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N.C. DOCUMENTS 


CLEARir 


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Carolina 

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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER t 


JANUARY 1997 


NCLHA and FNCHS Hold Joint Annual Meeting 

The North Carolina Literary and Historical Association (NCLHA) and the Feder¬ 
ation of North Carolina Historical Societies (FNCHS) held a joint annual meeting 
in Raleigh on November 22, 1996. It was the ninety-sixth such gathering for the 
NCLHA and the twenty-first such conclave for the FNCHS. 

Preceding the opening of the joint meeting was an address titled "Trends in 
Philanthropic Giving" by John Bennett of Raleigh, president of the Capital 
Consortium. The meeting itself commenced at 1:00 p.m. at the North Carolina 
Museum of History with a welcome from Jo Ann Williford of Raleigh, secretary- 
treasurer of the FNCHS. John E. Batchelor of Laurinburg then announced the 
winners of the NCLHA-sponsored North Carolina Student Publication Awards 
for 1996. A trophy for first place in the senior high school division went to 
Washington High School of Washington for its publication Opus '96; C. W. 
Stanford Middle School of Hillsborough won a trophy for first place in the 
middle-school category of the annual competition for its publication Enchanted 



At the November 22,1996, joint annual meeting of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association and 
the Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies, William S. Powell (right) of Chapel Hill presented the 
1996 Christopher Crittenden Memorial Award to Drs. Joseph and Lala Steelman of Greenville. (All photo¬ 
graphs by the Division of Archives and History unless otherwise indicated.) 











Contemplations. Certificates of commendation for second and third place in the 
senior high division went to Lee County Senior High School of Sanford for Lee 
High Review and to South Mecklenburg High School of Charlotte for Sententia 
respectively; winner of second and third place in the middle-school division were 
Martin Middle School of Raleigh for Illusions and Warren County Middle School 
of Warrenton for Creative journeys respectively. Following presentations of the 
awards. Dr. John Mack Faragher, professor of history at Yale University, deliv¬ 
ered the joint meeting's keynote address, '"White People Who Live Like Savages': 
Daniel Boone in North Carolina." 

At the conclusion of the keynote address Jeffrey J. Crow of Cary announced 
the recipients of the Hugh T. Lefler Undergraduate Award and the Robert D. W. 
Connor Award. The Lefler award went to Emily Berry of the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill for her undergraduate paper titled "'One Building Block 
in the Battle': The North Carolina Volunteers and the Legacy of Idealism." 
Winner of the Connor award was Jane Turner Censer, professor of history at 
George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, for her article "A Changing World of 
Work: North Carolina Elite Women, 1865-1895," which appeared in the January 
1996 issue of the North Carolina Historical Review. Each year the Historical Society of 
North Carolina presents the Lefler award for the best paper written by an 
undergraduate student and the Connor award for the best article to appear in the 
North Carolina Historical Review during a one-year period. 

E. T. Malone Jr. of Durham then announced that the Roanoke-Chowan Poetry 
Award had been given to Fred Chappell of Greensboro for his volume of poetry 
titled Spring Garden (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995). The 
Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, bestowed each year by the Roanoke-Chowan 
Group of Writers and Allied Artists and the NCLHA, recognizes the best volume 
of poetry published during a one-year period. The 1996 American Association of 
University Women (AAUW) Award for Juvenile Literature went to William H. 
Hooks of Chapel Hill for his book Freedom's Fruit (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
1996); Sandra Champion of Kings Mountain presented the accolade on behalf of 
the AAUW. 



Winner of the 1996 American Associa¬ 
tion of University Women Award for 
juvenile Literature was William H. 
Hooks (right) of Chapel Hill for his book 
Freedom's Fruit. Hooks received the 
award from Sandra Champion of Kings 
Mountain (left), representing the 
AAUW. 


2 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




Jeffrey J. Crow then presented American Association for State and Local 
History (AASLH) Awards of Merit to Katie Burkart, a student at P. S. Jones 
Middle School of Washington, North Carolina, and a Tar Heel Junior Historian, 
for "Forgotten Legacy: African American Storm Warriors," her report on the 
history of the Pea Island Lifesaving Station; to the Catawba County Historical 
Association and Gary R. Freeze of Newton for Dr. Freeze's book The Catawhans: 
Grafters of a North Carolina County (Newton: Catawba County Historical Associa¬ 
tion, 1995), a history of everyday life in the rural county; to the Historical 
Publications Section of the Division of Archives and History for accomplish¬ 
ments in publishing North Carolina history; to Greg Mast of Person County for 
his book State Troops and Volunteers: A Photographic Record of North Carolina's Civil War 
Soldiers, Vol. 1 (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, 1995); to Dr. Joseph¬ 
ine E. Newell of Raleigh for her nearly thirty years of work with the Country 
Doctor Museum of Bailey; and to the Railroad House Historical Association of 
Sanford for its publication The History and Architecture of Lee County, North Carolina, by 
J. Daniel Pezzoni (Sanford: Railroad House Historical Association, 1995). Dr. 
Crow then distributed AASLH Certificates of Commendation to Sarah Manning 
Pope and Emily Newman Weil, both of Pikeville, for their book Postcards of Old 
Wayne County, N.C. (Goldsboro: Wayne County Historical Association, 1995) and 
to Joe A. Mobley of Raleigh for his accomplishments as the author of various 
publications on North Carolina history. 



Two recipients of the American Association for State and Local History's Awards of Merit were Katie Burkart 
(left photo) of Washington, North Carolina, and Dr. Josephine E. Newell of Raleigh (right photo). Ms. Burkart 
was honored for her report on the history of North Carolina's Pea Island Lifesaving Station, Dr. Newell for her 
many years of work with the Country Doctor Museum of Bailey. Jeffrey J. Crow of Cary presented all AASLH 
awards at the joint meeting. 

Following an afternoon break, Willis P. Whichard of Durham, president of the 
NCLHA, presided at a brief business meeting. At the conclusion of that conclave 
John William Coffey II, chairman of the curatorial department and curator of 
American and modern art at the North Carolina Museum of Art, presented a 
slide demonstration titled "Louis Remy Mignot: The Discovery of a Southern 
Painter." 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


3 






The evening portion of the joint meeting, held at the Woman's Club of Raleigh, 
commenced with a 6:00 P.M. social hour, followed by a dinner presided over by 
association president Willis P. Whichard and an after-dinner presidential speech 
by Judge Whichard titled "Justice James Iredell." Jo Ann Williford then presented 
Albert Ray Newsome Awards to the Yadkin County Historical and Genealogical 
Society of Yadkinville and to the Country Doctor Museum of Bailey. The FNCHS 
bestows the award annually to historical organizations in North Carolina that 
conduct the most comprehensive and outstanding programs in local or commun¬ 
ity history during the previous year. 


Keynote speaker at the evening session of the joint 
meeting was Willis P. Whichard of Raleigh, associate 
justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court and 
current president of the NCLHA. judge Whichard 
discussed lames Iredell, one of his more distin¬ 
guished predecessors on the state's high court. 


Aurelia Stafford of Greensboro, representing the Historical Book Club of 
North Carolina, presented the 1996 Sir Walter Raleigh Award for Fiction to G. D. 
Gearino of Fuquay-Varina for his book What the Deaf-Mute Heard (New York: 
Simon and Schuster, 1996). Winner of the 1996 Mayflower Award for Nonfiction 



C. D. Gearino (left) of Fuquay-Varina 
received the Historical Book Club of 
North Carolina's 1996 Sir Walter 
Raleigh Award for Fiction for his book 
What the Deaf-Mute Heard. Aurelia 
Stafford (right) of Greensboro made 
the presentation on behalf of the book 
club. 



4 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 








was James L. Leloudis of Chapel Hill for his book Schooling the New South: Pedagogy, 
Self, and Society in North Carolina, 1880-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press, 1996); Rom Moser of Zebulon presented the award to Dr. Lelou¬ 
dis. The R. Hunt Parker Memorial Award, bestowed by the NCLHA in recogni¬ 
tion of significant lifetime contributions to the literary history of North Carolina, 
went to Louis D. Rubin of Chapel Hill, retired professor of English at the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, founder of Algonquin Books, and 
author of numerous books, articles, and essays. Lee Smith of Chapel Hill, 
president-elect of the NCLHA, made the presentation. 



Rom Moser (left) of Zebulon, representing 
the Society of Mayflower Descendants in 
the State of North Carolina, presented the 
1996 Mayflower Award for Nonfiction to 
James L. Leloudis (right) of Chapel Hill. Dr. 
Leloudis won the award for his book 
Schooling the New South: Pedagogy, Self, 
and Society in North Carolina. 


Honored with the 1996 R. Hunt Parker 
Award was Louis D. Rubin (right), retired 
professor of English at UNC-Chapel Hill, 
founder of Algonquin Books, and prolific 
author. The NCLHA bestows the award in 
recognition of lifetime contributions to 
the literary history of North Carolina. 
Presenter of the award was Lee Smith (left) 
of Chapel Hill, president-elect of the 
NCLHA. 



In the evening's final ceremony, William S. Powell of Chapel Hill, chairman of 
the North Carolina Historical Commission, presented to Drs. Joseph and Lala 
Steelman of Greenville the NCLHA's 1996 Christopher Crittenden Memorial 
Award, which recognizes "significant contributions to the preservation of North 
Carolina history." Both are retired, having previously served for many years as 
professors of history at East Carolina University. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


5 


A&H Publishes History of Bertie County during Civil War 

The Division of Archives and History recently published Divided Allegiances: Bertie 
County during the Civil War, by Gerald W. Thomas. The volume recounts the story 
of how the great national struggle quickly transformed the lives of virtually all of 
Bertie County's citizens and describes in detail the price those citizens paid in 
casting their lot on either side of the conflict. Gerald W. Thomas, a native of 
Bertie County and an amateur historian, is the coauthor (with Weymouth T. 
Jordan Jr.) of “Massacre at Plymouth: April 20,1864," which appeared in the April 
1995 issue of the North Carolina Historical Review. His careful attention to conditions 
on the home front offers new insights into the glaring internal divisions that 
beset the Confederacy within one North Carolina county (and, by extension, 
throughout the state). 

Prior to the Civil War, overwhelmingly rural Bertie County, situated in the 
Albemarle region of northeastern North Carolina, was largely governed by 
staunchly pro-Union landholders, many of whom produced cotton and depended 
upon the labor of slaves, who constituted more than half the county's total 
population. Even after the states of the lower South had seceded from the Union 
in January 1861, the people of Bertie strongly opposed secession and even the 
holding of a convention to consider such a course. Only when newly elected 
president Abraham Lincoln issued a call for troops to suppress the rebellion in the 
lower South did the people of Bertie County reluctantly abandon their deeply felt 
opposition to secession. Even so, a substantial number of those citizens simply 
refused to fight for the Confederacy. 

Bertie's leaders responded to the war by organizing military units and raising 
money to equip the county's numerous volunteers, the majority of whom 
enlisted for Confederate service. Nevertheless, among the county's 1,425 men 
identified by the author as having taken up arms during the Civil War, more than 
200 whites—including the author's great-grandfather—served in Union military 
units. Moreover, approximately 400 African Americans from the county likewise 
served in the Federal military. The author documents the extensive participation 
of Bertie County men in various Civil War battles, including the Battle of 
Plymouth (April 17-20, 1864), at which a substantial number of the county's 
Union volunteers were captured and sent to Confederate prisons (most notably 
the notorious facility at Andersonville, Georgia), at which most perished. 

While Bertie County remained under Confederate civil authority throughout 
the war, it was not protected by a permanently stationed Confederate military 
force. It thus became a virtual no-man's-land, vulnerable to frequent raids by 
Federal forces, particularly troops aboard Union gunboats that plied the Union- 
controlled Albemarle Sound and Chowan and Roanoke Rivers, which largely 
circumscribe Bertie's borders. Economic and social conditions deteriorated over 
time, and commodities and foodstuffs were constantly in limited supply, requir¬ 
ing the county to be placed under martial law. Even the county's pro-Confederate 
citizens soon tired of the war. A strong resentment of efforts by the Southern 
government to draft men for military service led many Bertie men to hide out in 
the woods and swamps to avoid Confederate conscription officers. Many of them 
were hunted down and shot on sight. Large numbers of people—black and 
white—fled the county during the war. Certain whites entered Union lines to 
avoid conscription or persecution by military or civilian authorities, and large 


6 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



Divided Allegiances 


Bertie County during the Civil War 


Gerald W. Thomas 


The Division of Archives and History recently published 
Divided Allegiances: Bertie County during the Civil War, by 
Gerald W. Thomas. The front cover of the volume features a 
photograph of CpI. lames Richard Conner of Bertie County 
as a corporal in Company C, First Regiment North Carolina 
Union Volunteers. Conner initially enlisted in the "Bertie 
Volunteers" (the first Confederate unit raised in the county) 
and later served as a private in Company F, Eleventh Regi¬ 
ment North Carolina Troops, before deserting and joining 
the Union Volunteers. Conner, like more than sixty other 
Bertie County men, served on both sides during the sectional 
conflict. 


numbers of blacks similarly fled to achieve freedom from the bonds of slavery. 
Wealthy planters and their families moved westward and as far south as Georgia 
to escape the influence of Federal troops or to protect their property. Late in the 
war armed bushwhackers and prowling bands of guerrillas preyed on defenseless 
citizens. By 1863 more Bertie County men—black and white—were enlisting in 
the Union military forces than in the Confederate army. 

The author also covers the role of Bertie County's African Americans—mostly 
slaves—as a source of manpower for the Federal army and navy. Late in the war, 
when the Confederate government concluded that its only viable means of 
maintaining an army was to draft black men and enacted legislation to that end, 
Bertie's African Americans fled the county in significant numbers and enlisted in 
the Federal army. Having toiled all their lives under bondage, Bertie's blacks 
decided that they would not be enslaved as combatants on behalf of the South. 

The book concludes with appendixes in the form of two rosters of Bertie 
County's Confederate and Federal servicemen organized by unit, a bibliography, 
and an index. Enriching the volume throughout are three useful maps and 
twenty-two illustrations. Divided Allegiances (206 pages; bound in paper) is availa¬ 
ble for eleven dollars per copy (plus three dollars for shipping). Order from 
Historical Publications Section, Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones 
Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. 


Tryon Palace to Host Decorative Arts Symposium 

The Tryon Palace Commission and the Division of Continuing Studies at East 
Carolina University will cosponsor the twenty-ninth annual Tryon Palace 
Decorative Arts Symposium at the Tryon Palace Auditorium in New Bern, 
March 16-18. The title of this year's series of lectures is "In Pursuit of Gentility: 
Signs of Fashion and Taste in Polite Society." Philip Zea, deputy director and 
curator at Historic Deerfield, Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the author of 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


7 
















numerous books and articles on New England furniture, will initiate the sympo¬ 
sium with a keynote address titled "Gentility in Wood: Regional Standards of 
Excellence in Eighteenth-Century Architecture and Furniture." The remainder 
of the program will feature the following speakers and their respective topics: 
Richard C. Taylor, professor of English, East Carolina University, specialist in 
British literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and author of 
various works on related subjects, "Reading Faces: Physiognomy and Character 
in the Eighteenth-Century Novel"; Barbara G. Carson, author and noted author¬ 
ity on American social and decorative-arts history, "Leisure Activities: Pleasur¬ 
able Diversions of the Genteel Life"; Claudia B. Kidwell, longtime member of the 
curatorial staff of the National Museum of American History and curator of its 
costume collection, "The Other Woman Wins: Competing Ideal, or Feminine 
Beauty, 1760-1820"; Janine E. Skerry, curator of ceramics and glass at Colonial 
Williamsburg, "Revolution in Taste: Setting a Stylish Table"; and Peter J. Hatch, 
director of grounds and gardens at Monticello, noted lecturer, and author of a 
forthcoming book on Thomas Jefferson and the origins of American horticulture, 
"Thomas Jefferson and the Gentleman's Fruit Garden." 

The three-day symposium will also include meals and periodic refreshments, 
special guided tours of Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens, a candlelight tour 
of the palace, a guided trolley tour of the historic district of New Bern (for a 
modest extra fee), and a social hour and hors d'oeuvres in two of New Bern's 
historic houses. A registration fee of $195 per person covers lectures, materials, 
tours, refreshments, socials, and specified meals. Registrations must be postmarked no 
later than January 31, 1997; those postmarked after that date will require a fee of $225. 
Deadline for optional dinner reservations is March 10. To register or to obtain 
additional information on the symposium, write to Tryon Palace Symposium, 
Division of Continuing Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858- 
4353; telephone (800) 767-9111 or (919) 328-6143; or fax to (919) 328-4350. 

Noted Historian Speaks at Historic Stagville 

John Hope Franklin, James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of History at Duke 
University, was the guest speaker at Historic Stagville's fifth annual Earlie E. 
Thorpe Memorial Lecture on November 10, 1996. Dr. Franklin's address, titled 
"Witnessing for Justice," focused on issues related to the role of historians in 
addressing social injustice through direct participation in the judicial system both 
as consultants and witnesses. Dr. Franklin, whose distinguished career spans a 
half-century, is widely recognized as one of the nation's foremost historians. He 
is the author of numerous award-winning books and articles on American slav¬ 
ery and race relations and holds more than eighty honorary degrees. 

The Thorpe lecture series was established in memory of the late Dr. Earlie E. 
Thorpe, formerly a professor of history at North Carolina Central University in 
Durham, as a forum for a series of free scholarly presentations that examine 
topics pertinent to the history, literature, and art of African Americans. Approxi¬ 
mately 150 people attended this year's event. The Chapel Hill musical group 
Embraced by the Light performed spiritual choral medleys as part of the program. 
The afternoon's activities ended with a reception for Dr. Franklin and a tradi¬ 
tional libation ceremony at the original Horton Grove slave quarters at Historic 
Stagville. 


8 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



Distinguished historian )ohn Hope Franklin delivered the fifth annual Earlie E. Thorpe Memorial Lecture at 
Historic Stagville on November 10. At the conclusion of the lecture Dr. Franklin (second from right ) joined 
others at Horton Grove for a traditional libation ceremony conducted by Alice Eley Jones (in foreground), 
African American history coordinator at Stagville. 


New N.C. Organization Focuses on Heritage Tourism 

Tourism is presently the second-largest industry both in the United States and in 
North Carolina. Moreover, it is predicted to become North Carolina's leading 
industry by the turn of the century. Heritage tourism—that is, visitation of 
destinations primarily for the cultural enrichment they offer rather than merely 
amusement or entertainment—currently accounts for 10 percent of that indus¬ 
try but is growing at a rate six times faster than traditional tourism. Touring 
heritage sites is already a popular activity for visitors to North Carolina, with 
40 percent of all such visitors indicating that they stop at historic sites. Twenty- 
three percent visit museums, and 32 percent visit a scenic area. By comparison 
(according to a 1994 survey conducted by North Carolina State University), only 
2 percent attend a sports event, just under 6 percent visit an amusement park, 
and 10 percent go fishing. The National Endowment for the Humanities esti¬ 
mates that visitors to historic sites stay an average of one half-day longer and 
spend an average of sixty-two dollars more than other travelers. 

Perhaps even more important than the obvious economic rewards to be derived 
from enhanced heritage tourism are ancillary benefits not usually associated with 
traditional industries. For example, heritage tourism mandates that the very 
cultural, historic, and natural attractions that draw visitors be protected and 
preserved, thus strengthening local and regional conservation and preservation 
efforts. In addition, mutual cooperation to benefit economically from local heri¬ 
tage resources requires a certain degree of cooperation; out of that process 
emerges a sense of community pride and a desire to educate others, including 
those within a community, about local cultural and historical entities. Moreover, 
heritage tourism is unique in that it is one of only a few industries that can spur 
economic development in rural areas. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


9 


The state is now positioning itself to benefit from this trend. Under the 
leadership of Gordon Clapp, director of the North Carolina Division of Travel 
and Tourism, and in cooperation with the North Carolina Department of Cul¬ 
tural Resources, the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health and 
Natural Resources, and other state and private agencies, a new organization is 
being formed to help guide the state's tourism industry into the twenty-first 
century. North Carolina Heritage, Inc., is a nonprofit organization that seeks to 
promote and protect the state's historic, cultural, and natural resources by 
bringing together state agencies, tourist sites, and tourism organizations. In 
addition to drawing together diverse agencies. North Carolina Heritage will 
focus its initial efforts on creating an inventory of all heritage sites in North 
Carolina and conducting an economic-impact study. 

One of the first projects in which the new organization became involved was a 
Southeast regional conference on heritage tourism. Along with the Center for 
the Study of the American South at the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, the Conservation Trust for North Carolina, the state office of travel and 
tourism, TravelSouth USA, the North Carolina Department of Cultural Re¬ 
sources, Preservation North Carolina, the American Association of Museums, 
and the Chapel Hill/Orange County Visitors Bureau, North Carolina Heritage 
recently sponsored a five-day conference that covered all aspects of heritage 
tourism. The conference, titled "Heritage Tourism for North Carolina and the 
South: Community Preservation, Promotion and Progress," took place at the 
William and Ida Friday Continuing Education Center in Chapel Hill, January 13- 
lb, 1997. Representatives from North Carolina and ten other southern states 
attended the conclave, which through a series of technical workshops afforded 
the opportunity for dialogues and the exchange of information among regions, 
states, communities, and different organizations. The conference also featured 
an intense one-day session on strategic planning, as well as a session led by the 
American Association of Museums, which is coordinating regional conferences 
throughout the nation as a follow-up to a 1995 White House Conference on 
Travel and Tourism. 

In discussing the importance of the January conference, Gordon Clapp com¬ 
mented: "As people begin looking for quality vacation experiences and as increas¬ 
ing numbers of . . . visitors come looking for the 'real' South, it is vital that as a 
state and as a region we are prepared to greet them with hospitality and to share 
with them our wealth of heritage treasures." 

Proposals for Davis Fellowships Invited 

To encourage research in North Carolina's historical and cultural resources, the 
North Caroliniana Society offers on a competitive basis Archie K. Davis Fellow¬ 
ships to assist scholars in gaining access to collections that document the state's 
past. Modest stipends in varying amounts are intended to cover a portion of 
travel and subsistence expenses while fellows conduct research in North Caro¬ 
liniana. The deadline for proposals for 1997-1998 fellowships is March 1. For 
additional information, contact Dr. H. G. Jones, North Caroliniana Society, UNC 
Campus Box 3930, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-8890. 


10 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Call for Papers for UNC-Charlotte History Forum 

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte Graduate History Association will 
host its ninth annual Graduate History Forum, April 4 and 5. Keynote speaker at 
this year's conclave will be Prof. Edward L. Ayers of the University of Virginia, 
author of The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. Also featured will be 
Prof. Cynthia A. Kierner of UNC-Charlotte, author of the forthcoming book 
Women's Place in the Early South: Gender and Public Culture, 1700-1835. The association 
invites all graduate and advanced undergraduate students to submit papers of 
original research for presentation and discussion at the forum. Papers may cover 
any historical field and should not exceed fifteen pages in length. Two prizes in 
the amount of one hundred dollars each will be awarded for the best papers. 
Abstracts should be submitted by February 13, and the deadline for submission of 
completed papers is March 3. A fifteen-dollar registration fee covers a reception 
and plenary lecture on the evening of April 4 and an awards luncheon and 
keynote address on April 5. For additional information, write to: UNC-C Gradu¬ 
ate History Association, Forum Committee, Department of History, University 
of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223; telephone (704) 547-2868; 
or fax (704) 547-3218. 

Archaeological Research Under Way at Eden House Site 

The North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) is conducting 
archaeological and historical research at the site of Eden House, an early colonial- 
period archaeological site located along U.S. Highway 17 in eastern Bertie 
County between Windsor and Edenton. Excavations have uncovered a com¬ 
ponent of the site believed to predate an eighteenth-century plantation erected 
there. The late seventeenth-century remains found at the site make it the second 
oldest European colonial site ever to be excavated in North Carolina. NCDOT is 
sponsoring the excavations in order to record, retrieve, and preserve the archaeo¬ 
logical remains in advance of construction to widen U.S. 17 and build a new bridge 
over the Chowan River. 

The site was once part of the colonial plantation known as Eden House, built by 
Charles Eden, governor of the colony of North Carolina, 1714-1722. It was later 
owned by Gabriel Johnston, governor from 1734 to 1752. Before Eden House 
plantation stood at the site, several noteworthy men of the colonial era— 
including Capt. Samuel Stephens and Seth Sothel (governor from 1682 to 
1689)—owned the land on which it was built. Coastal Carolina Research, an 
archaeological consulting firm hired by NCDOT, has recovered from the site 
artifacts more than three hundred years old, as well as the remains of several 
buildings and other structures that once stood there. Among the recovered 
artifacts are pottery and porcelain objects, wine bottles, tobacco pipes, household 
items, and an English token dated 1669. Archaeologists have been working since 
July 1996 to record all structural features of the site. Some of the buildings 
identified are of a type found at Jamestown and other early sites in Virginia. They 
are the first "earth-fast" houses to be excavated in North Carolina. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, (ANUARY 1997 


11 


Exhibition, Symposium Honor Robert Lee Humber 

The North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, the Division of Archives 
and History, and the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association recently 
joined with a number of other educational and cultural organizations and various 
private benefactors to cosponsor “Robert Lee Humber: A Collector Creates," an 
exhibition and symposium in honor of the late Robert Lee Humber of Greenville. 
Dr. Humber (1898-1970), a native of Greenville, a Rhodes Scholar, an attorney 
who specialized in international law, and a state senator, was largely responsible 
for securing a substantial appropriation from the North Carolina General 
Assembly and a donation of artworks from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation that 
together led to the creation of the North Carolina Museum of Art. 

The tribute commenced at Hendrix Theatre on the campus of East Carolina 
University (ECU) in Greenville on the evening of November 1 with a welcome 
and introductions by W. Keats Sparrow, dean of the ECU College of Arts and 
Sciences; Richard R. Eakin, chancellor of ECU; Betty Ray McCain, secretary of 
the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources; and Michael Dorsey, 
dean of the ECU School of Art. Walter Liedtke, curator of European paintings at 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, then delivered a keynote 
address titled "Rembrandt True or False." The address was followed by the 
formal opening at the Wellington B. Gray Art Gallery of an exhibition, also titled 
Robert Lee Humber: A Collector Creates, which featured artworks from the National 
Gallery of Art, the North Carolina Museum of Art, and other repositories. The 
exhibition remained on display through November 23. 

The actual symposium commenced on the morning of November 2 with the 
presentation of several papers, followed by a discussion period. Respective topics 
included a biographical presentation on Humber's life, a remembrance by 
Humber's son John, a discussion of Humber's idealism as expressed by his deeply 
held belief in the creation of a world federation to promote international peace, 
and Humber's role in securing the renowned Louis Orr etchings of North Caro¬ 
lina for the people of his native state. Dedication of a North Carolina highway 
historical marker commemorating Robert Lee Humber followed the discussion. 

Obituaries 

Rear Adm. Alex McLeod Patterson, formerly a member of the staff of the 
Division of Archives and History, died in Raleigh on October 22,1996, at the age 
of ninety-one. Admiral Patterson was born in Raeford on December 13, 1904, 
briefly attended Davidson College, and received appointment to the U.S. Naval 
Academy. He graduated and was commissioned an ensign in 1927 and served as 
an officer aboard a number of U.S. Navy vessels before World War II. He served 
as either damage control officer or executive officer aboard the light cruiser USS 
Oakland throughout the war and for that service received the Bronze Star with 
combat"V" for heroic achievement. After the war he attained the rank of captain 
and continued to serve the navy in a variety of capacities, receiving various 
medals for distinguished service. In 1956 became professor of naval science at the 
Naval ROTC unit at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was 
transferred to the navy retired list in 1958 and advanced to the rank of rear 
admiral on the basis of combat citations. 


12 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


In 1958 Admiral Patterson joined the staff of the Department (now Division) of 
Archives and History and inaugurated a series of field services, including a 
program of preserving the state's original county and municipal records by 
microfilming them for use by researchers, enabling the originals to be stored 
under safer conditions. He served as assistant state archivist (and later assistant 
state archives and records administrator) in charge of the State Archives' Local 
Records Section until July 1969, when he became state archives and records 
administrator. He retired from that position on August 31, 1970. In 1969 he was 
named a Fellow of the Society of American Archivists, and following his retire¬ 
ment from the Department of Archives and History he served briefly as an 
officer in the North Carolina Presbyterian Historical Society. 

E. Lawrence Lee, an author and authority on the history of the Lower Cape 
Fear region, died in Wilmington on October 18,1995, at the age of eighty-four. Lee 
was born in Wilmington on January 1 , 1912, served with the U.S. Army in World 
War II, and became a certified public accountant. He earned a master's degree and 
a doctorate in history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and 
joined the faculty of the Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina, where he served 
as a professor of history from 1956 to 1977. 

Dr. Lee was the author of Indian Wars in North Carolina, 1663-1763 (Raleigh: 
Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission, 1963), The Lower Cape Fear in Colonial 
Days (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965), and New Hanover 
County: A Brief History (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, 1971). He was 
involved in the initial survey of and subsequent archaeological projects at Bruns¬ 
wick Town, site of a former colonial village in Brunswick County and since 1955 a 
state historic site. 

James Alan Stenhouse, a Charlotte architect and an early champion of historic 
preservation, died in Charlotte on November 28,1996, at the age of eighty-six. In 
1953 Stenhouse became the first chairman of the North Carolina Historic Sites 
Commission, a body created to screen requests for state aid in the preservation 
and maintenance of historical and archaeological sites, buildings, and other prop¬ 
erties. The following year he was a founder and first president of the Mecklen¬ 
burg Historical Association. From 1956 to 1957 he served as president of the 
North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Antiquities, forerunner of the 
Historic Preservation Society of North Carolina. He subsequently served as a 
charter member of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historic Landmarks Commis¬ 
sion. In the early 1960s Gov. Terry Sanford appointed him to head a commission 
to develop the James K. Polk Birthplace (now the James K. Polk Memorial) near 
Pineville. In the mid-1970s Stenhouse won a rare American Institute of Archi¬ 
tects fellowship for his work in preservation—a new fellowship category at that 
time. 


Recent Articles on North Carolina History 

Richard C. Cole, "Montgomerie's Cherokee Campaign, 1760 : Two Contemporary Views," 
North Carolina Historical Review 74 (January 1997 ) 

Edwin L. Combs III, "Confederate Shipbuilding on the Cape Fear River," North Carolina 
Historical Review 73 (October 1996 ) 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


13 


Robert F. Durden, “James B. Duke Wins and Loses: The Partial Collapse of His Grand 
Design for Perpetual Philanthropy in the Carolinas," North Carolina Historical Review 74 
(January 1997) 

Thomas J. Farnham and Francis P. King, “'The March of the Destroyer': The New Bern 
Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1864," North Carolina Historical Review 73 (October 1996) 

Mary Kelley, "Reading Women/Women Reading: The Making of Learned Women in 
Antebellum America," Journal of American History 83 (September 1996) 

Donna E. Kelly, "Selected Bibliography of Completed Theses and Dissertations Related to 
North Carolina Subjects," North Carolina Historical Review 74 (January 1997) 

Alan D. Watson, “North Carolina and Internal Improvements, 1783-1861: The Case of 
Inland Navigation," North Carolina Historical Review 74 (January 1997) 

News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

The North Carolina State Historical Records Advisory Board (SHRAB) has 
announced that eight North Carolina institutions and organizations have been 
awarded local records grants for the year 1996-1997 under its local records- 
educational assistance program. Recipients of grants are: the Catholic Diocese of 
Raleigh/Archives Project, the Halifax County Register of Deeds Office/Preserva¬ 
tion Project, the North Carolina Central University/School of Library and Infor¬ 
mation Sciences Records Management Project, the North Carolina Library Asso¬ 
ciation/Round Table on Special Collections Project, the North Carolina Preser¬ 
vation Consortium/Preservation Education Project, the North Carolina Society 
of Surveyors/Land Surveyors' Plat Project, the Wilson County Register of Deeds 
Office/Preservation Project, and the Winston-Salem State University/O'Kelly 
Library Arts and Athletics Archival Project. 

A grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission 
provided the SHRAB with funds awarded through the local records regrant 
program. The grants will be used to promote historic preservation, encourage 
archival consulting, and finance training in records management. 

In order to be considered for the regrant program, applicants were required to 
attend a statewide teleconference on preserving the state's documentary heri¬ 
tage, which was broadcast statewide by satellite via the facilities of the North 
Carolina Agency for Public Telecommunications on September 25, 1996. For 
information on the local records-educational assistance program, contact 
Dr. Boyd D. Cathey, program coordinator, Division of Archives and History, 
109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807, or telephone him at (919) 
733-3952. 

The staff of the North Carolina State Archives is pleased to report that the 
eleventh revised edition of the Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State 
Archives: County Records will be published during 1997. Since the first edition of the 
guide appeared in 1972, the publication has been an invaluable tool for 
researchers using original and microfilmed county records in custody of the 
Archives. The eleventh edition of the guide not only incorporates additions to 
archival holdings of county records accessioned since 1988 but also constitutes a 
major advancement in accuracy and standardization of records descriptions. As 
editor of the new edition, Kenrick N. Simpson, supervisor of the Local Records 


14 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Subunit of the Arrangement and Description Unit, Archival Services Branch, has 
carefully applied uniformity in titles and call numbers throughout the records of 
the 106 counties, active and defunct, that are described in the guide. For addi¬ 
tional information concerning cost and availability of the new edition, contact 
J. R. Lankford Jr., assistant state archivist, at the mailing address or telephone 
number shown above. 


Historical Publications 

At the joint annual meeting of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Associ¬ 
ation and the Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies in Raleigh on 
November 22, 1996, the Historical Publications Section received an American 
Association for State and Local History (AASLH) Award of Merit for "accom¬ 
plishments in publishing North Carolina history." At the same meeting, Joe A. 
Mobley, administrator of the section, won an AASLH Certificate of Commenda¬ 
tion for his accomplishments as the author of various publications on North 
Carolina history. 

A limited number of copies of the index to volume 44 (1996) of Carolina Comments 
is now available. To obtain a copy at no cost, write to the Historical Publications 
Section, Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 
27601-2807. 


Historic Sites 

In addition to a plethora of Christmas programs. North Carolina's historic sites 
have sponsored a number of special events throughout the late fall and winter. 
Many of the activities will be repeated in 1997 and are announced in the new 
calendar of events for the new year, which can be obtained from the Historic Sites 
office in Raleigh (telephone 919/733-7862) or at sites throughout the state. 

At Horne Creek Living Historical Farm, the staff and the North Carolina 
Living Historical Farm Committee held the sixth annual Harvest Frolic in 
October, and contractors completed initial restoration of the Hauser farmhouse 
at the site. Hundreds of eager visitors at the frolic braved drizzly weather to enjoy 
tours of the newly painted house, ride horse-drawn wagons, shuck corn, make 
apple cider, see demonstrations of numerous crafts of a century ago, and eat 
chicken stew and pinto beans cooked in iron kettles over open fires. The house 
surprised many guests with its unusually dark and varied interior colors, a 
dramatic contrast to the ubiquitous off-whites and beiges of modern residences. 
The color scheme resulted from scientific paint research on the building and may 
be an indication of Germanic influences in the northwest Piedmont area. 

In the same month, visitors came from all over the nation to explore the scenes, 
sounds, and people in author Thomas Wolfe's life during the seventh annual 
Thomas Wolfe Festival in Asheville. The festival began with a book signing by 
author John Chandler Griffin, whose new book. Memories of Thomas Wolfe: A 
Pictorial Companion to Look Homeward, Angel, draws upon photographs from Wolfe's 
family album. Wolfe, born in Asheville on October 3,1900, used his native town 
as the setting and members of his family as subjects for his novel Look Homeward, 
Angel. Employing portions of the novel as captions to the pictures, Griffin sug¬ 
gests that Wolfe relied extensively on the album when writing. On the evening of 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


15 




Horne Creek Living Historical Farm in Surry County hosted its sixth annual Harvest Frolic on October 26. 
Among the many activities available at the site were free rides in horse-drawn wagons and demonstrations of a 
wide variety of traditional crafts. Employees of Horne Creek Farm and members of the North Carolina Living 
Historical Farm Committee helped make possible the popular fall event. Photographs courtesy Bryan Hill. 


October 3 participants in the festival celebrated Wolfe's birthday with period 
music, refreshments, and Mabel Mullett's dramatic interpretation of Wolfe's 
mother, “Julia Wolfe: A Portrait." 

The following day began with a live radio broadcast of the story "Sons of the 
Father: The Death of Stoneman Gant" and presentations at Pack Memorial 
Library. Various writers and scholars probed the symbolism in Wolfe's work and 
compared and contrasted Wolfe and fellow novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald. Both 
authors wrote from their own life experiences, lived hard, and died young. 
Among the afternoon presenters was Matthew J. Bruccoli, the world's leading 
authority on and author of twenty-two books on Fitzgerald. Friday night fea- 


16 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



The Thomas Wolfe Memorial hosted the seventh annual Thomas Wolfe Festival in Asheville in early October. 
As part of the annual event three scholars gathered at Pack Memorial Public Library to discuss the symbolism in 
Wolfe's writings and to compare and contrast Wolfe's work with that of fellow novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald. 
Shown at the panel discussion are (left to right) Matthew J. Bruccoli, lames W. Clark Jr., and John L. Idol. Dr. 
Bruccoli is the nation's leading authority on Fitzgerald, and Drs. Clark and Idol are experts on the writings of 
Wolfe. Ted Mitchell of Thomas Wolfe Memorial acted as moderator. Photograph by Ted Mitchell. 


tured another live broadcast—of "Forever and the Earth," Ray Bradbury's work 
of science fiction about Thomas Wolfe in the year 2257. Wolfe fans also joined a 
walking tour of historic downtown Asheville before attending a presentation 
titled "Thomas Wolfe's and George Gershwin's Manhattan," hosted by Ashe¬ 
ville's Diana Wortham Theater. Using songs by Gershwin and readings from 
Wolfe, the concert re-created the atmosphere of the 1920s and 1930s, when 
Wolfe and Gershwin lived and wrote in Manhattan. The program included a 
dramatization of Wolfe's short story "The Return of the Prodigal" by the Park¬ 
way Players. The festival also included a tour of the historic Riverside Cemetery, 
where, in addition to Thomas Wolfe, O. Henry, Zebulon B. Vance, and many of 
the people on whom Wolfe based his characters are buried. The conclave's final 
event was a reading of Thomas Wolfe's "October Has Come Again" by Elizabeth 
Westall. 

Since the festival, the staff at Wolfe Memorial has moved into the new visitor 
center behind the memorial. The site's new address is 52 North Market Street, 
Asheville, NC 28801. 

The staff of Alamance Battleground, with aid from personnel from other sites 
and prison inmates in cleaning up after Hurricane Fran, held the long-popular 
Colonial Living Week in early October. Despite rains associated with another 
tropical storm, more than twenty-five hundred students from Alamance and 
eleven surrounding counties learned about colonial life at the program. The 
visitors experienced interpretations of eighteenth-century cooking, woodwork¬ 
ing, blacksmithing, cider making, music, candle making, clothing, quill writing, 
toys, and herbs. In addition, they learned about militia camp life, flintlock 
weapons, and artillery. 

North Carolina's historic sites again hosted a popular exhibit and booth at the 
North Carolina State Fair in Raleigh in mid-October. The display, housed in a 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


17 


tobacco barn adjacent to Heritage Village, was manned by staff from the section 
and department. The barn was adorned with corn, sorghum, and old signage, as 
well as a framed fortieth anniversary poster and a small display on tobacco. Each 
day a different historic site was featured at the exhibit. Staff members donned 
costumes and presented a variety of demonstrations, displays, and talks during 
the fair. Thousands of people partook of the section's fair stickers at the barn or at 
the Cultural Resources exhibit in the Kerr Scott Building. 

More than thirty people attended the 1996 historic weapons course on small 
arms at Bennett Place in mid-October. Students came from the section, state 
parks in three states, the Museum of the Cape Fear in Fayetteville, Tryon Palace, 
Moores Creek National Battlefield, and the State Archives. For the first time, the 
training session fully utilized the talents of section staff as instructors in the use 
and care of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early twentieth-century weaponry. 
Each participant spent two days drilling and learning to handle and fire historic 
weapons. Special emphasis was given to safe and effective demonstrations, 
military living history programs, and dealing with large numbers of reenactors. 
Most time was spent outdoors in hands-on exercises. Classroom time was 
devoted to weapons nomenclature, maintenance procedures, and the fabrication 
of blank rounds. The course emphasized that historic weapons, though limited in 
accuracy and range, are nevertheless quite lethal and still quite capable of killing 
or injuring people. After two days at Bennett Place, each participant was required 
to pass hands-on and written tests before advancing to live firing at Camp 
Butner. The weapons course was the largest of its kind ever offered by the 
section. 

In late November an open house at Brunswick Town focused on the Civil War. 
Writer Lauren Cook Burgess, associate vice-chancellor at Fayetteville State Uni¬ 
versity, spoke on the topic “Uncommon Soldiers: Women in the Civil War." Dr. 
Burgess is the author of An Uncommon Soldier (Pasadena, Md.: Minema Center, 
1994), a book of letters written by Sarah Rosetta Wakeman, alias Pvt. Lyons 
Wakeman, 153d Regiment, New York State Volunteers. Burgess began research¬ 
ing female Civil War soldiers eight years ago and has collected information on 135 
of those remarkable women. She has written several articles based on her 
research and is currently working on a second book, a comprehensive history of 
women soldiers in the Civil War. Additional activities at the site included a 
performance of Civil War music by the musical group the Wind Pipes, interpreta¬ 
tion of Confederate infantry, guided tours of Fort Anderson, and a book signing 
by Dr. Burgess. 

For some time, many historic sites have been working on formal proposals for 
the creation of reproduction costumes for staff and volunteers. A costume 
standards committee and the section's Education Branch evaluate and coordinate 
such initiatives. The proposed new costumes will improve and enhance the 
considerable degree of costumed interpretation already being carried out at sites 
throughout the state. At the House in the Horseshoe, the staff is already fashion¬ 
ing reproduction clothing based on an approved proposal. Likewise, Reed Gold 
Mine's plan for men's clothing has been approved. Polk Memorial, Aycock Birth¬ 
place, Fort Dobbs, Somerset Place, Horne Creek Farm, and the Thomas Wolfe 
Memorial are also preparing proposals. The committee is considering holding 
small workshops to assist the various sites in the process of selecting appropriate 
costumes. 


18 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 





In the Historic Sites Section a costume standards committee and the section's Education Branch have been 
evaluating and coordinating proposals for the creation of reproduction costumes for use by staff and 
volunteers involved in interpretation at the various sites. Among beneficiaries of those efforts is a volunteer at 
Aycock Birthplace (top) appropriately clad in period attire for the site's annual Christmas Candlelight Tours; 
members of the staff of Fort Fisher (center) posing in reproductions of authentic Civil War-era clothing; and 
Tracy Burns (bottom), an interpreter at Somerset Place, costumed as a young slave woman teaching children 
how to make a broom. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


19 








Stephens and Francis, P.A., of New Bern, architects for the restoration of the 
Palmer-Marsh House following the December 1989 fire that extensively dam¬ 
aged the structure, recently received the Tower Award of the North Carolina 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. The award recognizes the 
challenge of preserving the fire-damaged and often original fabric of the 1751 
National Historic Landmark during the restoration. The historic house museum, 
reopened in 1992, is presently in better condition than before the fire. 

State Capitol/Visitor Services 

The State Capitol Foundation has produced two new videos for the Capitol. The 
first, titled “The North Carolina State Capitol," is geared toward schoolchildren; 
teachers can borrow it at no cost from the North Carolina Museum of History. 
The second, titled "Spirit of the Age," is geared toward adults and features 
information on how to join the State Capitol Society. 

Capitol staff and volunteers, as well as Capital Area Visitor Center volunteers, 
recently traveled to Richmond, Virginia, to view the exhibition Faberge in America 
at the Richmond Museum of Fine Arts. The group also toured the Virginia State 
Capitol and Richmond's Court End Historic District. 

The Executive Mansion docents recently took an educational trip to the Chesa¬ 
peake Bay area; they visited the Baltimore Museum of Art, the White House, the 
British Embassy, and the Maryland governor's mansion and state capitol. 

Western Office 

The Western Office assisted Smoky Mountain Host with a permanent exhibit on 
the crafts of the southwestern region of North Carolina. The exhibit highlights 
three craft cooperatives—Maco in Franklin, Dogwood in Dillsboro, and Qualla in 
Cherokee—and the John C. Campbell Folk School in Brasstown. It features a 
prominent display showing examples of various crafts and a large map depicting 
three craft trails designated by Handmade in America. Smoky Mountain Host is 
located along U.S. Highway 441 south of Franklin. 

Recent Accessions by the North Carolina State Archives 

During the months of September, October, and November 1996, the Archival 
Services Branch of the Archives and Records Section made 174 accession entries. 
The branch received original records from Lenoir, Rockingham, and Wake Coun¬ 
ties and security microfilm of records for the counties of Alleghany, Ashe, Bertie, 
Caswell, Chowan, Cleveland, Cumberland, Currituck, Duplin, Durham, For¬ 
syth, Franklin, Gaston, Greene, Harnett, Henderson, Hoke, Hyde, Lincoln, 
Macon, Mecklenburg, Moore, New Hanover, Northampton, Orange, Pitt, Rich¬ 
mond, Rockingham, Rutherford, Stokes, Surry, Swain, Transylvania, Warren, 
Wayne, and Yadkin; for the municipalities of Concord, Goldsboro, Grimesland, 
Hope Mills, Jackson, Kannapolis, Lincolnton, and Winston-Salem; for the Hills¬ 
borough and Salisbury District Superior Courts; and for churches in Cumber¬ 
land, Mecklenburg, Orange, and Wake Counties. 

The branch received records from the following state agencies: Agriculture, 
1.5 cubic feet; General Assembly, 28 reels; and Secretary of State, 31 reels. The 
F. C. Salisbury Scrapbook was accessioned as a new private collection, and addi- 


20 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


tions were made to the Roy Parker Papers and the Betty H. Wiser Papers; the 
Henry Toole Clark Papers, the Mrs. Arch J. Flanagan Collection, and the Mary 
Hinton Kerr Papers were microfilmed. Among additional items received were 
published histories of a church in Wake County and of the Cape Fear Presbytery; 
microfilm of U.S. district court bankruptcy and mixed case files; Bible records 
from 27 family Bibles; cemetery records from Cumberland, Harnett, Hoke, 
Moore, and Scotland Counties; 2 local history items; 1 addition to the Military 
Collection; 8 additions to the Newspaper Collection; and 1 original print, 16 
photographs, and 4 videotapes as additions to the Non-Textual Materials 
Collection. 

Staff Notes 

At its annual meeting in Salisbury, September 27-29, 1996, Preservation North 
Carolina presented to Mark Wilde-Ramsing of the Underwater Archaeology 
Unit, Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section, its Gertrude S. Carraway 
Award of Merit. The award honors individuals or organizations that have dem¬ 
onstrated an outstanding commitment to historic preservation. Mr. Wilde- 
Ramsing developed an educational program known as "Hidden beneath the 
Waves" that consists of video presentations, exercises in historical research, quiz 
games, and a mystery shipwreck. Five county schools use the hands-on classroom 
program as part of social studies and science classes. The award is named for the 
late Gertrude S. Carraway of New Bern, a noted historian and preservationist. 

New interpreters at state historic sites include Kim Hewitt at the Thomas 
Wolfe Memorial, promoted from office assistant at Reed Gold Mine; Chris 
Morton, Wolfe Memorial, promoted from site assistant at Vance Birthplace; 
Sylvia Chappell, Town Creek Indian Mound; Millie Hart, Aycock Birthplace; and 
Susan Smith, Reed Gold Mine. Cynthia Langlykke was promoted to facility 
architect I in the Raleigh home office of the Historic Sites Section. Ralph Wil¬ 
liams, formerly an interpreter at Wolfe Memorial, resigned. John Tackett, assist¬ 
ant manager of Duke Homestead, was one of sixteen candidates selected to 
attend a November 1996 three-week seminar for historical administration at 
Colonial Williamsburg, the longest-running historical administration program in 
the nation. 


Colleges and Universities 


Campbell University 

During the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association in San 
Francisco, August 28-September 1, 1996, Donald N. Schroeder served as a 
member of a panel that discussed the cosmic politics of Plato's Timaeus. On 
October 2 Lloyd Johnson spoke at the quarterly meeting of the Marlborough 
County (South Carolina) Historical Society; he discussed the origins of the 1736 
Welsh Neck settlement and the development of St. David's Parish in the South 
Carolina backcountry. On October 8 Dr. Johnson presented a paper titled "The 
Life and Times of Gideon Gibson, a Mulatto South Carolina Regulator" at the 
annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and 
History in Charleston, South Carolina. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1997 


21 


North Carolina State University 

Charles Carlton lectured at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., on 
October 10; his topic was "The Childhood of Queen Victoria." 


State, County, and Local Groups 

Chapel Hill Historical Society 

Richard Matthews, president of the proposed Chapel Hill Museum, spoke at the 
society's October 6, 1996, meeting. He discussed the encouraging prospects for 
the museum facility. Michael Hooker, chancellor of the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, spoke at the society's November 3 meeting. His topic was 
"The Future of Universities." Members of the society toured the Moravian town 
of Bethabara and the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts in Winston- 
Salem on October 16. 

Mecklenburg Historical Association 

Dr. Malcolm Lester, Charles A. Dana Professor Emeritus of History at David¬ 
son College, addressed the association's dinner meeting on the evening of 
November 11,1996. He titled his remarks "The Civilian Career of Gen. D. H. Hill 
in the Land He Loved." 

Museum of the Cape Fear (Fayetteville) 

The Museum of the Cape Fear recently won first place in the "best museum" 
category of the second annual Readers' Choice Awards, sponsored by the Fayette¬ 
ville Observer-Times. The museum will host a public performance of its African 
American Chautauqua at the Cape Fear Regional Theater in Fayetteville on 
February 11 at 7:00 p.m. and at the Museum of History in Raleigh on February 23 
at 3:00 P.M The presentation will feature a historical dramatization of the lives of 
abolitionist David Walker, cabinetmaker Thomas Day, educator Anna Cooper, 
and artist Minnie Evans. A new season of Arsenal Tours will begin at the 
museum on March 2. The tours feature interpreters in period clothing. On 
March 16 at 2:00 p.m. the museum will resume its quarterly series on the Ameri¬ 
can Revolution with a program by Kathryn Beach, museum researcher, titled 
"The Role of Scottish Settlers in the American Revolution." For additional infor¬ 
mation on forthcoming programs at the museum, telephone (910) 486-1330. 

North Carolina Museum of History 

At the annual conference of the North Carolina Museums Council, Novem¬ 
ber 6-8, 1996, in Gastonia, the Museum of History's quarterly Program Calendar 
received an award for best newsletter or regularly scheduled publication. The 
exhibition Into Their Labors: Documentary Photography in the South Tirols and the Southern 
Appalachians will close on March 2. "With All Necessary Care and Attention": The Artistry 
of Thomas Day will remain on display through October 26, 1997. 


22 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Additions to the National Register 

(Administered by the State Historic Preservation Office) 



The Matthews Commercial Historic District in the Mecklenburg County town of Matthews is a remarkably 
intact commercial district consisting of ten contributing resources, the earliest of which dates from 1888. A 
portion of the district is shown at left. Mount Holly Cotton Mill (right), erected in 1875, stands in the Gaston 
County town of Mount Holly. It is Gaston County's fourth oldest textile mill and the oldest surviving such 
facility in the county. 



The A. E. Taplin Apartment Building (left) is a well-preserved early twentieth-century rendition of the 
uncommon Spanish Colonial Revival style of architecture. It is one of few surviving examples of upper 
middle-class apartment buildings dating to the 1920s in High Point (Guilford County). The U.S. Post Office in 
Boone (Watauga County), shown at right, was constructed in 1938 of dressed stone in the Colonial Revival 
style. It is a visual reminder of the federal New Deal-era building program. 



The Society of Friends (Quakers) established the Deep River Friends Meeting House and Cemetery in the 
1 750s. The current brick meetinghouse (left) was built in 1875 in High Point. The structure is associated with 
the history of the Quakers, among the county's earliest settlers. Weaverville United Methodist Church (right) 
consists of an intact, well-preserved house of worship erected in the Buncombe County town of Weaverville in 
1919-1920 and an adjoining educational building added in 1956-1957. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 1, (ANUARY 1997 


23 




















CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, luly, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East lones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601-2807. 

(effrey |. Crow, Editor in Chief 
Robert M. Topkins, Editor 


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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2_MARCH 1997 

A&H Inaugurates New Web Site 

The Division of Archives and History has established a new site on the Internet's 
World Wide Web. The new site, available at http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/, 
provides a wide array of information about the division and offers a platform for 
the publication of interactive North Carolina public history materials by divi¬ 
sional staff and affiliates (other organizations and agencies active in the field of 
public history). It represents the combined efforts of the division's Web Commit¬ 
tee, the agency's computing unit, and individual staff members. The site server 
system is designed to support ongoing expansion and change as Internet service 
and Web prepublication tools become more available to employees and affiliates. 

The division's venture into Web publication began late in 1995 with the estab¬ 
lishment of a server and Web site for the State Public Records Cataloging 
Services (SPRCS) group. The SPRCS home page expanded quickly and was soon 
joined by pages for the Survey and Planning Branch of the division's Archaeology 


Archives and Records Section Rccimls services 


Division of Archives and History ♦ WELCOME TO THE NORTH CAROLINA 
Department of'Cultural Resources * ST A ft ARCHIVES WEB BROCHURE 


Archives and History Home Page j Finding Aids j Quick Outline of Contents 


Archival Services Branch 


Mail inquiries may be 
sent to: 


Welcome to the North Carolina State 
Archives.... 


kl Reference Services (Search Room 
Schedule) 


North Carolina State 
Archives 

109 East Jones Street 
Raleigh, NC 27601-2807 


AREA A1A1 


• Information bv Mail and Staff Search 

Limitations 

• Genealogical Research 

• Historical Research 

• MARS (Manuscript and Archives 
Reference System— Materials in the 
MARS Database ! 

• Academic Records 





What's new... 

Monthly 


The Division of Archives and History's new site on the Internet's World Wide Web provides a wide array of 
information concerning the division and offers a platform for the publication of interactive North Carolina 
public history materials. This screen shot shows a portion of the updated State Archives Web Brochure. (All 
photographs by the Division of Archives and History unless otherwise indicated.) 
































and Historic Preservation Section, the Archives and Records Section, and the 
Office of State Archaeology (the latter recently featured in a program on the 
Discovery Channel on cable television). Meanwhile Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director 
of the Division of Archives and History, established both a division-wide Web 
Committee to coordinate the agency's Internet publication efforts and a comput¬ 
ing unit to manage the overall use of digital technology within the division. New 
server hardware and software necessary to support SPRCS Web pages were 
acquired, and plans to link every Archives and History unit to the Internet were 
set in motion. These and other activities point toward greater utilization of 
networked computers (and, in particular, the World Wide Web) in virtually all of 
the division's endeavors within the purview of public history. The new Web site is 
thus intended not only as a means of disseminating information but also as an 
exploration of the potentials and limitations of the medium. 

Spearheading efforts by the Division of Archives and History to develop and 
implement the Web site is Larry G. Misenheimer, deputy director of the division, 
assisted by David Minor, senior programmer, and Mark Moore, who serves as 
Web specialist. Members of the "core group" for the division's Web work are Fran 
Tracy-Walls and John Paschall of the Director's Office and Druscilla R. Simpson 
of the Archives and Records Section. Chair of the division's Web Committee is Jo 
Ann Williford of the Director's Office; members include Michael T. Southern of 
the Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section, Susan M. Trimble of the 
Historical Publications Section, Duane A. Creech of the Historic Sites Section, 
Carol C. Henderson of the State Capitol/Visitor Services Section, and Judy Burn 
of Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens. 



Among a number of Archives and History employees currently assisting Larry C. Misenheimer, deputy director 
of the division, in developing and implementing the new Web site are Web specialist Mark Moore (left) and 
senior programmer David Minor (right). An additional three-member "core group" and a six-member Web 
Committee chaired by )o Ann Williford of the Director's Office round out the division's Web-related activities. 

The Archives and History home page, still under development as of this 
writing, is divided into five subsections. The first section identifies the division 
and contains links to a staff directory, a calendar of events, an index of services 
provided, location maps, and other general information. (For readers unfamiliar 
with Web jargon, a "link" enables a user to jump to another Web page by 


26 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


"pointing and clicking" with a computer mouse.) The first section also includes a 
notice of the last update of the home page and directly related information. The 
second section of the home page contains illustrations linked to five primary 
sub-pages with the following titles: "Historic Attractions,""Publications,""Pres- 
ervation and Conservation,""Research and Records," and "Affiliates." The third 
section is reserved for highlighting "feature articles"—titles and short descrip¬ 
tions linked to other divisional Web pages. The articles are projected to change 
quarterly. The fourth section of the home page contains "Links to the Sections of 
the Division" that convey users directly to the home page of a particular divi¬ 
sional administrative unit. The bottom area includes an e-mail address to which 
users can direct their questions and comments and a link to the North Carolina 
Department of Cultural Resources home page. 


North Carolina Historic Sites 



[ Iredell House l - [ Somerset Place l - [ Historic Bath ] - [ Brunswick Town j - [ Fort Fisher ] - [ CSS 
Neuse ) - [ Aycock Birthplace ] 


Historic 

Sites 


Return 


1 Western Region | Central Region | Eastern Region | 


This screen shot shows a "clickable" map accessible through the new home page for the division's Historic 
Sites Section. Shown as boxed captions within the map of state historic sites in eastern North Carolina are 
various "links" that point to home pages for the respective sites whose names appear on the map. Beneath the 
map are textual links to the respective sites, as well as the new Historic Sites logo, which when clicked will 
return the user to the Historic Sites Section's home page. 


The division anticipates frequent changes and improvements to its Web site 
and plans to provide at least limited Web-publishing facilities both for its internal 
units and for affiliated historical organizations. To that end, it has established a 
development server that enables those with Internet access and the proper 
authorization to post and test their own Web materials. Associated procedures 
are designed to ensure that those materials (all subject to the division's editorial 
control) can be quickly reviewed, revised, and published. In light of the new Web 
site, the division does not intend to diminish its existing publications program; 
rather, it recognizes that the Internet brings enhanced opportunities for publiciz¬ 
ing and marketing its well-received traditional publications and for developing 
new forms of on-line materials. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


27 
































Copy of New Guide to Historical Architecture Presented 

During a brief ceremony in the senate chamber of the North Carolina State 
Capitol on December 3, 1996, Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern of 
the Division of Archives and History's Archaeology and Historic Preservation 
Section formally presented to Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain 
a copy of the newly published Guide to the Historical Architecture of Eastern North 
Carolina. The volume, which covers some seventeen hundred properties in forty- 
one counties in the eastern portion of the state, is the first of three projected 
regional guides. The series, to be published by the University of North Carolina 
Press, is an educational project of the Archaeology and Historic Preservation 
Section intended to promote historic preservation and heritage tourism through¬ 
out the state. 

David Perry, editor in chief of the UNC Press, joined Bishir and McCain at the 
presentation ceremony, during which the authors expressed their special thanks 
to Elizabeth F. Buford, deputy secretary of the North Carolina Department of 
Cultural Resources, for her assistance in seeing the book to publication. Also 
participating were Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the Division of Archives and 
History, and Claudia Brown, head of the Planning Branch of the Archaeology and 
Historic Preservation Section, both of whom offered comments on the back¬ 
ground and purpose of the guidebook series and its value to the state. 



On December 3, 1996, Catherine W. 
Bishir (second from right) and Michael T. 
Southern (center), both of the Division of 
Archives and History's Archaeology and 
Historic Preservation Section, presented 
to Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty 
Ray McCain (left) a copy of the recently 
published Guide to the Historical Archi¬ 
tecture of Eastern North Carolina, of 
which Bishir and Southern are coauthors. 
Also attending the brief ceremony were 
David Perry (second from left), editor in 
chief of the University of North Carolina 
Press, publisher of the work, and Eliza¬ 
beth F Buford (right), deputy secretary of 
Cultural Resources, who assisted in seeing 
the guide to publication. 


Essays on Maritime History Sought for Prize Competition 

The North Carolina Maritime History Council and the Friends of the North 
Carolina Maritime Museum invite submissions to the annual Tributaries Prize 
Essay Competition. Essays can relate to any aspect of the history of North 
Carolina's maritime and coastal communities, should incorporate original re¬ 
search, and must not have been previously published. Entrants must submit two 
copies of their essays, double spaced, with brief endnotes, and adhere to editorial 
rules set forth in the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Submissions 
should not exceed 2,500 words in length, excluding endnotes. In reviewing all 
entries, judges will take into account originality of subject matter and treatment, 


28 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




appropriate use of source materials, style, and potential appeal to readers. Entries 
must be postmarked no later than May 31, 1997. 

The competition is open to all students who have yet to complete work for a 
terminal degree. A prize of two hundred dollars will go to the author of the 
winning essay, which will be published in the October 1997 issue of the North 
Carolina Maritime History Council's publication Tributaries. Submissions should 
be sent to Rodney D. Barfield, director. North Carolina Maritime Museum, 315 
Front Street, Beaufort, NC 28516-2125. For additional information, telephone 
(919) 728-7317; fax (919) 728-2108; or direct e-mail to ncs0018@interpath.com. 

New Electronic Guide to African American Manuscript Holdings 

The University Press of Virginia has recently made available to researchers 
Afro-American Sources in North Carolina: A Guide to Manuscripts (edited by Timothy D. 
Pyatt and compiled by Linda Simmons-Henry and Lisa Parker), an on-line guide 
that offers researchers an overview of African American manuscript holdings in 
the Tar Heel State. Like its previous publication, Afro-American Sources in Virginia, 
the first fully electronic book from a university press, the North Carolina guide 
excludes books, enumerating instead an array of unpublished source materials, 
including digitized illustrations and photographs. By employing the guide's 
alphabetical listings (by repository, then within each repository), on-line re¬ 
searchers can access such difficult-to-locate materials as church records, museum 
collections, and the papers of minority-owned credit unions. Both guides can be 
searched individually or simultaneously by key word, subject, name, historical 
period, or geographic location, and both include address, telephone number, and 
accessing information for each collection detailed. Combined, they summarize 
the African American holdings of more than fifty southern repositories. Internet 
users can access both guides at http://www.upress.virginia.edu/. 

Afro-American Sources in North Carolina is a product of the North Carolina African 
American Archives Group under the direction of Benjamin F. Speller Jr., dean. 
School of Library and Information Science, North Carolina Central University, 
Durham; David Moltke-Hansen, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 
and David J. Olson, North Carolina Division of Archives and History. It was 
prepared in collaboration with the Electronic Text Center at Alderman Library, 
University of Virginia, and the university's Department of Information Technol¬ 
ogy and Communication. The National Historical Publications and Records 
Commission funded the project in part. 

Civil War Institute at Gettysburg 

Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, will host its fifteenth Civil War 
Institute, June 29-July 5. The theme of this year's conclave is “Jefferson Davis and 
His Generals." An array of renowned scholars, authors, and lecturers is sche¬ 
duled to participate in the institute, which will also include tours of the First 
Manassas and Gettysburg battlefields, a banquet, a reception, and musical enter¬ 
tainment. For additional information, write to Civil War Institute, Gettysburg 
College, Box 435, Gettysburg, PA 17325; telephone (717) 337-6590; fax (717) 
337-6596; or direct e-mail to civilwar@gettysburg.edu. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


29 


Obituary 

Gene J. Williams, university archivist at East Carolina University and formerly an 
employee of the Division of Archives and History, died in Greenville on 
December 17,1996, at the age of forty-seven. Williams was born in Goldsboro on 
December 29, 1948. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees from North 
Carolina State University and was an archivist and records manager for the 
Archives and Records Section of the Division of Archives and History from 1978 
to 1992. He was a charter member and past president of the East Carolina 
Chapter of the Association of Records Managers and Administrators and was 
also a member of the Society of North Carolina Archivists and the Society of 
American Archivists. In 1995 Gov. James B. Hunt Jr. appointed him to the state 
Historical Records Advisory Board. 

News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

After receiving extensive conservation treatment, the Carolina Charter of 1663 
has returned to the State Archives. The work, performed under the direction of 
Don Etherington at Information Conservation, Inc., in Browns Summit, North 
Carolina, consisted of removing excess leather dressing, relaxing the pages to 
lessen cockling, and stabilizing ink that was flaking. In addition, the four sheets of 
parchment that comprise the charter were matted with acid-free material and 
framed in ultraviolet-mitigating Plexiglas. Clamshell boxes specially constructed 
for each sheet are currently stored in the vault until building renovations occur 
and the charter can be placed on public display. A grant from the North Carolina 
General Assembly to the Friends of the Archives, the support group that assists 
and benefits the Archives and Records Section, made possible this extensive 
preservation of one of the state's most significant documents. 



Thanks to a grant from the North Carolina General Assembly to the Friends of the Archives, the support group 
that assists and benefits the North Carolina State Archives, the Carolina Charter of 1663, one of the state's most 
important documents, recently received extensive conservation treatment. Examining the restored charter are 
David ). Olson (left), state archivist of North Carolina, and lesse R. Lankford Jr., assistant state archivist. 


30 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 













The eighteenth annual inventory of State Archives' holdings took place Janu¬ 
ary 13-15. Since 1980 the annual inventory has provided an opportunity to 
restore proper order to the records housed in the stacks, locate any incorrectly 
shelved items, update the stack guide, confirm the accuracy of descriptive finding 
aids, and evaluate the condition of the records from a preservation perspective. 
Areas of focus this year included reinstating the records of the Secretary of 
State's Office to their proper order following completion of a revised guide to 
state agency records, thoroughly cleaning the shelves and records with new 
hand-held vacuum cleaners, and holding a staff workshop devoted to providing 
enhanced reference services on state agency records. Once again Barbara T. 
Cain, supervisor of the section's Arrangement and Description Unit, assisted by 
C. Edward Morris, supervisor of the Reference Unit, coordinated a successful 
effort by State Archives staff. 

A new project within the Division of Archives and History, administered 
through the Section's Archival Services Branch, is the collecting of information 
on North Carolina's World War I veterans. Sion Harrington is gathering mate¬ 
rial, including photographs and other data, as well as conducting interviews. 
Readers interested in contributing information to the special project or with 
knowledge of relatives or friends able to contribute in any way are encouraged to 
write to Mr. Harrington at the Archival Services Branch, Division of Archives 
and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807, or to telephone him 
at (919) 733-3952. 



Archivist Sion H. Harrington is coordinating the 
Division of Archives and History's twentieth- 
century military collections project. He is cur¬ 
rently focusing his attention on the documenta¬ 
tion of North Carolinians' participation in World 
War I, particularly interviews with veterans of that 
conflict. 


The Archival Services Branch continues to work with the Research Libraries 
Group on that organization's digital collections project. The State Archives is 
contributing legal and governmental material pertaining to marriage and mar¬ 
riage relationships in North Carolina from 1815 to 1914. Most of the ten 
thousand images to be digitized for the project have been identified, and finding 
aids for the World Wide Web are being drafted. The selected images will be sent to 
a vendor to be electronically scanned and then returned so that staff members can 
check the images for quality control. A vendor will convert all printed items to 
ASCII text. Final work on the digital collections project will be completed during 
the summer with the creation of searchable, specially coded finding aids to the 
digitized images available on the World Wide Web. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


31 



A new Friends of the Archives workshop is being planned for Saturday, May 3, 
1997. The conclave, titled “Putting the Pieces Together: Using Complementary 
Sources for Research/' will focus on the interrelated nature of public records, 
such as the use of county court minutes in conjunction with work on wills and 
estates. Selected records series will be broadly discussed, and specific examples of 
how researchers might best utilize those records will be offered. Topics will 
include primary sources such as the census, vital statistics, wills and estates, Bible 
records, and marriage registers; bonds and miscellaneous records; deeds; secre¬ 
tary of state's records; treasurer's and comptroller's records; military records; 
county court minutes; and state supreme court records. A panel discussion will 
follow the lectures, and an optional box lunch will be provided. For additional 
information, contact Betsy Thomas or Debbi Blake at the address or telephone 
number shown above. 

Archaeology and Historic Preservation 

On January 22 representatives from Guilford Courthouse National Military Park 
in Guilford County met in Raleigh with Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, state historic 
preservation officer; David Brook, deputy state historic preservation officer; and 
Renee Gledhill-Earley, environmental review coordinator, to discuss several 
matters related to plans for future development of areas near the park. Bob 
Vogel, the new park superintendent, and Tom Baker, park historian, described a 
proposed joint venture with two other Greensboro parks and an initiative by the 
Atlanta office of the National Park Service to examine the possibility of establish¬ 
ing a National Historic Landmark district around the park. 



Meeting with Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow {center), director of the Division of Archives and History and state historic 
preservation officer, on January 22 to discuss various issues related to plans for additional development of 
areas near Guilford Courthouse National Military Park in Guilford County were (left to right) Renee Gledhill- 
Earley, environmental review coordinator for the division; Tom Baker, park historian for Guilford Courthouse; 
Bob Vogel, the park's new superintendent; and David Brook, deputy state historic preservation officer. 


In other news relating to the National Park Service, Reid Thomas, restoration 
specialist in the Eastern Office of the Division of Archives and History, is 
participating in planning and review for restoration and renovation of the his¬ 
toric pylon at the Wright Brothers National Mounument at Kill Devil Hills. 
Restoration of the 1932 Art Deco-style monument is a centerpiece of plans to 
commemorate in 2003 the centennial of man's first powered flight. 


32 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



Historical Publications 


On January 4 the Port o' Plymouth Museum in Plymouth hosted a book signing 
by Gerald W. Thomas, author of Divided Allegiances: Bertie County during the Civil War, 
which the Division of Archives and History published late in 1996. The well- 
received title, which quickly sold out, recounts the numerous way in which the 
great national struggle affected the lives of ordinary people in the northeastern 
North Carolina county, whether or not they actually enlisted for active duty, and 
reflects the surprisingly divergent loyalties manifested by the county's resi¬ 
dents—white or black, rich or poor, secessionist or unionist—throughout the 



Gerald W. Thomas, author of the well-received new study 
Divided Allegiances: Bertie County during the Civil War, pub¬ 
lished by the Division of Archives and History late in 1996, 
signed copies of his book at the Port o' Plymouth Museum in 
Plymouth on January 4. Photograph courtesy Dow Jones, Bea¬ 
con (Plymouth). 


war. The 206-page paperbound volume sells for eleven dollars plus three dollars 
for shipping and can be ordered from the Historical Publications Section, Division 
of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. 

The section's 1997 catalog of publications is now available. For a free copy, 
write to the address shown above. 

Historic Sites 

Thanks to the efforts of Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain, her 
staff, and the Office of State Budget, the Historic Sites Section has received 
almost $3.5 million from the 1996 state Reserve for Repairs and Renovations. 
The money, being used for repairs and improvements at various state historic 
sites, represents an increase of several hundred thousand dollars over the 
amount allocated from the 1995 reserve and continues to be crucial in efforts to 
bring site facilities up to visitor expectations. The section maintains more than 
230 buildings within the program, plus hundreds of structures and features such 
as earthen trenches, bridges, monuments, cemeteries, fences, and picnic areas. 

The section is providing oversight of use of the funds, which have been 
allocated to specific sites as follows: Thomas Wolfe Memdr^QyiylEMi'S and 
other repairs, $400,000; Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memori^l|^|^Jepi0^ggHall, 

krii 3 1997 


33 

,,^ARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

PALES6H 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 








$175,000; Duke Homestead, main house, $30,000, and water and sewer, 
$15,000; North Carolina Transportation Museum, Master Mechanic's Office, 
$125,000; Bentonville Battleground, Harper House, $25,000; Reed Gold Mine, 
waste treatment system, $100,000; Vance Birthplace, water lines, $25,000; CSS 
Neuse, renovations, $323,000; Fort Fisher, renovations, $450,000; Town Creek 
Indian Mound, renovations, $275,000; Brunswick Town, renovations, $300,000; 
Somerset Place, restoration, $150,000; Historic Edenton, visitor center, $7,000, 
painting, $35,000, and Chowan County Courthouse restoration, $950,000; and 
various historic sites, roof repairs, $108,000. 

The first of the projects enumerated above, at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial, is 
part of a major effort to improve both services and amenities for the public at the 
memorial this year. Central to the scheme is completion of exhibits in the new 
visitor center at the memorial. The displays will open in time for Wolfe's birthday 
in October. The site is also featured on the cover of the section's new calendar of 
events for 1997, available free at all sites and at the home office in Raleigh 
(919-733-7862). 



Top: From inside the new visitor center at the 
Thomas Wolfe Memorial in Asheville, visitors are 
able to view Wolfe's childhood home through a 
large expanse of glass. Right: A photograph of 
Thomas Wolfe and his mother graces the cover of 
the Historic Sites Section's calendar of events for 
1997, now available free of charge at any of the 
various sites or through the Raleigh home office. 

The twenty-two state historic sites, seven of which are National Historic 
Landmarks, preserve a geographically and historically varied landscape. The sites 
include more than 110,000 square feet of educational museum exhibition space in 
addition to more than 66,000 square feet of furnished historic structures on 
exhibit. Staff and volunteers preserve more than 50,000 artifacts and handle 
more than 100 special events, as well as 200 repair, renovation, or construction 
projects annually. The people who accomplish that wide variety of work include 
well over two hundred permanent and temporary employees and some two 
thousand crucial volunteers. 



34 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 










Total visitation at state historic sites for the second half of 1996 was 361,706, a 
sum equivalent to 83 percent of the period's average attendance for the previous 
five years. The annual result (692,629) was equal to 86 percent of the five-year 
moving average. These seeming decreases were largely the result of the transfer 
out of the section of the highly popular replica sixteenth-century sailing vessel 
Elizabeth II at the end of 1995. Had the ship remained part of the section, the 
percentage figures would have been 99 percent for the year and 97 percent for 
the six months. Leading sites for the six months were Fort Fisher, the North 
Carolina Transportation Museum, Reed Gold Mine, Town Creek Indian Mound, 
and Historic Halifax. Sites with significant semiannual increases included Ben- 
tonville Battleground, the Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial, Historic Halifax, 
Somerset Place, the Transportation Museum, Horne Creek Living Historical 
Farm, and CSS Neuse. For the year. Brown Memorial, Fort Dobbs, Horne Creek 
Farm, and Somerset Place each reported their best attendance in a decade. 
Off-site general presentations by staff reached five times their level of the 
previous comparable period, primarily as a result of innovative appearances by 
costumed personnel from Historic Halifax at a heavily used state welcome center 
on Interstate 95; that tactic was successful in raising attendance at the site as well. 

Almost a thousand generous volunteers donated about twenty-four thousand 
hours of time, providing services equal to twenty-five full-time workers. The 
number of inmates and persons performing court-ordered community service 
rose by 53 percent, and the total number of hours they worked increased by 236 
percent to 9,550 hours, the equivalent of the services of ten full-time employees. 
Nearly 250,000 people attended shows, festivals, and conventions at which the 
sites mounted off-site exhibits, a figure up by 26 percent. Sites and support 
groups received $276,658 in grants and cash gifts. Among major contributors 
were the estate of Miss Nannie Gary of Halifax, Food Lion Stores, William and 
Nancy Stanback, Rowan County, the Duke Power Foundation, the Salisbury 
Community Foundation, and the Farmers and Merchants Bank of Salisbury. 

Guests at the sites in 1996 generated more than eighty million dollars in 
tourism revenue for the state, according to surveys conducted by the state 
Division of Travel and Tourism and North Carolina State University. The sites 
are a significant part of the burgeoning heritage tourism industry in North 
Carolina. Tourism, at $9.2 billion a year, has become the second major industry in 
the state, just behind manufacturing. Heritage tourism, including historic sites, 
accounts for 10 percent of tourism nationally but is growing at a rate six times 
that of traditional tourism. Forty percent of travelers in the Tar Heel State 
indicate that they stop at historic places, including North Carolina's twenty-two 
state historic sites. 

The staff at Historic Halifax has nearly completed a two-year program to 
repaint buildings at the site. The site's nonprofit support group, the Historical 
Halifax Restoration Association, funded most of the self-help enterprise. The 
effort began in February 1995 when staff members repainted the interior of the 
visitor center. Since then the exterior of the Sally-Billy House, the exterior and 
interior of the Burgess Law Office, exteriors of the Owens House and the Eagle 
Tavern, and extensive wooden trim on several brick buildings have been painted. 
Community service workers, employees from other historic sites, and inmates 
assisted with some of that work. The project will terminate with painting of the 
Tap Room. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


35 



Members of the staff of Historic Halifax State Historic Site, aided by funding from the Historic Halifax 
Restoration Association, recently completed a two-year project to repaint buildings at the site. The freshly 
painted Sally-Billy House is shown here. 

Historic Halifax was the co-host for a recent two-day heritage tourism event 
titled "Remembering Our Past, Preserving Our Future." The program, which 
drew participants from as far away as California, focused on restoration and 
preservation of homes in Halifax County dating from the second half of the 
eighteenth century. The rich agrarian society created there on plantations of that 
era has been well preserved in several areas of the county. During an intense 
thirty hours, participants listened to talks on a variety of architectural, restora¬ 
tion, and social subjects. Tours of several National Register properties were 
offered. The symposium was a joint effort of the Halifax County office of the 
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, the Halifax County Tourism 
Development Authority, East Carolina University, and Historic Halifax. 

Fort Fisher has received a new working reproduction cannon for display and 
use in demonstrations such as living history programs. The gun's official designa¬ 
tion is an M1857 light 12-pounder Napoleon. It is one of the most recognizable 
guns of the American Civil War, and Fort Fisher had several of the type. The 
smoothbore barrel is made of bronze and has a bore diameter of 4.62 inches. The 
weapon can fire a solid twelve-pound ball, as well as several other types of 
ammunition. Robert Schaber (whose father was a blacksmith and repaired can¬ 
nons at Fort Bragg in the 1920s) of Confederate States Arsenal in Spring Lake 
produced the fine gun. Several years ago he began to fulfill a lifelong dream of 
making Civil War cannons. One of the first guns he reproduced commercially 
was a 24-pounder Confederate Coehorn mortar, also acquired by Fort Fisher and 
now fired on a regular basis. The beautiful bronze barrel of the Napoleon was 
poured as solid stock in Canada, then bored and lathed in Fayetteville. Law 
Engineering in Raleigh scientifically tested the gun for structural integrity and 
found no flaws, a very rare circumstance inasmuch as flaws are inherent in 
poured bronze. The gun sits on a carriage made of white oak. Site staff have 
adapted a trailer to haul the cannon, which has already been displayed at area 
shopping malls. 


36 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 









Town Creek Indian Mound has a new nature trail that offers visitors a close 
look at floral beauty and an opportunity to view the Little River's rich diversity of 
plant and animal life, which has largely vanished from many other Piedmont river 
systems. Walkers are rewarded by some of the finest vistas in the area as they 
travel through the bottomland hardwoods along the river. The three-quarter- 
mile trail is not excessively steep or rugged. Numerous benches have been placed 
along the trail so that visitors might pause and enjoy the surrounding natural 
beauty. 

The section cordially invites readers to the following upcoming special events 
at the sites: 


April 

Town Creek Indian Mound. Richmond County Young 
Artist Exhibit. Artwork by students in the Richmond 
County schools on display 

April and May 

CSS NEUSE. Special school-group tours. Tours of the Gover¬ 
nor Richard Caswell Memorial and the CSS Neuse feature 
eighteenth- and nineteenth-century demonstrations and 
hands-on activities. Reservations required 

April 5 

REED Gold Mine. Panning Area grand reopening. Reopen¬ 
ing of panning area for summer season. Panning for $1.50 
per pan all day. One visitor will find a twenty-dollar gold 
nugget. Fee 

April 12 

HORNE Creek Farm. From Sheep to Spindle. Demonstra¬ 
tions of shearing, cleaning, dyeing, carding, and spinning. 
10:00 A.M.-5:00 P.M. 

REED Gold Mine. Gold Rush Run. Four foot races: 8k, half¬ 
marathon, mile fun run, and mile competitive walk. 
8:45 A M. -noon. Contact Reed Gold Mine for registration. 
Fee 

April 12, 13 

HISTORIC Halifax. Halifax Day. Annual commemoration of 
the adoption of the Halifax Resolves, the first call for inde¬ 
pendence in 1776. Halifax Restoration Association awards 
ceremony and tours of historic buildings 

April 20 

VANCE Birthplace. Spring Pioneer Living Day. Demonstra¬ 
tions of domestic skills used on an early 1800s mountain 
farmstead. 1:00-4:30 P M. 

April 22, 23 

REED Gold Mine. Heritage Days. Area fourth-grade stu¬ 
dents learn about North Carolina history through heritage 
craft demonstrations. 9:00 AM.-2:00 P.M. Open only to 
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Stanly, and Union County schools 

April 26 

Duke Homestead. Market Day. An open house at the 
Homestead will feature craftsmen with nineteenth-century 
wares and hands-on demonstrations. 10:00 A.M.-4:00 P.M. 

April 26, 27 

BENNETT Place. Surrender reenactment program. Reenac¬ 
tors re-create the surrender negotiations between Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston and Gen. William T. Sherman that led to 
the largest troop surrender of the Civil War. 10:00 A.M.- 
4:00 P.M. 

FORT Dobbs. Militia encampment. Activities include an 
eighteenth-century militia encampment with artillery and 
small-arms demonstrations. Saturday, 1:00-5:00 P.M ; Sun¬ 
day, 1:00-4:00 P.M. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


37 


May 10 

BENTONVILLE BATTLEGROUND Confederate Memorial Day. 
Bentonville Battleground and the Harper House Chapter of 
the UDC will host this annual observation. A memorial 
service will be held at the Confederate mass grave. 

May 10, 11 

Alamance Battleground Eighteenth-Century Live-in & 
Militia Muster. View colonial domestic and military demon¬ 
strations. Saturday, 10:00 A M -5:00 P M.; Sunday, 1:00- 
5:00 P M 

May 16 

ALAMANCE Battleground 226th anniversary of the Battle 
of Alamance. Special ceremony, covered-dish picnic, and 
program. 6:00-9:00 P M 

May 18 

House IN THE Horseshoe Spring Living History Day. 
Numerous living history demonstrations by costumed in¬ 
terpreters, including militia interpretations such as musket 
and artillery firing. Refreshments. Noon-5:00 P.M 

May 21 

RALEIGH History Bowl State Championship. Regional win¬ 
ners compete for the state title. Location: Archives and 
History Building. 9:00 A M.-4:00 P M 

May 24 

HORNE Creek Farm They Called That Fun? A day set aside 
for children to participate in games commonly played at the 
turn of the century. 11:00 A M.-5:00 P.M. 


State Capitol/Visitor Services 

The month of December was filled with holiday activities at the State Capitol as 
more than twenty-five thousand visitors enjoyed the unique Christmas decora¬ 
tions and special events. Gov. and Mrs. James B. Hunt Jr. lighted the official state 
Christmas tree on the evening of December 10, and a series of special activities, 
open houses, and musical performances followed during the ensuing twelve-day 



On the evening of December 10,1996, the State Capitol hosted the annual lighting of the state Christmas tree. 
At the conclusion of the ceremony, led by Governor and Mrs. lames B. Hunt jr„ participants gathered near the 
tree for a community sing. 


38 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



period. During the holidays some twenty thousand people visited the North 
Carolina Executive Mansion for an eight-day holiday open house. For the first 
time, the mansion was open to visitors during one evening. Public tours of the 
mansion resumed on March 4 and will continue through June 5. Tours will be 
offered on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays at 9:30, 10:00, 10:30, and 
11:00 a m and at 2:00 and 2:30 P M Reservations can be made by telephoning the 
Capital Area Visitor Center at (919) 733-3456. 

Refurnishing of the Ladies Parlor in the Executive Mansion is now complete. 
The room opened in the spring of 1996 with a display of fine southern antique 
furniture. Recent additions to that furniture include an 1800-1810 walnut secre¬ 
tary made by Peter Edleman of North Carolina and a pair of fiddleback coin silver 
spoons crafted by Raleigh silversmiths John C. Palmer and Walter J. Ramsey, who 
worked together from 1847 to 1855. The final addition to the room is a New York 
Federal mahogany easy chair that dates from ca. 1790-1800. Completion of the 
Ladies Parlor marks the beginning of an extensive search for additional southern 
antiques for other rooms in the residence and continues an ongoing quest for 
appropriate pieces owned by former governors. 

Tryon Palace 

During the past year Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens has enhanced its 
understanding of the past with the acquisition of fourteen objects important to 
the interpretation of history at the palace, in New Bern, and throughout North 
Carolina. Among the most important of the accessions is an eighteenth-century 
delftware punch bowl created in England in the late 1720s. The punch bowl once 
belonged to Nathaniel Rice (d. 1753), acting governor of North Carolina from 
1752 to 1753; George W. Rose, a descendant of Governor Rice, donated it to the 
palace. A recently donated eighteenth-century engraving titled The Death of 
General Wolfe is based on an oil painting by Benjamin West that so appealed to 
English national pride that it became the most frequently reproduced work of art 
in the eighteenth century. The engraving is an especially early and finely inked 
example, according to Nancy E. Richards, curator of collections at the palace. 
John L. Sanders of Chapel Hill, a current member of the Tryon Palace Commis¬ 
sion, and his wife Ann generously donated the engraving. 

Another recently donated object, a ca. 1863 photograph of the stable wing of 
Tryon Palace believed to have been made by a Union photographer, is the earliest 
known view of that portion of the palace complex. It provides a wealth of 
information about the appearance of the structure before extensive Victorian 
alterations were carried out later in the nineteenth century. Moreover, it con¬ 
firms the accuracy of an engraving of the palace found on a 1775 five-dollar bill 
and reveals several significant structural details that dramatically affect the 
present knowledge of the original appearance of the palace's wings, or offices. 
The Maine Historical Society donated the photograph. A recently acquired water- 
color titled Fort Carolina on the Trent River, rendered ca. 1863 by artist Merrill G. 
Wheelock, a Union soldier stationed in New Bern with the occupying Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, documents the appearance of New Bern 
at the time of the Civil War. Clearly visible in the work are existing landmarks 
such as the city's more venerable churches. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


39 


These and other artifacts accessioned by Tryon Palace Historic Sites & 
Gardens in 1996 will benefit researchers by expanding on previously incomplete 
information and will assist interpreters in re-creating in more authentic fashion 
the lives and times represented at the palace. Each acquisition adds another piece 
to a complex jigsaw puzzle of ongoing historical research. 

Western Office 

The Western Office historic preservation specialist continues to supervise an 
architectural survey of Cleveland County being conducted by Brian Eades, a 
Master of Arts candidate at Middle Tennessee State University. The survey will 
document approximately seven hundred properties in the county. No systematic 
architectural survey work has previously been conducted there. 

Members of the staff of the Western Office and the Mountain Gateway 
Museum Service Center in Old Fort are working cooperatively to update exhibits 
at the headquarters of the Cherokee Historical Association in Cherokee. The 
original exhibits were installed in 1987. 

Staff Notes 

Historic Sites administrator James R. McPherson has won the North Carolina 
Museums Council's Professional Service Award for 1996 for his high degree of 
museum professionalism and significant service to the museum field. His long 
career at Historic Sites began as a high school guide at Bennett Place. He then 
graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Coopers- 
town. New York, graduate program in museum studies. Returning home in 1974, 
he became founding manager at Duke Homestead before moving to Raleigh, 
where he served as chief of interpretation prior to becoming administrator. 



lames R. McPherson (center), administrator 
of the Division of Archives and History's 
Historic Sites Section, received the North 
Carolina Museums Council's Professional 
Service Award for 1996 for his high degree 
of museum professionalism and significant 
service to the museum field. Presenting the 
award to McPherson in front of the section's 
Raleigh home office is Harry Warren (left), 
immediate past president of the council, 
and Beverly Sanford (right), current presi¬ 
dent of the organization. 


Dr. Thomas Rhodes has become the new director at the North Carolina Trans¬ 
portation Museum. Davis Waters has been promoted from assistant manager to 
manager at Bennett Place. Daniel Hauser resigned as site assistant at Horne 
Creek Farm. 


40 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 





Kenneth M. McFarland, site manager at Historic Stagville, delivered a slide- 
illustrated lecture titled "Digging for the Past: Nineteenth-Century Landscape 
Photographs" at the Tryon Palace Auditorium in New Bern on February 8. 


Colleges and Universities 


Davidson College 

Malcolm Lester, professor emeritus, addressed the Mecklenburg Historical 
Association on November 11, 1996, and the Davidson Historical Society on 
January 19, 1997; the talks focused on Gen. D. H. Hill's relationship with the 
county and town. Dr. Lester is the author of A Census and Historical Sketch of the 
Davidson College Cemetery (Davidson: Davidson College, 1996). 

Fayetteville State University 

Phillip McGuire addressed the Conard Gass Historical Society in Buies Creek on 
October 30, 1996. His topic was "Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1939- 
1950." Dr. McGuire was recently appointed a member of the Institute of African 
American Research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 

Mars Hill College 

Tracy A. Campbell addressed a meeting of the Oral History Association in 
Philadelphia on October 13, 1996. She titled her remarks "Oral History and 
Tracking the Elusive Saga of Ed Prichard." Phyllis Smith was named assistant 
professor of history effective August 1996. 

North Carolina Wesleyan College 

Allen S. Johnson is co-compiler (with Gregory W. Williams) of Tar Heel Maps: 
Colony and State, 1590-1995 (Rocky Mount: North Carolina Wesleyan Press, 1996), 
a catalog that accompanied a recent exhibition of historical maps hosted by the 
college. Dr. Johnson is author of A Prologue to Revolution: The Political Career of George 
Grenville, 1712-1770 (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997). 

North Carolina State University 

The eleven-volume documentary Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925, edited by John 
David Smith, recently won the 1966 Myers Center Award for the Study of 
Human Rights in North America. The Myers Center for the Study of Intolerance 
in the United States, headquartered at the University of Arkansas, presents the 
award. 

Southern Historical Collection 

The collection recently made available the following manuscript groups: papers, 
1913-1914, of Mildred Gwin Andrews (1903-1984), executive secretary of the 
Southern Combed Yarn Spinners Association, member of the War Production 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


41 


Board's Committee on Industrial Salvage during World War II, and owner of the 
Charlotte public relations firm Andrewtex; papers, 1868, of Lemuel Bannister 
(fl. 1860s), president of the Green Swamp Company, a lumber business based in 
Wilmington and Bolton; records, 1917-1931, of Beeson Hardware and Lumber 
Company of High Point; diary, 1863-1881, of George W. Bowen (fl. 1863-1881), 
music instructor and drum major for the First North Carolina Drum Corps, First 
North Carolina Heavy Artillery, African Descent, in the Union army during the 
Civil War; records, 1918-1985, of the Boy Scouts of America, Old Hickory 
Council (begun in Winston-Salem); papers, 1855-1922, of the Clayton family of 
Asheville, chiefly related to Thomas L. Clayton (1834-1905), soldier in the Con¬ 
federate army and contractor with the Western North Carolina Railroad; and 
papers, 1974-1994, of the Red Clay Ramblers, a string band that began perform¬ 
ing together in Chapel Hill and later composed music and performed in off- 
Broadway and screen productions. 

University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Dr. David MacKenzie is the author of the following three titles: Violent Solutions: 
Revolutions, Nationalism, and Secret Societies in Europe to 1918 (Lanham, Md.: University 
Press of America, 1996); Russia and the USSR in theTwentieth Century, 3d ed. (Belmont, 
Calif.: Wadsworth Press, 1996); and Serbs and Russians (Boulder, Colo.: East Euro¬ 
pean Monographs, 1996). 

State, County, and Local Groups 

Chapel Hill Historical Society 

Chuck Stone, Walter Spearman Professor of Journalism at the University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was guest speaker at the society's February 2 
meeting. His remarks focused on how African Americans have helped to shape 
American history. Mike Williams, assistant professor of photojournalism at 
UNC-CH, spoke at the society's March 2 meeting; his topic was ''Preserving Our 
Visual Past." C. D. Spangler Jr., president of the University of North Carolina, 
will address the society on May 4. He will discuss the university's thirteen 
previous presidents. 

Hillsborough Historical Society 

On January 12 the Hillsborough Historical Society collaborated with Dickerson 
Chapel of Hillsborough in hosting a lecture by Raymond Gavins, professor of 
history at Duke University, whose topic was "The Formation of Black Churches 
in the South, 1850-1870." The afternoon program also included an oral history 
presentation by members of Dickerson Chapel. 

The society's biennial spring home and garden tour will take place on Saturday, 
April 26, from 10:00 a m to 5:30 P M The tour will feature a rare glimpse of the 
Commandant's House, an original component of the Hillsborough Military 
Academy, one of only two such pre-Civil War institutions in North Carolina, as 
well as a variety of colonial-era houses, gardens, and public buildings. For addi¬ 
tional information or admission tickets, telephone (919) 732-7741. 


42 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Lower Cape Fear Historical Society (Wilmington) 

Betty Ray McCain, secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, was guest speaker at the society's February 2 meeting. 

Museum of the Albemarle (Elizabeth City) 

The exhibit Fire and Wind: Disasters of the Albemarle will remain on display at the 
museum until August 31. In conjunction with the exhibit, the museum will also 
host a series of three lectures pertaining to local and regional weather anomalies 
and disasters. The programs will take place on Tuesday evenings at seven o'clock 
on March 11 and 25 and April 8. A new fashion exhibit titled Hats and Accessories 
opens at the museum on March 21, and on May 2 the museum will host "Pearls, 
Pearls, Pearls," a thirtieth-anniversary gala. For information on any of these 
programs, telephone (919) 335-1453. 

New Bern Historical Society 

On the occasion of a grand opening of a new store in New Bern, Target Stores 
presented to the New Bern Historical Society a grant in the amount of two 
thousand dollars. The society will use the donation to publish a new brochure for 
the Attmore-Oliver House Museum. 

The society will host its 1997 Historic Homes & Garden Tour on April 4 and 5. 
Twelve residences in two of New Bern's historic districts will be featured. 
Admission tickets are $12.50 in advance or $15.00 on tour days. For additional 
information, telephone (919) 638-8558 or 633-6448. 


North Carolina Museum of History 

First Families of North Carolina opened at the museum on January 11. The exhibit, 
which highlights the lives of North Carolina's governors and their families, will 
remain on display until July 20. 

Free performances of Sunday Gold, a new youth drama cosponsored by the 
North Carolina Museum of History and the Raleigh Little Theatre, will take place 
on the following dates in the following cities: 


April, 25, 26 
May 2-3 
May 10 
May 17 
May 24 


North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh 
Fayetteville (specific site to be announced) 

Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City 
Mountain Gateway Museum Service Center, Old Fort 
Miner's Jubilee, Gold Hill 


The curriculum-based drama, written by nationally known author Joanna Kraus, 
focuses on two young girls growing up during the 1840s gold rush in North 
Carolina. 

The museum's volunteers will host the first annual North Carolina Docent 
Symposium, September 14-15 in Raleigh. Docents and staff from other museums 
and sites will participate in the conclave, designed to enhance the effectiveness of 
docent programs. For additional information about the symposium or to register 
for it, telephone Debra Nichols at (919) 715-0200, extension 309. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, MARCH 1997 


43 



CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, July, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East lones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601-2807. 

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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3_MAY 1997 

Wreck of Ship Believed to Have Been Blackbeard's Discovered 

The Division of Archives and History, in association with the private maritime 
research firm Intersal, Inc., of Boca Raton, Florida, announced on March 3,1997, 
that salvors employed by Intersal under contract with the Underwater Archaeol¬ 
ogy Unit of the Division of Archives andHistory had discovered what is believed 
to be the remains of the Queen Anne's Revenge, the long-lost flagship of the infa¬ 
mous colonial-era pirate known as Blackbeard (Edward Teach). The vessel ran 
aground on a sandbar and sank off the coast of Beaufort, North Carolina, in June 
1718. Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the division, termed the wreck "the most 
important underwater archaeology discovery since the USS Monitor was found 
off Cape Hatteras in 1973." 

Edward Teach is believed to have distinguished himself in service aboard ships 
of privateers sailing out of Jamaica during Queen Anne's War. Sometime in 1716 
he transferred his base of operations from Jamaica to New Providence in the 



At a March 3, 1997, news conference, an assembled panel of officials of Intersal, Inc., of Boca Raton, Florida, 
and of the Division of Archives and History announced the discovery of what are believed to be the remains of 
the Queen Anne's Revenge, the long-lost flagship of the infamous pirate Blackbeard. Shown in the left 
foreground is a model of a ship similar in design to the Queen Anne's Revenge ; in the right foreground is an 
authentic blunderbuss, a weapon of the colonial period, accompanied by the recovered barrel of such a 
weapon salvaged from the wreck. (All photographs by the Division of Archives and History unless otherwise 
indicated.) 














Bahama Islands, then served as an apprentice under Capt. Benjamin Hornigold, a 
renowned pirate of New Providence. The two men joined forces to capture and 
loot a number of large merchant vessels before Hornigold withdrew from the 
practice of piracy early in 1718. Teach thereupon outfitted a large captured 
French vessel, the Concorde, as a heavily armed pirate ship, renamed it the Queen 
Anne's Revenge, and eventually staffed it with a crew of some 125 men. 

In late May 1718, near the height of Blackbeard's career as a pirate, he and his 
armed flotilla of five or six vessels blockaded the busy harbor at Charleston, 
South Carolina, and looted incoming and outgoing vessels. One week after that 
daring exploit, Blackbeard sailed northward along the Atlantic coast; while 
attempting to enter what is now known as Beaufort Inlet, the vessel became 
grounded on a sandbar. Another one of Blackbeard's vessels, what is believed to 
have been the Adventure, unsuccessfully attempted to come to the aid of the 
Revenge, and both ships sank (the Adventure has not been found). The pirate did, 
however, manage to remove what is believed to be all the treasure from the Queen 
Anne's Revenge before escaping in a small sloop. 

Later in June, Blackbeard and at least twenty members of his crew went to Bath 
to receive their pardons from Gov. Charles Eden, who was then residing in that 
town. Also residing at Bath during that period was Secretary Tobias Knight. 
Contemporaries of Eden and Knight suspected both men of connivance with 
Blackbeard and of sharing the pirate's plunder. From the time of his pardon until 
the early fall, Blackbeard is said to have lived at Bath, though contemporary 
evidence is inconclusive. Moreover, even during that brief period of residence, he 
was absent much of the time. In August 1718 he was in Philadelphia, where his 
activities prompted Gov. William Keith of Pennsylvania to seek his arrest. Soon 
after leaving Philadelphia, Blackbeard set sail for Bermuda. En route he seized a 
French vessel with a rich cargo of sugar and cocoa. With that prize he returned to 
North Carolina, reporting to Governor Eden in late September that he had found 
the vessel abandoned at sea. A hastily convened vice-admiralty court awarded 
portions of the cargo to Blackbeard and his crew and to Governor Eden and 
Secretary Knight. 

By October 1718 Blackbeard had established a base of operations inside Ocra- 
coke Inlet, near the present village of Ocracoke. From that base he was in an 
advantageous position to prey upon commercial vessels passing along the Outer 
Banks or through the inlet itself. Blackbeard's activities at Ocracoke Inlet soon 
came to an end, however. It was there that he and eight of his crewmen were slain 
in an engagement with Lt. Robert Maynard of the Royal Navy on November 22, 
1718. Virginia governor Alexander Spotswood had dispatched Maynard with 
orders to capture the notorious pirate and his treasure. In bloody hand-to-hand 
fighting aboard one of Maynard's vessels, Blackbeard sustained a pistol shot from 
Maynard, then a severe wound to his neck from a member of Maynard's crew, 
weakening him and enabling other British crewmen to stab him to death. May¬ 
nard thereupon ordered Blackbeard's head severed from his body and suspended 
above the bowsprit of Maynard's sloop. 

The events leading to the discovery of the apparent wreck site of the Queen 
Anne's Revenge began in 1987 when Intersal's president, Phil Masters, discovered in 
London a deposition that included an eyewitness account of the loss of the vessel. 
Masters thereupon applied for and in 1988 received from the Division of 


46 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Archives and History a permit to search for the long-lost ship. That same year, 
Intersal survey specialist Jim Whitaker arrived in Beaufort with sophisticated 
electronic searching devices. Using those tools, Intersal employees produced 
underwater charts of the area in question that detailed the location, shape, and 
intensity of numerous underwater anomalies. In 1989 Masters, searching var¬ 
ious archives in London, discovered a number of original documents pertaining to 
the Queen Anne's Revenge and the pirate known as Blackbeard. During 1989 Inter- 
sal's survey work in the Beaufort area indicated that a number of submerged 
shipwrecks might be found near Beaufort Inlet. To investigate the underwater 
anomalies found in the Beaufort area, Intersal in 1990 acquired a 42-foot salvage 
vessel, but lack of funding prevented the firm from conducting large-scale 
exploratory operations. In 1996 the company hired Mike Daniel to lead field 
operations in the area. Armed with the firm's research, Whitaker and Daniel 
began examining the more than thirty sites targeted by Intersal's preliminary 
activity. The men located five shipwrecks, the last one of which proved to be what 
is believed to be the Queen Anne's Revenge. In a spirit of cooperation and the desire to 
ensure that what may yield a potential "Blackbeard Collection'' remain intact, 
Intersal's board of directors has generously agreed to form a nonprofit corpora¬ 
tion—Maritime Research Institute (MRI)—to work with various state agencies 
on excavating and curating any and all artifacts found at the site. 

The wreck has already yielded a number of significant historical items, includ¬ 
ing a 12-inch-tall bronze bell inscribed with the date 1709, the brass barrel of a 
blunderbuss (a short gun commonly used in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries to fire several shot balls at close quarters), a 24-pound cannonball, a 
lead sounding weight (used to determine water depth), and various other items. 
Many of the recovered artifacts were on view at the March 3 press conference. 




Markings found on the breech end of the recovered blunderbuss 
barrel pictured above indicate that the weapon was manufactured in 
England in the late 1600s or early 1 700s. The barrel, made of brass, 
would have been mounted on a wooden stock. The cast bronze bell 
shown at left bears the inscription "IHS MARIA," a Roman Catholic 
invocation, along its upper band and the date "1 709" along its lower 
band. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


47 








These and other artifacts—particularly the large quantity of cannons sighted in 
the wreckage—combined with extensive historical research and documentation 
have led state archaeologists to conjecture that the wreck is indeed that of 
Blackboard's Queen Anne's Revenge. Researchers say that additional investigation 
and study are necessary and may yield critical information about North Caro¬ 
lina's maritime history. Indeed, only a limited amount of salvage work has been 
conducted at the wreck site thus far, inasmuch as Intersal is vitally interested in 
preserving the integrity of the site and in taking special care of the fragile 
artifacts that remain there. Intersal divers and state archaeologists will return to 
the site at a later date. 

The ship lies less than two miles offshore of Beaufort Inlet in a shallow portion 
of North Carolina's dreaded "Graveyard of the Atlantic." The state is not releas¬ 
ing the specific location of the find because of preservation concerns and the 
threat of artifact looting. Researchers do not believe the wreck contains any type 
of treasure. The site, lying in state-owned waters, is currently under sur¬ 
veillance, and on March 3 Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain 
declared the wreck a protected preserve. Future plans include additional archaeo¬ 
logical excavations under state supervision; conservation of recovered artifacts; 
implementation of site security; and cooperative efforts by MRI, the state, and 
academic institutions to excavate the wreck site and study the resulting artifacts. 
It is hoped that all such items can be kept together as a collection and put on public 
display. 

The March 3 announcement brought an international response. Articles 
appeared in the New York Times, the Times of London, and People magazine. Radio 
networks from the BBC to CBS Radio to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
conducted interviews. The recovery and conservation of the artifacts will con¬ 
tinue to attract attention for years to come. 

The notorious pirate Blackbeard and his flagship the Queen Anne's Revenge, along with 
other infamous North Carolina pirates, are covered in a sprightly and readable 
volume available from the Division of Archives and History. The Pirates of Colonial 
North Carolina, by Hugh F. Rankin, originally published in 1960, is the single most 
popular title offered for sale by the division and has been a perennial best seller. The 
72-page paperbound booklet includes an entire chapter on Blackbeard, easily the 
state's most renowned pirate. Accompanying the lively text are thirteen black-and- 
white drawings and engravings of pirates and their ships; brief biographical infor¬ 
mation on North Carolina's seafaring bandits of the colonial era; a listing of addi¬ 
tional publications about pirates; and a glossary of nautical terms pertinent to piracy. 
More than 178,000 copies of the volume are now in print. 

Hugh F. Rankin (1923-1989), author of Pirates, was W. R. Irby Professor of History 
at Tulane University and a distinguished scholar in American and North Carolina 
history. The Pirates of Colonial North Carolina is available from booksellers or can be 
ordered from the Historical Publications Section, Division of Archives and History, 
109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. When ordering by mail, the cost is 
five dollars (North Carolina residents please add 6 percent sales tax), plus two dollars 
for shipping. 

The division is also offering for sale a very popular poster of Blackbeard based on 
the frontispiece illustration for The Pirates of Colonial North Carolina. The striking black, 
white, and red poster, measuring 23 inches by 35 inches and out of print since 1987, 
has been reprinted and is again available. The posters sell for five dollars each (North 
Carolina residents please add 6 percent sales tax) plus two dollars for shipping. 
Order from the address shown above. 


48 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



State Preservation Agency Announces Name Change 

Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the Division of Archives and History, recently 
announced that the division's Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section 
would henceforth be known as the "State Historic Preservation Office." The 
preservation agency assists North Carolina citizens and local governments in the 
identification and preservation of historic buildings and archaeological sites. 
Betty Ray McCain, secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, parent agency of the Division of Archives and History, approved the 
proposed change, which became effective February 5, 1997. 

David Brook, administrator of the agency, noted that while the new name had 
been used informally for the past decade, the official change would help remove 
confusion arising over the use of two names and would "better reflect the 
agency's state and national role in carrying out North Carolina's historic preser¬ 
vation programs." He added that the change should also help clarify the distinc¬ 
tion between the State Historic Preservation Office and the Historic Preserva¬ 
tion Foundation of North Carolina (Preservation North Carolina), the statewide 
private nonprofit preservation-advocacy organization. Brook also remarked that 
the State Historic Preservation Office and Preservation North Carolina use 
different tools to achieve a common goal and often work in tandem on historic 
preservation initiatives. 

The State Historic Preservation Office conducts the statewide survey of his¬ 
toric buildings and archaeological sites, coordinates nominations of eligible prop¬ 
erties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places, provides technical 
restoration assistance to owners of historic properties, advises local historic 
preservation commissions, and reviews state and federal undertakings for their 
effect on historical or archaeological properties as part of the state planning 
process. The office also assists applicants for federal tax credits for restorations 
of income-producing historic buildings. Since 1976, 648 North Carolina preser¬ 
vation projects have received federal certification, representing 278 million dol¬ 
lars in investments in historic buildings in the state. 

Component agencies of the State Historic Preservation Office include the 
Office of State Archaeology, the Survey and Planning Branch, the Restoration 
Branch, and the Administration Branch. Members of the office are also assigned 
to Archives and History regional offices in Greenville and Asheville and to the 
Underwater Archaeology Laboratory at Kure Beach. The office maintains a 
World Wide Web site at www.hpo.dcr.state.nc.us. 

Friends of the Archives Establishes Speakers Bureau 

The North Carolina Friends of the Archives, the not-for-profit support group 
whose activities benefit the North Carolina State Archives, has established a 
speakers bureau comprised of a number of noted Tar Heel historians and authors 
who are available to lecture on a variety of topics for civic, historical, genealogical, 
or academic organizations. Among the speakers and their areas of expertise are: 

Dr. WILLIAM C. Harris (North Carolina State University), North Carolina and the Civil 
War; Abraham Lincoln and North Carolina 

Dr. JEFFREY J. Crow (Division of Archives and History), free African Americans in North 
Carolina; the role of the Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


49 


Dr. LlNDLEY S. BUTLER, the North Carolina-Barbados connection; David Fanning and the 
loyalists of the Revolutionary War 

Dr. JERRY C. Cross (Division of Archives and History), Sherman's march through North 
Carolina 

JOE A. MOBLEY (Division of Archives and History), Gov. Zebulon B. Vance; historic James 
City 

SlON Harrington (Division of Archives and History), military records in the North 
Carolina State Archives; World Wars 1 and II and North Carolina; other topics pertain¬ 
ing to military history 

Groups interested in hosting presentations by these speakers should contact 
David J. Olson, secretary-treasurer, Friends of the Archives, Division of Archives 
and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 28601-2807 or telephone (919) 
733-3952. 

The Friends of the Archives, established in 1977, with volunteered time and 
financial contributions has acquired and donated to the North Carolina State 
Archives a number of valuable historical collections and artifacts, funded an 
automated orientation program to introduce first-time visitors to the State 
Archives, purchased seventy-five new chairs for the Archives Search Room, and 
sponsored periodic genealogical workshops for researchers. For additional infor¬ 
mation on the Friends group, contact the secretary-treasurer. 

Old Salem to Host Conference on Restoring Southern Cardens 

Old Salem will host the eleventh Conference on Restoring Southern Gardens 
and Landscapes, October 2-4, 1997, on the campus of Salem Academy and 
College in Winston-Salem. The theme of this year's conclave is ''Breaking 
Ground: Examining the Vision and Practice of Historic Landscape Restoration." 
Experts from a broad range of disciplines will offer their views on the challenges 
facing individuals engaged in preserving historic landscapes. Among topics to be 
discussed are National Park Service guidelines for the restoration of historic 
landscapes, restoring the spirit of place, landscape interpretation, dealing with 
Colonial Revival landscapes, and preservation through land trusts and conser¬ 
vancies. Additional sponsors of the conference are the Museum of Early South¬ 
ern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem; Reynolda Gardens, Winston-Salem; His¬ 
toric Stagville, Durham; and the Southern Garden History Society. To register or 
receive additional information, contact Kay Bergey, Landscape Conference 
Registrar, Old Salem, Inc., Box F, Salem Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27108, or 
telephone (910) 721-7313. 

Southern Conference on Women's History 

The Southern Association for Women Historians will host its Fourth Southern 
Conference on Women's History, June 12-14,1997, at the College of Charleston 
in Charleston, South Carolina. The conclave will provide a forum for the presen¬ 
tation and discussion of the best in recent scholarship in women's history, with 
special emphasis on the history of women in the South. The opening plenary 
session will feature Dr. Carol Bleser, author of Women, Family, and Marriage in the 
Victorian South and numerous other works on southern antebellum women; the 
closing plenary session will feature Dr. Barbara Fields, author of Slavery and 


50 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Freedom on the Middle Ground, and Dr. Karen Fields, author of several studies of 
gender and race. The conference will also include an open panel on the topic 
"Women and the Civil Rights Movement," as well as more than forty additional 
sessions devoted to a wide variety of topics on the history of women and gender. 
For additional information on the conference, write to Dr. Amy Thompson 
McCandless, Conference Coordinator, Department of History, College of 
Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424. 

Symposium on Slavery in the French-Speaking World 

On October 15 and 16 the University of Georgia will host a symposium titled 
"Slavery in the Francophone World: Literary, Cultural, and Historical." Presenta¬ 
tions by fifteen French, American, and Caribbean scholars will explore linkages 
between slavery and race in the American South and the French Caribbean, most 
notably in the form of post-Revolutionary Haitian refugees. Other topics to be 
addressed include the role of women of color, free and slave, in the urban South; 
comparative perspectives of Caribbean and American identities; and the post¬ 
colonial legacy of slavery in French literature. 

The symposium will take place at the university's Center for Continuing 
Education in conjunction with the twenty-third annual Nineteenth-Century 
French Studies Colloquium, which begins on October 17. For additional informa¬ 
tion, contact Prof. Doris Kadish, Department of Romance Languages, University 
of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602; telephone (706) 542-3121; or direct e-mail to 
dkadish@uga.cc.uga.edu. 


Obituaries 

Marshall Pratt, an ardent supporter, volunteer docent, and generous contributor 
to the North Carolina Transportation Museum, died in Charlotte on 
November 4, 1996, at the age of seventy-three. Pratt, a native of Massachusetts 
and formerly an Army Air Corps pilot in World War II, donated several aviation- 
related artifacts to the museum and was a bronze partner of the Spencer Shops 
Centennial, commemorated last fall. His 1935 Chrysler was among the first cars 
displayed in the automobile exhibits at the museum. 

Vivian Phipps (Snooky) Bond died in Edenton on February 18, 1997, at the age 
of seventy-one. Mrs. Bond, a native of Chapel Hill and a graduate (1948) of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was formerly executive director of 
the Historic Albemarle Tour. She was a recipient of numerous awards for public 
service in behalf of civic organizations and institutions in Edenton. 

Ruth Moore Harrison Mincher, local historian, veteran newspaper journalist, 
and longtime member of the Halifax County Historical Society, died in Roanoke 
Rapids on March 14,1997, at the age of eighty-two. Mrs. Mincher was a frequent 
contributor of articles with historical themes to newspapers in eastern North 
Carolina. She also conducted extensive research in the histories of area churches 
and significant buildings and contributed valuable biographical accounts of area 
citizens. She served for many years as a feature writer and columnist for the Daily 
Herald (Roanoke Rapids) and in the 1950s was editor of the weekly Littleton 
Observer. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


51 


Recent Articles on North Carolina History 

Robert G. Anthony Jr., “North Carolina Bibliography, 1995-1996," North Carolina Historical 
Review 74 (April 1997) 

Robert J. Cain, "Cotton for the Kaiser: James Sprunt, Contraband, and the Wilmington 
Vice-Consulate," North Carolina Historical Review 74 (April 1997) 

Mark A. Huddle, "To Educate a Race: The Making of the First State Colored Normal 
School, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 1865-1877," North Carolina Historical Review 74 
(April 1997) 

Alan D. Watson, "Travel Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: The Case of the Lower 
Cape Fear," Lower Cape Fear Historical Society Bulletin 41 (February 1997) 

Mary Lethard Wingerd, "Rethinking Paternalism: Power and Parochialism in a Southern 
Mill Village," Journal of American History 83 (December 1996) 

Karin L. Zipf, "'Among These American Heathens': Congregationalist Missionaries and 
African American Evangelicals during Reconstruction, 1865-1878," North Carolina His¬ 
torical Review 74 (April 1997) 


News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

On May 3 the State Archives, in cooperation with its support group, the Friends 
of the Archives, hosted a new workshop for researchers with a degree of knowl¬ 
edge of the basic primary sources available at the Archives and experience in 
conducting family research. The daylong conclave, titled "Putting the Pieces 
Together: Using Complementary Sources for Research," focused on the inter¬ 
related nature of public records. Participants reviewed selected records series and 
discussed specific examples of how those sources could best be utilized for 
research. Topics included primary sources such as census records, vital statistics, 
wills and estates, Bible records, and marriage registers; bonds and miscellaneous 
records; deeds; Secretary of State's records; Treasurer's and Comptroller's 
records; military records; county court records; and supreme court records. 
Question-and-answer sessions in the form of a panel discussion followed both 
the morning and afternoon lectures. Speakers for the workshop included Lee 
Albright of the State Library of North Carolina and Mary Barnes, Debbi Blake, 
Bill Brown, Barbara Cain, Ed Morris, Ken Simpson, and Mark Valsame from the 
State Archives. Debbi Blake, Betsy Thomas, and Jesse R. Lankford Jr., along with 
Donna E. Kelly of the Historical Publications Section, helped coordinate arrange¬ 
ments for the well-received workshop. 

State Historic Preservation Office 

Members of the Restoration Branch of the State Historic Preservation Office 
have been providing technical assistance to the Scotland County Literacy Council 
in that organization's efforts to renovate the Sanford House in Laurinburg as its 
new headquarters. The turn-of-the-century residence was the boyhood home of 
former governor Terry Sanford. Sanford's parents, Cecil and Elizabeth Sanford, 


52 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


acquired the property in 1932 and during their occupancy enlarged the Victorian- 
style residence with a rear addition and converted the attic to additional bed¬ 
rooms. Restoration specialist Reid Thomas, who grew up in Laurinburg, 
remembers visiting Mrs. "Betsy" Sanford and discussing her interest in history 
and gardening. Mrs. Sanford served as a member of the Roanoke Island Commis¬ 
sion and in her mid-nineties enrolled in courses at St. Andrews Presbyterian 
College. She remained a much-loved inspiration to many people until her death at 
the age of one hundred. She continued to reside in her home until shortly before 
her death. The Sanford family subsequently donated the property to the literacy 
council. 

Senior restoration specialist Mitch Wilds and restoration specialist Reid 
Thomas recently participated in planning activities for the restoration of the 
Wright Brothers Memorial in Kill Devil Hills. The sixty-foot granite pylon will be 
undergoing extensive repairs this spring, including stone conservation work. As 
part of that work the rotating beacon at the top of the monument will be restored, 
and the first level will be reopened to the public for the first time since 1960, when 
the monument's visitor center was opened. 



Left: State Historic Preservation Office (HPO) restoration specialist Reid Thomas confers with Pat Bush, 
executive director of the Scotland County Literacy Council, concerning that organization's plans to renovate 
Laurinburg's Sanford House (a portion of which is visible at left) for use as a new headquarters. Right: Senior 
HPO restoration specialist Mitch Wilds (left) confers with Steve Harrison, museum curator with the Cape 
Hatteras Group, National Park Service, at the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kill Devil Hills. 


Historic Sites 

Reed Gold Mine has celebrated its twentieth anniversary as an operating state 
historic site. The popular mine, opened to the public in April 1977 after several 
years of planning and development, has attracted more than 1.3 million visitors 
over the years. Attendance reached a high of 102,317 in 1980 when the price of 
gold crested at $850 a troy ounce (it has been in the $350-$400 range since then) 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


53 





and dropped below 50,000 only once (to 49,418 in 1991) in two decades. In 1996 
visitors to Reed came from all fifty states and some forty foreign countries. 

In 1966 the mine became a National Historic Landmark. In 1971 its owners, the 
Kelly family of Ohio, donated 70 historic mining acres to the state, which then 
purchased 760 remaining acres. Dr. H. G. Jones, then director of the Division of 
Archives and History, and the National Park Service completed an initial master 
plan for the site in 1972. Local citizens formed the nonprofit Gold History 
Corporation, which continues to support the mine and its programs. Major fund¬ 
ing from the General Assembly of 1973 made possible further planning and his¬ 
torical research, restoration of underground workings to open four hundred feet 
of mine tunnels to the public in 1977, and construction of a visitor center and sup¬ 
port buildings. The mine has had three able managers in twenty years: George 
Stinagle, 1973-1978; Tom Norton, 1978-1979; and John Dysart, 1979 to date. 

To mark the anniversary, the site in late March hosted a meeting of the 
Carolinas Section of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME), 
of which Dysart is secretary-treasurer. The two-day affair was a joint meeting 
with the American Institute of Professional Geologists and the Association for 
Engineering Geologists. Among sessions held were a comprehensive tour of the 
mine conducted by Dysart and discussion of the geology and development of the 
mine led by Dr. Henry Brown and Henry Singletary, who led restoration of the 
underground workings. 

A major physical addition to the site to mark the anniversary is the new Talking 
Rocks Trail. This significant new feature, originally the idea of Dr. Jeffrey Reid, 
North Carolina's chief state geologist, opened March 21; it offers visitors a 
narrative of historical, geographical, and geological facts related to various types 
of rocks and physical features. Battery-powered digital-audio units are placed in 
wooden posts at twelve stations along the trail to inform visitors concerning the 
heritage and geology of Reed Gold Mine. The SME and its corporate and individ¬ 
ual members have been very generous in supporting the trail. Ten of the stations 
are marked by large ore samples, most of which were delivered free of charge to 
the historic site as gifts from various important gold mines in the Carolinas. 



Three members of the staff of the His¬ 
toric Sites Section officially opened 
Reed Cold Mine's new Talking Rocks 
Trail on March 21. Shown left to right 
are John Dysart, manager at the site; 
Kimberly Hewitt, former interpreter at 
Reed and presently a senior interpreter 
at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial; and Bob 
Remsburg, assistant manager at Reed. 
The new trail features twelve digital- 
audio stations such as the one beside 
Remsburg; each one interprets aspects 
of the heritage and geology of Reed 
Gold Mine. 


54 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




Three of the four major operating mines of South Carolina in the 1980s and 
1990s—the Brewer, Ridgeway, and Haile mines—are represented by samples, 
some of which are as large as four tons of ore. Alex Glover, geologist for Vulcan 
Materials Company, Mideast Division, has been especially instrumental in gain¬ 
ing support for the venture; Vulcan provided samples of ore from North Caro¬ 
lina's most significant mining area, the Gold Hill district, which is not far from 
Reed. Specimens include alaskite, olivine, and lithium pegmatite. 

In February 1864 Confederate troops attacked Federal soldiers who were 
occupying New Bern; the assault resulted in southern forces capturing and 
scuttling the Union gunboat Underwriter in what one participant described as "a 
perilous enterprise." Creation of an exhibit based on that episode (an idea con¬ 
ceived in 1990) recently reached fruition at the CSS Neuse. The new display 
opened in time for the annual increase in visitation by school groups. The concept 
of the exhibit came from Leslie Bright of the Fort Fisher archaeology preserva¬ 
tion laboratory. After performing conservation work on hundreds of artifacts 
recovered by underwater archaeologists from the Underwriter, Bright suggested 
that some of them should be on display at Kinston, inasmuch as the expedition to 
attack New Bern had departed from that location. The most prized artifact, a gun 
carriage, was to be displayed at the New Bern Academy, but the vast majority of 
the artifacts simply went into storage. The story of the production of the display 
became an example of persistence and perseverance in the face of competing 
priorities. After conducting research on the Underwriter, the Neuse staff proposed 
the exhibit in 1993. Funding for the new display came from the CSS Neuse 
Restoration Committee, and the section's Interpretations Team handled design 
work. After a number of delays resulting from commitments to other projects 
already under way throughout the state and technical problems with the new 
display, the section placed the artifacts in the exhibit. The handsome new display 
greatly complements the existing exhibits on the Neuse. Moreover, it represents a 
first step in expanding the story line at the CSS Neuse in order to tell more of what 
happened in Kinston and eastern North Carolina during the Civil War. 



Visitors at the CSS Neuse in Kinston 
view artifacts recovered from the wreck 
of the USS Underwriter, a Union gun¬ 
boat scuttled in the Neuse River near 
New Bern by attacking Confederate 
troops in February 1864. The CSS 
Neuse visitor center recently installed 
an exhibit comprised of many of the 
recovered items. The CSS Neuse Resto¬ 
ration Committee provided funding for 
the new exhibit. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


55 





The Charles B. Aycock Birthplace has established a mutual friendship with the 
Applebee's restaurant chain, a fast-growing franchise that recently opened facili¬ 
ties in Goldsboro and Wilson. A particularly favorable aspect of an Applebee's 
restaurant is a decor that attempts to capture the essence of the local community. 
Cultural and historical subjects are portrayed in such media as photographs, 
artifacts, and banners. The practice gives all Applebee's interiors a distinctive 
look and also affords sites such as Aycock Birthplace much-needed exposure. In 
1994 Creative Insight, a contract designer, copied, enlarged, framed, and placed 
on public view in the Goldsboro restaurant a number of photographs from 
Aycock Birthplace. Two years later another Applebee's opened in Wilson. This 
time a different design group for the restaurant, Applegold, took even greater 
pains with the work. The designers utilized period clothing, photographs, and 
other props in their display, which gives the birthplace additional exposure in a 
neighboring county. Such commercial displays not only tie a historic site to the 
locale in the minds of residents but also advertise it to people traveling through an 
area. 



Many Applebee's restaurants feature in-house exhibits that focus on local heritage and culture. New Apple¬ 
bee's units recently opened in Goldsboro and Wilson highlight the Charles B. Aycock Birthplace State Historic 
Site near Fremont. The display shown above, from the Wilson Applebee's, consists of photographs of 
Governor Aycock, as well as illustrations, clothing, and other items from the site, where he was born in 1859. 


At the North Carolina Transportation Museum in Spencer, volunteers, con¬ 
tractors, and staff master mechanic John Bechtel are completing a number of 
restoration and maintenance projects on historic rolling stock. The activity is 
taking place in a renovated restoration shop inside the Bob Julian Roundhouse, 
which opened last fall as the centerpiece of the museum. The shop is placed so 
that visitors to the museum can safely watch work in progress. For the workers, 
the new facility is a dream; the former restoration area was open to the elements 
and lacked such basic conveniences as electricity, water, and compressed air. 


56 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 










Workers at the North Carolina Transporta¬ 
tion Museum in Spencer recently test-fired 
the boiler of the former Graham County 
Railroad Shay steam locomotive No. 1925 
on the museum grounds. The successful test 
was a key milestone in the museum's on¬ 
going efforts to restore the locomotive to full 
operating condition. 


Projects under way this spring include an operational restoration of the former 
Graham County Railroad Shay steam locomotive No. 1925; a cosmetic and 
operational reconstruction of a Clinchfield Railroad caboose; and a seasonal 
overhaul of the popular Consolidation steam locomotive No. 604, scheduled to 
return to service in May. The latter locomotive is used on weekend train rides 
most of the year, and later in the summer No. 1925 will become the museum's 
backup engine, as well as a second locomotive for certain special events. Work on 
the Shay has been a costly project, generously funded by individuals and the 
North Carolina Transportation History Corporation. 

In February the Friends of Town Creek Indian Mound and the staff held a 
cookout for the two IMPACT teams working at the site. These young offenders 
had labored at Town Creek for about four weeks. During that time, they cut river 
cane and moved it to the shop area, placed the river cane in the burial hut to cover 
the plywood ceiling, tied broomstraw for use on the burial hut and other build¬ 
ings, cleaned trails, cut firewood, and worked on the large shelter in the learning 
center. Additional projects undertaken by IMPACT teams at Town Creek since 
1990 involved clearing a site and building a stockade for the learning center, 
constructing a gabion wall, helping to build a fence above the riverbank, digging a 
drainage line behind the visitor center, replacing the stockade around the minor 
temple, helping with site preparation and cleanup for the annual heritage festi¬ 
vals, and cleaning up debris resulting from a tornado in May 1995 and Hurricane 
Fran in 1996. In addition, the workers have helped with general site maintenance. 

The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, watchdog of numerous rare 
breeds of livestock found at North Carolina's historic sites and elsewhere, is 
beginning its third decade. Twenty years ago a small group of agricultural 
historians, farmers, and scientists discovered that many of America's historic 
farm animal breeds had almost disappeared. They formed the American Minor 
Breeds Conservancy (AMBC, now ALBC) to protect those rare breeds. AMBC's 
first years were spent ascertaining which breeds were rare and gaining members. 
In 1984 the organization received its first foundation grant and professional 
staff. By 1986 it had completed a census of breeds and established a national office 
(two tiny rooms) in Pittsboro, North Carolina. In 1988 Dr. Don Bixby, a veteri¬ 
narian, became executive director of AMBC, which then had nine hundred 
members. AMBC grew and changed its name to ALBC in 1993. ALBC presently 
has five employees and a catalog of forty publications and promotional items. The 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


57 




agency answers some thirty-five hundred inquiries each year, and membership is 
nearly four thousand. These changes reflect the success of ALBC in building 
support for rare breeds conservation. In agriculture, conservation is no longer 
viewed with skepticism but rather as essential to the future. Outbreaks of avian 
influenza and other diseases have confirmed the biological necessity of protecting 
genetic diversity in each species. Other changes in agriculture, such as the shift to 
grass-based dairying, have demonstrated that breed diversity is also an economic 
necessity. 

The section cordially invites readers and friends to the following forthcoming 
special events at the sites: 


June 13-15 


June 14 


June 14, 15 


Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial Weekend com¬ 
memorating Dr. Brown's birthday. Friday: program and 
time to be announced. Saturday: African American Heritage 
Festival—exhibits, vendors, food, and center-stage attrac¬ 
tions, 9:00 A M -5:00 P.M. Sunday: Graveside ceremonies at 
site, 10:15 A M.; worship service at Bethany United Church 
of Christ, 11:00 A M 

HORNE Creek Farm The Fabric of Our Rural Past. Demon¬ 
strations of spinning and dyeing wool, quilting, sewing, and 
other traditional textile crafts. Displays of antique clothing 
and quilts. 10:00 A M.-5:00 P M 

North Carolina Transportation Museum Rail Days. A 
celebration of railroading in North Carolina. Steam- and 
diesel-powered train rides, caboose trains, model railroad 
displays, children's area, and many more activities. Fee 


June 18-August 15 FORT FISHER Mary Holloway Memorial Seasonal Inter¬ 
preter Program. Costumed soldiers give guided tours of 
fortification along with weapons demonstrations. 

June 21 AYCOCK BIRTHPLACE. Farmer's Day. Farm and household 

chores of the mid-nineteenth century will be demonstrated. 
Noon-4:00 P.M 


July 4, 5 HORNE Creek Farm Old-fashioned Fourth of July. Patriotic 

event features homespun fun for the entire family. Activi¬ 
ties include children's games, homemade ice cream, various 
contests, music, and more. Bring a picnic and enjoy the day. 
Noon-5:00 P.M. 


July 19 BENTONVILLE BATTLEGROUND. Artillery demonstrations. 

Uniformed interpreters demonstrate Civil War artillery 
drill on a full-scale three-inch ordnance rifle, a common field 
piece of the period. 1:00-4:00 P M. 

July 19, 20 THOMAS Wolfe Memorial Preview of exhibits. Exhibits on 

the life and writings of Thomas Wolfe will be unveiled at the 
site's new visitor center. 


July 19, 20, 26, 27 BENTONVILLE BATTLEGROUND Summer living history pro¬ 
gram. Costumed interpreters will demonstrate various 
activities such as soldier life and the civilian side of nine¬ 
teenth-century life. Musket demonstrations and discus¬ 
sions of life in camp will occur throughout the day. 

July 26 DUKE Homestead Curing Barn Party. Tobacco harvesting, 

curing, and related activities in the field and at the barn in 
the nineteenth-century style. Refreshments, musical enter¬ 
tainment, and children's games will be provided. 


58 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


State Capitol/Visitor Services 

On May 17 the North Carolina United Daughters of the Confederacy presented 
to the State Capitol Foundation a donation to assist in restoration of the monu¬ 
ment to the women of the Confederacy, which has stood on Capitol Square since 
1914, when Col. Ashley Horne bestowed it to the state in recognition of the 
hardships and sacrifices endured by North Carolina's women during the Civil 
War. The foundation is accepting private donations of funds to restore all ten 
monuments on Capitol Square. Although funds have been pledged or donated for 
four monuments, sponsors are still needed for the monuments to Samuel 
A'Court Ashe, Charles B. Aycock, Ensign Worth Bagley, Charles D. Mclver, 
Zebulon B. Vance, and Henry Lawson Wyatt. Persons or groups interested in 
sponsoring restoration of a monument should write to the State Capitol Founda¬ 
tion, Capitol Building, 1 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, NC 27601; telephone the 
foundation at (919) 733-4994; or fax it at (919) 715-4030. 



The North Carolina United Daughters of 
the Confederacy recently presented to 
the State Capitol Foundation a generous 
contribution to assist in restoration of 
the Capitol's 1914 monument to the 
women of the Confederacy. The re¬ 
cently restored monument is shown 
here. 


On March 18 the recently formed State Capitol Society hosted a well-received 
lecture by noted Scottish architect lan Begg, who titled his remarks "David Paton: 
An Edinburgh View." Mr. Begg is currently involved with the restoration of an 
early Scottish building designed by Paton, a native of Edinburgh who served as 
architect for the State Capitol. 

In conducting research related to the Capitol's ongoing restoration, historian 
Raymond L. Beck discovered that the building's 1840 painting and decorative 
schemes were based on a small volume titled The Laws of Harmonious Colouring as 
Applied to House Painting, by Edinburgh native David Ramsay Hay. Correspondence 
with Mr. Begg established the fact that, prior to 1834, David Paton and Ramsay 
Hay were both employed by the Scottish architect William Playfair, noted for his 
prominent neoclassically designed buildings in the New Town district of Edin¬ 
burgh. Mr. Begg's lecture brought together the three men and their individual 
achievements to reveal a common basis for Paton's 1836-1840 architectural 
design revisions to the Capitol, his refinement of the initial plan by Ithiel Town 
and A. J. Davis of New York, and his certain influence on the Capitol's original 
interior finishes. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


59 



Western Office 


Employees of the Western Office and the Mountain Gateway Museum in Old 
Fort recently undertook responsibility for temporarily moving portions of the 
USS Asheville exhibit from the Asheville Regional Airport to the Asheville Civic 
Center for a commemorative event to celebrate the bicentennial of the city of 
Asheville. The Western Office is working with the Western North Carolina 
Historical Association (WNCHA) in that organization's efforts to reorganize; 
WNCHA operates the Smith-McDowell House Museum in Asheville. 

The Western Office continues to work with Mars Hill College and the U.S. 
Forest Service on two preservation internships, which will run for two months 
this summer and will deal with archiving the historic land records at the Forest 
Service headquarters in Asheville. 

Recent Accessions by the North Carolina State Archives 

During the months of December 1996 and January and February 1997, the 
Archival Services Branch of the Archives and Records Section made 116 acces¬ 
sions entries. The branch received original records from Caldwell, Wake, and 
Wilkes Counties, as well as security microfilm of records for Brunswick, Bun¬ 
combe, Camden, Cleveland, Durham, Gaston, Gates, Guilford, Lenoir, Martin, 
Onslow, Watauga, Wayne, and Wilkes Counties; for the municipalities of Fay¬ 
etteville, Franklin, Kannapolis, Sunset Beach, and Williamston; for the Region L 
and Western Piedmont Councils of Government; and for the Selective Service 
System. 

The branch accessioned records from the following state agencies: Archives 
and History, 1 reel; Governor, 69 cubic feet; Human Resources, 16 cubic feet; and 
Secretary of State, 2.5 cubic feet and 27 reels. New private collections included 
the Edmund Tombs Beazley Papers, the James P. Buchanan Papers, the James 
McGill Manuscript, the Terry Sanford Papers, and the Jonathan Stanley Tayloe 
Papers; the Walser Allen Papers and the George Alton Stewart Papers received 
additions. 

The Raleigh Branch of the American Association of University Women and the 
Roanoke-Patterson Employee Association deposited organization records, and 
records of the Farmers' State Alliance were microfilmed. Additional accessions 
included Bible records from 8 family Bibles; Guilford County and Confederate 
veterans cemetery records; microfilm of Scottish records; 3 additions to the 
Military Collection; 23 additions to the Newspaper Collection; and 1 original 
print, 1 photograph, and 3 video tapes as additions to the Non-Textual Materials 
Collection. 

Staff Notes 

Tracy Drake began work as an office assistant in the Director's Office effective 
January 15, 1997; she fills the vacancy created by the promotion of Rita Cashion 
to administrative secretary. 

Kent McCoury has been promoted to site assistant at Bennett Place, and 
Gordon Hale began work in the same capacity at Vance Birthplace. New inter- 


60 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


preters at historic sites include Deborah Sliva at Historic Edenton, replacing Lady 
Strong, and Becky Sawyer at Bentonville Battleground. Lorraine Blahnik is a new 
office assistant at Reed Gold Mine; Charles Morrison recently began work as a 
maintenance mechanic at Thomas Wolfe Memorial. 

Mrs. Marion Parson was hired as a field microfilmer for the Western Office 
effective March 3,1997; she replaces Barbara Keeter, who resigned in December 
1996. 


Colleges and Universities 

Fayetteville State University 

Phillip McGuire is the author of Black Souls Been Scorched! (New York: Vantage 
Press, 1997). 

North Carolina A&T State University 

Linda Addo read a paper titled "The Merging of Community and Learning: The 
Penn School, 1862-1915" at the annual meeting of the Southern Conference in 
African American Studies, which took place in Atlanta on February 22. Dr. Addo 
has been elected secretary of the Commission on Archives and History, Western 
North Carolina Conference, Methodist Church. Dr. Claude Clegg is the author 
of An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (New York: St. Martin's 
Press, 1997), as well as "Rebuilding the Nation: The Life and Work of Elijah 
Muhammad, 1946-1954," an article published in The Black Scholar: Journal of Black 
Studies and Research 26 (fall-winter 1996). Dr. Thomas Porter recently published 
"Incipient Federalism in Late Imperial Russia," in James Hickey Jr. and Alexei 
Ugrinsky, eds.. Government Structures in the U.S.A. and the Sovereign States of the Former 
U.S.S.R. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996). James Hevia recently 
received from the Association of Asian Studies the Joseph Levenson Prize for the 
best book in pre-twentieth-century Chinese studies for his book Cherishing Men 
from Afar: Zing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793 (Durham: Duke 
University Press, 1995). Dr. Hevia has been awarded a Woodrow Wilson Fellow¬ 
ship for the 1997-1998 academic year. 

Pfeiffer University 

Dr. Karl Campbell has received Pfeiffer University's Excellence in Teaching 
Award for 1996; the recipient of the award is decided annually by vote of the 
university's student body. 

University of North Carolina at Charlotte 

On the evening of March 26, Robert G. Anthony Jr., curator of the North 
Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, delivered 
the fourth annual Julian D. Mason Lecture in the auditorium of the Storrs 
Architecture Building on the campus of UNC-C. He reviewed the history of 
collecting books on North Carolina and suggested how interested persons might 
take up the hobby. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


61 


State, County, and Local Groups 

Cape Fear Museum (Wilmington) 

On April 6 the Cape Fear Museum commemorated the eightieth anniversary of 
America's entry into World War I by opening In the Trenches: The 30th Division in the 
First World War, an exhibition of artifacts, photographs, and related memorabilia 
that provides an overview of the worldwide conflict and in particular the 
uncommon degree of wartime service rendered by the Thirtieth Division, a 
military unit comprised of National Guardsmen from North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. On April 11 the museum hosted "A Leap of 
Faith: The First Azalea Festival,"a program by Wilmington native Hugh Morton 
that traced the origins and history of the North Carolina Azalea Festival through 
Mr. Morton's reminiscences of his personal involvement with the festival over 
the past fifty years. On April 15 Chris E. Fonvielle Jr. discussed his recently 
published book The Wilmington Campaign: Last Rays of Departing Hope, the first book- 
length study of the month-long effort by Federal troops that culminated in the 
fall of the city of Wilmington, one of the Confederacy's most important and 
heavily defended seaports, on February 22, 1865. 

Greensboro Historical Museum 

USS Monitor, a traveling exhibition designed by the North Carolina Maritime 
Museum of Beaufort, opened at the Greensboro Historical Museum on March 19 
and will remain on view there through June 22. A. ]. Davis in Antebellum North 
Carolina: Architect of the Romantic Revival, a traveling exhibition from Preservation 
North Carolina and the North Carolina State University Visual Arts Program, 
opened at the Greensboro facility on April 27 and will remain there through the 
remainder of 1997. 

Mecklenburg Historical Association 

John J. Parker III, an attorney, spoke at the association's March 21 dinner meet¬ 
ing; his topic was "The Legal Profession in Mecklenburg County, 1763-1997." 

Museum of the Albemarle (Elizabeth City) 

The museum's board of trustees has announced that Bertie, Hertford, and 
Northampton Counties have been added to the facility's interpretive area. 

North Carolina Museum of History 

First Families of North Carolina, an exhibit that highlights the lives of North Caro¬ 
lina's governors and their families, will remain on display at the North Carolina 
Museum of History until October. "With All Necessary Care and Attention": The 
Artistry of Thomas Day will remain on view at the museum until January 1998. The 
Recent Acquisitions lobby case, which contains artifacts relating to North Carolina 
and the Civil War, reopened in March. 


62 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


New Leaves 


Editor's Note: John Mack Faragher is Arthur Unobskey Professor of American History at Yale 
University, New Haven, Connecticut. He originally read this paper as the keynote address at the 
joint annual meeting of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association and the Federation 
of North Carolina Historical Societies, which took place in Raleigh on November 22, 1996. 

"White People That Live Like Savages": 

Daniel Boone in North Carolina 

John Mack Faragher 

Daniel Boone lived in North Carolina for nearly twenty-five years—from 1751, 
when his mother and father relocated the family from the upper Schuylkill River 
country of Pennsylvania to the "back of the colony" in North Carolina, to 1775, 
when Daniel himself moved his wife and children to the new settlement of 
Boonesborough on the Kentucky River west of the Appalachians. That quarter- 
century in North Carolina formed a critical period in Boone's life. During those 
years he left childhood behind and entered young manhood; he began his career 
as a hunter and woodsman; he courted and married Rebecca Bryan, who would be 
the mother of his children and his lifelong companion; and he established the 
reputation that would eventually bring him national and historic fame during the 
American Revolution. 

It was in 1751 that Daniel's father. Squire Boone, filed a warrant claiming 640 
acres in an area called the Forks of the Yadkin (now in Davie County). The land 
lay amid the thousands of square miles offered for sale by agents of the earl of 
Granville, the proprietor of the entire northern half of the colony. A square mile 
of that fine land cost a mere three shillings, which amounted to little more than a 
filing fee. The Yadkin and its creeks were clear, rapidly flowing mountain 
streams, offering excellent opportunities for mill sites. There was forest and 
canebrake along their courses, and a good deal of the rolling country was wooded. 
But the landscape was punctuated by beautiful meadows, perfect for grazing 
livestock, and well-watered lowlands, where the soil was fertile clay. Although 
brick red when plowed and exposed to the sun—a shocking contrast with Penn¬ 
sylvania's black loam—the soil of backcountry North Carolina was fine for 
raising corn and other crops. 

Some local traditions placed the Boones in a cave on the east side of the Yadkin 
for their first few months in North Carolina, but it is more likely that they built 
their first cabin at the Forks of the Yadkin when they arrived and moved into it 
immediately. The family was part of a large migration into western North 
Carolina from the north. "Inhabitants flocked in here daily, mostly from Pensil- 
vania and other parts of America," the governor of North Carolina wrote the 
year the Boones arrived; "they commonly seat themselves toward the West and 
have got near the mountains." A Moravian missionary exploring the backcountry 
in search of the site of the colony that would become the town of Salem noted 
that in 1752 alone "more than four hundred families have come with horse and 
wagon and cattle." 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


63 


The following year Squire Boone completed the purchase of two 640-acre 
parcels near what would become the village of Mocksville. Five of his married 
children set up homes of their own on sections of that land, and over the next 
decade or so, as the younger children reached maturity, they too established 
homes and farms on land carved from the family estate. The Boones transplanted 
to the Yadkin a landscape of kinship very similar to the one they had left behind in 
Pennsylvania. 

Squire Boone was a man in his late fifties, and he depended upon the assistance 
of his strapping son Daniel, born in 1734 and now approaching twenty. The 
young man cleared and plowed the land that first spring and tended the field 
crops and livestock in the summer. But he did not enjoy the work. As a boy in 
Pennsylvania, Daniel Boone had come to love the hunter's life; and by the time his 
family had moved to North Carolina, he was already planning to make his living 
by means of his rifle and traps. 

"He never took any delight in farming or stock Raising," Boone's nephew and 
North Carolina neighbor Daniel Boone Bryan later remembered. He "was ever 
unpracticed in the business of farming." Boone himself later told his children that 
while working his father's fields during those summers in the early 1750s, he 
would pray for the rains to come, and if they did he would grab his rifle and head 
for the woods; "and though the rain would cease in an hour, yet I was so fond of 
gunning, I would be sure to remain out till evening." In fall and winter he could 
turn his full attention to the woods. "He took great delight in hunting and killing 
Deer, Bare, etc.," Bryan continued. But "it was not so much a ruling passion of 
Boone's to hunt, as his means of livelihood, his necessary occupation, from which 
he could not part." As his son Nathan put it, Boone hunted "not only because he 
was fond of that roving life, but because it was profitable." After a couple of years 
of fighting over the fieldwork, Squire Boone gave up trying to make Daniel into a 
farmer, and from that point the young man became a professional hunter. For the 
next sixty years—until after the War of 1812, when he grew too old and weak to 
leave his house—Daniel never missed a fall hunt. In North Carolina hunting 
became, as Boone once put it, his "business of life." 

The country of the upper Yadkin valley teemed with game. Bears were so 
numerous, it was said, that a hunter could lay by two or three thousand pounds of 
bear bacon in a season. The tale was told in the Forks that nearby Bear Creek took 
its name from the season Boone killed ninety-nine bears along its waters. The 
deer were so plentiful that an ordinary hunter could kill four or five a day, and it 
was said that Boone and a companion once took thirty between sunup and 
sundown near the head of the Yadkin River. The deerskin trade was an important 
part of the regional economy. In 1753 more than thirty thousand skins were 
exported from North Carolina, and thousands more were used within the colony 
for the manufacture of leggings, breeches, and moccasins. A "buck" was the 
standard of the trade, and by 1750 the term had already become a synonym in the 
American colonies for its monetary equivalent, the widely circulated Spanish 
peso, known by its German name of "thaler," or dollar. 

Daniel Boone soon acquired a reputation as one of the best marksmen and 
hunters in the North Carolina backcountry. In the county seat of Salisbury he 
was a frequent competitor at shooting matches, where the prize might be a keg of 


64 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


whiskey. Boone was always ready to compete, and he always scored high. So 
cocky did he become about his skill with a rifle that he took to perfecting trick 
shots. On one occasion he impressed his cronies by stepping up to the line and 
firing a winning round with the rifle held in only one of his powerful arms. Then 
(as one descendant remembered the scene) he strutted proudly before the other 
riflemen, telling them "they couldn't shoot up to Boone." 

It was about that time that Daniel began to court Rebecca Bryan, the daughter of 
a well-to-do neighbor. By all accounts Rebecca was a strong and commanding 
woman who in mid-life stood nearly as tall and broad as her husband and could 
handle an ax or gun as well as most men. But Boone always called her "my little girl," 
reflecting back, perhaps, on his first sight of her, when she was scarcely fifteen. 

When the couple wed in North Carolina in 1756, Rebecca was seventeen, Daniel 
twenty-one. They moved to a small farm near Rebecca's family, on a stream called 
Sugartree, about two miles east of the present village of Farmington. For Rebecca 
Bryan Boone there would be no honeymoon. She immediately found herself 
mistress of a household that included two of her husband's orphaned nephews. 
Nine months later the couple's firstborn arrived, and over the next twenty-five 
years she delivered nine more children—a total of six sons and four daughters, 
their births separated by an average of only two and one-half years. 

Such was not unusual for a woman of Rebecca Boone's time and place. Hers 
was a world in which little effort was made to limit conception, and that pattern, 
which had characterized the women of previous generations, would persist into 
those that followed. Rebecca's mother, Aylee Bryan, bore ten children, and 
Daniel's mother, Sarah Morgan Boone, eleven. Rebecca's four daughters had 33 
children among them, and the wives of her three married sons bore another 35, 
for a total of 68 Boone grandchildren. Because her children also followed her 
pattern and married young, and frequently resided in her household with their 
spouses, Rebecca often had grandbabies alongside her own. And as if all this were 
not enough, when she was in her early forties Rebecca adopted and raised the six 
motherless nieces and nephews of a widowed brother. Such crowded quarters 
were commonplace on the frontier. In 1771 a traveling preacher passing through 
the Forks of the Yadkin noted twenty-three persons living in the one-room cabin 
of one family among the Boone clan. 

Young Daniel supported his growing household by hunting and trapping. 
During summer deer hunts he would scour the surrounding woods, carrying 
home his catch Indian fashion, securing the carcass to his shoulders with "hop- 
pus" strings of sinew. After the harvest was in, however, with leaves falling and 
frosts killing the undergrowth, Boone, like all hunters, grew restless for a long 
hunt in the distant forests. "I have often seen them [hunters] get up early in the 
morning at this season," wrote a lifelong resident of the backcountry, "walk 
hastily out, look anxiously to the woods, and snuff the autumnal winds with the 
highest rapture." Fall deer hunting and winter beaver trapping at first kept Boone 
away from home for weeks. As the Yadkin filled in with sediment, he was forced 
further into the foothills of the Appalachians in search of game and was absent 
for increasingly long periods—months perhaps, and eventually years. 

In 1760, while hunting in the Brushy Mountains between the upper reaches of 
the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers, Boone met a young black man named Burrell, a 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


65 


slave serving as a cowherd for a backcountry settler, who told him of a rich 
hunting ground at the crest of the Blue Ridge that could be reached by following 
an old buffalo trace. Burrell led Boone to a log shelter on a beautiful high meadow 
used by herders like himself. There, within a few square miles, were the head¬ 
waters of the Yadkin, flowing east to the Atlantic, and those of the New and 
Watauga Rivers, both of which eventually found their roundabout way to the 
Ohio. In subsequent seasons Boone frequently used the herder's cabin as a base 
for his long hunts. The structure stood for many years, and early in the twentieth 
century chimney stones from its ruins were incorporated into a monument to 
Boone on the site, now the campus of Appalachian State University in the resort 
town of Boone. Thus it was that an unheralded North Carolina African American 
slave first showed Daniel Boone the way across the divide between Atlantic and 
Gulf waters. 

The abundant game of the region made it a favorite of Boone's, and he came to 
know intimately its mountains and gaps and its springs and salt licks. Eventually 
he pushed as far west as the valleys of the Holston and Clinch Rivers. He was 
certainly not the first American there, for, in addition to herdsmen like Burrell, 
other hunters had preceded him. Yet because of his prowess with rifle and trap, 
Boone became identified as the best of the Blue Ridge hunters. As one of his 
contemporaries put it, to be ''a great hunter was the greatest honor to which any 
man could attain." By the end of the eighteenth century in backwoods North 
Carolina, men who were good hunters were said to be "Boones." 

Not only did Daniel acquire a practical wisdom of animal habits but he also 
became expert at interpreting the landscape, noting patterns of flora, and reading 
various kinds of "signs." So accurate an observer and quick learner of the terrain 
was Boone, old Carolinians said of him, that "he never crossed a route he had once 
traversed without at once recognizing the place and knowing that he was cross¬ 
ing one of his former trails." 

The farms of the North Carolina backcountry were dispersed across the 
countryside at intervals of a mile or more. Families lived in relative isolation from 
each other, and when Boone was away on his long hunts Rebecca was left alone 
with the children. How did these women survive, wondered a Moravian mission¬ 
ary from Salem who encountered them in their lonely and isolated cabins. "A 
woman is ill, has a high fever—where is the nurse, medicine, proper food? The 
wife of the nearest neighbor lives half a mile, perhaps several miles away, and she 
has her own children, her cattle, her own household to care for, and can give only 
a couple of hours, or at most one day or one night." The missionary recommended 
the establishment of settlements with clusters of six or seven families, but 
Americans were much too individualistic to tolerate such Moravian communal 
standards. Even in wartime, when collective security offered more incentive for 
working together, there were always men who insisted on settling their families 
miles away, in the midst of the wilderness. 

The work performed by backcountry women like Rebecca Boone was stagger¬ 
ing. It was the labor of women, in fact, that made it possible for men like Daniel 
Boone to pursue their careers as hunters. There was, of course, the cooking and 
cleaning, spinning and weaving, washing and sewing, but also water to be fetched 
each day from the spring and wood to be chopped, gardens to be tended, and cows 
to be milked. With backcountry men so frequently away from the homestead, 


66 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


many women became the sole support for their families, so there were fields to be 
cultivated and crops to be harvested as well. Needing fresh meat for the stewpot, 
Rebecca herself on many occasions hunted for small game in the woods near her 
house. Men along the Yadkin told of the time she rode north to a salt lick on Deep 
Creek, her gun loaded with buckshot, and “fired it from nearly the top of a tree 
and killed 7 deer, as well as her mare that she rode there." It was an improbable 
tale—coupled with a male barb about the dead horse (what did women really 
know about shooting?)—but the story nevertheless testifies to the strength and 
determination of this able and intelligent woman. 

Daniel and Rebecca obviously were much admired and esteemed by their fellow 
settlers of the backcountry. But there were others who looked upon their type 
with scorn. After a trip through the Carolina frontier, the Virginia aristocrat 
William Byrd wrote that North Carolina backwoodsmen “live with less labor" 
than anywhere else he knew. Such men, in Byrd's words, made "their Wives rise 
out of their Beds early in the morning, at the same time that they Lye and Snoer, 
till the Sun has run one third of his course, and disperst all the unwholesome 
Damps." One does not have to read far in Byrd's famous diary to realize that he 
was something of an expert at "lying and snoring." But that did not keep him 
from complaining about backwoods gender patterns. 

Frontier men did "little of the work" around their farms, complained a mission¬ 
ary in the Yadkin settlements. They left it all for their wives and children to 
perform, while they enjoyed themselves hunting. Consequently, the work around 
the homeplace was "poorly done," animals had to fend for themselves, even in 
winter, and Indian corn grew where there should have been good European wheat 
instead. "The clothes of the people consist of deer skins, their food of Johnny cakes, 
deer and bear meat," the missionary noted. It all added up to a pattern of "irregular 
living." "There are many hunters who work little," wrote another preacher, but 
"live like the Indians." His observation was seconded by a Moravian from Salem: 
"A kind of white people are found here, who live like savages." 

Such complaints amounted to nothing less than a fundamental rejection of the 
backcountry way of life, and they had a great deal in common with the long¬ 
standing European criticism of the gender patterns among American Indians. 
The very first European accounts of Indian life in North America focused on the 
"drudgery" of Indian women and the "freedom" of the men. In the early seven¬ 
teenth century, for example, the Jesuit missionary Gabriel Sagard wrote that 
Indian women "usually do more work than the men"; and while it was true that 
men hunted to provide meat for their families, "the rest of the time they pass in 
idleness, gambling, sleeping, singing, dancing, smoking, or going to feasts." Such 
observations must be separated from the judgments that accompanied them. 
Wherever hunting was important in native societies, it was work assigned to 
men, and women were indeed largely responsible for farming work. It was a 
pattern that contrasted with the norms of colonizing Europeans—for whom 
women's work was typically performed in and around the household, men's work 
in the agricultural fields. In most European countries, hunting was reserved for 
the aristocratic elite and was considered a leisurely pastime. Thus, when English 
colonists saw Indian women hoeing cornfields, they concluded that the women 
were greatly oppressed by lazy men; and when they saw men hunting, they 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


67 


considered those men to be lords, living off the exploited labor of women 
"drudges." Interestingly, that misunderstanding cut both ways, for when Indian 
men saw male colonists working in the fields, they were equally scornful, laugh¬ 
ing that "real men" did not perform such "women's work." 

There was, indeed, a great deal of similarity between the gender division of 
labor among eastern Indian peoples and backwoods American settlers. A good 
way of illustrating that point is a story Daniel Boone himself told to his grand¬ 
children when he was an old man. During the Indian wars in Kentucky he was 
captured by the Shawnees, and the Shawnee chief, a man named Blackfish, 
adopted Daniel into his own family. Soon after the adoption, Blackfish assigns 
Daniel to work in the cornfield with his Indian mother. "Never much on raising 
corn," however, the adopted son recklessly hoes up about as much of the crop as 
he clears. Angered, the Indian women chase him away with their hoes. Daniel 
goes to his adopted father. "When I am at home I don't do this kind of work," he 
complains to Blackfish. "I'm a chief at home, and I won't be made a squaw of here. 
You and your Squaw calls me your Son, but this don't look like you love me." 
"Good warrior," Blackfish beams, patting Daniel on his shoulder, "if you don't 
like to do it, don't work any more." From that point, Daniel hunts with the men. 
Whether Kentuckian or Shawnee, women were farmers, and "real" men were 
hunters and warriors. That view developed very early in the colonial period when 
a remarkable cultural fusion between woodland Indians and backcountry settlers 
produced a new, common way of life that centered on hunting. Both Indian and 
American hunters sought meat and hides with which to feed and clothe their 
families, as well as hides and furs for trade. 

Hunters from both cultures dressed in a composite of European and Indian 
styles. Moccasins were of deerskin but were made and patched with European 
awls. The hunting shirt was a loose frock that reached halfway down the thighs 
and overlapped by as much as a foot or more in the front and was sometimes 
fitted with a fringed cape used to cover the head. It was generally made of linsey 
or linen, sometimes of dressed deerskin; but that natural material had the dis¬ 
advantage of being cold and uncomfortable in wet weather. In the front folds of 
the shirt, hunters kept small rations of provisions. From leather belts, which 
pulled shirts tight, they hung their powder horns, bullet pouches, knives, and 
tomahawks. Many Americans wore breeches or drawers, but as they moved 
further west they took to the Indian breechclout, a length of cloth about one yard 
long and nine inches wide that passed between the legs and under a cloth belt, 
with folds hanging front and back. Long leggings stretching to above the knee 
were supported by garter straps. Beaver hats were de rigueur on the eastern 
frontier of the eighteenth century, and although west of the Appalachians some 
men wore fur caps, Boone always despised them and kept his hat. 

Like Indian men, American hunters let their hair grow long and dressed it with 
bear grease, plaiting it into braids or knots. In time of war or for ritual occasions, 
Indian warriors might shave or pluck their scalps, leaving only a lock of hair, 
which they greased and stood upright, or to which they attached deerskin 
ornaments or feathers. Some painted their bodies with vermilion. American 
backwoodsmen heading into battle frequently adopted a similar style of orna¬ 
mentation. The backcountry American was "proud of his Indian-like dress," 
wrote a frontier preacher who had seen them strut down village streets and even 


68 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


into churches. In breechclout and leggings, their thighs were exposed naked to 
the world, which, the preacher added, "did not add much to the devotion of the 
young ladies." 

The woods was a man's world, but American and Indian hunters returned to 
settlements and villages in which both American and Indian women practiced 
similar forms of cultivation, raising corn, beans, and garden vegetables, nearly all 
their primary crops native to the Americas. The farther west Americans moved, 
the more they adopted hunting techniques to supplement farming. And as 
hunting yields declined with an increasingly dense population, Indians in turn 
incorporated into their domestic economy European livestock such as poultry, 
horses, hogs, and, less frequently, cattle. Over time the economies of Indian and 
American settlers converged. The Indians, as well as the colonists, adopted the 
simple form of log construction introduced during the seventeenth century by 
Swedish and Finnish colonists in the Delaware valley. Obtaining iron woodwork¬ 
ing tools through trade, Indians learned to build log houses and stockades. 
Descriptions of the Indian towns of the Ohio country or the southern Appalach¬ 
ians almost always remark on their resemblance to American pioneer settle¬ 
ments—with the difference being that Indians tended to cluster their cabins 
rather than spreading them across the face of the countryside, and they often 
built large, impressive log council houses in the center of their towns. The log 
cabin—that ubiquitous symbol of pioneer America—was spread across the fron¬ 
tiers of North America as much by Indians as by colonists. 

The Americans and Indians who lived in backwoods hunting communities also 
shared a set of general social values. Both groups were geographically mobile—in 
part because hunting constantly led them farther into less-exploited territory, in 
part because growing coastal populations pressed on them from the east, in part 
because that was the way they liked it. Both groups emphasized personal freedom 
and independence, while at the same time adhering to the loyalties of family and 
clan. Both were localistic in their attachments, valuing their primary groups over 
tribes or nations. Theirs was a village world. Both peoples were warlike and 
violent, believers in honor and vengeance, adherents to the ancient law of blood. 
And for both cultures the bloodshed was made far worse by the widespread use 
and abuse of alcohol. 

To be sure, at deeper levels Indians and backcountry pioneers understood the 
world in essentially different ways. Americans tended to make a radical separa¬ 
tion between the material and spiritual realms, and whatever their sectarian 
Christian beliefs, for the most part they were practical instrumentalists, inter¬ 
ested in what worked. Indians, by contrast, tended to believe in the inseparability 
of matter and spirit, and their recorded history is punctuated with frequent and 
divisive cultural debates about the meaning or consequences of new approaches 
to the world. Americans were monotheists, lured by the simplicity of grand 
designs and single causes, while Indians were pantheists, describing a universe 
with a multiplicity of powers, sometimes in harmony, more frequently in conflict 
among themselves. Holding to a hierarchical model of reality, Americans favored 
clear lines of authority and power. But Indians, believing in a more complicated 
and perhaps ultimately unfathomable universe, lived in societies with a diversity 
of overlapping roles and authorities, all of which seemed perfectly natural to 
them but to most Americans seemed a trackless maze and a cacophonous dint. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


69 


Such characterizations, of course, are located at opposite ends of a spectrum, and 
there were Americans, Daniel Boone among them, who moved quite far in the 
Indian direction of seeing things. Indians continued to be culturally distinct from 
backcountry Americans, but it is also important to understand the common 
ground the two peoples shared. 

By the time Daniel and Rebecca Boone were creating a family in North Carolina 
in the mid-eighteenth century, Indians and settlers had become fully acculturated 
to one another's ways. The noted American anthropologist Alfred Kroeber once 
described the Indians of the eighteenth-century frontier as "a new, assimilated, 
hybrid-Caucasian culture." American frontiersmen, in turn, were often charac¬ 
terized by their contemporaries as hybrid Indians. They were "half cultivators 
and half hunters," wrote the late eighteenth-century French emigrant Hector St. 
John de Crevecoeur. Frontiersmen were "new made Indians" who lived a "licen¬ 
tious, idle life." 

Daniel Boone himself came in for his fair share of such criticism. Later in his 
life, after he had become a hero of the American Revolution in Kentucky and the 
prototype for the American "pathfinder," some Americans complained that he 
was just another of those "white savages." They frequently pointed to the same 
division of labor that had concerned early observers of the Indians. Boone typi¬ 
cally would be away hunting and trapping for months, even years at a time, while 
Rebecca and the children cropped the farm. As each of the five Boone boys 
reached young manhood, they joined their father in the woods, leaving the 
farming to their mother and sisters. Those family patterns provoked a good deal 
of comment. People gossiped that Boone "wouldn't live at home" because he 
"didn't live happily with his family and he didn't like to work." 

Such gossip found a focus in a story frequently repeated in the North Carolina 
hills during the early nineteenth century—a story sometimes known as "Boone's 
Surprise." During one of Boone's long absences from the Yadkin, so the tale was 
told, Rebecca had an affair and bore an illegitimate child. When Daniel returns, 
Rebecca meets him at the cabin door, weeping. What's the matter, he inquires. 
You were gone so long, she replies, we had supposed you dead. In her loneliness 
she had found company with another man, and now there was a new baby in the 
house. There is a long pause before Daniel replies. "Oh well," he finally says, "the 
race will be continued." Whose is it? he asks. Why, says she, lowering her head in 
shame, it's your brother's. There is a longer pause. The brother "looked so much 
like Daniel," Rebecca offers by way of explanation, that she "couldn't help it." But 
this revelation, too, Daniel takes in stride. "So much the better," says he, taking 
the baby in his arms, "it's all in the family." And so, the story ends, Daniel "hushed 
her up," then "gathered up the family, brother and all." 

While none of this can be taken as gospel, combined with other circumstantial 
evidence it lends credence to the speculation that one of the Boones'children was 
conceived during one of Daniel's extended hunts. But the story is most interest¬ 
ing not for its tabloid revelations but because it was part of a genre of frontier 
folktales that dealt with the tensions between men and women. Another, similar 
tale tells of a long-absent hunter who returns to find his wife about to remarry "a 
much younger and likelier man." "Well, Hugh," the frustrated bride exclaims 
with bitter disappointment, "are you alive yet?" Such parables acknowledged the 
conflict between conventional American family values, which condemned pro- 


70 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


longed male absence from the home, and the actual division of labor in the 
backcountry, in which women remained at home farming while men left for long 
periods to go hunting. 

The backcountry folklore of Daniel Boone's family life did not ignore those 
dilemmas, however, but sought to resolve them. It is worth noting that in the 
many versions of Rebecca's infidelity I have found, never once is she blamed; 
there is never any pious moralizing about her being a "fallen woman." In the tales, 
accountability always rests squarely on Daniel's shoulders. In one variant, Daniel 
and a companion return home to find that both their wives have conceived and 
delivered babies in their absence. Daniel manfully accepts Rebecca's, but his 
friend makes "his wife put her child away." Hearing of that, Daniel angrily seeks 
out his companion and insists that the man take the baby back. "We have acted 
worse, if possible, than the woman had," says he, for "if we had stayed at home, 
nothing of this kind would have happened." In still another version of "Boone's 
Surprise," this one a tale related by a woman, Rebecca is given a variation of this 
line for herself. To a thunderstruck Daniel she declares: "You had better have 
staid at home and got it yourself." 

The manner in which these stories handled Daniel Boone's role in his own 
family offers an instructive contrast with Boone biographers, who for years 
suppressed the incident for fear it would sully the reputation of an American 
hero. "I could not well use it in a published biography," a nineteenth-century 
historian wrote privately about "Boone's Surprise," and he pursued the evidence, 
as he explained to one concerned descendant, only so he "could more carefully 
and guardedly" avoid the matter in print. Even historians, eager to celebrate 
Daniel Boone and his achievements, had a difficult time accepting the reality of 
the culture in which he lived. It was simply too much like that of the Indians. 

My point, in conclusion, is a simple one: that the backcountry people of North 
Carolina understood that their family patterns were "different," and, rather than 
being defensive about it, they embraced the difference and celebrated the virtues 
of behavior that more cosmopolitan types found strange. By making Daniel 
Boone's principal concern the calming of Rebecca's fears, the backcountry story¬ 
tellers of North Carolina concluded the tale of "Boone's Surprise" not by soiling 
the character of the family but by easing Daniel back into its bosom. Daniel Boone 
is depicted as a man of deliberation, slow to anger, ready to understand and 
forgive. People from Boone's own cultural background were far more under¬ 
standing and tolerant of the stresses of frontier life than were most of the 
historians who wrote the celebratory Boone biographies. 

The things people remembered and said about Daniel Boone were frequently 
double edged and contradictory. Boone was renowned as a heroic Indian fighter, 
but it was nevertheless commonly said that only among Indians was he ever truly 
comfortable. Celebrated as a man who longed for "elbow room," he was also 
remembered as a man deeply committed to family and community. A lover of 
wilderness—indeed, America's first certified "natural man"—he was simultane¬ 
ously represented as the "pathfinder" for thousands of settlers anxious to clear 
the forests, plow the meadows, and reduce the wilderness to agrarian order. The 
stories that ordinary backcountry people told about Daniel Boone reflected the 
ambivalent and complex way in which many early Americans thought and felt 
about the westward movement. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3, MAY 1997 


71 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, July, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601 -2807. 

Jeffrey J. Crow, Editor in Chief 
Robert M. Topkins, Editor 


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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4_JULY 1997 

A&H Sponsors National History Day Competition 

The Division of Archives and History sponsored a statewide competition for 
National History Day on Saturday, May 3, at the North Carolina Museum of 
History in Raleigh. National History Day is a program inaugurated on the 
national level in 1980 to promote the study of history in schools. Although 
schools in North Carolina have been participating in History Day for several 
years, this was the first year that the Division of Archives and History sponsored 
the program. Jo Ann Williford, assistant to the director of the division, serves as 
state coordinator for National History Day. 

Students in grades six through twelve may compete in one of four subject 
areas—media, papers, performance, or exhibits. They may enter either as individ¬ 
uals or in groups of from two to five people. Successful projects require students 
to conduct extensive research, create a project, and provide an annotated bibli¬ 
ography containing both primary and secondary sources. The projects must 



The Division of Archives and History sponsored a statewide student competition for National History Day on 
May 3. Here judges for the competition, whose theme this year was "Triumph and Tragedy in History," 
interview Dwight Everett of C. M. Epps Middle School in Greenville concerning his project "The Titanic: 
Triumph Turned Tragedy." (All photographs by the Division of Archives and History unless otherwise 
indicated.) 
































focus on an annual theme, which for 1997 was “Triumph and Tragedy in 
History." 

District competitions took place in Cullowhee, Charlotte, Greenville, Winston- 
Salem, and Raleigh. Students who qualified at the district level advanced to the 
statewide competition in Raleigh. More than two hundred students representing 
nineteen public and private schools in North Carolina competed. Volunteer 
judges were selected from the fields of public history and secondary and higher 
education. 



Svati Singla of J. H. Rose High School in Greenville won first place in the senior individual projects category for 
her visual display "Profiles in Surgery: Tragedy and Triumph." 

Historical papers were judged ahead of time, but all other projects were evalu¬ 
ated on May 3. The judging process included visual review of each project and 
questioning of the students concerning their respective submissions. The awards 
ceremony took place in Daniels Auditorium at the museum. Elizabeth F. Buford, 
deputy secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, and 
Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the Division of Archives and History, greeted the 
students and assisted in presenting certificates to all participants and medals to 
the winners. Forty-nine students qualified to advance to the national finals held 
in College Park, Maryland, June 15-19, as representatives of North Carolina. 
They joined other student winners from all fifty states and the District of 
Columbia. 

In addition to the division and the museum, other organizations that con¬ 
tributed financial support to the state's National History Day program included 


74 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 





Left: Prior to the judging of projects, Annette McCoy (atop table), a student at Charlotte Country Day School, 
assisted by a friend, sets up her exhibit "Triumph and Tragedy on Apollo and the Space Shuttle." Right A 
winner in the category of junior individual performance was Kira Peoples of Hertford County Middle School, 
who titled her presentation "Amelia Earheart: A Triumphant Life Ends in Tragedy." 

the Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies, the North Carolina Liter¬ 
ary and Historical Association, and the North Carolina Council for the Social 
Studies. The National History Day theme for 1998 is "Migrations in History: 
People, Cultures, Ideas." Information concerning the competition for the upcom¬ 
ing year will be distributed in the fall. One goal for the state program is to 
increase the number of schools participating in the competition. 

Governor Appoints New Member of Historical Commission 

On April 7 Gov. James B. Hunt Jr. appointed Mary Hayes Holmes of Chatham 
County to fill the unexpired term of Susan Phillips of Greensboro as a member of 
the North Carolina Historical Commission, the eleven-member board that over¬ 
sees the activities of the Division of Archives and History. (Mrs. Phillips resigned 
from the commission because her husband recently was appointed a member of 
the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina.) 

Mrs. Holmes, a graduate of Agnes Scott College in Atlanta, holds a master's 
degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Early in her career 
she was employed by the university and also taught English at a high school in 
Charlotte and at Mitchell College in Statesville. She has held a number of political 
offices, including membership on the Chatham County Commission, 1986-1994. 
Mrs. Holmes has served as president of the Chatham County Historical Associa¬ 
tion and as a longtime member of the North Carolina Museum of History 
Associates. In 1987 and 1988 she chaired a task force charged with renovating the 
Chatham County Courthouse. She has been a member of numerous civic boards, 
committees, and organizations and is active in the historic preservation move¬ 
ment in her home county. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, |ULY 1997 


75 









New Education/Visitor Center for Tryon Palace 

Betty Ray McCain, secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, recently announced that the department had negotiated to acquire 
the Barbour Boat Works property for Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens. The 
property is adjacent to the palace site and will be used for a new education and 
visitor center. Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens has been studying the need 
for a new visitor center since 1983. The current facility is a converted 1930s-era 
gasoline station consisting of an information center and an auditorium. The 
limited size of the facility restricts the ability of the palace to accommodate a 
desirable number of visitors at any given time and still meet those visitors' 
expectations of service and hospitality. The palace has seen a 17 percent increase 
in attendance over the past fifteen years. 

Plans for the new facility call for gallery space for temporary and permanent 
exhibitions, educational classrooms for adults and children, workshop areas, an 
auditorium, an outdoor performance area, and river-front accessibility for the 
public. The new facility and its added features will enable Tryon Palace Historic 
Sites & Gardens to fulfill its mission of educating citizens of North Carolina 
about their history and culture while at the same time providing Craven County 
with a boost to its tourism industry. The Barbour Boat Works property, which 
encompasses approximately six acres, is an ideal link between a new convention 
center and the historic downtown district. Kay P. Williams, administrator of 
Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens, noted that the palace complex already 
contributes an estimated three million dollars annually to the economy and 
quality of life in Craven County and expressed enthusiasm for the additional 
growth that the new facility is expected to provide the county. 

Acquisition of the Barbour Boat Works property was made possible by a grant 
from the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources with assistance 
from the Kellenberger Historical Foundation of New Bern. Swiss Bear, Inc., of 
New Bern, the New Bern Area Chamber of Commerce, the Craven County 
Tourism Development Authority, the Tryon Palace Commission, and the Tryon 
Palace Council of Friends all enthusiastically endorsed the project. 

Abstracts of Port Records, Research Reports Now Available 

Abstracts of North Carolina's eighteenth-century port records are now available 
on microfilm from the North Carolina State Archives. The abstracts, drawn from 
the Treasurer's and Comptroller's Papers by Wilson Angley of the Division of 
Archives and History's Research Branch, consist of countless entries on individ¬ 
ual ships, shipowners, captains, destinations, ports of lading, cargoes, and various 
related subjects. The port records, arranged chronologically for each port district, 
comprise a rich and varied source of information for maritime historians and 
students of early North Carolina commerce. Orders for duplicate reels should be 
addressed to the North Carolina State Archives, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, 
NC 27601-2807. Orders should refer to the reel by number (S.8 . 112.1) and 
should include a check in the amount of twelve dollars made payable to the North 
Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. 


76 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


The division's Research Branch has recently completed the microfilming of 
seventeen research reports produced by members of the branch between 1990 
and the spring of 1997. Those reports, covering a wide variety of topics, are now 
available as Historical Research Reports, series III, on a single reel of 35 mm 
microfilm (No. S.8.211). Series I and II of the reports, completed in 1987 and 1990 
respectively, are also available. Series I, by far the lengthiest of the three, consists 
of seventy-four reports on three reels of 16 mm microfilm (Nos. S.8.204- 
S.8.206). Series II consists of thirty-four reports on one reel of 16 mm microfilm 
(No. S.8.207). Copies of the reels containing the three series can be obtained from 
the North Carolina State Archives—the 16 mm reels (series I and II) for ten 
dollars each and the 35 mm reel (series III) for twelve dollars each. Orders must 
include a check made payable to the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources and should be directed to the address shown above. 

Preservation North Carolina to Hold Annual Conference 

Preservation North Carolina will hold its 1997 annual meeting in Rocky Mount 
and Tarboro throughout the weekend of September 26-28. Educational sessions 
and tours will highlight the annual conclave. Keynote speakers will include 
Roberta Gratz, preservationist and author of The Living City: How America's Cities 
Are Being Revitalized by Thinking Small in a Big Way; Betty Ray McCain, secretary of 
the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources; and Norris Tolson, 
secretary of the North Carolina Department of Commerce. In addition, Don 
Rypkema, noted author and real-estate consultant, will present the results of his 
recent study of the impact of historic preservation on North Carolina's economy. 

Individual sessions will take place in a variety of architecturally and historically 
significant venues, including a former Atlantic Coast Line pump station, which 
has been adapted for use as the Rocky Mount Arts Center and Playhouse; 
Stonewall, a massive brick house built in 1830 and remodeled in 1916; Calvary 
Episcopal Church, designed by noted architect William Percival in 1859; and 
Coolmore Plantation, an Italianate villa that features ornamental plaster and 
decorative painting. 

Preservation North Carolina is the state's only private, nonprofit statewide 
historic preservation organization. Its mission is to protect and promote build¬ 
ings, landscapes, and sites important to the heritage of North Carolina. The 
annual conference is part of the organization's annual series of workshops, tours, 
and award presentations. For a program brochure and registration materials, 
write to Anna Tilghman, Preservation North Carolina, P.O. Box 27644, Raleigh, 
NC 27611, or telephone (919) 832-3652. 

Civil War Conference Set for Wilmington 

The North Carolina Civil War Tourism Council will host its third annual Civil 
War conference "North Carolina: The Civil War Connection" in Wilmington on 
the weekend of September 26-28. This year's conclave will focus on the war in 
eastern North Carolina, the Wilmington campaign, and the atmosphere prev¬ 
alent in and around the city during the conflict. Featured speakers will include 
Rod Gragg and Chris Fonvielle, who will discuss the Battle of Fort Fisher and the 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


77 


Wilmington campaign respectively; various historians who will review blockade¬ 
running, the Burnside Expedition, the social history of Wilmington, and African 
American life in the Lower Cape Fear region; and writer/historian William Davis, 
who will deliver the conference's keynote address. Davis is an award-winning 
author of numerous books on various aspects of the Civil War. 

Most sessions and a Saturday-evening banquet will be held at the Coast Line 
Convention Center; a Friday-evening reception will take place at Wilmington's 
historic Bellamy Mansion. An in-depth tour of Fort Fisher will be available on 
Saturday morning, and worship services at the remains of St. Phillips Church, 
followed by a tour of Fort Anderson, will be offered on Sunday morning. A 
registration fee ($125 for all three days, $50 for Friday only, or $100 for Saturday 
and Sunday) will be charged. For additional information or to receive a brochure 
on the conference, write to Tonia Smith, 155 Woodland Drive, Pinehurst, NC 
28374; telephone her at (910) 692-4934; or direct e-mail to raegan@pinehurst.net. 

News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L) recently donated hundreds of histori¬ 
cal photographs to the North Carolina State Archives. The photographs, origi¬ 
nally intended to showcase power lines and related equipment, also depict his¬ 
toric structures and landmarks, some rarely photographed and many no longer in 
existence. Some of the pictures date from the turn of the century and are as old as 
CP&L itself. "These photographs capture images of a bygone era," said Hilda 
Pinnix-Ragland, CP&L manager of community relations. "They show busy 
streets filled with early automobiles, horses and buggies, electric streetcars, and 
men wearing knickers." Many of the photos were made with oversize negatives 
and therefore reveal considerable detail. 

Photographs from the collection depict such subjects as Main Street in Durham 
before 1914, the year in which a disastrous fire destroyed half a city block. Many 
structures, including the Brodie L. Duke Building (at which the 1914 fire origi¬ 
nated), can be seen. Additional photographs capture scenes of Raleigh, among 
them early views of A&M College, forerunner of North Carolina State Univer¬ 
sity. One photo shows festive banners decorating Morgan Street for Indepen¬ 
dence Day in 1900; another captures Central Prison as it appeared in 1909. 
Because CP&L's service area covers a large portion of the state, the collection 
encompasses scenes from Wilmington to Asheville. Included are scenic views, 
manufacturing plants, mills, and streets. Also well documented are natural disas¬ 
ters. Examples include dramatic images of damage resulting from hurricanes, 
tornadoes, and floods. 

The CP&L photograph collection is a valuable addition to the Archives' icono- 
graphic holdings that will soon be available to researchers for a variety of 
purposes. Once the collection of photographic prints and negatives is arranged, 
described, and properly stored, it will be available for use in the Non-textual 
Materials Unit of the State Archives. For additional information on the collection, 
telephone iconographic archivist Stephen E. Massengill at (919) 733-3952. 


78 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



In this photograph from July 1916, a Carolina Power & Light Company line crew prepares to erect a power pole 
at the corner of West Martin and McDowell Streets in downtown Raleigh. The Raleigh-based utility recently 
donated a large collection of historical photographs to the North Carolina State Archives. 

The long-awaited eleventh revised edition of the Guide to Research Materials in the 
North Carolina State Archives: County Records is now available for purchase. The 
updated 363-page volume, bound in paper, can be obtained in the Search Room of 
the State Archives or by mail from the Historical Publications Section, Division of 
Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. The cost of 
the volume is fifteen dollars each. Residents of North Carolina must add 6 percent 
sales tax. When ordering by mail, include three dollars per copy for shipping. For 
additional information about the revised guide and its contents, contact the 
Archival Services Branch at (919) 733-3952 or by fax at (919) 733-1354. 

State Historic Preservation Office 

Lloyd D. Childers, grants administrator for the State Historic Preservation 
Office, participated in the "State of the Environment Conference, Outer Banks, 
N.C.," convened by the Outer Banks Community Foundation, April 29 and 30. 
She spoke on the value of historic preservation and heritage tourism and facili¬ 
tated a tour of restored buildings at the Currituck Beach Lighthouse complex at 
Corolla. The site demonstrates a successful relationship between the North 
Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, the agency responsible for the 
property, and its lessee. Outer Banks Conservationists, Inc., a private nonprofit 
group involved in the preservation of the historic lighthouse and keeper's 
quarters. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


79 









In mid-May Ms. Childers traveled to Transylvania County to participate in 
Preservation Week activities for the region. She delivered the keynote address, 
which she titled "Living Forward—Understanding Backward," at a meeting of the 
Transylvania County Joint Historic Preservation Commission and also spoke and 
made a slide presentation at a dinner sponsored by the Transylvania County 
Historical Society, the group responsible for the preservation of the historic 
William Deaver House in Brevard. 

In an April 10 ceremony at the North Carolina Museum of History in Raleigh, 
Alan D. Watson was honored upon his retirement from the North Carolina 
National Register Advisory Committee (NRAC) after eight years of service. Dr. 
Watson, a professor of history at the University of North Carolina at Wilming¬ 
ton, the author of numerous publications on North Carolina history, and cur¬ 
rently vice-chairman of the North Carolina Historical Commission, represented 
the discipline of history and the Historical Commission on the committee. David 
Brook, administrator of the State Historic Preservation Office, praised Watson 
for contributing "his rich knowledge of Tar Heel history to the service of the 
North Carolina National Register program." Jeffrey J. Crow, state historic pres¬ 
ervation officer, presented Watson with a state certificate for distinguished 
service as a member of the NRAC. Dr. Crow also presented to Watson as a gift 
from the staff of the State Historic Preservation Office a copy of Early Twentieth- 
Century Suburbs in North Carolina, edited by Catherine W. Bishir and Lawrence S. 
Early. 



At an April 10 ceremony Alan D. Watson was recognized for eight years of service to the Division of Archives 
and History as a member of the North Carolina National Register Advisory Committee (NRAC). Pictured left to 
right at the ceremony are Millie M. Barbee, chair of the NRAC; Dolores Hall, National Register (NR) coordinator 
for the Office of State Archaeology; Stephen R. Claggett (behind Ms. Hall), state archaeologist; Dr. Watson; Dr. 
leffrey J. Crow, state historic preservation officer; Claudia R. Brown, head, Survey and Planning Branch; Linda 
Harris Edmisten, NR coordinator for that branch; and David Brook, deputy state historic preservation officer. 

The North Carolina National Register Advisory Committee is a twelve- 
member body comprised of architects, historians, archaeologists, architectural 
historians, and citizen members. It reviews North Carolina applications to the 
National Register of Historic Places and advises the State Historic Preservation 
Officer on whether or not properties should be nominated to the register. The 
National Register is maintained by the National Park Service. 


80 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Historical Publications 


The Historical Publications Section recently issued a second printing (2,000 
copies) of A Chronicle of North Carolina during the American Revolution, 1763-1789, by 
Jeffrey J. Crow, originally published in 1975; a third printing (2,000 copies) of 
Indian Wars in North Carolina, 1663-1763 , by E. Lawrence Lee, initially published by 
the Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission in 1963 and reprinted by the 
Department (now Division) of Archives and History in 1968; and a third printing 
(500 copies) of the section's Guide for Authors and Editors, compiled by Susan M. 
Trimble and Lisa D. Bailey, which updates a similar Guide compiled by Joe A. 
Mobley and Kathleen B. Wyche and issued in 1992. All three titles are bound in 
paper. A Chronicle (61 pages) and Indian Wars (94 pages) sell for $6.00 each plus 
three dollars for shipping; the Guide for Authors and Editors (20 pages) sells for $3.00 
plus $2.00 for shipping. Residents of North Carolina must add 6 percent sales tax 
to the cost of any item ordered. Checks should be made payable to the North 
Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. To order, write to: Historical Publi¬ 
cations Section, Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, 
NC 27601-2807. 


Historic Sites 

Revolutionary War military encampments by the 6th North Carolina Reenact¬ 
ment Society and His Majesty's 64th Regiment of Foot, children's activities, 
demonstrations by costumed interpreters, guided tours of the historic district, 
craft and plant sales, and a commemorative ceremony were all part of the 221st 
anniversary celebration of the Halifax Resolves on April 12 and 13. The two-day 
event also included tours of the military camps and historic structures. The 
forty-second annual commemorative ceremony marked the adoption on April 12, 
1776, of the Halifax Resolves by the Fourth Provincial Congress of North 
Carolina. 

As part of the annual commemoration, the Historical Halifax Restoration 
Association presented awards for achievement in historic preservation. James 
and Doris Kovach of Virginia received an award for their restoration of The 
Cellar, a historic residence built in the early 1800s that belonged to the Branch 
family. Randy and Sandy Harrell received an award for their ongoing restoration 
of the King-Freeman-Speight House, a historic dwelling in Bertie County con¬ 
structed ca. 1810 and expanded in 1830. The Harrells also restored a smokehouse, 
a kitchen, and a mid-nineteenth-century schoolhouse on the same property. 
Gordon Clapp, director of the North Carolina Division of Travel and Tourism, 
spoke on heritage tourism in the state. Historic Sites administrator James R. 
McPherson presented a plaque to commemorate Ray Wilkinson's contributions 
to Historic Halifax. It recognizes the restoration of the historic Tap Room and 
will be displayed in the site's visitor center. 

Despite rain, more than twelve hundred visitors participated in Halifax Day on 
April 12. On the following day activities included a morning church service in 
eighteenth-century style and afternoon tours of historic structures. The Histori¬ 
cal Halifax Restoration Association, formed in 1955 to acquire and preserve 
historic sites in Halifax, sponsored the programs. That organization's next pro¬ 
ject will be acquisition and restoration of St. Luke's African Methodist Episcopal 
Church (ca. 1874) in Halifax. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, |ULY 1997 


81 


Eight teams of eager, excited, and intelligent eighth-graders met in Raleigh on 
May 21 for the fourteenth annual state History Bowl championship. Team 
members had studied North Carolina history since Thanksgiving to prepare for 
the contest. The eight teams were already winners, having earned the top seats in 
regional playoffs. Following a day of competition, students from Raleigh's Car¬ 
nage Middle School emerged as state champions, defeating a team from East 
Yancey Middle School in Yancey County; the winning team represented Bennett 
Place State Historic Site, and the runners-up represented Vance Birthplace. 
Students gathered in Raleigh on May 20 for tours and a reception at the state 
headquarters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, which cosponsors the 
championship contest. Several local chapters assist with the regional games. 
Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain and UDC president Kath¬ 
erine Baird presented trophies to the first- and second-place teams following the 
final match. 



Katherine Baird (in hat) of Raleigh, president of the North Carolina Division of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, presents trophies and certificates to students from Raleigh's Carnage Middle School, winners of 
the 1997 North Carolina History Bowl. Betty Ray McCain (right), secretary of the North Carolina Department of 
Cultural Resources, assisted Mrs. Baird in distributing awards to the winners and runners-up. 

On May 6 the Historic Sites Section participated in a daylong series of promo¬ 
tional activities for National Tourism Day on the state government mall in 
Raleigh. More than thirty state agencies involved in some way with tourism 
assisted with the event. The Historic Sites display featured large photographs, a 
variety of printed materials, and reproduction items such as an eighteenth- 
century Kentucky rifle. Costumed staff presented historic demonstrations and 
mingled with the public. Throughout the day, staff members hosting the display 
also held drawings for door prizes such as mugs, T-shirts, and posters. A three- 
hour midday session attracted state employees and others who work in the 
downtown area near the government mall. An evening offering drew members 
and staff of the General Assembly. Various employees of Historic Sites staffed 
the display during the interim between the two segments. Gov. James B. Hunt 
visited the display, talked with staff, and had his photo taken with a staff member 
in eighteenth-century costume. Numerous legislators and their assistants 
dropped by to see the section's exhibit and costumed demonstrators. 


82 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 






At Somerset Place friends of Rep. Raymond M. (Pete) Thompson Sr. (1925- 
1993) dedicated a memorial garden in his honor on April 26. Taking part in the 
ceremony were state senator Marc Basnight, the guest speaker; Deputy Secre¬ 
tary of Cultural Resources Elizabeth F. Buford; Howard Chapin, chairman of the 
Somerset Place Foundation; Rep. William Culpepper; Sharon Thompson Farless, 
Thompson's daughter; Rev. James T. Rogers of Chapel Hill; Dorothy Redford, 
manager of Somerset Place; and Rev. Stanley Smith of Edenton. Pete Thompson 
was a graduate of North Carolina State University, a county extension agent or 
county chairman for the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service from 
1951 to 1981, a state legislator from 1986 to his death, and a vocal advocate for 
Somerset Place. 



Friends of the late state representative Raymond M. (Pete) Thompson, a devoted friend to Somerset Place, 
gathered at the site on April 26 to dedicate a memorial garden to honor his life and contributions. Newly 
completed brickwork abutting the garden includes this pedestal adorned with the four compass points and 
surmounted by a sundial. 


The Bentonville Battleground Historical Association (BBHA) has sponsored 
two projects at the site. The first effort, a comprehensive battlefield preservation 
plan, was funded by a $26,000 grant from the American Battlefield Protection 
Program (administered by the National Park Service) and a $5,000 donation from 
Johnston County. The Jager Company of Georgia, which has prepared similar 
documents for several Civil War battlefields in Virginia, prepared the plan. At 
Bentonville, Jager has completed maps of the battlefield, including a map of 
cultural features such as family cemeteries on the property. The association 
shared a draft of the plan with local landowners and actively solicited suggestions 
from area residents for use in the final plan. In addition, BBHA recently won a 
second grant of $24,000 from the American Battlefield Protection Program. That 
funding will enable BBHA to develop a Global Positioning Systems (GPS) survey 
of Bentonville and produce extremely precise mapping of existing trenches and 
earthworks on the battlefield. GPS science uses satellites and hand-held radio 
transmitters to locate any spot on earth with extreme precision. The technology's 
applications range from military uses (as in the Gulf War) to rental cars with 
electronic maps and locating systems. The GPS project at Bentonville will consist 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


83 


















This recent map of Bentonville Battleground State Historic Site, prepared by Johnston County Geographic 
Information Services of Smithfield, will soon be augmented by a sophisticated computer-generated overlay 
that will identify specific historic resources on the six thousand-acre battlefield. The Bentonville Battleground 
Historical Association is sponsoring an extremely precise survey of the battlefield that will result in creation of 
the overlay. 

of personnel actually walking along all trench lines on the six thousand-acre 
battlefield. The walkers will include site staff, BBHA volunteers, and surveyors; 
they will employ self-contained backpack units with keyboard data entry systems 
to record a variety of information in addition to the precise locations of trench 
features. A National Park Service team will aid the venture and also undertake a 
study of the effect of falling trees on historic trenches. When completed, the GPS 
survey will enable Johnston County planners to add a historic resources overlay 
to county planning maps. 

The staff at Duke Homestead has been working with local volunteers to 
develop an exhibit on the American Tobacco Company in Durham and its 
employees. August 1997 will be the tenth anniversary of the closing of American 
in the city, and that occasion will be recalled with photographs, oral history 
interviews, and company products. James B. Duke created the American Tobacco 
Company in 1890; the “Tobacco Trust," which emphasized the fast-growing 
cigarette trade, was dissolved in 1911 by federal action and broken into fourteen 
companies, which presently include R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the 
Liggett Group, among others. Downtown Durham was the home of an immense 
American Tobacco complex until 1987. Bull Durham, Lucky Strike, and Pall Mall 
were among brands manufactured there. A reunion of former workers may 
occur with the opening of the new exhibit, tentatively slated for October 5. The 
display will focus not only on the company's closing but also on the impact that 
American Tobacco had on Durham's development. 


84 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




















Aycock Birthplace recently hosted two events for schoolchildren. The annual 
Farm Heritage Days in April drew fourth-grade students and teachers from 
fourteen Wayne County schools. Each group enjoyed various demonstrations of 
open-hearth cooking; quilting; spinning; shelling and grinding corn; using a 
crosscut saw; and making soap, brooms, and candles. A “schoolmaster" con¬ 
ducted a spelling bee in the schoolhouse, and a blacksmith demonstrated his skills 
by making various latches. As in years past, volunteers were essential to Farm 
Heritage Days. With the North Carolina Museum of History and the Tar Heel 
Junior Historian Association, Aycock also hosted a similar Farm Days for junior 
historians, who were treated to hands-on activities for half a day and in the 
afternoon learned about oral history. 

Most foreign visitors to Somerset Place come from Germany and speak some 
English, but they often ask for information about the site in German. In order to 
respond to such requests, the Somerset Place Foundation has provided transla¬ 
tion of the Somerset tour script into that language. The staff utilized the Internet 
to contract with a licensed translator in Germany to translate the hour-long 
script, which was sent to and from the translator by e-mail. 

The section cordially invites readers and friends to the following forthcoming 
special events at the state's historic sites: 


August 2, 3 


August 9, 10, 
23, 24 


August 23 


September 7 


September 13 


September 20, 21 


Fall 1997 


House IN the Horseshoe. Annual battle reenactment. Re¬ 
enactment of the Revolutionary War skirmish between the 
notorious David Fanning and patriot Philip Alston. Reenac¬ 
tors in period dress will be camped on the grounds. Demon¬ 
strations include cannon firing, blacksmithing, gun en¬ 
graving, fireside cooking, and more. Saturday, 10:00 A M - 
5:00 P.M. (battle at 4:00 P.M.); Sunday, noon-5:00 P.M. (battle 
at 2:00 P.M.) 

BENTONVILLE Battleground. Summer living history pro¬ 
gram. Costumed interpreters will demonstrate various 
activities such as soldier life and the civilian side of nine¬ 
teenth-century life. Musket demonstrations and discus¬ 
sions of life in camp will occur throughout the day. 

Duke Homestead. Herb Festival. Displays and work¬ 
shops on traditional uses of herbs, plant and craft sales. 
10:00 A M.-4:00 P.M. 

HORNE Creek Farm. At Grandfather's Knee. Listen to an 
elderly resident of the community recall growing up on a 
farm during a bygone era. Program will be geared especially 
for children. Noon-5:00 P.M. 

REED Gold Mine. Family Day and North Carolina Open 
Panning Competition. Blacksmithing, placer mining, and 
craft demonstrations will be featured, along with North 
Carolina's premier speed-panning contest, the North Caro¬ 
lina Open Gold Panning Competition. Special panning rate 
of $1.50 per pan. 10:00 A M.-5:00 P.M 

VANCE Birthplace. Fall Pioneer Living Days and Militia 
Encampment. Early nineteenth-century militia encamp¬ 
ment with domestic skills demonstrations. 1:00-4:00 P.M. 

BENNETT Place. Living history program. Members of the 1st 
North Carolina Battalion will re-create a full-scale Confed¬ 
erate camp. The program will involve military drills with an 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


85 


exhibition of fire and maneuver power by a company-sized 
Confederate infantry unit. Domestic skills feature fashion 
shows by the ladies. 10:00 A M -4:00 P.M 

September 27 HORNE CREEK FARM From Peel to Pie. Activities include 

cider making, apple-peeling contests, fruit-drying tech¬ 
niques, apple butter making, and pie baking. 10:00 A.M.- 
5:00 P.M. 

State Capitol/Visitor Services 

A second phase in the ongoing interior restoration of the State Capitol com¬ 
menced on March 3. The focus of the second phase is the restoration of the House 
chamber, the east second-to-third-floor vestibule, the State Library Room, and 
the State Geologist's Office. The work will involve the removal of old paint, 
surface preparation, repairs to plaster, and repainting of each area in the original 
1840 color scheme. A detailed article on the restoration work will appear in the 
June 1997 issue of Southern Living magazine. 

The Capitol's living history program "War Experiences 1865" took place on two 
consecutive weekends in April. The Capitol hosted live performances on April 19 
in conjunction with Museum Magic, an annual series of special presentations in 
Raleigh, and additional performances on the following weekend in conjunction 
with an encampment on the Capitol grounds by reenactors portraying Union 
troops. More than thirteen hundred visitors attended the weekend per¬ 
formances. 



The State Capitol hosted its popular living history program "War Experiences 1865" on two successive 
weekends in mid-April. On the weekend of April 26 a group of reenactors portraying Union troops augmented 
the live performances by staging an encampment on the Capitol grounds. 


Seventeen volunteers donated more than four hundred hours of service to the 
Capitol during the spring tour season, during which some thirty-eight thousand 
visitors and schoolchildren received more than eleven hundred individual tours. 
Robin Hollingsworth, a student at Meredith College, served as the spring intern; 
she produced a catalog of Capitol accessions for use by staff and volunteers. 


86 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 





The Capital Area Visitor Center is undergoing a facelift courtesy of the 
Triangle Chapter of the Interior Design Society. Members of that organization 
have donated their own time and talents to refresh the facility. Area businesses 
have participated in the project by donating furnishings, fabrics, and other items 
for the center's public areas. HANDS, a fellowship of twenty-two area garden 
clubs, has contributed hanging baskets and potted topiaries for the center's 
porches. Donors to the project include Accents Upholstery, Michael Brown, 
Champion Map Company, Ray Chow, Council Furnishings, Fargo Hainna, 
Michelle Ishihara, Kencraft Restorations, Lafayette Interior Fashions, and Tren¬ 
ton Manor Furniture. 

Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens 

Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens has again received the highest honor a 
museum can achieve: accreditation by the American Association of Museums 
(AAM). Accreditation certifies that a museum operates according to standards 
set forth by the museum profession, manages its collections responsibly, and 
provides high-quality service to the public. Of the 8,000 existing museums in the 
United States, only some 750 are accredited (24 are in North Carolina). Kay P. 
Williams, administrator of Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens, commented on 
the award: "We hope the citizens of North Carolina share our pride in having 
earned this prestigious honor. This process was rigorous and demanding, as we 
examined virtually every aspect of our museum's operations; a year of self-study 
and an on-site review by a team of experienced museum professionals was 
required." 

The AAM is a national organization with headquarters in Washington, D.C., 
that has served the museum profession since 1906. The organization's accredita¬ 
tion program is in its third decade of helping institutions focus their energies and 
strengthen their public image. AAM accreditation has assumed an important role 
in helping to raise professional standards. The program is one of several the 
association makes available to assist museums. Tryon Palace Historic Sites & 
Gardens also received honors in the 1997 AAM Museum Publications Design 
Competitions for its January-June programs brochure. The palace recently 
received from the Institute of Museum and Library Services a grant to help it 
conduct AAM's Museum Assessment Program (MAP) III, one in a series of 
evaluations that examines the use of a museum's resources to fulfill its mission. 
The MAP program assesses the public's perception of, experience with, and 
involvement in a museum while helping the institution discover ways of com¬ 
munication with its constituents and serving the public more effectively. MAP III 
will be conducted at Tryon Palace during the ensuing year. 

The spring meeting of the North Carolina Archaeological Society took place at 
Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens on May 31. The Department of Anthro¬ 
pology at East Carolina University (ECU) hosted the meeting, which was open to 
the general public. Speakers and their topics included: Dr. Charles Ewen, asso¬ 
ciate professor of anthropology at ECU, on his plans for a summer dig at Tryon 
Palace; Loretta Lautzenheiser, president of Coastal Carolina Research, Inc., on 
recent discoveries at Eden House, a seventeenth- and eighteenth-century 
archaeological site; Dr. John Byrd, research associate with the Institute for 
Historical and Cultural Research, on current research into Tuscarora archaeologi- 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, |ULY 1997 


87 


cal sites; Mike Harmon, archaeologist with the U.S. Forest Service, on archaeol¬ 
ogy in the Croatan National Forest. Following lunch, palace staff conducted 
participants in the meeting on a tour of the facility's conservation laboratory and 
ECU's nearby excavation sites. 

The summer dig, which commenced on May 20 and concluded on June 24, is the 
second one ECU and Tryon Palace have cosponsored at the palace in as many 
years. This summer, participants searched for the first New Bern Academy on 
the property of the present academy. The first facility was built in 1765 and 
destroyed by fire in 1795. According to Dr. Ewen, records as to the precise 
location of the first academy are sketchy, but last year's work revealed promising 
areas to explore. Hurricane Bertha cooperated in the ongoing project by blowing 
over a tree in one of the target areas, revealing additional eighteenth-century 
artifacts. The nineteenth-century Hay House property was the other excavation 
site. This summer's field-school excavations may ultimately yield valuable infor¬ 
mation about the lives of middle-class residents of New Bern in the nineteenth 
century. 

Recent Accessions by the North Carolina State Archives 

During the months of March, April, and May 1997 the Archival Services Branch 
of the Archives and Records section made 321 accession entries. The branch 
received original records from Beaufort, Rockingham, and Watauga Counties 
and security microfilm of records for all one hundred counties and for the 
municipalities of Knightdale and Lincolnton. The branch accessioned records 
from the following state agencies: Confederate Centennial Commission, 3 reels; 
Department of Cultural Resources, 1 reel; General Assembly, 19 reels; Gover¬ 
nor's Office, 65 cubic feet and 2 items; Department of Justice, 26 cubic feet; and 
Secretary of State's Office, 43 reels. 

Accessioned as new private collections were the Ruth P. Barbour Papers, the 
Joseph E. Elmore Collection, the Fannie H. Wilder Fort Papers, the Thomas 
Clarke Harris Papers, the James Harwell Family Papers, the Marie Elliott 
McClure Collection, and the James A. Stone Papers. The Bennett T. Blake Papers, 
the William S. Price Jr. Papers, the F. C. Salisbury Collection, and the Gaston H. 
Wilder Papers received additions. The C. H. Blanton Collection and the Harrell 
Papers were microfilmed. 

The Dawson School Parent-Teacher Association and the Wake County Chap¬ 
ter of the North Carolina League of Women Voters deposited organization 
records. Among additional accessions were Bible records from 12 family Bibles; 
3 local history items; 1 addition to the Military Collection; 7 additions to the 
Newspaper Collection; and 10 motion picture films, 2.3 cubic feet of photo¬ 
graphic prints and negatives, and 2 videotapes as additions to the Non-textual 
Materials Unit. 

Staff Notes 

On May 17 Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the Division of Archives and History, 
participated in a ceremony to induct seven writers into the North Carolina 
Literary Hall of Fame. Dr. Crow accepted induction on behalf of writer, abolition¬ 
ist, and reformer Harriet Ann Jacobs (1813-1897), author of Incidents in the Life of a 
Slave Girl, Written by Herself (1861), published under the pseudonym Linda Brent. 


88 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



On May 1 7 jeffrey). Crow, director of the Division of Archives and 
History, participated in a ceremony to induct Harriet Ann )acobs 
into the North Carolina Literary Hall of Fame. Dr. Crow accepted 
induction on behalf of the nineteenth-century author and re¬ 
former from poet and author Jaki Shelton Green. 


The autobiography helped build Northern sentiment in favor of emancipation 
during the Civil War. The North Carolina Literary Hall of Fame was established 
in 1996 as a program of the North Carolina Writers' Network. The ceremony 
took place at the Weymouth Center for the Arts and Humanities in Southern 
Pines. 

Robert M. Topkins of the Historical Publications Section is the compiler and 
editor of Death Notices from the PEOPLE'S Press (Salem, North Carolina), 1851-1892: An 
Indexed Abstract, recently published by the Forsyth County Genealogical Society. 

Historic Sites archaeologist Linda Carnes-McNaughton has completed her 
doctorate in anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; her 
dissertation deals with North Carolina pottery. David Moose retired as carpenter 
supervisor at the North Carolina Transportation Museum. Helen King of Duke 
Homestead recently completed an intensive workshop in historic costume con¬ 
struction at Latta Plantation in Mecklenburg County. 

John Dysart, manager of Reed Gold Mine, recently volunteered to spend three 
weeks acting as a government liaison between the American Red Cross and local, 
state, and federal governments in aiding residents of Grand Forks, North Dakota, 
recover from a series of natural disasters involving a blizzard, unprecedented 
flooding, and a resulting fire that devastated much of the city's downtown area. 
Dysart spent numerous twelve-hour days assisting both the Red Cross and the 
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 

Jeffrey Leighton, an independent film maker and friend of Archives and His¬ 
tory, died April 18, 1997, after an eleven-year struggle with cancer. Jeff, whose 
work received international recognition, recently wrote five scripts for audio¬ 
visual presentations at historic sites, including a new film shown at the Historic 
Bath visitor center and several programs featured at the North Carolina Trans¬ 
portation Museum. 


Colleges and Universities 

North Carolina State University 

James E. Crisp has written the introduction to a new and expanded edition of With 
Santa Anna in Texas: A Personal Narrative of the Revolution, by Jose Enrique de la Pena 
(College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997); the new edition contains 
previously unpublished diary entries recently discovered by Crisp among the de 
la Pena manuscripts in San Antonio. Two essays by Henry E. Mattox, visiting 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, |ULY 1997 


89 


associate professor of history, have been published. In addition to an article on 
the Spanish-American War that appeared in John E. Findling and Frank W. 
Thackeray, Events that Changed America in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn.: 
Greenwood Press, 1997), Mattox contributed several entries to Bruce W. Jentle- 
son and Thomas G. Paterson, eds.. Encyclopedia of U.5. Foreign Relations (New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1997). 

St. Andrews Presbyterian College 

Charles Clark read a paper titled "Nine Million Victims; or, the Creation of Willan 
'Myth History'" at the Popular Culture Conference in San Antonio on March 28. 

University of North Carolina at Pembroke 

Robert W. Brown is the author of "Topography," in Jane Shoaf, ed.. The Dictionary 
of Art, 34 vols. (London: Macmillan Publishing Company; New York: Grove Press, 
1996). Dr. Brown was recently named recipient of a UNC at Pembroke Outstand¬ 
ing Teacher Award. Weston F. Cook Jr. served as program chairman for the 1997 
Conference of the American Council for the Study of Islamic Societies, held 
May 1-3 at Villanova University in Villanova, Pennsylvania. Bruce J. DeHart 
recently contributed four articles to Great Events from History: North American Series, 
rev. ed. (Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 1997). 

State, County, and Local Groups 

Chapel Hill Historical Society 

David Moltke-Hansen, director of the Center for the Study of the American 
South and curator of the Southern Historical Collection, University of North 
Carolina Library, was guest speaker at the society's April 6 meeting. He discussed 
Chapel Hill's place in southern history. 

Greensboro Historical Museum 

Dina Hill, education coordinator at the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary and 
formerly an employee of the Division of Archives and History's Underwater 
Archaeology Unit, delivered the annual Dortch Memorial Lecture at the Greens¬ 
boro Historical Museum on May 22. She discussed ongoing research and educa¬ 
tion projects currently under way at the sanctuary. The lecture included a public 
viewing of video footage made at the Monitor wreck site. 

Historic Flat Rock, Inc. 

The Historic Flat Rock Tour of Homes will be held Saturday, August 2, from 
10:00 a m to 4:00 p m The tour will encompass five private residences, as well as 
the house and grounds of St. John's-in-the-Wilderness, the first Episcopal church 
in western North Carolina. Admission tickets ($15.00 for adults and $7.50 for 
children under ten), are available both in advance and on the day of the tour. For 
additional information, write to Mrs. George P. Johnson at P.O. Box 158, Flat 
Rock, NC 28731, or telephone (704) 693-1818. 


90 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Lower Cape Fear historical Society 

At its forty-first annual meeting, held May 4, 1997, in Wilmington, the Lower 
Cape Fear Historical Society presented its Society Cup to the staff of the Under¬ 
water Archaeology Unit of the Division of Archives and History, headquartered 
at Kure Beach. The award recognizes a person or institution whose contributions 
over the years have made a difference in the interpretation of the history of the 
Lower Cape Fear region. The society also presented its Clarendon Award to 
Walter E. Campbell for his book Across Fortune's Tracks: A Biography of William Rand 
Kenan )r. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). 

Museum of the Cape Fear (Fayetteville) 

A special exhibit titled Final Respects: Dealing with Death in the Victorian Era will be on 
display at the museum from July 12 through October 26. Telephone (910) 
486-1330 for additional information. 

Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts 

Patricia Phillips, curator of furnishings and decorative arts at the North Carolina 
Museum of History, was guest lecturer at the Museum of Early Southern 
Decorative Arts in Winston-Salem on the evening of April 15. She reviewed the 
style and construction of furniture produced by Thomas Day, one of North 
Carolina's most prolific and successful cabinetmakers of the nineteenth century. 

North Carolina Museum of History 

On May 22 and 23 more than four hundred students attended the annual 
convention of the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association in Raleigh. Events took 
place at Peace College, the State Capitol, Mordecai Historic Park, and the 
museum, giving student members in grades four through twelve the opportunity 
to meet, recognize each other's accomplishments, and learn more about North 
Carolina history. Winners in various contests were recognized. Winning projects 
will be exhibited in the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association Gallery at the 
museum for the next eleven months. 

The Recent Acquisitions lobby case, which presently houses artifacts relating to 
North Carolina and the Civil War, will remain unchanged until November 2. The 
exhibit " With All Necessary Care and Attention": The Artistry of Thomas Day will remain 
on display until March 1, 1998. A short-term interim exhibit titled Suspended in 
Time: Portraits from the Museum of History Collection is now open at the museum. 

Old Salem, Inc. 

Old Salem has recently published The Gardens of Salem: The Landscape History of a 
Moravian Town in North Carolina, by Darrell Spencer, horticulturist at Old Salem. 
The volume (92 pages; bound in paper; $14.95), generously illustrated with early 
maps, drawings, and paintings of Salem, as well as photographs of the modern 
gardens by Virginia Weiler, examines how the Moravians shaped the landscape 
around them and describes the process by which the gardens have been restored. 
It is available at the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) 
bookstore in Winston-Salem and at other area booksellers. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


91 


New Leaves 


Editor's Note: Willis P. Whichard, associate justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court and 
current president of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association (NCLHA), delivered 
the following paper as his presidential address at the joint annual meeting of the NCLHA and the 
Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies in Raleigh on the evening of November 22, 
1996. Justice Whichard is presently working on a biography of James Iredell. 

Justice James Iredell 

Willis P. Whichard 

The time is early May 1790. At 39 Broadway in New York City, the infant 
nation's capital, George Washington, president of the United States, was dying. 
The Manhattan neighborhoods were ravaged by influenza. At a boardinghouse 
on Maiden Lane, Congressman James Madison also took to his bed, too sick to 
argue with Alexander Hamilton over the secretary of the treasury's audacious 
plan to consolidate federal power by having the government in New York assume 
the debts and revenue sources formerly reserved for individual states. Madison 
heard increasingly alarming reports of the president's illness from his fellow 
Virginian Thomas Jefferson, himself confined by an attack of crippling migraine. 
One mile away, in the rural village of Greenwich, Abigail Adams lay ill as her son 
tossed feverishly. Only her husband, the vice-president, had escaped the city's 
prevailing malady. 

But I can't get by with this. I'm addressing an audience of historians who know 
that Washington did not die in May 1790. He lived another nine and one-half 
years, completing two terms as president and then spending three years at 
Mount Vernon in retirement. He was very ill, though—far more seriously ill than 
the publishers of the State Gazette of North Carolina in Edenton realized. That paper's 
issue of May 15,1790, reported simply: “We are sorry to announce to the public 
that the worthy President of the United States has again been indisposed. It is 
said the air of New York does not agree with him." 

The president was more than just somewhat “indisposed." He was so ill that 
Martha Washington and his staff thought he was indeed dying. And to make 
matters worse, Tobias Lear, the president's senior and most trusted aide, who 
would know how to handle the sudden crisis of the great man's illness, was 
honeymooning in New Hampshire. Lear's pleasure would have been greatly 
diminished had he known of his employer's illness. It would have been destroyed 
almost totally if he could have foreseen the future, for a mere three years later 
the president would be the first to notice that Lear's beloved Polly was ill. West 
Indies trading ships had brought mosquitoes to the infant nation's new tempo¬ 
rary capital of Philadelphia and, with them, yellow fever. Before the autumn 
frosts of 1793, more than five thousand residents of that city would join the 
twenty-three-year-old Polly Lear in premature graves. 

George Washington did not attend funerals. Perhaps the demands of the 
presidency were too great, or the political problems encountered in selecting 
among so many were too severe to permit it. Whatever the reason, his policy was 
not to go. But the Washington-Lear relationship was almost like family, and 


92 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Washington thus found himself among the luminaries who gathered at Philadel¬ 
phia's Christ Church, considered the nation's finest house of worship at the time, 
for Polly's final rites. And as the grieving president watched the pallbearers 
convey the youthful remains to an untimely tomb, he saw among them his 
feuding secretaries of state and treasury, Jefferson and Hamilton; his secretary of 
war, Frank Knox, himself still mourning the death of a son; and three men whom 
he had appointed to federal judgeships: Richard Peters of Pennsylvania, a district 
court judge; James Wilson, also of Pennsylvania, an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court; and the junior justice of the first Supreme Court, James Iredell 
of North Carolina. 

The prominence of the forty-one-year-old North Carolinian in that esteemed 
assemblage reflected the relative egalitarianism of the infant American experi¬ 
ment. The rigid class structure of Iredell's native England likely would have 
precluded the attainment of similar status by this plebeian grandson of an 
unremarkable clergyman and son of a failed merchant. But this was a new nation 
and a new age; and, ironically, the dire family circumstances that had thrust 
responsibility upon the youth, suddenly and too soon, had worked to his 
advantage. 

The path to the pallbearers' row at the Lear funeral had begun with patronage, 
as well-connected relatives aided the young Iredell in securing the post of king's 
comptroller of customs in the northeastern North Carolina village of Edenton. 
Fortunately, the job allowed time for other pursuits, among them the cultivation 
of learning. While most men of that era passed their days in fields and forests, not 
libraries, Iredell assiduously cultivated both the arts and the sciences. His most 
serious study, though, was reserved for the law, and he devoured Blackstone's 
Commentaries, the staple of legal education in his time, and all that his mentor, 
Samuel Johnston, could teach him. He would acquire both a reputation as a 
superior lawyer and more business than he could reasonably handle. 

The study and practice of law were but small steps on the path to the Lear 
funeral at Christ Church, however. While practicing his profession, Iredell had 
been a model of the lawyer-public servant. His adopted state of North Carolina 
benefited from his service as a member of a commission to prepare statutes for its 
newly established government, as draftsman of its initial court bill, as one of its 
first three superior-court judges, as its second attorney general, and as the initial 
reviser of its statutes. The nation had joined the state in profiting from Iredell's 
more significant exertions on behalf of the American cause in the Revolution and 
the adoption of the federal Constitution. 

Iredell was the leading essayist in his region of the country in support of 
American independence. His treatise “Principles of an American Whig" predates, 
and bears unmistakable traces of consanguinity with, the American Declaration 
of Independence. Following the Revolution, Iredell was the foremost advocate in 
his state for adoption of the proposed federal Constitution. He inaugurated the 
first public movement in North Carolina in favor of the proffered document and 
maintained a busy pen as an essayist urging the birth of the new government. In 
particular, he responded seriatim to George Mason's eleven objections to the 
Constitution, drawing national attention to himself in the process. When dele¬ 
gates first convened in Hillsborough to consider ratification, Iredell was the floor 
leader for the Federalist forces. After the convention refused to ratify, he con- 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


93 


tinued to promote the Constitution. When the Federalist cause finally triumphed 
in North Carolina, he was widely recognized as a principle architect of its victory. 

The bereft president who would accompany the distinguished pallbearers to 
Polly Lear's graveside rewarded those efforts by appointing Iredell to the first 
Supreme Court of the United States, on which he served for nearly a decade. 
While serving there, he shared intimate relationships with George Washington 
and John Adams and their administrations. At a time when the Founders viewed 
the federal courts as “national security courts" whose primary purpose was to 
preserve and strengthen a fledgling national government, this justice, both on 
and off the bench, was a vigorous, partisan defender of those presidents and their 
administrations. He also served as a chronicler of important events and personali¬ 
ties of those years. Without Iredell the chronicler, write the editors of the 
Documentary History of the Supreme Court, now in progress, their work on the Court's 
early years would have been impossible. 

The Court's case load was low during Iredell's tenure—so low that the justices 
went to the capital only twice annually to hear arguments. In his near-decade on 
the Court, Iredell wrote opinions in only a handful of reported cases. Of those 
opinions, only one is truly significant: his dissenting opinion in Chisholm v. Georgia, 
in which he stood alone in concluding that a state could not be sued by a citizen of 
another state. While scholars and jurists still debate the precise meaning of 
Iredell's dissent—as recently as in extensive discussions in Seminole Tribe v. Florida, 
which the Supreme Court of the United States decided in March 1996—it 
is indisputable that the result he alone would have reached ultimately pre¬ 
vailed through adoption of the Eleventh Amendment. Indeed, Justice John Paul 
Stevens's dissent in the Seminole case refers specifically to "Justice Iredell whose 
dissent provided the blueprint for the Eleventh Amendment." 

Instead of sitting together at the capital to decide cases, the early justices logged 
mile after mile riding the federal circuits, hearing appeals from the federal district 
courts in some instances but mainly serving as the primary federal trial courts for 
several categories of cases. The life, Iredell bemoaned, was one of "perpetual 
traveling [and] almost a continual absence from home, [and was] a very severe 
lot." His brother quite reasonably termed it "the life of a travelling postboy." The 
judges formed the vanguard of efforts to alter or remove that onerous duty; 
Iredell, who was the most severely affected because he most often traveled the 
Southern Circuit, which was the harshest, was their leader in that effort. The 
attempts were unsuccessful, however, and Iredell thus spent a considerable 
portion of the last near-decade of his life traveling the circuits and doing the work 
of the circuit courts. 

Iredell was a jurist who never caught what some refer to as "blackrobeitus" 
disease. The huge oaken chair provided for the Court's sixth justice in no way 
diminished his essential humanity. Though absent from his family of origin for 
much of his life, he remained intensely loyal and devoted to its members. It is one 
of the poignant aspects of Iredell's story that he did not see his mother from the 
time of his departure from England at age seventeen until a ship brought her to 
New York when he was thirty-nine. Even then, their reunion was delayed, for he 
had just departed for the fall 1790 tour of the Southern Circuit. The poignancy is 
enhanced by the fact that his early departure, and perhaps his entire trip, was a 
waste because little if any court business was accomplished on that tour. 


94 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


The reunion, when ultimately achieved, did not prove altogether pleasant. The 
elder Mrs. Iredell, it seems, suffered from severe, long-standing alcoholism, 
which Iredell's Anglican clergyman brother well knew but failed to disclose to 
him. Ultimately, a country home for his mother, near Philadelphia, where Iredell 
would visit her on Sundays when he was in the capital, proved the most felicitous 
solution to the problem. 

A brother, Tom, came to America a year before their mother's arrival. He 
arrived with rough edges, which Iredell worked to smooth. For a time Tom 
succeeded, studying law under his brother and becoming master and clerk of the 
Edenton Superior Court. Ultimately, however, a fairly unremitting form of 
rheumatism drove him to inactivity and apparently to living largely at Iredell's 
largesse. 

Iredell's other surviving brother, Arthur, the Anglican clergyman, could have 
been Dickens's model for Pip in Great Expectations, for like Pip he spent much of his 
life awaiting a pecuniary expectancy. He undermined Iredell's reputation with 
their wealthy uncle, causing the uncle to disinherit James in favor of Arthur 
because of James's role in the American Revolution. While Arthur steadfastly 
expressed his intent to share the legacy with James, he apparently never did. 
Exchanges between the two do not cast the Anglican clergyman brother in a very 
favorable light. The brothers nevertheless continually expressed their desire to 
see one another again—a desire that was never fulfilled, however. 

Iredell's felicitous relationship with his own family more than compensated for 
his difficulties with his family of origin. He had a happy (though by no means 
tension-free) twenty-six-year marriage with Hannah Johnston, sister of Samuel 
Johnston, his law teacher and general mentor. For more than eleven years the 
marriage was barren. The birth in October 1784 of a son, named Thomas, 
brought the couple great joy, but the joy soon turned to profound grief when the 
child died two days after its birth. 

The joy of other children soon quelled the anguish Iredell suffered from the 
loss of his firstborn, however. With the exception of a miscarriage Hannah 
experienced in the summer of 1794, the black angel of death that hovered so 
menacingly near all children at that time did not darken Iredell's doorway again in 
his lifetime. Annie, James, and Helen, who arrived in that order, were the 
constant objects of his doting attention. The father's fondest wish was that his 
children would become “useful," "valuable," "respectable" members of society. 
For the daughters, it was not to be. Sickly much of her life, Annie died at age 
thirty, leaving no significant legacy. Helen, in the parlance of the day, "lost her 
mind" at a youthful age and passed the remainder of her days in a home for the 
insane in Cambridge, Massachusetts. James alone fulfilled his father's aspirations 
for his offspring and did so illustriously, with a distinguished career in law and 
public service. 

There were other members of James Iredell's "family," for he shared with 
Washington, Jefferson, and other leaders of his time participation in the haunting 
moral contradiction of abhorrence to slavery in principle combined with the 
personal ownership of slaves. It is clear, though, that he was a kindly and 
generous master. It is equally clear that he manumitted some of his slaves who 
moved with the family to Philadelphia in 1790 but were left there when the 
family returned to Edenton in 1793. One such slave, Peter, a personal body 
servant, made his living thereafter cutting wood in Philadelphia. He continued to 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


95 


attend his former master when Iredell returned to the capital and was paid more 
for his assistance during those brief periods than he received from his other work 
during the remainder of the year. 



This profile of lames Iredell (1751 -1799) was made during his tenure as associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, 1 790-1 799. 

As a friend, Iredell was said to be "sincere and transparent, easy and familiar." 
He clearly liked people, and they reciprocated his affection. Certain friendships 
were special—William R. Davie's among them. Theirs was an easy intimacy, 
forged initially in the courthouses of North Carolina and strengthened by their 
joint efforts in the long and difficult struggle to secure ratification of the federal 
Constitution. They would have been pleased if they could have known that years 
after their deaths counties bearing their names would adjoin one another. In life 
they stood together in many important endeavors, foremost among them the 
ratification of the Constitution and the creation of the University of North 
Carolina. In death their principal memorials lie together in perpetuity. 

Perhaps the best example of Iredell's kindly, sympathetic expression of friend¬ 
ship relates to the tragic, poignant circumstances surrounding the death of his 


96 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



colleague, Justice James Wilson. Early in his Supreme Court tenure Iredell found 
Wilson "a very agreeable companion." By mid-tenure he was inviting Wilson to 
spend time with him and Hannah at Edenton. Lamentably, though, Wilson would 
soon suffer financial reversals that would lead to his ruin and demise. By the 
mid-1790s, like many other land speculators of the time, he began defaulting on 
his loans. He became, in his own words, "hunted like a wild beast" and so destitute 
that neither he nor his young second wife even had clothing sufficient for circuit 
travel. By February 1798 Wilson had settled on Iredell's hometown of Edenton as 
a sanctuary from his creditors. He died there that summer, so destitute that the 
family could not afford to return his remains to Philadelphia for interment. He 
thus rested in the Johnston family cemetery at Hayes plantation in Edenton until 
1906, when the remains were disinterred and ceremoniously returned to his 
home state for reburial at Christ Church, the site of Polly Lear's funeral. Iredell's 
many benefactions to Wilson in life, and to his family afterward, were widely 
recognized by Wilson's family and friends. 

There is a twentieth-century sequel to the Iredell-Wilson story. In the 1930s 
the Pennsylvania Bar Association commissioned a portrait of Wilson for presen¬ 
tation to the Supreme Court of the United States upon the dedication of its new 
building. The leader of the effort suggested that the North Carolina Bar Associa¬ 
tion should do the same for Iredell. Iredell's descendants greeted the idea with 
enthusiasm, but the North Carolina bar did not. It was the depression era, its 
leaders replied, and funds simply were not available for that purpose. As a 
consequence, Wilson's portrait hung in the Supreme Court Building for four 
decades before one of his distinguished friend and compeer appeared. Only in 
1976, under the leadership of Chief Justice Warren Burger and in conjunction 
with the commemoration of the nation's bicentennial, was a portrait of Iredell 
commissioned and presented to the Court. The Wilson and Iredell portraits 
presently hang near one another in the Court's Early Justices Hall. 

Iredell's many benefactions to friends perhaps stemmed from a serious com¬ 
mitment to Protestant Christianity of the Anglican variety. He expressed that 
commitment in his diaries during his youth, and Supreme Court service brought 
no diminution in his piety. He remained a regular communicant whether at 
home, in the capital, or on the circuits. Religious fervor did not, however, render 
him a prudish Pecksniff. He had a problem with swearing, possessed a semi- 
risque sense of humor, and loved to dance. The theater was a favorite pastime, 
and, like his leader, George Washington, he was not above attending an occa¬ 
sional cockfight. 

The tragedy, of course, is that Iredell's story is incomplete—that because of his 
untimely demise at age forty-eight, we can only speculate about what he might 
have accomplished if given the number of years allotted to a Thomas Jefferson, a 
John Marshall, or even a George Washington. At the time of his death Iredell was 
working on several legal treatises, none of which were ever published. Had the 
author lived only a bit longer, they might well have been; and the author might 
well be remembered as the first and foremost of the early American authors of 
major legal treatises. 

More significantly, it is entirely reasonable to speculate that had he lived, James 
Iredell, not John Marshall, would have succeeded Oliver Ellsworth as chief 
justice. James Wilson, whose seniority to Iredell had been an impediment when 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


97 


Washington wanted to appoint Iredell to the chief justiceship earlier, was at rest 
in the Johnston family cemetery at Edenton. Of the original Court, only Iredell 
and William Cushing would have remained. Cushing was old, so ill that he missed 
entire Court terms, and unpopular. He had declined the position once because of 
his age and health, and it is likely that he would have done so again. 

President Adams offered the appointment to John Jay and told his son that 
should Jay refuse, "I shall follow the Line of Judges most probably and then there 
will be a vacancy." Jay did refuse. Had Cushing also declined, following the line of 
judges would have led directly to Iredell. There would have been no need to turn 
to John Marshall, whose appointment, interestingly, was not greeted with 
applause from any quarter. Adams could, and probably would, have appointed 
the associate justice next in seniority, whose relationship with him and his 
administration could hardly have been better and whose appointment, as in the 
past, clearly would have been warmly received. Iredell, not Marshall, would then 
have ensconced the principle of judicial review into the fabric of the American 
experiment. Instead of being "obscure," as a North Carolina newspaper described 
him in 1987, Iredell would hold Marshall's place in the history of American law 
and constitutional jurisprudence, and Marshall would be regarded as just another 
leading member of the Virginia bar, with episodic public service. 

But on October 20, 1799, "old Time, that greatest and longest-established 
spinner of all," ceased to weave for Iredell early in his forty-ninth year. Had we 
been privy to Iredell's deathbed reflections, we probably would have observed a 
man largely imperceptive of how heavily the hand of history would rest upon 
him—a man who thought, like Shakespeare's Hamlet, that at best "there's hope a 
great man's memory may outlive his life half a year." 

Iredell arrived at the great wall of death knowing that a county would there¬ 
after bear his name. "Few things that ever happened to me in my life," he wrote, 
"affected me with greater surprise and pleasure than the distinguished and most 
unexpected honor of having the new county that has been formed out of Rowan 
called by my name. My opportunities of rendering any public service have been 
very few, though no man's heart is more warmly disposed to the public interests 
than mine." He knew, too, that contemporary opinion of his private character and 
public service was, in the main, highly favorable. The encomiastic judgments yet 
to flow from the stream of time would have surprised the moribund man, 
however. In analyzing Iredell as a jurist, late twentieth-century scholars would 
perceive him as a source of considerable satisfaction to the president who 
appointed him and one of the more influential of the early justices. John Marshall 
would call him "a man of real talent," and Felix Frankfurter would consider him 
"one of the really brilliant minds of his period, if not of our entire history." Future 
eminent jurists such as Walter Clark and Sam J. Ervin Jr. would draw inspiration 
from his life and career. 

An Iredell deathbed vigil would not have found its subject contemplating that 
almost two centuries later the oldest courthouse still in use in his state would 
have his name engraved on the wall or that when his county constructed a new 
courthouse in the late twentieth century its exterior wall would bear a quotation 
from his legal writings. James Iredell would have been surprised to know that two 
centuries later lawyers waiting in the anteroom to argue cases before the North 
Carolina Supreme Court would observe his portrait, that a law school fraternity 


98 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


and city streets would bear his name, that the Young Lawyers Association of the 
North Carolina county named for him would present a James Iredell Award to a 
senior practitioner viewed as a positive role model for young attorneys, or that 
the James Iredell Institute and Fellows Program would enhance civics education 
for social studies teachers in North Carolina. 

Perhaps Iredell's greatest surprise would have come in the fall of 1987 when his 
name and thought were invoked in opposition to another nomination to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. Once again the attention of the American 
people was riveted upon the Senate's ornate Caucus Room—scene of earlier 
hearings on such controversial subjects as the sinking of the Titanic, the Army- 
McCarthy controversy, the Watergate crimes, and the Iran-Contra affair; site of 
John and Robert Kennedy's declarations of their presidential candidacies; and 
locale of the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill imbroglio and Hillary Rodham Clin¬ 
ton's testimony on national health-care reform. In 1987 it was the nomination of 
Judge Robert Bork that captivated the public interest. As the Cable News Net¬ 
work beamed the proceedings to a waiting nation, a witness—drawing upon 
Iredell's argument at the Hillsborough ratification convention that if certain 
rights were specified, the government might later argue that other rights, not 
relinquished but not enumerated, were denied—called the nominee "Iredell's 
nightmare, an interpreter who would, in defiance of the Ninth Amendment, 
anachronistically betray the central premise of our Constitutionalism, the pro¬ 
tection on fair terms of all our rights." 

It was said of Charles Doe, chief justice of New Hampshire in the late nine¬ 
teenth century, that "he was born into the judgeship of New Hampshire, and he 
there lived and wrought and died." To speak similarly of James Iredell perhaps 
would say too much. It would be more accurate to assert that he attained a 
judgeship of the United States in what ideally should have been mid-life, and 
there he died prematurely before he had fully wrought. 

Still, it would be altogether erroneous to consign him to the dustbin of history 
on that account. Bismarck once said: "A statesman cannot create anything him¬ 
self. He must wait and listen until he hears the steps of God sounding through 
events; then leap up and grasp the hem of his garment." James Iredell, a deeply 
religious man, can perhaps be said to have listened, heard the steps of God 
sounding through the events of the late eighteenth century, and leaped up to 
grasp the hem of his garment. As a result, at the time of his death his 
Revolutionary-period essays, his defense of judicial review and the Constitution, 
and his commitment to the residual sovereignty of the states were chiseled firmly 
into the fabric of the American experiment. 

The story that proceeds from the impoverished, insecure emigrant of seven¬ 
teen to the eminent, accomplished statesman-jurist of forty-eight indeed reads 
like an epic poem. When the cold pen of history records the ablest of the American 
founders, it spares ink unwisely if James Iredell is not among them. He was 
nonpareil within his state and among a select group nationally. Like his colleague 
and friend James Wilson, he came to America in his youth to seek his own fortune 
and stayed to contribute significantly to the formation of ours. As Shakespeare 
wrote in The Tempest: 

O brave new world. 

That has such people in't. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, JULY 1997 


99 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, luly, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East )ones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601-2807. 

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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5_SEPTEMBER 1997 

New Historic Preservation State Tax Credits Created 

The North Carolina General Assembly recently enacted and Gov. James B. Hunt 
Jr. signed into law new state tax credits that make rehabilitations of historic 
buildings and residences in North Carolina more attractive than ever before. The 
purpose of the new tax-credit program is to encourage further the private 
reinvestment and rehabilitation of historic properties in downtown business 
districts, residential neighborhoods, and rural landmarks throughout North 
Carolina by providing additional income-tax credits to taxpayers who sensitively 
rehabilitate historic structures. The goal is not to encourage preservation of 
structures as museums but to give historic buildings and residences a place in the 
contemporary real-estate market, thus helping to foster their continued use and 
economic vitality. 

The effectiveness of tax credits as a tool to encourage private rehabilitation has 
already been demonstrated in the hundreds of millions of dollars invested over 



Newly enacted historic preservation state tax credits^br"non income-producing properties will aid owners in 
the rehabilitation of their private residences. The Carolina Place Historic District in Wilmington is a typical 
neighborhood of such properties. Shown here is the south side of the 1800 block of Market Street in 
downtown Wilmington, part of that district. (All photographs by the Division of Archives and History unless 
otherwise indicated.) 





















the last twenty years in North Carolina through the federal rehabilitation tax 
credit program, which has benefited income-producing properties. Completed 
rehabilitation projects have brought renewed life to deteriorated business and 
residential districts, created new jobs and new housing units, increased local and 
state revenues, and helped ensure the long-term preservation of irreplaceable 
historic resources. 




Red Hill plantation in Granville County was rehabilitated from its dilapidated condition in 1986 (top) to its 
original appearance (bottom). The new state tax credits are designed to encourage owners of similar properties 
in North Carolina to undertake restoration projects by making such endeavors less costly. 


102 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 















The new legislation provides for an increase from 5 percent to 20 percent in the 
existing state tax credit for rehabilitations of income-producing historic proper¬ 
ties that also qualify for the 20 percent federal investment tax credit. In effect, the 
combined federal-state credits reduce by 40 percent the cost of a certified rehabil¬ 
itation of such a property. And, for the first time, the law also provides for a new 
state tax credit of 30 percent for qualifying rehabilitations of non-income- 
producing historic structures, including personal residences. Thus, the new 
credits should help to revitalize urban and rural historic residential neighbor¬ 
hoods as well as commercial districts throughout the state. 



The Colonial Lodge, a neglected 
1920s hotel in Warrenton, was re¬ 
habilitated into affordable apart¬ 
ments for the elderly with the help of 
existing federal and state historic 
rehabilitation tax credits. The new 
legislation expands the state credit 
from 5 to 20 percent. 


To be eligible for the new tax credit, a property must be deemed a “certified 
historic structure," that is, a building listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places either individually or as a contributing property in a registered historic 
district. A rehabilitation of a historic structure must be substantial: for income- 
producing properties, rehabilitation expenses must exceed the greater of the 
"adjusted basis" (cost) of the building or five thousand dollars within a twenty- 
four-month period (or a sixty-month period for phased projects). For non- 
income-producing properties, such expenses must exceed twenty-five thousand 
dollars within a similar period. Qualified rehabilitation expenses include costs 
incurred in work upon or within a historic structure; costs involving acquisition, 
new additions, site work, or personal property do not qualify for the credit. The 
rehabilitation must be consistent with the historic character of the building and 
the historic district, and therefore the work must meet the secretary of the 
Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. Applications involving income-producing 
structures are subject to a joint review by the North Carolina State Historic 
Preservation Office (SHPO) and the National Park Service, with the latter having 
final authority. Applications involving non-income-producing historic structures 
will be reviewed solely by the SHPO and must be approved by the state historic 
preservation officer before the commencement of rehabilitation work. Interested 
owners of historic properties are encouraged to consult with the SHPO before 
beginning a rehabilitation project in order to avoid possible problems that could 
result in denial of the tax credits. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


103 








The foregoing information describes the federal and state historic preservation 
tax credit programs in very general terms only. Taxpayers should consult a 
professional tax adviser, the North Carolina Department of Revenue, or the 
Internal Revenue Service for assistance in determining the tax and other finan¬ 
cial implications of historic preservation tax credits. For additional information 
on the state tax credit program, contact: 

Tim Simmons, AIA 
State Historic Preservation Office 
Division of Archives and History 
109 East Jones Street 
Raleigh, NC 27601-2807 
Telephone (919) 733-6545 

Historic Preservation Certification Applications for income-producing proper¬ 
ties are currently available, and those for non-income-producing properties will 
be available in December 1997. For information concerning requirements and 
procedures for obtaining listing of properties in the National Register of Historic 
Places, contact Linda Edmisten at the address shown above. 

Interpretation of Slavery Topic of Educational Conference 

A two-day educational conference titled "Interpreting Slavery in the Classroom 
and at Historic Sites" will take place at Somerset Place State Historic Site in 
Creswell, October 31 and November 1,1997. The North Carolina Department of 
Cultural Resources, the Somerset Place Foundation, and the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation will cosponsor the conclave, which is designed for North Carolina 
primary and secondary schoolteachers, historic-site interpretive personnel, and 
university students planning careers in public history. 

The conference will bring together at a former antebellum plantation with a 
large enslaved community seven renowned historians whose scholarly publica¬ 
tions explore the root causes of present-day difficulties in interpreting the insti¬ 
tution of slavery. Specifically, conference speakers will examine the historical 
myths and textbook inaccuracies perpetuated through widely used secondary 
and university textbooks; how those inaccuracies are reinforced in most presen¬ 
tations of colonial and antebellum history; and the relationship between slavery 
and religion, a matter that affects the basic beliefs about the morality of slavery. 

The program will consist of three sessions and a closing address. The respective 
sessions and their participants are: 

"Interpreting Slavery: A Holistic Approach," led by Dorothy Spruill Redford, 
descendant of an enslaved family at Somerset plantation, site manager at Somerset Place 
State Historic Site, and author of Somerset Homecoming: Recovering a Lost Heritage. This opening 
session will include an instructional tour of Somerset Place and observation of the site's 
hands-on educational program for students. Additional topics covered include integrating 
black and white history in plantation tours, costuming interpreters as slaves and poor 
whites, "politically correct" vs. "commonly called" terminologies involving the institution 
of slavery, and standardized tour scripts vs. discretionary comments by interpreters. 

"Perpetrating Historical Myths and Textbook Inaccuracies," a panel discussion 
moderated by Robert C. Watson, assistant professor of history, Hampton University, and 
former senior historian and director of African American interpretation and presenta¬ 
tions, Colonial Williamsburg, and featuring presentations by the following panelists: 
James W. Loewen, professor of sociology. The Catholic University of America, author of 


104 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong and coauthor of 
Mississippi: Conflict and Change; Philip Burnham, journalist and author of How the Other Half 
Lived: A People's Guide to American Historic Sites; and David K. Shipler, Pulitzer Prize-winning 
author of Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land, Russia: Broken Idols, Solemn Dreams, and 
the forthcoming Country of Strangers: Blacks and Whites in America. Within the context of 
contemporary race and gender issues, presenters will explore widely accepted myths and 
inaccuracies; how educators, historic sites, and museums embrace, perpetuate, and defend 
such misinformation; and the long-term psychological impact of such misinformation on 
present and future generations of Americans. 

“Religion and Slavery: A Scholarly Perspective," a panel discussion moderated by 
Dianne Swann-Wright, interim vice-president for student life. Eastern Mennonite Uni¬ 
versity; doctoral candidate at the University of Virginia; and historian for "Getting Word 
Out," an oral history project featuring the descendants of Monticello's enslaved commun¬ 
ity. The following scholars will serve as panelists: John Boles, professor of history. Rice 
University, author of Great Revival: Beginning of the Bible Belt and The South through Time: A 
History of an American Region, and editor of Masters and Slaves in the House of the Lord: Race and 
Religion in the American South, 1740-1870; Charles Long, professor of religion (retired), 
Syracuse University, and author of Myth, Culture, and History in West Africa and Significations: 
Signs, Symbols and Images in the Interpretation of Religion; and John P. Daly, associate professor of 
history, Louisiana Tech University, and author of the forthcoming Virtue is Power: Proslavery, 
Sectionalism, and the Moral Culture of Antebellum America, 1830-1865. Panelists will examine the 
historical propensity of the elite to create and impose religious doctrines supportive of 
their socio-economic needs and ethical mores, particularly as those doctrines related to the 
institution of slavery. 

Concluding the conference will be an address by Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, director of 
the North Carolina Division of Archives and History, author of The Black Experience 
in Revolutionary North Carolina, and coauthor of A History of African Americans in North 
Carolina. Space at the conference is limited to two hundred participants and will be 
handled on a first come-first served basis. A registration fee of thirty-five dollars 
includes all sessions, a reception, and a special traditional southern lunch of 
typical plantation fare on the grounds of Somerset Place. To obtain a registration 
form or additional information, write to Somerset Place Foundation, 2572 Lake 
Shore Road, Creswell, NC 27928; telephone (919) 797-4560; fax (919) 797-4171; 
or direct e-mail to somerset@coastalnet.com. Registration cannot be accepted by 
telephone. 

N.C. Successfully Nominates 2,000th Entry to National Register 

Almost twenty-eight years after North Carolina nominated its first property for 
inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register has 
notified the North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office that the state's 
two-thousandth nomination has been listed. Coincidentally, both the first and 
two-thousandth nominations are for properties of statewide significance in the 
town of Halifax. The first nomination, submitted in December 1969 by H. G. 
Jones, then director of the Division of Archives and History and state liaison 
officer (the title is now known as state historic preservation officer), was for 
Historic Halifax State Historic Site, including the Constitution House (ca. 1770), 
the Owens House (ca. 1760), the Clerk's Office (ca. 1832), and the Jail (ca. 1838). 
Historic Halifax was nominated as "an important political, social, and economic 
center in northeastern North Carolina," a center of settlement for the rapidly 
expanding population of the province of North Carolina. The two-thousandth 
nomination, officially listed on July 4, 1997, is for the Church of the Immaculate 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


105 


Conception and the Michael Ferrall Family Cemetery. The diminutive frame 
church, designed by Philadelphia architect Edwin Forrest Durang and erected in 
1889, is the only known nineteenth-century Gothic Revival-style frame Catholic 
church to survive in the state. The importance of the building and the adjacent 
cemetery extends to the areas of social history and funerary art as represented by 
the impressive burial vault of 1859 created for the family of Michael Ferrall, 
whose members were closely associated with the fortunes and development of 
the Roman Catholic Church in Halifax County from the 1820s to the 1960s. 



The Church of the Immaculate Conception and the adjoining Michael Ferrall Cemetery in Halifax became the 
two-thousandth historic property in North Carolina to be successfully nominated to the National Register of 
Historic Places. The church, erected in 1889, is the only known nineteenth-century Gothic Revival-style frame 
Catholic church to survive in the state. 

The National Register of Historic Places is the nation's official listing of build¬ 
ings, structures, objects, sites, and districts worthy of preservation for their 
significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, and culture. As of 
June 4, 1997, North Carolina had listed in the Register 1,721 individual proper¬ 
ties, structures, objects, and sites and 279 districts. 

Entries for Literary Awards Announced 

The following titles have been entered in the four literary competitions spon¬ 
sored by the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association (NCLHA) in 
cooperation with the Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of North 
Carolina, the Historical Book Club of North Carolina, the Roanoke-Chowan 
Group of Writers and Allied Artists, and the North Carolina Division of the 
American Association of University Women (AAUW). Winning entries in each 
category will be announced during the joint annual meeting of the NCLHA and 
the Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies, which will take place in 
Raleigh on November 21, 1997. 


106 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




Mayflower Award (nonfiction) 

Bishir, Catherine W., and Michael T. Southern. A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Eastern 
North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996 
Dorgan, Howard. In the Hands of a Happy God: The "No-Hellers" of Central Appalachia. Knoxville: 
University of Tennessee Press, 1997 

Fischer, Joseph R. A Well-Executed Failure: The Sullivan Campaign against the Iroquois, July- 
September 1779. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997 
Gaillard, Frye. The Heart of Dixie: Southern Rebels, Renegades, and Heroes. Asheboro: Down Home 
Press, 1996 

Garrison, Webb. Lincoln's Little War: How His Carefully Crafted Plans Went Astray. Nashville, 
Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1997 

. White House Ladies: Fascinating Tales and Colorful Curiosities. Nashville, Tenn.: 
Rutledge Hill Press, 1996 

Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union. Lexington: 
University Press of Kentucky, 1997 

Knowles, Carrie. Alzheimer's: The Last Childhood. Fuquay-Varina: Research Triangle Publish¬ 
ing, 1997 

McIntosh, Terence. Urban Decline in Early Modern Germany: Schwabisch Hall and Its Region, 
1650-1750. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997 
Moseley, Merritt. Understanding Julian Barnes. Columbia: University of South Carolina 
Press, 1997 

Roberson, Elizabeth Whitley. In Care of Yellow River: The Complete Civil War Letters of Pvt. Eli 
Pinson Landers to His Mother. Gretna, La.: Pelican Books, 1997 
Sanford, Ken. Charlotte and UNC Charlotte: Growing Up Together. Charlotte: University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte, 1996 

Smith, John David. Black Voices from Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook 
Press, 1996 

Smith, R. C. A Case about Amy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996 
Snapp, J. Russell. John Stuart and the Struggle for Empire on the Southern Frontier. Baton Rouge: 
Louisiana State University Press, 1996 

Soroos, Marvin S. The Endangered Atmosphere: Preserving a Global Commons. Columbia: Univer¬ 
sity of South Carolina Press, 1997 

Spach, Jule C. Every Road Leads Home: Sketching the Map from Memories. Chapel Hill: Professional 
Press, 1996 

Swaim, Mark. "Rethinking the Art of Medicine" (Encyclopedia Brittanica edition of The 
Great Ideas Today), 1996 

Underwood, Mary Evelyn. The Scotsman from Lumber River: Angus Wilton McLean — Farmer, 
Industrialist, Public Servant. Raleigh: Pentland Press, 1996 
Warren, Joshua P. Haunted Asheville. Asheville: Shadowbox Enterprises, 1996 

Sir Walter Raleigh Award (fiction) 

Bache, Ellyn. The Activist's Daughter. Duluth, Minn.: Spinsters Ink, 1997 

Bridgers, Sue Ellen. All We Know of Heaven. Wilmington: Banks Channel Books, 1996 

Dessen, Sarah. That Summer. New York: Orchard Books, 1996 

Frazier, Charles. Cold Mountain. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997 

Johnson, Cherry L. F. Half Moon Pocosin. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1997 

Welter, John. I Want to Buy a Vowel. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 1996 

Roanoke-Chowan Award (poetry) 

Applewhite, James. Daytime and Starlight. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 
1997 

Bathanti, Joseph. This Metal. Laurinburg: St. Andrews College Press, 1996 
Eaton, Charles Edward. The Fox and I. Cranbury, N.J.: Cornwall Books, 1996 
Gill, Evalyn Pierpont. Entrances. Whispering Pines: Persephone Press, 1996 
Makuck, Peter. Against Distance. Rochester, N.Y.: BOA Editions, Ltd., 1997 
Moore, Marijo. Spirit Voices of Bones. Asheville: Renegade Planets Publishing, 1997 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


107 



Nash, Florence. Crossing Water. Durham: Gravity Press, 1996 

Pinckney, Diana. Fishing with Tall Women. Whispering Pines: Persephone Press, 1996 
Seay, James. Open Field, Understory: New and Selected Poems. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State 
University Press, 1997 

AAUW Award (juvenile literature) 

Fearrington, Ann. Christmas Lights. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996 

Houston, Gloria. Littlejim's Dreams. San Diego: Harcourt Brace and Company, Children's 
Books Division, 1997 

Langley, Charles. Catherine and Geku: The Adventure Begins . . . Fuquay-Varina: Research 
Triangle Publishing, 1997 

Rush, Barbara (coauthor with Howard Schwartz). The Wonder Child & Other Jewish Fairy 
Tales. New York: HarperCollins, 1996 

Smith, John David. Black Voices from Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook 
Press, 1996 

Tate, Suzanne. Oopsie Otter: A Tale of Playful Otters. Nags Head: Nags Head Art, 1997 
Wood, Frances M. Becoming Rosemary. New York: Delacourt Press, 1997 
Zimm (Robert Zimmerman). Ba Ba Ha Ha. New York: HarperCollins, 1996 
_ Oooh Oooh Moo. New York: HarperCollins, 1996 

Conference on Historic Maps 

The North Carolina Collection of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
Library and the North Caroliniana Society will cosponsor a conference on histori¬ 
cal cartography in Chapel Hill, October 3-4, 1997. The conclave, titled "The 
Southeast in Early Maps," seeks to promote greater knowledge and appreciation 
of the map-making efforts of the early European explorers and colonists of the 
American Southeast. It will focus on maps produced prior to 1776 and will be 
dedicated to the memory of the late William P. Cumming, longtime professor of 
English at Davidson College and author of the pioneering volume The Southeast in 
Early Maps. While all speakers scheduled for the conference are noted scholars, the 
gathering is designed for a general audience and is open to anyone with an 
interest in the history of cartography. All sessions, except for a Friday-night 
banquet, will take place in Wilson Library on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus. The 
banquet will be held in the nearby Carolina Inn. 

Speakers and their respective topics include: 

DAVID WOODWARD, editor of The History of Cartography and professor of geography. Univer¬ 
sity of Wisconsin, "Maps and the Humanities" 

Ralph E. Ehrenberg, chief. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, "The 
Mapping of North America" 

KENNETH NEBENZAHL, president, Kenneth Nebenzahl, Inc., "Map Collecting and 
Collections" 

LOUIS DeVorsey Jr., professor emeritus of geography. University of Georgia, "The South¬ 
east in Early Maps" 

H. G. JONES, curator emeritus. North Carolina Collection, and secretary. North Carolini¬ 
ana Society, "The Many Shapes of North Carolina, 1524-1775” 

CARLETON B. WOOD, head horticulturist, Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens, "The 
Sauthier Plans of Ten Colonial North Carolina Towns" 

STEPHEN J. Walsh, director, GIS Remote Sensing Laboratory, and professor of geography. 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "The Future of Mapping" 

During the conference an exhibition of thirty-five historically significant maps 
of North Carolina and the Southeast will be opened in the North Carolina 
Collection Gallery in Wilson Library. The exhibition will feature maps selected 


108 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



from the North Carolina Collection, as well as others on loan from Davidson 
College, Duke University, and East Carolina University. It is scheduled to remain 
on display through February 2, 1998. 

For a conference brochure and registration information, contact Robert 
Anthony, North Carolina Collection, Wilson Library, Campus Box 3930, Univer¬ 
sity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27414-8890, or telephone (919) 962-1172. 


Archaeology Month in North Carolina 

Gov. James B. Hunt Jr. has issued a proclamation designating October 1997 as 
Archaeology Month in North Carolina. This year marks the first time in ten 
years that Archaeology Month will be officially recognized in the state. The 
observance is sponsored by the North Carolina Archaeological Society, the North 
Carolina Archaeology Council, and the Office of State Archaeology. The theme 
of this year's observance is “North Carolina Archaeology: Lessons in Heritage 
Education." A special poster has been created and sent to schools statewide and is 
also available for purchase by individuals. The poster features fifteen archaeologi¬ 
cal research projects or sites throughout the state that focus attention on cultural 
heritage. Brunswick Town, Town Creek Indian Mound, and Somerset Place are 
among state historic sites that appear in the poster. 

To coordinate regional events, organizers have prepared a calendar of events 
for general circulation. Groups interested in hosting a special event or speaker in 
observance of Archaeology Month should contact one of four regional coordina¬ 
tors: Dr. Randy Daniel of East Carolina University (919-328-1075) for the east¬ 
ern region; Dr. Ann Tippitt of the Schiele Museum in Gastonia (704-866-6917) 
for the western Piedmont; Dr. Ann Rogers of Western Carolina University 
(704-227-7268) for the mountains; or Dee Nelms of the Office of State Archaeol¬ 
ogy in Raleigh (919-733-7342). Each coordinator can help make available a 
speaker or event for interested groups or sites. 

News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

The Friends of the Archives, the support group that benefits the North Carolina 
State Archives, held its annual meeting at the Archives and History/State Library 
Building in Raleigh on June 23. Don Higginbotham, Dowd Professor of History at 
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a nationally recognized 
expert on George Washington, was the guest speaker. Dr. Higginbotham titled 
his address "Washington the Unifier: Nationalism in the American Revolution¬ 
ary Era." Dr. William S. Price Jr., professor of history at Meredith College and 
former director of the Division of Archives and History, introduced Dr. 
Higginbotham. 


Historical Publications 

The Historical Publications Section recently issued a third printing (2,000 copies) 
of the fourth revised edition of The Old North State Fact Book, a handy compendium 
of information about North Carolina's history, the State Capitol, the state flag, 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


109 


seal, flower, bird, and other similar topics. The Fact Book, last reprinted in 1995, is 
one of the section's most popular titles. Additional reprints include a second 
printing (2,000 copies) of the revised edition of Green Leaf and Gold: Tobacco in North 
Carolina, by Jerome E. Brooks, first published in 1963; a second printing (2,000 
copies) of Sir Walter Ralegh and the New World, by John W. Shirley, originally released 
in 1985 as part of the section's multivolume series commemorating the four 
hundredth anniversary of the first English explorations of America; and a second 
printing (1,000 copies) of An Index to North Carolina Newspapers, 1784-1789, by Alan D. 
Watson, first issued in 1992. The Old North State Fact Book sells for $5.00; Green Leaf 
and Gold, for $3.00; Sir Walter Ralegh and the New World, for $5.00; and the newspaper 
index, for $12.00. Residents of North Carolina must add 6 percent state sales tax. 
Add $2.00 for shipping charges on all orders under $5.00 or $3.00 for all orders 
above that amount. Checks should be made payable to the North Carolina 
Department of Cultural Resources. Order from: Historical Publications Section, 
Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 
27601-2807. 

Anne Miller, a graduate student in public history at North Carolina State 
University, worked as a summer intern for the Historical Publications Section 
between mid-May and mid-July. Her work involved portions of the papers of 
Zebulon B. Vance, North Carolina's Civil War governor and postwar United 
States senator. Ms. Miller created a calendar of Vance's correspondence and 
selected, transcribed, and annotated various items of correspondence for even¬ 
tual publication. 



The Historical Publications Section's recent reprint of Green Leaf and Cold Tobacco in North Carolina, by 
jerome E. Brooks, features this newly designed cover. Anne Miller, a graduate student in public history at North 
Carolina State University, worked as a summer intern for the section between May and luly. 


The Forty-sixth Biennial Report of the North Carolina Division of Archives and History: 
July 1, 1994-June 30, 1996 is now available. The 229-page paperbound publication 
can be obtained from the Historical Publications Section at the address shown 
above. Copies of the report are free, but supplies are limited. 


no 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 









Historic Sites 


Total visitation at North Carolina's state historic sites in the first half of 1997 was 
329,164, virtually the same as in the corresponding period of 1996. Large 
increases at the newly renovated and expanded North Carolina Transportation 
Museum (NCTM) offset an unexpected seasonal drop at Fort Fisher. Leading 
sites for the six months were Fort Fisher (52,231 visitors), the NCTM (50,493), 
Reed Gold Mine (27,157), and Bentonville Battleground (18,304). Sites with 
significant semiannual increases included the Transportation Museum (up 153 
percent), Bennett Place (30 percent). Historic Edenton (20 percent), House in the 
Horseshoe (16 percent), Alamance Battleground (15 percent), Bentonville Bat¬ 
tleground (13 percent), Thomas Wolfe Memorial (12 percent), and Horne Creek 
Farm (11 percent). The number of individuals and organizations participating 
both in school and (in particular) general groups rose substantially. The number 
of off-site presentations to general groups likewise increased. The ranks of 
volunteers climbed by 75 percent, with major gains at the NCTM, Brunswick 
Town, and Fort Fisher. Overall, volunteers contributed 20,497 hours, the equi¬ 
valent of an additional twenty-one full-time staff members. Both the number of 
individuals involved and the total number of hours worked at sites as a result of 
court-ordered community service rose by 22 percent, equaling the services of five 
additional employees. Sites and support groups received more than one hundred 
thousand dollars in grants, cash gifts, and in-kind contributions. Major donors 
included the Cannon Foundation, the American Battlefield Protection Program, 
the Charlotte Hawkins Brown Foundation, Lorraine Robinson, the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Foundation, Vulcan Materials Company, Dr. Claiborne Smith, and the 
Halifax Garden Club. 

As the tenth anniversary of the Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial nears, 
numerous people in Raleigh and Sedalia are working to improve the site. At the 
former Palmer Institute campus, area businessman Boyd Tobin has generously 
donated funds to renew the old baseball diamond on the eastern end of the school, 
where Palmer students and neighborhood children (black and white) used to play. 



Significant improvements to the physical plant at the Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial in Guilford County 
are currently under way. Thanks to the generosity of area businessman Boyd Tobin, the baseball diamond on 
the grounds of the former Palmer Memorial Institute is being renovated. Visible at right is Galen Stone Hall, 
with scaffolding in place during recent repair work. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


111 



The field will be used again for baseball sponsored by the local McLeansville 
recreation agency and possibly for special tournaments. Adjacent to the field, the 
exterior of Galen Stone Hall, the former girls' dormitory, is being restored. That 
project is nearing completion. Stone Hall is one of the important surviving 
buildings on the campus, which will be marked by wayside exhibits. The fourteen 
displays, now being designed, will guide visitors about the entire historic heart of 
the campus and tell the story of the school, its people, and its structures. Cur¬ 
rently under discussion is a plan involving the possible conversion of an old 
teachers' residence at the southwestern edge of the campus into a day-care 
center. A private party would restore the deteriorated cottage at no cost to the 
state in return for its future use. The conversion would complement Dr. Brown's 
own caring for numerous children over the years, improve the appearance of the 
campus, and not detract from historic interpretation. Final planning for com¬ 
memoration of the tenth anniversary of the site is being completed. The festivi¬ 
ties will occur November 7-9. Among projected activities are dedication of the 
wayside exhibits and ball field, tours of Canary Cottage, a seminar on women's 
issues, and an awards banquet. 

Following an intensive interdisciplinary research project involving experts in 
archaeology, history, historic preservation, and architectural history, recon¬ 
struction has begun on a slave cabin at Somerset Place. The venture is one of a 
very few recent reconstructions of slave houses in the nation. The plantation 
once had a long row of slave houses along the shore of Lake Phelps, as well as 
other slave quarters, a hospital, and a chapel for some three hundred enslaved 






These architectural drawings will guide Historic Sites Section personnel in reconstructing a slave cabin on the 
grounds of Somerset Place in eastern Washington County. The drawings, all elevations, delineate the projected 
four sides of the structure. Members of the section's Architecture Branch created the drawings, as well as 
related plans and specifications. 


112 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 






































































































residents. The reconstruction will enhance interpretation of the lives of the 
scores of enslaved African Americans who labored and lived at Somerset for two 
generations. Initial analysis of documents and thoroughgoing archaeology left 
many unanswered questions about the original structure. As the project was to 
be the first significant reconstruction attempted by Historic Sites since the 1960s, 
the section held several conferences, field investigations, and consultations with 
leading preservationists in the state to gain more data about what would be 
appropriate at the reconstruction. Section personnel and supportive preserva¬ 
tionists also looked again at many documents, surveyed the region for surviving 
similar structures, and visited a number of plantations to examine buildings and 
structural details. Other leads examined included records at the National 
Archives and a plantation in Alabama closely related to Somerset. Among preser¬ 
vationists in the Division of Archives and History who contributed their exper¬ 
tise to the cause were A1 Honeycutt, Scott Power, Peter Sandbeck, Mike South¬ 
ern, and Reid Thomas. In Historic Sites members of the Somerset staff and the 
Archaeology, Architecture, and Research Branches have contributed signifi¬ 
cantly to the work. The painstaking effort is exemplified by special handmade 




TOP: Cynthia Langlykke (left) and Bill McCrea (center) of the Historic Sites Section and Al Honeycutt (right) of 
the North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office examine documents relating to reconstruction of the 
slave cabin at Somerset Place. Bottom: Actual reconstruction of the slave cabin commenced in July. Here 
workers begin laying the structure's brick foundation. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


113 








bricks the section has located and secured for the cabin. Laying of the bricks for 
the foundation and chimney took place in July. Craftsman Doug Aycock and 
members of the site staff are working with former Colonial Williamsburg builder 
Russ Steele to finish the building, which is being constructed primarily with 
cypress wood, as were many original structures at Somerset Place. Reproduction 
hardware based on research at the site has been ordered for the house, which will 
be completed by late October. 

A second steam engine is now fully operational at the North Carolina Trans¬ 
portation Museum. The No. 1925 Shay engine, built for the Graham County 
Railroad in 1925 by Lima Locomotive Works, will pull a train of passenger cars on 
a three-mile ride around the fifty-seven-acre site that once was Southern Rail¬ 
way's largest steam locomotive repair facility. The narrated trip provides the 
history of Spencer Shops and the people who made history there since 1896. The 
Shay engine spent some fifty years hauling logs and finished lumber in western 
North Carolina. This is the first run in twenty-two years for the seventy-ton 
engine. The engine was one of 2,770 Shays built primarily to haul logs over rough 
track and steep grades of temporary logging lines that dotted the country a 
century ago. The Shay, a special engine with a geared drive mechanism that 
offers exceptional pulling power at a sacrifice of speed, backs up the museum's 
primary operating steam engine. No. 604, built in 1926 by Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. 



Shay steam locomotive No. 1925, now 
restored to operating condition at the 
North Carolina Transportation Museum, 
is an unusually geared engine originally 
designed to operate with maximum pull¬ 
ing power on hastily constructed logging 
railroads. The locomotive's special gear¬ 
ing arrangement is visible below and in 
front of the cab. 


The section is busy with construction and development and has implemented a 
reorganization of its home office. Increased funding through the state's Reserve 
for Repairs and Renovations has had a tremendous impact on the statewide 
program, both in improvements at individual sites and the responsibility of 
administering thirty-five construction projects at nineteen sites. The reorganiza¬ 
tion has arisen in response to those changes. In brief, assistant administrator Rob 
Boyette has assumed supervision of the southeastern and western sites along 
with his role as chief of the Interpretations Team. Assistant administrator Ricky 
Howell continues to supervise northeastern and central sites along with architec¬ 
ture, crafts services, and purchasing. Employees are accelerating efforts to 
ensure that long-awaited new exhibits at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial are in 
place and ready for the public by the annual Wolfe Festival in early October. 
Planning for the exhibits has been completed, and Explus of Sterling, Virginia, 
has begun fabrication of the displays. 


114 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


In recent months numerous sites have hosted a variety of special events; a 
sampling of them is discussed below. The House in the Horseshoe put on its fifth 
spring program. One thousand people enjoyed demonstrations of spinning and 
weaving, making soap, blacksmithing, engraving guns, making bricks and mor¬ 
tar, games, building chairs, fashioning spoons, and flint knapping. A three- 
pounder cannon and a mortar were fired. Bennett Place held its annual surrender 
program to mark the 132d anniversary of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's surrender to 
Gen. William T. Sherman at James Bennett's farm. Once again members of the 
1st North Carolina Battalion provided an excellent two-day program. Besides 
surrender negotiations taking place in the house, visitors saw both Union and 
Confederate camps set up in the field area. The ladies of the 1st Battalion 
entertained crowds with period fashion shows. More than nine hundred people 
attended Lifestyles of the Eastern Woodlands Native People Weekend at Town 
Creek Indian Mound. Activities included open-hearth cooking; starting fires; 
making tools, spears, bows, and arrows; flint knapping; dugout construction; and 
face painting using authentic Indian designs. Visitors tried their hands at making 
cordage and pottery and scraping hides. Guests tasted food such as roasted corn 
cooked on rocks and coals. Aycock Birthplace held Farmer's Day this summer 
with a variety of nineteenth-century demonstrations for visitors. Various 
domestic chores were done in and around the house. Canning, cooking, garden¬ 
ing, spinning, quilting, and making soap were among chores demonstrated. A 
“widow" at the site cemetery talked about mid-nineteenth-century mourning 
practices. Other activities included harvesting wheat, blacksmithing, and plow¬ 
ing with a mule. 

The section cordially invites all readers and friends to the following forthcom¬ 
ing special programs at the state's historic sites: 


October 2-5 THOMAS WOLFE MEMORIAL. Thomas Wolfe Festival. Com¬ 
memorating the life and writings of Thomas Wolfe. The event 
will be held in conjunction with Asheville's bicentennial. The 
Thomas Wolfe Memorial visitor center will be dedicated on 
Sunday afternoon, October 5. 

October 5 DUKE HOMESTEAD. Mock Tobacco Auction. An outdoor mock 

tobacco sale is conducted by professional auctioneers, buyers, 
warehousemen, and farmers. Traditional tobacco harvest 
crafts, entertainment, and refreshments are included. 2:00- 
5:00 P M. 


October 11 North Carolina Transportation Museum. Steamfest. A classic 
North Carolina celebration for the entire family. Festival fea¬ 
tures children's games, rides, a Little Engineer contest, a 
parade, and one dollar train rides. 

October 12 FORT DOBBS. Colonial Living Day. Demonstrations of back- 
country life by costumed staff and volunteers. 1:00-4:00 P.M. 

October 13-17 ALAMANCE BATTLEGROUND. Colonial Living Week. Relive the 
eighteenth century through costumed interpretation. 9:00- 
2:00 P.M. 


October 18 HORNE CREEK FARM. Harvest Frolic. A traditional rural frolic 
featuring the harvesting, shucking, shelling, and grinding of 
corn. Cider making, quilting, cooking, and craft demonstra¬ 
tions. Also music and dancing. Food available for a small fee. 
Noon-7:00 P.M. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


115 


October 30, 31 

October 31 

November 1 


November 1, 2 


November 3-4 

November 7, 8 
November 8 
November 10 

November 23 
November 29 


REED Gold Mine. The Bloody Reign of the Mad Miner. 
"Haunted” mine tours, hayrides, ghost stories around a bon¬ 
fire, and magic by Chaz. 7:00-11:00 P M Fee 

HORNE Creek Farm. Sittin' Up with the Dead. Learn about 
turn-of-the-century burial customs, including body prepara¬ 
tion, the choosing of flowers, and the traditional wake. 5:00- 
7:00 P M 

FORT Fisher. Folklore festival. Music and special guided tours 
that examine the mysterious side of the fort 

POLK Memorial. Eighteenth-century festival. Celebrating the 
202d birthday of James K. Polk. Enjoy eighteenth-century 
crafts and demonstrations of everyday life. 

TOWN Creek Indian Mound. Indian Heritage Festival. Held in 
honor of North Carolina and national Indian Heritage Month. 
Activities include intertribal dancing, survival skills demon¬ 
strations, storytelling for all ages, and Indian arts and crafts 
displays. Vendors will sell arts and crafts items and food. 1:00- 
5:00 P M 

Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial. It's About Time. 
Annual event showcasing all state historic sites and Cedarock 
Historical Farm. 9:00-3:00 P M 

Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial. Observance of tenth 
anniversary of site and dedication of wayside exhibits 

CSS NEUSE. Confederate navy mini-symposium. Various talks 
on Civil War navy topics held throughout the day 

HISTORIC Halifax. Christmas decorations workshops. Hands- 
on workshops that teach techniques for decorating with 
greenery, dried flowers, herbs, and fresh fruits. 1:00-4:00 P M 

BRUNSWICK TOWN. Open house featuring special presentations 
and/or guest speaker. Guided tours, light refreshments 

AYCOCK BIRTHPLACE. County Craft Fair. Vendors will sell their 
handmade wares in the site's visitor center. Living history 
interpreters will demonstrate domestic skills in the historic 
home. 10:00 A M -8:00 P M 


State Capitol/Visitor Services 

Some eighteen thousand people attended the State Capitol's Independence Day 
celebration on July 4. A variety of music and dance groups performed throughout 
the day on two stages and along one end of Union (Capitol) Square. Crafts 
demonstrators and representatives of state and local historic sites were on hand 
with numerous displays. Reenactment groups depicting soldiers of the Revolu¬ 
tionary War, the Civil War, World Wars I and II, and the Vietnam War set up 
encampments and displays of artifacts on Union Square. A film crew from "CBS 
This Morning" was on hand to tape several short segments to be used on 
programs in the near future. U.S. representatives David Price and Bob Etheridge 
and Raleigh mayor Tom Fetzer participated in the day's activities. Representative 
Price conducted the Raleigh Concert Band's performance of "The Star-Spangled 
Banner." A reading of portions of the Declaration of Independence by Raleigh 
fifth-grader Timothy Kidwai awed the audience. 


116 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



The North Carolina State Capitol again hosted 
its traditional old-fashioned Independence 
Day celebration on )uly 4. Some eighteen 
thousand people attended the celebration, 
which featured a variety of activities and 
entertainment. Shown at left is Charles 
Shealer of Smithfield, who has appeared as 
Uncle Sam at the annual event for many 
years. 


The Rainbow Squares, a square-dance 
group from Louisburg, entertained visi¬ 
tors to the State Capitol on Indepen¬ 
dence Day. Here the dancers perform in 
patriotic attire on the east front of Union 
(Capitol) Square. 



State Capitol volunteer Sandy Sanders, a Capitol docent for the past five years, 
received the Sir Isaac Hunter Excellence in Service Award from the Greater 
Raleigh Convention and Visitors Bureau. The award, created in 1994, recognizes 
members of the Raleigh-area hospitality industry who provide outstanding ser¬ 
vices to Wake County visitors and guests. In addition to his responsibilities as a 
docent, Sandy also works at the Capitol and the Capital Area Visitor Center as 
part of the weekend staff. 

Donors continue to sponsor the restoration of monuments on Union Square. 
The Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American 
Revolution have cosponsored the restoration of the Three Presidents Monu¬ 
ment, and private donors and the Wyatt Camp of the Sons of Confederate 
Veterans have sponsored the restoration of the Wyatt Monument. Funding is 
still needed for similar work on several other monuments. Telephone (919) 
733-4994 for additional information. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


117 












Staff Notes 


Stephen E. Massengill, iconographic archivist with the Archives and Records 
Section, is the author of Durham, North Carolina: A Postcard History (Dover, N.H.: 
Arcadia Publishing, 1997); the volume is part of Arcadia's Images of America pic¬ 
torial series. 

In June and July, State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) restoration special¬ 
ist Reid Thomas assisted architectural paint consultant George Fore in removing 
paint samples from the exterior of Hope Plantation in Bertie County in order to 
conduct a thorough paint analysis of the exterior finishes of the ca. 1803 resi¬ 
dence of Gov. David Stone. The plantation was then repainted in its original color 
scheme as suggested by the research. At the request of the Perquimans County 
Historic Restoration Association, A. L. Honeycutt Jr., head of the Restoration 
Branch of the SHPO, on June 18 presented a slide program on the restoration of 
the 1730 Newbold-White House in Perquimans County. Mr. Honeycutt provided 
technical assistance during restoration of the historic house in the mid-1970s. 

Ted Mitchell, interpreter at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial in Asheville, is the 
author of "In Search of Homeward Angels," an article that appeared in the June 
1997 issue of Our State. Mitchell recently attended the annual meeting of the 
Thomas Wolfe Society in Berlin. Elaine Beck, Historic Sites education curator, 
and Beth Lawrence, interpreter at the House in the Horseshoe State Historic 
Site, presented a case study on development of standards for costumed interpre¬ 
tive programs at historic sites to the Costume Society of America in Raleigh in 
July. Ms. Beck was recently elected to a four-year term as a director of the 
Visitors Studies Association, an international professional group whose mem¬ 
bers work in museums, historic sites, zoos, and other places serving visitors. 


Colleges and Universities 

East Carolina Manuscript Collection 

Ms. Suellen Lathrop, an archivist with the Kansas State Historical Society, was 
named university archivist effective August 11, 1997. She succeeds the late 
Gene J. Williams, who died in December 1996. 

Fayetteville State University 

Dr. Shelton Clark was promoted to associate professor of history effective 
August 1, 1997. 

North Carolina Collection 

H. G. Jones delivered a slide-illustrated lecture titled "Prelude to Sutter's Mill and 
the Klondike: The First Mining of Gold in the United States" at the Klondike Gold 
Rush Centennial Conference at the University of Edinburgh in May. His article 
"Christian Klengenberg and the Opening of Trade with the Copper Inuit" 
appeared in the fall 1996 issue of Etudes Inuit. Dr. Jones is a nominee for president¬ 
elect of the Society for the History of Discoveries. 


118 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


North Carolina State University 

The University of Florida Press recently named John David Smith editor of New 
Perspectives on the History of the South, an interdisciplinary series that will publish 
books on all aspects of southern history. Of special interest will be topics that 
examine class and racial relations and issues of gender and ethnicity. Dr. Smith is 
the author or editor of nine books on the South, slavery, and the Civil War and 
Reconstruction. 

North Carolina Wesleyan College 

Allen S. Johnson was named professor emeritus of history effective May 10, 
1997. 

Southern Historical Collection 

The Southern Historical Collection, Manuscripts Department, University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, recently made available to researchers the follow¬ 
ing manuscript groups: papers, 1834-1942, of the Reeves family, planters and 
businessmen of Hardeman County, Tennessee; papers, 1842-1891, of Philip 
Aylett Fitzhugh (1824-1908), physician of Northampton County, Virginia; pap¬ 
ers, 1842-1891, of Daniel Shine Hill (1812-1873), planter and businessman of 
Franklin County, North Carolina, and major in the Confederate army; proceed¬ 
ings, 1935-1950, of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, North Carolina 
Conference, with meetings in Wilmington, Fayetteville, Kinston, and Rich 
Square; papers, 1962-1996, of Elizabeth Fox-Genovese (1941-), feminist, author, 
and professor of women's studies and history at Emory University, Atlanta; 
papers, 1968-1994, of Frank A. Daniels Jr. (1931-), president and publisher of the 
News and Observer of Raleigh; papers, 1971-1992, of Martha McKay (1920-), 
women's rights activist of Chapel Hill and founder of the North Carolina 
Women's Political Caucus and the National Women's Political Caucus; and 
records, 1977- of the Lyndhurst Foundation, supporting work of institutions, 
local groups, and individuals in eastern Tennessee and throughout the South in 
the areas of health, education, and the arts. 

University of North Carolina at Charlotte 

The J. Murrey Atkins Library at UNC-Charlotte has recently acquired or opened 
for research the following collections: papers, 1754-1942, of the Davidson family 
of Rural Hill plantation; papers, 1779-1984, of the Caldwell and Davidson fami¬ 
lies of Rosedale plantation; letters, 1824-1830, of the Latta family of Mecklen¬ 
burg County, North Carolina, and York County, South Carolina; papers, 1855- 
1905, of Dr. John Brevard Alexander, including his medical journals and letters 
written during his service as a surgeon with the Thirty-seventh Regiment North 
Carolina Troops; a transcript of the memoirs, 1861-1866, of George Ivey, relat¬ 
ing primarily to the Ivey department store chain; papers, 1908-1972, of Louis 
Asbury, including approximately three hundred sets of architectural drawings; 
minute book, 1926-1948, of the Charlotte Law Building, Inc.; records, 1978-1991, 
of the North Carolina Print and Drawing Society; and papers, 1979-1985, of 
Nancy Tilly, relating to her novel Golden Girl, which won the 1986 North Carolina 
American Association of University Women (AAUW) Award. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


119 


State, County, and Local Groups 


Greensboro Historical Museum 

The museum's annual Dortch Memorial Lecture, originally scheduled for May 22, 
was delayed until July 22 because of illness in the family of Dina Hill, the guest 
speaker. 

Museum of the Albemarle (Elizabeth City) 

The traveling exhibit North Carolina Women Making History will open at the museum 
in late October. Telephone the museum at (919) 335-1453 for additional 
information. 

Museum of the Cape Fear (Fayetteville) 

In conjunction with its ongoing exhibition Final Respects: Dealing with Death in the 
Victorian Era, the museum will host two programs that relate to the custom of 
mourning. On October 7 at 7:00 p m Lori Farmer, a certified bereavement coun¬ 
selor, will present a program titled "Coping with Death." On October 19 at 
2:00 P M a multi-ethnic panel from the Cape Fear region will participate in a panel 
discussion titled "Grieving Differently: An Inter-Ethnic Look at Modern Ameri¬ 
can Mourning Practices." For additional information, telephone the museum at 
(910) 486-1330. 

North Carolina Museum of History 

The museum will host "Survival and Liberation: North Carolinians Remember 
the Holocaust"on Sunday and Monday, November 2 and 3. The special presenta¬ 
tion will increase public awareness and understanding of the Holocaust and the 
roles played by North Carolina's survivors and liberators. The Sunday afternoon 
program will include a concert featuring classical, vocal, and folk music, as well as 
works composed in concentration camps; a reception will follow the concert. 
Sunday registration is $10.00. On Monday a daylong program will be held, along 
with lunch. Monday's multimedia presentation will feature historic film clips, 
archival photographs, and personal/family photographs; Monday registration is 
$20.00. Full registration for both days ($30.00) includes the Sunday concert and 
reception, the Monday program, refreshments, lunch, and supplies. Registration 
must be completed by October 24. For additional information, telephone Sandra 
Webbere or Allen Hoilman at (919) 715-0200, extension 214. 

The exhibit Suspended in Time: Portraits from the Museum of History Collection will 
remain open through October 26. A special traveling exhibit titled What We 
Brought with Us: Mementos of the Flight from Europe, 1933-1950 will be on view at the 
museum from November 1, 1997, through January 25, 1998. The exhibit, devel¬ 
oped by the Museum of the Jewish Family in Durham, features objects Jewish 
people took with them when fleeing their homelands before and after World War 
II. The annual exhibition Holiday Memories will open on November 25 and close 
January 4. First Families of North Carolina, an exhibit that highlights the lives of 
North Carolina's governors and their families, will remain on display at the 
museum through January 4. 


120 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


New Leaves 


Editor's Note: Dr. Cecelski is a historian and writer currently affiliated with the Southern Oral 
History Program, Department of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 


The Wild Plums at Core Creek; or. In Praise of Slow Cooking 

David S. Cecelski 


When I finished school at Harvard and set out to write history, I never considered 
writing about any place other than where I grew up: the eastern part of North 
Carolina. I discovered that the rural and small-town landscape of my childhood 
was more than enough window for me into the larger realm of American history. 
Here I found the world in a grain of sand and more than enough history for a 
lifetime of writing and storytelling. Without leaving home, 1 have been writing 
about topics as far ranging as slavery and the American Revolution, maritime life 
during the Civil War, women's work on the World War II home front, and the 
black freedom struggle of the 1960s. I admit that so single-minded a focus on 
one's home is rather unusual among professional historians, and some of my 
historical writing has been justly faulted for being too parochial. Several col¬ 
leagues, in fact, and at least one close relative consider me an eccentric. On the 
other hand, I believe that my homegrown perspectives have given me certain 
insights into American history that might prove more elusive to a scholar pos¬ 
sessed by less-narrow-minded demons. 

By writing about my home, I have also enjoyed a few satisfactions not so readily 
available to other historians. Among these special pleasures is spending many 
days traveling the back roads of a native land that I care for a great deal. My 
research requires me to visit local archives, public libraries, small museums, 
private manuscript collections, and county courthouses throughout North Caro¬ 
lina. I have also interviewed hundreds of elderly people here about their memo¬ 
ries of the past. Often accompanied by my five-year-old daughter, Vera, I spend 
months every year in remote fishing villages, tobacco-belt hamlets, piney woods 
crossroads. And as Bud Midgette, my barber, chides me, I talk to everybody. 

Vera and I share an ardent enthusiasm for country cooking, and we seek out its 
finest purveyors during our travels. We are on the road so often that we have 
developed a large and ever-growing list. Because of keen competition from 
national restaurant chains and fast-food joints, there are not as many locally 
owned eateries as there used to be—and fewer yet that honor the old ways—but I 
still find a few splendid throwbacks to our culinary past. Several of the best come 
right to mind—the Seven Springs Restaurant near Goldsboro, the Trent in 
Pollocksville, Bum's in Ayden, Ventner's in Greenville, the Butcher Block in 
Newport, the Broad Creek Diner near Swansboro, the Whole Truth Lunchroom 
in Wilson. They are places with homemade biscuits and corn bread, fresh sea¬ 
soned collards and butter beans, savory chicken and dumplings, and spring shad 
stew. Fit for royalty, the fare is served humbly: a meat or fish dish; two or three 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


121 


vegetable side dishes; fresh biscuits, yeast rolls, or hush puppies; and sweet tea or 
coffee—all for less than five dollars. Vera and I recklessly try every place we pass 
and keep a mental list of the best. Rest assured that their proprietors will get to 
know the hungry stranger with the radiant daughter. 

Beyond my everyday favorites, there are also country-style restaurants that I 
seek out mainly for a special dish or a rare delicacy. I will detour many a mile for a 
bowl of Core Sound-style clam chowder at the Seaside Restaurant on Harkers 
Island. I like the fresh May peas and asparagus served every spring at Johnnie's on 
State Road 158 near Sunbury. I cherish the scrambled eggs and shad roe at Pam's 
Diner in little Washington. I welcome a research trip to Williamston for the 
crispy, pan-fried corn bread at the R&C Restaurant downtown and the steamed 
oysters at the Sunnyside Oyster Bar on Highway 70-Business. For great bar¬ 
becue roasted slowly over hickory coals and basted with our region's classic 
hot-pepper-and-vinegar sauce, I go to Wilber's or Scott's in Goldsboro; Moore's, 
south of New Bern; Mitchell's in Wilson; B's in Greenville; or Simp's, between 
Roper and Creswell. You can't go wrong with the seasoned dry butter beans at 
the Scuppernong Inn in Columbia, with the backbone stew and corn dumplings at 
Bonnie's in Farmville, or with the fried catfish at Holland's Shelter Creek Restau¬ 
rant in Holly Shelter. And I would reroute an entire trip for a slice of grape-hull 
pie—a remarkable dessert that balances the muscadine's firm, tangy hulls with a 
delectable meringue—at the Chinquapin Diner in southern Duplin County. My 
great-grandmother. Lulu Hardesty, was the last cook that could bake a grape-hull 
pie that good. 

I am likewise always thrilled when one of my research trips by the Roanoke 
River coincides with the spawning runs of shad, herring, and rockfish. Once 
harvested by the ton in mile-and-a-half-long seines, these fish have nearly 
disappeared as a consequence of overfishing, pollution, and river damming. But 
the diminished schools still swim faithfully up the Roanoke to spawn for a few 
weeks before Easter. Only for that brief season does the Cypress Grill in James- 
ville open its doors, serving the herring lightly battered in cornmeal and fried 
crisp, bones and all, moments after they are caught. And, on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, the cooks also serve an extraordinary rockfish stew: tender whole 
fish simmered with potatoes, onions, and a bit of salt pork. Eating our supper 
while watching the last of the Roanoke's fishermen spreading their seines, I tell 
Vera about the raucous celebrations that once greeted the fish's arrival from the 
Atlantic. We talk too about the thousands of families through the ages for whom 
a barrel of salt herring staved off hunger through a hard winter. 

I travel so much that I have begun to memorize which restaurant serves which 
specialty on what day. I never forget that the humble BJ's Restaurant in La 
Grange serves one of the state's finest fish stews, but only for Friday dinner. And 
I need no excuse to visit Ventner's, a glorious sanctuary of slow cooking and 
evangelical dining in Greenville, but the fact that the cooks bake not only their 
daily batch of sweet-potato biscuits but also cheese biscuits every Friday cannot 
escape my consideration. Other specials can be discovered only by showing up 
hungry for dinner. At the Hobucken Marina, a fisherman's grill at Goose Creek 
Island, there is a new and wonderful home-cooked special every day—it's the only 
offering of the day—but even the chef doesn't know what her special will be until 
she measures both her inspiration and her ingredients. 


122 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


I take particular pleasure in discovering a cook who excels in preparing winter's 
special delicacies. Even some of my favorite warm-weather restaurants dis¬ 
appoint me after the first frost. I suppose it is tempting, and probably practical, to 
fall back on canned vegetables and frozen foods from commercial wholesalers. 
But the really fine cooks make a winter meal a feast. They draw first on locally 
made preserves and vegetables canned or frozen fresh from their own gardens or 
nearby farms. They adorn dinners with spicy pickled beets, piquant pepper 
relishes, and luscious fig preserves. They counter the cold winds with fresh- 
smoked sausage, hearty Brunswick stew, and tender cured ham with red-eye 
gravy. They warm cold souls with angel biscuits and yeast rolls. Best of all, they 
refute winter's reputation for bland side dishes by slow-cooking great pots of 
mouth-watering collard greens, sweet potatoes, cabbages, turnips, and rutaba¬ 
gas. A few blessed restaurants, such as Bum's in Ayden, even go to the trouble to 
raise their own collard greens, our most revered winter delicacy, and to prepare 
them in the old-fashioned way: simmered an hour and a half or two, seasoned 
with cured side meat or fatback, stewed with potatoes, and served with pepper 
vinegar and corn dumplings. It was greens fixed that way that inspired North 
Carolina boys, when they went overseas to fight in World War II, to leave a trail 
of collard patches from Anzio to Okinawa—just in case, I suppose, the army 
forgot to feed them. 

Recently I thought about the creating of fine winter dishes out of necessity 
while I was canning pickled green tomatoes. This is one of my favorite delicacies, 
a pungent relish that I can compare only to fine Indian chutney. I learned how to 
prepare the dish from my ninety-seven-year-old neighbor Beatrice Mason. The 
recipe is the elegant solution to a gardener's plight—namely, what to do with the 
unripe tomatoes about to be caught on the vine by autumn's first frost. The 
gardeners of Miss Beadie's youth fixed this glorious dish to keep from wasting 
the green fruit and to clutch a memory of summer's taste all winter. After picking 
and slicing the tomatoes, they bathed two quarts of them for three or four hours 
in salt water along with two cups of green pepper, one cup of onion, four 
medium-sized hot peppers, and a tablespoon of turmeric. Then they drained the 
tomatoes and covered them once more with cold water for another hour before 
draining again. Tying one-half cup of black pepper, two tablespoons of mustard 
seed, and two teaspoons each of whole cloves and allspice in cheesecloth, they set 
the mixture in the pot with the tomatoes and added two cinnamon sticks, one and 
one-half cups of brown sugar, and a quart of apple vinegar. They simmered the 
green tomatoes until very hot, bringing them finally to a boil and then sealing 
them in sterilized jars. The pickles will easily keep a year and can be eaten plain or 
added as a relish to meats or greens. 

This recipe would never have been created today. Now that we can buy fruits 
and vegetables all winter at national grocery chains, there is little imagination 
invested in preserving summer's produce. Today the store-bought tomato in 
winter will be imported from Mexico or Chile. Fertilized and ripened with 
chemicals, it has a texture like sawdust and a flavor like stale air—but it is a red 
tomato. Going to the trouble of raising and pickling green tomatoes can seem like 
a needless hardship in today's hectic world, and I do not expect to see many new 
dishes as good as pickled green tomatoes. 

Some of my favorite restaurants are open only a night or two a week, but the 
reward for remembering them is great. Several are located in remote parts that I 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


123 


suppose cannot support a regular eatery. Many are operated by local women who 
one or two nights a week open to guests their church's community center or even 
one of their home's dining rooms. I am especially partial to the Little Pink Supper 
House in Beulaville, where a local church serves a lavish country supper every 
Friday and Saturday night. I also keep a special lookout for a dinner prepared 
every Tuesday at the Bogue United Methodist Church near Swansboro. How 
thankful I have been on those occasions when 1 was driving Highway 17 and 
thought I would have to settle for a Hardee's or a Bojangles, then realized that it 
was Tuesday and I could sit down to chicken and dumplings with fresh local 
vegetables and scratch biscuits. Other such meals can be found somewhat less 
often. When 1 am in Carteret County, for instance, I always try to remember 
when the Veterans of Foreign Wars post in Newport holds its monthly fund¬ 
raising supper. Newport, located between two military bases, has a population 
with far more diverse national origins than most parts of eastern North Carolina. 
Last year Vera and I happened to be in the town when the VFW's Polish families 
prepared a wonderful dinner of pierogi, kielbasa, and other traditional Polish 
dishes that harkened to that side of my own ancestry—and Vera was charmed by 
the polka band as much as the food. 

1 travel many places where absolutely none of the best local cuisine can be 
found in restaurants. I find this situation nearly universal along the seacoast. 
Since the popular tourist restaurants feed thousands of people a day, I would 
never expect them to use fresh produce or time-consuming recipes. (I am thank¬ 
ful, though, for the fine hush puppies that one can still find at the best of them.) 
They can no longer find local fish or oysters for many dishes. But even when 
dining at smaller local establishments along the coastal bays and barrier islands, I 
never find the hearty fish or crab stews slow-cooked with sweet potatoes, okra, 
carrots, corn, and other fresh vegetables that are so fundamental a part of local 
cooking. To my knowledge, not one such stew can be found on a coastal restau¬ 
rant's menu. Neither can one find in a restaurant such glorious local delicacies as 
oyster fritters, hard crabs in gravy, or clam bake (the savory Harkers Island 
rendering of bouillabaisse). Such dishes require time, individual attention, and 
very fresh seafood, all ingredients increasingly rare in this modern age. Instead of 
drawing from or building upon the local culinary genius, today's coastal restau¬ 
rants are more likely to serve steamed Alaskan king crabs, New England clam 
chowder, or Pacific salmon in a wine-and-cheese sauce. It is a pitiful state of 
affairs. 

I am not deterred when I cannot find a decent restaurant, for I often discover 
dishes far more extraordinary in local kitchens. Every fall 1 visit an old friend in 
little Washington who always seems to keep a delicious venison stew waiting for 
me. I visit Vera's great-great-aunt in Beaufort when I crave the finest collards and 
dumplings on earth. I have a friend near New Bern who every winter fills Vera's 
arms full with jars of magnificently sour pickled watermelon rinds. I try to pass 
Lake Mattamuskeet once a winter for a taste of stewed duck with wild rice and 
gravy, a frequent dinner offering from a hunting guide we know down there. 
And until last year, when a company acquired our fishing beach on the Northeast 
Cape Fear River to build a golf course, I used to join my brother for an annual 
weekend's camping trip when the spring's first shad made their way up that 
waterway. The freshly caught shad, baked in earthen hearths and stuffed with 
new greens, were good beyond belief. 


124 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


I feel most fortunate when I am invited to church homecomings or other 
church suppers. I still remember with great fondness the hospitality of a Hyde 
County friend, a wonderfully gracious host with whom I often stayed during 
trips to conduct research for a book on the Civil Rights movement. My friend 
often invited us to the most magnificent suppers at Soule United Methodist 
Church. Every cook in the congregation prepared their finest dish: heaping pots 
full of delicious collards, steaming plates of pole beans and mashed sweet pota¬ 
toes, great piles of fried and baked chicken, cured hams direct from a local 
farmer's smokehouse—and too many homemade pies, custards, and puddings to 
count. I not only enjoy such good food shared so graciously but, as always at such 
affairs, I also find great pleasure in exchanging a few recipes. 

I suspect that even at the church suppers held after funerals, mourners are 
unconsciously aware of whose recipe for hoppin' john or lemon pie they are 
eating. We taste the deviled eggs and remember that our long-dead great-great- 
aunt Jane fixed her deviled eggs just like that, perhaps with a striking splash of 
horseradish or mustard. Then we dimly recall how Jane passed her recipe to her 
niece, who gave it to her daughter, and now here the deviled eggs appear, a 
palpable gift to the grief-stricken from great-great-aunt Jane. At such moments 
one cannot help but sense the proximity of the ancestors. That may be why we 
feel so powerfully comforted by these old-fashioned foods whether or not we are 
at a funeral supper. Every dish evokes the past and connects us in a way to other 
difficult times that have somehow been endured. Thus we find sitting at a table 
full of traditional dishes a mysterious source of peace and repose. And one never 
forgets the first evening home after a funeral, when one's friends and family have 
finally departed and left you to face death in solitude, how consoling it is to be 
surrounded by all the home-cooked dishes sent that evening by your neighbors. 
One realizes that no matter how dark the night, you are at least not alone. 

I also keep in mind the roadside shops at which one can still buy fresh meats and 
other local products. They are a rare and dwindling few. National grocery chains 
and corporate agribusinesses have replaced nearly all of our small farms and 
neighborhood slaughterhouses. Even the high arts of preserving and cooking 
hogs have been endangered by corporate hog farms with their malodorous 
sewage ponds and factory-like ways. Every rural neighborhood used to have a 
small slaughterhouse, and most farmers kept at least a sow or two. With the first 
cold snap arrived fresh sausage finely seasoned with red pepper and sage, fol¬ 
lowed by cured hams and smoked bacon. Inherited folk wisdom could even turn 
the hog's less prestigious cuts into wonderfully tasty delicacies, including, up 
around the Great Dismal Swamp, an unimaginably rich dish of stomach stuffed 
with tender meats called dandoodle. 

Yet, I still stumble upon the proud, iconoclastic souls who insist on the old 
ways. I know a Gates County farmer who would not think of selling a ham until it 
had been carefully cured and aged in his smokehouse. I buy my sausage at a little 
butcher shop between Cove City and Clarks where the proprietor grinds his own 
pork and tells me which local farmer raised the hog. I know an elderly man in 
North River, a gentleman I interviewed many years ago, who has kept his little 
slaughterhouse open even though for years he has done no better than break 
even. These days he butchers more deer for hunters than hogs. And by the 
brackish marshes of the Newport River we know a fisherman who has a small 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


125 


soft-shell crab business. His family lets Vera wander among the saltwater tanks 
in which they monitor the blue crabs shedding, a subtle art requiring a careful, 
practiced eye and round-the-clock watchfulness. Vera, who has never been a 
squeamish child, picks out the living soft-shelled crabs that she will eat with glee 
an hour later. 

Gathering the wild ingredients for country cooking is at least as enjoyable to us 
as eating it. 1 think Vera often enjoys the adventure more than the flavor. As we 
travel through North Carolina we bear in mind which wild foods are in season 
and which locale is best known for them. We collect the tastiest pears, the most 
succulent figs, the saltiest oysters. Every January we visit an old hardwood stand 
tucked between the Trent River and Catfish Lake to gather black walnuts for 
Lenten shortbread. Not every winter, but now and then, we paddle into a remote 
bog near the Alligator River to harvest wild cranberries. At first frost we head to 
a copse of persimmon trees near Clubfoot Creek. Prepared in a pudding, the wild 
persimmons cannot be rivaled for a musty sweetness better than ripe tropical 
mango. We search that same time of year for the old-fashioned thick-shelled 
pecans, for we find them far meatier and more flavorful than the more recent 
breeds hybridized for ease of cracking—and we know just where to go. We have 
our favorite blackberry thicket, of course, and no grocery store fruit has ever 
tasted as sweet as the wild plums at Core Creek. They make ice cream, cobblers, 
and puddings too good for words. 

I have long realized that my daughter and I are traveling through the remnants 
of a disappearing age, and I have begun to wonder if any part of this world of slow 
cooking will be left in a few years. Even some of our favorite home-cooking 
restaurants have begun to make regretful concessions to modernity. Nowadays 
their cooks may serve store-bought frozen collards, canned biscuits, or instant 
gravy. They use national brands and imported produce. More than ever one sees 
at their back doors a wholesaler's truck instead of a local farmer's pickup. Like¬ 
wise, cooks more rarely have enough time to prepare for real home cooking. The 
slow cooking so favored for these old-fashioned foods was developed for wood- 
burning stoves that blazed all afternoon to warm an entire house and for an age in 
which farm women worked around the kitchen enough during the day to return 
to the stewpot now and then between children and chores. 

Of course, I do not blame the young for adopting new ways. Times have 
changed. Many of the conditions that nurtured our traditional cooking are gone 
for good, and with good riddance. Slow cooking does not fit into a hurried world 
when preparing food must occur quickly after coming home from the factory or 
office. Cooks must rely on instant and frozen foods, quick casseroles, and micro- 
wave cookery. Raising hogs or tending a large garden may have made sense on a 
farm—but today? Even farmers can often buy bacon and beans cheaper than they 
can raise them. Then, too, a new diet consciousness has led us to look warily at 
salted, seasoned, and high-cholesterol dishes, a trend that bodes poorly for a 
cuisine wedded to pork seasoning. Church suppers remain a smorgasbord of 
traditional fare, but even at them I increasingly see buckets of Kentucky Fried 
Chicken. I suppose it is hardly surprising that country-style cooking has more 
and more become the domain of elderly men and women. Vera and I peek in avid 
curiosity into our most cherished restaurants' kitchens and nearly always see a 


126 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


woman who is already a grandmother. And behind every great cured ham is an 
elderly man who has remained steadfast to his principles or at least stubborn in 
his habits. 

But food is hardly all that we are losing. As you travel through North Carolina, 
try to recall, for instance, when you last passed a modern house that inspired a 
sense of reverence or beauty. It almost never happens. Instead, we admire the 
older homes built before the Second World War. This is no less true of many small 
shotgun houses and tenant houses than it is of antebellum manors. When air 
conditioning came in, our architects and builders stopped framing graceful 
houses with high ceilings and front porches. They forsook an elegant simplicity 
designed to circulate the prevailing breezes through our homes. They put aside 
the coolness of wooden planks and the gentle ventilation provided by wooden 
walls for boxy brick homes in which one cannot breathe and where from within 
one must strain to hear the wrens singing or smell the first narcissus. They gave 
up too the dark resinous wood stains—some honed two centuries ago by our 
turpentine distillers and pitch makers—that gave a lamplit home a lustrous 
beauty and a cool air of serenity. When television became the centerpiece of living 
rooms, we abandoned our front porches and withdrew from our neighbors. We 
began to watch soap operas and football games instead of stitching the elegant 
lace embroidery or whittling the beautiful waterfowl decoys that our region was 
once famous for. Losing such things may seem trivial when compared to all we 
have gained in the modern age. But consider that out of our eagerness to be 
modern, we have lost in this one instance—if you will pardon me for stretching 
the point—beauty, grace, comfort, and community. 

Consider too our sacred places. We have never been given to ornament or 
grand architectural displays in our sacred structures, but the builders of our early 
churches achieved in a way far better than any cathedral a sense of our intimacy 
with both the land and the spirit. This quality reached its height in the Methodist, 
Presbyterian, Free Will Baptist, and Primitive Baptist churches built in the late 
Federal and early antebellum periods. Small wooden edifices erected long before 
electric lights, they have glass windows that reach from pew level to the tall 
ceilings so that sunlight fills their white interiors. Within their walls you feel as if 
you have nearly remained outdoors, so bright and open are the churches, yet 
there remains an overwhelming sense of being on hallowed ground. What few 
shadows remain—cast by the pews, the altar, the corners near the sun—soften 
the contemplation of faith's mysteries. Stepping within these country churches 
bathes the soul like the startling coolness one sometimes encounters in a low 
place on a hot summer day. If you have not done so already, visit the Rehoboth 
Methodist Church near Roper, the Croatan Presbyterian Church between Have¬ 
lock and New Bern, or the Bear Grass Primitive Baptist Church in Martin 
County. You will see what I mean. Rarely do our modern churches capture any 
hint of the sacredness or beauty of everyday life. 

No wonder so many of the elderly people whom I interview and with whom I 
am sometimes fortunate enough to share meals feel so estranged in their own 
land. Everything has changed since they were young. This is a complaint com¬ 
monplace among the elderly of every generation, but the men and women who 
grew up here seventy or eighty years ago have lived through changes more 
profound than in untold centuries before them. Not only does the food seem too 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


127 


bland to sustain the spirit, but the churches appear strange and the old hymns are 
no longer sung. The speed of technological change and the pace of daily life are 
disorienting. The materialism that arose with the nation's prosperity after the 
Second World War seems incomprehensible to those who grew up blessed to have 
an orange and a few nuts for Christmas. And nothing seems stranger than the 
growing irreverence toward the elders in our society. Children have to move 
away from home to find jobs and cannot care for their parents. The elderly move 
into rest homes and retirement centers that no matter how well adorned still 
have the abandoned, condescending air that in their youths they associated with 
the county poorhouse. As a society, we tolerate inhumane conditions in many of 
our nursing homes, choosing whenever possible to look the other way. More and 
more our elders pass away in isolation, or nearly alone, in remote hospitals and 
nursing homes. "1 am not a modern woman, and I do not have modern ways," 
Beatrice Mason, my ninety-seven-year-old neighbor from whom I got my recipe 
for pickled green tomatoes, often tells me—and she says it with pride. 

But do not think that old people are the only ones to find fault with modern 
ways. What young person wants to live in a countryside so pock-marked with 
factory hog farms' manure lagoons that the stench can be smelled for miles? 
Now, instead of lingering among local produce stands, one must close the car 
windows tightly and drive quickly through much of North Carolina. Brightly lit 
billboards increasingly mar the serenity of our beautiful rural roads. New high¬ 
ways are trampling old cemeteries and ravaging some of our most historic 
neighborhoods. The growing popularity of unseemly strip malls and fast-food 
districts makes our once-lovely small towns appear to be only poor cousins of 
cities rather than last redoubts of community and simpler living. On summer 
nights Vera and 1 pass through these small towns with their old-fashioned 
squares and more and more often see their residents closed behind their doors 
watching television instead of sitting on the front porch visiting with neighbors. 
Nobody, young or old, can feel good about such matters. 

As a historian, I am especially disturbed when the fervor for discarding old 
ways leads unnecessarily to erasing the visible remnants of the past. I have a 
newspaper clipping from the mid-1980s that describes how a regional planning 
agency in Greenville developed an industrial recruitment program that encour¬ 
aged farmers to tear down their old tobacco barns and tenant houses. According 
to the agency's economists, the dilapidated buildings gave visiting executives the 
damaging impression that eastern North Carolina was too backward and poor a 
locale in which to locate one of their branch plants. However one may feel about 
our region's devotion to tobacco—Greenville itself was for many years the 
world's largest tobacco market—bright-leaf tobacco is at the heart of our history. 
And no matter what industrial planners believe, many of those old tenant houses 
remain occupied to this day. 

This sort of thing is not unusual. Think, for instance, of how Rocky Mount's 
leaders recently cut down the beautiful old elms that shaded downtown because 
the trees interfered with a Hollywood movie company's plans to film a scene 
there. Or how one highway after another demolishes the last remnants of the old 
slave village of James City, surely one of the most historic sites in America. Or 
last year how our state legislators banned menhaden boats—once the mainstay of 


128 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


the state's fisheries—from seining within sight of ocean beaches because the 
soaring numbers of tourists who visit our coastal beaches might consider them an 
eyesore. Nowadays we try so hard to lure outside companies to invest or build a 
factory here that we have grown accustomed to conceding them anything. We 
seem intent on concealing all signs of our past no less surely than we relegate the 
elderly behind the walls of rest homes and retirement centers. I do not see how 
younger people can develop an appreciation for the elderly or their ways under 
such circumstances. 

I realize that I am grumbling. But I am not a sentimentalist pining for the return 
to some mythical golden age. No honest historian could be so misguided, and 
particularly not with a past so fraught with hardship and injustice as ours. I am 
thankful to have our former extent of soul-wrenching poverty behind us. I 
appreciate how humiliating a homemade country ham biscuit looked in 1940 next 
to a baloney sandwich made with store-bought white bread. I am grateful that we 
have made important strides, no matter how shaky, to overcome our vindictive 
and self-destructive legacy of white supremacy. Of course I believe that women 
should have every possible chance to develop their genius for endeavors beyond 
the kitchen. And I am partial, I must admit, to modern plumbing. What distresses 
me is not that we have cast out so many of our demons (quite the opposite: we 
have not cast out enough) but that in embracing this modern age we have also 
forsaken so much of what was finest in our traditional culture. 

You must think me a disgruntled old historian bent on living in the past. But I 
am not advocating for a renaissance of wood-burning stoves or an end to store- 
bought bread. Modern life is, for better or worse, here with us to stay. But I have 
written all this because I believe that there might still be, somewhere beyond our 
own kitchens and the roadside cafes Vera and I frequent, a place where some¬ 
thing of the best of the old ways could be saved and adapted to this new day. We 
would not abide for a second the revival of ancient oppressions or intolerance. 
One can believe that the struggle against oppression and social injustice is at the 
core of what it means to be human, as I do, and still love a good mess of collards 
and a plate of sweet-potato biscuits. But if we kept that conviction steadfastly in 
mind, perhaps we could call back a few pieces of this waning world of slow 
cooking. We could give up our incessant drive to make North Carolina pleasing to 
tourists and industrial-site locators. We could let go momentarily of our craving 
to have more highways and bigger malls. We could at least for a night abandon 
our modern conveniences and sit out on our front porches and see who we are 
without them. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


129 


Additions to the National Register 

(Administered by the State Historic Preservation Office) 



The Ray Wiseman House (left) is an excellent example of a Craftsman-style bungalow constructed largely of 
native materials. The house was built in the Altamont community of Avery County in 1941. The Ward Family 
House (right) is the most accomplished and richly detailed Queen Anne-style frame house in Watauga County. 
It was erected about 1897 near the community of Sugar Grove. 



Bethel Church Arbor (left) is a large, impressive, and well-preserved timber-framed structure built as a religious 
shelter for camp meetings in rural Cabarrus County. It is one of only two surviving arbors in the county. The 
Durrett-Jarratt House (right) is an imposing two-story frame Federal-style house built about 1820 in Yadkin 
County. The quality and fidelity of its design make the house an important example of the style in the North 
Carolina Piedmont as a whole. 



The Rosemont-Mclver Park Historic District comprises two early twentieth-century residential neighborhoods 
in Sanford (Lee County). It presently retains nearly all of its historic houses from the first forty years of the 
twentieth century, with few modern intrusions. One of the district's notable houses is shown at left. The 
Leslie-Alford-Mims House (right) is an inspiring Wake County landmark that evolved over a period of sixty 
years, beginning in 1840, in the town of Holly Springs. 


130 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


















The Davis Family House (left), erected in Haywood County ca. 1880 and expanded in 1925-1926, stands as an 
exceedingly rare and important architectural transition between the log dwellings that sheltered county 
residents for the first one hundred years of settlement and later turn-of-the-century frame houses. Ware Creek 
School (right), completed in 1921, served for more than thirty years as an elementary school for African 
American students in rural Beaufort County. It is a well-preserved example of the Rosenwald Schools built for 
African American children throughout the South in the early twentieth century. 


Asheville School (left), which opened in 1900, appears to be the only boarding-school institution in North 
Carolina founded upon the philosophy of educating both the minds and bodies of the young men it served—in 
short, the notion of educating the "whole young man." The institution's extensive grounds contributed to that 
philosophy. The Chambers-Morgan Farm (right) stands near the White Store community in Anson County. It is 
an outstanding example of a mid-nineteenth-century weatherboarded Greek Revival-style farmhouse. 


The joy Lee Apartment Building and Annex (left) in the beach resort town of Carolina Beach (New Hanover 
County) are representative of a trend toward masonry and stucco construction that began before World War II. 
Concrete-block construction proved more resistant to the damaging effects of wind and water, and the 
buildings, often brightly painted, came to be associated with the festive beach environment. The Ben-Wiley 
Hotel (right) is the best preserved of two remaining hotels in Fuquay-Varina (Wake County) built to serve 
visitors to the popular Fuquay Mineral Spring during its heyday, 1900-1930. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER 1997 


131 






















CAROLINA COMMENTS 


(ISSN 0576-808X1 

Published in January, March, May, 

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VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6 NOVEMBER 1997 

Maritime Museum Now Part of Department of Cultural Resources 

The North Carolina Maritime Museum, a popular destination of visitors to the 
coastal town of Beaufort, officially became part of the North Carolina Depart¬ 
ment of Cultural Resources (DCR) on August 28, 1997. The museum collects, 
preserves, and interprets the maritime history of coastal North Carolina through 
exhibits, educational programs, field trips, and hands-on classes. The museum's 
intimate involvement with the state's coastal history led North Carolina Com¬ 
missioner of Agriculture Jim Graham to recommend in March that the joint 
appropriations committee of the General Assembly move the museum from 
within the North Carolina Department of Agriculture to DCR. The actual 
transfer was accomplished with the passage of the state budget on August 28. 

"With the discovery of what is believed to be Blackbeard's flagship," Graham 
commented, "the demand for large amounts of resources for the Maritime 
Museum will be greater than ever. Because we need to focus more sharply on 



The North Carolina Maritime Museum officially became part of the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources on August 28,1997, having been an agency of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture since 
1959. The headquarters of the museum, shown above, are located at 315 Front Street in Beaufort. (All 
photographs by the Division of Archives and History unless otherwise indicated.) 



























agricultural issues, I am requesting the committee to consider a provision in the 
appropriation bill to transfer the Maritime Museum to the Department of Cul¬ 
tural Resources." The remains of what is believed to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, 
an eighteenth-century sailing vessel that served as the flagship of the infamous 
pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach) and sank in 1718, were discovered last year off 
the coast of Beaufort and announced at a March 3 press conference. The 
announcement brought an immediate international response from the news 
media and set in motion an ongoing effort on the part of the state and private 
salvors to declare the wreck site a protected preserve and to recover and conserve 
artifacts from the vessel. 

The museum traces its beginnings to the early twentieth century, when it was 
little more than a collection of a few fish mounts, jars of preserved Crustacea, 
examples of fishing tackle, and bird skins assembled to represent North Carolina 
at the 1898 International Fisheries Exposition in Norway. About 1904 those 
items were put on public display at what was then the U S. Fisheries Laboratory 
on Piver's Island, adjacent to Beaufort. In the more than fifty years that followed, 
the collection was augmented and overseen by a series of agencies and individ¬ 
uals, some with ties to the scientific community and others mostly interested in 
promoting tourism. It had no real home or budget and shifted between the 
Carteret County towns of Beaufort and Morehead City. 

In 1959 funding and organization of the museum were delegated to the North 
Carolina Department of Agriculture, which placed it under the control of what 
was then known as the North Carolina Museum of Natural History. In 1975 the 
museum's first full-time curator, Charles R. McNeill, expanded the institution's 
mission to encompass maritime history in addition to coastal natural history, its 
longtime focus. Adequate and regular funding from the Department of Agricul¬ 
ture made possible the hiring of a permanent staff. During the ensuing decade 
the museum, operating out of rented quarters in Beaufort, experienced phe¬ 
nomenal growth, recognition, and public support. In 1985 it moved to 315 Front 
Street, its first permanent location. Since that time the museum complex has 
continued to grow with the construction in 1992 of a Watercraft Center and the 



In this aerial view of the Beaufort waterfront, the 
Maritime Museum is visible at right center. The 
tripartite-roofed building in the foreground is the 
museum's Watercraft Center, erected in 1992, 
which abuts Taylors Creek, the body of water in 
front. Photograph by Diane Hardy. 


134 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




acquisition soon afterward of the adjacent Harborside property. During the past 
year the museum acquired thirty-six acres of prime land on Gallant's Channel, a 
special project supported by the institution's local support group, the Friends of 
the Museum. The proposed Gallant's Channel Annex will provide for the muse¬ 
um's long-range needs and the expansion of exhibits and programs. The Mari¬ 
time Museum and its Watercraft Center will continue to operate in downtown 
Beaufort. The museum conducts more than three hundred programs each year, 
including field trips to coastal habitats, lectures, and workshops. Its small-craft 
research program preserves the history of boats and boatbuilding in the state. 

Betty Ray McCain, secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, commented on the new status of the Maritime Museum. "We are so 
happy to have the Maritime Museum as one of our treasures," Secretary McCain 
declared. "The work it does in presenting maritime history is so important to the 
history of our state. We think the museum will be right at home with us." Within 
DCR, the museum will operate as a section of the Division of Archives and 
History. 

New Book on Historic Preservation Movement in North Carolina 

The Historical Publications Section recently issued A Lasting Gift of Heritage: A 
History of the North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Antiquities, 1 939 - 1974 , by David 
Louis Sterrett Brook. The volume surveys the history of the state's first organi¬ 
zation devoted specifically to the cause of historic preservation and traces that 
association's evolution into what became the modern Historic Preservation 
Foundation of North Carolina (also known as Preservation North Carolina). 

The author, administrator of the Division of Archives and History's State 
Historic Preservation Office, initiates his study with a summary of the historical 
origins of the national historic preservation movement and specifically the leader¬ 
ship provided in Virginia by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia 
Antiquities, founded in 1889 and subsequently emulated in North Carolina and 
elsewhere. He then examines North Carolina's formative efforts in the direction 
of preservation as embodied in the activities of such organizations as the Roanoke 
Colony Memorial Association; the North Carolina Historical Commission; local 
chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, and the Society of Colonial Dames of America in the State 
of North Carolina; the Garden Club of North Carolina; and other local groups. 
During much of the pre-World War II period, house museum organizations and 
women's patriotic groups conducted most of the state's preservation activities— 
not without remarkable resourcefulness. Along the way Brook highlights the 
leadership provided by a group of noteworthy people, many of whom were 
women, among them Ruth C. Cannon of Concord, wife of textile magnate 
Charles A. Cannon. Mrs. Cannon filled several important leadership roles in the 
Garden Club of North Carolina in the late 1930s and quickly became a leading 
figure in North Carolina's fledgling preservation movement. She and other 
important and socially prominent women were largely responsible for setting the 
overall tone and tenor of the society's activities throughout the 1940s and 1950s. 

A Lasting Gift of Heritage is as much an examination of North Carolina's social and 
cultural history as it is an organizational study. The volume chronicles the early 
efforts of Tar Heels to rescue their historic properties from neglect and the 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


135 


bulldozer. Initially motivated by a dream to bring back to life Tryon Palace, the 
magnificent colonial capitol at New Bern, the society's leaders moved on to 
crusade for the preservation of historic buildings throughout the state. Finding 
themselves deprived of resources during World War II and in an uphill struggle 
against countervailing economic and political priorities in the postwar boom era, 
they exhibited considerable ingenuity in adapting the antiquities society to a time 
in which the prevailing political and developmental tide ran strongly against 
historic preservation. The society's leaders abandoned their initial goals of acquir¬ 
ing and administering historic properties and instead devised innovative advisory 
and financial-assistance programs that offered the organization goals it could 
meet with consistently limited staff and operational resources. An innovative 
revolving loan fund implemented in 1948 was probably the first such mechanism 
in the nation, and antiquities society grants ultimately assisted more than one 
hundred local preservation projects throughout the state. In the society's closing 
years a new generation of preservationists sought to reinvigorate the member¬ 
ship and financial base of the organization and to develop new programs for the 
remaining decades of the twentieth century. 

Preparation of this first major work on the historic preservation movement in 
North Carolina involved hundreds of miles of travel; numerous interviews; and 
the examination of innumerable letters, minutes, reports, newspaper articles, 
and photographs in state, federal, and university archives, as well as in private 
ownership. Many of the eighty-six illustrations in the volume are published for 
the first time. Readers with an interest in historic preservation will be amused 
and inspired by the pathbreaking activities of midcentury North Carolinians of 
privilege who managed to reconcile social prominence with social responsibility 
and in the process lay the groundwork for a movement that has endured, 
prospered, and gained new adherents with the passage of time. 

A Lasting Gift of Heritage (205 pages; bound in cloth) is available at $24.00 per copy 
($19.00 each for members of Preservation North Carolina) from the Historical 
Publications Section, Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, 
Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. For each copy ordered, include 6 percent state sales tax 
and $3.00 for shipping. Checks should be made payable to the North Carolina 
Department of Cultural Resources. 

Tryon Palace Welcomes Its Two Millionth Visitor 

A Wisconsin family caused quite a stir at Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens in 
New Bern this past August. Patricia Stapleton entered the Tryon Palace Visitor 
Center along with her husband Mike and their two sons and was heralded as the 
site's two millionth visitor. The family was vacationing in New Bern for the week 
and had heard about Tryon Palace through some materials send to them before 
leaving their home in Hartford, Wisconsin. "Two million visitors—congratu¬ 
lations!" Ms. Stapleton said. "We came to the palace because we just don't have 
this kind of history in Wisconsin." Ms. Stapleton is a teacher in a local community 
college, and her husband is a dairy farmer. The family was presented with a 
basket filled with gifts and a gift certificate from the Tryon Palace Shops, a year's 
membership in the Tryon Palace Council of Friends, two free nights in a local 
hotel, and a free dinner at a local restaurant. 


136 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



Mike and Patricia Stapleton of Hartford, Wisconsin, 
and their two children are shown at Tryon Palace after 
Ms. Stapleton was officially recognized as the palace's 
two millionth visitor. The Stapletons were vacationing 
in New Bern this past August and, having heard about 
Tryon Palace before departing Wisconsin, decided to 
visit there on the fateful day. Ms. Stapleton is a teacher 
in a local community college, and her husband is a 
dairy farmer. 


Tryon Palace was built as the home of North Carolina royal governor William 
Tryon in 1770 and was the seat of state government after the Revolutionary War. 
Although the building's west wing is the only original structure to survive, the 
main building and the east wing were re-created and restored as a state historic 
site in the 1950s. The reconstructed palace opened its doors to the public in 1959. 
Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens presently attracts some seventy thousand 
ticketed visitors annually, as well as about fifteen thousand visitors who attend 
the site's free events. 

Eighth Annual Thomas Wolfe Festival Held in Asheville 

Pat Conroy, best-selling author of Beach Music, The Prince of Tides, and The Great 
Santini, spoke at the dedication ceremony of the Thomas Wolfe Memorial's visitor 
center on Sunday, October 5, at 5:00 P.M as part of the eighth annual Thomas 
Wolfe Festival, October 3-5 in Asheville and the bicentennial (1797-1997) of that 
city. Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain and Thomas Wolfe's 
nephew. Dr. R. Dietz Wolfe, joined Conroy as keynote speakers. That evening 
Conroy also gave a reading from his works at the Asheville Community Theatre 
to benefit the yearly festival. 

On Friday morning, October 3, a full day of events began with a live radio 
broadcast from the porch of the memorial. The broadcast, for Wolfe's ninety- 
seventh birthday, was titled "The Magic and the Loss: The Prose Poetry of 
Thomas Wolfe." Throughout the day guides in period costume offered free tours 
of the house. Personnel played early twentieth-century music on the piano in the 
memorial's parlor, and visitors enjoyed birthday cake on the porch of the visitor 
center. 

A daylong discussion of Wolfe's life and work occurred at Asheville's Pack 
Memorial Library. Authors Carole Klein, David Madden, Bob Terrell, and Wilma 
Dykeman were among the speakers. Presentations, moderated by Philip Banks, 
included Chris Morton, "'That Damned Secession Hole in the Mountains': The 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


137 








Official dedication ceremonies for the new visitor center at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial in Asheville on 
October 5 attracted a large crowd of onlookers. Keynote speakers included author Pat Conroy, Secretary of 
Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain, and Dr. R. Dietz Wolfe, Thomas Wolfe's nephew. 


Civil War in Asheville"; Deborah Borland, "'Listening to the language of the lost 
world, the forgotten faces': Thomas Wolfe, Asheville, and the Civil War"; Klein, 
"Aline and Tom"; Mabel Mullett, "The Flood of 1916 and Thomas Wolfe's Antaeus, 
or A Memory of Earth"; Madden, "Thomas Wolfe's Literary Use of the Civil War"; 
Terrell, "The Will Harris Shooting and The Child by Tiger"; and Dykeman, "Of a 
Certain Time, a Special River, and a Family." Jan Meredith directed the Readers' 
Theatre presentation of Wolfe's The Child by Tiger at 8:00 P M at the Jubilee 
Community Gathering Place. The evening also included presentations of the 
Thomas Wolfe Festival Student Writing Awards and the Margaret Roberts Prize. 



In addition to serving as a keynote speaker at the 
afternoon dedication ceremonies, Pat Conroy, best¬ 
selling author of Beach Music, The Prince of Tides, 
and The Great Santini, read from his works at the 
Asheville Community Theatre on the evening of 
October 5. Proceeds from his appearance benefited 
the Thomas Wolfe Festival. 


138 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 




















The second day of the festivities started with a special walking tour of historic 
Riverside Cemetery led by Ted Mitchell. The visual arts came into play at 11:00 A M. 
when artist Connie Bostic offered her interpretation of the visitor center lobby 
art in a talk titled "A Thorn of Memory." That afternoon on the porch of the 
memorial a mock debate took place between the Dialectic and Philanthropic 
Societies from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (Wolfe was an 
ardent member of the "Di" Society.) The final event for Saturday was the 
evening's world premiere of the Asheville Contemporary Dance Theatre's pro¬ 
duction of A Stone, a Leaf, a Door, a ballet by Morris Hubbard based on texts by 
Wolfe. The performance was held in the Diana Wortham Theatre at Pack Place. 



This rarely seen photograph of Thomas Wolfe shows the author at 
the age of thirty-six in front of the home of Mrs. Fred Gambrell in 
Anderson, South Carolina, during the summer of 1937. Photo¬ 
graph courtesy Thomas Wolfe Collection, Pack Memorial Public 
Library, Asheville. The ceremony to dedicate the new visitor cen¬ 
ter at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial was timed to coincide with the 
eighth annual Thomas Wolfe Festival, held annually in Wolfe's 
home town of Asheville to commemorate the anniversary of the 
author's birth (October 3), as well as the bicentennial (1 797-1997) 
of the mountain city. 


To interject a bit of something physical into an intellectually rich festival, the 
Thomas Wolfe 8K Road Race for runners was held at noon on Sunday. That 
afternoon the visitor center featured a book signing of new first editions by two 
staff members at the memorial. Papa Loved Hot Biscuits and Corn Bread, by Kimberly 
Hewitt, and Thomas Wolfe: A Writer's Life, by Ted Mitchell. These two new books 
are available by mail (the former for $7.95 and the latter for $8.95, plus $2.00 per 
book for postage and packaging) from the memorial at 52 North Market Street, 
Asheville, NC 28802. 

Three Members of Historical Commission Reappointed 

Gov. James B. Hunt Jr. recently reappointed to the North Carolina Historical 
Commission three members whose previous terms were to expire in 1997. 
Reappointed to new six-year terms were Millie M. Barbee of Boone, T. Harry 
Gatton of Raleigh, and Alan D. Watson of Wilmington. Dr. Watson presently 
serves as vice-chairman of the body, and Mr. Gatton has previously served as 
chairman. The North Carolina Historical Commission is the eleven-member 
advisory board that oversees the activities of the Division of Archives and 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


139 




History. In a brief ceremony presided over by North Carolina Supreme Court 
justice Willis P. Whichard, Barbee, Gatton, and Watson were officially sworn in 
for their new terms in Raleigh on November 13 during a semiannual meeting of 
the Historical Commission. Also officially sworn in at that time was Mary Hayes 
Holmes of Chatham County, whom Governor Hunt appointed to the commis¬ 
sion on April 7 to fill the unexpired term of a resigned member. 

Second Volume of Reid Papers Published 

The Division of Archives and History has published the second and final volume 
of The Papers of David Settle Reid, edited by Lindley S. Butler. The 408-page collection 
of letters and other documents begins in 1853 with Reid's second term as gover¬ 
nor, a two-year period marked by a rapid growth of internal improvements in the 
state. Near the end of his tenure as governor, Reid became a United States 
senator and served in that capacity until 1859. The sectional conflict, particularly 
the Kansas question, dominated the years Reid spent in the Senate. Reid was 
subsequently a delegate to the unsuccessful Washington Peace Conference of 
1861 and to the state constitutional conventions of 1861-1862 and 1875. The 
volume concludes with Reid's final years in his native Rockingham County. 

The numerous family letters included in this volume offer a view of domestic 
life in the rural South, particularly during the antebellum period. The documents 
also reveal the private life of a public man by showing Reid as a father and 
husband as well as a politician. During the time period covered in the volume, two 
of Reid's children died, and the letters concerning those deaths are especially 
poignant. 

The Papers of David Settle Reid, Volume II (illustrations, index; bound in cloth) can 
be ordered for $35.00, plus $4.00 for shipping. North Carolina residents must 
add 6 percent sales tax ($2.10). Order from: Historical Publications Section, 
Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 
27601-2807. 

North Carolina Students Excel in National Competition 

Students from North Carolina distinguished themselves at the National History 
Day national competition held at College Park, Maryland, in June. The following 
senior projects made the runoffs: "Sacco and Vanzetti," a video program pro¬ 
duced by Matthew Jones and Brent McGillicuddy; "Men, Dirt, & Depression: The 
Triumph & Tragedy of the Dust Bowl," a video presentation by Kayce Justus and 
Courtney Bancroft; "Robert Kennedy: A Tragic Victory," a video by Chelsea 
Heskamp; and "Exodus 1947: Destination Israel," a performance by Shana 
Ratner. Jones and McGillicuddy are students at Rose High School in Greenville; 
the four remaining winners attend A. C. Reynolds High School in Asheville. In 
addition, Justus and Bancroft won the Agricultural History Society's special prize 
for the best project on the history of agriculture and rural life. An exhibit titled 
"Profiles in Surgery: Tragedy and Triumph," created by Svati Singla of Rose High 
School in Greenville, has been placed on display at the National Institutes of 
Health in Washington, D C. 

National History Day is a program inaugurated on the national level in 1980 to 
promote the study of history in schools. Under the program students in grades 


140 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 



Students from North Carolina acquitted themselves well at the National History Day national competition in 
College Park, Maryland, in |une. A number of senior projects made the runoffs, two of the competitors won a 
special prize, and an exhibit by one student was singled out for special display. Here members of the North 
Carolina contingent are shown marching in the competition's "Parade of States." The Division of Archives and 
History, with assistance from other organizations, sponsors a statewide competition to select participants in the 
national contest. 


six through twelve compete in one of four subject areas—media, papers, per¬ 
formance, or exhibits. The students may enter either as individuals or in groups 
of from two to five people. Successful projects require students to engage in 
extensive research, create a project that focuses on a designated theme, and 
provide an annotated bibliography. The Division of Archives and History, with 
assistance from the North Carolina Museum of History, the Federation of North 
Carolina Historical Societies, the North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa¬ 
tion, and the North Carolina Council for the Social Studies, recently sponsored a 
statewide competition to select state winners to take part in the National History 
Day competition. 


New Film Highlights Shared Past of White, Black Families 

Family Name, a film by New York City film maker Macky Alston, opened in New 
York City on September 3 to glowing reviews and accolades from film critics. The 
inspiration for Family Name began with Alston's childhood discovery that many of 
his classmates at an elementary school in Durham, North Carolina, were black 
children who shared his surname. Later in his life, Alston as a young adult 
manifested an interest in the history of his family and in turn developed a 
curiosity about the shared Alston name. He subsequently discovered that his 
forebears had been slaveholders in North Carolina. Learning that slaves fre¬ 
quently took the surnames of their owners, he began investigating whether or 
not the white and black people named Alston, who hold separate family reunions 
in neighboring North Carolina towns, might be related by blood as well as by 
name. The film documents his difficult and often frustrating quest for clues to a 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


141 



past that many Alstons of both races would have preferred to have left unexam¬ 
ined. The producers of Family Name have licensed the television rights to the film 
to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), which will air it in the spring or summer 
of 1998 as the prelude to its Television Race Initiative under the umbrella of its 
series POV/The American Documentary. 

Series on Southern Architecture Updated and Reissued 

The Beehive Foundation of Savannah has made available as a nonprofit educa¬ 
tional service "Architecture of the Old South," a ten-volume survey of historic 
buildings throughout the region. The series, written by Mills Lane and featuring 
the photography of Van Jones Martin, was initially issued by the Beehive Press 
and later by Abbeville Press of New York. The first seven volumes, covering 
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and 
Mississippi, and Louisiana respectively, have been reissued in revised editions; a 
volume on Tennessee and Kentucky has been republished; and two oversize 
volumes that survey the finest examples of the entire region's architecture by 
period and style round out the series. Each volume ranges from 200 to 350 pages 
in length and features between 235 and 450 illustrations. The eight standard 
volumes are available at $55.00 each, and the two oversize volumes sell for 
$75.00 each. Add $3.00 per volume for shipping. To order or obtain additional 
information, write to the Beehive Foundation, 321 Barnard Street, Savannah, 
GA 31401. 


News from Archives and History 

Archives and Records 

For many years the Records Services Branch of the Archives and Records Section 
has offered training to state and local government employees interested in 
learning about records management practices. Through its workshops the 
branch's staff has helped increase public understanding of how public records are 
managed, provided agencies with information on reducing their vulnerability to 
potential litigation, and helped improve administrative efficiency through the 
proper organization of files and disposition of records under schedule. Tradition¬ 
ally the training offered by Records Services focused on two basic presentations 
titled "Records Management and Legal Responsibilities Regarding Public 
Records" and "Files and Filing" respectively. The two training sessions are now 
complemented by a new workshop that deals with the challenges arising from the 
proliferation of computer technology in the workplace. The workshop, appro¬ 
priately named "Managing Electronic Public Records," covers public access to 
electronic files; legal acceptance of electronic records; managing, storing, and 
retrieving electronic records; electronic mail; security of electronic files; and 
system backups. 

Relying upon lessons learned from dealing with damage resulting from Hurri¬ 
cane Fran and other calamities that have caused problems on a smaller scale, the 
Archives and Records Section's Preservation Task Force under the leadership of 
state archivist David J. Olson has developed a revised disaster-response plan. On 
September 15 a section-wide training session introduced the new plan to the 


142 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


section's entire staff. The workshop was divided into two parts led by disaster- 
response team leader C. Edward Morris of the Archival Services Branch and 
Harlan Greene of the North Carolina Preservation Consortium respectively. 
Morris discussed the plan itself and how it could best be implemented. Greene 
dealt with specific recovery techniques for salvaging damaged records. 

The eleventh revised edition of the Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina 
State Archives: County Records, published in the spring of 1997, continues to garner 
praise from researchers. The 363-page volume is available from either the His¬ 
torical Publications Section or the State Archives at a cost of fifteen dollars a 
copy. For additional information about the Guide, contact the Archival Services 
Branch by telephone at (919) 733-3952 or by fax at (919) 733-1354. A companion 
work. Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State Archives: State Agency Records, 
also is available, at a cost of thirty dollars a copy. (When ordering either book. 
North Carolina residents must add 6 percent sales tax. Orders by mail must 
include three dollars per copy for shipping.) 

Historical Publications 

The section recently issued a second printing (one thousand copies) of Rockingham 
County: A Brief History, by Lindley S. Butler, originally published in 1982. The title, 
a steady and consistent seller, went out of print this past summer. The second 
printing features an entirely new index. Copies of Rockingham County (101 pages; 
bound in paper) sell for five dollars each, plus two dollars for shipping. Residents 
of North Carolina must add 6 percent for state sales tax. Order from the 
Historical Publications Section, Division of Archives and History, 109 East Jones 
Street, Raleigh, NC 27601-2807. 


Historic Sites 

"Heritage tourism" is a term becoming increasingly familiar in the travel indus¬ 
try. Now comes the news that North Carolina is the nation's seventh most 
popular destination for travelers interested in historic and cultural tourism. The 
Travel Industry Association of America recently surveyed more than 240,000 
U.S. households and found that travelers to cultural and historic sites spend $190 
more per trip than all other domestic travelers ($615 per trip). Cultural tourists 
take longer trips and participate in more activities while traveling. This 
announcement confirms once again that North Carolina's state historic sites are 
well positioned to benefit from a major trend. 

While carefully preserving the resources that attract visitors, the Historic Sites 
Section is seeking partnerships with state and local organizations to improve its 
sites and the public's awareness of them. Last summer senior staff members 
shared the history, mission, goals, and needs of the section with representatives 
of the North Carolina Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus, a fast¬ 
growing organization of nonprofit agencies dedicated to the promotion of con¬ 
ventions and tourism in destination cities and counties. Eighteen of the thirty- 
two bureaus represented had a historic site in their area. The section also is 
providing a display in the lobby of the Division of Travel and Tourism offices in 
Raleigh until the end of the year. Unique items from various sites will draw 
attention to the sites and provide goodwill to another state agency. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


143 


The Historic Sites Section again staffed a display at the North Carolina State 
Fair in Raleigh, October 17-26. The booth was an old log tobacco barn at the 
Arthur K. Pitzer Heritage Village. As in past years, staff from different sites 
provided costumed interpretations and historic crafts and activities each day. In 
addition, 1998 will be the "Year of the Family" at the historic sites, and plans are 
already under way to develop some exciting programs and activities. 

Vance Birthplace near Asheville has been conducting its own promotion and 
special events in recent months. The site once again participated in the North 
Carolina Mountain State Fair, September 5-12. Since 1994 that fair has provided 
residents of western North Carolina the opportunity of enjoying a state fair 
without having to travel to Raleigh. For this year's fair, Vance Birthplace hosted a 
booth in the heritage area that included reproduction items along with promo¬ 
tional materials. Site staff members manned the booth on a rotating basis during 
the nine-day run. During the fair the booth featured many different demonstra¬ 
tions such as constructing corn shuck mops, woodworking, making candles, 
weaving, churning butter, and making soap. Through the booth, the site staff 
reached many of the estimated 118,000 people who attended the fair. Vance also 
hosted its annual Fall Pioneer Living Days, the oldest ongoing special event at a 
state historic site. Besides some of the activities mentioned above, the event 
included a book signing by Blanche R. Robertson, author of "The Waterpowered 
Mills of Reems Creek," which appeared in the premier issue of May We All 
Remember Well: A Journal of the History and Cultures of Western North Carolina. 

Between November 7 and 9 the Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial com¬ 
memorated its first decade as a state historic site. The public joined in the 
celebration as Palmer alumni revisited their years of study at the internationally 
known preparatory school run under the strict eye of "The Madame"—Dr. 
Brown. The observance began Friday evening at a Greensboro hotel with an 
informal gathering of alumni and friends. On November 8 Dr. Jeffrey J. Crow, 
director of the Division of Archives and History, dedicated a path with new 
wayside exhibits on Brown and Palmer Memorial Institute. Following the open¬ 
ing of the exhibits, scholars and other visitors from throughout the state took 
part in "This Decade's Woman: Expanding the Legacy," a seminar on contempo¬ 
rary women's issues. An awards luncheon honored outstanding contributions by 
individuals to the development of the memorial to Dr. Brown. During the 
luncheon students from area colleges and universities entertained guests. The 
afternoon began with a rededication of the Palmer athletic field. Sam Shine, 
representing Secretary of Cultural Resources Betty Ray McCain, cut the ribbon 
and offered remarks. Little League all-star teams then played exhibition games 
before community residents and visitors. That evening the Charlotte Hawkins 
Brown Foundation held a tenth anniversary banquet highlighted by recognition 
of the achievements of internationally known Duke University historian Dr. 
John Hope Franklin in the field of African American history. On Sunday the 
memorial hosted a community breakfast. A ceremony at Dr. Brown's grave site 
and a worship service at the historic Bethany United Church of Christ followed 
the breakfast. The Brown Memorial is the first state historic site dedicated to 
recognizing the contributions of African Americans and women to North Caro¬ 
lina history. 


144 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Historic Sites received both good and bad budgetary news this year from the 
legislature. The Department of Cultural Resources has had $610,262 cut from its 
budget, mainly in salary line items. Twenty positions have been eliminated, all in 
vacant jobs. Thanks to departmental leadership, no permanent employees lost 
their jobs. The Historic Sites Section lost four positions and additional operating 
funds. On the positive side, other Historic Sites appropriations (all in operating 
reserves) include $50,000 to fund planning for archaeological curation and a 
storage center at Town Creek Indian Mound; $250,000 for construction and 
other services at Somerset Place; and $1,000,000 for preservation, improvement, 
and promotion of the state's Civil War-related sites. The department also 
received a noteworthy $8,000,000 for grants to local cultural organizations. 

The section's 1997 historic artillery certification course took place Octo¬ 
ber 21-24 at Fort Bragg. The U.S. Army's 18th Field Artillery Brigade of the 18th 
Airborne Corps hosted this special training course in eighteenth- and nine¬ 
teenth-century artillery. Site managers John Goode and Bryan Dalton, the chief 
instructors, dealt with equipment, safety, inspection and maintenance of 
weapons, artillery drill, and blank and live firing. Related activities included tours 
of the 82nd Airborne Museum and Special Forces Museum, a viewing of a 
155-mm artillery battery in action on a firing range, and a tour of the Monroe's 
Crossroads Civil War battlefield. 

The Historic Sites Section cordially invites readers and friends to the forthcom¬ 
ing special events scheduled for the month of December 1997 at the state's 
historic sites: 


December 2, 4 


December 6 


December 6, 7, 
13, 14 


December 7 


AYCOCK BIRTHPLACE. Christmas candlelight tours. Mid-nine¬ 
teenth-century farmstead decorated for the holiday season. 
Costumed interpreters will prepare traditional foods in the 
fireplace. Music provided by the Primitive Baptist Singers. 
6:30-9:00 P M 

Bentonville Battleground. Bentonville Christmas Open 
House. Bentonville Battleground will hold an open house 
showing how Christmas was celebrated during the Civil 
War. 

DUKE Homestead. Home for the Holidays. Preparations for 
the holiday season with the help of visitors. Baking and deco¬ 
rating will be ongoing throughout the day. Special ornament 
workshop for children in the visitor center 

North Carolina Transportation Museum. Santa Train. 
Santa will ride the train throughout the weekends, handing 
out goodies to children. One dollar train rides are offered every 
hour. 

BENNETT Place. Christmas Open House. The 11th North 
Regimental Band from Fayetteville will perform Civil War- 
era songs and Christmas favorites. Costumed guides deco¬ 
rate the Bennett house and kitchen for the season. Band will 
perform from 2:00 to 4:00 P.M. 

FORT Fisher. Christmas Open House. Small living history 
program interpreting the fort's role in World War II 

POLK Memorial Eighteenth-century Christmas. Discover 
eighteenth-century Christmas customs and traditions: Yule 
log burning, music, hot cider, shortbread, musket firing, and 
more. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


145 


December 12, 19 


December 13 


December 13, 14 


December 13, 14, 
20 , 21 

December 14 


REED GOLD MINE. Victorian Christmas celebration. Victorian- 
style decorations, nineteenth-century craft demonstrations, 
vocal and handbell choirs, refreshments, and tours of under¬ 
ground mine and stamp mill. 1:00-5:00 P M 

Thomas Wolfe Memorial Christmas Open House. Cele¬ 
brate a Victorian Christmas at the Wolfe house. 

Duke Homestead. Christmas by Candlelight. Evening tours 
of the 1852 Washington Duke Homestead. Special music, 
refreshments in the Homestead, and choral music in the 
visitor center. 7:00-9:00 I’ M 

CSS NEUSE Christmas Open House. CSS Neuse visitor center 
will be decorated for the holidays using natural items such as 
grapevine, Spanish moss, pine cones, and magnolia leaves 
found on site. Light refreshments will be served. 

HISTORIC Halifax Christmas in Halifax. Historic Halifax 
joins other local organizations for a variety of traditional 
Christmas events. Authentic holiday decorations and tours of 
historic houses 

HORNE Creek Farm Christmas by Lamplight. Experience the 
warmth of a rural turn-of-the-century Christmas. Music and 
foods of the era will be featured. 5:00-7:30 P.M 

Alamance Battleground Deck the Halls. Explore Christ¬ 
mas greenery and its history. 1:00-5:00 P.M. 

Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial Annual Christmas 
Open House. Carols by area choirs and refreshments. 1:00- 
5:00 P.M. Lights turned on at 4:00 P.M 

House in THE HORSESHOE The site is decorated in an eigh¬ 
teenth-century Christmas style. Light refreshments for visi¬ 
tors, costumed interpreters, and entertainment. Noon- 
6:00 P M 

VANCE Birthplace Christmas Open House and Candlelight 
Tours. Tours of reconstructed 1830s log house with period 
Christmas decorations. 1:00-6:00 P.M Candlelight tours, 
4:00-6:00 P.M. 


State Capitol/Visitor Services 

During seven days in September the State Capitol received nearly ten thousand 
visitors who signed a book of condolence in memory of the late Princess Diana of 
Great Britain. The book of condolence, sponsored by the Daughters of the British 
Empire (D.B.E.) in the Raleigh area, was then sent to the princess's sons, William 
and Harry. The D.B.E. and the British American Business Council sponsored a 
memorial service in honor of the late princess on September 7; more than two 
thousand people attended. 

The second phase of restoration work on the State Capitol continues to be 
marked by steady progress. Removal of lead paint within the project area was 
completed in late July, and replacement of carpentry features altered between the 
1880s and 1920s is now under way. The latter work involves the reconstruction 
of two corner pilasters to their original size and form and the replacement of the 


146 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


House gallery wainscoting with nearly half of its original boards, which were 
previously found in the attic of the Capitol. Repairs to ornamental plaster in the 
House chamber, the old State Library, and the State Geologist's Office are also 
under way. Ewing Restoration of Graham, North Carolina, is performing that 
work. During the first phase of restoration (1994-1995) the Ewing firm repaired 
the plaster in the Senate chamber. 

Throughout the past summer the Executive Mansion Fire Arts Committee 
sponsored a redecoration of the mansion's first-floor ballroom. The room was 
originally used as a music room, while the mansion's actual ballroom was on the 
second floor. The first-floor room will again be interpreted as an elegant music 
room, although it can still function as a ballroom if the furniture and carpeting 
are removed. The most striking addition to the music room is gilding on the wall 
panels and on the plaster eagles over the fireplace. More than six thousand sheets 
of gold leaf were required for the gilding project, which required six weeks of 
detailed work by hand to complete. French bergeres of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries have been added to the music room, some in original 
Aubusson tapestry. A new Aubusson carpet, a brass eagle podium, and a pair of 
French Sevres porcelain urns have been placed in the room. Among new acquisi¬ 
tions for other rooms in the mansion are a tiger maple workstand (ca. 1825) made 
in the Cape Fear region of North Carolina, a Chowan County armchair (ca. 1765), 
and a fine 1775 Wedgwood and Bentley bust of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

The official state tree-lighting ceremony and Capitol open house will be held on 
December 9 from 5:00 to 9:00 P M The Capitol's annual "Twelve Days of Christ¬ 
mas" musical program will take place between December 9 and 20. Musicians will 
perform in the Capitol rotunda on weekdays from noon to 2:00 P M.; weekend 
performances will occur at varying times. For additional information on the 
program, telephone the State Capitol at (919) 733-4994. 

The Executive Mansion holiday open house will take place between Decem¬ 
ber 7 and 14. The mansion will be open for tours during the following hours: 
Sundays from 1:00 to 5:00 P.M.; Tuesdays from 10:00 a m. to 9:00 P.M.; all other 
days from 10:00 a m, to 5:00 P.M. Telephone the Capital Area Visitor Center at 
(919) 733-3456 for additional information. 

Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens 

On October 11 Richard Westmacott, professor of environmental design at the 
University of Georgia and author of African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural 
South (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993), presented a slide- 
illustrated lecture that summarized his research on the many ways in which rural 
African Americans in the South have created comfortable outdoor living spaces 
that are at once beautiful and useful. Westmacott has assembled a number of 
photographs and measured drawings of African American gardens and land¬ 
scapes throughout the South, as well numerous interviews with the creators of 
those living spaces. In his lecture, he touched on the influences of African culture, 
as well as the effects of poverty (and the resulting importance of self-sufficiency), 
on African American gardens and yards. The lecture took place in the Tryon 
Palace Auditorium and was free and open to the public. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


147 


Western Office 


Preliminary measures have been taken to secure the Oteen Center during the 
planning phase of the restoration/rehabilitation of the structure. The building 
eventually will house the programs and staff of the Western Office and a regional 
records-storage facility. A security system will be installed, and an area of the 
building will be used immediately for storage on a limited scale. 

Recent Accessions by the North Carolina State Archives 

During the months of June, July, and August 1997 the Archival Services Branch 
of the Archives and Records Section made 135 accession entries. The branch 
received original records for Granville, Henderson, Macon, Randolph, and Surry 
Counties and security microfilm of records for Beaufort, Burke, Cabarrus, Cas¬ 
well, Cleveland, Cumberland, Dare, Duplin, Durham, Forsyth, Franklin, Gaston, 
Granville, Harnett, Henderson, Hertford, Jackson, Johnston, Lenoir, Mecklen¬ 
burg, Northampton, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Perquimans, Swain, Wake, 
Watauga, Wayne, and Yancey Counties; for the municipalities of Atlantic Beach, 
Autryville, Clayton, Kinston, Reidsville, Rolesville, Salemburg, Sanford, and 
Wilmington; and for churches in Cumberland, Onslow, Rowan, and Wake 
Counties. 

The branch accessioned records from the following state agencies: Court of 
Appeals, 67 reels; Cultural Resources, .3 cubic foot; Governor, 19 cubic feet; 
Justice, 36 cubic feet; Secretary of State, 28 reels; and Supreme Court, 1 cubic 
foot and 2 boxes of microfiche. New private collections included the Josephus 
Bruner Manuscripts and the Clell A. Spurgeon Letters. The Ruth P. Barbour 
Papers, the Miscellaneous Papers, the William S. Price Jr. Papers, and the Betty H. 
Wiser Papers received additions, and the George Burgwyn Johnston Diary was 
microfilmed. 

The North Carolina College Conference, the North Carolina Museums Coun¬ 
cil, North Carolina SANE/Freeze, the Sir Walter Cabinet, the Society of North 
Carolina Archivists, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the Veterans 
of World War I of the U S.A., Wake County Barracks, deposited organization 
records. Among additional accessions were student records from Draughon's 
Business College, Winston-Salem, and Phillips Junior Colleges; a program for a 
student drama production at Black Mountain College; published histories of 
churches in Robeson and Wake Counties; Bible records from 18 family Bibles; 
cemetery records for Alamance County; 7 additions to the Military Collection; 
and 1 videotape as an addition to the Non-Textual Materials Collection. 

Staff Notes 

Jeffrey J. Crow, director of the Division of Archives and History, spoke at Tryon 
Palace Auditorium on the evening of October 22. Dr. Crow titled his lecture 
"Archival Resources on Free People of Color in North Carolina." The Tryon 
Palace Council of Friends and the Friends of the Archives cosponsored the 
address. 

Heather L. Barrett joined the Survey and Planning Branch of the State Historic 
Preservation Office as a program assistant effective August 1 , 1997. Leigh Anna 


148 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Lawing Thrower, formerly word processor with the Historical Publications Sec¬ 
tion, resigned effective September 2. 

Gehrig Spencer has retired after more than thirty years as site manager at Fort 
Fisher, and Barbara Hoppe has been promoted to that position. Wes Morrison, 
maintenance mechanic at the Thomas Wolfe Memorial, has transferred to a 
position as interpreter at the James K. Polk Memorial. Howard Draper joined the 
staff of Duke Homestead as an interpreter, replacing Edna Gaston, who resigned. 
At the North Carolina Transportation Museum new staff members include 
Cecelia Chance, information and communications specialist; Joe Hayden, carpen¬ 
ter supervisor; and Brian Howell (formerly of Brunswick Town), facility mainte¬ 
nance supervisor. Scott Milligan of Brunswick Town has been promoted to 
historic interpreter at Fort Fisher. Leigh Strickland began work as a historic 
interpreter at Aycock Birthplace. Cynthia Langlykke, previously facility architect 
in the Raleigh home office, has resigned, as have Fred Spear, previously a site 
assistant at Somerset Place, and Dolly Hulin, previously a grounds worker at 
Town Creek Indian Mound. 

Kaye A. Myers joined the staff of the Western Office as a development officer 
effective August 1. 


Colleges and Universities 


Duke University 

William E. King, university archivist, is the author of If Gargoyles Could Talk: Sketches 
of Duke University (Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 1997). 

Fayetteville State University 

Dr. Phillip McGuire recently received a Chesapeake Regional Fellows Award 
from the University of Virginia. 

Pfeiffer University 

Dr. John Navin was named assistant professor of history effective August 1, 
1997. 

University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Dr. Converse D. Clowse retired effective July 31, 1997. 

Wake Forest University 

New members of the history department faculty for the 1997-1998 academic 
year include Dr. Paul Cobb, assistant professor; Dr. David Libby of the Univer¬ 
sity of Mississippi, visiting assistant professor; and Dr. Terence Kehoe of Ohio 
State University, visiting assistant professor. Professors Sarah Watts and J. 
Howell Smith will be on research leave for the entire academic year; Prof. Susan 
Rupp will be on research leave during the spring 1998 term. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


149 


Western Carolina University 

Tyler Blethen and Curtis Wood served as editors of Ulster and North America: 
Transatlantic Perspectives on the Scotch Irish (University: University of Alabama Press, 
1997). Gael N. Graham was recently promoted to associate professor, and Peter 
S. P. Carmichael recently joined the history faculty as an assistant professor. 

State, County, and Local Groups 

Cape Fear Museum 

An exhibition titled Fifty Years of Higher Education: The University of North Carolina at 
Wilmington is currently on display at the Cape Fear Museum in Wilmington. The 
university officially came into being on July 1, 1969, after having begun as 
Wilmington College in 1947. It presently boasts an enrollment of approximately 
9,100 students, a faculty and staff in excess of 1,400 people, and more than 70 
campus buildings and off-site facilities. The exhibition will remain on display 
through December 19. Telephone the museum at (910) 341-4350 for additional 
information. 

Chapel Hill Historical Society 

Members of the society made a daylong bus trip to Wilmington on October 8. The 
group toured Wilmington's downtown historic district and visited a number of 
restored residences, churches, and public buildings. 

Greensboro Historical Museum 

On the evening of October 14 Edward Davis, architectural historian for the 
North Carolina Department of Transportation, delivered a lecture on the works 
of renowned architect A. J. Davis in North Carolina. 

Lower Cape Fear Historical Society (Wilmington) 

The society will hold its twenty-fourth annual Old Wilmington by Candlelight 
tour on Saturday and Sunday, December 6 and 7, from 4:00 to 8:00 p m The tour 
will include fifteen private residences in the city's historic district, as well as 
several area churches and other attractions. Admission tickets are fifteen dollars 
each for individuals and twelve dollars each for groups of ten or more. For 
information on the tour or to obtain tickets, write to the society at 126 South 
Third Street, Wilmington, NC 28401; telephone (910) 762-0492; or fax (910) 
763-5869. Proceeds from the tour will benefit the society's work throughout the 
year. 

Mecklenburg Historical Association 

Dr. Lindley S. Butler, professor of history emeritus at Rockingham Community 
College and author or editor of numerous works on North Carolina history, was 
guest speaker at the September 29 dinner meeting of the Mecklenburg Historical 
Association. He titled his remarks “Col. David Fanning and North Carolina's 
'Tory War.'" 


150 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 


Museum of the Albemarle (Elizabeth City) 

A new exhibition titled Working Birds: Decoys and Their Carvers will be on display at 
the Museum of the Albemarle from November 23,1997, through July 19,1998. It 
features decoys and carvings by Neal Conoly, part of a group of collections held 
by the Whalehead Preservation Trust. 

The traveling exhibition North Carolina Women Making History will remain on 
display at the museum through June 7, 1998. Artifacts from the museum's 
collection will supplement items on display as part of the exhibition. 

Museum of the Cape Fear (Fayetteville) 

On December 7 at 2:00 and again at 3:00 p m the Eleventh North Carolina Troops 
Regiment Band will perform its annual concert of holiday and Civil War-era 
music at the museum. For additional information, telephone the museum at (910) 
486-1330. 

Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) 

Quilts, Coverlets, & Counterpanes: Selections from the MESDA and Old Salem Collections 
opened at MESDA in Winston-Salem on September 20. The exhibition encom¬ 
passes thirty-nine bedcovers, all but five with a southern provenance, represent¬ 
ing the richness and variety of such items made and used in the South from the 
second half of the eighteenth century through the nineteenth century. Comple¬ 
menting the actual coverings are information about many of their makers and 
examples of needleworking implements used in Salem. The exhibition will 
remain on display in the Frank L. Horton Museum Center gallery at MESDA 
through January 11, 1998. The gallery is located at 924 South Main Street in 
Winston-Salem. It is open Mondays through Saturdays from 9:00 a m. to 5:00 p m. 
and on Sundays from 1:00 to 5:00 p.m. For additional information on the exhibi¬ 
tion, telephone (800) 328-5360 or (910) 721-7360. 

The University of North Carolina Press is currently distributing a companion 
catalog titled Quilts, Coverlets, & Counterpanes: Bedcovers from the MESDA and Old Salem 
Collections. The 72-page publication (ISBN 1-879704-04-8), with an introduction 
and descriptions of the bedcovers by Paula W. Locklair, director of collections and 
curator at MESDA, and photographs by Wes Stewart, MESDA photographer, is 
available at the MESDA bookstore and through most area book dealers. It sells 
for $16.95. 

North Carolina Museum of History 

"Under the Oaks, Many Branches," the first North Carolina Docent Symposium, 
took place at the North Carolina Museum of History in mid-September. One 
hundred forty docents and employees of fifty-six museums, aquariums, and 
historic sites throughout the state attended the two-day conclave. Topics of 
individual sessions included object interpretation, innovative tours, special-needs 
tours, and meeting the needs of older citizens. 

The exhibition "With All Necessary Care and Attention": The Artistry of Thomas Day 
will remain on display at the museum through June 28, 1998. 


VOLUME 45, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER 1997 


151 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, July, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East Jones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601-2807. 

Jeffrey J. Crow, Editor in Chief 
Robert M. Topkins, Editor 


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Published Bimonthly by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History 


Index to Volume 45 (1997) 


A 


A E Taplin Apartment Building (High Point): pictured, 23 

A J. Davis in Antebellum North Carolina Architect of the Romantic Revival (traveling exhibition): 

opens at Greensboro Historical Museum, 62 
Accents Upholstery: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Across Fortune's Tracks: A Biography of William Rand Kenan Jr.: author of, wins Clarendon Award for, 
91 

Additions to the National Register, 23, 130-131 
Addo, Linda: recent activities of, 61 

African Methodist Episcopal Church, North Carolina Conference: proceedings of, now available to 
researchers, 119 

Afro-American Sources in North Carolina: A Guide to Manuschpts (electronic guide to manuscript 
holdings): availability of, announced, 29 
Alamance Battleground State Historic Site: news of, 17 
Albert Ray Newsome Awards: presented, 4 
Albright, Lee: speaks at Archives workshop, 52 
Alexander, John Brevard: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Alston, Macky: produces acclaimed film on shared past of white, black families, 141 
American Association for State and Local History (AASLH) awards: presented, 3 
American Association of University Women (AAUW) Award for Juvenile Literature: entries for, 
announced, 108; winner of, announced, 2 

American Battlefield Protection Program: donates to state historic sites program, 111 

American Institute of Professional Geologists: holds joint meeting at Reed Gold Mine, 54 

American Livestock Breeds Conservancy: growth of, reported, 57-58 

Andrews, Mildred Gwin: papers of, now available to researchers, 41 

Angley, Wilson: creates abstracts of eighteenth-century North Carolina port records, 76 

Anthony, Robert G., Jr.: lectures at University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 61 

Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925 (multivolume documentary): wins award, 41 

Applebee's (restaurant chain): features decor highlighting local history, 56; Wilson facility, pictured, 
56 


Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section: to change its name, 49; news of, 32. See also State 
Historic Preservation Office 
Archaeology Month in North Carolina: proclaimed, 109 
Archie K Davis Fellowships: proposals for, invited, 10 

"Architecture of the Old South" (ten-volume survey): availability of, reported, 142 
Archives and Records Section: establishes World Wide Web site, 26; news of, 14-15, 30-32, 52, 78- 
79, 109, 142-143 


Asbury, Louis: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 

Asheville Contemporary Dance Theatre: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 139 

Asheville School: pictured, 131 

Association for Engineering Geologists: holds joint meeting at Reed Gold Mine, 54 
Aycock, Doug: assists in reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 114 
Aycock Birthplace State Historic Site: news of, 56, 85; volunteer at, pictured, 19 
Ayers, Edward L.: to deliver keynote address at Charlotte graduate htetbjy fV 



•JAN 2 9'1998 

; >: LlBiti-ii .; Or j* jflCAROLINA 

RAtSiaH 












B 


Baird, Katherine pictured, 82; presents trophies to winners of History Bowl competition, 82 
Baker, Tom: meets with A&H officials, 32; pictured, 32 

Bancroft, Courtney: video program by, wins recognition in national competition, 140 
Banks, Philip participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137 
Bannister, Lemuel papers of, now available to researchers, 42 

Barbee, Millie M pictured, 80, reappointed, sworn in as member of North Carolina Histoncal 
Commission, 139, 140 

Barnes, Mary: speaks at Archives workshop, 52 

Barrett, Heather L joins staff of State Histone Preservation Office, 148 

Basnight, Marc participates in dedication of memonal garden at Somerset Place, 83 

Batchelor, John E : announces winners of North Carolina Student Publication Awards, 1 

Beach, Kathryn to present program on role of Scottish settlers in Amencan Revolution, 22 

Beaufort, N C : portion of waterfront of, pictured, 134 

Bechtel, John engages in restoration and maintenance projects, 56 

Beck, Elaine recent activities of, 118 

Beck, Raymond L researches State Capitol's painting and decorative schemes, 59 
Beehive Foundation (Savannah, Georgia): makes available architectural survey of the Old South, 142 
Beeson Hardware and Lumber Company (High Point) records of, now available to researchers, 42 
Begg, Ian lectures on architect David Paton, 59 
Ben-Wiley Hotel (Fuquay-Vanna): pictured, 131 

Bennett, John: addresses joint annual meeting of NCLHA and FNCHS, 1 
Bentonville Battleground Histoncal Association: sponsors projects at battleground site, 83 
Bentonville Battleground State Histone Site: map of, pictured, 84 
Berry, Emily: wins Lefler award, 2 

Bertie County Civil War years in, subject of recently published book, 6-7 
Bethel Church Arbor (Cabarrus County): pictured, 130 

Bishir, Cathenne W : pictured, 28, presents copy of new architectural publication to Secretary McCain, 
28 

Bixby, Don: becomes executive director of Amencan Minor Breeds Conservancy, 57 
Black Souls Been Scorched!: publication of, announced, 61 

Blackbeard (Edward Teach): flagship of, believed to have been discovered, 45; poster depicting, 
reprinted, 48 

Blahmk, Lorraine: joins staff of Reed Gold Mine, 61 

Blake, Debbi: participates in Archives workshop, 52 

Bleser, Carol: to participate in conference on women's history, 50 

Blethen, Tyler: serves as editor of publication on Ulster and North America, 150 

Blunderbuss (weapon recovered from shipwreck site near Beaufort): pictured, 47 

Boles, John: to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 105 

Bond, Vivian Phipps (Snooky): obituary of, 51 

Boone, Daniel article on, 63-71 

Borland, Deborah: makes presentation at Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137 
Bostic, Connie makes presentation at Thomas Wolfe Festival, 139 
Bowen, George W : diary of, now available to researchers, 42 

Boy Scouts of Amenca, Old Hickory Council: records of, now available to researchers, 42 
Boyette, Rob assumes supervision of histone sites in southeastern and western portions of state, 

114 

Bright, Leslie: conceives idea for new exhibit at CSS Neuse, 55 

Brook, David meets with representatives of Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, 32; pictured, 
32, 80; praises Alan D. Watson for service to National Register Advisory Committee, 80; publishes 
book on historic preservation movement in North Carolina, 135; quoted, concerning name change for 
state preservation agency, 49 
Brown, Bill: speaks at Archives workshop, 52 

Brown, Claudia: participates in book-presentation ceremony, 28; pictured, 80 
Brown, Henry: leads discussion of development of Reed Gold Mine, 54 
Brown, Michael contnbutes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Brown, Robert W.: recent activities of, 90 

Bruccoli, Matthew J : participates in panel discussion during Thomas Wolfe Festival, 16, pictured, 17 
Brunswick Town State Historic Site: news of, 18 

Buford, Elizabeth F : participates in book-presentation ceremony, 28, in dedication of memorial garden 
at Somerset Place, 83, in National History Day competition, 74; pictured, 28 
Burgess, Lauren Cook: speaks at Brunswick Town, 18 
Burkart, Katie pictured, 3; wins AASLH award, 3 
Bum, Judy: serves as member of A&H Web Committee, 26 


154 


Burnham, Philip: to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 105 
Burns, Tracy: pictured, 19 

Bush, Pat: confers on proposed renovation of Sanford House, 52; pictured, 52 
Butler, Lindley S : available as lecturer through new speakers bureau, 50; edits second volume of The 
Papers of David Settle Reid, 140; speaks at meeting of historical association, 150 
Byrd, John: speaks at meeting of archaeological society, 87 


C 


CSS Neuse new exhibit at, pictured, 55 

CSS Neuse Restoration Committee: provides funding for new exhibit, 55 
C. W. Stanford Middle School (Hillsborough): wins student publication award, 1 
Cain, Barbara T.: coordinates annual inventory of Archives holdings, 31; speaks at Archives 
workshop, 52 

Caldwell family (of Rosedale plantation): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Campbell, Karl: receives teaching award, 61 

Campbell, Tracy A addresses meeting of Oral History Association, 41 
Campbell, Walter E.: wins Clarendon Award, 91 
Campbell University: news of, 21 

Cannon, Ruth C : role of, in historic preservation, described in new publication, 135 
Cannon Foundation: donates to state historic sites program, 111 
Cape Fear Museum (Wilmington): news of, 62, 150 

Carlton, Charles: lectures on Queen Victoria at Smithsonian Institution, 22 

Carmichael, Peter S. P : joins history faculty at Western Carolina University, 150 

Carnage Middle School (Raleigh): team from, pictured, 82, wins History Bowl competition, 82 

Carnes-McNaughton, Linda: completes doctorate, 89 

Carolina Charter: pictured, 30; recently receives conservation treatment, 30 

Carolina Comments index to volume 44 (1996) of, announced, 15 

Carolina Place Historic District (Wilmington): portion of, pictured, 101 

Carolina Power & Light Company: donates collection of historical photographs to North Carolina State 
Archives, 78; early line crew of, pictured, 79 
Carson, Barbara G.: to participate in decorative arts symposium, 8 
Cashion, Rita: promoted in Director's Office, 60 
Catawba County Historical Association: wins AASLH award, 3 

Catawbans, The: Crafters of a North Carolina County author, publisher of, win AASLH awards, 3 

Catholic Diocese of Raleigh/Archives Project: receives local records grant, 14 

Cecelski, David S : article by, 121-129 

Censer, Jane Turner: wins Connor award, 2 

Chambers-Morgan Farm (Anson County): pictured, 131 

Champion, Sandra: pictured, 2, presents AAUW Award, 2 

Champion Map Company: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Chance, Cecelia: joins staff of North Carolina Transportation Museum, 149 
"Changing World of Work: North Carolina Elite Women, 1865-1895, A" (article in North Carolina 
Histohcal Review ): wins Connor award, 2 
Chapel Hill Historical Society: news of, 22, 42, 90, 150 

Chapin, Howard: participates in dedication of memonal garden at Somerset Place, 83 
Chappell, Fred: wins Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, 2 
Chappell, Sylvia: joins staff of Town Creek Indian Mound, 21 

Charlotte Hawkins Brown Foundation: donates to state historic sites program, 111; hosts tenth- 
anniversary banquet, 144 

Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial State Historic Site: news of, 111-112; portion of, pictured, 111 
Charlotte Law Building: minute book of, now available to researchers, 119 
Childers, Lloyd D : recent activities of, 79-80 

Chow, Ray: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Christopher Crittenden Memorial Award: presented, 5 

Chronicle of North Carolina dunng the American Revolution, 1763-1789, A: second pnnting of, issued, 
81 

Church of the Immaculate Conception and Michael Ferrall Family Cemetery (Halifax): pictured, 106; two 
thousandth North Carolina property successfully nominated to National Register, 105-106 
Claggett, Stephen R.: pictured, 80 

Clapp, Gordon: leads effort to promote heritage tourism in North Carolina, 10; speaks at Halifax Day 
commemoration, 81 

Clarendon Award (of Lower Cape Fear Histoncal Society): presented, 91 
Clark, Charles: reads paper at Popular Culture Conference, 90 


155 


Clark, James W , Jr pictured, 17 

Clark, Shelton promoted at Fayetteville State University, 118 
Clayton, Thomas L papers of, now available to researchers, 42 
Clayton family (Asheville): papers of, now available to researchers, 42 
Clegg, Claude publishes book, article, 61 

Clowse, Converse D retires from history department at University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 
149 

Cobb, Paul: joins history department faculty at Wake Forest University, 149 
Coffey, John William, II: presents slide demonstration during joint annual meeting of NCLHA and 
FNCHS, 3 

Colleges and Universities, 21-22, 41-42, 61,89-90, 118-119, 149-150 
Colonial Lodge (Warrenton): pictured, 103 

Confederate States Arsenal: produces working reproduction cannon for Fort Fisher, 36 
Conference on Restonng Southern Gardens and Landscapes (Old Salem): announced, 50 
Conoly, Neal: decoys and carvings by, on exhibit, 151 

Conroy, Pat: pictured, 138; serves as keynote speaker at Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137 

Cook, Weston F , Jr serves as program chairman at conference on Islamic studies, 90 

Council Furnishings: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 

Country Doctor Museum wins Newsome award, 4 

Creative Journeys (student publication): wins award, 2 

Creech, Duane A : serves as member of A&H Web Committee, 26 

Crisp, James E : author of introduction to new edition of book, 89 

Cross, Jerry C.: available as lecturer through new speakers bureau, 50 

Crow, Jeffrey J.: to address conference on interpretation of slavery, 105; announces name change for 
state preservation agency, 49; announces recipients of Lefler, Connor awards, 2; available as 
lecturer through new speakers bureau, 49; dedicates new path with wayside exhibits at Charlotte 
Hawkins Brown Memorial, 144; establishes Web Committee, computing unit for A&H, 26; lectures on 
archival resources on free African Americans in North Carolina, 148; meets with representatives of 
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, 32; participates in book-presentation ceremony, 28, in 
ceremony to induct late author into North Carolina Literary Hall of Fame, 88, in National History Day 
competition, 74; pictured, 3, 32, 80, 89; presents Alan D Watson with book, certificate for 
distinguished service to National Register Advisory Committee, 80; presents AASLH awards, 3; 
quoted, concerning discovery of what is believed to have been Blackbeard's flagship, 45 
Culpepper, William: participates in dedication of memorial garden at Somerset Place, 83 


D 

Dalton, Bryan: serves as instructor at historic artillery certification course, 145 
Daly, John P : to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 105 
Daniel, Mike: leads field operations in search for remains of what is believed to have been 
Blackbeard's flagship, 47 

Daniels, Frank A., Jr.: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 

Daughters of the American Revolution: cosponsors restoration of monument, 117 

Daughters of the Bntish Empire: sponsors book of condolence for Princess Diana at State Capitol, 146 

Davidson College: news of, 41 

Davidson family (of Rosedale plantation): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Davidson family (of Rural Hill plantation): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Davis, Edward: lectures on works of architect A. J. Davis, 150 
Davis, William: to deliver keynote address at Civil War conference, 78 
Davis Family House (Haywood County): pictured, 131 

Death of General Wolfe, The (eighteenth-century engraving): recently acquired by Tryon Palace, 39 
Deep River Fnends Meeting House and Cemetery (High Point): portion of, pictured, 23 
DeHart, Bruce J : contributes articles to Great Events from History, 90 
DeVorsey, Louis, Jr.: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 
Dialectic Society (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill): makes presentation at Thomas Wolfe 
Festival, 139 

Dickerson Chapel (Hillsborough): co-host of lecture on formation of black churches in South, 42 
Divided Allegiances: Bertie County duhng the Civil War author of, participates in book signing, 33; 

front cover of, pictured, 7; publication of, announced, 6 
Division of Archives and History: announces discovery of what is believed to have been Blackbeard's 
flagship, 45; cosponsors exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12; inaugurates new 
World Wide Web site, 25-27; publishes history of Bertie County during Civil War, 6; sponsors 
National History Day competition, 73-75, 141 

Dorsey, Michael: participates in exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12 


156 


Drake, Tracy: joins staff of Director's Office, 60 
Draper, Howard: joins staff of Duke Homestead, 149 
Duke Homestead State Historic Site: news of, 84 

Duke Power Foundation, contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 

Duke University: news of, 149 

Durrett-Jarrett House (Yadkin County): pictured, 130 

Dykeman, Wilma: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137, 138 

Dysart, John: manager at Reed Gold Mine, 54; pictured, 54; volunteers to assist in flood relief, 89 


E 

Eades, Brian: conducts architectural survey of Cleveland County, 40 

Eakin, Richard R.: participates in exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12 

Earlie E. Thorpe Memorial Lecture (Historic Stagville): reported, 8 

East Carolina Manuscript Collection: news of, 118 

East Carolina University Department of Anthropology: hosts meeting of archaeological society, 87 
East Carolina University Division of Continuing Studies: to cosponsor decorative arts symposium, 7 
East Yancey Middle School (Yancey County): team from, pictured, 82, runner-up in History Bowl 
competition, 82 

Eden House (archaeological site): undergoes extensive research, 11 

Edleman, Peter: walnut secretary made by, recently added to Ladies Parlor in Executive Mansion, 39 
Edmisten, Linda Harris: pictured, 80 

Ehrenberg, Ralph E.: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 
18th Field Artillery Brigade, 18th Airborne Corps (U S. Army): hosts historic artillery certification 
course, 145 

Eleventh North Carolina Troops Regiment Band (reenactment group): to perform at Museum of the 
Cape Fear, 151 

Enchanted Contemplations (student publication): wins award, 1-2 
Etheridge, Bob: partcipates in Independence Day celebration at State Capitol, 116 
Etherington, Don: supervises conservation work on Carolina Charter, 30 
Everett, Dwight: pictured, 73 

Ewen, Charles: speaks at meeting of archaeological society, 87 
Ewing Restoration: repairs ornamental plaster in State Capitol, 147 

Executive Mansion Fine Arts Committee: sponsors redecoration of Executive Mansion ballroom, 147 
Explus: begins fabrications of new displays for Thomas Wolfe Memorial, 114 


F 


Family Name (film): opening of, reported, 141-142 

Faragher, John Mack: article by, 63-71; delivers keynote address at joint annual meeting of NCLHA 
and FNCHS, 2 

Fargo Hanna: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 

Farless, Sharon Thompson: participates in dedication of memorial garden at Somerset Place, 83 

Farmer, Lori: to present program at Museum of the Cape Fear, 120 

Farmers and Merchants Bank (Salisbury): contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 
Fayetteville State University: news of, 41, 61, 118, 149 

Federation of North Carolina Historical Societies (FNCHS): assists in sponsoring National History Day 
competition, 141; contributes financial support to National History Day competition, 75; holds joint 
annual meeting, 1; sponsors Newsome awards, 4 
Fetzer, Tom: participates in Independence Day celebration at State Capitol, 116 
Fields, Barbara: to participate in conference on women's history, 50 
Fields, Karen: to participate in conference on women's history, 51 

Fifty Years of Higher Education: The University of North Carolina at Wilmington (exhibition at Cape Fear 
Museum): reported, 150 

Final Respects: Dealing with Death in the Victorian Era (exhibition at Museum of the Cape Fear): 
announced, 91; continued, 120 

Fire and Wind: Disasters of the Albemarle (exhibition): to remain on display at Museum of the 
Albemarle, 43 

First Families of North Carolina (exhibition): opens at North Carolina Museum of History, 43; to remain 
on display at North Carolina Museum of History, 62, 120 
Fitzhugh, Phiip Aylett (of Northampton County, Virginia): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Fonvielle, Chris E., Jr.: to speak at Civil War conference, 77; speaks at history museum, 62 
Food Lion Stores: contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 


157 


Fore, George removes paint samples from Hope Plantation, 118 

"Forgotten Legacy African Amencan Storm Wamors" (student report): author of, wins AASLH award, 3 
Fort Carolina on the Trent FfiVer(watercolor): recently acquired by Tryon Palace, 39 
Fort Fisher State Historic Site staff at, pictured, 19 

Forty-sixth Biennial Report of the North Carolina Division of Archives and History: July 1, 1994-June 
30, 199& publication of, announced, 110 
Fourth Southern Conference on Women's History: announced, 50 
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Franklin, John Hope pictured, 9; speaks at Histone Stagville, 8 
Freedom's Fruit (volume of juvenile literature): author of, wins AAUW Award, 2 
Freeze, Gary R wins AASLH award, 3 

Fnends of the Archives: assists with State Archives-sponsored workshop, 52; cosponsors lecture at 
Tryon Palace, 148; establishes speakers bureau, 49; holds annual meeting, 109 
Fnends of the North Carolina Maritime Museum: invites submissions for prize competition, 28 
Friends of Town Creek Indian Mound: holds cookout for IMPACT teams, 57 


G 

Gardens of Salem, The: The Landscape History of a Moravian Town in North Carolina, publication of, 
announced, 91 

Gary, Nannie: estate of, contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 
Gaston, Edna: resigns, 149 

Gatton, T. Harry: reappointed, sworn in as member of North Carolina Histoncal Commission, 139, 140 

Gavins, Raymond: lectures on formation of black churches in South, 42 

Gearino, G. D.: pictured, 4; wins Sir Walter Raleigh Award, 4 

Gertrude S Carraway Award of Merit: presented, 21 

Gettysburg College: to host Civil War Institute, 29 

Gledhill-Eartey, Renee: meets with representatives of Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, 32; 
pictured, 32 

Glover, Alex: assists in obtaining ore samples for Reed Gold Mine, 55 
Goode, John: serves as instructor at historic artillery certification course, 145 
Graduate History Forum (UNC at Charlotte Graduate History Association): announced, 11 
Gragg, Rod to speak at Civil War conference, 77 

Graham, Gael N.: promoted in history department at Western Carolina University, 150 
Graham, Jim: quoted, 133-134 

Gratz, Roberta: to speak at Preservation North Carolina annual conference, 77 
Greater Raleigh Convention and Visitors Bureau: presents service award to State Capitol docent, 117 
Green Leaf and Gold: Tobacco in North Carolina, new cover of, pictured, 110; second printing of 
revised edition of, issued, 110 

Greene, Harlan: leads workshop on new disaster-response plan, 142 
Greensboro Historical Museum, news of, 62, 90, 120, 150 
Griffin, John Chandler: author of book on Thomas Wolfe, 15 
Guide for Authors and Editors, third pnnting of, issued, 81 

Guide to the Historical Architecture of Eastern North Carolina, copy of, presented to Secretary 
McCain, 28 

Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State Archives: County Records, eleventh revised 
edition: available for purchase, 79; continues to receive praise, 143; to be published, 14 
Guide to Research Materials in the North Carolina State Archives: State Agency Records, remains 
available for sale, 143 

Guilford Courthouse National Military Park: representatives from, meet with A&H officials, 32 


H 


Hale, Gordon: joins staff of Vance Birthplace, 60 

Halifax County Register of Deeds Office/Preservation Project: receives local records grant, 14 
Halifax Garden Club: donates to state historic sites program, 111 
Hall, Dolores: pictured, 80 

HANDS (fellowship of garden clubs): contributes plants to Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Harmon, Mike: speaks at meeting of archaeological society, 88 
Harrell, Randy: receives award for achievement in historic preservation, 81 
Harrell, Sandy: receives award for achievement in historic preservation, 81 
Hamngton, Sion H.: available as lecturer through new speakers bureau, 49; currently documenting 
information on North Carolina's World War I veterans, 31; pictured, 31 


158 


Harris, William C.: available as lecturer through new speakers bureau, 49 

Harrison, Steve: pictured, 53 

Hart, Millie: joins staff of Aycock Birthplace, 21 

Hatch, Peter J.: to participate in decorative arts symposium, 8 

Hats and Accessories (fashion exhibit): to open at Museum of the Albemarle, 43 

Hauser, Daniel: resigns, 40 

Hayden, Joe: joins staff of North Carolina Transportation Museum, 149 
Henderson, Carol C.: serves as member of A&H Web Committee, 26 
Heritage tourism: discussed, 9-10 

"Heritage Tourism for North Carolina and the South: Community Preservation, Promotion and Progress" 
(conference): briefly reported, 10 

Heskamp, Chelsea: video presentation by, makes runoff in national competition, 140 
Hevia, James: recent activities of, 61 

Hewitt, Kimberly: joins staff of Thomas Wolfe Memorial, 21; participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 139; 
pictured, 54 

"Hidden beneath the Waves" (educational program): developer of, wins award, 21 
Higginbotham, Don: speaks at annual meeting of Friends of the Archives, 109 
Hill, Daniel Shine (of Franklin County): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
Hill, Dina: to deliver annual Dortch Memorial Lecture at Greensboro Historical Museum, 90, 120 
Hillsborough Historical Society: news of, 42 

His Majesty's 64th Regiment of Foot (reenactment group): participates in Halifax Day activities, 81 
Historic Flat Rock, Inc.: news of, 90 

Historic Halifax State Histone Site: first North Carolina property successfully nominated to National 
Register, 105; news of, 35, 36 

Historic Preservation Foundation of North Carolina. See Preservation North Carolina 
Historic preservation tax credits, announced, 101-103 

Historic Sites Section: calendar of events for, pictured, 34; news of, 15-20, 33-38, 53-58, 81-86, 111- 
116, 143-146 

Historic Stagvilie: news of, 8 

Historical Book Club of North Carolina: sponsors Sir Walter Raleigh Award, 4 
Historical Halifax Restoration Association: funds repainting project at Histone Halifax, 35; presents 
awards for achievement in historic preservation, 81 
Historical Publications Section: news of, 15, 33, 81, 109-110, 143; wins AASLH award, 3, 15 
Historical Society of North Carolina: sponsors Lefler, Connor awards, 2 

History and Architecture of Lee County, North Carolina, The publisher of, wins AASLH award, 3 
History Bowl. See North Carolina History Bowl 

Holiday Memories (annual exhibition): to open at North Carolina Museum of History, 120 
Hollingsworth, Robin: serves as intern in State CapitolA/isitor Services Section, 86 
Holmes, Mary Hayes: appointed to North Carolina Histoncal Commission, 75; sworn in as member of 
North Carolina Historical Commission, 140 

Honeycutt, A. L., Jr. (Al): contributes expertise to reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 
113; pictured, 113; presents slide program on restoration of Newbold-White House, 118 
Hooker, Michael: speaks at meeting of historical society, 22 
Hooks, William H.: pictured, 2; wins AAUW Award for Juvenile Literature, 2 
Hoppe, Barbara: promoted at Fort Fisher, 149 
Horne Creek Living Historical Farm: pictured, 16 
Howell, Brian: joins staff of North Carolina Transportation Museum, 149 

Howell, Ricky: continues to supervise historic sites in northeastern and central portions of state, 114 
Hugh T. Lefler Undergraduate Award: recipient of, announced, 2 
Hulin, Dolly: resigns, 149 

Humber, Robert Lee: memory of, honored by exhibition, symposium, 12 
Hunt, Carolyn (Mrs. James B., Jr): lights state Christmas tree, 38 

Hunt, James B , Jr.: appoints new member of North Carolina Historical Commission, 75; lights state 
Christmas tree, 38; proclaims Archaeology Month in North Carolina, 109; reappoints three members 
of North Carolina Historical Commission, 139-140; visits Historic Sites Section promotional display 
for National Tourism Day, 82 


Idol, John L.: pictured, 17 

Illusions (student publication): wins award, 2 


159 


In the Trenches The 30th Division in the First World War (museum exhibition): opening of, announced, 
62 

Index to North Carolina Newspapers, An second printing of, issued, 110 
Indian Wars in North Carolina, 1663-1763 : third pnnting of, issued, 81 
Information Conservation, Inc : performs conservation work on Carolina Charter, 30 
Intenor Design Society, Tnangle Chapter: members of, donate time to refurbish Capital Area Visitor 
Center, 87 

"Interpreting Slavery in the Classroom and at Histone Sites" (educational conference): announced, 
104 

Internal, Inc : announces discovery of what is believed to have been Blackboard's flagship, 45 
Into Their Labors: Documentary Photography in the South Tirols and the Southern Appalachians 
(exhibition): to close at North Carolina Museum of History, 22 
Iredell, James: pictured, 96; subject of article by Willis P Whichard, 92-99, of speech at joint annual 
meeting of NCLHA and FNCHS, 4 

Ishihara, Michelle: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Ivey, George: transcript of memoirs of, now available to researchers, 119 


J 

J. Murrey Atkins Library (UNC-Chariotte): recent acquisitions of, announced, 119 
Jager Company: conducts preservation projects for Bentonville Battleground, 83 
Johnson, Allen S.: co-compiler of catalog to recent exhibition of historical maps, 41; named professor 
ementus at North Carolina Wesleyan College, 119 
Johnson, Lloyd: addresses meeting of historical society, presents paper, 21 
Jones, Alice Eley: pictured, 9 

Jones, H. G : recent activities of, 118; to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108; submits 
North Carolina's first nomination to National Register, 105 
Jones, Matthew: video program by, makes runoff in national competition, 140 
Joy Lee Apartment Building and Annex (Carolina Beach): pictured, 131 
"Justice James Iredell": article by Willis P. Whichard, 92-99 
Justus, Kayce: video program by, wins recognition in national competition, 140 


K 


Keeter, Barbara: resigns, 61 

Kehoe, Terence: serves as visiting assistant professor of history at Wake Forest University, 149 
Kellenberger Historical Foundation: assists in financing new education/visitor center for Tryon Palace, 
76 

Kelly, Donna E : helps coordinates arrangements for Archives workshop, 52 

Kencraft Restorations: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 

Kidwai, Timothy: participates in Independence Day celebration at State Capitol, 116 

Kidwell, Claudia B : to participate in decorative arts symposium, 8 

Kiemer, Cynthia A : to participate in Charlotte graduate history forum, 11 

King, Helen: completes workshop in historic costume construction, 89 

King, William E.: publishes book, 149 

Klein, Carole: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137, 138 

Kovach, Doris: receives award for achievement in histone preservation, 81 

Kovach, James: receives award for achievement in historic preservation, 81 

Kraus, Joanna: author of new youth drama, 43 


L 

Lafayette Interior Fashions: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 
Lane, Mills: author of survey of southern architecture, 142 

Langlykke, Cynthia: pictured, 113; promoted in Historic Sites Section, 21; resigns, 149 
Lankford, Jesse R., Jr.: helps coordinate arrangements for Archives workshop, 52; pictured, 30 
Lasting Gift of Hentage, A A History of the North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Antiquities, 
1939-1974. publication of, announced, 135-136 
Lathrop, Suellen: named archivist at East Carolina University, 118 

Latta family (of Mecklenburg County, N.C., and York County, S C ): papers of, now available to 
researchers, 119 

Lautzenheiser, Loretta: speaks at meeting of archaeological society, 87 


160 


Lawrence, Beth: makes presentation at meeting of costume society, 118 
Lee, E. Lawrence: obituary of, 13 

Lee County Senior High School (Sanford): wins student publication award, 2 

Lee High Review (student publication): wins award, 2 

Leighton, Jeffrey: death of, announced, 89 

Leloudis, James L : pictured, 5; wins Mayflower Award, 5 

Leslie-Alford-Mims House (Holly Springs): pictured, 130 

Lester, Malcolm: recent activities of, 41; speaks at meeting of historical association, 22 

Libby, David: serves as visiting assistant professor of history at Wake Forest University, 149 

Liedtke, Walter: delivers keynote address at exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12 

Literary awards: entries for, announced, 106-108 

Locklair, Paula W.. contributes to publication on historic bedcovers, 151 

Loewen, James W.: to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 104 

Long, Charles: to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 105 

Lower Cape Fear Historical Society (Wilmington): news of, 43, 91, 150 

Lyndhurst Foundation: records of, now available to researchers, 119 


M 

McCain, Betty Ray: announces acquisition of property for new education/visitor center at Tryon 
Palace, 76; approves name change for state preservation agency, 49; declares wreck of what is 
believed to have been Blackboard's flagship a protected preserve, 48; instrumental in obtaining 
funding for repairs, improvements at state historic sites, 33; participates in exhibition, symposium in 
honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12; pictured, 28, 82; presented with copy of new architectural 
publication, 28; presents trophies to winners of History Bowl competition, 82; quoted, 135; serves 
as keynote speaker at Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137; to speak at Preservation North Carolina annual 
conference, 77; speaks at meeting of historical society, 43 
McCoury, Kent: promoted at Bennett Place, 60 
McCoy, Annette: pictured, 75 
McCrea, Bill: pictured, 113 

McFarland, Kenneth M.: delivers lecture on nineteenth-century landscape photographs, 41 
McGillicuddy, Brent: video program by, makes runoff in national competition, 140 
McGuire, Phillip: publishes book, 61; receives award, 149; recent activities of, 41 
McKay, Martha: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
MacKenzie, David: publishes books, 42 

McPherson, James R.: pictured, 40; presents plaque to Ray Wilkinson, 81; receives service award, 40 

Madden, David: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137, 138 

Maine Historical Society: donates historic photograph to Tryon Palace, 39 

Malone, E. T., Jr.: announces winner of Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, 2 

Maritime Research Institute (nonprofit corporation): to work with state agencies on excavating and 
curating artifacts found at site of wreck of what is believed to have been Blackbeard's flagship, 47 
Mars Hill College: news of, 41 

Martin, Van Jones: photographs by, featured in survey of southern architecture, 142 
Martin Middle School (Raleigh): wins student publication award, 2 
Massengill, Stephen E : publishes pictorial book on Durham, 118 
Mast, Greg: wins AASLH award, 3 

Masters, Phil: initiates search for remains of what is believed to have been Blackbeard's flagship, 46, 
47 

Matthews, Richard: speaks at meeting of historical society, 22 
Matthews Commercial Historic District (Matthews): portion of, pictured, 23 
Mattox, Henry E.: recent publications of, reported, 89-90 

May We All Remember Well: A Journal of the History and Cultures of Western North Carolina: subject of 
book-signing at Vance Birthplace, 144 
Mayflower Award for Nonfiction: entries for, announced, 107; presented, 4-5 
Mecklenburg Historical Association: news of, 22, 62, 150 

Memories of Thomas Wolfe: A Pictohal Companion to Look Homeward , Angel: mentioned, 15 
Meredith, Jan: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 138 

Michael Ferrall Family Cemetery (Halifax). See Church of the Immaculate Conception and Michael 
Ferrall Family Cemetery 

Mignot, Louis Remy: subject of slide presentation at joint annual meeting of NCLHA and FNCHS, 3 
Miller, Anne: pictured, 110; serves as summer intern for Historical Publications Section, 110 
Milligan, Scott: transfers to Fort Fisher, 149 
Mincher, Ruth Moore Harrison: obituary of, 51 

Minor, David: assists in developing, implementing A&H Web site, 26; pictured, 26 


161 


Misenheimer, Larry G spearheads efforts by A&H to develop, implement Web site, 26 

Mitchell, Ted participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 139, recent activities of, 118 

Mobley, Joe A available as lecturer through new speakers bureau, 50; wins AASLH certificate, 3, 15 

Moltke-Hansen, David: directs activities of North Carolina Afncan American Archives Group, 129; 

speaks at meeting of histoncal society, 90 
Moore, Mark assists in developing, implementing A&H Web site, 26, pictured, 26 
Moose, David retires, 89 

Moms, C Edward assists in coordinating annual inventory of Archives holdings, 31, leads workshop 
on new disaster-response plan, 142; speaks at Archives workshop, 52 
Morrison, Charles: joins staff of Thomas Wolfe Memorial, 61 
Momson, Wes: transfers to James K Polk Memonal, 149 

Morton, Chns: joins staff of Thomas Wolfe Memonal, 21; makes presentation at Thomas Wolfe 
Festival, 137 

Morton, Hugh: presents program on North Carolina Azalea Festival, 62 
Moser, Rom pictured, 5; presents Mayflower Award, 4 
Mount Holly Cotton Mill (Mount Holly): pictured, 23 

Mountain Gateway Museum (Old Fort): employees of, assist in moving exhibit, 60 
Mullett, Mabel dramatic interpretation by, mentioned, 16; makes presentation at Thomas Wolfe 
Festival, 137 

Museum of the Albemarle (Elizabeth City): news of, 43, 62, 120, 151 
Museum of the Cape Fear (Fayetteville): news of, 22, 91, 120, 151 
Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (Winston-Salem): news of, 91, 151 
Myers, Kaye A joins staff of Western Office, 149 


N 

National Historical Publications and Records Commission: funds new electronic guide to African 
Amencan manuscnpt holdings, 29 

National History Day: hosted by Division of Archives and History, 73-75; judges for, pictured, 73; 

national competition of, reported, 140-141; North Carolina contestants at, pictured, 141 
National Register of Histone Places: additions to. See Additions to the National Register 
Navin, John: named assistant professor of history at Pfeiffer University, 149 
Nebenzahl, Kenneth: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 
New Bern Historical Society: news of, 43 
New Leaves, 63-71,92-99, 121-129 
Newell, Josephine E : pictured, 3; wins AASLH award, 3 
News from Archives and History, 14-21,30-41, 52-61,78-89, 109-118, 142-149 
North Carolina A&T State University: news of, 61 

North Carolina African American Archives Group: produces new electronic guide to African American 
manuscript holdings, 29 

North Carolina Archaeological Society holds meeting at Tryon Palace, 87 

North Carolina Central University/School of Library and Information Sciences Records Management 
Project: receives local records grant, 14 
North Carolina Civil War Tourism Council: to host Civil War conference, 77 
North Carolina Collection to cosponsor conference on historical cartography, 108; news of, 118 
North Carolina Council for the Social Studies: assists in sponsoring National History Day competition, 
141; contributes financial support to National History Day competition, 75 
North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources: to cosponsor conference on interpreting slavery, 
104, cosponsors exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12; helps finance new 
education/visitor center at Tryon Palace, 76 

North Carolina Department of Transportation: conducts research at site of Eden House, 11 
North Carolina Hentage, Inc.: formation of, announced, 10 
North Carolina History Bowl: results of, reported, 82 

North Carolina Library Association/Round Table of Special Collections Project: receives local records 
grant, 14 

North Carolina Literary and Histoncal Association (NCLHA): assists in sponsonng National History Day 
competition, 141; contributes financial support to National History Day competition, 75; cosponsors 
exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12; cosponsors Roanoke-Chowan Poetry 
Award, 2; holds joint annual meeting, 1; sponsors R Hunt Parker Memorial Award, 5 
North Carolina Mantime History Council: invites submissions for prize competition, 28 
North Carolina Maritime Museum, now part of North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 133- 
135; pictured, 133, 134 

North Carolina Museum of History: assists in sponsoring National History Day competition, 141; news 
Of, 22, 43, 62, 91, 120, 151 


162 


North Carolina Museums Council: presents service award to James R. McPherson, 40 
North Carolina Preservation Consortium/Preservation Education Project: receives local records grant, 
14 

North Carolina Print and Drawing Society: records of, now available to researchers, 119 
North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Antiquities: history of, published, 135-136 
North Carolina Society of Surveyors/Land Surveyors' Plat Project: receives local records grant, 14 
North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office: new name of state preservation agency, 49; news 
of, 52-53, 79-80; successfully nominates two thousandth North Carolina property to National 
Register, 105. See also Archaeology and Historic Preservation Section 
North Carolina State Historical Records Advisory Board: announces recipients of grants, 14 
North Carolina State University: news of, 22, 41,89-90, 119 
North Carolina Student Publication Awards: announced, 1-2 
"North Carolina: The Civil War Connection" (annual conference): announced, 77 
North Carolina Transportation Museum: news of, 56-57 

North Carolina United Daughters of the Confederacy: presents donation to State Capitol Foundation, 
59 

North Carolina Wesleyan College: news of, 41, 119 

North Carolina Women Making History (traveling exhibition): on display at Museum of the Albemarle, 

151; to open at Museum of the Albemarle, 120 
North Caroliniana Society: to cosponsor conference on historical cartography, 108 
Norton, Tom: former manager at Reed Gold Mine, 54 


O 


Obituaries, 12-13, 30, 51 

Office of State Archaeology: establishes World Wide Web site, 26 
Old North State Fact Book, The. third printing of, issued, 109 
Old Salem, Inc.: to host conference on restoring southern gardens, 50; news of, 91 
Olson, David J.: directs activities of North Carolina African American Archives Group, 29; leads in 
development of new disaster-response plan for Archives and Records Section, 142; pictured, 30 
'"One Building Block in the Battle': The North Carolina Volunteers and the Legacy of Idealism" 
(undergraduate paper): wins Lefler award, 2 
Opus '96 (student publication): wins award, 1 

Original Man, An: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad: publication of, announced, 61 


P 

Palmer, John C.: silver spoons made by, recently added to Ladies Parlor in Executive Mansion, 39 
Papa Loved Hot Biscuits and Com Bread (book by Kimberly Hewitt): book signing for, held during 
Thomas Wolfe Festival, 139 

Papers of David Settle Reid, The: second volume of, published, 140 
Parker, John J., III. speaks at meeting of historical association, 62 

Parker, Lisa: co-compiler of new electronic guide to African American manuscript holdings, 29 
Parkway Players: participate in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 17 
Parson, Marion: joins staff of Western Office, 61 

Paschall, John: serves as member of "core group" for Web-related activities, 26 
Paton, David: topic of State Capitol Society lecture, 59 
Patterson, Alex McLeod: obituary of, 12 
Peoples, Kira: pictured, 75 

Perry, David: participates in book-presentation ceremony, 28; pictured, 28 
Pezzoni, J. Daniel: author of volume on history and architecture of Lee County, 3 
Pfeiffer University, news of, 61, 149 

Philanthropic Society (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill): makes presentation at Thomas 
Wolfe Festival, 139 

Phillips, Patricia: delivers guest lecture at Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, 91 
Phillips, Susan: resigns from North Carolina Historical Commission, 75 

Pinnix-Ragland, Hilda: quoted, concerning historic photographs donated by Carolina Power & Light 
Company to North Carolina State Archives, 78 
Pirates of Colonial North Carolina, The: available for purchase, 48 
Pope, Sarah Manning: wins AASLH certificate, 3 
Port o' Plymouth Museum (Plymouth): hosts book signing, 33 
Port records (North Carolina): abstracts of, now available on microfilm, 76 
Porter, Thomas: publishes chapter in reference work, 61 


163 


Postcards of Old Wayne County, N C authors of, win AASLH Certificates of Commendation, 3 
Powell, William S pictured, 1; presents Crittenden award, 5 

Power, Scott contnbutes expertise to reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 113 
Pratt, Marshall: obituary of, 51 

Preservation North Carolina history of forerunner organization of, described in new publication, 135- 
136; to hold annual conference, 77; presents Carraway award, 21 
Pnce, David participates in Independence Day celebration at State Capitol, 116 
Pnce, William S , Jr.: introduces speaker at annual meeting of Friends of the Archives, 109 
"Putting the Pieces Together: Using Complementary Sources for Research" (workshop): announced 
32 

Pyatt, Timothy D editor of new electronic guide to Afncan Amencan manuscript holdings, 29 


Q 

Queen Anne's Revenge (flagship of pirate Blackbeard) wreck of, believed to have been discovered, 

45 

Quilts, Coverlets, & Counterpanes Bedcovers from the MESDA and Old Salem Collections, availability 
of, announced, 151 

Quilts, Coverlets, & Counterpanes: Selections from the MESDA and Old Salem Collections (exhibition 
at Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts): reported, 151 


R 


R Hunt Parker Memorial Award presented, 5 

Railroad House Historical Association (Sanford): wins AASLH award, 3 
Rainbow Squares (square-dance group): pictured, 117 
Raleigh Little Theatre: cosponsor of new youth drama, 43 

Ramsey, Walter J.: silver spoons by, recently added to Ladies Parlor in Executive Mansion, 39 
Ratner, Shana: performance by, makes runoff in national competition, 140 
Ray Wiseman House (Avery County): pictured, 130 

Recent Accessions by the North Carolina State Archives, 20-21, 60, 88, 148 

Recent Articles on North Carolina History, 13, 52 

Red Clay Ramblers: papers of, now available to researchers, 42 

Red Hill plantation (Granville County), pictured, 102 

Redford, Dorothy Spruill: to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 104; participates in 
dedication of memorial garden at Somerset Place, 83 
Reed Gold Mine: celebrates twentieth anniversary, 53-54; new feature at, pictured, 54 
Reeves family (of Hardeman County, Tennessee): papers of, now available to researchers, 119 
"Remembering Our Past, Preserving Our Future" (hentage tourism symposium): co-hosted by Historic 
Halifax, 36 

Remsburg, Bob: pictured, 54 

Research Branch (Division of Archives and History): makes research reports available on microfilm to 
researchers, 77 

Rhodes, Thomas named new director of North Carolina Transportation Museum, 40 
Rice, Nathaniel punch bowl once owned by, acquired by Tryon Palace, 39 

Roanoke-Chowan Group of Writers and Allied Artists: cosponsors Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, 2 
Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award: entnes for, announced, 107-108, recipient of, announced, 2 
Robert D. W. Connor Award: recipient of, announced, 2 

"Robert Lee Humber: A Collector Creates" (exhibition and symposium): reported, 12 

Robertson, Blanche R.: participates in book signing at Vance Birthplace, 144 

Robinson, Lorraine: donates to state historic sites program, 111 

Rockingham County: A Bhef History second printing of, issued, 143 

Rogers, James T participates in dedication of memorial garden at Somerset Place, 83 

Rose, George W.: donates historic punch bowl to Tryon Palace, 39 

Rosemont-Mclver Park Histone District (Sanford): portion of, pictured, 130 

Rowan County: contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 

Rubin, Louis D : pictured, 5, wins Parker award, 5 

Rupp, Susan: to be on research leave from history department at Wake Forest University, 149 
Rypkema, Don: to present results of historic-preservation study at Preservation North Carolina annual 
conference, 77 


164 


s 


St. Andrews Presbyterian College: news of, 90 

Salisbury Community Foundation: contributes funds to state historic sites program, 35 
Sally-Billy House (Historic Halifax State Historic Site): pictured, 36 

Sandbeck, Peter: contributes expertise to reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 113 

Sanders, Ann (Mrs. John L.): donates historic engraving to Tryon Palace, 39 

Sanders, John L.: donates historic engraving to Tryon Palace, 39 

Sanders, Sandy: receives service award, 117 

Sanford, Beverly: pictured, 40 

Sanford, Cecil: former home of, to undergo renovation, 52 

Sanford, Elizabeth (Betsy): former home of, to undergo restoration, 52 

Sanford, Terry, boyhood home of, to undergo renovation, 52 

Sanford House (Laurinburg): pictured, 53; to undergo renovation, 52 

Sawyer, Becky: joins staff of Bentonville Battleground, 61 

Schaber, Robert: produces working reproduction cannon for Fort Fisher, 36 

Schooling the New South: Pedagogy, Self, and Society in North Carolina, 1880-1920 author of, wins 
Mayflower Award, 5 

Schroeder, Donald N.: serves as panelist at annual meeting of professional association, 21 
Scotland County Literacy Council: to renovate Sanford House, 52 
Sententia (student publication): wins award, 2 

Shay steam locomotive No. 1925: now fully operational at transportation museum, 114; pictured, 57, 
114 

Shealer, Charles: pictured, 117 

Shine, Sam: speaks at rededication of athletic field at Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial, 144 
Shipler, David K. to participate in conference on interpretation of slavery, 105 
Simmons-Henry, Linda: co-compiler of new electronic guide to African American manuscnpt holdings, 
29 

Simpson, Druscilla R.: serves as member of "core group" for Web-related activities, 26 
Simpson, Kenrick N.: editor of eleventh revised edition of county records guide, 14; speaks at 
Archives workshop, 52 

Singla, Svati: exhibit by, placed on display in Washington, D C., 140; pictured, 74 

Singletary, Henry: leads discussion of development of Reed Gold Mine, 54 

Sir Isaac Hunter Excellence in Service Award: presented to State Capitol docent, 117 

Sir Walter Ralegh and the New World : second printing of, issued, 110 

Sir Walter Raleigh Award for Fiction: entries for, announced, 107; presented, 4 

6th North Carolina Reenactment Society: participates in Halifax Day activities, 81 

Skerry, Janine E.: to participate in decorative arts symposium, 8 

Slavery (in French-speaking world): conference on, announced, 51 

Sliva, Deborah: joins staff of Historic Edenton, 61 

Smith, Claiborne: donates to state historic sites program, 111 

Smith, J. Howell: to be on research leave from history department at Wake Forest University, 149 
Smith, John David: editor of award-winning documentary, 41; named editor of new interdisciplinary 
series on South, 119 

Smith, Lee: pictured, 5; presents Parker award, 5 

Smith, Phyllis: named assistant professor of history at Mars Hill College, 41 
Smith, Stanley: participates in dedication of memorial garden at Somerset Place, 83 
Smith, Susan: joins staff of Reed Gold Mine, 21 
Society Cup (of Lower Cape Fear Historical Society): presented, 91 
Somerset Place Foundation: to cosponsor conference on interpreting slavery, 104 
Somerset Place State Historic Site: to host conference on interpreting slavery, 104; to receive 
reconstructed slave cabin, 112; reconstruction of slave cabin at, pictured, 113 
Sons of the American Revolution: cosponsors restoration of monument, 117 
South Mecklenburg High School (Charlotte): wins student publication award, 2 
"Southeast in Early Maps, The" (conference of historical cartography): announced, 108 
Southern, Michael T.: contributes expertise to reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 113; 
pictured, 28; presents copy of new architectural publication to Secretary McCain, 28; serves as 
member of A&H Web Committee, 26 
Southern architecture: survey of, now available, 142 
Southern Association for Women Historians: to host conference, 50 
Southern gardens and landscapes: conference on, announced, 50 
Southern Historical Collection: news of, 41-42, 119 
Spangler, C. D., Jr.: to speak at meeting of historical society, 42 

Sparrow, W. Keats: participates in exhibition, symposium in honor of Robert Lee Humber, 12 
Spear, Fred: resigns, 149 


165 


Speller, Benjamin F , Jr directs activities of North Carolina African American Archives Group, 29 
Spencer, Gehng retires, 149 

Spnng Garden (volume of poetry) author of, wins Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, 2 

Staff Notes, 21, 40-41, 60-61,88-89, 118, 148-149 

Stafford, Aurelia pictured, 4, presents Sir Walter Raleigh Award, 4 

Stanback, Nancy contnbutes funds to state historic sites program, 35 

Stanback, William contributes funds to state histone sites program, 35 

Stapleton, Mike pictured, 137 

Stapleton, Patncia pictured, 137 

State Capitol Foundation: accepts donations to restore monuments on Capitol Square, 59 
State Capitol Society: hosts lecture on architect David Paton, 59 
State CapitolA/isitor Services Section news of, 20, 38, 59, 86, 116-117, 146-147 
State Christmas tree for 1996 pictured, 38 

State, County, and Local Groups, 22, 42-43, 62, 90-91, 120, 150-151 
State Historic Preservation Office See North Carolina State Histone Preservation Office 
State Troops and Volunteers A Photographic Record of North Carolina's Civil War Soldiers, Vol 1: 
author of, wins AASLH award, 3 

Steele, Russ assists in reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 114 
Steelman, Joseph pictured, 1; wins Crittenden award, 5 
Steelman, Lala: pictured, 1, wins Crittenden award, 5 
Stenhouse, James Alan: obituary of, 13 

Stephens and Francis, P A. (architectural firm): wins award for preservation, 20 

Stewart, Wes contnbutes to publication on histone bedcovers, 151 

Stinagle, George former manager at Reed Gold Mine, 54 

Stone, Chuck: speaks at meeting of historical society, 42 

Strickland, Leigh joins staff of Aycock Birthplace, 149 

Strong, Lady: resigns, 61 

Sunday Gold (youth drama): free performances of, announced, 43 

Survey and Planning Branch (State Histone Preservation Office): establishes World Wide Web site, 25 
"Survival and Liberation North Carolinians Remember the Holocaust" (special presentation): to appear 
at North Carolina Museum of History, 120 

Suspended in Time Portraits from the Museum of History Collection (exhibit at North Carolina Museum 
of History): opening of, announced, 91; to remain on display, 120 
Swann-Wnght, Dianne: to moderate panel discussion at conference on interpreting slavery, 105 


T 


Tackett, John: selected to attend seminar, 21 

Talking Rocks Trail (new feature at Reed Gold Mine) announced, 54; pictured, 54 

Tar Heel Junior Histonan Association: holds annual convention, 91 

Tar Heel Maps Colony and State, 1590-1995 (exhibition catalog): published, 41 

Taylor, Richard C to participate in decorative arts symposium, 8 

Terrell, Bob participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137, 138 

'This Decade's Woman: Expanding the Legacy" (seminar): held at Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial, 
144 

Thomas, Betsy helps coordinate arrangements for Archives workshop, 52 
Thomas, Gerald W. author of recently published book on Bertie County during Civil War, 6; 
participates in book signing, 33; pictured, 33 

Thomas, Reid assists in removing paint samples at Hope Plantation, 118; confers on proposed 
restorations, 32, 52; contributes expertise to reconstruction of slave cabin at Somerset Place, 113; 
pictured, 52 

Thomas Wolfe A Wntehs Life (book by Ted Mitchell): book signing for, held dunng Thomas Wolfe 
Festival, 139 

Thomas Wolfe Festival reported, 15-17, 137-139 

Thomas Wolfe Memorial State Historic Site interior of new visitor center at, pictured, 34 
Thompson, Raymond M (Pete): memorial garden at Somerset Place dedicated to memory of, 83, 
portion of, pictured, 83 

Thrower, Leigh Anna Lawing: resigns, 148-149 

Tilly, Nancy: papers of, now available to researchers, 119 

Tobin, Boyd donates funds to Charlotte Hawkins Brown Memorial, 111 

Tolson, Norris: to speak at Preservation North Carolina annual conference, 77 

Topkins, Robert M : publishes indexed abstract of death notices, 89 

Tower Award: presented, 20 

Town Creek Indian Mound: news of, 57 


166 


Tracy-Walls, Fran: serves as member of "core group" for Web-related activities, 26 

Trenton Manor Furniture Company: contributes to refurbishing of Capital Area Visitor Center, 87 

Tributaries Prize Essay Competition: reported, 28-29 

Trimble, Susan M : serves as member of A&H Web Committee, 26 

Tryon Palace Commission to cosponsor decorative arts symposium, 7 

Tryon Palace Council of Friends: cosponsors lecture at Tryon Palace, 148 

Tryon Palace Decorative Arts Symposium: announced, 7-8 

Tryon Palace Historic Sites & Gardens: to have new education and visitor center, 76; news of, 39, 87- 
88, 147; welcomes its two millionth visitor, 136 
"Twelve Days of Christmas" (musical program): announced, 147 


U 

USS Monkor (traveling exhibition): opens at Greensboro Historical Museum, 62 
"Under the Oaks, Many Branches" (docent symposium) reported, 151 

Underwater Archaeology Unit (Division of Archives and History): awarded Society Cup of Lower Cape 
Fear Historical Society, 91 

Underwriter (Union gunboat): exhibit of artifacts from wreck site of, opens at CSS Neuse, 55 
United States Post Office, Boone: pictured, 23 
University of North Carolina at Charlotte: news of, 61, 119 

University of North Carolina at Charlotte Graduate History Association: seeks papers for Graduate 
History Forum, 11 

University of North Carolina at Greensboro: news of, 42, 149 
University of North Carolina at Pembroke: news of, 90, 149 

University Press of Virginia: makes available new electronic guide to African Amencan manuscript 
holdings, 29 


V 


Valsame, Mark: speaks at Archives workshop, 52 
Vogel, Bob: meets with A&H officials, 32; pictured, 32 

Vulcan Materials Company, Mideast Division: donates to state historic sites program, 111; provides 
ore samples to Reed Gold Mine, 55 


W 


Wake Forest University: news of, 149 

Walsh, Stephen J.: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 

"War Experiences 1865" (living history program): recent presentation of, pictured, 86 

Ward Family House (Watauga County): pictured, 130 

Ware Creek School (Beaufort County): pictured, 131 

Warren, Harry: pictured, 40 

Warren County Middle School (Warrenton): wins student publication award, 2 
Washington High School (Washington): wins student publication award, 1 

"Waterpowered Mills of Reems Creek" (article by Blanche R. Robertson): featured in new book, 144 
Waters, Davis: promoted at Bennett Place, 40 

Watson, Alan D.: honored for service to National Register Advisory Committee, 80; pictured, 80; 

reappointed, sworn in as member of North Carolina Historical Commission, 139, 140 
Watson, Robert C.: to moderate panel discussion at conference on interpreting slavery, 104 
Watts, Sarah: to be on research leave from history department at Wake Forest University, 149 
Weaverville United Methodist Church (Weaverville): pictured, 23 
Web Committee: established, 26; members of, enumerated, 26 
Weil, Emily Newman: wins AASLH certificate, 3 
Westall, Elizabeth: participates in Thomas Wolfe Festival, 17 
Western Carolina University: news of, 150 
Western Office: news of, 20, 40, 60, 148 
Westmacott, Richard: presents lecture at Tryon Palace, 147 
What the Deaf-Mute Heard, author of, wins Sir Walter Raleigh Award, 4 

What We Brought with Us Mementos of the Flight from Europe, 1933-1950 (traveling exhibit): to 
appear at North Carolina Museum of History, 120 
Wheelock, Merrill G.: creator of watercolor recently acquired by Tryon Palace, 39 


167 


Whichard, Willis P article by, 92-99, delivers after-dinner speech at joint annual meeting of NCLHA 
and FNCHS, 4, pictured, 4; presides at business meeting of NCLHA, 3, at dinner during joint annual 
meeting of NCLHA and FNCHS, 4, at sweanng-in ceremony, 140 
Whitaker, Jim: seeks to locate wreck of what is believed to have been Blackbeard's flagship, 47 
"’White People That Live Like Savages': Daniel Boone in North Carolina": article by John Mack 
Faragher, 63-71 

"Wild Plums at Core Creek, The; or, In Praise of Slow Cooking": article by David S Cecelski, 121-129 
Wilde-Ramsing, Mark wins Carraway award, 21 

Wilds, Mitch: confers on proposed restoration of Wnght Brothers Memorial, 53; pictured, 53 
Wilkinson, Ray: receives plaque for contributions to Historic Halifax, 81 
Williams, Gene J.: obituary of, 30 

Williams, Gregory W.: co-compiler of catalog to recent exhibition of historical maps, 41 
Williams, Kay P : comments on proposed new education/visitor center for Tryon Palace, 76, quoted, 
concerning accreditation of Tryon Palace by Amencan Association of Museums, 87 
Williams, Mike speaks at meeting of histoncal society, 42 
Williams, Ralph resigns, 21 

Williford, Jo Ann chairs A&H Web Committee, 26; presents Newsome awards, 4; serves as state 
coordinator for National History Day, 73, welcomes participants to joint annual meeting of NCLHA 
and FNCHS, 1 

Wilmington Campaign, The Last Rays of Departing Hope topic of program at history museum, 62 
Wilson County Register of Deeds Office/Preservation Project: receives local records grant, 14 
Wind Pipes (musical group): performs at Brunswick Town, 18 

Winston-Salem State UniversityAD'Kelly Library Arts and Athletics Archival Program: receives local 
records grant, 14 

"With All Necessary Care and Attention" The Artistry of Thomas Day (exhibition): to remain on display 
at North Carolina Museum of History, 22, 62, 91, 151 
Wolfe, R Dietz: serves as keynote speaker at Thomas Wolfe Festival, 137 
Wolfe, Thomas: new book on, mentioned, 15; pictured, 139 

Women of the Confederacy: statue commemorating, pictured, 59, undergoes restoration, 59 

Wood, Carleton B.: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 

Wood, Curtis: serves as editor of publication on Ulster and North America, 150 

Woodward, David: to speak at conference on historical cartography, 108 

Working Birds: Decoys and Their Carvers (exhibition at Museum of the Albemarle): reported, 151 

Wright Brothers Memonal (Kill Devil Hills): pictured, 53; to undergo restoration, 53 

Wyatt Camp, Sons of Confederate Veterans: sponsors restoration of monument, 117 


Y 

Yadkin County Historical and Genealogical Society: wins Newsome award, 4 


Z 

Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation: to cosponsor conference on interpreting slavery, 104; donates to state 
historic sites program, 111 

Zea, Philip: to deliver keynote address at decorative arts symposium, 7-8 


CAROLINA COMMENTS 

(ISSN 0576-808X) 

Published in January, March, May, July, September, and November by the Division of Archives and History, 
Department of Cultural Resources, Archives and History/State Library Building, 109 East lones Street, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27601-2807. 

Jeffrey J. Crow, Editor in Chief 
Robert M. Topkins, Editor 


168