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CARNIVOROUS 

PLANT 

NEWSLETTER 

Official Journal of the 
International Carnivorous 
Plant Society 

Volume 23, Number 3 
September 1994 



Front cover: Sarracenia leucophylla. Pastel and color pencil work by Marcia R. 
Cohen. 

Rear Cover: Fernando Rivadavia has submitted much to pages of CPN, and here 
he is holding an armload of leaves and flowers of Utricularia reniformis at 
Caminho do Mar, Brazil. Photo by unknown photographer, submitted by Ivan 
Snyder, used with permission of subject. 


The coeditors of CPN would like everyone to pay particular attention to the following 
policies regarding your dues to the ICPS. 


All Correspondence regarding dues, address changes and missing issues should be 
sent to ICPS c/o Fullerton Arboretum, CSUF, Fullerton, CA 92634. DO NOT SEND TO 
THE COEDITORS. Checks for subscription and reprints should be made payable to ICPS. 

All material for publication, comments and general correspondence about your 
plants. Field trips or special noteworthy events relating to CP should be directed to one of 
the coeditors. We are interested in all news related to carnivorous plants and rely on the 
membership to supply us with this information so that we can share it with others. 

Views expressed in this publication are those of the authors, not necessarily the 
editorial staff. 


COEDITORS 

D.E. Schnell, Rt. 1, Box 145C, Pulaski, VA 24301 
J.A. Mazrimas, 329 Helen Way, Livermore, CA 94550 
Steve Baker, Rt. 1, Box 540-19AB, Conover, NC 28613 
(Internet Address: STEVEB4706@AOL.COM) 

Seed Bank: Tom Johnson, P.O. Box 12281, Glendale, CA 91224-0981. 

ACTING BUSINESS MANAGER AND MANAGING EDITOR: Leo C. Song, Jr. 
(Internet Address: LEOSONG@FULLERTON.EDU) 

PUBLISHER: The International Carnivorous Plant Society by the Fullerton Arboretum, 
California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634. Published quarterly with one volume 
annually. Desktop Publishing: Steve Baker, Rt. 1, Box 540-19AB, Conover, NC 
28613. Printer KandidLitho, 1077 East Enda Place, Covina, CA 91724. Dues: $15.00 
annually. $20.00 foreign. Reprints available by volume only © 1994 Carnivorous Plant 
Newsletter. All rights reserved. ISSN #0190-9215. Circulation 762 (194 new, 568 
renewal). 


58 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 













ICPS Seedbank 

C/O Thomas J. Johnson,P.O. Box 12281, Glendale, CA 91224-0981 

Capsella burso-pastoris 

08/09/94 Update 

D. capensis red (2) 

Catopsis 

D. capillaris (4) 

Dionea muscipula 

D. capillaris long leaf (2) 

Dros. lusitanicum (2) 

D. cocdcaulis 

N. ventricoea #1 

D. dielsiana (3) 

N. ventricoea #2 

D. esmeraldae (3) 

N. ventricoea #3 (6) 

D. glanduligera 

N. vieillardii 

D. indica rd pit, pk flwr’ j 

Pinguicula caenilea (3) 

D. indica Yd pit, orange flwr’ (8) j 

P. grandiflora f. pallida (1) 

D. indica ‘grn pit, pk flwr 1 j 

P. moranensis caudata (3) 

D. indica ‘white’ (1) 

P. vulgaris (7 ) 

D. indica (1) 

Sarracenia alata Beauregard Parish (5) D. intermedia 

S. alata Vernon Parish (10) 

D. intermedia ‘Carolina Giant’ 

S. flava 

D. intermedia Tropical’ 

S. flava Ben Hill Cty GA 

D. intermedia “Brunswick, N.C." 

S. flava NC (1992) (2) 

D. intermedia ‘Pine Barrens’ (6) 

S. leucophylla 

D. natalensis (2) 

S. leucophylla all red (3) 

D. neesii ssp. neesii 

S. leucophylla Alabama (5) 

D. peltata grn rosette Molgoa, NSW (8) 

S. mi nor (1) 

D. peltata Kandos Area 

S. peittadna (4) 

D. peltata NZ (3) 

S. purpurea 

D. ramellosa (5) 

S. purpurea purp. Copetown Bog (2) 

D. rotundifolia 

S. purp. venosa (1) 

D. rotundifolia “Bruce Penn, CAN’ (1) j 

S. purp venosa Louie Burke (2) 

D. rotundifolia Haines, AL’ (12) 

S. rubra 

D. rotundifolia ‘S. Bohema Czech Rep.’ 

S, X (alata X psit} X alata (5) 

D. sessifolia (5) 

S. X catesbaei (2) 

D. spatulata (5) 

S. X chelsonii (4) 

D. spatulata Woronora River, NSW (1) 

S. X leuco X alata (2) 

D. spatulata ‘Kanaai’ (1) 

S. X psit X rubra (1) 

D. spatulata Kanto (2) 

U.chrysantha 

D. spatulata “North Island’, NZ (1) 

U. longifolia (1) 

D. spatulata rotundate (2) 

D. adelae (2) 

D. spatulata “New Zealand’ (1) 

D. admirabilie (1) 

D. spatulata Formosa (1) 

D. alidae (11) 

D. spatulata NSW Australia (1) 

D. anglica Hawaii (2 

D. sp. 'Magaliesburg* (10) 

D. auriculata 

D. trinervia 

D. auriculata NZ (12) 

D. binata (10) 

D. binata Harald Plain NZ (2) 

PLEASE INCLUDE A SELF-ADDRESSED- i 

D. binata North Plains, NZ (2) 

STAMPED ENVELOPE WITH ALL U.S. 

D. brevi folia (3) 

CORRESPONDENCE ($.39 Postage) 

D.burkeana(3) 

$1.00/packet Please list substitutes 

D. burmanni (4) 

( ) indicates number of seed packets—usually 

D. callisto (10) 

under 15 NOTE—THIS LIST IS DATED 

D. capensis 

AUGUST 09, 1994. AVAILABILITY MAY 

D. capensis ‘alba’ 

CHANGE—PLEASE REQUEST A CURRENT 

D. capensis ‘Giant’ (1) 

UPDATE BEFORE ORDERING. 

D. capensis ‘Narrow Leaf 



LOS ANGELES INSECTIVOROUS PLANT SOCIETY meets 
October 22, 1994. For information, call Tom Johnson at (818) 
248-1623. There will be a presentation and plant sale. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


59 




News And Views 

The Atlanta Botanical Garden is pleased to announce the addition to its 
staff of carnivorous plant specialist Ron Gagliardo. Ron is the owner of 
Hungry Plants Nursery, where he has been producing carnivorous plants 
using tissue culture techniques since 1983. 

At the Botanical Garden, Ron will work in the greenhouses of the Fuqua 
Conservatory. He will also be upgrading the existing tissue culture facilities, 
using his expertise to integrate micro propagation into the Garden’s native 
plant conservation projects. His first goal is to establish a protocol for shoot tip 
culture of Sarracenia. 

Micropropagation is a cost-effective way to produce plants identical to 
their “parent”. It is usually faster than growing from seed, and unless 
mutations occur (often due to the artificial growing conditions), the plants are 
true to type. 

After mass-producing plants for export in his business, Ron finds work at 
the Botanical Garden both relaxing and rewarding. “I enjoy growing these 
plants for fun rather than for profit,” he says. “I also hope to help put the ABG 
even more on the map with regard to plant conservation.” 

—L.A. Middlesteadt 

Clyde Bramblett (18950 S.W. 136th St., Miami, FL 33196-1942) 

Clyde has sent us an article from the Miami Herald dated 23 June 1994. 
It reports ten new cases of the skin fungal disease, sporotrichosis. Regular 
CPN readers will recall several past articles on this problem, including an 
autobiographical one from Clyde himself who had the disease. 

The ten new cases were all workers at Disney World and were in charge 
of preparing and caring for the many topiary figures on the property. These 
are horticultural projects in which an animal or cartoon character three- 
dimensional outline is made from wire, the form is then filled with damp 
sphagnum and various creeping or vine plants are planted on the surface. 
These grow and with proper trimming result in an animal or character that 
appears to be carved from plant material. 

To recapitulate, the problem is the sphagnum, a long fiber dried product 
from any of several sources. Many batches contain spores of the fungus 
Sporotrichum schenckii. If the worker has a minor scratch or other break in 
the skin, the fungal spores can enter and produce a local lesion. The infectious 
organism then spreads up the extremity through draining lymph channels, 
resulting in more lesions strung out along the extremity. If not treated (a long, 
distasteful process) and in susceptible patients, the disease can then spread 
to internal organs such as the lungs where it is potentially fatal. The disease 
is generally rare and doctors may initially misdiagnose early stages through 
lack of familiarity. In 1988, 84 people in 14 states had sphagnum related 
sporotrichosis. 

Since we have new subscribers, we take this opportunity to warn about 
how you handle dried long fiber sphagnum. It is always best to wear heavy 
rubber gloves when handling it. Avoid raising dust when it is dry, or wear a 
mask. If you have handled dry sphagnum and acquire a sore on one of your 
hands or arms that persists beyond a few days, see a physician, and don’t be 
afraid to suggest ruling out sporotrichosis. 


60 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


Site # 

Site 

Temp. (C) 

Air Water 

Soil 
Temp. C 

Water 

pH 

1 

Gasquet 

20 

15 



2 

Hunter Creek 

19 

13 


8 | 

3 

Flycatcher Springs 



17 


4 

Snow Camp Meadow 
(full sun) 

29 

15 




Snow Camp Meadow 
(shade) 

15 

10 

10 


5 

Saddle Mt. 

26 

10 

15 


6 

Huntley Springs 




7.5 


Average 

22 

13 

14 

7.75 


OOPS! 

Through an inadvertent production error, We omitted a table 
from an article by Phil Sheridan and Bill Scholl on Darlingtonia, 
CPN 22:70-75, 1993. The table dealt with various environmental 
factors in the natural habitat of the species and is now produced 
below. We regret any inconvenience to the authors and readers 
that this oversight has caused. 

©— 

When in Northern California visit 

California 
gif Carnivores 

70201 
Growing ( 

specializing in insect-eating plants ] 

* Open all Year, Call Ahead in Winter 
sfc Greenhouse grown 

* Over 400 Varieties on Display 

Hs On Site Sales & Domestic Mail Order 

* We ship potted plants 

Irenton-Healdsburg Rd • Forestville • CA • 95436 

Zuide $2.00 (707) 838-1630 Price list -free 


Volume 23 September 1994 


61 





























More knowledge about Nepenthes rhombicaulis 

Rudolf Schmid-Hollinger, Quellmattstrasse 28, CH-5035 Unterentfelden, Switzerland 

N. rhombicaulis was described in 1973 by Kurata. In 1993,1 had the opportunity 
to climb on some Pangulubao chains near Lake Toba, North Sumatra, and to see N. 
rhombicaulis in several places. I discovered the very rare pitcher of the climbing stem, 
until then not known. Following are some more details about this species. 

Pitchers of the climbing stems are very rarely developed. The form of these 
pitchers is quite different (Fig. 1) from the form of the ground pitchers (Fig. 2). 
Climbing pitchers are also broad near the base and ventricose, but the upper part of 
the pitcher is more elongated, tubiform to slightly infundibuliform towards the mouth. 
The whole shape is slender compared to ground pitchers. Pitchers of short shoots 
situated laterally on climbing stems (Fig. 3) some meters above ground are very 
similar, but the colors are strikingly different. 

Climbing stem pitchers: Ventricose part yellow-green, upper part slightly spotted 
(pale red spots). 

Short shoot pitchers: Whole pitcher with clear red spots. 

There are also differences in the formation of the peristome: Short shoot pitchers 
have a broad, undulated peristome as in ground pitchers. Pitchers of elongated stems 
have small, reduced peristomes. 

Digestive glands: There is no great difference between ground and hanging 
pitchers. In both cases the distribution, shape and number of digestive glands are 
similar, 150-300 glands per 1 cm 2 , dark, transversely oriented. In the upper digestive 
zone they are strongly overarched by the epidermis; in the base of the pitcher they are 
more round and nearly free. 

Teeth of the peristome: The peristome, incurved into a small neck below the lid 
shows visible teeth in ground pitchers, 1-2 (-3) mm long. Hanging pitchers have 
strongly reduced teeth according to the finer peristome. 

Wings: Elongated stem pitchers show reduced wings with few fimbriae. 

Nectar glands: Ground pitchers have few to 100 glands on the underside of the lid. 
They are flat, dark, surrounded by a bright rim and of different size. In the middle of 
the lid base they are longitudinally oriented, at the side they are smaller and often 
transversely oriented. Pitchers of elongated stems have several hundred nectar 
glands, which are smaller and distributed regularly. Only the small margin has no 
glands. 

These differences in number and distribution of nectar glands on lids of ground 
and hanging pitchers seem to follow a general rule (seeN. madagascariensis, Schmid- 
Hollinger 1979). 

Literature 

Danser, B.H. 1928: The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenzorg ser. 3, 9, 249-438. 

Kurata, S. 1973: Nepenthes from Borneo, Singapore and Sumatra. Gard- Bull. Sing. 
26, 227-232. 

Schmid-Hollinger, R. 1979: Nepenthes-Studien V, Die Kannenformen der west-lichen 
Nepenthes-Arten. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 100, 3, 379-405. 


62 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 



Fig. 1 : The very rare elongated stem Fig. 2: Ground pitchers with broad, 
pitcher undulated peristome 




Fig. 3: Short shoot pitcher (left) and elongated stem 
pitcher (right), both hanging some meters above ground 



Gordon Snelling says that 
Southwest Carnivores is closed for 
business until further notice. 
Please no orders. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


63 






MICHAEL SZESZE (3431 Bayside Forest Court, Huntington, MD 20639) is a 
teacher who has been working on “A Teacher’s Guide to Carnivorous Plants” which 
is now in its second edition. Among the many activities described in the Guide is 
this wordsearch puzzle with a list of words hidden in it. So you and the kids get your 
pencils and see what you can find! (Teachers write Michael for further info on his 
Guide). 


CARNIVOROUS PLANT WORDSEARCH 

by Michael Szesze 

PWIVENUTRICULARIASPC 
PINGUICULAETINTMAPOR 
I LTANI SOCOPRVAI DOBCR 
NMECWFUNDEHWERAQRLOO 
CIRTHATBARAPNPSACANT 
ANIFLEVAOULMTSLNPDSU 
RGNISLROVGOASTENIDSN 
NTSLPDGPARTYLFSUNEVD 
IOEITENTLIUYFEAFFREI 
UNCFSIUROASRFLAVAWSF 
OATOIFMNFSNAGEMINORO 
RSFRRISUNPITCHERVRWL 
OWIMADUNEHAIDEMRETNI 
UIOIEOMNCAPILLARISDA 
SLRSNMIDIGESTI ONEI IH 
DARLINGTONIAGSDIONEA 
ESOELRDEAULIEUGNEIPN 
WEMVHELIAMPHORACSPAI 
SEMIACTIVETKWEASJCHC 
DROSERALSNTVAREVITCA 
M00SBUTTERW0RTNDXSRT 
YTWAERUPRUPAPEITHBET 
EUSPNWEDNUSOUCMRUTNI 
SNIATNERETAWNIAROSFS 
INSECTIVOROUSTIVTRAP 


acidic, active, adaptation, bladderwort, bog, butterwort, carnivorous, cobra lily, capillaris, 
cephalotus, darlingtonia, digestion, dionaea, drosera, fen, filiformis, flava, heliamphora, 
intermedia, insect, insectivorous, linearis, minor, modified leaf, nepenthes, passive, 
peat, pinguicula, pitcher plant, pocosin, psittacina, purpurea, rainwater, rotundifolia, 
rubra, sarracenia, semi active, sphagnum, sun, sundew, sun pitcher, trap, utricularia, 
venus, flytrap, wilmington 


A Teacher’s Guide to Carnivorous Plant 25 Michael Szesz 


64 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 



DON’T CONFUSE SPHAGNUM MOSS WITH PEAT 

MOSS 


By Gerry Hood 

President, Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association 


You may have read about a fungal disease called Cutaneous Sporotrichosis, a chronic 
infection identified by skin lesions. The fungus which causes this disease has been 
found in several kinds of organic material and, because in extremely rare cases this 
disease can cause death, gardeners are rightfully concerned about protecting them¬ 
selves from contracting it. Unfortunately, however, some of the information circulat¬ 
ing about how gardeners can contract this disease has been inaccurate. It confuses two 
separate products; one of which is known to carry the fungus and one of which does not. 

One of the materials known to carry the sporotrichosis fungus is sphagnum moss. 
Most frequently used by the floral industry to line wire baskets, this product frequently 
is being confused with sphagnum peat moss, a soil conditioner known for its ability to 
bind sandy soils, loosen clay soils and retain water. The difference is an important one. 
While there have been cases of sporotrichosis resulting from handling sphagnum 
moss, I’m aware of no cases as a result of handling sphagnum peat moss. Sphagnum 
moss and sphagnum peat moss are not the same product, as many avid gardeners 
know. 


Sphagnum moss is the living moss that grows on top of a sphagnum bog. The fungus 
sporotrichum schenckii is known to live in this growing moss. 

Sphagnum peatmoss is the dead material that accumulates as new live material grows 
on top and exerts pressure on the peat moss below. The fungus is not known to live in 
the levels of a sphagnum bog where peat forms. Harvesters of horticultural peat moss 
remove the top few inches of the live sphagnum moss and only harvest the peat from 
the lower layer. 

“Living” sphagnum moss is used in the floral industry to make wreaths and to line 
hanging baskets. Workers in that industry have been warned to protect themselves 
with gloves and heavy clothing to avoid puncture wounds or scrapes. Gardeners 
wishing to use sphagnum moss to create their own baskets or for other uses should 
simply follow the same advice: Wear gloves and long sleeves to prevent coming into 
contact with the dried moss. No similar warning appears on Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for handling sphagnum peat moss. 

Gardeners worldwide use sphagnum peat moss as a soil amendment because its 
unique cell structure enables peat to: 

• Aerate plant roots by loosening heavy clay soils; 

• Add body to sandy soil; and 

• Save water by absorbing and holding moisture. 

Peat moss is not only effective, it’s organic and safe to use. 

(EDITORIAL NOTE: To clarify terms for our readers, sphagnum moss is so-called long 
fiber sphagnum sold dried in bales, or living sphagnum collected in the field. 
Sphagnum peat moss is the brown Canadian peat which is partially decomposed 
sphagnum found in deeper layers of sphagnum bogs. So far, peat has not been 
incriminated in cases of sporotrichosis.) 


Volume 23 September 1994 


65 



Fig. 1— Pinguicula agnata. Intermediate 
leaves, late autumn, in flower. Pen and ink 
drawing with water color by Zdenek Zacek. 



metric flower. 



Fig. 3 — P. agnata. Multiflowered winter Fig. 4— P. agnata. Microscopic views 
rosette. of glands on leaf surface. 


66 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


















LETTER FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC — II 

by 

ZdenekZacek (Ustavni, 139, P8, Bohnice, 18100, Czech Republic) 

Many greetings from Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic. I am here again 
to write about and illustrate through drawings another carnivorous species I am 
growing, the Mexican Pinguicula agnata. have been successfully growing this butter- 
wort for several years. 

There are two seasonal leafy rosettes. The summer one has larger, longer leaves 
often overgrowing the edges of the pot. This growth variant never seems to flower. The 
winter rosette consists of much smaller, shorter almost succulent leaves and seems 
to flower continuously. 

The flowering seasonal phase is shown on the cover. Flowering began in early 
October while, as the drawing shows, the leaves were in a somewhat intermediate 
stage, going into the winter phase. Brown remnants of summer leaves are seen around 
the edges of the pot. 

As seen in the figures, all parts of the flower are hairy including the corolla. The 
spur is short and wide and quite flat. As soon as one flower fades another is starting 
to develop or open. In the midst of the flowering season, more than one open flower 
may be seen often, one flower to a stalk. 

The corolla persist for several weeks, the stalk and calyx for several more weeks. 
The detail flower drawings show variation in petal symmetry or lobing. This winter 
flowering continues until spring when large leaves begin to form and flowering ends. 

Both summer and winter leaves seem to be carnivorous in that they trap insects 
as shown in the figures. These are passive traps and even the glandular hairs do not 
move as they usually do in droseras. 

To examine the adhesive surfaces of the leaf blades more closely, I placed portions 
under my field microscope to produce the detail drawings of these glands. The green 
background is of course chlorophyl. There are both stalked and sessile glands, the 
latter unstalked and directly on the leaf surface for enzyme secretion and absorption 
of digestion products. A look at the magnified surface gives a good impression of the 
chilly, terrifying forest awaiting a small insect. 

I have never observed spontaneous vegetative reproduction or budding in this 
species which has been seen in some other Mexican butterworts. 


For the world's largest selection of 
carniuorous plants and seed 

Send a stamped, self addressed business sized enuelope 
(Australia) or 3 international reply paid coupons 
(ouerseas) for catalogue, to:- 
fl. Lomrie 

6 Glenn Place, Duncraig, 6023, LUestern Australia 

- .- 


Volume 23 September 1994 


67 



The Hawaii population of Drosera anglica 
— a tropical twist on a temperate theme 


Sam Gon III, 1604 Olalahina Place, Honolulu, HI, USA 

Of two species of CPs growing in the wild in the Hawaiian Islands, one is a naturalized 
introduced aquatic bladderwort (Utricularia gibba), while the other is the only 
indigenous Hawaiian CP species: Drosera anglica. Although most treatises on world 
CPs describe the distribution of D. anglica as “widespread temperate”, and overlook 
the tropical Hawaiian population, in recent years the tropical-adapted variety of D. 
anglica from Hawaii has found its way into a number of ID’ growers corrections. One 
interesting attribute of the Hawaii variety is its apparent ability to forgo winter 
dormancy. This article describes the distribution, habitat and likely origins of 
Hawaiian D. anglica, and discusses the transition from a cold temperate habitat to a 
tropical one. It ends with a few cultivation notes from my successful efforts to raise 
and propagate this variety under tropical conditions. 

The Hawaiian populations of D. anglica are found only in the bogs of the Alakai 
plateau on the island of Kauai. These bogs occur in a virtually trackless part of the 
island’s interior, at elevations from 4,000 to about 6,000 feet above sea level, putting 
them well within the Hawaiian montane zone. This zone, while generally frost-free, 
may see nocturnal winter temperatures just above freezing, and even during summer 
months, nighttime temperatures often fall to below 45° F. Nonetheless, during the 
day, conditions can be quite balmy and sunny, exceeding 75° F. 

The Kauai bogs are dominated by a variety of Hawaiian sedges, herbs and shrubs. The 
sedges are generally species of Carex, Rhynchospora, or Oreobolus. While mosses such 
as Sphagnum are absent in most Hawaiian bogs, and thick accumulations of peat are 
lacking, the highly acid, water-saturated conditions that mark bogs elsewhere in the 
world certainly apply, as does the stunted nature of plants growing in the bog habitat 
Hawaiian sundews, aptly called mikinalo in the Hawaiian language (miki: to suck + 
nalo: flies) are very common in certain bogs of the Alakai plateau. Colonies of tens 
to hundreds of individuals can be found growing along the edges of mucky pools in 
depressions protected from the wind but more commonly, be sundews grow in close 
association with sedge tussocks, sending delicate tentacled leaves out between the 
pincushion-like blades of Oreobolus. In such associations it is impossible to extricate 
the sundew from the sedge, and most hikers walking along the Alakai Swamp Trail 
don’t even notice that many of the ubiquitous sedge tussocks they see bear associated 
sundew partners. The tough sedge protects its sundew associates from weather 
conditions hi the Alakai, which can be quite harsh: heavy rainstorms and sweeping 
winds at gale velocities. An unprotected sundew would be beaten into the mud, then 
swept away in a torrent, but the sedge provides the physical support and bears the 
brunt of the weather. 

The location and ambient conditions in the Alakai bogs go a long way toward 
answering another question: How could a cold-temperate Drosera specks take to a 
tropical latitude such as that of Hawaii? The answer may be that the original colonist, 
far from finding a tropical clime, actually encountered conditions not so dissimilar to 
its original temperate home: near-freezing winters, cool ambient temperatures at 
montane elevations, and acidic open sedge bogs. As the colonist established itself in 
the higher bogs, its descendants could have gradually evolved tolerance of warmer 
conditions, even forgoing winter dormancy altogether, as they spread into bogs and 


68 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


acid wetlands at lower elevations on Kauai. 

The Hawaiian Islands are over 2500 miles from the nearest continent in any 
direction, so how did D. anglica get to the bogs of the island of Kauai? There are two 
likely possibilities. The high-altitude jet stream runs directly from Japan to the 
Hawaiian Islands during parts of the year, and small seeds of the Japanese 
populations of D. anglica may have been blown over that way and settled out on 
Kauai. The other route involves a migratory bird, the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis 
fulva), that yearly migrates from Alaska and Canada to Hawaii. When the birds 
arrive in Hawaii, they set up territories on lawns and other open flat habitats. One 
of their favorite haunts is open sedge bogs. In their non-stop flight from temperate 
North America to Hawaii, it is easy to envision seeds of D. anglica stuck in the mud 
on the feet of a plover being planted in its first landfall, a bog in the Alakai plateau 
of Kauai, the northernmost of the main Hawaiian Islands. 

Whether by jet stream or plover, the colonization of D. anglica to Hawaii must have 
been a one in a million occurrence. If the introductions were more frequent, there 
would have been no opportunity to evolve tropical habitat tolerance, since that 
presumably would have required isolation of the gene pool of D. anglica in Hawaii for 
sufficient generations to allow for divergence. Thankfully for CP enthusiasts in 
tropical settings, the tropical adaptations of D. anglica in Hawaii allows for their 
cultivation in warm climes without heroic measures, such as seasonal stints in 
refrigerators. 


The correct names for the subspecies of 
Sarracenia purpurea L. 

Martin Cheek 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 
Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, U.K. 

The article by Reveal (1993), reviewed in CPN 22(3):78, claims that owing to 
McDaniel’s lectotypification (1971), the universally used nomenclature for the north¬ 
ern and southern subspecies ofS. purpurea, the most widespread of all the American 
pitcher plants both in the wild and in cultivation, must be radically changed. This 
article, requested by CPN, examines the issue. 

Sarracenia purpurea L., described by Linnaeus (1753: 510) was first treated as 
two entities by Rafmesque (1840) who treated the northern (‘Canada to Virginia’) 
element as S. gibbosa and the southern (^Virginia to Florida’) variant as S. venosa. 
Wherry (1933) pointed out that the two taxa meet in New Jersey rather than in 
Virginia. He also noted that, although there are real differences between the two taxa, 
they are not sufficient for specific status, and treated them as subspecies: S. purpurea 
ssp. venosa (Raf.) Wherry and S. purpurea ssp. gibbosa (Raf.) Wherry. Wherry later 
(1972) adjusted the nomenclature to follow the International Code of Botanical 
Nomenclature (the Code), which rules that, where there are more than one infra- 
specific taxa of the same rank within any species, that to which the nomenclatural 
type of the species belongs should take the name of the species, that is, it should be 
autonomic. Thus one of the subspecies of S. purpurea must be S. purpurea ssp. 
purpurea. The question is, to which subspecies should the type of Linnaeus’s species 
be attributed: the northern or the southern subspecies? Wherry (1972) indicated that 
‘although Linnaeus preserved no type specimen, his discussion indicates that his 


Volume 23 September 1994 


69 



species represented the northern of these, which according to common usage should 
therefore bear the name S. purpurea subsp. purpurea ; for the southern one the 
published combination is S. purpurea ssp. venosa (Raf.) Wherry.’ 

However, McDaniel in his monograph of the genus (1971) was first formally to 
choose a nomenclatural type (lectotype) for S. purpurea. It should be remembered that 
a nomenclatural type is the element (specimen or illustration) to which the name of 
a taxon is permanently attached. This 20th Century American concept, now interna¬ 
tionally agreed upon, has helped stabilize names. Since earlier authors, such as 
Linnaeus, did not use this concept, types of their names have been selected retrospec¬ 
tively, that is, lectotypified, by later taxonomists. This process is governed by the 
Code. In the absence of a Linnaean specimen, McDaniel chose a plate from the 
protologue, as is permitted by the Code. He chose plate 70 of Catesby’s Natural History 
of Carolina, Florida and the Bahamas, one of the works cited by Linnaeus in his 
protologue. Unfortunately, that plate depicts the southern subspecies of S. purpurea, 
which according to the Code, should then have become known as S. purpurea ssp. 
purpurea, the northern becomingS. purpurea ssp .gibbosa (Raf.) Wherry, or, if treated 
as a variety, S. purpurea var. terrae-novae de la Pylaie as McDaniel pointed out 
(1971:24). 

McDaniel’s work was largely ignored, possibly owing to the obscurity of its 
publication as a Bulletin of the Tall Timbers Research Station, a series of publications 
known more for work on ornithology than anything else. By contrast, Wherry was 
followed. The beginning of the 1970’s saw an upsurge in interest in carnivorous plants 
that had not been seen since the 19th Century. A flood of popular books came forth. 
Initially they followed Wherry’s 1933 nomenclature (Schwarz (1974), J. & P.A. 
Pietropaolo (1974), Swenson (1977)), later the nomenclature suggested by his 1972 
publication (Schnell (1976), Slack (1979, 1986) J. & P. A. Pietropaolo (1986), Temple 
(1988), Cheers (1983,1992). In addition, the twenty-one volumes of the Journal of the 
International Carnivorous Plant Society and the 17 volumes of the Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal have followed Wherry’s nomenclature and overlooked that of McDaniel. 
Finally, the many specialist carnivorous plant nurseries in North America, Australia, 
Europe and Japan without exception follow Wherry in utilizing his nomenclature for 
the two subspecies where, as is usually the case, they are distinguished. The southern 
subspecies is probably the most popular American pitcher plant in cultivation and is 
sold as a house plant by the tens of thousands by at least one Dutch nursery. I have 
not been able to find a single instance of McDaniel’s nomenclature, the legal one 
according to the Code, being adopted for infra-specific taxa in S. purpurea. It was not 
until 1993, that Reveal drew attention to this state of affairs and pointed out that 
McDaniel’s names for the infra-specific variants of S. purpurea are correct and must 
be used. 

Reveal (1993) reviews the acceptance of Wherry’s usage by systematic authors. 
In general they are less consistent than horticultural authors in accepting sub specific 
rank for the infra specific taxa. Although Bell (1949) was inclined to reject Wherry’s 
distinction between the northern and southern infra-specific taxa, on the grounds 
that he suspected that the differences are “more environmental than hereditary’, he 
admitted that if the two came true from seed (which we now know to be so) ‘ the two 
subspecies of Wherry would seem to be justified.’ Reveal reports that Fernald (1950), 
Gleason (1952) and Gleason & Cronquist (1963,1991) accept Wherry’s distinction, as 
do, in Canada, Rousseau (1974), Taylor & MacBride (1977) and Scoggan (1978), 
though using the infra-specific epithet ‘purpurea’ at the variety or form level rather 
than the sub specific. Scoggan (1957), Looman & Best (1979), Porsildand Cody (1980), 
Moss (1983) and Hinds (1986) defined the range ofS. purpurea so as to exclude that 
of the southern taxon, according to Reveal, thus also supporting the distinction 


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Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


between the two taxa, perhaps implying specific rank for the southern subspecies. 

The two taxa are usually distinguished in the exterior indumentum and shape of 
the pitcher which is felty and fat in the southern taxon, glamorous and slender in the 
northern. They also differ in the margin and dimensions of the pitcher lid which in the 
southern subspecies is strongly crinkled and with wings easily meeting over the 
mouth, in the northern subspecies often entire, with wings not overlapping. These 
characters are well known to those who grow the plants. Less well known is that 
different species of mosquito inhabit each of the two taxa: Wyeomyia smithii inhabits 
the northern taxon, W. haynei the southern (cited in Wherry, 1972). From my own 
observations, the northern taxon usually has a vertical, rather than a horizontal 
rhizome and tends to have more numerous pitchers (6-10 rather than 4-5) per crown 
than the southern subspecies. A form of the northern subspecies lacking anthocyanin, 
S. purpurea subsp .purpurea f. heterophylla (Eaton) Fernald, has long been recognized 
in horticulture and can be locally dominant from New York to Nova Scotia. A most 
distinct botanical variety of the southern subspecies, in the gulf coast region, S. 
purpurea subsp. venosa var. burkii D. Schnell (Schnell 1993) has long been known 
(Wherry, 1933) under cultivation as S. purpurea subsp. venosa ‘Louis Burk’. It is 
recognized by short peduncles, white stigma and pale pink petals. 

To abandon, as Reveal suggests, the well-known and widespread usage of the 
infra-specific names of <S. purpurea in favour of that resulting from McDaniel’s 
lectotypification, would cause universal dismay and confusion. Accordingly I am 
proposing to conserve Sarracenia purpurea with a new type, under Art. 14 of the new, 
unpublished Tokyo (1993) Code which permits the conservation of any species name 
with a new type. In this case, the obvious two choices seem to be a Kalm specimen at 
Uppsala and a plate in a work by Clusius (1601). Both represent the northern 
subspecies and conserving either as lectotype over that of McDaniel would protect 
existing usage of names. 

Kalm was a student of Linnaeus who collected specimens for him from New York 
into Canada (the range of the northern subspecies). According to Steam (1957:114), his 
specimens were available to Linnaeus and usedin preparation of the Species PI an tarum. 
Kalm generally collected in sets of three. The first went to Linnaeus and I presume that 
this may well have been the specimen or one of the specimens that occupied the now 
mysteriously empty Sarracenia cover in Linnaeus’s herbarium (Jackson, 1907). The 
second went to Kalm’s private herbarium (destroyed by fire), the third to Queen Ulrig 
of Sweden, thence to the University of Uppsala. This sheet survives. It is favoured as 
an alternative lectotype by Reveal (1993), though as he points out that there is no proof, 
in the form, for example of an annotation, that it was seen by Linnaeus. Otherwise it 
would easily be adjudged the most suitable element for lectotypification over, for 
example, the Catesby plate. 

The plate of Clusius is eligible for consideration because it is cited by Linnaeus in 
Hortus Cliffortianus (1737), the precursor to the great Species Plantarum of 1753 
which is the starting point for all plant names. It clearly represents a specimen of the 
northern subspecies in its vertical rootstock, numerous, slender pitchers with short, 
broad wings to the hood. As an undoubted ‘original element’, it takes precedence over 
the Kalm specimen as a candidate for typification. 

If the proposal to conserve with a new type is accepted by the Committee for 
Spermatophyte and the General Committee of the International Association of Plant 
Taxonomy (LAPT), then the cataclysmic upset will be avoided and we will legally be 
able to call the northern subspecies S. purpurea L. ssp. purpurea and the southern 
subspecies S. purpurea ssp. venosa (Raf.) Wherry) as we have long been doing. The 
adjudication might take 12 months from the date of publication of the formal proposal 


Volume 23 September 1994 


71 


in Taxon (the journal of the 1APT). In the meantime I strongly propose that the existing 
usage be maintained by growers and that Reveal’s recommendation be laid aside for 
the present. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am grateful to Dick Brummitt and Nigel Taylor for advice. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bauhin, C. (1623). Theatri Botanici. Basel. 

Bell, C.R. (1949). A cyto taxonomic study of the Sarraceniaceae of North America. J. El. 
Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65: 137-166 

Cheers, G. (1983). Carnivorous Plants. Globe Press, Melbourne. 95 pp. 

Cheers, G. (1992). A Guide to Carnivorous Plants of the World. HarperCollins, 
Australia. 174 pp. 

Femald, M.L. (1950). Gray’s Manual of Botany, 8 th ed., American Book Co., New York. 

Gleason, H. (1952). The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the North-eastern 
United States and Adjacent Canada. Lancaster Press, Pennsylvania. 

Gleason, H. & Cronquist, A. (1963). Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United 
States and Adjacent Canada. Van Nostrand, New York. 

-(1991).-(2nd Ed.). NYBG, New York. 

Hinds, H.R. (1986). The Flora of New Brunswick. Primrose Press, Fredericton, New 
Brunswick. 

Jackson, B.D. (1907). On a manuscript list of the Linnaean Herbarium in the 
handwriting of Carl von Linn. Proc. Linn. Soc. London 119: 89-126. 

Linnaeus, C. (1737). Hortus Cliffortianus. Amsterdam. 

Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum. 2 vol. (Facsimile Edition, Ray Society, 
London, 1957). 

Looman, J. & Best, K.F. (1979). Budd’s Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Res. 
Branch Agric. Canada Publ. 1662. 

McDaniel, S. (1971). The Genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae). Bull. Tall. Timbers 
Research Station 

Moss, E.H. (1983). Flora of Alberta, 2nd Ed. rev. J.G. Packer. Univ. Toronto Press. 
Pietropaolo, J. & P.A. (1974). The World of Carnivorous Plants. Stoneridge, New York. 


72 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 




128 pp. 


-(1986). Carnivorous Plants of the World. Timber press, Oregon, USA. 206 pp. 

Plukenet, L. (1705). Amaltheum Botanicum. London. 

Porsild, A.E. & Cody, W.J. (1980). Vascular Plants of Continental Northwest Territo¬ 
ries, Canada. Nat. Mus. Canada, Ottawa. 

Rafinesque, C.S. (1840). Autikon Botanikon. Philadelphia. 

Reveal, J.L. (1993). The correct name of the northern expression of Sarracenia 
purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae). Phytologia 74(3): 180-184. 

Rousseau, G. (1974). Geographique Floristique du Quebec-Labrador. Univ. Laval 
press, Quebec. 

Schnell, D. (1976). Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada. Blair, North 
Carolina. 

Schnell, D.E. (1993). Sarracenia purpurea L. ssp. venosa (Raf.)Wherry var. burkii 
Schnell (Sarraceniaceae) a new variety of the gulf coastal plain. Rhodora 95(881): 6- 
10 . 

Schwarz, R. (1974). Carnivorous Plants. Praeger, New York. 128 pp. 

Scoggan, H.J. (1978). Flora of Manitoba. Nat. Mus. Canada Bull. 140. 

Slack, A. (1979). Carnivorous Plants. Ebury Press, London. 240 pp. 

Slack, A. (1986). Insect-Eating Plants and How to Grow Them. Alphabooks, Dorset, 
England. 172 pp. 

Steam, W.T. (1957). An introduction to the Species Plantarum and Cognate Botanical 
Works of Linnaeus. Ray Soc., London. 

Swenson, A. (1977). Cultivating Carnivorous Plants. Doubleday, New York. 160 pp. 

Taylor, R.L. & MacBride, B. (1977). Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Bot. Gard. 
Univ. British Columbia. Tec. Bull. 4. 

Temple, P. (1988). Carnivorous Plants. Cassell/R.H.S., London. 64 pp. 

Wherry, E.T. (1933). The geographic relations of Sarracenia purpurea. Bartonia 15: 1- 
16. 

Wherry, E.T. (1972). Notes on Sarracenia subspecies. Castanea 37:146-147. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


73 



Carnivorous Plants of New Zealand: A Review 

Robert Gibson, P.O. Box 287. PENRITH, N.S.W., 2750, AUSTRALIA 


The following is an account of the native carnivorous plant species of New Zealand 
based entirely upon available literature. Seven species of Drosera and five species of 
Utricularia occur naturally in New Zealand, and all but two ( D. stenopetala and U. 
delicatula) are found also in adjacent eastern Australia or New Caledonia. Despite 
this, many of these species have evolved in isolation into locally endemic forms which 
may warrant sub-specific status. This account is intended to only be a review of these 
New Zealand carnivorous plants and, by its very nature, is general and incomplete. I 
hope that it will reveal the considerable gaps in our knowledge and prompt the 
publication of supplementary observations from those in New Zealand. 

New Zealand is an island nation, in the south-west Pacific, which consists of two 
main islands - the North Island and South Island, with smaller islands to the north and 
south, of which the largest is Stewart Island (Fig. 1). Geologically it is a mosaic of 
fragments of Gondwana which rifted from the eastern margin of Australia 80-60 
million years ago (M.A.), and from Marie Byrd Land (Antarctica) 80-65 M.A. Present- 
day New Zealand represents only a small percentage of this micro continent, most of 
which is currently below sea-level. The islands lie at the tectonic plate boundary of the 
Indo-Australian and Pacific Plates, the interaction between them has resulted in the 
Southern Alps of the South Island, and the active volcanism in the North Island 
(White, 1990). 

The native carnivorous plant species are described below, and their approximate 
distributions are shown in Figure 2. 

D. arcturi 

Drosera arcturi is a rhizomatous, sparsely-rosetted winter-deciduous species. 
Three to six linear leaves are produced from October to February, and grow up to 12 
cm long by 1 cm wide, with a short, but indistinct non-glandular petiole. The rhizomes 
grow to 20 cm long and are mostly buried in the substrate (Hooker, 1853). Growing 
leaves are folded along their length and grow erect (Gibson, 1992a), which differs from 
the predominant modes of leaf growth in the genus where the blade is applied to the 
petiole, or uncurls (Juniper et al. 1989). The scape is produced from late November into 
December and bears a single, or very rarely two, white-petalled flower(s), which may 
be pollinated by moths. Plants becomes dormant in early autumn and the summer 
leaves and scape die. Seed is shed in early autumn and germinates the following spring 
when the growth recommences (Hooker, 1853; Cotter, 1987). 

This species is found throughout alpine and sub alpine areas, to 1500 metres 
(Burrows, 1986), of the North and South Islands (Fig. 2A), extending to sea-level on 
Stewart Island (Hooker, 1853). The main habitats are sphagnum bogs, which they 
dominate, or peat-based bogs where they grow amongst grasses and sedges. It may be 
found in association with D. spatulata,D. stenopetala and U. monanthos, as at the top 
of Arthur’s Pass, South Island (Boon, 1988). It is also found in Australia, on peaks in 
the Snowy Mountains, and throughout central and south-west Tasmania (Erickson, 
1968). 

D. auriculata 

Drosera auriculata is the most widespread of the two tuberous Drosera species in 
New Zealand (Harris, 1988). It commences growth from May, and initially forms a 
basal rosette, or emerges in mid-winter and forms an erect, or partially trailing, stem 
immediately which grows to 60 cm tall (Maulder, 1982). Plants often branch in the 
upper portion of the stems and each terminates in an inflorescence. The flowers have 
black-dotted, hairless sepals (Salmon, 1991a), and pink, rarely white petals, and are 


74 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


produced from August to November, prior to the plant becoming dormant (Harris, 
1988; Maulder, 1982). In some situations a flowering plant may resprout from its base 
and extend its growing season (Salmon, 1991a). 

Drosera auriculata is found throughout the North Island, especially in the north¬ 
west (Rowe, 1986) and in the north of the South Island (Hooker, 1853) (Fig. 2B.). It 
grows abundantly in moist clay (Jerebine, 1987; Harris, 1988), in thejaetter-drained 
margins of swamps (Salmon, 1988; Rowe, 1986), and in disturbed areas in woodland 
(Irving, 1988). It is commonly found with, or near, D. binata, D. peltata, D. pygmaea, 
D. spatulata, U. delicatula and U. novae-zelandiae (Anon., 1987; Rowe, 1986). This 
species is also found in south-eastern Australia and Tasmania (Erickson, 1968). 

D. binata 

Drosera binata is a distinctive, rosetted perennial with erect, petiolate dichoto- 
mously branched filiform lamina, which may branch further. One to three scapes are 
produced between late Spring and late Summer. They typically grow 30 to 40 cm tall, 
and have white-petalled flowers to 1.5 cm diameter (Salmon, 1991a). Plants are 
dormant from March to July (Maulder, 1982). 

The leaves vary in height from 10 cm to over 100 cm, and the lamina may have two 
to twenty lobes, and spread over 30 cm. The tallest plants grow amongst dense herbage 
and produce significantly shorter leaves in open ground (Maulder, 1984a). Up to three 
variants may occur in New Zealand, based tentatively on leaf division alone. Drosera 
binata “t-form” has been recorded from Northland (Rowe, 1986), but is probably 
subordinate to D. binata var “ dichotoma” which has two to four lobes per leaf. Drosera 
binata var. multifida, with evenly divided leaves with up to 14 lobes, has potentially 
been found in single swamp (Maulder, 1984a). 

Drosera binata is widespread in New Zealand (Fig. 2C.) and is found in the North, 
South, Stewart and Chatham Islands (44 00’S, 176 40 W) (Hooker, 1853), and also 
occurs in eastern Australia (Erickson, 1968). It grows on clay banks, in swamps, creek 
beds and on wet rock faces, usually in a sunny location (Maulder, 1984a). Plants may 
even be found growing under a few centimetres of water in the wettest parts of swamps 
and the margins of lakes (Salmon, 199 la). It is often found with, or near ,D. auriculata , 
D. pygmaea,D. spatulata, U. delicatula and U. novae-zelandiae { Salmon, 1991a; Anon. 
1987; Rowe, 1986). This species appears the most resilient to polluted water and weeds 
and remains on degrading sites longer than other native carnivorous plants (Salmon, 
1991). 

D. peltata 

Tuberous D. peltata has only recently been discovered in New Zealand, and is 
potentially a recent arrival from Australia. To date it has been found in a limited 
distribution in the far north of the North Island, north of Auckland (Fig. 2B.). Plants 
are golden green in colour, usually form a basal rosette, grow to approximately 20 cm 
tall, have very few branches which terminate in inflorescences. The flowers have pink 
petals, hairy sepals, and the globular fruits produce small round seed. They produce 
daughter tubers, which apparently D. auriculata does not (Maulder 1991; Salmon, 
1991a). No details of the growing season have been published but plants probably 
commence above ground growth in March, stem growth in July and flower from August 
to October. This species often grows with D. auriculata and D. pygmaea in grassland 
(Maulder, 1991; Salmon, 1991a). 

This species also occurs in south-eastern Australia, Tasmania, part of south-west 
Western Australia, and throughout South East Asia to Japan and India, and possibly 
in Central Africa (Erickson, 1968; Lowrie, 1987; Clarke, 1879;Degreef, 1991). The New 
Zealand plants strongly resemble the green-rosetted, pink-petalled variety found in 
eastern New South Wales (Gibson, 1992b). 

D. pygmaea 

Drosera pygmaea is the smallest sundew native to New Zealand with rosettes 


Volume 23 September 1994 


75 


around 1 cm diameter (Salmon, 1991a). Two variants have been found, the most 
common has dark red leaves and scapes, and an all-green form has been found in the 
centre of the North Island, but its taxonomic status has not yet been determined 
(Maulder, 1991). The species has a prominent silvery-white stipule bud, which protects 
the growing point from desiccation and damage. Single flowered scapes are produced 
over the summer, and gemmae are probably produced in late autumn to mid-winter, 
although the exact details of these have yet to be published. 

This species has only been reported from the North Island (Hooker, 1853) (Fig. 
2D.), particularly north of Auckland (Salmon, 1991a; Anon, 1987; Rowe, 1986). It is 
often found growing with, or near, D. auriculata, D. binata, D. peltata, D. spatulata, 
and U. novae-zelandiae, in a range of habitats, all at low altitude, including grassland, 
swamps and lake edges (Salmon, 1991a; Anon, 1987; Rowe, 1986). Drosera pygmaea 
is also found across the Tasman sea in eastern and south-eastern Autsralia, Tasmania 
and south-west western Australia (Lowrie, 1989). 

D. spatulata 

Drosera spatulata is a widespread perennial, spathulate-leaved species which 
occurs throughout New Zealand (Fig. 2D.). Two distinct forms occur. The most 
common is the “New Zealand Form” (Slack, 1980), which grows to 4 cm diameter. The 
leaves have a distinctive narrow, straight-sided petiole to 8 mm long, which lacks 
retentive glands on the basal half. The lamina are 5 mm long by 4 mm wide. During 
winter these plants go dormant in cold habitats. Scapes, to 8 cm tall, are produced from 
early summer, and on average bear 6 flowers each in a one-sided raceme. The 
inconspicuous white-petalled flowers are up to 6mm diameter (Salmon, 1991a). 

An unusual form, with potential subspecies status, has been found between 
Turangi and Waioru along the Desert Road, in the centre of the North Island, by Bruce 
Salmon (1988). The few-leaved, vivid red rosettes, to 1cm diameter, grow in small 
colonies in damp peat and clay soil. It over-winters as a dormant bud between June and 
September, and produces a scape to only 1cm tall. In cultivation, in warmer Auckland, 
this form grows to 2.5 cm diameter and is still winter-dormant. This form may be 
identical to variety “pusilla”, from Lake Taupo and the foot of Tongariro, which is 
described only as“scapis l-3floris, sepalislatioribus” (Hooker, 1853, page 20). It is not 
said whether the plants are deciduous or evergreen. 

The typical form of Drosera spatulata in new Zealand is found throughout the 
North, South and Stewart Islands (Hooker, 1853; Wilson, 1978), in sunny, perma¬ 
nently wet locations from coastal swamps to alpine sphagnum swamps, to approxi¬ 
mately 1250 metres elevation (Burrows, 1986). Drosera spatulata is also found in 
eastern Australia, and South East Asia, as far north as Japan (Erickson, 1968). A 
number of distinct forms occur throughout its range (Slack, 1980). Genetic studies of 
some populations has yield data which suggests that this species evolved in New 
Zealand, and then spread west and north (Degreef, 1989). It is not yet certain when this 
migration began, before or after New Zealand became separated from Gondwana 
approximately 65 M.A. (White, 1990), which would have profound implications on the 
age of this species. 

D. stenopetala 

Drosera stenopetala is a perennial, winter-deciduous species endemic to New 
Zealand. It forms a rosette of up to 10, or more, spathulate leaves from spring to early 
autumn, which arise from a short underground rhizome (Hooker, 1853). The leaves are 
up to 10 cm long, with a glabrous petiole to ca. 80 mm long by ca. 4 mm wide, 
surmounted by an ovate lamina to 15 mm long by 6 mm wide. A single-flowered scape 
rises above the rosette and isopen between December and February. The white- 
petalled flower has a large ovary surmounted by three deeply-divided styles (Birming¬ 
ham, 1983; Hooker, 1853). This species forms a dormant bud in early Autumn, the 
nature of which has yet to be described in the literature, and will be a function of the 


76 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


nature of growth habit of the leaves. 

Drosera stenopetala is found in the North, South, Stewart, Auckland (50 40’S, 166 
05’E) and Campbell (52 30’S, 169 00’E) Islands (Diels, 1906) (Fig. 2A.). In the latter 
two localities a few small plants have been found on Campbell Island (Laing, 1909), 
but it is quite common in lowland bogs in the Auckland Islands (Johnson and 
Campbell, 1975), where the generally small plants have initially been difficult to 
identify, and bear a strong resemblance to the closely related D. uniflora (Hooker, 
1847 and 1853). In general this species grows in montane and sub alpine areas, in 
tarns, swampy areas and occasionally on wet rock faces, which all have constantly 
flowing water. It has a preference for shaded swampy areas, and is often found with 
D. arcturi, but never with D. spatulata (Birmingham, 1983). 

This species extends to higher altitudes (to 1800 metres (Burrows, 1986)), and 
latitudes than D. arcturi, and therefore appears to be more cold-tolerant. Its presence 
on Auckland and Campbell Islands may reflect the longevity of this species. I 
speculate that it grew on the emergent Campbell Plateau prior to its almost complete 
submergence in the Eocene Epoch (57.8-36.6 M.A.) (White, 1990). It is part of a diverse 
flora, which is now limited to the highest, currently emergent, parts of it. The 
relatively large pyriform seeds do not appear conducive to wind transport. 

Drosera stenopetala is one of the three species (with D. arcturi and D. uniflora) 
which comprise section Psyochila (Diels, 1906) which is restricted to cold temperate 
areas of Australia, New Zealand and South America. All three species display many 
characters which are regarded as primitive, and also show a Gondwanan distribution. 
This is supported by the discovery of fossilized pollen of Drosera arcturi, and its 
ancestor “Dreridites tholus”, in early Eocene sedimentary rocks in Tasmania 
(Macphail, 1988). 

Utricularia australis 

Utricularia australis is a robust aquatic bladderwort of variable stature, which 
is generally shy to flower. The variability has led to this species being described as 
endemic species, U. protrusa and U. mairii (Taylor, 1989). The basely-bifurcated 
much-divided leaves grow to 6 cm long, with green to black bladders to 4 mm long. The 
stem segments grow to over 4 metres long, but are often shorter, and float at, or up 
to 1 metre below, the water surface (Maulder, 1984b). Scapes develope from December 
to March, which may develop en-masse in particular lakes, and can develop floats 
(Maulder, 1984b). One to three scapes are produced per plant, which have up to eight, 
small, completely yellow flowers each (Maulder, 1985c) which may be aborted at any 
stage of their growth (Maulder, 1984b). The species forms turions in response to 
desiccation and unfavourably cold (winter) temperatures (Maulder, 1984b; Taylor, 
1989). 

Despite the abundance of lakes and streams in New Zealand, U. australis is an 
uncommon species. It has been found in the northern half of the North Island and has 
been record from one location on the west coast of the South Island (Moar and Mason, 
1976) (Fig. 2E.). Perhaps the raised mineral concentrations in many lakes and rivers 
in the North Island, due to geothermal activity, makes many otherwise suitable 
habitats toxic to this species? At present the species most commonly found in lakes 
north of Auckland (Salmon, 1991a;Rowe, 1986;Maulder, 1985c;Maulder, 1984b),and 
sometimes grows with U. gibba (Maulder, 1984b). Utricularia australis also occurs 
in Australia, tropical and temperate Asia, tropical and temperate Africa, and Europe 
(Taylor, 1989). 

U. delicatula 

Utricularia delicatula is endemic to New Zealand, and is very similar to U. 
lateriflora from south-eastern Australia (Taylor, 1989), and has been confused with 
it in the past (Boon, 1990; Salmon, 1991a). It is a small, terrestrial Utricularia with 
small, bright green spathulate leaves to 10 mm long, by 1mm wide (Salmon, 1991a) 


Volume 23 September 1994 


77 


which are easily overlooked. The slender purple scapes, to 10 cm tall, have one to four 
alternately arranged tiny flowers, which are produced from mjd-November (Rowe, 
1986), to February (Taylor, 1989). The flowers are white, rarely with a subtle blue tinge 
on the lower lip (Salmon, 1991a). This species is confined to the northern half of the 
North Island, especially in the far north (Salmon, 1991a; Rowe, 1986) (Fig. 2F.). 

U. gibba 

Utricularia gibba is the other species of aquatic bladderwort in New Zealand, 
about which little has been written. This generally small species flowers prolifically 
from January to March (Maulder, 1984b). It has been recorded at Bethell’s Swamp, 
north-west of Auckland as U. biflora, and considered an introduced water weed (Boon, 
1990). However, this species also occurs in eastern Australia and New Caledonia which 
open up the possibility for natural introduction by migratory water birds. This view 
may be supported by the fact that this wide-ranging species is also found in temperate 
and tropical Africa and the Americas, as well as western Europe, the eastern 



Figure 1 : Location Map of New Zealand and 
the nearby Auckland, Campbell and 
Chatham Islands. 


Mediterranean shore, and South East 
Asia (Taylor, 1989). 

U. monanthos 

Utricularia monanthos is wide¬ 
spread in New Zealand (Fig. 2F.), es¬ 
pecially in the South Island, and oc¬ 
curs also in Stewart Island (Wilson, 
1987), the most southerly location for 
the genus (Taylor, 1989). It grows in 
wet areas, mainly in higher altitudes, 
but occurs at sea-level at the southern 
end of its range. The summer-pro¬ 
duced, predominantly single-flowered 
scapes grow from 3 to 10 cm tall, and 
support a lavender purple flower, to 
7mm across, with a yellow ridges on 
the palate, which are large in com¬ 
parison to the sometimes winter-de¬ 
ciduous leaves (Salmon, 1991b; 
Maulder, 1985a; Jenks, 1983). This 
species is variable in stature, which 
has caused some taxonomic confusion 
with the very similar U. dichotoma 
(Taylor, 1989). The latter species does 
not occur in New Zealand, and uncon¬ 
firmed reports of it at Westport, South 
Island (Salmon, 1990), may be robust 
U. monanthos plants. 


This species also occurs in Australia, where it is found in alpine, and sub-alpine 
areas of the Snowy Mountains, and throughout the central plateau of Tasmania 
(Erickson, 1968). 

U. novae-zelandiae 

Utricularia novae-zelandiae is found throughout the North Island (Fig. 2F.) and 
less-commonly, in all but the south-west portion of the South Island, and also occurs 
in New Caledonia. The endemic U. colensoi, U. subsimils, U. vulcania and U. sp. “Lake 
Ohia”, from the North Island have been reduced to synonymy (Taylor, 1989; Maulder, 
1985b). It is close to U. monanthos, but differs primarily in flower colour, palate 


78 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 





structure and the distinctly upturned edge of the lower lip. The dark purple scapes are 
produced from November (Maulder, 1985b), to February (Taylor, 1989), and support 1 
or 2 white flowers to 8 mm across. The ridges of the palate are yellow, edged red, and 
red veins occur in the upper lip (Salmon, 1991b). 

This species has been recorded dose to sea-level in the northern tip of New Zealand 
(Rowe, 1986), as well as at an unspecified altitude on Mount Ruapehu, in the centre of 
the North Island, where it may hybridize with U. monanthos (Salmon, 1991b). 

The conservation status of the native carnivorous plants of New Zealand is mixed. 
The widespread species -D. arcturi,D. auriculata,D. binata,D. pygmaea,D. spatulata, 
D. stenopetala, U. novae-zelandiae and U. monanthos are not threatened. However, the 
less-widespread D. peltata, U. australis, U. delicatula and U. gibba, which are 
primarily found in the northern half of the North Island have a less-secure future. 
Farming activities, including draining swamps, and the application and runoff of 
fertilizers, as well as some recreational watersports have already depleted or destroyed 
historically good carnivorous plant sites (Salmon, 1991a; Rowe, 1986; Maulder, 1985a). 

All native species occur in the North Island, with the highest concentration in the 
far north. With the possible exception of D. auriculata, which can reverse its growing 
and dormant seasons, those species on the South Island are summer-growing and 
winter dormant/ deciduous. This distribution may reflect the extensive Quaternary 
glaciation of the South Island, and voluminous explosive volcanism in the centre of the 
North Island (White, 1990). 

The carnivorous plants of New Zealand show strong overlap with those species 
found in eastern Australia, which probably reflects migration across the Tasman Sea, 
and the possibility that some species predated the breakup of Australia, Antarctica and 
New Zealand. Several species have begun to evolve in isolation into distinctive New 
Zealand forms, which includes two endemic species (D. stenopetala and U. delicatula). 
It is hoped that this review has painted a general picture of the native carnivorous 
plants of New Zealand, and that it will generate the publication of additional informa¬ 
tion from those with the means to observe these plants in the wild. 

REFERENCES: 

Anonymous, 1987. Northland C.P. Sites: A Cook’s Tour. The New Zealand Carnivorous 
Plant Society Journal, Vol. 6 (2), p. 12-13. 

Birmingham, G. 1983. Drosera stenopetala The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 2 (3), p. 10-11 

Boon, R. 1990. In Form: New Zealand Utricularia. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 8(1), p. 8. 

Boon, R. 1988. The Aquatic Field Trip. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society 
Journal, Vol. 6 (4), p. 13-15. 

Burrows, C.J. 1986. Botany of Arthur’s Pass National Park, South Island, New 
Zealand: 1. History of Botanical Studies and Checklist of the Vascular Flora. New 
Zealand Journal of Botany, 24 (1), p. 9-68. 

Clarke, C. B. 1879. “Order LIV Droseraceae” in J.D. Hooker (Ed.) The Flora of British 
India. Vol. III. Spottiswoode and Co. London, p. 423-425. 

Cotter, P. 1987. Drosera arcturi. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society Journal, 
Vol. 6 (2), p. 9-11. 

Degreef, J. 1991. Le Drosera insolite. Dionee, vol. 21, p.11-12. 

Degreef, J. 1989. The Droseraceae during the glaciations. Carnivorous Plant Newslet¬ 
ter, Vol. 18 (2), p. 45-46, 52-54 

Diels, L. 1906. “Droseraceae”. In A. Engler (ed.) Sarraceniales, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 
112* pp. 1 -137. Verlag von Wilhelm Englemann, Leipzig. 

Erickson, R. 1968. Plants of Prey in Australia. University of Western Australia press, 
Nedlands, pp. 94. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


79 


Gibson, R. 1992a. Drosera arcturi. Flytrap News, Vol. 5 (4), p. 5-9 
Gibson, R. 1992b. Observed variation in Drosera auriculata and D. peltata. Carnivo¬ 
rous Plant Newsletter, Vol. 21 (3), p. 75-78 

Harris, K. 1988. Drosera peltata ssp auriculata. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 6 (4), p. 18. 

Hooker, J.D. 1853. The Botany [of] The Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 
Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843. Under the Command of Captain Sir James 
Clarke Ross, Kt., R.N., F.R.S. andc.: Volume 2: Botany of New Zealand. Lovell, Reeve. 
Henrietta St., Covent Garden, London, pp. 378. 

Hooker, J.D. 1847. The Botany [of] The Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 
Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843. Under the Command of Captain Sir James 
Clarke Ross, Kt., R.N., F.R.S. and c.: Volume 1: Flora Antarctica. Reeve, Brothers; 
King William Ts, Strand, London, pp. 574. 

Irving, B. 1988. Native C.P. Habitat: Orakei Korato. The New Zealand Carnivorous 
Plant Society Journal, Vol. 7 (2), p. 18-19. 

Jenks, J. 1984. Utricularia monanthos. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society 
Journal, Vol. 2 (2), p. 12-13. 

Jerebine, K. 1991. Native carnivorous plants. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 10 (3), p. 27. 

Johnson, P.N. and Campbell, D.J. 1975. Vascular Plants of the Auckland Islands. New 
Zealand Journal of Botany. Vol. 13 (4), p. 65-720. 

Juniper, B.E.; Robins, R.J. and Joel, D.M. 1989. The Carnivorous Plants. Academic 
Press, Harcourt Brace Janovich, Publishers, Oxford, pp. 353. 

Laing, R. 1909. Article XXI-The Chief Plant Formations and associations of Campbell 
Island. In C. Chilton (ed.) The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand: Reports on the 
Geo-Physics, Geology, Zoology, and Botany of the Islands Lying South of New Zealand 
based mainly on the Observations and Collections Made During an Expedition In The 
Government Steamer “Hinemoa” (Captain J. Bollons) In November, 1907. Vol. 2, p. 
482-492. 

Lowrie, A. 1989. Carnivorous Plants of Australia: Volume 2. University of western 
Australia Press, Nedlands, pp. 202. 

Lowrie, A. 1987. Carnivorous Plants of Australia: Volume 1. University of western 
Australia Press, Nedlands, pp. 200. 

Macphail, M.K. 1988. ‘“Over the top”: Pollen-based reconstruction of past alpine floras 
and vegetation in Tasmania.’ In B. A. Barlow (ed.) Flora and Fauna of Alpine 
Australasia: Ages and Origins. CSIRO in association with Australian Systematic 
Botany, CSIRO Melbourne, p. 173-204. 

Moar, N. and Mason, R. 1976. “Notes and Comments: Discovery of Utricularia 
protrusa Hook, f. Near Westport, South Island, New Zealand.” New Zealand Journal 
of Botany, v. 13, p. 803-805. 

Maulder, R. 1991. Drosera peltata in New Zealand. The New Zealand Carnivorous 
Plant Society Journal, Vol. 10 (3), p. 7-8. 

Maulder, R. 1985a. More Threatened Swamps. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 4 (2), p. 2-3 

Maulder, R. 1985b Recent Status of New Zealand Utricularia. The New Zealand 
Carnivorous Plant Society Journal, Vol. 4 (2), p. 4 

Maulder, R. 1985c. North Auckland Utricularia. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 4 (1), p. 11-13 

Maulder, R. 1984a. Drosera binata. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society 
Journal, Vol. 3 (1), p. 7. 

Maulder, R. 1984b. Utricularia protrusa. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society 
Journal, Vol. 3 (1), p.20-24 

Maulder, R. 1982. News and Views. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter, Vol 11 (4), p. 86. 


80 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


Rowe, D. 1986. Northland Explorations. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant Society 
Journal, Vol. 4 (4), p. 5-7 

Salmon, B. 1991a. Northland Field Trip 1990. The New Zealand Carnivorous Plant 
Society Journal, Vol. 10 (3), p. 8-11 

Salmon, 1991b. New Zealand Utricularia Observations. The New Zealand Carnivo¬ 
rous Plant Society Journal, Vol. 10 (3), p. 17-19 

Salmon, B. 1990. Member’s Query: Southern C.P.’s The New Zealand Carnivorous 
Plant Society Journal, Vol. 9(1), p. 6 

Salmon, B. 1988. Drosera spatulata: Desert Road. The New Zealand Carnivorous 
Plant Society Journal, Vol. 7(1), p. 10-11. 

Slack, A. 1980. Carnivorous Plants, (2nd Edition), A.H. and A.W. Reed, Dorset 
England, pp. 240. 

White, M. 1990. The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Animals and Plants in Prehistoric 
Australia and New Zealand. Reed Books Pty. Ltd., Sydney, pp. 256. 

Wilson, H.D. 1987. Vegetation of Stewart Island. A Supplement to the New Zealand 
Journal of Botany. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, pp. 
131. 



Figure 2 : Approximate distribution maps of the native New Zealand carnivo¬ 
rous plants: (A) Drosera arcturi (vertical stripes) andD. stenopetala (horizon¬ 
tal stripes); (B) D. auriculata (vertical stripes) and D. peltata (horizontal 
stripes); (C) D. binata (vertical stripes); (D) D. pygmaea (vertical stripes), D. 
spatulata (horizontal stripes) and D. spatulata var. pusilla (stippled); (E) U. 
australis (vertical stripes) and U. gibba (horizontal stripes); and (F) U. 
delicatula (stippled), U. monanthos (vertical stripes) and U. novae-zelandiae 
(horizontal stripes). Note that D. binata also occurs on Chatham Island andD. 
stenopetala also occurs in the Auckland and Campbell Islands, shown in 
Figure 1. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


81 






























Literature Review 

Lenz, Richard J. 1994. Marcia R. Cohen portfolio no. 1: Genus Sarracenia. Georgia 
Wildlife 4:12-17. 

This article briefly describes the function of sarracenias, but mainly features the 
sarracenia art of Marcia Cohen which has been mentioned in reviews in previous 
issues. Ms. Cohen spent three years in the field producing her pastels with color pencil 
and they are accurate and beautiful. The production is nicely done with quality 
publishing in this relatively new state wildlife magazine. Ms. Cohen’s artwork will 
begin gracing these pages as well. 

Gagliardo, Ron. Atlanta Botanical Garden carnivorous plant collection. 

Kanel, John de and Rolfe Smith. The Nepenthes collection at Longwood Gardens. 

Gardner, Rob. The carnivorous plant collection at the North Carolina Botanical 
garden. 

Mellichamp, T. Lawrence. Sarracenia hybrids—American style. 1994. The Public 
Garden. 9:36-39(plus tails). 

This is a group of four articles on CP collections at four public gardens. The 
magazine is published by a consortium of botanical gardens. In addition to a brief 
summary of a sentence or two on each garden, I (DES) will also give my impressions 
since I have visited all of them. 

There is little we need to add about the Atlanta Botanical Garden since we have 
written it up several times in these pages. The author, who just joined the Garden to 
work principally with tissue culture, describes the public indoor displays as well as the 
outdoor southern coastal plain bog exhibit. These are easily publicly accessible. Less 
accessible, is the greenhouse or “prop house” area where unexhibited species—often of 
great interest—arid propagation occur. These places are generally less accessible in 
most gardens. However those identified with particularly serious interest in CP may 
be admitted if you can catch Ron Determann or Ron Gagliardo. The displays are 
excellent. 

Longwood has reduced to a modest public display of Nepenthes since, as the author 
admits and I have found from other sources, the Garden is reverting to horticultural 
displays as its main mission. The small terrarium display of other CP I saw there a 
couple of years ago is in very poor condition, and admission to the prop area is nearly 
impossible. 

The North Carolina Botanical Garden is entirely open—All CP are displayed. 
There is an artificial coastal plain habitat, labeled pots in a greenhouse area which are 
portable for moving exhibits around town, and a larger area of sunken pots. In addition 
to CP, the Garden is a fine example of native plant gardens. 

Larry Mellichamp’s place at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte has all 
displays open to the public. The CP display is heavy on sarracenias which are being 
used to develop horticulturally desirable hybrids, some containing as many as six 
species. Larry emphasizes his growing methods which include plenty of light and salts- 
free water, and a medium consisting of 2 parts peak 1 part perlite and 1 part 
vermiculite with light liquid fertilization every three weeks during the growing 
season. As a bonus, the visitor may also see the extensive native plant garden on a 
wooded hillside that features many naturalized species of rhododendron. 

In summary, at present, visits to Atlanta, Chapel Hill and Charlotte are well- 
worth a special effort. Stop at Longwood if you are in the neighborhood. 


82 


Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 


SPECIAL NOTICE 

The editors of CPN have decided that it is time to incorporate officers into the 
society as described by our bylaws. In these bylaws, 3 officers are required; 
president, vice-president and secretary-treasurer. We think the best method of 
getting nominees for these officers is through the local CP chapters that have sprung 
up in recent years around the United States. Later we wall include other countries 
but for now, because of time constraints, it is more expedient to focus on members 
from this country. 

We are asking each CP chapter in this country to submit one candidate name 
for each of the above offices. We estimate that we would obtain 4-6 nominees for each 
office. A ballot with these names will be with the December issue of CPN. Members 
will vote for a candidate from each office and mail the ballot to Editor Steve Baker 
who will tabulate the results. 

You can write or e-mail your candidates into Steve’s address which appears 
below. We would appreciate that all nominees be in by September 15th to give us 
time to contact them and perhaps obtain a short statement on how they can help our 
organization plan for the future. 

Basically, officers run for two years and meet annually either by phone or at a 
regional meeting to discuss the agenda. There are several issues that we are aware 
of that will affect this organization in the future and they should be resolved soon. 

We thought it would be useful to have a list of all of the CP clubs or groups in 
the USA to publish in CPN. When you send in your list of nominees please mention 
the name of the club or group also included the name and address of the person to 
contact and there e-mail address if available. 

Steve’s street and email address is on the front inside copy under editors. 


SPECIAL NOTICE 

NEW PRICES FOR RACK CPN ISSUES 

Over the years, we have accumulated a large inventory of back issues of CPN 
magazine which is becoming a serious storage problem. So, we are making a 
generous offer to reduce this inventory by reducing the prices of ten years of the past 
issues. 

CPN issues from 1978 to 1987, (vol 7 to vol 17 ) will now cost $8.00 per volume, 
a discount of over 60% from the previous price. Now this offer only applies to the 
above mentioned issues because the CPN issues from Vol 18 to vol 22 remain the 
same, i.e. $12.50 per vol. Issues of CPN from Vol 1-6 are available on demand since 
these are copied from the original issues which are no longer available. The price of 
these will be also $8.00 per volume. 

Tell your friends, old members and even new members about this deal. Perhaps 
you want a second copy to keep unspoiled and unsoiled on your library shelf or to just 
replace issues that are wearing out with use. This offer is good until we run out of 
copies. 

Please enclose the following with each order of CPN's at this special price. On a 
3x5 index card put what issues you wish to purchase with your full name and address 
on it. Also send a self addressed envelope. Without the above item your order may be 
delayed or not filled. 


Volume 23 September 1994 


83