grass one foot high 
in a field which was for the most part damp and marshy. 

W. J. Brown 
Westmount, Que., May 2, 1906. 



1 9^*6 1 The Mic.ration of Birds. ^3 

THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS* 

Rev. C. \V. G. EiKRic, A. O. V. 

Tlie natural phenomenon of bird migration must appeal as 
interesting and mysterious to every thinking person, especially to 
the lover and observer of nature. But I fear the mysterious part 
of it must remain so to a greater or lesser extent, even after all 
that can be, has been said on ii. A flood of new light, however, 
has been shed on this subject recently by the publications of the 
Biological Survey of the Department of Agriculture at Washing- 
ton, D. C. This department has for about 20 years been sending 
out blank question sheets to competent ornithologists all over 
America, on which are to be noted the name:; of all the migrant 
birds passing through certain localities, the first and last dates 
when seen in spring and fall, etc. I may say also that a member 
of the Ottawa Field- Naturalists' Club has for many years been 
sending in these sheets, well filled out, from this section, namely 
that very competent and indefatigable ornithologist, Mr. George 
R. White. This vast amount of data and statistics on migration 
is now being systematically worked over and has already yielded 
highly interesting and unexpected results, as witness the writings 
of Prof. Wells W. Cook, of the Biological Survey, Washington. 
To these I am indebted for many of the statements I am here able 
to make. 

The first question suggesting itself in regard to migration is: 
ir/iy do birds migrate at all ? Wliy do they leave us ? Some will 
answer : "Because it would be too cold for them in winter." 
That this cannot be the whole reason we can at once see from the 
fact that the tiny Chickadee, the Snowflake, frequently the Pine 
Siskin and Redpoll remain with us all winter. Besides, some 
birds, also their young which never experienced a winter any- 

*Lecture delivered before the Ottawa Field-Naturalists" Club, at the 
Normal School, Ottawa, Jan 23, 1906. 

Since lhi>s had not been written out before the lecture, it can not be re- 
produced in exactly the same form as delivered. There are many but slight 
omissions and alterations. The greater pari of the introduction is also 
omitted. 



34 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

where, beg^in to leave us in Aug'ust, when there is no sign of 
cold. And why would they then leave again the warm South- 
land where there is no cold to be feared at any time ? Some will i 
say: "It is because their food gives out in winter." This is, of | 
course, a better reason than the first, though the two are inter- 
related. But that even the very important food question cannot be 
the sole motive for their migrating can be seen from the fact, that 
many birds start away from here in August and early September 5 
when their food is most abundant, and the same can probably be 1 
said of the places they leave when returning north. So this point < 
is somewhat mysterious. We have to fall back on instinct, which | 
of course, while being a handy word to use, does not explain any- ' 
thing to us. The birds seem to have an instinctive desire for se- 
clusion during their nesting time, which could not be obtained in 
the south, where the millions of birds from the north are crowded 
together with the teeming faunal life there resident. This, toge- 
ther with the evident love for the place where they were born, 
seems to be the motive, at least for the northward migration. 
Besides, we notice an instinct or impulse for migrating in other 
animals also, as among the lemmings, the salmon, eel, herring, 
etc. 

Then we ask, '^JV/iefi do birds migrate?" No any one 
answer will suffice for this question. We have a spring migration, 
the birds travelling northward, and a fall migration, southward. 
Each extends over a long time, as some species come and go 
early, others late. There are probably only two months when no 
migration of any kind or at least wandering and roving about 
takes place, these being January and June, the latter the nesting 
month over a large part of the northern hemisphere. With us the 
beginning is made in the spring migration by the Prairie Horned 
Lark and the Crow, which come about the last week of February. 
During the second half of March come the Song Sparrow, Blue- 
bird, Robin, Tree Swallow, etc., in April the Phoebe, Kingfisher, 
gulls, ducks, blackbirds, Meadowlark, etc., but May is the lead- 
ing month in the spring migration. Then, huge waves of warb- 
lers, finches or sparrows, fly catchers and vireos come. The last 
migrant here is the Blackpoll Warbler, which can be heard into 
the first few days of June. The fall migration is started by some 



i9o6] The Migration oi- Birds. 35 

warblers and shore birds as early as July, by more in Auf^ust, but 
the bulk ot it takes place in September ; the number of birds de- 
creasing- rapidly during- October, and a few bringing up the rear 
in N'ovember. 

Now, as to the time of the d<iy in which the migrations take 
place. The rule here seems to be : The weak-winged and timid 
birds, such as rails and some sandpipers, etc., birds finding their 
food under cover, as the warblers, some finches, thrushes, vireos, 
etc., migrate during the ni'g/ii, so they can rest during the day and 
find their food more easily than they could at night. Other birds, 
strong of wing, fearless, finding their food more in the open, as 
the blackbirds, the robin, etc., travel partly during the day or 
night, making use of either or both times to suit their pleasure. 
A third class, such having long wings, expert tireless fliers, which 
find their food while flying, as the swift, the swallows, also the 
gulls, terns, hawks, etc., travel by day exclusively, for apparent 
reasons. 

Over what disiufices do their migrations take the birds ? That 
is again extremely variable. When our Ruffed Grouse {Bonasa 
umbelltis togata) leisurely walks from its summer haunts on top of 
one of the Laurentian hills to the north of us and goes down a mile 
into the nearest cedar or spruce swamp, that may also be called a 
migration. The same can be said, when some birds breeding in 
the Rocky Mountains near the summit or the timber line, leave 
these quasi boreal regions and by descending a mile or two enter 
the temperate or even subtropical zone. Some of our breeding 
birds go further, as the Purple Finch, Junco, etc., and winter 
2-300 miles south in Xew York State. From that the distances 
increase rapidly to as much as 8,000 miles for one trip, as in the 
case of the Golden Plover, the Knot, the Eskimo Curlew and many 
more. 

Over what routes do they travel ? As a general rule we may 
say, that the birds breeding from Labrador and Ungava south- 
ward, go to Florida, as their first stage of migration, many 
species of course wintering north of that. Those breeding west of 
Hudson Bay and east of the Rocky Mountains in the great Mis- 
sippi water shed, go towards and to Louisiana. Those breeding 
in and west of the Rocky Mountains travel overland entirely into 



36 The Ottawa Naturalist. | May 

Mexico. That there are many exceptions to this is evident. 
Thus, some Alaska birds, instead of joining the western or middle 
contingent, seem to travel to the east, as the Blackpoll Warbler ; 
and the Bobolink, which has advanced from its eastern habitat as 
far west as Utah, has been shown to travel back east in migration, 
over the vvav its species originally extended its range westward, 
instead of going the shorter way by land into Mexico ; thus adher- 
ing to family traditions. The same is done by the Wheatear, a 
European species, having come by way of Iceland and Greenland 
to Labrador, now breeding there. That migrates back to Europe 
over the same route the species has come. Now, how do those 
that want to go further south proceed from the Gulf coast? Not 
as we might suppose via the Greater and Lesser Antilles to South 
America, that being to our mind the easiest route ; they would 
always be in sight of land, near food, etc. Of about 25 species 
which make a start over this route, only about six finish it to the 
South American main. Nor do a great many take another 
apparently easy route, i.e. from southern Florida to Cuba, on that 
island to its western point and then by a short flight of about roo 
miles to Yucatan. No, one main route is from Florida to Cuba, 
thence to Jamaica, at both of which many species remain, and 
thence by a 500 mile flight over the Carribean Sea to South 
America. Another route is from northwestern Florida straight 
south to South or Central America or Yucatan. Another from 
Louisiana south and south-west to Mexico. These routes also 
seem to show that the birds cannot, as a rule, be greatly exhausted 
by long flights, otherwise they would dread them and rather make 
use of all the islands they could and travel from Louisana, or at 
least from Texas by land into Mexico, which most birds scorn to 
do, thereby not even cutting off much distance or time. It has 
also been discovered by these late investigations, that some species 
coming north from Mexico, etc., do not alight as soon as they have 
land under them, but rather fly many miles inland before doing so. 
An interesting question in connection with migration always 
has been, " H010 do the birds find their imy ?" It has been held 
that the configuration of the land below, the physical features of 
it, play an important role in this. That this can be true only to a 
slight extent, we can at once see, when we bear in mind tha 



igo6\ The Migration of Birds. 37 

many birds migrate at night, some high up ; tliat the young birds 
going the first time can have no knowledge and experience of the 
route ; when they leave here in September the trees are yet full of 
leaves and the fields not empty, whereas the landscape looks 
entirely different in April or May, when no leaves are out and the 
fields are bare, etc. Some seem to follow the coast line or the 
rivers, especially day migrants, but this can not explain all. The 
solution of the problem seems to be, that they have a sense of 
direction, and their instinct — whatever that is — seems to impel 
them in the right, usually for them best direction. That they 
must have such a sense, we can see from the Carrier or Homing 
Pigeon. This may be put into a box, taken aboard a train and 
carried on it hundreds of miles to a place where it never has been, 
neither can it see the physical features] of the way, yet on being 
liberated it will find its way back with most unerring directness. 

At what height do the birds travel during migration ? A 
balloonist has seen an eagle soaring about at a height of g,ooo ft. 
— which does not say it was migrating. Some observers have 
seen large bands of migrants at an altiiude of 5,000 ft. An ex- 
perimenter with kites has seen large migrations of ducks at from 
1,300 to 1,500 ft. high. Many birds are killed by flying against 
lighthouses no more than 100 ft. high. So, no one answer can be 
given to this question. Some species always, and others perhaps 
only when the air is heavy and foggy, fly very low, not more than 
perhaps 100 ft. over all trees and houses. We can hear their 
voices plainly at night during migration. But the bulk of it seems 
to be going on at a height of from ^oo to /,joo ft. They want to 
stay below the lowest clouds. That they are sometimes bewildered 
and driven out of their course by fog and strong winds is equally 
certain. 

At what rate of speed do the birds proceed southward and 
northward ? That this must be very variable we can see at once 
when we look at the wings of the warbler, thrush or rail and at 
those of the swallows, gulls and hawks. If we divide the distances 
travelled by the number of days spent in migration, we obtain a 
rate of from about j^ to /50 miles a day. This does, of course, 
not mean, that the birds get up into the air, fly straight ahead for 
a day and then are only so much farther on than the day before. 



38 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

No, they can fly that fast and faster in an hour and probably do 
that at times, especially when crossing large bodies of water. It 
simply means that by either one long or several short flights 
interrupted by leisurely feeding in between, they proceed so far in 
a day. They take it very easy during the first days or weeks of 
their journey, accelerating the speed towards the end. That the 
relative position of the masses of birds, also those of one species, 
breeding at the various latitudes, is much changed and shifted, 
owing to difference in speed, can easily be imagined, also that the 
migrants of a southerly species may be overtaken and passed by 
more northerly ones. Thus the southern form of Maryland 
Yellowthoat is passed and left behind by its more northerly 
congeners. 

That many casualties may occur during migration, that dis- 
aster overtakes single birds as well as whole flights, is not to be 
wondered at. When the air is heavy and full of fog the birds fly 
very low and then strike high objects, steeples and especially 
lighthouses. Prof. W. W. Cooke notes that one morning in May 
150 dead birds were picked up at the foot of Washington Monu- 
ment, 555 feet high. When the light on the Statue of Liberty in 
New York harbor was still burning, 700 dead birds a month was 
the usual crop of fatalities during migration, as reported by Chap- 
man. Some time ago an item of news was making the round of 
the papers, that on two mornings during the last fall migration 
6,000 birds had been killed against a lighthouse on the north 
coast of France Even if there were only 600 it was bad enough. 
Or when birds flying northward, say over the Gulf of Mexico or 
Lake Erie, are met by a fierce gale from the north, that then 
hundreds, if not thousands are occasionally hurled into a watery 
grave, can well be understood, especially of the weaker-winged 
species. That some of the hawks reap a rich harvest during mi- 
gration, especially the little Sharpshinned, Cooper's, Duck and 
Goshawk is also clear. 

Now, as to some anomalies and curiosities of migration. 
Some of our hardy Canadian birds perform, instead of a migration 
in the accepted sense, a series of apparently aimless, eccentric rov- 
ings and wanderings, not only southward, but in various direc- 
tions and without all regularity. Thus the Pine (irosbeak and 



1906] The Migration of Biri^s. 39 

Bohemian Waxwing^ may he present at a place in one winter and 
then not be seen again there for years. This case is more mys- 
terious than the others. The same holds good of the Canada Jay, 
the various redpolls and the Pine Siskin, though in a lesser degree. 
Then there are the herons, which before starting south in fall 
from their breeding places, seem to go on a little excursion north- 
ward first, and are sometimes taken far north of their range. 
The extraordinary route of the Golden Plover {Charadrius dommi- 
cits) and several more shore birds should here be noted. These 
birds breed in the bleak lands near and beyond the Arctic circle. 
In August, when the young are able to fly well, they proceed from 
north-central Canada to Labrador, thence by easy stages to Nova 
Scotia, etc., from there south over the Atlantic Ocean, to the Ba- 
hamas, to South America, through Brazil, still south through 
Argentine to Patagonia, 8,000 miles. After a short stay in that 
dreary place, they proceed northward again, but by a different 
route, further west in South America, through Central America, 
into the wide Mississippi valley, and in that north to their breed- 
ing place, near the Arctic circle, 16,000 miles in all. 

There are .several other birds which go from and back to their 
breeding range by different routes. Thus I found the rare Cape 
May Warbler common in fall in western Maryland, but none in 
the spring. Another curious fact brought to light by the data 
accumuluting at Washington is the case of the Nashville Warbler. 
This breeds here and northward and proceeds in fall southward 
with other warblers, travelling by ea.sy stages, feeding in day time 
along the way, like any other well-behaved warbler would. But 
south of the southern boundary of Virginia it is practically un- 
known, only turning up again in its winter range, Mexico, near 
Vera Cruz. The only inference left seems to be, that it rises up 
high into the air at about the latitude of V^irginia and flies without 
alighting again over all the intervening land and the Gulf. Who 
knows ? The well known and abundant Chimney Swift offers 
another mystery. It moves southward in fall, its flocks becoming 
enormously large when they reach the Gulf coast. Then they dis- 
appear as though the Gulf had swallowed them, until they turn up 
again next March bright and cheerful as ever. Where they spent 
the winter months is a complete mystery so far, and the world is 



40 The Ottawa Naturalist. |May 

rather thoroughly explored ornithologically, at least as far as large 
masses of birds are concerned. Nor are these the only unknown 
things in migration.' 

So we see that in spite of the large mass of data and statistics 
at hand, and the multitude of workers and observers, there is stil' 
much to be learned and better understood in that fascinating 
natural phenomenon : the migration of birds. 

Bibliography. 
JFel/s ir. Cooke. — Some new facts about the Migration of Birds. Washington, 

1903. 
,, Distribution and Migration of North American Warblers. 

Washington, 1904. 
C/ias. C. Adams. — The Migration Route of Kirtland's Warblers. Ann Arbor, 

Mich., 1904. 
The " Auk '" ; my own notes. 



BIRD NOTES. 



Prairie Horned Larks. — We first saw the Prairie Horned 
larks this year on March 4th, and as the season advanced they 
appeared to become more numerous. On April ist, while walk- 
ing across the country on Isle Jesus, we were surprised by seeing, 
a lark flying about our heads. As the open country was practic- 
ally bare of snow, we thought it not unlikely that the bird had a 
nest nearby. About 50 or 60 feet away we found the nest, which 
was snugly placed near a stone. The nest contained no eggs. 
On the same day we located another nest of this species on a hill- ' 
side nearby, which was also empty. 

On April 8th we visited these nests again, and they both coii-' 
tained full sets — four eggs in each. Later in the day we were 
successful in finding three other nests, two of which contained 
four eggs each and the other was just about ready for eggs. 

All of these nests were placed in " bald-headed" fields, i.e., in 
pastures where the dead grass was only about an inch high and 
was entirely free of weeds, etc. In the majority of cases the birds 
could not be seen when the nests were found. The young birds 
had begun to form in the eggs of two of the sets. 

W. J. Brown. 
Westmount, Que., April y, 1906. 



1906] Tin: Ottawa Spkcies ov Euioimoium. 41 

THE OTTAWA SPECiKS OF ERIOIMIORUM. 



Mr. M. L. Fernald's revision of the genus P>iphoruni* has 
made some changes necessary in the names of the species grow- 
ing in the vicinity of Ottawa. It is probable that one or two 
additional species or varieties may be found here and that col- 
lectors may know what species have been already recorded the 
following notes are published. The localities mentioned are those 
known to the writer. The numbers and collector' names are 
those on the sheets in the herbarium of the Geological Survey. 

Eriophorum Chamissonis, C. a. Meyer. 
£. rnsseo/u>?i, Fries. 

Very abundant at the Mer Bleue, near Eastman's 
Springs, Ont., No. 11,496. {John Macoiin.) 

Eriophorum callitrix, Chamisso. 
E. vaginatum of local botanists. 

Casselman, Ont., No. 10,302. [John Macoun.) Black- 
burn Station, Ont., near the Mer Bleue, No. 61,191. {John 
Macoun.) Also noted by Prof. Macoun in a bog near East 
Templeton, Que., and in a bog by Strachan's Lake, east of 
Cascade, Que. 

Eriophorum gracile, Koch. 

In meadows and peat bogs by McKay's Lake, at Dow's 
Swamp and Mer Bleue. Dow's Swamp, Nos. 32,240 and 
61,193; Mer Bleue near Eastman's Springs, Ont., No. 
11,495. {John Macoun ) 

Eriophorum viridi-carinatum, (Engelm.) Fernald. 

This species or E. polystachion is to be found in many 
bogs and boggy meadows around Ottawa, but our two herb- 
arium sheets are both E. viridi-carinatum, Casselman, Ont., 
Nos. 32,267 and 61,152 ; in a swamp half a mile north of 
Tetreauville, Que. {John Macoun.) 

* Rhodora, Vol. VII.^pp 81-92. 



42 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

Eriophorum Virginicum, L. 

Rather rare around Ottawa; known from the Mer Bleue, 
Strachan Lake and East Templeton and formerly at the old 
race course. Bogg-y place, The Glehe, Ottawa, Ont., No. 
7,573; Strachan Lake near Cascade, Que,, No. 61,190. 
[John Macoun.) 

The species to be looked for about Ottawa are E. poly- 
stachion, which is doubtless common in this vicinity though not 
represented in our herbarium, E. tenellum and E. opacuni. The 
general characters of these three species and their nearest relatives, 
E. viridi-carinatiim, E. Callitrix and E. gmcUe as indicated by 
Mr. Fernald are given below. 

E. polystachion. Midrib of the scale prominent only below 
the membraneous tip ; leaves triangular-channelled above the 
middle ; the upper sheaths dark girdled at the summit. 

E. viridi-carixatum. Midrib ol the scale prominent, extend- 
ing to the tip ; leaves flat, except at the very tip; the sheaths 
and bracts not dark-girdled. 

E. Callitrix. Upper sheaths distinctly inflated : culm 
trigonous and (under lens) scabrous at tip ; pits of the re- 
ceptacle with obtusely angled lower walls. 

E. OPACUM. L'pper sheaths close or scarcely inflated : culm 
terete, glabrous at tip ; pits of the receptacle with rounded 
lower walls. 

E. GRACiLE. upper cauline leaf with the sheath longer than 
the blade. 

E. TENELLUM. Upper cauline leaf with the sheath shorter than 
the blade. 

Scirpus TrichopJwnini, Aschers & Crsebn. [E. alpinum, L. ) 
has been found in several localities near Ottawa. 

Jas. M. Macoun. 



ii)o6| Sin-ExcLRSioN to Biaebekrn Point 4^ 

SUB-EXCURSIOX TO BLUEBERRY POINT. 



John Burroughs says in one of his delightful little books that 
April i« a good month to be born in, or to make any initiatory 
step, in fact. It gives you a good start, he says. Certainly the 
Field-Naturalists felt on assembling at Blueberry Point, Aylmer, 
on the afternoon of April 28th that an excellent start had been 
made. 

It was the first outing of the season, unfavourable weather 
having cancelled previous arrangements for a trip to Rockliffe. 
Almost 150 persons met at Blueberry Point, however, on the 28th, 
when the weather conditions were ideal Sonic of the leaders of 
the various departments being absent the field-body resolved itself 
'nto very informal groups and devoted the afternoon mainly to 
gathering the trailing arbutus and hepatica. The latter in the 
blue, pink and white varieties, was found on every side dotting the 
brown sides of hillocks ; the arbutus, although not properly in 
bloom, concealed many fragrant buds for the more patient seekers. 

The unusually mild weather prevailing during the past winter, 
while probably quite acceptable to the majority of people, has had 
the effect of limiting swampy areas this spring, almost banishing 
the elusive salamander and other things that creep or scuttle about 
in lone lands — and so greatly disappointing the members interested 
in zoology. 

The club members reassembling about five o'clock, the presi- 
dent, Mr. W. J. Wilson, having congratulated the club upon the 
successful nature of its first outing, asked Mr. Andrew Halkelt to 
address the assemblage. A very informing talk was then given by 
Mr. Halkett who had in spite of adverse conditions secured a num- 
ber of specimens, including the larva of mosquitoes, a wood-frog, 
contributed by Mr. Lemieux, water spiders, a centipede, bettles 
and ants. The lower animal life was shown to be very busily 
occupied preparing for the fuller life of the summer months. 

Mr .\. MacNeill imparted then in a pleasantly original manner 
some subjects for thought, and touched happily upon the basic 
principle of the Naturalists' outings — the aim to come directly in 
touch with Nature in her manifold fascinating forms instead ol 



44 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May ; 

viewing her abstractedly, if learnedly, through books beset with 
sonorous scientific nomenclature. 

Dr. Sinclair, in speaking of the arbutus seen on all sides, 
referred to the desire expressed from time to time that it be adapted 
as Canada's floral emblem. Its characteristics of fine fragrance, 
and beauty combined with hardy endurance, he described as par- 
ticularly appropriate in a prospective emblem for the Dominion. 
The idea again presented seemed to win the entire approval of this 
particular assemblage of Canadians, as it did years ago that of the 
inhabitants of the Maritime Provinces. These already recognize 
as their emblem the little flower which bravely pushes aside the 
winter's snow to free its bloom, and which called forth from the 
Hon. Joseph Howe a memorable poem as a tribute. 

K. H. 



REVIEW. 



Mosses with a Hand-lens. A new Nature Study Book. 2nd 

Edition including the Hepatics. By A. J. Grout, Ph.D. 

150 pages, 33 full page plates and over 150 cuts in the text. 

$1.50 postpaid. Published by the author at 360 Lenox Road, 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Such a book as this has long been needed by the amateur 
botanist. Specialists have more complete and pretentious works 
to aid them in their studies of mosses and liverworts, but a good 
non-technical book that will enable beginners to determine the 
common species of their neighborhood has long been needed. 
Prof. Grout's book supplies this need. It is non-technical but is 
written by a specialist. Its use will enable the Nature Study 
teacher to widely extend the scope of his work as mosses may be 
found in the woods even during the winter months, and many 
species lose little in color and general appearance if gathered in 
the autumn and stored in closet or cellar until wanted for study in 
the school-room. The descriptions are easily understood even by 
a beginner, and the illustrations are excellent reproductions of 
photographs or accurate drawings. 



1906] Nature Study — No. 34. 45 

NATURE STUDY— No. XXXIV. 



A Cement Sidewalk. 

By S. B. McCre.^dv, B.A.. Professor of Xaturo Study, McDonald Insli- 
tuto, Giielph, Ontario. 

In g^lancing over the topics that have been dealt with in 
this series of Nature Study articles in The Ottawa Naturalist 
I find that more than half ot them have been of a general 
pedagogical treatment, while twelve have been practical studies 
in plants, insects, birds, rocks and school gardens. 

It is to be noted that this series portrays in a general way the 
history of the adoption of Na'^ure Study in our school courses At 
first, concern was about the need, the treatment, the courses, the 
practical value or the pedagogical value of it ; latterly the tend- 
ency is towards practical, helpful directions for the teachers who 
have to work at the subject in our common schools. Nature Study 
stands to-day, with our progressive teachers, accepted as the leav- 
ening that will bring large vitality to worn out methods and sub- 
jects ; what they are asking is for guidance to the recognition and 
the proper using of the materials. 

With the purpose of emphasizing the proposition that the 
study is not limited in its field to biological or geological things, 
an outline ol a lesson we had with our summer class is here sub- 
mitted and worked out. A sidewalk had been in process of build- 
ing for several days. No one had paid inuch attention to the 
work, the workmen or the process. This was, in part, owing to 
a multitude ot other interests — chiefly biological — and, in part, to 
an unconcern that familiarity had bred. 

When, however, attention was drawn to the subject, many- 
propositions were opened up for investigating ; the investigation 
was made by daily observation and inquiry. An engineer's work 
had been done in staking out the walk and making it level — the 
stakes were driven firmly in the ground and the top level marked 
with notches or nails. The top soil had been removed until a firm, 
gravelly bottom was reached ; for most of the length of the trench 
a depth of a foot had been sufficient but where the ground was 
springy a greater depth was excavated. Into this trench, coarse 
gravel and broken brick was dumped and packed down. .\ plank 



46 The Ottawa Naturalist. [ May 

curb or mould to allow for a four foot walk was set firmly on this 
foundation • it was built high enough to hold four inches of 
cement composition. 

The work itself well exemplified the principle of division of 
labor ; each man had his own particular part to play. There 
were ten men in the g"ang ; the foreman had a general oversight 
of all the work and workmen, and shared in the labor when oppor- 
tunity or necessity arose ; wagons were employed in hauling 
gravel or sand from pits on the farm and also the cement from the 
railway car. 

The first layer was a "grout" three inches in thickness. It was 
composed of one part of cement and eight parts of good clear 
sandy gravel. The largest stones permitted was of about a two 
inch diameter. Measurement of the proportions was not made 
with exactness but estimated in wheelbarrow loads. A layer of 
the gravel was spread on a "mixing-board" with a layer of cement 
ovei it, and a large pile built up in this way. Four men then 
shovelled it back and forth until it was thoroughly mixed. Pre- 
paratory to adding the water, it was shovelled into a large con- 
cave ring. Sufficient water was added so that after it was well 
mixed in the wet state, a handful would- retain its form after 
squeezing. It was now shovelled into the moulds and packed 
firmly. It was not however allowed to lie in one continuous 
mass ; a large bladed knife was used for making a one-half inch 
cut every five feet, and this was filled with clear sand. 

In the meantime, another cement mixture was being made on 
another "mixing-board". It was made of one part cement and 
two parts of clean gritty sand, and after complete mixing and 
proper wetting was quickly thrown in the mould to the depth of 
one inch, spread, packed, levelled off with a "straight-edge " and 
"floated " or smoothed with a wooden "float", a tool like a steel 
trowel in form. As a precaution against heaving by frost an in- 
dentation was made by means of a "divider" every five feet and 
immediately over the corresponding cut in the grout layer. This 
completed the sidewalk building, but in order to protect it against 
too rapidly drying it was covered with canvas for a few days. 

The cement cost about $1.85 a barrel at the mill. Freight 
and cartage were added to this cost. It was all shipped in bags, 



1906] Nature Stl'dv — No. 34. 47 

as it was tor immediate use ; the bag's weijihed ninety pounds and 
four ot them constitute a barrel. Some of the g-ravel was hauled 
by men who received S3. 50 a day for themselves and teams; being 
near the pit, eleven loads were hauled in a day's work ; where the 
road was good and the haul out of the pit not difficult, a wag-on 
box of one and one-half cubic yards' capacity was used. An esti- 
mate of the cost is made at a rate of 12 cents a square foot, 
although this particular walk however was built by day labor. 
285^*2 ft. length of 4 ft. walk = 1.142 sq. ft. 

17' J " 9!" " ^ 229^ '• 

10 •• 6>^ " = 65 •• 



Total, 1.436^1 sq.ft. at 12 c. -- $i72-37}:(. 

These measurements were made with a tape line ; by "step- 
ping-oflT' the length, and averaging one's pace, a close approxi- 
mation of the actual cost was reached. 

We afterwards secured some of the cement and examined for 
fineness, alkalinity, effect on skin, etc. Tests were made, too, of 
the strength of mixtures of different proportions. Some success- 
ful object and man modelling was done with it by some of the 
students. And in this connection it might be suggested that its 
use is so simple that some repair work on broken walls might be 
instituted in some schools as a legitimate Nature Study lesson on 
cement. 

A word on the chemical constitution and action of Portland 
cement might be of interest and use. In general terms it is a 
combination ot lime (CaO), silica (SiOo ), alumina (ALO3). The 
lime is furnished by marl and the other two by clay. For good 
setting qualities certain proportions are essential : 55 to6)/_^ lime; 
22 to 25 silica ; 7/ alumina. Sufficient and no excess of lime 
to combine with the other ingredients is the desideratum. Water 
permits the union and crystallization. In a simple form ot equa- 
tion it might be represented thus : 

Base. Acid. Sali. 

CaO (Lime) + SiO., (Silica) = CaSiOj (Calcium Silicate). 
CaO (Lime) -f AL.O, (Alumina) =• CaAlgO^ (Calcium Aluminate). 
So that the artificial stone substance is a mixture ot calcium, 
silicate and aluminate. 

In the last report of the Bureau of Mines, part I, recentlv 
published by the Department of Lands and .Mines of Ontario, 
there is a very complete account by Mr. P. Gillespie of the cement 
industry in this province. Some facts are here included from that 
report, not for the purpose of informing teachers of matters to be 
retailed to children, but rather to awaken interest in this line of 



48 The Ottawa Naturalist. [May 

industry to the end that closer observation may be obtained in an 
increasing important method of building, which is one of the fea- 
tures of modern life. The report would make a valuable addition 
to any school library, Senior scholars, especially, would be in- 
terested in its accounts of the mineral and agricultural possibilities 
of New Ontario; they would also learn of the care taken by our 
Governments to furnish accurate information concerning our 
resources. Supplementing this, some of the classes might be 
directed to write, under the name of an appointed secretary, on 
some industrial or scientific matter that has been unanswered in 
class and which the authorities at Ottawa or Toronto are, as a 
rule, able and pleased to help in solving. 

There are several brands of cement made in Canada as the 
"Star," "Hercules," " Saugeen," "Imperial," "Monarch," 
"National," "Giant," "Samson," "Raven," "Sun." The 
children might be led to observe what brands were Deing used 
in their district, and to enquire as to their origin. A cement 
map of Ontario, or indeed, one showing the cement structures of 
the locality might be made. .And here it might be said the same 
line of observation and recording might be practiced in regard to 
agriculture, implements, waggons, buggies, wind-mills, sewing 
machines, bricks, shingles, graniteware, clocks, tools, etc. 

This article has not been written for information, but as sug- 
gestive treatment of this or similar industries and employment of 
men. Many exercises will suggest themselves to one awakened 
to the " new teaching" that finds exercise for training children's 
powers of observation, for awakening wholesome sympathies and 
interest, for inciting to useful manual operations in the common 
things lying about us. Here are a few: — measuring a waggon box 
to find capacity ; by weighing a cubic foot of gravel, estimate 
weight of load ; consider how cities issue debentures for new 
sidewalks and how property owners pay for them ; incorporating 
into their arithmetics questions which were real arithmetic ques- 
tions because actually «'0r>^^^ out by themselves ; drawing a map 
and estimating the cost of any sidewalk, fence, drain or road in 
which the individual child or the school has an actual interest ; 
drawing the tools used in the operation ; getting figures from 
practical men regarding the area of walk that one barrel will make 
and making up arithmetic problems for class work ; setting a mud 
foot-scraper in a cemtnt block for school use ; making a drinking 
trough for the birds. Indeed, the trouble to the teacher is in the 
great number of exercises and interests that arise and claim atten- 
tion rather than in their fewness. It is in the proper selection of 
studies, that Ihe Nature Study teacher shows her skill, no less than 
in her methods of presenting them. 






THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, JUNE, 1906. No. 3 



A SAGACIOUS CROW 



By As.\ A. G.\LH. p. 

Every student of nature has observed in animal life acts that 
showed wonderful sagacity ; but this faculty is more often noticed 
in mammals than birds, probably owing to the number of domes- 
ticated animals about us, and in birds it may be considered a rarer 
quality. It must have appeared, however, to anyone who has 
watched crows congregating and heard the many noi.^es they make 
that the strange calls and harsh sounds were crow language, 
and that they had a large vocabulary. The actions of the common 
American Crow which I relate here were observed this year, and, 
at least, show remarkable sagacity. 

In the latter part of April two crows began housekeeping on 
Parliament Hill, and built their home about twenty feet from the 
ground in a cedar tree half way between the brow of the hill and 
the river. By the third week in May five little crows occupied the 
home, and at any part of the day five red-lined mouths could be 
seen wide open to receive whatever food the parents might bring. 
The mother was always on guard, and at the slightest noise would 
sit on the nest and cover the young ; but the father apparently 
spent most of his time during the day away from home. On one 
of these occasions I happened to be standing on the walk, which 
runs around the side of the hill, a short distance from the nest, ob- 
serving some warblers, when I saw the crow alight on a large rock 
about twenty yards below me. He seemed to have his eyes fixed 
on some object on the ground farther down the hill, for notwith- 
standing the repeated attacks of two grackles he held his position. 
On the departure of his tormentors he shuffled down off the rock 
and over to the object he had been watching, which was lying 
among the stones, and began pecking it. After several hard 



_Q The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

knocks requiring more than ordinary exertion he broke off a piece 
and apparently had some difficulty in swallowing it, but in spite of 
his best efforts, which appeared to be directed in getting a smaller 
piece than the first, he was unable to get a second mouthful ; and 
I wondered what he would then do. Without any hesitation, how- 
ever, he took the object and flew a short distance to where some 
water trickled over the stones, and as he came nearer to me I saw 
that he had a biscuit, probably hardtack, or part of a lunch some 
person had thrown down the hill. He was then partly hidden from 
view by a projecting rock, and quietly moving along the walk to 
where I had full view of him I was astonished to see that he was 
standing in the water holding the biscuit under water with one 
foot and patiently waiting for it to soak. In a short time his bis- 
cuit was partly softened, and beginning around the edge he ate the 
softer parts. Thus he continued, and finished his meal with no 
other discomfort than wet feet. The last piece of biscuit he took 
in his bill broke into several pieces and fell into ihe water, but he 
did not lose any of it. Then looking around to see that he had 
taken all, he quietly flew towards his nest. 

This observation was made with the aid of a strong field glass 
that brought the bird into such clear view that I could almost 
count the primaries in his wings, and when he came nearer to eat 
the biscuit I could see the water drop from his bill at each 
mouthful. 



To THE Editor of the Ottawa Naturalist. 

Whilst engaged in some Fisheries matters in the month of 
month of May, 1903, I found some specimens of the American 
Smelt {Osmer7is ?nordax) floating dead on the surface of the water 
of Lac des Isles, in the Gatineau District, P.Q. It is known that 
this species of fish exists land-locked in fresh water-lakes in New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and in the State of Maine, but its occur- 
rence in. a lake so far away from the sea as Lac des Isles, is per 
haps worthy of mention. The specimens are dwarfed and perhaps 
may be regarded as a sub-species : otherwise the external char- 
acters appear to agree with the ordinary form of Orsmerus mordax. 

A H. 



,Qo6] The Chambord Meteorite. 

THE CHAMBORD METEORITE.* 



Some time during: the season of 1904. a mass of iron was 
picked up in a field about two miles from the village of Chambord, 
latitude 48 35' N. ; longitude 73^^ 8 W.) county of Lnke St. John, 
Kovince of Quebec. It was secured by Mr. J. Obalski, Superin- 
tendent of Mines, Quebec, and by him kindly loaned to the 
Geological Survey Department tor purposes of examination. It is 
,n irregularly shaped block having a length of 18 9 cm., a thick- 
less of about 8.9 cm., and a width varying from 10. i cm. to 155 
:in., and a weight of about 6.6 kilogrammes. The surface of the 
specimen has unfortunately to a considerable extent been marred 
»y chisel and hammer marks made in attempts to cut up the iron. 
rhe greater portion of the original crust has been scaled off by 
jrolonged weathering and its place taken by a thin coating of dark 
jrown rust ; that portion of the crust which is still remaining is 
smooth with a dull enamel-like lustre and has brownish-black 
:olour ; the surface is possessed of the usual pittings found on 
meteoric irons ; some of these are broad and shallow while others 
igain are small. A trough-like depression extends along one side 
>f the specimen, the bed of which is more or less jagged as if a 
siece had been detached during the meteorite's flight through the 
atmosphere. Over a considerable area of the specimen a natural 
etching is visible, sometimes as coarse furrowings and at others 
as minute ridges. Etching of a polished surface develops the 
Widmannstatten figures in moderately coarse outline, the general 
design indicating an octahedral structure ; this iron therefore 
belongs to the " Madium Octahedrites " (Om) of Brezina's system 
of classification. Schreibersite appears in considerable abundance 
as very thin lamellae disposed between the kamacite plates : in the 
trough-like depression previously referred to two small nodules of 
of troilite are exposed in .section ; they measure approximately 13 
mm. in diameter and exhibit a series of fine parting lines running 
in parallel position. This iron has not yet been subjected to 

chemical analysis. 

R. A. A. JOHNSTON. 

Ottawa, May 19th, 1906. 
•Published by permission of the Director of the Geological Survey. 



52 The Ottawa Naturalist. I June 

NOTES OX THE EGGS OF THE SOLITARY SANDPIPER. 



The solitary sandpiper [Heledromus solitariiis) is a fairly com- ^ 
mon Albertan bird not seen much in summer, but abundant during i 
the fall migration. They appear from their retired haunts during 
the first week in August, when they are found in ones or twos at 
almost every wet place of any size; that is, in the western parts of 
the prairie. The variety found is "Cinnamon." The only record 
I have of the eastern variety is, curious to relate, the ones from . 
which eggs were obtained, at the same time it held the record of 
being the furthest western point where I have seen the birds, it 
being some seven or eight miles into the timber (Range 5). We ^ 
departed to Fallen Timber Creek in quest of fish as also bush \ 
butterflies, c\\\^^y Erehia disa and Chionobas Afacounii, camping on 
Fallen Timber Creek. The next day my friend, Mr. Broughton, 
enquired where to find certain Graptae, and decided to go down . 
stream about a mile. Returning to camp for dinner he told 
me of having found a nest in a small spruce tree ; the bird he be- 
lieved to be a sandpiper. After dinner we both took the gun and. 
returned to the nest. The bird sat very close, in fact did not fly 
until I put out my hand to catch her. She flew some twenty-five 
yards, but was shot. The nest contained three eggs and was un- 
doubtedly an old one of a Bohemian waxwing, bent down on one 
side, in a spruce tree about 12 feet high ; nest about 4)^ feet oH 
ground. Location, a horseshoe slough, watered by springs flow- 
ing out very slowly into the river. Nest tree, 10 feet from the, 
mouth of river. North and south side spruce; northeast, pjplar; , 
east, willows. Two days later a set of Bohemian vvaxwing's 
eggs were taken in the same spruce. 

The eggs, size i )4 x i inch, are pale gre^n ground color,] 
sparingly spotted with lilac, bat haavier with bro.vn in sh iJes,] 
and are o\ the usual pointed type. The spots all over, though 
chiefly at the larger end Data, 5, vi. 06 One-third f,i>ly hard 
set. 2 obtained Fallen Timber Creek, Alta. 1 

Note. — The male obtained another mate and I think bred| 
again at that slough, anyway stayed there all summer. 

Didsburv, .Alia. P. Garrett. 



Qo6\ Nesting of Wilson's Snipe. 53 

NESTING OF WILSON'S SNIPE. 



On the 17th ot May, 1905, as I was passing through a patch 
I'f low ground overgrown with second-growth willows, a rather 
i:irge-sized bird flushed from a spot a few feet from where I had 
jumped over a neck of water. I did not see the exact place from 
which the bird had flown, but the fluttering sound of her wing 
lught my ear, and looking ahead I saw the creature, who with 
itspread tail and wings, was fluttering on the damp earth, and 
with her long bill down in the mud was giving vent to a series of 
^lueaking sounds. 1 knew at once that this bird had flushed from 
nest, and that the object of her actions was to draw my atten- 
. n from something that she was very desirous to conceal ; but a 
. iile research revealed a nest containing four beautiful eggs. 
These were of a glossy yellow or olive hue, heavily blotched on 
the larger end, and marked all over the surface with varying- spots 
f brownish-black; and, as I afterward noted, were about one-third 
cubated. In size they were about one and a half inches in 
length by one and one-tenth broad. A clump of willows a 
little elevated stood about six feet from the pool over which the 
bird had flown, and midway between the water and the willows, 
which overhung it, the nest was placed. This was simply a 
slight depression made by the bird in the moss and dry grass, and 
except from its concealed situation and being a little more ex- 
panded, there was no particular distinction between it and those 
ot the more familiar killdeer plover and spotted sandpiper, though 
the lining was probably of a warmer texture, being of fine dry 
i,'^rass, while the eggs, as in the case of all the ground-nesting 
waders, were arranged with the small ends inward. At that time 
I was not aware that "the snipe," of which there is but one 
species to be found in Ontario, had become a summer resident of 
our neighborhood ; and as there were reasons for believing that 
the woodcock nested here, I did not pay the attention to the flut- 
tering bird across the pool that the case required, and so made 
the serious mistake that the nest and eggs before me were those 
of the latter bird. On comparing those eggs with a specimen of 
the e^g of the woodcock I saw at once that there was a wide 
difference — not, however, so much in size or torm as in color and 



54 The Ottawa Naturalist. 

marking, but as I had received other specimens illustrative ol 
oology, purporting to be those of certain species which after- 
-wards proved not to be correct, I conckidedt for the time, that 
such was also the case in this instance, and thai my new-found 
set of eggs were those of the woodcock. So the matter remained 
until the close of the year when my esteemed ornithological friend, 
Mr. W. E. Saunders, of London, made me a welcome visit, and 
on looking over my oological collection I drew his attention to 
the first and only set of *' woodcock's " eggs that I had ever col- 
lected. Mr. Saunders at once denied the identification ; a dispute 
followed, and while I admitted that I might be mistaken, yet I 
was certain that the specimens in question if not those of the 
woodcock were these of Wilson's snipe. This identification Mr. 
Saunders also disputed, stating that he had in his collection speci- 
mens of the eggs of the European snipe, which he understood 
were similar to those of Wilson's and that there was a wide dif- 
ference between the appearance of " his " specimens and those 
under review; so, in order to settle the question at issue Mr. 
Saunders kindly undertook to send one of the eggs to the author- 
ities of the Smithsonian Institute a:: Washington and have the 
specimen properly identified. The following note from Mr. 
Saunders, under date of Feb. 28, 1906, tells the sequel. "I have 
received the egg back from the Washington people, and return it 
to you by this mail. They say that it is the egg of the European 
snipe, which, of course, means Wilson's when taken in Canada. 
I have eggs supposed to be those of the European snipe myself, 
which are nothing like those at all, but I have no doubt their 
identification is correct." 

Of the nesting habits of Gallinago delicta but little of a 
reliable character is yet known. When Mr. Mcllwraith published 
the second edition of his "Birds of Ontario," in 1894, he wrote 
of this bird as " a species known only as a spring and fall migrant 
in southern Ontario, ' and of its nesting habits he had only 
vague reports ; and from a reference to what little was known 
about it, in eastern Canada, he springs almost af a bound to some 
intimations of its existence in almost unexplored regions of 
Alaska. In the more recent and extensive " Catalogue of Cana- 
dian Birds" there are indications that the life-habits and distribu- 



1906] Note ov Chrysanthemum 55 

tion of this species is becoming' better known, and there are 
various reports that it was found to nest in different parts of On- 
tario, as well as in the other provinces of the Dominion, yet no 
ornithologist of Ontario comes forward to actually state that he 
had seen a nest or taken a set of the eggs of this species within 
the boundaries of this province ; so it is here claimed that the 
above observations are the first actual record of the finding of the 
nest of Wilson's snipe in southern Ontario. This game bird is 
called Wilson's snipe because Alex. Wilson, the distinguished 
British-American ornithologist, was among the first to direct 
attention to the difference between it and its European congener. 
Regarding it he says : " This bird is well known to our sports- 
men ; and, if not the same, has a very near resemblance to the 
common snipe of Europe. It is usually known by the name of the 
English snipe to distinguish it from the woodcock and from sev- 
eral others of the same genus." Up to the past spring season of 
1905, I had noted this bird only as a spring- and autumn visitor, 
but it is probable that in the last few years when seen in small 
flocks I have confounded it with the woodcock. 

Wm. L. Kells. 



Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, L. — The the typical Ox-eye 
Daisy appears to be confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, at 
least as represented in the herbarium of the Geological Survey, all 
our specimens from the interior, including several from Ottawa, 
being the var. siibpinnitifidum, Fenald. The species should be 
looked for at Ottawa and is easily distinguished from the variety 
by its basal leaves alone. In C. LeucantJieimim these are " spat- 
ulate-obovate, on slender elongate petioles, the blades crenate- 
dentate, the slightly broadened petiole-bases rarely fimbiate. In 
var. siib-pinnatijidum the basal leaves are " coarsely and irregularly 
toothed or lobed, often with the petioles fimbriate at base." The 
cauline leaves of the variety are much narrower than in the species. 

J. M. M. 



56 The Ottawa Naturalist. IJune 

ZOOLOGICAL REPORT— 1905-6. 



As a result of the year's work the leaders of the Zoolog"ical 
Branch have the following subjects of interest to lay before the 
members of the Club. 

Two meetinofs were held during' the early part of the season, 
the first at the residence of Mr. Halkett, the second at that of 
Prof. Prince. At the first meeting, held on 9th May, 1905, be- 
sides the chairman there were present Prof. Prince and Messrs. 
Lemieux, Campbell and Baldwin. Mr. Campbell, of the Collegiate 
Institute, exhibited specimens of a salamander in variou.; stages 
of development. Mr. Halkett followed, shewing prepared speci- 
mens of the cranium of Menobranchus or the mud-puppy [Nocturus 
maculosus), and illustrated the comparative structure of the 
cranium of certain fishes by shewing specimens of that of the 
angler [Lophius piscatorius), the po\\ock{Pollachiusvirens), the cat- 
fish [Ameiurus nebidosiis) and the yellow perch [Perca flavescens). 
Mr. Baldwin spoke of having seen a black snake [Zamenis con- 
strictor) killed with a stone, some ten years ago, from the wounded 
placs of which little young snakes made their exit — thus drawing 
attention to the apparent viviparous nature of that serpent, Mr. 
Lemieux shewed photographs of certain mammals, such as the 
black bear [Urstis americanus) and the red deer {Cariacus 
virginianns). Prof. Prince concluded the meeting by reading a 
paper on the function of the swim bladder of fishes, of which the 
following is the substance. 

None of the various views generally held, the professor 
pointed out, regarding the function of the swim-bladder of fishes 
appears to be perfectly satisfactory. According to these views 
the swim-bladder is supposed to aid in flotation, giving buoyancy | 
to the fish possessing it, or it acts as a barometer informing the 
fish as to the pressure of the surrounding water, while it is also 
regarded as a resounding organ, in connection with the produc- 
tion of sounds, or again respiratory functions have been attributed 
to it. In some fishes it has connection with the ears by specially 
modified bones (the Weberian apparatus), and may aid in audition. 
Professor Prince stated that the following difficulties in accepting j 
these views existed, viz. : — The most buoyant fishes, such as 



1906] Zoological Report — 1905-6. 57 

sharks, mackerel, etc., do not possess a swim-bladder, hence it is 
not essential tor flotation. Fresh-water suckers, cat-fishes, etc., 
have a swim-bladder, and are not exceptionally buoyant. II it is a 
barometer, why do so many species not possess it, while if it is of 
use in some cases in connection with voice, it must be noted that 
most fishes possessing a swim-bladder are voiceless, and again as 
an aid in hearing, it is no doubt of utility in rare cases, but such 
is not its common purpose. The features of the organ in young 
larval fishes indicate a glandular character and it may be a sur- 
vival of a gland attached to the digestive system, whose utility 
has gone. In most cases pure aerated blood supplies the swim- 
bladder, and it cannot be respiratory excepting in rare instances, 
and being dorsal it is difficult to see how it can be homologous, 
as many authorities claim, with the ventrally placed lungs of 
higher vertebrates. Professor Prince also stated that while 
oxygen was often found in the swim-bladder, that organ frequently 
appeared to be filled with nitrogen, an element associated in 
many animals with the hibernating habit, or with change of food. 
At the second meeting of the branch, held on the 22nd May, 
1905, besides the chairman, Prof. Prince, there were present 
Professor Macoun, and Messrs. Lemieux, Baldwin, Campbell, and 
Halkett. Mr. Campbell showed some living specimens of 
branchiate larvae, which appeared to be those oi Atnblystoma, and 
Mr. Lemieux brought a single antler of the Virginian Deer, which 
had been picked up beside a lake in the province of Quebec, soon 
after it had been shed. It was a fine example, and of unusual 
interest owing to the fact that shed antlers are very rarely found. 
The members present discussed the remarkable phenomenon, the 
annual shedding of deers' horns, the massive antlers of the moose 
being specially mentioned as surprising structures to grow in a 
single season, and then be cast away. Mr. Halkett shewed a 
specimen of the dor-mouse {Evoiomys rutilus), which he caught 
with the hand, a year or two ago, at Madawaska, in the Nippiss- 
ing district, and also a specimen of a bat ( Vespcrtilio subulafus) 
which was found alive in the Fisheries Museum, and which is one 
of several specimens found there ; and a scheme was discussed, 
led by Prof. Macoun, for securing specimens of small mainmals in 
the vicinity of Ottawa. Small traps were described, which if set 



58 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

in the evening-, in suitable localities would in the morning be found 
to have secured interesting specimens. At most of the fishing 
clubs it was pointed out this work could be easily done, and speci- 
mens obtained from widely scattered localities. Professor Macoun 
offered to give information as to the best traps for the purpose, 
and it was agreed that the Muridae, the Soricidae, and the bats 
formed a most desirable line for the zoologists of the Club. 

Samples of beaver work, with chips oi wood, and a skull, 
from the Algonquin National Park of Ontario, were recently dis- 
played in the windows of the Messrs. Orme, along with two 
mounted beavers from the Fisheries Museum, and they attracted 
much interest by the general public. The samples of the work of 
those interesting rodents were sent by Mr. Robert Lett, an em- 
ployee of the Park, and the following is an extract from his letter 
concerning them : "I am shipping you to-day two samples of 

beaver work The larger of the two shews the tree a 

little more than half way cut through. The cut was towards the 
water so that their efforts to float or pull it under water to their 
house after having cut it up into short lengths would be lessened 
by a tree's length in distance when it came to the carry. Sample 

No. 2 shews a tree which has been felled completely In 

the little tin box you will find some of the chips which these won- 
derful woodsmen made, when cutting on the larger tree 

I look my lunch in pocket one day and located these samples and 
on another day took saw and sleigh and brought them in." One 
of the samples — part of a birch-tree — was 10 inches in diameter, 
and the other some 8 ins. in diameter. 

Under protective restrictions, the heaver {Castor cafuidettsis) 
is multiplying rapidly in the Algonquin Park. Furthermore a 
colony of those interesting creatures is said to have established 
itself at Green Creek, some distance away, east of Ottawa, and 
they ought to be left unmolested. 

Two red and one silver-gray roxes {Vulpes fulvus) — the three 
from the same litter — from about 150 miles north of Maniwaki, 
Gatineau district, a ))rairie coyote [Cants latrans) from Edmonton, 
and two racorns \Procyon lotor) from up the Ottawa near Shaw- 
ville, P Q., were recently displayed alive, and all together, in the 
\vindows of the Messrs. H. J. Sims & Co. One of the gentlemen 



igo6J Zoological Report — 1905-6. 59 

of that firm informs the leaders that the coyote was taken when two 
weeks old, and has become quite tame, so much so that it will 
answer a whistle and lick the hand. He runs loose in the yard 
and plays with the dog", and they are fast friends The silver gray 
fox takes to the coyote in preference to the dog-, although the fox 
and the dog were brought up together. There was also a musk- 
rat placed in the window with these various creatures, but one of 
the foxes very soon bit it, necessitating its removal. 

Although an exotic species, it may not be amiss to mention, 
that 13 specimens of the spring-bok {Antidorcas etichore) from 
South Africa, were recently exhibited in the windows of Mr. 
Slattery's store. These specimens of that beautiful antelope were 
sent to Ottawa for the annual dinner in commeroration of the battle 
ot Paardeberg, held at Government House. Although outwardly 
very like deer, it may be pointed out, that the antelopes are more 
closely related to the oxen, sheep, and goats, and like these have 
hollow and permanent horns, instead of solid antlers, which are 
periodically shed, such as deer have They are best represented 
in the continent of Africa which contains more species than any 
other part of the world. One species the prong-horn, or Rocky 
Mountain antelope {Antilocapra americana) is sometimes to be seen 
on the plains of our own far west. 

The leaders of the branch desire to express their appreciation 
of the good which merchants and business men of the city occasion- 
ally do in attracting public attention to natural history objects, 
living or otherwise, by placing them in their store windows, 

Mr. Lemieux contributes the following note in regard to : 
"Small Suckers in Lake Pembina, Lievre district." 

" A small carp or sucker was discovered in the month of May 
in Morin's Creek. There were thousands and thousands of this 
fish, and they seemed to hide in the weeds, in fear of the trout that 
appeared to wage a war of extermination against those new 
comers. In September a smaller number were seen in front of the 
Club-house landing. This discovery is rather a surprising and 
unexpected one, as in the past no other fish than trout had been 
noticed in those lakes. Have these suckers been recently intro- 
duced, and how ? This is a mystery, although I believe they were 
brought there in the egg-stage, by birds such as shell-drakes, 



6o The Ottawa Naturalist. |June 

mergansers, &c., which visited other waters and returned to 
Pembina Lake with the eggs adhering to them. As is well known, 
suckers and carp are most destructive to spawn. However, I 
sincerely hope tnat the multitudes of trout in the Pembina will 
annihilate these suckers in a short time. Future observations 
on this subject will be eagerly expected and prove interesting. I 
have obtained a sample of this little fish." 

The following is a list of fishes of the Ottawa District pre- 
served in formalin in the collection of the Fisheries Museum, with 
the localities were they were found : 

Silvery lamprey [Ichthyoniyson concolar). Ottawa River. 
Rock sturgeon [Acipenser ruhiciindxis). Lac des Chene. 
Gar-pike [Lepidosteus osseus). Vicinity of Ottawa. 
Dog-fish (Amia calva). Ottawa River. 

The two specimens of dog-fish have been long in the museum, 
and are labelled Ottawa River. Possibly they may have been 
found beyond the limits of the district, but are included in the list 
as shewing that that species exists in the Ottawa. 

Horned pout [Ayneiurtis nebulosis). Gilmour's Mills, P. Q-, Rideau 
Canal near Ottawa, and Kinburn, Ont. 

White sucker [Caiostomus conwiersonii). Vicinity of Ottawa. 

Eel {Anguilla chrysypd). Gilmour's Mills. 

Brook Trout {Salveliniis fontinalis. Gatineau District, near Ottawa. 

Pike {Esox lucius), Gilmour's Mills, and a large head from Shir- 
ley's Bay. 

Killifish {Fundidus). Hull, P.Q. 

Brook stickleback [Eucalia inconstans). Stiltsville, Ont. 

Grass or calico bass [Ponioxis sparoides). Lewis Dam and Gil- 
mour's Mills, P.Q. 

Rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris). Near Hog's Back. 

Pike perch {Stizostedion vitreum). Upper Ottawa River. 

Ling {Loto maculosa). Lac des Chene and Rideau River, near 
Ottawa. 
There is also a large mounted maskinonge {Esox nobilior) 



1906] Zoological Report — 1905 6. 61 

and specimens of various species in the collection which await 
determination. 

A specimen ot a musrcrat [Fiber aibethicns) from the Rideau 
River, near St. Patrick's Bridj^e ; and a specimen of an otter 
[Lutra canadensis) from Smoky Falls, some 9 miles from Sturj^eon 
Falls, Ont., have been acquired by the Fisheries Museum. The 
formtr is of a cinnamon colour, the hairs being edged with white, 
and approaches an albino in its contour ; whilst the latter mani- 
fests the opposite of this — a case of melanism, the specimen being 
almost jet black, and this is most striking when it is put beside a 
mounted otter of the usual brown colour. 

A leopard frog {Rana virescens) was found jumping about near 
the Rifle Range, on the outskirts of the city, on the 27th January, 
1906, during the unusually mild weather. It was handed alive 
into the museum of the Fisheries and is now preserved in formalin. 

An article entitled; ''The Eggs ot the Scarlet Water-mite 
[Hydrachna sulcata)'" by Prof. Prince, was published in the 
.August issue of the Ottawa Naturalist, and since then Mr. 
O'Dell has been making some remarkable discoveries in regard to 
the metamorphosis which this mite, or perhaps an allied form, un- 
dergoes in the course of its life history, and he hopes shortly to 
publish what he has discovered. 

Another thing of interest was the finding recently of the 
remarkable eggs ot the fresh-water ling [^Lata maculosa)^ an ac- 
count of which will appear in the forthcoming number of The 
Naturalist, 

An official list, prepared by Mr. Halkett, representative of 
such fishes of the Dominion as are preserved in formalin, as well 
as a list of specimens of other aquatic vertebrates, and of aquatic 
invertebrates, in the collection of the Fisheries Museum, forming 
Appendix XIV of the Fisheries Report, is now in the hands ot the 
King's Printer, and will shortly be issued. 

E. E. Pri.vce. 
Andrew Halkett. 
W. S Odell. 
E. E. Lemieux. 
Ottawa, 6th March, 1906. 



62 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

ERIOPHORUM RUSSEOLUM, FR., VERSUS E. CH AMIS- 
SON IS, C. A. M.EY. 



In an article on North American species of Eriophorum 
(Rhodora, Vol. 7, 1905) Mr. Fernald expresses the opinion that 
E. Chamissonis, Mey.. is identical with E. russeolum, Fr., hence 
the name of Meyer must be prefered, beings the older. This 
article has been reprinted ^jc/>«^'/e in The Ottawa Naturalist 
(May, 1906) by Mr. James M. Macoun without further comment. 

In recent years the matter of changing plant-names has, in 
America, been considered a most important point in botanical 
science, and far more so than the study of the plants themselves; 
that a number of these alterations have proved unsuccessful, we 
all know. Now, in regard to the proposed change of name of 
said Eriophorum, from russeolum to Chamissonis, I wish to state 
that this question was amply discussed some sixty years ago, and 
by authors who were familiar with the species of both. And I 
should think that the following statement, by Fries himself (Bot. 
Notiser 1848, p 6) would be more than sufficient to settle the 
question : " We are able to produce Meyer's own statement 
acknowledging identity of his E. Chamissonis with our Swedish 

E. capiiatumy 

Theo. Holm. 
Brookland, D.C., May, 1906. 



THE IDENTITY OF ERIOPHORUM CHAMISSONIS AND 
E. RUSSEOLUM. 



To THE Editor of the Ottawa Naturalist: 

I thank you for the opportunity to see the proof of the preced- 
ing note in regard to the identity of Eriophorum Chamissonis and 
E. russeolufn and for your courteous invitation that I restate the 
reasons for considering the two identical. That question was dis- 
cussed at length by me in Rhodora, vii. 83, 133 (1905) ; but, since 
your correspondent apparently sees in the attempt to clear the 
identities and relationship of our American Eriophorums only a 
" matter of changing plant-names " and has seemingly been unable 



1906] The Identity of Eriophorum Chamisso.mis, &c. 63 

to follow the chief points in the discussion of E. Chamissonis, it 
becomes necessary to state the matter in simpler language. In 
doing so, however, I .shall refer freely, in order not to over-crowd 
your valued space, to the discussion already published in Rhodora. 
The elementary steps in my reasoning are as follows : — 

1. Eriophorinn Chamissonis ot C. A. Meyer was named for 
Adelbert von Chamisso, who collected it "in Kamtschatka et 
Unalaschka" and who had called it in a letter E. intermedium^ a 
name which was suppressed on account of the earlier E. inter- 
medium^ Bastard. 

2. As first published in Ledebour's Flora AUaica, ' and later in 
C. A. Meyer's " Cyperaceae Novae."'- the species was a complex of 
the Unalaskan and Kamchatkan plant of Chamisso and Altai 
material from some collector other than Chamisso. 

3. These two elements of Eriophorum Chamissonis, as shown 
by Meyer's beautiful plate of the familiar plant of Kamchatka and 
Unalaska whence Chamisso secured his material ani by Altai 
specimens distributed by Meyer, are quite different plants. 

4. The Altai element oi Eriophorum. Chamissonis has been 
problematical. Material in the Gray Herbarium is E. callitrix [E. 
vaginatuni of most American authors).^ and by Nylander^ it was 
considered a variety of ^. vaginatutn. By Fries, however, in 1842 
(and again in 1844 ^^ indicated by your correspondent), it was 
treated as identical with E. Scheuchst ri, Hoppe {E. capitatum, 
Host).^ This identification of the Altai element of -£". Chamissonis, 
sometimes with the densely caespitose nonstoloniferous E. callitrix 
and E. vaginatum, sometimes with the noncaespitose freely 
stoloniferous E. Scheuchzeri (E. capitatnm], indicates that there 
were possibly three or four, instead of two, plants confused by 
Meyer under the name E. Chamissonis. 

5. It is customary in case of a species containing mixed ele- 
ments to interpret the species by the best available evidence. The 

' C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. i, 70 (1829). 

- C. A. Meyer in M^m. Sav. Etrang:. Acad. St. P^tersb. i. 204, t 3(1831). 
" See Rhodora, vii. 85, 134, 135 (1905). 

* Nvlander, Acta, See. Sc. Fenn. iii. (1852) accordinjf to Anders., Hot. 
Not. (1857) 58. 

' Fries, Nov. .Mant. iii. 170(1842). 



64 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

original description of Eriophorum Chamissonis both in the Flora 
Altaica and in Meyer's later and more elaborate treatment g'ive 
the following' characters. 

a Root-stock repent, the culms solitary : "radix repens hinc 
inde protrudit culmos solitarios " — Fl.Alt. ; "radix valde 
repens et hinc inde culmos solitarios emittens " — Cyp. 
Nov. 
h. Spike oblong. 

c. Anthers linear, about a line long. 

d. Bristles of the Unalaska plant — the plant ot Chamisso — 

reddish, of the very different Altai plant white : "lana 
longissima, alba (in specimine unalaschcensi rufa) " — 
Fl. Alt.; "lana copiosa, laevissima, in specimine fructi* 
fero poUicem superans, rufa (an semper ?) "--Cyp. Nov. 

6. There are only two repent olants with solitary culms con- 
cerned in the question of the identity of Eriophorum Chamissonis. 
One is E. Scheuchzeri [E. capitatuni) with which your corres- 
pondent, following a statement of Fries rather than the original 
description and the clear plate of Meyer, would associate it. The 
other is E. russeohim, Fries, which, before he had seen the Altai 
element of E. Chamissonis, Fries himself recognized as unques- 
tionably the plant meant by Meyer, saying in a discussion oi E. 
Chamissonis with " spica oblonga " and ' antheris linearibus " 
from Lapland : "Reliquis nominibus n^ndum divulgates E. rjisseo- 
lum diximus, quod vero nomen lubenter alio publicato supprimi- 
mus, ne inutilis synonymia augeatur." ^ 

7. .A.11 botanists who know the two plants are perfectly definite 
in their statements that -£'r?(9/>Aor«m Scheuchzeri [E. capitntum) has 
the flowering spike broadly obovoid, in truit becoming subglobose; 
the anthers cordate-elliptic, i mm. (^ line) long ; and the bristles 
bright white. They are equally definite in describing in the words ^ 
of Fries himself E. rtis.seoliim with "spica oblonga", "antheris 
linearibus", and "lana fulvo-rubella."- 

8. Now, if we compare the leading characters of Eriophorum 
Scheuchzeri [E. capilatum) with those of E. Chamissonis as origin- 
ally described, we shall find that it disagrees in having the flower- 

' Fries, Nov. Mant. ii. 2 (1839). 

^ Fries, I. c. ii. t (1839), iii. 170 (1842). 



iqo6] The Identity ok Eriophorl'm Chamissonis, &c. 65 

ing spike broadly obovoid instead of oblong ; the anthers cordate- 
elliptic, about I mm. long, instead of linear, about I line ( 1.5-3 mm 
long ; and the bristles bright white instead of reddish. These 
differences were perfectly understood by Meyer when he orij^in- 
ally published E. Chajni'ssoni's ; and it is quite clear that those 
botanists who, like your correspondent, maintain that Meyer had 
in mind E. Scheuchseri [E. capitatum) cannot have taken the trouble 
to read carefully Meyer's original discussion of E. Chamissotu's, for 
there Meyer says '^Er. capitattim Hoffm. differt spica subroiunda 
spatham aequante nee non antheris brevibus cordato-ellipticis."' 

g. When, however, u e compare Eriopliorum russeolum, or 
Fries's own description of it, with the original detailed description 
of E. Chamissonis and the fine plate of Chamisso's plant^, we must 
admit that in their oblong spikes, long linear anthers, and reddish 
bristles, they are quite identical ; and that in 1839, before being 
prejudiced by the confusion oi the Altai element with the Kam- 
chatkan and Unal;iskan type of E. Chamissonis^ Fries was quite 
right in deciding that it was best to suppress his own E. russeo- 
lum, a course whiih is followed not on y by the writer but by 
Richter, and some other European students of the group. 

The foregoing notes are much longer than I should ordinarily 
ask you lo publish, but, since your correspondent has seen fit to 
doubt the care with which the identity of E. russeoiutn and the 
earlier E. Chamissonis has been worked out, it is necessary to re- 
state what is already published in my earlier notes. 

M. L. Ferxald. 
Gray Herbarium, 

Cambridge, Mass , May 24, 1906. 



C. A. Meyer in M^m. Sav. Etrang-. Acad. St. P^tersb. i J05 (1831). 



66 The Ottawa Natcralist. [June 

SUB-EXCURSIONS. 



Saturday, May 5th, was an exceptionally fine day for the 
excursion to Rockcliffe Park, a gfoodly number attended, and the 
presence of Dr. Whiteaves was very much appreciated, as he is an 
enthusiast in his work which Canada is only too slow to take note 
of. 

Rockcliffe, under the magic wand of the Improvement Com- 
mission is breaking out into more than its usual beauty, or rather 
the beauties are being brought to light. Glimpses of hiil and 
stream never gues'^ed before, burst into view, at every point. The 
different sections brought back their hoards to the meeting place 
in the grove near the Pavillion, and short talks were given by 
Pastor Eifrig, who has the German love of nature in his heart, on 
birds. Those seen and heard were : — 

Hermit Thrush, Bronzed Grackel, Purple Martin, 

Gold Finch, Kentucky Warbler, Barn Swallow, 

Song Sparrow, White-throated Tree Swallow, 

J unco, Sparrow, Red-winged Black- 

Purple Finch, Chipping Sparrow, bird, 

Robin^;, Herring Gull, Phoebe, 

Kinglet, Meadow Lark, Kingfisher. 

Dr Ami who unfortunately is still on crutches from the acci- 
dent to his limb drove down in order to be on the spot, and gave 
a talk on the stones and fossils found at Governor's Bay. 

Mr. Andrew Halkett who is never so happy as when his 
pockets are bulging out with every creeping and crawling insect 
he can find, discoursed on the 

1. Leopard frog [Rana virescens). Found by the edge of the Ot- 

tawa River. 

2. American toad [Bufo Americafius). Found by Mr. Newman. 

3. Numerous slaters or wood lice — isopods of the family Onicidae 

— found under stones. 

4. Egg capsules of spiders filled with eggs. 

5. A *ew centipedes, millipedes, insects, slus^s, etc. 

Mr. McNeil, of the Fruit Division, is a recent acquisition to 
the Club, and promises to be a most helpful one. He spoke on 
the "Foundation of things," or the first things in geology. 

"Governor's Bay," where so many of the geological speci- 
mens were found, is rich in material from a scientific standpoint. 
Some years ago an Indian mound was discovered here, and many 
Indian relics, showing that it was a place treasured by the abori- 
gines, who generally made the most of the beautiful spots in the 
countrv. 

M. McK. S. 



igo'jj Natl-re Studv — No. 35. 67 

NATURE STUDY— No. XXXV\ 

The Galt Park Wild- Flower Garden. 

By R. S. H.\MiLTON, vTHlt, Ont. 

About six years ago through the generosity of a kind iriend, 
the town cf Gait came into possession of some thirty acres of 
woodland, lying on a rapidly rising upland, which forms the west 
bank of the river Grand and immediately adjoins the western limit 
of the corporation. 

At one time this area was heavily timbered with white pine 
but later was devastated by fire. At the present time it is cover- 
ed with a dense growth of young trees, such as red and white 
maple, white oak, wild cherry, juneberry and poplar, with here 
and there a tall white oak or beech, raising its head high above 
its fellows. 

A condition attached to the gift was that the woodland should 
be left as far as possible in a state of nature. The present dense 
growth, however, and the consequent obliteration of herbaceous 
plants has robbed the region of much cf the beauty of ordinary 
woodland, and some changes are in contemplation so as to bring 
it into a state more in keeping with the conditions that prevail 
in the majority of our Ontario woods. 

The surface varies in its conformation. There is a gradual 
ascent to a divide on the western edge of the area ; but this is biok- 
en by many minor sharp ridges and deep depressions, so that in 
cne part may be found the conditions of dry rich woods, in another 
those of open and rocky woods, and here and there are the moist 
woods and pond conditions. 

.-\ commission of citizens, was appointed by the munioip;ility 
to plan, construct and maintain a system of parks for the benefit 
and pleasure of the citizens cf Gait. A competent landscape gard- 
ener was engaged, who after careful examination of the situation, 
drafted plan's for a system of park development, which is at pres- 
ent in process of evolution. Driveways have been made and 
bridle paths cut through the underbrush. Feeble and stunted 
trees are being removed, so that the more perfect sp>ecimens may 
develop and light and air may penetrate. 

Nature Study Club's Opportunity. ^Fcr several years Gait 
has had an enthusiastic Nature Study Club, organized as a .scien- 
tific societv, but latterly as an association in which nature study 
methods might be discus.sed and preparatory work done by the 
teachers of the town. Much interest has thi's been created in 



68 The Ottawa Naturalist. [June 

the observation of the things of nature and much aid has been 
given in intelligently conducting nature classes in the public 
schools. 

In addition to the above, it has been felt for some time by 
the members that definite assistance 'should be given to those di- 
rectly engaged in park adornment, and that under the guidance 
of their teachers, the children might be brought nearer to the 
beautiful things of nature and at the same time might help to 
preserve for generations to come, many species of plants, now 
threatened with extermination in the wholesale destruction of the 
woods in the vicinity of the town. 

It has therefore been decided to establish a wild flower gar- 
den along that one of the bridle paths in the woodland in which 
there was the greatest possibility of showing the wood plants of 
the district in their natural habitats. 

This work is now engaging the attention of the club, and, as 
it may present features of interest and may encourage other sim- 
ilar organizations to follow the example, an attempt is here made 
to giye in detail the working plans of this scheme which has been 
entered upcn with much enthusiasm. 

Character of Area. — The bridle path, along which the wild 
flower garden will be made, runs in a general north and south 
direction. From the norh there is gradual slope for a short dis- 
tance, passing into a sharp declivity which extends into a deep 
depression. This area is well wooded with maple, white oak and 
beech, and has a rich loamy soil, generally adapted fcr the growth 
of open and deep wood plants. At the foot of the declivity, the 
soil becomes damp and soggy and in places almost marshy. At 
the base of the hill are small ponds which are to be widened and 
deepened for water plants. The whole forms an ideal situation 
for growing wild plants under natural conditions. 

Design of Garden. — The general plan will be the organiza- 
tion of plant colonies. That is plants will be grouped together 
in families as far as possible in keeping with their soil and light 
requirements. The ground has been carefully examined and 
stakes driven where plants as brought in are to be located. Thus 
confusion and errors will be avoided by those aiding in the work. 
Along the path rustic arbors, and at both entrances arches, are 
to Ix' constructed, over which native vines are to be trained. 

Collecting and Planting. — The work of collecting and plant- 
ing is to be done mainly by the school children under the super- 
intendence of the teachers, so that each child and each teacher 
may have a share and a responsibility in connection with the 
undertaking. Each teacher will acquaint his or her class with 



1906J Nature Study — No. 35. b9 

the general scheme and explain its purpose. To each teacher 
and class is assigned a gathering ground (to which, provided with 
a basket, trowel and strong knife they will proceed at the time 
appointed). Each supervisor of the collecting will keep an ac- 
curate record, and exact data will also be kept as to the locality 
in which the plants were found, the soil, number collected, etc. 
These records are to be preserved and will show what each class 
has done in the furtherance of the scheme. 

The collecting for the day having Ix.'en completed, all will go 
to the wood and establish their treasures in their new home. Thus 
in a pleasant outing much useful knowledge may have been 
gained, and each will feel gratified at having had a share in mak- 
ing their immediate surroundings more l>eautiful. 

There are many plants which do not transplant easily. The 
seed of these will be secured at the proper season. 

The following spring identification stakes of iron are to be 
placed in the several colonies, so that, to adults as well as child- 
ren, a walk through this wild garden may be not only a wayside 
fountain of knowledge but its beauty will prove a perpetual charm 
to the eye. 

Aims. — To enlist the sympathy, interest and co-operation of 
children in doing something to beautify the town they live in. 

To rescue from the ruthless hand of the destroyer many varie- 
ties of plants which in the ordinary course of events would short- 
ly become exterminated. 

To make each individual worker realize not only that he has 
had a share in constructing the garden but that he has an inter- 
est in protecting and caring for every flower in it. 

To widen the child's view of nature, to bring him into close 
contact with plant life and the conditions under which it is main- 
tained. 

What and When to Plant. — Speaking generally plants will be 
secured after the flowering season is over, when they will lie i)est 
transplanted. In certain cases seeds will be collected as well as 
the plants and scattered in the colonies, thus aiding in the perpe- 
tuation of the species. Below is given a partial list of plants, 
suitable for transplanting to conditions indicated. 

Any plants thought to be beautiful or interesting by each col- 
lector are suitable for such a wild garden, which, to be of the 
greatest educational value, should have the plants of the same na- 
ture or requirements grouped together. 



70 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



[June 



I. For rich woods area : — 

Hepaticas, 
Rue Anemone, 
Early Meadow Rue, 
Frin_8fed Polygala, 
Barren Strawberry, 
Bishop's Cap, 
False Mitrewort, 
Smoother Sweet Cicely, 
Hairy Sweet Cicely, 
Prince's Pine, 
Shinleaf, 

II. In damp woods area : — 

Touch-me-not, 
Wild Cranesbill, 
Indian Turnip, 
Skunk Cabbage, 

III. For pond society : — 

Water Plantain, 

Arrow-head, 

Polypody, 

Aspidium, 

IV. Dry and rocky area : — 
Butterfly Weed, 
Bladder Campion, 
Wild Lupine, 

Early Wild Rose, 
Herb Robert, 

V. Climbers for arbors : — 

Virg^inia Creeper, 
Carrion Flower, 
Climbing Bitter-sweet, 



Trilliums, 
Dog's-tooth Violet, 
Wild Sarsparilla, 
Gold Thread, 
Blue Cohosh, 
May Apple, 
Blood Root, 
Dutchman's Breeches, 
Squirrel Corn, 
Violets, 
Spring Beauty. 

Maiden-hair Fern, 
Marsh Marigold, 
Toothworts. 



Marsh Marigold, 
Common Yellow Pond Lily, 
Water Shield, 
Sweet Scented Water Lily. 

Purple Flowering Rasp- 
berry, 
Wood Anemone, 
Wild Columbine. 



Virgin's Bower, 

Honeysuckle, 

Moonseed. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, JULY, 1906. No. 4 

SO.MI-: CANADIAN ANTENNARIAS.— III. 

By Edward L. Greene. 

In the May issue of the X.atuk.alist for 1904, I remarked 
how plainly British Columbia was being indicated as the centre 
of distribution for the genus Aniennaria on the Pacific slojje 
of the continent. And now, another ample collection of these 
plants, made there in the summer of 1905 by Mr. James M. Ma- 
coun, strongly confirms the opinion then expres.sed. No fewer 
than three of his numbers seem to represent species quite new ; 
while others of them are almost as welcome as completing our 
knowledge of seme that were hitherto known but imperfectly. 

.\. KXiMiA. Stems stoutish a foot high more or less, erect, 
above a slightly decumbent base, the basal stolons short, densely 
leafv, their leaves not large for the plant, about i 1-2 inches 
long, narrowly obovate-cuneiform, mucronate, thinnish, rather 
loosely and silkily lanate beneath, above bright green, glabrous, 
minutely whitish-puncticulate. very narrowly w^hite-margined by 
extension of the wool of the lower face; stem-leaves many and 
approximate, the lowest quite as large as those of the stolons but 
narrower, oblong-cuneiform ; heads many and large, forming 
an ample compound corymb 2 or 2 1-2 inches wide across the sum- 
mit ; involucre much imbricated, its cuter bracts arachnoid- 
woollv and greenish, with short scarious tips or none; the inner 
successivelv obtusely and then acutely or acuminately scarious- 
lipped. Male plant unknown. 

Skagit \'alley, 12 July. 1905. Geol. Surv. n. 69,338. Mr. 
Macoun gives for this the habitat of open sandy woods, through 
which fire had repeatedly run, at 2500 feet altitude; and I note 
in the specimens evidence that it grcws in beds of moss of the 
genus Polytrichum. It is a handsome species, apparently re- 
lated to the next, though much larger. 



72 The Ottawa Naturalist. IJu'y- 

A. chloraxtha, Greene, Ott. Nat. xviii. 38. This was ori- 
ginally described from specimens of the year 1901, and much 
too young. The numbers 69,353 and 69,354 of 1905 together 
enable one to complete the description of what is a most satisfac- 
tory species. In its maturity, as shown in n. 69,354, collected 
August, 1905, the plant is 7 to 9 inches high, the involucres not 
sessile, but even quite loosely corymbcse-panicled and about 
twice as numerous as in the originals. The achenes are dis- 
tinctly though sparsely scabro-hirtellous. 

A. ERiGEROiDES. Slender but rather rigid and wiry, the flow- 
ering stems 8 to 12 inches high : stolons with small foliage narrow 
jy spatulate-oblanceolate, compactly silky-lanate on both faces^ 
the upper glabrate only in age ; stem leaves narrowly linear 
falcate, sharply acuminate, all but the uppermost curving away 
irom the stem ; heads distinctl)' racemose, a few at the very sum 
mit only more crowded and subcymose ; pedicels of the scattered 
and racemose ones filiform, 1-2 to i inch long and suberect j 
scaricus tips of the involucral bracts all obtuse, pinkish : stamin 
ate plant not known. 

Skagit Valley, 2'j June, 1905, at an altitude of 4,500 feet, 
Mr. Macoun ; Geo. Surv., n. 69,346. 

A. MODESTA. Low, the leafy and floriferous stems only 2 to 
4 inches high and almost filiform, either monooephalous or 
with several additional heads on slender pedicels racemosely ar- 
ranged : stolons short, crowded, densely leafy, their leaves 1-2 
inch long or less, oblong-cuneiform, densely whitish-tomentose 
on both faces ; stem-leaves thin, oblong, acute, suberect, more 
loosely woolly and the wool deciduous from the upper face, the 
slender stem itself and the pedicels floccose and the wool deci 
duous, or partly so; involucres small, narrow-campanulate, the 
bracts dark and broAvnish, their tips long, acuminate, greenish 
brown. 

Altitude of 6000 feet in Skagit \'alley, 25 July, 1905, Mr 
Macoun. Plant cf the A. alpitia group by its involucre but ol 
peculiar habit and a subracemcse inflorescence. 

Washington, D. C, June, 1906. 



'M-ibj IHt CAKiiK>r oi- Oi ci-N Cm AKi oi I !•: Islands. 73 

THK CARIBOU OK gUEKX CHARLOTTL ISLANDS. 

In the issue of The Ottawa Naturalist for February, 1900, 
Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton described a new species of caribou 
from the Queen Charlotte Islands. The .species was lounded on 
a tragmentary skull and one horn bi;i the description of the skin 
gi\on by a gentleman who saw ;; and .1 comuans )n of the skull 
with that of allied species seemed to warrant Mr. Thojnpson- 
Seton's conclusion that the caribou of the Queen Charlotte Is- 
lands was an undescribed species. However this may prove to 
be the more important question of whether there are really cari- 
bou on Graham Island or not has been doubted by many residents 
of British Cclumbia. This doubt has now been set at rest by 
Commander Hunt and Lieut. Bills, of H. M. S. Shearwater, 
whose account of their visit to Graham Island is printed below. 
It is due to the kindness of Mr. F. Kermode, Curator of the 
Provincial Museum at Victoria, B. C, that the Editor is enabl- 
ed to supplement the very complete account given by Mr. Thcmp- 
son-Seton of what was at that time known of the Graham Is- 
land caribou by this later information. The tracing of the foot- 
print referred to in Messrs. Hunt and Bills' report has been 
shown to several gentlemen who have seen caribou tracks and all 
pronounce it to have been made by that animal. Messrs. Hunt 
and Bills report as follows : 

"For some years past the question of the existence of caribou 
on Queen Charlotte Islands has been frequently discussed by 
naturalists and sportsmen. .\ pair of antlers, suppos- 
ed to have been taken from a caribou shot on these islands, 
was s^nt from Graham Island to A'ictoria some years ago, but 
this, we believe, is the the only specimen which is known to have 
come from that island, and sceptics have suggested that the 
head probablv came from the mainland and was traded with the 
Indians of the islands. 

"From time to time various persons who have visited the 
i.slands have reported tracks of animals of the deer family, but, 
in view of the fact that wild cattle are known to wander about 
inland, it has been thought that these were responsible for the 
tracks. .As far as we can a.scertain, no pair of antlers has been 
taken from the islands for some years, and, apart from the horns 
mentioned above, over whose authenticity doubts have Ix^en cast, 
naturalists were in doubt as to the nature of the animal which, 



74 The Ottawa Naturalist. IJ^b' 

reports stated, lived on the islands. We believe that the latest 
rumor on the subject was to the effect that the animal was a 
wapiti. 

"A favourable opportunity having occurred to investigate 
the question, we set out on the 22nd February, igo6, from Hus- 
san Point on the west side of Virago Sound and struck inland 
in a westerly direction. The country was timbered, but fairly 
cpen, and the going good, thick patches of sal-lal being fre- 
quent. After forty minutes packing we emerged upon the open 
crest of a hill, and here saw tracks of some large animal of the 
deer family. The open space was about half a mile long and 
300 yards broad, covered with a thick carpet of moss in which 
were dotted numerous small pools of water. A few stunted 
trees grew about, — for the most part in a withered condition. 

"This open space was the first of many which we found in 
the area of our wanderings and nearly all showed tracks in a 
greater or less degree. These open spaces crown nearly all the 
hills (none of which can be more than 400 or 500 feet in height) 
and between them are patches of bush more or less dense and all 
containing a good deal of sal-sal. In a few places we came 
across the tracks in the bush, but the nature of the country 
doubtless prevented us from noticing many others. 

"According to the Graham Island Indians (the Hydahs) 
snow tc the depth of two or three feet had covered the hills up 
to a few weeks before our arrival, but this had disappeared save 
a few isolated patches which were fast melting.. In three dif- 
ferent patches of snow we saw tracks of a deer-like animal, but 
thev were probably two or three days old and the melting of the 
snow had caused them to lose their original sharpness. 

"It was our intenticn to take photographs of any clear 
tracks, I)ut those in the moss did not lend them.selves to such 
procedure and those in the snow were too indistinct. .A sketch 
was made of one fresh hoof-print found in the thick moss and 
caref^ul rreasurements made. It is by no means one cf the larg- 
est se'^n, but wns sufficientiv sharply defined to enable sketch 
and measurements to be taken. 

"We saw a good deal of dung in the open spaces, and a 
litt'e in the bush; it was alwavs in small heaps of rounded black 
substanrc and appeared to be that of caribou. Some appeared to 
be fairlv fresh, but none w.-.s seen that we would consider less than 
fortv-eight hours old. At the edee of one of the open space."? 



1906J The Caribou of Queen Charlotte Islands 75 

we found a shed antler lying in the moss, undoubtedly the left 
antler of a caribou. 

''As a result of our investigations we are perfectly convinc- 
ed that a species of caribou does inhabit the northern part of 
Graham Island and would give the following reasons for our 
opinion : — 

1. The tracks are plentiful of all sizes, some quite fresh, 
and are undoubtedly tracks of a large animal of 
the deer family. In the sketch the distinctive dew- 
claws of the caribou are perfectly marked. 

2. The dung seen was certainly not that of a wapiti; the 
tracks point to a very large animal of the deer fam 
ily. 

3. That the shed antler was deliberately taken into the 
country and left to be discovered is a point that may 
be dismissed as very improbable. 

We were, unfortunately, unable to actually see a caribou, 
although we searched for three days in both the bush and of)en 
country. 

"The Indians living at Virago Sound are quite positive 
about the existence of caribou, but state that they are never 
seen en the west coast of Graham Island, and a search over the 
open plain extending to the west of the area marked on the at- 
tached plan failed to reveal any tracks. We could get no in- 
formation of tracks having been seen south of Xaden Harbour, 
and so have come to the conclusion that the caribou are, for 
some reason, only found within a small area of the X. W. por- 
tion of Graham Island. 

"Whether this caribou is of the barren ground or woodland 
variety must be left to the naturalists to decide, the shed antler 
app>earing to us to favor either variety. From the fact that 
our continuou-s search in the open failed to discover an animal, 
this caribou would app>ear to prefer the bush to the open. 

"We interviewed an Indian (l)v name George Haliett) 
who stated that five years ago he had shot three caribou, and 
his description of the size and appearance of the animals was 
fairly accurate. As he stated they had no horns they were 
probably shot out of .season. George Hallett also said that an- 
other Indian who once accompanied him on a hunting trip had 
shot a caribou with larec antler*; : that these antlers had hren 



7^ The Ottaua Natlkalisi. I July 

sold to the late Mr. Mackenzie, of Massett, who sent them down 
to Victoria."* 

Dr. R.W. Ells, of the Geological Survey who spent the season 
of 1905 on Graham Island, furnishes the following additional 
information which though of uncertain value if standing alcne, 
affords strong corroborative evidence when read with what is 
printed above. Dr. Ells writes in his report : 

"During the winter months certain members of the tribe 
(Haidas) engage in hunting, principally the bear, which appeared 
to be quite numerous, especially in the country around the Yak- 
oun river and lake and in the southern half of the island. Of 
other large animals there appears to be a scarcity, though the 
Rev. Charles Harrison, of Masset, asserts that caribou have 
been found in the country adjacent to ^'irago Sound. As very few 
white people have e\"er attempted to penetrate the dense forest 
of the interior the presence of this animal might easily es- 
cape notice.. During out boat journey along the ncrth shore 
west of Virago Sound several forms like deer were observed feed- 
ing along the l>each. It was supposed at the time that these 
might be wild cattle but as the herd of these is so far as known 
confined to the area east of Masset Inlet and as no trace of them 
has l>een reported from this part of the island, it is quite possible 
that the animals seen may have been deer. Our boat was at the 
time too far from land to determine this point definitely." 



A CORRECTION. 



In Dr. Holm's note on Eriophorum in the last number of 
The Naturalist the date of Fries' paper should have read 
"1844" instead of "1848". Dt. Holm did not see a proof of his 
note and the misprint was overlooked by the editor. 



*This is doiiblle>s the antler described b\- Mr. Thompson-Seton. — The 
Editor. 



igo'^l IVV PoiSONINC AND ITS TuEAT.MENT. 77 

IVY POISONING AND ITS TRIiATMENT. 

Nine years ago the writer was severely poisoned Ijy handling 
/v'/i«.v toxicodendron and though he has since taken great care 
when in its \ icinity few seasons have passed in which he has 
oscajx-'d. In his own case many remedies have been tried, that 
which has pro\ed most efficacious being lead acetate and alcohol. 
In a paper published in Rhodora, (Vol. IV., pp. 43-45). Dr. Franz 
Pfoff gives the results of a very thorough study of Rhus toxico- 
dendron and R. venenata. He discovered that the active prin- 
cipal was an oil which he named "Toxicodendrol" which he found 
in all parts of the plant at all seasons. A sample of the oil kept 
in an open porcelain dish for over thirteen months proved to be as 
active as ever before. Dr. Pfoff also found lead acetate to be 
the Ijest remedy, and as cases of ivy poisoning are very frequent 
here, his directions for removing the poison and keeping it from 
spreading may well be reprinted. He says : 

"This can be done by vigorously washing the affected ex- 
posed parts with soap and water and a scrubbing brush ; that is to 
say by mechanically removing the oil. As the active principle 
is very soluble in alcohol and gives with lead acetate a precipi- 
tate which is nearly insoluble in alcohol, other processes may be 
employed to remove the oil. The exposed parts may be washed 
repeatedly with fresh quantities of alcohol and a scrubbint; 
brush. The poisonous oil may be thus removed in alcoholic 
solution of lead acetate ; in this case the poisonous principle 
would be first transformed in its insoluble lead compound and 
then washed away with alcohol. 

"The washing must Ije done thoroughly when alcohol is 
employed, as otherwise the alcchol might only ser\e to distribute 
the oil more widely over the skin. The finger nails should Ik* 
cut short and also perfectly cleaned with the scrubl)ing brush. 
Oily preparations, or anything which dissolves the poisonous 
oil, if used, should be immediately removed, as they may only 
spread the poison, giving it a larger area on which to work. 

"The treatment above outlined can not cure the already in- 
flamed parts which must heal by the usual process of repair, but 
it does prevent the spreading of the inflammation and may 
serve to remove the poison Ijefrre it has had lime fo produce its 
characteristic effects upon the skin." 

In a later numlxjr of Rhodora. (\'ol. IV, p. loT)) Mr. L. K. Am- 



78 The Ottawa Naturalist. [luly 

midown, who describes himself as being very susceptible tc ivy 
poison, tells of a preventive which makes it possible for him to 
visit locaJities in which it is abundant without l^eing affected. 
He says: "I take with me a bottle filled with a strong solution 
of saleratus (the common kind used in cooking). When I come 
out of the swamp I wash my hands, face and neck — wherever it 
is possible that the poison has touched the skin — with the solu- 
tion. Since doing so I have never been poisoned and can roam 
through the place at will. I take no needless risks and am 
always careful not to touch the dogwood {Rhus venenata) if I sec 
it. However, it is so thick that it would be impossible to avoid 
it altogether." 

Everywhere for nearly a mile along the east side of the 
Beaver Meadow the ground is covered with poison ivy, spoiling 
for many collectors one of the most interesting fields for botanical 
work in this vicinity. Rockliffe, too, is a dangerous place to 
visit for those who are at all susceptible. With proper care 
and a prompt use of the remedies gi\en above the danger of 
serious poisoning will be greatlv lessened if not entirelv remov- 
ed. 

J. M. M. 



THE CONNECTICUT VS. THE KENTL'CKY W.^RBLER. 

A Correction. 

In the report on the sub-excursion of the club to Rockliffe, 
May 5th, 1 am inadvertently made to report having seen a Ken- 
tucky warbler {Geothlypis formosa). \\'hile I would have been 
delighted to again meet this old acquaintance of mine from the 
south, I must state that it was the Connecticut warbler {Geotlilypis 
agilis) I saw. This is a great rarity anywhere and has been 
reported for Ottawa only once before by Mr. J. Fleming, of 
Toronto, who saw it also at Rockliffe. The song of this bird 
is very charax.teristic and cannot easily be mistaken for that of 
another. It begins with some very low notes, as though the 
bird was inhaling, then a few a little louder, exhaling, and then 
several loud, liquid, bubbling notes, in the pitch of the oven- 
bird or water-thrush. This song I heard May 2n(l from a tree 
in the citv, onct on the same day at Britannia and May 5 at 
Rockliffe, Ix'forc I saw the bird plainlv. -So it may, after all. 
not Ix" so rare here 

C. W. G. EIFRIG. 



igooj The Great Gray Owl. fq 

THE GREAT GRAY OWL. 

Rev. C. \V. G. Eifrig. 

The great gray owl, [Scotiaptex ciuerca) is one of I he rarest 
and most mysterious visitants to this part of Canada. Its move- 
ments, its coming and going are as eccentric and unfathomable 
as thosi' of the snowy owl, pine grosljeak, Bohemian waxwing, 
and others of our true Canadian birds. At the same time it is 
one of the birds concerning which the least data and observa- 
tions are available. Its range extends from Lake Superior to the 
\ ukon and from Hudson's Bay to the Pacific Ocean. Here it docs 
not live in open country, in the "barrens," as does the snowy 
mvl, {Xyclea nyclea), but confines its operations to the large, 
dense forests of the region. From here it does not stray far, 
rarely passing the southern boundary of the Dominion. Mr. Don- 
ald Gunn states that this owl is to be found summer and winter 
throughout all the country commonly known as the Hudson Bay 
Territory. Nor is it abundant even there, in its chosen habitat, 
as Mr. McFarlane, who has been in the employ of the Hudson 
Bay Company in the Anderson River district since 1X59 or '60, 
states that he obtained but "very few specimens", although he 
is a verv gifted naturalist and keen observer. No wonder then, 
that records of their nests are also few and far between. I can 
find two records only, quoted both in Bendire's Life Histories 
of North American Birds, and Baird, Brewer and Ridg<;way, 
North American Birds. One nest was found on a 23rd of May, 
by Dr. Richardson, "on the top of a lofty balsam poplar, compos- 
ed of sticks with a lining of feathers. It contained three young 
birds covered with whitish down." The other was found by 
McFarlane, "on the 19th of July, 1862, near the Lockhart River, 
on the route to Fort Good Hope; it was built on a spruce pmc 
tree at a height of about 20 feet and was composed of twigs and 
mosses, thinly lined with feathers and down. It contained two 
eggs and two young both of which had lately died." Thvir 

food is, according to Mr. Gunn, rabbits and mice, whereas Mr. 
Dall found in the stomach of one shot in April 20th. in the Yukon, 
the remains of thirteen redpolls, {.Icanlhis linaria). Of nine 
stomachs examined by Prof. K. Fisher, of Washington, one 
contained a small bird, .seven mire and four other mammals. 

However, the reason for writing this study was not the giving 
of these data, but rather to record the exceedingly great dispar- 
ity Ix'tween the large size of the bird and the smallness of th«^ 



So The Ottawa Naturalist. |J"^y 

body when taken out of the skin and feathers. It is always a 
matter of surprise to see the small body of all owls as compared to 
the apparent large bulk of the birds, but the great gray owl 
teats the other owls, like the barred, great horned and the snowy, 
all to pieces in this respect. During our last cold season three of 
these owls, shot near Ottawa, have come to my notice. One was 
shot last November by a farmer in South Mnrc'n, the second 
about February ist, near Templeton, Ouebf ", an ' the third about 
the end of March, locality unknown. All three found their way 
to a local taxidermist, from whom I procured the second one. 
Being familiar with the small size of owls' bodies, still I was not 
prepared for anything like this proved to be, when it was pre- 
pared and mounted. The great gray owl is in apj>earance our 
largest owl, it measures in length 25-30 inches, extent (wings 
spread) 54-60 inches, tail 11-13 inches. Its large facial disk, 
much larger than in other owls, heightens the impression of 
largeness, besides making it appear somewhat solemn, mysterious 
and uncanny. The body taken out from this owl, i.e. the trunk, 
without skin, head and wings, measured only, length 6 1-2 in., 
depth, i.e., from breastbone to back 3 3-8 in., width across 
thorax 2 1-2 in., weight 8-10 oz. It was much smaller than 
the body of the great horned and even barred owls ; as large as a 
half grown ruffed grouse and then not as wide. Of course this 
specimen was extremely emaciated, but that would not decrease 
the size of the skeleton. It was so thin as to be transparent 
in the abdominal region ; of intestines there was net much to Ix* 
seen and the stomach was empty. It is hard to understand 
how such a tiny body compared to the bulk cf the bird could keep 
up the huge wings, heavy claws and enormous head, whose cir- 
rumference measures 20 inches, the facial disk alone, 6 inches ! 
There was so little flesh on it, that it did not decay, but only 
dry up in the winter air. This seems to show also that this owl 
can eat very little only of a rabbit, if it catches them at all, and 
it .seems much more likely that it confines itself to small birds 
and small mammals, like mice, for food. Xo wonder the books 
express astonishment at the relatively small size of their eggs 
which ,'ire hardly any larger than those of the barred owls, a 
much smaller bird in appearance. The ef;;g of the latter, as 
figured in Bendire, measures 2x1-75 in., that of the former 2.1 25X 
i.'/T, inches. While this seems small when compared with the 
eggs of birds .sjnaller in apix>arance, like ducks, grouse, etc., it 



1906] Curious Natural Freak. 81 

seems still almost incredible that a body of the above given small- 
ness can produce an Oijij of even this size. This owl, now in 
my collection, measures mounted, with the n<"ck somewhat 
shortened, 25 inches in length. 



CURIOUS NATURAL FREAK. 

In the garden of Mr. Cowley on \'iew street, in this city, 
is to be seen a laburnum tree producing three distinct varieties 
of flowers, viz: — yellow and pink laburnum flowers and mauve- 
colored spikes of brorm-Iike flowers. Mr. Cowley made the 
following statements regarding the tree : About eighteen years 
ago he bought the plant from the late Mr. Henry Mitchell as a 
pink laburnum a sport from the ordinary yellow laburnum. It 
proved true to its name, and produced pink flcwers for a num- 
ber of years. The tree grew quite large, and then Mr. Cowley 
( ut it back when, to his astonishment, it produced a thick 
broom-like growth, resembling bunches of mistletoe, which pro- 
duced spikes of ro.se or mauve-colored flowers, resembling 
broom, different in every respect from the original laburnum 
blossoms. Two years ago the tree showed a disposition to 
hark back to its original fcrm, as it produced a spike of yellow 
flowers; last year more appeared, and at the present time the 
tree presents the curious appearance of producing pink and yel- 
low laburnum flowers, and spikes of the broom flowers describ- 
ed. 

Mr. C. N. Young, of Duncans, on hearing of the curiciis 
freak, wrote as follows: — "I have known a similar case. On the 
lawn of the rectory at Quainton, near Aylesbury, a large laburnum 
tree, forked at eight feet from the ground, one half bore yellow, 
the ether pink flowers; while from the fork grew a bunch of 
citisus bearing purple flowers. 

"The late Professor Lindley, then editor of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle, expressed it as his opinion that the original tre*> was 
produced by crossing the yellow laburnum with the purple citisus. 
.ind that the tree had combined the peculiarities cf both parents 
rmd offspring." 

I send specimens of the flowers for inspection by the curi- 
ous. 

J. R. ANDFRSON. 

Victoria, B. C., 

I St June, 1906. 



82 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 

REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL BRANCH, 1905. 
Read March 27, igo6. 

The Leaders of the Entomological Branch have pleasure in 
reporting that during the season of 1905, the entomologists of 
the Club have been actively engaged ; much good collecting hav- 
ing been done and many new facts discovered concerning the life- 
histories of various species of insects. The season on the whole 
was an unproductive one in the Ottawa district, the cool nights 
and damp weather being very discouraging and hindering much 
in the plans for excursions, etc., which had been made by the 
Leaders. Notwithstanding the disappointing .season, by dint 
;)I persistent effort good work was done by some of the members 
of the Club and many new records of insects were added to the 
local lists. 

The fortnightly meetings held in the early part of the year 
were very helpful to the members who attended them, and much 
useful information was brought out in the discussions following 
the reading of papers. These meetings of course are open to 
any members of the Club and as they are very informal in nature, 
all wishing to take up the study of insects are welcome to attend 
and could quickly gather much u.seful and interesting informa- 
tion. 

No reports of the Entomological Branch have been published 
in the Ottawa Naturalist since that for 1902 which appeared in 
the September number for 1903, but full accounts of the meet- 
ings of the branch have appeared from time to time and furnished 
the same information as would have been given in a report. .\ 
few new members have joined this Branch of the Club but the 
field is so large and so much of it is yet to be worked that the 
Leaders sincerely hope that more students will join them during 
the next season. 

\'aluable work has Ijeen done for the science of entomclogy 
by some of our meml>ers who have visited or who are living in 
localities distant from Ottawa. The Rev. C W. Taylor, of 
Wellington, British Columbia, has taken up the study of North 
American Geometridae and has already added largely to our 
knowledge of those interesting moths. Mr. Jos. Kecle and Mr. |. 
Wilson, both of the Geological Survey staff, have brought back 
from the far north small but valuable crllections of different or- 



1906] Report OF THE Kktomulogical Branch, 1905. 8-^ 

dcrs n{ insects. Mr. Keclc explored tlie Valley of the Mayo 
River, \'ukoii Territory, in 1904 and worked along Lansing 
River, Hell River and Ladue River in the same Territory in 1905, 
Mr. Wilson was exploring on the Hudson River slope in if^4, 
and in the Temagami district in 1905. .Vs both of the.se gentlemen 
Irok great care to latel their specimens accurately, even the 
small number they brought back, have distinct and great scienti- 
fic \a!ue. Mr. .Vndrew Halkett, who was naturalist on the Nep- 
tune expedition under Commander Low, in 1903-4, brought 
back a surprisingly large number of species of in.sects from the 
Hudson Bay region. Mr. H. H. Lyman, of Montreal, who 
joined the Labrador expedition, sent out to observe the total 
cc-ipse of the sun, found opportunity to collect specimens and 
make observations. Mr. Norman Criddle and Mr. T. N. Wil- 
ling, two of our Northwestern members, have prosecuted their 
studies of insects and plants most vigorously and with very 
important results. Many new species have rewarded their ef- 
forts and a vast amount of u.seful knowledge has been accumu- 
lated during the past few years. 

Of our local members p>erhaps Mr. C. H. Young's work 
among the micro-lepidoptera is most worthy of mention. The 
exquisite manner in which Mr. Young prepares his material is 
well known to us all but the value of his work is chiefly due to hrs 
skill in rearing large series of in.sects so as to compare the limits 
of variation. Mr. W. D. Kearfott, of Montclair, N. J., has been 
indefatigable and most generous in helping our meml^ers with the 
indentification of their captures of the.se minute and most beau- 
tiful moths. Mr. W. Metcalfe has taken up the study of the 
order Hemiptera and is gradually compiling a complete list of the 
Ottawa species. His material has Ixx-n named by the leading 
specialists and we hope that it will soi)n be ready for publica- 
tion. 

Our two highly e.steemed corresponding members, Messrs. 
I. B. Smith, State Hntomologist, of New Jersey, and Prof. H. 
F. Wickham, of the University of Iowa, as in the past, have 
rendered invaluable service to f)ur memlxjrs by helping with 
identifications and sending us ft.r the Library their u.seful publi- 
cations. 



84 The Ottawa Naturalist. [July 1 

Among many rare and interesting insects which have been 
taken mention may be made of the following : — 

Lepidoptera : 

Papilio machaon, L. var. aliaska, Scud, an exceedingly 
rare insect, was taken in the Yukon Territory by Mr. Keele, and 
on the Nagagami River on the Hudson Bay slope, by Mr. Wil- 
son. 

Papilio brevicauda, Saunders. The larva was found at the 
North-west River post of the Hudson Bay Company, on Lake 
Melville, Ungava, by Mr. Lyman. 

Pontia protodice, B. & L. The second specimen taken at 
Ottawa, Sept. 27 (Gibson.) 

Eurymus hoothii, Curtis. Three specimens of this remark- 
ably rare Coliad were taken in the Yukon Territory by Mr. Keele 
fn the beginning of July. 

Erora laeta, Edw. Two specimens of this beautiful little 
Thecla, Meach Lake, Que., May 18 (Young). 

Anihlyscirtes samoset, Scud. Chelsea, Que., May 28. 
(Gibson & Campbell). 

Pamphila paloemon, Pallas {niandau, Edw.) Eastman's 
Springs, July i (Fletcher). 

Anfhomaster leonardus, Harr. Britannia, Aug. 23. (Baldwin). 
This skipper is very rare at Ottawa and has not been taken for 25 
years. 

Utetheisa hella, L. Sept. 25 (Fletcher), the second speci- 
men taken at Ottawa. 

Phragmatohia assitnilans, Wlk. var. franconica, Sloss. 
Meach Lake, May 16 & 17 (Young); Ottawa, June 3 (Gibson). 

Apantcsis celia, Saunders. Ottawa, pupa, May 9th, moth 
June 7 (Baldwin). 

Seniiophora elininta, Gn. Meach Lake, May 8 (Young). 

Seminphora opacijrons, Grt. Meach Lake, .'\ug. 7 (Young.) 

Barnthra occidentata, Grt. This rare moth has not appear- 
ed for many years at Ottawa but during the summer of 1905 the 
moths were abundant during the latter half of June and the lar- 
vae were noticeably dcstrurlivo in gardens during late summer. The 
insect also occurred in Quebec and No\a .Scotia. The life history 
has been worked out and is published in the Report of the Domin- 
ion Entomologist. 



igO'j] ReI'OKI Ol- IHE li.MOMOI.Ol.lCAL liKAMU, igo^ S 5 

I'olychrysia fornwsa, Grt. Meach Lake, Aug. 15 (\'cung), 
\cr\ beautiful and rare species. 

Autographii ruhidin;, Ottol. Meach Lake, June 5. (\ouiig). 

Mclipotis fasciohiris, Hbn. Mr. Baldwin took a fine specimen 
ol this West Indian moth in his garden on July 6 last. This is 
the first Canadian record and it is probable that the insect was 
brought north in a bunch of bananas. 

Steiiopis thiile, Strk. One of the most important captures 
ol the year was made on July 6 by Mr. Gibscn when he secured 
.1 perfect specimen of this striking and very local moth near the 
IJxperimental Farm. Up to the present time there is no known 
authentic record of it having been taken at any other place than 
Montreal. 

COLEOPTER.\ 

A few specially interesting captures of beetles have been 
made at Ottawa during the past season. 

Pityobius angtiinus, Lee. Six specimens of this fine elater 
were taken at electric light at the end of June (Gibson and Bald- 
win), and a female was secured a month later floating in a water 
barrel, (Fletcher). 

Aphorista vitttita, Fab. .\ylmer, April, (Gibson). 

OdonicBus cornigerus, Melsh. Ottawa (A. E. Richard). ' 

Pachyta rugipennis, Xewm. Hull, Que. About 40 specimens 
01 this very rare longicorn beetle were taken by Mr. W. Met- 
calfe pairing at the base of a dead pine tree ^L'ly 29, 1904, 

Anfhaxia ceueogaster. Lap. This little Buprestid beetle, 
A\hich is frequently found in the flowers of Trilliums in Spring, 
was observed to be ovipositing on the trunk of the same dead 
pine tree, and at the same time as Mr. Metcalfe collected Pachyta 
rugipenuis. 

Phylotwnius puttctatus. Fab. The Clever Leaf Weevil, 
which has occasionally done considerable harm to clover fields 
to the south, was detected at Ottawa for the first time in 1905 
when two specimens were caught at the Fxjx-rimental Farm. 

.An important work has been .icromplishefl in the examination 
01 the whole of Mr. Harrington's Dytiscidae, by Mr. Jr.hn D. 
Sherman, Jr.. of New York, who has found in the collection some 
Aerv interesting species. The members of the Club are urged to 
make use of this opportunity to get their material identified and 
also t:: make a special effort this year to collect these insects. 



86 The Ottawa N'aturalist. [July 



The following are species of more than usual interest which have 
been found at Ottawa, and are .among those which have not yet 
been recorded from the district : — 

Desmopachria cotivexa, Aube. Bidessus lactisiris. S ly, Coelambus 
turbidus Lee, Deronectes d^'pressus Fab., Hvdfoporus pulcher, Lee, 
H.solitarius, Sharp, Ilybius pleurlticus, Lee, Agabus semipuncfatus, 
Vichy, A. reticulatus, Vichy, Rhantus smuatus, Lee, HydaticuS 
stagnalis. Fab., H. piceus, Lee. Dytiscus hvbridus, Aube, D. 
7narginalis, Linn, and Acilius semisulcntus. Aube. 

The publication of a complete list of the Ottawa Dytiscidae, 
is most desirable, as that published in Transactions No. V, page 
73, is obsolete and several of the determinations were erroneous. 

James Fletcher, I 

VV H Harringto.n, 
C H Young. 
Arthur Gibson, 



Leaders. 



SUB-EXCURSIOXS. 



Saturday, June 9th. — Seven naturali.sts took their way to'^ 
Billings' Bridge on Saturday afternoon. The party being small, 
they did not separate into different groups, as is customary on 
these "excursions." 

The tempting shade of a Ijeautiful "glen" seemed mere in- 
viting than a prolonged walk in the burning sun, to our usual 
haunt, "Rideau Park." So after a short consultation, we en- 
tered "Fairy Realm," and saw the wood-anemone, in all its 
grace and beauty, dotting the bank, side by side with the lovely 
fleabane. Nature is always charming with her variety, and 
contrast of colors. 

In some places the ground was carpeted with mocnseed, 
(Meuisperniutti Canadetise). It was too early in the .season to get 
the flowers of this pretty vine, although the bud was now form- 
ing. It had coiled itself around every unsightly object, such 
as, old roots, dead branches, etc., "and wreathed them with 
verdure, no longer their own." .After climbing up a rocky way 
which must have been a foaming torrent, the night before, we 
found ourselves, a group in the centre of a magnificent picture 



1905I SUB-t£xCLRS10NS 87 

w here the many a\ atertalls, and tiny rivulets were aijain indications 
ul the previous storm. 

The deeply indented leaves of the white lettuce {I'l-ciian- 
tht's), were very conspicuous, interspersed with bunches of a 
darker hue, showing where the hepatica's blossom had Ijeen most 
luxuriant and sweet cicely's delicate flower added it's charm 
to this verdant landscap)e. 

All prosaic ideas \anislied. Nature inspired, or suggested 
her own poetic thoughts which were expressed in more joyous 
tones, we too became one with her, and felt happy, "Where love 
is all things interest." Therefore everything was interesting 
to us lovers of nature. Even the grass looked at us from eyes of 
blue, (Blue-eyed grass), and the birds sang, or busied themselves 
with their own affairs, unconscious of, and oblivious to our ob- 
servation. 

After a delightful afternoon spent in "Fairy Realm," we 
entered a grassy lane, like the entrance to some enchanted 
castle, nor was the spell broken, when Mr. Halkett from his 
crystal jar pointed out some of the wonders of the "Insect 
World." 

Mr. Clarke picked up a few valves of the marine bivalve 
mollusk, known Saxicava ni_s;<)sa, whilst walking along the 
railway track, which had doubtless been conveyed there in ballast, 
procured at no great distance from the place where found. 

Mr. Halkett found seme fine specimens of land-shells (Heli- 
coids), with the living snails, a scarlet arachnid, several caterpil- 
lars, including a mature specimen of the tent caterpillar 
IClisiocampa) which he mentioned as likely to prove a menace 
to the foliage of trees again, after having l>een nearly suppressed 
by the frost a season or two ago ; and also said he had observed 
the day being warm a profusion of insect life representative of 
\arious orders. 

Some of the flowers collected were: Black snakeroot, 

with inconspicuous greenish yellow flowers. None of us examin- 
ed the roots to find out its snakey qualities; everlasting; black 
mustard ; common hound's tongue. (Cynoglossuni officinale), 
now beginning to show its dull purplish flowers in the fields ; 
mous<^-<\-ir chickweed (Crrtisliuni itrvcnsc); the Canada violet, 
{Viol, I CinKulcusis) : small-fknvered crow-foot (Rantiticiilus 



88 The Ottawa Naturalist. [J"'y 

abortivus) ; butter-cup, {Ranunculus acris) ; white baneberry, 
{Actaea alba) ; blue cohosh, long past its flowering stage ; wild 
ginger; red osier dogwood; wild sarsaparilla, not yet in bloom, 
roots aromatic ; we saw bushes of the wild gooseberry and wild 
black-currant, but the fruit was still too green to be edible. The 
Heath family was represented only by some few pyrolas. 

After a delightful afternoon, and a refreshing drink of pure 
water, we returned to the cit}', and felt better fitted for our 
duties by this excursion with the Naturalists. 

AXXIE L. MATTHEWS. 



RECORDS OF RARE BIRDS IX THE MARITIME PROVINCES^ 

I take pleasure in recording the capture cf three interesting 
birds. February nth, 1905. at Argyle Shore, Prince Edward Is- 
land. An albino white-winged female crossbill was secured from a 
flock of about twenty properly colored bird's of the same species, 
by a Mr. A. F. Calder, of Charlottetown, P. E. I. The specimen 
is somewhat ashy-white about head and neck, gradually shading 
to white upon the tail and under parts. The white wing-bars 
are scarcely perceptible. The specimen is nicely preserved and 
is now in the possession of the writer. 

Another rarity from P.E.I, rs a little brown crane (Grus 
Canadensis) taken at Alexander. This bird was a young female, 
secured Sept. 22, 1905, and is now in museum of Colchester 
Academy, Trurc, X. S. This is probably the only record of a 
bird of this species being taken east of Manitoba, except one 
secured in Greenland, as recorded by J. Macoun in his "Cata- 
Icgue of Canadian Birds." Near Fredericton, N. B., a great 
gray owl (Scotiaptex nebulosa) was secured March 22, '06. This 
specimen was a beautiful female and measured twenty-six inches 
in length and an alar extent of sixty inches, yet its entire weight 
was onlv two pounds. The stomach and intestines were empty 
and the bod\- was in an emaciated condition. The specimen is 
in the writer's collection. 

WM. H. MOORE, 
Scotch lake. York Co.. X.B. 



iqo6| Natire SxruY — No. 36 89 

NATURE STUDY No. XXXVT. 

ThK FOINDATIONS OF CHEMISTRY AS SeEN IN NaTLRE StLPY. 

(For Teachers Especially ) 

By JcilN Bkittain, Woodstock, X.B. 

Chemical Uniion. 

In order to teach effectively we must distinguish carefully 
between the trivial and the important — between the accidental 
and the essential. We are apt to spend too much of the precious 
school-time over the details which have little significance — the 
lifeless husks which enclose and conceal the living germ-- 
thcughts. We think that we must do this in order to be 

thorough ; but we deserve no credit for thoroughness in doing 
things which should not be done at all or which should be done 
elsewhere or at another time. Let us rather devote our skill 
and patience tc the development, in natural and logical sequence, 
oi the great facts and principles of nature and of life. Practice 
and the habit of observation will ensure a sufficient knowledge of 
details. 

.\t the basis of all the natural forms we see — organic and 
inorganic — lies the fact of chemical union or combination. To 
learn to distinguish it, by its effects, frcm mere mechanical mix- 
ture, it is not necessary for the learners to wait until they have 
become acquainted with the molecular and atomic theories. Only 
very simple apparatus and (heap materia! are required for the ex- 
p>eriments which follow. 

Each member of the class is supplied with a small stick of 
dry white wood. The sticks are held for a few .seconds in the 
flame of a spirit lamp. At once a scft black substance appears 
in the heated part of the stick — a substance which will mark on 
paper and which will be found to be insoluble in water. The 
pupils recognize this as charcoal which they may be told is a 
form of carbon. Now the question is, where was the charccal 
before the stirk was heated? We could not see it before that 
was done. 

It will be found, by holding the hand above the flame of the 
lamp that no charcoal issues from it — nor does it come out of the 
surrounding air. Hence it must have been in the stick at first. 
But whv did the rharronl not then make the stick black? 



go The Ottawa Naturalist. I July 

Heat slcwly and carefully a little of the wood, cut into 
small pieces, in the bottom of a closed test-tube. Clear drops 
of a tasteless liquid like water form on the inside of the tube above 
the wood ; and as the water gathers, the charcoal appears. The 
water evidently comes out of the dry wood and leaves the 
charcoal behind. 

It can easily be shown, by means of a hand balance, that a 
piece of charcoal (from a stove) weighs less than a piece of the 
dry wood, equal in size, from which the charcoal was obtain- 
ed. 

It is plain then that dry white wood contains both charccal 
and water, and that when the water is driven out by the heat, 
the charcoal can be seen. And so it appears that the water in 
the wood hides the charcoal, else the wood would lock black, and 
the charcoal conceals the water, else the wood would feel wet. 

It may now be stated that when two substances — as charcoal 
and water in this case — are so united together that they conceal 
each other's properties, the two substances are said to be chemi 
cally united or combined ; and the substance they fcrm by their 
union is called a chemical compound. Thus dry wood may be 
regarded as a chemical compound of carbon and water. 

Next mix together, in a bottle, water and powdered char- 
coal. Do they unite chemically? They do not conceal each 
other's properties. The black charcoal can still be seen and the 
water felt. They now form, not a chemical compound, but a 
cheffHcal or physical mixture. But how can the charcoal and 
water be got to unite chemically? They must have been chemi- 
callv separate before they united to form wood; but we don't 
know, at present, how to ccmpel them to combine to form wood. 

Put finely divided wood, to the depth of about an inch, into 
a test-tube loosely closed with a cork or the thumb, -and apply 
heat until the tube is filled with smoky gas ; then without 
withdrawing the heat remove the cork rr thumb, and try with a 
match until you succeed, to set fire to the gas in the tube. How 
do you account for this combustible "wood-gas"? Since this 
gas will burn, it cannot be water-gas (steam) ; so we must con- 
clude, since chemists find that pure wood is composed entirely 
of carbon and water, that this gas was formed in some way from 
these two substances in the wood. It should be noted here that 
the water set free by the heat soon becomes colored by some 
ether liquid, and that a mass of charcoal remains in the tube after 
the water and the combustible gas has boon all expelled. It will 



1906] Natlke Study — No. 3b. 



9> 



Ix' found upon trial that this charcoal residue, although it will 
not burn with a flame like the gas, will slowly burn awav with a 
glvi>.' when held by a wire in the flame of the lamp. 

1 1 seems from this experiment that when wood is heated in 
a closed space, it breaks up into other substances Ix-sides charcoal 
and water. This will explain too in part, the manufacture of 
charcoal and wcod alcohol by the destructive distillation of 
wood, that is by heating wood in closed vessels, and the pro- 
duction of coke (carlK)n) and coal gas from bituminous coal by 
destructive distillation. 

Let the children char small samples of starch and sugar — try 
whether they contain water— and whether combustible^ gases 
are fcrmed when they are decomposed by heat. The last ex- 
periment may be performed by heating a little starch and sugar 
in an iron spoon until they take fire. It will be seen that the 
solid substance does not burn, but the flame is a burning gas 
which rises from the solid matter. The starch and sugar are 
really being heated in a closed space, shut off from the air by the 
spoon l)elow, and the burning gas above. In like manner, in 
the case of wood fire, we see that the flames are caused by the 
burning cf the combustible gases, given off from the hot wood. 

The children will now be able to describe the results of their 
experiments with sugar and starch and to state and justify their 
conclusions as to the composition of both. They will doubtless 
conclude that, like wood, starch and sugar are probably compos- 
ed cf charcoal and water chemically united. They may then be 
told that sugar, starch and wood and several other substances of 
similar composition, are called carbohydrates. The fitness of 
this name should be shown from its derivation. 

In all this work, the teacher is supposed to act only as the 
director cf experiments and as the referee in deciding the validity 
of the arguments and inferences. His skill is measured by the 
success he has had in inducing each pupil to do his own observing 
and thinking independently. 

.\fter a careful review of the whole ground, the children 
should retain a good working idea of chemical union — will see 
that heat tends to separate substances that have been chemically 
united — will understand what agricultural lecturers mean by car- 
bohydrate.s — will know that when carbohydrates are heated in 
.1 closed place until they decompo.se they break up into carbon, 
water, and other substances liquid and gaseou.s — will aee that 



92 The Ottawa \atukalisi. U"'y 

a flame is a burning gas and that a solid, as carbon, burns with- 
out a flame — and will be able to form an intelligent conception 
of many processes in nature and the arts which would otherwise 
be quite inexplicable. 

The main topic in these lessons — for this work covers several 
lessons — is chemical union ; but the ether topics discussed are 
important and all of them help in making clearer the idea of 
chemical union. And this illustrates another method of making 
our teaching more effective and saving time in the process. I 
mean that while we keep in view one principal topic we should 
always associate it with ethers which are significant and worth 
teaching in themselves and at the same time are so related tc the 
central topic that they can be used effectively in enforcing it. 



OTTAWA SUMMER SCHOOL OF SCIEN'CE. 

Last year a most successful and enjoyable three weeks' 
session Summer School was held at the Normal School, Ottawa, 
under the direction of Dr. J. F. White and Mr. J, H. Putman, 
assisted by Mr. A. E. Attwocd and others. The school was 
well attended by teachers and other students to the number of 
i6o. 

We are glad to hear that it has been decided to hold a simi- 
lar school this summer. The lectures will be given in the Nor- 
mal school and in the field. The course will open en July 3 
and last for three weeks. The arrangements have been handed 
over to Mr. J. H. Putman whose addresses were so acceptable to 
all in attendance last year. Mr. Putman will give an Element- 
ary Course in Botany. Mr. A. E. Attwocd will help in the field 
work and will lecture on Animal Biology and Mineralogy. Mr. 
F. E. Perney will give addresses on Physical Geography. Mr. , 
J. F. Sullivan will help in the botanical field Avork. Mr. J. S. 
Harterre will have charge of the Manual Training classes and 
Miss Gallup of Sewing. Mr. J. A. Dobbie will take charge of the 
Art work. The course will embrace Nature Study, Domestic 
Science, Manual Training, Drawing and Colour \\'ork. 

In nddition to the above, two lectures will be given on 
Inf;ects and two on Birds, by Dr. Fletcher, and one on Fish and 
Fish-life bv Prof. E. E. Prince. 



THE OTTAWA f(ATURALlST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, AUGUST, 1906. No. 5 



THE SPECIES Ol' BOTRYOCRINUS. 

By F. A. Bather, British Museum fXat. Hist.), London, S.W., Entciand. 

Twelve years have passed since the first publication of a 
statement that Botryocrinns occurs in America ' Crin. Gotland,' 
Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., XXV. No. 2, pp. 103-105 ; 1893. 
.Although two oi the determinations there made have been accept- 
ed by such well-known palaeontologists as Dr. J. F. Whiteaves 
and Dr. Sluart Welter, the facts appear to be still unrecognized 
by some American writers on fossil crinoids. It may therefore be 
useful to consider the generic position and tlie specific independ- 
ence 01 the alleged .American forms more fully than heretofore. 

Comparison of the .American species, rightly or wrongly re- 
ferred to Botryocrinns, with the species found in Europe and .Aus- 
tralia is rendered difficult by the fact that the diagnoses of the 
latter were based mainly on the characters of the arm-structure 
and p.artly on those of the stem-structure, whereas the former 
species are represented only by dorsal cups. It has, therefore, 
been necessary to re-study the dorsal cups ot the European and 
.Australian species and to prepare diagnoses founded on those 
elements alone. While the European and .Australian species are 
not readily distinguished /«/^r .vc upon these grounds, the dorsal 
cups of the -American species fortiuiately present more points ot 
difference. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Whiteaves for kinJly lending me 
the unique specimen of his Homocnmis crassux, o^ which a p'a-ter 
cast is now preserved in the British Museum ; also to Mr. F. 
Chapman of Melbourne for sending a wax squeeze of his Botryo- 
crinus longlbrachiatus to the same museunr. .A re-examination of 
this and other material contained in the British Museum has 



94 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

greatly helped the revision ot the diagnoses. I am further specially 
indebted to Professor H. C. Bumpus for the loan of the holotype 
of Cyathocrinus nucleus. 

The contractions and symbols used in this paper are those 
adopted in Part III. — The Echinoderma — of "A Treatise on 
Zoology", edited by E. Ray Lankester (London, 1900 ; see p. 
143). The terminology of the type-material follows the recent 
revision by C Schuchert & S. S. Buckman (see Science [n s], 
XXI, *p. 899 ; 9 June, 1905 ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [7], XVI, p. 
102 ; July, 1905 ; and Introduction to 'Catalogue of the type and 

figured specimens of fossils ' Bull. U S. National 

Mus., LIII, Ft I ; Sept. 1905). References to previous litera- 
ture are confined to passages cf systematic importance, and, for 
the sake of brevity, the plate and figure numbers are usually 
omitted. 

SWEDISH SPECIES. 

Botryocrinus ramosissimus. 

Botryocrinus ramosissimus, .Arij^'elin, 1878, 'Iconogr. Crin. Siiec' p. 24. 
Botryocrinus corallicm, Angfelin. 1878. op. cit. p. 24. 

Botryocrinus ramosissimus, R.ither, 1893, 'Crin. Gotland". Sve/isk Vet.- 
Akad. Handl.y XXV, No. 2, p. 117. 

Dorsal cup a wide cone, with straight sides, except for a 
slight projection of RR towards the facet. Height of cup (11. 
mm), 100 ; width at base. 56 ; width at summit, 139. IBB and 
BB wider than high. RR not higher than wide. Arm-facet .63 
of R. X supports 3 or more tube-plates. Proximal columnal^ 
obscurely pentagonal. 

Lower Ludlovian, Lindstrom's bed /", Gotland. 

Cotypes of B. ramosissimus and B. corallum in Riksmu>eum, 
Stockholm. As lectotype of B. ramosissimus, should be taken Ihej 
specimen lettered b (Crin. Gotland, p. 117). 

Botryocrinus cucurbitaceus. 

Si<yocriiius cucurbitaceus, Angelin, 1878, ' Iconogr. Crin. Suec". p. 23, 24. 
Botryocrinus cucurbitaceus, Bather, 1893, 'Crin. Gotland,' Svensk. Vet.-i 
Akad. Hnndl. XXV, No. 2. p. 120. Et locc. ibi cilt. 

Dorsal cup a wide cone, with straight sides except for a very 
slight projection of RR towards the facet. Height of cup (5. 9 






i(;>o6] The Species ok Botkyocrinls. 9^ 

mm), 100 ; width at base. 50 ; width at summit, i 18. IBB much 
wider than high. BB and RR about as hi^h as wide. Arm- 
facet .62 of R. x supports 3 tube-plates. Proximal columnal 
pentagonal. 

Lower Wenlockiaii. Liiidstrom's bed c, Gotland 
Of the two cotypes one is lost ; the other, which should be 
regarded as lectotype, is in Riksmuseum, Stockholm, lettered ti 
(Crin. Gotland, p. 121). 

BRITISH SPECIES. 

Botryocrinus ramosus. 

Botryocrinus ramosus, Bather, i8gi, Ann. .Uag: Xat. Hist. (6) V'll, p 394. 

Dorsal cup incompletely known, apparently a wide cone, with 
plates slightly rounded and RR not conspicuously projecting. 
Height (? 10. mm), 100 ; width at base, ? 60 ; width at summit, 
115. IBB uncertain. BB slightly higher than wide. RR wider 
than high. Arm-facet .9 of R. x supports one tube-plate. Proxi- 
mal columnal unknown. 

Upper Wenlockian, Upper VVenlock Limestone, Dudley. 

Holotype in British .Museum, Xo. 57217. 

Botryocrinus decadactylus. 

Cynthocrintis (sp. 2) decadactylus, Salter, 1873, 'Cat. Cambr. Sil. Foss. 

Carnbridg-e,' p. 123. 
Cyathocrinus (sp. 3) quindecinialis, Salter, 1873, op. cit., p. 124. 
Botryocrinus decadactylus. Bather, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) \'II, 
P- 395- 
Dorsal cup elegant, rapidly widening above in a concavo-con- 
vex curve. The plates show slight traces of axial folding, and 
RR project slightly. Height of cup (6.5 mm.), 100 ; width at 
base, 51 ; width at summit, 128. .AH plates wider than high. 
Arm-facet from .48 to .85 of R. x supports 3 tube-plates. Proxi- 
mal columnal obscurely pentagonal. 

Upper Wenlockian, Upper Wenlock Limestone, Dudley. 
The specimens to which Salter attached his .M.S. names are in 
the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge, England, numbered a 494 
and a 495 respectively ; but since they do not show the charac- 
ters even of the genus, it seems better to select from among 



96 The Ottawa Naturalist. | August 

the numerous other specimens described by me, British Museum 
No. E1419 as lectotype, regarding- the Cambridge specimens as 
chirotypes. 

Botryocrinus pinnulatus. 

Botryocritius pin7iulatus, Bather, 1S91, Ann. Mag: A'aL Hist. (6), V'll, 
p. J.02 ; also 1892, ser. cit. IX p. 192. 

Dorsal cup widens rapidly above with a concave curve. The 
plates show traces of axial folding, and RR project markedly. 
Height of cup (8.5 mm.), 100 ; width at base, 42-47; width at 
summit, 129. IBB wider than high. BB as high as wide. RR 
wider than high. Arm-facet less than .5 of R. x supports 3 tube- 
plates. Proximal columnal pentagonal or quinquelobate. 

Upper Wenlockian, Upper or Thin Wenlock Limestone, 
Dudley. 

Holotype in Dudley Museum. The heautotype of the second 

reference (supra) has recently been acquired for the British Museum 
(No. E 1408 1 ). 

In the original description of the holotype the measurements 
of height of cup, and of width at its summit appear inconsistent 
•with the figure, and it seems probable that they were interchang- 
.ed. 

Botryocrinus quinquelobus. 

Cvathocrinus qithiquangularis Phillips, Salter, 1875, '^^t- Cambr. Sil. 
Foss. Cambridge,' p. 123. 

Botryocrinus quinquehbus, Bather, 1892, Ann. Mag. Sat. Hist. (6), X, p. 
189. 

Dorsal cup elegant, widening above, with a slightly concavo- 
convex curve, RR projecting very slightly. Height of cup (6.25 
mm.), 100 ; width at base, 48 ; width at summit, circa 160. IBB 
not higher than wide. BB and RR wider than high. Arm-facet 
about .66 of R. x unknown. Proximal columnal quinquelobate. 

Upper Wenlockian, Upper VVenlock Limestone, Dudley. 

Two cotypes in Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge, England, 
No. a 4^5- No. I of my description is hereby selected as lecto- 
type. 



1906] The Species ok Botrvocrinls. 97 

A U S r K A L 1 A N SPECIES. 

Botryocrinus longibrachiatus. 

BotryocHitus longihrncliidtits, V . C"lia]imaii, 1903. Prar. A'. Sor. I'ittorin 
(U.S.) XV', p. 108. 

Dorsal cup conical, with straight sides, the plates slightly 
rounded, RR projecting very slightly if at all. Height (7.2 mm), 
100 ; width at base, 44 ; width at summit, 125. IBH and BB 
--lightly higher than wide. RR about as high as wide. Arm-facet 
not more than .5 of R. x rather wide and apparently supporting 
; tube plates. Proximal columnal quinquelobate. 

Silurian, Brunswick, \'ictoria. 

Three cotypes in National Museum, Melbourne, No. 390 — 392 
Of these, No. 39^, shown in Chapman's pi. xviii, f. 6, should be 
taken as lectotype. Plastotype in British Museum, No. E7130. 

The present diagnosis differs in some respects from the 
iiccount given by Mr. Ciiapman, being based on the excellent wax 
squeeze which he so kindly sent. From this it appears that the 
plates were somewhat disarranged, and that the specimen was flat- 
tened, thus appearing wider above than it really was. Mr. 
Chapman only measured to half-millimetres, but measurement 
with sliding callipers and a vernier gives : Height, 7.2 mm.; 
width at base, 3.2 mm.; width at summit, 10 mm. In calculating 
the proportions for the diagnosis I have reduced the last measure- 
ment to 9 mm. ; it may have been even less. Thus the propor- 
tions and form of the cup do not so closely resemble B. quiiique- 
lobus as would appear from the published figures. It was, Mr. 
Chapman has informed me, mainly this supposed resemblance 
which led him to refer the species to Boiryocrimis notwithstanding 
the apparent invisibility in both species of structures definitely 
diagnostic of the genus. Examination of the wax squeeze, how- 
ever, convinces me that those structures are after all to be seen in 
B. longibrachiatus. Chapman's pi. xviii, f. 6, is in fact viewed 
from the left posterior radius, 1. post. R being the middle of the 
three plates in the uppermost circlet, the plate on its right hand 
being A-, the plate below it on the right being post. B., and the small 
plate, of which a portion is seen to the right between post. B and 
X, being RA. The edge of r. post.^R is seen to the right of a. 



98 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

Mr. Chapman presumably interpreted .y, which he nowhere men- 
tions, as a radial ; but the present identification, when once 
made, ^is-;^so obvious that only two facts need be adduced in 
its support. First, the heptagonal outline of the plate here called 
post.B. Second, the contrast between the conspicuous arm-facets on 
1. post, and 1. ant. RR, and the absence of any such excavation on x. 
Above X, in the angle between it and the proximal IBr. of r. post, 
arm, are a few small plates (apparently not the ones alluded to 
and figured as tegminal plates by Mr. Chapman), and one of these 
seems to be folded at its edges as is so usual in the tube-plates of 
this genus. The arm-facet, neither mentioned nor very exactly 
drawn by Mr. Chapman, appears to have had straight, rather 
steeply sloping sides, ending in a deep axial canal, which has 
broken through to the front of the plate (compare the account of 
the ventral groove and axial canal in B. crassus). It is not easy 
to understand the true shape and proportions of the facet ; but the 
narrowness of the primibrachs indicates that its width can scarce- 
ly have been half that of the radial. 

AM ERICA. \ SPECIES. 

Botryocrinus nucleus. 

Dendroctiniis nucleus, Hall, 1876, Rep. X. Y. State Mus. Xat. Hist. 

XXV'III, Documentary Edit., explan. pi. xv, ff. 7-9. ' 

Cyathocrin us nucleus, Hall, 1879, op. cit.. Museum Edit., p. tjS. 
HoniocHnus nucleus, W'achsmuth & Springier, 1886, 'Revision of Paiaeo- 

crinoidea'.ni, p. 220, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Philadelphia, iSSb, p. 144. 
Botryocrinus nucleus. Bather, 1893, 'Crin. Goiland', Sverisk. Vet.-Akad, 

Handl. XXV, Xo. 2, p. 104, 

Dorsal cup wiih straight sides up to the RR. which project 
markedly towards the arm-facet. Slight tr;ice of axial folding on 
BE. Height of cup (8-1 1.5 mm ), 100; width at base, 43 ; width 
at summit, 125-130. IBB low, much wider than high. BB wider 
than high. RR higher than wide. Arm-facet more than .66 of 
R. X supports I tube-plate. ProximU columnal circular, with 
tendency to quinquelobation. 

Upper Wenlockian, Niagara shales oi VValJron, Ind. 

Holotype, American Museum of Natural History, No. 1898. 
Plastotype in Briiish Museum, No. Hi 4075. 



igo6] The Species oi Botkvocrinus. 99 

It should be noted that the holotype is a young^ specimen, 
and that, according to Hall, it, or at least the figures of it, "do 
not fairly represent the species." Therefore the specimens on 
which Hall based his diagnosis and description should be more 
important than the specimen figured. Unfortunately they are not 
to he found in the American Museum of Natural History, and I have 
had to rely on Hall's description and on the little holotype which 
Professor H. C. Bumpus most kindly entrusted to me for examin- 
ation. Its chief measurements are : Height of cup to top of 
RR, 36 mm.; width at base, 1.7 mm ; width at summit, 5 mm. 

Neither the description nor the figures of Hall indicate dis- 
tinctly that this species is a Botryocrinus ; indeed he himself says 
that it is "a true Cyathocrimis in structure". Hall, however, as 
has been previously pointed out (Wachsmuth & Springer, ' Revi- 
sion' I, p. 82; Bather, ' Brit. Foss. Crin. VIII, Cyathocrinus\ 
Ann. Mag \af. Hist. (6), IX, p. 206 ; 1892), " extended the dia- 
gnosis of Cyathocrimis to include forms with a small quadrangular 
radianal". Such a plate is shown in Hall's fig. 7, but in the act- 
ual specimen it is so obscure that one looks for confirmatory evi- 
dence, n such a plate were present the posterior and right pos- 
terior basals would be heptagonal. Now Hall says of this species 
" subradial plates [i. e basals] wider than high, three of them 
pentagonal [err. pro ' hexagonal 'J and two heptagonal." There- 
fore there was a small quadrangular radianal. That the species 
is not a Homocrinus follows from the shape of anal .r, which has a 
broadly excavate upper surface. The shape of the cup markedly 
resembles that of the Gotland species of Bofryocrinus, and the 
geological age harmonises. There is therefore no reason to doubt 
the correctness of this reference. 

Botryocrinus Polyxo. 

Cyathocrinus Polyxo, HM, 1S62, Trans. Albany Inst. IV, p. 199. (Date 
of vol. 1864; author's edition issued 2 May, 1863.) 

Homocrinus polyxo, V^'AchsmnXh 6s. Sipr'xn^er, 1886, 'Revision of Palaco- 
crinoidea", III, p. 220, Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia, 1886, p. 144. 

Botryocrinus polyxo. Bather, 1893, 'Crin. Gotland', Svensk. Vi't.-Akad. 
Handl, XXV, Xo. 2. p 105. 

Botryocrinus polyxo, Weller, 1900, Chicago Sat. Hist. Sun^ey, BulU'tiu 
IV, Part I, p. 66. Et locc. ibi citt. 



loo The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

Dorsal cup rather widely spreading^ upwards with concavo- 
convex curve ; plates with axial folds ; RR projecting markedly 
to the facet. Height of cup (197 mm.) 100; width at base, 48 ; 
width at summit, 132. Plates, especially IBB and RR, wider 
than high. Arm-facet .28 of R. x, which is very wide, supports 
3 (or more ?) tube-plates. Proximal columnal quinquelobate ; 
IBB project beyond it. 

Upper Wenlockian, Niagara shales of Waldron, Ind. 

Four cotypes in American Museum of Natural History, No. 
1897. These are said to be figured by Hall, Rep. N. Y. State 
Mus. Nat. Hist. XXVIII, pi. xv, ff. 10-17. But Hall there mentions 
five specimens. Which of them is missing ? 

Since Dr. Stuart Weller has confirmed the reference of this 
species to Botryocritins, it is unnecessary to argue the point. His 
description is but slightly modified from Hall's and is presumably 
based on the co-types, or at any rate on topotypes. But when he 
says that the somewhat rare specimens found in the dolomite of 
Bridgeport near Chicago "are indistinguishable from typical indi- 
viduals from Waldron' , it must be objected that his figure (pi. 
xiv, f. 12) by no means bears out this statement. The plates in 
this specimen are a little disarranged, and possibly have lest some 
of their outer form by solution ; but it is easy enough to see the 
following points of difference. The dorsal cup shows no sign of 
spreading upwards, but seems to have had straight sides. The 
absence of axial folds may p:)ssibly be due to solution ; but it is 
clear that the radiais do not project towards the facet, which con- 
sequently has not the markedly oblique slope seen in the cotypes. 
Approximate proportions, based on the figure, are : height, 100 ; 
width at base, 45 ; width at summit, at most, 123. The plates 
are perhaps wider than high, but not nearly so much so as in the 
cotypes. The arm-facet, which appears shallow, and far from 
"indenting the plate to about one-fourth of its depth", is drawn 
as at least .46 the width of the radial, x does not appear at all 
wide ; and RA, which is here narrower, has its long axis passing 
upwards from right to left, whereas in all Hall's figures it passes 
upwards from left to right. In short, if there is a species of Bot- 
ryocri'nus to which one would have thought it impossible to refer 



i9o6] The Species ok fJoTRvocRiNUS. loi 

this fig-ure, that species is B. polyxo. Dr. Weller may reasonably 
be asked for an explanation.* 

Botryocrinus crassus. 

Homocrintis chisshs, Whiteaves, 1889, Contrib. Canad. Pal. I, p. g,, 
Botryocrinus crassus, Bd.K\\&T, 1893, 'Crin Gotland'. Svensk, Vcf.-.lkad. 

Hand/., XXV, No. 2, p. 103. 
Botryocrinus crassus, Wtiiteaves, i8qS, Contrib. Canad. Pal. I, p. 375. 

Dorsal cup bell-shaped, inflated near base and slightly con' 
stricted near middle of BB. RR very slightly projecting towards 
the facet. Height of cup (14 mm), 100 ; width at base, 32 ; 
width at summit, 95. IBB wider than high BB 
higher than wide. RR wider than high below, but less wide than 
high above. Arm-facet about .66 of R. .v supports at least 3 
tube-plates. Proximal columnal circular. 

Middle Devonian, Hamilton Group, Thedlord, Ont. 

Holotype in Mus. Geol. Surv. Canada at Ottawa. Plasto- 
type in British Museum, No. E 14060. 

Redescription of the holotype (tollowing the order of Dr. 
Whiteaves' original description): — 

Dorsal cup somewhat bell-shaped, rather broad and sharply 
inflated near the base, and very slightly constricted just about the 
middle of the basals. Height of dorsal cup, from lower margin 
of infrabasals to top of radial facet, 14 mm , to bottom of facet, 
12.75 mi"-; maximum width ot cup, 13 4 mm.; width at base, 4.5 
mm. Infrabasals (IBB) pentagonal, about one half the size of the 
basals, and wider than high. Basals (BB) moderately large, 
about equal in size to the anterior radials ; higher than wide ; the 
three anterior ones hexagonal, the two posterior ones heptagonal 
and truncated above. Radianal plate (R.A) equal in size to the 
IBB, rhomboid (see measurements below) and resting obliquely 
between the two posterior BB, the right posterior radial, and the 
superior anal plate .v. Radials (RR) pentagonal, outer surface 
nearly flat below, slightly raised in the middle, and above this 

•Dr. Weller has been so generous with his help to me in the past, that on 
6th Jan., 1806, I presumed to ask for the loan of material that would enable 
these doubts to be set at rest. Either my letter or his reply must have pone 
astray, and the publication of these remarks can no lonjjer be delayed. io:h 
July, 1906. 



I02 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

truncated abruptly and obliquely by the facet for the arms, angle 
of facet with general side of cup being 135°. The facet is shallow- 
ly excavated with contour almost circular, but broader than high, 
width 4 mm.; height 3.1 mm.; axial canal small, ovate, marginal, 
its acutely pointed apex opening directly into the ventral groove, 
which forms an obtusely angular notch in the centre of the upper 
margin of the plate. Right and left posterior RR a little smaller 
than the rest. Superior anal plate x pentagonal, equal in size to 
the r. post. R. and facetted above for the reception of plates of 
the anal tube (vide infra). Cup-plates thick ; all rounded towards 
the sutures, especially in the upper part of the cup ; outer surface 
apparently smooth, but where the test is well preserved, as on 
post B. and ant. R, are slight traces of shagreen ornament 
Measurements in millimetres : — 

Width Width Length of suture 

Height below, above. between plates. 

IBB 4. 2.5 5. 3. 

>• an-t. B ... 8. 5.4 7. 4.5 

ant. R 6.5 7. 6.4 4. 

to bottom of facet. ... 4. 

'■• post. R 5. 5.4 4.75 4. 

to bottom of facet .... 2.75 

-al,v 48 4.7 ,v75|[-/'.'^l-6 

Each of the sutures bounding RA is 3 mm. long, and the 
plate in each direction is 3.6 mm. 
Relations of the species : — 

The radials slope outwards towards the facet, in the way 
characteristic of ^^/;^(?c;'z««.y. The axial canal is quite distinct 
from the ventral groove, though not actually separated therefrom 
by stereom. The sides of the ventral groove slope inwards at a 
wide angle, and at the same time separate from one another, so 
that the communication between ventral groove and axial canal 
becomes wider. Right posterior radial has portions of 3 or 4 
rather solid covering plates. The chief point of difference between 
Honwcrimis and Bolryocriims, so far as the dorsal cup is con- 
cerned, lies in the number of plates supported by the anal plate x. 
These plates are not preserved, but one can see the facets for 



lyoo] The Species ok Botryocrinus. 103 

them on the upper surface of the phite x. There is one small, 
deeply gfrooved facet in the middle, and another rather smaller 
immediately to the right ot this. The right and left slopes 
of anal x have larger curved facets, of which that on the left 
still bears a fragment of the succeeding tube-plate. Two 
small similar facets are clear on the adjacent slope of left 
posterior radial and one at all events is to be made out on 
right posterior radial. These facets are surrounded by a 
slightly elevated rim, so that their size and position are well de- 
lined. The arrangement of the tube-plates of the proximal row 
must therefore have been very like that of Botryocrinus ramosissi- 
riiuSy as figured in 'Crinoidea of Gotland' 1, pi. v, fig. 164 

.Among all specimens of Botryocrinus hitherto examined, this 
IS the only one in which the greatest width of the cup is less than 
the height. This fact and the bell-shape of the cup certainly war- 
rant the retention of the species. 

Botryocrinus americanus. 

Botryo^)inus americanus, R. R. Rowley, 1904, Greene s 'Contrib. Indiana 
Palaeont.', Part X\'III, p. 184, pi. Iv, flf. 12-14. 

Dorsal cup spreading out rapidly from the narrow column, 
then ascending with approximately straight sides ; all plates 
somewhat tumid, especially BB, which have wart like prominences 
in their lower part. Height of cup (as drawn 8 i— 8 6 mm.), 
100 ; diameter of column {2.2, mm.) 27 ; width at bottom of BB 
and top of RR (circa. 9 5 mm.), 113. IBB low as seen from the 
side, but their length is greater than their width BB higher 
than wide. RR (except perhaps the two posterior) slightly wider 
tlian high. Arm-facet more than .5 of R- Number oi tube- 
plates supported by x uncertain. Proximal columnal circular. 

Middle Devonian, Hamilton Group, near Charlestow n. In J. 

Holotype in collection of G. K. Greene, New .\ihany. Ind. 

Professor Rowley's clear description unfortunately omiis a few 
details that would have helped to complete the present diagno..is.* 

*.Mr, Greene would, I am confident, have acceded to my re(|iiest to 
i.orrow the holotype for examination ; but. as I reRret to learn from I'roJ. 
Kowley, illness has prevented him from attending to business for some 
months, loih July, 1906. 



104 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

The figures suggest that the arm-facet occupies the whole upper 
surface of the radial, but it is merely described as more than half 
the width. It might be possible to distinguish facets for tube 
plates on the summit of ;c, though the phrase " its top suture on a 
line with the top of the radials " suggests that it only supported 
one plate. Though very different in shape from all other dorsal cups 
ot Bofryocrcnus, there seems no reason to doubt Prof. Rowley's 
ascription of his species. After all, the characters are only an in- 
tensification of those noted in B . crassiis from the same formation. 

It should, however, be recalled that there exist other Palteo- 
zoic genera with the dorsal cup constructed as mBoiryocrinus. The 
Devonian representative of such genera is Cosmocrhius (Jaekel, 
1898, Zeitschr. deulsch. geol. ges , L, Protok. p. 28). C. Holzap- 
felt Jaekel, Poteriocriniis dilatatus Schultze, and Cyathocrinus 
ornatissitmis Hall were referred to this genus by Dr. Jaekel, and 
of these the first should be made genolectotype. A good figure of 
the cup has been given only tor C. dilatatus, and this, though 
marked with exceptionally strong axial folds, appears to have the 
characteristic Botryocrinxis structure. Redescription of C. orna- 
tissitmis is much needed. At present it can only be said that, in 
the absence oi direct evidence from the arms, there is no reason 
for referring any other American species to Cosmocrinus. 

Cosmocrimis is a distinct side-branch of Devonian age, but 
perhaps the American Devonian fossils here referred to Bo- 
tryocrinus represent a transition from that typically Silurian genus 
to the very similar Carboniferous Barycrinus. Protuberant bas- 
als, like those oi Botryocrinus america^ius, are seen in Barycrinus 
stellatus, B. bullatus, B. sxihtumidns, B. mamjnatus, and others. 
Perhaps indeed Botryocrijius americanus is really a Barycrinus. 
And perhaps Botryocrinus itself should be merged in that genus. 
Fifteen years have passed since I expressed my inability to dis- 
tinguish between Botryocrinus, Barycrinus, and Vasocrinus, and 
since I "thought it better simply to describe the long-known 
genus Botryocrinus <\s fully as possible, with the aid of new mate- 
rial, and to leave to the American palaeontologists the task of 
comparing it afresh with these other more particularly American 
genera." All that American pala'ontologists have done in the 
matter since then has been to accept without discussion my refer- 
ence of certain .American species to Botryocrinus. May we not 
hope for an independent study of this question from one of the 
many careful workers who are now turning their attention to the 
fossil crinoids of North America ? 






1906) Plants i-ko.\i thk Canapi.w Rockibs ano Selkirks 105 

SOME NEW PLANTS FROM THK CANADIAN ROCKIES 
AND SKLKIRKS. 

EniTH M. Farr. 

In the summer of 1904 I collected specimens of a Pac/iys/ima 
which proved upon examination to be a hitherto undescribed 
species and was j^iven the name of P. macrophylliim. It was 
found in fruit at Bear Creek Station in the Selkirks while the more 
usual form, P. Myrsitiites, was collected in tlower in the 
month of May, at Cedar Creek, in the same range of mountains. 
In order to complete the study of these forms it was necessary 
to secure specimens of P. macrophylliim, in flower, and of P. 
Myrsitiites in truit. Accordingly a special effort to that end 
was made this past summer when the region of the Selkirk 
Mts. was again visited. P. macrophylliim was obtaini-d in full 
flower at Bear Creek Station on the twenty-fifth of May, P. 
Myrsitiites in flower at Six Mile Creek on the eighteenth of 
May, and at Glacier on the twenty-sixth of the same month. 
During the first week in August P. Myrsitiites was found in fruit 
at Glacier so tiiat the two forms were then complete. 

In genera! appearance the two differ widely, and this is 
especially evident when they are both seen at the same season of 
the year. As stated in the paper published in November, 1904, 
in the "Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory of the 
University of Pennsylvania," P. Myrsinites is of compact habit, 
the branches being erect and stiff, the leaves arranged in a 
decussate manner, giving a bushy appearance to the shrub. 
Further, the entire plant has a yellowish tone, while the leaves 
are thicker and more rounded than in P. ttiacrophvllum. P. 
macrophylliim is of a loosely spreading habit, the branches being 
somewhat drooping and graceful, the leaves spreading in such 
a manner as to give a 2-ranked, flattened appearance to the 
branches. This species has a bright, almost bluish green tone as 
compared with P. Myrsitiites, and the leaves are, as a rule, 
three to five times as long as broad. 

Still another form was collected at Bear Creek Station, the 
same locality in which P. macrophylliim has been found. This 
plant was collected by Mrs. Charles Schaffer, and I take the 



io6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

liberty of naming it in honor of the late Dr. Charles Schaffer of 
Philadelphia, who spent many summers in this region and was 
much interested in the flora of the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks 

Specimens collected by Mr. Louis Krautter at Black Butte, 
Siskiyou Co., California, differ markedly in certain respects from 
those already mentioned, and are, 1 think, worthy of being 
assigned to a separate species. I have therefore described them 
under the name P. Krmitteri. 

The distinguishing points in the above named species may be 
mentioned as follows : — 

In P. Schaefferi and P. niacrophyllum^ the habit is loosely 
spreading with the leaves borne in one plane while in P. 
Myrsinites, the habit is compact and rigid with the leaves 
spreading in a decussate fashion ; the habit of P. Krautteri, is 
somewhat intermediate, the leaves closely ascending, but in one 
plane only. The internodes in P. Myrsinities are on an average 
much shorter than in P. macrophvUuyn, while in P. Schaefferi they 
are extremely variable although seldom surpassing the shortest 
in P. macrophvUuyn ; in P. Krautteri they vary slightly and are 
intermediate between P. Myrsinites and P. macrophylltim. In /'. 
Myrsinites the petioles are suddenly contracted into the midrib, in 
P. macrophyllum and P. Krautteri^ the petioles are swollen and 
this swelling is frequently continued into the midrib. 

The four forms vary strikingly in the shape, size, veining, 
texture and color of the leaves. 

P. Myrsinites and P. Schaefferi produce an abundance of 
flowers but comparatively few are found on P. macrophyllum 
and P. Krautteri. The sepals and petals are more elongated in 
P. macrophyllum than in P. Myrsinites while the filaTients of the 
latter are much longer in proportion to the length of the anthers. 
The style of P. macrophydum and of P. Krautteri is rather 
slender and the stigma slightly bilobed; in P. Schaefferi, the stigma 
is strongly bilobed ; and in P. Myrsinites the style is stout 
and the stigma rounded. In both P. Myrsinites and P. macro- 
phyllum very little fruit is produced. This is especially striking 
in P. Myrsinites where the flowers occur in great prolusion. P 
Schaefferi and P. Krautteri have not been seen in fruit. 

In P. macrophyllujn the flowers are very markedly pro- 



tQo6] Plants from the Canadian Rockies A\n Shlkirks 107 

tandrous. In all the forms the color of the tlowers is similar, a 
brick red, but in P. macrophyllum it is rather deeper in shade 
than in the other species. 

Following are descriptions not only oi those species hitherto 
undescribed but also of P. Myrsinites and of P. macrophyllum. 

Pachystimxi Myrsinites, sp. nov. 

Twigs short, dense, radiate, sienna brown with 4 narrow dark 
ridges, the internodes 6-10 mm. long, the leaves densely and 
decussately spreading, nearly sessile or shortly petiolate, the 
petioles suddenly contracted beneath into the flat midrib, lamina 
sub-rotund to oval and elliptic, the veins very obscure in 34 pairs, 
radiating, the margin dentate, teeth not incurved, thickened and 
revolute below, thinning out above, yellowish-green above and 
below, thick, opaque. 

Flowers odorless, very numerous, densely clustered in fascicles 
of 5-6, rarely '^-4, on arrested, bi-bracteolate branches springing 
from axils of foliage leaves ; sepals broadiy oval, the midrib faint 
or absent, apex rounded ; petals oval to ovate, nearly as broad 
as long ; stamens 4, inserted into a quadrate disc, filamenis twice 
the length of the a.ithars ; flowers slightly protandrous to gyno- 
monoecious ; style short, thick, stigma rounded. Fruit scanty. 

Pachystima macrophyllum, sp. nov. 

Twigs elongate, loosely spreading in one plane, cinnamon 
brown, longitudinally 4-ridged, the ridges dark brown, the inter- 
nodes 10-20, usually 15 mm. long, the leaves arranged in one 
plane and springing from between the stem ridges, shortly petio- 
late, the petioles gradually contracted into the leaf midrib, lamina 
oval-elliptic to oblanceolate, the veins evident, in six pairs, 
longitudinally oblique, the margin incurved-toothed from near the 
middle upwards, strongly thickened and revolute, glaucous green 
above, bright green below, translucent. 

Flowers few, in fascicles of 2-3, sometimes 1, on short 
branches in axils of foliage leaves ; sepals ovate, contracted at 
base, the midrib usually prominent, the margins slightly toothed, 
apex pointed ; petals broadly ovate, twice longer than broad, 
finely but irregularly toothed along upper margins, apex rounded ; 
stamens 4, inserted into a quadrately circular disc, filaments and 



io8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

anthers of equal leng^lh ; flowers protandrous, the ovary sunk in 
the disc ; style rather slender, at first short, later elongated, 
stigma slightly bilobed. Fruit scanty. 

Pachystima Schaefferi, sp. nov. 

Twigs spreading as in P. macrophyllum, but the color and 
ridges approaching P. Myrsinites, the internodes very variable, 
from 2-IO mm. long, the leaves in one plane, shortly petiolate, the 
petioles slightly swollen, the bladdery swelling often prolonged 
into the midrib, lamina lanceolate to linear - lanceolate, the 
veins evident, in 6-7 pairs, intermediate in position between P. 
Myrsiniies and P. niacrophyllum, the margin blunt-toothed from 
the middle upwards, slightly thickened, not revolute, bright green 
above and below, translucent. 

Flowers agreeably odorous, very numerous, in short clusters 
of 2-5, on slightly elongated branches ; sepals and petals as in P . 
macrophylluni ; stamens 4, inserted into a quadrate disc ; filaments 
one and one-half to two times longer than anthers ; style rather 
thin, stigma strongly bilobed. 

Pac hystimd Knnitteyi, sp. nov. 

Twigs elongate, closely spreading in one plane, grayish- 
brown, the internodes 9-1 1 mm. long, the leaves rather crowded, 
closely ascending in one plane, shortly petiolate, the petioles grad- 
ually attenuate into the midrib, lamina elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 
the veins evident below, obscure above, in 4-5 pairs, obliquely 
radiating, the margins strongly and sharply dentate in the upper 
half, thickened and revolute, bright yellowish-green, rather thick, 
almost opaque . 

Flowers few, in clusters of 1-3, on short branches, sepals 
ovate-deltoid, midrib not discernible, the margins entire, or near- 
ly so, petals not seen, stamens 4, disc as in P. macrophylluni, 
style rather slender, with slightly enlarged, faintly bilobed stigma. 
Fruit not seen. 

The following new species were also collected during the sum- 
mer of 1905. The type specimens of these, as well as of those ot 
Pachystima Schaefferi d^ndi P. Krautteri are in the Herbarium of 
the Universilv of Pennsylvania. 



I 



19^6] Plants irom the Cwadian Rockies and Selkirks. 109 

Aniica Luuiseuna, sp. nov. 

Plant 7-20 cm. high, slender, pubescent. Leaves in about 
three pairs, the two lowest at base of stem, the lowest pair 
2-4 cm. long, elliptical to obovate, on short winged petioles, 
mostly entire, the second pair 4-6 cm. long, elliptical, sessile, 
sparingly and saliently denticulate, the uppermost pair usually 
much smaller, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, entire or denticulate, 
all slightly glandular on both surfaces, the margins sparingly 
glandular and bearing a few long white hairs, IragrUnt. 

Heads of flowers 1-3, usually 3, fragrant, 4 cm. broad, borne 
on long, slender, nodding, pubescent peduncles, the hairs inter- 
spersed with glands; ray and disc flowers light yellow, rays 8-10, 
12-14 rnm. long. Involucre i cm. high, campanulate.^ densely 
glandular villous at base, brownish-purple, the bracts lanceolate, 
acute, bearing scattered white hairs especially towards the apex, 
uniseriate, equal. 

Receptacle slightly convex; achenes linear, strongly striate, 
brownish-black with a few short, scattered, white hairs; pappus 
\\ hite. 

This species is perhaps more closely related to A. LessingH, 
Greene, than to any other, but is a much smaller plant. The mar- 
gins of the leaves are slightly glandular-ciliate while in A. 
Lessingii they are strongly pubescent. 

It has usually three heads instead of one only as in that spe- 
cies; the bracts of the involucre uniseriate instead of biseriate, 
glandular and villous at base instead of pubescent. The rays are 
about halt the length of those in A. Lessinsrci. The pale yellow 
color of the flowers and their drooping tendency distinguish it 
from other Arnicas of the region. It was found growing among 
the loose rocks on the slopes of Mt. Fairview, at Lake Louise in 
the Canadian Rocky Mts. 

Ificracinm Alber/inum, sp. nov. 

25-50 cm. high, the stem villous throughout with long, rigid, 
white hairs arising from black papilhe. 

Leaves 5-1 2 cm. long, narrowly elliptical, tapering at both 
ends, the upper sessile, the lower narrowed into margined 
petioles. 



I lo The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

Heads about 2 cm. broad, numerous in a paniculate raceme, 
light yellow. Involucre li mm. high, conspicuously clothed with 
long, soft, white hairs, bracts linear, mainly in one series 

Achenes oblong, striate, dark brown; pappus tawny. 

Hieractum Alberfinum, was collected on the fourleenth 
of August, 1905. It was found growing abundantly with 
Eriogonutn siibalpLnuin^ Greene, Silene Lyallii, Watson, and 
Heuchera ovalifolia, Nutt., on a grassy slope above the trail be- 
tween Lake Louise and Moraine Lake. The long white hairs 
with which the plant is so profusely covered give it a silvery ap- 
pearance which is very striking and typical. 

Dfyas fomeiitosa, sp. no v. 

Similar to D. Dniminondii, Richards, but the leaves covered 
on both surfaces with a thick white tomentum, giving them a pale 
gray color above and white beneath; the petioles rather stout, 
clothed with white floccose pubescence. The yellow flowers are 
borne on stout fljccose-pubescent scapes. The sepals are densely 
glandular with purplish-black stalked glands. 

This interesting form of Dryas was collected near the summit 
of the Pass leading from Emerald Lake into the Yoho Valley, at 
an altitude probably of 5500 feet. It was growing in patches 
with Druminondii, with which it did not seem to intergrade, but 
preserved its own individuality. 

Ranunculus apetalus, sp. nov. 

Slender, 25-37 cm. high, villous with scattered hairs, becom- 
ing glabrate below. 

Leaves 18-50 mm. broad, the basal orbicular to cordate in 
outline, from det^ply ctenate to 5-g-lobed or divided, the divisions 
cuneate and irregularly lobed, petioled ; the cauline divided to. the 
base, the cuneate divisions deeply and variously incised ; sessile, 
clothed with loosely matted hairs or the lower glabrous, gray 
green. 

Flowers several, about 1 cm. broad, borne on long peduncles. 
Sepals 5, very concave, sub-orbicular, villous on the exterior, the 
margins often petaloid, yellowish-green. Petals wanting. 

.Head of fruit oblong to ovoid. Achenes inflated, compressed 



1906] Richardson's Merlin. i 1 1 

laterally, not angled, pubescent, tipped with the minute decurved 
style, I ovuled, maturing very irregularly. 

This Ratiuficulus closely resembles R. affinis, R. Br. var- 
valfiitis, Gray, in the heterophyllous character o'i the leaves, but 
these are not succulent as they are said to he in vhat variety. No 
trace of petals can be discerned in bud, halt open flower or fullv 
matured bloom; but the sepals have a decidedly petaloid appear 
ance owing to the margins being quite yellow and glabrous. 

It was found growing by the roadsides at Banff, Alberta. 



RICHARDSON'S MERLIN. 

I notice that very little reference is made in tlie "Catalogue 
of Canadian Birds" in connection with the nesting habits of 
Richardson's merlin, and think, perhaps, it would not be out of 
place lor me to give my own experience of this bird while spend- 
ing the summer of 1904 at Lethbridge, Alberta. 

During the first week of May, 1904. I observed several pairs 
of these birds in the poplars that abound in the bottoms ot the 
Be'ly River. I thought at the time that they were pigeon hawks, 
and that they were probably nesting in natural cavities in trees ; 
but events proved otherwise. 

On May 7th I made another visit to the locality where one 
pair was seen and was surprised at not being greeted with the 
usual harsh and scolding cries of the birds. Everything being 
quiet, I thought they had left the district or had been shot. While 
passing underneath a dilapidated magpie's nest, which was placed 
some 7 feet overhead in a scrubby poplar, I was surprised to see 
the female merlin flush from the same. The nest contained a 
pretty set of five eggs, which were simply laid on crumpled mud. 
The eggs are of a dark reddi'»h brown color, resembling the duck 
hawk's eggs, being, of course, much smaller. The male bird 
came over from some of the adjacent poplars and the pair became 
pugnacious, sometimes darting within a foot of one's head, and 
uttering harsh cackling cries. 



112 The Ottawa Naturalist. [August 

During the next two weeks I located three other magpies' 
nests containing full sets of this bird, the merlins in every instance 
being very noisy and wicked. 

During the first week in June I took a beautiful second set of 
five eggs of this bird. This clutch was laid in the deserted nest 
of the American roughlegged hawk, which was placed about 60 
feet up in a large poplar. This set is blotched with cinnamon 
color, not being of a general wash like the other sets. The pig- 
ment no doubt gave out in this case. 

. 1 am confident that these birds were just breeding locally, as 
they were not observed anywhere else. The many magpies' 
nests in the vicinity of Lethbridge seem to attract the birds, 
although I saw a pair ot merlins looking after an old crow's nest, 
but was unable to visit the spot again. 
_Z, To clinch the matter of identification I forwarded a set of 

these eggs to Mr. Walter Raine, of Toronto, and another to Mr. 
E. Arnold, of Battle Creek, Mich., and both gentlemen agree that 
the eggs are none other than Richardson's merlin. 

W. J. Brown. 
Westmount, Que., July loth, 1936. 



THE GOLDEN WINGED WARBLER IN MANITOBA. 

While watching a small lot of warblers in thickish woods on 
the morning of May 22nd I noted an unusual one among them 
which on close inspection proved to be a male golden-winged 
warbler [H^lminthophiln chrysoptera) in full plumage. Numer- 
ous Magnolia warblers, redstarts and a few others were with it. 
This — so far as I am aware — is the second record of this bird 
appearing in Manitoba, the other having been taken by Mr. W. 
Hine, near Winnipeg about the 27th day of May, 1887 — See 
Catalogue of Canadian Birds, part III., page 583, and The Aitk, 
Vol. VII., page 404. 

Norman Criddle. 
Aweme, Manitoba 



1906] CORRESPONDEN'CE. II3 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Editor Ottawa Naturalist : 

Dear Sir, — In the last issue of The Auk Rev. G. W. G. 
Eitrig notes a peculiar fact about the field sparrow. "That it is 
found in the fall migration in Ottawa but that apparently nothing- 
is recorded of its summer home to the north nor of its spring 
migration." As bearing on this subject I might say that I found 
single specimens of this bird in song on August 31, 1905 and 
July 27, 1899, at Kazuabazua, on the blueberry barrens, and on 
August 7, 1899, I recorded two in song near Ottawa, but have 
no memo, of the exact locality. The fact of the bird being there 
in full song at midsummer is practically as good a proof of its 
summer residence as if the nest and eggs were actually found. 
There is a good deal of the country north of Ottawa where the 
original forest has been destroyed which has now been given up 
to blueberry and to sweet fern, and I should think it likely that 
the field sparrows would occur all through this country where 
these conditions obtain, Ottawa is by no means the only 
place which shows erratic distribution of this species. In London 
it is very common and equally so at Toronto but in Guelph there 
is not a single record, and I am not sure but that this condition 
applies to the whole of Wellington county in whicli Guelph is 
situated, yet the bird is found much further north in western 
Ontario. It does not seem that there is any lack of suitable 
ground ir. the Guelph region. A raspberry thicket on the edge 
of a field or hazel or thorn bushes in an half open woods are its 
usual habitat and these combinations occur all over the country. 

W. E. Saunders. 

London, Ont., July iStli, 1906. 



114 T^HE Ottawa Xatlralist. [August 

REVIEW 

Mountain Wild Flo\\ers of Canada. A Simple and Popular 
Guide to the Names and Descriptions of the Flowers 
THAT Bloom above the Clouds By Julia Henshaw, 
Toronto, William Briggfs, 190'^, pp. 384. 

When a book on Canadian wild fl >wers is prefaced by letters 
of endorsation from Prof. Macoun and Dr. Fletcher, its excellence 
may be taken for jj;^ranted, but the most hurried glance through 
" Mountain Wild Flowers of Canada" is sufficient to stamp it the 
finest work of its kind that has been published in America. The 
hundred full page half-tones reproduced from the best of many 
hundred photographs of mountain flowers taken by the author 
are in themselves worth far more than the price of the book. But 
to one who knows and loves mountain flowers the chief value of 
Mrs. Henshaw's work lies in the record of her own notes and 
observations which follow the technical description of each 
species. Many cf the illustrations repre.'^int species whith have not 
before been figured, but descriptions and illustrations while they 
make a bjok useful and attractive cannot compare in value with 
the record in simple beautiful language of the results of many 
years study of the growing plants. What Mrs. Trail has done for 
the wild flowers of eastern Canada, Mrs. flenshaw is doing for the 
west and they stand alone. 

Intended primarily as a help to the tourist or botanist who is 
not familiar with alpine flowers, " Mountain Wild F"lowers of 

Canada " is in the attractiveness of its il'ustrations and the poetic 
beauty of the author's notes so far beyond any other popular 
botanical work that r.o lover ot nature can afford to be without it 
A few sentences extracted from the prelace will indicate Mrs. 
Henshaw's style: "Who can adequately describe the luxuriant 
profusion of these alpine meadows ? Who can tell in mere words 
of the glory and the glamour of such a scene ? .All around one 
the dazzling peaks in their frozen and pitiless beauty point long 

slender fingers up to God ; cruel crevases spht the gigantic rocks 
from tree-less top to pine-clad base where glaciers cling to the 
cliff with sparkling tentacles, and lichened stone-slopes are graci- 
ously' clothed by the creeping juniper, and the pale green of 

Lyall's larches. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, SEPTEMBER, 1906. No. 6 



NOTES ON SOME LAND AND FRESH WATER SHELLS 
FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



By J. F. Whiteaves. 

(A.) From the vicinity of the International Boundary, 
on and betiveen the Sitnilkameen River and the 
Sunias Lake and Prairie ; collected by /. M. 
Macon n and W. Spreadborough in igoj. 

The specimens referred to in this list were collected by Mr. 
Macoun in his capacity as Naturalist to the International Boundary 
Commission, or by Mr. Spreadborough, who was his assistant. 

Althoug-h the region that they collected in is part of the 
country traversed by Mr. J. K. Lord, when naturalist to a similar 
commission in i860, no specimens of Limnwa Snniassi, Baird, or 
of Physa Lordi, Baird, were detected or recognized in any of their 
collections. In the case of the Physa, the water at the typical 
locality for it (Lake Osoyoos) was so high when Mr. Macoun and his 
colleague visited it, in June, that no fresh water shells of any kind 
were obtained there. And, in this connection it may be mentioned 
that good specimens of ihe large Physa from Meach's Lake, near 
Chelsea, that were long thought to be either P. Lordi, or a large 
form of P. ancillaria, have recently been examined by Dr. Dall 
and pronounced to be the latter. "These shells," he writes, in a 
lettei- dated May iilh, 1906, " according to Tryon and Haldeman, 
are typical Physa ancillaria, Say, except that they are larger than 
usual. One of the middle sized specimens exactly agrees with 
Tryon's figure." 

The species with an asterisk prefixed to their mines were 
kindly determined by Dr. W Sterki. 



ii6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

Pelecvpoda. 

Anodonta Oregonensts, Lea. (1838). 
Atiodonfa cognata, Gould, 1850. 

Small lake at Hope, aud Sumas Lake, W. Spreadborough ; 
several living and adult shells from each of these localities. 

Sphoerium tumidum, Baird. 

Sumas Lake, W. Spreadborough ; a fine series of living 
specimens, in all stages of growth. This is the typical and only 
known locality for this well defined species. 

*Sphcermm ( Musculium) Raymondi ? J. G. Cooper, 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough, several specimens, most 
of which are very immature. Specimens similar to the larger 
ones, in the Museum of the Geological Survey of Canada, were 
collected at ponds between Quesnel and Stewart lakes, by the late 
Dr. A. R. C. Selwyn in 1875. 

* Pisidinni proxhyium, Sterki. 

Second summit west of the Skagit River, in a small pond at 
an altitude of 6,000 feet, VV. Spreadborough ; many fine and 
adult living specimens. 

*Pisidiutn Streatori, Sterki. \'ar. 

Third summit west of the Skagit River, in a small pond at an 
altitude of 6,000 feet, W. Spreadborough ; nineteen specimens. 

* Pisidium variabilc ? Prime. 

Sumas Prairie, \V. Spreadborough ; six specimens. 
Pisidnim, sp. undetermined. 

Peat bog near the Skagit River, J. ]\L Macoun ; eight 
specimens. 

Pisidium, sp. undetermined. 

In a marsh, Lake House, Skagit River, J. .NL Macoun ; 
sixteen specimens. 

Gasteropoda. 
LimncFa palnstris , M u 1 1 e r . 

Similkameen River, J. >L Macoun ; five specimens. 



1906] Lano and Fresh Water Siii:i.i.«<. iiy 

Limmva dcsidiosa, Say, (Teste Dall.) 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; m.iny specimens. 

Limtioea Vahlii ? (Beck) Moller. Young. 
Or L. Upida, Gould, young'. Dall. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; twelve specimens. 
Planorbis ( Pierosoma) irivolvis ? Say. 

Sumas Prairie, and small lake at Hope, W. Spreadborough ; 
several immature specimens from each of these localities. These 
specimens are probably referable to P. irivolvis, but they may be 
young shells of P. flirineyi, Tryon. 

Planorbis ( Menetus ) opercularis, Gould. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; several specimens. 

Planotbis f Menetus J opercularis, Gould, 
var. Centerviltensis, Tryon. Teste Dall. 

Peat bog near the Skagit River, j. M. Macoun ; four speci- 
mens. 
Planorbis ( Torquis ) vermicularis , Gould. 

Marsh near Lake House, on the Skagit River, J. M. Macoun ; 
several living specimens. 

Phvsa propinqua, Tryon. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough, seven specimens ; and 
Similkameen River, J. M. Macoun, six specimens. This is the 
Physa hetcrostropha of Baird, but apparently not of Say. 

Physa gyrina, Say. Teste Dall. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; several specimens. 
Physa Nuttalli, Lea. Teste Dall. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; thirteen specimens. 
Zoniloides ar bore us (Say). 

Peat bog near the Skagit River, J. .NL Macoun ; five speci- 
mens. 

F.uconulus fulvus (Draparnaud). 

Peat bog near the Skagit River, J. M. .Macoun ; one specimen 



ii8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

Succinea Haivkinsi, Baird. 

East bank of the Similkameen River, J. M. Macoun ; four 
rather small but living specimens. 

Succinea retusa, Lea. 

Sumas Prairie, W. Spreadborough ; several specimens. In 
the Museum of the Geological Survey there are similar specimens 
from Deer Park, B.C , at an altitude of 5,300 feet, collected by 
Professor Macoun in 1890. 

(B.) From Douglas, B.C., collected by IV. Spread- 
borough in May, igo6. 

Pelecypoda. 

Margariiana margaritifera (L). 

Campbell's Creek ; four perfect but rather small specimens. 

*Pisidiu>n " abditum,'" or near. 
Several specimens. 

Gasteropoda. 

Planorhis ( Menehis ) opercularis, 

var. Centervillensis. 

Several specimens. 
Polygyra Columbiana (Lea). 

Two living and adult specimens. 

Circinaria Vancouverensis (Lea). 

One fine adult and living specimen. 

(C.) From various localities and collections. 
Pelecypoda. 
Gonidea angutata (Lea). 

Anodonta angulata. Lea. 1838. 

This species has been recorded from British Columbia by 
Simpson and Dall, presumably because it is included in one of the 
lists of shells collected in that province by J. K. Lord in i860. 
But, Mr. Lord's specimens are expressly stated to be from the 
Columbia River at Fort Colville, which, he says, is " not strictly 



i9c6] Land and I-'kesh Watek Shells. iig 

in British Columbia." It is not included in the Rev. G. VV. 
T.iylor's " Preliminary Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca of the 
Pacific Coast of Canada, with notes upon their distribution, ' in the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for 1S95, though this 
paper fjives a list of the land and fresh vater, as well as of the 
marine shells oi British Columbia, and quite recently Dr. Dall 
writes that he can find i'lo specific record ot Gonidca from that 
province in the United States National Museum. 

In .March, 1906, however, two dead but characteristic and 
separate valves, of shells that, in the writer's judgment, are clearly 
referable to this species, were presented to the Museum of the 
Geological Survey, by Mr. G. E Winkler, of Penticton, who 
writes that he had recently found them "in the Okanagan River, 
near where it leaves Okanagan Lake, at Penticton." And, still 
more recently, in August last, he has collected and kindly forwarded, 
four perfect and adult, living but otherwise similar shells, from 
the same locality. This would seem to be the first definitely 
Canadian record for this well known California and Idaho species. 

Pisid'nim Idahoeiisc, Roper. 

Ill the Museum of the Geological Survey there are two speci- 
mens, one perfect one and a single valve, oi this species, which 
were collected at Fort George, "at the confluence of the Fraser 
and Xechacco rivers, B C," by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 1875. This 
is a previously unrecorded locality for this apparently rather rare 
spec ies. 

Gasteropoda. 
Polygyra ptychophora (Brown). 

Ileli.x pfychophora, A. D. Brown, 1870. 

In the same museum there are a few good specimens oi this 
species, from the following localities in British Coluinbia. Elk 
River, in the Crow's Nest Pass, collected by J. B. Tyrrell in 1S83 ; 
Sproat, collected by Professor Macoun in 1890; and Trail, col- 
lected by W. Spreadborough in 1902. 

Dr. Dall writes that similar specimens from Mission Junction 
(43 miles east of \'ancouver, on the main line of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway) have recently been received at the United States 
National Museum. 



I20 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARV OF THE LATE ROBT. 

ELLIOTT. 

(Continued from Vol XIX p. 178.) . 

Aug. 17. At edge of wcod opposite Mossey Cup Lsland I 
found in a small rotten .stub, nest of flying stjuirrel ; the female 
and four young about half grown. Nest five feet from ground 
in abandoned woodpecker's or blue-bird's hole, filled with fine 
bark strips. The mother came out, passed to top of stub and 
descended to foot of nearest tree. While I was examining young 
she came close to hole but again crawled to the top and passed 
away as before. 

.\ug. 29. Examined stomach of racoon; killed abcut 10 P.M. 
in corn patch. Contents 2-3 green corn, 1-3 insects, chiefly black 
beetles, but some red-legged locusts. In addition there was 
about 30 white worms, round, thickness of a knitting needle and 
about I 1-2 to 2 inches long. Preserved three. Order Rema- 
tcidea. 

Sept. I. Fine, cloudless day- Saw alighting on dry, 
ploughed ground about sixty golden plover. When they rose 
and circled many times in the air, each time rising higher, they 
formed an exceedingly beautiful sight, especially when in turning, 
the sun was reflected in metallic opalescence. 

Sept. 13. Found Botrychium hinarioides,, perhaps var. 
obliquuni, at Gough's. The Plover Mills J'eronica is probably 
r. agrostis but Gray says it is one to two seeded while this is 
eight to twelve. 

Nov. 14. At Foster's saw six grouse, one woodcock and one 
quail. The last named is now quite scarce in this neighborhood. 
Mr. F. gave me one egg of wliippoorwill which he found in leafy 
woods in June. There was another one which he left. This 
one has rather small la\ender spots upon a white ground. It is 
somewhat abnormal on account of the spots. 

Dec. 15. The bird shot by Mr. .\. Ralph, of sixth concession, 
Lc;ndon Township about \o\. 15th last is very probably the blue 
goose, Chen cacnilcscmis (Linn). This is important and must 
not be overlooked. 



lyoG] Extracts i-kom Diakv oi thi: La i !•: Rout. Ki.i.uvit. 121 

Jaiiy. 3, i.Sf)y. R. James and Jos. Smith heard one fiot,' in 
swamp today. Very mild. I looked a great many phices, un- 
der rotten logs, etc. fcr salamanders but found no traces of theni. 

Jany. 8. Picked off a thorn tree remains of a vole, probabiy 
lef!: there by northern siirike. 

Jany. 24. Hoar frost. Very warm today. .Snu one 

iiijht colored shore lark on the road (First). 

Jany. 31. H. Karm, near Fmbrc, in chopping a hoiiow tree 
came across eleven coons {Procyon lofor) in the interior; eight 
were killed, three escaping. 

March S. Saw J. W. digging two skunks out of a burrow in 
sandy soil, in op>en woods near river. They were in a nest of dry 
leaves about 2 1-2 feet from surface, male and female — the latter 
smaller and fatter than the other. Examined the stomachs ; that 
cf the male contained two or three withered leaves, and mixed 
with them, hairs of (probably) voles. There were also a large 
number of worms, parasites, numerous very small ones, and half 
dozen or so larger ones, one inch long. The female's stomach 
contained nothing but numerous small wt.rms in mucous. W. 
told me that the greatest number of skunks he ever found in a 
burrow was eleven ; but said that a man he knew once ran a fox 
into a hole and on setting a trap at the mouth he caught fifteen 
full grown skunks in as many consecutive nights and on the six- 
teenth he caught the fox. W. also stated that at rne time during 
winter he dug a skunk out of a nest and found a woodchuck 
close beside it in a nest of its own. The latter was curled up and 
in a state f)f torpor, it awoke on tiic snow. 

March 18. Saw a redtailed hawk and tiger beetle. Is 
the water Ijear {Tardis^rada) really a depauperate arachnidian? Saw 
caddis fly larva for first time in same pocl with Braiichippus 
stcif^nalis. Pickering's tree toad croaking in pools for first. 

March ig. Many Pickering's tree toads out. Saw two 
small garter snakes on dry knoll at edge of pool. Saw the first 
Camberwell lieauty at edge of woods. 

March 21. Saw a white-fcoted mouse in hole (natural scar) 
of small green beech. Nest of thistledown. .\ large mass of 
shelled beechnuts were lying at foot of tree. The margin of 



122 Tnii Ottawa Natlkalist. [SeDiember 

the hole on the outside was partly eaten away by (1 believe) some 
larger mammal ; probably to get at the little \^ite-foot It was 
quite tame but would bite a little at a twig inserted and once 
struck at it with its front feet. 

March 25. At Model. *Skunk cabbage in full bloom. The 
spathe is shell-like and very pretty, being variously streaked with 
purple and yellow. The whole plant has a strong skunk-like 
odor, no doubt a defense to the large tender plant in the strug- 
gle for life in places overrun by herbivorous animals. The blos- 
som precedes the leaves — and is very early — the c nly available 
time the plant has found to catch the eye of the fertilizing bees. 

March 28. Froze hard last night. Slight snow fall, quite 
cold A. M. Birds hard pu';. P.M. sun out, snow melted. 

April I. Five or six inches of snow. \\ inter once more. 
Birds are sureh' hard put. 

April 3. Cloudy and mild. Snow disappearing. Saw 

four or five killdeer running at a creek edge querulously calling. 

April 4. Froze hard last night, rather mild today. Saw 
at edge of muddy road what I took to be a ^^'ilson snipe, al- 
though apparently rather small. It lit on a rail fence and' allowed 
me to approach within thirty-five yards, then flew with the irre- 
gular snipe-flight, and at the moment of rising uttered a charac- 
teristic bleat. 

April 5. Fine, A. M. \'esper sparrow singing for first time, 
Saw phoebe at Crozier's Creek. P.M. Snowing heavily, and hign 
wind from north. .\s I rode fifteen miles in the teeth of the 
storm I had a clearer view of the struggle for existence. 

April 6. vSnow 6 inches deep on the level and high drifts Ix:- 
side. AH this snow fell since yesterday noon. This morning 
is calm and mild with a strong sun shining, and nr, doubt, the 
snow will rapidly pass away, surely none too soon for the poor 
iiirds. Saw part of the skin with a few feathers, of a small 
liird on thorn at edge of side road. A shrike had dined well and 

'Note.— " The iModel" to wliitli Mr.'^EllioU refers so rrequeiiily in his 
Diary was an ;ibandjncd farm willi swampy woods and an old neg^lecled 
orili.ird wliich furnished the best possible jj^round tor ihe botanist and 
oinitholoijist . Willi his vjentle satire he christened it the " Model |-arm." 



K)vM)| IIXIKACTS l-KO.M HlAKV Ol- llll- L.M I-: RoiJT. Kl.I.IOTT 12 1? 

•> UK' little sonsj.slxM- siuUk'iily rcMstd to sinj^. S.iw IlicUvr in 
HKipIo at c-(igc of (ircharcl ; alx) anotlier on ant hill i-ating a mc- 
Hium-sizcd ant with brownish lu-ati and liiorax, and jjlack abdo- 
men. I'iiink ol tlu- .storm last niuju .nui tJu- ho. .sun today. 
W'iicn the ant hill i.s bare of .snow tliL' inmates sally out, ihj hunj^rv 
nicker comes, and the great question is who is tr. live. How 
eagerly the ants were working lo clear awa\ debris! How pr 
ty the fli( kir's plumage in the light of the western sun I 

.\pril 7. Watched pile.ited woodpecker digging its nest in a 
high stub at lo .\.-M. Noticed the bird at the same hole on 
March 17; nest was well dug out at that time. Now, last yoar, 
I saw a hole in the winter which was afterwards used by the 
pileated for an nest. Does Jiis bird use the winter rocsting 
place as a nest for the ensuing .season, and are their nests occu- 
pied for more than om- season? The vellow -shaftcfl flicker diws 
this. 

.\pril 8. X'isited (iough's in the evening. Many signs ot 
spring, the more notable being blossoms cf Erigeniu hulbosa, 
(layloiiid and Hepatica. What delicate odors and most ex- 
quisite tints these early nurslings of .\pril show ! Near the spot 
where the Harbinger of Spring starred the gray knolls, a male 
chewink cheerfully sang; another answered him from a neigh- 
boiring cop.se. Heard a W . R. shrike singing a feeble song on 
top of a high elm. 

.\pril 9. Captured a specimen of thu- butterfly (irapta 
j-ulhitni. Saw three individuals at different places and followed 
cne a long distance but owing to its very rapid flight it escaped. 
How perfectly the under side of its wing assimilates with the 
grey of decayed leaves and wood. When the wings are clo.sed 
it is very difficult to make it out among dead leaves, and no 
doubt by this means it of'.en escapes the notice of sharper eyes 
than iviine, \ iz : those of tlvj keen and hungry birds. 

.April 10. I walked one and half milu-s along the river from 
Mcd^l to Plover .Mills. It w;!s very pleasant, the bright sun was 
setting at the head of a long raxine, the mo: 11 overhead was slow- 
Iv gathering light, and on the opposite side of the singing river, 
half wav np a wor)fli(l >loi)r. a brii;hl fire was burning in a sugar 



124 The Ottawa Natl-ralist. [September 

camp. What a restful rural sight ! The birds were fairly bubbling 
over with melody, the sweet vesper sparrows, perhaps, carrying 
off the palm. 

April II. Heard a brown creeper gaily singing as he wound 
around a mossy ash. Saw two black squirrels chasing each 
other round the dead top of a tall maple. A flying squirrel came 
out of a hole and descended gracefully to a bass-wood stub 
nearby. On striking the stub the squirrel went down to a brush 
heap. On agitating this it craw'led to the foot cf a beech and 
going to the top, passed to the foot of its home tree and so back 
to the nest. 

April 14. Today Dirca doffs the brown fur cap he wore 
throughout the winter and gaily shakes his golden forelocks in 
the sun. Saw four red-backed salamanders. Hylas are in- 
cessantly harping in the pool. 

April 23. A ruffed grouse built its nest among beech leaves 
in a brush pile, a hen had a nest four feet from it. The first 
egg laid by the grouse was accidentally destroyed by a person go- 
ing to the hen's nest. The grouse then laid in the hen's nest 
and they have laid five eggs apiece. 

May 3. Saw ruffed grouse making its nest near the ridge. 

May 6. Followed the "Peeper"— little tree toad, {Choro- 
philus triseatius.) Owing to some ventriloquial power the crea- 
ture is hard to locate. I found this individual on the grass, on 
the edge of a pool with its throat much inflated, peeping vigor- 
ously, and occasionally uttering a gurgling trill of longer dura- 
tion. 

May 7. Exceedingly warm, quite like June, leaves bursting 
on every side. What a keen delight is affcrded the one who 
takes a wood-walk today. Butterflies glancing and pirouetting 
over the blossoms, bees on the Claytonias and \^iolets, the june- 
berry hanging her graceful leaves on the forest's skirts, squir- 
rels chattering and birds bubbling over with song. An irresist- 
able march onward of nature's various forces. 

■ June 5. Father saw dead Procyou lotor (racoon) in pasture. 
I saw live Mephifis wephHica in woods. At sight of me it 

retreated to burrow in a knoll and on my standing still it re- 



i9-"'6] Extract^ from Diary oi the Late Robt. Ki.i.iott. 125 

turned near me and foraged assiduously among loaves and rub- 
bish apparently for l)ectles. It frequently dug an inch or two 
after its prey. \c smell was noticeable. The most surprising 
thing connected with this animal in the woods is the enormous 
.size of its tail. 

June 15. \'isited the carp pond and on the trees around it 
large numbers of Hyla versicolor were trilling musicallv. I cap- 
tured four, three of them greyish and one greenish. I watched 
them for an hcur in the bottle and noticed that the greenish one, 
(the largest) was the only one that trilled, the others merely of- 
fering a soft chic, chic, chic. The greenish one was the onlv 
one attempting to copulate with the other ones. It was certainly 
a male and I presum.e the others were females. I am not aware 
that sexual distinction i.s connected with the cr.lor of this verv 
variable sp>ecies ; but there is a clear difference in the notes of 
the sexes. This is interesting. I also noticed that after hand- 
ling these viscid hylas and accidentally rubbing my eyes I felt a 
smarting that lasted for twenty minutes or so. I suopose no 
bird or mammal finds them at all palatable. I would like to 
offer one to Procyou loior, whc; greedily devours the Ranas. 

June 19. The afternoon turning out fine I had the choice 
of going to a picnic or to the Model. The winds whispered in 
the beeches, and I went to the latter alone save for the buzzing 
thoughts that hummed through my head. Splashing through the 
swamp there, I came half unaware on a magnificent group of 
Cypripediiini spectahile, and I did not envv Wordsworth with his 
heart dancing with the daffodils. Seventeen blossoms had op)ened 
out, the p>eerless flowers all perfect as one could wish, purple and 
pink fading invisibly into immaculate white — -these boats flcated 
in the ethereal air waiting for some dainty .\riel to .set a filmy 
sail above them, and ready to waft them whither he wished. Or 
indeed it may be (so dull are mortal sen.ses) that they were moc- 
cassins fashioned by the patient worker, Nature, for some fairy 
Indian maiden, for her wedding hour by the light of the full 
mr.on this very midsummer night. Be all this as it may, a 
portion of this beauty pierced deep through my eye and down to 
my heart. A swamp sparrow brooded on her eggs near by, and 
a veery filled the woods with his dingle clangle, a silver bell 



126 The Ottawa Natlraust, (Sepi ember 

with a golden tongue. Coming down to Plcver Mills with four 
of the fairy boats what voyageur ever made a lighter portage? 
There, R. Y. had caught for me a Menobranchus and no stronger 
contrast could be found in nature than was presented between the 
burden of my right hand and cf my left, in one a glorious flower, 
in the other a hideous amphibian. 

The Menobranchus measured 1 1 3-4 inches ; it was rather 
dark brown on the back with five lighter brown blotches and some 
large very dark brown spots all over the back and sides ; abdomen 
yellow^ish brown with a few spots along the centre. The gill 
tufts (three pairs) had dark brown ends with blood red bases at 
the gill orifice ; four toes on each foot ; upper lip slightly overlap- 
ping the lower ; many small teeth on palate, tongue large but 
short ; head measured one and half inches in length ; body from 
fold of throat to vent fi\ e and half inches ; tail 4 inches. Is this 
laieraJis or nmcidata ? It seems to be the latter but it. is 

lateralis that Dr. Brodie has. Dr. Garnier mentions another 
species which he describes as rare, namely M. Huronense which 
is said to be about one foot long, deep sooty brown en back, 
lighter beneath, throat white, upper jaw hooked over the lower. 
This seems to agree pretty well with mine. Concerning my 
specimen I should ncte that it was caught on a hook baited with 
earth worm; this was about 3.30 P.M. ; the water was very dirty 
and the river high owing to recent rains. 

June 28. At the head of Plover Pond I was looking at a red 
squirrel at foot of maple and black squirrel close to a nettle tree. 
The dog Dash made a run for the squirrels when I noticed a great 
blue heron rise from the shore; and closer, and of much more in- 
terest, a female merganser moving out into the waier making a 
quacking sort of a sound. She then flew south half a mile and 
presently returned. While watching the squirrels I thought I 
noticed something like a large bird fly down from a dead tree 
close by the shore and the idea took hold that the bird may be 
breeding there. This is worth attending to. I resume the 
hooded mergan.ser is the most likely species to be found here. 



[9^6i BiKP Mr. RATION', 1905. 127 

BIRD MIGRATION, 1905. 

Observations Made on Sablb Island, Nova Scotia. 
By James Boiteiller. 
Name of Species. When First Seen. .Vuniber Seen. 

Ring^neck Plover April 23 One. 

Common Arctic Tern ,, 27 \ few. 

Flicker ,, 27 One. 

J unco ,, 30 Several. 

White-throated Sparrow May 3 One. 

Red Phr.larope , , 4 One. 

Greater Yellow-legs ,, 6 About a dozen. 

Least Sandpiper .... , 8 One. 

Ameiican Pipit ,, 12 One. 

Roseate Tern ,, 13 In numbers. 

Great Blue Heron ,, 18 One. 

Henslow's Sparrow ,, 18 Several. 

Spotted Sandpiper ,, 22.. One. 

Red Phalarope ,, 22 In large flocks. 

Spotted Sandpiper ,, 25 In numbers. 

White-crowned Sparrow ,, 25 In number.s. 

Shore Lark , 25 One. 

Pine Warbler , , 28 One. 

Wilson's Phalarope June 7.... ...One First one 

ever seen here. 

Pine Siskin ,, 16 Oi\Q. 

Yellow vVarbler ,, 25 One. 

Crossbill, American ,, 25 One. 

Greater Yellow-legs July 10 Two. 

Wilson's Snipe ,, 13 Six. 

Swallows Aug. g Four. 

Yellow Warbler ,, 9 One. 

Greater and Lesser \'ellow-legs.. ,, 10 In numbers. 

Pectoral Sandpiper ,, 10 Several. 

Turnstone Plover ,, 10 In numbers. 

White-rumped Sandpiper ,, 11 Several. 

Black-bellied Plover ,, 20 In numbers. 

White-rumped Sandpiper 20 In numbers. 



128 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



[September 



Name of Species. 

Swallows 

Golden Plover 

Bartramlan Sandpiper . 
Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 



When First Seen. 

. .. ,, 20 

... ,, 20.. . 
...Sept. 8.... 
. . . ,, 12. . . . 



^§ 



in 



Black and White Warbler ,, 12 

Cedar Waxwing- ,, 12 

Pipits ,, 16 

Flicker ,, 16 

Palm Warbler ,, 16 

Pine Warbler 

Chimney Swift 

White-throated Sparrow . . . 

Osprey . 

Fox Sparrow 

Kinglet 

Rusty Blackbird 

Myrtle Warbler ; 

Black-throated Green Warbler. .Oct. 
Various Hawks and Sparrows . 

Fox Sparrow ... 

Kinglet 

Black-throated Blue Warbler . 

Junco 

Fox Sparrow 

Hermit Thrush 

Killdeer Plover 

Long-tailed Squaw . 

Black Creeper 

White-winged Scoter 

Baldpate 

Woodpecker 

Junco Nov. 12 

Robin , 22 



Number Seen. 

. In numbers. 
. . Several. 
. One. 

. One. First one 
I have ever 
noticed here. 

.One. 
. .One. 

. . In numbers, 
. .One. 

In numbers. 

. Several. 
. .One. 
. . Several. 
. .One, 
..One 
. One. 

. . In numbers. 
. . In numbers. 
. One. 

. . In numbers. 
. . In numbers. 
. . Several. 
. .One. 

. Several. 
. .Several, 
. .One or two. 
. One. 

. . In numbers. 
. .One. 
. . In numbers. 

. In numbers. 

.One. 
. . About a dozen. 
. . Several. 



•*A11 came diirinvf X. W. blow whicli lasted for two or three days 
beginninjf 30th September. 



1905] Meetings of the Entomological Branch. 129 

Name of Species. When First Seen. Number Seen. 

Snowy Owl ,, 25 About a dozen. 

While-winged Scoter Dec. i In numbers. 

Shelldrake ,, 22 In numbers. 

Bluebill .... ,, 22 In numbers. 

Northern Shrike ,, 22 One. Has been 

here about a 
month. 

Shore Lark Jan 6 Three. 



MHi:TI\(iS OF THE KXTOMOlJKiRAL BR.WCH. 



A good meeting of the Entomological Branch was held at Ur. 
Fletcher's apartments on the evening of March 22, at which H 
members were pre.sent. The chairman exhibited some rare but- 
terflies taken in the Yukon Territory by Mr. Jos. Kecle, and by 
Mr. W. J. Wilson, both of the Geological Survey. Among those 
taken by Mr. Keele, the most remarkable were Krebiu magdalena 
and Eurynius boothii. 

Mr. Harrington exhibited his collection of Dytisciilae, all of 
which had been recently examined by Mr. J. D. .Sherman, 
Jr., of New York. This collection contains 50 species from Ot- 
tawa and will be of great value to local coleopterists in naming 
their spjecimens of this little-worked family. There were 7 
species which could not be named. 

Mr. Gibson showed a fine specimen of Sthenopsis thule taken 
by him on July 6 last. This is the first authentic record of this 
rare mcth ever having been taken at any other place than Mont- 
real, the type locality. Mr. Gibson also showed a leaf of an I xia 
from the greenhouse at the Experimental Farm which was thickly 
matted with the dead bodies of a species of aphis, every specimen 
of which had l>een destroyed by a minute Chalcid parasite, and 
read a note on the behaviour of the parasite when stinging its 
victims. 

.Mr. ^'oung exhibited a series ot nin<' spec irnrns ot Eucosma 
solaiidriiina, showing a remarkable range of variation. ThcM- 



130 The Ottawa Naturalist. [September 

had all been taken by him about the lower branches of Ostryu 
\'irginica in July and August last. 

Mr. Baldwin exhibited a specimen of the West Indian moth 
Melipotis fasciolaris taken l)y him in Otawa last summer and read 
a note upon its capture. 

Mr. ^^etcalfe showed 13 species of orthoptera, all taken at 
Ottawa. 

Mr. Halkett showed some parasitized pupae cf various kinds 
from his collection. 

Mr. \\'ilscn gave an account of the country he was exploring 
last summer in the Temagami district. 

.\ copy of Dr. E. P. Felt's sumptuous memoir Insects -Af- 
fecting Park and Woodland Trees, \'olume i, was laid on the 
table and was much admired by all present. — J. F. 



1 



Held at Mr. Gibson's, 20th April. Messrs. Halkett, Flet- 
cher, Harringrn, Keele, Metcalfe, Baldwin, Newman and Ciilj- 
son present. 

Mr. Halkett exhibited living specimens of the nymphs of 
some Mav-flies and Stone-flies which he had collected from the 
Rideau river. He said that he had found these in thousands, 
near -St. Patrick's Bridge, swimming up the river against the 
current. He also showed one of the curious cases, with the larva 
inside it, of a caddis-worm. 

Dr. Fletcher spoke cf an interesting occurrence at Ottawa, 
in \crv destructive numbers, of a tineid caterpillar. This min- 
utL- lar\a is at present working inside the tips of white cedars, 
killint^ manA- twigs and giving the trees a very unsightly and un- 
luallln ai)pcaranc-e. .Specimens of the work of this minute in- 
sect were examined. Dr. Fletcher also showed some living 
parasites, Pteromalus puparum, reared from the chrvsalids of the 
Common White Cabbage Butterfly. .Mr. Harrington m.entioned 
that he had found the cases of Coleophora laricella in large num- 
bers on wild trees of I.arix Aniericatiu at several places in the Ot- 
tawa district. A living specimen of Meloe uiger, one of the first 
insects to ajjpcar in the sjiring, was also shown by Dr. l*"letcher. 



19-^6] Meetincs of the Entomological Branch. i-^i 

This species is as a rule r;!llu'i- rare in collections l)ut is aluavs 
common at Ottawa. 

Mr. Harrington exhiljileci a rollet tion ol i i s|x-iies of 
Auilnnm taken at Ottawa and I'oronto, wliich had recently been 
critically examin<?d and named by Mr. X'ierick, of Philadelphia. 
He also showed a perfectly fresh specimen of Scoh'optcrvx lihi.lrix 
which he had caught the day IxMore. He was under the im- 
pression that the specimen must have recently emerged from the 
pupa. There was some discussion on the winter habits of the 
species, which branched off into the abundance of some \'anes- 
sians last autumn and this spring. There was reason to hope 
that J'anessa j-albiini might this year be again abundant and all 
members were urged to try and secure eggs of this species so 
that the full life-history mig^ht be worked out. 

Mr. Metcalfe showed sf)me living larva^ of Lciiciiiiiu codi- 
iiioides, and also one of a speiies of (rococct, as well as a small 
collection of micros taken in Toronto and mounted by himself. 

Mr. Baldwin exhibited a fine specimen each of Apuniesis 
celia and 7'irgnticulu, which had l>een taken by him during last 
season. Both cf these moths are rare in this locality. 

Mr. Xewman spoke of the injuries by the larxa' of (iraplio- 
litha inierstinctana to the clover seed crop in Ontario. He had 
found the larvae verv abundant in \'ictoria, Durham, Feterboro 
and Prince Edward counties. 

Mr. Gib.son showed some specim.ens of a Colcophora found 
this spring upon the heads of Yarrow and also some yellow 
larxa' of a moth hibernated in the Dry stems of Oenotliera. Lar- 
xa of Peuthina hehesfuia, in the heads of mullein xvere also ^-x- 
hibited. A. Ci. 



CORRECTION. 



On page 107 of the last issue of the Ottawa Natlralist 
Pachystima Myrsinites and Pachystima macrophyltum xvere by the 
printer marked " sp. nov." after the last proofs had left the 
editor's hands The former of these species xvas described by 
Rafine«que the latter by Mi-^s Farr. 



132 The Ottawa Naturalist. | September ' 

REVIEW. 
Mosses with a haxd-lens and Microscope. A nox-technical 

HAND-BOOK OF THE MORE COMMON MOSSES OF THE NORTH- 
EASTERN United States. By A J. Grout, Ph. D. Parts 
1, II and III, published by the author, 360 Lenox Road, 
Brooklyn, N."S\ $1.00 a part. 

In his preface Dr. Grout says : " Mosses are indvidualiy so 
small and inconspicuous that the effect which they have as a mass 
in creating and enhancing the beauty of natural scenery is often 
overlooked," and as he later points out many would have collected 
and studied them had not the difficulties been so numerous and 
hard to overcome. It is to lessen the number of these difficulties 
that " Mosses with a Hand-lens and Microscope" has been pub- 
lished. A short review of "Mosses with a Hand-lans " was 
printed in The Naturalist a few months ago. Useful as that book 
is to young students it cannot compare in value with Dr. Grout's 
later and more exhaustive work. The same methods have been 
used but the hand-lens being replaced by the microscope it has 
been possible to refer to many microscopic distinctions that could 
not be detected at all, or only with great difficulty, by a hand-lens. 
Though purporting to be only a hand-book of the mosses of the 
northeastern United Stales, nearly all eastern Canadian species 
are included. 

The first 46 pages of Part I are divided into (i.) Iniroduction 
(2) Classification and Nomenclature. (3) The Collection and Pre- 
servation of Mosses. {4) How to mount Mosses. (5) Methods of 
Manipulation. (6) Life-History and structure of the moss plant- 
(7) Illustrated glossary of bryological terms. The description of 
species and the characterization of genera and orders is so exact 
that any one familiar with moss terminology should have little 
difficulty in determining the species he collects. 

Heavy coated paper, new type and illustrations without num- 
ber add to the value as well as the appearance of what must be 
considered the most important work that has yet been published 
on American mosses. No other book will bj needed by any moss- 
student except the specialist. 

John Macoun. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. 



OTTAWA, OCTOBKR, 1906. 



No. 7 



NOTES ON CVRTOCERAS CUNEATUM.* 

R)- J. F. White.wes. 




Cyrtocetas cuneatum, A. Side view of the type and 
only known specimen of this species, in outline only. 
B. Smaller end of the same, also in outline. Both 
figures are of the natural size, and in both i- is the 
venter. 
This species was based upon a single specimen from the 
Silurian rocks at Stonewall, Manitoba, collected by Mr. D. B. 

•Communicated by permission of the Director of the Geolojfical Survey 
Department. 



134 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [Octobei 



Dowlin^ in 1902, and now in the Geological Survey of Canada. 
It was described by the writer in the fourth and last part of 
the third volume of "Paleozoic Fossils," recently published by 
the Survey, but it was not illustrated, as the type and only known 
specimen was unfortunately mislaid. 

This missing and previously unfigured type has since been 
found, and it is now practicable to give two illustrations of this in- 
teresting specimen, and to slightly amend the original description 
of the species. 

In regard to the two foregoing text figures of C. cuneatiim, 
the explanations given below them may be supplemented by the 
following remarks. The specimen is a cast of the interior of part 
of the septate portion of the shell, with sixteen of the chambers 
preserved, and of a small piece apparently at the commencement 
of the body chamber. Figure A shows both the arcuate contour 
of the fossil, and the widely and shallowly concave lobe ot each of 
the sutures, as viewed laterally. Figure B, on the other hand, 
shows the lateral compression, the ovate cuneate transverse sec- 
tion, as seen in an end view of the smaller end of the specimen, 
the narrow venter, and the apparently eccentric position ot the 

siphuncle. 

The original description of the species may be slightly and 
briefly amended, so as to read as follows : 

"Shell widely arcuate, strongly but rather obliquely com- 
pressed, very narrow on the periphery or venter, much wider but 
narrowly rounded on the dorsum, the outline of the transverse 
section being ovate cuneate, and the lateral diameter to the dorso- 
ventral about as three to five. 

" Septa averaging about six millimetres apart laterally, the 
sutural lines being shallowly concave on both sides and produced 
into a narrow pointed saddle on the venter." Test unknown. 
Shape and position of the siphuncle not very clearly defined in the 
only specimen collected, though at the smaller end thereof there 
are indications that it was eccentric and placed a little on the 
ventral side of the centre, as represented in figure B. 

The shell is "evidently not a true Cyrtoceras, but a probably 
new generic type, which there is not yet sufficient material to 
define satisfactorily." 



I 



¥ 



1906] Contributions to Canadian Botany. 135 

P CONTRIBUTIONS TO CANADIAN BOTANY.* 



I 



By James M. Macoin, Assistant Naturalist, Geological Survey oC Canada, 

X\II. 

Since the last of these papers was published a great many 
species have been added to the list of those known to occur in 
Canada ; the distribution of others has been greatly extended and 
a large number of notes worthy of publication have accumulated 
in our herbarium. Much of this material will be utilized in publi- 
cations which will be issued from this Department at an early date 
but it is hoped to print from time to time in The Ottawa 
Naturalist records that might not find a place elsewhere. Some 
of these records have appeared in other publications, but as these 
notes are intended primarily for Canadian workers not all of whom 
have access to current botanical literature, and in nearly every 
case new information as to distribution has been added, it has 
seemed best to make the record as complete as possible by includ- 
ing some matter that has been published elsewhere. 

DiCKSONIA PILOSIUSCXLA, WiUd. 

In sandy woods, Courtland, Norfolk Co., Ont., 1901. 
(yo/in Macouti.) Rare in western Ontario. 

ASPLENIUM RUTA-MURARIA, L, 

On limestone rocks, north end of Manitoulm Island, 
Georgian Bay, Ont. Collected by Dr. Scott of Southampton! 
in 1901. New to Canada. 

Adiantlm pedatum, L., var. Aleuticum, Ruprecht. 
A. pedahim, Cat. Can. PI., II : 263 in part. 

Represented in our herbarium by four sheets ot speci- 
mens, all collected on Mt. Albert in the Shickshocks, Gaspc, 
Que. Two of these sheets were collected by Prof. John 
Macoun in 1882, and two by Messrs. Collin> nnd Ferna'd in 

'Q^S- 

'Published by permission of the Direclor of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 



136 The Ottawa Naturalist. | October 

EguisETU.M LAEViGATUM, Brauii. 

Roadsides at Windsor, Ont., 1902. No. 66,396, [John 
MacoJin.) Not recorded from eastern Canada. 

Spargamum fluctuaxs, (Morong) Robinson, Rhodora. vii : 60. 
S. androcladum, \2,r. fliictumis. Cat. Can. PI., 11 : 70. 

The only Canadian locality cited by Dr. Robinson is Lake 
Memphremagog-, Que. Our specimens are from Campbelltcn, 
N.B., No. 28,052*, [Cha/meys), Lake Mistassini, Que., No. 
28,053, (J. M. Macouii) ;-.nd Great Opeongo Lake, Algonquin 
Park, Ont., No. 22,562. [John Macoun). It was reported by 
J. M. Macoun from Severn River, Keewatin. 

Paxicum Philadelphicum, Bernh. 

P. capillare^ L., var. Jlexile, Gattinger. 
P. flexile, (Gatt.) Scribner. 

On sand, southern point of Pelee Point, Lake Erie, Ont., 
July 28 1892. Referred at the time to P. capiUare ; by 
marshes, Sarnia, Ont., Herb. No. 26,332, and on Birch 
Island. Lake Huron, No. 26,331. [John Macoun.^ Pelee 
Point, Lake Erie, Sept. 7th, 1905, growing among y?/»z^er«5^ 
Virgifiiana. [A. B. Klngh.) 
Trisetl-m melicoideum, (Mx.) Vasey. 

Graphephorum melicoides. Cat. Can, Plants 11 : 228 in part. 

Woodstock, N.B., No. 22,687 ; Madeline River, Gasp^, 

-Que., No. 29481. [John Macoun.) Aroostook River, N. B 

[[Williinns, Collins And Fcrnald.) Ste. Anne das Moots River, 

Gaspe, QwQ [O. D. Allen.) 

Tristeum melicoideum, (Mx.) Vasey, var. Coolevi, (Gr. ) 

Scribn., Rhodora, viil : 87. 
Graphephorum inelicoides. Cat. Can. Plants 11 : 228 in part. 

Little Cascapedia River, Que. {Collins, Feniald^nd Pease,\ 
River de Brig, Anticosti, Que., No. 29.479; Chelsea, Que..^ 
No. 61,297 ; Hastings Co., No. 29,482 ; Johnstone's Harbour, 
Lake Huron, Ont., No. 26,222. [John Macoun.) Gait, Ont,jj 
iW. Harriot.) Fishing Islands, Lake Huron, Ont. (/. BelLY 



♦Specimens have been distributed from ihe lierbariiim of the Geolos^-^ical 
Survey under these numbers. 






igooj Contributions TO Canadian BoTASv. 137 

AvENA STRIATA, Michx. fomia Ai.HiCANs, Kernald, Rhodora, vii: 244. 

A. stria/a, Cat. Can. PI. 11 : 213 in part. 

Distinguished from the species only by its pale, straw- 
colored glumes. Collected on Mount .Albert, Gasp6, by John 
Macoun in 1882, No. 30,085. Described from specimens 
found at the same place and at Bic, Que , by Messrs. Fernald 
and Collins in 1904 and 1905. 

Bromus Japonicls, Thunb. 

B. patultis, Mert. & Koch. 

Collected at Toronto, Ont., by Mr. W. Scott and called 
B. squarrosiis to which it is very similar. Mr. Scott's speci- 
mens differ from typical B. Japonicus in their short-rayed 
panicles. Introduced. New to Canada. 

SCIRPUS VALIDUS, Vahl. 

S. lacustris, Cat. Can PI., 11 : 99 in part. 

Sable Island, N.S., 22,633. (-^^ocoun.) Campbellton, 
N.B., 32,359, (R. Chalmers.) Ottawa, Ont., 7,541; Chelsea, 
Que., 61,187 '■> Niagara Falls, Ont., 34,583 ; .Algonquin Park, 
Ont . 21,906; Lake Xipigon, Ont., 32,357. {Macoun.) Ed- 
monton, Ont., 25,344. {Jas. White.) Grassy Narrows, Lake 
Winnipeg, 32.356. (/. M. Macoun.) Brandon, Man., 16,407 ; 
Sage Creek, Sask., 16,410 ; Cardston, Alta., 68,933 '■> Cypress 
Hills, Alta., 16,409. {Macoun.) \n abundant and widely dis- 
tributed species not represented in our herbarium from west of 
.Alberta. 

SciRPL'S occiDENTALis, (Watson; Chase, Rhodora, vi : 68 
S. lacustris. Cat. Can. PI. 11 : 99 in part. 
S. lacustris, var. occidcntalis, Wat.; Cat. Can. PI. 11 : 100. 

Brackley Point, P.E I , 32,360 ; Annapolis, N.S., 32,358; 
Grand Narrows, Cape Breton Island, N.S., 20,772 ; Sarnia, 
Ont., 34,582. (Macoun.) Toronto, Ont. {W. Sro/t.) Skull 
Creek. Crane Lake, Sask., 7.540; Prince Albert, Sask., 
16,408 ; South Saskatchewan River, 32,3'='i ; Kananaskis, 
Rocky Mountains, 32,362. [Macoun.) Canoe River, head of 
Columbia River, Rocky Mts , 20,773. [W. Spreadborough.) 
Widelv distributed in British Columbia but seldom c<llected. 



138 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

S. occidentalis is distinguished from S validus by achenes y'l 
larger, by scales y^^ — ^3 longer than the achene and nearly 
twice as long as the scales of S. validus, viscid-pubescent, 
overlapping % their length or more ; by the cylindric more 
densely fruited spikelets in capitate clusters ; and by the 
denser umbels and harder culms. 

SciRPUS heteroch.^tls, Chase, Rhodora, vi : 70. 

Distinguished from S. validus and S. occi-dentalis by the 
3-cleft style, bv the triquetrous achene, by the fragile bristles, 
fewer and shorter. An apparently rare species in the United 
States and not yet recorded from Canada. Mr. Ezra Brainerd 
found the three species growing in Lake Champlain where S. 
occidentalis begins to ripen seeds about six weeks later than 
S. validus ; S. heterochcBhis flowers there at a d ite midway be- 
tween the two. 

Rhyxcho-spoka capillacea, Torr., var. l.^viseta, Hill. 

In bogs at Southampton, Ont,, Aug. 20th, igoi, No. 
34,573. [John Macoun.) Wet sand along the shore of Lake 
Huron at Oliphant, Ont. (.4. B. Klugk.) 

Carex Katahdixensis, Fernald, Rhodora, 11 : 171. 

Collected by Prof. Ezra Brainerd at the "Grand Dis- 
charge" of Lake St. John, Que., Aug., 1901. 

J UNCUS BLFONius, L. var. HALOPHiLUS, Buch. & Fernald, 
Rhodora, vi : 39 

Mr. Fernald records this variety from Riviere du Loup, 
Que., New Carlisle, Que., Bonaventure River, Que., and 
from Tracadie Beach and beach near Summerside, Prince 
Edward I-land. Our only herbarium specimens are from 
Grand Narrows, Cape Breton Island, N.S., 20,708, {John 
Macoun), and mouth ot Dartmouth River, Gasp6 Co., Que- 
{Collins, Fernald 'And Pease.) 

Alliu.m reiurvatum, Rydb. 

Confounded with A. ceniuum of the east Differs from 
A cernuum in the leaves, the more slender, ridged scape, 
the larger involucre and the mo'-e distinct midveins of the 



igOb] CONTRIBLTIONS TO CANADIAN BoTANY. I 39 

perianth segments. In .1. ccrnuum the leaves are almost flat 
and more or less keeled. In .1. recurvatutn there is no keel 
and the channel is rounded as well as the back. The leaves 
of A. ccrnuum are also much wider, the flowers are j^enerally 
much paler in that species and the perianth ses^ments have an 
indistinct midvein. A. reciir-catum is common in the Rocky 
Mountains and British Columbia. 

Habenaria macrophvlla, Goldie. 

This species is niuch rarer than //. orbiculata with which 
in recent years it has been confounded. //. orhiculata ranges 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific and north to Alaska. H. 
macrophylla has not been found west of Wisconsin. Our 
specimens are from Newfoundland, 13,771, {B. L. Robinson 
& H. Sc/ircnk), and Muskoka, Ont., 2-j,222f ('K Spread- 
borough.) Many specimens of both species have been ex 
amined by Mr. Oakes .Ames ; the spur of H. orbiciilata was 
found to be from 16 to 27 mm. long, while that of H. 
macrophylla ranged from 32 to 43 mm. in length. The flowers 
of the latter species are also much larger. 

Salix chlorolepis. Fernald. Rhodora, vii : 186. 

Meadows at the headwaters of Ruisseau au Diable, Mt. 
.Albert, Gasp^, Que {Collins and Fernald) 

Salix macrostachva, Nutt. 

Along the Kettle River at Cascade, B C. In flower, June 
26th, 1902, No. 68,128. (/. M. Macoun). New to Canada. 

Salix serissima, (Bailey) Fernald, Rhodora, vi : 6. 
5". lucida. Cat. Can. PI. 11 : 450 in part. 

Mr. Fernald gives no other Canadian localities for this 
specifs than " north shore of Lake Superior." Our herbarium 
specimens are from the mouth of .\ibany River. James Bay, 
Hudson Bay, No. 62,628. (W Spreadborough) ; Salt Lake, 
.Anticosti, Que., No. 24,584. (John Macoun); Galr,Ont , No. 
63,120. ( ff. Herriot) \ Nipigon, Lake Superior, Ont., No. 
24.5H3. [John Macoun) ; Severn River, Keewatin, No. 2,028, 
Beren's River, Man.. No. 24.61M, and Muskeg Island, Lake 



i^o The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

Winnipeg, Man., No. 24,619. {Jas. M. Macoufi); Grattan Creek 
west of Battle River, Alta. ; Edmonton, Alta., No. 24,621, 
and Bow River at Morley, Alta., No. 24.620. {John Macouti). 

Salix lucida, Mahl., var. i.xtoxsa, Fernald, Rhodora, vi : 11. 

Recorded by Mr. Fernald from St. John Rivcr and tribu- 
taries, Maine, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Our specimens 
are from Montmorency Falls, Que., Nos. 68,782 and 68,783. 
{John Macoun.) 

Salix LUCIDA, Muhl., var. axgustifolia, Anderson. 

Grand Lake, N.B., No 24,586. (John Bri^ta if i) ; bank oi 
Exploit River, Newfoundland, No. 13,674. {Robinsoti cr" 
Schenk. ) 

Humulus Japoxicus, Sieb. & Zucc 

In waste places at Wakefield, Que , 1903. [John Macoun.) 
Naturalized. 

Comaxdra Richardsiaxa, Fernald, Rhodora, vii : -^2. 
C. umbelLota, Nutt., in pirt. 

So far as shown by our specimens C. umbellata does not 
occur in Candida, everything so called being" the recently des- 
cribed C. Richardsiana 

Polvgoxum xuttallii, Small. 

P. intermedium, Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, 11 : 352. 

Grassy banks, Middle Creek, Chilliwack River. B C , No. 
54,740. (/ M. Macoun.) Not recorded from mainland of 
B.C. 

Polvgoxum puxctatum. Ell., var. LEProsTACHVox. (Meisn.) Small. 
Low ground near Sumas L^ke, B C. No. 54,752 ( /. 
M. Macoun ) New to Canada. .Abundant, but perhaps in- 
troduced. 

Polvgoxum bistortoiues, Purvh. 

.A common species at an ait'tiule of between 5,000 and 
6,000 feet on mountains in the Chilliwack and Skagit valleys, 
B C, near the Internatio lal Ho mJ iry. (/..I/. Macoun.) 



It)o6] CONTRIBl'TIONS TO CANADIAN BOTANY. I4I 

Chenopodium Boscianum. Moq. 

Sandy thickets, Pelee Point, Lake Krie. No. 54,724. 
(John Macoiin.) New to Canada. 

Aquilegia Columbiana, Rydb , Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xxix : 145 

This species is somewhat intermediate between A. formosa 

and A. trtincata and has been mistaken for both. It has the 

habit, spur and sepals of the former and the short truncate 

lamina of the latter. From Banff to Alaska. 

Delphinium Brovvnii, Rydb., Bu'l Torr Bot. Club, xxix : 148. 

This is most nearly related to D. gliiucuni but differs in the 
puberulent leaves with narrow segments, the lax raceme with 
more erect pedicels and the darker flowers. Described from 
specimens collected at Banff in 1893 by .Addison Brown. .\ 
common plant in that region. 

Ranunculus alleni, Robinson, Rhodora, vii : 220. 
R. affinis var. leiocarpus. Cat. Can. PI i : 18. 

First collected by Mr. J. A. Allen on Mt. Albert, Gaspe, 
Que, in 1881, the next year by John Macoun at the same 
place. No. 1,015, ^""^ '" '883 on Table Top Mountain not far 
from Mt Albert by James Porter, No. 68,678. Other localities 
cited by Dr. Robinson are : Okkak, Labrador, and Rama, 
Labrador. 

Ranunculus glaberri.mus, Hook. 

Penti.ton, Lake Oi<anagan, B.C., .April 12th, 1903. No. 
59,519. [W. Spreadborough.) Not recorded from that region. 

Ranunculus Vukonensis, Britt. 

Near Peace River Landing, .Atha.. No. 59,521. June 8th, 
1903. (/. M. Macoun.) Recorded before only from the 
^'ukon district. 

Caulophvllum thalictroidhs, Mx. 

In woods along the .Assiniboine River near Portage La 
Prairie. Man. In flower, M'iy 31st, 1906. (ff. Hern'ot.) 
We>;tern limit in Canada 



142 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

Lepidium draba, L. 

Waste places at Trail, Columbia River, B.C. No. 67,986. 
( /. M. Macoun.) Not recorded from B.C. 

Lepidium spixosum, L. 

Near the "ball grounds," Toronto, Ont., 1904. {W. 
Scott ) New to Canada. A native of the Orient and of 
Greece. 

Sisymbrium officinale. Scop. 

Rare in Canada, our specimens being from Niagara, 
Ont., No. 33,859. {John Macoun) ; Wingham, Ont., No. 
2,110 {J. A. Morton), and Esquimauit, Vancouver Island, 
B C, No. 2,109. {John Macoun). The inflorescence and pods, 
even at full maturity, subtomentulose. 

Sisymbrium officinale. Scop. var. leiocarpum, DC. 

This variety as pointed out by Dr. Robinson (Rhodora, 
vol. VII : 102) is the common form in North America being 
represented in our herbarium by specimens from Baddeck, 
Cape Breton Island. N.S., No. 18,039, {John Macoun) ; 
Ottawa, Ont., No 2. 113, {John Macoun) \ Wakefield, Que.» 
Nc. 59.813. {John Macoun); Belleville, Ont, No. 2,114, {John 
J/aco««) ; Nelson. Kootenay Lake. B C, No 2,111, {John 
Macoun); Sicamous, BC,, No. 2,112. {John Macoun); Nanai- 
mo, Vancouver Island, B.C., No. 2,115, {John Macoun) ; 
Chilliwack River, B.C., No. 33,860. {J. M. Macoun). The 
inflorescence nearly smooth ; the pods entirely glabrous or 
with a few scattered hairs. 

Radicui.a clavata, (Rydb.) Bull Torr. Bot. Club , xxix : 235. 
Xasfurtium palusire., DC. var., Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, 
II : 300 in part. 

Port Heney and .Agassiz, B.C.> 1889. {John Macoun.) 
De.ntaria ten'ELla, Push. 

Harrison, B.C., 1902 No. 63,504. (H'. Spreadborough.) 
Eastern limii in Canada. 



1906 j Contributions to Canadian Botany. 143 

Draba McCall.«, Hull. Torr. Bot. Club, xxix : 241. 

Moose Mountain, Elbow River, Alia., No. 18,139, 1897 ; 
Summit of Pipestone Pass, Rocky Mt Park, No. 64,442, 
1904. {John Macouti ) Described trom specimens collected 
by Mr. W. C McCalla at Banff in 1899. This species belongs 
to the D. incana group but differs from that species in the 
elongated peduncle, long pedicels, short pubescent pod and 
large petals. 

.•\rabis Collinsu, Fernnld, Rhodora, vii : t^2. 

"Qjickly distinguished from A. Holboellii by the loose 
hispidulous pubesence of the stem and pedicels, the smaller 
flowers and the very slender aculish pods." Collected on dry 
limestone conglomerate ledges, headland in the harbour of 
Bic, Rimouski Co . Que , July 18, 1904 (/ F Collins dr" 
.1/. L. Fernald.) 

Drosera rotundifolia, L, var. comosa, Fernald, Rhodora. vii:9. 
A dwarf variety of the common sundew with crimson or 
roseate instead of white flowers ; the petals are sometimes 
foliaceous and the carpels are developed in maturity into 
green, glandular broadly obovate or oblate petioled leaves. 
Collected in abundance near the mouth of Grand River, Gasp^ 
Co., Quebec, in 1904 by Messrs. J. F. Collins, ML. Fernald 
and .A. .A. Pease. An examination of a large series of speci- 
mens of D. rotundifolia in our herbarium shows nothing 
approaching ihis variety. 

Sa.kifraga hieracifolia, Waldt and Kit. 

Pond's Inlet, Lat. 72*^ 45 , Cockburn Island. Aug 20th, 
1904. ( Dr L E. Borden.) 



144 '^^E Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

THE SPRING MIGRATION OF BIRDS AT OTTAWA OF 

THE YEAR 1906, COMPARED WITH THAT 

OF OTHER SEASONS 

By C. W. G. EiFRiG. 

The winter of 1^0^,-06 was in several respects a remarkable 
one. There was less snow and fewer days ot severe cold weather 
than for many preceding winters. It was more open and mild, 
than for many past seasons. All this was somewhat changed at a 
time when one expects to see the end ot winter come in earnest, 
in March, There was more snow and cold then, than apparently 
had been in the previous wintei months combined, or as someone 
told the writer : Winter only commenced in March. That such 
unusual weather conditions would naturally tend to modify biolo- 
gical conditions in the plant and animal kingdoms, was to be ex- 
pected. All nature-lovers, the botanists, entomologists, etc , 
therefore eagerly looked forward into the now sadly retarded 
spring, to see how this would be made manifest in their several 
lines of observation. In no class of biota, however, would the 
effect of such unusual climatic conditions be more noticeable than 
in the birds, as that fascinating, mysterious natural phenomenon 
of their migration is in many species greatly dependent on the 
weather. The ornithologist therefore was especially on the alct 
this spring to see how the coming of his feathered friends had been 
affected by the queer ending of the winter and beginning of the 
vernal season. 

One somewhat unexplainable fact was noted by them already 
in winter. One would think, that in such a mild winter as the last 
was for its greater part, there would be more of our usual perma- 
nent residents amongst birds, or of the erratic Canadian winter 
birds seen, or at least as many, as in the more severe winters. 
But the reverse was true While in the severe winter of 1903-4 
pine grosbeaks were plentiful here all winter, and 1904-5 Canada 
jays and sharpshinned hawks, together with, as the appended list 
shows, occasional downy woodpeckers, pine siskins, redpolls, 
brown-breasted nuthatches, and the everpresent jolly little chikadee, 
these and similiar birds were last winter conspicuous by their ab- 
sence in the silent wintry woods. 



i9o6| Mu;ration ok Birds at Ottawa. 



»45 



Quite a number o( the birds included in this list are irrelevant 
to the scope of ihis article, but are included for completeness' 
sake, to show about when they may be looked for and what birds 
come this way at all. Such birds that do not show anything^ in this 
connection are e. g. the redpoll, pine siskin, brown-breasted nut 
hatch, crow, blue jay, etc., because they may be considered per- 
manent residents, or because they do not follow any apparent rules 
in their coming and going, their presence or absence. Other such 
erratic birds are the pine grosbeak, Canada jay, evening grosbeak, 
arctic-three-toed woodpecker, etc., which are here omitted. Others, 
such as the duck-, rails, herons, hawks are not quoted to prove 
much in this connei-tion, because they are not easily observed or 
are rare, so that they may be for days or even weeks in their chosen 
haunts, before the ornithologist, who can not always go to such 
difficult places, may see them 

The effect that we would expect the severe outgoing of the 
winter and incoming of the spring tj have upon the migration of 
birds, is that the birds would be retarded to a greater or less 
extent. And this is what the following list shows. The first 
commonly observed migrant in our parts is the prairie horned 
lark. That comes at the end of February. Now, because last 
winter up to that time was unusually mild, the coming of this little 
bird was earlier than usual, Feb 20, or at least no later. Then 
came the snowy and cold March, the effect of which can be seen 
by the lateness of arrival of such birds as the purple finch, robin, 
bronzed grackle, song sparrows, red-winged black bird, bluebird, 
and junco, which here are the first of the real and regular migrants. 
These were this year kept back for a time of from several days to 
two weeks. Then came warm. May-like weather in April, which 
made the date of arrival of the species falling into this month 
again normal, or may have even accelerated it with some, whereas 
the somewhat raw weather of the first half of May again had the 
contrary effect. It ma\ be said, that a single, dejected-looking 
robin was this year seen as early as March 9th in a garden along 
the Rideau, and again on the 17th, but the real robin migration 
did not begin before the date given. 

I must also state that much material in the line of dates has 
been furnished to me by other members of the Ornithological sec 



146 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

tion, by the Messrs. G. and E. White, Kingston and Gallup, and 
by Mrs. R. D Brown and Miss Lees of Ottawa East. 

1906. '905' I904' 

Sharp-shinned Hawk Feb. 18 Jan. 3 

Crow Jan, 28 Feb. 18 Mar. 3 

Prairie Horned Lark Feb. 20 Feb. 28 Mar. 7 

Brown-breasted Nuthatch Mar. 10 Mar, i Jan. 14 

Great Gray Owl Feh. i 

Cedar Bird Mar. 1 7 Mar. 28 May 26 

Purple Finch xMar. 29 Mar. i May 4 

Go\den-eye fClangula Am. J Mar. 29 Apr. 17 Jan. 4 

Robin Mar. 31 Mar. 1 9 Mar. 24 

Bronzed Crackle April 2 Mar. 27 Mar. 28 

Song- Sparrow April 2 Mar. 18 Mar. 24 

Red-wing-ed Blackbird April 2 Mar. 24 Mar. 25 

Bluebird April 3 Mar. 24 Mar. 24 

American Herring Gull April 3 April 10 Mar. 24 

Red-shouldered Hawk April i April 24 April 25 

Canada Goose April 4 April 4 

White-breasted Nuthatch April 4 Feb. 28 Jan. ^o 

Meadowiark . . April 5 April 3 April 5 

Blue Heron fviilgo Crane) April 5 April 27 April 18 

J unco April 6 Mar. 23 Mar. 26 

Hooded Merganser April 7 April 17 April 14 

Sparrow Hawk \pril 7 April t8 April 21 

Cowbird ... April 8 Mar. 29 Mar 30 

Downy Woodpecker April 8 April 1 1 Jan. 14 

Tr-e Swallow April 8 April 3 April 8 

Black Duck April 7 April 13 

Wood Duck April 7 

Phoebe April 9 April 8 Mar 28 

Tree Sparrow April 9 Mar. 24 April 15 

Red-tailed Hawk April 9 April 25 April 15 

Marsh Hawk April 1 2 April 1 .April 1 7 

Golden-crowned Kinglet April 14 April 8 April 14 

Herrriit Thrush April 14 April 10 April 14 

Brown Creeper April 15 Mar. 30 Mar. 12 

Vesper Sparrow April 15 April 12 .April 15 

Savanna Sparrow April 15 April 1 1 April 18 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker April 15 April lo April 9 

Chipping Sparrow April 15 April 12 April 2T, 

Flicker ( Colaptes auratus) April 16 April 10 April 18 

.Migrant Shrike April 16 Mar. 30 April 6 

Killdeer April 16 Mar. 28 April 8 

Kingfisher .April 16 April 8 May 5 



1906J Migration of Birds at Ottawa 147 

1906. IQO.S- ■9<>4> 

Bittern April i6 May 24 May 3 

Blue Jay April 16 Feb. 18 * Mar. 17 

Goldfinch April 1 7 Mar. 13 M^y 26 

White-throated Sparrow April 15 April 23 May 7 

Osprey, Fish Hawk .^pril 18 April 17 

Winter Wren April 18 April 27 

Swamp Sparrow April i8 May 8 April 26 

Wilson's Snipe April 20 May 4 April 14 

Pii'd-billed Grebe April 20 April 29 

Barn Swallow April 21 April 25 April 26 

Hairy Woodpecker April 2 1 May ^ ^'»y ' 7 

Loon April 21 

Purple Martin April 22 April 23 April 16 

Chimney Swift April 30 May 2 Mav 7 

Ruby-crowned King^let May 1 April 27 

Brown Thrasher May i May 6 

Whippoorwill May i May 13 May 5 

House Wren May 2 April 28 May 5 

Spotted Sandpiper May 2 May 4 May 5 

Myrtle Warbler May 2 May i May 4 

Black-and-white Warbler May 4 April 28 May 4 

Fox Sparrow May 4 Arpil 27 

Yellow Warbler May 4 May i May 7 

Bobolink May 5 May 2 May 7 

Connecticut Warbler May 5 

Cooper's Hawk May 6 Feb. 16 

Warbling V'ireo May 6 May 10 May 1 2 

V'eery May 6 May 6 May 7 

Blai k-lhroated Green Warbler May 7 May i May 10 

Parula Warbler May 7 May 10 May 7 

Nashville Warbler May 7 May 7 May 10 

Pine Warbler May 7 May 6 

Black-throated Blue Warbler May 7 May 10 May 16 

Kingbird May 7 May 5 May 7 

Rusty Crackle .May 7 .April 10 .April 18 

Sora May 8 .May 26 

Blackburnian Warbler. .May 10 .May 1 May 7 

CliffSwallow May 9 .May 17 

Waterthrush May 1 1 May 8 .May 26 

Great Crested Flycatcher May 1 1 May 12 May 7 

Yellow-throated Vireo May 11 

Least Flycatcher, Chebec May 1 1 -May 5 M.ny 6 

Woodcock May 11 .... May 26 

Maryland Yellowthroat May 11 .May ♦ .May 10 



148 The Ottawa Naturalist, [October 

1906. 

Cape May Warbler May 1 2 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak May 13 

Olive-backed Thrush May 13 

Chestnut-sided Warbler May 13 

Ovenbird May 1 3 

Baltimore Oriole May 1 3 

Bank Swallow May 13 

Yellow Palm Warbler May 14 

Grey-cheeked Thrush 

Red-eyed \'ireo May 15 

Blue-headed Vireo May 15 

Catbird May 15 

Redstart May 1 5 

Hummingbird May 15 

Bay-breasted Warbler May 16 

Mag^nolia Warbler May 16 

White-crowned Sparrow May 16 

Xitflithawk May 16 

Tennessee Warbler May 1 7 

Scarlet Tanager May 1 7 

Wood Pewee May 1 7 

Solitary Sandpiper May 18 

Mourning Warbler May 19 

Canadian Warbler May 19 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher May 19 

Alder Flycatcher May 19 

Least Sandpiper May 2 1 

Blackpoll Warbler May 2 1 

Wilson's Warbler May 1 1 

Red-headed Woodpecker May 26 

Olive-^ided Flycatcher May 28 

Broad-winged Hawk May 28 

Philadelphia Vireo May 30 

Indigo Bird 



'905 




1904 




Mav 


22 






May 
Mav 


1 ( 






16 

7 






Mav 


May 


10 


May 


6 


May 


10 


May 


6 


May 


8 


May 
Mav 


18 






I 






Mav 


14 
6 






Mav 


May 


12 


Mav 


7 


May 


7 


Mav 


6 


May 


12 


May 


5 


May 


5 


May 
May 


I [ 






19 


May- 


23 


Mav 


10 


May 


10 


Ma\ 


6 


Mav 


10 


May 


'4 


May 


1 1 


Mav 


24 


May 


23 


Mav 


'4 


Mav 


21 


May 


4 


May 


•7 






May 

May 


I ? 


May 


12 


23 


May 


12 


May 


26 




23 
24 

' 7 






Mav 












Mav 


Mav 


^2, 


Mav 


'9 


May 


26 






April 
May 


,6 


Mav 


24 


26 


April 


25 






Ma>' 
May 


■7 

24 






May 


26 



1906] 



Natlre Stl'dy — No. 37. 
NATLRK STL'nV No WWII 



'49 



The Cecropia Emperor Moth (Samia ncnipid, Linn ) 
Bv Arthcr Gibson, Assisianl Entomologist, Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 




Cecropia Emperor .Moih and Cocoon, reduced in size. 

Amonuf our native insect.s, probably none attract greater 
attention from those who have made no study whatever of ento- 
mology than the large Emperor Moths, the caterpillars of all ot 
which are true silP -worms. These moths are the largest we have 
in North America, and, being of such a size and also of striking 
beauty, they always cominand admiration. Unlike inany other 
moths, their mouth parts are aborted and consequently they are 
unable to eat. In their caterpillar state, however, they are very 
voracious eaters and during that period oi their existence will con- 
sume many times their weight ol food. When full grown these 



150 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

larofe, heavy caterpillars are found hanging on the underj-ide of 
leaves and twigs, but on account of their green colour they are 
rather difficult to detect. 

The Cecropia Emperor Moth, the subject of this article, is the 
largest and one of the most beautiful insects found in North 
America. When the wings have been spread this magnificent - 
moth measures from five to seven inches across. The figure* 
given herewith, which has been reduced in size, shows the moth 
which is doubtless known to many of our readers. The four 
wings are of a rich brown and all are crossed with conspicuous 
band«. The band on each front wing is dull red, more or 
less edged within with white, while that on each hind wing 
is a brighter red, almost crimson in some specimens, edged 
distinctly inside with white. In the figure, which is from a 
photograph, only the white portions, of course, of these transverse 
bands show. The front wings are dusted with gray towards and 
along the upper margin, and through that portion of each wing 
beyond the transverse band. Near the centre of the wing, and 
also towards the base, reddish patches are present in most speci- 
mens. All the wings have, near the middle, a large nearly 
kidney-shaped mark which is white shaded more or le.^s with red, 
and margined with black. The eye-like spot towards the tip of 
each front wing is black with a bluish white crescent, and the 
curved band near the base is white and black. The outer edges 
of all the wings are paler, and there is present on each front wing 
a wavy black line which on each hind wing is replaced by a double 
band of the same colour. The upper side of the body is dull red, 
as are also the legs. Just behind the head there is a wide white 
band. The abdomen in most specimens is reJdish-brown, the cross 
bands of white being very conspicuous. Both sexes are similar 
in appearance, the female only differing from the male in 
the larger abdomen and much smaller antennae, or feelers 

It is often difficult to understand an author's reason for select- 
ing the name by which a species is to be known, and much dis- 
cussion among naturalists has taken place regarding Linnasus's 
application of the name of the ancient city of .Athens, to this moth. 
The late Dr. Asa Fitch in his third report on the Noxious and 

*From Fourth Annual Report of the Entomologist of the State Experi- 
ment Station of the University of Minnesota, kindly loaned by Prof F. L. 
WashJmrn. 



1906 J Nature Study — No. 37. 151 

other Insects of the State of New \'ork. tjives the following 
exphination : — " The idea which was present in the n;ind of 
Linnaeus, when he named this splendid moth, we think is suffi- 
ciently evident. The Athenians were the most polished and 
refined people of antiquity- The moths are the most delicate and 
elegant of insects ; they are the Athenians oi' their race. Cecrops 
was the founder, the head of the Athenian people. When names 
of men were bestowed upon cities, ships, or other objects 
regarded as being of a feminine gender, classical usage changed 
these names to the feminine form. The moths (Phalsena) being 
feminine, and the name of Cecrops being more euphonious in this 
form, probably induced Linnajus to change it in the manner he 
did. The name thus implies this to be the leader, the head of 
the most elegant tribe of insects, or in other words, the first of all 
the insect kind. What name more appropriate can be invented 
for this most sumptuous moth ? " 

The cocoon of this insect, shown beneath the moth in the 
above figure, is the largest and best known of the cocoons found 
in this country. It is about three inches in length, an inch or 
more in width at its widest part, and tapers to both ends. Some 
specimens, of course, are larger than this ; we have examples 
that measure four inches long and two inches wide at the 
centre. In colour the cocoon is a rusty gray, or brownish. If one 
is cut into with a sharp knife, or a pair of scissors, an inner, oval 
cotoon will be found. Within this is a large, black pupa, to one 
end of which is attached the head of the caterpillar and the cast 
skin of its body. This inner cocoon will he noticed to be 
much more closely woven It is interesting to watch the 
caterpillar making its cocoon. From the time it begins to spin 
it never ceases until its work is completed, and the whole cocoon 
is spun in one continuous thread. In the case of the American 
Silkworm, Telea poLyphemus, L. , it has been stated by Trouvelot 
that this caterpillar in making its cocoon, will have moved its head 
to and fro. in order to distribute the silk, 254,000 times, the length 
of time taken to complete this operation being from three to five 
days. 

During the past season the caterpillars of the Cecropia Em- 
peror Moth have been more than usually abundant in eastern 
Canada. It is altogether likely, therefore, that many cocoons 
will be found on apple, maple, plum, and other trees during 
the coming winter. The moths emerge in the latter end of 
May and early in June, and if any of our members would 
like to evperience the pleasure of watching one of these large 
Emperor Moths escaping from its cocoon, it is only necessary 
to collect one or two of the cocoons, and keep them in an 



152 The Ottawa Naturalist. [October 

out-building throughout the winter, bringing ihem into the 
house next May. The cocoons, of course, should be put into a 
box with rough sides, so that when the moths emerge ihey can 
hold on while their wings are expanding. It will be noticed that 
one end of the cocoon is spun very loosely, and it is from this end 
that the moth emerges. The head first appears, then the front 
pair of legs, and 50on the other pairs of legs, the heavy body, and 
the undeveloped wings. As soon as it has attached itself to a 
nearbv object, these latter soon expand and in less than an hour 
the two pairs of wings attain their full size. 

The caterpillars of the Cecropia Emperor Moth hatch from 
whitish eggs laid in June. Tiiey moult, or cast their skins, four 
times before reaching full growth. At first they are black, chang- 
ing in the next stage to a deep orange, and in the third stage to 
yellowish green. In the next and also in the last stage the colour 
is mere of a bluish green. In all the stages the body bears 
tubercles the colours of which are diff"erent after each moult. 
When full grown the Cecropia caterpillar is from three to four 
inches long, and is about as thick as a man's thumb. On segments 
2 and 3, the tubercles are large and of a bright coral red colour ; 
the other tubercles on the back are smaller and yellow, except- 
ing those on the first and last segments which are blue, as are' 
also the smaller tubercles along the sides. These caterpillars*' 
although so beautiful and striking in appearance, from their great 
size and conspicuously coloured tubercles, are considered very dis- 
gusting creatures by many, and this of course is but n-itural. It 
would not be human nature if everyone had the same likes and 
dislikes — it takes all kinds of people to make a world. 

The caterpillar of this moth is a very general feeder and over^ 
fiftv diffarem plants have been recorded upon which it has* 
been found feeding. In Canada the favourite food plants are 
apple maple, birch, cherry, plum and willow. Although this 
caterpillar has a very voracious appetite, it is seldom that it reaj\- 
does very much harm, as it is unusual to find more than iwc rhr 
three lar'vje on the same tree, and when their presence is notu.-d 
they can easilv be removed by hand. 

This grand insect occurs in Canada in Ontario, Quebec and 
the Maritime Provinces, and specimens may every year be coiie.red 
or seen flying around electric lights In certain seasons, however, 
their numbers are greativ reduced by natural parasites, tlje most 
important of which are the Long-tailed Ophion, Op/nonyndcntrNm, 
I which form^ a single close cocoon inside that of \t^ nost. and 
('n'fi/u^ extrematis, Cresson, of uhich several occur inside a 
sin^rle caterpillar, and when this latter has .spun its winter resting 
place Ihev emerge and entirely fill the space with their own cocoons. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, NONEMBKR, iqo6. No. 8 



ANIMAL COLOR.ATION. 



By Professor Edwako E. Prinl k, Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries, 

Oitaua. 

Many years ago I delivered the opening lecture in a course of 
scientific addresses in the University of Toronto. I chose as my 
subject the colors of animals, and the same theme has been dealt 
with by me on several subsequent occasions. Apart, however, 
from H short article, entitled " Spots and Stripes," in the London 
" Xational Observer," and a brief notice in The Ottawa Natural- 
ist in 1893, I have not published my views on this subject. 

It is a subject of general interest ; and many authorities, 
Poulton, Beddard, Eimer, Garstang, and others, have treated it 
more or less fully ; but as Professor Mcintosh, in the ".Annals of 
Natural History " last year, pointed out, very many of the theories 
offered are wholly inapplicable to some of the most familiar and 
striking i ases of animal coloration 

My own conclusion is that pelagic animals, the small colorless 
creatures abounding at the sea's surface, are primitive. .\ll 
animal life was originally colorless and possibly transparent, like 
glass. The first colors appearing in animals were due to vegetable 
food, or to parasites, especially •' plant commensals " ; but by- 
products, resulting from digestive and other processes, also pro- 
duced animal colors. Colors of a brilliant prismatic character 
appeared, no doubt, in jelly-fishes and other transparent animals 
in the seas of the early world. These rainbow tints may be due 
to *' thin plates " as discovered by Sir Isaac Newton in the soap- 
bubble, and seen also in the wings of the house-fly, elytra of 
beetles, scales on butterflies' wings, &c., or may be produced by 
minutely grooved or striated surfaces, producing lustrous tints as in 



154 The Ottawa Naturalist. [Novembe 

mother-of-pearl, feathers of tropical birds, insects and shells. Sir 
David Brewster found that the wax impression ot a pearl showed 
rainbow colors like the original pearl. These "interference' 
colors, due to striations on the surface, or to prism-like transparent 
parts of animals, illustrate some of the most gorgeous effects 
observable in living things. The silver)' color of many animals is 
not due to pigment or color, but to glistening smooth surfaces, 
and thus must be classed merely as " specular reflection." 

Ancestral Coloration. — The ocean is, as August Weissmann 
declared, the original birthplace of all animal life. The simple 
protozoan animals, and larval stages of higher forms, abounding 
in the sea, are in most instances, of a colorless transparency, at 
any rate in the earliest period of their lives. Even in such highly 
organised creatures as the fishes, the minute embryos, at a very 
early stage of development, are colorless and translucent. Further, 
the body is not only colorless, but it is wormlike, segmented, or 
metameric. Annelids, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, ascidians, 
fishes, reptiles, nay even birds and the highest animals, may exhibit 
a colorless metameric body. 

When color spots first appear in these, they are grouped 
serially, thus forming transverse patches or stripes from the head 
to the tail. This metameric coloring is very prevalent in the 
young of all classes of animals. 

If the segmented body be ancestral, then there is strong pre- 
sumption that repeated stripes and spots are ancestral also. They 
persist even though their use and meaning may haVe gone. Like 
the two buttons on a dress coat which served to hold up the sword- 
belt when our forefathers were accustomed to carry swords ; but 
are now of no use, though, thanks to the tailor, they still persist, 
so we find transverse stripes, still appear as the first coloration in 
a vast number of animals. 

A larva! cod, a week or ten days after hatching out from 
the ^^^g, exhibits a series of black stripes, and the young salmon 
and trout show cross bars, or "parr marks," which may be readily 
derived from the striped condition just referred to. Now, in some 
young flat-fishes the bars along the sides of the body divide into 
spots or large patches, four rows of them, and still preserving the 
metameric or serial succession from the head to the tail. Thus 



\go6] Animal Coloration. 155 

from successive cross-stripes, the spots arise, and these surface 
arrangements of color appear to continue long after the internal 
organs, the muscles, &c., have wholly altered their original 
anatomical arrangement. Further, the successive series of spots 
may unite later as longitudinal stripes, and such stripes we find in 
the post-larval ling [Molva). We thus have a key to the arrange- 
ment of color in a vast number oi animals. Wild pigs, though 
uniformly tinted when adult, exhibit when young a spotted skin, 
says Mr. Alfred Tylor, and later become striped. The dark tapir 
shows white spo's, like the Virginian deer, when young. The 
Canadian lynx is striped with dark reddish lines along its deep 
brown body, as described in 1883 by Mr. Montague Chamberlain, 
who henc; deduced t'lat it must be related to the Ocelot group of 
the Feiidae. Chickens, ducks, and other birds are similarly 
striped, quite unlike their parents. No doubt the repeated spots, 
bars and patterns, seen in caterpillars and many larval insects, are 
really ancestral. Weissmann held that these stripes have come 
down from a geological time when jointed reeds, and ribbed 
grasses preponderated ; but this is apparently not a primitive 
cause ; but like the zebra's and tiger's stripes they were ancestrally- 
metameric and utility explains their persistence, and modificaiion. 
The striped tiger is practically invisible in his haunts among the 
yellow sword-grasses of the jungle, while a troop oi zebras on the 
African plain, moving as they do in the moonlight, are practically 
invisible, owing to their remarkable arrangement of colors. Many 
young birds, like the gannet, may be of a dull brown color until 
their third year, possibly a case of blurred spots or stripes, which 
disappear and give place in the species named to a creamy white 
plumage. The dark bars of the yellow perch (Perae) and of tropical 
fishes like the Chaelodons. aid in obscuring these creatures 
amongst aquatic weed-blades. On the other hand, spots of color 
may be so modified as to resemble staring eyes, and may serve as 
Poulton suggested, to direct the attention of enemies to non-vital 
parts. The effect may, however, be the opposite and the eye-like 
spots may so suddenly strike the attention of enemies and startle 
them as lo frighten them away.* The peacock butterfly ( Vanessa /o), 

* The eyelike spots on some larvae of Lepidoptera may have this effect, 
e.g. the larva of the Elephant Hawk Moth (Chcerocnmpa clfitnor.) 



156 The Ottawa Naturalist. | November 

the Emperor moth, nay even the Polypectroti, the g-orgeous 
Malacca pheasant, the ocellated turkey with a row of eye- like 
spots at the end ot the tail, may thus find explanation. Many of 
the small shore fishes, like the Gobies, and the Skulpin {Calliony- 
^miis), exhibit in the dorsal fin one or more shining- eye-like spots, 
often explained as due to sex-selection, as the males usually bear 
these ornaments ; but they may be of a warning character. 

Trophic Coloration. — Food is frequently potent in color pro- 
duction. Translucent young fishes may have a bright pink color 
over the abdominal area, due to Copepods, &c., undergoing di- 
gestion, while Salpae often owe their yellow color to diatoms 
swallowed as food. N. Chautard found that green chlorophyll re- 
mained unchanged in color when taken in by animals. Examples 
are green oysters among Mollusks. and the green Cantharides 
among insects. Medical men are familiar with the efifect of digest- 
ing colored materials. Young children may be brilliantly tinted 
over the head, face, arms and skin after accidentally swallowing 
aniline dyes, and bird-fanciers, who give young canaries Cayenne 
pepper in their food, can deepen the yellow plumage, as the fatty 
Triolin of the pepper (not the Capsicin as often stated) passes to 
the feathers. Sauermann's experiments with white hens showed 
that the Triolin colored the breast feathers most markedly, but 
the head remained perfectly white. Red, in plumage, is often a 
very fleeting color, and Moseley found a South African stork 
whose brilliant rose-color was all washed out by a heavy shower 
of rain ! The seasonal red-color of the crossbill, the brown linnet 
and red pole disappears, cha.iging to a greenish yellow in the bird 
first-named, while the carmine breast and forehead of the latter fades 
away altogether, like ihe dark blueotthelndlgobird'sfeathers, which 
assume a dingy brown color for the winter. Trophic colors, or 
tints due to food have been as yetlittle studied although the Cochi- 
neal insect is ot great commercial value, owing to the red color of 
the food s'ored up in the body of the wingless female, of which 
70,000 dried specimens, I am informed, go to make 1 lb weight ot 
the dye material. The caterpillar of Bryophila is yellow when it 
feeds on Licheti jutiiprnnus; but grey when subsisting on the grey 
Lichen saxalilis. Such instances undoubtedly exemplify trophic co- 
lorr.tion. Allied to trophic coloration and yet distinct from it, is 



1906] Animal Coloration. 157 

that which may be distinguished as '* Phystologicur' coloration. 
Thus the transparent colorless embryo bird acquires a pale pink 
tint, when red blood first begins to circulate through the rudi- 
mentary body. Red blood as in the Chironomus larva imparts co- 
lor, as also does red blood and green blood in many Annelids. Doubt- 
less the Chlorocruorin in the green blood has a physiological func- 
tion similar to the Tetronerythrin in yellow sponges. Tetronery- 
thrin converts oxygen into ozone. Oddly enough it is the subs- 
tance to which the feathers of many birds owe their orange color. 
The Gephyrean Bonellta and the Coelenterate Hydra viridis owe 
their color to minute plant-like bodies filled with green chloro- 
phyll granules. In many Planarians the same green particles occur 
and Professor Geddes proved that by them oxygen was liberated 
as indeed Dr. Joseph Priestley, towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, had discovered, finding that the carbondioxide in sun- 
light was bf-oken up and the oxygen given off.* Some colors are 
** MorphologicaT' or due to features in the anatomy of animals. 
Many shrimps appear patched with color. A dark patch in the ce- 
phalothorax is produced by the liver; and their viscera appear 
as color-m'is^es. The longitudinal dark stripe down the back of 
the zebra follows the course of the spinal cord, while the white 
stripes on the face of the tiger coincide with the branches of the 
infra-orbital nerves. 

Closely allied to physiological coloration is that which may be 
called ^^Pathological.'' White animals such as white croivs, hawks, 
peacocks,! moles, eels &c., are abnormal, and known as albinos. 
Usually the eyes are red owing to the absence of pigment in the 
retina, as in the rest of the body, though white cats may have 
blue eyes, are usually deaf, as Darwin found out, and as a rule are 
tom-cats as Lawson staled. A white hedgehog {Ennaceus) i. e. 
one with the usually brown acuminate spines as white as ivory, was 
found to lack the normal integumentary nerve twigs. .Albinos 
are evidently abnormal in regard to their peripheral nerve supply. 

* Brandt regards such j^reen particles in animals as parasitic plants in 
the tissues, or rather commensals supplying' oxygen to the host. 

* The surface of the feathers in the while peacock shows the ' eyes ' and 
usual pattern just as a black horse shows a dappled pattern or t^listi-ning 
spotted appearance. 



158 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

The white or yellowish eels, occasionally found, owe the dis- 
appearance o' color to nervous causes due to sex, and the enlarge- 
ment of the eyes is connected with the same cause, of a nervous 
and emotional nature. 

Psychological ox ^ as I prefer to distinguish them ''■Emotional'''' 
colors, are apparently due to intense temporary nervous states, 
recalling the "pallor, ''or the "redness" in the human face due to fear 
or to anger respectively. The cuttle-fishes rapidly change color, 
becoming red, green, or yellow under different emotional states, 
which influence the nerves affecting the chromatophores or large 
pigment spots, and iridescent plates in the integument A captive 
Octopus when annoyed by a goad assumes a deep crimson color 
as though red with rage. Many fishes assume the most varied, 
often extremely beautiful colors, when dying. The large moon- 
fish or opah [Lnrnpris liina) exhibits flitting rainbow tints, while 
the 3-spined stickleback (the male at least) acquires a deep scarlet 
tint about the throat, and the sides glisten with golden green. 
The lo-spined stickleback [G. pungitms) becomes inky black about 
the throat and abdomen, paler on the sides, before death. Sex 
coloration may be included under the heading "emotional" and 
what is called "sexual selection" is probably wholly secondary 
and subordinate in spite of Darwin's famous observations on the 
subject. Some of the most gorgeously-tinted male animals known 
to me do not support Darwin's view. Certain Pacific salmon, for 
example, notably the sockeye [Oncorhynchus nerka) coming in 
from the sea are of a steel-blue color ; but the male-s change to a 
bright rose pink or madder on approaching the spawning grounds. 
For hundreds of miles countless numbers ot these brightly tinted 
fish may be seen crowding the great rivers of the West. In the 
shallow upper waters tens ot thousands occur in the Fall like 
struggling armies of "gold fish," 200 to 1,000 miles from the sea. 
Swiftly through the water foaming over the pebbly shalloivs, the 
crowded male fish speed, and fight and kill each other, and the gor- 
geously colored victors assume greater brilliance under the excite- 
ment. Any selection by the more sober-tinted female fish is out of the 
question in the terrible turmoil and rush. Like the antlers of deer 
and other seasonal out-growths in various animals, the colors 
•"eferred to are the physical and visible expression of emotional 



1906] Animal Coloration. 159 

excitement. Seasonal colors are of a different character. Thus 
the stoat, .Alpine hare, Arctic fox, &c., change from the sombre 
summer hues to snowy white, the tail or ear-tips remaining black 
in some instances, The beetle, Carabns atiratus, is dusky in 
winter, but green in summer, while the spring and summer broods 
of one butterfly, a Vanessa, are in great contrast as regards color, 
&c. The winter pupa emerges in spring as Vanessa levnna, while 
the second brood emerging in summer is distinguished as Vanessa 
prorsa, the contrast in coloration being attributed mainly to 
temperature, just as melanism, or the appearance of dark forms 
of certain species is said to be due to temperature and moisture. 

If animals have appreciation of colors as is certainly the case, 
there are types which must be classed as '■^Aesthetic'' implying 
delight in or preference for certain tints and arrangements of 
color. 

Lord .Avebury proved that bees prefer blue colors and Pro- 
fessor Poulton has found other instances. Darwin satisfied him- 
self that female birds prefer brilliantly tinted male birds • but this 
•' sex selection " is only a particular form of '• aesthetic preference." 
Aesthetic coloration affords some of the most enchanting examples 
known to the naturalist, and perhaps the acme is reached in the 
gorgeous male Nicobar pigeon, a native of Java and Sumatra, 
which glitters in the serried hues of emerald, gold and metallic 
blue, surpassing the wondrous colors of the parrots and birds of 
Paradise. 

Parasitic colors are due to parasitism, and are usually sombre 
for protection's sake like some of the bird ticks ; but the horse and 
deer ticks (Trichodccies) and others are striped down the dorsum. 
Many parasite'^ especially entoparasites are opaque white, having 
lost all coloration, from their mode of life in the interior of iheir hosts. 
Their surroundings are dark like the cave animals. En- 
vironniental colors are a form of mimicry and ensure the safety 
of the possessors. They may be classed as passive or procrpytic, 
the various flounders and shrimps, which most accurately resemble 
the sandy bottom, are examples. Others are active or anticryptic 
colors like those of the tiger, which is concealed by its stripes and 
thus able to spring unobserved upon its prey. Spiders and many 
predaceous creatures show anticryptic coloration. 



i6o The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Wariii7ig coloration, called sematic by Poulton, implies dis- 
agreeable features disguised, it may be, under a very beautiful 
exterior. The strikingly colored skunk can he mistaken for no other 
mammal, the wasps, and similar offensive insects and many gor- 
geous larvae repel animals, which might by mistake attempt to 
prey upon them, and be stung or poisoned. Many brilliant tropi- 
cal fishes are said to be poisonous and unsuitable for food. Their 
coloration, as Mr. A. R. Wallace expresses it, is "an outward sign " 
of their non-edibility. 

Recognition colors no doubt aid animals to readily detect their 
own kind The white tail of the rabbit is believed to direct the 
young to follow their parents to safety when danger looms. 

Mimicry involves not only protective colors, but also protec- 
tive shape or form. The lappet moth, the stick insect, the leaf 
insect are familiar cases of color combined with striking form- 
resemblance. The mimicry is perfect. 

It is clear that these types ofcolor often overlap. Thus aesthetic 
and sex coloration may combine in the same examples. It may- 
be that in some cases ihe coloration has as its end the destruction 
of the individual in the interest of the tribe. Thus the brilliant 
color of the male sockeye must attract the attention of bears, fish- 
hawks and other enemies. As a rule the number ot males 
is excessive, their reduction is a benefit, hence they not only fight 
most fiercely and thus perish, but are exposed to numberless 
dangers by reason of their striking colors. 

A vast series of examples of animal colors, must at present 
be classed as indifferent. Like the bright tints of marble or 
agate, or the colors of the diamond, they seem to serve no purpose. 
The gorgeously tinted Nemerteans living in similar surroundings 
are of the most various hues. The rose pink of the Arctic Pterpods 
serves no apparent end, lor they are most tempting food for many 
animals. I have found Copepods of a rich emerald color, while 
others are reddish or brown. The solitary trog has a rich topaz 
eye, the young Cottiis shows a St. .Andrew's cross over its 
iris, and all these instances are difficult to explait\. The palate of 
the orang outan is black, while that of the chimpanzee is bright 



1906] Animal Coloration 161 

pink*. The j^'all-bladder is often emerald jjreen, iho peritoneal 
membrane, as in certain fishes, t is silvery, bespangled with 
yellow, black and red stars. It is difficult to understand these 
internal colors and there are multitudes of inexplicable examples 
of external color too, which offer problems for biologist* to solve 
in the future. 



BOTANICAL NOTE. 



Fruit and Seed. 



In Botany the word fruit signifies the enlarged and matured 
ovary, whatever its substance may be and whether fit to eat or 
not. It is sometimes difficult to decide when speaking of the 
small fruiting organs of some plants whether these are fruits 
or true seeds. In the Butercup, Sunflower, Borage, and 
Mint families, the seed-like bodies are really fruits, while in 
the Mustard, Pink, Pea and Evening Primrose families, they 
are true seeds. All of these are usually spoken of as seeds 
which is the term commonly used by seedsmen, farmers and 
others. Dr. L. H. Grindon, the eminent English botanist, in 
his " British and Garden Botany," makes the following concise 
distinction: "There is an infallible distinction between a fruit 
and a seed, however much they may resemble each other ; The 
fruit always has tivj scars, one at the bise, showing where it was 
attached to the peduncle, and another upon the summit, indicating 
the former presence of the style or stigma; but the seed has never 
more than one scar, indicatirig the point at which it was connected 
with the pod that contained it." 

J. F. 



* No less inexplicable is the curious fact, mentioned by Darwin, that in 
the hornbill, li. bicornis, the inside of the mouth is black in the male ; but 
flesh-colored in the female. 



tFor example Gus/ros/eiis. 



1 62 The Ottawa Naturalist. | November 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO CANADIAN BOTANY.* 



B}- James M. Macolx, Assistant Naturalist, Geolosrical Sur\-ey of Canada. 

xvni. 

MiTELLA DiVERSiFOLiA, Greeiic. 

Near Trail, Columbia River, B C, May 19th, 1902. No. 
64,574.1" ( rr". Sprcadborongh.) New to Canada. 

Helchera flabellifolia, Rydb., N. A. Fl. xxii : 115. 
H. parvifolia, Cat. Can. Plants i : 158 & 526. 

All the Canadian specimens referred to H. parvifolia in 
our herbarium prove to be H. flabellifolia. They are from 
Milk River Ridge, Alta. No. 10,560 ; Cypress Hills, Alta. 
No. 8,514, and Crow Nest Pass, Rocky Mts. No. 20,167. 
(John Macoun.) Milk River Ridge, Alta. No. 8,515. {Dr. 
G. M. Dati'sojt ) 

Heuchera Columbiana, Rydb., N. A. Fl. xxii : 116, 

H. cylindricUy var, alpina, Cat. Can, Plants, i : 526 in part. 
H. cylindn'ca, var. ovalifolia, Contr. Can. Hot. No. 6, p 5, 
in part. 
Crow Nest Pass, Rocky Mts. No. 8,500. {Dr. G. M. 
Daivson.) Waterton Lake, Reeky Mts. No, 10,561 ; Eagle 
Pass, C. P. Ry., B.C. No. 8,503. {John Macoun.) Trail, 
Columbia River, B.C. No. 64,571. ( /. M. Macoun.) Re- 
ferred to H. glabella by Rosendahl, but apparently a good 
species. 

Saxifraga rufidula, (Small). 

S. occidcntalis, Cat. Can. PL. 11 : 321 in part. 
Micranthes ru/idula, Small, N. A. Fl., xxii : 140. 

Well characterized by the red-tomentose under-surtace of 
the leaves. Described from specimens collected by Prof. 
John Macoun on Mount Finlayson, Vancouver Island, May 

*Piiblished by permission of tlie Director of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 

tSpecimens have been distributed from the herbarium of the Gcolog'ical 
Survev under these numbers. 



1906] Contributions to Canadian Botanv. 163 

17th, 1887, Collected July 17th, 1887, on Mount Arrow 
s:nith. \'.l., and May 19th, 1893, on Parsoti's Mountain near 
X'ictoria. \M., by Prof. Macoun. The specimens collected in 
1887 formed part of the material upon which Watson based 
his S. occiden talis. 

Saxifraga lata, (Small.) 

S. occidentiilis. Cat. Can. PI., 11 : 321 in part. 
Micranthes lata. Small, X. A. Fl., xxii : 145. 

Described from specimens collected by Prof. John Macoun 
at Lytton, B.C., April i6th, 1890. Not rare west of the 
coast rapo-e. ;; 

RiBES OXYCANTHOIDES, L. var. CALCIOLA, Fernald, Rhodora, vii: 155. 
This variety resembles the species " but young branches, 
petioles and lower leaf surfaces permanently and densely white- 
tomentose." Collected or noted growing in calcareous soils 
in Bonaventure and Gaspe counties, Quebec, by Messrs. Col- 
lins, Fernald and Pease at the following places : Carlisle, 
Tracadigash Mt., mouth of Bonaventure River, New Rich- 
mond, Grand River, Perc^, Little Cascapedia River and Dart- 
mouth River. This variety was collected on " the island " 
Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, N.S., by Prof Macoun in 1898, 
Herb. No, 19,102. An intermediate form was collected on 
Cape Breton Island, the same same year at Grand Narrows, 
No. 19,100, and Big Intervale, Margaree, No. 19,101. 

Crataegus Brunetiana, Sargent. 

A common species about Quebec. Our specimens were 
collected in fruit near Quebec in 1902 by Dr. Robt. Bell, 

SpIR.EA SORBIKOLIA, L. 

Escaped from cultivation and well naturalized on the 
bank of the Gatineau River at the railway station, Wakefield, 
Que., 1903. (Johu Macoun J 

Gelm pl'lrchum, Fernald, Rhodora, viii : 11. 

Known in Canada only from specimens collected by 
Williams, Collins and Fernald. in boggy meadows by the St. 

*The Geogfraphical limits ^iven in these papers refer to Canada only. 



164 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Lawrence River at Bic, Quebec, but will probably be found 
elsewhere. Characterized by its " large, wide-spreading 
crimson calyx, deep claret-colored styles and the strongly 
contrasting broadly obcordate bright yellow petals " ; sug- 
gesting Geum TnacrophylLum in the outline ot the leaf only. 

Medicago dexticulata, Willd. 

Toronto, Ont. fW Scott.) Not recorded from Ontario. 

\'ICIA VII.LOSA, L. 

Camlachie, Ont, June i8th, 1901, No. 34,280. (John 
Macoun. ) New to Canada, rare in North America. Intro- 
duced. 

Geranium pratexse, L. 

Roadsides and pasture fields, \\'akefield, Que.. 1903. 
(John Macau 11 ) 

LiNUM catharticum, L. 

On the left side of the entrance road, Beechwood Ceme- 
tery, Ottawa, Ont., 1903 (John Macoun.) Not before 
recorded from Ontario. 

Empetrum nigrum, L., var. andinum, DC. 

Distinguished from E. nigrum by its red fruit and tomen- 
tose or lanate young leaves This plant w.is sent us from 
Newfoundland many years ago and was named E. rubricm. 
Mr. L. Fernald has shown (Rhodora, vol. iv : 147-15 i) that it 
is apparently identical with the Andes plant described by De 
Candolle. 

Rhus \'ernix, L. 

R. venenata, Macoun, Cat Can. Plants, i : 100 and 505. 

Abundant by the little lake west ot East Templeman, 
Que., 1903. (John Macoun. J Not recorded east of S. VV. 
Ontario. 

ImPATIENS NOLI-.\n;TANGERE, L. 

On Kent street, Ottawa, Ont. Noticed there for several 
years previous to 1901, when flowering specimens were col- 
lected in September. 



1906] contkibltions to canadian botany. l6^ 

Malva Auea, L. 

Common by roadsides in Masham township near Wake- 
field, One., 190^^. (John Macotiu. ) 

Anthriscl's Cerefolium, Hoffm. 

Roadsides at Cap k L'Aij^Ie, Que. Xo. 67,994. (John 
Macoun. ) New to Canada. 

CiCUTA DOLV.LASII. (DC.) C. c^ R. 

In marshes, Chilliwack Lake, R.C. No. 44,480. (J. M. 
Macoun. J New to Canada. 

Saxicula Nevadensis, Wats. 

Revelstoke, B.C., 1902. {IV. Spreadborough.) Eastern 
limit in Canada. 

MONOTROPA KIMBRIATA, Gray. 

In woods near Trout Lake, B.C. {E. Wilson.) 
Gaultheria hu.mifusa, (Graham) Rydberj^. 
C. Myrstnifes, Hook. 

Mountains at Lake Agnes, No. 66,473, ^"d at Pipestone 
Creek, No. 66,474, Rocky Mountains, 1904. {Johti Macoun.) 
Not recorded from Rocky Mountains since Drummond's 
time. 

Glaux .maritima, L. var. obtusifolia, Fernald, Rhodora, iv: 215. 
G. maritima^ Cat. Can. PI. i: 315 in part. 

With the exception of a single specimen from Assinaboine 
Rapids, Man., (John Macoun)^ our herbarium specimens of 
this variety are from either the Pacific or Atlantic coasts. In 
the east it is represented in our herbarium by specimens from 
Brackley Point, Prince Edward Island, No. 15,982 ; Grand 
Narrows, Cape Breton Island, N.S., No. 19.849; Salmon 
River, Que., No. 68,641, and Murray River, Que., No. 
68,642 [Johii Macoun) ; Oak Island, Mahom; Bay, X S., 
No. 23,060 [Dr. (\ A. Hamilton) ; Campbellton, N.B., 
No. 15.985 [Dr. R. Chalmers) ; Bathurst, N.B., No. 60,463 
{Jrilliams and Female/); Cacouna, Temisrouata Co., Que., 
Xo. 67,057 {Collins and Feruahf). From the Pacific coast, 



i66 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Chase River, \'ancouver Island, No. 15,981 ; Comox, 
Vancouver Island, No. 635 ; Burrard Inlet, B.C., No. 15,979 
{Joh7i Macoun) ; Lacomb Island, Portland Canal, B.C., No. 
I i.,978 {J. McEvoy) : Renfrew District, Vancouver Island, 
No, 41,413 [Rosendnhl a.v\6. Brand). 

Dodecatheon puberulum, (Nutt. ) Piper. 

Grassy slopes, Penticton, Lake Okanagan, B.C. No. 
61,247. [W. Spread bo rough.) Damp spots at Trail, Columbia 
River, B.C. No 66,531; west of Sophie Mt., B C. No. 
66,532. [J. M. Macoun.) 

Cyxanxhum Vixcitoxicum, R. Br. 

Escaped from cultivation at Niagara Falls, Ont., 1904. 
[W. Scoti.) 

Nemophila breviflora. Gray. 

Very abundant on damp grassy slopes at an altitude of 
5,000 feet, Sophie Mt., S.W. of Rossland, B.C. No. 66,614. 
(/. M. Macoun.) New to Canada. 

Polemonium elegaxs, Greene, Pittonta. in : 305. 
P. confertu?n, Cat. Can. PI., 11 : 330. 

Summit of South Kootenay Pass, Rocky Mountains. 
No. 16,221. [Dr. G. M. Dawson.) Summit of Sheep Moun- 
tain, Waterton Lake, Rocky Mountains. No, 11,807. {John 
Macoun.) Second summit west of Skagit River, near the 
International Boundary. Alt. 7,000 ft. No. 68,716. (/. M. 
Macoun.) 

Cyxoglossum boreale, Fernald, Rhodora, vii : 249 
C. Virginiczun^ Cat. Can. PI. i : 335 and 567. 
C. occidentale, Cat. Can. PI. i : 567, and 11 : 344, 

This species is not uncommon in Ontario and eastward 
throughout the Maritime Provinces, but west of Lake Superior 
it is very rare. In our herbarium we have no specimens from 
the wooded country north of the prairie region, where it was 
collected by Drummond, nor have we any specimens from the 
Rockv Mountains. Our herbarium material from British 
Columbia is represented by specimens from Donald in the 
Columbia valley and from \'ernon near Lake Okanagan. 



1906] Contributions to Canadian Botany. 167 

asperugo procumbens, l. 

Waste places at Banff, Aha., 1903. {\. B. SansDu.) 
\ot recorded west oi Ontario. 

\'ERBENA BRACTEOSA X STRICTA. 

A Verbena, evidently a hybid between l'. bractcosa and 
V. striata was found growing very abundantly on dry sandy 
ground near Pt. Edward, Ont., Aug. 20, 1903. (C A'. Dodge.) 

Mertensia oblongifolia, Don. 

Common on hillsides around Trail, Columbia River, 
B.C. Nos. 66,567 and 66,568. (/. M. Maconn.) New to 
Canada. 

Mertensia ciliata, Don. 

South fork of Salmon River, near Idaho boundary. No. 
66,565. 1902. {W. Spreadborough.) New to Canada. 

Teucrium littorale. Bicktiell. 

Along the shore below Mahone Bay, N S. {Dr. C. A. 
Hamilton.) New to Canada. 

SCUTELLARI.\ NERVOSA, Pursh. 

Dry open woods. Cedar Creek, Arner, near Kingsville, 
Ont. No. 54,679 (John Maconn ) New to Canada. 

Mentha arvensis, L. var. lanata. Piper, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 
XXIX : 223. 

Size and habit of var. Canadensis, Briquet (J/. Can- 
adensis, L.) but the calyx, stem, petioles and often the whole 
underside of the leaf-blade densely lanate-pubescent. 

Dry bed of torrent. Middle Creek, Chilliwack River, B.C. 
No. 54,657; bank of Chilliwack River, B.C. Xo. 54,656. 
[J. M. Maconn.) New to Canada. 
SoLANrM Carohnense, L. 

Very abundant at Point Edward, Lake Huron. No. 
5 4 ' 5 3 ' ■ ( J'^^^ " Macon n . ) 
Phvsalis pruinosa, L. 

Streets of Southampton, Ont, No. 54,524. [John 
Macoun.) New to Canada. 



1 68 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

Verbascum Lvch.mtis, L. 

Roadsides at Sandwich, Ont. No. 54,510. {John 
Macoun.) 

Ch.^xorrhinum minus. (L.) Lantre. 

Linaria minor, Desf. ; Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants, i : 353. 
Contr. to Can. Bot. Pt. xii. 

Kincardine, Ont. (Tf. Sroit) Point Edward. No. 
54,467, and Sarnia Ont. No. 54,466 ; along- the railway at 
East Templeman, Que., 1903. {John Macoun.) 

Penstemox pulchellus, Greene. 

Rocky summits, alt. 6,000 ft., T>imi Hy Mountain, Chilli- 
wack Valley, B. C. 1901, (.A^.^'. M. Macoun.) New to 
Canada. Probably not a g-ood species but only a form of 
P. procerus. 

Pexstemox Digitalis, (Sweet) Nutt. 

Another loality for this species is Farm Point, four 
miles from Cascade, Que. It is not easy to account for the 
occurrence of this plant as thoug-h generally treated as a 
garden escape it is found where there is no record of its having 
been cultivated. 

Castalleja suksdorfii, Gray. 

Abundant on sub-alpine slopes between the Chilliwack 

River and Mount Cheam, B.C., alt. 4,000 ft. Nos 54,442 

and 54,443. {J, M. Macoun.) Not recorded from Canada. 

Plantago aristata, Michx. 

Gait, Ont. [}V. Herriot.) Roadsides neir Windsor, 
Ont. No. 54,701. {John Macoun.) Introduced from [the 
west, now well established. 

Plantago media, L. 

Roadsides under the shade of the maples along the 
VVhortley Road, near London, Ont. (/. Dearness.) Of very 
rare occurrence in Canada. 



^goG] Contributions to Canadian Botany. 169 

GaLIL M BIFOLILM, Wats. 

Abundant on clay bunks alonj,' the Dewdney Trail, west 
of Sophie Mt., B.C. Alt. 5,000 ft. No. 64,890. {J. M. 
Macouii.) New to Canada. 

Anaphalis margakitacea. B. & H. var. oclioe-vtalis, Greene. 

Characterized by its bright green leaves, glabrous above. 
Confined in Canada, apparently, to the vicinity of the Atlantic 
and Pacific coasts where it is rare. We have no speciinens 
from the interior. 

Xavthil'm glahratum, (DC.) Britton. 

In ditches by roadsides and along streams near Sarnia, 
Ont. (C K. Dodge.) New^ to Canada. Mr. Dodge has 
also collected A'. Pennsylvanicum at Port Huron, Mich., just 
opposite Sarnia. 

Xanthium Canadense, Mill. 

Typical specimens of A'. Canadense were collected by 
Prof. Macoun by the mill at Blue-berry Point, near Aylmer, 
Que., in 1903. During the same summer he collected A'. 
echtnaium, Murr. , at Wakefield, and X. Pennsylvanicum, 
Wall, near St. Patrick's Bridge, Ottawa. 

Ctalinsoga par\ iflora, Cav. 

Toronto, Ont, 1904. {]V. Scoft.) First collected in 
Canada by J. Dearness in north London, Ont. in 190 1 and 
more recently in the southern part of that city. 

Chrvsan'themum Leucanthemu.m, L. 

Typical C. Lcncnnthcmum as represented in our herbarium 
seems to be confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts our 
only specimens being from Newfoundland, No. 10,955, 
{Robinson and Schrenk) ; Boylston, N.S., No. 22,830, {Dr. C. 
A. Hamilton') ; Big Intervale, Margaree, Cape Breton Island, 
N.S., No. 19,672, \John Macoun) ; New Carlisle, Bonaventure 
Co., Que., No. 69,071, {Williams And Ft'rnald); Montmorency 
Falls, Que., No. 68,327, {John Macoun) ; Cedar Hill, Van- 
couver Island, B C, No. 14,503, {John Macoun.) The var. 



^70 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

subpi7itiaiijidum, Fernald, Rhodora, v : is abundantly repre- 
sented in the herbarium of the Geological Survey by speci- 
mens from Labrador to British Columbia. 

Artemisia biennis, Willd. 

Near the mouth of Albany River, James Bay, 1904. 
[]V. Spreadborough.) Probably introduced. 

Arnica Gaspensis, Fernald, Rhodora, vii : 148. 

Described from specimens collected on ledges of a hill 
near Ste. Anne des Monts, Gaspe, in 1881, by Mr. J. A. Allen. 

Arnica plantaginea, Pursh. 

Described from specimens collected in Labrador and 
recorded from several stations there. Re- described by Mr. 
Fernald, Rhodora, vii : 247. 

Arnica Sornborgeri, Fernald, Rhodora, vii : 147. 

Bank of a mountain brook at Rama, Labrador. [J. D. 
Sornborger.) 

Carduus nutans, L. 

In the pasture on the Peche River above the schoolhouse 
at Wakefield, {Que., 1903. [John Mucoitn.) Not recorded 
west of the Maritime Provinces. 

Cirsium arvense, Hoffm. var. setosum, Ledeb. 

In a second-growth woods about 200 yards from the 
Grand Trunk Railway at Lachine, Que., 1905. No. 67.797. 
[Dr. Robt. Cajnpbell.) 

Centaurea Jacea, L. 

Waste places at Owen Sound, Ont., 1901. Herb. No. 
26,445. [John Macoun) New to Eastern Canada. 

Lejntodon hispidus, L. 

Moist meadows, Gait, Ont., 1902. [W. Ifcm'oL) New 
to Canada. 

SONCHUS arvensis, L. 

Albany, James Bay. 1904. (//', Spreadborough.) 



igob] Contributions to Canadian Botany. 171 

LaCTUCA I'LLCHELI-A, DC. 

Mouth cf Albany River, James Bay, 1904. (/f. Spnuid- 
borough.) Not recorded trom that rej^'ioii. 

Prenathes racemosa, Mx. 

The Beacon, mouth of Moose River, Janus Bay, 1904. 
(Jf. Spreadborough.) Not recorded from that rej^non. 

At;osERis altissima, Rydb. 

Prairies near Old Wives' Lake, north of Peace River, 
Atha., 1903. No. 61,242. ( /. M. Mucoun.) Known before 
only from type locality in Montana. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 



At the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario held at the Ontario .Agricultural College, Guelph, on ♦he 
loth and iith October, three of the local members of the Club, 
Messrs. Fletcher, Gibson and A'oung presented papers, and. Dr. 
Fletcher, was honoured by being elected President of the Society 
for the ensuing year. Other members of the Club who contributed 
papers during the convention were Mr. J. D. Evans, of Trenton, 
Mr. H. H. Lyman, of Montreal, Prof. Wm. Lochhead, of the 
Macdonald Agricultural College, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Que., Mr. 
C. W. Nash, and Mr. J. B. Williams, of Toronto, and the Rev. 
Professor Bethune, of Guelph. Among the exhibits shown was a 
beautiful collection of exquisitely mounted tineid moths, collect- 
ed and prepared by Mr. C. H. Young, of Ottawa. Mr. Young 
has been most energetic in the collection of these interesting little 
insects and during the past two years has mounted upwards of 
four thousand specimens. We hope, as Mr. Young is getting his 
material identified by the well known specialist, Mr. W. D. 
Kearfott, of Montclair, N. J., that he will publish in the Ottawa 
Naturalist, at an early date a list of the species he has found in 
the Ottawa district. One of the important features of the meet- 
ing was a full discussion on the habits of the Codling Moth and 
the best methods of controlling it. Mr. Paul Hahn of Toronto 



172 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

delivered the popular lecture on " An Entomological trip to 
Alg"onquin Park" — This was illustrated by lantern slides from 
photographs taken during the trip. 

A. G. 



LIMN^A MEGASOMA. 



Limncea megasoma is undoubtedly the finest of the pond 

shells of North America. In the vicinity oi Ottawa it is found 

only in Meech's Lake, where it is least rare in a sheltered bay 

about two hundred yards north of the Tilley Cottage. The 

species occurs in many of the lakes of northern Ontario. It is 

abundant in both the outlets of Lake Temagami and is doubtless 

to be found in every bay of this beautiful lake. At the mouth of 

the French River and in the northwest arm of Lake Nipissing, it 

is quite common. But nowhere does it appear in greater numbers 

than in the centre of the new silver district— Cobalt Lake. Here 

with unnumbered millions in value of precious mineral surround 

ing it, L. niegasD7na flourishes, despite the large quantity of 

arsenic present in the water, and many of the mature shells pre 

serve the rich brown tints which constitute the chief beauty of the 

young of the species. 

F. R. L. 



NOTE. 

The undersigned would ask all members of the Field 
Naturalists' Club, who are so inclined, to send notes on birds 
which have been observed — where there is no doubt as to the facts 
given — as well as specimens for identification, and especially old 
nests of this year, together with data of the species that built it, 
in what location it was, etc, in to him. By co-operation of this 
kind much valuable information can be accumulated, which can 
afterwards again be made use of for the benefit of the whole club. 
C. W. G. EiiRiG, 

2IO Wilbrod Street, 

Ottawa. 



1906] Nature Study — No. 38. iy3 

XATl'RK STUDY No. XXWIII. 



School Kxiiibits ok Pressep Plants. 
By J AMKs Flktcher, Ottawa. 

Largely as an outcome of the Nature Study movement, much 
attention has recently been given in rural schools to the formation 
of collections of various Natural history objects. The apprecia- 
tion of the value of this work has found expression in the eflForts 
made by the authorities of local Fairs and Exhibitions to encour- 
age the teachers and scholars of their several districts, by offering 
prizes to be coinpeted for under stated conditions. It cannot be 
doubted that the small expenditure involved has in the main been 
amply justified by the results. There are, however, some features 
of this work which may be advantageously considered by the 
teachers when themselves entering upon these competitions or 
persuading their scholars to do so. In this, as in every other kind 
of work, the first consideration should be : Is it advisable? If 
this is decided in the affirmative, then some definite idea should be 
formed beforehand as to the educational use the effort is to be put 
to and the way it is to be carried out. The writer has had many 
opportunities during the past ten years of examining and judging 
collections of plants, native woods and seeds, etc., which have 
been entered for competition at various Exhibitions. In most 
cases, there has been evidence of much energy, patience and care 
in making and preparing the specimens for exhibition ; but there 
iiave also been signs that the makers of some of the collections 
have not quite understood the main principles involved in making 
a collection at all, or ot making it educationally valuable. Most 
of the short-comings seem to have been due to a lack oi know- 
ledge of what the results of long experience, gathered from many 
different students, have shown is the best way to make a repre- 
sentative collection of natural history objects. It is with the hope 
of helping my many friends airtong the teachers and scholars of 
iHir country that I write this note. I believe that the encourage- 
ment of these natural history competitions, extended by I'^xhibi- 
tion Associations, is a very wise one : — irom theii own point of 
view in the first place, the large number of visitors who invari- 



174 T^HE Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

ably crowd around these exhibits, bears testimony to the great in- 
terest in the subject, not only on the part of the friends ol the 
exhibitors, but also among the general public; and, besides, it is 
highly commendable, because they are stimulating the study of 
branches of knowledge which are now acknowledged to be of the 
utmost importance, in finding simple means for preventing loss in 
the crops of the country and thus increasing enormously its reve- 
nues, as well as, at the same time, the prosperity and happiness of 
the individual citizen. Teachers and students may therefore feel 
quite justified in giving the necessary time and thought required 
in trying to learn the true nature of some of the common natural 
history objects around them. These to most minds will be 
found on closer acquaintance to be so attractive that they will sti- 
mulate further study and engender a craving for more knowledge 
concerning all similar objects. This will bring with it increased 
powers of observation and comparison, in short, a scientific atti- 
tude of mind which strives to see things in their true light, to 
think correctly, and to understand what is being considered. To 
do this will require much patience and mental self control, as well 
as great care to avoid jumping to hasty conclusions. It may be 
claimed, then, that this work is certainly useful, not only from an 
educational point of view because it demands close observation and 
thought, which train the mind and form character ; but also be- 
cause the actual knowledge acquired is of use in the ordinary 
walks of every day life. A nature study may be defined as an edu- 
cational exercise consisting of a careful observation of some com- 
mon natural history object, together with a conscious mental ef- 
fort to learn as much as possible of its nature and uses : — what it 
is, what it does, why it does it, how it does it, and what its rela- 
tion is to man or more directly to the observer himself. In such 
an exercise it is convenient and often necessary to preserve speci- 
mens both of the objects under consideration and of similiar and 
allied forms, so as to have these at all times easy ot access for 
study and comparison. This means to make a collection. In 
doing this, it is soon noticed that each kind of plant has its own 
habitat or special locality where it finds conditions most suitable i 
to its highest development, and that, to find it in the best state 
for study, it must be sought for in those localities. For the 



1 



1906J Nature Study — No. 38. 175 

thorough iinderstandin«^ of a species, it is necessary to know the 
plant in all its parts and in all its different staj^es ot development. 
Specimens should be collected illustrating- all these points, and 
should be chosen, first of all, with an idea of presenting the ave- 
rage development and typical foi m of the species. Dwarfed or 
gigantic specimens should be shown only as indicative of the range 
of variation. There seems to be a tendency with beginners to col- 
lect specimens with unusually large leaves or flowers, which spe- 
cially strike them, or dwarfed or imperfect specimens, "chips," 
which are easy to preserve and mount, but which give little in- 
formation when referred to in a collection. Separate leaves or 
plants without flowers or fruit should not be included, unless these 
parts are otherwise shown. Each species should be represented, 
if its average size will permit of this, by a specimen showing the 
root, the stem, the leaves both from the root and on the stem, the 
flowers and the fruit. In large plants, as in the case of coarse- 
growing herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees, portions must be se- 
lected illustrating the various parts. In order that the collection 
may be of the greatest use, it is necessary to label carefully and 
neatly every specimen, giving the name, the habitat or nature of 
the place where found, the exact localrly, so that if necessary fur- 
ther specimens may be collected, and the date of gathering, so 
that the time of flowering and seeding may be known. Valuable 
additions to a collection of plants are specimens of the seeds and 
ot seedlings showing the seed leaves. In the matter of mounting 
and labelling, neatness and uniformity are very essential. Speci- 
mens should be dried quickly, so as to preserve the colour as much 
as possible, and in a natural manner, so that the tlowers may 
take the same positions as when the plant was growing, and so 
that the undersides of some of the leaves may be seen. In pre- 
serving a plant, it should be neatly arranged, when first pressed, 
between the folds of a single sheet of thin paper, once folded. 
This should then be placed between driers of absorbent paper, 
which for a few days must be changed every day, and dry sheets 
substituted, without disturbing the plant in Its tolder. On the 
second day the specimens should be examined to see that all the 
characters of the plant are shown, and, if they are not, parts m;iy 
be moved a liltle to improve the arrangement; but after that the 
specimen should not be disturbed until it is quite dry, when it may 
be taken out and mounted permanently on paper thick enough to 
allow of examination without breaking the specimen. Hach plant 
should have a separate sheet to itself, and all the mounting paper 
in a collection should be of the same size and labelled in the same 



176 The Ottawa Naturalist. [November 

place. The specimens may be attached to the mounting paper 
either by narrow strips of paper neatly stuck over the stems, or 
with liquid glue placed at several points on the firm parts of the 
underside of the specimen. The different sheets should be placed 
together in their botanical families in accordance with some 
recognized list. The " Catalogue of Canadian Plants" by Pro- 
fessor John Macoun, our highest authority, is universally followed 
in Canada. This catalogue can be procured from the Geological 
Survey Department at Ottawa. The sheets should always be kept 
separate and for a reference collection for a school, after being dis- 
played at the local exhibition, should be carefully put away in a 
neat box made a little larger than the size of the mounting sheets. 
Specimens of plants should never be put in bound books, nor 
should the sheets be caught together at the edges, with cords as 
is sometimes done. In both of these ways, the specimens are easily 
broken, there is no way of interpolating in their proper places 
species subsequently collected, it is inconvenient to examine and 
compare the species, and, when the collection is required for an 
exhibition, it cannot be displayed in an attractive manner, which 
is an important point with the exhibition authorities. 

In order that these collections may be of the greatest educa- 
tional value, the specimens should be gathered as much as pos- 
sible by the students themselves, and the name of the collector 
should appear on the label. The teacher should merely help in 
identifying and comparing the plants with related forms and also 
in showing how to prepare the collection for exhibition. 

Collections of the seeds of weeds make an attractive and use- 
ful exhibit. Owing to the good work of the Seed Branch of the 
Department of Agriculture under the direction of Mr. G. H. Clark, 
great interest has been recently developed in recognizing the 
various weed-seed impurities in crop seeds offered for sale. Far- 
mers are now alive to the importance of knowing the appearance 
of the seeds of these enemies which in the past they so often 
carried on to their land, mixed with the seed they sowed for crop. 
AH of the weed seeds have characteristic shapes, colours and 
markings, by which after a little practice they are just as easily 
recognized as the crop seeds among which they occur. In making 
collections of weed seeds, the appearance of those of the worst 
pests is soon learnt, and the boys and girls of Canada have a 
grand opportunity of using their sharp eyes to the advantage of 
their fathers, by examining the seeds bought for sowing and find- 
ing out whether any weed seeds are included. 

Seed collections should be exhibited in small bottles, all of the 
same size, neatly labelled in the same place on each bottle. Well 
cleaned seed, as well as some in tlie husk should be shown. 



I 



THE OTTAWA f{ATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, DECEMBER, 1906. No. 9 



THE CR^'PTOGAMIC FLORA OF OTTAWA.* 



By John Macoln, Xaluralist, tieolo^ical Survey of Canada. 
(Continued from The Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. .\XI, p. 100.) 
MUSCI. 
2. Si'HAGNLM GiRGE.NsoHNM, var. HVi.ROi'niLUM, Warnst. 

In wet woods at Casselman, Sep. 16, 1898. 
7. Sphag.n'U.m cuspidatum, var. submer.su.m, Schpr. 

Ditches in the Mer Bleue at Eastman's Sprinjcs, June 16, 
1892 ; also at Blackburn Station, June 20, 1902. 

17. Weisia viridula becomes W. kliilans, Hedw. 

And the references with it. 
ijii. Weisia rutilans var. Ganokri, Juratzka. 

On earth on old stumps subject to flood, by Lake 
Duchesne above Britannia, Oct. 27, 1900. 

427. Trematodon ambiguus, Hedw. 

On wet earth at Casselmnn and South Indian, June, 
1898 ; in fine fruit on the road that passes alonj;^ the north 
side of Beech wood Cemetery, Oct. 10, 1900. 

428. Dickanella squarrosa, Starke. 

In wet springy places south of the canal and along the 
railway west of Duvv s swamp. July 6, 1900. 

•published by permission of tiie Director of the Geolo^iral Survey of 
Canada. 

I The numbers above 426 are in conlinuation of tho list. The references 
under smaller ntimbers are to species already listed. 



178 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

429. DlCRANUM LONGIFOLIUM, Hedw. 

On boulders at the head of Meach Lake, on the west side. 
Sept. 23, 1893. 

430. DlCRANUM Drummondii, C. Muell. 

In fine fruit in a cedar swamp a little east of Stittsville. 
June 10, 1903. 

431. FissiDEN's ADiAXTOiDES Lixx. var. iNSTATUs, Kindb. 

On old slumps subject to f^ood along Lake Duchesne 
above Britannia. Oct 27, 1900. 

432. FiSSIDEXS SUBBASILARIS, Hedw. 

On cedar bark at the base of a tree in old woods at 
Carleton Place. May 12, 1900. 

433. FiSSIDEXS Gabberi, Lesq. & James. 

On earth on old stumps, subject to flood along Lake 
Duchesne above Britannia. Oct. 27, 1900. 

434. Barbula subulata, (Linn.) 

Crevices of limestone rocks near^Governor's Bay, Rock- 
cliffe Park. May 16, 1900. 

435. Grimmia pseudo-rivularis, Kindb. 

Our rocks at the Cascades and at Paugan Falls on the 
Gatineau River. 

435«. Grimmia pseudo-rivularis, sub. sp. lancifolia, Kindb. 
On rocks at Meach Lake. Sept. 23, 1893, 

436. Grimmia conmutata, Hueben. 

On rocks along the Gatineau River above the Cascade 
Rapids. June 22, 1900. 

437. Bartramia glauco-viridis, C. M. & Kindb. 
On Meach Lake, Que. Sept. 2^, 1893. 

72. Philonotis fontana, Brid. 

By springs along the railway, south of the railway and 
west of Dow's swamp, July 6, 1910; also in the swamp by 
the Beaver Meadow, Hull, Que. June 21, 1900. 



I 



i9o6| The Cryptol.amic Flora of Ottawa. 179 

438. VVehera crlda, Schimp. 

On rocks in cuttini^s of the Gaiineau Railway above 
Chelsea ; on rocks at Cascade, Gatineau River. June 22, 1900. 

439. Brvum Ferchelii, Funck. 

On rocks near the water above the old mill at Cascade, 
Gatineau River. June 23, 1900. 

4\o. M.N'iuM GLABRESCE.vs, Kindb. var. cnLOROi'HVLLOSi;.M, Kindb. 
On wet rocks in a brook emptying into the west side of 
the north end of Meach Lake, 4 miles above Old Chelsea, 
Que. Sept. 23, 1893. 

441. Mn'IL'M RiPARiUM, Milten. 

On wet rocks by the small brook in Rockcliflfe Park. 
April 16, 1899. 

442. Atrichum angustatl'm, Bruch & Schimp. 

On sandy and damp earth by the roadside on the north 
side of Beechwood Cemetery. Nov. 2, 18^9. 

100. POGONATLM BREVICAULE, BeauV. 

On a damp sandy bank on the north side of Beechwood 
Cemetery, in fine fruit. Oct. 10, 1900. 

loi. PoGOXATrM ALPiNL'M, Roehl. 

Crevices of rocks at Meach Lake, Sept. 23, 1893 ; also 
amongst rocks near Wakefield, Que. July 20, 1803. 

443. FoNTiNALis HVPNOIDES, Hartm. 

On trees subject to flood along Lake Duchesne above 
Britannia. Oct. 27, 1900. 

132. Pterogonil'm brachypterum, Mitt. 

On ironwood trunks near Hemlock Lake, Beechwood. 
May 16, 1900. 

444. Anomodon platvphvllls, Kindb. 

On trees in the swamp west of Fairy Lake, Hull, Que. 
Oct. 20, 1902. 



i8o The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

445. Pvlaisia polvaxtha, Br. & Schimp, var. rupestris, Best. 

On a boulder in woods on the east sida of the Beaver 
Meadow, Hull, Que. May 3, 1902. New variety. 

446. Pvlaisia PSEUDO-PLATVGYRiuM, Kindb. 

On old logs at Leamy Lake, near Hull, Que. Nov. 9, 
1896. 

Entodon Macounii, C. M. & Kindb. 

On an elm log in swampy woods Billings' Bush (Rideau 
Park), April 28, 1900 ; on earth near Hogsback, Rideau 
River. May 2, 1897. 

Thuidium Virginianum (Brid.) Lindb. 

On old logs west of Hull, and east of Beaver Meadow* 
Que. April 30, 1902. 

449. Thuidium Philiberti, Limpricht. 

On the bases of trees on the hills west of Cascade, 
Gatineau River. June 23, 1900. 

450. Thuidium pseud-abietinu.m, Kindb. 

On earth on a swamp at Britannia. Sept. 11, 1890. 
Referred in No. 139 to /. Blandowii. 

142. Brachvthecium digastrum, C. M. & Kindb. 

On rocks by the Gatineau River above Cascade, Que. 
June 2}^^ 1900. 

451. Brachvthecium cvrtophvllu.m, Kindb. 

In holes in elm trunks in old wood at Carleton Place. 
May 12, 1900. 

452. Brachvthecium l^visetum, Kindb. 

On the bases of trees, Blueberry Point, Aylnier, Que. 
April 17, 1900. 

453 Brachvthecium albicans, Br. & Sch. 

On earth in woods, by Leamy Lake, Hull, Que. Nov. 
Q, 1895. 



igo^] Ihk Ckyptoc.amic Flora oi Ottawa. i8i 

454. Brachythecium harpidioides, C. M. & Kindb. 

On earth in woods at the head of Hemlock Lake, near 
Beechwood Cemetery. May 16, 1900. 

455. Brachythecium Hu.lkbrandi, Lesq. 

On old logs in old woods, Carleton Place. .May 12, 1900. 

456. Brachythecium biventrosi:m, Muell. 

On old logs in old woods at Carleton Place. May 12, 
1900. 

457. Brachvtheciu.m calicareum, Kindb. 

.Abundant on flat limestone rocks in RockclifFe Pnrk, 
Oct., 1892 ; May, 1899 and June, 1900. 

458. Eurhy.n'chium subscabridu.m, Kindb. 

On limestone rocks on the west side of the Beaver 
Meadow. May 16, 1896. 

211. Plagiothecium brevipunge.ns, Kindb. 

On old logs, Johnstone Lake, North Wakefield, Que., 
June 2, 1898 ; also on old logs, in old woods at Carleton 
Place. May 12, 1900. 

459. .\mblystegium pseudo-co.nfervoides, Kindb. 

On flat limestone rocks north ot the Experimental Farm, 
.April 16, 1893 ; °" limestone rocks west of the Beaver 
Meadow, Hull, Que., .April 25, 1899; also on the same 
habitat along the railway a little south of Carleton Place. 
May 12, 1900. 

460. HvPNUM LONGiNERVE, Kindb. 

In pools in woods, west of Victoria Park and north of the 
Parry Sound Railway. June 19, 1900. 

461. HvpNUM perich.ktiale, Br. Eur. 

On boulders in woods near Hemlock Lake. Sept. 29 
189 1. 

462. Hvp.NUM .\emorosum, Koch. 

On earth by Leamy Lake, Hull, Que. Nov. 9. 1896. 



i82 The Ottawa Naturalist. | December 

212 Hypnum Richardsoni (Mitt.) Lesq. & James. 

In a bog', Johnstone Lake, near North Wakefield, Que. 
June 2, 1898. 

463. Hypnum cuspidatum, Linn. 

In a springy place along the railway south of the canal 
and west of Dow's swamp July 6, 1900. 

HEPATIC-^. 

260. Pellia epiphvlla, Corda. 

On earth by a brook below South Indian. June, 8, 1900. 

463. Nardia cren'Ulata (Smith) Lindb. 

On earth by the discharg-e of Leamy Lake, Hull, Que. 
Sept. 16, 1883. 

232. LoPHOziA Helleriana, (Nees.) 
Cephalozia divaricata. Dumort. 

On old logs in a swamp north oi llie Experimental Farm. 
April 16, 1892. 

463^. Odoxtoschisma denudatum, (Nees.) 

On an old leg in woods at Navan Stalirn. Apr. 17, 1902. 

464. Scapania irrigua, (Nees ) Dumort. 

In the north side of the Mer Bleue below Blackburn 
Station on the C.P. R. June 20, 1902. 

465. Porella pinnata, Linn. 

On the bases oi trees subject to flood, shore of Lake 
Duchesne above Britannia. Oct. 27, 1900. 

222. Cololejeunea Biddlfcoml^, (Aust.) Evans. 
Lejeunea calcarea, Libert. 

On the bark of white cedar in a swamp west of Fairy 
Lake, Beaver Meadow, Hull, Que. Oct. 20, 1902. 

LICHENES. 

466. Ra.malina CALiCARis, (Linn.) var. i-raxinea, Fr. 

On balsam fir at btittsville. May 16, 1899. 



1906] TiiK Cryptogamic Flora ok Ottawa. 183 

467. Parmelia cetrata, Ach. 

On an elm trunk in a swamp at Carleton Place. May 12, 
1900. 

468. Physcia TRiBAciA, (Acli.) Tuckerm. 

On black ash trees along Lake Duchesne above Britannia- 
Oct. 27, 1900. 

469. Physcia obscura var. endochrysea, Nyl. 

On black ash trees south of Cowley Farm. April 18, 
1895, 

470. Leptogium myochrol'.m, Ehrh. Tuckerm. 

On rocks, McKay's woods, .April 16, 1891, and on King's 
Mountain. May 22, 1897. 

471. Placodium cerinum var. pyracea, Nyl. 

On old cedar trunks in Dow swamp. May 2, 1896. 

472. PlACODILM VITELLINUM Var. OCTOSPORUM, Nyl. 

On rocks near Hogsback, four miles from Ottawa, May 
2, 1896 ; on bark of cedar rails south of Beechvvood Cemetery. 
April 14, 1897. 

473. Lecanora subfusca, var, distans, Ach. 

On bark of beech trees, McKay's woods, Ottawa. April 
16, 1891. 

474. Lecanora subfusca var. minor, Branth. 

On limestone rocks near the Hogsback, four miles from 
Ottawa. May 2, 1896. 

475. Lecanora varia var. polvtropa, Nyl. 

On limestone rocks. Blueberry Point, .\ylmer, Que. 
-April 25, 1900. 

476. Lecanora cenisia, Ach. 

On limestone rocks, along the Rideau River, near Hogs- 
back, four miles from Ottawa. May 2, 1897. 

477. Lecanora cinerea, (Linn.) Sommerf. 

On limestone rocks, along the Rideau River, near the 
Hogsback. May 2, 1897. 



184 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

478. Lecanora gibbosa, Nyl. 

On flat limestone rocks, Blueberry Point, Aylmer, Que. 
April 25, 1900 

479. Lecanora calcarea, (Linn.) Sommerf. 

On limestone rocks along the Rideau River below Hogs- 
back. May 2, 1897. 

480. Lecanora laxa, Branth (Ms.) 

On limestone rocks along the Rideau River below Hogs- 
back. May 2, 1897. 

481. Lecanora iuscata (Schrad.) Th. Fr. 

On limestone rocks along the Rideau River at Hogsback. 
May 2, 1897, 

482. Rinodina sophodes var. exigua, Fr. 

On limestone rocks in RockclifFe Park, April 17, 1895 ; 
also along the Rideau River at Hogsback. May 2, 1897. 

483. Pertusaria pustulata, (Ach.) Nyl. 

On old cedar rails on the road to Kingsmere north of 
Aylmer, Que. May, 22, 1897. 

484 Biatora coarctata, (Nyl.) Tuckerm. 

On limestone rocks at Britannia. April 20, i~gs- 

485. Biatora rivulosa, (Ach ) Fr. 

On bark of living beech trees in RockclifTe Park and at 
Billings' Bridge. April 19, 1898. 

486. Biatora atropurpurea, (Mass.) Hepp. 

On beech bark near Hemlock Lake, near Beechwood 
Cemetery. Sept. 6, 1891 

487. Biatora cyrtella, (Nyl.) Tuckerm. 

On the bark o^ Alnus incona near Hogsback, May 2, 
1897 ; on young maples in Billings' Bush, April 28, ic^oo. 

488. Biatora globulosa (Floerk ) Hepp. 

On poplar bark in Stewart's Bush, Ottawa. April 13, 
1895. 



igoo] Thk Ckm'toi.amic Flora ok Otiaw a. 185 

48c). BiATORA MiCRCCoccA, Kocrb. 

On old cedar rails (T/iuyti occldentalis) west oS. the old 
toll-gale, Aylmer Road, Hull, Que , Oct. 6, 1898. 

490. BiATORA MEL.ivNA (Nyl.) Ti'ckerm. 

On old and cliarred cedar rails alonj^ the Richmond 
Road, west of Ottawa, April 18, 1896. 

491. BiATORA Beckhausii, (Kocrb.) 

On old fence rails west ot the old toll-j^ate on the Aylmer 
Road, west of Hull. Que., Oct. 6. 1898. 

492. LeCIDEA PRUINOSA (Smith) Flot. 

Quite common on g^raiiite boulders in many places 
around Ottawa, April, 1897. 

493. Lecidea LAPiciDA (Ach) Nyl. 

On limestone shingle near Hogsback by the Rideau River, 
May 7, 1897 ; quite common on limestone rocks everywhere 
around Ottawa. 

494. Lecidea contigua, Fr. 

On limestone rocks, Blueberry Point, Aylmer, Que., 
April 25, 1900. 

495. Lecidea enteroleuca, Fr. 

On small limestone pebbles at Britannia, April 25, 1895 ; 
also on pebbles, Blueberry Point, Aylmer, Que. .April 25, 
1900. 

496. Lecidea enteroleuca, Fr. var. pilularis, DC. 

On limestone rocks along the Rideau River below Hogs- 
back, May 2, 1897 ; on limestone shingle. Blueberry Point, 
Aylmer, Que. April 25, 1900. 

497. Lecidea planetica var. perfecta, Kckfeldt. 

On limestone shingle at Britannia, April 20, 1895. 

498. BuELLiA spuria, (Scha^r. ) Arn. 

On limestone rocks in woods near Hull, Que. .April 24, 
1897. 



1 86 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

499- BuELLiA PETR.^A (Flot.) Tuckerm. 

On granite boulders near Governor's Bay, RockclifTe 
Park, Ottawa, April 17, 1895. 

500. BUELLIA OBSCURATA, (AcH.) 

Quite common on limestone and other rocks around 
Ottawa ; also at Blueberry Point, Aylmer, Que. April 25, 
1900. 

501. Opegrapha vulgata, Ach, 

On ash bark near the Rideau River, at the Hogsback ; 
also at Leamy Lake, Hull, Que. May 7, 1897. 

502. Graphis j-cripta, var. serpentina, Ach, 

On bark oi Juglans cinerea in woods west of Hull, Que., 
April 24th, 1897. 

503. Caliciu.m pusillum, Floerke. 

On old rails along the road leading from Aylmer to 
Kingsmere, Que. May 22, 1897. 

504. Sagedia Cestrensis tuckerm. 

On the bark of young maples at Ottawa ; also on Kings' 
Mountain above Chelsea, Que. May 22. 1897. 

505. Verrucaria rupestris, Schrad. 

On limestone rocks on the cliffs along the Ottawa, Rock- 
cliffe Park, Nov. 11, 1896. 

506 Verrucaria epidermidis forma punctiformis, Branth. 

On living alder stems along the Rideau River, near 
Hogsback, April 30, 5897. 

507. PyRENULA PATELLAR.^iFORMlS, Eckleldt. 

On the bark of living black ash in Billings Bush, April 
19, 1897. 

508. PVRENILA leucoplaca (Wallr.) 

On bark of young maples in woods near Hull, Que., 
May 5, 1897. 

509. PvcNiDES vERSiMiLinE, Branth. 

On black ash bark in Billings Bush, April 19, 1897. 



iqob] A Visit to Duck Island. 187 

A \1SIT TO DUCK ISLAND. 



The j^lorious sun ot a September afternoon shone warmly on 
a group of club members who recently visited Duck Inland, the 
metropolis in the vicinity of Ottawa of the elusive unionidae, 
vulgarily called clams. The weather was delightful. The water 
was very low and unruffled and collecting was consequently easy 
and rapid. The many sand bars which project from the centre of 
the inland towards Templeton wharf yielded the first fruits in fine 
specimens of C/nio occidens and Vnio borealis. A little lower 
U cumplaiiatus was fouud in abundance. Few however of the 
specimens were of the very large, rayed form, for which the local- 
ity is particularly noted. But certain of the shells procured quite 
equalled the fir.-t found in 1881, which for a quarter of a century 
have increased in loveliness, and form the chief glories of the 
writer's cabinet. The heavy, inflated, unrayed form of complanu' 
tus, not occurring elsewhere than at the island, was very numer- 
ouS; and some fine shells were selected from the thousands whose 
circular tracks furrowed the sand in every direction, always how- 
ever with an uultimate trend to deep water. U. ellipsis, of small 
size was oommon, but there were few mature shells. This species 
is known in the Western States as "the nigger toe-nail", and is 
much used in the pearl button industry. Another shell of econo- 
mic use, which occurred sparsely, is U. rectus, called by pearlers 
the "black sand-shell." 

U. gibhosus was not uncommon, but not one afforded a mate 
lor the fine pearl found six years ago in a shell of this species 
collected at the foot of the island. Several large U. gracilis were 
noticed, and a few shells of medium size saved. Of our only 
other winged shell, (J. alatiis, a single fine specimen was obtained. 
V. alatus and U. rectus are remarkable among North American 
unios for their extensive range — Quebec to Manitoba, and south- 
ward far into the Mississippi \'alley — and for their constancy of 
form, under tfie widely differing conditions of their environments. 
A tew specimens ot Axodouta undulata were found, and a single 
fine A. Btnedicfii — the third living shell noted in more than 
twenty years. Thi others were found at the mouth of Brigham's 
Creek. Of the Margaritanas but one was noticed — J/, undulata. 



i88 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

The shells of this species found at Duck Island are far more beau- 
tiful than any shells of the kind found elsewhere. But to U. occi- 
dens the prize of Paris must be given. Never probably in any 
place were so many beautiful fresh water shells obtained in the 
same brief time as were found on that September afternoon. 
There were thousands of U. occidens to select from, and many of 
those left to increase and multiply were abandoned with some- 
thing' of the regret one would feel who was compelled to leave fine 
pearls behind because one could not carry more away. Red occi- 
dens — huitres rouges — of our boatman, were very numerous, and 
from this deep and prized tint the changeful species ran the chro- 
matic scale through every shade of orange, yellow and lemon, 
diversified always with deep green rays, now broad, now narrow, 
sometimes sparsely, oftener closely set. 

The results for the day were upwards of six hundred selected 
shells of the following species : — 

Unio complanatus, Sol. 

U. borealis, A. F. Gray. 

U. occidens, Lea. 

U. ellipsis, Lea. 

U. alatus, Say. 

U, gracilis, Barnes. 

U. rectus, Lamarck. 

U. gibbosus, Barnes. 

Margaraitana undulata, Say. 

Anodonta undulata, Say. 

A. Benedictii, Lea. 

No attempt was made to secure A. fiuviatilis from the pond 
on the island, nor were any of our smaller shells collected. 

F. R. L. 

THE FULVOUS TREE-DUCK. 

In September, 1905, Mr. J. S. Rollins saw eleven fulvous 
tree-ducks, [Dendrocygtia autumnalis) on the flats near New 
Alberni, Vancouver Island and shot five of them. Ont. specimen 
is in the provincial museum at Victoria. This is the first record 
for \\\\s bird in Canada. W. Spreadborough. 

Victoria, B. C. 



r9o6| Mamtoha Warblkrs — Cecropia Emperor Moth. 189 

AN ADDITION TO OUR MANITOBA WARIJLERS. 

While in the woods on the afternoon of October the 17th, on 
the lookout for the last individuals among^ birds moving- south I 
observed a stranger which the white patches at the base of the 
primaries enabled me to r'^cognlze at once as a Black-throated 
blue warbler {Deudroua c(c rule sec ns) young male. It was flying 
about near the ground among tail aspens and was afterwards fol- 
lowed into thickish willows. In company with it were three 
golden-crowned kinglets and a couple of slender-billed nut- 
hatches. This warbler was very active in spite of the coldness of 
the day and lateness of the season — it was also rather shy. 

The black-throated blue warbler is not uncommon in most 
parts of eastern Canada where it breeds, but it has not hitherto 
been recorded for Manitoba, though from the bird observed being 
a young one it might be interred that this species breeds in the 
province or further north. 

in Chapman's "Color Key " the range of this species is given 

as "Eastern North America, breeds from northern Connecticut, 

mountains of Pennsylvania, southern Michigan and northern 

Minnesota, norih to Labrador and Hudson Bay region ; winters 

in Central and South America". 

Norman Criddi.e. 

Treesbank, Manitoba, 

October 30ih, 1906. 



CECROPIA EMPEROR MOTH. 

I have been shooting for many years at the "St. Clair Flats", 
Kent County, Ontario, but it was only about fourteen years ago 
that the cocoons of the above moth were first seen in great num- 
bers at St. Ann's Shooting Preserve, which lies between the 
E'Carte and Johnston's Channels. A very few willow trees and 
bushes grow on the ridges out in the marsh and onNome of these 
I found the cocoons. In one instance there were about fifty {50) 
on one willow, of about 14 inches diameter in the trunk and at 
another time I found about thirty-five on a sm-ill swamp willow 
bush about 6 feet high, and also attached tn the marsh or prairie 
grass under or near said bush. O'lr club house is situated about 



igo The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

three miles out in the Marsh and surrounded by a g'rove of large 
willow trees but I have never been able to find a cocoon on any of 
them. 

In looo they were particularly abundant and I sent to Ottawa 
a box of the large cocoons which were spun among the grasses 
around the base of a small willjw tree. Regarding the food of 
Cecropia, neither I, nor my friend the late Mr. Warren, who used 
to accompany me on my shooting trips, could find any plants in the 
neighborhood with berries on them, such as we knew this cater- 
pillar to feed upon, so we came to the conclusion that the food of 
the caterpillars must be the leaves of the willows and other small 
bushes in the neighborhood. 

Since the time when I sent the cocoons, the insect seems to 
have deserted the locality altogether, for I have hunted the same 
places on the St. Clair Flats, and particularly on the willow trees 
but have been unable to secure even a single specimen. 

I was much pleased with the interesting Nature Study article 
by Mr, Gibson in the October number of the Ottawa Naturali.st. 
Such articles do much to draw the attention of many people who 
want to know about them, to these beautiful and common things 
which make excursions into the country so charming. 

John Maughax, Toronto. 

Note. — The cocoons sent by Mr. Maughan were of remark- 
able size. They were for the most part spun among the loose 
grasses at the base of the willows and many of them measured 4 
inches long by 2 inches wide. — J. Fletcher. 



NOTE ON THE " TEAL WEED " OF ST. CLAIR FLATS. 

By John Maughan, Toronto. 

This plant which has been identified as the Common Floating 
Pond-weed, Potomogelon natans^ is to be found in all sections of 
Ontario, and grows in large quantities in the bays, channels and 
ponds in the St Clair Flats, County of Kent, in water from six 
inches to six feet in depth. Amcig duck shooters this plant goes 
bv the name of "Teal Weed " from the fact that the Green Winged 
Teal, Ajias Caroliuensis, the Blue Winged Teal, Anas d/scors, the 



ic)o6] Review. 191 

Baldpate, Anas Americana and the Pintail, Dafila acuta, all known 
as Marsh Ducks, feed on the seeds. The sofi portion of this root 
and the small bulb whith forms at the extremity of the roots of the 
Arrow- leaf {Sag-iflana) are favorite foods of the Canvas back, 
Aythya vallcsneria, and of the Redhe.id, Aythya Americana. These 
ducks dive in quite deep water to get the roots and tubers they 
feed upon, for this reason they are known as River Ducks. The 
Redhead and Canvas back feed also on what we call the Black 
rush, by which I mean the round green rush that grows in deep 
water. Thev take hold of the rushes and pull them out, thus se- 
curing the ripe brown seeds. They then leave the rush without 
breaking it. In the fall season quite a lot of the remains 
of the weeds which the ducks have pulled up may be found 
floating about and lying against the adjacent shores, where 
portions are eaten by other ducks and water hens. The River 
Ducks seem to seek the Arrow-leaf roots just as eagerly as they 
do those of the so-called "Wild Celery" {Vallisneria), both being 
excellent food for the birds. 



REVIEW. 

Studies of Plant Life in Canada, by Catherine Parr Trail, 
pp. 219. William Briggs, Toronto, Ont., $2.00. 

This long-expected re-print of Mrs. Trail's fascinating book 
was received too late for a full review in this issue of the Ottawa 
Naturalist, but its appropriateness as a Christmas remembrance 
from one Nature lover to another is such thai the attention of our 
members should be drawn to it at this time. Mrs. Trail spent the 
greater part of a long life in the backwoods of Canada and, 
always a lover of flowers, she has included in her book a record of 
all that she found most interesting or attractive in them. Mrs. 
Chamberlain's exquisite drawings with which the work is illus- 
trated in half-tone and color add much to its beauty and value. 
The original edition was revised and edited by Dr. James 
Fletcher, and in preparing the present edition for the press Mrs. 
Chamberlain has had advice from both Dr. Fletcher and Prof. 
Macoun. 



192 The Ottawa Naturalist. December 

THE OTTAWA FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB 
PROGRAMME OF WINTER SOIREES, 1906-7. 
1906. 

Dec. 6tli — Tlii^ President's Address. 

Address by Dr. J. F. While, Principal of the Normal School. 

A>i Eniuviological Excursion in the Selkirk Mountains — by J. 
Chester Bradley, Berkeley, Cal., presented by Dr. James 
Fletcher, (illustrated b\' lantern slides). 

Demonstration Exhibition — in Zoolng-y, Ornithology, EntOinolo^y, 
Botany, and Geology, in charge ot Prof. Prince, Rev. C. G. 
Eifrig, Dr. James Fletcher, Prof. John Macoun, Dr. H. M. 
Ami, and others, (In the Normal Scliooli. 

1907. 

Jan. S — Demonstration on the Physics of the Atmosphere — By D. A. Camp 
bell, B. A. (In the Hall of the Carnegie Library). 

Jan. 22 The Relation of Climate to Health -Ey Dr. P. H. Bryce, Chief 
Medical Officer of the Deparlinent of the Interior. (In the 
Hall of the Carnegie Librar\). 

Feb. 12 — The Physical Conditions of Life in the Deep Seas — By Dr. R. A. 
Daly. I In the Hall of the Carnegie Library). 

Feb. 26— The Macdonahi Collegi — By Dr. James W. Robertson. (In the 
Normal School). 

.Mar. \ 2- 'The Forestry Problem in Canada —By Elihu Stewart, Esq., Super- 
intendent of Forestry. (In the Normal School). Illustrated. 

Mar. 19— Annual Meeting 

Reports of Branches. Election oi Officers and transaction of 
business. (In the Hall of the Carnegie Library). 

All the Lectures are Free and Open to the Public. 



J9o6] Natl're Stldy — No. 39. 193 

XAITRK-STL'DV Xo. XXXIX. 



Agencies i-or thk Promotion oi" Nature-Studv in Canada. 

By Prof. W. LiViiHliAH, Sle. Anne do Bellevuc, Que. 

It may appear strang-e to some that the Xature-Study Move- 
ment should be able within a few years to gather the strength 
and take the hold that it now has in many of the provinces. 
While there are many persons opposed to assigning to Nature- 
Study the most prominent place in the time-table of the junior 
classes in our public schools, there are but few who oppose the 
study of nature by the children, 

It may be truly said in the first place that the time was ripe 
for such a movement. For generations the natural sympathies of 
the child towards nature were smothered ; and as a result he saw 
but little that was beautiful in the world about him. For genera- 
tions the child was educated as a thing apart from his surroundings. 
Educationists had forgotten, or were ignorant of, several 
pedagogic principles, viz: — the senses are the avenues to the mind, 
and the sense perceptions give rise to definite knowledge in the 
mind — \i/iil in iiitcllectu quod non priits in sensu — new thoughts 
can be comprehended only by the help of old thoughts ; the 
greater the stock of ideas possessed by the child, the greater the 
progress the child will make in the acquisition of knowledge or 
new ideas ; the best development is self-development, by the 
encouragement of the activities of the child in the investigations 
of the problems presented to it ; and education does not consist 
in the imparting of information by the teacher and its reception by 
the pupil. According to the modern idea it is all important that 
the child should have clear percepts of the things that constitute 
its environment, for these percepts form the basis tor thought and 
further educational development. 

But, while the schools were doing uf.satisfactory work, iliere 
were several agencies in operation, which, unconsciously in some 
instances, were performing important educational service by en- 
couraging m^ny to undertake the study of natural history. The 
first of these were the Natural History and Field Naturalist Socie- 
ties — the Montreal, Ottawa, Hamilton, Wellington, being perhaps 



194 ^HE Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

the most enerjj^eiic, — and Ihe Entonioloo^ical Society of Ontario, 
with its branches in Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Guelph and 
Vancouver. The influence of these Societies was quite marked, as 
many of the members were persons of note in their respective 
districts, and many young men received their first impetus to 
study nature at their meetings. Besides, the annual reports of 
some of these Societies, containing illustrated articles, were dis- 
tributed freely throughout the country, diffusing much useful 
nature knowledge among the people. 

While the Natural History Societies were quietly difi^using 
useful knowledge among the masses, and inspiring many persons 
with a desire for the study of nature, the Science teachers of the 
High Schools and Academies were also opening the eyes of their 
pupils to the wonderful things of Nature. For many years, it is 
true, ihe biology course as laid down in the syllabus for high 
schools did not tend to make nature students ; but in later years 
the courses were more rational, and many young persons were 
roused to take anjnterest in natural history. The great majority 
of the Science teachers are enthusiastic nature students, and are 
doing much to encourage the newer movement by their personal 
work and influence. 

The Normal Schools have for many years given courses in 
Science, but perhaps with too little emphasis on the biological 
side, with the result that the teachers on graduation were but 
slightly interested in the great nature-world around them. For 
the last five or six years, however, more attention has been given 
to Nature-Study, and most of the new teachers now begin their 
work with a high opinion of its educational value. To such men 
as Dearness, Elliott, Scott, Sinclair, and Briitain of the Normal 
Schools we are indebted for the development ol the pedagogical 
side of Nature-Study, and for their efi^orts in demanding the right- 
ful place for Nature-Study on the school curriculum. 

One of the most potent agencies for the spread of the Nature- 
Study idea throughout the country'^was the Ontario Agricultural 
College. For more than 30 years it has stood for a careful study 
of Nature and Nature's processes as an essential factor in success- 
ful agriculture, and it has strenuously insisted that such a study 
is one of the very best foundations for general culture. The 



1906] Nature Study — No. 39. 195 

course of study there not only developed the intelligence, sliniu 
lated the imagination, widened the outlook, and gave the students 
scientific, practical and sympathetic interest in the world about 
them, but it also made them, as free citizens of a rising nution, 
take greater interest in civic affairs, and showed them the value of 
co-eperation Mnd collective action. 

The Macdonald Institute at the Ontario Agricultural College, 
which stands for Nature-Study, Manual Training, and Domestic 
Science, as an integral part of the education of every child, 
should claim much credit for the evangelistic work it has accom- 
plished during the past four years under the leadership of Mul- 
drew and McCready. Its class-rooms have been thronged sum- 
mer and winter by teachers from all parts of Canada anxious to 
learn more about the things of nature, so that they might bet- 
ter direct the children how to study the simple commonplace 
things that lie at their door. 

Directly also, the College, by means of bulletins on many 
topics of general interest, set the people reading and thinking 
about the wonderful secrets of nature and the importance of a 
knowledge of these secrets ; so that when the Nature-Study 
Movement was started the people were responsive. Indirectly, 
the Farmers' Institutes, which were really an extension system 
of the Agricultural College, did much to interest the farmer in 
improved methods of dealing with the soil, plants and animals, 
injurious insects and coxious weeds. By means of the Institutes 
scientific knowledge was popularized and applied to practical 
agriculture. 

Nature-Study h;is no better champions and advocates than 
the staff of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. Dr. James 
Fletcher has done as much probably as any man in Canada to 
further the movement. His public addresses and articles are 
most admirable and always carry conviction. 

In some counties the Inspectors of Public Schoels encouraged 
the teachers under their charge to undertake nature work, and 
brought the matter to the attention of the School Boards of their 
inspectorate. By appeals and helpful suggestions to teachers the 
Nature-Study Movement got a start before it was officially recog- 
nised by the Education Departments. 



196 The Ottawa Naturalist. [December 

In some of the provinces the Superintendents of Education 
were men of scientific attainments, who saw the importance of the 
study of nature as a means^of maintaining- and developing that 
sympathetic attitude towards nature that characterizes the child 
before he attends school, of fostering the habit of close observation, 
and of creating that scientific spirit of enquiry in the effort to get at 
the truth. The influence of such men as Dr.MacKay in Nova Scotia, 
and Dr. Seath in Ontario, at the heads of the Departments of 
Education, did a great deal to pave the way for the new Move- 
ment in their respective provinces, at a time when their ideas were 
in advance of legislative opinion. 

The last agency to which I shall refer, is the Macdonald 
Rural Schools Fund, supplied by Sir William C. Macdonald of 
Montreal, and administered by Dr. James W. Robertson, now of 
the Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec. The 
improvement of rural schools was the main object of this Fnnd. 
The means adopted were : (i) The building and maintenance of a 
large consolidated school in each of the four eastern provinces, as 
object lessons ; (2) The training of a certain number of teachers 
in Nature-Study, Manual Training, and Domestic Science for 
service in rural schools ; and (3) The maintenance ot a group of 
school-gardens in each of the five eastern provinces, with a travel- 
ling instructor for each group, and all in perfect harmony with 
the education Departments of the provinces concerned. 

The school-garden is now recognised as a most potent factor 
in the education of the young by begetting habits of close observa- 
tion, thoughtfulnuss and carefulness. Properly used, the garden 
is "a means to an end, not the end itself, — the end being the 
symmetrical education of the child. The school-garden seeks 
education through utility and utility through education". 

The teachers trained at the Macdonald Institute, Guelph, on 
their return to their schools have preached strenuously the doc- 
trines of the new Movement. 

Besides these direct results of the Macdonald Rural Schools 
Fund, the indirect results have been very marked. While many 
persons have been unable to see the Macdonald Consolidated 
Schools and school-gardens, there are very few persons who have 
not read about them and learned the object of their establishment. 
The object of the l'\uid has been achieved both directly and indirect- 
ly. The Consolidated Schools have performed most excellent ser- 
vice in showing better types of school buildings and in providing 
more efficient teachers and more effective teaching for rural life. 



THE OTTAWA fiATURALlST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, JANUARY, 1907. No. 10 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



\V. J. Wilson, Fh. B. 



The Ott<i\va Field Naturalists Club was formed I take it to 
study the Geology and Natural History of Ottawa and vicinity. 
This seems on the face of it to be a praise-worthy object, yet we 
are constantly met with the question — What is the good of it all? 
Only a few days ago I was asked if I thought it was worth while 
for a busy man or woman to spend his or her time in working for 
the Club. I naturally answered the question in the affirmative, 
and in the five minutes at my disposal this evening I will give 
some of the reasons why 1 think it is worth while. 

It seems to me that a good knowledge of the botany of the 
district is in itself a good thing and the same may be said of the 
insects, birds, fossils, rocks and every other subject] which we 
study. Some of these studies are of considerable economic im- 
portance. We frequently see crops in fields largely reduced in 
value owing to the abundance of weeds, which if the owner under- 
stood he might either destroy or largely reduce. It is a case 
where ignorance is not bliss. The study of the life history of 
insects has enabled our entomologists to point out the best and 
most effective way of destroying those that are injurious to plant 
life, and in this way have saved large sums to our farmers, 
gardeners and fruit growers. It is very useful to the contractor 
to know the quality of the rocks in his immadiate_ neighborliood 
and where he can get the best material to use in ^the^'construclion 
of buildings, etc. Now the detailed work that our members have 
an opportunity of doing year after year enables them to study these 
and kindred questions to the best advantage, and the Club has 



igS The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

unquestionably added materially to the sum total of our knowledge 
of local natural history and oreology. I do not, however, wish to 
emphasize the material advantage particularly, as I think we are 
too apt to view everything in the light of dollars and cents. I 
believe cur chief claim for the support and sympathy of the people 
of Ottawa rests on the much higher plain of educational work. 
While collecting information in regard to natural history and 
geology we keep in view the developing of a love of Nature Study 
especially among the younger members. It is not the purpose of 
the Club to make profound scientists of its members, but rather to 
lead them to observe and take an intelligent interest in the com- 
mon things about them, thus giving an additional interest to every 
ramble through field and forest. 

The name of the Club suggests its greatest usefulness, that is 
the field work. We are FiELD-Naturalists and our out-door 
excursions afford us the opportunity of doing our best work. This 
part of cur work has often been referred to, but it cannot be too 
frequently reiterated. It is now generally recognized by colleges 
and educational institutions that the study of Nature from text 
books alone is useless, and many of them have gone to great 
expen.«e to fit out laboratories in which the most practical instruc- 
tion is given by bringing the student and the thing he studies 
directly together. This is what we do in our field-excursions. 
Those who join these excursions have an opportunity of studying 
the objects as they occur in nature and are led by suggestion 
rather than direct statement to find out all they can about them. 
The pleasure derived from the study of natural history objects 
is real and lasting. For instance, the sight of a plant will 
recall the first time you found it, and the time when book in hand 
you sat down and studied it till you found out its name, and all 
you could learn about it. Every season as you see it again it is 
like meeting an old friend. 

Another important benefit the Club offers its members is the 
stimulus aflforded by associating with those engaged in similar 
work. It requires a great supply of energy, enthusiasm and love 
for a study to keep on plodding along year after year. We have 
all seen students start out in the most commendable way and do 
good work for a short time ; then the novelty having worn off 



I go; 



Presioent's Aodress. 



199 



they began to tire of it, and soon if left to themselves drop it alto- 
gether. The Club in its special meetings of branches, soirees and 
excursions supplies the very thing that is needed in such a case and 
keeps up the interest till the work becomes a habit hard to break 
away from. I am quite sure with many members such a habit has 
been formed and it wouid be a difficult matter to keep them from 
following their favourite studies. These are some of the reasons 
why I think we are amply repaid for any work we do tor the Cliib. 
People have of course the right to criticize our actions and ask 
such questions as I referred to at the beginning, and these 
criticisms and questions are no doubt productive of good. 

If time permitted I would like to enlarge on some of the work 
that might be profitably taken up by the Club, but I will only say 
that no one need think that all the information possible has been 
gleaned in any one subject. Those best acquninted with the dis- 
trict will tell you that the opportunity of finding an abundance of 
new material at least in some branches, is almost as good as ever, 
and an exhaustive study of these offers a splendid field for our 
younger members. 

In conclusion I wish to acknowledge the Club's indebtedness 
to the citizens oi Ottawa for the generous support they have at all 
times triven it. 



A new edition of Prof. John Macoun's Catalogue of CanaJian 
Birds is now being got ready for the press by the author. This 
edition will be published in one volume instead ol in three parts as 
before, and the author will incorporate in the new edition any 
notes on extension of range, breeding hihits, etc., that ni y be 
sent him. 



200 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

DESCRIPTION OF EUPITHECIA FLETCHERATA, A 

GEOMETRID MOTH FROM OTTAWA, 

NEW TO SCIENCE. 



By Geo. W. Taylor, Wellington, B.C. 

This moth is one of many interesting' Geometridae that have 
been sent to me by Mr. C. H. Young-, and I propose to describe 
it as a new species in the Natl'RALIST in order that the attention 
of the Ottawa entomologists may be directed to it, and that the 
record of Mr. Young's success as a collector ot rare species ot 
Geometridae may stimulate others to activity in this somewhat 
neglected field. The Ottawa list in this family is growing apace 
by reason of Mr Young's industry, and every box he sends me 
contains some surprise in the shape of species that have not before 
been taken in the district. 
EUPITHECIA fletcherata, n. sp. 

This is one of the broad-winged, medium-sized species of 
Eupithecia, in wing shape much' like Eiipithecia latipennis Hulst 
(which is quite common in Ottawa in the month of June), but is 
a trifl i smaller. Expanse, 21 mm. 

Palpi of moderate length, rather bushy, very dark (nearly 
black), with the extreme tips white. Front dark grey, with a fine 
black transverse line in front of the base of the antennae. 

Thorax grey, darker in front ; a small white posterior tuft. 
Abdomen dark smoky grey ; last segment darker, but in the male 
with a tuft of snow-white hairs seen only when the last segment is 
exserted ; dorsal tufts black ; a black lateral line. 

Beneath, the pectus is white; the abdomen pale except the 
last segment which is dark grey ; the legs are pale, e^xtept the 
tibiaa and tarsi of the ist pair, which are dark with pale rings. Fore 
wings rather dark grey, with blackish cross lines enlarged on the 
costal margin. 

The basal and intradiscal lines, with at least two intervening 
lines, are parallel to each other ; they leave the costa at a sharp 
angle,- turning at right angles when they reach the cell and run- 
ning in an almost straight line to the inner margin ; they are all 
farther from the base at the inner martrin than at the costa. 



1907 J Description of Eupithecia Fletcherata. 201 

The median line, which is double, takes mucli the same direc- 
tion, including in its angle the distinct, oval, black, discal spot, 
and continuing in a wavy line to the inner margin. 

The extra discal line appears as a large black blotch on the 
costa ; it then runs in a regular outward curve to vein 3, then 
parallel to the median line to the inner margin ; this line is em- 
phasized by a series of eight black dashes on the veins. 

Between the extra-discal and the submarginal lines are three 
dark lines, showing only as spots on the costa. 

The submarginal line is faint, white, showing most plainly in 
a white dot between veins 3 and |, and another between i and 2. 
Marginal line faint, black, broken at the veins. Fringe, basal half 
darker ; dusky spots at the ends of the veins. 

Hind-wings dark grey ; the lines indistinct, but apparently all 
the lines of the tore wings are continuous, the most evident being 
the extra-discal and the submarginal ; the first-named consists of 
black dashes on the veins (as on the fore wing) and so appears 
broader than the other lines. 

Discal dot black, distinct. Fringe as on the fore wings. 
Beneath, fore wings bright grey. Costa with black marks show- 
ing the commencements of basal, median and extra-discal lines, 
and with another dark blotch in advance of the faint white sub- 
marginal line. 

The extra-discal line and a dark shade beyond it are traceable 
across the wing to the inner margin, but the other lines can only 
be followed for a very short distance Irom the costa. 

Marginal line distinct ; base of fringe pale, otherwise as 
above. 

Hind wings pale with 3 intra-discal lines marked on the costa 
and again on the inner margin. 

There are also 2 extra-discal lines composed of distinct dots 
on the veins. 

The outermost of these is parallel to the outer margin ; the 
other runs in a straight line from the inner margin, in the direction 
of the discal dot, to vein 3, theti in a regular curve to the costa. 
These two lines are therefore not parallel, being rather close 
together on the costa and farthest apart on vein 3. This is a 
peculiarity that I have not noticed in any other eastern Eupilhecia. 



202 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

Three or four dots on the v'eins indicate another line between the 
two just mentioned. » 

Discal dots distinct on all wing's. 

Described from two specimens collected by Mr. C. H. Young" 
and labelled respectively Ottawa 3. viii. c6 and 10. ix. 06, and 
named in honor of Dr. James Fletcher, of Ottawa. 

One of these specimens is in my cabinet, thanks to the 
generosity of Mr. Young, the other is retained in his own 
collection. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL BRANCH. 

The first winter meeting (1906-07) of the Entoinological 
Branch was held at Dr. Fletcher's house at the Evperimental Farm, 
on the evening of the 7th November ; six present. 

The Chairman suggested that the same plan of managing the 
meetings as had been followed in previous seasons .should again 
be adopted this year, viz: asking each member present to speak 
for a short time, either upon specimens brought for exhibition or 
upon work done during the past season. 

Mr. Arthur Gibson exhibited the cases of Tiger Moths ot the 
genus Apantesis in the Experimental Farm collection, drawing 
attention to the rarer species and giving notes on the life-histories 
of many which he had reared from the e.g^. Twent\-six different 
species and varieties from all parts of Canada were included in 
this collection. 

Mr. .Andrew Halkett showed specimens oi Ateyrodes vapor- 
ariorum an insect allied to the plant lice but with the appearatice 
of very minute moths. This insect has been exceptionally abund- 
ant and destructive to garden plants during the past season Dr. 
Fletcher stated that it had been sent in from many parts of 
Canada and had been particularly troublesome in gardens where 
bedding plants which had been propagated in greenhouses were 
used. Specimens had been received from Edmonton, Port Arthur 
and many places in Ontario, and also from Montreal. 

Mr. J. W. Baldwin showed a box of noctuid moths which were 
selected from a collection he had made at sugar on two nights at 
Graham's Bay, Britannia. Among the most interesting were a 



1907] Entomological Branch. 203 

nice variety of Paytigro/is ochrogaster, Xylina signosa, Hadcna 
modica and a very handsome specimen of lioniolochu baltimoralis. 

Mr. W. H. Harrington spoke of some insects observed durintj^ 
the season. He had noticed specimens of Heodes hypophlcas fly- 
ing at Meach Lake in the last week in October. He also described 
and enquired if any other members had noticed a large pocket gall 
on the upper side of the leaves of the American Hornbeam. No 
one present had seen this gall. 

Mr. C. H. Young reported that he had also noticed a late 
occurrence of the small Copper referred to by Mr. Harrington and 
that he had also found the larvaj oi'Feniseca tarquinuis and of a 
Syrphus fly feeding on the Woolly Aphis of the Alder on Oct. 3rd 
last. 

Dr. Fletcher showed some insects from the Holy Land and 
again referred to late occurrences of insects. He had a brood of 
the larvte of Euvanessa antcopa, which he had collected in the 
Arboretum of the Experimental Farm on the 27th Oct. The 
larvae were on a willow tree most of the leaves of which had been 
frozen, and they were themselves much numbed by the cold at the 
time they were collected, the thermometer being almost at freez- 
ing point, and there had been several sharp frosts some nights 
before. Specimens were also shown of the Asparagus Beetle 
reared from larvae collected this year for the first time at Ottawa. 
Several were found late in the season at the Experimental Farm, 
the beetles emerging Oct 30. 

Mr. Halkett spoke of seeing the Tiger Swallow-tail in 
enormous numbers up the St. Agathe line of the C. P. R. early in 
June. He also spoke of he remarkable abundance of /?/!f«w^//'/fA'<7 
hastata during the past season, and also of Pteromalus puparum, 
the parasite of the White Cabbage Butterfly, in pupae found at 
Picton, Ont. These occurrences were discussed fully by those 
present. 

Dr. Fie:cher showed three fine cases of Plusias belonging to 
the Entomological Division and drew attention to those of rarest 
occurrence. He also exhibited Dr. Folsom's " Entomology" and 
spoke of it in flattering terms. The value of Dr Smith's " Cilos- 
sary of Entomological Terms" was also pointed out. 

J. F. 



204 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

Meeting held at Mr. Gibson's on 20th November, eight mem- 
bers present, inchjding Mr. T. N. Willing, of Regina, Naturalist to 
the Province of Saskatchewan. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read. 

Mr. Halkett showed a specimen of Dytiscus harrisii, female, 
which he had kept alive for some time in an aquarium. 

Mr. Hart ington exhibited a collection of the most striking local 
species of Dytiscus as well as some rare species of Coleoptera from 
Vancouver Island, including Calopus aspersus, Chariessa elegans, 
Biiprestis adjecta and Ischalia vancouverensis. 

Mr. Young showed a beautiful collection of micro-lepidoptera 
of over 2,000 specimens, nearly 200 of which had already been 
named by Mr. Kearfott, and which included several species new 
to science. The remarkable neatness and skill shown in mount- 
ing were much admired by all present. 

Mr. T. N. Willing spoke of the work which is being done in 
natural history in the North-west Territorities and of his 
efforts to establish at Regina reference collections. Considerable 
progress had already been made and he hoped that in the near 
future much more would be done than had been possible in the 
past. Mr. Willing showed several boxes of insects which he had 
taken in the West. Insects injurious to crops were not as yet 
verv noticeable in the West, but with the increase of mixed farm- 
ing and with more land under cultivation these would doubtless 
appear. 

Mr. Baldwin showed a neat cabinet case which he had made 
himself, including the compressed cork. This was well filled with 
a fine series of Catocalas, and other moths taken at sugar at 
Graham's Bay, Britannia. The specimens were in perfect con- 
dition, and no less than 34 good specimens were taken covering 
six species of Catocala. 

Mr. Metcalfe told of his experience in using the floating 
water net for aquatic insects, which had been very unsatisfactory, 

Dr. Fletcher showed a sample of flour badly infested by the 
beetles and larvae of Ptinus fur. This is an occasional pest only 
of cereal foods but had been sent in three times this autumn. He 
spoke of the destruction of the seeds of the Silver Maple by a 
small Nitidulid, Epurcca rti/a, which had been very abundant at 



1905) Infusorial Earth near Lake Windermere, B.C. 205 

Ottawa last spring, every seed containing over a dozen of the 
larvx. A fine melanic Bombus from the West was shown, but 
the species could not be recognized. Specimens of Galeruca 
externa^ collected by Mr. Norman Criddle at Aweme, Man , '.vere 
also shown. 

Mr. Gibson showed an inflate ot the larva of Ecpantheria 
deflorata which had been found feeding on violets at Niagara Glen, 
Ont., by Mr. J. B Williams, of Toronto, and also exhibited 
samples of currants and walnuts infested by the larvae of Plodia 
inter pu nc fella . 

A. G. 



INFUSORIAL EARTH NEAR LAKE WINDEMERE, B.C. 



At a meeting of the Natural History Society of British 
Columbia held at Victoria, on the 19th November, Mr. Ander- 
son exhibited specimens of infusorial earth taken from beneath the 
surface soil of a dried-up lake about three miles west of Lake 
Windemere. Prof. Shutt and he were asked last September, 
whilst travelling through the Upper Columbia Valley, to visit the 
place which is owned by a Mr. Ellis and partner. On reaching 
the place, it was found to be in a long valley the lower end of 
which was shut off by a natural dyke some twenty feet in height, 
and from forty to fifty feet wide at its base. The extinct lake was 
immediately above the dyke, fifteen to twenty acres in extent, 
the valley containing some six hundred acres, they were told. The 
lake site from all appearances, had been comparatively recently 
covered with water, as the surface was thickly covered with water 
plants resembling moss, probably a species of Myriophylliim, in a 
semi-dried state. Ploughing had been attempted, but owing to 
the nature of the plants alluded to, it was found impossible to do 
so ; discing was then tried, but with equally poor success. On 
account of the damp state of the vegetation, burning was also 
found to be impracticable. Mr. Ellis expressed ihe belief that only 
way to get rid of the trouble was to rake it all up and stack it. 
Interspersed amongst the vegetation, and covering the grovmd, 



2o6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

and to a depth of at least six feet, were fresh water shells innumer- 
able, of all sizes, such as are to be seen in the specimens exhibited. 
Mr. Ellis had dug down for about six feet, but realizing- that there 
was a danger of striking- a subterranean water course which might 
rise and inundate the land, he desisted Flowing into the valley 
and past Mr Ellis' house, is a small stream which loses itself 
lower down, but reappears some distance below the natural dam 
alluded to. The land below the dam is considerably lower than it 
is on the upper side, giving a good opportunity for drainage, so 
Mr. Ellis and his partner are running a tunnel through the dyke 
in order to ensure safety against possible floodino- ; a very wise 
precaution. Crops of different kinds had been attempted on parts 
of the land ; some parts gave good results whilst others showed 
acidity There was a rank growth of weeds belonging to the 
Cenopodiiim family, growing on portions of the site of the lake. 
Oats in places grew rank but the straw showed lack of phosphoric 
acid and potash and were in patches quite stunted. It was reported 
that within the memory of some of the inhabitants in the vicinity 
the lake site had been covered with water but of that no definite 
information was obtainable. 



Among the most recent additions to the library of the Geo- 
logical Survey is the "Nature Library" in ten volumes. This 
grtat work published by Doubleday, Page & Co., covers the 
whole natural history field, and though perhaps to be classed 
among "popular" rather than "scientific" books, every volume 
has been written and edited by a specialist. 



1907] Nature Study — No. 40. 207 

NATURE STUDY, No. XL. 

MANUAL TRAINING— THE MECHANICAL HORBV. 



By Mark G. McEliiinnev, L.D.S., D.D.S., Ottawa. 

What appears to be a reasonable definition of the word 
Hobby is, a pursuit followed for its own sake, a result of certain 
mental activities requiring expansion. Upon the ordinary pur- 
suit become a hobby, there falls the spirit of art — work for the 
work's sake and the reward to the soul of the worker. To hob- 
bies may be traced many great inventions and not a few of our 
most useful institutions. The very use of the term as indicating- 
an enthusiastic devotion to one subject instead of a perfunctory 
performance of daily duty is a keynote to the whole subject. It is 
only when a pursuit becomes a hobby that it develops beyond the 
level of mediocrity. There is nothing to prevent one's hobby and 
one's vocation from being identical, or to their running on parallel 
lines. Happy is he whose vocation and hobby are inter-relative, 
because kno»vledge gained in one may be applied to the better- 
ment of the other. Every successful man has his hobby ; the in- 
dividual that cannot become enthusiastic on some one subject in 
life is never likely to rise above the average in anything. Even 
the enthusiasm apparently wasted in a thoroughly unpractical 
hobby is not really lost, for the data accumulated in its cause may 
become available for many purposes. The introduction of Manual 
Training to our educational system is a happy indication that we 
are awaking to the fact that our methods in the past have been one- 
sided. The old methods overlooked one of the most important of 
faculties, that which contains the incentive to do things. It is 
good to know things — it is better to be able to do things. While 
to know may produce a useless pedant — to be able to do develops 
a thinking and self-reliant character. 

Under our methods of education, manual labour has fallen 
somewhat into disrepute. There has been too great a rush into 
professional and commercial life, because, to put it plainly, the 
trades are not considered so respectable, and the greatest ambi. 



2o8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

tion of the mediocre intellect is to be thought respectable — 3t any 
cost. 

Why it should be thought more honourable to draw a plan 
for laying bricks than to lay ihem ; why the carpenter and the 
machinist should be considered less honorable than th? physician 
and the lawyer, is hard to understand, except as an effect of false 
education. 

In 1880 William Morris, the best pupil of John Ruskin, and 
himself an Oxford man, said : " We no longer believe in a class 
that is called, or set apart. Every man has a divine call to make 
himself useful to his fellows and the hallucination that some are 
called to do nothing but give advice, will soon fade away. Indus- 
trial education is both moral and spiritual. The man who fails to 
use his body every day in a certain amount of manual labor is a 
menace to the State and a danger to his inmost self. Safety lies 
in a just balance between head and hand." 

To show how hopeful is our cause, tokening as it does that 
reform will come from within, I quote President Eliot, who recently 
said in a speech before the Independent Club of Buffalo : " I 
shall never be satisfied until one half the curriculum at Harvard is 
devoted to doing things instead of talking about them." 

The introduction of manual training into our schools will do 
much toward the restoration of the dignity of labour. It is not the 
duty to be performed that should measure the standing of an 
occupation but rather the manner in which the duty is performed. 
Here is where the ethical value of a mechanical hobby applies. It 
has accomplished for individuals here and there what manual 
training endeavors to do for the numbers. It stimulates the 
individual to attain excellence for its own sake and such an effort 
cannot fail to be reflected in his regular vocation. 

The growth of tha Mechanical Hobby during the past 20 
years has been rapid and widespread, as is well illustrated by the 
fact that formerly tools and materials for amateurs were few and 
expensive, while to-day dealers in such supplies are numerous and 
make special efforts to cater to the requirements of the amateur 
To-day everything the amateur requires can be obtained quickly 
and cheaply in any city. 



1907] Nature Study — No. 40 209 

Professional men and men in sedentary occupations are the 
principal buyers, and the result must be that there shall be a draw- 
ing together of the various classes and the formation of a bond of 
sympathy between them which cannot fail to benefit both. 

The handicraftsman shall reap a value in respect and consider- 
ation and progress made in the direction of that goal toward which 
Tolstoi looks so earnestly. However little I may regard Tolstoi 
the mystic, I have a large respect for Tolstoi the humanitarian. 

It has been said that the Mechanical Hobby trains the faculty 
of observation aad stimulates the desire for knowledge, and I am 
convinced that the reason for the poor work turned out by the 
average arlizan is not so much low wages and the desire for cheap 
goods on the part of the public as it is to carelessness on the part 
of the workman. 

The workman who studies carefully the requirements and 
observes closely the best examples of work done in his own line 
cannot fail to improve as a workman and will succeed proportion- 
ately. 

The workman who can and does turn out the best that is in 
him can always find those who are willing and able to pay for his 
product. 

The Mechanical Hobby is a quiet but powerful spirit working 
out the salvation of character and opposed strongly to the prevail- 
ing commercialism which is madly given to measuring all things, 
even men, by the sordid standard of dollars and cents. 

In hundreds of factories, thousands of workmen turn out tens 
of thousands of chairs daily. 

Down in his cellar or up in his garret or out in his woodshed 
the Amateur Mechanic will make an oak chair in six months, 
working at odd moments, putting his time, his labour, his thought, 
his individual self into that chair. 

He knows each piece of wood, each joint, each screw — yes 
each scratch that refused so stubbornly to be rubbed out. 

What are the tens of thousands of factory-made chairs along- 
side of this one ? 

It may be inferior, it may be wholly execrable — it matters not. 
The valuable element lies in the spirit in which the work was done. 



210 The Ottawa Naturalist. [January 

The workman is bettered by the effort — his ultimate product may 
be a masterpiece. 

This is the true inwardness of the Constructive Hobby. 

Carpentry is one of the primitive arts and although the 
earliest implements that have come down to us are of stone and 
bronze, I believe that their survival is due to the permanent nature 
of their material and that wooden implements were made in times 
long preceding those of stone and bronze. 

The first primeval savage who made anything, probably 
fashioned a war-club. 

He looked at the product with pride, repeated that formula still 
so dear to the amateur "I made that myself", and immediately 
the real ascent of man began. 

The next time that savage looked about him, things took on a 
new aspect and the design argument was born. 

Of course the reasoning of this primeval man was founded 
upon a fallacy — he had created nothing, simply changed the form 
and the making of the club was as natural a part of the evolution 
of man as the putting forth of a bud is of the growth of a tree but 
he was some thousands of years in finding that out. What we 
are thankful for is that he did something and endeavored to find a 
reason and was no longer a beast on all-fours. 

Carlyle defines man as the "tool-using animal." The great 
phrase maker discovered a greater truth. 

The history of the use of tools is the history of the material 
progress of the race, and only under conditions of satisfactory 
material progress can the intellectual and ethical developments 
reach their highest attainments. 

Carpentry is an art which has reached a most useful and 
beautiful development. 

The tools required are comparatively few and inexpensive, 
and as a Hobby it well repays its votaries. 

Dependent upon the skill and taste of the craftsman it can 
show a great variety of useful and ornamental products ranging 
from a pine wood box to a mahogany piano case. 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, FEBRUARY, 1907. 



No. 1 1 



A SWARM OF BUTTERFLIES. 



By George H. Bk.\dsha\v, Morden, Man. 

About the twentieth of Aug-ust of this year the writer, in com- 
mon with many others in this district, had the opportunity of see- 
ing^ a rather unusual and certainly an interesting sight. Whether 
interested in such matters or not, one could not help noticing one 
day countless numbers ot a large fiery-rust-colored butterfly — 




which I have since learned from Dr. Fletcher was the Milkweed 
Butterfly, Anosin p/cxippus—lhHt came over-night, or at least 
seemed to come over-night, for there they were one bright morn- 
ing- hanging on the trees and shrubs, in such numbers and so 
closely together, that the trees on which they had settled were 
simply a blaze of red. 

Apparently they liked the early morning sun, for they were 



212 



The Ottawa Naturalist, 



(February 



gathered on the sunny side of the trees and basked in the warmth 
of the sun till between eight and nine o'clock, when they suddenly 
determined to set about their day's work, or whatever they were 
in quest of, for they began to flit about in all directions and in 
such numbers that the air seemed full of them. During the after- 
noon they did not appear so plentiful. 

I cannot recall the exact date when they first made their 
appearance in such large numbers, but it must have been about 
August 20th, and they remained for probably ten days. To give a 
better idea of the great number in this swarm, I may say that they 
appeared in equally large numbers over a distance of twelve miles, 
to my knowledge, and how much more I cannot say. 

They seemed to settle down whenever night overtook them, 
if in an open field among the grass or grain, and if in a bush they 
gathered as close together as they could get on tree or shrub. 
They seemed, I think, to 
prefer the elm trees to any 
others, for there appeared to 
to be far more on them than 
on any other kinds. 

There had been odd indi- 
viduals of these butterflies 
flying about as early as a 
month before the coming of 
the main body and odd ones 
remained behind for pro- 
bably a month longer; but 
the great swarm came sud- 
denly one day and disappeared with equal suddenness. They 
seemed a sleek and well conditioned host and looked as though 
they fared well, but what they lived on I cannot say. 

During the early morning one could go out and gather them in 
any quantity, but as soon as they were on the wing they would 
ead one a merry chase. 

The weather during the time of the swarm was fine, bright 
and warm, with southerly and westerly winds prevailing. 

The district they visited was along the base of the Pembina 
range of hills. 




1907] The FuLvos Tree-Duck IN British Columbia. 213 

The above interesting note by Mr. Bradshaw refers to a well 
known habit of the Milkweed Butterfly (also known as the Mon- 
arch). This habit of collecting in large numbers resembles very 
much the similar habit among birds, when gathering together in 
large numbers just before migrating. The Milkweed Butterfly is 
one of the few insects which migrate in large flocks. It is almost 
certain that none of the insects in these great swarms pass the 
winter in Canada. Although exceedingly common in many years, 
all the parents of the vast numbers sometimes seen sailing over 
clover fields or gathering nectar from various flowers, in late sum- 
mer and autumn, fly up into Canada from the south. The cater- 
pillars are very restricted in their food plant and are not known to 
feed upon anything except the various species of Asclepias or milk- 
weed. The excellent figure given above of the butterfly and the 
smaller woodcut representing part of a swarm at rest on a dead 
branch, have been kindly lent by the Editor of the Canadian 
Entomologist, and were used in an article by Mr. J. Alston Moffat 
in the Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario for 
1899, where an occurrence of these handsome butterflies similar to 
the one now recorded from Manitoba, which was observed nea» 
London, Ont.. is described. — J. Fletcher, 



The Fulvous Tree-Duck in British Columbia. 
In the Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, Vol. VI, 1861, p. 
334, there is what must stand as a good record of the fulvous tree- 
duck in British Columbia. In an article entitled " Recollections of 
the Swans and Geese of Hudson Bay" Mr. George Barnston says : 
"Two small species of southwest habitat, the Dendrocygna 
aiiturnnalis and D. fulva never come north, as far as I know. It 
have never seen the first, but have shot one out of a 
pair of the latter on the banks of the Columbia above Okanagan, 
This I daresay is usually its limit to the north, and I believe >t 
has never been seen to the eastward of the great stony ridge. 
Neither of these elegant little geese ever visit Hudson Bay." 
This record is of additional interest in view of the recent occurence 
of this species in British Columbia as givx*n in the December num- 
ber of this journal. 

Toronto. Ont. James H. Fleming. 



214 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

NOTES ON THE SKELETON OF A WHITE WHALE OR 
BELUGA, RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN PLEIS- 
TOCENE DEPOSITS AT PAKEN- 
HAM, ONTARIO. 



By J. F. Whiteaves. 

In August, 1849, portions of the skeleton of a small cetacean 
were discovered in stratified clay of pleistocene age " on the line 
of the Rutland & Burlington Railroad in the Township of Char- 
lotte " (Vermont) "about twelve miles south of Burlington, and a 
little more than one mile eastward of Lake Champlain." These 
remains were described and figured by the late Professor Zadock 
Thompson, in the American Journal of Science and Arts for March, 
1850, under the provisional name Delphinus Vermontayius^ which 
he changed to Beluga Verfnontana, in 1853, in an Appendix to the 
" History of Vermont." But it is now quite clear that they 
belong to the genus Delphmupterus, Lacepede, of which Beluga, 
Rafineaque, is a synonym. 

More or less complete skeletons of this small whale have 
since been found in marine deposits of pleistocene age, at Montreal 
in 1858; at Riviere du Loup (en bas) in 1864 or 1865 (detached 
bones only); at Cornwall, Ont., in 1870 ; and on the Jacquet 
River, N. B., in 1874. By far the most perfect of these is the fine 
specimen from Cornwall in the museum of the Geological Survey 
of Canada. It is a nearly perfect skeleton of an adult individual, 
which, as now mounted, is a little more than twelve feet in length, 
though a few of the vertebrae are missing. These Canadian speci- 
mens, and especially the Cornwall one, have led to the conclusion 
that Thompson's Beluga Vermontniia is probably identical, both 
specifically and generically, with the common White Whale or 
Beluga {/)i'//»/zi7zr//!</t'ri^.s /^Mcai) now so abundant, in a living state, 
in the lower St. Lawrence and North Atlantic. In liis latest list 
of the fossils of the pleistocene of eastern Canada (Canadian Ice 
Age. 1893, p. 268) Sir J. VV. Dawson says: "there seems no 
good reason to believe that the B. Fr/'w^// /<?/?« of Thompson, from 
the pleistocene of Vermont, is distinct from B cafodon," Gray, 
which, it may be added, is another well known synonym of 



i907( Notes on the Skeleton oi- a White W'hai.e. 215 

D. leucas. Beddard.in his " Book of Whales," published in igoo, 
says that " both Sir W. Flower and Mr. True concur in allowing 
but one species of W^hite Whale " (D. leucas), and it certainly 
seems most likely that the names Delphinus V'ernwtiidnus and 
Beluga Vennonfana will have to be added to its already rather 
lengthy synonymy. 

On the 5th of September, 1906, a skeleton, which is obviously 
that of a very young individual of this same White Whale or 
BeJuga, was found by Mr. Patrick Cannon, while digging a well 
on his farm, on lot 21 of the iith concession of Pakenham, Lan 
ark Co., Ont. The Rev. J. R. H. Warren, of the village of 
Pakenham, informs the writer that this skeleton was embedded 
in blue clay, fourteen feet below the surface, and that only a por" 
tion of it was dug out. In digging the well, he adds, some depth 
of blue clay was first bored through, then a mixture of clay and 
shells, in which the skeleton was found, was struck, and the ex- 
cavation ended in more blue clay. The well has since been 
incased or lined with stone, and now contains a considerable depth 
of water, so that it may be somewhat difficult to dig out the re- 
mainder of >he skeleton. 

The bones that have been exhumed so far, from this excav. 
ation, with samples of the mixture of clay and shells in which they 
were fourtd, -have been kindly lent to the ivriter by Mr. Cannon- 
The former consist of a nearly perfect skull (with only a few of the 
teeth missing) and one of the tympanic bones, with most of the 
cervical vertebrae and three of the dorsals with some of their 
epiphyses. Or, as interpreted more definitely by Mr. L. M. Lambe, 
ot the skull, the left tympanic, the atlas, axi<;, third, fourth and 
fifth cervical vertebrae, and the second, third and fourth dorsal, 
with some of their epiphyses. 

Apart from their obvious immaturity, this Pakenham skull, 
and the vertebrte immediately adjoining thereto, seem to be essen- 
tially similar to the corresponding parts of the skeleton o\ the 
Beluga from the Cornwall pleistocene, and of that of a recent 
specimen of the White Whale, from Metis, in the Museum of the 
Survey. 

The discovery of this skeleton at Pakenham is of special 



2i6 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

nterest, as no remains of Cetacea of the genus DelphLnapterus 
Fiad previously been found in the pleistocene deposits of the Ot- 
tawa valley. 

Samples of the clay, with shells, in which this skeleton was 
found, contain numerous specimens of Maconia Balthica (L.). 
This little tellinid is the Venus fragilis of O. Fabricius (1780) ; the 
Psamniohia fusca of Say (1827), and Sangidnolaria fnsca of Conrad 
(1831); and the Telina Groenlandica of Beck (1839). It is exi 
tremely abundant in the pleistocene sands and clays at many loca- 
lities in the St. Lawrence and Ottawa valleys. It is also common, 
living, in very shallow, brackish or salt water in the estuary and 
Gulf of the St. Lawrence, and elsewhere on the Atlantic coast of 
Canada It is said to be the most abundant shell in the clay in 
which the original type of Beluga Vermontmia was found in Ver- 
mont, the other species found with it being Mya arenaria, Saxi- 
cava rugosa, and Mytilus edtilis. 

Ottawa, Jan. 15th, 1907. 



A friend of mine out hare-shooting on Jan. 28th, about fifteen 
miles from Montreal found a partridge with its feet and the end of 
its tail feathers frozen into the ice crust. It was under a thick 
hawthorn bush (a lot of dead leaves on the bush, but not a sign of 
a berry or any other food around), and though in a weak condition 
was able to flap its wings, in fact that was what drew my friend's 
attention to it. He had kicked at the bush and heard a noise but 
seeing no hare run out he looked under the leaves and founcl this 
bird, which he liberated. It ran a short distance and then flew 
away. All naturalists are familiar with the fact that partridge often 
dive into deep snow and sleep there but how often are they known 
to roost on the ground (or snow) as this bird was doing? 

Geo. a. Dunlop. 
Montreal, Jan. 29th, 1907. 



•Q"^?! SoMK N'oTKs Winter Biros. 217 

SOME NOTKS OX WINTER BIRDS. 



Mv C. \V. G. Kii Kii.. 

By our Canadian winter birds are meant certain birds of 
several different families, which in their coming: and g-oing- show 
marked inexplicable anomalies or eccentricities, so to speak. To 
them beloni,- primarily birds like the pine grosbeak, the Bohemian 
waxwino:, the evening grosbeak, and secondarily birds like the 
hawk, snowy and Richardson's owls, the Canada jay, and to some 
extent the redpoll, pine siskin, snowflake and goshawk. These 
birds are not real migrants, /. e., birds that come and go to and 
from their breeding places at nearly the same time each season, 
and in the same general direction and to the same general destin- 
ation, so that their winter habitat is well known ; nor are these 
Canadian winter birds real permanent residents at their breeding 
localities. They indulge in, what seems to us to be more or less 
of an aimless wandering about the country, most of them not 
going much farther south than our southern boundary, if that far, 
at all. What induces them to wander over the country in this 
way, showing up here in numbers one winter and then not coming 
again for several seasons ? Is it the low temperature prevailing in 
their northern habitat ? No, because other seasons, severer than 
the present one here, they remain in their higher latitudes. That 
also does away with the idea that some people have, that these 
birds have a certain premonition of an impending serious winter,, 
a certain vague premonitory-barometric sense, allowing them to 
diagnose the weather in advance, and escape coming hards-hips ! 
Is it on account of a failure in their food supply? Although this 
is undoubtedly a better reason than the first, .it coes not explain 
all. They indulge in such wanderings when their food supply is 
not short in their homes to the north. When the Canada jay came 
here two winters ago, and went in great numbers as far south as 

Toronto — a thing that had not occurred for about fiftv years 

their usual food supply, the kitchens of the lumber camps, the off- 
al from the tarm -houses, were there as usual. Neither c in it be 
assumed that when the snowy owls make their phcnominal period- 
ical incursions into southern territory in such vast numbers, that 



2i8 The Ottawa Naturalist. [Februatv 

their usual food supply, /'. e., small mammals and birds, have 
in those seasons been swept off the face of the earth or at least of 
their habitat — so, what is the reason for their wandering ^ Xo' 
one seems to know. Ernest Thompson Seton in one of his books 
says that the little chickadees on certain days in the year get 
*' crazy " spells, during which they act very queer, as though they 
had lost their "birdsense." And the same lias been observed o^ 
other birds, e. _o-. , the capercailzie and the blackcock in Germany, 
etc. Perhaps some ot this queer, eccentric feeling on the part of 
these birds is responsible for some of their wanderings too ! 

Neither does the appearance of some of these birds at Ottawa 
this winter make the matter any clearer. A hawk owl {Sunii'a 
ulula caparoch) which breeds in Newfoundland, Labrador and the 
Hudson Bay country, was shot here on Oct. g last, and another 
seen at that time. Mr. Henry the taxidermist had two more. 
Usually they come later, if at all. At that time it was very mild 
here. 

A very unusual migration of the American goshawk {Accipifer 
atricapillns) took place last October and beginning of November. 
While a few birds are seen here most winters, they are nearly 
always in the immature plumage, and rather rare at that, but at 
this rime a regular migration of them took place, mostly composed 
of adult birds in the finest plumage. That is certainly remarkable. 
On Oct. 1 8 a fine large female was shot by a farmer near East 
Templeton in the act of carrying away a good-sized plymouth rock 
rooster. On Nov. 3, a hoy shot a nice male near the rifle range, 
which had just put himself on the ou;side of a ruffed grouse ( par- 
tridge.) Mr. E. G. White noticed a pair together near Pembroke, 
one also in the act of devouring a grouse. The taxidermist got 
several more from this vicinity, and all save one in the finest blue 
plumage. At Kingston this flight was still more noticeable. Mr. 
1'2. Beaupre of that city writes me, that he never saw so many 
goshawks together as this year, /. c, (all of 1906. There were 
regular flights of therri passing over the city. He saw them al- 
most every day in October, but during the first week in November 
they were most abundant. He saw seven flving at one time. One 
he approached quite closely while tearing up a hairy woodpecker. 



\ 



1 907 1 SoMi. Notes on Wintek Biuns. 219 

Another tried to in;ike ;i meal of a wooden decoy duck. Manv 
were bruught to local taxidermists. 

The pretty pine grosbeak {Piin'cula cumlealor Icnciirus) is 
repeating his performance of three winters ago and is paying us a 
visit in numbers. They put in an earlier appearance tlian usual. 
The first ones were seen Nov. 3rd near the rifle range and on 
Nov. 5th one was found dead on the Experimental Farm. .At the 
same time and before, they were extremely abundant near Pem- 
broke, and from then until now they have remained with us, 
right in the city. They frequent the many mountain ash trees' 
upon which they gorge themselves on the berries. They do not, 
however, eat the pulp so much as the seed. The old males are 
of a gorgeous rose- red, the female and young are ashv gray, with 
greenish yellow on the crown and rump ; the wings are crossed 
by a white bar. The females and young greatly predominate in 
numbers. They are, as a rule, very unsuspicious of man, and 
allow a very close approach, and this unsuspiciousness is often 
their undoing at the hands of boys, who should be restrained. On 
Jan. 21st, I noticed a flock of ten on a mountain ash tree near the 
corner of Bank and Queen sts. Some of these would fly down on 
the sidewalk and street to eat the fallen berries and would hardly 
move away for the passers-by. They should be protected, and, if 
necessary, fed to keep them iiere. Other articles of food of which 
they are fond are sumac berries and the buds aud tips of twigs of 
evergreen trees. Broktn nuts and suet will attract most birds to 
the house in winter. 

The snowflake [Plec/rophctuix tiivalis) also put in an early 
appearance. The first were seen Oct. 27th on Kettle Island. 
Great Hocks of them were common for several weeks around the 
city, when they just as suddenly disappeared. 

.V single specimen of the beautiful Bohemian waxwing or chat- 
terer {Ampelis gan-uius) found its way into the city on Dec. 2. It 
took up its stand in a little mountain ash tree on Russell .Avenue, 
right over the sidewalk, and if passers-by became too numerous 
would shift its headquarters to another tree oi the same kind 
across the street. Here it remained, all alone, save the pesky 
sparrows, for six davs. .At first it w.^uld almost allow itself to be 



2 20 The OiTAWA Naturalist. [February 

touched, later on it became a little shyer. It would utter a soft 
musical twitter, much like the 'beady" song oi' its congener, 
the cedarbird. 

The snowy owl (.\yctea nyctea) seems again to have given 
Ottawa a wide berth, whereas further south many are reported. 
I have seen one only, which had been shot about Nov. 15th near 
Farrellton. 

Of the rare great grey owl {Scotiaptex cinereuni) another 
inhabitant of the fur countries of the far north, I have seen and 
heard of four so far this winter, all ot which tound their way into 
the hands of Henry the taxidermist. 

At the same place I found a specimen of the rare Richardson's 
owl [Cryptoglaux tcngmalimi riclianisoui) which had been shot 
here on Nov. i6th. 

The'beautiful evening grosbeak [Coccoth-ihraustes vespertiniis) 
has not put in an appearance so far, much as his presence is de- 
sired. He is one of of the most irregular birds in his movements. 
He may come at any time in winter, beginning or end, and stay 
for a day or a month at a place, and then not be seen there again 
for years, or perhaps come for several years in succession. 

Neither has the comical C-An3.&A]'a,y {Perisoreus canadensis,) 
the clown amongst our northern birds, deigned us worlhy of his 
visit this winter. Instead he prefers to steal meat from the shanty- 
kitchens in our northern words. Redpolls {Acanthis linaria) and 
pine siskins {Pinus sphius) may be seen in fovorable localities all 
winter. They come and go without pretense to any regularity. 

Who can solve the riddle of the coming and going of these 
birds ? 



THIS YEAR'S AWARD OF THE LVELL MEDAL. 



The many friends of Dr. J. F. Whiteaves, pala?ontologist and 
zoologist to the Geological Survey of Canada and one of its assist- 
ant directors, will be pleased to learn that he has been awarded 
the " Lyell Medal" by the Geological Society oi London. The 
presentation of this medal is made at a most appropriate time, as 
Dr. Whiteaves has just completed the fiftieth year of his scientific 
work. 



1907J This ^'ear's Award of the Lyell Medal. 221 

Born at Oxford, England, in 1835 his first paper, entitled 
" On the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca inhabiting the neighbour- 
hood of Oxiord " appeared in 1857 in the Proceedings of the Ash- 
molean Society, and was followed by others, printed in a number 
of scientific journals, on pala;ontological and zoological subjects, 
whilst yet in England. 

Dr. VVhiteaves visited Canada for the first time in 1861 ; 
returnmg tc this country in 1862 he resided in Montreal and in the 
following year was appointed recording secretary of the Natural 
History Society of Montreal and curater of its Museum, in which 
position he remained for twelve years, publishing during this inter- 
val valuable palaeontological papers, as well as reports on the re- 
sults of deep-sea dredging operations conducted by him in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

In 1875 D''- Whiteaves first became connected with the Geo- 
logical Survey, and in the following year succeeded the late Mr. 
E. Billi:igs as Palaeontologist to the Survey. With the acceptance 
of this position Dr. Whiteaves had opened to him an enlarged 
field for work of which he has taken full advantage as his long 
list of papers and official reports published during the last thirty- 
two years fully testifies. His reports, both palaeontological and 
zoological, have gained for him a worid-wide reputation and have 
placed him in the front rank of eminent men of science whilst they 
have brought Canada more than ever forward in the scientific 
world. His writings are noted for their accuracy and for the suc- 
cinct and terse language used in all descriptions. His recently 
issued Part IV of Volume III of ' Palaeozoic Fossils" reveals a 
descriptive power perhaps surpassing that of any of his previous 
publications, an augury it is hoped of many more years of industry 
and zealous work to be performed, work rendered increasingly 
valuable with the accumulation of data and a rich, ever widening 
experience. 

Sir William Dawson and Professor Frank .Adams the 

only other recipients of the " Lyell Medal " in this country. Pro- 
fessor John Morris was the first to receive it in 1876 and in the 
list of awards ct later dates are the names of Dr. Joseph Leidy, 
Professor Henry A. Nicholson, Professor Rupert Jones, Dr. A. 



222 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

Smith Woodward and more than a score of other distinguished 
geologists and palaeontologists who have been similarly honoured. 
We extend to Dr. Whiteaves our hearty and sincere con- 
gratulations on having received this well-merited recognition of 
the value of his scientific work from such a high source as the 
governing body of the Geological Society of London as a "mark 
of honorary distinction " under the consideration that he has 
*' deserved well of the Science." 

L. M. L. 



Soirees. 



The openiing soiree of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, 
held on ihe evening of December 6th in the Assembly Hall of the 
Normal School could hardly have been more successful. The 
attendance was large and the programme one of the best ever 
provided by the Club. 

The president, Mr. W. J. Wilson, presented an able paper 
dealing with the aims of the Club, the nature and scope of its 
work, and the advantages afforded to its members. His address 
was printed in the last issue of the Naturalist. 

Dr. Jas. Fletcher read a paper prepared by Dr. J. Chester 
Bradley of the University of California on "An Entomological 
Excursion to the Selkirk Mountains." Illustrating the paper was 
an exceptionally fine set of lantern slides. The views diff'ered 
from the ordinary photograph taken by tourists ; for besides bring- 
ing out scenic effects sucli as the characteristic skyline of the 
Selkirks, their glacit-rs, waterfalls, rivers and lakes, they show in 
the foreground features of especial interest to the naturalist 
These included the characteristic plants of the different zones, from 
the lower valleys with their gigantic trees and dense undergrowth 
to the stunted firs of the tree limit and the alpine meadows of the 
higher slopes There were some particularly fine views of these 
meadows showing their great extent and the remarkable size and 
profusion of the flowers. Dr. Fletcher made the views doubly in- 
teresting by observations and incidents drawn from his own 
experience in the Selkirks. 



1907] Sl'b-Exclrsion to the Beaver Meai^ow. 22;; 

Rev. C. G. Kifrijj gave a practical demonstration about the 
study of birds, using colour as a means of identification suitable for 
beginners. Mr, Eilrig made use of mounted specimens, a £eld 
glasj, and popular books on birds as a person might actually do 
in the field. He drew attention to the number of illustrated books 
which make the study of birds more interesting and much easier 
than it was some years ago, and referred to Ottawa as a city par- 
ticularly favored by the birds. Among the books recommended 
by Rev. Mr. Eifrig were : 

Bird Life, by Chapman; Bird Neighbors, by Blanchan ; Birds 
of Ontario, by McIIwraith : Bird Guide, by Reed. 

As is customary at the opening soiree there were exhibits of 
specimens illustrating the branches of natural history in which the 
Club's members are specially interested. A fine collection of liv- 
ing turtles, a young alligator and several batrachians exhibited by 
Mr. Andrew Halkett attracted much attention. Mr. Eifrig had 
brought from his private museum many sheets of beautifully pre 
pared botanical specimens and birds ; Mr. W. T. Macoun exhibit' 
ed specimens of plants and Messrs. Fletcher, Gibson, Young and 
Baldwin insects of great beauty and variety. Geology was repre- 
sented by fossils and specimens of ore from Cobalt shown by 
Messrs. Ami and Collins .A very fine series of colored plates of 
Canadian weeds and the seeds of these plants in bottles were 
exhibited by Mr. Miller and a collection of photographs of scenery 
on the Li^vre bv M. Lemieux. 



SUB-EXCURSION TO THE BEAVER MEADOW. HULL, 
FEBRU.AR\' 2ND, 1907. 

It has not in the past been customary for the Ottawa Field 
Naturalists' Club to hold winter excursions, but this year it was 
thought best to give them a trial and the first one, which took 
place on Saturday, February 2nd, proved quite a succe.>,s, although 
the number which attended was not large, doubtless owing to the 
threatening state of the weather, the day being very mild and 
promising rain. The party met at the toll-gale on the Aylmer 
Road at -i o'clock, and the route taken was up the Beaver Meadow 



224 T^HE Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

and back through the woods. To a naturalist there are many 
things of interest to be found in the woods in winter, and many 
objects attracted the attention of the party. The leaves being off 
the trees in winter, the birds' nests are more easily found now 
than they are in the summer, and may be taken without compunc- 
tion, although some young ladies who were passing made the 
remark that it was "a shame to rob the poor birds' nests," think- 
ing, perhaps, as we are afraid too many do, that the birds use the 
sam.e nest two years in succession. It is true that some birds do 
this, but very few of those which are seen about Ottawa. Nests 
of what were taken to be the least flycatcher. Maryland yellow 
throat, and one of the vireos were among those seen. A few 
chickadees were the only birds observed during the afternoon. 
The beauty and usefulness of the climbing bitter-sweet — Celastrus 
scandens — was impressed on the members of the club by the fine 
appearance of the scarlet berries which were seen in great abund- 
ance and still in good condition. This is one of the best climbers 
to plant about a house, as the foliage is seldom injured by insects 
during the summer, and is of an attractive shade of green and the 
highly colored fruit, which remains on the plants all winter, makes 
the home look quite cheerful. The red, white and black ash wtre 
all observed among many other trees, these three being easily dis- 
tinguished by the color of the wood and the buds. An apple tree 
was found growing wild among the forest trees. Chance apple 
seedlings are not so common in this part of Ontario as they are 

r rther south and west. 

rr 

. The eggs of the tent caterpillar were found on the choke 

chpi'ry, a favorite food of this insect. The finding of these eggs 

there and elsewhere this winter shows that the tent caterpillar is 

again on the increase. 

After a very enjoyable outing, which was a welcome change 

to those who have to be in offices all week, the party reached 

Hull about 5.30 p.m. W. T. M. 



igoy] Nature Study — No. 41. 225 

NATURE STUDY, No. XLI. 

Manual Traininx. II. The Machinist's Art, 
By Mark G. McElhinney, L.D.S., b.D.S., Ottawa. 

Perhaps the most interesting^ of all trades or mechanical arts 
as some prefer the term, is that of the machinist. 

There is a fascination about the. cutting and shaping- of iron, 
steel and brass that is irresistible. The stubborn nature of the 
materials, the permanence of the product, the accuracy and effort 
called forth and above all the perfection and adaptability of the 
machines and tools required, all provide elements for the perpetual 
joy of the worker. 

Take for example the modern turning lathe. It is the embodi- 
ment of concrete mathematics. It can add, subtract, multiply and 
divide with unalterable accuracy. It can duplicate angles to the 
smallest fraction of a degree and can turn work to less than the 
thousandth part of an inch. The turning lathe has been called 
the King of Tools. It is the great central figure of our mechan- 
ical development. Without it, that greatest ot all human produc- 
tions, that potent civilizer, that real missionary, the steam-engine, 
were impossible. The triumph of steam is the locomotive, which 
has solved more problems and brought more blessings than all the 
philosophies, all the inventions and perhaps all the religions of the 
preceding ages. 

The steam-engine was the stimulus of the igth century and 
the most potent physical factor of the Victorian era. Under its 
broadening influence art, science and literature blossomed and 
bore good fruit and man outgrew the narrow confines of tribe and 
nation, grasped his far off brother by the hand and promises in the 
near tuture to become a citizen of the world. 

Let us now consider briefly how an amateur would set about 
the production of a steam-engine. 

First there is to be chosen the type, which may be stationary, 
marine or locomotive, simple or compound, trunk, reciprocating or 
turbine. Next comes the general design, which shows the engine 
in its finished state with its description and dimensions. Then 
each separate part must have a drawing in detail, giving accurate 
measurements ot each, with directions regarding material and fin- 



2 26 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

ish, so that when the individual parts are finished they will fit 
accurately together and form one harmonious whole. When these 
drawings are completed, patterns must he made for the parts to be 
cast in iron or brass. 

In making the patterns the amateur must have some know- 
ledge of the moulder's trade in order to make the proper allowance 
for drawing the patterns out of the sand, for the contraction of the 
metals in cooling and for coring the hollow parts The shcipes of 
hollow parts cannot be made in ordinary sand, which would not 
stand up ; but core boxes must be constructed in which are made 
the hard baked sand cores which are knocked out of the holes after 
the casting is done. The steel forgings are made directly from 
the drawings and do not as a rule call for patterns. To do this 
the amateur must be somewhat of a blacksmith. 

After the castings and forgings, comes the machining of the 
parts, which falls to the lathe, sharper, or drill, as required. In 
addition to this there is a certain amount of bench work such as 
scraping, filing, tapping for screws and general fitting It will be 
seen that in these manipulations the amateur has been in part a 
draughtsman, pattern-maker, moulder, bhcksmilh and machinist, 
and if he complete the engine and run it he will learn some of the 
duties of a fireman and an engineer. He will have acquired an 
increased respect for each of these arts and for the men who prac_ 
tice them well. 

One of the chief benefits of the mechanical hobby to the indiv- 
idual is the training of the faculty of accuracy. 

To work to definite measurements, to be able to perceive the 
relations of things in the material world, is just that kind of educa- 
tion which this age and in fact all preceding ages have lacked. 

The perception of relations between things in the concrete is 
the only basis on which to train the mind to compare ideas in the 
abstract. The lack of this basis is responsible for much of the 
loose thinking of the present day. 

If our truh' heroic efforts in the line of education are to have 
any real results, we must begin upon a sound basis, and we may 
well rejoice at the adoption of manual training in our schools, for 
that is the very element best fitted to bring about the desired 
re.sult. 



1907] Nature Stidy — No. 41. 227 

I have oflen been struck, in many conversations with macliin- 
ists and engineers of the better class, by their terse and pointed 
methods of reasoning-. If upon such a basis there could be erected 
the superstructure of a liberal education, the results should be 
ideal. Manual training should furnish this basis and go beyond it by 
awakening- the incentive towards the gfettingf of further knowledgfe. 

To awaken this incentive is the hitjhest Iruit of an educational 
system, for in the last analysis we find that each individual must 
educate himself and herself or forever remain a mere repository of 
useless knowledge. 

The old methods of education were merely encyclopedic. The 
new method should make of each fact a living and working truth- 

Artistic and Sciextiitc Hobbies. 

As an example of an artistic hobby, Amateur Photography 
stands out pre-eminently. It has many valid claims to our atten- 
tion. Il develops the artistic sense, trains the judgment, acquaints 
one with some of the laws of chemistry and optics and above all 
brings its votaries into close communion with the beauties of 
nature. It has an amusing side, I was almost going to say a 
pathetic side, as well. The considerations of light, time and posi- 
tion, as well as the often totally irresponsible action of developers 
and other items, keeps one continually interested and incidentally 
adds to one's knowledge in many directions. 

It most certainly offers continual exercise in training one's 
patience and self control ; but who will say, who has conquered the 
A,B,C, and obtained a few successes, that the result is not worth 
the trouble. Like all really valuable hobbies, it is difficult to 
attain proficiency therein, nnd there are ever widening and allur- 
ing fields opening up ahead. 

My first camera, back about 1887, was a black box with a 
pin-hole through a piece of ferrotype plate stuck in the front. 
This did for a few weeks. Then I read up the article on Photography 
in an encyclopedia and made a sliding box camera with an old 
opera glass lens. Its productions in the architectural line were 
more wonderful than the leaning tower of Pisa. 

Then a real lens costing about S3. 50 was purchased and a 
more ambitious attempt was made — bellows, shutter and all. 



2 28 The Ottawa Naturalist. [February 

In the three years following 1887 I made six cameras of varying 
efficiency. Then 1 bought a No. 5 folding Kodak for films but 
soon gave up films and took to plates again. At presen 
I use a 4 X 5 Premo. B., for plates, which serves my very 
ordinary attainments and requirements in this line very well. 
One contracts the habit of having a camera at hand, especially 
on the water or in camp, and does not feel fully equipped with- 
out it. It adds not a little to the pleasure of living to have these 
pictorial records, to say nothing of their value in substantiating 
our stories of what we catch and shoot. 

Regarding scientific hobbies I shall be brief. 

Previous to that time when governments recognized the true 
value of purely scientific work, nearly all investigation was carried 
on along the lines of the hobby. 

Astronomy, microscopy, scientific farming, histology and 
many other lines of investigation were developed in the spare time 
of earnest men who either could afford the leisure or earned their 
bread by other means. It was long before the world learned that 
purely scientific research had any commercial value. 

Even now, amongst the ignorant can be heard sneers at the 
men of theory and not a few farmers laugh at scientific farming — 
as a scythe might have one day laughed at a reaping machine. 

To-day, however, things of this nature are getting on to a dif- 
ferent plane — we have government astronomers, government his- 
tologists, geologists, botanists, entomologists, horticulturists, a 
fish commissioner and a host of others. In our Geological Survey 
and our Experimental Farms we have the spirit of the hobby 
made flesh ; and not only do we derive certain theoretical benefits 
from the same, but the advantages can be measured in those big 
round dollars which to so many people represent the standard of 
utility. 

Were it possible to unscrew the skull cap of any of these men 
in the Geological Survey or on the Experimental Farms there 
would be found a live healthy hobby, a hobby in the real sense of 
work for work's sake : — an altruistic hobby, for they work early 
and late, and their contributions to the welfare of the nation are 
large, out of all proportion to the reward which they receive for 
their services. 



THE OTTAWA r(ATURALlST. 



Vol. XX. OTTAWA, MARCH, 1907. No. 12 



SOME CURIOUS P\ACTS ABOUT FISHES. 



(Based on an address delivered before the " Unity Club,") 

By Andrew Halkett. 

The subject of this article is : certain strange facts concern- 
ing the habits and structure ot fishes. A goodly sized volume 
might be devoted to this subject to do it justice ; therefore a few 
singular facts only are given here, under distinctive headings. 

Fishes That Can Live tor a Prolonged Time Out of Water. 

The November, 1901, issue of the Ottawa Naturalist con- 
tained a short article of mine, entitled: "An African Dipnoid 
Fish " treating of a group of fishes distinguished from all others 
by "the double character of the respiratory organisation : these 
remarkable fishes breathing not only under water by gills, but at 
times when the waters dry up, atmospheric air by rudi- 
mentary lungs " ; and a succinct account of this dipnoid group is 
contained in that article. 

But the lung-breathers are not the only kind of fishes which 
can live for a longer or shorter time out of water. There are 
others whose gills are provided with accessary organs for retain- 
ing «vater, so that those fishes are supplied with oxygen during 
their sojourn on land. A well-known instance of this is the 
Climbing Perch o( India, a fish which leaves the water and walks 
by the aid of its spines over land. It even climbs trees ; a fact 
alluded to by Herbert Spencer in his " Principles of Biology," and 
Daldorf in a memoir communicated long ago to the Linnean 



230 



The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 



Society mentions having- taken a climbing perch in the act of 
ascending a palm-tree which grew near a pond. " The fish had 
reached a height of five feet above the water, and was going still 
higher."* Furthermore, Drs. Parker and Haswell in their ''Text- 
Book of Zoology " state that the climbing perch " has become so 
thoroughly a land animal that it is drowned if immersed in water." 

There are also certain gobies ot the Indo-Pacific which move 
about over the ground at low tide in search of their food, and take 
rapid leaps to escape danger. It has been asserted of these also 
that they would drown if forced for an indefinite time to remain 
under water. One of those gobies I have myself seen resting on a 
moist o^'ject in its aquarium. 

Whilst engaged in some Fisheries matters, at the Trent 
River, Ontario, a few years ago I had same fishes boxed up and 
expressed to Ottawa. On opening the box on my arrival I found 
some of the mud-pouts still alive and when replaced in water they 
were soon themselves again ; and whilst turning over moist stones 
along the shore at the west side of Vancouver Island I was sur- 
prised to find numerous little frisky, elongated, and compressed 
fishes which were there awaiting the return of the tide. 

Fishes with Both Eves ox the Same Side of the Head. 

There are instances of distortion in nature. I mean by this 
term not some individual freak, but a distortion brought about by 
a modification of structure permanently affecting a whole group of 
creatures. The flat-fishes, which are very compressed, are an 
instance of this. When the newly hatched halibut, or the plaice, 
or the flounder, has left the egg, it is essentially just like any other 
fish, with an eye on either side of the head. Very soon, however, 
the eye of one side, in certain kinds the right in others the lelt, 
moves around to meet its fellow, thus leaving one side of the fish 
eyeless and blind. The jaws also undergo distortion, and the 
eyeless side remains whitish like the under parts of other fishes, 
whilst the eyed side becomes covered with pigment coloring sub- 
stance. The fish then lies on the blind side, which serves the 
same purpose as the under part of fishes in general. 

*Dr, GOnther : '.An Intioduction to the Study of Fi.shes,' p. 516. 



1907I Some Curious Facts About Fishes 231 

Electric Fishes. 

There are three kinds of fishes, unrelated to each other, which 
possess electric functions : that is, they are capable of giving^ 
electric shocks. They are the Torpedoes, or Electric Rays ; the 
Electric Eel ; and the Sheaih-fishes, or Electric Cat-fishes. There 
are others, the names of which need not be mentioned, which 
possess elementary or pseudo-electric organs. The electric mus- 
cular substance is differently adjusted in the three kinds enumer- 
ated. In the Torpedoes the batteries lie on either side of the head; 
in the Electric Eel they are longitudinal bodies in two pairs, im- 
mediately below the skin ; and in the Sheath-fishes they extend 
all over the body, being thickest on the abdomen. 

I had once an opportunity to test the powers to give electric 
shocks which two of these three kinds of fishes possess. Being 
invited by the keeper of the aquarium of the Zoological Gardens 
in London to receive a shock from an Electric Eel, I placed my 
hands upon the fish and received it, but it was slight, a circum- 
stance probably due to the fact that the eel was not at home in its 
changed environment. Shortly afterwards Dr. Forbes, who kindly 
escorted me through the aquarium of the Liverpool Public Museum 
asked if I would like a shock from an electric cat-fish. 1 
remembered the slight shock which the eel had given, and there- 
fore readily placed my hands on the side of the fish, but the shock 
it gave was so violent that I would not again care to repeat the 
experiment. 

Fishes which Take Care of their Progeny. 

The vast majority of fishes, of which there are some 13,000 
known species, take no care whatsoever of their progeny. The 
eggs are deposited, and then immediately fecundated, and the 
parents never see their young, unless they should afterwards 
encounter them, as they might other fishes, and perhaps devour 
them. A comparatively few, however, do t^ke care of their young. 
In some such as the black bass and certain cat-fishes both parents 
do. In a few only the female does. The females of the cat-fishes 
ot the genus Asp rec/o, of Guyana, press the eggs into a spongy 



232 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

integ-ument of the skin by lying over them, and then carry them 
about until hatched. 

But in most fishes which take care of their young the filial 
duties, strange to say, devolve upon the males. A very singular 
instance of this is some of the Pipe-fishes, upon the males of which 
devolves the duty of caring for the young. On the ventral side o' 
the male is a long groove : the opening of a pouch which is 
suspended from the fish, and in which the eggs and hatched-out 
young ones are carried about ; whereas the female does not 
possess any such pouch, and after depositing the eggs she takes 
no further care of them. 

Again, the male Stickleback constructs a little nest of weeds 
or other material, which has an entrance at one side. According 
to Costa, who made a close study of the habits of sticklebacks, 
and upon whose observations these remarks are in measure based, 
he then goes in search of a female, whom he conducts to the nest 
where she lays some eggs. Then she makes her exit by the 
opposite side of the nest, so that it now has two openings. Next 
day or so he goes again in search of a temale finding perhaps, the 
same one, or perhaps another, who a second time is escorted to 
ths nest ; and each day this is repeated until the nest contains a 
goodly number of eggs. Then he assiduously guards them from 
intruders, including the very female sticklebacks. Nor do his 
duties cease until the eggs are hatched and the young are able to 
look out for themselves. 

The males of the cat-fishes of the genus Ar:us have another 
way of taking care of the eggs. The eggs of these fishes are pro- 
portionately very large, so that the females lay only a compara- 
tively few. These the male of some, if not all, of the species, 
carries about in his mouth, or rather in his capacious pharynx ; 
until hatched. 

How the Knottv Question as to the Propagation of the Eel 

WAS Solved. 

Since .Vristolle's time the mode of propngation of the eel has 
been one ot the most knotty questions which has engaged the 
attention of ichthyologists Aristotle himself gave the subject con 



• go?] Some Curious Facts About Fishes. 233 

siderable attention, but whilst in many respects the descriptions of 
that great observer in connection with animals in general would 
be worthy of a modern zoologist, the nonsense he wrote in en- 
deavouring to solve the intricacies as to the propagation of the esl 
is hardly worthy of notice ; yet his opinion swayed the minds of 
naturalists for ages. 

As late as 1880, or twenty-six years ago, Jacoby wrote as 
follows in treating of the eel : — 

To a person not acquainted with the circumstances of the case it must 
seem astonishing^, and it is certainlj- somewhat humiliating to men of science, 
that a fish which is commoner in many parts of the world than any other fish, 
the herring perhaps excepted, which is daily seen in the market and on the 
table, has been able, in spite of the powerful aid of modern science, to shroud 
the manner of its propagation, its bii-th. and its death in darkness, which even 
to the present day has not been completely dispelled.' 

Since then more light has come to the students of fishes as to 
its propagation, and experts have sought to solve the problem, by 
approaching it along several paths. 

More than two hundred years ago a group of ribbon-shaped 
fish-like creatures were discovered, all the known kinds of which 
are marine, and it has been proved, within the last two decades, 
that these are the larval forms, or what we may call the juvenile 
forms, of diflFerent species of eels. 

The discovery of ripe eel eggs is due to the researches of 
RafFaele and Grassi, and dates no further back than 188S, or 18 
years ago. 

Since 1900, or six years ago, Carl H. Kigenmann, of Bloom- 
ington, Indiana, following in the paths opened out of these, and 
other investigators, has further pursued the subject, and in a 
pamphlet entitled : "The solution of the Hel question " sums up 
his conclusions as follows : — 

We now know, (i) that eels, both male and female, migrate to the ocean 
during October to January ; (2) that these aels probably deposit the eggs that 
are found on the surface during the following August to January ; (3) that the 
eels do not ripen in shallow water, but the female, according to Grassi, at a 
depth of five hundred meters ; (4, that the eggs of the eels float, according to 
Grassi, at a gre^t depth ; according to Raffaele and Higenmann at the sur- 

*Carl H. Eigenmann : * The Solution of the Eel Question." Re-printed 
from 'Transactions of the American Microscopical Society,' Aug., 1901, p. 5. 



234 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

face ; (5) the development of some eels for the first fifteen days and that the 
resulting creature is different both from the adult eel into which it will develop, 
and from the larva of the eel ; (6) the Leptocephalus of the eel'and the process 
of its metamorphosis'through a Hemtchthys stage into the young eel as it is 
found entering the streams; (7) [the young eels enter the streams during 
spring about two years'after their parents have entered the sea. t 

Whether they ever do, or do not breed in fresh water is a 
question still unsolved : and in this connection Eigenmann says : — 

The question whether or not the eel ever breeds in fresh water has been 
answf^red in the affirmative by several observers. There is nothing that 
would indicate the adherent impossibility of eels becoming land-locked and 
breeding in fresh water The evidence is, however, so far inconclusive. No 
one has yet taken eel eggs or larval eels, or younger eels than those that 
•)rdinarily ascend streams irom the ocean in any tresh water. The statement 
that they must breed, because we know of no other way in which the supply 
of eels is being maintained in land-locked basins is not conclusive evidence 
that they do breed in these basins. X 

It would seem, <xt first thought, incredible that eels from far 
inland lakes should ever make their way to the sea, (and in the 
case of the young-, vice versa, from the sea to the lakes), but their 
instincts lead them that way at the approach of the spawning 
time ; and doubtless thousands perish in the attempt ; but we must 
bear in mind their serpentile form, their wriggling movements, 
and the fact that they can live foi a considerable time out of water, 
so that they are enabled to make their way through obstacles 
utterly insurmountable to other fishes. 

They ^o to the sea when about four years old and are said 
never to return ; the young ones taking their places by ascending 
the streams in incalculable millions, a comparatively few ever 
reaching the upland lakes and rivers, but the overcomers make use 
of swollen tributaries, flood-gates, and even moist places between 
shut ofT waters, in getting to the limits of their extensive geo- 
graphical range. 

Brilliant Hles of Fishes of the Coral Reefs. 

Naturalists are well acquainted with a phenomenon known as 
protective coloration in animals. In other words various animals 

+ Carl H. Eigenmann : I bid : p. 16. 
* Carl H. Eigenmann ; Ibid: p. 17. 



19^7] Some Curious Facts About Fishes. 23^ 

so resemble their surroundings as to be disguised either from 
their enemies or from their prey. According to conditions the hue 
may be sombre or brilliant. A partridge for instance resembles 
the dried leaves among which she has her nest, and green parrots 
resemble the foliage of the trees among which they dwell. Among 
fishes there are instances both of sombre and brilliant coloration, 
whereby, in either case, they are concealed. Instances of the 
latter are certain fishes of the coral reefs. Were these of dull 
colors, they would readily be seen whilst they moved about among 
the beautiful flower-like zoophytes ; therefore they are singularly 
ornamented with colors of surpassing beauty. Incidentally were 
one asked the question whether a bright red or a jet black object 
would most readily attract attention, the answer would naturally 
be the bright red of course. But that depends on conditions. If 
a scarht cloth were hung upon the wall, and an object similiarly 
colored placed against it. it would not readily catch the eye ; but 
if a jet black object were placed against the red cloth, it would 
readily be seen. For the same reason, evidently, such beautiful 
fishes as the tropical chaetodons, and other forms which abound 
among the coral mounds, are embellished in gorgeous reds, blues, 
yellows, or greens : colors ordinarily conspicuous, but which offer 
concealment, more or less, to those fishes amid their natural 
environments. 

The An'gler or so called Fishlng Frog. 

A case the opposite to the above is the so called Fishing Frog 
or Angler. This fish is not readily detected because it is of the 
sombre hue of its surroundings, and has moreover the power to 
change its color according to the character of the surroundings. 
The Angler lurks at the bottom of its retreat with its great gaping 
mouth ready to devour its prey. A long filament issues from the 
back of its head, which the angler waves about like a fishing rod. 
This filam ent terminates in a bait like lappe', and some unwary 
little fish which does not see the angler comes to nibble at it, and 
is at on ce engulfed in the great gape of this wily creature. 



236 The Ottawa Naturalist. [Mnrch 

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PASSENGER PIGEON. 



James H. Fleming, Toronio, Ont. 

The disappearance of the passenger pigeon in Ontario dates 
back at least forty years, though as late as 1870 some of the old 
roosts were still frequented, but the incredible flocks, of -which 
so much has been said, had gone long before that date, and bV' 
1S80 the pigeon was practically exterminated, not only in Ontario, 
but over the greater part of its old range. There are, however,) 
occasional records of birds taken, for some years later, an imma- 
ture bird taken Sept. 9, 1887, in Chester county, Pennsylvania 
is said to be the last for that part of the state, (i) a bird also im- 
mature is in my collection taken in December 1888, at Montreal^ 
Quebec ; there are other Montreal records of the same date (2) but 
with the exception of one taken at Tadousac, July 20, 1889, (3) 
these are last Quebec records of birds actually taken. In Ontario 
two were taken at Toronto in 1890, on September 20, and October. 
II, both immature females, the latter is in my collection, as is 
an adult female taken by Mr. Walter Brett, at Riding Mountain. 
Man., May 12, 1892, one of a pair seen. I also have an aduk> 
male taken at W'aukegon, 111., Dec. 19, 1892. I was in New 
York in the latter part of Nov. 1892 and was then assurtd by] 
Mr. Rowland, a well known taxidermist, that he had recentlv 
seen several barrels of pigeons that had been condemned as unfit 
for food, they had come to New York from the Indian Territory (4) 
and I believe had had their tails pulled out to permit of tighter 
packing. Mr. Wm. Brewster has recorded the sending of sev- 
eral hundred dozens of pigeons to the Boston market in December 
of the same year, and in January, 1893; these were also from 
Indian Terr:itory ; these are the last records we have of the pas- 
senger pigeon as any thing more than a casual migrant. The 

(1) Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornitholog-ical Club, II, 1898, 17. 

(2.) Wintle, Birds ot Montreal, 189*^. 51. 

{3) In collection of Dr. J. Dwiglif, Jr. 

(■]) Minot, Birds of New England, 1895, 39,v 



iqojI The Disai'peakance oi- the Passenger Pigeon. 737 

records ceased after this till 1898 when llirco birds were taken at 
points widely apart, an adult male at lake VVinnipcgosis, Man.» 
on April 14, (5) an immature male at Owensboro, Kentucky, on 
[uly 27, now in the Smithsonian Institution, and another imma- 
ture bird taken at Detroit, Michigjin on September 14 (5) is ia 
my collection, these are the last records that can be based on 
specimens. (6) 

In 1903, I published a list (5) including sight records one as 
late as May 1902, this latter is possibly open to doubt, but th«> 
ones I gave for 1900 are, I feel confident, correct, as the b'rds 
werje seen more than once and by different observers. For alt 
practical purposes the close of the nineteenth centuary saw the 
final extinction of the passenger pigeon in a wild state and there 
remained only the small flock, numbering in 1903 not n.ore than 
a dozen, that had been bred in captivity by Prof. C. O. Whitman' 
of Chicago. These birds the descendants of a single pair, had. 
long before that ceased to breed and it was in an effort to obtain 
fresh blood for; this flock that I started a newspaper enquiry 
that brought many replies none of which could be substantiated 
as records of the passenger pigeon and many referred to the 
mourning dove. I am aware that there has been iatelv widely 
spread and persistant rumours of the return of the pigeons, but' 
no rumour has borne investigation, and I feel that Prof. Whil- 
man's small flock now reduced in 1906 to five birds ar'e the lasti 
representatives of a species around whose disappearance mystery 
and fable will always gather. 



(5) -Auk, XX, (903. 66. 

(6) Tliere is a mature female in the collection of ihe Carnej^ie Insfitiitior 
of Pittsburg Pa. marked "Pennsylvania"' August 15th 1898 but without furthen 
locality. 



238 The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

CORRESPOXDEXCE. 



London, Ont., Thursday, Feby. 14, 1907. 
To the Editor of the Ottawa X'^aturalist : 

In your issue of May, 1902, I published a notice of the| 
capture of the Longtailed Jaeger at Rondeau. Mr. J. H. Flem- 
ing, Toronto, inquired from me about this bird,^ stating that it 
was probably the Parasitic Jaeger, not the Lonktailed. After at 
good deal of correspondance with him and study over the matter* 
I met him recently in Toronto and we went over all the specimans 
carefully together and as a result I am convincel that he is quite 
correct and that all the characters upon which stress is laid in' 
the books for the separation of these two species are unre'iable. 

My birds answer to these characters but the important poin^ 
which is not mentioned in any of the American books is the color/ 
of the primary shafts, the Parasitic Jaeger having white shafts 
throughout and the Longtail having only the first two or three, 
white and the rest dark. 

All the remaining characters seem to vary with indiv'dualsl 
to such an extent that they become absolutely worthless for 
diagnosis. Mr. Howard Saunders, London, England, who is) 
considered the great living authority on the gull family, supplied. 
Mr. Fleming with his information and after the careful examina- 
tion which he and I made of all the available matter, I am not^ 
only satisfied that Mr. Fleming is correct but feel that he shouldi 
be congratulated on such careful work. \\'hen the authorities 
make mistakes it takes exceptional care to find it out. 

W. E. SAUXDERS. 



1907J Notes on Somb Fresh Water Shells 339 

NOTES ON SOME FRESH WATER SHELLS FROM 
MANITOBA. 



By J. F. W'lIlTEAVES. 

In June, 1906, Professor Macoun collected a few fresh water 
shells at two localities in Manitoba. The species represented in 
these collections are as follows, those to which an asterisk is pre- 
fixed having been kindly determined by Dr. V. Sterki. 

A. From a small lake four miles and a half due ivest of Hamiota. 

Pelegypoda. 

*SpIwerium (Musculium) allied to S. securis, Prime. 
Several specimens. 

* Pisidium Roperi, Sterki. 
Several specimens. 

Gasteropoda. 

Segmentina [Planorbula) Christyi, Dall. 

Six adult and perfect, but dead specimens. This species, 
which was first described and figured by Dall in 
1905, in volume xiii of the " Harriman Alaska 
Expedition " Reports, was based upon seven speci- 
mens, from " High Bluff, Manitoba, (R. Miller 
Christy) " and " Fort Smith, Mackenzie River (E. 
A. Preble)," in the United States National Museum. 
The small lake from which Professor Macoun col- 
lected his specimens, is about 104 miles west of 
High BluflF. 

Planorbis [Torquis] parvus. Say. 
Ten specimens. 

Physa gyrina ? Say. 

Four very young specimens. 



240 The Ottawa Naturalist, [March 

B. — From a small lake in the sand hills ivest of Pine Creek, 
aud north east of Car berry. 

Pelecvpoda. 

* Pisidium Ropej-i, Sterki. 
Several specimens. 

* Pisidium variabile, Prime. 
Several specimens 

*Pisidium Tnediatiut}i, Sterki. 

Four specimens. 
''Pisidium vetitricosiitn, Prime. 

Several specimens. 

*Pisidium 7ioveboracense, Prime, var. ; (or near). 
Three specimens. 

* Pisidium, resembling P. miluitn, Held. 

Several specimens. 

* Pisidium, near P. pauperculum, Sterki. 

Several specimens. 

Gasteropoda. 

Planorbis [Menetits) exacutus, Say. 
Several specimens. 

Planorbis (Arniio-er) crista, L. 

One specimen, since broken. I 



I 



Ottawa, Feb. gth, 1907. 



I 



1907 



Meteorologicm. Observ.vtions. 



241 









o c 



rt n c 3- f" r 



n 


f» 


•» 




■» 










n 


re 







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X 


\r 


-1 


t^ 






3 _-> = 

= --^ S 

= • 5 '• ?: 

^ ^ ='6 

c -^ ^ 



re - _; ;; 3 -• v:. 

- S ii =-7«; -^ " 

M q re - _ '^ Vl 

- 5 5- = - c o 






reE 

2 o' 

3 = 



-1 o 



M 



K> g 

(/: - / 

a ? -■ 

= ?.' :J; 



?•■ < 






<. a. 



35 './.O 
,95 3 X 

»j n _ 



= X3 

"^ ^ '* 

5 a- ' 
3- o 
n -I 



a 





3 X c ■/■' >'t'~ — 2r — ~-'~ 

'■ < r "H '-^ '"^ re '< 5- ^ J - 

cr cr -1 — .-> • 

rare ^ < 

"'■': -^ ::■:.:: : 


Month. 










i 


M W Oi «J 00 X^J Cs'-n OJ M N 

p X c^ui -t- SI -^1 4- +. yi X 
-Ij i»i^ xou> xi N< "x- ir 

X w CTv4- -t- Oj 4- '.-J XX 


Mean of 
Maxima. 




H f^ -t- '-JX 'J\ 'Jl -f- <^ — — 

cjCfjyi^i*^ o^'.^ P"*^ !^'^ P 

L x'xoobbsb - xboij - 


Mean of 
Minima. 




-.^1 4» p 00 p\ p^C*) -f- N "^J - ?0 

4. i 'ji bo M x x 'o\o so 'VI 

ON Vi C\vO -J X ON M - 


Range of 
Means. 




- Uj 4- ~ ^ ON C^^.n 4- M - - 

- - c - p vo 'j< K. a^ - *■<> 
b - x'vi - x'ji - bo M 

0N^« v^ CNVi XvO 4^ tn >w K> 


General 
Mean. 


1 C^ 'Ji -1 VD OC X^ 4- J- -P 

j bbGcbb^c^bcciy^bbb 


Highest. 


1 '^ 

\ — — — tine— — t^*^*^ 
Oi Ki4- tgvO w '^X'vDO -Ui 
>^ 
1 


Date. 




Kl K>C»)4-4»CoM-i'J- 
C^ ^» 4- N Ui 4. Oi 00-^ yj 7 4i 

to 4^ 'VI K> 'VI rj C< X Ki X4- 


Lowest. 




X'Vl »>iC/>'Vl'Vl Ki -^J4. KJ 


Date. 


to 

Ci 

!3\ 


- Co IJ M - -f* - p p p p _. 

bo b 'VI cii 4- 'VI X x-^ \o CTv N ? 

4- - a^'.^-^ x'vi X X X o\ o\ 


Rainfall. 




- «j ; • ; ; ; ; 7 -^i •;! _. 

t»i 'VI 'VI 'v> 'VI 


Snowfall. 





C»>-CiljKi-4--0---_. 


Total 
Precipitation 


•»* 'VI C^ 4- 'VI X bcvb ^ 4- - ? 
- X 0"-J ^ X'VI Xtn Ki OJ X 




v5 - C ^1 X XVi 1- Q 1-4- 


Number of 

days 

Precipitation 




00- 700 -ppppp_. 

Vt — rj ON4* M'vi'viO t>i OC/1 


Heaviest 
in 24 hours. 




K> tj 1- '-J S< — M ■*• — 

C> C^ 0> X'VI -^l X 

KI 
'VI 


Date. 





H 


?r 




n 


<v 


r\> 


3 


'X 


V 










^ 


^» 






5 


re 





n 


r* 


n 


zr 





5- M 



u. 


T3 


p; 


fB 





J. 









:i 


•-ri 


rD 





3 


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fti 


V 






n 


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242 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



March 



Rainfall, Snowfall, and Total Precipation from 1890 to 1905, 
also, the Total and the Yearly Average Precipitation for the 
17 years. 



1890. 



1893- 
1894. 

1895- 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901 . 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 



Years. 



Total for 17 years 

Yearly average for 17 years. 



Rainfall. 


Snowfall. 


Total 
Precipitation. 


24-73 


64.85 


31.22 


30.19 


73-50 


37-54 


2.3-78 


105 00 


34.28 


31 79 


72.50 


.39 -f 4 


2305 


7I-50 


30.20 


27.01 


87.50 


35-76 


21-53 
24.18 


99-75 
89.00 


31-50 
33-08 


24.75 
33-86 
29.4S 


112.25 

77-25 
108 00 


35-97 
4 '.63 
40.27 


29.21 


97-25 


38.9. 


25-94 


101.75 


36.10 


26.43 
25-95 


85.00 
108.75 


34-92 
36.79 


23-71 
21.36 


87-25 
55-75 


32.42 
26.90 


44695 


1^96.85 


596-53 


26.29 


88.05 


35-09 



RECORD OF SUXSHi.NE FOR THE YEAR 1906. 



Month. 



January- . . . 
February 
March '. . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

.August . . . 
September 
October. . . 
November. 
December . 



Number of 
days with 
Sunshme- 



26 
::S 
3' 
3> 
29 
25 
•9 
20 



Number of | Total 
days without hours 

Sunshine. Sunshine. 



87-5 
'32.3 

163-7 
200.8 
201.8 
224.0 
272.4 

273- 7 

215.8 

138.^ 

95-8 

72.6 



Average 
Sunshine 
per day. 



2.82 

4 72 
5-28 
6.89 
6.50 
7.4O 
8.80 
8.82 
7.19 
4-47 
3- '9 
2-34 



WILLIAM I. ELLIS, Observer. 



iQf'?] Entomological Branch 343 

ENTOMOLOGICAL BRANCH. 



Meeting No. 3, held at Mr. W. Simpson's house, Jan. 24, 
1906: ten present. At the request of .Mr. Simpson, Dr. Fletcher 
acted as Chairman. 

Mr Harrington gave an account ol the chief characteristics 
of the Lampyridae, reading extracts from Dr. .Sharpe's article on 
the subject in the Cambridge Natural History. The phemonenon 
of luminosity was discussed and several present spoke of having 
observed this in Iar\al forms. The different groups were con- 
sidered, and Mr. Simpson exhibited his collection in which most 
of the Ottawa species were represented. Mr. Harrington read 
extracts from an article in the January " ICntomological News" by 
Dr. W. .\. Riley, giving an account of the remarkable process of 
polyembryonv of Lifoniasiix triiticatellus as discovered by Prof. 
Filippo Sylvestri, of Porti( i, Italy. A most striking feature 
of this process is that from a single egg there originate in the 
parasitized larva? over a thousand individuals of two different 
types of lar\ a\ one thousand being of the normal form ; and in 
addition there are about one hundred vermiform asexual larva', 
which lack all trace of circulatory, respiratory, or genital systems 
or • of malpighian tul>es. They are, however, provided with 
strongly developed mouth parts adapted for tearing, and their 
special function seems to be the breaking down of the organs of 
the parasitized caterpillar and thus preparing them to serve as 
nutriment for the sexual forms. 

Mr. (iibson exhibited a case (ontaining complete series of 
inflates illustrating the life histories of Glupliisia severa, Smer- 
inthus cerysii, var. ophthalmicus, and Crocigrapha uorniani, all 
of which had been reared from the egg, and larva.' preserved of 
each stage. Mr. Gibson also read a short article on the Great 
Leopard Moth, EcpatUheria dejlorata. 

Mr. Voung showed a case of 130 different species of geo- 
metridae which he had taken at Ottawa and specimens of all of 
which had been through the Rev. G. W. Taylor's hands for 
identifiiatif)n. The most interesting species were pointed out 
and some facts of their occurrence stated. 



2_|4 ^ HE Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

Mr. Keele gave an account of his last summer's work in the 
Klondike country proper, which he explained was not as good a 
locality for insects as that where he was working in 1905. He 
showed some most interesting photographs of the country and 
of animals, which had been taken during the expedition. Some 
pictures of Ball's Big-horn, a cow moose protecting her two 
calves, a Canada Lynx, a percupine, and a group of ptarmigan 
on a mountain side, were much admired. Mr. Keele related some 
interesting incidents with regard to each picture. 

Mr. Xelles, of the Alaska Coast Strip Survey, explained the 
nature of the country where he was working last summer. A 
large number of insects had been taken by Mr. Theo. Bryant, an 
enthusiastic entomologist who was one of the party. 

Mr. Baldwin showed the galls of Eucosoma scudderiana, a 
common gall on the Canada Goldenrod, and also the moths, and 
several parasites. Dr. Fletcher spoke of the checkered history 
of this species, which by mistake was thought to have been reared 
by Walsh from willow galls and was originally described under 
the specific name saligneana for this reason. It had been referred 
to two or three genera at different times but was for the present 
resting in the genus Eucosoma. Mr. Baldwin also exhibited a 
large specimen of the \\'est Indian Spider usually spoken of as 
the Banana Tarantula, on account of the frequency with which 
it is introduced with bunches of that fruit. 

Mr. Simpson showed living specimens of the small red lady- 
bird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, and spoke of the enormous 
abundance of these insects at the present time in the Dominion 
Astronomical Observatory and during the past summer on the 
Experimental Farm. This was attributed to the great abundance 
of plant lice of all kinds in the early part of the season, the 
lady-bird beetles feeding upon the plant lice and performirg a 
most useful part in the balance of nature. Soon after midsummer 
it was noticed that the pupae of the .Adalias were infested by 
minute hymenopterous parasites to such an extent that probably^ 
not more than two or three per cent of the pupa? produced 
beetles. . 

Dr. Fletcher showed a photograph by Mr. E. A. Carcw- 



1907] Kntcmological Bkanch. 245 

Gibson, of oaU trees in llie \icinity of Victoria, B.C., which 
were drapK'd with the silken webs of Ellopia somniaria, the Van- 
couver Island Oak-looper. This photograph was taken in the 
evening, and the defoliated trees were so hidden by webs made by 
the caterpillars when letting themselves down from the trees to 
pupate, as to give the appearance of being looked at through a 
fog. Specimens of the larvae and moths were also shown. A 
paper by the Rev. G. W. Taylor, on some geometers taken at 
Ottawa Ix'tween May 24 and June 2, was read, and also a pap>er 
by Mr. W T. Ellis, giving a resume of the Meteorological Ob- 
servations taken at the Central Experimental Farm, Ot awa, 
during 1906. Both of these papers were prepared for th: Ottawa 
Naturalist. J. F. 



No. 4, held on Thurday, Feb. 7, 1907, at the residence of 
Mr. Harrington. 

Present: — Messrs. Halkett, Gibson, Fletcher, Hifrig, Bald- 
win, Young, Metcalfe and Harrington. 

Re\ . Mr. Eifrig exhibited some Icpidoptera from Indiana, 
consisting of six species of butterflies, including Papilio a/fl.v,var. 
marcelluSy Terias nicippc, and two species of moths. He also 
showed pupa cases of one of the large dragon flies {Cordulia sp.) 
and also a number of specimens of ants, Caniponotus piclus,irom 
the stomach of a Pileated \\'oodp>ecker shot at Eganville. Dr. 
Fletcher stated that he had examined the contents of the crop of 
a ptarmigan, for Mr. Eifrig, and found them to consist entirely 
of the tips of twigs of willows. 

Mr. Baldwin exhibited a box of lepidoptera captured the 
previous summer, containing 24 species, among which were 
Grapta jaiiniis, Caripeta divisafa, Nisoniades lucilius, Pamphila 
tnetaconiet, Cramhus agitatellus and Leucania phragniatidicohi. 

Dr. Fletcher showed a small collection of butterflies mad*; 
by Mr. Lawrence M. Lambe of the Geological Survey, near Kam- 
loops, B. C. Of the five species secured, one fritillary was ap- 
parently a new species found by Mr. C. DeBlois Green of 
Osoyoos, B. C, some years ago but not yet described. He also 
exhibited an example of the Riker method of mounting in.sects in 
glass-topjX'd boxes; the spcciments illustrated being Limneria 
(iuignardi, Prov., bred from G'ldemasia concitiua, and a spruce 
twig showing the characteristic galls of Chcrmes abielis, which 



246 The Ottawa Naturalist. March 

had been very abundant for the past two seasons in Western. 
Ontario. 

Mr. Halkett read an extract from Wallace on variability ia 
insects, which lead to some discussion on the well known mimic- 
king of certain butterflies by others of different genera. 

Mr. Metcalfe reported that he was continuing his work of 
preparing a list of hemiptera of the locality and exhibited a few 
species including a very young Ranatra and a winged example of 
Coriscus suhcoleoptratus. He also exhibited a female Prionus 
Calif ornicus, which was taken by him on July 31, 1905, at 
Grierson's Wharf on the Ottawa River about 25 miles from 
Ottawa. The insect was in flight when observed and captured. 
It was suggested by Mr. Harrington that the beetle must have 
come east on one of the train of the C. P. R., which runs down 
along the Ottawa river. The specimen was compared with ex- 
amples from Vancouver Isd. and seemed to be identical. 

Dr. Fletcher drew special attention to a curious beetle, re- 
ceived from Mr. J. W. Cockle ,of Kaslo, B. C, in a box of very 
interesting coleoptera, but was unable to furnish the name, as 
even the genus was unknown to him and to Mr. Harrington. It 
was thought to belong to the Cupesida?, as it had many of the 
characteristics of that family. 

Mr. Gibson, showed a good example of the work of a Mega- 
chile, the Rose-leaf-cutter Bee, in which several of the cells were 
visible. He also spoke of a collection of lepidoptera which had 
been determined for Mr. John Russell, of Digby, N. S. Among; 
the most interesting specimens were the following : — ThecJalceta, 
Semiophora youngii, Mamestra rubefacta, Hadena ntinuscula, 
Hadena bridghami, Catocala coelebs and Grapta safyrus, var. 
marsyas. A specimen was also exhibited of the Lesser Magpie 
Moth, Eurrhypara urticata, collected at Milton, N. S., by Mr. 
W. H- Moore. This was the first American record for this 
European insect, which was stated by Dr. Fletcher to have been 
also taken by Mr. W. Mcintosh at St. John, \. B., where it was' 
not uncommon. 

Mr. Young exhibited \'ol. \T of Sir George Hampson's 
ratalogue of the Phalaenae '" the British Museum. The exquisite 
plates accompanying the volume were much admired by the rrem- 
bers and were specially interesting from the many moths figured, 
which had been found in Canada. A large number credited to 
Colorado in this volume have also been taken in Manitoba, the 
North-west Provinces and British Columbia. Several of the 
members- availed themselves of the opportunity of examining 
Mr. Harrington's collections and entomological library. 

^V. H. H. 



1907 Nature Study — No. 42. 247 

NATURE STUDY, No. XLII. 

The Relation of Sparrows to Agriculture. 
By L. H. Newman, B.S..A.. Ottawa. 

The relation of Sparrows, as a Class, to Agriculture is very 
little known, and people have some very erroneous ideas regard- 
ing this relationship. 

In the first place, the fact that there are several species of 
sparrows in this country, is known by comparatively few, and 
thus the inroads committed by the numerous English Sparrows 
upon our garden and field crops condemn, to a large degree, the 
whole class. 

Now it is evident that a group of birds so abundant, so 
widely distributed, and in such constant association with farms 
and gardens must play an important part in rural economy, and 
that a through investigation of their food habits would be use- 
ful. The results of such an investigation are embodied in this 
paper and ainply demonstrate the value of the different birds to 
the agriculturists. — "A value", says Judd, "greater than that 
of any other group of birds whose economic status has thus far 
been investigated." 

In order that the different kinds may be easily distinguished, 
and thereby to assist in preventing the reckless slaughter of 
beneficial species in mistake for the more injurious English 
Sparrows, I shall give the chief characteristics of some of the 
common birds which are known generally as Sparrows. 

The following species are common in all parts of Ontario : 
the English Sparrow ; the Chipping Sparrow ; the Vesper Spar- 
row ; and the Song Sparrow. 

English Sparrow {Passer domesticus). 

The well-known English, or House Sparrow, is found in al- 
most all parts of the United States and Canada. There is a 
marked different in the appearance of the males and females 
but both are well known to all. The note of these birds is any- 
thing but musical. 

Throughout its range, the English Sparrow abounds chiefly 
in towns and villages, along roadsides, and about farm build- 
ings, it is seldom found in the open fields, except fluring the 
harvest. 

The spot chosen for the nest is some hole or crevice in a wall 
or chimney. Sometiines it is built in tree tops. The nest is very 



2jb The Ottawa Naturalist. [March 

bulky, and is composed largely of straw and grass. The interior 
is lined with feathers and other soft material. 

The eggs vary in number from four to six, are grayish- 
white in colour, and are more or less covered with oblong gray- 
ish black spots. 

Chipping Sparrow {Spizella socialis). 

The Chipping Sparrow is the smallest of all our Sparrows, 
and may be easily recognized by its red-capped head, a conspi- 
cuous light stripe over the eye, and its slate-coloured breast. 
It may also be identified by its incessant metallic chirp, as it 
hops about in the grass or hedge-rows, looking for seeds and 
insects, as well as by its monotonous little song chippv-chippy- 
chippy, many times repeated. 

This species is plentiful in Ontario. The female builds its 
neat little home in low trees near the habitation of man, and, in 
fact, often in the vines on his porch. The nest is constructed of 
grass and is beautifully lined inside with horse hair. The eggs 
are of a delicate robin 's-egg blue, spotted at one end with dark 
purple. There are two broods of from two to five each year. 

\'esper Sparrow [Pooccetes gramiyieus). 

The \'esper Sparrow is abundant throughout all parts of 
North America. Fields, grassy hillsides, and open valleys are 
its places of resort. It is a shy, timid little bird, resembling to 
a considerable extent the Song Sparrow ; but is of grayer brown 
with a bay-brown patch on each shoulder and the outside 
feathers of the tail white. It is also known as the Bay-winged 
Bunting, Ground Bird and Grass Finch. In winter, according 
to Nuttall, these birds flock together in great numbers in the 
Southern States ; and, mingling with other species, line the road- 
sides and straggling bushes near the plantations. But no sooner 
does early spring arrive than they seek out again their nesting 
regions of the Northern States and Canada. When disturbed, 
they flit up from the ground, spread their white-bordered tails, 
and alight a short distance away, to resume their work. This 
trait is sufficient to identify this species. Their characteristic, 
attractive song may also be heard during the summer, especially 
in the late afternoons and evenings. 

The female builds her nest on the ground, sheltered by some 
grassy tuft. The four to six eggs are of a grayish-white, thickly 
covered w'ith dull, reddish-brown spots. 

Song Sparrow {Mclospica melodia). 

The Song Sparrows is one of our earliest summer \isitor to 



1907] Nature Study — No. 42. 249 

appear in the spring, and it is fitting that this, one of our most 
musical birds, should l)e so called. Its bright, canary-like lay is 
one of the most attracti\e voices of the spring, and is familiar 
to many who do not know the identity of its author. In habit, it 
differs from the Chipping Sparrow, — it is not so often met with 
in the op)en country or in the garden, but is generally found in- 
habiting the borders of rivers, meadows, swamps, and other 
watery places. I have found it, however, in company with the 
English Sparrows hopping about the barnyard. It seeks its food 
on the ghound, hopping along through grass and weeds in a 
peculiar, mouse-like manner. 

It is a plump little bird, with dark-brown streaks over its 
head, and along its sides. The breast is light in colour, boldly 
streaked with dark-brown and with a conspicuous dark patch in 
the centre. The beak is stout and dark-coloured. The Song 
Sparrow resembles the \"esper Sparrow considerably ; but is 
much darker and of a ruddier brown. Its tail is longer and lacks 
the two white feathers which are such a striking feature of the 
\'esper Sparrow. 

The female generally builds her nest on the ground in a little 
elevated tuft of grass, or other vegetation. It is composed of 
fine, dry grass, and is lined with horse-hair and other material. 
It lays four to five eggs of a bluish-white colour, thickly covered 
with large reddish-brown spots. 

EcoxoMic Value of Sparrows. 

Some years ago in an effort to arrive at the true relation of 
these common birds to agriculture, I undertook a rather extensive 
investigation of the food consumed by the four above named 
sparrows during one summer. For this purpose of course it was 
necessary to kill a few specimens each week, throughout the 
summer, and a most careful examination was made of the 
stomach, the crop and the gullet of each. F"rom this investiga- 
tion the following conclusions were drawn regarding the eco- 
nomic importance of each species. 

The English .Sparrow is almost exclusixely a grain and weed- 
seed eater. Xearlv all the insects found in the stomachs of those 
examined were of a kind practically neutral in their effects on 
Agriculture. 

Now, although it is true that they consume a considerable 
amount of weed-seeds, yet the fact that they limit their weed- 
seed eating largely to the barnyard and the immediate vicinity 
of buildings, lessons to a great degree the lx*nefit which they 
would otherwise confer upon the farmer. 



250 



The Ottawa Naturalist. | March 



During harvest, when they can get grain easily, they leave 
the shelter of buildings and, by thousands, pillage the fields, 
causing great damage. At this time, very few weed-seeds were 
found in their stomachs, grain being evidently preferred to weed- 
seeds when available. 

It appears, therefore, that there is little to be said in favour 
of the English Sparrow. Its weed-seed eating habits are credit- 
able, as far as they go, but they are insignificant because the 
damage done to grain far overbalances the benefit derived from 
weed-seed destruction. Adding to this the injury it does about 
buildings by its filthy habits, and the fact that it drives away 
other birds beneficial in their habits, there is no escape from the 
conclusion that this bird is a serious pest, the extermination of 
which would be an unmixed blessing. 

The Chipping Sparrow is not so well known generally as 
the English Sparrow, but is of much greater benefit to the farmer. 
Much service is rendered in destroying weed-seeds, but the 
greatest utility of the species is shown in its animal food, the 
greater part of which consists of noxious insects. Practically 
no grain was found in the stomachs examined, although the 
birds were shot in grain-fields. This, therefore, proves con- 
clusively that they are not injurious to our grain crops. 

The Vesper Sparrow, like the Chipping Sparrow, is also 
very beneficial. Its diet varies with the season. During spring 
and Fall, when insects are scarcer, its food consists to a large 
extent of weed-seeds, but during the summer months, its work 
as a destroyer of injurious insects is very great, measured by 
the sparrow standard. 

Unlike the English Sparrow, it feeds farther out in the field, 
and hence the weed-seed consumption is a direct benefit. Its 
value to the farmer is beyond question, and should secure for it 
the fullest protection. It may be easily distinguished from the 
injurious English Sparrow by the 2 white feathers in the tail, 
and it is hoped thgt people will soon learn to distinguish these 
two birds, and thereby save many of these useful little songsters 
from an untimely death. 

The Song Sparrow also, taking the food habits as a whole, 
this bird does much more good than harm, and is worthy of pro- 
tection and encouragement. Its food is composed chiefly of in- 
sects, the greater part of which are injurious ; it is, however, 
also a weed-seed destroyer, particularly in autumn. . 

Experience has also shown that while this bird will not re- 
fuse grain during harvest, yet the injury caused in this way is 
inconsiderable. 



INDEX 



OTTAWA NATURALIST, VOL. XX, 1906-7, 



Page 
Ami, H. M., Notes on Fossil 

Fruits from \'ermont 15 

Anderson, ]. R., Curious Natural 

F"reak 81 

Animal Coloration 153 

Antennarias, Some Canadian . . 72 

Ariic.i Louiieana, Farr 109 



Bather, F. A., The Species of 
Botryocrinus 

Belug-a, Notes on the Skeleton 
of a 

Bird Migration on Sable Inland, 

'905 

Birds, A May MorninjJ^ with .... 

Mii^ration of 

Records of rare in Mari- 
time Provinces 

Some notes on winter. . . 
The Spring^ Mig^ration of, 
at Ottawa compared 
wi'h oth. r seasons . . 
Botany. Contributions to Can- 
adian 135, 

Botryocrinus, The Species of . . 

Boutelier, James. Bird .\Iig^ration 

on Sable Island in 1905 .... 

Bradshaw, CVeo, H., A Swarm of 

Butterfli es 

Brittain, John. The Foundations 
of Chemistry as seen in Na- 
ture Study 

Brown, \V. J.. Richardson's Mer- 
lin 

Prairie Horned Larks 

Butterflies, A Swarm of 



94 



214 



z:s 



88 
216 



'44 



89 

1 12 

40 

212 



Caribou of (^ueen Cliarlotte 

Islands 73 

Cement Sidewalk, .\ 45 



P.AGE 

Chemistry, The Foundations of, 

as seen in Nature Study. ... 89 
Chrysanthemum Leuciinthcmuni , 

L 55 

Coloration, Animal ... 153 

Couniil, Report o\' 7 

Criddle, Norman, The Goldcn- 

winged Warbler in Manitoba I 12 
An Addition to our Manitoba 

Warblers 189 

C'ow, A Sagacious 49 

Cr\-ptogamic Flora of Ottawa .. 177 

Cyrtoceras cunealiim. Notes on.. 134 

Duck Island, .A visit to 187 

Dunlop, Geo. A., Note on a Par- 
tridge 216 

Eifrig, C. W. G.. Migration of 

Birds .^ -x^i 

Some notes on Winter Birds . 217 
The Connecticut vs. the Ken- 
tucky Warbler 78 

The Great Gray Owl 79 

The Spring Migration oi Birds 
at Ottawa compared with 

other years '44 

Ellis, Wm., Meteorlogical Obser- 
vations 241 

Elliott, Robt.. Extracts from the 

Diary of 120 

Emperor .Moth, The Cecropia 149, i8g 

Entomological Branch, Report of 82 

243 

Reports of Meetings tag, 201 

En'omoiogical Society of Ontario 171 
Eriophorum, The Ottawa Specie* 

of 41 

Eriophorum Chamissonis and E. 

rnsseolum. The idciititv of . 62 



The Ottawa Naturalist. 



March 



Page 
Eriophrorum riisseolum vs. E. 

Chatnissonis 62 

Eupithecia Fletcheri, Description 

of 200 

Excursions, Repon of 43, 66, 86, 223 

Farr, Edith M., Some new Plants 
from the Rockies and Sel- 

kirks . 105 

Fernald, ?.I. L , The Identity of 
Eriophorum Chamtssonis and 

E. russeohim ... 62 

Field Sparrow, Note on 1:3 

Fishes, some Curious F"acts about 229 
Fleming, James H , Note on 
the Fulvous Tree Dnck in 

British Columbia 213 

The Disappearance of the Pas- 
senger Pigeon 236 

Fletcher. James, Fruit and Seed 161 
School Exhibits of Pressed 

Plants 173 

Fossil Fruits from Vermont .... 15 
Fresh-water Shells, Notes on, 

from British Columbia 115 

Notes on, from Manitoba . . . 239 
Notes on, from Ontario and 

Keewat.n .... 29 

Freak, Curious Natural 81 

Fruit and Seed, Definition of. . . . 161 

Fulvous Tree-duck 188 

In British Columbia 213 

Garden, The Gait Park Wild- 
flower 67 

Garrett, P., Notes on the Eggs 

of the Solitary Sandpiper 53 

Gallup, .\sa. A Sagacious Crow. 49 

Gibson, Arthur, The Cecropia 

Emperor Moth 149 

Golden-winged Warbler in Mani- 
toba 112 

Greene, Ed. L. , Some Canadian 

Antennarias . . . . 72 

Halkett, A., Some Curious Facts 

about Fishes 229 

Hamilton, R. S., The Gait Park 

Wildflower Garden 67 

Hierachim Albertinum, Farr.... 109 
Holm, Theo., On 'he Structure 

of Roots 18 

Eriophorum russeolum, vs. E. 

Chcnnissonis 62 



Page 
Infusorial Earih near Lake 

Windeonere, B.C 205 

Ivy Poisoning and its Treatment 77 

Jaeger, Long- tailed 238 

Parasitic 238 

Johnston, J. A., The Chambord 

Meteorite 51 

Kells, W. L** Nesting of Wilson's 

Snipe 55 

Land Shells, Notes on, from 

British Columbia 115 

Larks, Prairie Horned 40 

Latchford, F. R., Note on Lim- 

ncpa inegasoma 172 

A Visit to Duck Island 187 

Limnwa megasoma 172 

Lochhead., W. , .Agencies for 
Promotion of Nature Study 

in Canada 193 

Lyell Medal, The Year's Award 

of 220 

Macoun, James M. , Contributions 

to Canadian Botanj'. . . . 135, 162 
Ivy Poisoning and its Treat- 
ment 77 

Note on Spergula arvensis 24 

Note on Chrysanthernum Leu- 

tanthemum 55 

The Ottawa Species of Erio- 
phorum 41 

Macoun, Jvhn, The Cryptogamic 

Flora of Ottawa -Musci 177 

Manual Training 207, 225 

Maughan, John, Cecropia Em- 
peror Moth 189 

Note on the " Teal Weed ' of 

St. Clair Flats 190 

McEl'fiinney, Mark G., The Me- 
chanical Hobby 207 

Manual Training — The Mach- 
inists Art 225 

McCready, S.B. A Cement Side- 
walk' 45 

Members, List ot 4 

Merlin, Richardson's . Hi 

Meteorite, The Chambord 51 

Meteorological Observations at 

Ottawa 241 

Migration ot Birds ZZ 

At Ottawa in Spring of 190635 
compared with other years.. 144 



1907 



Index. 



Page 
Moore, W. H., A May Morning- 
wiih the Birds o( S'ew Brun^^- 

uick 22 

Records of Rare Birds in llie 

Maritime Provinces 88 

Moth, The Cecropia Emperor 149, i8q 
Musci, Ottawa 1 77 

Nature Study, Ajjencies for Pro- 
motion of, in Canada 193 

Definite Problems in 25 

Papers, 2^, 45,67,92, 114, 149, i7.<. 
193. 209, 225, 247 
The Foundation of Chemistry 

as seen in 89 

New Brunswick, A May Morning 

with the Birds of 22 

Newman, L. H., The Relation 

of Sparrows 10 Ag^riculture.. 247 

Owl, The Great Ciray 79 

Partridgfo Caught in Ice Crust. . 216 
Pachystima Krajitteri, Farr .... 108 

viacrophyllum, Farr 107 

Myrsinitcs, Ral 107 

Schcefferi, Farr lo^ 

Pigeon, The Disappearance of 

the Passenger 236 

Plants, School Exhibits \^i 

Pressed 173 

Some new from the Rockies 

and Selkirks 105 

Prairie Horned Larks 40 

President's Address , . , 198 

Prince, Ed. E., Animal Colora- 
tion 153 

Programme of Winter Soirees . 192 

Reviews 44, 114, 132, 191 

Richard-.on's Merlin 111 

Roots, On the Structure of 18 

Sable Island, Bird Mgrstion on. 127 

Sandpiper, Notes on the E ergs of 

the Solitary 52 

Saunders, W. E , Note on Field 

Sparrow 113 

Note on Long-tailed and Para- 
sitic Jaegers 238 

Shells, L St of Freshwater from 

Ontario and Keewatin 29 

Notes on some Land and Fresh ■ 
water from British Columbia 115 



Pai.k 
Shells— Continued. 

Notes on some Fresh water 

from Manitoba 239 

Sidewalk, A Cetreiit 45 

Sinclair, N".B,. nefinile Problems 

in Nature Study 25 

Snipe, Nesting of Wilson's ... 53 

Soirees, Programme of 192 

Reports of 222 

Sparrow, Note on Field 113 

Early Nesting of Vesper 32 

Sparrows, Relation of, to Agri 

culture 247 

Spergnla arvensis. L 24 

Spreadborough, W., Note on Ful- 
vous Tree-duck 1S8 



Taylor, Ci^o. W. , Description of 
Eupithccia Fletcher i 

Teal Weed of St. Clair Flats. 
Note on 

Treasurer's Statement 



Vesper Sparrow, Earlv Nesting 
of ' 

Warblers, An Addition to the 

Manitoba 

Warbler, The Connecticut x<s. 

the Kentucky 

The Golden-Winged in Mani- 
toba ■ ■ ■ 

Whale, Notes on the Skeleton o{ 

a White 

Whiteaves, J. F., List of Fresh- 
water Shells from Ontario 

and Keewatin . . . . 

Notes on some Fresh-water 

Shells from .Manitoba 

Notes on Land an J Fresh- 
water Shells from British 

Columbia 

Notes on Cyrtoceras ciineatum 
Notes on the Skeleton of a 

White Whale 

Wililflower Garden, The Gait 

Park 

Wilson, W. J,, Presidents Ad- 
dress 

Wilson's Snipe, Nesting of. . .. 



190 
'4 



189 

78 

1 12 

2Q 
'■5 

'34 

214 

67 

198 
53 



Zoological Report 56 



THE OTTAWA NATURALIST. 



VOL. XX. PLATE |. 




Holm : On structure of roots. 




/^ 



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