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Second Edition 






This Catalogue is neither a treatise on the phenomena of sound, nor a 
disquisition on the origin and evolution of musical instruments. 

It is obvious, however, that the scientific principles on which the various 
processes of tone-production are based must be stated; it is equally evident 
that some theory as to the priority of type must be accepted as a starting point 
in the evolution of instruments, and, also, that no classification is possible that 
does not rest on a definite evolutionary sequence. Therefore, the ultimate 
foundation for the facts noted in these pages must rest on those phases of the 
subject the full exploitation of which is specifically disavowed as its end. 

In the attempt to make this publication of real assistance to those who 
wish to view the Collection intelligently, particular stress is laid on the musical 
possibilities of specific groups, not neglecting to bring to notice the frequently 
strongly marked individual note of single representatives of these families. 
Again, those instances in which humanity makes the appeal are accentuated. 
Possibly a realization of all the personal and communal implications inhering 
in the uses of certain instruments may give even to those who look upon a col- 
lection as furnishing the means for satiating curiosity while killing time, 
worthier and more inspiring points of view. That the restrictions of space 
forbid an extended consideration of these implications is regretted, but it is 
hoped that the limited references to them will encourage further investigation. 

Great collections are, in the main, reflections of the personality and indi- 
vidual bias of their founders. Historical or personal associations; decorative 
beauty and grace of form; a penchant for a certain class of instruments may 
be guiding factors in selection. Collections thus influenced reveal personality, 
and frequently are of greater interest than the larger collections assembled 
under the aegis of some government. It is interesting to note that most of our 
private collections are domiciled on some university campus. The "Steinert" 
(Yale); the "Frismuth" (Pennsylvania), and "Stearns" (Michigan) Col- 
lections support this interesting statement. The largest American collection, the 
"Crosby Brown" (Metropolitan Museum, New York), is not remote from 
Columbia University, and may therefore be utilized for purposes of general 
instruction and specific research. For such purposes the Stearns Collection is 
peculiarly adapted, as it is pre-eminently a collection of types. 

It may be questioned whether any gift to the University has added more, 
if as much, to its resources for original work than this. The Collection itself 
is supplemented by a comprehensive selection of the special literature pertain- 
ing to instruments and their uses, the extent of which will be realized by ref- 


erence to the Bibliography at the end of this Catalogue. TTie scope of the 
Collection will be revealed in the following pages and need not be detailed 
at this point. 

The quarters assigned it in the Museum proved to be so conspicuously 
inadequate that, on the completion of the Hill Auditorium, the instruments 
— including those secured by the Beal-Steere Expedition (1870-75) — were 
removed to their present location (April, 1914). 

The installation has proceeded uninterruptedly from the date of its 
removal to the present, relieved only by the arduous, but delightful, task of 
organizing the material forming the basis of the Catalogue. In the placing 
of the instnmients, the reconciliation of such conflicting factors as scientific 
sequence, geographical distribution, ethnological considerations, and artistic 
grouping presented many problems the solution of which was exceedingly 
difficult. Occasional lapses in classification, or infelicities in grouping, have 
been unavoidable; for, while the space appears to be ample, in reality it is 
somewhat restricted. There are a few gaps in certain classes, for the filling 
of which the generosity of those who are interested in the subject is confi- 
dently relied upon. This confidence is predicated on the fact that while the 
present installation was in progress several important accessions were received, 
and valuable contributions are constantly being made. 

In this connection it is significant that, of the thirty-eight important col- 
lections cited by Sachs in his encyclopedic work on musical instruments, five 
are listed as private, while several of the most comprehensive civic collections 
are gifts from public-spirited citizens. Again, many of the collections result- 
ing from governmental aid owe their origin to the initaitive of some musical 
scientist, by whose name they are generally known, if not to the general pub- 
lic, at least to cognoscenti. 

One of the choicest private collections, that of the Rev. F. W. Galpin, 
of Harlow, England, has been transferred from its former home in his fif- 
teenth-century manse, in the historic Hatfield Parish, to our shores. While 
this process has robbed it of the distinct charm lent by such appropriate sur- 
roundings, this country has gained an invaluable musical asset. 

Sachs' list could be extended considerably by the inclusion of American 
collections not referred to by him. This is largely due to the fact that many 
of them have no catalogues, a remark equally applicable to certain minor 
European collections. To remove this fatal objection, which has applied to 
the Stearns Collection, is the purpose of this publication. At this point it is 
of distinct advantage to note certain guiding principles of procedure, which 
have been consistently followed. 

Detailed marginal references to the general literature of the subject and 
specific acknowledgments of the ordinary available sources will be omitted ; 
only distinctly important contributions will be*thus noted. 

Of authoritative publications on the subject, none have been of greater 


assistance than the works of the Rev. Francis W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S., 
Victor C. Mahillon, and Dr. Curt Sachs; while in our own country Mr. E. 
H. Hawley and Miss Frances Morris have rendered distinct service, espe- 
cially in all that pertains to native — i. e., Indian — instruments. 

In cases of disputed orthography, etymology, or classification, the 
authority of Curt Sachs or Mahillon will, in most cases, be considered final. 

In the transliteration of many Oriental and native names errors have 
arisen, a condition which makes reference to some standard authority impera- 
tive. For example, in certain names the French ch and the German sch have 
been used instead of s/i, which is more nearly correct, for English-speaking 
peoples at least. Frequently the etymology of a word is definitive, but in the 
past many errors of this sort have been carelessly passed on. Again, an instru- 
ment may appear to occupy a zone either between two classes or inclining 
towards one or the other, according to the point of view of the investigator. 
The attempt has been made to remove some of these misconceptions, but 
occasionally to do so is either to invite disaster or to establish the superiority 
of the interrogation point over the period. 

Whenever possible, the names given, both of European and Extra- 
European instruments, are those by which they are known in the countries 
from which they come, the question of origin not being involved. As the 
introductions to each special type, or prominent representative thereof, give 
designations in English, French, Italian, and German, this plan need not 
cause any confusion. In cases where this procedure would obtrude itself 
unnecessarily it will be followed with discretion, and in Cases I, II, and III 
only exceptionally will European instruments be so indicated. 

It is impossible to fully acknowledge the importance of the preparatory 
investigations made by the Rev. Philip G. Schenk, A.M., while the valuable 
assistance rendered by Professor Francis W. Kelsey in the make-up of this 
publication, and of Mr. George R. Swain in solving the difficult problem of 
securing adequate photographs for the illustrations, must be gratefully men- 

The generous financial assistance given by Mr. Frederick K. Stearns 
also imposes a great obligation, as does the cheerful aid in proof-reading given 
by Dr. Burton G. Grim and Assistant Professor Earl Vincent Moore. 

Finally, the sympathetic attitude of the Honorable Board of Regents 
and their unquestioning liberality must be gratefully acknowledged, for had 
it not been for their support the present housing of the Collection would have 
been impossible. 

Albert A. Stanley. 

Ann Arbor, 1918. 


The reception accorded the first edition of this pubHcation has been very 
gratifying, and in this second edition the valuable suggestions of friendly 
critics have been taken advantage of, and many of them incorporated. 

In this connection, especial mention must be made of the valuable assist- 
ance of the Rev. Canon Francis W. Galpin and Mr. George Kinsky, Cura- 
tor of the Seimmlung alter Musikinstrumente in the Musikhistorisches Museum 
von Wilhelm Heyer, in Cologne, one of the most important collections in 
the world. 

Unfortunately, several very important recent contributions by Dr. Curt 
Sachs were received too late to be of assistance. However, the author is 
indebted to him for valuable information and suggestions contained in per- 
sonal letters. 

Obvious errors have been eliminated, recent acquisitions noted, and con- 
siderable new material has been added. As was stated in the Preface to 
the first edition, the aim of this volume precludes such an extensive use of 
available material as would be inconsistent in a catalogue, however desirable 
and necessary it might be in a comprehensive treatise on the scientific evolu- 
tion of musical instruments. 

A study of the Bibliography, given in the final section of this Catalogue, 
will demonstrate that abler scholars have so completely covered the field that 
such a treatise would be a work of supererogation. For this reason the lim- 
itations the author has voluntarily imposed on himself are thoroughly justified. 

The difficulty of selecting from the accumulations of eighteen years of 
research a limited amount of explanatory data has been so great that it is 
very probable that much of distinct value which should have been included 
has been left untouched. 

The obligation to the colleagues mentioned in the preceding edition has 
been increased by reason of their continued assistance, and, in addition, the 
services of Professor Fred N. Scott, of the Department of Rhetoric, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, must be gratefully acknowledged. To the many friends 
who have given the author the benefit of their knowledge and critical acumen 
sincere appreciation is hereby extended. 

Finally, the great indebtedness to Mr. Frederick Kimball Stearns, whose 
generosity has made the publication of this edition possible, must be particu- 
larly emphasized. 

Albert A. Stanley. 
Ann Arbor, 1921. 


The Donor 





















Frederick Stearns 

Floor Plan 

Plate I., Case I. . 

Plate II., Case II. (Persian Gong) 

Plate III.. Case III. 

Plate IV., Case V. 

Plate v.. Case VI. 

Plate VI., Case VII. (South Section) 

Plate VII., Case VII. (North Section) 

Plate VIII., Case VIII. (East Section) 

Plate IX., Case VIII. (West Section) 

Plate X., Case X. (West Section) 

Plate XL, Case XII. (West Section) 

Plate XII., Case XII. (East Section) 

Plate XIII., Case XIII. (West Section) 

Plate XIV., Case XIII. (East Section) 

Plate XV., Case XIV. (West Section) 

Plate XVI., Case XIV. (East Section) 

Diagrams of Pianoforte Actions 


Facing page 16 



















Detailed Illustrations (following the Succession of Cases 

and Classifications) . . . . . . 277 

Plate XVII (a).. Case I., Class I. 

Plate XVII (b).. Case II.. Class I. 

Plate XVIII (a).. Case III.. Class I. 

Plate XVIII (b).. Case IV.. Class II. 

Plate XIX.. Case V.. Class II. 

Plate XX., Case VI., Classes II and III. 

Plate XXL. Case VII., Class III. 

Plate XXII.. Case VII.. Class III. 

Plate XXIII.. Case VII.. Class III. 

Plate XXIV.. Case VII., Class III. 

Plate XXV.. Case VIII.. Class III. 

Plate XXVI.. Case VIII.. Class III. 

Plate XXVII.. Case IX., Class IV. 

Plate XXVIII.. Case IX.. Class IV. 

Plate XXIX.. Cases IX and XII.. Class IV. 

Plate XXX.. Cases IX and XII.. Class IV. 

Plate XXXI., Case IX., Class IV. 

Plate XXXII., Cases X and XL. Class IV. 

Plate XXXIIL. Case XIIL. Class IV. 

Plate XXXIV.. Case XIIL. Class IV. 

Plate XXXV.. Casq XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XXXVI (a).. Case XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XXXVI (b).. Case XIV., Class V. 

Plate XXXVII (a).. Case XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XXXVII (b).. Case XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XXXVIIL. Case XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XXXIX., Case XIV.. Class V. 

Plate XL.. Case XIV.. Class V. 

Frederick Stearns 

Frederick Stearns was born in Lockport, New York, April 8, 1831, 
and died in Savannah, Georgia, January 13, 1907. Of sturdy Puritan stock, 
he displayed in his long and useful life the sterling qualities of his ancestry. 

At fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to a firm of druggists in Buf- 
falo, where, through close application to duty and consistent improvement of 
€yery opportunity for strengthening his scientific equipment, he developed 
into a chemist of unusual attainments. Following the lead of his ambition, 
he came to Detroit in 1855, where he established a drug store. This was 
soon merged into a manufacturing pharmaceutical laboratory, prophetic of 
the present great establishment (incorporated in 1882). 

Mr. Stearns was, however, more than a successful business man. He 
was an idealist, a lover of beauty, and a born collector. Indeed, after having 
traveled extensively, for years in the interests of what had become the absorb- 
ing pursuit of his life, he retired (1887) from active participation in the enter- 
prise which owed its existence to his far-sighted initiative, that he might indulge 
iiis passion unhampered. 

With characteristic generosity, he made his friends and the public "part- 
ners of his artistic joy," and enriched the Art Museum of his adopted city 
by the gift of several important collections. It is with no disparagement of 
their value that it must be stated, with no qualification, that the most valuable 
of the collections made by him is the unique assemblage of musical instru- 
ments known by his name. Representing seventeen years (1881-1897) of 
tireless and energetic labor, it stands as his most fitting monument. With keen 
appreciation of the fitness of things, he determined to donate the collection to 
the University of Michigan. It was tendered to the Board of Regents 
late in 1 898, and accepted at the first meeting thereafter, January 1 7, 1 899. 
In 190] Mr. Stearns* services to his home community, and to the University, 
Avere recognized by conferring on him the degree of Master of Arts, an act 
alike honorable to the University of Michigan and the recipient. After the 
formal transfer of the collection his interest did not cease, and he added instru- 
ments, at intervals, well-nigh up to his death. Realizing the scope of the 
work of identification and organization of the literature, in 1902 he estab- 
lished a Fellowship in Music, which was held for two years by Philip G. 
Schenck. It is to be hoped that the example of Mr. Stearns will inspire cin 
increasing number of successful business men to realize that the pursuit of the 
ideal may carry with it joys denied to those the record of whose lives are to 
l>e found only in ledgers and bank-books. 

Introductory Remarks 

Vibrating bodies are of two types. In the first, the substance is pos- 
sessed of sufficient elasticity to respond to an inciting cause and vibrate with 
the rapidity and regularity necessary to the production of a musical tone 
(Metal Plates). In the second, the substance must be brought into a state 
of tension, or action, in order that it may so respond as to attain the same 
result (Membranes, Strings, or Ar). The inciting cause may be Friction 
(rubbing, bowing) ; Impact (blow of stick, hammer, or shaking) ; Plucking 
(forcibly drawing the body from a quiescent position and allowing it to 
return; Sympathetic Vibration (influence of an external vibrating agent); 
or, in the case of wind instruments, directing air under pressure into a tube 
containing air in a quiescent state. 

To attain the requisite sonority, the tone produced by the vibrating sub- 
stance must be reinforced by a Resonator. The Resonator takes on many 
forms, and, in the case of a hollow rattle, the body itself is a resonator. 
Every known process of tone production and all types of musical instruments 
may be included in these generalizations. 

Through the operations of the principles underlying tone-production, 
and the action of the various tone-producing media, just enumerated, we have 
Tone, as such. Tone, however, is not an end in itself, but a means, and it is 
only through the operation of some external agency that it can be directed to 
a conscious end. This external agency is a Musical Instrument. 

The obvious queries as to the genesis, definition, and evolution of this 
puissant agency must be considered at this point, as they are fundamental. 

A musical instrument gives expression to aesthetic impulse and is con- 
crete evidence of an emotional demand. Consequently, its nature and range 
are determined by emotional necessity, be that necessity never so primitive. 

Undoubtedly, primitive man first responded to the call of rhythm; there- 
fore his first instruments must have been of the rhythmical type. Before he 
had developed sufficient initiative, observation, and power of coordination to 
create such instruments. Nature furnished them in great abundance, and the 
desire for the accentuation of rhythmical movement and the expression of 
pent up emotion prompted their use. This clearly indicates the starting point 
from which the evolution from the simplest to the most complex types must 
have proceeded. 

A definition of a musical instrument broad enough to include natural 
sonorous bodies, as well as those constructed by primitive man in imitation 
of Nature's handiwork, would run somewhat as follows: 



"A musical instrument is anything outside of the members of the body 
that can be used to estabHsh or emphasize any element of music." While 
this definition is sufficiently elastic to include all types, even the most modern, 
the following rather extended definition is more in accord with modem 
notions : 

"A musical instrument is a structure through which the means of pro- 
ducing a series of coordinated tones of determinate pitch, dynamic possibili- 
ties, and varied timbre are so brought under control and made responsive to 
the will that a conscious artistic end may be realized." 

Following these observations regarding the genesis and definition of a 
Musical Instrument, it may be said that the answer to the third query will be 
found in the Collection itself. 


Class I. Instruments with Vibrating Body. 
Class II. Instruments with Vibrating Membrane, or Membranes. 
Class III. Instruments with Vibrating Column of Air. 
Class IV. Instruments with Vibrating String, or Strings. 
Class V. Instruments with Vibrating Strings, Reeds, or Columns 
of Air, Controlled by a Key-board. 


Class I — Instruments with Vibrating Bodies 
Section A. Vibrating Bodies, Serrated, and Plane Surfaces. 
Section B. Vibrating Plates, and Hollow Bodies of Metal. 
Section C. (a) Vibrating Bars of Wood, with Resonator. 

(b) Vibrating Segments of Resonator Body (Wood). 
Section D. Vibrating Tongues of Wood, or Metal. 
Section E. Vibrating Bars, or Rods, of Metal. 

Section F. Vibrating Tongues, or Bars, of Metal, Actuated by Mechan- 
ism, or Bowed. 

Class II — Instruments with Vibrating Membrane or 


Section A. One Vibrating Membrane, with Resonator. 

Section B. Two Vibrating Membranes, with Resonator. 

Section C. One Vibrating Membrane, with Shallow Resonator (Rim) in 

which are Metal Discs. 
Section D. Sympathetically Vibrating Membrane, with Resonator. 
Novel Treatments of Vibrating Bodies 
Sub-Section I. Vibration induced by Friction. 
Sub-Section II. Vibration induced by the Singing Voice. 
Unique Processes of Tone Production 



Class III — Instruments with Vibrating Column of Air 

Section A. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Vertical Cylindrical 
Tube, with no lateral Openings. 

Section B. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube, with 
lateral Openings. 

Section C. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube, with 
lateral Openings and Mouth-piece. 

Section D. Vibrating Column of Air in a Horizontal (Transverse) Cylin- 
drical Tube, with lateral Openings and Mouth-hole. 

Section E. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical, Cylindrical Tube, with 
lateral Openings, and Modified by the Action of a Single Beat- 

Section F. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Conical Tube, with lat- 
eral Openings, Modified by the Action of Double Beating- 

Section G. Vibrating Column of Air in a Cylindrical, or Conical, Vertical 
Tube, Modified by the Action of Single and Double Beating- 
Reeds, with an Air Resonator or Bellows. 

Section H. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube, Modi- 
fied by the Action of a Free Reed. 

Section I. Vibrating Free Reeds Actuated by Bellows and Controlled by 
Keys or Pistons. 
Sub-Section I. Vibrating Free Reeds Actuated by the Breath (with 

or without keys). 
Sub-Section II. Free Reeds, with Air Reservoir Operated Mechanic- 
ally; Reeds Controlled by Pistons or Keys. 
Sub-Section III. (a) Vibrating Column of Air in an Organ Pipe 
(Cylindrical or Conical) ; (b) Vibration Modified by the 
Action of a Beating or Free Reed. 
Section J. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in an Animal Tusk, Horn, 
Gourd, or Wooden Tube, with Mouth-hole in Body, and no 
lateral Openings. 
Section K. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Metal or Wooden Tube, 
ending in a Bell, with Cup-Mouthpiece and no lateral Openings. 

Section L. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Metal or Wooden Tube, 
ending in a Bell, (a) with lateral openings, opened and closed 
by the fingers or keys; (b) with additional lengths of tubing 
incorporated in the structure, and controlled by valves operated 
by pistons or keys; (c) with a movable tube (Slide) operated 
by the hand. 



Class IV — Insttruments with Vibrating String or Strings 

Section A. One Vibrating Plucked String. (Strings may be plucked either 
by the Fingers or by Plectra.) 

Section B. Vibrating Plucked Strings running free. (Free strings are such 
as are accessible from both sides.) 

Section C. Vibrating Plucked Strings running free, whose Pitches may be 
changed (a) by Hooks, or (b) by Mechanism. 

Section D. Vibrating Plucked strings running close to Resonator. 

Section E. Vibrating Plucked Strings running over Frets and Bridges. The 
Zither is an exception, as it has no real Bridge. 

Section F. Vibrating Strings actuated by Impact. 

Section G. Vibrating Strings running over Bridge and "True" Finger- 
Board, Actuated by the Friction of a Bow. In primitive and 
certain Oriental types the Finger-Board is missing. 

Section H. Vibrating Strings Actuated by the Friction of a Resined Wheel 
and Controlled by Sliders operated by Keys. 

Class V — Instruments with Vibrating Strings, Columns of Air. 
OR Reeds, Controlled by a Key-board Mechanism 

jSection A. Vibrating Strings Actuated by Impact through a directly-acting 
Key-board Mechanism. 

Section B. Vibrating Strings Actuated by Plucking through an indirectly- 
acting Key-board Mechanism. 

Section C. Vibrating Strings Actuated by Impact through an indirectly- 
acting Key-board Mechanism. 

Section D. Vibrating Columns of Air inclosed in Organ pipes. Actuated 
by Mechanically operated Bellows and Controlled by an indi- 
rectly-acting Key-board. 

Section E. Vibrating Free Reeds, with mechanically operated Bellows and 
Key-board Mechanism. 
The Violon-avec-clavier (No. 1330, Case XIV) falls in Classes IV 

and V. 


Mutes, Violin and Guitar Cases, Crooks, Batons, Engravings, Manu- 
scripts, Models, etc., are not included in the Classification, but are given 
numbers in the Catalogue. 


The numerical succession of Cases follows the evolution of the instru- 
ments therein displayed. With the exception of a few instances in which, for 
physical reasons, it has been found impossible to retain an exact scientific 
sequence, the arrangement in each case follows the evolution of the type it 
contains. TTiis evolution runs from Right to Left and from the Top to the 
Bottom of the Case. The names of donors appear in parentheses. The 
instruments from the Beal-Steere Collection are indicated by (B-S). New 
accessions (since May 1 , 1916) are indicated by a red star, at left of number. 

To indicate an important distinction, in the following lists the technical 
term "Compass" is used to define the limits within which a reasonably 
extended and coherent tone-series may be so displayed as to establish a tonal- 
ity. In certain instruments the range is very restricted or, as is the case in 
many primitive instruments, the tones are unrelated. In such cases the term 
"Pitches" will be employed. 

The tones constituting the compass of an instrument are defined, as to 
their actual pitch, by their inclusion in given octaves — i. e., chromatic series 
extending from a given C to the B above. The pitch of these octaves will 
be designated, for series above middle C, by accent marks placed at the right 
of the letter, and by small letters, or one or more capital letters, for those 
below that tone. These octaves are named as follows: 


'rom ' JjL ~ the four-marked octave — ^viz. c 


the three-marked octave — ^viz. c'". 
the two-marked octave — ^viz. c\ 
the one-marked octave — viz. c. 

the little octave — ^viz. c. 
the great octave — ^viz. C. 

From '^ '■ ^^ contra octave — viz. CC. 

Sva^il basso. 

From the C below CC, the double-contra octave — ^viz. CCC. 

The same system will be employed in indicating the pitches of the tones 
included in a restricted or unrelated series. 

In attaching the numbers no fixed rule could be followed, but wherever 
possible they are placed at the left of the instrument. 


Case X 

^ < 

k « 

Case /// 

Case XIII 

Case VII 

I Case ly I 

Case Xy 




Class I. Instruments with Vibrating Bodies 

Section A. Vibrating Bodies, Serrated, and Plane Surfaces. 
Rattles, Clappers, Castanets. 

Section B. Vibrating plates, and Hollow Bodies of Metal. 
Gongs. Cymbals, Bells. 

Rattles (Fr. Hochei; Ger. Rassel) are shaken, whereby the solids they 
contain are brought into violent contact with the body of the instrument and 
induce vibration. Clappers (Ger. Klapper)^ and Castanets (Fr. Castagnet- 
tes; Ital Castagnette; Ger. Kastagnetten) consist of two or more plane, or 
slightly hollowed surfaces which are brought into contact with each other 
when the instrument is shaken. Serrated surfaces are rasped. Cymbals are 
generally struck together. Gongs are struck on the outside. Bells are set in 
vibration by the blow of a "clapper," which, swinging loosely inside, strikes 
the inside surface of the mass at a point of contact known as the "sound bow." 
The sleighbell type — ^which is allied to the rattle, being shaken — is an excep- 
tion. In Chimes rung by hand, the bells swing through the smallest arc of a 
circle within which the clapper can act. When operated mechanically, or 
automatically, the bells are generally struck on the outer rim. The term 
"Chime" (Fr. Carillons; Ital. Soneria di campane accordate; Ger. Glockcn- 
spiei) is also used to designate a number of small bells, or gongs, arranged 017 
a handle, ring, or belt, by means of which they may be shaken. 

1. Ne-GAH-NE-GA-AH Gus-TAH-WE-SEH. Medicine-man's Rattle. 
Gourd . Seneca Indians, Cattaraugus Reservation, Erie County, N. Y. 
Length, 38 cm. ; of body, 1 5 cm. Diameter, 1 1 cm. 

2. Maraca, or Marraca. Gourd, decorated with feathers .... Brazil 
Length, 26 cm. ; of body, 1 7 cm. ; diameter, 1 1 cm. 

The Amazon Indians look upon this rattle as a species of tutelary god. 
In personal or communal crises it is consulted, always with the assistance of 
the medicine man, who generally interprets its speech in terms coinciding with 
his desires. Maraca is an alternative spelling, and maruga is the name of a 
similar rattle used in the West Indies in the tango, in connection with the guiro. 

^ Klapper (Ger.) is not the only foreign equivalent for "Clapper," but Sonnaille (Fr.) 
and Sonaglio (Ital.) do not represent the type exhibited in Case I. 



3. Notched-stick Rattle.^ Wood, Rasped .... Nassau, Bahamas 
Known in its home as the "Hog-fiddle." 

Length, 67.5 cm. Width, 2.2 cm. Thickness, 1 .5 cm. 

4. Ne-GAH-NE-GO-AH Gus-TAH-WE-SEH. In material and source simi- 

lar to No. 1, with the exception of the handle, which is of hard 
Length, 38 cm. ; of body, 1 9 cm. ; diameter, 1 7 cm. 
Wherever the gourd (cucurbitaceae) , specifically the calabash (Lagen- 
aria vulgaris) is found, its adaptability to serve as a rattle by itself, or as ma- 
terial for its manufacture, has been recognized. Therefore its geographical 
distribution determines the range of this particular type. 

Wm. Strachey, Gent, writing in 1610-1612, and speaking of the music 
of the Virginian Indians, says: "Their chief instruments are rattles made of 
small gourdes or pompion shells, of these they have base, tenor, counter tenor, 
meane and treble; these myngled with their voyces, sometymes twenty or 
thirty togither, make such a terrible howling as would affright rather than give 
pleasure to any man."' 

5. Basket Dance Rattle. Woven rattan Cameroon, W. Africa 

TTiis rattle resembles the gadza of Zanzibar. 

Length, 1 5 cm. Width, 8 cm. Depth, 6 cm. 

6. Gah-NO-WA Gustah-WE-SEH.* Turtle Rattle Seneca Indians 

Length, 50.5 cm. ; of body, 28 cm. Width, 22 cm. Depth, 7.5 cm. 

7. Knee Rattle. Iron Nubia, Africa 

An iron pod, enclosing three iron balls, is attached to a leather strap, a 

section of which (25 cm.) is covered with cowrie-shells (C})praea moneta). 
In this, as in all cases where they are used for decoration, the shells are so 
hung as to display the ventral side. 

Length, 62 cm. ; of iron pod, 1 7 cm. 

8. Rattle. Turtle shell and toes of sheep 

Moqui Indians, Arizona, and Zuni Indians, New Mexico 

Length, 12.5 cm. Width, 9.5 cm. Thickness, 4 cm. 

The Hopi Indians call a similar rattle ^ung-uh-sho-na^ 

9. Rattle. Nutshells (68) , attached to bands of cloth Brazil 

Length of bands, 125 cm.; width, 1.5 cm. Average size of nut, 

2 by 1 cm. 

2 For facts regarding the distribution of this type see Frances Morris, 'Catalogue of 
the Crosby Brown Collection," N. S., Vol. II, pp. 134, 180, 184, 189, 203. This catalojrue is 
replete with information; future references to it will give the name of the author only. 

» The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Brittania." Hak. Soc, 1849, p. 70. 

* Morris, p. 155, 

• Morris, p. loi. 


1 0. Rattle East Africa 

A band of braided cocoanut sinnet from which hang 67 small wooden 

Length of band, 30 cm. Length of each rod, 10.5 cm.; diameter, 
8 mm. 

TTie natives of the western coast of W. Torres Straits have a rattle 
called the padairong in which rods are used, but not as in this type." 

An interesting rattle of this type found among the Patagonian Indians is 
described by Sir Francis Drake as follows: "Theire men being delighted 
much with danceing, make instruments of musick, which being made of barkes 
of trees, and sewed together with thredds of gutts of ostriges, like lute strings, 
and little stones put in them and painted over, are like our children's rattles in 
England, these they hang by strings at their girdles, when they are disposed 
to sport themselves ; which no sooner begin to make a noise but they beginn to 
dance, and the more they stirr their stumps the greater noyse or sound they 
give and the more their spirits are ravished with mellodye ; inso much that they 
dance like maddmen and cannot stay themselves unto death if som friend 
pluck not away the babies, which being taken away, they stand as not know- 
ing what has become of themselves for a long tyme."^ 

1 1. Rattle. Two cords, on which 49 cocoons are strung Africa 

Length, 1 32 cm. Average length of cocoons, 2 cm. 

1 2. Rattle. . Globular bells of nut shells (65) , strung on a cord . Mexico 
Length, 76 cm. Average diameter of bells, 2.5 cm. 

13. Rattle. Seed-pods (38), strung on cords. . Yaqui Inds., N. Mexico 
Length, 36 cm. Average length of pods, 4 cm. 

14. Rattle. Seed-pods (13), on handle . Mendicino Indians, California 
Length, 25 cm. ; of handle, 1 cm. ; of pods, 5 cm. 

15. Rattle. Nut-shells (31 ), on cord of cocoanut sinnet Africa 

Length, 32 cm. Average width of nuts, 6 cm. 

16. Rattle. Cedar, in form of a bivalve-shell. Haidah Inds., B. Columbia 
Length, 16 cm. ; of shell, 8 cm. Width, 6.5 cm. 

1 7. Rattle. Cedar, painted red and black Alaska 

Length, 16.2 cm. Width, 7 cm. Thickness, 2.5 cm. 

(Israel G. Russell.) 

18. Rattle. Shells of Brazil-nuts (53), on hoop of braided withes. Peru 
This unique specimen was secured in the native village of Chanuci. 

Frequently they are decorated with feathers. 
Diameter of hoop, 23 cm. Average width of nuts, 6 cm. 


OA. C. Haddon, "The Ethnop:raphy of the Western Tribes of Torres Straits." Jour. 
Anth. Inst., XIX, p. 375, PI. IX, Fig. 7. 

'' "Voyages of Sir Francis Drake about the World," Hak. Soc, 1854, p. 50. 

8 The Beal-Steere Expedition was financed by the Honorable Rice A. Beal, and con- 
ducted by Professor Joseph B. Steere. The instruments designated (B-S) were collected 
by Professor Steere. 



19. Rattle. Ten wooden rods, 12 cm. long, strung on a leather thong. 
This rattle is of very doubtful antecedents. 

Length of each rod, 15 cm. 

20. Rattle Lake Tanganyika, C. Africa 

Forty-eight small bivalve-shells attached by cords to an armlet of can- 
vas, 27 em. long and 2.3 cm. wide. 

21. Rattle. Iron, in form of a pod Cape Palmas. Africa 

Length of pod, 1 2 cm. 

(Miss M. Scott.) 

22. Ghunghuru. Anklet Rattle. White metal. India 

Interlacing rings of white metal, to each of which — and also to the 

clasps at the end — a group of three small globular bells is attached. 
These rattles are worn by the Nautch girls. Similar bells are worn 
on the ankles of post-runners. 
Length of anklet, 22 cm. Diameter of each bell, 8 mm. 

23. Rattle. Braided rattan British Guiana 

Length, 1 6 cm. Width at base, 4.5 cm. 

24. Rattle. Braided grass Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska 

Diameter, 6 cm. Thickness, 3.5 cm. 

25. Rattle. Woven rattan Upper Congo, Central Africa 

Length, 20.5 cm. Diameter, 7.5 cm. 

26. Rattle. Cedar Tsimshian Indians, British Columbia 

Decorated with head of Hoorts, "the bear," on face. 

Length, 22.5 cm. Width, 1 1 .5 cm. Thickness, 8 cm. 

27. Rattle. Gourd Moqui Indians, Arizona 

Length, 1 3 cm. Width, 7.5 cm. TTiickness, 1 cm. 

The Kara] a Indians, Brazil, call a similar rattle udlu. 

28. Uli Ull Gourd, decorated with feathers® Hawaii 

. The uli uli is used to mark the time in the hula. 

Diameter of face, 30 cm. Length of gourd, 1 8 cm. Diameter, 1 1 cm. 

29. Clapper. Bone. Used with drum 340 (Case V) . . Dahomey, Africa 
The handle, a bone slightly curved at the end, is 30 cm. long. On 

either side of a flat bone fastened to this handle, a thin, spade-shaped 
bone is loosely fastened by leather thongs. These bones are 7.5 cm. 
long and their greatest width is 6 cm. 

9 The name assigned this rattle by Edge- Partington and Heape — "Ethnographical Album 
of the Pacific Islands," Series I, plates 49 and 52, fig. 2 — is hulili-hula. while Mahillon, Cata- 
logue du Musee Instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Bruxelles, Vol. Ill, 
p. 249, gives uliuli. 

CLASS I ,21 

30. Shak-SHAK. Wood and membrane St. Thomas Island 

Length, 4 1 cm. Diameter of body, 9.5 cm. Depth, 4 cm. 

3 1 . Ga-NON-GAH Gasda-WE-SA." Horn .... Seneca Indians, New York 
Length, 22.5 cm. Diameter, 7.5 cm. 

(Nos. 1, 4, 6, and 31 were collected and presented by Mr. M. R. 
Harrington. ) 

32. Rattle. Three semi-spherical seed-shells, on a handle Africa 

Length, 28 cm. Diameter of shells, 5 to 7 cm. 

33. Rattle. Decorated gourd Porto Rico 

Length, 25.5 cm. Diameter of gourd, 7.5 cm. 

34. Bracelet Rattle. Chank-shell ( Turbinella pyrum) . East Africa 
Diameter of ring, 1 cm. 

35. Ayacachtll Bell- rattle. Pottery Ancient Mexico 

The surface is decorated with incised geometric designs. 

Diameter, 5 cm. 

36. Hoop Rattle Alaska 

Two concentric rings of withes, and dew horns of deer. 

Diameter of larger hoop, 23.5 cm.; of smaller, 18 cm. 

37. Raven Rattle. Wood Haidah Indians, British Columbia 

Decorated with a carving of Hooyeh, "the raven.'* 

Length, 30 cm. Width, 9 cm. 

38. Wild-duck Rattle. Wood Alaska 

Length, 28.5 cm. Width, 7 cm. 

(Israel G. Russell.) 

39. Rattle. Wood Auk Indians, Alaska 

Length, 27.5 cm. Thickness, 4.5 cm. 

40- Clapper. Wood Tlingit Indians, N. W, Coast, N. America 

This clapper represents the killer whale. 

Length, 34 cm. Diameter, 6 cm. Thickness, 6 cm. 

41-42. PuiLL Time-markers. Bamboo Hawaii 

Two joints of bamboo are split about two-thirds of their full length 

into tongues 4 mm. widp. Every alternate splint is removed. The 

larger joint is struck with the shorter. 
Lengths, 62, and 51 cm.; diameter, 5.5; 24, and 22 splints. 

43. GuiRO, or Wis guirra. Gourd. Rasped Porto Rico 

Length, 45 cm. Diameter, 12 cm. 

(Mrs. Frederick G. Novy.) 
Evidently the negro name wisharoiv is a corruption of wis guirra 

10 Morris, p. 159. 



44. GuiRO. Serrated surface. Rasped St. Thomas Island 

Length, 32 cm. Diameter, 8 cm. 

The Chinese i;u" (Jap. g^o), a wooden tiger with metal, or wooden 
teeth inserted in its back in lieu of vertebrae, is the most typical 
"serrated surface" instrument. Savages affect a jaw-bone, with 
In an account of the "Dance in Square Congo" (New Orleans), 
George W. Cable bears witness to the inspiration drawn from such 
an instrument, of exactly the same structure as those which the 
negroes of Central Africa use in their merry-makings.^^ 
45-46-47. Shaku JO. Sistrum type. Bronze, on wooden staff . . . Japan 
The upper end of the staff carries a structure consisting of a bronze ring 
in which a device resembling the swastika is enclosed, and on which bronze 
rings are hung. The use of the shal(ujo in the Buddhist temple-worship gives 
significance to this resemblance to the most ancient of symbols. 
Lengths, 24.3 — 159, and 27 cm., respectively. 
The Sistrum was used in the worship of Isis and was found in all the 
countries in which this special cult was introduced. It consists of a metal frame 
in which are transverse bars carrying rings (also of metal), which are sounded 
by shaking the instrument. 

In a monograph, "The Swastika," Thomas Wilson shows a cut of a 
Japanese bronze statuette of Buddha which represents him standing with a 
shaliufo in his hand. The pedestal is ornamented with figures of the swastika. 
Chantre, in Age du Bronze, I. p. 206, (quoted by Wilson), connects the 
swastika with the sistre, a staff with jingling bells whose antiquity is attested by 
its presence in the remains of Swiss lake-dwellings. A cut of the "Footprints 
of Buddha with Swastika from Amaravati Topi" emphasizes the relation of 
this symbol to Buddhism." 

48-9-50-1-2-3-4. P'ai, pan, or P'e pan. Wood China 

Two slabs are struck by a third which is very thin (7 mm)." 
Length of each slab, 26 cm. ; width, 5.2 to 6.4 cm. ; thickness, 1 cm. 


According to Moule (pp. 18 and 19) there are various sizes of the 

p*ai pan. "They are used in the theater, being held in the left hand by the 

man who beats the pang kou" (Case IV., No. 301). "One piece is held 

firmly in his ha nd so that a slight turn of his wrist brings it against the other 

" Moule, the latest authority on the subject, in "Chinese Music." Jour, N. China Branch, 
Roy. Asiatic Soc. says that the yu is made of ch'u wood (Catalpa kaempferi) ; that the 
stick should be of the same wood ; that from the time of the T'ang dynasty (618-907) bamboo 
has also been used; and, finally, that the tiger should not be hit on the head. 

12 "Century Magazine," Vol. XXXI, pp. 519-22. 

i»Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896. pp. 799, 802, 806. 

"In placing the slabs it was found necessary to assign, each a number. A like pro- 
cedure obtains in Case II, Nos. 109 and 152-160 (gongs) -141, 151-146, 162-167, 182 (cym- 
bals), 185-202 (bells), and in Case III, Nos. 211, 212, 213 (xylophone). In the final tabu- 
lations the proper deductions are made. 


two pieces which hang loosely over his thumb." Pan y^en is one of the Chinese 
names for musical time, pan standing for bar, or the accented beat, and yjen for 
the unaccented member — as, one pan, one yen — two-membered; 'one pan, 
two yen — three-membered time. Chin pan stands for a rapid, and man pan 
for a slow movement. 

55. Ekirei. Metal gong-rattle Japan 

Two concave ring-like shells of metal are brought together face to face, 

and the hollow space thus formed contains several small metal balls. 
Diameter, 4.5 cm. 

56. Rattle. Wood, and metal discs Italy 

Used with No. 81 as a fiddle and bow. 

Length, 63 cm. Width, 4 cm. Thickness, 1 .3 cm. 1 2 discs. 

57. Time-marker. Wood, incised Source unknown 

Length, 3 1 cm. ; of incision, 24 cm. Width, 2.3 cm. 

58. GuiRO, or WiERO. Gourd, serrated , St. Thomas Island 

Length, 43 cm. Diameter (widest) , 7 cm. 

59. Time-marker, or Lime-spoon New Guinea 

Wood, with lime-filled etching. 

Length, 39 cm. 

60. Clapper. Wood N. W. Coast of Alaska 

Length, 38 cm. Greatest diameter, 6 cm. 

61-62. Karabib. Castanets of iron Soudan, Africa 

In each pair, two flat iron discs are joined by a bar of the same mate- 
rial, which serves as a handle. Cowrie-shell decoration. 
Length, 28.5 cm. Diameter of discs, 9 cm. 

63. Clapper. Wood Alaska 

Length, 19.5 cm. 

64. Castanets. Copper Patagonian Indians, Argentina 

Length, 7.5, and 5.5 cm. Diameter, 5, 6, and 4.8 cm. 

65. Dabbous. Dervish whirling-rattle, and dagger. Iron.Aintab, Turkey 
Length, 34 cm. ; of chains, 1 2 cm. Diameter of head, 9 cm. 

66. Khattala, or Khattali. Iron castanets India 

Held loosely in the hand and shaken. 

Length, 1 4.6 cm. Thickness, 1 .5 cm. 

67. TiME-BEATER. Wood, with two longitudinal incisions Italy 

This idiophonic device, when struck violently against a hard surface, 

yields a sharp incisive tone. It is of the same class as the hyoshigi, 
of Japan ;^° two sticks which serve to attract the attention of an aud- 

15 J. S. Piggott, "The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan," p. 210. Future refer- 
ences to this work will give the name of author only. 


ience to the beginning of an athletic performance, as in the Parisian 

theaters the rise of the curtain is announced by three blows of a 

stick, Les trois coups, on the stage floor. 
A similar contrivance was used by the Franciscan monks to rouse the 

sleepers. Bonanni, Cab. arm., p. 154, PI. CXXIX. 
Length, 48 cm.; of incisions (3) 33 cm. Width, 4.5 cm. 

68. Tricca-BALLACCA. Clapper. Boxwood Italy 

Three hammers are so arranged on a frame, that when it is swung, the 

two outer hammers, which hang loosely, strike the middle one, 
which is firmly fixed in the frame. The outer hammers may be 
manipulated by the hands. 
Listed as a rattle by Curt Sachs." Length, 33 cm. 

69. Trich Varlach. Similar to No. 68. Black walnut Italy 

Length, 42 cm. 

70. Castanets. Ebony England 

Length, 1 1 cm. Diameter, 4. 1 cm. 

7L Castanets. Boxwood England 

Length, 28 cm. ; of handle, 1 9 cm. ; of body, 9 cm. Width, 5 cm. 

72. Castanets. Boxwood Uruguay 

Length, 7cm. Diameter, 4.5 cm. 

, 73-74. Finger Masks. Wood and wool . . Esquimaux, North America 
These grotesque objects are worn on the fingers of dancers. 
Diameter, 5.2 cm. 

75. Boatswain's Rattle. Wood United States Navy 

TTie body of this rattle is attached to the rail of the vessel, and the rattle 

itself is set in operation by turning the handle. This specimen was in use on a 
United States naval vessel during the Mexican War (1845-48). 
Length, 34 cm. 

76. Boatswain's Rattle. Wood United States Navy 

Length, 33.5 cm. 

77. Watchman's Rattle. (Toy.) Wood England 

Length, 19.5 cm. 

78. Watchman's Rattle. (Fr. Cricelle; Ital. Raganella; Ger. 

Ratsche.) Wood. Length, 25 cm England 

In this type a tongue of wood is set in vibration by contact with a cog- 
wheel, secured to a handle which serves as a pivot on which the 
structure is rotated. 

i« Curt Sachs, Real-lexikon der musikinstrumente, p. .592. This work is the most impor- 
tant contribution to the subject in recent years. The formal references in this volume, 
which will give the name or initials of author only, by no means exhaust the obligations 
of the author of this catalogue to this inspiring source. 


Case I. Nos. 1 to 108 fEight to Left). 
(No. 3 transferred to Case V., No. 55 changed to No. 3. New No. 55, not shown.) 


79. Anklang. Bamboo tubes in frame Java 

Height, 77.5 cm. Width, 28 cm. Length of tubes, 31-41 cm. Diam- 
eter, 3-4.5 cm. 

80. Anklang. Similar to the preceding example Java 

Height, 93 cm. Width. 34 cm. Length of tubes, 16.5, 30, and 44 

cm. Diameter, 2.8, 3.5, and 5.5 cm. 
The anklang plays a very important part in the Javanese orchestra. 
The two specimens shown in this case give but a faint idea of its range. In the 
western, mountainous sections of Java, bands of forty or fifty natives, each 
with an anklang decorated with feathers,^^ accompany their wild dances with 
its sonorous music, which has more to commend it than would seem possible. 
Anklung is an alternative spelling. 

Length, 1 2.3 cm. Width, 4 cm. Thickness, 2.5 cm. 

8L Rattle. Wood, and metal discs. Used with No. 56 Italy 

82. Double Bell. Wood Upper Congo, Africa 

Length, 25.5 cm. Each bell is 9.5 cm. long, 7 cm. wide, and 5.5 cm. 

Collected by the Belgian explorer, M. Casman. 
A double-bell called ngoma na shuma is found in this region, but, as 

it is of iron, the name cannot be applied to this unless, as frequently 

happens in indigenous instruments, the material used is incidental 

rather than typical. 

83. Bell and Whistle. Wood Upper Congo, Africa 

The egg-shaped bell (4.5 cm. long and 3.7 cm. in diameter) has three 

wooden tongues. The whistle { 1 5 cm. long) is made to sound by 
blowing across the top. 

84. Double Bell. Wood Mayumba, Africa 

Each bell (7x6.6 cm.) has three wooden tongues and is painted 

white, with black stripes. The connecting handle is 6.7 cm. long 
and 2.5 cm. in diameter. 

85. Devil Bell. A section of nut West Central Africa 

Length, 9.7 cm. Width, 9 cm. Thickness, 5 cm. 

86. Bell. Terra-cotta Ancient Egypt 

Height, 6 cm. Diameter at base, 6.5 cm. 

87-88-89. Bells. Bronze Ancient Egypt 

Heights, 13.7-10-7 cm. Diameters, 8-6-4.8 cm. 

90. Bell. Bronze Etruria, Ancient Italy 

Height, 13 cm. Diameter, 8 cm. 

" Sir Thomas Stafford Raffles, "A History of Java," p. 334. 


91-92-93. Bells. Bronze Ancient Egypt 

Heights, 3-5-7.5 cm. Diameters, 3.5-4.7-3.8 cm. 

94. Bell. Bronze Etruria, Ancient Italy 

Height, 5 cm. Diameter at base, 3.5 cm. 

95-96. Bells. Bronze Ancient Egypt 

Heights, 4-6 cm. Diameters, 4-4.7 cm. 

97-98. Cymbals. Bronze, heavily patinated Italy 

Diameter of each, 9 cm. Depth, 3.5 cm. 

The patination (aerugo) on these reproductions of the originals in the 
Naples Museum, represents a modern use of chemicals rather them 
the passage of the centuries. On Nos. 87 to 96 incl, the patina is 
C^mbala and acetabula are Greek and Roman cymbals of a rather 
deeper basin-type than those here listed. 

90. Fetish Bell. Iron Liberia, Africa 

Among the African natives iron bells exist in many unique forms. 
Height, 18.6 cm. Width, 8.4 cm. Thickness, 5.5 cm. 

100. Bell. Iron, with carrying-strap Lake Tanganyika. Africa 

Length, with strap, 99 cm.; of bell, 15.4 cm. Diameter, 3.5 cm. 

101. Bell. Iron Angoni, Central Africa 

Height, 5 cm. Width, 5.5 cm. Thickness at base, 3.7 cm. 

1 02. Herd Bell. Brass Sparta, Greece 

Height, 1 cm. Diameter, 1 and 4 cm. 

(Francis W. Kelsey.) 

1 03- 1 04-1 05-1 06-1 07. Cowbells. Brass Switzerland 

Varying sizes from 6 to 10 cm. high, and 5 to 7 cm. in diameter. 

108. Chime. Bell metal. Pitches, f, e flat, g France 

Height, 1 cm. Diameter of bells, 1 1 .8-1 2-1 1 .6 cm. 


Class I. Section B. Vibrating Plates, and Hollow Bodies of Metal. 

The Bell (Fr. Cloche; Ital. Campana; Ger. Clocke) is made of various 
alloys, but generally of "bell-metal" (Fr. Aloi; Ital. Meiallo da campane; 
Ger. Clockenspeise) , copper and tin in the proportion of three to one. Brass 
and bronze are occasionally used. Copper is seldom employed as it produces 
a dull tone. Oriental alloys are in some cases quite unusual in their composi- 
tion but are very effective. Gongs (onomatopoeic) are made of various alloys, 
generally of copper and tin. Cymbals (Fr. C})mbale; Ital. Piatti; Ger. 
Becken) are almost invariably made of brass, although this practice does not 
always obtain in the Orient. 

1 09. Gong. Copper alloy Borneo 

Largest of the series of ten, known as the koulintaugau. 
Diameter, 47 cm. Depth, 21.5 cm. 

1 1 0. Chime Italy 

Twelve brass bells, arranged on an oval hoop with handle. The larger 

bells are fastened to the inside of the hoop, the smaller to a cord 
running cross-wise. 
Diameter of hoop 35.3 and 40 cm. Diameter of larger bells, 8.5 cm. ; 
of smaller, 4 cm. Handle 37 cm. long. 

111. Cai CHUONG, or Cai CHUONG CHUA. Temple bell. Bronze. . Anam 
Height, 40 cm. Diameter at base, 22.2 cm. 

1 12. Tubular Bells. Nickel-plated bronze, (f and a flat) Italy 

Length of longer tube, 123.5 cm.; of shorter, 1 13 cm. Diameter, 

2.9 cm. 
A new type of bell has been developed in England, which is nothing 
more nor less than a cylindrical bar of Bessemer steel. The dissonant over- 
tones are eliminated, and the "hum" note is evolved as soon as the bar is 
struck. By means of an ingenious mechanism, devised by Dr. T. Lea South- 
gate, the bells, when combined in a Chime, can be "dampened," or softened, 
making them more responsive to artistic demands. 

1 13. Musical Sleigh-bells. Nickel-plated bronze. Italy 

Diameters of bells, from 2.5 to 3.2 cm. 

1 14. Elephant Bell. Brass India 

Height, 17 cm. Diameter at base, 13.5 cm. 

These bells are hung on the trappings of the sacred elephants at Delhi. 


1 15. Zang-I-Jami*. "Bell of the Mosque." Iron Persia 

Zang is the ordinary Persian word for bell. Sachs (p. 430) gives 

Zeng. dim. zengil. Jami refers to a large mosque as opposed to 
masjid — a small place of prayer. Following the vowel i it takes the 
genitive case. TTiis is given on the authority of a leading American 
Orientalist. Height, 17 cm. Diameter, 17 cm. 

1 1 6. Mass Bell. Low, open-work body of iron Germany 

Three small bronze bells serve as clappers. 

Height, 1 4.5 cm. Diameter at base, 1 0.2 cm. 

117. FURIN, "Wind-bell." Brass .Japan 

Three streamers, consisting of small brass plates and discs terminating 

in small bells in the shape of a flower calyx, hang from the clapper. 
Height, 7.5 cm. Diameter at base, 7.3 cm. Length of streamers, 
44 cm. 

1 1 8. Mass Bell. Middle Ages Germany 

Of brass, with open-work sides. Decorated with arabesques, and four 

figures in relief, emblematic of the four evangelists, whose names 
appear on outer surface. 
Height, 1 5 cm. Diameter at base, 1 1 .5 cm. 

1 1 9. Zang-I-JAMi'. a replica of No. 115 Persia 

1 20. Temple Bell. Bronze Japan 

Height, 20.3 cm. Diameter at base, 1 2.3 cm. 

121. FuRIN, "Wind-bell" Japan 

Similar to No. 1 1 7 excepting that the streamers end in globular bells. 
Length of streamers, 23 cm. 

The furin are suspended from the eaves of temples, and other build- 
ings. The feng'Ung (Chin.) and pang-kiang (Cor.) are variants. 

122. Musical Sleigh-bells. Similar to No. 113 Italy 

Nos. 1 13 and 122, combined, give a chromatic series from c" to c"*. 

123. Tubular Bells. Nickel-plated bronze (f, e flat, g) Italy 

Lengths of tubes, 100, 109, and 81.5 cm. 

124-125. SoNOG-TOHOCE-WA-FARAH. Brass cymbals Egypt 

As the lidjae indicates, these cymbals are used at the ceremony of cir- 
Shallow bosses, and flat rims. Diameter, 26.8 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 

126. Goat Bell. Brass Italy 

Semi-conical body of brass with rough surface. Smooth flat bands 

serve as decoration. 
Height, 12 cm. Diameter at base, 6 to 5.2 cm. 

1 27. Cowbell. Brass Italy 

Height, 1 3 cm. Diameter at base, 7 to 7.5 cm. 

^wwTSWB. J mat " . L.ii'ii i..«,"i' 

PLATE 11. 

Case II. Persian Gong, No. 177. 

CI.ASS I 29 

128. Lo. Gong. Brass alloy China 

The comparatively shallow body is decorated with six circular stripes 

in black. Diameter, 67 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 


1 29. Drilbu. Temple hand-bell. Bronze Thibet 

The handle, of brass, represents the thunder-bolt, dorje. 

Height, 1 6 cm. Dicimeter at base, 6.5 cm. 

1 30. Bell. Bronze. Decorated in relief Benin, W. Africa 

Height, 1 0.3 cm. Diameter at base, 6 cm. 

131. Bell. Bronze Italy 

Decorated with the coat of arms of the de Medici Family. The bust 

of a Bishop with his mitre and robes forms the handle. 
Height, 25.5 cm. Diameter at base, 4.6 cm. 

132. Bell. Brass, elaborately decorated France 

Height, 10.2 cm. Diameter at base, 5.7 cm. 

133. Bell. Bronze. In form it resembles the ancient hiuen-chung. .China 
Height, 10.5 cm. Diameter at base, 15 to 3.8 cm 

134. Bell. Bronze Burmah 

Height, 1 0.5 cm. Diameter at base, 8.6 cm. 

1 35. Bell. Brass alloy Burmah 

The fantastic handle is supported by two grotesque monsters. 
Height, 2 1 .8 cm. ; of bell 9.5 cm. Diameter at base, 1 2.8 cm. 

1 36. Donkey Bell. Bronze. A second bell serves as a clapper . . Persia 
Height of larger bell, 9.8 cm.; of smaller, 4.5 cm. Diameter of larger 

bell, 6.2 by 5.1 cm.; of smaller, 3.6 by 3 cm. 

137. Cai chieng. Gong. Alloy Anam 

The exterior surface is elaborately decorated in black and gold; the 

interior is painted a dull red. Incurved rim and large boss. 
Diameter, 52 cm. Depth of rim {ihanh), 8 cm.; of boss (vu), 3 cm. 
Width of boss, 7 cm. 

138. Bell. Bronze Italy 

A statuette of Venus bathing forms the handle. 

Height. 2 1 cm. Diameter at base, 9 cm. 

139. Chime. Sixteen small diamond-shaped brass bells India 

Length of each bell, 4 cm. Diameter, 3 cm. 

140. Shoko. Gong, of lacquered brass, elaborately decorated. . . .Japan 
Height, 41 cm. Width, 30.5 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 

On the face, lacquered brown, is a representation of the Shinto god of 
wealth and good fortune, standing on bags of rice. 


141. Po, or Seau-PO. Cymbal. Used with No. 151 China 

Diameter, 28.8 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 


142. Kagura-sudsu. Chime Japan 

Thirteen globular brass bells hanging from metal rings, which are 

fastened to a handle. 
Length, 40 cm. Diameter of bells, 3 cm. ; of rings, 4 and 6 cm. 

143. Library Bell. Brass Italy 

The handle, which unscrews, contains a box for sand and a case for 

quills. Height, 15.5 cm. Diameter at base, 7.5 cm. 

144. E-SUDSU. Temple hand-bell. Bronze. Incised decorations. .Japan 
Height, 1 7.5 cm. Diameter, 6.5 to 5.5 cm. 

145. Tanta. Gong. Bronze China 

Diameter, 23.7 cm. 

146. NiHOIHAGL Brass cymbal, used with No. 162 Japan 

Diameter, 34 cm. Depth, at boss, 3 cm. 

147. Bell. Pottery, enamelled in colors Switzerland 

Height, 9.5 cm. Diameter, 8.5 to 4.5 cm. 

1 48. Lo. Gong of brass China 

Diameter, 50 cm. Depth, 4 cm. 

149. Sagat, or Saggat.^ Finger-cymbals. Brass, scalloped edges. .Eg5T)t 
Diameter of each cymbal, 5 cm. Depth, 4.2 cm. 

150. Finger Cymbals. Similar to No. 149 Egypt 

151. Po, or Seau-PO. Brass cymbal used with No. 141 China 

152-153-154-155. (Right side of Case.) Gongs Borneo 

156-157-158-159-160. (Left side of Case.) Gongs. Borneo 

Nos. 152-160, inclusive, belong to the same set as No. 109. 

The copper alloy is very friable, and in its constituent parts seemingly 

unlike most Oriental mixtures. 

Average diameter of gongs, 18.7 cm.; depth, 4.2 cm. 

161. Chinchichi. Circular brass gong used by mendicant priests. .Japan 

It generally rests on a brass panel. 
Diameter at top, 7.3 cm. ; at rim, 9.5 cm. Depth, 3.2 cm. 

162. NiHOIHAGI. Used with No. 146 Japan 

163. Shoko. a bronze gong generally hung in a frame Japan 

Diameter, 13.5 cm. Depth, 3.8 cm. 

iQ with a circumflex corresponds to the English j. Therefore sagat, or saggat, should 
be written sajat, or sajjat. The g in kemangeh, Nos. 1232-3-5-6-7-8 comes under the same 
rule. (See Sachs, XVII.) 



1 64. Animal Bell. Brass Italy 

Diameter, 4.5 cm. 

165. Shoko. Similar to No. 163 Japan 

Diameter, 1 1 .8 cm. Depth, 3.5. 

166. Animal Bell. Brass, nickel-plated Italy 

Diameter, 5.5 cm. 

167. Cymbal. Brass. Modern. Used with No. 1 82 Italy 

Diameter, 35.7 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 

168. DoBACHI. Gong. Bell metal Japan 

The cup-shaped gong rests on a cushion which is placed on a carved 

and gilded frame. Its tone is very clear and of beautiful quality. 
The dobachi is called i^eisu by certain Chinese sects. 
Diameter, 1 3 cm. Height, 6.5 cm. ; of stand, 9.5 cm. 

169. Dora, or Corean gong. Brass Japan 

Diameter, 35 cm. Depth of rim, 3.2 cm. 


1 70. Goat Bell. Of the sleigh-bell type. Brass Egypt 

Diameter, 10 cm. 

171. Do-BYOSHI. Copper cymbals used by dancers to mark the time — ^Japan 
Diameter, 10.5 cm. 

1 72. Carillons. Harness bells. Brass, nickel-plated Italy 

Three bells, each 5.6 cm. in diameter, carried on a pillar. 

173. "SiSTRUM." 25 small bell-metal gongs — giving the chromatic scale 

from b flat' to b flat''' France 

Diameter of gongs, 1 5 to 4 cm. 

1 74. "Clochette DE Timon." Brass, nickel-plated Italy 

Two gongs of different pitches placed edge to edge. 

Diameter of larger gong, 7.8 cm. ; of smaller, 7.5 cm. 

1 75. Tala. Cymbals. Brass alloy India 

Diameter, 6.4 cm. Depth, 2.7 cm. 

1 76. Carillons. In material and use, similar to No. 1 72 Italy 

Diameter of each small bell, 4. 1 cm. ; of larger bell, 5.6 cm. 

1 77. Gong. Of white metal, in the form of a keystone Persia 

The upper corners are elongated and bent forward at right angles. 

The face is elaborately etched with arabesques, figures of men and 
animals, and inscriptions, the latter often being "puzzles to native 
scholars unless the content is known beforehand or can be guessed. 
Length, 39.5 cm. Width, 18.5 to 25 cm. Thickness, 8 to 7 mm. 

1 78. Dora. Gong. Brass Japan 

Diameter, 23.3 cm. Thickness, 8 mm. 


1 79. WaNIGUCHI, or "Shark's-mouth gong" . .Japan 

This gong is hung at the entrance to a temple, and struck with a thick 

rope suspended before it for that purpose. 
Diameter, 28 cm. Depth, 1 1 cm. 

180. Kajirel or ZlCHlREL Chime .Japan 

Three ring-Hke bells, or gongs, of bronze are strung upon a wire bent 
to a circle, which is fastened to a handle (missing). Each bell is 
made of two sections, joined at the inner edges, leaving the outer 
edges slightly apart. Which of the names given is applicable rests 
upon one's definition of bell and gong. 
Diameter of bells, 1 0.2 to 5 cm. ; of ring, 1 6 cm. 

181. Mass Bell. A frame of brass, in the form of a Greek cross . Germany 
Each arm bears a shallow gong-shaped bell surmounted by a Latin 


182. Cymbal. Brass. Modern. Used with No. 1 67 Italy 

183. "Diapason." Bell metal. Pitch:— a' Italy 

Diameter of gong, 9.2 cm. Depth, 3 cm. 

1 84. Chime Egypt 

Four globular bells of brass, attached to a bottle-shaped standard 

resting on four legs. 
Height, 10.3 cm. Diameter of each bell, 1.7 cm. 

185 to 202. Hand Bells. . Bell metal England 

The bells have straps for handles. On one side of the clapper a leathern 
damper is attached. When cleverly manipulated they produce a pleasing 
effect, and the music of "bell ringers" at one time was much in vogue. 

Diameter of bells, from 14.2 cm. (the largest) , to 7.5 cm. (the smallest). 
Height, from 7.3 to 16.5 cm. 

Compass : the diatonic scale of B flat major from f to d", with b natural, 
b natural', and f sharp interpolated, b and e' duplicated. 

Omitting mention of the many significant facts regarding the relations 
'bells have sustained to personal and communal life, a very interesting excerpt 
from the diary of Christopher Columbus is herewith given. It is dated Punta 
Santa, Dec. 25, 1492. "While the Admiral was talking to him (the King) 
another canoe arrived from a different place bringing some pieces of gold, 
which the people in the canoe wanted to exchange for a hawk's bell ; for there 
was nothing they desired more than these bells. "^ 

2 "Journal of Columbus," Hak. Soc, 1893, p. 135. 

Case III. Nos. 203 to 260 (Eight to Left). 


Section C. (a) Vibrating Bars of Wood, with Resonator. Xylophones. 
(b) Vibrating Segments of Resonator Body (Wood). 

Section D. Vibrating Tongues of Wood or Metal. Sanzas. 
Section E. Vibrating Bars, or Rods, of Metal. Carillons. 
Section F. Vibrating Tongues, or Bars, of Metal with Mechan- 
ism. Music-boxes, Partition Mustel. 
The instruments in Sections C and E are struck. Those in Section D are 
plucked, in Section F are plucked or struck. 

203. Ranat-ek. Xylophone. Wood Siam 

Twenty-one graduated bars of hard red wood, united by lacings of 

heavy cord, are laid along the edges of a curved, boat-like structure 
— in this example decorated with ivory inlay. This resonator rests 
on a square base. The bars are tuned, either by hollowing out the 
ends, or by affixing lumps of gum, cement, or lead, to the under 
Length of frame, 93.5 cm. Height, 43 cm. Length of bars, from 26 
to 3 1 cm. ; width, 3.4 to 4 cm. ; thickness, 1 .4 cm. 

204. Roneat-EK. Xylophone. Wood. (Over Case V!) .. .Cambodia 
Length of frame, 1 18 cm. Height, 5.2 cm. Length of bars (21 in 

number) , 30 to 39 cm. ; width, 4.5 to 5.2 cm. ; thickness, 1 .3 cm. 

205. Pattala. Xylophone. Wood. (Over Case VI) Burmah 

A reproduction. Elaborately decorated with inlay of light-colored 

wood. Twenty-two bars (more than the usual number). 

Length of frcime, 125 cm. Height, 50 cm. Length of bars, 24 to 
28 cm. ; width, 4.5 to 5.2 cm. ; thickness, 1 to 2 cm. 

The pattala is the Burmese ranat, with bars (16 to 18) of the Den- 
drocolamus giganteus. In Siam it is known as the takk^^g. 

The ranat (Camb. roneat) exhibits four forms: — ranat-eJfy the high- 
est pitched, usually with 21 bars; ranat-lek, low pitch, 17 bars; 
ranat Churns an octave lower in pitch than the ranat-ek: and the 
ranat thong, in which the bars are of bronze. The Siamese have 
four types of orchestra ; mahoree, bhimbat, k^ing khek, and lao phan. 
The ranats are used in the first two. 

The Javanese gambang (not in Collection) is of the ranat type. In 
its two forms, the gambang gangsa (6 to 18 metal bars), and the 
gambang /fa/a (variable number of bars), it is almost invariably 
found in their gamelang (orchestra). 



206. IzAMBILO. Wooden bars with resonators Zulu-land, Africa 

Ten bars of intgan wood — of graduated width — are fastened by 

thongs into a frame of bent wood, which is suspended from the 
shoulders of the performer by carrying-cords. Each bar is fitted 
with a resonator of the shell of the Str^chnos McKenii. 

Length of frame, 89 cm. Width, 44 cm. Length of bars, 32.5 cm., 
width, 4.5 to 8.5 cm. Diameter of resonators, 7 to 1 cm. 

Pitches — f. f sharp, b, c sharp', d sharp', f, f sharp', g sharp', a', 
and b'. 

The marimba, of which this is a typical specimen, is also widely dis- 
tributed throughout Latin America. While, like many other im- 
portations from Africa, it displays variations, in essentials they are 
identical with the original type. 

The menzan, a marimba of the Fan Tribe, Fr. Congo, has ten bars 
(sing, anzan) which give the Aeolian Mode {a-b-c-d'-e-f-g'-a').^ 

207. Strohfiedel. Xylophone. Wood and straw Germany 

Thirty-two wooden bars of varying lengths (three duplicates), laid in 

four parallel columns on slender fasces of straw, give, when struck, 

the chromatic scale from f sharp to b flat" 
Length, 60 cm. Width, 40 to 90 cm. Length of bars, 1 1 .4 to 25.3 cm. 
The foregoing instruments are of the xylophone type. The dividing line 
between this and a kindred type in which the process of tone-production is 
similar has never been distinctly drawn; therefore the use of the term "har- 
monicon" to define such an instrument as the teponatzli (Case IV, No. 269) 
is suggested. This is proposed with full appreciation of the danger involved 
in running counter to established precedents, the etymological implications of 
the term, and its definitions by lexicographers. To justify this differentiation 
the following important distinction is submitted: in the harmonicon the vibrat- 
ing tongue, or elastic section, is of the same body as the resonance chamber, or 
surface; in the xylophone, independent vibrating bodies rest on a resonator, 
which is not of the same body. The first type may also be reckoned in the 
gong class, for a wooden gong, or bell, embodies the principle on which the 
distinction rests. While the differentiation suggested may appear arbitrary, it 
would prevent such confusion of terms as is found in Engel's "Catalogue of 
Musical Instruments in the South Kensington Museum," in which he lists the 
ko k*ir^g — ^which he calls king (p. 46) — and the ranat-ek (p. 316) a typical 
xylophone — as harmonicons, although they are quite unlike. American and 
English lexicographers apply the term "harmonicon" to the mouth-harmonica 
— a free-reed instrument — also to the orchestrion^a mechanical instrument — 
and include in their definitions two types of harmonika, one of glass hemis- 
pheres (rubbed) and one of metal or glass bars (struck with hammers), 

1 Sachs, p. 259. 



208. TjALANG. Harmonicon. Bamboo tubes Java 

Ten tubes of bamboo, strung on two cords. The eleventh tube (mid- 
dle) is missing. The instrument is suspended from a branch of a 
tree, and the tubes are struck with sticks. Listed as a xylophone by 
Sachs (p. 388), it might, not illogically, be called a chime-har- 

Lengths, 23.3 to 74.5 cm. Diameters, 4.2 to 7 cm. 
This type of instrument is called "idiophonic" by Curt Sachs, and 
"autophonic" by Mahillon. 

209. Resonator. Of the t3rpe used to reinforce the tone in No. 206. 

210. "Bamboo Bells." Ten attuned bamboo tubes United States 

In this instrument, as in the tjalang, each tone-producing tube is also 

a resonator. 
The ten tubes, when struck with rubber-tipped sticks, give the diatonic 

scale from c to d', with b flat added. 
Lengths, 31 to 59 cm. Diameters, 4 to 5 cm. 

211-12-13. DOLI-DOLL Xylophone Nias Island 

Three slabs, half-round cross-section, placed over a hole in the ground 

and struck with two sticks. Pitches: i\ g', a'. 
Lengths, 36 to 49 cm. Widths, 4.2 to 5.3 cm. Thickness, 3 cm. 

214. Steel-harmonica United States 

Twenty-two steel bars of graduated length, resting upon a deep trap- 
ezoidal wooden frame. 

Length of frame, 66 cm. Width, 5 to 8 cm. Length of bars, 4.6 
to 14.5 cm.; width, 2.5 cm. Compass, the diatonic scale from 
c' to c'"'. 

215. Pan. Harmonicon type. Wood China 

The pan is a narrow rectangular block of shitan wood, in which a 

narrow slit 1 1 .5 cm. long, is cut. Beaten with a brass-headed 

stick, of the same wood, 1 3 cm. long. 
Length, 15.4 cm. Width, 5.5 cm. Thickness, 3 cm. 

The pan is generally a part of a mendicant's outfit, but is also used in 

the orchestra, when it is fastened to the tripod of the pang ^ou by 

cords passing through two holes in one end of the block. 

216. TiME-BEATER. Native name uncertain Anam 

Similar to the preceding, excepting that it has two resonance cavities — 

each 12.6 cm. long, 4.5 cm. wide, and 5 cm. deep — cut in opposite 
sides of the block. The whole is elaborately decorated with inlaid 
scroll designs. This variant is also found in China. 
Length, 1 6.6 cm. Width, 6. 1 cm. Thickness, 5.4 cm. 



217. Pan. Similar in structure to No. 215 China 


2 1 8. KiNANDA. Sanza. Wood. Iron tongues Congo River, Africa 

A hollow, rectangular resonance body of one piece slightly upturned 

at one end, carries 5 iron tongues (originally 8), which rest upon 
an iron bridge and wooden block secured by an iron cross-bar and 

Length of tongues, 9.4 to 10.3 cm. 

Kinanda appears to be a generic name for almost any African musical 
instrument. In this specific instance it is applied in that sense. The 
persistent migrations of instruments, and the bewildering confusion 
in nomenclature, practically preclude absolute accuracy in naming 
indigenous instruments. 

219. MoKKIN. Island of Kiu-shiu Japan 

Sixteen bars of shitan wood rest on a wooden boat-shaped frame, 

artistically decorated in black and gold lacquer. The two beaters 
are also of shitan wood. 
Length of frame, 71 cm. Height, 36 cm. Length of bars, 18.1 to 
29.5 cm.; widtli, 2.5 cm.; thickness, 1.3 cm. 

220. Ekende. Sanza. Wood. Iron tongues .... Bateke, Congo, Africa 
The resonance box carries 9 iron tongues — fastened as in No. 218. 

On each tongue, between the bridge and block, one or two glass 
beads are strung, which, when the tongues vibrate, produce a buzz- 
ing sound. There are two sound-holes in the body, which is dec- 
orated with brass tacks. 
Length of body, 22.7 cm. Width, 1 1 cm. Thickness, 4.5 cm. The 
tongues are from 1.8 to 12 cm. long. 

221. KiSANGHL Sanza. Wood. Iron tongues West Africa 

The body is decorated in a series of small incised circles. In addition 

to the twanging of the 14 iron tongues, fastened in the usual man- 
ner, loose iron rings, running along a wire at the bottom, contribute 
the buzzing effect so much admired by the natives. 
Length of body, 16.2 cm. Width, 12.7 cm. Thickness, 1 cm. Length 
of tongues, 3.5 to 6.2 cm. 

222. Ibeka. Sanza. Wooden body and tongues West Africa 

This very primitive specimen of a widely distributed type combines a 

body of flat pithy stalks, held togethr by cross-bars of wood, and 
nine wooden tongues. 
Length, 15.5 cm. Width, 8.7 cm. Length of tongues, 12 to 14.8 cm. 

223. Mbira. Sanza. Two groups of rattan tongues South Africa 

A rectangular board, stained black, and decorated with incised lines 


following its outline forms the body. On it two groups of bamboo 
tongues are fastened by straps of braided rattan. The pitches of the 
groups (of 8 tongues each) are in an irregular sequence. 
Length, 49 cm. Width, 27 cm. Tongues, from 10.3 to 13.2 long. 

224. BuNDUMA. Sanza. Wooden body and tongues Soudan 

The rectangular resonance-box is artistically decorated with poker- 
work. Eight smoothly finished rattan tongues are fastened to the 
body with vegetable fibre. Under these tongues is a small triangular 

Length, 32 cm. Width, 10.5 cm. Thickness, 3.8 cm. Length of 
tongues, 15.3 cm.; width, 2.6 cm. 

225. KiSANGHI. Wood. Iron tongues Angola, W. Africa 

This consists of an approximately square resonance-box, from one 

piece of soft wood stained black and carrying incised decorations. 
The upper surface bears 24 iron tongues, grouped by fives and 
sevens. Ring-rattle inside of lower end. 
Length, 22 cm. Width, 16.5 to 20 cm. Thickness, 3 to 8 cm. Long- 
est tongue, 1 1 .2 cm. ; shortest, 6 cm. 

226. KiSANGHI. Sanza, with case. Iron tongues .... Angola, W. Africa 
The body — 29 cm. long, and 1 7.8 to 21 .5 cm. wide — is supplied with 

an artistically woven case of rattan splints. The 23 iron tongues, 
arranged in a haphazard fashion and each carrying an iron collar, 
in addition to those at the base, constitute tlie tone-producing media. 

227. NsiMBl. Sanza. Iron tongues Upper Zambesi, Africa 

Nineteen iron tongues are arranged unsystematically on a hollowed 

block, 21.5 cm. long, 15 to 16 cm. wide, and 1.5 to 4 cm. thick. 
The instrument is held by the sides with both hands, the tongues 
being plucked with the thumbs. This is the usual manner of per- 

228. Kankobele. pi. tunkobele. Sanza. Bamboo tongues. .W. Africa 

A rough board — 33.3 to 34.5 cm. long, and 19.3 cm. wide, to which 
a resonator (half of a large calabash shell 18 cm. in diameter) is 
attached by rattan withes — forms the structure. To this, fifteen 
bamboo tongues, from 1 7.8 to 20.2 cm. long, and 1 cm. wide, are 
fastened in the usual manner. Lumps of black gum, affixed to the 
upper or under side of the tongue illustrate the usual tuning process 
(George Schwab.) 

229-230. Bant'you. Sanzas, elaborately decorated. . Benin, W. Africa 
Somewhat larger, and with longer tongues than No. 224. 


23 1 . Mbira. Sanza. Two groups of rattan tongues South Africa 

A flat board, darkened by burning and carrying carved geometrical 
designs in which the chief figure (thrice repeated) resembles a 
Maltese cross, serves as a resonating surface. To this surface two 
groups, each of 8 bamboo tongues resting on wooden bridges, are 
fastened by a braided cord of rattan strips. 
Length, 42.5 cm. Width, 1.2 cm. Thickness, 1.2 cm. 
While the tone-series produced by plucking the elastic strips of cane or 
metal in the sanza does not appeal to the Western ear, it possesses for the un- 
sophisticated native a potent charm. It would be impossible to give any but 
approximate pitches to the tones produced, but it is significant that there is a 
rude system governing their various groupings. In primitive songs we find 
interval relationships that necessitate a special notation — resembling the 
"curves" employed in defining relations remote from music — and only through 
the use of such a method could the exact pitches of many primitive instruments 
be given. The African native is not restricted in his choice of material, as is 
shown by the pol^ido^ a Congoese sanza with resonator formed from a human 

232-233. "Musical Coins." Steel discs. Scale of C United States 

Diameters from 5.7 to 8.3 cm. 

234. Carillons, "a lameo d' acer." Steel bars Frcince 

A lyre-shaped frame of beaten brass, supported on a long wooden 

handle, carries 1 4 attuned steel bars. With the additional bars listed 
as No. 252, the chromatic scale from c to g'' is made possible. 
The bars may be so adjusted as to establish any desired tonality. 
Formerly very much in vogue in military bands. 
Length of frame, 1 09 cm. Length of bars, 1 6.8 to 1 8 cm. ; width, 

2.3 cm. ; thickness, 8 mm. 

235. Musical Bar. Iron. Pitch: — F sharp Italy 

Length, 151 cm. Dieuneter, 1 to 3 cm. 

236. Triangle. Steel India 

Entire length, 7 1 cm. 

237. MoKURI, or MUKKURI, Jewsharp. Bamboo Ainos, Japan 

In a flat strip of bamboo, 1 cm. long, and 1 .4 cm. wide, a flat tongue, 

8.4 cm. long and 4 mm. wide, is cut. This tongue is thinned at the 
lower end, and is set in vibration by the fingers or the pin attached 
to one end by a fine cord. 

The Jewsharp (Fr. Cuimbarde; Ital. Scacciapensieri; Ger. Maul- 
trommeU Brummeisen) , possibly a corruption from Jawsharp, is widely dis- 
tributed and occasionally is given names which seem to have no relation to its 
character, as kuisi-biiva (Jap.) and ^*ou chin (Chin.). 


238. Jewsharp. (With case — a node of bamboo) Borneo 

Body of bamboo with half-round cross-section. Native name unknown. 
Length, 10.1 cm. Width, 1.3 cm. Length of tongue, 7.7 cm. 

239. KuLANG. Jewsharp Moro Tribe, Philippine Islands 

Body, of rattan, 3 1 .3 cm. long and 1 .2 cm. wide, with a short tongue, 

7.2 cm. In many respects it resembles the earlier darubi of the 
West Torres Straits, between Australia and New Guinea. 

240. Darubiri. Jewsharp New Guinea 

Of rattan, rounded at one end and gradually tapering to a point at the 

other. The tongue runs nearly the whole length. The whole is 
stained black. 
Length, 13.8 cm. Widest diameter, 1 cm. 

241 . MuKKURI. Jewsharp Formosa 

Usual structure. Length, 6.5 cm. Width, 2.3 cm. 


242-243-244. Jewsharps. Metal. Modern United States 

245. Steel-harmonica. "Schoenhut's Patent" United States 

The body, straight on one side and with incurving outline on the other, 

carries 18 steel bars, which, when struck with hammers, give the 
diatonic scale from c to f". (See Violone, Case VI.) 
Length, 49 cm. Width, 5 to 16 cm. Length of bars, 6 to 14 cm.; 
width, 1 to 9 cm. 

246. Kel or HoKYO. Gong. Bronze Japan 

A flat plate in the form of a carpenter's square. Inscriptions on both 

sides of surface. Struck with a peculiar Y-shaped mallet, tipped 
with bone. 
Length of each arm, 1 3 cm. ; width, 6 cm. ; thickness, 4 nmi. 

247. Music-box, "Monopol" Germany 

Thirty-nine tongues of varying lengths, cut in a thin plate of steel, thus 

forming a comb, are made to sound by plectra, operated by a per- 
forated disc which is rotated by clock-work. 
Length of case, 19.6 cm. Width, 16.6 cm. Height, 1 1.7 cm. 

248. Musical Bottle Germany 

A small music-box driven by clock-work is concealed in the base of 

the decanter. When the bottle is tipped it plays an air, but is silent 
when the upright position is resumed. 
Height, 33 cm. Diameter, 9.2 cm. 

249. Partition Mustel. Metal bars France 

A set of 24 attuned rectangular bronze plates of graduated length and 

width are arranged in chromatic sequence from c to b". The plates 



are struck by a mechanism operated by "touches," arranged in the 
pianoforte key-board order. It was invented in 1888 by Victor 
Mustel (Paris) to serve as a standard of pitch. It is housed in a 
walnut case. 
Length of case, 48.5 cm. Height, 1 2 cm. Width, 33 cm. Length of 
bars 7 to 1 4 cm. ; width, 2 to 4 cm. ; thickness, 2 mm. 

250. Tuning Fork. (Konig.) Steel. Pitch: c' France 

The fork, which is 15.7 cm. long, and 3 cm. wide, stands on a rectan- 
gular box, containing a drawer in which it may be placed. A tun- 
ing fork gives a pure tone, relatively free from harmonics. Attempts 
have been made at various times to utilize a series of such forks in 
a key-board instrument, but they are curiosities rather than real 

25 1 . Music-box. Steel tongues with mechanism. Modern .... Switzerland 
The repertoire is as follows: 

1 . "Pinafore" — "He is an Englishman." 

2. ;;Mabel"— Valse.^^ 

3. "Trial by Jury" — "Lancer No. 1." 

4. "Le Petit Due" — "La Lecon de chant." 

5. "Madame Favart" — "The artless Thing." 

6. "My Lost Dream." 

7. "La Juive" — "Guard du Siegneur." 

8. "Les Cloches de Corneville" — ^Valse. 

The mechanism, inclosed in a walnut case, inlaid with ivory, consists 
of a brass cylinder in which small pins are set, and which is made to 
revolve by a powerful spring. As the cylinder revolves these pins 
engage slender steel teeth, and, in this example, a set of nine bell- 
gongs. By shifting the cylinder longitudinally different groups of 
teeth are plucked, and a more or less extended repertoire is estab- 
lished. The music-box is a civilized sanza, raised to the nth power. 

Length, 56 cm. Width, 15.4 cm. Height, 26.4 cm. Length of teeth, 
75 in number, from 6.2 to 4.7 cm. 

Signed — "Musique de Geneve." 

25 1 A. Music-box Switzerland 

The case, of walnut, with top and front beautifully inlaid, is 67 cm. 
long, 39 cm. wide, and 32 cm. high. In addition to the usual 
mechanism and tone-producing media, 16 reeds and 6 gongs are 
also operated by the cylinder. The repertoire of 8 pieces includes 
selections from operas, one folk-song, and a march. Like all such 
combinations, this instrument is more of a curiosity than a real musi- 
cal asset. It is placed for the present in Case XIV. 
(Albert A. Stanley.) 



252. Steel Bars. Supplementary to No. 234 France 

By substituting these for certain ones in No. 234 new tonalities are 

made possible. 

253. Steel Bars. Evidently these belong to a chime France 

Over Case VII. 

254. Camel Bells. Brass. Arranged on a frame Egypt 

An upright, rectangular frame of turned posts — 68 cm. high, 38 cm. 

wide, and 37 cm. deep — carries a board — 70 cm. high and 35 cm. 
wide — the top of which is of ornamental scroll work, inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl. The front is covered with sheet iron, fastened with 
large flat-headed iron nails. Against this, 24 brass bells, of flattened 
conical form, are hung. This formidable structure, placed vertically 
on the back of a camel, figures in public processions, especially in 
marriage trains. 
The bells are 5.5 cm. wide, 7 to 8.5 cm. high, and 3 to 4 mm. thick. 

255. Camel Bell. Copper Egypt 

Height, 13.3 cm. Diameter at base, 6.5 cm. 

256. Chinese Pavilion, (Fr. Chapeau chinois) Italy 

A steel rod — 47 cm. long — set in a wooden handle, and decorated 

with a brass ball near the top, carries a brass crescent — 23 cm. long 
— and, just above, a bell 10 cm. in diameter and 6.5 in height. 
Four very small bells hang from the crescent and three from the bell. 

257. Chapeau chinois (Ger. Schellenbaum) Italy 

A wooden handle, 1 52 cm. long, bears a brass rod on which are loosely 

fastened, so as to turn freely, a brass crescent, a piece of sheet brass 
in the form of a lyre, and a scalloped cone of the same metal. To 
the crescent 18 small brass bells, alternately conical and spherical 
in shape, are attached; to the lyre 14, and to the cone 16 similar 
bells are fastened. The cone, by its resemblance to a Chinese hat, 
is responsible for the French designation. 

258. Kre-WAIN Siam, and Burmah 

Sixteen attuned gongs of brass alloy are arranged on a frame. The per- 
former squats on the ground in the middle of this frame (which lies 
flat) and strikes the gongs with a mallet. 

Pitches — a flat", g flat", f", e flat", d", d flat", a', b flat', a flat', 
g flat', e', e flat', c flat', b flat', d flat', and e flat'. 
Inner diameter of frame 54.5 cm.; outer 90.2 cm.; of gongs 4.7 to 
6.2 cm. Depth of gongs, 6.5 cm. 

259. Schellenbaum. Similar to No. 256 Germany 


260. Cowbell. Bronze. Sixteenth century Switzerland 

The heart-shaped body is fashioned from thin bronze, and is suppHed 
with an iron tongue. Two long iron buckles serve to adjust the 
broad leather strap about the neck of the animal. 
Height, 35 cm. Width, 46 cm. Thickness, 30 cm. 
This type of bell is used on festival occasions to designate the finest 
animal of the herd. The leather strap is then profusely decorated 
with flowers. When the herds come from the Alps to the valley, 
the leader always bears the finest-toned bell. 
The instruments in Cases II and III are full of suggestion. Memories of 
the worship of Cybele are invoked by the cymbals, whose lure is still potent in 
orgiastic music; in the modern orchestra the gong incites to action, inspires 
terror, or presages death; the castanet and triangle give the characteristic at- 
mosphere of the dance under Southern skies, while the xylophone gives more 
reality to the "Dance of Death" than Holbein's illustrations ; in short, in prin- 
ciple, the modern treatment of these instruments lies along the same lines as 
their ancient uses. 

Class I. Sections B and C. 

261. Gong, "Pompeian door-bell." Iron Ancient Italy 

This reproduction was made from a genuine gong in the Naples 

Museum. The present plate was cast from one which was undoubt- 
edly ancient. It was in so many fragments that it could not be 
hung, and no modern process could unite the parts. The iron frame 
is frankly modern. 

The fragments of the original plate are placed on floor before No. 264. 

Diameter of disc, 26 cm. Thickness, 4 mm. 

262. Mo-KUG-YO (Chin. A/u-j;u;^ Anam. Cai mo) Japan 

This rare specimen dates from the eleventh century. It was taken from 

an old Buddhist temple at Nara, and presented to Mr. Stearns by 
Senator Kanda, Governor of Hiogo. The body of this gong, or bell, 
is carved in conventional designs, and the handle represents two 
billing Ho-birds. 
Length, 42 cm. Extreme height, 37 cm. Diameter, 35.5 cm. Length 
of slit, 57 cm. ; width, 1 .4 to 2.7 cm. 

263. DoBACHI. "The copper cup." Metal gong Japan 

On the outer rim an inscription runs — "Dedicated on the third of this 

seventh month of Tempo (July, 1832), by Oka-i-uji, for the use of 
all his ancestors." The tone, produced by an upward, oblique stroke 
of a leather-padded stick, is of a beautiful quality and of remarkable 
duration. Although the dobachi generally rests on a cushion, placed 
on a low lacquered stand, it is occasionally suspended in a frame. 
Height, 27 cm. Diameter at rim, 35.5 cm. 

264. Kei, or HoKYO. Gong. Alloy Japan 

The plate, cast in the form of a truncated half-lozenge, hangs in a 

frame of hard, polished wood, and is struck with a beater of hard 
wood. It is decorated on both sides with rosettes and representa- 
tions of the Ho-Ho bird in low relief. 
Length, 17 to 2 1 .3 cm. Average width, 8.5 cm. Height of frame, 
61 cm. 

^The lidless eyes on the tnu yu. (fish) are symbolical of wakefulness. (Moule, p. 22.) 


265. Shoko. Gong, Some rare alloy Japan 

This type was the first metal instrument introduced into Japan. Used 

in the bugaku orchestra with the tsuri-daiko. It consists of a flat, 
broad ring of metal, with a slightly convex surface, surmounted by 
the l(rpa-yen, or flame ornament. 
Diameter of ring, 2 1 .5 cm. Height of frame, 90 cm. 

266. Kyse-zee. Metal gong Burmah 

A flat, triangular plate, with the lower corners rounded, resembling 

the l^re-tsi of Burmah — the Siamese Ian k^n — is suspended in a 
frame of dark red wood, 46 cm. in height. The tone is of a rich 
flute-like quality, and the vibrations continue for 60 seconds. The 
Pharisaical Buddhist instead of making "long prayers to be heard 
of men," draws attention to himself by striking this gong. 

Exhibited at the International Exhibition, Calcutta, 1 884. 

Length, 24 cm. Greatest width, 15.3 cm. Thickness, 1 cm. 

267. Kei, or HOKYO. Gong Japan 

The plate, of alloy, is cast in a conventionalized leaf form. It bears 

traces of gilding and inscriptions in archaic characters. In form it 
resembles the Chinese ko-ch'ing, and is of great antiquity. 
Height, 22.5 cm. Greatest width, 23 cm. Height of frame, 60 cm. 

268. Drum. Wood Upper Congo, Africa 

The body — oval cross-section, and slightly swelling at the middle — 

is of a dark-red wood. In a ridge, running along the top, an in- 
cision 27 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide is cut. On either side of this 
slit and opposite each other, two blocks, 5.3 cm. long, project, re- 
ducing the width of the slit at that point to 5 mm., and dividing the 
larger opening into two equal parts, through which the interior is 
hollowed out, forming a resonator. The projections are sufficiently 
elastic to vibrate with great rapidity when struck, and, being of 
varying thickness, produce two tones of different pitch. This type 
of drum is used in the dance, and for signalling. 
Length, 39 cm. Diameter at ends, 14.5 by 1 1 cm. 

269. Teponatzll Drum, or harmonicon, of wood. . . .Ancient Mexico 
The body of this facsimile of a pre-Columbian type consists of a 

slightly flattened cylinder of wood, decorated in conventional Aztec 
designs in low relief. In the top, a cut, resembling an elongated 
letter H, leaves two vibrating tongues, 1 8 cm. long, 1 .5 cm. wide, 
and 8 mm. thick, with the free ends opposite each other. 
Length, 50.5 cm. Diameter, 14 to 18 cm. 



270. Teponatzli. Wood. Facsimile Ancient Mexico 

The body, of stained wood, is of rectangular form, with carvings of 
cords and tassels on the sides. A grotesquely carved human head, 
resting on two hands, forms the termination of one end. The tone- 
producing media are two tongues, each 57 cm. long, and 6.4 cm. 
wide, running parallel to each other. 
Length, 85 cm. Width, 18.5 cm. Height, 14.5 cm. 

271-272. Signal Drums French Congo, Africa 

In principle and means of tone-production these drums are identical 

with No. 268. The bodies are of light-colored wood in the form of 

a hollow cylinder, somewhat flattened, and are decorated with 

poker-work and rude carvings. 

Length, of No. 271, 56.5 cm.; of No. 272, 64.5 cm. Diameter of 

No. 27 1 , 27.5 by 22.5 cm. ; of No. 272, 29 by 24.5 cm. 
The atupani — signal-drums of the Ewe Tribe — are used in pairs, the 

aiupani-aisu — masculine — and the aiupani-asi — feminine." 
Nos. 268-271-272 are used by the natives in a species of telegraphy 
for which reason they are sometimes called "talking drums." Nos. 
269-270 illustrate the same principle although they have a technical 
relationship to the harmonicon t5T3e. 
The "talking drums" — the African negro's "wireless" — under the ma- 
nipulation of an expert native, convey information with accuracy and incon- 
ceivable rapidity. A traveller, journeying from the Upper Congo to its mouth 
may be certain that his characteristics will be known to the natives along the 
entire course of the river in a few hours after he sets out, and he will be ham- 
pered or assisted according to the information given. If generous in his dealings, 
he will be cordially welcomed, if penurious in his bestowal of gifts his lot will 
be a hard one. Drums of the same type serve the Samoa islander as guides in 
thick weather, for each island has a drum of specific pitch.^ 

Class II. Vibrating Membrane or Membranes, with 


Section A. Drums with One Vibrating Membrane (Head). 

The three important constructive features of a drum are ( 1 ) the Barrel, 
(2) the Head, (3) the method of securing the tension of tlie Membrane, or 
Head. In the following descriptions the material of the barrel, and the kind 
of membrane used will be noted, but the devices through which tension is se- 
cured are so numerous that they cannot be given in connection with individual 
instruments. The following is a summary of these processes : 

2 Sachs, p. 22. 

3 Those who would know the wider significance of these early types are referred to 
the scholarly and illuminating article, "Music of Primitive Peoples," by Willy Pastor — 
Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic, loio, pp. 654-675, a translation of which is given in the Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution, 1912, pp. 678-700. 


While not infrequently the skin, or head, is directly attached to the barrel 
by cement (Case V, No. 324), or some resinous gum (No. 276), it is gen- 
erally fastened to a hoop. This is pressed down the barrel by the hands (No. 
281 ), by wedges (No. 294), or by thongs which have previously been soaked 
in water (No. 239). In No. 303, the whole head was soaked in water. In 
some types of East Indian drums, the thongs are tightened by wooden rollers 
(Case V, No. 370). TTie method shown in No. 353 is always indicative of 
European influence. In primitive forms, withes of some sapling, or cords of 
vegetable fibre are employed (Case V, No. 343). The heads of all Chinese 
drums are fastened by rude wrought-iron nails (No. 297). Pegs are occasion- 
ally used (No. 310). Lumps of resinous gum are sometimes attached to the 
head for tuning purposes (No. 281). In noting the material used for the 
head, "hide" means an untanned skin. "Skin" indicates that the hide has been 
tanned. The terms "raw" and "rough," applied to parchment, refer to the 
relative fineness of the treatment it has undergone. 

It must be noted that, as a rule, these methods are so persistent that most 
of them are definitive of type and source. 

In early days valuable parchment folios were destroyed in order that the 
leaves might be used for drum-heads. In confirmation of this, Ricold of Monte 
Croce (1242-1320) is cited, who, in Letter III,* makes the following inter- 
esting statement: "At *Jonah's Nineveh,' now called Mousal, we heard the 
first definite news of the fall of Acre ( 1 29 1 ) , and met with some Christian 
books, a missal and a copy of the Moralia of Pope Gregory the Great, relics 
of that great catastrophe. The leaves of the missal were destined by its Sar- 
acen possessors to serve instead of skin for (the heads of) drums and tam- 
bours {Instrumenie et propemant tanbur) ." 

273. Ketobong. Wood. Lizard-skin Borneo 

The head is drawn taut over the upper end of the vase-shaped body 

by rattan braces attached to a hoop which is forced down the barrel 
by wedges. Tuned with a lump of resinous gum fastened to the 
head. This drum is used by priests and priestesses in the "noise 
treatment" of sickness. The barrel contains a rattan snare. 
Length, 44 cm. Diameter at head, 13 cm. 

274. Arpa. Wood. Lizard-skin New Guinea 

Long cylindrical body of hard, dark-red wood expanding towards 

either end. In the middle section rises a handle, carved from the 
body. The head is held in place by a hoop wound with rattan. The 
arpa is held in the left hand, while the right strikes or rubs the head. 
Length, 65 cm. Diameter of head, 13 cm. 

275. Arpa. Same type as No. 274, but smaller New Guinea 

Length, 42 cm. Diameter of head, 8.5 cm. 

* Vatican (Rome) MSS. 3717, fol. 2586. 



276. Kaba. Slightly curved body of wood. Skin New Guinea 

Along one side of the cylindrical body runs a carved ridge in the 

middle of which a handle is cut. The surface is carved in low re- 
lief with the background filled in with lime. The head is of the skin 
of some aquatic bird, fastened to the body with cement. 
Length, 27.5 cm. Diameter at head, 6 cm. 

277. Arpa. Wood. Lizard-skin New Guinea 

The handle represents an animal. 

Length, 58.5 cm. Diameter of head, 1 3 cm. 
278-9-80. Drums. Arpa type. Usual materials New Guinea 

These drums display only minor variations in size and decoration from 
the preceding examples. 

281. Arpa. Wood. Snake-skin Fly River, New Guinea 

The surface of this typical body is carved in geometrical patterns, with 
background colored in white and brown. The open end carries a 
large pendant tuft of black hair. The head is secured by a double 
band of rattan. Drums of this type are widely distributed. 

Length, 1 05.3 cm. Diameter of head, 1 8 cm. 
282» I Ngomba. Wood. Rawhide Lower Guinea 

The body is of stained wood, slightly swelling in the middle section, 
and, from a point 30 cm. from one end gradually decreasing in 
diameter. Two heads of thin rawhide — the larger 1 5 cm. and the 
smaller 8.5 cm. in diameter — are drawn taut by twisted thongs 
(also of rawhide) which run through holes in the edge of the heads. 
It is probable that the smaller head is not struck but forms the end 
of the drum. 

Length, 1 57.8 cm. Greatest diameter, 1 7 cm. 

283. Tam-tam. Wood. Rawhide Bolobo, Congo River, Africa 

Over one end of a jar-shaped body of wood the head is drawn taut by 

rawhide thongs knotted together and drawn under the smaller end. 

It is carried under the left arm and beaten with the palm of the right 

Height, 50.8 cm. Diameter, 7 to 19.2 cm. 
This very primitive drum is suggestive of either the bate or fanke. both 

of Sierra Leone ; it has the wooden body of the one, and the tension 

of the other. 

284. Drum. Wood. Parchment Sierra Leone, Africa 

This is an evolution from No. 283. By extending and elaborating the 

waist — the section between the pedestal and body of the drum — 
many unique variants are formed. A widely distributed form, found 
in Africa and among nearly all primitive peoples. 
Height, 45 cm. Diameter at head, 18 cm. 


285. Drum. Gourd. Parchment Uganda, Africa 

The kettle-shaped body is elaborately decorated with incised lines. 

The head is secured by numerous gut cords fastened to wooden pegs, 
and also wound about the body. This is a typical form. 
Depth, 25.6 cm. Diameter, 26.5 cm. 

286. Drum. Gourd. Parchment Uschachi, Africa 

Over the larger end of the funnel-shaped body the head is fastened by 

a cord of twisted rawhide, from which hang long narrow strips of 
the same material. 
Length, 26 cm. Diameter, 4 to 1 7 cm. 

287. Drum. Gourd, decorated with cowrie-shells. Parchment .... Africa 
The long, conical body is decorated with four longitudinal rows of 

cowrie-shells, two of which are fastened to a strap, which, running 
over the head, forms a handle. 
Length, 42.5 cm. Diameter, 6.7 to 13.7 cm. 

288. Drum. Section of elephant tusk. Zebra-hide Soudan, Africa 

Length, 23 cm. Diameter, 1 2 by 14 cm. 

289. Drum. Section of cow's horn. Parchment Soudan, Africa 

Decorated with rows of cowrie-shells and glass beads. 

Length, 15 cm. Diameter, 4 to 8 cm. 

290. Drum. Calabash shell. Parchment Soudan, Africa 

The shallow bowl-shaped body is decorated with burnt lines, and 

carries a cord of braided leather. The parchment head is stretched 
over iron pegs, and is decorated with emblematic figures in colors. 
Depth, 14.5 cm. Diameter of head, 25.5 by 29 cm. 

291. Drum. Calabash shell. Parchment Soudan, Africa 

Similar to the preceding, but with plain head. 

Depth, 1 1 .5 cm. Diameter of head, 1 2.5 by 1 8.5 cm. 

292. Arpa. Wood. Lizard, or fish-skin New Guinta 

The long body, stained black, is constricted at the middle and termin- 
ates in a representation of the open jaws of the Orca, or "whale- 
killer." The head is fastened by cords and a resinous gum, lumps 
of which are affixed to the head. 

Length, 95 cm. Diameter of head, 1 7.5 cm. 

293. Drum. Wood. Parchment New Caledonia 

The body, stained black, is in the form of an elongated goblet, and is 

decorated with five bands of red paint. The head is fastened by 
closely placed braces of leather, passing under a hoop of twisted 
rattan at the base of the bowl. It is practically identical with the 
Burmese ozee, but much larger. 
Length, 88.5 cm. Diameter of head, 2 1 cm. 


294. Drum. Section of bamboo. Parchment Java 

The head, attached by narrow bands of bamboo to a hoop of the 

same material, is tightened by wedges. 
Length, 68 cm. Diameter, 12 cm. 

295. Arpa. Wood. Lizard-skin New Guinea 

The long body bears a handle at the middle, and is decorated with 

carved bands. The open end is a representation of the open jaws of 
a crocodile. It resembles the warup of the West Torres Straits so 
closely that it might be so designated.^ 
Length, 76 cm. Diameter at head, 1 4.8 cm. 
In Africa the drum is regnant and exhibits not only many types, but also 
a great number of variants, for each native is his own drum-maker. Such 
variants are products of primitive industry in all quarters of the globe. Speci- 
mens of such may be seen in Nos. 284 and 292. Many of these drums are 
wonderfully decorated. In the Volkerkunde Museum, Berlin, are drums the 
construction of which must have engaged at least two generations. 

296. Pa-IPU, or HoKEO. Gourd Hawaii 

Two gourds of unequal size are so fastened together as to form a con- 
striction at the middle. Made to sound by dropping on the ground. 

Lengths of gourds, 23.5 and 35 cm. Diameters, 26.2 and 30 cm. 

297. Kou. Wood. Hogskin China 

The body, of light-colored wood, is in the shape of a deep bowl, with 

a dome-like top in which is a circular opening, 1 1 cm. in diameter. 
The entire top is covered with hogskin fastened by flat-headed iron 
nails. Two bands of twisted rattan pass around the body. 

Kou is the Chinese generic name for drum. 

Height, 26.5 cm. Greatest diameter, 30 cm. 


298. Drum. Pottery. Parchment Source imknown 

Height, 27 cm. Diameter of body, 13 cm.; of head, 10 cm. 

299. Pang Kou. Wood. Hogskin China 

The round body, in the form of a shallow inverted basin, is made from 

sections of hard wood, held together by an iron band. The inside 
surface slopes to the middle leaving an opening 4 cm. in diameter. 
To the outer surface a head is fastened by iron nails. 

300. Pang Kou. A replica of No. 299 China 

301 . Pang Kou, or Man T'ou Kou (Loaf drum) China 

Wood. Hogskin. Similar in structure and size to the preceding, but 

mounted on a tripod. A pan (Case III. No. 215) is attached to 
the tripod and played at the same time. 
Height of tripod, 71 cm. 

5 A. C. Haddon, "Ethn. of Western Tribes of Torres Straits," p. 375. 


302. PUNIU. Gourd. Skin of the Kala-fish Hawaii 

The bowl-shaped body bears a head tightened by cords of flax run- 
ning to a cloth-covered hoop at the base. A tassel of twisted cords 
hangs from this hoop. The puniu is beaten with a flexible whip made 
from twisted hau-hala cords. Used in the hula-hula dance. 

Depth, 12 cm. Diameter of head, 14 cm. 

303. Ga-NO-GO-0. Water-drum. Wood. Hide. Seneca Indians, New York. 
The lower part of a paint keg serves as a body. To secure the proper 

tension, the head, which is of a dark, thick, and flexible leather, is 
soaked in water and drawn taut by a tightly fitting hoop of wood, 
covered with cloth. The size of the resonance cavity is regulated 
by pouring water into the barrel through a small hole, which is 
afterwards stopped with a plug. This drum figures in the social and 
religious activities of many American Indian tribes, but its vogue is 
not restricted to this side of the ocean. 
Depth of body, 8.5 cm. Diameter of head, 24 cm. 

(M. R. Harrington.) 
The Crosby Brown Collection (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York) has a fine display of Indian instruments. 
Pierre Esprit Radisson (1620-1710) in the account of his fourth voy- 
age to the Northwest, in 1661-1664, speaks of water-drums as follows: 
"Their drums weare earthern potts full of watter, covered with staggs-skin. 
The sticks like hammers for ye purpose. The elders are about these potts 
beating them and singing."^ 

304. Cai TRONG bog. Wood. Parchment Anam 

The body — inverted basin type — is lacquered black, with a gilded 

band of metal at the bottom. The head bears the symbol of Eter- 
nity, in red, against a circular green background. 
Diameter, 1 3 to 1 7.3 cm. Depth, 7.4 cm. 

305. Kou. Wood. Hogskin China 

A round hollow body of wood 1 5 cm. in length maintains the diameter 

of the upper end (15 cm.) to a point 1 1 cm. below, when it slopes 
inward to a diameter of 8 cm. with an opening 6.5 cm. wide. The 
upper section, which bears the head, is painted red, and the lower 

306-307. Tabla arrakeb Arabia 

The bodies of these kettle-drums are of copper, and the heads of 
Depth, 7 cm. Diameter of heads, 12.6 cm. 

^ Prince Society Publications, Vol. i6, p. 219, Boston, 1885. 

The Indians of whom he writes are supposed to have been the Crees, of Minnesota. 
Earlier in his account (p. 187) Radisson speaks of the AKckmach (white fish), and, on 
page 190, mentions "a banke of Rocks that the wild men make sacrifice to, they calls it 
NanitoucMngagort ('Pictured Rocks,' Lake Superior), which signifies likenesse of the 


308. Naqqareh. Slate. Rawhide Africa 

The drum shown — a shallow bowl of slate, with head — is one of a 

pair, connected by a short bar (3 cm.) of the same material, which 
bore the carved figure of an alligator. The handle and one drum 
are missing. 
Diameter, 9.5 cm. Depth, 4 cm. 

309. Naqqareh, or Tabl Egypt 

This hand-drum has a body of terra-cotta, with head of translucent 

membrane, secured by flaxen cords. 
Depth, 9 cm. Diameter, 1 3 cm. 

3 1 0. Tabla EL-DARAUSHA. Metal. Parchment Egypt 

The body, in the shape of a flattened bell, bears a head held in place 

by heavy spikes projecting from the edge of the body. It is held in 
the left hand and beaten with a leather strap. It is used during 
Ramadan to waken the sleepers (at 2 : 00 A. M.) that they may eat. 

Depth, 1 2 cm. Diameter, 1 7 cm. 

The tabla el-musaher is similar, and is beaten with a stick by the reciter 
musaher — who, during Ramadarit nightly recites before the houses 
of the wealthy. 

311. Nagara. Pottery. Parchment India 

The deep bowl-shaped body is of black pottery, to which a head is 

fastened by a hoop, from which run cotton braces to a heavy hempen 
band at the base. The head is weighted with a circular patch of 
resinous gum, placed somewhat to the side of the center. 
Depth, 20 cm. Diameter of head, 22 cm. 

3 1 2. Thong. Lacquered earthenware. Snake-skin Anam 

The body resembles a long-necked and very slender vase, with head 

at the upper end. The head is fastened by strips of leather running 
from the hoop to a pad of the same material at the bottom, and the 
tension is secured by three bands of cloth — white, red, and green — 
which are drawn tightly around the strips. 
Length, 34.5 cm. Diameter of head, 9 cm. 

3 1 3. TiKARA. Pottery Parchment India 

Practically identical with No. 311, excepting that the color of the 

pottery is red and the tension secured by rings. 

Depth, 18 cm. Diameter of head, 22 cm. 

Pottery is frequently used as material for the barrels of Oriental drums. 
As this substance is non-vibratory this practice has little to com- 
mend it. 


3 1 4. Kettle-drum. Copper. Parchment France 

This small drum has the typical body of the kettle-drum, and the head 

is fastened by hand-screws. 
Depth, 17.2 cm. Diameter pf head, 19.5 cm. 

3 1 4a. Kettle-drums. Copper. Parchment United States 

The cauldron-shaped bodies are mounted on iron standards on which 
they turn freely, thus operating an inside mechanism by means of 
which they are tuned, by increasing or decreasing the tension of 
the heads. This is generally done by hand-screws placed at inter- 
vals around the upper circumference of the body. 

Height of larger (F to c) drum, 42.9 cm.; of smaller (B flat to f), 
36.9 cm. Diameters, 37.9 cm.; and 32.9 cm. 
(University Musical Society.) 

The Kettle-drum (Fr. Timbale; Ital. Timpano; Ger. Pauke) is the 
most artistic member of the drum family. Formerly a pair sufficed, 
but three, and even more, drums, with freer tunings and frequent 
extensions of the former normal compass, are now used.^ The 
necessity for rapid changes of pitch in modern scores has also led to 
the introduction of mechanically tuned drums. First constructed by 
Pfundt of Leipzig ( 1 806- 1 87 1 ) , they have been greatly improved 
by leading modern makers. By the use of light metal tubing, and 
hollow mechanical parts, the former excessive weight has been 
reduced to a minimum. The tuning mechanism is operated by a 
foot pedal, and the pitches are registered on a scale. 

The mediaeval designation "Naker" (Kettle-drum), is a corruption of 
the Arabic nacareh, or noqqaryeh, from which the modern name 
"Naqqareh" for Turkish, Syrian and Arabian drums of this type is 
derived. Nacaire, naguarre (old Fr.) ; nacara (old Span.) and 
nagara (Beng.) have the same origin, while taballo (Ital.) ; atabal 
(Span.); atabor (Prov.) ; tabla (E. Ind.), and the African 
a-tabule, are drawn from the Arabic tabl (pi. aibal). Druma- 
umha, Gaelic for kettle-drum, is an onomatopoeic designation sim- 
ilar to those found in many languages.* 

'' As illustrations of these extensions Berlioz's Requiem and Wolf-Ferrari's La Vita 
Nuova may be cited. In the former eight pairs of drums are so tuned that distinct chords 
are produced, in the latter seven drums give a melodic figure. The drums combining with 
the double-basses (pissicato) make possible an interesting composite tone-quality. 

8 Sachs, pp. 266, 268, 266( 267, 372, 21, 22. 372, 22, 372. 121. 

Class II. Section A. 

3 1 5. Kettle-drum. Wood. Antelope-skin Sierra Leone 

The body is stained black and carries two rawhide handles at rim. 

The head is secured by rawhide braces which run to a ring, under 
which wedges are driven to increase the tension. The heads of the 
two drum-sticks are of wood covered with rawhide, while the flex- 
ible handles are made of twisted thongs. 
Depth, 30 cm. Diameter of head, 46 cm. 

316. Naqqareh. Hammered copper. Antelope-hide Egypt 

The head of this kettle-drum is secured to the upper rim of the body by 

heavy copper spikes set closely together and by interlacing rawhide 
thongs running to a ring at the base. Beaten with wooden drum- 
sticks — }(addabah. A pair of such drums is hung over the necks of 
camels and used in religious and festal processions. 
Depth, 3 1 cm. Diameter of head, 45 cm. 

3 1 7. Damama. Coarse terra-cotta. Parchment India 

The semi-conical body bears one head secured by rawhide braces, and 

at one side a leather loop serves as a handle. 
This drum, said to have been a favorite of the Mogul Akbar ( 1 542- 

1605), and to date from the Moslem immigration, is used in the 

nahabaU or marriage festivities. 
Depth, 40 cm. Diameter of head, 36 cm. 

318. Naqqareh. Brass. Antelope-hide Egypt 

The base of the broad, shallow body — ^with greatest diameter in the 

middle section — is covered with elaborate arabesques and Arabic 
inscriptions. Thong tension. 
Depth, 2 1 cm. Diameter at middle, 54 cm. ; at head, 46 cm. 

319. Kettle-drum. Red palm-wood. Antelope-hide. .Uganda, Africa 
The deep, bowl-shaped body carries two heads, the larger of which 

is beaten with two sticks, while the smaller serves as the bottom of 
the drum. Closely placed cords of twisted rawhide, running from 
head to head, secure the proper tension. 
Depth, 38.5 cm. Diameter of larger head, 41 cm. ; of smaller, 19 cm. 

320. Tabl SHAMEE. Wood. Antelope-skin Egypt 

This unusually large specimen of its type has a shallow basin-shaped 

body, stained black. The head is secured by wooden spikes. To an 
iron ring, at the rim, a strap may be fastened. 
Depth, 15.2 cm. Diameter of head, 38.2 cm. 


321. Gendang REBANA. Wood. Thick parchment Celebes 

The body is of the same general shape as the preceding, but the wood 

is of light color. In the base is a semicircular opening 28 cm. in 
diameter. Tension is secured by two narrow strips of rattan which 
are led through holes in the head, and in a narrow notched ridge, 
running parallel with the rim at a distance of 2 cm. These strips 
are further tightened by a rattan strip running midway between the 
rim and ridge and knotted around each group. 
Depth, 10.4 cm. Diameter of head, 43 cm. 


322. Den-DEN-DAIKO. "Fan drum." White monkey-skin, on hoop . Japan 
To the hoop — 26.6 cm. in diameter — a wooden handle — 17.9 cm. 

long — is securely fastened. The drum emits a very clear and in- 
cisive note. The ael^au of Greenland is similar, but is made of 
whalebone and bladder, and is struck on the rim. 

323. Tabl SHAMEE. Terra-cotta. Antelope-skin (raw) Algeria 

The head is drawn over the basin-shaped body by flat braces. On one 

side is a broad strap of leopard-skin (with hair on the lower side) 
by which the drum is suspended from the neck. Opposite this strap 
is a broad fringe of leather thongs, each bearing a cowrie-shell. 

324. OzEE. Wood, lacquered. Parchment Burmah 

Over the top of the goblet-shaped body, decorated in black and red 

lacquer, the painted head is drawn taut by leather braces passing 
under a wire hoop at the base of the bowl. (See No. 293, 
Case IV.) 
Height, 35 cm. Diameter of head, 17.7 cm. 

325. Daraboukkeh. Earthenware. Parchment Egypt 

The funnel-shaped body of this toy bears a head secured by cement. 
Length, 15.3 cm. Diameter of head, 14.2 cm. 

This drum is held under the left arm, and tapped and rubbed by the 
fingers of the right hand. This form of drum, in larger sizes, is used 
by the Nile boatmen and in places of amusement. 

326. Daraboukkeh. Earthenware, decorated. Parchment .... Egypt 
In every particular similar to the preceding, but larger, and decorated 

in colors with miniature representations of musicians of ancient 
Egypt, copied from paintings in the tombs. 
Depth, 45 cm. Diameter of head, 33 cm. 

327. Thone. Daraboukkeh type Siam 

Body of earthenware stained black, head of fish-skin. Strap tension. 
Depth, 20.5 cm. Diameter of head, 12 cm. 


328-9-330-1-2. Daraboukkehs from Morocco, Tunis, Egypt, Algeria, 
and Syria, which, in essentials identical, illustrate the vogue of the 
type. The body of No. 328 is of terra-cotta, of 329 of earthenware, 
those of 330 and 33 1 of wood beautifully inlaid, while that of No. 
332 is of etched brass. The heads are all of parchment, with the 
exception of that of No. 330 which is of the skin of the Bayard-fish. 
The depths run from 21 to 43 cm.; the head-diameters from 16 to 
22.5 cm. 

333. Thone. Terra-cotta, inlaid with mirror-glass. Parchment. . . .Siam 
This very beautiful drum carries a painted head. 

Depth, 37 cm. Diameter of body, 25 cm.; of head, 18 cm. 

334. DoNBEK. Wood, ivory inlay. Parchment Persia 

In addition to the ivory the inlay includes bits of metal, stone, and 

wood, set in geometric patterns. The head is secured by cement. 
This specimen is said to have been made at Shiraz about 1 800. The 
sides of the upper part are perpendicular instead of curved. 
Height, 30.5 cm. Diameter of head, 21 cm. 

335. Daraboukkeh. Pottery. Parchment Algeria 

The gracefully modeled body is inlaid with arabesques of mother-of- 
pearl and ivory, outlined with lead wire. A string of small globular 
brass bells runs under the semi-transparent head. They serve the 
same purpose as the "jingles" of the tambourine. 

Height, 36 cm. Diameter of head, 18 cm. 

336. Daraboukkeh. Olive wood, inlaid. Parchment Persia 

The inlay, of mother-of-pearl, is in a stem and leaf design. 
Height, 30.5 cm. Diameter of head, 21 cm. 

Section B. Two Vibrating Membranes with Resonator. 

337. ToMBAH. Dumb-bell type. Wood. Parchment . Sierra Leone, Africa 
The heads are braced by cords of twisted rawhide. It bears a shoulder- 
band of red cotton cloth. The a-tabule and fanke are drums of the 
same type and habitat, the k<^langu being its representative in the 
Haussa Tribe. 

Length, 45 cm. Diameter at head, 1 7 cm. ; at middle, 7 cm. 

338. ToMBAH. Wood. Soft, white leather Sierra Leone, Africa 

In this drum the heads are looped to hoops of bent withes braced to- 
gether with hempen cord. Otherwise similar to the preceding. 

Length, 3 1 cm. Diameter at heads, 1 2.5 cm. ; at middle, 7.5 cm. 

Nos. 337 and 338 are held under the left arm, and increasing the ten- 
sion, by pressing the cords running longitudinally, changes the pitch 
of the drum. 

339. Drum. Wood. Raw parchment Malaysia 

The conical body carries two heads with hoop and brace tension. 
Length, 30 cm. Diameter, 6.5 to 12.5 cm. 


340. Drum. Dumb-bell type. Wood, decorated with bones. Parch- 

ment Dahomey, West Africa 

In addition to the bones (which are not human) the body is gro- 
tesquely decorately with feathers and embematic designs in colors. 
The heads are also rudely decorated. Hoop and strap tension. 
Length, 58 cm. Diameter at heads, 26 cm. ; at waist, 1 4 cm. 

341 . Side Drum. Wood. Raw skin West Central Africa 

Two heads are braced on the cylindrical body by cords running to 

thick hoops of some vine. A slender strip of the same vine is wound 
1 3 times about the body. Snares of cord are stretched over one head. 
Length, 1 8 cm. Diameter of heads, 3 1 cm. 

342. Drum. Wood. Raw parchment. .Benin-Hinterland, West Africa 
Quite like a modern drum in shape, but smaller. It serves in Soudanese 

railway stations as a signal. 
Length, 24 cm. Diameter, 15 cm. 

343. Drum. Cocoa palm. Raw skin Soudan, Africa 

The body is bucket-shaped and the heads are braced by rawhide 

Length, 24 cm. Diameter of heads, 1 5 and 20 cm. 

344. Drum. Similar in material and structure to No. 343 . . Soudan, Africa 
Length, 28 cm. Diameter of heads, 1 4 and 1 9 cm. 

The barrel contains some hard substance, and by shaking this drum it 
may be used as a rattle. This is a common constructive procedure 
among primitive peoples. The resemblance of these drums to such 
a North American Indian type as the pur-pishuk-pi-po-y^a of the 
Hopi Tribe (Morris, p. 147, No. 630) is obvious and is one of the 
perplexing coincidences which are constantly met with in identi- 

345. Side Drum. Wood. Raw skin North Central Africa 

The body is of the European type. The heads are tightened by cords 

so knotted together as to resemble the European method of tension. 
Height, 24 cm. Diameter of heads, 20 cm. 

346. Tabl BALADI. Wood. Hide Egypt 

The body is cylindrical, and the heads are secured by hoop and thong 

tension. One head is struck with a padded drum-stick and the 
other with a thin rod which touches the entire surface. 
Length, 25 cm. Diameter of heads, 25 cm. 

347. JiNDAIKO. Wood. Parchment Japan 

The short body is decorated with inlaid colored beads, in the middle 

by a band of brocade, and two long tassels. 
Height, 16.3 cm. Diameter, 16.6 cm. 


Case V. Nos. 316 to 365 (Bight to Left). 



348. Cai trong CAI (cai — large). Wood. Hogskin Anam 

The heads are fastened to the barrel-shaped body by round-headed 

copper nails. A narrow band of braided straw encircles the body at 
each end, running just inside the rows of nails. 
Length, 41.5 cm. Diameter at heads, 33.7 cm.; at middle, 42 cm. 

349. TSURI-DAIKO. Wood. Parchment Japan 

The heads are fastened to the body (a very shallow cylinder) by close 

rows of round-headed nails. The body and heads are elaborately 
decorated with representations of the three-clawed dragon. The 
tsuri-daiko is generally suspended in an ornate frame of lacquered 
wood and is beaten with a pair of leather-padded sticks. This 
example is a trifle smaller than the usual "hanging drum." 
Depth, 9.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 33 cm. 

350. TsURI-DAIKO. Brass, lacquered. Parchment Japan 

Similar to No. 349 but with heads of greater diameter, viz., 43 cm. 

35 1 . Daibyoshi. Lacquered wood. Parchment Japan 

The heavy heads are fastened to the body by cords which run through 

twelve holes in the rim to braces attached to hoops. The lacquer- 
work is very beautiful. It is called the "grand time-beater" from its 
function in the k(^gura orchestra. O-Kakko is an alternative desig- 
nation. When in use it is borne in a small stand, the whole height 
being 68 cm. 
Length, 50. 1 cm. Diameter of heads, 46 cm. ; of body, 30.5 cm. 

352. JoRAGHAl, or YoRAGHAl. Wood. Skin India 

A small dhol (See No. 366) is fastened to the larger drum, which 
hangs from the neck by a rawhide cord. The larger drum is beaten 
with a stick, the smaller with the hand. The tension of the larger 
drum is secured by hoops and leather thongs. TTie thin parchment 
head of the smaller drum is cemented on and the entire body is en- 
veloped in loose parchment. 
Length of larger drum, 50.5 cm.; of smaller, 46 cm. Diameter of 
larger heads, 28 cm.. ; of smaller, 1 8 cm. 

353. Drum. Wood. Parchment Caffaria, South Africa 

The heads are secured to the barrel-shaped body of wood by narrow 

strips of rattan which are fastened with small nails. 
Height, 25.5 cm. Diameter at heads, 16.7 cm. 
This drum has wandered far from the home of its t)^e — India. 

354. Dholaka. Wood. Parchment India 

The heads are fastened to hoops around which run cord braces which 

are tightened by means of sliding iron rings. 
Length, 49 cm. Diameter at heads, 2 1 cm. 



355. Gendang prang. Wood. Parchment West Borneo 

The grotesquely painted heads of this war-drum are fastened by strips 

of rattan running from the hoop in zig-zag lines along the body, 
aided by two cords. It is carried by a cord of twisted rawhide. 
Length, 42 cm. Diameter of heads, 22 cm. ; of middle section, 32 cm. 

356. Kou. Wood. Hogskin China 

The body is painted red, and to it the heads are fastened with iron 

nails. Iron ring for hanging. 
Depth, 1 6.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 27.4 cm. 

357. Cai bom. Wood, covered with thongs Anam 

The barrel-shaped body is completely covered with rawhide thongs, 

which tighten the heads. These are weighted with a circular patch 
of some compound into which rice enters. A rawhide handle rises 
from one side. 
Length, 46 cm. Diameter of heads, 24 cm. ; of middle section, 34 cm. 

358. Kou. Wood. Hogskin China 

A spiral wire spring serves as a snare. 

Depth, 8.2 cm. Diameter of heads, 28 cm. 


359. Kou. In this duplicate of No. 358, one head has been removed 

to display the snare China 


360. TsURI-DAIKO. Metal body and head Japan 

The frame (of wood) is entirely covered with choice Cloisonne and 

surmounted by the Kwa-^en, or "flame ornament." The drum 
rests on a carved and gilded block, representing the waves of the 
sea. The whole symbolizes "Dai Nippon," "great Japan" — the 
"Land of the Rising Sun." This type is used in their temple wor- 
ship. Five years were spent by the artist in the production of this 
remarkable example of Japanese art. 

The head is struck in the exact center by two sticks with leather- 
covered knobs. The right, or "male stick," is called obachi; the 
left, or "female stick," mebachi When not in use the sticks are 
placed in rings on the side of the frame (Piggott, p. 192). 

Depth of , drum, 28 cm. Diameter of heads, 48 cm. Height of frame, 
2 1 6 cm. 

361 . BUDBUDIKL Wood. Parchment India 

The body, of hour-glass form, is decorated in colors, and the heads 

are fastened by gut cords. Beaten by balls which, attached to cords, 
strike the heads when the drum is swung. This is an important asset 
of the snake-charmer, and juggler. This specimen was brought from 
its home by the Russian painter, Vereshchagin. 
Depth, 9.6 cm. Diameter of heads, 12.7 cm. 


362. DAiMARU. Two children's skulls. Human skin Thibet 

This gruesome specimen came from a Buddhist monastery. The heads 

are painted green. A long strap of vari-colored strips of cloth, 
ending with tassels, hangs from the point where the two skulls join. 
This drum is used in the Lamaistic ritual. 
Greatest diameter of skulls and heads, 1 2.5 and 1 6.5 cm. 

363. HURUK. Wood. Parchment India 

With the exception of the hoops, which are of greater diameter than 

the body, it resembles No. 361. 
Depth, 15.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 21 cm.; of body, 14.7 cm. 

364. Dhola. Wood. Raw parchment India 

The staves forming the body are held together by two hoops of twisted 

rattan. The heads are drawn over the ends of the body and braced 
with hempen cords. Two wooden drumsticks are used. 
Length, 40.5 cm. Diameter of head, 23 cm. 

365. Dholaka. Similar to No. 354 India 

Length, 40.7 cm. Diameter at heads, 18.5 cm. 

366. Dhol. Wood. Parchment India 

The heads are drawn over projecting hoops ; otherwise it is typical. 
Length, 36 cm. Diameter of heads, 27.5 cm.; of body, 20 cm. 

367. Dholaka. Similar to No. 354 India 

Length, 41.6 cm. Diameter of heads, 18.2 cm. 

368. Tambour. Wood. Parchment Tunis, West Africa 

The body is covered with parchment decorated with a band of gilt 

running zig-zag. The heads bear a narrow band of red around the 
rim and figures of men and animals on the face. 
Depth, 8.3 cm. Diameter of heads, 30.4 cm. 

369. Ko-TSUZUMI, or Oto-TSUZUMI. The "younger," or "shoulder" 

drum. Dumb-bell type. Wood. Parchment Japan 

The body is elaborately lacquered in black and gold. The heads, 
fastened to hoops extending beyond the body and decorated with 
black enamel, are braced by red cords running through six holes at 
the rims. Used in the dance and in the orchestra, in each emphasiz- 
ing the rhythm. It is held over the right shoulder by the left hand 
and beaten with the fingers of the right. The tsuzumi and taiko (or 
daiko) are differentiated through the method of fastening the head; 
the former with cords, the latter with nails. 
Length, 26 cm. Diameter of body at head, 1 cm. ; of head, 20 cm. 


370. Mridanga. Turned wood. Parchment India 

The body, sHghtly enlarging at the center, bears two heads of un- 
equal size, held in place by hoops and flat braces of raw hide. The 
tension is so regulated by wooden rollers under the straps, that the 
two heads are a fourth or fifth apart in pitch. The smaller head is 
weighted by a circular patch of some composition. The larger head 
is beaten with the left hand, the smaller with the palm, finger tips 
and wrist of the right. As its invention is ascribed to Brahma, it is 
commonly used to accompany dignified singing or the vina. 

Length, 53.4 cm. Diameter of heads, 16 cm. and 18 cm. 
Maha-mridanga, is the name of a large mridanga. 

371. Tabla. Turned wood. Parchment India 

The nearly cylindrical body suddenly contracts at the base. Braced 

like the mridanga. 
Length, 25 cm. Diameter of head, 1 8 cm. 

372. Cai TRONG gal A replica of No. 348 Anam 

373. TsURI-DAIKO. Wood, lacquered. Parchment Japan 

The barrel-shaped body bears elaborate decorations in black and gold. 

On the center of heads appears the symbol mitsuto-mo};e, sur- 
rounded by rays symbolizing the dawn, both in gold against a black 
background. Ring for hanging. 
Depth, 1 9 cm. Diameter of heads, 3 1 .5 cm. 

374. Drum. Wood. Parchment Anam 

The shallow cylindrical body with slightly convex sides is lacquered 

red and black. In the center of the head appears the symbol of the 
source of existence. It has an iron ring by which it may be hung. It 
may also be placed on the tripod which, for physical reasons, is 
placed under No. 318. No available data on Anamese instruments 
suggests the name of this drum. Toung-^ah, sometimes used, ap- 
pears to have no justification. 
Depth, 1 8 cm. Diameter of heads, 43 cm. 

375. Cai TRONG com. Wood, Rawhide Anam 

The cylindrical body is lacquered red and the weighted heads are 

braced by thongs of rawhide. 
Length, 53.3 cm. Diameter of heads, 19 cm. 

376. Uta-DAIKO, or Shlmee-DAIKO. Wood. Parchment Japan 

The shallow cylindrical body bears black and gold lacquer. The 

gilded heads are bound to projecting hoops and braced with orange- 
red cord. It is supported on a low frame of wood, lacquered black, 
and is beaten with two beveled drumsticks of hard wood. Used in 
the geisha dances. Structurally it is a species of tsuzumi. 
Depth, 1 4.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 34.5 cm. ; of body, 25 cm. 


377. Ko-TSUZUMI. A replica of No. 369 Japan 

378. Mridanga. Similar to No. 370 India 

379. Pakhbag, or Pakhabaga. Wood. Parchment India 

The slightly conical body bears two heads with the method of tension 

displayed in the mridanga. 
Length, 50 cm. Diameter of heads, 20.4 and 35 cm. 

The beautifully carved and decorated standard in the middle of the Case 
was purchased by Mr. Stearns at the Paris Exposition of 1900 in order that 
he might secure No. 375. 

Other instruments included in this purchase are distributed according to 
their classifications. See Nos. 304-312 (Case IV) No. 987 (Case IX) and 
Nos. 1212-1214-1251-1252 and 1253 (Case XII). Nos. 374 and 375 hang 
in their original positions. 

380. Kakko. Wood, lacquered. Monkey-skin Japan 

The heavy body, lacquered black, bears two heads of monkey-skin 
coated with white pigment and drawn over widely projecting hoops. 
The heads are braced by thongs of black leather running through 
eight metal eyelets set in short straps of leather. The k^kk^ rests on 
a low stand, lacquered in black and gold, and is beaten with slightly 
knobbed sticks. 

Length, 32.2 cm. Diameter of heads, 25 cm. ; of body, 1 4 cm. 

381. E-TSUZUMI. The "elder," or "side" drum. Wood. Parchment . Japan 
Similar to No. 377, but lacquered in bands of red and black separated 

by lines of gold. 
Length, 29.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 1 7.5 cm. ; of body, 1 1 .5 cm. 

382. Shu-KOU, or Shu-KU. Wood. Parchment China 

In form closely resembling the den-den-daiko, it differs in that it has 

two heads, which are nailed on. 
Depth, 6.5 cm. Length, with handle, 43 cm. Diameter, 22cm. 

382a. Rattle Drum. Wood. Rawhide Malaysia 

In principle this has much in common with the preceding, as well as 
with No. 344. The keystone-shaped body carries two heads secured 
by rawhide thongs which are tightened by bamboo wedges. The 
heads are crudely decorated after the manner of No. 355. It has 
an elaborately carved wooden handle, the carvings representing four 
human heads, turned in opposite directions, and a conventionalized 
elephant's head surrounded with an intricate scroll design. The 
carving is polished and partially picked out with lime. 
Length, 63 cm.; of body, 29 cm. Greatest width, 21 cm. Depth, 
14 cm. 


383. Taiko (generic name for drum). Wood. Parchment Japan 

Heads secured by closely placed, round-headed nails. Iron ring for 


Length, 20 cm. Diameter at heads, 1 cm. ; at middle, 1 5 cm. 

When a specific type is designated by a prefix, daiJio is the more cor- 
rect term, i. e. tsuri-daiko. 

384. Drum. Wood, with braided straw. Parchment .... Source unknown 
The edges of the heads are drawn over the body and cut into many 

semi-triangular strips with blunted ends. Through these run braces 
of fine hempen cord, which, after being knotted together, run in a 
double line around the body. The drum is exceedingly light. 
Length, 27.5 cm. Diameter at heads, 42 cm. 

385. LaNDKNECHTS-TROMMEL. Wood. Parchment Switzerland 

The long cylindrical body of this drum, which probably is of the seven- 
teenth century, is painted in colors and bears three coats of arms. 
The hoops are unusually wide and are decorated with two rows of 
triangular designs in dark red and green, displayed against a back- 
ground of deep orange. Cord tension. 

Length, 72 cm. Diameter, 37.7 cm. 

386. Tambourin de Provence. Wood. Dogskin France 

This drum, of the eighteenth century, is a fine example of the type 

known in England as the Tabor. The body, a long cylinder, is 
carved in vertical lines in low relief. The heads, fastened to round 
hoops, are braced by cords. TTie drum, suspended from the left 
arm, is beaten with a stick by the right hand, while the left manipu- 
lates the finger holes of the galoubet (churula), or pipe. Thus we 
have the "p^P^ ^^^ tabor" so constantly referred to in early liter- 
ature. Length, 79 cm. Diameter of heads, 38 cm. 

387. Side Drum. Wood. Parchment Holland 

The barrel bears a coat of arms, and the inscription — "Haarlem 

1572." The heads are fastened in the modern manner, and snares, 
tightened by a thumb-screw, run across the lower head. 
Length, 33 cm. Diameter of heads, 38 cm. 

388. Tambour. Side-drum. Brass. Parchment. Modern France 

In every particular representative of the drum of the middle decades 

of the nineteenth century. 
Length, 39 cm. Diameter of heads, 32 cm. 

CLASS II , 63 

388a. Side Drum. Brass. Parchment United States 

This drum was used by the donor (Mr. Irving K. Pond) in the first 
University orchestra. This organization included Mr. W. H. 
Murphy, Mr. Frederick K. Stearns, and other prominent Alumni. 
Besides the special interest accruing from the above facts, it is a 
splendid illustration of the evolution of the drum, and represents the 
penultimate stage. 
Depth, 19.5 cm. Diameter of heads, 40.5 cm. 
A comparison of these military drums w^ill show the principle displayed 
in the evolution of this type. The barrel has been shortened until 
frequently it is a mere rim, while the diameter of the head has stead- 
ily been increased. 

388b. Bass Drum. Wood. Parchment United States 

This is an example of the modern type, in which the exaggerated 

diameter, found in drums circa 1 860, has been done away with. 
Length, 35.4 cm. Diameter of heads, 72.3 cm. 
(University Musical Society) 

The ethnological and sociological implications of drums are of great 
interest, and an appreciation of the relations they sustain to individual and 
communal life will lead one to view a collection of primitive instruments of this 
type with a feeling far removed from mere curiosity. 

In an African village, the birth of a child is heralded by the beating of 
drums; the youth is lured to the performing fakir in the village square by the 
same rhythmical note; the oarsmen in their canoe races are stimulated by the 
hubbub of violently beaten drums ; the hunters' departure and return are alike 
occasions for the display of the noise-producing power of drums; drums take 
the place of the organ in their wedding ceremonies; and, when summoned 
before a tribunal, the agonized cries of the victim under the inevitable torture 
are stifled by the strident tones of the drum, to the beat of which he is carried 
to his grave. Livingstone relates that scores of children in the slave caravans 
die of nostalgia, for, as they listen to the beat of drums in the villages they skirt, 
they are overcome by memories of happy days forever passed. 

In Aztec Mexico the hollow roll of the drum huehuetl at midnight 
heralded a human sacrifice at sunrise, and no one knew who would die under 
the sacrificial knife. In Abyssinia the early Christians were called to the 
church by a drum, which, after functioning as a bell, was removed to the 
chancel and covered with a cloth, when it served as the altar. In Corea — 
a great drum, installed in a sort of open room over the gateway, is used to 
sound the morning and evening hours. In Jamaica the convicts who were em- 
ployed by the government in building roads, etc., were called together by the 
roll of a drum. In the record of 3rd Voyage of Sir Martin Frobisher (1587) 
given in "Voyages to the N. W." (Foxe and James),^ we find in "Articles 

1 Hak. Soc, 1894, Vol. i, p. 53. 


to be observed in the Fleete" the following: "That every ship in the fleete in 
the Time of Fogs, which continually happen with little wind and calmes, 
shall kepe a reasonable noise with Drum and Trumpet, or otherwise to keepe 
themselves cleere one of the other." 

Marco Polo (1254-1323) in describing a journey across the Gobi 
desert, writing of ghosts, gives the following words of warning: — "For they 
would .... draw him on by the simulated noise of a great cavalcade, or 
by the crash of drums and instruments of music: and chasing those phantom 
sounds the straggler would would perish miserably."^ The "simulated noise" 
is produced by violent winds blowing the grains of sands against clumps of 
dried grass, and today the superstitious natives are terrified by the "phantom 

While poets have sung the praises of the violin, the harp, the lute, the 
flute, and other instruments, it has been reserved for George Meredith to apos- 
trophize the drum, specifically the bass-drum. 

"There is no instrument whose sound proclaims such vast internal satis- 
faction as the drum. I know not whether it be that the sense we have of the 
corpulency of this instrument predisposes us to imagine it supremely content: 
as when an alderman is heard snoring, the world is assured that it listens to the 
voice of his own exceeding gratulation. A light heart in a fat body ravishes 
not only the world but the philosopher. If monotonous, the one note of the 
drum is very correct. Like the speaking of great Nature, what it means is im- 
plied by the measure. When the drum beats to the measure of a common 
human pulsation, it has a conquering power : inspiring us neither to dance nor 
to trail the members, but to march as life does, regularly, and in hearty good 
order, and with a not exhaustive jollity. It is a sacred instrument" "Sandra 
Belloni." Ch. IX. 

Of the significance of the drum in modern life little need be said. As in 
the life of the savage, it expresses and incites military ardor, it speaks of death, 
and, in the orchestra it becomes eloquent. The modern drum, with the excep- 
tion of the kettle-drum, which may be tuned, in its essentials is in advance of 
the earliest types only in its greater perfection of structure. 

2Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MSS. 1116 (formerly 7367, sometimes known as G), 
fol. 112. 


Class II. Section A. One Vibrating Membrane with Resonator. Drums. 

Section C. One Vibrating Membrane with Shallow Resonator 
(Rim) in which are Metal Discs. Tambourines. 

Section D. Membrane, or Membranes, Vibrating Sympatheti- 
cally. Pan bomba. Mirliton. 

In one-headed drums of the Alaskan type (No. 389), the barrel is short- 
ened, often to a mere rim. The insertion of metal discs in the rim converts this 
type into a Tambourine. (No. 396.) Striking the head of the Tambourine, 
or shaking the instnmient, sets these discs in vibration, producing a pleasing 
sound thoroughly justifying their technical name — "Jingles." 

Section A. One Vibrating Membrane with Resonator. 

389. Drum. Wooden rim. Rawhide Tlingit Indians, Alaska 

In this drum, of Chilkat origin, the head is fastened to the narrow rim 

by tacks and thongs of rawhide crossing each other at right angles. 

Unlike most of its type it is not decorated, nor does it have the usual 

Depth of rim, 3.3 cm. Diameter of head, 40 cm. 
Used on all important occasions, it is also held to be invested with a 

supernatural power somewhat akin to that of the taunbourine. 
The chau'i-^uk of British Columbia, and the cha-^akh of Siberia are 

of this type.^ 

390. Ketobong. Wooden rim. Skin Borneo 

The head is drawn over the bowl-shaped body and braced with nu- 
merous narrow strips of rattan fastened to a ring of the same material 
at the base. A spiral coil of rattan serves as a snare. Used at mar- 
riage festivities at Kriang, Borneo. 

Depth, 1 3.5 cm. Diameter at head, 33.8 cm. ; at base, 1 9 cm. 

391. Khanjani, or Khanjari. Wooden rim. Parchment India 

The slightly tapering body is cut from a single block of wood and 

painted (striped) in colors. The head is cemented on. 
Depth of rim, 4.5 cm. Diameter of head, 20.3 cm. 

392. Khanjari, or Khanjani. Similar to No. 391 India 

Depth, 6 cm. Diameter at head, 18.2 cm.; at open end, 15.7 cm. 

1 Morris, p. 91. 


393. Tambour. Brass. Parchment Italy 

To a large drum, with brass body and one head braced in the European 

manner, a long staff is fastened in order that it may be carried in 
theatrical processions. 
Depth, 20 cm. Diameter of head, 11 cm. Length of staff, 204 cm. 

394. Daff, or Deff. Wooden frame. Oiled parchment Algeria 

The heads carry emblematic designs in dull red, and a leather strap, 

ornamented with cowrie-shells, runs about the edge, and at one 
comer is looped to form a handle. 
Thickness, 2.8 cm. Width, 33 cm. 

Section C. One Vibrating Membrane with Shallow Resonator 
(Rim) in which are Metal Discs. 

395. Dara. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Syria 

The head is fastened to the rim by cords led through holes in its lower 

edge. Iron links on the inner surface act as "jingles." 
Depth of rim, 7 cm. Diameter of head, 43 cm. 

396. Tambourine. Wood. Parchment . . Tobago Island, Brit. W. Indies 
Three groups of metal discs are inserted in the rude rim.^ 

Depth, 9.4 cm. Diameter, 43 to 47 cm. 

397. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Italy 

The shell of black walnut, with parchment head and five pairs of small 

brass cymbals, is fastened to a painted wooden shield. This, to- 
gether with a small bowl-shaped gong, is attached to a long wooden 
rod painted to represent a spear. Used on the stage. 
Depth, 4.8 cm. Diameter, 1 8 cm. Length of pole, 207 cm. 

398. Jhanjh-KHANJANI. Wood. Parchment India 

This is a development from No. 39 1 , through the use of two pairs of 

metal discs placed at opposite sides of the frame. 
Depth, 7.5 cm. Diameter from 15 to 18.5 cm. 

399. Tympanum. Wooden rim, with brass bells. Parchment Italy 

At equal intervals on outer surface of the hoop are six small brass bells 

hung upon projecting wires. Reproduction from a wall-painting in 
Depth, 10 cm. Diameter, 38 cm. 

400. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Italy 

The shell of this very old specimen is set with eight pairs of small brass 

cymbals. The head is tightened with a hoop and metal screw-braces. 
Depth, 9 cm. Diameter of head, 39 cm. 

2 In these descriptions, "discs" refer to flat plates of thin metal, while "cymbals" indi- 
cate plates with a concave surface. 


401. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Italy 

This specimen has ten pairs of discs. 

Depth, 9.1 cm. Diameter of head, 41.9 cm. 

402. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Cyprus 

The rim is decorated with pictures of clowns and harlequins. 
Depth, 8.5. cm. Diameter of head, 38 cm. 

403. Rebana, or Adok. Wooden rim. Parchment Sumatra 

The body contracts at the open side and contains a rattan snare and 

three pairs of loose discs. The head is secured by ornamental nails. 
Depth, 7.8 cm. Diameter of head, 33.5 cm. ; of open side, 28.5 cm. 


404. Tambourine. Usual materials France 

The head bears the inscription "Marie Josephe de Saxe, Dauphine de 

France, 1 767." On the observe side is a portrait, presumably of 
the Dauphine. The rim carries five double pairs of cymbals. 
Depth, 7.5 cm. Diameter of head, 44.5 cm. 

405. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Italy 

The head bears the portrait of an Italian peasant girl. 

Depth, 9.5 cm. Diameter of head, 45 cm. 
Signed— "M. Reli." 

406. Abendair. Wooden rim. Parchment Kabyle Tribe, Algeria 

The oiled parchment head is decorated with the portrait, in oils, of the 

daughter of a Kabyle chieftain, signed by the artist, "C. Vincent." 
Bandar and bende^r are alternative Arabian names for the native 

abendair^ pi. ibendiiren.^ 
Depth, 5.6 cm. Diameter of head, 37.2 cm. 

407. Bandar, or Bendeyr. Similar to No. 406 Algeria 

The painted shell carries a band of leather, decorated with brass orna- 
ments and rosettes of cowrie-shells. The head is decorated with 
floral designs and Arabic characters. A snare of four cords of gut 
runs over the head, and a leather tassel bearing cowrie-shells strikes 
the head when the tambourine is in motion, taking the place of the 
usual metal cymbals. 

Depth, 8.7 cm. Diameter of head, 39.8 cm._^ 

408. RlQQ. Wooden rim. Parchment Algeria 

The rim is painted red and the head is decorated with flowers and the 

figure of a peacock. Usual discs. 
Depth, 5 cm. Diameter of head, 30.4 cm. 

8 Sachs, p. 1. 


409. Tar, or Rek. Wooden rim. Parchment Egypt 

The shell is entirely covered with a checkered inlay of mother-of- 
pearl, ebony, and ivory. TTie translucent head is cemented on the 
body. Five double pairs of cymbals are set in rim. 

Depth, 6.4 cm. Diameter of head, 23.2 cm. 

410. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment Spain 

The head is decorated writh a street scene, and from the rim (with 

"jingles") hangs a network of colored balls and yam. 
Depth, 4 cm. Diameter of head, 22.7 cm. 

41 1. Tambourine. Wooden rim. Parchment United States 

Depth, 4.5 cm. Diameter of head, 20 cm. 

412. Tambourine. Similar to No. 41 1 United States 

Depth, 4.5 cm. Diameter of head, 24.6 cm. 

The Tambourine is widely distributed, being found in every quarter of 
the globe. It is the chief asset of the Siberian iadibei or shaman (the Eskimo 
angatl(ut), who takes it with him for protection on his frequent visits to Erlich*s 
realm (Hades). The natives believe that he cools off the denizens of that 
torrid zone by bestowing on them unlimited quantities of spirituous liquors. 

The shaman already mentioned imposes his will on the natives by 
causing the tambourine to speak in terms which he alone can interpret. He 
does this by affixing a lump of magnetic ore to the under side of the head and 
alternately engaging and releasing it by a magnet, which he holds with the 
middle finger of the hand with which he supports the instrument. 

In the modern orchestra the tambourine is used to suggest "local color," 
or to accentuate certain sensuous motives. 

Novel Treatments of Vibrating Bodies. 

In the instruments hereinafter noted, novel treatments of a Vibrating 
Body (Class I), and a Vibrating Membrane or Membranes (Class II) are 
displayed. The first occurs through Friction, the second through Sympathetic 

Class I. Sections A and F. 

"Violone" United States 

This instrument is shown in Case III, No. 245, as a steel-harmonica, 
but the bars may be sounded by drawing a resined violin bow on the 
curved ends as well as by percussion, hence its alias, "Violone." 

413. Nagelgeige, Stiftgeige, or Stiftspiel (Eng. Nail-violin, or Semi- 

lunar; Fr. Violon de fer; Ital. Violino di ferro) Germany 

The twelve iron pins arranged on a semi-circular sound-box may be set 
in vibration by a resined violin bow. 


Compass: — Normal minor scale from a' to c'", with f sharp' and e'" 

Diameter of sound-box, 20.2 cm.; depth, 4.3 cm. Length, of pins, 

3.5 to 7 cm. 

414. Musical Glasses or Verrillon (Old Ger.) United States 

Height of glasses, 14 to 16.5 cm. Diameter, 6.4 to 9 cm. 

This process of tone-production was first described by Phil. Hars- 
dorffer* in Math. u. philos. Erquickstunden, NUrn, 1677, II., 147, 
quoted by Sachs, p. 409. 

Ernest Newman gives the following interesting information regarding this 
instrument: "On Sunday, the 14th of April (1749) Herr Kapellmeister 
Gluck will give in the Italian Theater at Charlottenburg (Copenhagen) a 
concert of vocal and instrumental music, in which he will perform on a glass 
instnmient hitherto unknown."** 

415. Macaroni Sticks. Wood United States 

Length of rods, 52.5 to 1 08 cm. Diameter of each, 1 .2 cm. 

416. Toy Macaroni Sticks. Incomplete set United States 

The Kulepa-ganez (New Guinea) is one of the most interesting idio- 

phonic friction-instruments. It consists of an oblong block of very hard, 
close-grained wood in which slightly curved incisions are made, leaving two 
or three thick, projecting tongues which, when rubbed, emit a clear and in- 
cisive note. 

Class II. Section D. Sub-Section I. Vibration induced by Friction. 

417. Caccarella. Earthenware. Membrane Naples, Italy 

A small earthenware body, shaped like a flower-pot, has its top cov- 
ered with a membrane through which runs a reed which rubbed 
with resined fingers induces vibration. It figures in the Piedigrotia 
fiesta, and is a type whose distribution is world-wide. 

The German brummtopf and waldteufel; the brau, Dep. Averyon, 
France, and the Venzuelan furuco may be cited in this connection.* 

* It may be of interest to students of the history of literature and of music to know 
that this man was the author of the absurd set of rules regarding versification, which, pub- 
lished in 1647, is known as the Numberger Trichter (Nuremberg Funnel). Through it the 
author said "the German art of poetry and rhyming could be poured in six lessons." Ambi- 
tious poets take notice! 

'^ "Gluck and Opera," London, 1895, p. 33. This quotation is an "ad" from the Post- 

Basing his statement on Desnoi.resterre's (M. Gustav) Gluck et Piccinni (1774-1800), 
p. 19, and Gluck und die Oper, by Adolph Bernhard Marx (Berlin, 1863), p. 179, in a foot- 
note Newman states that "the 'glass instrument' was the verrillon. In view of the date of 
Harsdorffer's publication given above, "hitherto unknown" is incorrect. The author further 
states : "During his stay in London, Gluck had probably heard the performance of Puck- 
eridge, an Irishman, upon it (the verrillon'). 

« Sachs, pp. 60, 420, 59, 149. 


418. Chicharra. a resined string induces vibration Spain 

This toy represents a division of the type in which a string is substituted 

for a rod. 
Diameter of (oval) body, 5.5 by 6.5 cm. Height, 4.4 cm. Length of 
string, 40.6 cm. 

419. Pan BOMBA. Membrane and rod Spain 

This is a minature example of the following instrument. The earthen 

pot-shaped body is 3.8 cm. in diameter, 3.6 in height, while 
the rod is 1 2 cm. long. 

420. Pan BOMBA. Membrane and rod Spain 

Height of body, 1 7 cm. Diameter, 1 3 cm. Length of rod, 40.4 cm. 

421 . Pan BOMBA. Similar to No. 420. Tin body Italy 

Height, 1 9 cm. Diameter, 1 5 to 1 9 cm. Length of rod, 29 cm. 

Sub-Section II. Sympathetic Vibration induced by the Singing Voice. 

422. MiRLlTON (Flute eunuque; Ger. Eunuchenfldie) France 

A cylinder of bamboo, 27 cm. long and 2.3 cm. in disuneter, is covered 

with blue paper with a band of red at each end. This surface bears 
a continuous spirally-wound strip of white paper on which are 
printed a number of amorous couplets. Near each end is a mouth- 
hole into which one hums, thus inducing the vibration of the mem- 
branes closing the ends of the tube. This principle is also utilized in 
certain Oriental flutes, and dominates all the instruments in this 

423. "Kazoo." Wood, with membrane United States 

Length, 10.8 cm. Diameter, 1.8 cm. 

424. "VOCOPHONE." Pasteboard with membrane United States 

Length, 22.4 cm. Diameter 2.3 to 4.2 cm. 

425. Sing Schalmel Tube of nickel-plated tin Germany 

A small membrane under the mouth-piece is set in vibration by hum- 
ming, or singing, into the slightly conical tube, which ends in a bell. 

Length, 22.5 cm. Diameter, 1 .2 to 3.8 cm. 

426. Sing Schalmei. Similar to No. 425 Germany 

Length, 34.5 cm. Diameter, 1.2 to 6.7 cm. 

427. "Zobo Cornet." Brass, with membrane United States 

The tube has an oval funnel-shaped mouth-piece and a flaring bell. 
Length, 28.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 13.6 cm. 

Unique Processes of Tone Production 

(a) The Voice Modified by a Resonance Chamber (Nos. 428-9) ; 
(b) Reinforced by a Conical Tube (Nos. 430-1-2). 


428. Singing Disc. Convex discs of tin. Diameter, 7 cm England 

429. "Cor DE Chasse." Boxwood discs, 6.8 cm. in diameter. . . .France 

430. Speaking Trumpet. Zinc Italy 

Length, 60.4 cm. Diameter of mouth-piece, 3.4 to 6.5 cm. ; of bell, 
14.4 cm. 

431 . Speaking Trumpet. Copper England 

Length, 45.6 cm. Diameter of mouth-piece, 5 to 7 cm.; of bell, 

14.2 cm. 

432. Speaking Trumpet. Type used by firemen. Copper . . United States 
Length, 44 cm. Diameter of mouth-piece, 5 to 7 cm. ; of bell, 1 6 cm. 
A silver plate runs "Presented to Robert A. Jones by His Friends, 

February 3, 1864." 
In the speaking trumpet v^e find the same principle of tone-reinforce- 
ment that characterizes the modern ubiquitous megaphone. 

Of the following. No. 433 falls in Class I; Nos. 434-435 belong in 
Class III. 

433. Bumbass (Fr.Basse de Flandres; Eng. Bladder and Strings) . . 


A staff 137.6 cm. long, terminating at the upper end in peg-box and 
scroll, at a point 33.6 cm. above the lower end carries a wooden 
disc, 1 7.8 cm. in diameter. On this a small inflated bladder is held 
by the pressure of a taut gut string, 93.8 cm. long. Above the scroll 
two small cymbals are fixed, and on the back of the staff just below 
the scroll a wire lyre with cross-bars is attached by a coiled wire 
spring. Six small bells are hung on these bars. 
As not infrequently a mixture of races accentuates the least desirable 
qualities of each, so in this composite instrument, we find a vulgar 
exploitation of the principle of the vibrating plate, or mass of metal, 
and of the vibrating string. The string is rasped or struck forcibly 
as the metal parts are set in vibration by thumping the staff on 
the ground. Used originally by strolling beggars. The bumbat 
with two bladders' and strings, in use in Iceland as late as the seven- 
teenth century, and the Anamese cai xinh tien are analogous instru- 
ments. An instrument of this type, but with two strings, is mentioned 
by Phil. Hainhofer, in his "Dresdener Reisetagebuch" (1629) as 
a "new invention,"^ 

434. Phonograph Top. Paper cone. Metal disc United States 

Passing the tip of the cone lightly over the knobs on upper side of plate 

as the top is rotating, produces a series of tones. 
Length, with handle, 20.2 cm. Diameter of plate, 1 1 .2 cm. 
Signed — ' * Worden. 

' Sachs, p. 63. 



435. Singing Top. Wooden cylinder with slit in one side, and a rod 

running through and extending at either end Java 

When the top is rotating rapidly it induces the vibration of the column 

of air enclosed in the body of the top, producing a musical tone. 
Length, 23.6 cm. ; of body, 11.1 cm. ; of slit, 3 cm. Diameter of body, 
4 cm. ; of slit, 4 mm. 

Among the unusual processes of tone-production coming under this rubric, 
possibly no one is more unique than that found in instruments of the "whizzer" 
(Ger. Schivirrholz ; Fr. Planchetie ronplante), or "bull-roarer" type. They 
are widely distributed and in their sociological import sui generis. 

The description given by Dr. Washington Mathews in his monograph, 
"The Mountain Chant," is definitive of its structure wherever found. Dr. 
Mathews says: "The Whizzer is a thin, flat, pointed piece of wood, painted 
black and sparkling with specular iron ore sprinkled on its surface. The 
Navajo Indians call it the tsin — ce' ni, or 'groaning stick.' It is most effective 
when made from the wood of a pine tree which has been struck by lightning. 
Wherever found its dimensions are practically the same, viz., 9 inches long, 
% inch broad, and |/^ i^^ch thick. A cord, about 2 ft. long, is attached to 
one end by which it may be swung so rapidly around the head that a very 
peculiar tone is produced."* The yuntha of the Dieyerie Tribe, So. Aus- 
tralia, is provided with a cord twisted from human hair.* 

We find its replica in the Central Australian Kurnai Tribe, where two 
forms are in use — the larger, iundun — "the man," the smaller, rukui-tundun 
— "the woman, the wife of tundun" The larger is also called weinttvin, or 
muk-brogan (muli — ^Arch, brogan — comrade).*" The Kwakuitl Indians 
(Brit. Col.) call their "whizzer" the "voice of Haialilagas or Wina 
lag^ilis."^^ To the Kamilaroi Indians the murruivan represents the "voice of 
Durramoolan, the evil spirit who rules by night^^ and who made the original 
mudji or bull-roarer." 

To the Ju Jus of the Niger Delta, the peculiar tone is the "voice of Oro" 
a Yoruba god." Sacred to the Bora ceremony of the native tribes of Aus- 
tralia, neither the mobolah, nor the ^eembomul of" the Mycolon Tribe, may be 
looked upon by a woman or uninitiated youth. *^ 

At this point it must be stated that the types so far considered have less 
musical value than those included in the succeeding classes. The purely 
rhythmical, or more strictly speaking, metrical, appeal made by the most prim- 

8 Rep. Bur. Eth., 1883-4, P- 436. 

oQason, Jour. Anth. Inst. Gt. Brittian and Ireland, Vol. XVIII, p. 95. 

10 A. W. Howitt, ibid.. Vol. XIV, p. 312. 

11 Franz Boas, Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1895, p. 610. 

12 R. H. Mathews, Jour. Anth. Inst. Gt. Brit, and Ireland, Vol. XXIX, p. 419. 

13 A. W. Howitt, ibid., Vol. XIII, pp. 192 and 446. 
" Le Conte de Cardi, ibid., Vol. XXIX, p. 61. 

« E. Palmer, ibid.. Vol. XIII, p. 293. 


ilive rattle differs only in degree from the lure of the castanet, and its appeal* 
is, after all, to the same feeling — or instinct. With a few notable exceptions 
it may be stated that the types represented in Classes I. and II. have not de- 
veloped as have the instruments whose process of tone-production places them 
ander different rubies. 

Class III. Instruments with Vibrating Column of Air. 

Section A. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Vertical, Cylindri- 
cal Tube, with no lateral Openings. 

When, how, and where, prehistoric man discovered that blowing across 
the open mouth of a tube, the other end of which was closed, produced a 
pleasing sound, is an unsolved mystery. That initial discovery was followed 
by another, that binding together tubes of varying lengths made possible the 
production of a series of such sounds, else Pan were without his pipes. In 
ths instrument we may see the first representative of Class III, viz., the 
Syrinx (Eng. Pandean-pipe; Fr. Flute de Pan; Ger. Pansflote). 

The "Syrinx"^^ is a combination of reeds, bamboo joints, wooden, metal, 
or stone tubes, bound together. The upper ends of these tubes are arranged 
on a plane, while the lower are stopped, either by some foreign substance, or 
by a natural joint. The column of air in each tube is set in vibration by blow- 
ing across the top. This is the only process known to Nature whereby a 
column of air is so set in vibration as to produce a musical tone. The word 
"Ugab" (Genesis IV. 2 1 ), incorrectly translated "Organ," refers to this type. 

436. Syrinx. Twenty-five bamboo tubes Amazon Indians, Brazil 

Pitches: — f. f sharp, g, b, g sharp, c sharp', a sharp', d sharp', b', f, 

d sharp', g sharp', f, a sharp', f sharp', g sharp', a sharp', d sharp", 
b', f sharps d, g sharp", e", g", and g sharp". 
Longest tube, 25.6 cm.; shortest, 5.7 cm. Width of instrument, 
35.3 cm.* 


437. Syrinx. Twenty-one tubes of cane Fiji Islands 

Pitches: — a sharp', c", d", d sharp", f", g", g sharp", a", b", c'", 

d, d sharp'", e'", f", f sharp'", g'", g sharp'", g'", a'", and a'". 
Longest tube, 1 7.9 cm. ; shortest, 4.5 cm. Width, 27.3 cm. 

438. Syrinx. Nineteen reed tubes, giving major scale from e to a" . . Italy 
Longest tube, 13.8 cm.; shortest, 4 cm. Width, 18.5 cm. 

439. KoVE. Three bamboo tubes (d sharp', g sharp, d'. .New Hebrides 
Length of tubes in their order,29.9, 1 7.4, 1 7.2 cm. 

" Sachs. 367. 

* In these measurements "width" represents the length of the plane. 


440. Syrinx. Nineteen reed tubes, decorated Funchal, Madeira 

The tubes, arranged in a semi-circle, give the major diatonic scale from 

e to a". Made by a Portuguese peasant, Manuel Viera. 
Longest tube, 24.3 cm. ; shortest, 1 1 .5 cm. Outer circumference, 
16.7 cm. 

441. Syrinx. Eight tubes of reeds. .Bogota Indians, Bogota, S. America 
Longest tube, 1 1 .2 cm. ; shortest, 5.8 cm. Width, 7.9 cm. 

442. Syrinx. Five tubes. In structure similar to No. 441 Ecuador 

Longest tube, 6 cm. ; shortest, 2.3 cm. Width, 6.2 cm. 

Referring to the huayra-puhura — a Peruvian syrinx — Garcilaso de la 
Vega (1537-1616), "The Inca," w^rote: "The Indians of the Collas dis- 
trict played on instruments made of hollov^ reeds, four or five being tied in a 
row each having the point higher than its neighbour, like an organ, so that the 
four natural voices — treble, tenor, contralto, and counter-bass were represented 
by the four sets of reeds."" Sachs (p. 191) gives a cut of a hua^ra-puhura 
of stone, for they were also made from that material. 

443. FlEOULD. Ten holes bored in a flat wooden body France 

Used by the shepherds of Arbeost, Dep. Hautes-Pyrenees. 

Length of body, 1 cm. Width, 6.2 cm. Thickness, 1 .9 cm. Depth 

of holes, 3 to 9 cm. 
Hie sioulet cristedou is of the same structure and habitat, and its 
characteristic signal is used by Charpentier in Act II of "Louise."^' 

444. Syrinx. Three bamboo tubes giving d, f , g sharp Java 

Length of tubes in order, 28.3-24. 1 -20.3 cm. Width, 5 cm. 

445. BuEBALABALA. Five bamboo tubes giving a diatonic series from 

f sharp New Hebrides 

Longest tube, 24.2 cm.; shortest, 15.2 cm. Width, 5.7 cm. 
The galevu'kauhaumumu, with 11 or 13 pipes ; the galevu ngungu with 
50 pipes, and the galevu soniruka, with 40 or 44 pipes, found in the Solomon 
Islands, indicate the range of the Pan-pipe." In Central America a form in 
which the pipes were so long that they rested on the floor, or ground, was used 
in Catholic mission churches as a substitute for the organ. 

446. "Zampogna." Five brass tubes. Diatonic succession e to b . . . . Italy 

Longest tube, 12.3 cm.; shortest, 8.4 cm. Width, 7.2 cm. 
Inscribed — "In mi magg. primo lavero." 

Zampogna, the name given to this metal syrinx, really is that of a flute, 
or sc/ia/me)j, used by Italian shepherds. 

1^ "Royal Commentaries of the lucas," Hak. Soc, 1869, Vol. I, pp. 191-2. 
^* Sachs, p. 347. 
19 Sachs, p, 151. . 


447. "Zampogna." Nine brass tubes. Key of C, e'' to F Italy 

Longest tube, 13 cm.; shortest, 6 cm. Width, 13.5 cm. 

Inscribed — "In Fa magg. Sulla scena." 

448. "Zampogna." Nine tubes. Major scale — f sharp to g sharp" . . Italy 
Longest tube, 13.1 cm.; shortest, 5.8 cm. Width, 13.5 cm. 
Inscribed — "In sol magg. In orghestra." 

Section B. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 
with lateral Openings. 

Section C. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 
with lateral Openings and Mouth-piece. 

The Flute (Fr. Flute; Ital. Flauto; Ger. Floie) is of great antiquity, and 
the types represented by the instruments in the following sections were known 
and in use from a very remote date. 

A musical asset of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, this instrument 
is still a potent factor, especially in the orchestra. Though the lower-pitched 
flutes, like the Great Bass Flute, whose lowest tone was F, have been over- 
whelmed by instruments of greater sonority, the two existing representatives of 
this formerly very large family are numbered among the most useful members 
of the modem orchestra. It has an extensive compass (c' to c""), and blends 
well with other instruments even though its tone is somewhat lacking in warmth. 

Originally the bore of the Flute was cylindrical, but circa 1780 it be- 
came conical. The typical modern instrument is cylindrical, with a para- 
bolic "head," i. e., the section containing the mouth-hole. 

Section B defines a type in which the breath is directed against a knife 
edge on one side of the upper end of the tube, while the performer presses the 
other side firmly against the chin. This is the "Vertical" type. 

In the instruments included in Section C, the tone is produced by blow- 
ing into a mouth-piece which is so constructed that the air is directed against 
a knife edge. The vibration thus induced sets the enclosed column of air in 
vibration. In whistles and flutes with finger holes the length of the vibrating 
column may be changed by manipulation of these holes, and modified by the 
manner of blowing. The Beaked Flute (Fr. Flute a bee. Flute douce; Ital. 
Flauto a hecco; Ger. Schnabelflote) is the leading representative of this Sec- 
tion, which also includes the Whistle, the Flageolet and the Nose Flute. 
(Fr. Flute nasale; Ger. Nasenflote.) The last-named type (blown from the 
nostrils) is common among primitive peoples as well as in the Orient, specifi- 
cally India, where its use is conducive to the maintenance of caste. 

448a. Signal Whistle. Wood W. Africa 

The tube — 19.5 cm. long and 2 cm. in diameter — has a conical bore 
and ends in a flat projection bent to angle of 30°. It is blown 
across the top producing c sharp'' and, by stopping the lower end, a'. 
A similar whistle is shown by Ankermann (p. 37, Fig. 65). 
(John R. Effinger.) 


449. Triple Whistle. Terra-cotta Mexico 

The bodies are conventional bird forms, the beaks furnishing the 

mouth-pieces. Serpent decoration. The two whistles that can be 
blown give f and d'''. 
Length. 8.6 cm. Width, 10.4 cni. 

450. Whistle. Terra-cotta. From the native cemetery at Nicoya, Mexico 
Length, 1 0.5 cm. Width, 7 cm. 

45 1 . Whistle. Terra-cotta. Globular form, serpent-decoration . . Mexico 
By gradually uncovering the finger holes the chromatic scale from b' to 

e flat'' is produced. Length, 1 0.8 cm. Width, 8 cm. 


452. Whistle. Earthenware in form of a watering-pot Spain 

Height, 10 cm. Diameter with spout (the whistle), 9.5 cm. 

453. Whistle. Earthenware. Toy, in rude animal form Egypt 

Height, 8.5 cm. Length, 9 cm. Tone exceedingly shrill. 

454-455. SiLVADORES. "Whistling vases." Pottery Peru 

Two hollow, globular vessels connected by two transverse bars, the 
lower of which is also hollow. If, after a small quantity of water 
has been poured into the right vessel, one blows directly into it, the 
pressure of the water forces the air through the small whistle in the 
top of the left vessel and a tone is produced. These vases are gen- 
erally found in Inca graves and are of a very ancient tj^DC. 
Height, 17.5 and 135 cm. Width, 18.8 cm. Diameter, 9.4 cm. 
Height, 13 and 13.5 cm. Width, 21 cm. Diameter, 10.8 cm. 


456. Beaked Flute, or Whistle. Terra-cotta Ancient Mexico 

The conical tube has four finger-holes, by means of which the follow- 
ing tones may be produced: — c'\ c sharp''', e"',f sharp"', and a"'. 
The unglazed body, 20 cm. in length, is decorated in narrow bands 
of black. 

457. Beaked Flute, or Whistle. Terra-cotta Mexico 

T*he cylindrical tube, 22 cm. in length, and ending in a bell, 5.5 cm. in 

diameter, has four finger-holes. Elaborately decorated, with thin 
flanges on either side, and a human figure. The native name is p'lio. 


458. Beaked Flute, or Whistle. Terra-cotta Arizona Indians 

By closing the seven finger-holes in succession e flat"', d"', c"', b flat", 

a", g", and g flat", are produced. TTie tone is soft and pure. 
Length, 22.5 cm. Circumference, 8 cm. Diameter of bore, 1.5 cm. 

459. Whistle. Cedar. Produces e Tlingit Indians, Alaska 

Formed by binding two sections — ^24.5 cm. long — together with cords. 



460. Whistle. Bottle-shaped body of cedar, giving f Alaska 

Length, 26.8 cm. Greatest circumference, 23 cm. ; least, 1 1 .3 cm. 

461. Double Whistle. Cedar Tlingit Indians, Alaska 

Three sections of cedar, 31.6 cm. long, with nearly square cross-sec- 
tion, 4.6 cm. in diameter, are bound together by cotton strips. 

462. ScHNABELFLOTE. Carved vsrood. Five finger-holes Germany 

This instrument is very old and cannot be played. Length, 29.8 cm. 

463. Fetish Whistle. Carved goats' horn Zanzibar, Africa 

A carved serpent, human heads, and other figures form an effective 

decoration. Three finger-holes in the inner curve, but the only tone 
that can be produced is f sharp. Lengths of curves, 22.2 and 30 
cm. ; greatest diameter, 6. 1 cm. 

464. Whistle. Glazed Pottery China 

This whistle is a figurine of a monkey, 3.1 cm. in height. 

465. Double Whistle. Glazed Pottery China 

The figurines represent two billing swans. Whistle in each tail, giving 

g sharp. Height, 4.7 cm. 

466 to 47 1 . Dog Whistles. Glazed earthenware Germany 

These whistles, representing dogs, call for no special description. In 
length they range from 1 to 5 cm. The tones are indescribably 

472-473. Cuckoo-calls. Glazed earthenware . . . r Germany 

The first, representing chanticleer, with whistle in tail, and one finger- 
hole, gives f sharp' and d sharp', and is 8.4 cm. high. The second, 
is a typical peasant boy, 1 0.5 cm. tall, and has a whistle in the back. 

474. Bird-call. Wood Switzerland 

Oblong wooden whistle with sliding piston and giving the chromatic 

scale from e" to c sharp"'. 
Length, 13.6 cm. Diameter, 2.5 cm. 

475. Bird-call. Wood , Switzerland 

The round body, slightly swelling in the middle and decorated with 

poker-work, has a whistle mouth-piece at one end while the other 
represents the head of a bird. One finger-hole. Pitches : — g" and f " 
sharp. Length, 16.5 cm. 

476. Double Whistle. Wood. Used in orchestra Italy 

A wooden box, 26.5 cm. long, 10.5 cm. wide, and 5.5 cm. deep, is 

divided into two "Melodia" organ pipes, with air reservoir at the bot- 
tom, in which are two holes for blowing. The pitches are g" and c". 

477-478. Bird-calls. Wood Switzerland 

The first terminates in a spotted egg through which the head of a chick 
breaks as the piston is operated. The second, displays an elongated 


egg with whistle body running through, while the chick, already 
grown up and roosting on a pivot, turns hither and thither as the 
whistle is blown. The first whistle gives four tones and the second 
one. Length of No. 477, 19.7 cm.; of No. 478, 16.2 cm. 

479. VoGELPFElFE. Brass Germany 

The whistle carries the figure of a canary bird. The piston is attached 

to a handle of black wood. Compass: — 6l" to c"'\ 
Length, extended, 23.2 cm.; closed, 14.5 cm. 

480. Bird-call. Wood Switzerland 

The body, 17 cm. long, bears at lower end a painted wooden bird 

which turns as the piston is pressed. Pitches : — a sharp" and b''. 

481. "Magic Flute." Tin. Dimensions, 3.5 by 7 cm. . . .United States 

482. Ocarina. Soprano in F France 

The conical body with mouth-piece at one side, made of earthenware 

painted black and decorated in gilt, has nine finger-holes. This 
vaudeville type has not inconsiderable musical possibilities which, 
however, are seldom realized. 
Length, 1 1 .8 cm. Diameter of mouth-piece, 6 cm. 

483. Ocarina. Alto in D Austria 

Similar in every respect to the preceding but larger. 15 cm. long and 

8 cm. in diameter. 

Signed — "H. Fiehn, Vienna." 

484. Ocarina. Tenor in A France 

In the larger end of the body, of brown earthenware decorated in 

black, a piston is introduced by means of which the pitch may be 
raised a semi-tone. Nine finger-holes. 
Length, with piston closed, 20.3 cm. ; extended, 28.3 cm. Diameter, 
1 2 cm. 

Signed — "Fabricateur, A. E. Mezzetti, a Paris." 

485. Ocarina. Bass in G sharp France 

Length, 30.2 cm. Diameter, 2 1 cm. Eight holes. 

Signed— "Compagnie General de L'Ocarina." 
The Hano, or Kio I(io, an ocarina formed from a pear-shaped cala- 
bash, having three finger-holes and blown with the mouth or nos- 
trils, is found in Hawaii.'^" 

486. Transverse Whistle Flute in E flat. Tin Germany 

As the player blows through a hole in the side it appears to be a trans- 
verse flute, but the tone is produced as in the whistle. In the inverted 
conical tube are six finger-holes. Length, 33.8 cm. 

Signed — "Kirchhoff, Leipzig." 

20 Morris, p. 48. 



486a. Transverse Whistle Flute. Tin United States 

Cylindrical tube. Six finger-holes. Pitched in C. Length, 43.2 cm. 
Signed — "Kirchhoff, Leipzig." 
(Mrs. Lucy Granger.) 

487. Transverse Whistle Flute. Nickel-plated brass Germany 

Pitched in E flat. Wooden mouth-piece. Six holes. Length, 35.7 cm. 

488. Vertical Whistle Flute. Nickel-plated brass Germany 

Six holes. Conical tube. Length, 28. 1 cm. 

489. Revolver Vertical Whistle Flute Germany 

This instrument consists of seven cylinders bound together. By trans- 
ferring the mouth-piece to the appropriate cylinder, seven different 
pitches — c, d, e flat, f, f sharp, g, and a — are made available. 

Length, 33.3 cm.; with mouth-piece removed, 25cm. 

490. Beaked Flute. Wood. Native name unknown . . . South America 
The slightly flattened, curved body, of ten longitudinal sections bound 

together with bands of gut, shows six finger-holes on outer curve. 
Compass, from g' to e'^', with many intervals imperfect. Lengths of 
curves, 44.5 and 41.8 cm. 

491. Vertical Flute. Wood Poma Indians, California 

The irregularly curving cylindrical body, 50 cm. long, is made from a 

branch of the buckeye {Aesculus, Cal), or horse-chestnut. Two 
groups, of two finger-holes each, are so placed that the pitches vary 
according to which end is blown into." Decorated with burnt bands, 
the ends being charred in deference to a myth regarding the tribes* 
acquisition of fire from another tribe. 
The Poma Indians call this flute du dm (doo a thim), "to be blown 
upon or into," and the Ke'ya (Ukiah), ival rvaU from the multi- 
plicity of notes. ^* 

(John P. Stanley.) 

21 Charles Kasson Wead, in "History of Musical Scales," pp. 427 ff., gives an exhaustive 
treatment of the principles involved in primitive and indigenous instruments. 

22 These names are given by Mr. John M. Hudson, who has lived for years in these 
tribes. In a letter to the donor he also gives the myth referred to as related by the Indians. 

This myth is of the "Uncle Remus" type, and runs as follows : "At one time we had 
no fire. Hunters from the mountains declared they .saw smoke away beyond. We chose 
delegates to visit that place and get fire for us. We sent the jack-rabbit, mole, gopher, etc , 
etc. (according to who tells this story), to steal the fire They arrived at a big Tcane 
underground house) and were invited in. A big fire was in the center and they warmed 
themselves for the first time by Ho (artificial heat). Now the gopher was a great flute- 
player, and by request played so sweetly that all the hosts fell asleep ; the mole grabbed 
two coals and the jack-rabbit snatched another and ran out and up the mountain The 
people awoke and, pursuing, caught them. The gopher hid his coals in the ends of the 
flute, while the mole escaped underground; the jack-rabbit hid his under his tail (which is 
singed to this day), but it burned him and died out. One of the coals fell out of the flute 
and was lost at the time. After being searched they returned home and forever had fire, 
and to this day the charred flute-ends show where the first fire was carried." . . . "Gener- 
ally, the robin is regarded as the patron of the flutist and his mark is etched between the 
holes." This flute bears the above-mentioned device. 


492. Shepherd's Pipe. Vertical type. Wood Greece 

The body is a thin wooden tube, 25.4 cm. long, with bevelled edge at 

the top. Six Rnger-holes in the front and one in the back. 
(Francis W. Kelsey.) 

492a. Shepherd's Pipe. Vertical type. Dark, hard wood. Six 

finger-holes (In Case XVI.) Bulgaria 

Length of tube, 34.5 cm. ; diameter, 2. 1 cm. 
(Leo R. Lewis.) 

492b. Shepherd's Pipe. Vertical type. Bamboo or reed S5rria 

Six holes in front and two in back. In the Jerusalem district this pipe 
is called shubbabeh; at Beirut, minjorah, both purely local desig- 
Length, 30. 1 cm. ; diameter, 1 .4 cm. 

. (Francis W. Kelsey.) 

493. Galoubet, or Chirola. Beaked flute type France 

This flute, of the eighteenth century, has a narrow cylindrical tube of 

boxwood, 38.5 cm. in length, with two holes in front and one behind. 
It has a compass of two octaves and is used with the tabor^ or the 
tambourin a cordes (Case XI, No. 1 168). According to Mistral, 
the name came from the celebrated jongleur Galaubet,^^ an assump- 
tion contested by Sachs who suggests churula as the more probable 
origin.^* It is of the same type as the early German schwegel.^'^ 

494. Manjaira. Vertical type. Six finger-holes Syria 

Length, 30.4 cm. Diameter, 1.7 cm. 

495. Nose Flute. Cane Nias Island, Malaysia 

The body of cane with beak formed to fit the nostril. Four finger- 
holes. Length, 29 cm. Diameter, 2.2 cm. 

496-497. Nose Flutes. Bamboo. Played together .... Jeypore, India 
The bodies are 13 cm. long and 2.3 in diameter. In playing, one is 
blown from each nostril. 

498. Alghoza. Beaked flute. Bamboo India 

The tube — 31.3 cm. long and 2 cm. in diameter — is decorated in 
incised lines. The lower end is nearly closed by a node. Five finger- 
holes give a', c\ d'\ e", and f". 

23 Mistral. Lou Tresor dou Fdibrige, Vol. II, p 14. 

2* Sachs, p. 151. 

28 In Kastner's Les Danses des Marts, Plate VII, Figs. 50 and 51, Death is represented 
playing the schwegel. The drum in Fig. 50 is silent, for with his right hand he holds a 
staflf bearing a banner. In Fig. 51 there is no drum. 

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Case VI. Nos. -113 to 641 (Right to Left). 


499-500. Shepherd's Pipes. Vertical type. Wood Greece 

The tubes, 33.2 and 29 cm. in length, respectively, and terminating in 
rude bells, have six finger-holes each. 

(Francis W. Kelsey.) 

501 . Beaked Flute. Bamboo Philippine Islands 

The mouth-hole of this flute — a bamboo tube, 33.8 cm. long — is 2 

cm. below a node at upper end. A pair of slightly hollowed bam- 
boo splints, fitting together and projecting 1 .8 cm. beyond the closed 
end, convey the breath to this hole. Six finger-holes give a diatonic 
series from g sharp'' to h"\ with c" interpolated. 

502. Flauto a becco. Wood Italy 

Reproduction of ancient type by Pelitti, Milan, for use in the Pom- 

peian Festival of 1883. Six finger-holes. One key. Length, 49.2 cm. 

503. Flute douce. Treble in A. Boxwood France 

Inverted conical bore. Seven finger-holes in front. One in back. 
Length, 39.3 cm. 

Signed — in a circle with A in center — "Prosper 
Colas a Paris." 
TTie signatures of makers are given exactly as they appear on the in- 
struments. These signatures are frequently so illegible that they 
are misleading. In many there are evident errors, which — when 
there can be no mistake in reading — are not corrected. 

504. Flute douce, Alto in G flat. Boxwood France 

The body, with inverted conical bore, is in three pieces. It has seven 

finger-holes in front and one in back. Length, 50.2 cm. 

505. ScHNABELFLOTE. Alto in F. Boxwood Germany 

Like most flutes, the body is in three sections and the bore is conical. 

Seven finger-holes in front, and one in back. Length, 49.5 cm. 
Signed — "J. C. Sattler." 

506. ScHNABELFLOTE. Alto in F. Boxwood Germany 

This flute is similar to the preceding, but 1 .5 cm. longer. 

507. ScHNABELFLOTE, in A flat. Boxwood Germany 

Of hard red wood, and typical in form and construction. 

Length, 45 cm. 

Signed — "J. L. Fischer." 

508. ScHNABELFLOTE, in B flat. Boxwood Germany 

This eighteenth century flute is of stained wood, in three pieces. Four 

silver keys, giving c\ d", f", and g". Of the nine holes, six are 
arranged as usual. TTie seventh, at one side, is raised, and the eighth 
is in the back. Connecting bands of silver. Length, 49 cm. 
Signed — "Kruspe, Erfurt." 


509. Flageolet. Boxwood. Eighteenth century France 

The tube, with inverted conical bore, carries black horn mountings. 

Four holes in front and two behind. One brass key. Lowest note b'. 
Length, 49 cm. 

Signed — "Tabard, a Lyon." 

5 1 0. Flageolet. Dark wood, with ivory mountings France 

The tube has silver connecting-bands, and the bore is nearly cylindrical, 

slightly conical only at the bell. Three silver keys. Four holes in 
front and two behind. Lowest note b flat'. Length, 38 cm. 
Signed — "D. Noblet, aine." 

5 1 Oa. Flageolet. Boxwood. Five keys , United States 

The body has silver mountings, and the mouth-piece section is of un- 
usual length. By substituting section B, it becomes a piccolo. Six 
finger-holes, all in front. 
Length, as a flageolet, 43 cm. ; as a piccolo, 30.4 cm. 

5n . "Floetuse." Double Flute Germany 

The tube contains two parallel conical bores, with seven holes in each, 
closed by circular silver keys. Of no musical value. Length, 43 cm. 

512. Ocarina. Walking stick. In B. Metal France 

A walking stick — ^91 .5 cm. long — the lower half of which is lacquered 

bamboo, and the upper of brass finished in imitation of that wood, 
has for its handle a metal ocarina. This section is also fitted with a 
mouth-hole and six finger-holes that it may function as a transverse 
flute in D. 

Signed — "Ch. Mathieu, Paris." 

513. Stockflote (Eng. Cane Flute: Fr. Canne-flute). Ebony . Germany 
Of the five joints, three form a flute, with eight finger-holes, six in front, 

one in back, and one in the side. One silver key. The breath is 
directed into the tube through two small holes in the ivory top. 
Length, 88 cm. 

5 1 4. Venu. Vertical type. Bamboo Orissa, Bengal 

A slightly conical bamboo tube artistically lacquered in black and dull 

gold forms the body, which has no finger-holes. 
Length, 149 cm. Diameter, 2.5 to 3.2 cm. 

515. Double Beaked Flute, or Flageolet. Boxwood England 

This consists of two tubes, each 19.7 cm. in length, with inverted 

conical bore. The left tube has six finger-holes in front, one at the 
side, and four silver keys. The right tube has five finger-holes and 
four silver keys. Both tubes have a common air reservoir into which 
leads a flageolet mouth-piece. Length, 40.3 cm. 
Signed — "Bainbridge, 35 Holborn Hill, London." 


b 1 6. Double Beaked Flute. . Dark wood. Silver mountings . . England 
The body has two parallel tubes 42.5 cm. in length. The left tube has 

five finger-holes and six keys, the right, three holes and six keys. 
Length, with mouth-piece, 65.7 cm. 
Signed — "D'Almain and Co., late Goulding and D'Almain, 

Soho Square, London." 
In Nos. 515-516 the breath may be diverted from one tube to the other 
by a valve operated by a key on the back of the instrument. 

5 1 7. Thij, or Thith. Nose flute. Bamboo New Caledonia 

A curved body of bamboo, 1 01 .2 cm. long with one hole at the end. 
But one tone, c sharp, can be produced. The name is given on the 
authority of Edge-Partington and Heape (Ethnological Album, 
Pacific Is., Series II, Pg. 68). 
Section D. Vibrating Column of Air in a Horizontal (Transverse) 
Cylindrical Tube with lateral Openings and Mouth-hole {embouchure). 

The Transverse Flute (Fr. Flute traversiere; Ger. Querflote; 
Ital. Flauto, Flauio traverso) is held at right angles with the body and the 
player blows into a mouth-hole near the end. The Fife (Fr. Fifre; Ger. 
Schweizerfloie, Pfeife), formerly used with the drum as an ideal incentive to 
patriotism, and the Piccolo (Fr. Petite flute octave; Ger. PiJ^J^olo), are 
pitched an octave higher than the ordinary flute. 

As it is impossible to make an absolute differentiation of the instruments 
in this Case, each type will be defined, with the exception of Transverse Flutes, 
which, only in exceptional cases, will be specifically designated. 

5 1 8. Transverse Flute. Reed. Sounds but one tone . . Upper Amazon 
Length, 76 cm. Diameter, 3 to 5 cm. 

519. Flute. Wood. Sounds one tone. Length, 22.5 cm. Diameter, 

1 .4 cm. 
This flute is over two hundred years old. It was donated with the 
understanding that neither its source nor its uses should be divulged. 
(M. R. Harrington.) 

520. Flute. Bone Klamath Indians, Oregon 

Four finger-holes. Length, 1 7 cm. Diameter, I cm. For particulars 

and descriptions of this type consult Morris, pp. 1 09- 1 1 6. 

52 1 . Vertical Flute. Bone Poma Indians, California 

One finger-hole. Length, 9.2 cm. Diameter, 1 cm. 

522. Vertical Flute. Wood Solomon Islands 

Two finger-holes. Length, 1 8.2 cm. Diameter, 3 cm. 

523. Flute. Wood. A primitive vertical type. .Gilbert Is., So. Pacific 
The tube — length, 33.5 cm.; diameter, 2 cm. — is closed at each end 

by a node. Near the upper end is a whistle mouth-piece. Four 
finger-holes. Lowest tone, b flat' ; highest, a flat'''. 


524. Vertical Flute. Bone British Guiana 

Pitches: — g', f, d'\ and c'\ 

Three finger-holes. Length, 16 cm. Diameter, 1 cm. 

525. Vertical Flute. Wood. Name unknown^* Venezuela 

Finger-hole at each end. Length, 1 7.8 cm. Diameter, 3 cm. 

526. Transverse Flute. Wood .... Onama Indians, British Guiana 
Tone produced by blowing through slit in back, while the hands, held 

over the open cutting in tube, govern the tone series by the fingers. 
Length, 44.5 cm. Diameter, 3.2 cm. 

527. Vertical Flute. Wood Poma Indians, California 

In its possibilities this resembles No. 49 1 . 

Length, 30 cm. Diameter, 5 cm. 
Charles Wakefield Cadman, the composer, on comparing an Indian 
beaked flute with a Chinese instrument of the same type, found that their pe- 
culiar scales were identical. 

528. Sarala-VANCI. Beaked type. Bamboo India 

The body, lacquered in black and gold, has seven finger-holes in front 

and one in back. Length, 30.2 cm. Diameter, L6 cm. 

529. SiGU-NIHU. Nose flute. Reed Nais Tribe, Sumatra 

The tube — 39.8 cm. long and 1 .6 cm. in diameter — is decorated with 

incised lines. Four finger-holes. 

530. Laya BANCI. Vertical type. Bamboo, lacquered India 

Seven finger-holes. Compass, f to b''. Length, 36 cm. 

53 1 . Laya VANCI. Vertical type. Bamboo, lacquered Bengal 

Six finger-holes. Lowest tone b'. Length, 35.6 cm. 

532. Flute. Wood, painted Apache Indians, Arizona 

The cylinder of soft wood is bored with six holes, and the breath is 

directed into the square mouth-hole by a peculiar mouth-piece of 
wood. It is painted in bands of red and green, and six strips of raw- 
hide bind the two longitudinal sections together. 
Length, 50.4 cm. Diameter, 4 cm. 

533. Ryu-TEKI, or "Dragon's flute." Carved bamboo Japan 

The cylindrical tube — 41.7 cm. in length, and 1.4 cm. in diameter — 

is elaborately carved in conventional designs of the heavenly dragon. 
It has seven finger-holes. Used in the bugaku dance. 

26 Mahillon (Cat.-, Vol. Ill, p. 314) gives a description and illustration of this flute, but 
gives neither name nor source. Miss Morris gives Venezuela as its source (p. 226, No. 3560). 


534. Cai ONG DICH (Anam. dich"\uhe). Cane Anam 

Compass of two octaves from b to b". A membrane over the hole 

next to the "embouchure" (mouth-hole) imparts a reedy tremolo to 
the tone. The cylindrical tube is tipped at either end with ivory, and 
is wound at stated intervals with black lacquered cord. It has six 
finger-holes, in a group, and two near the end, which are, however, 
Length, 62.7 cm. Diameter, 2.2 cm.; of bore, 1.5 cm. 

535. Cai ong dich. Similar to No. 534, but 1.4 cm, longer Anam 

536. Tl TZO. Cane. Similar to 534 China 

Length, 66.5 cm. Diameter, 2.3 cm. 

537. Sei-TEKI. Similar to No. 536 Japan 

537a. Min-TEKI. Dark wood. Six finger-holes Japan 

In all essentials, save in length, this corresponds to No. 534. Sachs (p. 
260) defines it as a vertical flute, but this example, which a Japanese musician 
imported directly from Japan, is of the transverse type. Length, 53.5 cm., di- 
ameter, 1.9 cm. (Placed in Case XVI.) 

(John B. Taylor.) 

538. Yamato-FUYE. "Side-blowing flute," with case Japan 

The beautifully decorated cylinder has six finger-holes and mouth-hole 

placed in slightly hollowed bands, stained a reddish brown. The 
entire surface, with these exceptions, is wound with black lacquered 
cord. The case carries elaborate designs of peacocks. Fu})e is the 
generic name for flute in Japan. Length, 39.2 cm. Diameter, 2 cm. 

539. Tl TZO. Bamboo, decorated in incised floral designs China 

The designs are filled in with red, green, and yellow color, and the 

usual ivory ferules appear on the ends. 
Length, 57.6 cm. Diameter, 2.1 cm. 

540. Syakuhati, or Shakuhachi. Vertical type. Bamboo. . .Japan 
The body, somewhat irregular, bears an elaborate design in black at 

the section next to the mouth-piece end. Four holes in front and one 

in back. The shakuhachi is said to date back to 1335. A skillful 

performer can produce the entire Chinese chromatic scale. 

Length, 87.2 cm. Diameter, 3.5 cm. 

This specimen (which might be called a Cane shakuhachi) is much longer 

than the typical shakuhachi as described by P. Terada, in his monograph 

"Acoustical Investigation of the Japanese Bamboo Pipe, Syakuhati" (Jour. 

Coll. Science, Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. XXL, Article 10, 

1907). The name is derived from the length of the typical pipe; "1 s^aku 

and 8 {hati) sun," sounding the Japanese key itikotu (d), "In pipes in popu- 


lar use the length differs, varying from circa 1 .2 s})aku to 2. 1 syaku** the lat- 
ter giving C as its lowest tone. The embouchure — utaguti (ufa-sing: l^uti- 
mouth) is its most interesting structural detail. The same eminent authority 
says: "The characteristic color of its notes gave it a peculiar hold on the 
fancy of the natives which has steadily grown stronger until today it has be- 
come so popular that every favorite air is played on it and even a system of 
written music has been developed for the instrument." The appeal of its beau- 
tiful tone is not restricted to Orientals, for Europeans are equally impressed. 

540a. Syakuhachl Bamboo. Four finger-holes Japan 

A replica of the preceding instrument, with the exception of its length, 
56.6 cm. and diameter, 5 cm. It is placed in Case XVI. 
(John B. Taylor.) 

541. Cane Flute. Decorated with themes from 55 operas Italy 

Length, 80.2 cm. Diameter, 1 .5 cm. 

Signed — "Marco de Fumagalli Angelo, Fabrica-Bellagio, 

22Luglio, 1899." 

(Francis W. Kelsey.) 

542. SouLiNG KETJIL. Vertical type. Stained bamboo . . . . S. E. Borneo 
Compass of two chromatic octaves from b. Four holes. 

Length, 54.8 cm. Diameter, 3.9 cm. 

543. Sei-TEKL In form and decoration similar to No. 537 Japan 

Length, 56.4 cm. Diameter, 1.7 cm. 

544. SoULiNG, or SuLING. Nose flute. Cane . .Java 

The cylindrical tube is decorated with incised lines in artistic designs, 

separated by smooth bands of the polished surface. Six holes di- 
vided into two groups. Range of two octaves in a mixed series from 
d sharp'. Length, 50.8 cm. Diameter, 2 cm. 

545. SoULlNG. Similar to No. 544 but larger Java 

Compass: — a diatonic scale of two octaves, from c sharp. 

Length, 55.7 cm. Diameter, 3.2 cm. 

546. Nay. Vertical type. Bamboo, decorated Egypt 

The tube — 55 cm. long and 2.2 cm. in diameter — is decorated in in- 
cised lines, and has six finger-holes. Lowest tone, a . 

547. Nay, or Nay GHIREF. Vertical type. Bamboo Syria 

Six finger-holes in front, one in back. Lowest tone, b flat . 
Length, 54.6 cm. Diameter, 1.8 to 2.4 cm. 

548. GuESBA, or GsBA. Vertical type. Bamboo Algeria 

The body — 53 cm. long, and 2 to 2.3 cm. in diameter — is decorated 

in red incised lines. Six finger-holes. Lowest tone, g'. 


549. HiTO-YO-KlRI. In type and source similar to No. 540, but shorter. 
Lowest tone, d sharp'. Length, 52 cm. Diameter, 3.5 cm. . . .Japan 

According to Terada, the origin of the s^akuhati can be traced to this in- 
strument, "which was aheady popular under the Asikaga Shogunate." 

550. SouLlNG. Similar in type to No. 544 Java 

Six finger-holes. Length, 50.2 cm. Diameter, 2 cm. 

55 1 . Fango-FANGO. Nose flute. Bamboo .... Tonga Islands, S. Pacific 
The tube — 47.5 cm. long, and 2.7 cm. in diameter — has a breath-hole 

at either end; three finger-holes equidistant from each other and 
from the breath-holes, and one in the back. The lowest tone is d. 
The compass is quite extended, but the manner of playing is quite 

552. Manjaira. Vertical type. Bamboo. Five finger-holes Syria 

This flute — 44 cm. long, and 1.7 cm. in diameter — is played like the 

na^. Lowest tone, i\ 

553. T'SOUNGYE, or T'oungyo. Bamboo, lacquered Corea 

The breath is directed against a V-shaped notch at one end. The same 

procedure is followed in No. 525. The tube is 42 cm. long and 1 .5 
cm. in diameter, and has four finger-holes in front and one in back. 
The compass is indefinable, and the name given above is uncertain. 

554. Tibia OBLIQUA. Bronze, heavily patinated Ancient Italy 

These fragments of an ancient Roman flute (two sections) are of un- 
doubted antiquity. Combined they give the following measurements: 19.4 
cm. in length, and 2.3 cm. in diameter. Evidently, with two-thirds of the in- 
strument missing, the pitch cannot be suggested, much less defined. 

555. Beaked Flute. Slate 

Haidah Indians, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia 

The tube is decorated with conventional carvings of grasshoppers and 
eagles. The six finger-holes are also set in ornamental carved bands 
in a leaf design. Length, 46.3 cm. Diameter of conical bore, from 
1 .5 cm. at mouth-piece, to 9 mm. at end. Unplayable. 

556. Beaked Flute. Same type, material, and source as No. 555. 

It is decorated by carvings in high relief of the killer-whale and a 

shaman. Four finger-holes. 
Length, 56.5 cm. Diameter, 9 mm. to 2.1 cm. 

557. Beaked Flute. Similar to No. 556. 

Length, 50.7 cm. Diameter of conical bore, 1 to 1.7 cm. 
These flutes are not products of primitive industry, but represent the 
lure of the "Lust for Gold." 
The auwi kak^cng, "the ripe woman" (S. p. 24) is a vertical flute found 


in New Guinea (Papuan Tribe), and used by mothers to still their children's 
noise, but, in this case the Latin proverb: "The remedy is worse than the 
disease," might apply. 

The Suisi Indians, N. W. Brazil, have a vertical flute, the iua (S. p. 
197) formed from a long, cylindrical bamboo tube with five nodes. Five 
distinct flutes, each with its necessary "vent-hole", are thus made possible, and 
may be played by five persons simultaneously. 

Section D. Transverse Flutes. European. 

Up to the improvements of Theobald Boehm (1802-1888) the evolu- 
tion of the flute was gradual and ran along established lines. In his system the 
nodes of the vibrating column of air were scientifically fixed, and the holes 
were no longer of necessity placed where the fingers and occasional keys could 
open and close them, but were controlled entirely by a key mechanism. The 
bore again became cylindrical as in the original type. 

As in the following examples the distinctions largely affect the dimen- 
sions and the number of finger-holes and keys displayed in the various ex- 
amples, no further detailed descriptions of these will be given. It must be re- 
membered that each key represents a hole. 

558. Flauto TRAVERSO. One section missing Italy 

Ivory mountings. Length of the two sections, 44.4 cm. 

Signed — "Carlo Palanca." 

559. LlEBESFLOTE (Eng. Fr. Flute d' amour; It. Flauto d^amore) in 

A. Boxwood. One key. Eighteenth century Germany 

The tone of this instrument is exceptionally sweet. Length, 76 cm. 

560. Concert Flute in E flat. Dark wood. One key England 

Four sections. Ivory mountings. Length, 61.7 cm. 

Signed — "Cahusac, London." 

561 . Concert Flute. Boxwood. One key England 

The length of this very old instrument is 54.5 cm. Four sections. 

(John P. Stanley.) 

561a. Concert Flute. Dark wood. Four keys England 

Four sections. Ivory mountings. Length 60 cm. 
(Mrs. Lucy Granger.) 

562. Tenor Flute in B. Wood. Five keys England 

Four sections. Silver mountings. Length, 76.5 cm. 

Signed — "Monzani and Co., 24 Dover St., London, 1816." 

563. Concert Flute in F. Dark wood. Seven keys England 

Three sections, silver mountings. Length, 54 cm. 

Signed — "Monzani and Co., 24 Dover St., London, 1817." 


564. Concert Flute in E flat. Boxwood. Eight keys England 

Five sections. Ivory mountings. Length, 67.3 cm. 

Signed — "Potter, Johnson's Court, Fleet Street, London." 

565. Concert Flute in F. Dark wood. Eight keys England 

Four sections. German-silver mountings. Length, 66 cm. 

Signed — "J. H. Ebbelwhite, London." 

566. Concert Flute in E flat. Boxwood. Seven keys England 

Five sections. Ivory mountings. Length, 68 cm. 

Signed — "Patent 6. Will'm Hen'y Potter, Johnston's Court, 
Fleet St., London." 

567. Concert Flute in F. Dark wood. Nine keys England 

Five sections. Silver mountings. Length, 70.2 cm. 

Signed — "Payne, No. 13, Lft. Newport St., London." 

568. Querflote in E flat. Dark wood. Thirteen keys Germany 

Three sections. Alabata mountings. Length, 81.6 cm. 

Signed — "J. Roedel, Bremen." 

569. Querflote in E flat. Ivory and white metal. Nine keys . . Germany 
Two sections. Silver tip. Length, 71.5 cm. 

Signed — "Meyer, Hannover." 

570. Flute TRAVERSIERE. German silver. Sixteen keys France 

Modified Boehm system. Three sections. Length, 59.5 cm. 

Signed — "G. Thibouville, Buffet a Paris." 

571 . Flute TRAVERSIERE. Glass. Four keys France 

Four sections, the second interchangeable. Length, 62 cm. 

Signed — "Laurent, a Paris, 1809." 

572. Spare section (the second), for No. 571. 

573. Concert Flute in E flat. Ivory. Eight keys United States 

Five sections. Silver mountings. Length, 67.5 cm. 

Signed — "P. H. Taylor's (252) Approved Pattern, 
C. Peloubet. New York." 

574. Canne-FLUTE. (Eng. Cane y?u^e; Ger. 5/oc^yZofe). Wood. 
One key. Length, 71 .2 cm France 

575. Canne-FLUTE. Lacquered sheet iron France 

Two sections. Length, 91.5 cm. 

Signed — "Ch. Mathieu." 



576. Bassflote in F. Stained wood. Six finger-holes, one thumb- 

hole, and one key Germany 

The pitch of this seventeenth century flute does not correspond to that 
given by Praetorious — B flat^^ but he describes a rather larger 
specimen. It is blown through an S-shaped tube inserted at the top. 
It resembles the English "recorder," but is the bass of the German 
blockflote. Length, 147 cm. 

577. CzAKAN. Cane Flute in B flat Hungary 

Ivory mouth-piece. Six finger-holes. Length, 137 cm. 

578. Stockflote in E flat. Early eighteenth century Germany 

Four sections. Brass mountings. Length, 83.5 cm. 

579. Cane Flute. Japanned sheet iron Italy 

Brass mountings. Six finger-holes. Length, 1 1 4 cm. 

580. ScHWElTZERFLOTE in B flat. Brass . . . Switzerland 

Six finger-holes. Length, 41 cm. 

581. SCHWEITZERFLOTE in B flat. Eighteenth century Germany 

Black horn mountings. Six finger-holes. Length, 37.7 cm. 

Signed — "C. Paul Walch, Berchtesgaden." 

582. Fife in B flat. Boxwood United States 

Brass mountings. Six finger-holes. Length, 35.9 cm. 

(Mrs. Lucy Granger.) 

"The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries and fifes," 

Shakespeare, Coriol. V. 4. 

583. Piccolo in E. Dark wood. One key England 

Two sections. Six finger-holes. Length, 3 1 cm. 

584. Piccolo in E. Dark wood. Five keys England 

Two sections. Silver-mounted. Six open finger-holes. Length, 32 cm. 

(Mrs. Lucy Granger.) 

585. Piccolo in E. Dark wood. Six keys England 

Three sections. German silver mountings. Six open holes. 

Length, 30.7 cm. 

586. Piccolo in E. Dark wood. Six keys England 

Alabata trimmings. Length, 29.8 cm. 

586a. Piccolo in E. Boehm system England 

Two sections. Alabata mountings. Twelve keys. Length, 30.8 cm. 

^''Syntagma Musicum, PI. VII, p. 24. 


586b. Piccolo, and Flageolet. Dark wood. One key England 

By substituting a whistle mouth-piece for the usual one, this becomes a 

beaked flute, or flageolet. See 5 1 Oa and B. 
Length, as a piccolo, 30. 1 cm. ; as a flageolet, 28. 1 cm. 
C- Whistle mouth-piece ; D-E-F-G-Flute mouth-pieces. 

587. Flautophon, or "Flute Harmonique" France 

Thirty metal flutes on a wind-chest, and a tube through which one 

blows. Tones controlled by 30 pistons. 
Length, 60.5 cm. Height, 18.4 to 25.4 cm. Width, 1.6 to 3.1 cm. 
Signed — "M. Baduel, Invent. Paris." 

Section E. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical, Cylindrical Tube 
with lateral Openings, Modified by the Action of a Single Beating-Reed. 

A Beating Reed (Fr. Anche; Ital. Ancia; Ger. Blatt) is a flat flexi- 
ble strip of cane, or metal, which is dressed down to a thin edge at one end. 
The other end is fastened, leaving the reed free to vibrate, thereby alternately 
opening and closing a longitudinal aperture (somewhat smaller than the reed 
itself) which communicates directly with the column of air enclosed in the 
body of the instrument. In many, or most. Oriental types the reed is cut in a 
section of cane, one end of which is closed by a natural joint, while the other is 
inserted in the first section of the instrument itself. (See No. 608.) 

588. Bird-call. Gourd. Cane reed Amazon Indians, Brazil 

This bird-call from Matto Grosso consists of a brown globular gourd, 

8 cm. in diameter, with a stem 3 cm. long, into which a beating 
reed, fashioned from a stalk of cane, is inserted. 

589-90-91 . CoRNETTAS. Reed horns Argentina 

Into the small end of a cow's horn, scraped thin, a flat beating reed is 

inserted. Two metal rings for carrying are also supplied. 
Lengths of curves, 39, 29 and 30 cm. Diameters of open (oval) end, 

6.5, 5,5, and 4 cm. 
Nos. 589 to 594 hang from top of Case. 

592. Reed Horn. Gourd. Brass reed Italy 

Long, bottle-shaped body with a slightly bent neck into which a brass 

single beating reed is secured. Apparently this is a modern adapta- 
tion of the iromha di zucca,'^^ both in material and form, but it leaves 
much to be desired. Length, 69 cm. Diameter of open end, 1 1 cm. 

593. Reed Horn. Cow's horn, silver mounted. Brass reed Italy 

The reed sounds e. Length, 46 cm. Diameter at bell, 1 1 .4 cm. 

28 Sachs, p. 393, who quotes from Bonanni's Gabinetto armonico, p. 86. 


594. Reed Horn. Goat's hom. Brass reed Switzerland 

The cap containing reed (sounding a) unscrews from body. 
Lengths of curves, 30.5 and 41 cm. Diameter, 3 to 6 cm. 

595. Reed Horn. Lacquered brass. Brass reed. Italy 

The reed in the small end of the semi-circular tube sounds f. 
Lengths of curves, 47.5 and 94.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 7 cm. 

596. Nachtwachterhorn. "Night-watchman's horn" Germany 

The reed is covered by a flat, perforated disc. Brass rings for cord. 

Tube of tin. Lengths of curves, 39.2 and 52 cm. Diameter, 3 to 
15.5 cm. 

597-598. Pedlar's Horns. Tin. Brass reed United States 

599. Tibia pares. Wood. Cane reeds Italy 

Two conical tubes of wood, painted to resemble ivory and ending in 

slightly conical bells, diverge from a single mouth-piece. The left 
pipe has three finger-holes, the right four. The two keys are an 
anachronism. Sachs gives 23 varieties of the aulos and 16 of the 
iibia.^^ Length, 59.5 cm. Diameter of bore, 1.4 to 2.2 cm.; of 
bells, 6.5 cm. 

This specimen is a reproduction of the ancient Roman type by Pelitti, 
of Milano, possibly for use in the Pompeian Festival (1883), which was the 
occasion for the rehabilitation of many instruments of the days of Roman 
supremacy. All of these were secured by Mr. Stearns, and are displayed in 
Cases VIII and XV, as noted in the Catalogue. 

600. Poongi, or Tumeri. "Snake charmer's pipe." Gourd India 

This instrument consists of a globular gourd 1 cm. in diameter with 

a neck 1 8 cm. long. Into the lower end two parallel wooden tubes, 
each 24 cm. long, are fastened by wax. Into the upper end of each 
a beating reed is placed. The right tube has eight finger-holes, and 
a thumb-hole at the back. The left has four holes only. 
Length, 48 cm. 

601. Meijiwitz. Two tubes of bone. Six holes in each. Two sin- 

gle reeds of cane Syria 

The tubes, which are decorated, are from the wings of a species of large 
eagle which is found in the mountainous region east of the Jordan. The names 

29 Pp. 23, 386. For further information regarding the aulos, or tibia, consult Howard, 
Harvard Stud. Class. Phil., Vol. TV, p. i sqq.; Vol. X, p. i sqq.; Loret, Jour. Asiatique^ 
1899, p. Ill sqq.; and Marnold, Month. Mag. Int. Mus. Soc, 1909, p. 323 sqq. (specifically 
footnote, p. 339). See Baumeister's Denkmiiler (Nos. 592, 544) and Helbig's Wandgemdlde 
(Nos. 227, 767) for illustrations drawn from ancient sources. 



migurg and mingasah — ^which are occasionally given — are restrictedly local 
as they are not to be found in any literature of the subject. The second name 
may be a variant of manjaira or minjaira. 

In Nazareth the name zamr is applied; in the Jordan district it is also 
called nave. The former is a double-reed instrument, therefore scientifically 
incorrect. MiJTviiz, a variant of meijirvitz, means "double." 

Length of tubes, 20 cm. ; diameter of each, 1 .2 cm. x 9 mm. 
(Francis W. Kelsey.) 

602. Arghool, or Arghul. Cane. Cane reed. Incomplete .... Egypt 
Length, 20 cm.; of reed, 4 cm. Width, 1 cm. 

603. ZuMMARAH. Cane. Cane reed , Egypt 

Four open finger-holes. Length of tube, 2 1 .2 cm. 

604. Arghul. Cane. Cane reed Egypt 

Into the upper end of the cylinder, 23 cm. long, and 1 .5 cm. in diam- 
eter, a slender beating reed is fastened by a resinous gum. Seven 
finger-holes. Entire length, 30.2 cm. 

605. ZuMMARAH. Two tubes and beating reeds of cane Egypt 

Into each tube — 18 cm. long and 1 .5 cm. in diameter — a beating reed, 

cut in a joint of cane, or reed, 5 cm. in length, is inserted. The right 
tube has five finger-holes, while the left acts as a drone, sounding f. 
Entire length, 24.5 cm. 

606. ZuMMARAH SETTAUIA. Two tubes and reeds of cane Greece 

Each tube — 21 cm. in length — ^has six finger-holes. Usual reeds. 

Brought from the Island of Aegina by the donor. 
(James E. Church, Jr.) 

607. Arghool el-asgha. "The little arghool." Cane Egypt 

The parallel tubes are of unequal length, 23.1 and 54.4 cm., respec- 
tively. The right tube has six finger-holes, while the left is a drone. 

608. Mei JIWIZ. Two tubes and reeds of cane Syria 

Each tube — 41 cm. long — ^has six finger-holes and t3^ical reeds. 

609. Meijiwiz. Similar to No. 608. Length, 33.3 cm Syria 

610. Arghool EL-KEBIR. "The great arghool." Cane Egypt 

Like No. 607, the right tube (chanter) — 30 cm. long — ^has six finger- 
holes. The drone is made up of several joints, thus allowing a change 
of pitch. Length of drone, 37.8; with all the joints inserted, 70 
cm. Like all examples of this general type it is decorated. Incised 
lines, bangles of thin gilded copper, and cords of various colors con- 
stitute the decorative materials used. 

Brought from Cairo by Mrs. James Burrill Angell. 


61 1. Ghete. Ebony, wound with leather. Large cane reed Egypt 

TTie conical tube — 48.5 cm. long ending in a long conical bell, 12.5 
in diameter — has six finger-holes and a typical reed. 

612. Reed Pipe. . Hard wood body. Cane reed .... Malay Archipelago 

Seven open finger-holes, and the usual type of reed. Length, 38. 1 cm. 
Diameter of bell, 7 cm. Were it not for the conical bore, this and 
the preceding instrument might be classified as clarinets. 

613. Reed Pipe. Boxwood. Ivory mountings. Cane reed in Cap. .Italy 

The cylindrical, elaborately decorated body — 42.5 cm. long — ending 
m a nearly globular gourd bell, 5.5 cm. in diameter, has five finger-holes. 
Lowest note c. At the upper end is a capsule (an ovoid gourd), with blow- 
hole in the top, in which is a large beating reed. This is characteristic of many 
of the earliest European types. 

The Clarinet (Fr. Clarinette; Ger. Klarinette; Ital. Clarinetto) , invented 
c. 1690 by Joh. Chris. Denner of Nuremberg, soon found its place in the 
orchestra. It has a cylindrical bore and a single beating reed. It is pitched in 
A, B flat, C, and E flat, F, and D. D flat clarinets have been used in the past, 
and Mozart, in "Idomeneo," wrote for a clarinet in B natural. Its range is 
from e to c''". The tones above g'" are uncertain. The compass of the Alto 
Clarinet (pitched in F) extends from e to g"". The Bassett Horn (Fr. Cor 
de bassette; Ital. Corno basseito) is also pitched in F, with a compass from 
c to a'". Both of these instruments are now obsolete. As in all transposing 
mstruments, the actual tone-series is determined by their pitch, not by their 
apparent compass. 

614. Klarinette in F. Boxwood. Five keys Germany 

Four sections. Horn and ebony mountings. Eight finger-holes. In 
this, as in the following examples, the total number of finger-holes 
always includes one at the back, and must be so understood in the 
descriptions. Length, 48 cm. 

Signed — "G. Zencker, lun, S. In Adorf." 

615. Clarinet in B flat. Six keys England 

Five sections. Ivory mountings. Seven finger-holes. Length, 63 cm. 

Signed — "V. Metzler, London." 

616. Clarinet in C. Boxwood. Five keys England 

Length, 60.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 6 cm. 

616a. Clarinet in C. Boxwood. Six keys France 

Length, 60 cm. Diameter of bell, 5.10 cm. 
Signed — "Martin a Paris." 
(William Wheeler.) 


61 7. Clarinet in B flat. Dark wood. Nine keys England 

Five sections. Ivory mountings. Eight finger-holes. Length, 65.5 cm. 

Signed — "Key, London." 

618. Clarinette in B flat. Cocos wood. Thirteen keys France 

Four sections. Silver mountings. Seven finger-holes. Length, 64.5 cm. 

Signed — "Henry Gunckel, Paris." 

619. Klarinette in E flat. Brass. Ten keys Austria 

Eight raised finger-holes. Length, 41.5 cm. 

Signed — "Sulz, E. S. Wien." 
This signature is almost illegible. G. Kinsky suggests Sulzer. 

620. Clarinette in C. Boxwood. Thirteen keys Belgium 

Four sections. Ivory and ebony mountings. Seven holes. 
Length, 58 cm. 

Signed — "Willame, Mons." 

621 . Clarinet in A. Dark wood. Ten keys United States 

Five sections. Ivory and silver mountings. Eight holes. 

Length, 68.3 cm. 

Signed — "C. Christman, N. York." 

622. Klarinette in C. Boxwood. Thirteen keys Germany 

Four sections. Ivory mountings. Seven finger-holes. Length, 59 cm. 

Signed — "Mollenhauer, Fulda." 

623. Klarinette in A. Ebony, covered with German silver. .Germany 
Thirteen keys. Four sections. Seven finger-holes. Length, 68 cm. 

624. Clarinet in B flat. Dark wood. Fifteen keys England 

Four sections. German silver mountings. Seven holes. Length, 65.5 cm. 

625. Klarinette in B flat. Modified Boehm system Germany 

Eleven keys. Four sections. Brass mountings. Seven holes. 
Length, 66.5 cm. 

Signed— "Sauerharing, Magdeburg." 
It must be stated that, acoustically, the Boehm system can be fully 
applied only to the flute; therefore the term "modified Boehm sys- 
tem" must be understood as applying to some one of the many 
adaptations of his key-mechanism to other types of wood-wind in- 

626-627. Klarinetten in B flat. Brass. Ten keys Austria 

Each instrument has a body in one section, and eight raised finger-holes. 
Length, 56.5 cm. 

628. Clarinetto. Alto in F. Wood, covered with leather Italy 

Four sections, of which two are covered with leather. Ivory mount- 
ings. Seven finger-holes. No keys. Length, 83 cm. 


629. Alt-KLARINETTE (Eng. Tenor-clarinet) in F. Boxwood . Germany 
Fifteen keys. Four sections. Ivory mountings. Seven finger-holes. 
Length, 84 cm. 

Signed — "Seidel, Mainz." 

630. Clarinette-TENOR in E flat. Brass. Fifteen keys France 

The upper end of the tube is bent shghtly backward, and the bell turns 

upward. The open thumb-hole in the back is the only one not co- 
ered by rings or keys. Length, 1 00 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 cm. 
Signed — "Halary, Fournisseur de I'Empereur, a Paris." 

63 1 . Clarinette-TENOR in E flat. Dark wood. Seventeen keys . . France 
Two sections. German silver mountings. Finger-holes as in the pre- 
ceding. Length, 99 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 cm. 

Signed— "Buffet. Crampon Cie., a Paris." 

632. Bassetthorn. Boxwood. Sixteen keys Germany 

TTie tube, bent midway at an angle, is in five sections. Ivory mount- 
ings. Seven finger-holes. 

Length, 120 cm. Diameter of bell, 9.8 by 15.6 cm. 
Signed — **F. Scholnast, Pressburg." 

633. Bassetthorn. Boxwood. Fourteen keys Germany 

Five sections. Brass and ivory mountings. Bent at middle by a short 

elbow. Seven finger-holes. Late eighteenth century. Length, 1 06 cm. 
Signed— "H. Grenser. Dresden." 

634. Bassetthorn. Boxwood. Eight keys Germany 

Body bent in middle. The bell projects from a three-side^ block. Five 

sections. Ivory and brass mountings. Seven finger-holes. 
Length, 120 cm. 
Signed — "W. Hesse, Kammermusiker, Brunswig, 1789." 
The Bass Clarinet (Fr. Clarinette basse; Ital. Clarinetto basso; Ger. 
Bassklarinette) was first constructed by Grenser, of Dresden, in 1793; lack- 
ing keys it was not successful. In 1 807 Dumas developed an instrument with 
13 keys, but it was unsuccessful. Streitwolf of Gottingen, in 1828, raised 
the number of keys to 1 7. It is pitched in B flat, one octave lower than the 
ordinary clarinet of that pitch. Buffet, of Paris, also constructed one pitched 
in C, with a compass from e to g"'. 

In 1890, M. Albert, of Brussells, constructed a Contra Bass (or Pedal) 
Clarinet, pitched an octave below the Basset Horn. In 1891 Besson, of Paris, 
patented a form pitched in B flat, two octaves below the ordinary clarinet. 

635. Clarinette basse in B flat. Dark wood. Twenty keys France 

The parallel tubes, the smaller cylindrical, the larger slightly conical, 

are united at the lower end by a short brass elbow. The longer tube 
ends in a brass bell, the shorter carries the ebony mouthpiece and 
reed. No. finger-holes. Length, 1 34 cm. ; of model, 68 cm. 
Signed — "A. Buffet, Jne., a Paris." 


636. Bassklarinette in B flat. Dark wood. Twenty-four keys . Germany 
In construction similar to the preceding, excepting that the shorter tube 

bears the bell. Brass mountings. Three finger-holes. 
Length, 1 86 cm. ; of model, 76 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 6.5 cm. 
Signed — "C. Kruspe, Erfurt." 

637. Clarinette basse m C. Dark wood. Twenty keys Belgium 

Two sections. Brass mountings. No open finger-holes. The original 

bell, which probably curved upwards, has been replaced by a 
straight bell, stamped "C. Roth, a Strasbourg." 
Length, 128 cm.; of model, 80 cm. 

Signed — "Sax. a Bruxelles." 

638. Clarinette basse in B flat. Dark wood. Twenty keys .... France 
Two sections. Ebony mountings. No open finger-holes. 

Length, 1 38 cm. ; 74.8 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 6 cm. 
Signed — "Buffet, Crampon, a Paris." 

639. Clarinette basse in B flat. Dark wood. Twenty keys . . . France 
Two sections. White metal mountings. Two finger-holes. 
Length, 132 cm. 

Signed — "Buffet, Crampon et Cie., a Paris." 
The Saxophone was first constructed by Adolphe Sax, of Brussels in 
'1844. It consists of a parabolic body of metal, with finger-holes and keys, to 
which a clarinet mouth-piece and reed are fitted. It has a great range, is facile 
in execution, and when not forced has a very sympathetic tone, which, how- 
ever, can easily become very nasal and disagreeable. Although it has been 
utilized by Verdi, Bizet and others in the orchestra, it finds more favor with 
band-masters. The family consists of seven members, ranging from the Saxo- 
phone sopranino, in high B flat, down to the Saxophone contrahasse, in C or 
B flat. Hie same form of body was used by Desfontenelles of Lisieux in 
clarinets as early as 1 807. 

The compass of the various Saxophones runs as follows: High (in E 
flat, or B flat), to r\ The Alto (in F or E flat) ; Tenor (in C) ; Barr- 
tone (in F) the same; while the Bass (in C, or B flat) runs to e flat"' only. 

640. Saxophone. Soprano in B flat. Brass. Eighteen keys . . . Belgium 
The straight conical body of brass — 66 cm. in length, including mouth- 
piece — terminates in a slightly flaring bell, 7.5 cm. in diameter. No 
open finger-holes. 

Signed — "C. Mahillon, Bruxelles." 

641. Saxophone. Tenor in C. Metal. Twenty keys France 

At the lower end, the body is bent upon itself and ends in a small up- 
turned bell. No open finger-holes. 

Length, 117 cm. Diameter of bell, 13.8 cm. 

Signed— "No. 20669. Adolphe Sax, a Paris." 


642. Cane Clarinet. Soprano in C. Wood. Five keys England 

Eight holes. Length, 83.5 cm.; of clarinet, 56 cm. 

Signed — "Amman, C." 

643. Canne-CLARINETTE. High Soprano in B flat. Metal .... France 
The upper part forms a clarinet, 34 cm. long. Nine holes, of which 

two, as in the preceding example, are vent-holes. 
Length of cane, 91 cm. 

Signed — "C. Mathieu, a Paris." 

644. Automatic Clarinet Player Germany 

Placed in a special Case, south of Case VII. 

The figure is 197.5 cm. in height. The original gay habiliments vanished 
in the fire which destroyed its home, Barnum's Museum, New York, and, as 
the mechanism was wrecked, it is impossible to give any information as to its 
repertoire. The brass clarinet, in three sections, is 36 cm. long, and the diame- 
ter of the bell is 12.5 cm. The wind was furnished by a bellows run by 
clock work, which also governed the movement of the eighteen keys, of which 
two are in the bell section. 

Friedrich Kaufman, of Dresden, (1785-1866), invented a number of 
such automatic players, and it is very probable that this automaton was made 
by his son, Friedrich Theodor (1823-1872), who developed the Orchestrion 
— in 1 85 1 — from an earlier instrument devised by his father. 

The androide,^^ a designation erroneously applied to No. 644, was a 
mechanical instrument invented by Cornelius van Oeckelen ( 1 798- 1 865 ) of 

The development of general musical appreciation is shown by the fact 
that, the automatic, or mechanical, musical instruments in vogue a few decades 
ago — with the exception of barrel-organs and music-boxes — could produce 
melody only. The modern self-players produce harmony as well. A com- 
parison of a two-manual Orchestrelle with this clarinet virtuoso will enforce 
this statement. 

^ Sachs, p. 12. 

Class III. 

Section F. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Conical Tube with 
lateral Openings, Modified by the Action of Double Beating-Reeds. 

A Double Reed consists of two thin strips of elastic wood, grass, or cane, 
so bound together as to stand slightly apart at the tips. The opening thus 
formed is periodically opened and closed as the reeds are made to vibrate by 
the breath of the player. These vibrations are communicated to the column of 
air contained in the body of the instrument, through a small tube on which the 
lower ends of the reeds are fixed. In primitive and certain Oriental types the 
reeds are of rude construction and are made from various materials. In 
European instruments they are made from the outer silicious shell of a tall 
grass {Arundo Donax), and are fashioned with extreme delicacy. , 

645. Pi. Schalmei type. Hard wood, turned. Cane reeds Siam 

The body, 41 cm. long, has its greatest diameter — 4.5 cm. — in the 

middle. It has six finger-holes in groups of four and two, the former 

646. So NA. Wood, with brass bell. Cane reeds China 

A conical tube, with bell at the lower end and a pagoda-like reed 

holder at the upper, is bored with seven finger-holes and one thumb- 
hole in their usual positions. Length, 32 cm. Diameter of bell, 9 cm. 

647. ZuRNA. Wood. Mother-of-pearl inlay. Cane reeds Persia 

Six finger-holes. One thumb-hole. Length, 36.3 cm. 

648. MUKAVINA, Sanai, or SuRNAY. Chandannah wood India 

Cane reeds. Conical bore and bell. Seven holes. Length, 26.5 cm. 

Also known as holarcha surnai. Holarcha sur and hanumunia ottu are 
alternatives names of a form with no finger-holes which is used as a bourdon in 
connection with other instruments of this type (S. pp. 188-176). 

649. Zamr EL-KEBYR. "The large zamr." Wood. Cane reeds. . . .Egypt 
In the conical body, ending in a bell, seven equidistant finger-holes and 

two thumb-holes are bored. Seven small holes in the bell regulate 
the pitch, as any desired number may be closed with wax. The 
name given differentiates it from the zamr el-soghavr^ which is much 
smaller. Length, 60.2 cm. Diameter of bell, 9.3 cm. 

650. Zamr (pi. zumur) . Similar in structure to No. 649 Egypt 

Length, 48 cm. Diameter of bell, 5.6 cm. 

651. ZuRNA, or SoRNAY. Similar to preceding instrument Egypt 

Length, 48 cm. Diameter of bell, 7.7 cm. 


652. ScHALMEL Fr. Chalumeau; Ital. Cialamello) Germany 

The body of this seventeenth century instrument is of ebony, in three 

sections which are connected by silver bands. The mouth-piece has 
an ivory tip. Six finger-holes. Typical reeds. 
Length, 44.5 cm. Diameter of bells, 5 cm. 

653. Shawm in F. Dark wood England 

Six finger-holes, one thumb-hole. One key. Length, 30 cm. 

An aggravating peculiarity of double-reed instruments is indicated in 
"one of the 'p^'overbis' written about the time of Hen. VII on the walls of the 
Manor House, at Leckingfelde, near Beverly, Yorkshire." 

"A shawme maketh a swete sound, for he tunyth the basse. 
It mountithe not to hye, but kepithe rule and space. 
Yet yf it be blowne with to vehement a wynde. 
It makithe it to misgovern out of its kinde."^ 
Halm and Halme are old English names for "shawm." A rude form — 
used by the waits and the hoi polloi — was called Wait, Waghte or Waythe. 
Sir William Hedges in his "Diary — Bengal," from 1681 to 1687, through 
an entry, dated October 8, 1683 — "Four musicians playing on the Weights" 
— added one more to this list.^ 

654. ScHALMEl in F Germany 

Two brass keys. Pear-shaped bell and usual finger-holes. 
Length, 36. 1 cm. 

The Schalme^ was the highest pitched instrument of the Bomhart family, 
which, as the Pommer family, or Chor, in the days of Praetorius, numbered 
seven members, ranging from the kontrabasspommer to the hochdiskantpommer. 

A schalmey found in the Balearic Isles is called gralU and the name 
graile is given to a Languedoc oboe, a Catalonian bagpipe, and a small horn 
mentioned in the "Chanson de Roland" (Sachs, p. 165). 

655. BoMBARDE in F. Ebony, ivory mountings Brittany, France 

This is a modern evolution from the bomhart (Ger. Span, bombarda) , 

mentioned by Praetorius (1618) and dating back to the thirteenth 
century. This specimen has six finger-holes, and one key, with 
double touch-piece. The early, popular name for trombone in the 
Netherlands was bombarda. 
Length, 3 1 .5 cm. Diameter of bell, 8.5 cm. 

656. ScHALMEY in C Ebony with German silver bell Italy 

Seven finger-holes, one thumb-hole. 

Length, 52 cm. Bell diameter, 9.7 cm. 

Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

ij. Eastwood and W. Aldis Wright, "The Bible Word-Book," p. 433. 
2 Hak, Soc, 1887, Vol. I, p. 123. 


657. Double-reed Pipe. Brass. (For theatrical use) Italy 

Six finger-holes. Length, 68 cm. Diameter of bell, 8 cm. 

658. Double-reed Pipe. Brass Italy 

Six finger-holes. Length, 66 cm. Diameter of bell, 7.9 cm. 

659. Double-reed Pipe. Bronze. Of early date Italy 

Six finger-holes. Length, 52.7 cm. Diameter, lower end, 2.2 cm. 

660. Double-reed Pipe. Brass. (Very crude type) Italy 

No finger-holes. Length, 45.6 cm. Diameter, lower end, L9 cm. 

661. Tournebout. Wood, covered with leather. Eighteenth cen- 

tury Italy 

The body is shaped like the letter J, and has six finger-holes and two 

pitch-regulating holes. 
Length, 96 cm. Diameter at open end, 5.4 cm. 

662. HiCHI-RIKI. "Sad-toned tube." Bamboo. Cane reeds Japan 

On account of the large reeds and character of bore, the tone resembles 

that of the clarinet. It is decorated on outer surface with bands of 
black lacquered cords, and the interior is colored red. The reeds 
are tightly pressed in the holder, shita, by dampened Mino paper. 
The cane for the reeds grows in Udono, is cut in mid-winter, and 
must be dried with great care.^ The body has seven, finger-holes, 
and two thumb-holes. The o-hichiriki has 9 finger-holes. 
Length, 1 8.2 cm. Diameter of bore, 1 to 1 .6 cm. 

663. HiCHI-RIKI. An exact replica of No. 652 Japan 

664. ClALAMELLO. "Peasant's oboe." Brass, coin ornaments Italy 

Besides the ten coins (portraits) , the tube is ornamented with engraved 

lines. Bell of horn with ivory rim. Six finger-holes and one thumb- 
hole. Length, 33 cm. Diameter of bell, 4.7 cm. 
The Oboe (Eng. Hoebo^; Fr. Hautbois; Ger. Hoboe) is derived from 
the Schalme^. It is pitched in C, but, by the use of certain keys, b natural 
and b flat are available. Its extreme compass runs from b flat to f"". TTie 
upper notes are somewhat hazardous. Its varying effects, from pathos to a sub- 
tle jollity, have been utilized by all the great composers. 

The Oboe d* amove (Fr. Hautbois d* amour; Ger. Liebesoboe), is 
pitched in A, and its hollow globular bell imparts to it a lovely quality. TTie 
Oboe da caccia (Fr. Hautbois de chasse) stands in F. or E. It was known 
generations ago as the Faggotino and was considered a bassoon pitched a 
fourth higher, rather than an oboe pitched a fifth lower. Its form, in the early 
type, resembled the former, rather than the latter instrument. These types 
are now obsolete and are not represented in the Collection. 

3 Piggott, p. 183. 


The English Horn (Fr. Cor anglais; Ital. Corno Inglesi; Ger. Eng- 
lisches Horn) was developed from the "tenner hoboy,"* but not by Ferlendis, 
and in its first form was bent at an angle (No. 672). It was for this reason 
called Cor angle, which, according to one theory, was corrupted into the pres- 
ent designation." Another theory holds that its early and common use in Eng- 
land accounts for its name. It is pitched in F, and possesses a pathetic tone 
quality quite individual. Its compass extends from b to e'\ 

665. Oboe in C. Stained wood. Two silver keys England 

Three sections. Six finger-holes. Two holes in bell. Length, 58.3 cm. 

Signed — "Cahusac, London." 

666. Oboe in C. Boxwood. Three brass keys. Early date .... Germany 
Three sections. Six finger-holes. Two holes in bell. Length, 55.5 cm. 

667. Oboe in C. Similar to the preceding but 3 cm. longer Belgium 

Signed — "I. H. Rottenburgh." 

668. Oboe in C. Boxwood. Eight keys Italy 

Three sections. Six finger-holes. Two holes in bell. Length, 55.3 cm. 

Signed — "G. Riva di Persiceto." 

669. Oboe in C. Boxwood. Eleven brass keys Austria 

Three sections. Ivory mountings. Six finger-holes. Length, 56.5 cm. 

Signed — "S. Koch, Wien." 

670. Oboe in C. Boxwood. Thirteen keys Germany 

Three sections. Ivory mountings. Six finger-holes. Length, 55 cm. 

67 1 . Oboe in C. Dark wood. Sixteen keys. Modified Boehm system. 
Three sections. Six finger-holes. Length, 59 cm United States 

Signed — "E. Baack, New York." 

672. Englisches Horn. Dark wood. Bent model. Ten keys. . .Austria 
Four sections. Pear-shaped bell. Six finger-holes. Length, 78 cm. 

Signed — "S. Koch, Wien." 

673. Englisches Horn. Boxwood. Bent model. Fourteen keys. Germany 
Four sections. Six finger-holes. Length, 79.1 cm. 

674. Cor Anglais in G. Curved model. Wood France 

, Two sections. Ten keys. Ivory mountings. Length, 79 cm. 

Signed — "Triebert, a Paris." 

675. Cor Anglais m F. Straight model. Dark wood France 

Boehm system. Seventeen keys. Four holes. Length, 79.5 cm. 

Signed — "Mangeaut, Brevete, Paris." 

* Galpin, "Old Engl. Insts. of Music," p. i66. Future quotations will give the name of 
the author only. 

5 The contention that cor and angle are incompatible does not hold, as originally cor 
did not of necessity mean a curved horn, but was the generic name for a horn of any form 
or material; again, the acute accent over e in angle, to which some object, was used as 
late as i6qo, as is shown in Furetiere — Dictionnaire universdle, I (no pagination). This 
statement is not to be construed as involving an endorsement of the theory, but rather to 
show that its rejection must be based on other grounds. 



676. "Petit Casson." Dark wood. Butt-joint. Thirteen keys .. France 
Three sections. Ivory mountings. Five finger-holes. Length, 104 cm. 

Signed — "Triebert, a Paris." 
The Heckelphon occupies a position midway between the EngHsh Horn 
and the Bassoon. It was invented by Wilhelm Meckel of Biebrich, who 
began constructing it in various pitches in 1904. Pitched an octave lower 
than the Oboe it is sometimes called the Baritone-oboe. R. Strauss used it in 
the score of "Salome." Its compass runs from B to g", in actual tones. 

676a. Heckelphon in C. Dark wood. Twenty-three keys .... Germany 
This beautiful example of the ultra-modern instrument described above 
has a conical tube, 121 cm. in length, and from 5.5 to 3 cm. in 
diameter. In the upper end a curved metal tube carrying a reed is 
inserted while the lower end terminates in a globular wooden bell 
1 0. 1 cm. in diameter, in one side of which is a circular opening 2.5 
cm. in diameter. The tube is in four sections and bears a very elab- 
orate key-mechanism. 
Signed — "Meckel, Biebrich. Ges. geschiitz, 3243." 
(Loaned by the Chicago Orchestral Association.) 
The Bassoon (Fr. Basson; Ital. Fagotto; Ger. Fagott), is pitched a 
twelfth lower than the oboe, but by the use of certain keys this original com- 
pass is extended to two octaves below. The tube is doubled on itself through 
a butt-joint. The conically-bored pipe is divided into five pieces. Reckoning 
from the player's lips they may be enumerated as follows: A. Crook, a 
curved tube of metal carrying the double-reed; B. Wing; C. Butt-joint; D. 
Bass-joint, extending upwards; E. Bell. (See No. 678.) 

The instrument, dating from the sixteenth century, was evolved from the 
pommer with the Curtail, or Dulcian (Fr. Doucaine) as an intermediate type. 
Probably misled by the similarity in name, certain writers have seen its an- 
cestor in the PhagotuSy an instrument invented circa 1 539 by Afriano, Canon 
of Fferrara. Cecil Forsythe gives a detailed description of this instrument in 
his "Orchestration," pp. 487-489. An interesting form, known as the Racket, 
or Sausage-Bassoon (Fr. Cervelat; Ger. Wurstfagott) , so called from its 
resemblance to a section of Bologna sausage, is obsolete and is not in the 
Collection. The Bassoon has an extended compass: — BB flat to e flat", 
and, in spite of certain inaccuracies not yet remedied, is one of the most useful 
instruments in the modern orchestra. 

The Double-Bassoon (Fr. Contre-h assort; Ital. Contra fagotto; Ger. 
Kontrafagott) is pitched an octave lower than the ordinary type. 

677. Fagotto in C. Dark wood. Six keys (missing) Italy 

The bell of this early eighteenth century specimen, is in the form of a 

dragon's head. Six finger-holes. One thumb-hole. Brass mountings. 
Length, 144.5 cm. 


678. Bassoon in C. Six keys. Eighteenth century England 

Dark wood. Brass mountings. Six finger-holes. Two thumb-holes. 
Length, 125 cm. 

679. Bassoon in C. Dark wood. Thirteen keys England 

Brass mountings. Six finger-holes. Two thumb-holes. Length, 1 23 cm. 

Signed — "Keys, London." 

680. Fagott in C. Dark wood. Thirteen keys Germany 

Brass mountings. Six finger-holes. Two thumb-holes. Length, 

132.5 cm. 

Signed— 'Adler, Bamberg." 

68 1 . BassoN in C. Enamelled wood. Seventeen keys Belgium 

German silver mountings. Six finger-holes. Thumb-holes. 
Length, 125 cm. 

Signed — "Mahillon and Co., Brussells." 

682. Basson in C. Brass, nickel-plated. Seventeen keys France 

Five finger-holes. Thumb-holes. Length, 135 cm. 

Signed — "A Le Conte et Cie., Paris." 

683. Kontrafagott in C. Wood. Eleven keys Germany 

German silver mountings. Four finger-holes. Length, 178.5 cm. 

Signed — "Heckel, Biebrich." 

684. Kontrafagott. Dark wood. Seventeen keys Germany 

This model was designed by Dr. W. H. Stone, F. R. S. It has a very 

extended range, is easy of manipulation, musically effective, but it 
has not been adopted to any extent. This may be owing to its size. 
Brass mountings. No finger-holes. Length, 138 cm. 
Signed — "Verfertigt von Ch. Geipel, Breslau." 

685. Contre-BASSON. Brass. Seventeen keys France 

In form of a tuba. Length, 105 cm. Diameter of bell, 24 cm. 

Signed — "Gautrot Marquette, brevete, s.g.d.g., a Paris." 

686. Sarrusophone. High Soprano in B flat. Brass. Nineteen 

keys, with modified Boehm system. Length, 47 cm France 

Signed — "Gautrot Marquette, brevete, s.g.d.g., a Paris." 

687. Sarrusophone. Tenor in B flat. Sixteen keys France 

Signed — "No. 504, Henri Sax. Paris." 
This instrument was invented in 1856 by M. Sarrus, a bandmaster in 

the French army, and perfected by Gautrot Marquette. Athough it has 

many admirable characteristics, and has been made in nine pitches, it is not 

of great musical importance. 

Section G. Vibrating Columns of Air in Tubes, Modified by the Action 

of Single and Double Beating-Reeds, with an Air Reservoir, or Bellows. 
The Bagpipe (Fr. Cornemuse, Biniou, Musette; Ital. Cornamusa; 

Case VII. South Section. Nos. 651 to 704 (Eight to Left). 


Ger. Sackpfiefe) , is of great antiquity. It was known to the Babylonians, 
is described in Sanscrit treatises on music, and used by the Hebrews, Greeks, 
and Romans {tibia utricularis) . It was known at a very remote date as the 
chorus, but this designation was appHed to a stringed instrument as early as 
the eleventh century. In the fourteenth century it was mentioned by Almeric 
de Peyrac as follows: "Quidam Choros consonantes; Duplicetn chordam 

It consists of a drone pipe (1300), or pipes (1400-1500), with cylin- 
drical bore, and single reed; the chaunter, or melody pipe, with conical bore, 
and double reeds, and a wind chest, or bag. It exists in great variety. 

The Bagpipe is of special interest in that it combines the clarinet type 
(drone) and the oboe (chaunter). 

688. Zampogna. Goat-skin bag. Two drones Calabria, Italy 

Two chaunters with five finger-holes each; the shorter with thumb- 
hole. Two holes above the bell for regulating pitch. The reeds 
are missing. 

Length of chaunters, 27.5 and 45 cm. ; of drones, 20 and 33 cm. 

689. SOUQQAREH. Bag of skin. Reed tubes Tunis, Africa 

The bag, of the skin of some wild animal with the hair retained, is 

inflated through a tube of bone, decorated with incised lines (in 
black) and silver bands. The chaunters have a single beating-reed 
each, and terminate in upturned bells of horn. Each has five finger- 
Length of tubes, with bells, 22 cm. ; of bag, 44 cm. 

690. Bombard Bretonne. Leather bag. Drone and chaunter. .France 
Seven finger-holes. Length of chaunter, 13.5 cm.; of drone, 33 cm. 

691. Musette Bretonne. Velvet-covered bag France 

Drones and chaunter. Six finger-holes, thumb-hole, and usual key. 
Length of drones, 16 and 27 cm.; of chaunter, 23 cm. 

692. CoRNEMUSE. Velvet-covered bag. Drone and chaunter .... France 
The chaunter, of ivory, has seven finger-holes and one thumb-hole. 

The bag is inflated by bellows. 
Length of chaunter, 33 cm. ; of drone, 1 5 cm. 

693. "BlNIOU DE Berry." Velvet-covered bag France 

Drone and two chaunters. A beautifully decorated instrument. Two 

cylindrical drones and a conical chaunter of ebony, with ivory 
mountings, are fitted into a stock inlaid with mother-of-pearl, etched 
ivory, and various woods. The bag is inflated by a bellows. 
Length of chaunter, 38.8 cm. ; of drones, 30.5 and 78 cm. 
Signed — "Bechonnet, in Effiat, a Puy-de-Dome." 

8 Quoted by Sachs, p. 80. 


694. Union Pipes. Leather bag, and bellows. Three drones 

(with keys), and two chaunters (without keys) Ireland 

The drone keys were added in the eighteenth century. 
Entire length, 98.9 cm.; of drones, 27.2, 35.8 and 77.4 cm.; of 
chaunters, 40 and 45.6 cm.; brass socket, into which drones and 
chaunters are fixed, 1 7.4 by 7. 1 cm. Number of keys on drones, 
2, 4, and 4. 
The name given to this unique type" has been thought by many to refer 
to the "Legislative Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801," 
but Galpin suggests that it is a "mistaken rendering of the native 
uilleann, or 'elbow-pipes'."^ Sachs, who (p. 3) cites O'Connor's 
"Dissertations on the History of Ireland" as authority, gives Ad- 
harcaidh Cuil as the name of an old Irish bagpipe, but it conveys 
no suggestion as to the disputed origin of the name of No. 694. 

695. BlNlOU AUVERGNAT. Leather bag. Usual pipes France 

The chaunter has six finger-holes and one thumb-hole. 

Length of chaunter, 61 .5 cm. ; of drones, 47 and 120 cm. 

696. Practice Chaunter. Ebony, ivory mountings Scotland 

The cylindrical tube has seven finger-holes and one thumb-hole. It 

is used by learners only, for which reason it is very fortunate that 
its tone is soft and muffled. Length, 54 cm. 

Signed — "R. Henderson, Glasgow." 

697. Gaita ZAMORANA. Cloth-covered bag. Two drones, 1 7.5 cm., 

and 68 cm. long, and chaunter 29 cm. in length Spain 

The covering is decorated with red borders, applique work, gilt braid, 
and brass buttons. The chaunter has seven finger-holes, a thumb- 
hole and three pitch-regulating holes. 
Tlie name is a survival of the Moorish supremacy in Spain. Ghaida 
is the Turkish name for bagpipe cuid a schalme^ in Portugal is 
called gaita. Gaita gallega, gaita grileira, gaita redonda, and gaita 
tumbal are structural variants of the Spanish bagpipe. 

698. Bellows for No. 694. 

699. Highland Bagpipe. Bag with cover of plaid cloth. Three 

drones and a chaunter Scotland 

The pipes are of ebonized wood, with brass and ivory mountings. The 
chaunter has seven finger-holes, a thumb-hole and two pitch-regulat- 
ing holes. Drones fitted with tuning-slides, as is the usual practice. 
Length of chaunter, 41 cm.; of drones, 34, 42, and 73 cm. 

700. Cornemuse. Bag with cover of plush. Drone and chaunter . . France 
The chaunter has seven finger-holes, a thumb-hole and two pitch-reg- 
ulators. All the parts are made of ebony with ivory mountings. 

Length of chaunter, 33.6 cm.; of drone, 27 cm. 

' P. 179. 


Section H. Vibrating Column of Air in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube. 
Modified by the Action of a Free Reed. 

A Free Reed does not rest on a block (single beating-reed), nor on an- 
other reed (double-reed) , but swings freely through an aperture slightly larger 
than the reed itself. The principle was known at a very early date in the 
Orient, and was first applied in Europe by Kirschnigk, an organ-builder of St. 
Petersburg, in his orgelklavier, late in the eighteenth century. 

701. Keluri. a primitive free-reed instrument Borneo 

It consists of an air reservoir of wood, on the top of which are arranged 

six tubes of cane, each of which contains a free reed, also of cane. 
The instrument is so held against the breast that the pipes project 
at approximately a right angle from the air-chamber. The tone 
resembles that of the bagpipe, but is much softer. A mouth-piece 
— II. 5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. in diameter — inserted in the hollow 
ovoid shell, whose dimensions are 6.5 by 12 cm., supplies the air. 
Length of tubes, 33 to 61 cm. 

702. Ken. Fourteen tubes of cane running through an air-chamber . . Laos 
Each tube contains a free reed of cane, and one finger-hole set in a 

lead plate. The holes in the longer tubes are stopped by the 
thumbs, in the shorter by the fingers. The ^en produces harmonies 
and frequently accompanies the c/i/ui, or indigenous flute.® Length 
of chamber, 1 4.5 cm. ; of shortest tube, 67.3 ; of longest, 96.4 cm. 

703. Khen, or Phan. Similar to No. 702, with plain finger-holes . . Laos 
Length of chamber, 16.3 cm.; of shortest tube, 69.5; of longest, 

106.5 cm. 

704. Sho. Air reservoir of dark wood carrying seventeen bam- 

boo pipes, each containing a free reed of brass Japan 

The reservoir is conical and is lacquered in black, silver, and gold. 
The, short mouth-piece was originally faced with silver. The fourth, 
ninth, and tenth pipes are silver-mounted. The pipes are held in 
position by a metal ring, placed just below the middle. The pipes, 
beginning at the open space in ring and counting from right to left, 
are named /lu, mo, J^otsu, bok, jo, g})0, hichi, gou, \ja, hachi, ichit 
bei, Ifu, otsu, gei, jeu, sen.^ 

705. Sheng. Bowl-shaped body of polished dark wood, with an 

ivory rosette at bottom. Seventeen tubes and reeds China 

Length, 42.5 cm. ; of pipes, 1 4 to 43 cm. 

706. Sheng. Similar to the preceding but shorter China 

To play the sheng the breath is drawn in. Nos. 704 and 705 are 

housed in the halves of the case in which the sho is placed when not 
in use. Nos. 705-6-7 are from the Beal-Steere Collection. 

s Knosp, Ueber anamitische Musik, p. 164. 

8 Piggot, p. 186. Sachs gives a different order, p. 370. 


707. Sheng. Dismantled to show details of construction China 

The mouth-piece, chou or tsui (A), is of wood, and the outer end is 

faced with an ivory plate. The air-chamber, sheng tou or p'ao, (B), is of 
Tvu Cung wood scented with camphor and stained black. In form it is circular 
with convex sides. The top (C) is of hard wood. A horizontal partition, 
reaching from the bottom to a point half-way to the top, carries a solid drum 
of wood reaching to the top and leaving a space around it for the passage of 
the air. The pipes, hsui chua, or k^an (D), are of bamboo, and stand in 
holes around the top of the air-chamber. At the bottom of each pipe is a 
tapering foot of hard wood, of which one-half is above the air reservoir. In 
the lower part of the top a slit is made in which a thin brass reed, huang, is 
fixed. All the reeds face the air-chamber. Each pipe has a long narrow slit 
in the inner side, and a finger-hole near the lower end. This hole must be 
closed if the pipe is to speak. In addition to the usual method of tone-produc- 
tion varying effects may be produced by direct blowing. The inverted pipe 
above B shows the reed and finger-hole; the longitudinal slit is seen in the 
pipe at the right. 

The dimensions are. A, length, 33.5 cm. ; diameter, 2 cm. ; of B, height, 
6 cm. ; diameter, 4 to 7 cm. ; of C, same diameter as B ; length of D, from 
1 5 to 42.4 cm. ; diameter, 9 mm. In addition to this description from Moule, 
pp. 89-90, detailed information may be found on pp. 90-95. Cheng, so fre- 
quently given, is the French spelling of sheng. 

708. Statuette of Bagpipe player Italy 

709. Ceremonial Whistle. Wood. Ribbon reed. Length, 23.5 cm. 

The ribbon reed is fastened at both ends and vibrates in middle. 

A reed not met with elsewhere" .... Haidah Indians, B. Columbia 

710. MiTZ-SHIO-SHI. Three lacquered bamboo tubes Japan 

The tones produced are fundamentals. Length of tubes, 6.6 cm. 

711. Sho-SHI-BUYE. Six silver tubes. Free reeds. Twelve tones . . Japan 
The reeds sound a Japanese scale. Length of tubes, 8 cm. 

712. CoRNETTA. Brass, with reed, sounding f Argentina 

Lengths of curves, 19 and 21 .5 cm^ Diameter of bell, 6.4 cm. 

713. Pocket Signal-horn. Nickel-plated brass England 

Two free reeds, sounding a flat, and f. Length, 7 cm. 

714. Sho-SHI. Twelve bamboo tubes each containing a free reed and 

arranged in the order of a Japanese scale Japan 

10 For detailed information regarding this form of reed consult Galpin, "The Whistles 
Used by Alaskan Indians, and Reed Instruments of the Am. Ind's. of the N. W. Coast." 
Proc. Mus. Assn., 29th Sess., 1892, and Morris, pp. 78-87, including the valuable sugaestions 
of Mr. E. H. Hawley, pp. 81, 82. 


The length of these tubes, each of which has the name of its tone 
traced on the body in Chinese characters, runs from 11 to 18 cm/* 

Section I. Vibrating Free Reeds Actuated by Bellows and Controlled 
by Keys, or Pistons. 

The Accordion (Fr. Accordeon; Ital. Armonica a manticino; Ger. 
Ziehharmonika) was invented in 1829 by Damian of Vienna. Its essential 
constructive features are a pair of hand bellows, one side of which is attached 
to a key-board, with keys, varying in number from five to fifty, operating metal 
free reeds. Each key controls two notes with the inflation or deflation of the 
bellows. The Concertina (Ger. Konzeriina) — invented by Sir Charles 
Wheatstone, June 19, 1829 — is hexagonal in shape and has pistons, or 
"touches" on both ends of the bellows. 

715. Accordion. Twenty-three keys England 

Body dimensions 12 by 35.4 cm. Spread of bellows, 7 to 21 cm. 

(Norman A. Wood.) 

716. "Melodeon." Accordeon. Nineteen keys France 

Body dimensions, 12 by 32,5 cm. Spread of bellows, 15 to 41 cm. 

7 1 7. Accordion. Ten pistons controlling pallet valves. Two sets of 

free reeds, controlled by stops England 

Body dimensions, 1 3 by 28 cm. Spread of bellows, 1 9 to 30 cm. 
Signed — "J. H. Ebbelwhite, London." 

718. Ziehharmonika. Twenty-one keys Germany 

The body is beautifully inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Body dimen- 
sions, 8.9 by 30.4 cm. Spread of bellows, 6.5 to 27 cm. 

719. Pitch-pipe. Brass reed controlled by a bar of metal which 

changes the length of vibrating tongue. Compass from f ' to i'\ 
(This comes under Section E) United States 

720. Konzertina. Twenty-seven ivory pistons Germany 

Diameter, 1 6.5 cm. Spread of bellows, 1 4 to 35 cm. 

721. Armonica a manticino. Forty-eight porcelain pistons Italy 

The deep, rectangular body is richly inlaid with various woods. The 

pallets, operated by pistons, are hidden by an elaborate fret-work. 
The pistons, or "touches," are arranged in four rows upon an up- 
right finger-board. The bellows, fitted with an exhaust valve, have 
a spread from 32.5 to 86 cm., and the body dimensions are 16.5 
by 30 cm. 

Signed — "Tesio, Jean." 

722-723. Two Konzertinen. Similar to 720 Germany 

11 See diagrams of Chinese Scales, Case XVI, also "Musical Scales of Various Nations," 
A. T. Ellis, Jour. Roy. Soc. of Arts, 1884-5, pp. 485-S27. 


724. "Ariophone," or "Mytheria." Ziehharmonika Germany 

Ten pistons controlling pallet valves. Two harmony keys and exhaust 

valve. Body dimensions, 1 6 by 32 cm. Spread of bellows, 35 cm. 

725. ACCORDEON. Thirty-two mother-of-pearl pistons. Three stops, 

each controlling a set of reeds. Frame richly inlaid France 

Body dimensions, 18.8 by 33.5 cm. Spread of bellows, 1 7 to 43 cm. 
Sub-Section I. Vibrating Free Reeds Actuated by the Breath, (with 
or without keys). 

726. Blas-HARMONIKA. Brass. TThirty-three keys and reeds . . . Germany 
The body is a thin plate on which are fixed tiny chambers, each hold- 
ing a free reed. The instrument is blown through a flat, circular, 
wooden mouth-piece on the back, and the reeds are controlled^ by 
keys arranged in two banks at each end. A movable brass handle 
projects from either end. 

Length, 1 9 cm. Width at ends, 1 2 ; in middle section, 1 cm. 

727. MUNDHARMONIKA (Eng. Mouth harmonica; Fr. Harmonica a 

bouche) Germany 

A cylinder 1 cm. long and 3 cm. in diameter, contains twenty reeds. 

728. MuNDHARMONIKA, with gong. Twenty-four reeds Germany 

Length, 13.5 cm. Width, 6.4 cm. Thickness, 2 cm. 

729. MUNDHARMONICA. Thirty-three reeds Germany 

The reeds are arranged in four equidistant rows on a cylinder 39.9 cm. 

long and 2.3 cm. in diameter. 

730. "David's Harp." Mouth harmonica. Twenty reeds Germany 

Length, 1 9 cm. Width, 3 cm. Thickness, 1 .9 cm. 

Signed — "Ch. Messner, Trossingen." 

731. "Organ Nightingale." Mouth harmonica. Forty reeds . Germany 
Same dimensions as the preceding. 

Signed— "Weinhold Brothers." 

732. MuNDHARMONIKA. Forty reeds Germany 

Length, 1 4 cm. Width, 2.5 cm. Thickness, 1 .8 cm. 

Signed — "William Thie." 

733. Reed Trumpet. Eight cylinders, each containing a free reed 

operated by a key. Trumpet-shaped body. Length, 30 cm. . . Italy 

734. "Neper." Brass. Thirteen reeds. Operated by keys Italy 

The reeds are set in cylinders rising from a clarinet-shaped body of 

brass, with a bell and inverted cone just under the mouth-piece. 
Length, 55.8 cm. Diameter of bell, 5.5 cm. 

735. "Harmonika Trompete." Twenty reeds Germany 

A mouth harmonica, with triangular cross-section, and 1 1 cm. long, is 


set on a widely expanding conical tube, 35 cm. long, and 3.2 to 1 1 
cm. in diameter. The harmonica is of tin and the tube of nickel- 
plated brass. 

Signed — "Gunter's Mund Harmonika Trompete." 

736. Harmonicor, Hautbois jardin, or Harmonitrompe. . . . France 
Twenty-five free reeds inserted in tubes, and controlled by pistons. 
The silver-plated tubes, 7.5 cm. long are set on a cylindrical body of 

wood, 45 cm. in length, and secured by a metal band. A curved 
mouth-piece, 1 cm. in length, is placed at upper end of tube. The 
circular plates on the pistons are of black and white ivory (follow- 
ing the key-board sequence), and the compass runs from c to c". 
Sub-Section II. Free Reeds with Air Reservoir Operated Mechan- 
ically; Reeds controlled by Pistons, or Keys. 

737. HarmonifLUTE. The body rests on a standard. The bellows 

operated by a treadle. A miniature keyboard, with compass of 

three octaves beginning with f , controls the reeds France 

Body dimensions of accordion, 18 to 49.5 cm. Spread of bellows, 
21.5 to 47 cm. Height with stand, 80 cm. 
Signed — "Busson, Paris." 

738. Laudaphone. (Ger. Klavierharmonika) France 

Twenty-five free reeds controlled by a key-board. Air blown into the 

wind-chest through a rubber tube. Compass : — c to c\ 
Length, 44.8 cm. Width, 1 4 cm. Depth, 1 cm. 

739. Book Organ. Wood. Brass reeds France 

Two bellows furnish the wind and fold down when the cover is closed. 
Reeds operated by key-board. The form resembles the early bible- 
regal Length, 58.7 cm. Width, 23.3 cm. Depth, 13.5 cm. 

740. Lap Organ. Wood. Brass reeds. Double bellows. . .United States 
The double row of pistons along the centre of the top control free reeds 

giving the chromatic scale from c to a". The instrument is pressed 
down with the left elbow while the fingers of the right hand manipu- 
late the pistons. Length, 38.7 cm. Width, 23.5 cm. Height, 23 cm. 
Signed — "C. Austin, Concord, N. H." 

741. Rocking Melodeon. Double bellows United States 

Similar to No. 741, circa 1850. Compass: — ^C to c'\ 

Length, 56.7 cm. Width, 29.3 cm. Height (deflated), 28 cm. 
Signed — "Abraham Prescott and Son, Concord, N. H." 
(Francis W. Kelsey.) 
(For examples of modern melodeons see Case XIV.) 

742. Melophone. Horizontal model. Ninety-one free reeds. . . .France 
Ninety-one ivory discs control an equal number of free reeds. Invented 

by Leclerc, of Paris, in 1 834, it has not sustained itself. The deep 


guitar-shaped case, of maple, with a short ebony neck bearing the 
discs in closely set rows, is 76 cm. long, 29 cm. wide, and 1 8.5 cm. 
deep. The bellows are operated by a metal handle projecting from 
one end. 

Signed — "Jaquet, Paris." 
For vertical form see Case XV, No. 1375. 
While, in the foregoing examples, pistons and keys in key-board sequence 
are employed, that fact does not place them in Class V, nor does supplying 
air with a bellows militate against the present classification. 

743. Specimens of various types of Reeds: A — Reed cut from 
joint of grass; B — "Arghool" reed; C — Clarinet Reed and Mouth- 
piece; D — Oboe Reed; E — Bassoon Reed; F — Melodeon Reed; 
G — Trumpet (organ) Reed. 

Sub-Section III. (a) Vibrating Column of Air in an Organ Pipe 
(Cylindrical or Conical) ; (b) Vibration Modified by the Ac- 
tion of a Beating or Free Reed. 

As the various types of organ pipes illustrate the principles of tone pro- 
duction in Class III, so far set forth, the examples in the series 744-758 may 
be considered in the light of a summary. In "flue" pipes, whether of metal 
(No. 755) or of wood (No. 752), the tone-production is analogous to that 
of the beaked flute. 752 is dismantled and will serve to illustrate the method 
of tone production. Air coming from a reservoir, where it is under pressure, 
is forced through the "foot" (A) into a chamber (B) which is closed at the 
top by the "block." Its only exit is through the aperture (C). This is closed 
by the "Cap" (D), which is hollowed on the under surface (E). The up- 
ward slope of the hollowed part directs the air over the serrated surface (F), 
against the sharp edge (G). By the interposition of a single beating, or free 
reed, the quality of tone is modified. In open pipes the vibrating length is 
determined by the distance from the "language" (G), to the top of the pipe. 
In stopped pipes the top is closed by a cap, or stopper, and the vibrating length 
is double the distance from the "language" to top of pipe. 

In modern organs extensive use is made of free reeds. They can be so 
voiced as to produce a very beautiful tone. Like the "Partition Mustel" 
(Case III, No. 249) and the "Celesta" — a key-board instrument also em- 
ploying metal bars, figuring extensively in the modern orchestra — a free reed 
"stop" is always in tune. The ordinary beating-reed is frequently harsh, and 
the resemblance of certain reed "stops" to orchestral instruments, indicated by 
the "draw-stop" nomenclature, not infrequently makes a great demand on 
one's imagination. 

744-5-6-7-8. Stopped Diapason pipes from Positive Organ (Case 

XIV, No. 1347). Metal with small per cent of tin Italy 

Lengths — ^23.5; 30.4; 45.6; 44.5, and 26.4 cm. respectively. 
Diameters — 2; 3.3; 4.5; 4, and 2 cm. respectively. 

Case VII. North Section. Nos. 691 to 776 (Right to Left). 



749-50-51. Stopped Diapason. Wooden pipes United States 

Length of pipes — 38; 53. 1 , and 34 cm. 
Diameters — 4 by 4; 5 by 5.2, and 4.5 by 5.2 cm. 

752. Melodia. Wood United States 

Length, 81 cm. Diameter, 4 by 5.2 cm. 

753. Open Diapason. Metal with less than 33 1-3 per cent 

of tin United States 

Length, 46.1 cm. Diameter, 3.8 cm. 

754. Harmonic Flute. Metal United States 

A hole above the mouth causes the pipe to sound the octave. 
Length, 19 cm. Diameter, 3.2 cm. 

755. Open Diapason. Metal pipes United States 

No. 755 is of "spotted metal," containing more than 33 1-3 per cent 

of tin. Length, 80 cm. Diameter, 6 cm. 

756. Oboe. Metal pipe. Beating reed.. United States 

Length, 41.6 cm.; of conical pipe and bell, 20.8 cm.; of reed-box, 

20.8 cm. 

756a. Harmonic Trumpet. Metal United States 

Length, 42 cm. ; of foot, 1 7 cm. Diameter, 8 mm. to 5.2 cm. 
(Austin Organ Company.) 

757. C-ARINET. Metal pipe, closed at top. Beating reed. . .United States 
Length, 58.2 cm. ; of cylindrical pipe, 44. 1 cm. ; of reed-box, 1 4. 1 cm. 
Nos. 749-755 inclusive and 758 were donated by W. R. Farrauid, 

Nos. 756-7 by A. Moeller. 

758. Salicional. String tone. Over 90 per cent tin United States 

Length, 88.6 cm. Diameter, 3.4 cm. 

Section J. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in an Animal Tusk, Horn, 
Gourd, or Wooden Tube, with embouchure in Body, and no lateral Openings. 

The column of air in this type is set in vibration by the lips of the player, 
acting as a reed. TTie range is limited to the fundamental, octave, and twelfth. 
The embouchures display great variety, and are frequently definitive of source. 

There are however, many exceptions as shown by Ankermann, who gives 
a by no means exhaustive list of embouchures, eight in number. ^^ 

Three (a-b-c) show holes with no surrounding ridge, as in d and /, the 
latter of which forms a bed whose height is greater than the diameter of the 
horn at that point. In c and d, an oval projection on the under side is bored 
for a carrying-cord. In e and / the mouth-hole is in an anvil-shaped structure 
through which the horn appears to run. In g, a raised structure, with slightly 
constricted waist and sloping shoulders, encircles the horn and contains the 

^- Die afrikanischen Musikinstrumente, p. 43. 


mouth-hole. As a rule the mouth-holes are oval, although, occasionally, dia- 
mond-shaped holes are found. All of these are in the inner curve, wherein 
they differ from those in antelope horns, which are always in the side. 

In the following descriptions, the type of mouth-hole will be indicated by 
italic letters in parentheses (h being omitted). 

759. Trumpet. Elephant tusk Ashantee, West Africa 

Lateral mouth-hole (b) 43 cm. below tip. Lengths of curves, 107 

and 1 1 7 cm. Greatest circumference 34 cm. ; at mouth-hole, 1 4 cm. 
Pitches : — f sharp and octave. 

760. Trumpet. Elephant tusk Ashantee, West Africa 

The mouth-hole (/) is 5 cm. below tip. Lengths of curves, 69 and 75 

cm. Greatest circumference, 27.5 cm. ; at mouth-hole, 8.5 cm. 
Pitches: — a flat, octave, and twelfth. 

761. Trumpet. Elephant ivory dyed with human blood 

Dahomey, West Africa 

Mouth-hole (c) 6.5 cm. from tip. Lengths of curves, 39 and 42 cm. 

Greatest circumference, 1 5 cm. ; least, 2 cm. 
Pitches: — g flat .octave, and twelfth (flat). 

762. Trumpet. Wood. The skin of the leg of an antelope is drawn 

over the wood. Native name unknown .... Congo Region, Africa 
Length, 64 cm. Diameter at bell, 8.5 cm.; at tip, 3.6 cm. 

763. Trumpet. Elephant ivory, polished West Africa 

Vertical mouth-piece (missing). 

Length, 64 cm. Diameter at bell, 7.6 cm. ; at mouth-piece, 2.5 cm. 
Pitches: — ^b (a trifle flat), b' and e\ 

764. Trumpet. Stained ivory. Wound with rattan in parts. West Africa 
The native (Swahili) name is barugumu. The mouth-hole, on side, is 
5.8 cm. from tip. Lengths of curves, 44 and 58.9 cm. Diameter, 

open end, 4 by 5.3 cm. 
Pitches: — e, and e'. 

765. Trumpet. Large elephant tusk Benin, West Africa 

Mouth-hole (fc) 60.2 cm. from tip. Lengths of curves, 140 and 160 

cm. Greatest circumference, 42 cm.; least, 14.3 cm. 
Pitches: — G flat, octave, and d flat' (flat). 

766. Trumpet. From the horn of some species of antelope Africa 

Lengths of curves, 46 and 49 cm. Greatest circumference, 20.4 cm. 

767. KaNG-DUNG. "Leg-bone trumpet." The body is of the thigh- 

bone of a Buddhist Priest. Copper mouth-piece and bell. .TTiibet 


TTie mouth-piece and bell bear symbolic designs. Strips of blue, red, 
yellow, and pink cloth hang from the bell. 

Length, 22.6 cm.; of bell, 1 1.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 4.8; of mouth- 
piece, 2.8 cm. 
As in Africa a flute made from the thigh-bone of an enemy is held to be 
of peculiar sweetness, and garlands of human skulls give added potency to 
their Fetish drums, so in this instance, the material from which this trumpet is 
fashioned makes its appeal more convincing. The copper bell has symbolical 
meaning. The apertures on either side represent the nostrils of a mythical 
horse, which conveys the souls of those found worthy, to their "happy hunt- 
ing-grounds," while its tone is held to be the neighing of the aforesaid steed. 
The "Damaru" (Case V, No. 362) also shows that, in the choice of mate- 
rial for other types, the Thibetan displays the refined tenderness exhibited by 
the African native. The canguenca, a bone trumpet found among the Brazil 
Indians, and the gangurih, a Kalmuck trumpet made from one of the arm- 
bones of a slain enemy, illustrate the geographical range of this practice.^^ 

768. Oliphant. Carved ivory. France 

The surface is covered with beautiful carvings, including medallion 

portraits of Francis I, Henry II, and Francis II. It has a cup mouth- 
piece. It is too large to have served as an actual hunting horn. 
Lengths of curves, 105 and 120 cm. Greatest circumference, 3L5 
cm. ; least, 5 cm. Pitches : — g, g', d'', g\ 

769. Barugumu. Trumpet of antelope horn Swahili Tribe, Africa 

Oval mouth-piece, in the side, 8 cm. from tip. 

Lengths of curves, 53 and 64 cm. Greatest circumference, 1 7 ; least, 
6.6 cm. Pitches: — d flat, octave and fifth. 

770. Shepherd's Horn. Body of ibex-antelope horn Syria 

Embouchure at tip. Lengths of curves, 32.5 and 56 cm. 

Greatest circumference, 19.4 cm.; least, 8 cm. Pitches: — d and d'. 

77 L Trumpet. Goat's horn, highly polished Source unknown 

Embouchure (in a polished mouth-piece) at tip. 
Lengths of curves, 28 and 32 cm. Diameter, 1 to 4.5 cm. 
TTie remarks after No. 23 1 apply to the notation of the pitches of these 
trumpets, which must be taken as approximations only. The diffi- 
culty of producing the tones favors occasional recourse to the imag- 

772. Trumpet. Horn Cameroon, West Africa 

Oval mouth-hole in side, 5.4 cm. from tip. 
Length, 34 cm. Diameter, 1.5, and 4 by 5 cm. 
(George Schwab.) 

18 Sachs, 71, 152. 


773. Shofar. Ram's horn. Used in the Hebrew ritual Syria 

Mouth-hole at tip. Lengths of curves, 26.5 and 44.5. 
Circumference, 4.5 cm. 

774. Trumpet. Horn of Cape Buffalo South Africa 

The mouth-hole, carved to represent a buffalo's head, is at the small 

end. This trumpet is carried by a braided rawhide cord. 
Lengths of curves, 37 and 54 cm. Greatest circumference, 33.6 cm.; 
least, 7.4 cm. Pitches: — e flat and octave. 

775. Trumpet. Elephant ivory, colored with human blood. West Africa 
Mouth-hole (J) 3.5 cm. from small end. 

Length, 33 cm. Diameter, 4.5 cm. 

(George Schwab.) 

776. Trumpet. Elephant ivory West Africa 

The body is decorated by three raised bands carved on surface. The 

mouth-hole is of same type as the preceding. 
Lengths of curves, 49.5 and 51 cm. Greatest circumference, 19.5; 
least, 9.5 cm. Pitches: — g flat and fifth. 
In the measurements of these instruments, the shorter length of curve 
refers to the upper surface, as they are displayed in the Case, the longer to the 
lower. As the curves are frequently very irregular, to give the radii would 
entail needless complications. 

As no accurate data regarding the native names or sources of most of 
tfiese horns was secured at the time of their purchase, any attempt at fitting 
them appropriately would result in failure ; therefore it has not been attempted. 
Among the native names for ivory horns we find ^pe (Ewe tribe), apunga and 
mpungi (Loanga), ponga (Angola); for elephant tusks rongo (Loanga) ; 
for antelope-horns barugumu (Swahili), gafa (Gallas) and ges (Somali)." 

" Sachs, pp. 231, 18, 262, 304, 323, 32, 150, 156. 

Continuation of Class III — Section J. 

777. Hunting-horn. Cow's horn. Copper mountings Germany 

Lengths of curves, 30.4 and 34 cm. Bell diameter, 5.8 by 9 cm. 
Formerly it had a lateral mouth-hole which has been so imperfectly 

closed that it cannot be blown. 

778. Dervish-horn. Cow's horn Soudan, North Africa 

Lengths of curves, 33.5 and 44 cm. Bell diameter, 6 by 9.2 cm. 

779. Hunting-horn in A flat. Cow's horn, carved Italy 

A coat of arms, a hunting scene, and geometric designs appear on the 

body. Diameter of bell, 5.7 by 7.7 cm.; of mouth-hole, 1.8 cm. 

780. Horn in G. Ox-horn. German silver rings South America 

An ornamental carved band, in cameo-like designs, serves as decora- 
tion. Lengths of curves, 30 and 43 cm. Greatest diameter, 7 cm. 

Pitches:— g.g' and d''. 

781. Hunting-horn. Cow's horn. German silver mountings. .Germany 
Lengths of curves, 30.4 and 40.9 cm. Bell diameter, 9.6 cm. 

782. Hunting-horn. Cow's horn. German silver mountings Italy 

Length, 66 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 cm. ; of tip, 2.3 cm. 

Signed — "Pelitti, Milano." 
Most of these instruments are fitted with carrying-cords, and the diam- 
eters at tip do not vary much from that given for this specimen. 

783. Rappakai. Conch-shell trumpet {Triton variegatus) Japan 

The shell — 33 cm. long, with 1 7 cm. as its greatest diameter — is car- 
ried in a netting of silk cord. It has a bronze mouth-piece, and 
sounds b and b'. It is sometimes called hora-no-^ai and horagai. 
The Chinese have a similar shell trumpet known as the hai-lo or 
lozeu^ while the Japanese jindai rappa, of clay, is said to have been 
the ancestor of the rappal^ai.^ 

784. Trumpet. Shell of Turbinella pyrum .... Nassau, Bahama Islands 
Embouchure at tip. Length, 39 cm. Greatest diameter, 1 8 cm. Un- 

785. Jagdhorn, or Sauhorn. "Boar-hunting horn." Brass. .Germany 
Covered with leather, with strap for carrying. 

Length, 53 cm. Diameter of bell, 5.6 cm. 

Signed — "H. Grenser, Dresden." 

1 Sachs, pp. 189, 172. 


786. Barataka. Shell trumpet (Cassis Tufa) Bengal 

Tip embouchure. Length, 8.6 cm. Diameter, 6.3 cm. Pitch : — f sharp. 
The conch-shell trumpet is widely distributed. It is used in war, in 

religious ceremonies, and, in Afghanistan, the mir-sang (pi. san- 
guna) calls to the bath, while in Persia, and among the Hindoos, 
it summons to prayer. 

787. Shell Trumpet. (Fusus probocei difero) New Caledonia 

Length, 41.7 cm. Greatest diameter, 14 cm. No tone obtainable. 

788. LoKU. Trumpet of gourd Shavaje Indians, Brazil 

Length, J06.4 cm. Bell diameter, 15.4 cm. Harmonics imperfect. 

789. Trumpet. Gourd. Length, 99 cm. Bell diameter, 28 cm. . W. Africa 
Pitches: — d' and a'. B, c\ d", and i'\ are also possible. 

790. Trumpet. Bamboo Philippine Islands 

Four pieces of bamboo of different lengths are fitted into each other at 

right-angles, giving an air column 99 cm. in length. Cup mouth- 
piece in body. Model length, 49 cm. Circumference of tubes, 1.5 
to 18 cm. The term "model" refers to the appearance of an instru- 
ment as it hangs, and its measurements. In giving diameters the 
smaller is that of the tip, the larger that of the bell. 

791. Alp-horn. (Eng. Alpine Horn; Fr. Cor des Alpes) . .Switzerland 
Straight tube of birch with upturned bell. 

This form is used in the Canton Schwyz. It sounds a flat, a flat', c\ 
e flat'', a flat". Length of model, 102.2 cm. Diameter, 2 to 
12 cm. 

Signed — "M. von Euw, Rigi Kulm." 

792. Alp-horn. Birch tube, twice folded on itself Switzerland 

This trumpet-like form dominates the Cantons of Uri, Unterwalden 

and Schwyz. Length, 1 02.2 cm. Diameter, 2 to 1 2 cm. 
The type of Alp-horn varies in the different Cantons. 

Nos. 777-778-780-785-790-791-792 have cup mouth-pieces, several of 
very rude construction. Nos. 79 1 -2 are of an elongated type. Their restricted 
range forbids the inclusion of these instruments in Section K. 

Section K. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Metal or Wooden 
Tube, ending in a Bell, with Cup mouth-piece and no lateral Openings. 

The evolution from the various forms of embouchure, noted in Case VII, 
to the cup mouth-piece was inevitable. In this form the reed action of the lips 
is focussed and intensified. In some of the Oriental types the mouth-piece is 
a structural part (No. 797), but in European types the mouth-piece is re- 

When the air in a slightly conical tube of metal, expanding into a bell at 
one end, is set in vibration it produces a consecutive harmonic series, based on a 
fundamental whose pitch is determined by the length of the tube. 


It is frequently very difficult to produce the fundamental, and some of 
the higher harmonics are of little value, as they are not in tune. In many 
trumpets of an early date the tube is straight. For convenience the tube is 
now bent on itself, a practice known to the Romans, forgotten for centuries, 
and reintroduced circa 1300. (See No. 821.) 

793. Rana-CRINGA. "Trumpet of war." Colored brass. . .Nepaul, India 
At five equidistant points, the S-shaped body, is encircled by hollow 

double rings, also of thin brass and filled with shot or pebbles. It 
has a sharp incisive tone, which is now used for signaling, and in 
religious and civil ceremonials, rather than in war, as formerly. 
Length, 1 26 cm. Diameter, 1 .5 to 12 cm. 

794. Trumpet. Roughly hammered copper India 

The tube, 99 cm. long, makes three complete turns and ends in a 

long, slightly flaring bell. Pitches indefinable. 

795. SoNA-RAPPA, or DoSA. Brass. Japan 

The very narrow, conical tube — 33.4 cm. long and from 4 mm. to 
1.8 cm. in diameter — ends in a double bell with exaggerated flare. 

The first bell is 8.6, and the second 13.2 cm. in diameter. 4 

Lowest tone, G flat, highest, g flat". 


796. Kang-t'ung. Bronze, decorated China 

Similar in form and decoration to No. 767 but with a longer bell. 

This is the Chinese form of the Thibetan k^ng-dung. Yellow bands 
hang from the bell. This color is symbolic of Buddhism.^ 
Length, 41.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 8 cm. 

797. Zabs-DUNG. Copper. Bulbous hollow rings encircle body. . .Thibet 
This resembles the Chinese la pa, but is larger of body. Cup mouth- 
piece in body. Length, 1 6 1 cm. Least circumference, 8 cm. ; great- 
est, at bell, 93 cm. 

798. Phunga. "Instrument of the gods." Copper Cashmere, India 

The above name is given on the authority of Curt Sachs^ as it is gen- 
erally applied to a shorter and very narrow trumpet of brass. It is 
decorated with five wide bands of beaten brass encircling the body. 

Length, 1 88 cm. Circumference, 3 to 3 1 cm. Pitched in E. 

799. Nag-PHENI, or Turi. Brass, hammered and lacquered India 

The conical body makes an S-shaped curve at mouth-piece end, and 

the body is encircled with rings as in the rana-cringa. 
Length, 130.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 19 cm. 

2 Color-symbolism is an interesting phase of the study of instruments, for it opens up 
a wide field of investigation as yet comparatively unexplored. An esteemed colleague has 
collected a mass of material on the subject and, in the near future, it is to be hoped, will 
give to the world the results of his scholarly research. 

3 P. 2Q7. 


800. Hao t'ung, or Huang teih. Brass China 

The pecuHarity of this instrument is the bell, which is quite out of its 

usual proportional relation to the body. A form of wider diameter, 
and of wood, is used on funeral occasions, while a narrower type is 
used by the military. A similar Japanese instrument is called the 
dokaku. Length, 1 00 cm. ; of bell, 37 cm. Diameter of bell, 14 cm. 


801. Trumpet in B flat. Terra cotta Ancient Egypt 

Purchased in 1 895 of Brugsch Bey at Gizeh Museum. Its date is 

said to be circa 300 B.C. (?). Length, 24 cm. Diameter, 3 to 8 cm. 

The Lur (pi. lurer), a bronze horn of peculiar shape, found in Den- 
mark, and dating from the 2d century B.C. Sachs (p. 245) says, "offenbar 
aber viel jiinger", is of all the instruments of those early ages the most im- 

The musical possibilities of the authentic examples displayed in the Na- 
tional Museum, Copenhagen (Nos. 8114-8117), have been thoroughly ex- 
ploited by Hammerich, who found it possible to produce the first 1 2 harmon- 
ics and, with greater difficulty, 10 chromatics beneath the fundamental. In 
his articles on the subject, one of which is referred to below,* he has displayed 
his profound scholarship cind keen critical acumen. Sachs gives an illuminat- 
ing discussion of the instrument on pp. 245, 246. In this connection the gold- 
en and bronze horns found in Denmark and Ireland deserve mention, some 
of them on account of their beautiful decoration as well as their musical sig- 
nificance.^ These "three dimensional" instruments enforce the statements of 
Willy Pastor in the article noted in foot-note No. 2, last paragraph under Nos. 

802. Cha KIAO, or Tung KEO. Brass, with upturned bell China 

The upturned bell differentiates this from the la pa. The mouth-piece, 

a flat, circular plate of thin brass with a hole in the center, is typ- 
ically Chinese. The cha-kiao is used in wedding processions. It 
gives A, e, a, e', and a'. Length, 1 48 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 4 cm. 


803. CORNU. Bronze, heavily patinated Ancient Rome 

This purports to be a reproduction of a cornu found in the Amphi- 
theatre at Pompeii, and now placed in the Museum at Naples. 

The conical tube — 399 cm. in length — is bent so as nearly to describe 
a circle, of which a wooden shoulder bar — 134 cm. long — forms 
the diameter. The bell is 13.4 cm. in diameter. 

* Vierteljahrschrift fiir Musikzvissenschraft, 1894, p. i. 

° For descriptions and illustrations of these horns, and similar types found in Sweden 
and Scotland, consult Thomas Wilson's monograph, "Prehistoric Art," Rep. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, pp. 533-547. 

Case VIII. East Section. Nos. 78i to 873 (Right to Left). 


804. BuziNE. Bronze. Fifteenth, or sixteenth century Italy 

The slightly conical body — 131 cm. in length — ends in a bell 8.4 in 

diameter. Decorated with engraved bands and bars near the bell. 
This beautiful specimen might have served as the model for the 
representation of the buzine, Plate XLI, in "Old English Instru- 
ments," by Canon F. W. Galpin. 

(Francis W. Kelsey.) 
Like most of our modern instruments, the Trumpet (Fr. Trompette; 
Ital. Tromba; Ger. Trompete) can boast of an ancient origin. It 
has a compass from c to g'' (occasionally to c"), giving the natural 
harmonic series. 

805. Tromba in E flat. Brass, painted Italy 

The slightly conical tube — 214.6 cm. long — carries two bosses, from 

the lower of which — 51.1 cm. above the bell — it rapidly expands 
to the diameter of the upturned bell, 16.4 cm. 

806. Trumpet. Copper, in three sections India 

Length, 42 cm. Diameter of bell, 6.8 cm. 

807. RuF-HORN. Brass ornamentation. Eighteenth century. . . .Germany 
Length, 3 1 .4 cm. The bell is missing. 

808. Coach Horn in D. Brass France 

Length of tube, 1 2 1 .6 cm. Bell diameter, 9.3 cm. 

809. Tromba in B. Bronzed brass Italy 

The tube, whose model length is 123.7 cm., doubles on itself giving an 

increased vibrating length. An additional tube, also doubling on 
itself, may be added at upper end, thus increasing the vibrating 
length and length of model very materially. Used in the ballo 

Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

810. Coach Horn in B flat. Brass France 

Length of tube, 132.4 cm. Diameter of bell, 9.9 cm. 

Signed — "G. Perinet, 31 Rue Copernico, Paris." 

811. Tromba in A flat. Brass Italy 

At a point 34 cm. from mouth-piece the tube bends on itself tliree 

times, forming circles, 26.8 cm. in diameter. The model length 
(103.4 cm.) is thus increased. Diameter of bell, 16.2. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

812. Tromba in D. Brass, painted Italy 

The tube — model length, 92.6 cm. — at a point 22 cm. from upper end 

bends in an oval — 7.8 by 1 cm. — and expands to the flaring bell, 
16.5 cm. in diameter. 

Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 


813. Coach Horn in A. White metal, polished England 

Length of body, 72 cm. Diameter of bell, 7.6 cm. 

814. Tuba in B flat. Brass. Two keys Italy 

This reproduction of a Roman type, by Pelitti, of Milano, shows a 

conical tube, 96.5 cm. long, gradually expanding to the bell diam- 
eter, 1 0.4 cm. 

815. Tromba. Alto in E flat. Brass Italy 

The tube, by bending on itself twice, adds considerably to the model 

length, which is 126.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 22.5 cm. 

816. Tuba in D. In type similar to No. 814 Italy 

Length, 104 cm. Diameter of bell, 8.8 cm. 

817. Tromba in A flat. Brass Italy 

Two circular bends in tube. Model length, 1 1 5 cm. 

.Diameter of bell, 13.5 cm. 

Signed — "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

818. Tuba in B flat. In structure similar to No. 816 Italy 

Length, 146.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 10.5 cm. 

819. CoRNU in B flat. Brass, bronzed. Two keys Italy 

Reproduction of classic type. The keys, as in Nos. 814-16-18, are 

modern. Length, 262 cm. ; of bar, 92.5 cm. Bell diameter, 14.5 cm. 

820. CoRNU in E. Similar to 81 9 Italy 

Length, 204 cm.; of bar, 77 cm. Bell diameter, 14.5 cm. 

82 1 . Trompete in E flat. Brass. Eighteenth century Germany 

Model length, 38.5 cm. Bell diameter, 8.3 cm. 

Signed — "Michael Saurle in Munchen." 

822. Trumpet in C. Brass, bearing Russian coat of arms Russia 

As in No. 82 1 , the tube makes one turn. The bell has a very slight 

flare. As the bell has steadily increased in this respect up to modern 
times, the flare of the bell is quite definitive of period. Model 
length, 40.2 cm. Bell diameter, 7.7 cm. 

Signed — "G. Eschenbach, St. Petersburg." 

823. Trompete in D. Brass Germany 

Length of model, 38.8 cm. Bell diameter, 10.5 cm. 

Signed — "Lindenburg, Berlin." 

824. Trompete in E flat. Seventeenth century Germany 

TTie tube, with one turn, bears a boss, cords, and tassels. The bell is 

engraved with a floral design, a galloping horse, and the motto, "Ich." 
Length of model, 70 cm. Bell diameter, 10.8 cm. 

Signed — "Macht Johan Carl Kodisch, NUrnberg." 



825. Trompete in E flat. Brass. Seventeenth century Germany 

The tube makes one turn, bears a boss, also cord and tassels. 
Length of model, 67.5 cm. Bell diameter, 12.3 cm. 

826. Clairon in B flat. Brass France 

In structure and decoration similar to the preceding instrument. 
Length of model, 5 1 .5 cm. Bell diameter, 1 5 cm. 

827. Clairon in E flat. Brass France 

The tube of this cavalry trumpet has tv^o turns. 

Length of model, 49.5 cm. Bell diameter, 13 cm. 

828. Tromba in C. Form of a Latin Cross Italy 

To form the cross, at a point 25.5 cm. below the mouth-piece, and 

59.4 cm. above the bell, the tube bends on itself five times. 
Length of model, 88.6 cm. Diameter of bell, 13.7 cm. 

Section L. Vibrating Column of Air enclosed in a Metal or Wooden 
Tube, ending in a Bell, (a) with lateral Openings, opened and closed by the 
fingers or keys; (b) with additional lengths of tubing incorporated in the 
structure, and controlled by valves, operated by pistons or keys; (c) with a 
movable tube (Slide) operated by the hand. 

The group of instruments included in the series 829-836 dates back to 
the tenth century. The eleventh century witnessed the general introduction of 
finger-holes whereby the possibilities of these instruments were extended. 

Centuries later, the range of possible tonalities for brass instruments was 
extended by the use of "crooks." The "crook" is a section of tubing, which, 
inserted below the mouth-piece, lengthens the body. Thus a new fundamental 
is secured. These "crooks" were removable, and a constant source of annoy- 
ance. Later {circa 1826), three or more "crooks" were made part of the 
structure, which, opened or closed by means of valves, controlled by pistons, 
levers, or flat keys, made possible a chromatic series, covering the entire range 
of the instrument. 

829. Corno TORTO, or Cornetto CURVO. Wood, covered with 

leather. Six finger-holes. Early seventeenth century Italy 

The upper end of tube, shaped like a German peasant's tobacco pipe, 

is furnished with a bone ring in which the horn mouth-piece is set. 
Length of model, 44 cm. Greatest diameter, 6 cm. 

830. CORNETT, or ZiNK. Same structure as No. 829, but with a very 

slight curve. Early eighteenth century Italy 

Length, 41 .5 cm. Greatest diameter, 4.9 cm. 

The Middle Age spelling "Cornett" is endorsed by Galpin,® as it 

tends to prevent confusing the early instrument with the modern 


6 "Eng. Inst's.," p. 189. 


831. ZiNK. {Fr. Cornet a bouquin) . Typical construction. Early 

seventeenth century. Pitched in g flat Germany 

The parchment-covered body, slightly curved, has six finger-holes and 

one thumb-hole in their usual positions. 
Length, 56.6 cm. Greatest diameter, 3 cm. 

832. CoRNO CURVO (Ger. Krummer Zink). Typical structure. . . .Italy 
This early seventeenth century instrument has six finger-holes, and, like 

all the specimens in this group, is made of wood covered with leather. 
Length, 43.2 cm. Greatest diameter of bore, 3.8 cm. 

833. Kleiner Zink (Ital. Cornettino curvo). Soprano, in B. . .Germany 
Six finger-holes. Length, 35 cm. Diameter, 7 mm. to 3.3 cm. 
Collected (in Hamburg, 1868) for the Rev. J. Beck, Sussex, Eng., 

by Mr. A. W. Frank, of the British Museum. 

834. CoRNO TORTO. Early seventeenth century Italy 

The elongated S-shaped body, has six open finger-holes and one closed 

by a flat brass key, also the usual bone ring for the mouth-piece. 
Tenor in F. Length, 75.2 cm. Greatest diameter of bore, 5 cm. 

835. CoRNO CURVO. Six finger-holes and one key Italy 

Bass in D. The tube has an octagonal cross-section. 

Length, 92 cm. Greatest diameter of bore, 6.5 cm. 

836. CoRNO TORTO. Bass in C. Same date as No. 834 Italy 

The semi-circular body has six finger-holes, and has the same quality 

of tone as the other members of the family, a tone that leaves noth- 
ing to be desired in the way of harshness. 
Lengths of curves, 1 06.4 and 131.1 cm. Greatest diameter of bore, 

9 cm. 
The Serpent, Nos. 903-923 (top of this Case) and 935, Case IX. be- 
longs to this family. It was invented about the close of the six- 
teenth century by Canon Edme Guillaume, of Auxerre. It has per- 
sisted up to a comparatively recent date. It was incorporated by 
Mendelssohn in "St. Paul," and by Wagner in "Rienzi." 
Of the quality of tone of the Serpent, the anonymous author of "Musi- 
cians in Germany, by an English Musician," published in London, with no 
date but probably about 1830, p. 32, wrote: — "In Cologne, the churches are 
free from that intolerable nuisance in those of France, the Serpent, the sound 
of which resembles the immature efforts and bleating of a bull-calf." 

In direct opposition to this view, a modern English authority quoted by 
Orlando A. Mansfield, in an interesting article entitled "That Old Serpent" 
(New Music Review, N. Y., October, 1920), characterizes the tone of the 
serpent as "less blatant than the brass and more tender and veiled tlian the 
ophicleide (or 'chromatic bullock,* as it has been called), the very instrument 
by which the serpent is supposed to have been superseded." 

CLASS Hi 125 

The Valved, or Keyed Trumpet (Fr. Trompette a clefs; Ital. Tromba 
a chiavi; Ger. Ventiltrompete) gives a chromatic series within the same Hmits 
as the earlier type. A miHtary instrument par excellence, it also fills an im- 
portant place in modern orchestration. It can be muted with good effect. The 
Bugle has a tube of greater diameter than the Trumpet, but has been almost 
entirely superseded by the Cornet, which structurally lies midway between 
these types. The compass of the Keyed Bugle runs from b to c'''; of the 
Cornet, from f sharp to a" (c"')« With the exception of those pitched in C, 
these are all transposing instruments. 

837. "Aida" Fanfare Trumpet. Bass in B flat. Brass, with Ger- 

man silver mountings. Three piston valves Belgium 

Length of model, 1 35 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 3 cm. 

838. "Aida" Fanfare Trumpet in F. Brass. Two pistons. . . .France 
Length of model, 94 cm. Diameter of bell, 13.5 cm. 

839. "Aida" Fanfare Trumpet in F. Brass. One piston France 

Length, 65 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 1 .4 cm. 

The quality of tone of these trumpets is very brilliant, and especially 
adapted for use in spectacular stage effects. The name is derived 
from the fact that they were specially designed for use in Verdi's 

840. Tromba a chiavi in A. Brass. Three pistons Italy 

The serpentine body — 88.5 cm. in length — ends in a moderately flar- 
ing bell, 9.5 cm. in diameter. Three fixed crooks, when opened by 
pistons, increase the vibrating lengths. Combinations of the valves 
give corresponding alterations of the vibrating length. This is illus- 
trative of the function of the valve, and may be applied to most of 
the instruments in this group. 

841. Bass-TROMPETE in F. Brass. Four rotary valves Austria 

TTie conical tube — 167.6 cm. long, ending in a bell, 15.2 cm. in diam- 
eter — has four crooks in body. This form of trumpet, used by 
Richard Wagner in certain scores, is by no means a modern inven- 
tion. Length of model, 45.6 cm. 

Signed — "Leopold Uhlman, K. K. Hof Instrumenten 
Fabrik in Wien." 

842. Tromba a chiavi in A. Brass. Three pistons Italy 

Length of tube, 76 cm. Diameter of upturned bell, 1 6 cm. Made for 

use in the ballet "Rodope." 

Signed — "A. Abbate e figlio, Napoli." 

843. Ventiltrompete in F. Three rotary valves Germany 

Length of model, 46 cm. Dicimeter of bell, 1 1 .6 cm. 


844. Trompette a clefs in A. Brass. Piston valves France 

Length of model, 52 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 3.8 cm. 

Signed — "No. 24330, Adolphe Sax, Brevete a Paris." 

845. Bugle a clefs. Soprano in E flat. Brass. Six keys France 

Length of model, 40.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 3 cm. 

Signed — "Miiller, Brevete a Lyon." 

846. Bugle a clefs. Soprano in E flat. Brass. Six keys France 

Length of model, 51.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 14.6 cm. 

847. Bugle a clefs. Soprano in D. Brass. Six keys Belgium 

Length of model, 42.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 4.8 cm. 

Signed — "Mahillon, jeune, Bruxelles." 

848. Klappenhorn. Soprano in E flat. Brass. Six keys Germany 

Length of model, 46.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 6.2 cm. 

Signed — "Kliih, Mainz." 

849. Klappenhorn. Alto in D flat. Brass. Eight keys Germany 

Length of model, 49.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 18 cm. 

850. Trompette a clefs. Alto in E flat. Brass. Five keys .... France 
Length of model, 48 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

Signed — "Couturier, a Lyon." 

85 1 . Post Horn in G. Copper England 

Length of model, 1 7 cm. Diameter of bell, 6.4 cm. 

852. Buglet in B flat. Brass, silver-plated England 

Length of model, 18 cm. Diameter of oval bell, 5.4 by 8 cm. 

Signed — "The Buglet, Prize Medal, Keat and Sons, London." 
On a raised shield also appears, "Thornton Heath, B.C." 

853. Cornet in E flat. Brass. Three piston valves France 

Length of model, 30 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

Signed — "Henry Gunckel, Paris. Lyon and Healy, 
Chicago, So\e Agents." 

854. Pocket Cornet in B flat. Brass. Three piston valves .... England 
Length of model, 22.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 9.8 cm. 

855. Fluegel Horn, Soprano in B flat. German silver. Three 

rotary valves United States 

Length of model, 35.5 cm. Bell diameter, 1 1.8 cm. 
Signed — Graves and Co., Boston." 

856. Cornet in B flat. German silver. Three rotary valves . United States 
Length of model, 40 cm. Diameter of bell, 12.2 cm. 

Signed — "Hall and Quinby, Boston." 

856a. Cornet in E flat. German silver. Three rotary valves . United States 
The model is a variant of the "Bell over shoulder" type and in its form 


is very graceful. As the tone is thrown upward this gracefulness detracts from 
its practical efficiency. The instrument was the property of Mr. C. Jacob 
Gwinner, whose name is inscribed on the bell-section. Gwinner's Band and 
Orchestra was the first organization of its kind in Ann Arbor, and its services 
were in constant demand for university, civic, and social functions. This or- 
ganization formed the nucleus of the Porter Zouave Band, which Mr. Gwin- 
ner led from 1861 to 1863 in the Civil War. 

Model length, 62 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 2.2 cm. 

Inscribed — "L. Schreiber Cornet Mfg. Co., New York, U. S. A. 

Patented by L. Schreiber, Sept. 12, 1865." 

(Presented by Jacob Gwinner's son, Robert Gwinner, and his 

grandson, Robert Richard Dieterle.) 

857. FluegeL Horn, Soprano in B flat. Brass. Three piston 

valves England 

Model length, 45 cm. Bell diameter, 1 4.4 cm. 
Signed — "F. Besson, Brevete, 196 Euston Road, London." 

858. Cornet in E flat. Brass. Three piston valves United States 

Length of model, 30 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 1 .8 cm. 

Signed — R. Wurlitzer and B'rs., Cincinnati, O." 

859. Cornet in C. Brass. Three pump valves United States 

Length of model, 3 1 .5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2.5 cm. 

860. Cornet in E flat. Brass, silver plated. Three valves . . United States 
Length of model, 30 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2.4 cm. 

Signed — "Superior Class, Conn and Dupont, Elkhart, Ind." 

861. Cornet in E flat. Brass. Three pump valves United States 

Length of model, 36 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2.4 cm. 

862. Saxhorn. Soprano in B flat. German silver. Three rotary 

valves. "Bell over shoulder" type United States 

Length of model, 61.6 cm. Diameter of bell, 12.1 cm. 
This type of instrument was patented in 1 845 by Ad. Sax, from whom 
it takes its name. The family forms a homogeneous group, alike characterized 
by beauty and fulness of tone, as well as great security and ease in performance. 
From the subl^ontrabasstuba (Ger.), the lowest, to the Sax-horn sopran- 
ino, the highest, is a tremendous range of pitch, and includes eighteen differ- 
ently named representatives. 

863. Cornet in B flat. Brass. Three patent lever valves England 

Length of model, 35 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2.3 cm. 

Signed — "By her Majesty's Sole Letters Patent, Kohler, 
Sole Maker, 35 Henrietta St., Covent Garden, London." 
This is an example of the earliest application of the valve mechanism. 


864. Cornet in B flat. Brass. Three piston valves United States 

Length of model, 31.8 cm. Diameter of bell, 12.5 cm. 

Signed — " 'Excelsior,' C. J. Whitney and Co., Detroit." 

865. KoRNETT in A flat. German silver mountings. Three double 

pistons. Length, 30.5 cm. Bell diameter , 1 2 cm Austria 

Signed— "Anton Holly, W. Plzni." 

866. KoRNETT in B flat. Brass. German silver mountings. Three 

rotary valves. Length, 41 cm. Bell diameter, 12.2 cm.. . .Austria 
Signed — "Ignaz Stowasser, K. K. Ausschsl, Priv. Musik 
Instrumenten Fabrik in Wien." 

867. Saxhorn. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons England 

Length of model, 53.3 cm. Diameter of bell, 15.5 cm. 

Signed — "Henry Distin and Company, London." 

868. Saxhorn. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons England 

Length of model, 49 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 6.3 cm. 

Signed — "Riviere and Hawkes, 28 Leicester Square, London." 

869. Saxhorn. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons France 

Length of model, 48.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 8 cm. 

Signed — "Antoine Courtois, Brevete, Paris, V. R. H." 

870. Saxhorn. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons France 

Model length, 49 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 9.2 cm. 

Signed — "Harry Wilson, Leeds, Made in France." 

87 1 . Cor a pistons. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons France 

Length of model, 36.5 cm. ; width, 37 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 7.8 cm. 
Signed — "Michaud. Brevete, 10-11 Rue de Sartine, Paris." 

872. Cor a pistons. Alto, in E flat. Brass. Three pistons France 

When valves were first introduced two only were used, but in 1 829, Per- 

inet, of Paris, raised the number to three, and in 1 835 Moritz, of Berlin, still 
further increased it to five. Another type of valve, the "ascending valve" 
(Ger. Verkiirzungsventile; Fr. Pistons ascendants), instead of lengthening 
the vibrating length, as in the ordinary type, shortens it. First invented by 
John Shaw, of London, in 1824, it was perfected by the brothers, Adolph, 
and Alphonse Sax. Frequently, of five valves, three will lower the pitch and 
two raise it a semi-tone or whole tone. 

The "rotary valve" (Fr. C^lindre a rotation; Ital. Cilindro rotativo; 
Ger. Drehventil) was invented in 1832 by Joh. Riedt, of Vienna. At one 
time it was in great vogue, but now-a-days the piston valve has regained its 
former ascendancy. Mr. J. S. Johnson, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, has re- 
cently patented an improved form of this type which does away with certain 
obvious defects of the earlier form. In the valved orchestral horn, because 

Case VIII. West Section. Nos. 862 to 903 (Right to Left). 



the players were accustomed to "stop" with the right-hand, the valves were 
adapted for the left, and are so played today. 

Models of the various types of valve, and also of mouth-pieces, may be 
seen in Case XVI. 

French Horn (Fr. Cor de chasse. Cor d^Harmonie; Ital. Corno, Coma 
di caccia; Ger. Horn, Waldhorn, Ventilhorn, Inventions horn). Used first 
in the chase; when introduced into the orchestra {circa 1757) its value was 
inmiediatel/ recognized, although the tone of the earlier instruments was un- 
deniably coarse and strident. About 1 777, Hampel, of Dresden, discovered 
that inserting the hand in the bell produced a muffled tone at the same time 
altering the pitch. It was known thereafter as the "Hand-Horn." The ap- 
plication of valves did away with the multiplicity of crooks, and made its re- 
sources available. In modern times it is generally pitched in F or E, while in 
early practice it was pitched in the key of the work in which it was used. 

873. Ventilhorn in E. Brass. Three piston valves Germany 

Height, 43.5 cm. Width, 39.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 19 cm. 

The valves in this horn are of the earliest type, invented by Bliihmel 
in 1816, sold to Stolzel, and patented by him in 1819. They were 
in use as late as 1853. 

874. AX^ALDHORN in F. Brass. Bell ornamented in repousse work . Germany 
Imer diameter of circle, 53 cm. Diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

Signed — "Johann Gottfried Kersten in Dresden, 1 775." 

875. Cdr de chasse in D. Brass France 

Inner diameter of circle, 36 cm. Diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

Signed — "A. Le Riche, Paris." 

876. Corno di caccia in D. Brass Italy 

Inner diameter of circle, 36 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 6 cm. 

Signed — "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

877. Cor de chasse. Brass. Ivory mouth-piece France 

Inner diameter of circle, 24 cm. Two oblong crooks add 28 cm. to 

length of tube. Diameter of bell, 12 cm. A very unusual type. 

878. Waldhorn in D flat. Brass Germany 

Inner diameter of circle, 5 1 cm. Diameter of bell, 30 cm. 

879. Crooks (Fr. Cor de rechange; Ital. Pompa; Ger. Stimmbogen) , by 

means of which changes of the fundamental are secured. Still other 
specimens may be seen in Case XVI. 

880. Cor de chasse in G. Brass France 

Inside diameter of circle, 30.4 cm. Diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

Signed — "Raoux, Rue Serpent, a Paris. Fournisseur de 
S. M. L'Empereur et de S. J. Le Vice Roi d'Egypt." 


881. Waldhorn in B flat. Brass Germany 

Width of model, 50 cm. Diameter of bell, 28.3 cm. 

882. Cor DE CHASSE in D flat. Brass France 

Length of tube, 421 .5 cm. Diameter of coil, 22 cm. ; of bell, 23.2 cm. 
TTie dimensions are designedly given in different terms to illustrate the 


Signed — "Courtois Freres, rue de Claire, a Paris." 

883. Waldhorn in A flat. Brass Germany 

Width of model, 59 cm. Diameter of bell, 27.5 cm. 

Signed — "C. W. Durrschmidt, Neukirchen, in Sachsen." 

884. Cor. Brass. A form antedating the use of valves France 

Five crooks (E, E-flat — D, B-flat and C) are so arranged that the 

mouth-piece can be placed in any one, while the others are pre- 
vented from sounding. The cor omnitonique, invented by C. Sax, 
pere in 1824, attains the same end by means of a graduated slide. 
Width of model, 37.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 13 cm. 
Signed — "De la Abbaye, Brevete, Rue de Chartres, Paris." 
Nos. 874 to 884 have no valves, but they belong to this family. 

885. Cor d'harmonie in A. Brass. Two pistons France 

Width of model, 33 cm. Diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

Signed — "Antoine Courtois Mille-Mille Jr., Facteur du 

Conservatoire National, 88 rue de Marion, 

St. Martin, Paris." 

886. Ventilhorn in F. Brass. Three rotary valves Germany 

Width of model, 36.8 cm. Diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

The Trombone (Span. Sacabuche ; Ger. Posaune) was known in Eng- 
land in the fifteenth century as the "Sackbut,"^ in all probability a name de- 
rived from the Spanish designation. In the Trombone the diameter and flare 
of the bell are quite definitive of its period. (Compare Nos. 890 and 893.) 
The Slide provides a means for changing the fundamental through the seven 
positions used in performance. This makes possible a chromatic series of 
two octaves and a sixth, beside three additional very low tones called the 
Pedals. Of the four forms — Soprano, B flat; Alto, E flat; Tenor, B flat; 
Bass, F or E flat, the first is obsolete, and the last is rarely used. 

"^ Galpin, in a valuable monograph, "The Sackbut, its Evolution and History" — Reprint 
from "Proc. Mus. Ass'n.," 1906-1907 (November Meeting) — gives interesting spellings of 
the word, from which the following English forms are taken: In an entry in the accounts 
of Henry VH, dated May 3, 1495, "To foure Shak-busshes (players), etc." Hawes, in 
"Passetyme of Pleasure" (1506), gives "Sakbuttes"; John Howes, in "A famyliar and 
friendly Discourse" (1587), gives shagbolt; in a maske of Campion (Whitehall, Twelfth 
Night, 1607) he mentions a "double sackbote," probably the deep-toned instrument called 
"sagbut deepe" by Drayton in his "Polyolbion" (1613) ; Shakespeare gives the correct spelling 
in the following excerpt from "Coriolanus" (1608-10?), Act V, Scene IV: 
"The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries and fifes. 
Tabors and cymbals and the shouting Romans." 



887. Slide Cornet, or Soprano Trombone, in B flat. Brass . . England 
In most details and measurements this might be considered the second 

instrument mentioned above. Berlioz in his work on instrumentation (p. 151) 
speaks of the soprano trombone as an early German instrument unknown in 
France. It was used by Gluck in the Italian version of "Orfeo" under the 
name Cornetto. Before this. Bach had assigned important parts to the tromba 
da iirarsi in his Church Cantatas. Kuhnau (1667-1722), in Der Musika- 
lische Quacksalher (1700, p. 83), is the first authority who mentions it* 

Length, closed, 5 1 cm. ; extended, 78 cm. Diameter of bell, 11.7 cm. 

Signed — "Besson and Co. 'Prototype.' 198 Euston Square, 

London, England. C. Fischer, 6 4th Ave., N. Y. 

Sole Agent, U. States." 

(Albert A. Stanley.) 

887a. Diskant-Posaune in F. Eighteenth century Germany 

This instrument, whose name appears to be somewhat of a mis-nomer, 
antedates the real soprano trombone in high B flat. Before tlie advent of this 
soprano instrument it carried the highest part, and was in general use, although 
Praetorius preferred the tone of the tenor trombone for such a purpose. Were 
it not for certain minor differences in detail observable in some specimens, it 
might figure as the Zug-irompete (Eng. Slide Trumpet; Fr. Trompetie a 
coulisse; Ital. Tromba da iirarsi) which is described as "very like a little Alt- 

Length, closed, 7 1 .5 cm. ; extended, 1 02.5 cm. Bell diameter, 1 2.5 cm. 

888. Alt-Posaune in E flat. Brass Germany 

Length, closed, 84.5 cm.; extended, 1 13.6 cm. Bell diameter, 13.9 cm. 
Signed — "J. A. Schmidt in Leipzig." 

889. Sacabuche, in E flat. Brass. Decorated bell Spain 

Length, closed, 98.4 cm.; extended, 125.2 cm. Bell diameter, 6.3 cm. 

Signed — "Trepaben, Barcelona." 

890. Tenor Trombone in B flat. Brass Turkey 

Length, closed, 1 08 cm. ; extended, 121.6 cm. Bell diameter, 1 0.3 cm. 
This is said to have been taken from the Turks, at Vienna, Sept. 13, 

1683, when they were defeated by the Saxons under the Elector 
Johann Georg III. 

8 Galpin, ibid., p. 19, says : "In England the earliest music written for this instrument 
is the March and Canzona for the funeral of Queen Mary, on March S, 1695, by Henry 

Purcell. The March could be rendered with the Alto Trombone for the upper part, 

but the Canzona demands the true discant (soprano) instrument." 

8 Altenburg, in Heroisch-musikalische Trompeter und Paukerkunst (1795), applies this 
description to this instrument, "which usually the Church and Town musicians use in sound- 
ing their sacred chorales." Quoted by Galpin, ibid., p. 20. 


891 . Trombone tenor, in B flat. Brass France 

Length, closed, 1 13.4 cm.; extended, 172.4 cm. Bell diameter, 15 cm. 
Signed — *'F. Besson, Brevete S. D. G., Paris, 96 rue de Angouleme. 

Grand Prix, Paris, 1900; St. Louis, 1904; Liege, 1905." 
(University of Michigan.) 

892. Tenor Trombone in B flat (Valved). Brass. Three pistons. 

Length of model, 73 cm. Bell diameter, 12.7 cm England 

Signed— "Henry Keats and Sons, 105 Matthais R'd. Stoke 
Newington, C. N., London N." 

893. KoNTRABASS-PosAUNE in F. Brass Germany 

Length, closed, 128 cm.; extended, 205.2 cm. Bell diameter, 26 cm. 

Signed — "Ed. Kruspe, Herzogl'h. S. M. Hof lieferant, Erfurt." 
(University of Michigan.) 

894. Trombone a clefs. Bass in F. Brass. Three pistons France 

Length of model, 101 cm. Diameter of bell, 19.6 cm. 

Signed — "Antoine Courtois et Mille, Paris." 

895. Ventilposaune. Bass in F. Three rotary valves Germany 

Model length, 1 1 3 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 9 cm. 

Signed — "E. Kruspe, in Erfurt." 

896. Similar to No. 894, but with six pistons France 

Model length, 63 cm. ; v^idth, 66 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 5 cm. 

Signed— "Seul Grand Prix. Paris, 1867. No. 39. 179Noyeau 
Trombone Sax. Adolphe Sax, 50 rue St. Georges, a Paris." 

897. Trombone a coulisse double in G. Copper. Double slide . France 
Model length, 60.9 cm.; width (to bell), 30.4 cm. Bell diameter, 

1 7.6 cm. A very rare specimen. 
Signed — "Schmittschneider, Inventeur, Brevete du Roi, Medaille d' 
Argent, 1823, Paris." 
A double-slide trombone by Jobst Schnitzer of Niirnberg, dated 1612, 
and listed as No. 1908 in Georg Kinsky's Kleiner Katalog der Sammlung 
alter Musikinstrumente (Wilhelm Heyer Collection) Coin," proves that Hal- 
ary's supposed invention is antedated by more than two hundred years. 

Galpin (Proc. Music. Ass'n., 1906-7, p. 17, Foot-note) states: "About 
1817 Gottfried Weber also introduced a Bass Trombone with double slide, 
and ... in 1 838 Rowe, of Liverpool, brought out a Contra Bass Trombone 
with a similar device. Therefore, Schmittschneider vs. Halary is a contro- 
versy which, in view of Galpin*s statements and the evidence afforded in Kin- 
sky's Kleiner Katalog (p. 199), admits of but one solution. 

898. Genis. Alto horn in B flat. Brass, heavily patinated Italy 

The bell is decorated with a series of medallions. 

Length of model, 73 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 7.4 cm. 

CLASS III .» 133 

899. Basse-COR in B flat. Wood and brass. Six finger holes. One 

key. A fine example of ^e form. Dated 1810 France 

Length of model, 93.2 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 7.2 cm. 
Signed — "Coeffet e Gissin-Enri." 

900. Saxhorn, Barytone in E flat. Brass. Three pistons . France 

Length of model, 56.7 cm. Diameter of bell, 16.2 cm. 

Signed— "No. 40649, Ad. Sax et Cie., a Paris." 

901. Saxhorn, Barytone in B flat. Brass. Three pistons France 

Model length, 63.4 cm. ; width, 20.6 cm. Bell diameter, 20 cm. 

902. Basson RUSSE. Basshorn in C. Wood and brass. Bell in form 

of dragon's head. Six finger-holes. Three keys France 

The model length of this instrument, whose name is misleading, as it 
is neither a bassoon, nor Russian, is 100 cm. Diameter of bell, or 
in this instance, spread of jaws, 1 5 cm. 

Signed — "Dubois et Couturier, a Paris." 
J. A. Kappey in his "History of Military Music," p. 45, emphasizes a 
structural feature of the instrument as follows: — "I distinctly remember hav- 
ing seen in childhood an Austrian band which made a lasting impression on 
me. It had 5 or 6 serpents (basshorn, or basson russe) in the front rank, the 
bell of each being shaped like the open mouth of a huge serpent painted blood- 
red inside, with huge white teeth, and wagging tongue which moved up and 
down at every step. As to what or how the band played I remember nothing 
excepting those terrible open jaws!!" He also refers to an invention of the 
preceding century whereby the serpent (Case IX, No. 935) was so construct- 
ed that two straight tubes were arranged side by side as in the bassoon. 
Over Case VIII (Right to Left)* 

903. Serpent in C. Wood, covered with leather. Six finger-holes. 

Seventeenth century Italy 

The body of wood covered with leather, is in the shape of the figure 8, 

with mouth-piece section projecting from the top. 
Length, 262 cm. ; of model, 1 02 cm. Diameter of bell, 28.5 cm. 

904. CoRNO in B flat. Copper. Early date Italy 

The conical tube, 268 cm. in length, describes two close circles after 

which it expands into a long conical bell, 23 cm. in diameter. 
Model length, 133 cm.; width, 69.5 cm. 

905. Tromba in B flat. One piston, transposing to G flat Italy 

Length of model, 86 cm. Diameter of bell, 22.8 cm. 

Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

* If, in the future, the Collection is more adequately housed, the instruments which for 
physical reasons are now placed outside of the Cases will be brought under glass ,and appear 
in their proper classifications. 


906. Tromba a CHIAVI. Tenor in E flat. Brass. Three pistons Italy 

Length of model, 1 1 1 cm. Bell diameter, 1 8,5 cm. 

Made by G. Pelitti for use in the opera "Messalina." 

907. Tromba a chiavi in F. Brass. One piston Italy 

Length of model, 69 cm. ; width, 36 cm. Diameter of bell, 20 cm. 

Signed — "C. Sambruna, Milano." 

908. Tromba in E flat. Brass Italy 

The conical tube makes a double circular turn, 30 cm. below mouth- 

Length of model, 1 1 9 cm. Bell diameter, 1 2.5 cm. 
Signed — "C. Sambruna, Milano." 

909. Tromba. Bass in A. Brass Italy 

Two double circular turns, 25 cm. in diameter on opposite sides of 

body. Length of model, 54 cm. Bell diameter, 15.5 cm. 

910. Tromba in A. Brass Italy 

A boss, just above the bell, and two circles of tubing, serve as decora- 
tion. Length of model, 1 33 cm. Bell diameter, 1 2.8 cm. 

Made by Pelitti especially for the opera "Regina di Cipro." 

91 1. Tromba in E flat. Brass. One piston, transposing to B flat. . . .Italy 
The tube bends on itself bringing the mouth-piece in the middle. 
Length of model, 1 1 9 cm. Diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

9 1 2. Tromba. Bass. Copper. Trombone form Italy 

Length of model, 161.5 cm. Bell diameter, 14.8 cm. 

Signed — "Pelitti, Milano." 

913. PeLITTONI Faggatona. Contra-bass in F. Brass Italy 

The gilded body, fantastically curved, terminates in a bell, 46 cm. in 

diameter. Model length, 294 cm. 

Made by Pelitti, Milano, for theatrical use. 

914. Tromba in G flat. Brass, painted Italy 

The body resembles a serpent in motion. The bell turns abruptly up- 
wards. Length of model, 87 cm. Bell diameter, 1 4 by 16 cm. 

915. Tromba in B flat. Brass Italy 

The tube has one circular turn and an S-shaped curve. 

Length of model; 65 cm. Bell diameter, 12.2 cm. 
Signed — "C. Sambruna, Milano." 

916. Tromba in F. Brass Italy 

The tube bends closely on itself five times for 40 cm. of its model 

length, 74.7 cm. Bell diameter, 10 cm. 

Signed— "Pelitti. Milano." 


917. "Campione." Trumpet in D. Brass .Italy 

The serpentine tube makes eight graceful bends. 

Length of model, 1 16 cm. Bell diameter, 14 cm. 

918. Tromba-DOPPIA in D flat. Brass Italy 

Two conical tubes, each making one full turn, unite in a single mouth- 
piece. Lengths, 1 06 and 1 1 6 cm. Bell diameter, 2 1 cm. 

919. Tromba in E flat. Brass Italy 

A semi-circular tube, 194.5 cm. in length, ends in a French-horn bell, 

23 cm. in diameter. Width of model, 87 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

920. Tromba a CHIAVI in B flat. Brass. Three pistons Italy 

Length of model, 94 cm. Diameter of bell, 22.6 cm. 

Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

92 1 . Tromba a chiavi in A. Brass. Three pistons Italy 

Length of model, 92 cm. Diameter of bell, 9.8 cm. 

Signed — "C. Sambruna." 

922. CORNO. Similar to No. 904 Italy 

Length of model, 1 02 cm. Brass bell, 28.5 cm. in diameter. 

923. Serpent in C. Similar to No. 903 Italy 

With the exception of No. 923, the instruments from 904 to 930 were 

designed for use in a series of pageants in connection with the Festival at 
Pompeii in 1883. In spite of their unusual forms all of them are playable and 
display the usual musical possibilities of their type, while several are reproduc- 
tions of instruments used in early Roman ceremonials. 

Over Door between Cases VIII and IX. 

924. Tromba a chiavi in B flat. Brass, painted. Three pistons .... Italy 
The body, painted to resemble a reptile, ends in a bell representing a 

snake's head, with open jaws plentifully supplied with teeth. 
Length of model, 88 cm. Width of open jaws, 1 3.9 cm. 

925. Tromba a chiavi in B flat. Brass, painted Italy 

Similar to the preceding. Length of model, 85 cm. Spread of jaws, 

19 cm. 

926. Tromba a chiavi in B flat. Brass, painted Italy 

The body, painted dull green, describes a circle and ends in a dragon's 

head. Length, 304 cm.; of model, 91 cm. Diameter of mouth 
cavity, 24 cm. 

927. Tromba a chiavi in E flat. Brass, painted Italy 

Length of model, 69 cm. Width, 7 cm. Diameter of bell, 7 cm. 


928. Tromba a CHIAVI in D flat. Brass, painted Italy 

Length of model, 70 cm. Width, 58 cm. 

929. Tromba in E flat. Patinated brass. The bell is in the form of 

a lion's head in repousse work Italy 

Length of model, 63 cm. Width, 46 cm. 

930. Tromba, Baritone in G flat. Brass, painted Italy 

Length, 1 93 cm. ; of model, 70.5 cm. 

TTie conical tube bends once on itself. Bell turns outward. Six finger- 
holes. Length, 345 cm. ; of model, 1 80. Bell diameter, 1 7 cm. 
The last seven instruments, products of Pelitti's redundant fancy and 
skill in the reproduction of early forms, flanked by No. 902 on the right, and 
No. 93 1 on the left, form a veritable dragon's den. 


(Continuation of Class III, Section L.) 

931. Ophicleide, Bass in B flat, with crook in A. Brass. Nine 

keys,. Bell in form of a dragon's head Spain 

The bell is exquisitely decorated in gold designs, against a dull-red 

Length of model, 1 20 cm. Spread of jaws, 24 cm. 

Signed— 'Bernareggi, Ynstrumentista de Camara de 
S. M. a Barcelona." 

The Ophicleide (Fr. Ophicleide; Ger. Ophikleide), a bass-horn of 
deep pitch, was invented by Halary of Paris, in 1817. Although 
it was adopted by leading composers, and despite the improvements 
of Labbaye (1822), after 1835 it was superseded by the Tuba. 

932. Saxhorn. Baritone in B flat. TTiree rotary valves. 

Model length, 75.5 cm. Bell diameter, 19.6 cm. . .United States 

933. Ophicleide, Alto in E flat. Brass. Nine keys France 

Length of model, 91 cm. Bell diameter, 18.5 cm. 

Signed — "David, a Paris." 

934. Bass-horn in B flat. Wood and brass. Six finger-holes and 

four keys France 

Model length, 95 cm. Bell diameter, 16.5 cm. 

935. Serpent in C. Wood, covered with varnished leather. Crook 

and mouth-piece of silver-plated brass. Six finger-holes. Sev- 
enteenth century. A perfect example of the t3T3e France 

Length, 226 cm. ; of model, without crook, 84.5 cm. 

To all intents and purposes the Serpent (Ital. Serpenione ; Ger. Schlang- 
enhorn) has become obsolete. It has suffered the fate of many other repre- 
sentatives of Class III, and, like them, has given place to instruments of greater 
efficiency. The Rev. Canon F. W. Galpin, Witham (Essex), England, has 
mastered its technique, and is frequently called upon to play the part assigned 
it in Mendelssohn's "St. Paul," when that work is given in London. 


936. Saxhorn. Baritone in B flat. German silver mountings. Ellip- 

tical model. Three rotary valves Germany 

This instrument, of very beautiful tone quality, has a model length of 

74 cm. Diameter of bell, 22.5 cm. 
Signed — "J. Altrichter, Frankfort, a. O., Hof Instrumenten Fabrik 

Sr. Konigl. Hoheit d. Prinzen Friedrich Carl v. Preussen." 

937. "Cor d' Harmonie" in E flat. Brass. Three piston valves. .France 
The tube is bent as in the preceding type. TTie bell resembles that of 

the orchestral horn. It is frequently used as a substitute for that 
instrument. Length of model, 72 cm. Diameter of bell, 27.8 cm. 
Signed — "No. 2 1 1 30. Adolphe Sax. Brevete a Paris. 
Fleur de la M'son Milre de TEmpereurs." 

938. Saxhorn. Baritone in E flat. German silver. Four rotary valves. 

Model length, 72cm. Bell diameter, 1 8.6 cm United States 

Signed — "J. Lathrop Allen, No. 1 7, Harvard Place, Boston." 

939. Saxhorn. Baritone in B flat. Brass. Three pistons England 

Length of model, 63.8 cm. Diameter of bell, 23.3 cm. 

Signed — "Henry Potter and Co., 30 Charing Cross, London." 

940. Euphonium in B flat. Brass. Four piston valves, the fourth 

being a transposing piston England 

Length of model, 68.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 25 cm. 
Signed — "F. Besson, London." 

941. Saxhorn. Bass in B flat. Brass. Three rotary valves. .United States 
Length of model, 103.5 cm. Bell diameter, 19 cm. 

942. Saxhorn. Bass in B flat. Three rotary valves United States 

Length of model, 103.5 cm. Diameter of bell, 19cm. Imperfect. 

943. Saxhorn. Bass in B flat. Brass. Three rotary valves . United States 
Length of model, 1 04 cm. Diameter of bell, 24 cm. 

Nos. 941-2-3 are of the "Bell over shoulder" model. For several 
decades, beginning with 1860, this form was quite in vogue in this 
country. The tone was directed backward, which was a distinct 
advantage for army bands. ^ 

944. Saxhorn. Baritone in F. Brass. German silver mountings . . France 
Five rotary valves, four worked by levers, and the fifth, a trans- 
posing valve, by a thumbscrew France 

Length of model, 1 03 cm. Diameter of bell, 2 1 .3 cm. 

Signed — "Gautrot, a Paris." 
Made for Ganongia y cia,, and taken to Funchal, Madeira, Feb. 18, 
1836, for the use of the "Sociedade Philharmonica des Artistas." 

1 In "The Sakbut, etc.," p. 21, foot-note, Galpin, referring to the trombone, states: "An 
instrument with the bell over the shoulder, in a line with the slide, was in use in Belgium 
circa 1830, and other bizarre models have been tried from time to time." 


945. Saxhorn. Baritone in F. Brass. German silver mountings. 

Three pump valves Germany 

Length of model, 85 cm. Diameter of bell, 20.3 cm. 
Signed — "A. Langhamer, Instr. in Bremen." 

946. Bombardon. Bass in E flat. Brass. Three pistons England 

Length of model, 72 cm. Diameter of bell, 29.5 cm. 

Signed — "F. Wallace and Son, Ltd., Paris and London, N. W." 

947. Euphonium in B flat. Brass. German silver mountings. 

Three rotary valves Austria 

Length of model, 75 cm. Diameter of bell, 22.3 cm. 

Signed — "K. K. Hof Instrumenten Fabrik, Leopold 
Uhlman und Sohn in Wien." 

948. Helicon. Contrabass in E flat. Brass. German silver mount- 

ings. Three rotary valves United States 

In all probability, the date of the invention of this instrument falls in 
the first half of the nineteenth century. It is circular in form and 
rests on the shoulders, the mouth-piece being in the circle. This 
particular example has a conical tube, wound once on itself, and 
then running in a series of long and short curves to the mouth-piece. 
The crooks controlled by the valves add materially to the vibrating 
length. Lengths of curves, 340 and 397.5 cm. 
Diameter of model, 9 1 .2 cm. ; of bell, 29.8 cm. 

949. Helicon. Contrabass in E flat. Brass. Three pistons . . . England 
The tube, of greater diameter than in the preceding, winds twice on 

itself, and runs to mouth-piece as in No. 948. 
Diameter of model, 1 1 8 cm. ; of bell, 39 cm. 

Signed — "S. Arthur Chappel, 52 New Pond Road, 
London, N. W." 

In a general way it may be stated that all the principles of tone-produc- 
tion embodied in the instruments in Class III were known to the ancients. 
Even the date of the introduction of finger-holes falls in the days of Egyptian 

The development of higher musical ideals has led to the perfecting of 
the various types, for, in this domain the economic law of supply and demand 
has been, and is, operative. The increase in virtuosity has led to improve- 
ments in the controlling mechanism, and a wider knowledge of the laws of 
acoustics has resulted in the removal of many obvious defects. Possibly no 
improvements are of greater value than the application of the Boehm System 
to the instruments known as "the wood-wind," and of valve mechanism to the 
group generically known as the "brass." 


The somewhat exaggerated demands made by modern composers is re- 
sulting in the emergence of new instruments, some of which will be welcomed 
as valuable acquisitions, while many — possibly the most — will sink into "in- 
nocuous desuetude." It may be that a greater advance will be made by the 
rehabilitation of obsolete instruments, like the Flauto d* amore and the Oboe 
d* amore (Fr. Hautbois d* amour; Qer. Liebesoboe). TTiat such rehabilita- 
tions are imminent is shown by the score of Die Frau ohne Schatien (The 
Woman without a Shadow), an opera by Richard Strauss, produced in 
Vienna in November, 1919. In this he incorporated the obsolete Bassett-horn 
and a glass harmonica. 

Class IV. Instruments with Vibrating String, or Strings. 

Section A. One Vibrating Plucked String. Monochord. 

Section B. Vibrating Plucked Strings running free. Early Harp; Lyre. 

Section C. Vibrating Plucked Strings running free, whose pitches may 
be changed (a) by hooks, (b) by mechanism. Haken-harfe; Modern Pedal 

Section D. Vibrating Plucked Strings running close to Resonator. 
Couched Harp. 

Section E. Vibrating Plucked Strings running over Frets and Bridges. 
Tamboura; Lute; Mandoline; Guitar. 

That a string in a state of tension could be made to sound when forcibly 
plucked by the fingers, or a plectrum, was discovered at a very remote date. 
Closely following this initial discovery, came an appreciation of the fact that 
the resonance of the tone was sensibly increased when the string was stretched 
over a hollow box or gourd, and, again, that the quality of the tone was 
improved owing to the added richness of the overtone series. Moreover, an 
extended knowledge of the scientific principles underlying this method of tone- 
production is revealed by the examples of these types of which we have records, 
and more concrete evidence in the instruments themselves. 

Possibly no instrument can boast of so distinguished a history as the 
Harp. Whether it originated in so simple a type as the primitive musical bow 
with its one string, or not, we meet it in the earliest civilizations. In its funda- 
mental essentials, the earliest form was identical with our modern instrument, 
with the exception of the devices for shortening the strings. 

That David, through his skillful manipulation of its strings, could move 
the moody Saul, is one of the earliest recorded testimonials to its charm. The 
belief that it is the only instrument accorded a place in Heaven must have been 
based on a higher valuation of its musical worth than obtains at present, for 
we find its proper place as a member of the orchestra. Its graceful shape has 
always appealed to the artist, while it was a favorite instrument with Victorian 
novelists. It has a very extended compass, running from CC flat to e flat"". 



In the ancient and primitive Harp but one tone could be produced from 
each string. This may be taken as a general definition of the type. The 
graceful shape of the modern instrument was developed in the days of antiquity 
for structural reasons, and for the convenience of the performer, not from any 
scientific necessity. In many Oriental and primitive types the strings are not 
free, so they may be plucked by the fingers of either hand, but run closely over 
the resonance-box. They may be defined as "couched" harps (see No. 1000). 

950. Gourd Resonators, used in primitive string instruments to increase 

the resonance Cameroon, W. Africa 

(George Schwab.) 

95 1 . Musical Bow. One string. Resonator of gourd 

'. St. Christopher Is., Brit. W. Indies 

Like many of the instruments used by the negroes in the West Indies 
this appears to be a mixture of several African forms. Shorter than 
the oiita of S. Africa, it resembles it in its stringing; in other respects 
it is almost identical with the African gubo. The alternative term 
cocolas, given by the negroes, may be derived from kok^lo, the 
name of a Congoese harp. 
Length of bow, 1 02.4 cm. ; of string, 92 cm. 

952. Gendang-BAWOL Bamboo. Two fibre strings Borneo 

Length, 47 cm. ; diameter, 4.4 cm. 

953. Marovany, or Valiha. Bamboo. Eight strings cut from body. 

Alternative spelling, marouvana Madagascar 

Length, 58.5 cm. ; of strings, 40 cm. ; diameter of body, 4 cm. 

954. MvET. Three imperfect specimens of type described under No. 956. 

955. Valiha, or Marovany. Bamboo Madagascar 

Sixteen strings, cut from body, are stretched over bridges of pith in 

positions indicated by bands of red yarn. 
Length, 145 cm.; average length of string, 40 cm.; diameter, 6.7 cm. 

956. MvET. Slightly bowed body. Four strings . . . . Fr. Congo, Africa 
The strings, cut from body, run over a high wedge-shaped bridge. 
Length, 152 cm.; of strings (average), 100.2 cm.; diameter, 2.6 cm. 

957. MvET. Other names, mver, mverk and mv'ot. .French Congo, Africa 
The body, with ovoid cross section, is 197.7 cm. in length, with a 

diameter of 1.5 by 3 cm. It has two gourd resonators, 13.5 cm. 
in diameter, placed in the middle under the bridge. Occasionally 
one is placed at each end. The strings are in bad condition. 

958. Gendang-BULU Sumatra 

Section of bamboo, over which run three wire strings. Carved peg- 
head at one end and three long tuning-pegs at the other. Two 
low bridges. 

Length, 78.5 cm.; of body, 52 cm.; diameter, 12.3 cm. 


959. Couched Harp, or Psaltery Name and source unknown 

Body of bamboo, or reed, to the under side of which the upper section 

of a large bottle-gourd is attached. The tube is decorated with 
broad lines in designs quite like the suling (No. 545, Case VI). 
There is no authoritative data on which the existence of this instru- 
ment, in Java ccin be securely based. The sadiou of Cambodia, a 
monochord with a wire string, in every other respect is similar. 
(Knosp, Ueber annamitische Musik, p. 159.) 

960. Ukeke-LAAU, or Ukeke. (uke — to strike) Hawaii 

Flat, narrow strip of light-colored wood over which run three gut 

strings. The first name is given by Mahillon,^ the second, the one 
more generally used, by Balfour.^ The player holds the instrument 
in his teeth and plucks the strings with his finger or a plectrum. The 
result is said by Mahillon to give great joy to the object of a lover's 
worship. Length, 57.6 cm.; width, 3.9 cm.; thickness, 9 mm. 

961. Zeze, or Sese. One string. Three frets. No resonator. . .E. Africa 
The slightly rounded body, of a hard dark wood, has three rudely 

fashioned frets at one end over which runs the string, which is 
fastened to a peg at each end. It is possible to produce five tones. 
A very rude specimen. 

Length, 48 cm. ; width, 2.9 cm. ; height of frets, 2 cm. 

This instmment is in its present position for ethnological reasons, to 
which purely scientific classifications occasionally must pay defer- 
ence. (See Case XII, Nos. 1 186 and 1 194.) 

962. Ngkratong. Wooden body. Four strings Borneo 

The irregular rectangular body carries four standards from one of 

which run four strings, which, braced against two others, end in 
the fourth. Rude decorations, including a bird at one end and a 
bird's tail at the other. 
Length, 28 cm. ; width, 1 to 1 7.2 cm. ; height, 1 1 .8 cm. 

963. Psaltery, or Harp. Wood. Palm-fibre Atonga Tribe, Africa 

Six palm-fibre strings run over a trough-like wooden body, ending in 

a handle and resting on a gourd resonator.* 
Length, 61.9 cm.; width, 5.7 cm.; height, with gourd, 24.1 cm. 

964. KiNANDA. Typical cane-psaltery, gourd resonator. . .Congo, Africa 
Of fifteen lengths of cane, held together at the ends by transverse 

joints of the same material, twelve have very narrow longitudinal 

2 Mahillon, Catalogue, Vol. Ill, p. 346. 

3 Balfour, "The Natural History of the Musical Bow," pp. 81-83. 

* Ankermann, Af. Mus. Inst., p. 29, gives a full description and illustration of this 
instrument, but assigns it no name. The fact that the author but rarely gives the native 
names of instruments is the only valid criticism that can be made of his valuable contri- 


strips cut from body. These strips, tightened by a transverse length 
of cane forced under them at each end, produce a mixed tonal se- 
quence, but of incisive quality. A similar procedure is followed 
on the under side, but the tension strip is in the middle. The struc- 
ture, either side up, rests on an oval gourd resonator. With minor 
variations this description applies to the entire type. 
Length, 36 cm. ; width, 20.9 cm. ; height, 1 7. 1 cm. 

965. Inanga. Wooden body. Eleven strings .... Urundi Tribe, Africa 
A string, generally of ox-sinew, umur^a, runs through holes, utuio- 

boro, utusaiago, and tw inanga, in the ends of the scow-shaped 
body. (Sachs, p. 195). Authorities differ as to the number of 
strings, but it must be remembered that in indigenous types there is 
little standardization. 
Length, 38 cm. ; width, 1 5 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

966. Cane-psaltery. Thirteen joints of river reed. (Toy) .... Egypt 
. Lengths of reeds, 21 to 30 cm. ; width of each, 1 .9 cm. 

Floss-psalierium, "raft-psaltery," is the designation of type given by 
Curt Sachs. ^ 

967. Cane-psaltery, or Dulcimer Dahomey, W. Africa 

This most artistic psaltery has the same number of joints and the struc- 
tural characteristics of No. 964. The vibrating lengths are weighted 
by wrapping, or "over-spinning," with narrow strips of cane. Ten- 
sion secured by wedges, which produce a buzzing sound. 

Pitches : — b, d, -, -, b flat, g', b', g'\ and a flat'. 

Length, 50.5 cm. ; width, 20.9 cm. 

The definition, "couched harp," would apply to this, if the strings are 

plucked; if struck, as they frequently are, the instrument would 

figure as a dulcimer. 

968. KoRRO. (Top of Case) Mandingo Tribe, N. W. Africa 

The body, a half-section of gourd, is pierced by a wooden rod, of the 

length of which 19 cm. project at the rear and 64 cm. in front, 
forming the neck. Three bars, two longitudinal and one trans- 
verse, each 30.8 cm. long,, run through and over the skin head. 
From the back of body eighteen strings of garon bark are led over 
a high bridge and fastened to gut rings on the neck. By pushing 
these rings along the neck the tension is increased : a favorite device. 
A sheet of tin, bearing the emblem "Palmer's Biscuits," buzzes to 
Length, 1 1 8 cm. ; diameter of gourd, 44 cm. ; depth, 20 cm. 

° P. 144. 


969. Kasso. Gourd. Fourteen gut strings Senegal, W. Africa 

Similar to the preceding. Length, 91.2 cm.; width, 41.1 cm; depth, 

25.5 cm. 

970. Psaltery. Wooden body. Carved. Eight wire strings Java 

The body, stained a rich dark brown, represents a goose with spread 

vsangs, resting on its back. At one end the neck is curved sufficiently 
to allow it to view its tail at the other extremity. The strings, 
fastened to iron pins at one end, run over the thin wooden belly to 
tall wooden tuning-pegs. 

In principle it corresponds to the Javanese ketjapi, but in detail it is 
quite distinct. It may be a sophisticated variant. 

Length, 98.8 cm. ; width, 22.8 cm. ; depth, 7.9 cm. 

97 1 . Kasso. Calabash body. Ten fibre strings Senegambia, Africa 

Calabash body, with antelope-skin. Ten strings from fibrous bark of 

the garon tree. 

Length, 77 cm; diameter of gourd, 30.4 cm.; depth, 20.9 cm. 

As the strings run free, these and many of the instruments immediately 
following are of the harp family. The k<^sso is held against the 
body, with the resonator turned outward, and the strings are plucked 
by the fingers of both hands. The following naive description of 
the psaltery and harp and the difference between them, is interesting 
if not conclusive : 

"This is the diversity and discord betweene ye harpe and the psaltery, 
in ye psaltery is an holow tree, and of that same tree the sound 
Cometh upward; and the strings be smit downward, and soundeth 
upward; and in the harpe, the hollownesse of the tree is beneath."° 

The old English name for the psaltery is Sawtrey. "With shawms 
and sawtreys," "Fairie Queen," Spenser (1552-1591). 

972. Nanga. Six-stringed harp Niam-Niam, Central Africa 

Wood, covered with parchment. Base of post covered with lizsu'd- 

skin. It is of the ombi type. Length, 47 cm; height, 37 cm. 

973. Agong. Bamboo. Two strings, cut from body . . Philippine Islands 
Of the valiha type. The strings — ^vibrating length, 41.7 cm. — are cut 

from the cylindrical body, 60.8 cm. long, and raised by low bridges 
at either end. The krumba of Nias Island is also of this type. 

974. KiSSAR. Lyre type Uganda, Central Africa 

The body of hard wood resembles a shallow oval bowl. From the 

back, two posts of polished hard wood diverge as they are led up 
to a cross bar uniting them at the top. The belly is of lizard-skin. 

« Eastwood and Wright, "Bible Word-Book," p. 289, quoting "Batman vppon Bartho- 
lome," fol. 423-b (ed. 1582). 



The six strings terminate in rings encircling the cross-bar. The 
strings are tuned by means of these rings, as in the Greek cithara. 
Length, 54 cm. ; width, 31 to 40 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

975. Harp Upper Congo Region, Central Africa 

Wood, with parchment belly. Five fibre strings. 

Length, 55 cm. ; greatest diameter, 29 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 

976. Ombi, or Bambur. Leather covered body. Five fibre strings . Africa 
The body is round, and the string-post is inserted directly into one end. 
Length of body, 36 cm. ; of string-post, 38.2 cm. 

This instrument was collected by M. Casman. 

977. KiSSAR, Of ruder construction than No. 975. . .Soudan, N. Africa 
The rawhide belly is round. The posts, bound with leather rings, are 

mere sticks. Length, 38.6 cm. ; diameter of belly, 1 8.5 cm. 

978. Wambee. Harp type. Wood. Five strings Congo, Africa 

To the bottom of a scow-shaped resonance-box, five cane rods of 

graduated length, bound together in the middle and slightly curving 
upwards at the free ends, are secured. Five strings of tendril run 
from the back of the body to the top of these rods. This is the 
typical form of construction. 
Dimensions of body, 1 4 by 22 by 6 cm. ; length of rods, 70 to 74.7 cm. 

979. Ngomo. Ombi type. Wood. Eight strings . . Fan Tribe, Fr. Congo 
The rectangular body, with slightly curving bottom, is covered with 

antelope-skin with the hair retained. A rudely carved head of a 
hippopotamus forms the arm of a T-shaped projection at the upper 
end. The curved string-post is inserted at the intersection of body 
and this projection. Eight tuning-pegs. 
Length of body, 56 cm. ; of post, 53 cm. ; of carving, 8 cm. 

980. Wambee. Wood, Five strings Cameroon, W. Africa 

The body, open at both ends, has a triangular cross-section with the 

belly for its base. This belly projects beyond the upper end of 
body. Usual rods, in this case running along the apex of the in- 
verted triangle. 
Length of body, 25.9 cm. ; of belly, 33 cm. ; of rods, 40 to 63.3 cm. 
(George Schwab.) 

981. Wambee. Similar to the preceding. . . .Upper Congo* Cent. Africa 
The body is rounded at upper end and also in its cross-section. The 

belly is slit at a point 8 cm. from lower end of body, leaving an 
aperture — 9 by 15 cm. It is colored a pale orange-red. These 
examples are exceedingly rude in construction, but they "soothe 
the savage breast." 

Length of body, 2 1 .3 cm. ; of belly, 28 cm. ; of rods, 35 to 52 cm. 

Collected by M. Casman. 


982. KiSSAR. Tortoise shell, decorated Ababa Tribe, W. Africa 

Seven strings. The decorations are a star and crescent done in red 

lines, the former being pierced with six sound-holes. From the 
posts hang tassels of cowrie-shells. Quite like the Greek cithara in 
form. Length, 55 cm. ; width, 40 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 

983. RoTTE, or Rotta. Wood. Six strings Old German 

The elongated, narrow, lyre-shaped body is 79 cm. in height and 21 

cm. in width. From the slightly curved arm at the top the center 
section is open, diminishing at the round lower end, 42 cm. below 
the top. Six strings run from a peg at the bottom of the body to 
tuning-pegs in cross-bar. The latter are modern, as in the original 
they were missing. 

The rotte is an early application of the lyre type, though differing in 
form. This is an exact reproduction of the only specimen in exist- 
ence. The original was found in the grave of a Suabian nobleman 
of the fifth, or seventh century at Oberflacht, Wiirtemberg, and is 
preserved in the Volkerkunde Museum, Berlin. 

An old Scandinavian instrument, the tallharpa ( /a/-horsehair) , with 
F-holes, and 4 strings (tuned in fourths), is similar to the rotte. A 
cut of this instrument is given by Sachs, p. 374. 

984. Cithara. Wood. Eleven strings Italy 

Copied from a wall-painting at Pompeii. This is an exact reproduc- 
tion of the instrument shown in the Apollo Citharoedus, in the Hall 
of the Busts, No. 277, Vatican, Rome. 

Length, 67 ; of body, 28 ; of cross-bar, 35 cm. ; width, 28 to 22 cm. 

985. Lyre. Wood. Six strings Italy 

Reproduction of the ancient type by Pelitti, Milano. 

Length, 56 cm. ; width, 25 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

Most of the instruments in the following group are played with plec- 
tra, but, with exceptions which will be noted, they display the struc- 
ture of the couched harp and produce but one tone from each string. 

986. ICHI-GEN-KIN, or SuMA-KOTO Japan 

Wood. One string. Four ivory flying birds on the body indicate 

the position of the principal tones. It may be classified as a mono- 
chord. It usually rests on a small table with four legs and is played 
with cylindrical plectra of ivory called k^da. 
Length, 1 09.3 cm. ; width, 8 to 1 1 cm. ; thickness, 9 mm. to 1 .3 cm. 

987. Cai dan bau. Monochord harp Anam 

The rectangular body, of wood, is open at the base. It is lacquered 

black, and wonderfully inlaid with mother-of-pearl in intricate de- 


signs. A wire string runs from one end of belly to a neck project- 
ing at the other, and bent to an angle of 30 degrees. It is played 
with a bamboo plectrum held between the thumb and fore-finger 
of the right hand. The left hand changes the curve of the elastic 
neck, thus producing many tones. The word bau^ Anamese for 
gourd, indicates its use for a resonator. 

Length of body, 80 cm. ; of neck, 75 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. 

It must be borne in mind that the instruments from Anam, Cambodia, 
and Siam, displayed in this Collection, were made for exhibition at 
the Paris Exposition of 1900, and are much more elaborately fin- 
ished than those in common use among the people. 

988. Nl-GEN-KIN. "Two-stringed kin" Japan 

Body of ki^i wood. Two silken strings tuned in unison (f sharp). 
Length, 108 cm.; width, 1 1 cm.; depth, 3.5 cm. 

989. ROKU-KIN, or ROKU-GEN-KIN Japan 

Camphor-wood. Six fine silken strings. Tuned by movable bridges. 
The strings are alternately green and black. 

Length, 92.5 cm.; width, 1 1.5 to 13.5 cm.; thickness, 2 cm. 

990. Megyoung, or Megyun (crocodile) Burmah 

The rectangular body of wood, elaborately carved, gilded, and in- 
laid with bits of glass, is roughly imitative of the crocodile. The 
ends rise upward and bear, the one the head, with open jaws, the 
other, the tail. TTie base is flat. Over eleven bridges, three gut 
strings are drawn. Played with plectra. On account of its weak 
tone, it is becoming obsolete. 

Length, 97.4 cm.; width, 10.5 cm.; height (at end), 24.1 cm. 

991. SoUNG. Harp type. Wood. Thirteen strings Burmah 

TTie boat-shaped body, 74 cm. long, 16 cm. wide, and 10 cm. deep, 

is lacquered and gilded. The gilded belly is of finely tanned 
buffalo-skin. From a ridge on the belly, thirteen cord strings run 
to rings encircling the lower part of the gracefully curved post — 
78.4 cm. long — the lower end of which forms the ridge, or mid- 
rib, just mentioned. The belly has four sound-holes. 
A cut of this exceedingly beautiful instrument appears in the last 
edition of the "Century Dictionary." 

992. Han-koto. "Half-koto" Japan 

The typical Jioto body is decorated with red silk tassels. It has thir- 
teen strings running over adjustable bridges. Played with isume 

Length, 91 cm.; width, 22 to 23.5 cm.; greatest depth, 6 cm. 


992a. K'in. Wood. Seven strings China 

This instrument, of the psaltery type, is said to have been invented by 
Fu Hsi. The body, of "wu t'ung w^ood, is 127 cm. long, from 14 
to 20 cm. w^ide, and 6 cm. deep. The top (firmament) is slightly 
rounded and the bottom (earth) is flat. In its earliest form it had 
five strings, representing the elements; the present number is seven. 
These strings, of silk, run through jade pins at the bottom of the 
wider end, and are led over a bridge to the other end, where they are 
fastened to two large pegs at the bottom by means of which they 
can be drawn taut. The jade is not green in color, but of the cloudy 
yellow which distinguishes the "imperial" from the common jade. 
The 1 3 studs on the face represent the 1 2 moons and the intercalary 
moon. The ^'I'n is played with the fingers. It is no longer in gen- 
eral use, on account of the difficulty of manipulation, and functions 
only in ceremonials at court. This example has a case of bluish- 
green satin embroidered with Chinese characters in black. Tliis 
case serves as a background for the instrument as its hangs.^ 
(Marvin A. Ives.) 

993. KoMOUNKO. Koto type. Kiri wood Corea 

The body, 152 cm. long, 17.7 cm. wide at the ends, increasing to 

20.3 cm. at the middle, has a flat base in which is a rectangular 
sound-hole, 17 cm. long, and 2.5 cm. wide. The top is rounded, 
increasing from 2.1 cm. at ends to 7.7 cm. in middle section. 
Angus Hamilton, in "Korea," p. 166, speaks of the tone of the 
komounko as "a melancholy, discordant wail," only equaled by 
the bowed-instrument, nageum (?), whose lure he describes as fol- 
lows: "The awful screech of this unhappy viol overwhelms me, 
even in recollection." He probably refers to the haggum (Case 
XII, No. 1247) which could easily qualify. 

994. Yo k'in. Same type as No. 992 Japan 

Lacquered wood, decorated with metal ornaments. Thirteen pairs of 

fine wire strings. TTie upper surface is convex. 
Length, 68.8 cm. ; width, 22.8 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

995. Yamada-KOTO. An unusually fine specimen Japan 

Camphor-wood, lacquered and inlaid. Thirteen strings of silk run- 
ning over adjustable bridges. Played with the fingers and ivory 
tsume. The body rests on four feet, from which it rises in a slight, 
graceful arch.* 

Length, 1 89 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; height, 1 5 cm. 

■^ For detailed information regarding the k'in and its functions consult Van Aalst, 
"Chinese Music," pp. 59-62. 

8 Details of the various tunings of the koto are given by Polak in Die Harmonisierung 
indischer, turkischer und japanischer Melodien, pp. 59-62. For interesting facts concerning 
the tuning of this instrument consult Chart, Case XVI, Nos. 1455, 1456. 



996. Yamada-KOTO. Miniature model in case Japan 

Length, 39.2 cm. ; width, 8.3 cm. ; height, 5 cm. 

997. SoNO-KOTO. In structure similar to No. 995 Japan 

Wood, lacquered and inlaid. Thirteen strings of colored silk running 

over bridges. Reproduction, made for the Columbian Exposition 
(1893) by Lyon and Healy, Chicago, and presented to the Uni- 
versity. It is the oldest form of the koto. (2000 B. C.) 

Length, ] 90 cm. ; width, 24 cm. ; height, 1 7 cm. 

The names of the various parts of the koto are: }(oto no ji — ^bridge; 
koto no — strings; and koto no tsume, plectrum.' 

998. Cai dan thap luc, or Thap luc Anam 

The trapezoidal body — 98 cm. long, and 13 to 21.5 cm. wide at the 

larger end — rests on two short legs. The sound-board is convex. 
A band of ivory, with incised designs in black, encircles the larger 
end of sound-board. Sixteen ((hap luc) brass wire strings, fastened 
inside the body, run through holes in this board, extending from a 
low ridge over moveable triangular bridges to tuning-pegs at the 
side of the smaller end. The wood is very light, both in weight 
and color, and, following the outline of the instrument, a band of 
some dark colored wood richly inlaid with mother-of-pearl serves 
as decoration. Played with the fingers. 
It will be noticed that, as the bridges run parallel to the holes through 
which the strings are drawn, the strings are divided into two groups. 
The one to the left gives the pentatonic scale of B from f sharp to 
f sharp""; the group to the right a series, partly diatonic, partly 
chromatic, with constantly changing suggestions of tonality, all 
within the limit of a fourth (f-b). This instrument is of the same 
type as all descendants of the Chinese she. The round upper sur- 
face represents the heavens, the lower flat surface the earth. Be- 
cause the earth is under the heavens it rests on this flat surface, not 
because it is more practical. (See Knosp., p. 146.) 

999. Cheng, or Tcheng. Similar to 998 .China 

This specimen is undecorated save at the ends. It is the diminutive 

form of the she, which, originally having fifty strings, now has but 
Length, 97.5 cm.; width, 13.5 to 20 cm. ^ 

(B. S.) 

» Sachs, p. 231. 
10 Van Aalst, p. 62. 

■■ "Tw. ■*«'. 


1 000. ChanK. Couched harp Persia 

The upright body with string-post outlines a right-angle triangle. The 

hard, dark wood body is decorated with the head of an antelope 
and several curious designs in incised lines. The post terminates 
in a carved head of the same animal. The strings run from the 
bottom (over and close to the resonance-box), to tuning-pegs set 
spirally in the string-post, which rises 47.6 cm. above the body. 
This is neither the typical modern, nor the ancient form, and the 
number of strings does not correspond. 
Height, 96 cm. ; width, 29.6 to 1 5 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 

1001 . Harp. Wood. Seven free strings of gut Persia 

The strings run free from the sloping side of the triangular body to 

the string-post, which projects from the upper part of the body, 

47.6 cm., as in the preceding instrument. Ornamental triangular 

Total height, 85 cm. ; width, 5 to 3 1 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 
These harps were exhibited at the Columbian Exposition and were 

obtained through the Persian Commissioner. 

1002. Harp Philippine Islands 

Bamboo body. Twenty-seven strings of twisted hemp. Tuning-pegs 

of split bamboo. This is the first example of the modern type. 
Rude as it is, in it is shown the chief structural advance over the 
original type, viz., the introduction of the front pillar, through which 
the rigidity lacking in the Egyptian type is secured. The body has 
three rectangular sound holes at equidistant points in the back. 
Height of front pillar, 1 38 cm. Width — the distance from the top 
of resonance body to the tip of the front pillar — 72.2 cm. This 
definition applies to the measurements of all harps. 

1003. Arpa a NOTTOLINI (Eng. Hooked Harp; Fr. Harpe a 

crochets; Ger. Hakenharfe) . Eighteenth century Italy 

Body elaborately inlaid with ivory. Thirty-seven strings. Twenty- 
three strings can be raised in pitch by turning the hooks. The harp 
derives its name from this device, which, introduced in the second 
half of the seventeenth century, was the first step in the direction 
of the modern pedal mechanism. It still persists in certain localities. 
The front pillar ends in a carving of a female head, gilded. The 
sound-board is pierced with six groups of small sound-holes form- 
ing rosettes. 
Height of front pillar, 144 cm.; width, 73.7 cm. 



1004. Harfe. (Eng. Harp; Fr. Harpe; Ital. Arpa). Seventeenth 

century Germany 

Rectangular body with straight pillar. Twelve strings. 
Height, 60 cm. ; width, 29.3 cm. ; of sound-board, 32 to 54 cm. 
Srealn^e, old German for harp (harpfe). Schalbwe (Eng. Swallow) 

is another early designation. 

Die herpfe heizzet sivalive. "Titurel," 2946. (Sachs, p. 367.) 

1005. Early Irish Harp, or "Minstrel's Harp" Ireland 

This reproduction of the famous "O'Brien Harp" — not of King Brian 

Borumna — was made by Lyon and Healy of Chicago, for the 
Columbian Exposition in that city in 1893, and presented by them 
to the University. It has a curved front pillar and the cross-bar 
curves downwards instead of upwards as usual. The broad, taper- 
ing sound-board is pierced with four circular sound-holes, and is 
decorated with incised geometric designs. 

Length of curved front-pillar, 94.5 cm.; width, 69.7 cm.; of sound 
board, 31 cm., at base, to 12 cm. at tip. 

Nos. 1005 to 1010 are placed on top of Case. 

] 006. Modern Irish Harp. Bent front pillar. Thirty strings . . . England 

This harp, very appropriately painted green and decorated with 

shamrocks, is modeled on the old type. Small pivoted bridges of 

brass may be turned so as to raise the pitch of each string a semitone. 

Height, 99 cm. ; width, 57 cm. ; of sound-board, 2.7 to 8.9 cm. 

Signed — "J. G. Morley, London." 

1007. Harpe a PEDALES. (Eng. Pedal Harp; Ital. Arpa a pedali; 

Ger. Pedalharfe) France 

Wood, with elaborately carved head and front pillar. Thirty-eight 
gut strings. Seven pedals operate a hook mechanism which changes 
the pitch of the strings, a device first used by Hochbrucker in 1 720. 
Height, 165 cm.; width, 88 cm.; of sound-board, 35.5 to 8.9 cm. 
Signed — "Naderman, a Paris, 1 790." 

1(X)8. Pedal Harp England 

Semicircular body. Straight front pillar. Forty-three strings. Seven 
double-action pedals operate to raise the pitch a semi-tone or tone 
as desired. An eighth pedal operates a damper. ^^ 
Height, 169 cm.; width, 91.2 cm.; of sound-board, 35.5 to 8.9 cm. 
Signed — "F. Dizes' Patent Harp, London." 

11 The Chromatic Harp has a string for each note, for which reason it has no pedals. 
It is coming into vogue at the present time, as the improvements of Lyon, of Paris, and 
Lyon and Healey, of Chicago, have materially added to its effectiveness. Whether it will 
maintain itself rests in the future. In principle, it is a rehabilitation of the doppelharfs 
which flourished during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. 


1009. Harp Cuba 

Rectangular body. Straight front pillar. Sixteen gut strings. 
Height, 1 07 cm. ; width, 52.6 cm. ; of sound-board, 1 8 cm. ; of head, 

32.5 cm. 

1010. Banjo Harp England 

Eighteen strings run over a banjo body. Five hcindles operate a 

mechanism by w^hich changes of pitch are produced. 
Height, 87 cm. ; w^idth, 45 cm, ; depth, 9.5 cm. 

1011. Aeolsharfe. (Eng. Aeolian harp; Fr. Harpe d* Eole; Ital. 

Arpa eolia) Germany 

Semi-cylindrical body of wood. Eight gut strings. The wind causes 

the strings to give out their harmonics. 
Length, 90 cm.; width of base, 23 cm.; depth, 13 cm.; circumfer- 
ence of upper part, 37 cm. 

1012. Harpe d' Eole. Trilateral body. Five gut strings France 

Length, 1 03 cm. ; width of sound-boards, 22 cm. 

1013. Arpa doppia, or Arpanetta. (Eng. Double Harp; Fr. 

Arpanette; Ger. Doppelharfe) Italy 

On each side of the body, seven gut strings are led from tuning-pegs 

at the top. Of the same type as the early spitzharfe (Ger.), the 

form is quite distinct. 
Height, 58.2 cm.; of body, 41.8; depth, 12.5 cm. 

1014. Harfe. Seventeenth century Germany 

Rectangular body. Twenty-four gut strings. 

Height, 71.1 cm.; width, 36 cm.; disuneter of sound-board, 9.7 to 
4.7 cm. 

1015. Hakenharfe. Seventeenth century Germany 

Quadrangular body. Straight pillar. Thirty-four gut strings, of 

which twenty can be raised as in No. 1 003. 
Height, 146.3 cm.; width, 85.2 cm. 

1016. Harp-lute England 

Wood. Thirteen strings, of which three run over frets. Sometimes 

called "Dital Harp." The body — 57.6 cm. in height — has a shal- 
low, hexagonally vaulted back, is rounded at the base, and the 
sides slope from a width of 33 to 23.7 cm. From the left side of 
the top a pillar rises to a height of 26.7 cm. From the right side 
extends a fret-board 5,5 cm. in width, to a height of 22.4 cm. The 
two are connected by the usual harp tuning-peg bar. Tuning-pegs 
of iron. The instrument is lacquered black and decorated in gilt. 
Signed— "Angelo Ventura, 1829, London.' 



1017. Harp-lute England 

Upright lute-shaped body. Fourteen strings. Eight of these are 

free, six run over double frets. Nos. 2-3-4 and 6 run through rings 
by means of which they may be raised in pitch. Nos. 5 and 8 may 
also be thus affected by levers. Identical with No. 1016, but 

Signed — "C. Wheatstone, Inventor, London." 

1018. SiTAR, or Setar. Tamboura type India 

Gourd body, and wooden neck, elaborately decorated. Five fine 

wire strings run over fifteen frets. 

Length, 89,9 cm. ; of gourd, 1 7.8 cm. ; diameter, 1 2.4 cm. 

The group of East Indian instruments to which this belongs represents 
the "Tamboura" t5^e which, with the exception of the stringing, is 
closely allied to the Lute. They are all beautifully decorated, and 
display marvellous ingenuity and skill in the manner in which the 
bodies, almost invariably of gourd, are incorporated into the struc- 
ture. Withal the tone is very beautiful. 

1019. Bin India 

Bamboo. Seven tuning pegs from which run the same number of 

strings. Four run over high wooden bridges and twenty-two frets, 
the remaining strings, two on one side, and one on the other, are 
free. Two large gourds serve as resonators. A reproduction. 
Length, 137.9 cm.; diameter of body, 12.7 cm.; of gourds, 30 cm. 
(Lyon and Healy.) 

1 020. ViPANCHi-viNA India 

Body of gourd with belly of wood. Neck and head of hard wood. 
Five strings run over sixteen adjustable frets to T-shaped pegs, two in 

front and three at left side of the head. 
Length, 127 cm.; of body, 28 cm.; width, 19 cm.; depth, 17 cm. 

1021. Nadecvara-VINA. The loud-toned vina India 

Flat, violin-shaped body of wood. Six tuning-pegs, two on flat sur- 
face of neck and four on the side, draw an equal number of wire 
strings over one ivory bridge and sixteen adjustable frets. The 
shape of the body is indicative of European influence. 

Length, 1 23.7 cm. ; of body, 28 cm. ; width, 19 cm. ; depth, 1 7 cm. 

1 022. Tamboura, or Sitar India 

The body, of a large gourd with a flat wooden belly, is joined to a 

long neck, which tapers towards the head. From a projection at 
the base five wire strings run over the un-fretted finger-board to the 


same number of wooden tuning-pegs inserted in the sides of tfie 
neck. It corresponds exactly to no instrument described in the 
literature of the subject. 
Length, 1 14 cm.; width of belly, 25.5 cm.; depth, 22 cm. 

1023. Cacha-vina India 

Body of gourd with neck of elaborately carved wood. Five wire 

strings. Seventeen frets. Eight sympathetic strings run under a 
glass plate. Under the wooden belly is placed a second of tightly 
stretched parchment. The use of sympathetic strings is a very com- 
mon procedure in India, as will be seen in Case XII. 
Length, 122 cm.; of body, 28.5 cm.; width, 25.5 cm.; depth, 
13.5 cm. 

1 024. 5UR-VAHARA. The beautiful toned vina India 

Body of gourd. Belly and neck of dark brown wood. Five tuning- 
pegs, and same number of strings, running over fifteen frets. Eight 
sympathetic strings. Said to have been invented about the middle 
of the last century, by Gulam Mohammed, Khan of Lakhnau. 

Length, 152 cm.; of body, 45.6 cm.; width, 32 cm.; depth, 30 cm. 

1025. TuMBURU-viNA India 

Gourd body. Convex wooden belly. Four tuning-pegs. Four wire 


Length, 1 1 8 cm. ; width, 32 cm. ; depth, 30 cm. 

There is a conflict of authorities regarding this instrument. Mahillon 
states that the strings were plucked, while Fetis places it among the 
bowed instruments. It is fair to state that the former authority car- 
ries the greater weight. ^^ Tumburu was one of the gandharva, or 
musicians of Indra's heaven. The typical member of this group is 
played only by professionals and is called dasiri tamburi.^^ 

1026. SOUTHERN-VINA India 

Body of gourd and wooden belly. Two resonators of gourd, one at 

end of neck. From ten tuning-pegs, of which eight are distributed 
along the side of the neck, run an equal number of strings over two 
bridges, one on neck and one on belly, and over sixteen frets. The 
carving on belly and the decorations on the gourd resonators are 
unique in conception and delicate in execution. 
Fully described by Capt. Day; he assigns to it no native name.^* 
Length, 1 42 cm. ; of body, 47. 1 cm. ; circumference of gourds, 62.9, 
and 1 1 .4 cm. 

12 Mahillon, Catalogue, I, pp. 154, 155; Fetis, Histoire de la Musique, II, p 287. 

13 Day, "The Music and Musical Instruments of Southern India," p. 130. It will be 
referred to in the future by the name of the author. 

^*Ibid., p. III. On page 112 he gives the names of the various parts of the vina. 


1027. Taraffedar Sitar India 

Gourd body, with wooden belly and neck, both elaborately decorated. 

Six tuning-pegs. Six wire strings, and ten sympathetic strings. 

The name assigned to this instrument is given by Capt. Day (p. 118) 
and been assumed because this example does not correspond in 
essentials to any other of the East Indian instruments. 

Length, 1 42.8 cm. ; circumference of gourd, 76 cm. ; depth, 34 cm. 

1028. Prasanari-vina India 

Shallow gourd body. A neck of usual form carries five strings. A 

shorter neck, also carrying five strings, is attached to the longer. 
Length, 113.5 cm.; of short neck, 67.9 cm.; of body, 25.4 cm.; 
depth, 29 cm. 

1 029. Ranjani-VINA. The colorful vina India 

Body of wood resting on two large gourds. Five strings running over 

sixteen frets. Same type as the mahati-vina. 
Length, 121.6 cm.; height, 31.4 cm.; circumference, of gourds, 101.2 

This form of vina is placed over the shoulder when played, and is the 

instrument most frequently illustrated in accounts of Indian miisic. 

1 030. RuDRA-viNA, or Rababa India 

Body and neck carved from a single piece of hard brown wood. 

Parchment belly. Six strings. Length, 77 cm. ; width, 25.2 cm. ; 
depth, 13 cm. 
There is a decided difference of opinion regarding this instnmient, 
which is listed as above on the authority of Mahillon. The terms 
"Vina of the god Rudra" and "howling vina," applied to the in- 
strument, seem to indicate an extra-European dissension. 

1031. Composite Sitar India 

Were one inclined to follow the modern fad and create a composite 

ncune, the fact that this trinitarian instrument is made up of an 
esra, a sitar, and a tambura, might suggest es-si-tam. It is a modem 
contrivance invented by Surpiar Ashraf Ali, from whom it was 
bought by Mr. Stearns in 1892, presumably under the name given 

The body rests on three thin gourd resonators, and the necks are united 
by a plate surmounted by a group of three birds carved in wood. 
A multi-colored portrait of some East Indian beauty, in style quite 
prophetic of the modern cigarette picture, affixed to one side, attests 
the modernity of this instrument. 

Height, 1 33.9 cm. ; circumference at base, 91 .2 cm. ; at plate, 50 cm. 


The sur-cringara (India), a combination of the rebab and lute, is an- 
other illustration of a mixed t)T5e. It has 8 wire strings, of which 7 
are sympathetic. The string at the extreme right alone is played. 
The tone is full and warm. Tuning c"-c"-e'-c-g-c'-d'-g'. (Day, 
p. 121.) 

1032. Tanbur Persia 

A pear-shaped body with an extremely long neck, both of which are 

of ebony inlaid with mother-of-pearl in a very artistic manner. 
Seven fine wire strings. Thirteen frets. 
Length, 130.5 cm.; of body, 42.5 cm.; width, 18 cm.; depth, 17 cm. 

1033. Saz. Tanbur type Algeria 

Miniature type. Slender neck with two flat heads. Wire strings. 

The entire instrument is covered with an inlay of tortoise-shell, 

mother-of-pearl, and ivory. 
Length, 47 cm. ; of body, 1 4 cm. ; width, 7 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 
In essentials the Lute (Fr. Luth; Ital. Liuto; Ger. Laule; Span. Laud; 
Port. Alaude) harks back to Egypt. Migrating to Arabia it was carried to 
Spain by the Moors, and soon became a favorite European instrument. Dur- 
ing the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries it was regnant. The 
French name Luthier ,for violin-maker, is derived from the fact that during its 
vogue he also made lutes. Any doubts as to the pronunciation of the word in 
England are dispelled by the early spelling — "lewte." In the course of the 
lute's career it underwent minor structural changes but retained its essential 
characteristics, among which must be noted its unfortunate tendency to go out 
of tune with, or without, provocation. 

1 034. KuiTRA, or KouiTARA. Arabian lute Algeria 

Deep body of wood. Four pairs of gut strings. A triangular sound- 
hole. All string instruments of this type have rather large sound- 
holes, necessitated by the fact that the strings are plucked. 

As in all lutes, the peg-box is placed at an angle from the rest of 

the neck. 
Length, 88.5 cm. ; of body, 43 cm. ; width, 27 cm. ; depth, 1 7 cm. 

1035. E'OUD, or Ud. (PI. I Jan). Early Arabian lute Egypt 

Body of nineteen alternating strips of light and dark wood. Short 

neck similarly inlaid. Rosette sound-hole. Six pairs of gut strings. 

Length, 90 cm; ; of body, 50 cm. ; width, 34 cm. ; depth, 1 8 cm. 

At the time it was introduced into Spain by the Moors it was known 
as the alud. This instrument, probably of Persian origin, is de- 
scribed by Al Farabi in the tenth century. 

Quoting from Mafatih al *Ulum, "Keys to the Sciences," an 



encyclopedia of the tenth century/^ Sachs gives the names of the 
various parts of the ud as follows: ain — (eye), pi. a})un — sound- 
hole; bamm (Tk.) — the bass string, in the ancient four stringed 
ud woven from 64 silk threads, but later the only gut string ; had — 
the highest string of the five-stringed type; ibriJf (Ar.) or raqabe — 
neck; mossena (air), in the four-stringed type the next to the high- 
est string, woven from 36 silk threads and giving g; motsellets 
(water) — the next to highest siring in four-stringed type, giving 
d; qasa — the vaulted back; reqme — a small patch of green fish- 
skin, gummed on between string-holder and sound-hole; shemsa — 
the large sound-hole; shems^at — the two small sound-holes; zir (pi. 
ziran) — the highest string of the olden type, woven from 27 silk 
threads. (See Chart, Case XVI). 

1036. E'ouD Egypt 

In all essentials similar to No. 1 035 but with five pairs of gut strings. 
For this reason it is a modern recrudescence of an ancient type. 
Both in this and the preceding example, the space given up to the peg- 
box, and the angle at which it is set, are greater than in the k^itra. 

Length, 90 cm. ; of body, 50 cm. ; width, 34 cm. ; depth, 1 7 cm. 

1037. LiUTO Italy 

Pear-shaped body of fluted strips of red wood. Flat sound-board, 

with ornamented rosette sound-hole. The neck — flat and inlaid 
with ivory — bends at an acute angle. Nine pairs of fine wire 
strings. A type made familiar by the great Italian painters. 
Length, 1 10 cm.; of body, 52 cm.; width, 37 cm.; depth, 17 cm. 

1 038. Mandola. Eighteenth century Italy 

Deep oval body. Circular sound-hole, inlaid. Six pegs carrying six 

strings of gut and overspun silk. Twenty brass frets. 
Length, 91.5 cm.; of body, 41.5 cm.; width, 28.3 cm.; depth, 
12.5 cm. 

1 039. Mandola. Same date as the preceding Italy 

Deep oval body, beautifully inlaid. Circular sound-hole. Six pegs, 

carrying six strings of gut and over-spun silk. 
Length, 93 cm.; of body, 47 cm.; width, 28 cm.; depth, 14.2 cm. 

1040. Lute England 

Oval body of brown wood with ebony inlay. Five pairs of strings, 

two of gut, two of brass and one of steel. 
Length, 76.5 cm. ; of body, 39 cm. ; width, 26.5 cm. ; depth, 1 2 cm. 
Signed in ink on base of instrument — "Hoffman, London, 1 758." 

"According to Kiesewetter (Musik der Araher, p. 8), this encyclopedia of twelve folio 
volumes was the work of an association of scholars known as the "Brothers of Purity." 
The names given by Sachs on the following pages are without doubt taken from this 
source, as there is a complete copy in the Imperial Library at Vienna. The pages run as 
follows: 5, 28, 173, 194, 315, 262, 320, 369, 369, 431. 


1041 . Pandora Italy 

Flat, shallow body of wood. Triple rose sound-hole. Nineteen fine 

wire strings run over five frets. Broad finger-board terminating in 
a graceful curve and a carved human head. 
Length, 122.9 cm. Diameters of the three curved bouts — 33.7, 44.2, 
45.6 cm. ; depth, 8.9 cm. 

1 042. Orpheoreon. Form of a small Pandora Italy 

Body of wood with sloping shoulders and sharp upper bouts. Two 

reversed and two inverted F-holes. Twelve gut strings. Broad 
finger-board with six frets. 
Length, 1 09.2 cm. Diameter, at bouts, 35 cm. ; at waist, 24. 1 ; at 
base, 35 cm. ; depth, 8.4 cm. 
Signed — "Petrus Sabrianus, Neapoli, Anno 1534." 

1043. Chitarrone. Seventeenth century Italy 

Pear-shaped body. Ornamental rosette sound-hole edged with inlay 

of ivory and mother-of-pearl. Finger-board and neck of black 
wood inlaid with ivory. Two peg-boxes, of which the upper has 
eight pegs from which run open bass strings of gut, the lower, nine 
pegs with nine wire strings. Five gut frets. 
Length, 164 cm.; of body, 50 cm.; width, 33 cm.; depth, 14 cm. 

1044. Arciliuto (Eng. Arch-lute; Fr. Archiluth; Ger. Erzlaute) . .Italy 
Oval body with vaulted back. Short, broad finger-board inlaid with 

ivory. Two peg-boxes, the lower containing twelve pegs from 
which run six pairs of strings, three of gut and three of over-spun 
silk. From the upper box extend six pairs of open over-spun silk 
strings. Seven brass frets. 
Length, 1 1 3 cm. ; of body, 48 cm. ; width, 32 cm. ; depth, 1 6 cm. 
Signed — "1600, In Padova, Vendilio Venere." 

1 045. Bass Colascione Italy 

Oval body. Rosette sound-hole with double-headed eagle in the 

center. Six wire strings. The longer finger-board terminates in a 
scroll and carved lion's head. No frets. 1 602. 
Length, 191 cm.; of body, 65 cm.; width, 41.5 cm.; depth, 23 cm. 
Signed — "In Padova, Michielle Harton." 

In the form of the Mandoline (Ital. Mandolino) we see a derivative of 
the lute. TTiere were two types in general use in Italy, the "Neapolitan," 
with four pairs of strings, and the "Milanese," or "Lombardy," with five. 
The tuning of the former is in fifths like the violin, in the latter it is variable. 
The modern mandoline in its form exaggerates the convexity of the lute, while 


in the two types mentioned above there were well defined differences in form. 
(Compare Nos. 1048 and 1056). Variants of the form will be described as 
they occur. 

1 046. Mandolino. Lombardy model Italy 

Oval body and sound-hole. Six strings. Twenty metal frets. 
Length, 53 cm. ; of body, 29 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; depth, 1 2 cm. 

1 047. Mandolino. Eighteenth century Italy 

Long, narrow lute-shaped body, ornately decorated. Flat neck, in- 
laid with tortoise-shell, ebony, and ivory. Four pairs of wire 
strings. Inlaid tortoise-shell plaque under the strings. 

Length, 58 cm. ; of body, 28.5 cm. ; width, 1 5.5 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 

1048. Mandolino. Neapolitan model Italy 

Deep oval body. Purfled sound-board with oval sound-hole. Flat 

head. Eight mechanically operated metal pegs carrying four pairs 
of wire strings. On the sound-board is a tortoise-shell plaque. 
Length, 60 cm. ; of body, 30 cm. ; width, 1 8.5 cm. ; depth, 1 6 cm. 

1049. Pandourina Italy 

Long and narrow lute-shaped body. Rosette sound-hole. Finger- 
board beautifully inlaid. Six pairs of strings, all of which are of 
wire, with the exception of the second pair. Seven ivory frets. 

Length, 54 cm. ; of body, 25 cm. ; width, 1 4.5 cm. depth, 8 cm. 
Signed — "Domenico Brambilla abitante in Milano nel Borga della 
Citadella in Porta Ticinese al segno della Tromba, 1 759." 

1050. Bandolin (Span. Port. BandoUm) Mexico 

The carapace of an armadillo forms the body. Inlaid sound-board. 
Circular sound-hole. Five pairs of gut strings. Ten frets. 
Length, 72 cm. ; of body, 35 cm. ; width, 22.5 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 
According to MacCurdy, quoted by Miss Morris (p. 194) "The 

armadillo (proapus novemcinctus) is a dominant decorative factor 
full of symbolic meaning, and is as characteristic of the Chiriqui as 
the lotus is of Egypt." 

105 1 . Bandurria Philippine Islands 

Body made from the base of a cocoanut. Sound-hole inlaid with 

mother-of-pearl. Four pairs of wire strings. Seventeen metal frets. 
Length, 5 1 cm. ; width, 1 8 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1052. Mandoline Madeira 

Flat, pear-shaped body with slightly convex back. Four pairs of wire 

strings. Seventeen brass frets. 
Length, 57 cm.; of body, 29 cm.; width, 21.5 cm.; depth, 6 cm. 
Signed — "Augusto M. Da Costa." 


1053. Mandoline Possibly from Mexico 

Body made from the entire shell of a turtle. Sound-holes in lower 

corner. Four pairs of strings. Seventeen metal frets. 
Length, 68.5 cm. ; of body, 25 cm. ; width, 1 8.5 cm. ; depth, 1 1 .5 cm. 

1054. Mandolino Italy 

Lyre-shaped body with rounded back. Four pairs of wire strings. 

Circular sound-hole. Seventeen metal frets. 
Length, 60 cm. ; width, 2 1 .5 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1 055. Mandoline France 

Body of unusual shape. Machine head, with eight pegs carrying 

four pairs of wire strings. Seventeen frets. 
Length, 62 cm. ; of body, 34 cm. ; width, 21 cm. ; depth, 1 1 .5 cm. 

1 056. Mandolino Italy 

Oval body with vaulted back. Mechanical peg-head. Four pairs of 

wire strings. Eighteen frets. 
Length, 44.5 cm.; of body, 29.1 cm.; width, 21.6 cm.; depth, 
12.5 cm. 

1057. Mandoline Egypt 

Oval body with marquetry back. Mechanical head. Four pairs of 

wire strings. Seventeen frets. 
Length, 60 cm. ; width, 1 9.5 cm. ; depth, 1 1 .5 cm. 
The presence of a mechanism defines a mandoline as modern. 

1058. Mandolino Italy 

Oval body. Purfled sound-board. Machine head. Three pairs of 

gut, and an equal number of over-spun silk strings. Twenty metal 
frets. One oval and two F sound-holes. V-shaped head. 
Length, 61 cm.; of body, 32 cm.; width, 21 cm.; depth, 14 cm. 
Signed — "Luigi Embergher, Roma, 1890." 

1 059. Mandoline United States 

Body in the shape of a six-pointed star. Oval sound-hole. Machine 

head. Usual stringing. 
Length, 57.5 cm.; width, 24.3 cm.; depth, 5.3 cm. 

1 060. Tanbourica, or Tanbouritza Croatia, Austria 

Pear-shaped body. Sound-board pierced by four groups of small 

holes. Four wire strings passing over thirteen and sixteen wire 
frets, respectively, are fastened to tuning-pegs in front of neck. 
Length, 57.5 cm.; of body, 16.5 cm.; width, 10.7 cm.; depth, 6 cm. 

1061. Tanbourica, or Tanburica Croatia, Austria 

Similar to the preceding, excepting that it has a machine head and one 

small circular sound-hole. The title given is in general use. 
Length, 52.5 cm. ; of body, 16.5 cm. ; width, 1 1 .5 cm. ; depth, 5.6 cm. 

Case X. West Section. Nos. 1072 to 1103 (Left to Right). 


1062. Saz Egypt 

Pear-shaped body of some soft wood. Four wire strings. Twelve gut 

frets. Groups of small holes in belly. 
Length, 70 cm. ; of body, 25 cm. ; width, 1 3 cm. ; depth, 1 2 cm. 

1063. Tanbour baghlamah. "Child's tanbour" Turkey 

Lute body of exaggerated depth. Beautifully inlaid. No sound- 
hole. Six wire strings pass over thirteen frets. 

Length, 59 cm.; of body, 19 cm.; width, 12.5 cm.; depth, 14.5 cm. 
The ianbour baghlamah usually has but four strings. This particular 
specimen resembles the ianbour bouzourk or tanbur buzurJ^.^^ 

1 064. Tanbourica Croatia, Austria 

Length, 51.5 cm.; of body, 18.5 cm.; width, 1 1 cm.; depth, 6 cm. 

1 065. Tanbourica Slavonia 

Violin-shaped body. Flat head. Two pairs of fine wire strings, run- 
ning over 18 and 20 frets respectively. This type is played with a 
thin oval plectrum of tortoise-shell, or ivory. 

Length, 50.5 cm.; of body, 13 cm.; width, 8 cm.; depth, 3.5 cm. 

1 066. Tanbourica Slavonia 

Guitar-shaped body. Usual number of frets and strings. 

Length, 55 cm.; of body, 18.5 cm.; width, 13.5 cm.; depth, 3.4 cm. 
Signed — "Terezija Kova ac — Graditeljica Tambura, 
Skladiste Glasbila u Zagiebu. Ilica 47." 

1067. Tanbourica. Similar to preceding instrument Slavonia 

Length, 52 cm.; of body, 16 cm.; width, 10.5 cm.; depth, 3.5 cm. 

1068. Mandoline United States 

Aluminum body. Machine head. Four pairs of wire strings. 
Length, 60.8 cm. ; of body, 36 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 5 cm. 

1 069. Mandoline. Porcelain body. Four pairs of wire strings . . Germany 
Length, 60.8 cm. ; of body, 36 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 4 cm. 

1 070. "Gibson" Mandoline United States 

The instrument, with an oval body, back of polished dark wood, and 

belly of light-colored wood, has the characteristic mandoline neck, 
but the back is not vaulted. Typical mandoline stringing. The 
modern makers of guitars and mandolines have taken many hints 
from the early makers and are making many curious, but not always 
effective, combinations. 
Length, 62.8 cm. ; of body, 33.9 cm. ; width, 25. 1 cm. ; depth, 4.2 cm. 
(Gibson Guitar and Mandoline Co., and the University 
Music House.) 

i«Mahillon, I, pp. 199, 200; Fetis, II, pp. 123-5-6; Engel, Cat. Insts. So. Kensington 
Mus., pp. 203-209. See Bulgarian bulgarina, Mahillon, III, pp. 429-30. 


Of the tone quality of the Arabian Lute we get a naive opinion in 
"Covel's Diary," 1675. ("Private Musick" to accompany dancing.) "Turk- 
ish and Arab lutes of five, eight, sometimes but four strings, with a little neck, 
a yard (at least) or more in length. Several sorts, all not worth a louse."*^ 
Many other examples of Oriental types might come under the condemnation 
of Covel as mentioned above. On page 214 of his "Diary" he characterizes 
them as "little, pitiful instruments with three wire strings which every fellow 
strums about the streets." Lane says, "A kind of mandoline, called the tam- 
bour, is used at concerts in Egypt, but mostly by Greeks and other 

1'^ "Early Voyages and Travels to the Levant," Hak. Soc, 1893, p. 4. 
""Modem Egyptians," Vol. 11, p. 33i- 


Class IV. 

Section E. Vibrating Plucked Strings running over Frets. 

The instruments in this Case cover a wide range but show unmistakable 
points of contact. With a few exceptions they have flat bodies. Nos. 1 07 1 - 
1 072 illustrate the structural principles embodied in the last group in Case IX. 

1071. Tanbouriza. Similar to No. 1065, but larger Slavonia 

Length, 81 cm.; of body, 37 cm.; width, 19.1 cm.; depth, 6.5 cm. 

1072. Mandolyra Italy 

Flat lyre-shaped body. Purfled sound-board and sound-hole. Ma- 
chine head. Four pairs of wire strings. 
Length, 59 cm. ; of body, 34 cm. ; width, 28 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 
Signed — "Liugi Sartosio, Napoli.** 

1073. "Kakoka." Flat body. Long neck. Six strings. . .Source unknown 
A beautifully decorated instrument, but its name is uncertain, and it 

is of doubtful antecedents. 
Length, 149 cm.; of body, 43 cm.; width, 41 cm.; depth, 2.7 cm. 

1074. "Papeha" Source unknown 

This product of some one's fancy comes under the same condemnation 

as No. 1073. 
Length, 67.2 cm. ; of body, 29 cm. ; width, 25.2 cm. ; depth, 3.4 cm. 

1075. Cavonto Island of Rhodes, Mediterranean 

Deep body. Four pairs of wire strings. 

Length, 102 cm.; of body, 35.5 cm.; width, 25 cm.; depth, 13 cm. 
Signed — "Ata-key — . . . .o k. .gah.** 

1 076. Machete. Mounted on a stand Madeira 

Deep, flat, pear-shaped body. Twelve pairs of wire strings played 

with a plectrum. In its form, this type vibrates between the vaulted 
body of the lute, and the flat back and constricted waist of the 
Length, 72.5 cm.; of body, 28 cm.; width, 27.2 cm.; depth, 8.7 cm. 
Height, with stand, 7 1 cm. 

Signed — "A. Da Costa, Funchal." 


1077. Bandurria. Cittern type Spain 

Flat, oval body, the back and sides of which are made of black wood, 

and inlaid with a floral design in light-colored wood. Fourteen 
wire strings and the same number of frets. Played with a shell 
plectrum. Pitches: — f sharp, c sharp', f sharp', b', e", a". 
Length, 70 cm.; of body, 35 cm.; width, 32.5 cm.; depth, 5.7 cm. 

1078. Thuringian Lute Germany 

Flat cittern model. Six pairs of wire strings. Thirteen metal frets. 

It is understood that all the instruments in this group have frets, the 
number varying from ten to fourteen, occasionally more. 
Length, 81 cm. ; of body, 38 cm. ; width, 27.5 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1 079. Viola d'arame Madeira 

Flat cittern model. Six pairs of wire strings. 

Length, 75 cm. ; width, 26 cm ; depth, 7.5 cm. 

1080. Bandurria France 

Flat, oval body.. Four pairs of wire strings. 

Length, 57 cm.; width, 20.5 cm.; depth, 3.2 cm. 

1 081 . Bandurria France 

Deep, pear-shaped body. Five pairs of strings, two of over-spun silk, 

two of gut and one of wire. 
Length, 63 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 

1082. Cittern, or Bandurria Portugal 

Cittern model. Six pairs of wire strings. Screw tuning mechanism. 
Length, 69.5 cm. ; width, 28 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

Signed — "Joas Miguel Andrade, Lisbon." 

1 083. Cittern Portugal 

Ssune structure as the preceding instrument, but larger. 

Length, 86 cm. ; width, 39 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

Signed — "L. A. Azevodo, Lisbon." 

1 084. Bandurria. Unusual shape. Ten wire strings Spain 

Length, 63 cm. ; width, 23 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

1085. Machete Madeira 

Leaf-shaped body. Eleven wire strings. 

Length, 76 cm. ; width, 50.5 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 
Signed — "Da Costa, Funchal." 

1086. Cittern England 

Flat, nearly circular body. Six pairs of wire strings and four single 

Length, 80 cm. ; width, 3 1 .3 cm. ; depth, 7.3 cm. 
Signed — "Claget G. Gibson, 1 763." 


1087. Cittern (Fr. Cistre; Ital. Cetera; Ger. Cister) England 

Flat, pear-shaped body. Ornamental rose of brass representing David 

with his harp. Four pairs of wire strings and two single strings. 
Circa 1800. Length, 70.5 cm.; width, 31.5 cm.; depth. 8 cm. 
Signed — "Preston, London." 
The Cittern enjoyed a great vogue in England during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, but after the Peninsular War it was 
supplanted by the Guitar. Allusions to it are frequent in English 

1088. Chitarra BATTENTE (Fr. Cuitare toscana, Cuitare en 

bateau; Ger. Schlagguitarre) Italy 

Deep body decorated with inlaid scroll work. Five pairs of wire 

strings. Ten varieties exist, exemplifying modifications in stringing 

and, occasionally, in the manner of performance, as the Chitarra 

coWarco, which is bowed. 
Length, 70 cm. ; width, 1 7.5 cm. ; depth, 1 2.5 cm. 

1089. Chitarra battente Bohemia 

Deep body, beautifully inlaid with ivory, as is also the neck. Six 

strings. Length, 8 1 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 
Signed — "Andreas Ott, in Prag, 1658."^ 

1090. Chitarra battente Italy 

Deep body, beautifully inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Five pairs of 

wire strings. Length, 90 cm. ; width, 28 cm. ; depth, 1 8 cm. 
Nos. 1 089 and 1 090 are among the choicest treasures in the Collection. 

1091 . ClTHRlNCHEN.^ Flat pyriform body. Five pairs of wire strings. Re- 

production of an instrument, signed — "Joachim Tielke, Hamburg, 
1676" — ^made by Lyon and Healy, and presented by them to the 

University. It is a rarely beautiful instrument Germany 

Length, 76.5 cm.; of body, 37.5 cm.; width, 35.5 cm.; depth, 2.7 
to 8 cm. 

1 092. Cetera. Italian cittern Italy 

The pear-shaped body is flat. The neck terminates in a carved head, 

representing Diana, and, on the back, two cherubs supporting a 

1 The inscription on the instrument is unmistakably "Oft"," but there is no record of a 
maker of that name, while "Ott" was a celebrated craftsman. Following the opinions of 
G. Kinsky and Curt Saches as expressed in personal letters to the author, the latter name 
is given. 

2 Georg Kinsky, in his valuable Kleiner Katalog der Satnmlung alter Musikinstrumente 
(Musikhistorisches Museum von Wilhelm Heyer, in Coin), pp. 94, 95, describes a beautiful 
example of a citrinchen by Joachim Tielke, Hamburg, 1694, and in Tafel 19 gives two illus- 
trations (front and back views). The resemblance in principle to the quinteme (chitcme), 
used in Italy and Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is evident. Sachs 
(p. 84) gives citharino-mit einer von unten oifnen Deck — and (p. 174) Hamburger cithrin- 
chen, in addition to the one noted above (1091). 


satyr's mask. From ornamental ivory peg-heads, 4 wire and 3 gut 
strings lead over 19 metal frets. A reproduction of an instrument 
by Antonius Stradivarius, Cremona, Italy, in 1 700, made by Lyon 
and Healy, Chicago, and presented by them to the University, it 
exhibits the graceful form and delicate workmanship character- 
istic of the great Italian violin-maker. The cetera was used by the 
Italian improvvisatori. 
Length, 96 cm.; of body, 48.5 cm.; width, 50.5 cm.; depth, 7 to 
9.2 cm. 

1093. Machete. Unusual form. Five gut strings Madeira 

Two constrictions in waist, the upper one of lesser diameter than the 

lower. The flat back cind sides are made of a dark-brown in- 
digenous wood. 
Length, 74.5 cm.; widths, 17-10-7 cm.; depth, 6.3 cm. 
Signed — "Da Costa, Funchal." 

1094. Machete. Similar to No. 1 093 Madeira 

The name given by Da Costa to this and No. |093 is machete rajio. 
Length, 66 cm. ; width, 1 4.2 cm. ; depth, 6.9 cm. 

1095. Cavaco. Body in form of a fish. Four gut strings Madeira 

Length, 67 cm. ; width, 2 1 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

Signed — "Da Costa." 

The Guitar (Old Eng. Gittar; Fr. Cuitare; Ital. Chitarra; Span. Cui- 
tarra; Ger. Guitarre) was derived from the Orient. Throughout the eight- 
eenth century it dominated Europe. It was known by many names now obso- 
lete, as Eng. Gittem, Gythorn; Fr. Guiterne; Ger. Chiterne; Sp. Viheula. 

The following is a substantiation of the old English spelling given above : 

In his preface to the edition of "Musick's Delight on the Cithren" dated 
1666, John Playford (1623-1693) says: "Not a city dame, though a tap- 
wife, but is anxious to have her daughter taught by Monnsieur La Noro 
Kirkshaivibus on the Gittar which instrument is but a new old one, used in 
London in the time of Q. Mary as appears by a book printed in English of 
instructions and lessons for the same about the beginning of Q. Elizabeth's 
reign, being not much different from the Cithren only was strung with gut 
strings, this with wyre which was in more esteem (till of late years) than 
the gittar. 

"Therefore to revive and restore this harmonious instrument I have ad- 
ventured to publish this little book of instructions and lessons. John Play- 

Structurally, the Guitar presents a flat back, sides with incurvations, 2Uid 

8 Frank Kidson, "Musical Quarterly, New York, October i, 1918, p. 524. 


a neck with frets, over which run strings. While the usual number of strings 
is six, variations in this respect, as in the shape, are frequent. The usual tuning 
for six strings is e-a-d'-g'-b'-e". By the use of the "Capo-tasto," or "Capo d' 
astro," a bar attached to the first fret, the tuning may be changed, making 
extreme keys much easier. There are many combinations with other types 
(mostly in form). See Nos. 1 102 and 1 103, and the Lyre-Guitars beginning 
with No. 1119. The Italian form is almost invariably strung with wire. 
TTie Machete, "Portuguese octave-guitar," of four strings, is the favorite in- 
strument in Madeira. It has two tunings, d'-g-b-d'', or d-g-b-e". 

1096. Machete de braco. (Port, braco — arm) Madeira 

Shallow guitar model. Four gut strings. Seventeen brass frets. 
Length, 49.5 cm.; width, 13.7 cm.; depth, 4.7 cm. 

1097. GuiTARRE Austria 

Flat body with a false back over the usual one. Purfled sound-board 

and sound-hole. Six gut strings. Seventeen frets. 
Length, 9 1 cm. ; width, 33 cm. ; depth, 8.2 cm. 
Signed — "Joh. Gottfried Scherzer, Wien." It also carries the name 

of a former owner, "Eugene Petetin, Ancien Officier de Marine." 

1098. Chitarra Italy 

Body of gourd. Sound-board inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl. 

In addition to the above the neck has tortoise-shell inlay. Six fine 
wire strings. Nine gut frets. It is frequently called the Pessarola. 
Length, 5 1 cm. ; width, 1 0.5 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1099. Balalaika, or Bal'alajka Russia 

Deep body with rounded back. Triangular sound-board. Three 

gut strings. Fifteen metal frets. A genuine product of peasant 
industry. The instrument is of Tartar origin. 

Length, 53.5 cm.; width, 37 cm.; depth, 1 1 cm. 

The Russian novelist Gogol, in "Dead Souls" (1837-38), speaks of 
"pumpkins called calabashes, with which, in Russia, balalaikas are 
made, those light, two-stringed instruments, the ornament and solace 
of the susceptible youth of twenty, who walks along in his dandified 
way, winking at the white-bosomed, white-necked maidens who 
have assembled to listen to his soft music." 

1 100. Ukulele. (Flea.) European model Hawaii 

Guitar model. Machine head. Four gut strings. Eleven brass 

frets. "Taro-patch fiddle" is a name frequently applied to the in- 
strument. The ukulele is not an idigenous product but was intro- 
duced by the Portuguese about 1877. 
Length, 46.5 cm.; of body, 21.6 cm.; width, 15 cm.; depth, 5.4 cm. 


1 101. Guitar. Five gut strings. Twelve brass frets Hawaii 

Length, 68.2 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; depth, 6.2 cm. 

1 102. Lute-guitar (Fr. Guitare-luth ; Ger. Lauienguitarre) . . . .England 
Deep, lute-shaped body. Broad finger-board, carrying twelve frets. 

Machine head. Eight strings. 
Length, 76.7 cm. ; width, 8.3 to 33 cm. ; depth, 11.7 cm. 

1 103. GuiTARE France 

Flat, oval body. Machine head. No frets. Usual guitar stringing. 

Neck, head and sound-board inlaid with mother-of-pearl and glass 
prisms. Length, 87 cm. ; width, 21 .6 to 6.4 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 
Signed— "E. Mediot, Paris, 1890.*' 

1 1 04. GuiTARRE Germany 

Pear-shaped body, with incurvations near the top; two bouts, and two 

peculiarly shaped sound-holes. Purfled sound-board. Usual string- 
ing. Very old. Length, 86 cm. ; width, 3 1 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1 105. Chitarra Italy 

The typical body is beautifully inlaid. An ivory plate on the neck 

shows the coat of arms of the noble family for which it was made. 
Original (in South Kensington Museum, London) by Antonius 
Stradivarius, Cremona, Italy, in 1680. Reproduced by Lyon and 
Healy, by whom it was presented to the University. 
Length, 97 cm. ; of body, 44 cm. ; width, 26 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1 106. GuiTARRE Germany 

Circular body. Sound-board representing a human face, the base of 

finger-board forming the nose. Three sound-holes, the largest rep- 
resenting the mouth, the others the eyes. Purfled. Usual string- 
ing. Dated 1873. 
Length, 82.5 cm. ; width, 35.5 cm. ; depth, 8.3 cm. 
Signed — "A. Sprenger, Niimberg." 

1 1 06a. Guitar. Usual stringing. Machine head United States 

This is an excellent specimen of the work of one of the most celebrated 
American makers, whose products have maintained themselves 
against the later developments of modern manufacturers. 
Elxtreme length, 98 cm. ; of body, 48 cm. ; width, 22-33 cm. ; depth, 
8.9 cm. 

Signed— "G. F. Martin. New York." 
(Allen B. Pond.) 

1 107. GuiTARE France 

Body with rounded shoulders and lower bouts. Purfling of ivory and 

ebony. Usual number of frets and strings. Two sound-holes. 
Length, 94 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 


1 1 08. Chitarra ! Italy 

Deep body with sunken sound-board. Usual number of frets and 

strings. Two sound-holes, the larger resembling a recessed balcony 
Length, 82 cm.; width, 27 cm.; depth, 10.5 cm. 

Signed — "Luigi Filano, Napoli, 1829." 

1 1 09. GuiTARE France 

Flat body with slight incurvations. Usual number of frets and strings. 

Three of the latter are of over-spun silk. 
Length, 91.5 cm.; width, 25.5 cm.; depth, 8.5 cm. 
Signed — "Fait par Pierre Louvet, rue Montmartre a Vielle Roy ale, 

a Paris, 1750." 

1110. Chitarra Italy 

Shallow body. Sound-board inlaid with a floral design in mother- 
of-pearl. Usual number of frets and strings. 

Length, 94 cm. ; width, 29.5 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 

1111. Cither, or Guitarre Germany 

Deep, pear-shaped body. Sixteen frets. Usual guitar stringing. 
Length, 82 cm. ; of body, 38 cm. ; width, 24 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 
Signed — "fecit John (Johann?) Bullenheimer, Affenheim,* 1846." 

1112. Guitar. Unusual construction Madeira 

Usual guitar body, with second sound-board underneath the usual 

one. Usual frets and strings. 
Length, 92.5 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 
Signed — "A. M. Da Costa, Funchal." 

1113. Guitar. Usual characteristics Philippine Islands 

Length, 90 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

(Theodore De Laguna.) 

1 1 14. Chitarra Italy 

Flat quadrangular body. Sound-board painted to represent a grid- 
iron. Twelve frets. Usual strings. 

Length, 93 cm. ; of body, 45 cm. ; width, 28 cm. ; depth, 5.8 cm. 

1 1 15. Chitarra Italy 

The body resembles the early Egyptian harp. Twenty metal frets. 

Usual guitar stringing. 
Length, 75 cm. ; of base, 32.3 cm. ; depth of base, 1 2.5cm. 

* Affenheim is not to be found on any map of Germany, and no one of those consulted 
has been able to throw any light on its location. Oppenheim may be intended, or it may 
be the name of some obscure hamlet 


1 1 16. "Gibson" Guitar : United States 

A fine model of a strictly modern type. The workmanship is very 

beautiful. Usual frets and method of stringing. 
Length, 98 cm. ; width, 28.5 cm. ; depth, 9.3 cm. 

(Gibson Guitar and Mandolin Co. and the University 
Music House.) 

1117. GuiTARRE Germany 

Pear-shaped body resting on a heavy base. Usual frets and strings. 

Three sound-holes. An instrument with a wonderful tone. 
Height, 94 cm. ; width, 32 cm. ; depth, 9.3 cm. 

Signed — "Tief enbrunner , Miinchen. 

1 1 18. Chitarra Italy 

Body representing a gorged serpent. Elaborately inlaid. Twenty 

frets. In addition to the usual strings, the neck carries two open 
strings. Length, 82 cm. ; width, 33 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

1119. Lyre-guitar. Lyre-shaped body. Incomplete Algiers 

Length, 72 cm. ; width, 32 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1 120. Chitarra Italy 

Broad body. Usual number of frets. Machine head. Besides the 

usual strings it carries three over-spun open strings. 
Length, 95 cm. ; width, 35 cm. ; depth, 8.6 cm. 

Signed — "O. Sebastiano, Genoa, 1868." 

1 121. Lyre-guitar Spain 

Lyre-shaped body. Three sound-holes, the one in the center diamond 

shaped, those at either side typical F-holes. Usual frets. Six pairs 
of gut strings and one of over-spun silk. 
Length, 82.5 cm. ; width, 35 cm. ; depth, 1 6.2 cm. 

Signed — "Q. Marin, Valencia." 
To call this Spanish instrimient a Lira-guiiarra would not be illogical, 
and the name Arpa-chitarra for No. 1124 might be thoroughly 
justified, but as neither of these designations occurs in the literature 
of the subject they may not be assumed. 
The Spanish novelist, Pio Baroja, in La feria de los discretos, (The City 
of the Discreet), p. 42, writes: "From early times the casket-makers of Cor- 
dova took from the same wood of which they made a coffin a piece for a 
guitar," therefore, the hero of the story, who was anything but discreet, when 
he was accosted by a Frenchman, who wished to see an undertaker's shop, told 
him to look for a shop in the windows of which guitars were hanging. 

1 1 22. Lyre-guitar. Eighteenth century England 

Body lacquered, and decorated in gilt. Usual stringing. 

Length, 80.5 cm. ; width, 40 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 
Signed — "R. Warnum, London." 


1 123. LiRA-CHITARRA (Eng. Lyre-guilaT; Fr. Lyre-guitaTe) Italy 

The body, of unusual shape, is finely inlaid. Three sound-holes. 

Twenty frets. Usual strings. 
Length, 91 .5 cm. ; width, 40.5 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 
Signed — "Gennaro, Naples, 1 798." 

1 124. Harp-guitar (Eng., Fr. Guitare-harpe; Ger. Gu/Wren/iar/e) .Italy 
In its general outline the body resembles the harp, hence its name. 

Nineteen frets. Five strings on finger-board and seven (open) of 
over-spun silk. Length, 95 cm.; width, 41.5 cm.; depth, 9 cm. 

1 125. Guitar England 

Broad body with double neck. TTie larger carries the usual frets and 

strings, the smaller, four of over-spun silk. That this guitar carries 
a modest number of necks is shown by comparison with the Guitare 
decacorde, which has five fretted finger-boards and five free strings. 
Length, 94.5 cm. ; width, 34.5 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1 126. Guitarre Germany 

Purfled body. Two necks, one bearing a finger-board with eighteen 

frets, and usual strings, the other carrying six open over-spun strings. 
The necks unite in a machine head. 
Length, 100.5 cm.; width, 33.5 cm.; depth, 9 cm. 

1 127. Guitare France 

Typical body. Broad neck carrying, in addition to the usual frets 

and strings, five over-spun strings of silk. 
Length, 9 1 .5 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

Signed — "Lacote, Luthier a Paris, Annee 182-." 

1 128. BijUGA-ClTHER, or ZwoLFCHORIGE-ClTHER Germany 

Pear-shaped body. The neck ends in two peg-heads, the lower of 

which carries five strings, the upper eight. A revolving cylinder, 
with bridges, raising the pitch of different groups of strings, is 
placed at the base of the upper peg-box. 
Length, 91 cm.; of body, 37.2 cm.; width, 33.5 cm.; depth, 9.3 cm. 

1 129. Mandoline-guitar United States 

Guitar body with two necks of unequal length. The longer has the 
usual guitar stringing, but the strings are of wire, the lower three 
over-spun. The shorter has the usual mandoline stringing with four 
pairs of wire strings. An example of modern cross-breeding. 

Length of guitar, 94.5 cm. ; of mandoline, 76 cm. ; width, 34.5 cm. ; 
depth, 1 cm. 

Signed — * 'Schwankowsky , Detroit. 



1 130. LiRA-CHITARRA . Italy 

The graceful body is purfled, and ornamented with scroll-work. 
Length, 93 cm.; width, 37.5 cm.; depth, 9 cm. 

Signed — Giov. Battista, Fabbricatore, Napoli, 1807." 
This instrument was purchased by Mr. Stearns in 1881 from an an- 
tiquarian in Prague, and became the foundation of the Collection. 

1131. Lyre-guitar Egypt 

Typical form of body. Cross bar and finger-board. Usual guitar 

stringing. Length, 86 cm. ; width, 50 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 
Signed — "Braziano Macchi." 

1 132. LiRA-CHiTARRA (Ger. L^ragmtane) Italy 

Large lyre-shaped body, purfled and inlaid. Twenty-three frets, over 

which run the usual number of strings. At the left of finger-board 
run four open over-spun strings. Machine head. 
Length, 95 cm.; width, 48 cm.; depth, 9.2 cm. 
Signed — "Pietro Messori, Modena." 

1 1 33. Guitar. Lyre-shaped body, beautifully decorated with a floral 

design, and also elaborately inlaid. The middle part, on which is 
a mirror, opens and reveals a jewel case. While this is not primarily 
a musical instrument, it is playable, and may properly serve as a 
reminder that many more important types have found a home in 
my lady's boudoir. In all probability this is an Italian product. 
Height, 72.2 cm.; width, 42.2 cm.; depth, 5.1 cm. 
Most unfortunately, the presiding genius of this same boudoir has been 
responsible for the demolition of many a valuable — sometimes historic — clavi- 
chord or harpsichord, in order that the wood might be used in the construction 
of dining-tables, card-tables and the like. Not long ago a rare old cembalo 
in the possession of a lady residing not far from Ann Arbor was transformed 
into a work-table, more's the pity ! 

On the floor, at the right, under No. 1077, a guitar case is displayed, 
also a set of one hundred photographs of early rosette sound-holes, from in- 
struments in the possession of Sig. Franciolini, an instrument-maker of Florence 
whose products too frequently revealed an exuberant fancy, and who may be 
responsible for Nos. 1 073-74, as well as certain other instruments of doubtful 


Class IV. 
Section E. Continuation. 

In point of seniority the Monochord can easily maintain itself. Not 
to go too far back, we know that it was used by Greek theoreticians to demon- 
strate the ratios of intervals. It was used for the same purpose in the Middle 
Ages. By the addition of frets to indicate the fundamentals of the Guidonian 
hexachords its usefulness was greatly increased. Eventually more strings were 
added, and when keys usurped the function of the frets, the combination of 
clavis and chorda suggested the name "Clavichord" as the designation of the 
first direct descendant of the type. It is also related to the Zither. 

The Banjo can neither claim antiquity nor exalted musical value. Its 
origin is disputed; phonetic degeneration from banjore, or bandore, from the 
Javanese town Ban Joemas,^ or from bania, a Senegambian lute,^ being etym- 
ological surmises of the origin of the name. In its essentials it justifies the 
position assigned it, midway between the Guitar and Zither. In the present 
distribution, variants of the Lute, Guitar and Banjo are placed before the 
Monochord in order to emphasize the relationship of the latter to the Zither. 

1 134. Lute-banjo Canada 

Pear-shaped body. The neck is removable allowing the use of either 

a lute or guitar neck. Five strings, of which the fifth runs from a 
peg set half-way up the neck on the right side. This resembles the 
"chanterelle," or melody string of the banjo; hence its naune. 
Length, 90 cm. ; of body, 33.5 cm. ; width, 29.5 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 
Signed — "J. L. Orme and Sons, Ottawa, Canada." 

1 1 35. Guitar England 

Body with pointed shoulders. Five strings, the fifth placed as in No. 

1 134. It might be called a "Guitar-Banjo." 
Length, 87 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 

1 136. Banjo-guitar United States 

Unusual form (inverted pear-shaped), but otherwise similar to the two 

preceding instruments. 
Length, 89 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 
Signed — "Hartmann Brothers and Reinhard, New York." 

1 Morris, p. 185. 

2Engel, "Catalogue of Instruments in the South Kensington Museum,' p. 151. 


1 137. Banjo England 

Wooden hoop. Parchment head tightened by screw braces. Mar- 
quetry head and finger-board. No frets. Six gut and over-spun 
silk strings, the sixth being the chanterelle (Fr. Corde d'un violoriy 
specifically the E string of the violin). 

It will be noticed that the typical banjo body resembles the Tambour- 
ine, minus the "jingles." 
Length, 92 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1 138. Banjo United States 

Black wooden hoop, surrounded by a second of German silver. An 

open-work plate of the same material covers the parchment head. 
Usual stringing. Seventeen frets. 
Length, 92 cm. ; width, 33 cm. ; depth, 6.5 cm. 

1 139. Zither-banjo England 

Wooden hoop. Parchment head tightened by screws. These are 

enclosed in a shell of ebonized wood. Usual stringing. Nineteen 
Length, 81 cm.; diameter of head, 24 cm.; of shell, 28 cm.; depth, 
8.5 cm. 

I 139a. Banjorine. Five strings. Eighteen frets United States 

This form differs from the ordinary banjo only in that it has a shorter 

Length, 69 cm. ; of neck, 38 cm. ; diameter, 3 1 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 
(Albert A. Stanley.) 

I I 39b. Mandolin-banjo. Four pairs of strings. Usual frets . United States 

Frequently and erroneously called by the name of the preceding in- 
strument, this type, like the many hybrids of the day, enjoys a great 
vogue. It is tuned in fifths like the violin — g, d', a', &\ 
Length, 56.6 cm.; of neck, 30.9 cm.; diameter, 25.7 cm.; depth, 
6.4 cm. 

(Allmendinger Music Shop.) 
The banjo body has been utilized in many instruments quite unlike it in 
every respect. No. 2292 in the Crosby Brown Collection is a violin; No. 
1073 in the Paris Collection {Conservatoire) is an instrument in size and 
stringing resembling a double-bass, while No. 1010, Case IX, Stearns Collec- 
tion, is a harp with a typical banjo body. 

1 140-1 141. MoNOCHORDS. Native name unknown India 

The oval bodies of cocoanut-shells are polished. Each carries a belly 
of wood with F-holes. The second specimen is somewhat the 
larger. Respective lengths, 63, 69.5 cm.; widths, 15, 10 cm.; 
depths, 5.5 to 6 cm. 


1 142. BanJ0-M0NCX;H0RD. Native name unknown Brazil 

Body of the top of a large cocoanut, gilded. Parchment head and 

screw bracing. Length, 75 cm.; diameter of head, 12.5 cm.; 
depth, 7 cm. 

1 143. MoNOCHORD Germany 

Kite-shaped body of wood decorated with colored pictures in decalo- 

mania. Gut string. The work of a Bavarian peasant. 
Length, 30 cm. ; width, 20.3 cm. ; depth, 3.9 cm. 

1 144. PsALMODIKON. Monochord Norway 

Oblong body. One string running over a serrated strip of wood. A 

printed label defines the point at which the string must be "stopped" 
to produce a given tone. It gives a chromatic series from g to g 
sharp"". Length, 80 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 
Signed— "K. Trahm." 

1 145. ScHEITHOLT. (Fr. Buche) Germany 

Slightly tapering body. One melody, and three accompaniment 

strings. A primitive zither type. This specimen is very old. 
Length, 78 cm.; width, 2.5 to 12.3 cm.; depth, 5.6 cm. 

1 146. Buche, or Epinette des Vosges France 

A small type. Length, 59.5 cm. ; width, 3.5 to 8 cm. ; depth, 2.8 cm. 

1 146a. Dulcimore Kentucky, United States 

This unique type, held by many to be indigenous to the mountain regions 
of Kentucky and Tennessee, has certain structural resemblances to the schei- 
holt, or buche, while the divergence in form is negligible. The sides, instead 
of being straight are so curved as to form two two semi-elliptical sections ( 1 2 
and 18 cm. in diameter, respectively) between which is a narrower waist- 
section (9 cm. in diameter) . The body (98 cm. long and 4 cm. deep) is of 
thin black walnut, the top being pierced by four heart-shaped sound-holes, A 
narrow raised strip running along the center of the top bears seventeen brass 
frets, so arranged as to produce a normal minor scale of two octaves and two 
tones. Of the three strings, one runs over the frets while two are free. These 
strings are led to a violin peg-box. The fretted (melody) string can be tuned 
to any desired pitch, the free strings (unison) sounding a related tone. 

When played, the instrument lies flat, like a zither; the melody string is 
"stopped" by pressing a reed, held in the left-hand, on the frets, while a long 
quill, held in the right-hand, serves as a plectrum. Many hold that plucking, 
or sweeping the strings with the fingers produces a sweeter tone.^ 

8 It is important to note that the latter method, in conjunction with the u?e of the 
reed (stdbchen) for "stopping" the strings, is identical with that used in playing the scheit- 
holt. As this instrument was widely distributed throughout northern Europe, it is fair 
to assume that it was represented in England. If so, the origin of the Dulcimore is evi- 
dent ; or, a scheitholt, brought in by a German settler, may have been it's ancestor. 


Signed — "Manufactured by G. E. Thomas, Nov. 13, 1918. at Bath, 

(Albert A. Stanley.) 

The Scheitholt was the direct ancestor of the Zither (Gk. Kithara; 
Lat. Cithara; Ital. Chitarra; Span. Cuitarra; Ang.-Sax. Cyiere; Old Eng. 
Cittern; Ger. Zitter). We know the Zither as the instrument used by 
the peasants of the Styrian and Bavarian Alps. Its salient features are a 
shallow, flat, resonance-box, over which run a variable number of strings. 
Some of these — the accompaniment strings — are "open," vibrating their entire 
length, while others are "stopped" by pressing the string against a "fret," 
allowing only a fractional part of the string to vibrate. Its fundamental weak- 
ness is a lack of resonance. Its resources have been increased by the addition 
of strings but, to quote a celebrated virtuoso, "The strings are so near apart," 
that the difficulty of performance is out of all proportion to the results obtained. 
In playing the Zither, which lies flat, the thumb, first, second, and third fin- 
gers of both hands are used. A partially opened ring is placed on the right 
thumb. There are three classes of Zithers, differing in pitch. The most im- 
portant forms are the Mittenwalder and the Bavarian. The earliest example 
of the latter form is dated the seventeenth century. The tuning of the free 
strings is in fourths and fifths. The complications incidental to structure and 
performance are carefully and authoritatively treated by Maclean.* 

1 147. Zither. Seventeeenth century Germany 

Narrow body terminating in a carved head. Thirteen frets. Two 

pairs of melody strings, and eleven open strings, of which four are 
octaves. Three rosette sound-holes in sound-board, one of which 
is in a rounded projection on the side. 
Length, 53.5 cm. ; width, 24 cm. ; depth, 4.2 cm. 
Signed — "Josef Mayr, in Halle." 

1 148. Zither Austria 

Body with one straight and one curved side. Twenty frets. Three 

stopped, and fourteen open strings. 
Length, 56 cm. ; width, 26 cm. ; depth, 3.2 cm. 
Signed — "Jos. Neuner, Passau." 

1 1 49. Zither. Eighteenth century Germany 

Narrow body with rounded projection on one side. Fifteen frets. 

Two pairs of wire stopped strings. Fourteen open strings. 
Length, 50 cm. ; width, 30.5 cm. ; depth, 2.7 cm. 

1 150. Zither. Similar in form to No. 1 147 Germany 

Twenty-six frets. Fourteen open, and three stopped strings. 
Length, 59 cm. ; width, 32.3, cm. ; depth, 3.5 cm. 

* Monthly Mag. International Musical Society, 1909, Part 11, p. 341. 

Case XII. West Section. Nos. 1180 to 1227 (Left to Eight)). 


1151. Zither. Pear-shaped body. Usual frets and strings .... Germany 
Length, 54 cm.; width, 28 cm.; depth, 5.2 cm. 

Signed — "Franz Kren, Munich." 

1 152. Zither. Similar to No. 1 148 Germany 

Length, 63.5 cm.; width, 30.5 cm.; depth, 3.7 cm. 

1 1 53. Zither Germany 

Guitar-shaped body. Nineteen frets. Ten open, and four stopped 

strings. Length, 5 1 cm. ; width, 33. 1 cm. ; depth, 5. 1 cm. 

1 154. Zither Germany 

Typical form. Twenty-nine frets. Twenty-five open, and five 

stopped strings. Tuning mechanism. Modern. 
Length, 51 cm.; width, 30.5 cm.; depth, 2J cm. 

1 155. Zither. Seventeenth century Germany 

Shallow body. Eighteen frets. Twelve open, and three stopped 

strings. Length, 57.2 cm.; width, 30.3 cm.; depth, 4.2 cm. 

1 156. Zither Germany 

Round body with wide neck. Sixteen frets. Seven open, and three 

stopped strings. Erroneously said to date from the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Length, 51 cm.; width, 31 cm.; depth, 5.1 cm. 

1 157. Zither. Eighteenth century Germany 

Guitar-shaped body. Nineteen frets. Ten open, and four stopped 

strings. Length, 51 cm.; width, 28.2 cm.; depth, 3.3 cm. 

1 1 58. Zither Germany 

Typical body. Twenty-nine frets. Twenty-six open, and five 

stopped strings. Length, 53 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 4 cm. 

1 1 59. Zither Germany 

Pear-shaped body. Fifteen frets. Nine open, and three stopped 

strings. Length, 61.7 cm.; width, 29.7 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm. 

1 160. "Regent" Zither (No. 3) United States 

Flat body. Twenty-four wire strings arranged in three groups of 

chords. The pitches of the strings are given on a printed label. By 
attaching a strip of paper on which are printed certain directions, 
a tune may be played by plucking the strings in the order indicated. 
Length, 38 cm.; width, 15.2 to 20.3 cm.; depth, 8 cm. 

1161. "Regent" Zither (No. 5) United States 

Similar to the preceding instrument but of greater possibilities. 
Length, 48 cm. ; width, 32.2 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1 162. "Auto Harp," "Miller's Akkord Zither" Germany 

Twenty-four wire strings controlled by bars with felt dampers. 
Length, 49 cm. ; width, 1 0. 1 to 28.4 cm. ; depth, 7.8 cm. 


1163. "Syrene" Germany 

Body of black wood. Thirty-seven wire strings. Over the strings a 

steel plate is placed through which project thirty-seven small points. 

A perforated strip of cardboard is moved over these points, per- 
mitting only certain combinations to sound when a plectrum is 
drawn across the strings. 

Length, 56.4 cm. ; width, 40.4 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 

1 1 64. Becker's "Solophone" Germany 

An instrument on the same principle as the preceding, excepting that 

it is manipulated by pistons. 
Length, 44.8 cm. ; width, 34.4 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

1 165. "Arpanetta" Germany 

Flat body with curved peg-head. Thirty-six wire strings. When a 

perforated strip is drawn under the strings by rollers, brass plectra 
and felt dampers are set in operation defining the strings that can 
be made to sound. 
Length, 63.4 cm.; width, 53 cm.; depth, 10.5 cm. 

1 166. Klaviaturzither (Eng. Zither Piano) Germany 

A trapezoidal body mounted on three legs. Tangents attached to the 

ends of the key levers pluck the string as in the ordinary zither. 

The piano key-board has a compass of five octaves. 
Length, 48 to 91 cm. ; width, 96 cm. ; depth, 20.5 cm. ; height, 81 cm. 

Signed— "Zavelberg and Kremer, D. R. P. No. 79381, 
Koln. Pat. i, 10 Staaten." 
As the key-mechanism normally does not belong to this tj^je, its 

presence in this particular instrument does not place it in Class V. 

For convenience, Nos. 1330 — a monochord, or violin — and 1346 

— a harp — are placed in Case XIV, but they are not legitimate 

key-board instruments. 

1 167. Kanoon, Qanon, or Qanun Turkey 

Flat trapezoidal body of light colored wood, artistically inlaid. On 

the resonance-box rest two bridges over which sixty-seven strings 

are drawn. Twenty-four are of over-spun wire, the remainder of 

gut They are grouped in sets of two, three and four. Played 

with plectra. Length, 88.6 cm. ; width, 5.2 to 36 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

Section F. Vibrating Strings actuated by Impact. 

The Dulcimer and its kin hark back to the Assyrian Azor. At an early 

date it migrated to Arabia and Persia from whence it spread throughout the 

entire Orient. Known at a later date in the Caucasus as Santir, it is today, 

as the Cimbalon, the chief musical asset of the gypsy bands of Hungary and 

Transylvania. A perfected instrument of this t5^e, called the Panteleon, gave 

Schroter the first hint of a keyed instrument that could produce forte and piano. 


As is well known he was forestalled in working out the principle by Cristofori, 
the Italian. The latter may have been incited by the instrument of this type 
called in Italy Strumenii da porco, later known in Germany as Schrveimkopf. 
The present more euphonious German name is Hackhrett, a board on which 
butchers chop sausage meat. 

1 1 68. Tambourin a cordes, or Tambourin du Bearn. Also 

known as Tambourin de Gascogne Basque Province, France 

Over the long resonance-box run six gut strings. These are struck 
with a stick held in the left hand. The instrument rests in an up- 
right position on the right arm. The right hand manipulates the 
finger-holes of the Caloubet, or Churula (Case VI, No. 493) 
which is always played at the same time. This practice is called 
by the onomatopoeic term iuiupompone^er, or tuiupanpan.^ 
Length, 88.5 cm.; width, 17.5 to 1 1 cm.; depth, 6.7 cm. 
"Whittle and dub" is an old Oxfordshire term for this combination.' 
In a chapel in the only ancient Gothic church in Rome, Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva, is a fresco by Filippino Lippi, painted in 1487 (restored), 
which shows a viol-shaped tambourin du Bearn and schwegel — a vertical flute 
corresponding to the galoubet, or flUte des vielleurs. (See Sachs, p. 146.) 

1 169. Dulcimer England 

Body of mahogany. Twenty-seven groups of wire strings, four in 

each group, run over movable bridges. Struck with beaters of 
whalebone, the ends of which are bent into a loop and padded with 
chamois skin. 
Length, 33 to 77 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1170. Yang K*IN, "Foreign kin" China 

Body of enamelled wood with curved outlines. Fourteen sets of 

strings, of four each, are drawn over the sound-board. Carved 
ivory rosette sound-holes. Struck with thin strips of bamboo and a 
brass hammer. Length, 74.4 cm. ; width, 29.5 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1171. Kanuna India 

Twenty-two brass wire strings are stretched over the resonance-cham- 
ber or body. Played with hammers. A hinged door opens into 
the interior, which is a receptacle for music, the hammers, or both. 

Length, 95 to 89 cm. ; width, 46 cm. ; depth, 1 7 cm. 
A more elaborate form is called the svaramandalaj and a smaller 
type with fewer strings is known as the khudra J^at^ayana-vina. 

^Mahillon, Cat, Vol. IH, p. 377- 
« Sachs, p. 422. 
7 Day, pp. 133, 134- 


1 1 72. Triple Dulcimer United States 

Trapezoidal body resting on three piano legs. As there are three in- 
dependent sets of strings, three can perform at the same time on 
this instrument, which has been called by its inventor — one Mac- 
kenzie — the "Piano Harp." 
Length, 183.5 to 67.8 cm.; width, 42 to 57.8 cm.; height, 65 cm. 

1 ! 73. Yang k'in China 

Body of wood. Fourteen pairs of fine steel wire strings run over two 

metal bridges. Played with two curved wooden mallets and the 

usual brass hanmier. 
Length, 71 to 42 cm.; width, 26.3 cm.; depth, 3.7 cm. 

1 1 74. Yang-k'in China 

Similar to the preceding instrument but with wooden bridges. Played 

with two delicately balanced bamboo hammers, and a combination 
tuning-key and hammer of brass. Carried in a wooden case. 
Length, 70 to 42.5 cm. ; width, 25 cm. ; depth, 4. 1 cm. 

The san-gen-da-kin, ivith forty-two wire strings, and two bridges 
(Crosby Brown Collection, No. 2006), and the san-gen-lfin, with 
three silk strings, represent the type in Japan. 

1 1 75. Yang-KOM Corea 

Body of odang wood. Fourteen groups of four fine wire strings each. 

This is also carried in a case, the lid of which bears an inscription 
in Chinese characters. The instrument, which is extremely light, is 
supported by the tip of the left thumb, while the fore finger is in- 
serted in a hole in the base. TTie strings are struck by a long, thin 
strip of bamboo held in the right hand. It is a favorite instrument 
of the educated classes, used both for solo work and as an accom- 
paniment for the voice. 

Length, 64 to 44 cm.; width, 16.6 cm.; depth, 3.1 cm. 

Collected by a Mr. Cooper, of Chemulpo, Corea. 

1 1 76. Salterio Italy 

Body decorated with gilt carving and marbled sides. Two carved 

roses in sound-holes. Over the sound-board run ninety-one strings 
of brass wire divided into sixteen groups of four each, and nine 
groups of three each. Three movable gilded wooden bridges. 
A most artistic eighteenth-century representative of the type. 
Length, 33 to 77 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 


Class IV. 

Sections A-D-E. Vibrating Plucked Strings. 

With a few exceptions, the instruments in this Case come from the Orient. 
Many of them are of distinct beauty and all are of great interest. 

1 1 77. GoPI-YANTRA India 

Body of calabash shell. A bamboo rod, split in the middle, is at- 
tached to the body. From a peg on one side a single string runs to 
the bottom of the instrument. 

Height, 88 cm. Width of body, 1 3 cm. ; depth, 20 cm. 

1 1 78. A.NANDA-LAHARI Bengal, India 

Body of bamboo. Parchment head, secured to bottom. One string 

runs from this to the end of a rod standing at an angle. 
Height, 7 1 cm. Depth of body, 1 3 cm. ; diameter, 1 8 to 12 cm. 

1 1 79. Eka-Tantrika, or Eka-tara India 

Body of gourd with a head of rawhide. One string of fibre. 
Height, 77 cm. Depth of body, 1 7 cm. ; diameter, 1 7 cm. 

1 1 80. Eka-tara. Similar to the preceding Deccan, India 

Eka-tara means "the one-stringed." Used by beggars. 

Length, 94.5 cm. Depth of body, 1 2.5 cm. ; diameter, 2 1 cm. 

1181. Yektar, or TuNTUNI India 

Body of wood, covered with red cloth. Parchment head, or bottom, 

tightened by rings which engage cords. The instrument is held 
under one arm. A string runs through the head and is attached to 
a ring by which it is drawn taut by one hand, and plucked by the 
fingers of the other. 
Height, 57 cm. Depth of body, 13.5 cm.; diameter, 12 cm. 

1 182. ToNKARl, or MUKKO. Aino Psaltery' Japan 

Long, narrow, sword-shaped body of wood, stained black. Five 

strings, giving a pentatonic series, run over two low bridges to long 
tuning-pegs in sides of sword-handle. 
Length, 1 72.2 cm. Width, 8 cm. Thickness, 3.5 cm. 

iRomyn Hitchcock writes (Rep. Nat. Mus., 1890, p. 462): "A three-stringed instru- 
ment called the tonkari was mentioned by a Japanese traveler in Yezo long before the 
Ainos from Saghalien took up their abode there. On the same page a ctit of a tonkari 
with five strings, and of more ornate structure than No. 1182, is shown. He also mentions 
a similar instrument called the mackimono — a name not found in the literature of the 


1 183. Blikan Borneo 

This resembles the blikan of Borneo in every respect but one, viz.: 

th? body tapers to lower end instead of being cut off square. It has 
the same stringing and ornamental string-fastener. The difference 
between the length of this specimen — 148 cm. — and 136 cm. — the 
length of the one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York* 
— represents the tapering end. The greatest width is the same — 
1 4.2 cm. In view of the frequency with which variants of such in- 
struments occur, the name blikan is given with considerable con- 
viction, but with a full sense of the possible error involved. 

1 184. Blikan. Similar to No. 1 183, but smaller Borneo 

Length, 98.5 cm. ; width, 1 4.2 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1 185. Stringed Instrument Java 

Long boat-shaped body carved from a single block of wood. Five 

frets. Two wire strings. Sometimes called vio/a-Ja-^tfpan, but 
without authority. 

Length, 77 cm. ; greatest width, 9 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

No. 1491 in the Crosby Brown Collection (Morris, p. 6) is a speci- 
men (also given no name) considerably larger (97.9 cm. long and 
10.4 cm. wide) and, unlike this, painted in red and green. 

1 1 86. Herrauu. Zeze type. One string. Three rude frets . . Madagascar 
Gourd resonator, decorated in incised lines and floral designs. 
Length, 61 cm.; width, 3.1 cm.; dimensions of gourd, 9.5 by 12 cm. 

1 1 87. Guitar. Two strings. Gourd resonator Source unknown 

This resembles the unknown instrument listed as No. 959, in Case 

IX. It has wire strings running over two tubes on each of which 
are incised frets, in two groups of four each. 
Length, 60 cm.; depth of gourd, 15.2 cm.; diameter, 16 cm. 

1 188. GUENBRI Sahara, Africa 

Oblong box with belly of rawhide. Three strings, tightened by push- 
ing them up the neck. Decorated with leather fringes carrying 
cowrie-shells. A very rude and inchoate specimen. 

Length, 90 cm. ; of body, 46 cm. ; width, 2 1 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 

1 189. GuENBRi Soudan, N. E. Africa 

Oblong box covered with brocade. Painted parchment belly. Two 

gut strings. Other names for the guenbri are: ganibri, ghimbri,^ 

2 Morris, p. i6. 

3 In "A Visit to Wazan" (London, i88o, pp. 310-311), R. Spencer Watson refers to this 
instrument as follows : "In the evening I had a visit from one of the famous professionals 
who sing at some of the cafes of the town. Unfortunately, he did not bring with him the 
lady who usually sings with him, and his own performance on the ghimbri, a two-stringed 
guitar, was monotonous and wearisome." 


gimbrede, gimbri, gnbr'u guniberr^, gunibri, and in all probability 
still others. 
Length, 53 cm. ; of body, 28 cm. ; width, 1 5 cm. ; depth, 1 6.5 cm. 

1 190. Gnbri Soudan, N. E. Africa 

An elongated body covered with parchment at the lower end. 

From the bamboo neck extend two strings over a bridge. Played 
with a plectrum. This closely resembles the mijue mijue of 
Sumatra (Morris, p. 14) excepting that the long pointed end is 
absent. This is cui example of the frequently perplexing, but al- 
ways interesting, points of contact between types representing widely 
separated countries. 
Length, 58. 1 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 9 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1 191. GiNBRi Soudan, N. E. Africa 

Body formed from a section of gourd with skin drawn over the front. 

From the neck, of wood, run two strings. 
Length, 42 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 9 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1 192. GuENBRi Algeria 

Body of the handsomely marked shell of a land tortoise. Belly of 

parchment decorated with native characters in red. Two gut 
strings run from pegs in neck over a bridge to a peg at the bottom 
of the body. 
Length, 44.5 cm. ; of body, 1 7 cm. ; width, 1 2 cm. ; depth, 6.5 cm. 

1 1 93. Gunibri Soudan, N. E. Africa 

An elongated pear-shaped body over the front of which a skin — the 

forehead of an ox — is drawn. Rudely carved peg-head. A small 
mirror and a string of wooden beads serve for decoration. 
Length, 65.9 cm. ; of body, 35.5 cm. ; width, 12.3 cm. ; depth, 7.6 cm. 

1 1 94. LoKANGA. Two strings. Zese type Madagascar 

Body a straight tube of reed, to which a large gourd resonator is at- 
tached. Two fibre strings. 

Length, 58.6 cm. ; width, 2.5 cm. ; diameter of gourd, 1 9.4 cm. 

In playing, the gourd is pressed against the breast. This practice is 

a common one, for thereby the resonance is increased. 
The Swahili call the three strings of the zeze: ^i/umn?a/i, utembwe, 

and umondo.* In Mozambique this instrument is called ^aita- 

^atta.^ It is known under many an alias in the widely distributed 

sections in which its note is heard. 

* Sachs, p. 430. 
5 Sachs, p. 426. 


1 1 95. Jantar. Two strings. Resonator in two sections India 

The body ends in a rude violin scroll and peg-box. The strings are 

tightened by screw-pegs. The resonator consists of two sections of 
gourd, one superimposed on the other. It exhibits considerable 
constructive skill. 
Length, 62 cm. ; width, 3 cm. ; diameter of gourds, 9 and 1 7 cm. 

1 196. GuENBRI North Africa 

The back of a turtle forms the body. Parchment belly. Two gut 

Length, 84 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 1 6 cm. ; depth, 1 0.2 cm. 

1 197. Cambreh" Sierra Leone, Africa 

Long narrow body carved from a single block of bileke wood. Head 

of parchment. Four strings of horse-hair. Played with a plec- 
trum, colonde, the tooth of a native rodent, agonto. 
Length, 71 cm.; of body, 38.5 cm.; width, 10 cm.; depth, 7 cm. 

1 1 98. Cambreh Haussa Tribe, W. Africa 

Body of palm-wood. Belly of parchment. Three strings of horse- 
hair fastened to leather bands about the neck, the primitive tuning 
device. Length, 54 cm. ; width, 1 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1199. Guitar Egypt 

Body of rude construction. Parchment belly. Five gut strings, four 

of which are grouped in pairs. Played with a bone plectrum. 
Length, 68.5 cm.; width, 12 cm.; depth, 7 cm. 

1 200. Guitar. Native name unknown Somali-land, Africa 

Body, neck, and head, of one piece. Parchment belly. Finger- 
board ornamented with rude carvings; the body with a rosette 
sound-hole, and a mirror. Six gut strings, in groups of two each. 

Length, 65.9 cm. ; width, 10 cm. ; depth, 6.4 cm. 

1201 . Guitar Arabia 

Carved from a single block of hard brown wood. Parchment belly. 

Elaborately constructed finger-board. Carved head. Six strings 
of gut. Rosette sound-hole. The body of this instrument resembles 
an elongated rebab, but it does not present the characteristics of any 
of the Arabian bowed instruments. It can safely be included in 
the designation given above. 
Length, 63 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

« Mahillon (Cat. II, p. 174) gives an illustration of a native playing an instrument iden- 
tical with this. He calls it the Jialam, "'an instrument resembling the cambreh," but gives 
no further information save its source, Senegal. Sachs (p. 76) gives the alternative name, 
chalam, and calls it a Saiteninstrument, Kamhre. 


1202. Stringed Instrument. Tanbur type Slavic 

Elaborately decorated body. Circular sound-hole cut in centre of the 

back. Parchment belly. Inlaid finger-board. Four wire strings. 
Length, 106.5 cm.; of body, 33.4 cm.; diameter, 28 cm. ; depth, 
11.5 cm. 

1203. Guitar. Native name unknown China 

The entire shell of a large turtle forms the body. Six strings. Eleven 

frets. The peg-end of the finger-board bends backwards and ter- 
minates in a typical Chinese scroll (reversed). The fact that 
neither Mahillon, Moule, Sachs, nor Van Aalst mentions such an 
instrument is significant. It suggests European influence. 
Length, 101 cm.; of body, 38 cm.; width, 33 cm.; depth, 31 cm. 

1204. Ta'khe (Lizard) Siam and Cambodia 

Body of dark red wood resting on six short legs. Three strings pass 

over a group of frets. Played with an ivory plectrum held in the 

right hand while the left stops the strings. 
This is a variant of the meg^oung. Case IX, No. 990. 
Length, 1 24 cm. ; width of body, 11 to 2 1 cm. ; depth, 1 2 cm. ; height, 

19 cm. 

1 205. DoMRA^ Russia 

Oval, bowl-shaped body. Leather belly. Carved head. Three 

strings of wire. Played with a wooden plectrum, schepochka. 
Length, 91 cm.; of body, 23.5 cm.; diameter, 24 cm.; depth, 9.5 cm. 

1 206. Stringed Instrument. Tanbur type Slavic 

This instrument, like No. 1 202, refused to be placed. No one among 

the many authorities consulted has been able to give more specific 
information than that contained in the title. Both instruments are 
of unusually fine construction, of sonorous tone, of unmistakable 
type and, in a general way, their provenance is quite certain, but as 
they do not correspond in details to anything in the literature of the 
subject — the nearest approach being No. 769, Mahillon II, 1 14-5 
— the titles chosen will have to stand for the present at least, for 
"while there's life there's hope." 
Length 1 09 cm. ; of body, 30.5 cm. ; diameter, 26.5 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

'' With only partial assurance of its correctness, the name domra is assigned for the 
following reasons: It corresponds to the description given by Sachs (p. 114); it has the 
peculiar wooden plectrum; it has everything in common with Slavic and Balkan types; no 
authority consulted could suggest either name or source, other than one of those just given; 
and, finally, Mr. Stearns' correspondence shows that in 1900 he was negotiating for speci- 
mens of the instrument, although there is nothing to indicate that the negotiations were 
successful. The Turkish-Albanian yonghar and the Georgian chnnguri, each with thre^ 
strings, and the changura (kontrasfiica), with four strings, might be suggested, but their 
identification is incomplete in essential details. Not one of these instruments is listed in 
any catalogue, nor is the domra. 


J207. Thari Caucasus 

Body carved from a single block of wood. Belly of fine parchment. 

Sixteen gut frets. Five strings. 
Length, 83 cm. ; of body, 30 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 8 cm. 

] 208. Tar Shiraz, Persia 

Body similar in form to preceding. The entire body, neck, and peg- 
box, are exquisitely inlaid with minute bits of metal, wood, and 
ivory, in geometrical patterns. Inlaid finger-board. Parchment 
belly. Five fine wire strings. 
Length, 9 1 cm. ; of body, 35 cm. ; width, 23 cm. ; depth, 1 8 cm. 

1209. yuEH CH'in, or YUE K*IN. "Moon-guitar" China 

Flat, circular body with neck and rim of shitan wood. Eleven frets. 

Two pairs of waxed silk strings. Wire snare within body. TTiis is 
not for noise merely, but, as it has a fixed pitch, it aids the musician 
in his tuning. 
Length, 62 cm. ; diameter of body, 35. 1 cm. ; depth, 3.9 cm. 


1210. YuEH Ch'in. Similar to No. 1209, but 3 cm. shorter China 

The body of the yueh ch'in is of wu t*ung wood and the connecting 

rim of boxwood. 

1211. Gekkin China, and Japan 

The peg-head is carved and bent forward as in the t)T)ical ge^^in, but 

the face of the body lacks the usual decorations. 
Length, 62 cm. ; diameter of body, 3 1 .6 cm. ; depth, 3.8 cm. 


1212. Cai dan ngnyet Anam 

Flat, circular body, with neck and rim of shitan wood. Nine frets, 

over which run four strings grouped in pairs. This has a much 
shorter neck than No. 1217, which is a typical specimen. Possibly 
it would be more discreet to simply call this a "moon-guitar" but, as 
it is from Anam and the Anamese ngn})et means "moon," the risk 
is assumed. 
Length, 56 cm. ; diameter of body, 34.5 cm. ; depth, 3.6 cm. 

1213. Moon Guitar Japan 

Peculiar proportions. Decorated with carved wooden ornaments, and 

a trefoil of fish-skin under the strings. Fourteen frets. Two pairs 
of silken strings. TTie body also contains a wire snare. 
This instrument has the round body and decoration of the ge^^m, but 
not the short neck ; it has the long neck of the gen^D>an^ but not the 

8 Piggott, p. 171. 


octagonal body. The number of frets, and certain of the measure- 
ments do not coincide with either. 
Length, 94 cm. ; diameter of body, 2.5 cm. ; depth, 3 cm. 

1214. Pepa, or P'lP A China 

The elongated oval body is of rvu Cung wood, and the neck terminates 

in a carved representation of a bat's head. Four rounded and two 
flat plates of ivory are attached to the neck. There are nine frets on 
the face of the body, over which two pairs of strings run to the peg- 
box. The long pegs are fluted as in most Chinese and Japanese 
stringed instruments. 
Length, 97 cm, ; width of body, 3 to 23.6 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1215. BuGAKU-BiWA Japan 

Shallow elongated body of a very heavy wood (the instrument 

weighs 6|/2 lbs) . Four frets. Four strings. 
Length, 99 cm. ; of body, 60 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1216. Satsuma-biwa Japan 

Flat oval body decorated with two metal crescents. Four strings. 

The neck can be removed in order that the instrument may be 

packed in small compass. 
Length, 102 cm.; of body 40.5 cm.; width, 18.7 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm. 
Piggott (pp. 168-9) gives full measurements of these forms of 

the biiva. 

1217. Cai dan NGNYET. An unusually beautiful specimen Anam 

Typical body. Neck, finger-board, and head elaborately inlaid with 

a floral design in etched mother-of-pearl. On sound-board an 
oblong gilded plaque carries an inscription in Chinese characters. 
Length, 101.4 cm.; diameter of body, 38.8 cm.; depth, 9.8 cm. 

1218. Moon-guitar China 

Typical body. The rim and long neck are of shitan wood. Peg- 
box and tail-piece mounted with ivory. Eight frets. Two pairs of 
gut strings. The long neck indicates a variant. 

Length, 97.2 cm. ; diameter of body, 38 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1219. San HSIEN, or Hsien TZO. (Name in Pekin) China 

Oval body of wood. Back and belly of python-skin. Three strings 

pass over a bridge on belly. A wedge-shaped block of ivory is 
tied to the finger board, and by changing its position the tuning of 
the strings is made more accurate. Played with plectrum of tor- 
toise-shell or with the fingers. 
Length, 89.5 cm. ; of body, 1 6.4 cm. ; diameter, 1 5 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1220. Cai TAM. An exact replica of No. 1219 Anam 


1221. Kra-chapee, or Ka:chabpi Siam 

Flat circular body. Long neck of hard wood, with broad head curv- 
ing backwards. Three strings, two of gut and one of wire. 

Length, 1 68 cm. ; of body, 38 cm. ; diameter, 34 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1222. Samisen ■ Japan 

Rectangular body, decorated in gilt and lacquer. Front and back of 

parchment (cat-skin). Three fine strings of waxed silk. Played 
with a plectrum, bachi, or batsi — 24.6 cm. long — made of shitan 
wood edged with ivory. Two bachi are placed on the floor directly 
Length, 97 cm. ; of body, 2 1 cm. ; width, 1 9.5 cm. ; depth, 24.6 cm. 

TTie modern Japanese theater orchestra combines two samisens, one flute, 
three drums — uia-daiko, o-tsuzumi, ko-tsuzumi — and two reciters. Ordinarily 
it is called the hy^ashi-kota, "the accompaniment party," but when in full dress 
it becomes the dega-tari, "the orchestra which appears." A dance orchestra, 
shita-kaiay has no reciters, and the o-isuzumi and ko-tsuzumi are played by 
one person.^ 

1 222a. Guitar. Native name unknown Nicaragua 

Body of hard wood. Four gut strings. Thirteen gut frets. 
Length, 40 cm.; of body, 23.3 cm.; width, 9.8 cm.; depth, 4.5 cm. 
(Henry Kraemer.) 

The instruments based on the principle of the plucked string, and in- 
cluded in the series from 950 to 1 222a, cover a wide geographical range, and 
date back to an antiquity so remote as to appall any but an Oriental mind. 
The Japanese challenge our credulity by pointing to the semi-mythical sage- 
koto (3468 B. C.) used by the Mikado's concubines, and to the more modern 
hitzu no koto, dating from 2000 B. C. 

While this type has been, and still is, a favorite, its musical possibilities 
are restricted when compared to those inhering in the relatively modern bowed 
instruments, for the secret of the wonderful resources of the violin-type lies in 
the fact that the tone is produced by the continuous friction of a bow on the 
string, rather than by intermittent plucking. The tone produced by the latter 
process is neither resonant nor sustained. 

Section G. Vibrating Strings running over Bridge and "True" Finger 
Board, actuated by the Friction of a Bow. (Primitive and Oriental.) 

The bow was discovered by the Arabians, and was carried by the Moors 
to Spain. Through its discovery the range of musical expression was greatly 
extended. Almost invariably bowed instruments have a "true" finger-board, 
making finer distinctions of pitch than are possible with frets. The bridge over 
which the strings are drawn is also a most important factor. Occasionally, in 

^ Ibid., p. 30. On pages 32 and 34 he gives illustrations of these orchestras. 


primitive and certain Oriental types, the bridge is missing. In the more im- 
portant East Indian types sympathetic strings are used. 

1 223. Fiddle Alaska 

Long narrow body of drift-wood. One string of whalebone. Rude 

bow. Length, 37.5 cm.; width, 5.7 cm.; depth, 2.3 cm. 

1 224. Fiddle. Similar to No. 1 223 Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska 

1225. Fiddle. Native name unknown Madagascar 

The body is formed from half of a large cocoanut-shell, over the open 

end of which is cemented a belly of bladder. Finger-board of a 
bamboo joint. Three fine wire strings run over a bridge to rude 
tuning pegs in the neck. 
Length, 46.5 cm.; diameter of body, 14.5 cm.; length of bow, 32 cm. 

1226. Fiddle Philippine Islands 

Body from a section of bamboo. Four gut strings run over a high 

bridge. A rude bow of bamboo and horse-hair. 
Length, 71.7 cm.; diameter of body, 6.4 cm. 

1227. TziT-lDOATL.''' "Music wood." Apache fiddle New Mexico 

Body formed from a section of the Mexican Agave (Agave Mex- 

icana), from which the pith has been removed. Decorated. One 
string. Bow with horse-hair strings. 
Length, 48. 1 cm. ; diameter, 1 0.2 to 8.5 cm. 

1 228. Goge, pi. goguna Soudan, N. E. Africa 

Bowl-shaped body covered on the back with red velvet, on which are 

arranged rows of cowrie-shells and strips of leather. One heavy 
string of loose horse-hair running over bridge of unusual proportions. 
Length, 48 cm. ; diameter of body, 27 cm. ; depth, 1 1 .3 cm. 

1229. Rebab. Rude Rebab esh shair West Africa 

Calabash body over which a piece of raw parchment is tightly drawn. 

One string. Rude bow. 
Length, 54.2 cm. ; diameter of body, 1 0.8 cm. ; depth, 7.6 cm. 

1230. Rebab esh sha'ir Soudan 

Body of calabash covered with skin. One string of white horse-hair. 

The neck is closely wound with strings of colored glass beads and 
ends in a metal socket. Rude bow. 
Length, 82 cm. ; width of belly, 1 4 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 

1231. Rebab esh sha'ir Soudan 

The wooden body and neck are covered with black velvet. The body 

is decorated with rows of cowrie-shells and metal discs ; on the neck 

^^ Morris, p. 105. 


are painted arabesques, while the back carries a circular mirror. The 
parchment head bears two crescents, in black. One string. 
Length, 50.7 cm.; diameter of body, 12.3 cm.; depth, 7.6 cm. 

1232. Kemanjeh a GOUZ. A very small example Egypt 

. Body of a half cocozmut with parchment belly. Two sfrings. Rude 

bow. An iron rod runs through the instrument, forming a rest. 
Length, 44 cm. ; width of body, 6.4 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1233. Kemanjeh a gouz. Similar to No. 1232 Soudan 

This has a long iron rest, projecting from the bottom. 
Length, 81.5 cm.; of rod, 30.4 cm; width of body, 30.4 cm.; depth> 
7.7 cm. 

1234. Rebab India 

The bowl-shaped body is of dark wood and carries no decoration. 

The belly is of very thin light-colored wood. One string. 
Length, 50 cm.; of body, 14.5 cm.; width, 1 1 cm.; depth, 7 cm. 
Rebab is a generic name for any bowed instrument in the Moslem 

countries. The word is derived from the Persian revave, which 

means "sorrowful toned." 

1235. Kemanjeh Egypt 

Rude guitar model, without frets. Inlaid finger-board. Four strings. 
Length, 70 cm. ; of body, 30 cm. ; width, 18 cm. ; depth, 5.2 cm. 

1236. Kemanjeh Soudan 

Body of calabash shell, with wooden belly. Inlaid neck and head. 

Three gut strings. A cross between the Turkish zuid Egyptian 
Length, 56 cm. ; body, 1 5 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 6.5 cm. 

1237. Kemanjeh Turkey 

Body, head, and neck of one piece. Wooden belly. Three gut 

strings. Length, 44 cm. ; width, 1 4.3 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1238. Kemanjeh Turkey 

Similar to the preceding instrument, but inlaid with ivory and ebony. 
Length, 42 cm. ; width, 1 4.3 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1239. Rebab esh sha'ir, or Booga Egypt 

Body in form of an inverted keystone. Belly of rawhide. One horse- 
hair string. Iron rod, as in No. 1235. 

Length, 79 cm.; body, 19 cm.; width, 13.5 to 10 cm.; depth, 5.3 cm. 

1240. Rebab el-mughanni Egypt 

Wooden body with fret-work back. Parchment belly. Inlaid neck. 

and head. Two strings. This is the "singer's rebab.** 
Length, 66 cm.; of body, 16 cm.; width, 10 cm.; depth, 5.8 cm. 


1241 . Rebab el-mughanni Egypt 

Keystone-shaped body with inlaid neck and ivory tuning-pegs. Two 

Length, 88.5 cm. ; of body, 27 cm. ; width, 26 to 18 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1242. Rebab esh sha'ir. "The poet's rebab" Egypt 

Length, 71.1 cm.; of body, 26.6 cm.; width, 7 to 12.7 cm. 

When used to accompany the Abu-Said Romance the name Aba- 
Said Fiddle is frequently employed. 

1 243. Rebab Tunis, North Africa 

Elongated body. Parchment belly. Ornate sound-holes. Sides in- 
laid. Two gut strings. 

Length, 62 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 
This instrument is a fine specimen of the type introduced into Spain by 
the Moors. It is easy to see that its musical value was not very great. How- 
ever, that in it inhered great potentialities, is proven by the evolution of the 
most perfect of our modern instruments from so incomplete a beginning. 

1244. KoKYU, or KoKlU Japan 

The body is of red wood with front and back of cat-skin. Structural- 
ly it is a bowed samisen, somewhat smaller than the typical plucked 
form. Three silk strings run over a bridge to characteristic tuning- 
pegs in the neck. 

Length, 66 cm. ; of body, 15.3 cm. ; width, 14 cm. ; depth, 7.2 cm. 
Piggott (page 177) gives detailed measurements of the k^kv^* with 
four strings, which is the usual number. 

1245. Rebab Sumatra 

This and the following specimen indicate that the vogue of the rebab 

is not restricted to Persia and Arabia or continguous countries. The 
shallow body of wood is in the shape of an elongated pear and 
carries a long neck. The body is decorated with a carved band. 
Two strings. 
Length, 78 cm. ; of body, 28.5 cm. ; width, 11.1 cm. ; depth, 7 cm. 

1246. Rebab Java 

Round body with head of skin, baiok; foot, lemahan; neck, waiangan; 

long tuning-pegs, manoi; and thin strings.^^ 
Elaborately decorated with mother-of-pearl inlay. 
Length, 75 cm. ; width, 11.5 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

1247. Haggum, Hai-kom, or Haing-kom Corea 

Barrel-shaped body of bamboo. Parchment belly. Neck of shiian 

wood. Two strings run over a low bamboo bridge. Typical bow. 
Length, 62 cm. ; diameter of body, 8.8 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 

11 Sachs, p. 317. 


1248. Keikin China 

Four strings run through an ivory ring reducing the vibrating length 

to 27 cm. The hairs of the bow (74 cm. in length) are intertwined 
in the strings. 
Length, 73 cm. ; diameter of body, 8 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 


1249. KOKIN, or GiRlNE Japan 

Of the same general type as the preceding instrument, but smaller. 

The body and neck are of hard, dark-brown wood. Two strings. 
Length, 45 cm. ; diameter of body, 5 cm. ; deptli, 1 4 cm. 

1 250. Ko-KIN. In every respect similar to No. 1 249 Japan 

125 1 . Cai nhi. or Douco Anam 

The entire body and tuning-pegs are lacquered in black and gold. 

The head is of ^fri wood, the neck of shitan wood. Two strings. 
Length, 57.5 cm.; diameter of body, 8 cm.; depth, 8.5 cm. 

1252. Cai NHL A replica of the preceding instrument Anam 

Length, 54.5 cm. ; diameter of body, 8.5 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm. 

1253. Douco. Similar to No. 1251, but with snake-skin head. . . .Anam 

1 254. Cai nhi Anam 

This is the most beautiful of the group. The neck and fluted tuning- 
pegs are of ebony, inlaid in a floral design in etched mother-of-pearl. 
The bow, of bamboo, is strung with white horsehair. 

Length, 71 cm.; depth, 12.1 cm.; diameter of* body, 5.2 cm. 

1255. Sharode. Unusual form India 

Carved from a single block of wood. Parchment belly. Four gut 


The body resembles the rudra-vina, but the neck is much shorter. The 
stringing resembles the sharode. Nine sympathetic strings run from 
pegs on the side over the same bridge as the melody strings. 

Length, 82.6 cm. ; of body, 1 9 cm. ; width, 24 cm. ; depth, 1 1 cm. 

1256. Sarinda, Saroh, or Chihikong India 

The body, with rounded back and deep incurvations on tlie sides, is 

carved -from a single block of wood. A parchment belly covers 
the lower end only. Three gut strings fastened to a projection at 
the base run over a bridge resting on the parchment to tuning-pegs 
in peg-box. The neck is very short. 
Length, 54.5 cm. ; of body, 32 cm. ; width, 1 6.8 cm. ; depth, 3 cm. 

1257. Sarinda India 

Body of gourd with superimposed carvings of wood. Lower part of 

strings running over a high bridge of ivory. Five sympathetic 
Length, 61 .5 cm. ; of body, 42 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; depth, 1 7.5 cm. 


Case XIII. West Section. Nos. 1270 to 1293 (Left to Eight). 
(A part of Case VIII is shown with Nos. 905 to 920, on the top.) 



J 258. Sarinda India 

Body of gourd with superimposed carvings of wood. Lower part of 

the front covered with parchment. Three strings of wire and one 

of gut. Thirteen sympathetic strings. 
Length, 63 cm. ; of body, 40 cm. ; width, 27 cm. ; depth, 19 cm. 

1259. Chikara India 

Pear-shaped body of gourd. Neck and scroll of European type. 

Wooden belly with violin sound-holes. Four bowed gut strings. 
Seven sympathetic strings. The native name of the bow is sargi.^* 
Length, 54.5 cm.; width, 19 cm.; depth, 15 cm. 

1 260. Chikara India 

Pear-shaped body with deeply incurving sides to admit of the free use 

of the bow. Parchment belly. Three bowed gut strings. Five 
sympathetic strings. 
Length, 56 cm. ; width, 1 4.5 cm. ; depth, 1 cm. 

1 261 . Chikara India 

An elaborately decorated example. Four bowed gut strings. Nine 

sympathetic strings. 
Length, 54 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1 262. Taus, or Tayuc. Peacock-vina India 

The wooden body is carved and painted to resemble a peacock. Belly 

of painted parchment. Four wire strings. Fifteen sympathetic 
strings. Sixteen frets. It may be played with a bow (carried in a 
receptacle in body), or plucked. The iaus is also called mohur 
and ma^uri. 
Length, 1 1 4 cm. ; of body, 29 cm. ; depth, 1 9 cm. ; width, 1 8 cm. 

1263. EsRAR India 

Body with deeply incurving sides. Parchment belly. Five melody 

strings. Fifteen sympathetic strings. Sixteen frets. 
Length, 1 1 6.7 cm. ; of body, 25 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 5 cm. 

1 264. SuR-SANGA India 

Violin-shaped body. Parchment belly. Seventeen frets. Four wire 

strings. The sur-sanga is an esrar with no sympathetic strings. It 
may be played with a bow, or plucked. 
Length, 124 cm.; of body, 37 cm.; width, 22 cm.; depth, 7 cm. 

1 265. Sarangi India 

Body in shape of an inverted key-stone. Three heavy gut strings 

(bowed) and one of copper wire. Twenty- four sympathetic 
strings.. The body has an incurvation in the right side, and a 
rounded back. 
Length, 58 cm.; of body, 23.3 cm.; width, 16-24 cm.; depth, 16 cm. 

^^Ibid., p. loi. 



1266. Sarangi, or Sarungi India 

Similar to preceding example but with eleven sympathetic strings only. 
Length, 52.3 cm.; of body, 23.5 cm.; width, 12 to 14 cm.; depth, 

11.5 cm. 

1 267. Sharode, or Caradiya-vina. Autumn-vina India 

Body of painted wood with parchment belly. Peg-box represents a 

bird's head. Five gut strings. 

Length, 91 .2 cm. ; of body, 27.9 cm. ; width, 22 cm. 

Sharode is the Arabian name for a bass string. According to Sachs 
(p. 369), quoting from Mafatih al *Ulum, it resembles an instru- 
ment devised (912 A. D.) by the philosopher, Ibn Achwas es- 
Saadi, of Bagdad. 

1268. Sharode India 

Hard wood body with deeply incurving sides. Six gut strings. Eight 

sympathetic strings. 
Length, 98.9 cm.; width, 24 cm.; depth, 20.3 cm. 

1 269. RuDRA-VINA. Vina of the god Rudra India 

Beautifully decorated body of wood. Inlaid neck and finger-boajd. 

Five gut strings. 
Length, 76 cm. ; width, 25.5 cm. ; depth, 1 3 cm. 

It will be noticed that all the East Indian instruments in this, as in Case 
IX, are exceedingly beautiful, both in form and decoration. The quality of 
tone is of peculiar sweetness. The extensive use of sympathetic strings (of 
very fine wire) is a notable feature of most East Indian types. 

How far sympathetic strings affect the tone of an instrument very largely 
depends on the imagination of the hearer, although not entirely. 

A half-century ago, Bliithner, a celebrated pianoforte maker of Leipzig, 
introduced sympathetic strings in his Grands, but they were found to be of no 

Class IV. 

Section G. Continued (European). 

1270. Crwth (crooth), or Crowd Wales 

This instrument is held by many Anglo-Saxons to be the most ancient 

bowed instrument. It was mentioned by Venantius Fortunatus 
Bishop of Poitiers, circa 609 ; was pictured in mediaeval MSS. and 
maintained itself in Wales until the beginning of the last century. 
A square body, with a curved* projection from the top, carries four 
strings, running over a bridge and true finger board, and two free 
strings on the right side (as held in playing). The first are played 
with a bow, the second are manipulated with the thumb of the left 
hand. There were two systems of tuning — g-g' (free strings) -c'- 
c'^-d'd''' (bowed) or a-a'; e-e"; b'-b''. This is a reproduction, as 
originals cannot be obtained. 
Length, 55 cm.; width, 19.7 to 15.6 cm.; depth, 3 to 2 cm. 

1271. Trumscheit (Eng. Trumpet Marine; Fr. Trompette marine; 

Ital. Tromha marina) ^ Germany 

Long tapering body with flat sides. Two circular sound-holes in 
belly. When the single thick gut string is correctly bowed, an 
harmonic of trumpet tone-quality is produced. The assumption that 
the name came from its use at sea has no evidence in its support. 
More probable is the explanation given by Galpin (p. 98), that it was 
named after Marin, a celebrated trumpeter of the century (the 
15th) in which the shaking bridge was introduced. This trembling 
or shaking bridge seems to be responsible for the trumpet-toned 
harmonics, but how this effect is produced is a question which still 
remains unanswered. This example is of the seventeenth century. 
Length, 1 67 cm. ; width of base, 22 cm. ; depth, 1 0.5 cm. 

1272. Trumscheit. Seventeenth century Germany 

Similar to the preceding, but without sound-holes. 

Length, 1 65 cm. ; width of base, 22 cm. ; depth, 1 2.5 cm. 

1273. Tromba Marina. Seventeenth century Italy 

Body with rounded back, elaborately inlaid. The peg-box terminates 

in a carving of a satyr's head. 
Length, 124 cm.; width of base, 15.5 cm.; depth, 9 cm. 

^The name Tromba Mariana, "The Virgin's Trumpet" (Ger. Nonnengeige), based on 
its use by nuns for playing trumpet parts, and quite generally accepted, is questioned by 
Galpin, p. 98. 


1 274. Trumscheit. Seventeenth century Germany 

Peg-box terminates in a carving of a lion's head. On front of neck 

the following notes are marked in ink on a small piece of paper: 
G-F-G-C-D-E-F-G-H-(The German B natural) and C. 
Length, 206 cm. ; w^idth of base, 4 1 cm. ; depth, 20 cm. 

The Violin (Fr. Violon; It. Violino; Ger. Violine) , the most important 
of the bow^ed instruments, v/as evolved from an early type. The w^ord 
"Fiddle" is derived from the Lovsr Latin Fidula, a contraction of Fidicula. 
This w^as corrupted into Vitula and Viola, w^hence the terms Viol and Ville. 
Among the early names we find — Fidel (Middle Ages)^; old Eng. Fithele 
(Lat. Viella) ; F^dale, F})dele, Fithul (Chaucer) ; old Fr. Gigue, Quiche^ 
G^gue; old Ger. Ceige and Cige. 

The Geige was an instrument with a penetrating, raucous tone. The 
Viol, which it superseded, had a very sweet and mellow quality of tone, but 
lacked resonance. So, following the principle of survival in musical instru- 
ments, i. e., "The Survival of the Loudest," it disappeared. Its only repre- 
sentative in the modern orchestra is the Contrabass. The structure of the 
Violin seemingly violates all scientific principles, but through the work of gen- 
erations of inspired makers it has reached perfection. It consists of a back and 
belly, one of maple, the other of pine, connected structurally by a rim with 
incurving sides, and brought into sympathetic vibration with each other by the 
sound-post, which is so adjusted as to properly relate the vibrating parts. It 
has a bridge over which run four strings tuned to g-d'-a'-e"'. The "fourth" 
string (g) is over-spun. It has a neck with a "true" finger-board. The bow 
is a very important factor and the celebrated bow-makers, like Tourte, have 
brought it to the same state of perfection as the instrument itself. 

1275. Fiddle Chile 

Body of stained wood. Three gut strings. 

Length, 27 cm.; of body, 27 cm.; width, 16 cm.; depth, 5 cm. 

This rude specimen with but three strings (gut), came into Mr. 
Stearns* possession with the name robel, or rovel indicated. No 
data can be found to show whether either is correct. In Brazil 
there is a dancing-master's fiddle called rabeljo,^ evidently a name 
derived from the Spanish rabel (rebec), or rather its diminutive 

In La Catedral (The Shadow of the Cathedral), p. 127, Vicente Blasco 
Ibanez mentions the rabeles, a three-stringed fiddle, but the name given by the 
translator is the plural of rabel. The rebeckc cited by Sir Walter Scott (The 
Abbott) is of the same structure, showing the distribution of this type. 

2Galpin, pp. 85, 86, 88. 
3 Morris, p. 244. 
* Sachs, p. 313. 


1276. VioLiNO Italy 

Typical structure. Back inlaid with a representation of a mediaeval 

Length, 63 cm. ; width, 21 .3 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

Signed — "Paolo Maggini, fecit in Brescia, 1608." 

1 277. ViOLiNO Italy 

This differs from the usual type in that the strings are tightened by a 

metal device. A similar device in use on other buvved instruments 
may have suggested its application, but whether by the maker whose 
name appears below, or by some other, is an open question. 
Length, 61 cm.; width, 20.7 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm. 

Signed — "Nicolaus Amatus, Cremonen. Hieronyme 
filius antonii nepos, fecit, 1670." 

1278. ViOLON. Smaller than the typical model France 

The name "Hopf" appears on the back. 

Length, 48 cm.; width, 16 cm.; depth, 4.5 cm. 

1 279. Violin. Typical model, but with moulded back England 

Length, 60.5 cm. ; width, 20.5 cm. ; depth, 5.8 cm. 

1 280. ViOLON. Typical model and average dimensions France 

1281. ViOLON. Typical form, but with pointed bouts France 

Length, 60.5 cm. ; width, 20.2 cm. ; depth, 5.8 cm. 

1 282. ViOLlNE. Bowed-zither form. Usual stringing Germany 

The body somewhat resembles the Streichzither in form, but has the 

violin stringing. The peg-box terminates in a carved lion's head. 
Length, 62 cm. ; width, 22 cm. ; depth, 5.2 cm. 

Signed— "Streich-Melodie, J. W. Sett." 

1283. ViOLON France 

Moulded back. Peg-box terminating in the carved head of a lioness. 
Length, 60.5 cm. ; width, 20.5 cm. ; depth, 5.5 cm. 

1284. Violin. Typical form United States 

This violin was made by Mr. N. W. House, of Ann Arbor, from 

wood taken from a table used by the first settlers of the city, and 
presented by him to the University. 
Length, 60 cm.; width, 26 cm.; depth, 5.2 cm. 

1284a. Violin United States 

Length, 60 cm.; width at waist, 1 1.5 cm.; depth, 5.9 cm. 
Placed in violin-box at the side of No. 1318. 
(Nellie S. Loving.) 

1 285. ViOLON Chanot France 

Length, 60.5 cm,; width, 20.5 cm.; depth, 5.5 cm. 

This form was held by Francois Chanot ( 1 787-1823) , a distinguished 


French scientist, to be more in accordance with principles of 
acoustics than the regular shape. According to Galpin (p. 87), the 
form is a reversion "to the original outline of the twelfth century." 

1286. Viola England 

Somewhat larger than the Violin, but of the same form. The string- 
ing is c-g-d'-a'. 

Length, 66 cm. ; width, 23 cm. ; depth, 6.8 cm. 

1287. Tenor- Viola da braccio Italy 

Peculiarly shaped sound-holes. Reddish-yellow varnish. 

Length, 7 1 cm. ; width, 29.8 cm. ; depth, 8 cm. 

1 288. QuiNTON. Eighteenth century England 

Body with sloping shoulders. Five strings. This instrument belongs 

to the viol family and generally has the flat back characteristic of 

that type. 
The stringing of the Treble Quinton is g-d'-a'-d"-g" ; of the Tenor, 

^ -g -c . 
Length, 62.5 cm.; width, 21 cm.; depth, 5.8 cm. 

1289. Armgeige (Eng. Arm viol; Ital. Viola da braccio). Early 

date Germany 

Deep model. Flame sound-holes instead of the F-holes seen in the 

violin family. Viola da mano is a sixteenth-century Italian name. 
Length, 73 cm. ; width, 24.5 cm. ; depth, 7.4 cm. 

1 290. Viola da braccio. Eighteenth century Italy 

Deep model with exaggerated outline. Flat back in four sections. 
Peg-box terminates in a carving representing a blindfolded female 

head. Length, 76 cm. ; width, 28.3 cm. ; depth, 5.5 cm. The label 
is illegible. 

1291. Viola da braccio. Sixteenth, or seventeenth century Italy 

Narrow model. Six strings, arranged in the usual way, run over the 

finger-board and two bass strings run free at the side. 
Length, 73.5 cm.; width, 24.3 cm.; depth, 6.5 cm. 
Signed — "Gaspero da Salo, da Brescia." 

1 292. Viola. Sixteenth century. Unusually broad base Italy 

Length, 63 cm. ; width, 36 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

Signed — "Gio. Maria del Bussetto, fece in Cremona." The date is 
sufficiently illegible to be misleading.^ 

''Apparently the date is 1546, but, as Busetto's dates fall a century later, 1646 would he 
more probable. 

It is possible that the label is a forgery, but, in general, those who deal in spurious prod- 
ucts in this field are meticulous in such details as dates, possibly as the only evidence of 
good faith they can offer. 


1293. Viola da braccio Italy 

Deep model with moulded back. Peg-box of unusual shape. Seven 

gut strings, the lower of which are overstrung. 
Length, 76 cm. ; width, 23.5 cm. ; depth, 7.5 cm. 

Signed — "Joanes Marcus," but bearing no date. 

1294. Viola d'amore (Ger. Liebesgeige) . Eighteenth century .... Italy 
Narrow model. Ebony and ivory inlay. Six gut strings, played with 

the bow, and six sympathetic strings of fine wire. 
Length, 78 cm. ; width, 23 cm. ; depth, 6 cm. 

1295. Viola d'amore. Eighteenth century Italy 

Narrow model. Tail-piece and finger-board inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl, tortoise-shell, ivory, and ebony. Seven bowed, and seven 
sympathetic strings. 

Length, 80 cm. ; width, 21 .5 cm. ; depth, 8.3 cm. 

1 296. ViOLE d'amour. Eighteenth century France 

Deep model. Inlay of mother-of-pearl. Seven gut strings, and seven 

sympathetic strings of wire. 
Length, 93 cm. ; width, 33 cm. ; depth, 9 cm. 

Signed — "Louis Guersan, pres la Comedie Francaise, 
in Paris, 1737." 

1 296a. Viola d'amore Italy, or France 

This beautiful instrument, of the eighteenth century, exhibits the rare 
workmanship characteristic of early Italian and French makers, 
and is the choicest example of its type in the Collection. The top 
of the body — with C sound-holes — is purfled with ivory and ebony 
inlay, and the back carries a representation of a shepherdess sur- 
rounded with scroll-work designs. The curved peg-box ends in a 
carving of a mam's head. Six bowed strings run over a finger- 
board of ebony, inlaid with boxwood in an artistic design, to a 
tail-piece of like material and decoration. Six sympathetic strings 
occupy their usual positions. 
Length, 83 cm. ; of body, 38 cm. ; width, lower part, 25.4 cm. ; upper 
part, 20 cm.; at waist, 13 cm.; depth, 5.8 cm. 
(Albert Lockwood.) 

That the Viola d'amore boasts but a limited number of strings is shown 
by comparison with the Poly^chord, a ten-stringed violin (four of the strings 
being overstrung), invented by Fred Hillmer of Leipzig, in 1799. The 
stringing and tuning — c to c" — favored the playing of arpeggios. Between 
181 1 and 1818 the number of strings was reduced to eight. Fortunately it 
is now obsolete." 

« Sachs, p. 303. 


1297. Miniature Violin. Eighteenth century England 

Probably this was used for the same purpose as the succeeding instru- 
ments. Length, 46.7 cm.; width, 12 cm.; depth, 4 cm. 

1298. Taschengeige (Eng. Kit; Fr. Pochette; It. Poccetta) . .Germany 
This miniature violin was used by teachers of dancing, who joyfully 

pursued their avocation by its aid. The name suggests the case — 
an overcoat pocket. 
Length, 39.5 cm. ; width, 3.3 cm. ; depth, 2.3 cm. 

1299. Tanzmeistergeige. Seventeenth century Germany 

Length, 59.5 cm.; width, 4.8 cm.; depth, 3.5 cm. 

1 300. Kit. Eighteenth century England 

Length, 59 cm.; width, 6.4 cm.; depth, 5.8 cm. 

1301. Pochette. Seventeenth century France 

Length, 60 cm.; width, 6.5 cm.; depth, 5.7 cm. 

1302. Taschengeige. Eighteenth century Germany 

Length, 39.4 cm.; width, 3.2 cm.; depth, 3.3 cm. 

1303-4. Tanzmeistergeigen. Eighteenth century Germany 

Lengths, 41.8-47 cm.; widths, 4.3-12 cm.; depths, 5-4.8 cm. 

1305. Pochette. Boat-shaped body. Flame sound-holes France 

This example dates from the seventeenth century and has the typical 

sound-holes of the period. 
Length, 42.5 cm. ; width, 4.5 cm. ; depth, 3.5 cm. 

1306. Stiefelknechtgeige. "Boot-jack violin" Germany 

Length, 53.3 cm.; width, 12 cm.; depth, 3 cm. 

1307. Folding Violon. Nineteenth century France 

The neck, body, and finger-board are detachable and can be packed 

in a box. The bow folds on itself. 
Length, 58.7 cm.; width, 1 1 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm. 
Signed — "J. Grandjon, Paris." 

1308. Stockgeige (Eng. Cane Violin; Fr. Canne-violon) Germany 

One side of this walking-stick is detachable, and reveals a violin with 

the usual stringing. The bow is carried in a German silver scabbard. 
Length of cane, 9 1 cm. ; greatest diameter, 4.4 cm. 
Signed — "Moritz Glasel — Markneukirchen i. S. 

1 309. Porcelain Violin Source unknown, probably Germany 

Typical form. Violins have also been constructed from steel, clay, 

and various non-sonorous substances. They have no musical value. 
Length, 58.7 cm.; width, 21 cm.; depth, 4.2 cm. 
Possibly by Freyer and Co., Meissen, 1900 (Kinsky). 

Case XIII. East Section. Nos. 1291 to 1320 (Left to Right). 


1310. Mute Violin (Fr. Violon sordine; It. Violmo sordino; Ger. 

Stumme Violine) England 

This specimen has the belly, finger-board, neck, tail-piece, and usual 

stringing, but the back and sides are missing. 
Length, 53.2 cm.; width, 32 cm. 

131 1. ViOLINO SORDINO. More complete than No. 1310 Italy 

Like the preceding example this is designed for practice only. 
Length, 60.5 cm.; width, 13 cm.; thickness, 3.7 cm. 

1312. Bass-Viola DA BRACCio. Eighteenth century Germany 

The size and stringing — F, c, g, d' — correspond to the characteristics 

of the above named instrument. It has also a decided structure 
resemblance to a very small violoncello. 
Length, 8 1 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 1 1 .3 cm. 

Signed — "Johann Georg Hasert, a Eisenach, 1 745." 

1313. Violoncello. Eighteenth century England 

Deep model. Usual stringing — C-G-d-a. Of the four strings the 

two lower are wound. The same tuning is found on the Bass Viola 
da braccio. Length, 1 00 cm. ; width, 33 cm. ; depth, 1 4 cm. 
Signed — "Fred. Hintz, Fecit, London, 1763." 

1314. Kniegeige (Ital. Viola da gamba) Germany 

The viola da gamba has the typical back of the viol family. It carries 

six strings, four of gut and two of overspun silk. A rest of black 
wood is inserted in the base of the instrument. 
Length, 135 cm.; width, 37 cm.; depth, 15 cm. 

1315. Violoncello. Late eighteenth century Germany 

In every respect a worthy example of its type. 

Length, 135 cm.; width, 49 cm.; depth, 17 cm. 
Signed — "Andreas Kembler, Lauten und Geigenmacher in 
Dillingen, 1772." 

1316. Bass Fiddle, or Violoncello Probably of Asiatic origin 

Body of a long, narrow gourd. The head resembles the type found on 

Chinese and Japanese guitars. The neck, finger-board and peg- 
box are of the European type. It carries four strings arranged in 
the usual manner. The bridge is distinctly Oriental. 
Length, 153.1 cm.; of body, 62.9 cm.; diameter, 17 to 10.3 cm. 

1317. Halbbass (Eng. Half -bass; Ital. Basso di camera) Germany 

Viol-shaped body. Four strings tuned by a screw mechanism. Tun- 
ing — C-G-d-a. TTiis instrument was carried by a strap over the 
neck of the performer and was used in out-of-doors processions. 

Suggestions of the convivial environment in which its note was also 
heard are conveyed by its popular designation — Bierbass — al- 


though this term was given it on account of its weak and character- 
less tone-quahty. 
Length, 1 36.6 cm. ; width, 44.2 cm. ; depth, 20 cm. 

1318. Rabecao (Port, for Eng. Double Bass; Fr. Conirebasse; Ital. 

Contra-basso, Violone grosso; Ger. Kontrabass). Typical 

model Funchal, Madeira 

Body of noguera wood. Three strings, tuned by cogwheels with 
thumb-pieces at the back. The tuning is the Italian — G-d-a, 
the tones sounding an octave lower than the notation. Modern in- 
struments have four strings (E-A-d-g), and the use of five strings 
is imminent. Many older players prefer the three-stringed type on 
account of its (to them) greater sonority. 
Length, 191 cm.; width, 66.5 cm.; depth, 25 cm. 
At the side of No. 1318a violin case of the seventeenth century, carved 
from two pieces of wood, is displayed. Its length is, 80.3 cm.; width, 23.7 
cm. ; depth, 1 4 cm. 

Sub-section I. Bowed wire strings. 

1319. Streichzither (Eng. Psalter^-viol) Germany 

Kite-shaped body with two wire strings. 

Length, 45.6 cm.; width, 21.4 cm.; depth, 3.3 cm. 

This type combines the form of the violin — frequently with exag- 
gerated details — with the wire strings and frets of the zither. The 
strings are bowed euid, in their position, reverse the usual order. 
The German form is said to have been invented in 1823, but the 
English instrument was in existence in the seventeenth century. It 
cannot be said, that either the Streichzither, or any one of its 
variants, has greatly extended the frontiers of the realm of music. 

In Jacobi Bessoni's "Theatrvm instrvmentorvm" (1582) Fig. XXIX 
shows an instrument with viol body, fretted neck, and wire 
strings. It was played with a bow and may be looked upon as the 
founder of the family to which Nos. 1319-1327 belong. The full- 
page illustration, and the detailed description in Latin contained in 
this work, fully corroborate this statement.^ 

Of the following examples, Nos. 1319, 1320, 1323. and 1327 have 
25.27, 30, and 25 frets respectively. 

1320. Streichzither. Nineteenth century Germany 

Leaf-shaped body, with four wire strings. 

Length, 51 cm.; width, 15.2 cm.; depth, 3.3 cm. 

Signed — "Georg Tiefenbrunner, Munich." 

'' "Nova organi musici forma, civivs fides metallicae digitis et plectro pulsatae concentvm 
edvnt varivm, et ivevmvm, modis temperatvm paribvs, qvibvs Ivrae et bvccinae soni qvodam- 
nvodo refervntvr." 


1321. Philomele, or Stahlgeige. Nineteenth century Germany 

In form resembling the Diskant-viola da gamba. (Ital. Violeita pic- 
cola). It carries four wire strings. 

Length, 53.8 cm. ; width, 20.7 cm. ; depth, 3.8 cm. 

1322. Philomele. Similar to 1321, with sloping shoulders Germany 

This type was developed in Germany about the middle of the last 

century. Length, 54.8 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 3.8 cm. 

1323. Philomele Germany 

Body with sloping shoulders. Flame-shaped sound-holes. Four 

strings. Peg-box terminates in a carved representation of a lion's 
Length, 58 cm.; width, 22.8 cm.; depth, 3.8 cm. 

1324. Sultana, or Cither-viol Ireland 

Viol-shaped body, with sloping shoulders. Ivory inlay. Six strings, 

two lower of wire and the others of gut. It was often strung en- 
tirely with wire and had a fretted finger-board. 
Length, 67 cm.; width, 23.2 cm.; depth, 6.7 cm. 
Signed — "Perry, Dublin." 

1325. Streichmelodion, or Breitoline Germany 

Finger-board with brass frets and mother-of-pearl inlay. Four metal 

strings. Played with a plectrum or a bow. The second name given 
refers to its invention by Leopold Breit, of Briinn, in 1 856. 
Length, 60.4 cm. ; width, 20 to 30 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 
Signed — "J. Haslwanter, Munich." 

1326. Streichzither. Nineteenth century Germany 

Four strings, tuned by ivory thumb-pieces at side of head. The head 

terminates in an upturned trumpet bell. Fretted and inlaid finger- 
head. Length, 74.6 cm.; width, 18.8 to 27.8 cm.; depth, 3.8 cm. 

1327. Viol-cither. Nineteenth century Germany 

The body has sloping shoulders and exaggerated bouts. The waist 

section slopes inward from the lower bouts, presenting a departure 
from the usual incurvations. Four wire strings. 
Length, 53.2 cm.; width, 23.9 cm.; depth, 3.8 cm. 

Section H. Vibrating Strings actuated by the Friction of a Resined 
Wheel, and controlled by Slides, operated by Keys. 

1328. Petit- ViELLE (Early Fr. Vielle a roue; Eng. Hurd^-gurd}); 

Ital. Chironda; Ger. Drehleier) France 

Length, 41 .5 cm. ; width, 1 7.2 cm. ; depth, 6.3 cm. 


1329. ViELLE France 

Wooden body. Six strings. Resined wheels, and keys. The body 

of this instrument is beautifully inlaid. Six strings are "stopped" by 

slides, and there are two pairs of drone strings. 
Length, 74 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 1 5 cm. 
Signed — "Pouget Pere et Fils, a Ardentes pres Chateau roux.'* 

The "Vielle" is one of the earliest types of European instruments. Its 
construction was the subject of a tract by Odo of Cluny — died 942 — 
{Oddonis quomodo organistrum construaiur — ^Gerbert, Script. I. 303). From 
the tenth to the twelfth century it was known as the "Organistrum." From 
the twelfth to the sixteenth century it functioned under the designation "Sym- 
phonie," as is shown by its appearance in the "Pasty me of Pleasure" (1506), 
and in John Wyclif's translation of the Bible (fourteenth century). The 
passage referred to runs as follows: "But his eldre son was in the field and 
when he came and neighed to the house he herde a symfone and a croud" 
(Luke XV, verse 25, in the King James version). In all probability, "croud" 
referred to a mob rather than to the Welsh crwth, as certain authorities have 

The present name came in the fifteenth century. Although many great 
composers, including Haydn, have written music for it, few take it seriously 
now-a-days. Many will be surprised to learn that under its early name it was 
held in great esteem in the Church, from which it was banished by the intro- 
duction of small organs and condemned thereafter to lead a vagrant life.* 

Early pictures show the organistrum played by two persons, one manipu- 
lating the slides, or keys, while the other turns the wheel. When, in the 
fifteenth century, the stringed instrument then known as the vielle was given 
the name viole, or viola, the qualifying a roue was no longer necessary as the 
two t5^es were sufficiently differentiated. There is little direct evidence to 
support the assumption that either the galoubet or the schtvegel was used in 
connection with the vie//e (viole), but it would be difficult to account for the 
term flute des vielleurs otherwise were it not for the evidence afforded by the 
fresco by Lippi referred to in the paragraph following No. 1 1 68, Case XI. 

To recapitulate: The real Harp has free strings, one to each tone. In 
the couched form the strings run over the resonance-box. The Lyre in its 
essentials resembles the harp, but varies in form. The Tamboura type has 
wire strings and frets. The Lute has a pear-shaped body with a vaulted back 
and gut strings. The Tanbourica has the lute body with wire strings. TTie 
Cittern has a flat body and wire strings. The Guitar has a flat back with in- 
curving sides, a fretted neck, with gut and over-spun silk strings. The Man- 
doline has a deep vaulted body and wire strings. In the early type the vault- 

^Galpin, pp. 104, 105. 



ing was not so exaggerated as in the modern. The last five types mentioned 
have large sound-holes, as the strings are plucked and do not run free. All 
have fretted necks. The Banjo has a round body, a parchment head, gut 
and over-spun strings, of w^hich one, the "chanterelle," runs from a peg in- 
serted at a point half-way up the side of the neck, which carries frets. The 
Monochord, as its name implies, has but one string. In shape it is variable 
and by no means restricted to the early oblong form. The Zither has a flat 
body, wire strings, some of which run over a flat, fretted finger-board, and is 
played with a plectrum. In these modern days it has responded to the call for 
mechanical control, and the elimination of musical knowledge. The Dulcimer 
has wire strings which run over a resonance body and are responsive to the 
blows of a hammer, or hammers. In all these types, including those displayed 
in Case XII, Nos. II 77 to 1222, the many variants display affinities, while 
the caprice of makers has interjected puzzling problems in classification. TTie 
geographical distribution of these types is world-wide; consequently they are, 
in their ethnological suggestion, equally inclusive. 

This recapitulation covers many types included in Class IV, but, from the 
purely musical point of view, they are of infinitely less importance \han the 
European bowed-instruments shown in this Case. 

With the exception of the bowed-zither, it may be asserted with confi- 
dence that the instruments listed in Case XIII have contributed more to the 
advancement of musical appreciation than those belonging to any of the pre- 
ceding types. The stringed instruments legitimately played with a bow have 
made the orchestra possible. The repertoire of that puissant agency reveals 
the endless possibilities of creative musical art, while in the realm of chamber- 
music these instruments have aided in the establishment of some of the most 
intimate, refined, and satisfying composition-forms known to music. 

While it may be maintained that the improvements already made in 
key-board instruments predicate future progress in the realization of their 
possibilities, the same cannot be said of the legitimate bowed types. The 
many attempts made in the past to improve the violin, and the fact that they 
were all found to be of no practical value, attests the truth of this sweeping 

One of these attempts deserves mention. On May 27, 1817, there was 
Exhibited before the French Academy a violin which was absolutely scientific 
in structure. The form was a departure from the ordinary model ; the sound- 
post was placed back of the bridge, dividing the fibres of the belly into two 
unequal arcs, one for the lower, the other for the higher tones; the F-holes 
were straighter than the accepted form and were cut parallel with the fibres, 
thus obtaining the maximum intensity of vibration, while the whole structure 
favored elasticity. Although, at a trial of the instrument, none of the jury 
could distinguish between its tone cind that of an old-Italian violin of the best 


model, it has not been adopted by violinists — because it is practically impos- 
sible of manipulation. 

While, from the standpoint of physics, the F-hole seems to be opposed 
to the principles of tone-formation, the early craftsmen must have reasoned 
otherwise, for Mersenne, in his great work, shows a cut of a lira da gamba with 
unmistakable F-holes. In its structure, the violin represents a delicate weigh- 
ing of advantages and disadvantages by men of real genius who knew how 
to strike the proper balcince between the two. 

Possibly, a lack of consideration of this accounts for the fact that when 
Savart, at a later date, constructed a violin based on physical principles, it 
also found no favor with professionals. But, in spite of the teachings of expe- 
rience in the past, we are constantly being reminded by present-day, ambi- 
tious — frequently unknown — ^violin makers that they have discovered and 
remedied what they consider obvious defects. The discussions of the secrets 
of the old Cremona masters — the varnish, the pitch-relationship of the back 
and belly (as announced by the Cremona Society of Berlin), etc., etc., proves 
that this subject in its lure, vies with alchemy, perpetual motion, and liquid air. 

It may now be stated, in conclusion, improvements seem to be impossible : 
earlier types are obsolete, and newer forms, like the Viola alta (Eng. Ritter 
viola), invented by Hermann Ritter in 1876, and having a fifth string {%') 
have not entered into the equation. The violin type has maintained itself 
consistently, and may be considered perfect. The same holds with equal 
force in the case of the bow. Therefore, from the point of view of evolution, 
this type may claim superiority over all others. 


Class V. Instruments with Vibrating Strings, Reeds, or 

Columns of Air, 

Controlled by a Key-Board Mechanism. 

1330. ViOLON-AVEC-CLAVIER. (Violon monocofde a clavecin) . . .France 
Lozenge-shaped body, mounted on legs. C-shaped sound-holes. 
One string of several twisted strands of steel wire passes from a peg 
at one end over the resonance-body, and under a box containing a 
key-mechanism by which the string is "stopped." Compass — 
f to c"\ 
Length, 1 2 1 cm. ; of body, 49 cm. ; width, 26 cm. ; height, 62 cm. 

Section A. Vibrating Strings actuated by Impact, through a directly- 
acting Lever Key-Action. 

The Clavichord (Ital. Clavicordo; Ger. Klavichord)^ is first indisput- 
ably mentioned in the Minneregeln of Eberhard Cersne (1404),^ although 
in a letter of John I. of Aragon, dated 1387, he asks Berthomen de Castre to 
send him an exaquir, which, in a later letter (1388) is described as an 
isturment semblant d'orguens, qui sona ab cordes^ As in 1400, key-board 
instruments of this type were in use, it is fair to assume that they developed a 
century earlier. To carry its invention back to Guido (d. 1050?)^ is to enter 
the realm of fancy rather than of fact. In its earliest form it had no legs but 
was placed on a table. From the first its structural characteristics were fixed. 
Wire strings, stretched over a sound-board, were made to vibrate by brass 
tangents at the back end of key-levers. There were two types. In the older, 
the gebunden (fretted), each string was made to produce more than one tone, 
as the string was struck at different points. In the later, bundfrei (fret-free), 
each tone had its own string. The clavichord was the prime favorite, even 
after the pianoforte had been introduced, as it was more completely under the 
control of the performer, who could, by pressure, change the pitch while the 
string was vibrating, thus producing a wavy effect called the bebung. 

Gottfried Silbermann (1683-1753) invented a clavichord in which 
strings of double length were struck in the middle by tangents, yielding the 
reduplicated octave of the entire string. He named it the Cembal d* amour. 

1 Ambros, Gesch. d. Musik. I Auf, II, p. 507. 

2 Vander Straeten, La Mus. aux Pavs-Bns, VII, p 40. 

3 Athanasius Kircher — Musurgia univ., p. 215 — is responsible for this impossible sup- 


1331. Klavichord. Eighteenth century Germany 

Oblong case of mahogany. Black naturals and white sharps. Com- 
pass of six octaves from F to f". Cebunden type. Fifty-three 
unison pairs of wire strings. Tuned according to the "pure" 
system. It has black naturals and white sharp keys. This is not 
definitive of a very early date, as is generally held, for originally 
the naturals were made of boxwood and the sharps of ebony.* 
Bi-cord stringing was common, and Virdung says : gmainlich macht 
man drey saiien vff eine k^T,^ a statement enforced by Praetorius 
Length, 152 cm.; width, 50 cm.; depth, 15 cm.; height, 75.5 cm. 

Section B. Vibrating Strings actuated by Plucking, through an in- 
directly-acting Key-board Mechanism. 

The Harpsichord (Fr. Clavecin; Ital. Cembalo ^ Clavicembalo, Cravi- 
cembalo, Harpsicordo; Ger. Klavizimbel, Kielfliigel) is derived from the 
Dulcimer. The tone is produced by plucking the strings by quill plectra, form- 
ing a part of a very complicated key-mechanism. The tone lacks the ethereal 
quality of the clavichord, but has more power. As the harpsichord was 
placed against a wall, the back of the case was generally unfinished. 

In the attempt to make pure tuning possible, many complicated extensions 
of the harpsichord were made at an early date. 

In 1561, Nic. Vincentio devised the Arcicembalo, with six rows of keys, 
making thirty-one divisions of the octave possible. It was simplified by Gio. 
Batt. Doni in 1640, by reducing the number of key-boards to three. The 
diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic genera (Gk.) could be displayed on this 

The Universalklavizimbel, invented by Karl Luyton of Vienna, ap- 
peared in 1 580. With eighteen keys to the octave, enharmonics were possible.* 

In 1600, Francisco Nigetti constructed the Proteus cembalo onnisono, 
with five rows of keys and each tone divided into five parts.^ The Sambuca 
lincea, Instrumentum perfectum, by Fabio Colonna, circa 1618, had bi-cord 
stringing, eight rows of keys, and, incidentally, was seven and one-half feet 
in length." 

* Zarlino, Inst, hartnon., II, p. 46, suggested that this practice naturally grew out of 
the meaning of the word "chromatic." 

The historical development of the instrument is treated by Carl Krebs in Die besaiteten 
Klavierinstrumente bis sum Anfang des 17 Jahrhunderts, in V^ierteljahrschrift f. Musik- 
wissenschaft, 1892, pp. 91-126. The citations given in foot-notes i, 2, 3, and 4 are also 
included in this monograph. 

^ Musica getuscht (1511), p. 38. 

^Syntagma musicum (1618), p. 74. 

' Sachs, p. 19. 

8 Praetorius, Syn. Mus., p. 75, seq. 

» Sachs, p. 306. 

!« Sachs, p. 330. 

^ ^ 

CLASS V 209 

Coming down to modern times we have the "Sequential key-board" in 
which the white and black keys come in regular succession. C was always on 
a black key, and but one fingering was necessary for all major scales. It was 
invented in 1843 by W. A. B. Lunn, of England, who masqueraded under 
the name of Wallbridge." 

This incomplete record predicates future attempts to solve this problem, 
but future historians will probably soon class them in the large company of 
the obsolete. 

1 332. Cravicembalo Italy 

A rare specimen of an early form. Shape of modern "grand." Elabo- 
rately painted decoration, both on inside and outside of body. 
Carved and gilded legs. Compass four and one-half octaves, from 
BB flat. Black sharps, and naturals of ordinary wood. 

Length, 248 cm.; width, 92 cm.; depth, 24.1 cm.; height, 95 cm. 
Signed — "Joannis Baptista Giusti, Lucensis, faciebat 
anno 1693." 

1333. Cravicembalo Italy 

On the hinged fall-board is a picture of three monks, one playing a 

zink, another a violin, while the third is singing from a book held in 
his hands. On the inside of fall-board appear several measures of 
music, also a Latin inscription, Corda mulcet tristia. "It soothes 
sad hearts." 

Black sharps. Compass: — Three octaves and eight notes from E. 

Length, 178 cm.; width, 72 cm.; depth, 26.7 cm.; height, 87.5 cm. 
Signed — "Christoforus Rigunini. Firenze, A. D. 1602." 

The Spinet (Fr. Epinette; Ital. Sp'metia; Ger. Spineit) existed in various 
forms. It was generally placed in a case, from which it was removed when 
needed. In essentials it resembles the harpsichord, but has one string only. 
"Virginal" is another name, but not suggested by the fact that Elisabeth, the 
"Virgin Queen," played it almost exclusively.^^ The name occurs in early 
literature, and that the instrument was thus known in the time of Henry VII 
(1456-1509) is shown by the following lines, of that period, taken from a 
manuscript in the British Museum (18. & 11.). 

"A slac strynge in a Virgynall soundethe not aright; 
It dothe abyde no wrastinge, it is so louse and light. 
The sownde borde crasede forsith the instrument 
Throw mysgovernaunce do make notis whiche was not intente.^' 

11 Sachs, p. 343. 

12 On page 54 of Musica instrumentalis deudsch (1528), Agricola gives a cut of the 
Virginal under that name. 

i^Galpin, p. 113. On page XVIII he gives the exact title, "The Proverbis in the Caret 
at the New Lodge in the Parke of Leckingfelde." The lines given are quoted by Krebs, 
but incorrectly, as he kindly corrected the old spelling, as he did Virdung's grammar. 


Speaking of the wife of an old English squire, an early record says, 
"She plays on the Espinetto and Organs and Gittar and danceth 
very well.**" 

In the "Diary of Martin Thomas Dallam*'" we find: "Comminge to 
Graves-ende, I wente aborde our shipp called the Heckter, and thar placed 
my chiste, my beddinge and a pare of virginals,^" which the merchantes did 
allow me to carrie for my exercise by the waye.'* 

1 334. Spinetta. Eighteenth century Italy 

The instrument proper lifts out of the beautifully decorated case. An 

artistically cut rose ornaments the sounding board. Compass: 
three octaves and one note. Quill plectra. One string to each 
note. This beautiful instrument was at one time erroneously at- 
tributed to the celebrated maker, Hans Riickers, of Antwerp. 
Compass: — Three octaves and four notes from e. 
It corresponds to the Italian Spinettino, an "octave (or fifth) spinet.** 
Length, 98.5 cm. ; width, 40 cm. ; depth, 28 cm. ; height, 94 cm. 

1335. Spinetta. Sixteenth century Italy 

Heptagonal body, removable from its case. Projecting key-board. 

Compass of four octaves and one note from E. Fret-board of 
carved, open scroll work. Carved rose in sounding-board. 

Length, 1 50.2 cm. ; width, 49.6 cm. ; depth, 23 cm. 

Signed — "Ferandi de Rosis, Meliolanensis, M.D. LXXX." 

1 336. Clavicembalo Italy 

Case elaborately decorated, both inside and out. Spindle legs. Three 

manuals. The sharp keys are inlaid with two thin strips of ivory. 
Compass of four octaves and one note from E. It is a very interest- 
ing instrument, but the assumption that it is a product of Cristofori's 
skill is untenable." 
Length, 2 1 5 cm. ; width, 1 34 cm. ; depth, 1 6 cm. ; height, 97.8 cm. 

" P. H. Ditchfield, "The Old English County Squire," p. i66. 

15 "Early Voyages and Travels to the Levant," Hak. Soc, 1893, p. 4. Thomas Dallam 
was the father of a celebrated family of English organ builders. He built the organ in 
King's College, Cambridge, in 1605-6, and, in 1613, the early instrument in Worcester 

18 Abdy Williams (quoted by Galpin, p. 227) states that "owing to the use of the singu- 
lar number organutn (the Greek and Latin name for any kind of a machine) by mediaeval 
musicians to denote a special method of singing, the plural organa had to be employed for 
the instrument." The term "pare, or payre of," instead of referring to two instruments 
came to be used as the equivalent of organa. 

1^ The testimony for and against this assumption is herewith given: Mr. A. J. Hipkins, 
who during his lifetime was considered a final authority on key-board instruments, wrote 
to Mr. Stearns as follows: "London, 22 Aug., 1901 — Dear Mr. Stearns: I cannot express 
to you how much I am obliged by the very complete information you have favored me 
with respecting your splendid Cristofori harpsichord. It is indeed a treasure, and the 

CLASS V 211 

1337. Spinettino (Fifth, or Octave-Spinet) Italy 

This instrument rests in a painted case. The inside of fall-board 

carries a painting of a bird on a slender branch. Compass of three 

octaves and eight notes from e. 
Length, 67 cm.; width, 45.8 cm.; depth, 16 cm. 

Section C. Vibrating Strings actuated by Impact, through an indirect- 
ly-acting Key-board Mechanism. 

As, in viewing the arrangement of the display pipes in an organ, we may 
see in the graduated sequence in which they stand a rehabilitation of the 
"Pipes o' Pan," so, in a modern grand pianoforte, the contour of the plate 
carrying the strings discovers a striking resemblance to the early harjp. 

As has been stated elsewhere, the Assyrian azor was the first stringed 
instrument in which the vibration of the tone-producing means was incited by 
impact. It may, therefore, be considered the earliest application of the funda- 
mental principle underlying the pianoforte. 

The two essential factors in all key-board instruments — (1) the means 
of tone-production and, (2) the controlling mechanism, will now be con- 

In the development of the first factor, omitting reference to the earliest 
stages, we find in the clavichord, harpsichord, and clavitherium, the arrange- 
ment of the strings which has been perpetuated in modern instruments, and, in 
the order given, they display the forms known to us as the "square," "grand" 
and "upright." At this point it must be stated that in a few years the first will 
take its place in the ranks of the obsolete. A fundamental structural weak- 
ness — the lack of resistance to the "pull" of the strings — ^was removed, in 
1825, by Alpheus Babcock, an American, who invented the cast-iron frame. 
TTiis was applied to the "square," at that time the favorite form. Later 
(1844) Jonas Chickering, of Boston, produced a perfected cast-iron frame, 
also for a "square," but soon after (1851) applied the same invention to the 
"grand." In the first pianofortes single strings were used, largely on account 
of the structural weakness mentioned, but with the introduction of the iron 
frame it was possible to increase the musical resources of the instrument by the 
adoption of bi-cord, and triple stringing, i. e., two, or three, unisons to a tone, 
through all but the highest and lowest octaves. Another advance was made 

University of Michigan, which benefits so largely by your generosity, has in that priceless 
specimen a remarkable historical and artistic possession." 

On the other hand, Alexander Kraus, of Florence, Italy — the greatest living authority 
on Cristofori — in a letter, dated February 23, 1921, states : "In answer to your kind letter 
of the 4th inst., I can assure you that Cristofori never produced harpsichords with three 
manuals. Not only the one you are speaking of (No. 1336), but even others now existing 
in public and private collections are instruments of different makers reduced into the actual 
form, as stated in my paper at Paris, 1914, you are alluding to." As the conclusions of 
Kraus are those of all the European authorities — save Hipkins — they must be accepted 
as final. 


through the invention of over-stringing by Boehm, in 1835, and double over- 
stringing by Steinway & Sons, in 1859. The compass of the instrument was 
gradually extended until it has now reached 7 1/3 octaves. 

TTie evolution of the second and most important factor dates from 1 709, 
when Bartolomeo Cristofori (1653-1731) invented the form of action con- 
taining the fundamental principles of our modern mechanism. This has been 
contested in certain quarters, but in vain, for his priority rests on incontrovert- 
ible evidence. 

In this, the earliest form of action, through an ingenious and delicately 
poised system of levers and hoppers, the blow on the keys is transmitted to a 
hammer which strikes the string and falls back. By a device called the 
"escapement" the hammer immediately resumes its position in readiness for 
another impact. Dampers of felt fall on the strings and silence the tone. This 
latter mechanism is now controlled by a foot pedal. Another pedal shifts the 
key-board (in the "grand"), allowing the hammers to strike but one string.* 

The introduction of the prolongation pedal (Fr. pedale de prolonge- 
merit) by Debain of Paris ( 1 860) and Montal in 1 862 was of great artistic 
import. It was simplified and greatly improved by Steinway of New York in 
1874.^* Many attempts to correct an obvious defect in the pianoforte — the 
difficulty of sustaining tone — have been made. Possibly, the most interesting 
is the "Steinertone," in which the inventor, Morris Steinert, sought to apply the 
principle of the clavichord action. This attempt was not so radical a departure 
from key-board traditions as the very ingenious and effective mechanism intro- 
duced by Paul von Janko in 1 882. Six short rows of stubby keys are arranged 
in tiers and run in pairs. Each row gives a succession of major seconds, and, 
in combination, the chromatic scale. Chordal successions quite impossible for 
ordinary hands are made easy — and scales in double thirds lose their terror. 
Like the radiating key-board, this action has not been adopted to any extent, 
although the new technique is taught in several European conservatories of 

1338. Square Piano. Circa 1 790 England 

Oblong case of mahogany, resting on a detached stand. Marquetry 
decorations. Bi-cord stringing throughout. The stop action, con- 
trolling the dampers is missing. Compass of five octaves from E. 
Length, 152 cm. ; width, 52.7 cm. ; depth, 1 7.2 cm. ; height, 66 cm. 
Signed — "Longman and Broderip, Musical Instrument makers, No. 
20 Cheapside and 13 Haymarket, London." 

* Sachs — quoting from Le Gay, Note in Quar. Int. Mus. Soc, XII, p. 589 — shows that 
leather-covered hammers were used in France in 1760, eight years before the date of Pascal 
Taskin's invention. See "Pascal Taskin (1723-1793)," a monograph by Ernest Closson, Quar. 
Int. Mus. Soc, XII, p. 234, sqq. 

isweitzmann, "A History of Pianoforte-playing," p. 279. 



1339. Square Piano. Circa 1800 England 

Oblong case of mahogany resting on six legs. Bi-cord stringing. The 

lowest strings are overspun. Compass, five octaves and a fifth from 
F. This, and No. 1 338, are most significant instruments. 

Length, 157 cm.; width, 71 cm.; depth, 23 cm.; height, 70 cm. 

Signed — "John Broadwood and Sons, Makers, to his Majesty and 
the Princesses. Great Poulteney Street, Golden Square, London." 

1 340. Square Piano France 

Oblong case of mahogany resting on four spindle legs, ornamented 

with inlaid brass. Compass, five octaves from F. 
Length, 165 cm.; width, 60 cm.; depth, 24 cm.; height, 81 cm. 
Signed — "Erard Freres et Cie., Rue du Mail 337, a Paris, 1808,'* 

1341. Portable Piano. Eighteenth century Italy 

Rectangular body of dark wood. Early form of action. No damp- 
ers. Compass of three octaves from f. 

Length, 55 cm.; width, 27.5 cm.; depth, 17 cm. 

1 342. Square Piano. Nineteenth century United States 

Rosewood body. Carved legs. The name-board is elaborately 

decorated with colors and inlaid mother-of-pearl. The naturals are 
also covered with the same material. Overstrung bass. Compass 
of seven octaves, from AAA. 
Length, 2 1 6.6 cm. ; width, 1 20 cm. ; depth, 30 cm. ; height, 93 cm. 
Signed— "F. P. Hale, New York." 
(John E. Whitset.) 

1343. Upright Piano. Early nineteenth century France 

Typical form of body. Key-board carried on a projection supported 

by two legs. This form is also called "Pianino." 
Length, 1 29 cm. ; width, 58 cm. ; height, 1 07 cm. 
Signed — "No. 22 Rue de Paris, Allovon, Facteur de Pianos au 
This form was first introduced by Joh. Schmidt, of Salzburg, in 1 780, 
who was followed by J. I. Hawkins, of Philadelphia, in 1800, and by Th. 
Loud, of London, in 1802. (Sachs, p. 297). Largely through the inven- 
tions of American makers it has evolved into an instrument of fine musical 
qualities although the action is too complicated to be really effective. On ac- 
count of its compact form it has almost entirely supplanted the square piano to 
which it is in every way superior. 

The Grand Piano (Fr. Piano a queue; Ital. Pianoforte a coda; Ger. 
Fliigel) , on account of its longer strings and more responsive action is infinitely 
superior to any other form. It is manufactured in various sizes and its use in 
time will become well-nigh universal. 


1 344. Flugel. Eighteenth century Germany 

Trapezoidal case resting on four legs. Marquetry decoration. Com- 
pass, five octaves. Ebony naturals, ivory-tipped sharps. The 
dampers are controlled by knee-levers. Bi-cord stringing. The 
action could be shifted, probably by means of a draw stop, so that 
the hammers could strike but one string. Maker unknown, as the 
plate on name-board has been removed. 

Compass of 5 octaves from FF. 

Length, 184 cm.; width, 100 to 18 cm.; depth, 25 cm.; height, 89. 

1344a. Grand Pianoforte. Circa 1800 England 

The body, of unpolished mahogany, is decorated with brass inlay, 
incised lines in black, ornate fastening devices of bronze, and rests 
on four spindle legs. The action is the early English type, de- 
veloped by Americus Backers and the Broadwoods from the 
Cristofori-Silbermann model. The sound-board has a large 
F-hole in the widest section. The left pedal, of wood, shifts the 
key-board; the right is divided into two sections, the left raising 
the dampers of the lower octaves, the right those of the upper, while 
pressing both sections affects all the dampers. Bi-cord stringing 
with the exception of the bass-strings, which are wound, is used. 
Compass of six octaves and one note from FF. The name-board 
carries a plate with the following inscription: "Presented by S. 
Olin Johnson in memory of his wife, Lilla Sturtevant Johnson, 
1918." Length, of straight side, 219 cm.; of curved (including 
end), 276 cm.; width, 49 to 112 cm.; depth of body, 32 cm.; 
height, 88 cm. 
Signed — "John Broadwood and Sons, Makers to his Majesty and 
the Princesses, Great Poulteney Street, Golden Square, London." 
(S. Olin Johnson.) 
For the present this will take the place of No. 1 342. 

1345. Flugel Austria 

Body of typical form. The peculiarity of this instrument is the intro- 
duction of a steel bar, running diagonally under the sounding-board, 
whereby greater resistance was secured. Compass of six octaves 
and three notes from CC. 

Length, 223 cm. ; width, 1 24 to 30 cm. ; depth, 3 1 cm. ; height, 86 cm. 
Signed — "Frenzel, in Linz, 1837." 
(J. E. Ecker.) 

1346. Klavierharfe (Eng. Clavi-harp ; Fr. Clavi-harpe, Harpe a 

clavecin) Germany 

A lyre-shaped body surmounts a typical upright piano body. The 

CLASS V 215 

action, operated by piano keys, plucks the strings, producing the real 
harp tone. Compass, five octaves from F. 
Length, 1 25 cm. ; width, 38.2 cm. ; height, 2 1 8 cm. 
Signed — "Dietz." 

Section D. Vibrating Columns of Air inclosed in Organ Pipes, actuated 
by Mechanically operated Bellows, and an indirectly-acting Key-board 

When pipes, placed in a vertical position on a reservoir containing air 
under pressure, secured by mechanical means, were made to sound by the 
introduction of this air into the lower end of the pipes; when these pipes were 
arranged in a pre-determined logical sequence; and, finally, when the speech 
of the pipes could be controlled through the intervention of some mechanical 
device, the Organ came into being. These initial steps in the evolution of the 
instrument were taken long before the Christian Era. 

The "slide," a flat strip of wood, in which a hole of the same diameter 
as that of the "foot" (lower end) of the pipe was pierced, and running at 
right angles through a flat chamber above the air reservoir, was the earliest 
device employed. When the hole in the "slide" came directly under the 
pipe, the compressed air seeking a vent, rushed into it, causing it to "speak." 
In the second century B. C. Ctesibius, of Alexandria, devised keys, which, 
when pressed down by the fingers operated the "slides" by means of levers. 
This was the beginning of the key-board. When several rows of pipes were 
used, they were also controlled by means of slides running longitudinally and 
corresponding in structure to the earliest form. This device was used in the 
Roman H^draulos, or "Water Organ," which frequently had many rows of 
pipes. In this organ, water had no part in the production of the tone, but, by 
the application of a law of hydraulics, controlled the wind-pressure. 

The logical result of the introduction of added rows of pipes, with con- 
trasting quality and power, was an extension of the possibilities of the instru- 
ment by combining several distinct organs, each structurally complete, into one. 
The key-boards were then placed above each other, that they might come 
under the control of the performer. The "draw-stops," the "outward and 
visible signs of an inward" mechanism, and which controlled the various rows 
of pipes, were arranged in rows, later in tiers, at either side, and appropriately 
grouped. One of these organs was operated by foot-pedals. The key-boards 
could be connected by devices known as "couplers." 

As the mechanism was extended the difficulty of manipulating the keys 
led to the introduction of various methods of lightening the "touch." First 
came the pneumatic lever, applied to the "tracker" mechanism, then the 
"tubular pneumatic" action, to be followed by the more responsive electric 
action of our day. 

In the train of the application of electricity and the consequent elimina- 


tion of the complications of the old "tracker" system, came many unique ex- 
tensions of mechanical appliances. Couplers without number ; the development 
of "borrowed stops," by means of which the tonal resources of one manual 
might be controlled from others, thus extending their range of usefulness ; and, 
finally, the substitution of keys ranged above the upper key-board (manual) 
for the draw-knobs at the side. Pistons placed between the manuals, and 
similar contrivances operated by the feet — on both of which any desired com- 
bination, covering the entire organ, can be set — have brought the tonal re- 
sources of the instrument under the control of the performer as never before. 
This mechanism, and the more reliable control of the "crescendo pedal" se- 
cured through the application of electrical devices, coupled with the modem 
practice of enclosing most of the pipes in all manuals in swell-boxes; the im- 
provements in pipe-making," and in voicing, have resulted in the creation of 
an instrument which is a real, artistic asset in the concert-hall, as well as in its 
more important position in the church. One of the most practical innovations, 
especially in concert halls, is the "Movable Console," which can be placed at 
any distance or situation desired, while, if necessary, several independent con- 
soles may be installed. All these improvements seemed to be inevitable, but, 
while useful, involved no real departure from established principles. 

The wind-chest invented by John T. Austin in 1 895 was a radical inno- 
vation, and constitutes the only real revolutionary invention in decades. The 
wind-chest and bellows are one: the pipes stand on the top of what is prac- 
tically a chamber, while the simple and effective action running underneath the 
top of this enclosure is easily accessible at all times. 

In one direction it is evident that no progress has been made, rather a 
retrogression. A study of the organ-cases shown in Hill's monumental work, 
"The Organ Cases and Organs of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance," 
will clearly reveal the fact that modern housings of the instrument are decided- 
ly inferior. It may be superfluous to discuss the reasons for this, but the fact 
remains that orgzm-builders, or church architects, are responsible for an appal- 
ling number of tasteless structures, which, in their disregard of artistic design, 
rival, if not surpass, the majority of our public monuments, fountains, civic, 
and governmental buildings. 

1347. Organo DI LEGNO (Eng. Positive organ ;'^ Fr. Positif; Ger. 

Positiv). Seventeenth century Italy 

Upright wooden case. Eighteen silvered "dummy" pipes in front. 

19 The difficulty of keeping reed "stops" in tune, experienced more particularly in coun- 
try districts, has led to the invention of a reedless trumpet and reedless "Vox Humana." 
The inventor, Mr. William E. Haskell, as a result of his investigations, has also developed 
a new form of "stopped" pipe for which superiority over the old construction is claimed. 
American Organist, October, 1920. 

2« Consult Galpin's article, "An Old English Positive Organ," which is replete with 
authoritative historical and scientific information regarding this type. He gives a full 
description of such an instrument in the Cathedral Library at Canterbury. Musical Anti- 
quary, Oct., 1912, Vol. IV, pp. 20-30. 

Case XIV. East Section. Nos. 1343 to 1345 (Left to Right). 

CLASS V 217 

Three draw stops. Foot pedals attached to lowest octave of keys. 
Each register contains forty-five pipes, all of metal, with the ex- 
ception of the twelve lowest pipes of the Stopped Diapason which 
are of wood. In addition to this "stop" the organ contains the 
Flute and Super-octave. The bellows are blown by means of a 
handle. Its tone is very sweet and soft, as the pipes have a small 
percentage of tin. By means of rods running through iron rings 
the instrument could be transported. Compass, from E to z" . 

The upper section, containing pipes, action, and key-board, is 1 64 cm. 
high, 82.8 cm. wide, and 74 cm. deep. The lower section, 75 cm. 
high, 96 cm. wide, and 71 cm. deep, contains the bellows and 

Section E. Vibrating Free Reeds, with Mechanically operated Bellows 
and Key-board Mechanism. 

In the Melodeon, and the more modern Cabinet Organ, the "exhaust" 
principle — employed in the Chinese sheng — supplanted the direct action of 
the reeds, characteristic of the Harmonium. Very popular in the last century 
it has been relegated to the background by the ubiquitous pianoforte. 

1348. Melodeon United States 

Oblong case of rosewood and black walnut. Two foot levers, one 

operating the bellows, the other a swell shutter. One set of free 
reeds. It has a compass of five octaves, from F. 
Length, 94 cm. ; width, 58 cm. ; depth, 24 cm. ; height, 78 cm. 
Signed — "Child and Bishop, Cleveland, Ohio." 
(Mrs. S. T. Cook.) 

1 349. Melodeon. Middle nineteenth century United States 

This instrument has one set of free reeds and a compass of four oc- 
taves. Length, 78 cm. ; width, 47 cm. ; depth, 1 5 cm. ; height, 7 1 cm. 

Signed — "Geo. A. Prince and Co., Buffalo, N. Y." 

A worthy recapitulation of the types included in Class V, is beyond the 
province of this volume, but their importance cannot be over estimated, and 
their significance as potent aids in the creation of a genuine appreciation of 
music must be briefly noted. 

The pianoforte and its predecessors, the clavichord and harpsichord, have 
played a wonderful role in the development of music in the serious forms. 
From the intime revelations of the clavichord through the more assertive proc- 
lamations of the harpsichord to the sonorous and full-bodied creations for the 
pianoforte, the literature of the stringed key-board type has enriched the 
world of music through an evolution in which are embodied the highest efforts 
of the greatest geniuses. The pianoforte, because it is a harmony-producing 


instrument, has contributed more to the development of general musical appre- 
ciation than the violin, although such a statement does not carry with it any 
invidious comparison. As a solo instrument incomparable, for the reason just 
stated, it is a prominent factor in chamber-music, and, in connection vv^ith the 
orchestra, occupies a pre-eminent position in the concerto literature. In these 
latter days it adds new colour to the orchestral mass and its wonderful struc- 
tural development in the past favors an indulgence in glowing prophecies of 
its future possibilities. As a final word it may be urged that the pianoforte 
occupies an important place in the home and is, therefore, one of the most 
beneficent and potent instrumentalities in the development of musical knowl- 
edge and taste. 

The organ, with its traditional religious associations, fully justifies its title 
"The King of Instruments," and, in certain respects may be considered the 
noblest representative of the key-board class, a statement that will not be con- 
tested by organists. 

The literature of the organ covers a wide range, and has felt the influ- 
ence of the modern trend of creative activity. The wonderful extension of the 
means through which a more perfect control of its resources has been made 
possible has led to the development of a style of performance quite in keeping 
with the demands of a school of composition largely based on the extensive 
use of the organ as a concert instrument. In the judgment of many this newer 
literature has little to commend it, as it involves a departure from what they 
consider the real genius of the instrument, but this depends on the point of view. 

CABINET. East Room (Case XV). 

Miscellaneous Instruments and Accessories. 

The instruments in this Case come under many classifications. They are 
all of great interest and in some instances of unusual significance. 

1350. NiNFALE (Eng. Portative organ; Fr. Orgue portatif; Ger. 

Portativ). Seventeenth century Italy 

Three rows of pipes. Compass, one octave and four notes. Bellows 

blown by handle on left of case. 
Height, 86 cm. ; width, 30.4 cm. ; depth, 30.4 cm. 

This type is frequently represented in the products of early Italian 
painters. This particular specimen is a variant of the form thus shown and is 
a reproduction, for originals are practically non-existent. 

135 1 . Barrel Organ England 

The case contains one row of "stopped" wooden organ pipes. The 

pallets, governing the entrance of the wind into these pipes, are 
opened by a barrel on which steel pegs are so arranged as to play 
a tune when it is turned by a crank, on which a gear wheel engages 
an endless screw on the end of the barrel. The bellows (at the 
bottom of the case) are operated by the same crank. 
Height, 41 .4 cm. ; width, 36.6 cm. ; depth, 21 cm. (See No. 1395). 

1352. Tromba. Brass Italy 

Length, 75 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 6 cm. 

1353. Tromba in A. Used in the opera "Messalina" Italy 

Brass, with one semi-circular turn. Painted in bronze. 

Length of model, 75 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 5 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

1 354. Trombone a chiavi. Alto in E flat. Three pistons Italy 

The body of decorated brass, is bent three times on itself and is of 

serpentine form. Used in the ballo "Amor." 
' Length of model, 83.5 cm. ; diameter of bell, 20 cm. 
Signed — "Pelitti, Milano." 

1355. Roman Tibia impares. Metal, painted Italy 

The tibia impares differs from the tibia pares (Case VI, No. 599) 

in that it has two tubes of unequal length, the shorter ending in a 


bell. This was called the Phrygian pipe, the longer the Berecyn- 
thian horn/ 
Length of right tube {tibia dextra), 48 cm.; of left {tibia sinistra)^ 
58 cm. 

Reproduction by Pelitti, Milano. 

1356. Trombone a CHIAVL Bass in F. Three pistons Italy 

TTie tube of gaily-painted brass, after bending on itself twice, turns 

upward, ending in a decorated bell. 
Made for use in the ballo "Re Arduino." 
Length of model, 106 cm. ; diameter of bell, 18 cm. 
Signed — "Abbate e figlio." 

1357. Tromba in D. Copper. Of very early date Italy 

The tube, bent on itself twice, ends in a small bell with boss. 
Length of model, 79 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

1358. Tromba in A. Brass, with copper finish. Incomplete Italy 

1359. Tromba in A Italy 

The tube doubles on itself twice, giving an unusually long vibrating 

length. Length of model, 121.6 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 4 cm. 

1360. Tromba in D. Brass Italy 

The tube doubles on itself twice near the mouth-piece, and then ex- 
tends toward the bell in two long, crescent-shaped bends. 

Length of model, 1 20 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 5 cm. 
Signed — "Pelitti, Milano." 

1361 . Tromba in D. Brass Italy 

The tube has one short bend near mouth-piece, and a long circular 

bend near bell. 
Length of model, 1 22 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 4.5 cm. 
Signed — ' ' Pelitti. " 

1 362. Tromba in A. Brass. Unusual form Italy 

The body, after making two long oval turns, followed by a much 

longer one of the same shape, ends in a large bell, turned outwards. 
Length of model, 1 23 cm. ; width, 60 cm. ; diameter of bell, 32 cm. 

1363. Trombone a clefs. Bass in F. Six pistons France 

An incomplete specimen of form shown in Case VIII, No. 896. 

1 364. Tromba in F. Brass. Eighteenth century Italy 

The tube makes two long turns. Bell in form of a dragon's head. 
Length, 1 39 cm. ; of model, 70 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

1 Howard, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. IV, p. 35. 


1365. Tromba in D. Brass Italy 

The tube makes a flat oval turn, ending in a bell with boss. 

Length of model, 64 cm. ; diameter of bell, 26 cm. 

1 366. Tromba. Alto in E flat. Brass Italy 

The tube makes an oval turn and ends in a w^ide flaring bell. 

Made for use in the ballo "Excelsior." 
Length of model, 99 cm.; diameter of bell, 25.5 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti. Milano." 

1366a. Horn (Corno torto Michiganensis). Tin United States 

This modern representative of a type that might have been responsible 
for the fall of the w^alls of Jericho, were it in existence, was in- 
vented in 1 875 and thrust upon the world at an entertainment func- 
tioning under the euphonious designation "Duoterpsichoreanclog- 
pedality." It figured extensively in "hornings" and the academico- 
sociological functions dear to students. It consists of a conical tube, 
197 cm. long, and 20.4 cm. in diameter, bent on itself three times. 
Formerly it was fitted with a large beating-reed, but without it every 
demand made on a "noise-maker" can be easily satisfied. 
**0 salve Universitas Michiganensium." 
(Irving K. Pond.) 

1367. Tromba. Alto in B flat. Brass. Unusual form Italy 

This tromba resembles an instrument mentioned by Praetorius in his 

Syntagma Musicum (1618), shown on Plate XXXII, and called 
chorus. This designation was applied by mediaeval authorities 
with an apparent lack of discrimination, as it stood for a dulcimer, 
a bagpipe, a four-stringed cither, a trumpet marine, and the peculiar 
form of trumpet described by Praetorius.^ 
Length, 1 47 cm. ; width, at middle section, 2 1 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

1368. Tromba in E Italy 

The brass tube, painted lead color and decorated with gilt bands, 

turns on itself closely three times and ends in a conical bell. It was 
used in the ballo "L* Astro degli Afgani." 
Length, 318 cm.; of model, 79 cm.; diameter of bell, 15.8 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano." 

1369. Tromba. Brass Italy 

Length, 156.1 cm.; diameter of bell, 25.6 cm. 

2 Also shown by Virdung, p. 24. 


1370. Saxhorn. Contra-bass in E flat United States 

Brass. Four pump valves, the fourth transposing to BB. flat. 
Length of model, 145.5 cm.; diameter of bell, 26.5 cm. 

The desk placed in front belongs to No. 1 1 66, Case XI. 

1371. Tromba in C. Brass. Of very early date Italy 

The tube makes three turns : two very large and one small. The in- 
side of the bell, which turns upwards, is gilded. 

Length of model ,117 cm. ; diameter of bell, 1 2 cm. 

1372. Trumpet in D flat. Brass Italy 

The conical tube of brass, painted black, makes three turns — two 

large, and one small. The bell turns abruptly upward and is gilded 
in the inside. Length of model, 99 cm. ; diameter of bell, 20 cm. 
Signed— "G. Pelitti, Milano."^ 

1373. Fog-horn (Fr. Trompe; Ital. Corno da nehhia; Ger. Nehel- 

horn). Tin Newfoundland 

Length, 1 56 cm. ; diameter of bell, 20 cm. 

1373a. Moose Call New Brunswick 

This unsophisticated representative of the speaking-trumpet type was 
made by a Micmac Indian whose skill in reproducing the call of 
the cow-moose brought death to many a bull. It was also used by 
the donor, who was a mighty moose-hunter. It is made of bark 
and is 38 cm. in length, with a diameter at larger end of 6.7 cm. 
(Frederick Talcott.) 

1374. Musical Weather-vane Germany 

The wind blowing into the open end sets twenty free reeds in vibration. 
Length, 45.6 cm.; diameter, 30.5 to 10.2 cm. (at waist). 

1375. Melophone. Bass France 

Vertical form. Seventy-eight ivory "touches" control an equal num- 
ber of free reeds. The bellows are operated by drawing the handle 
back and forth. For horizontal (smaller) model see No. 742, 
Case VII. 

Length, 1 44 cm. ; of body, 1 08 cm. ; width, 36 to 11 cm. ; depth, 30 
to 1 cm. 

Signed — "Jaquet, Paris." 
The instruments from 1352 to 1375, inclusive, belong to Class III. 

1376. Arpa. Twenty-six wire strings. Sixteenth century Italy 

Height, 1 68 cm. ; width, 97.2 cm. 

^ This maker must not be judged by his reproductions — mostly admirable — for the 
instruments of unusual form, both in this Case and those already noted under Nos. 904 to 
930 (Case VIII), were made for a special purpose. They are all superior instruments of 
excellent tone-quality and are in no sense "freaks." 


1377. Machette. Circular body of wood. One hundred and six fine 

wire strings radiate from the center to pegs on rim. Played with a 
plectrum. Originally it was mounted on a standard which could 

not be used for lack of room Madeira 

Diameter, 64 cm. ; depth, 23 cm. 

1378. BiWA. Identical with No. 1215, Case XII Japan 

1379. Cheng. Usual size and structure China 


1380. Machete Madeira 

Body in form of an aquatic bird. Ten pairs of wire strings. Tuning 

mechanism. Played with a plectrum. 
Length, 121.6 cm.; of body, 62.5 cm.; width, 27.8 cm.; depth, 6.4. 

1381. Rebeca (Port, for Violin) Madeira 

Nos. 1380-81 were placed on a large standard representing a tree 

covered with moss. It is not displayed for obvious reasons. Both 
are signed — "A. Da Costa» Funchal." 
Length, 9 1 .2 cm. ; of body, 52.9 cm. ; width, 2 1 .6 cm. ; depth, 6.4 cm. 

Tlie penchant shown by Da Costa for unusual forms — as shown in No. 
1095, Case X, in this instrument, and, without doubt, in Nos. 1377 and 1380, 
— ^must not be held as reflecting upon his work, for, in legitimate forms, he has 
demonstrated his ability as an instrument-maker. 

1382. Zither. Body of wood, inlaid Italy 

Of the seven wire strings, four run over a fret-board, and three are 

free, as are the six gut strings. Two rosette sound-holes. 
Called by the maker (possibly Franciolini) Cetera Napoletana. 
Length, 68 cm.; width, 46 cm.; depth, 10 cm. 

1383. Lyre. Metal body. Eight wire strings. Fourteenth century. .Italy 
Length, 46 cm. ; width, 28 cm. ; depth, 5 cm. 

1 384. Couched Harp. Pyramidal body of wood. Nine wire strings. 

The pitches are given on a strip at the base United States 

Height, 40 cm. ; width, 1 to 7 cm. ; depth, 4 cm. 

1385. Conductor's Desk. Brass. The face bears the following inscrip- 

tion : "To Professor A. A. Stanley, in token of their high esteem, 
by the University Choral Union, May 30, 1891." 
Height, 1 47 to 1 65 cm. ; surface dimensions of desk, 54 by 34 cm. 
(Albert A. Stanley.) 

1386. Violin Case. 

Length, 133.7 cm.; width, 25.7 to 12.7 cm.; depth, 13 cm. 

224 '^he stearns collection 

1 387. Drum Major's Staff. 

Length, 133.7 cm.; diameter of silver knob, 8 cm. 

1388. "Cecilian." Piano-forte player United States 

In this instrument, which is quite representative of its type, we find a 

most ingenious and novel application of a principle never before so 
fully exploited. By means of mechanism operated by foot-pedals 
a cylinder carrying a strip of perforated paper is made to revolve at 
any speed desired. Hiis strip as it unrolls hugs a box in which is 
a series of narrow channels corresponding to the perforations in the 
strip, and leading to "pneumatics," each of which controls a small 
hammer with which a key may be struck. When the holes in the 
strip and in the box correspond, compressed air, furnished by bel- 
lows, also operated by the pedals, sets the pneumatic mechanism 
in operation. The vogue of such instruments is one of the most 
encouraging developments of the day, for they make possible an 
extended and intimate acquaintance with the best music. 
Length, 1 1 2.2 cm. ; height, 97.6 cm. ; width, 36.8 cm. 
Signed — "Farrand and Votey." 
(James H. McDonald.) 

1389. Cheng. Similar to No. 1379, but in deplorable condition. . .China 


1390. Organ Model. (Electric Action) United States 

This model of the electric action of "Frieze Memorial Organ," when 

brought to Ann Arbor, was constructed and presented to the Uni- 
versity by the makers of the organ, Farrand and Votey, of Detroit. 
The action substituted for this by the Hutchins Co. of Boston, when 
the instrument (entirely renovated and substantially enlarged) was 
removed to its present position in 1913, is simpler. The following 
description may be of interest: The bellows (A), under which 
are the "feeders," (smaller bellows which force the wind into the 
larger) are operated by the handle (B). The air in the bellows, 
compressed by the iron weights (C), is forced through a conductor 
(D) into the air-chamber (E). Small suction bellows (F) are 
deflated when, by pressure on the key (G), an electric contact is 
made and the air rushes into the pipe (H) causing it to speak. 

Length, 126 cm.; height, 154.5 cm.; depth, 40.7 cm. 

An envelope (I) contains the specifications of the organ and such data 
referring to it as may be of interest to future generations. 

1391. "Sonatina." Self-playing Concertina Germany 

Hexagonal body. Expanding bellows. False "touches" on both 

sides. Discs, on which are raised points, are placed inside and 



operated by means of clockwork. The bellows are operated by 

the hands. Eleven of these discs are displayed. 
Diameter, 29 cm.; length (inflated), 40 cm.; (deflated), 25 cm. 
Signed — "Patentirt in alien Staaten, D. R. R., No. 86,325. Made 

in Saxony." 

1392. "Piano Melodico" Germany 

Case of ebonized wood resting on four legs. Under a housing, at the 

right end, a roller, turned by a crank, carries a strip of perforated 
cardboard over a set of projections. By means of a striking mech- 
anism, such of the fifty-four strings, running under the top-board, as 
are desired, are made to sound. 
Length, 86.4 cm. ; width, 43.2 cm. ; height, 81 cm. 

1392a. Similar to No. 1392, but larger Germany 

It rests on four very short turned legs. No name is given it and, like 
the preceding, it is not signed, 
e Length, 1 2 1 cm. ; width, 52 cm. ; height, 83 cm. 

1393. "Technicon" Canada 

An ingenious device for strengthening the fingers, invented in the '80's 

by J. Brotherhood, a Canadian. 

1394. "Concert Roller Organ" United States 

By a mechanism similar to that used in the music-box (Case III, No. 

25 1 ) , twenty free reeds are made to sound. The crank operates 
both the roller and the bellows. 
Height, 30.4 cm. ; width, 40 cm. ; depth, 24.8 cm. 

1395. Drehorgel (Eng. Barrel-organ; Fr. Orgue de barbaric; Ital. 

Organino a cilindro; Span. Organo de mono) Germany 

Three sets of metal pipes. Usual mechanism. Two extra rolls each 

for Nos. 1 394 and 1 395 are hung at the right. 
Height, 76.2 cm. ; width, 47.5 cm. ; depth, 35. 1 cm. 
The French designation is a play on the name of Giovanni Barberi, of 
Modena (c. 1700), who was one of the first to manufacture the instrument* 
Incidentally it is interesting to note that the first mechanical instrument was 
devised by Heron, of Alexandria, two centuries before Christ. After this date 
none were built until 1 740,° but since then ample amends have been made for 
the lost opportunities of the intervening centuries. 

1396. "DiGITORlUM." A finger strengthening device England 

Signed — "Metzler and Co., 48 Marlborough St., London." 

With reference to this device, and No. 1393, it must be emphasized that 
the numerous inventions of this character have been harmful rather than help- 

* Sachs, p. 284. 
5 Sachs, p. 256. 


ful, and though their inventors may have been prophets of "efficiency," in 
their use the modern, ubiquitous slogan, "Safety first," should be invoked. 
These remarks do not apply to instruments of which the Dumb Piano, in- 
vented by A. K. Virgil, is an outstanding example. 

1397. Serinette. Tiny barrel-organ. Eighteenth century Germany 

Compass of nine notes. Usual mechanism. Called "Serinette" be- 
cause it was used by bird fanciers in teaching the finch {serin) t 
and other birds, to sing. 

The repertoire is as follows: Lauierbacher ; Suhe Tiroler hua; Man 

lebt verstohlen in Tag hinein; Ldndler; Arie. 
Height, 18.5 cm.; width ,13.4 cm.; depth, 6.8 cm. 

Merline is the name of an organ giving the call of the amsel (ousel- 
turdus merula). It is more powerful than the serinette. (Sachs, p. 259). 

1 398. "Soblick's Patent Claviatur" Germany 

This device is placed on the keys of a piano which are moved by 

striking the "touches," each of which originally bore a letter. 
Length, 1 1 9 cm. ; width, 1 4 cm. ; thickness, 6 to 2.2 cm. 

1399. Street Piano England 

A piano action is set in operation by the roller-organ mechanism. 
Length, 101 cm.; height, 135 cm.; depth, 53 to 43 cm. 

1400. PoRTMANEAU, formerly belonging to Franz Liszt. It was taken 

with him on his Icist journey to Bayreuth, where he died, July 3 1 , 

(Mrs. M. B. Sheley.) 

1401 . BiWA. Miniature model Japan 

1402. Bandurria. Small model Spain 

Body of gourd with belly of wood. Six fine gut strings. 

1403. Conductor's Baton. Four varieties of wood from the Sandwich 

Islands. Two ivory ferules, the larger of which bears the name of 
the woods. On the gold mounting is inscribed: "Presented to Pro- 
fessor A. A. Stanley, December 26, 1890." 
(Albert A. Stanley.) 

1404-5. Batons. Ebony (1404), and ash (1405) United States 

Length of 1403, 52 cm.; of 1404, 40 cm.; of 1405, 53 cm. 

1406. Staff Ruling Pen Germany 

A five-pointed pen used in early days to rule the staff. Used by Lud- 
wig Friedrich Rominger (1792-1876), cantor and teacher in 
Waiblingen, Wiirtemberg, from 1825 to 1859. 
(Miss Julia Rominger.) 


1407-8-9-10. Models, of Samisen (Jap.); Lira-chitarra (Ital.); 
Mandoline (France) ; Violin (Holland). 
These models are very small and measurements are unnecessary. 

1411. Upright Piano Action United States 

By striking the key (A), through a delicately adjusted system of 

levers and hoppers (B.C.D.) the hammer (E) is brought in con- 
tact with the strings (F) with any gradation of power desired. At 
the same time the damper (G) is raised from the strings by H, 
returning to its original position on the release of the key. 
Length, 55 cm.; height, 57.6 cm.; width, 12 cm. 

1412. Upright Piano Action United States 

Length, 47 cm. ; height, 52 cm. ; width, 8.9 cm. 

(Nos. 141 1 and 1412 were donated by the Ann Arbor Music Co.) 

1413. Grand Pianoforte Action United States 

This type of action is more delicately adjusted than the preceding. 

This is due to the action of the "escapement" (A) which engages 
the roller (B) on the bottom of hammer lever. It makes possible 
more frequent repetitions of the blow. 
Length, 79 cm. ; height, 26.4 cm. ; width, 1 0.4 cm. 
(Steinway and Sons.) 

1414. Stringing Device United States 

This form of stringing, devised by Mason and Hamlin, while theoret- 
ically admirable, was found to be undesirable in practice. 

1415. Metronome Germany 

The Metronome is an instrument consisting of a pendulum, actuated 

by clock work, and a scale indicating the number of its oscillations 
per minute. An infallible indication of a given tempo is thus 
secured. J. N. Maelzel secured a patent for this device in 1816, 
but, as was demonstrated by the Dutch Academy of Science, the 
idea originated with Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel of Amsterdam, with 
whom Maelzel was at one time intimately acquainted. 

1416. "ArIston" Germany 

Through the aid of a circular perforated cardboard disc, and bellows 

operated by a crank, the twenty-four free reeds enclosed in the 
body of the instrument may be made to sound. 
Width, 37.7 cm.; height, 32.5 cm. 

1417. ViCTROLA United States 

No country has brought the so-called "talking-machine" so near per- 
fection as our own. In the "Victrola" (which illustrates the funda- 


mental principles of the type) a delicately adjusted mechanism, 
controlled by clock work, causes a fine needle to traverse a series of 
circular lines which represent vibrations produced by the speaking 
or singing voice, an instrument, (or instruments) or a combination, 
of these tone-producing media. By the aid of a responsive mem- 
brane, and suitably adjusted resonators, the original vibrations are 
reproduced. There are two forms, the one here represented, in 
which a horn serves to reinforce the tone; the other, with no horn, 
the sound coming through an opening under the revolving plate 
carrying the disc. 
Width of body, 22.8 cm.; height, 15.2 cm.; length of horn, 58 cm.; 
diameter of bell, 32 cm. 

Signed — "Victor Talking Machine Co." 

1418. "SCHOENHUTS DoOR-HARp" United States 

Hangs on a door. Through the falling of the suspended balls on the 
strings it serves to welcome the approaching, and speed the parting 
guest. Of no musical value. Height, 58 cm. ; width, 46 cm. 

Construction Case (including Accessories) 

1419. Organ Pipe (dismantled). Wood Italy 

This pipe, "Bourdon" (e), is simpler in structure than No. 752, Case 

VII, which is also dismantled to illustrate the process of tone- 
production. A, B, C, and D show the principal parts. 
Length, 93 cm. ; diameter, 8 by 9 cm. 

1420. Roller-board. Wood and iron United States 

This device is now looked upon as a relic of barbarism, but for cen- 
turies it did its duty of transferring the action of the keys to the 
valves under the pipes. In large organs the roller-boards were very 
complicated and the resulting friction greatly increased the difficulty 
of performance. The rollers were connected by thin strips of wood 
called "trackers." In this example, marked G.R.R., No. 379, the 
rollers are indicated by A, and the trackers by B. 

Length, 58 cm. ; of rollers, 1 9 to 50 cm. ; height, 46 cm. 
(August Moller.) 

1421 . Organ Pipe. Metal United States 

The pitch of this "Open Diapason" pipe is z' . 

Length, 50 cm. ; diameter, 8 cm. 

1422. Organ Pipe. Metal United States 

The pitch of this "Open Diapason" is c'. 

Length, 84.2 cm. ; diameter, 8.6 cm. 

1423. Austin Wind Chest United States 

This illustration of the wind chest of the large organ in City Hall, 

Portland, Me., shows the interior construction, and enforces the 
originality and practicability of this invention. 

1424. Console of Portland Organ United States 

It will be seen that the substitution of keys for draw-stops makes a 

more compact console than the older type. Moreover, through the 
use of the electric action the location of the console is limited only 
by the length of the connecting cable. 

1425. Elevation of a Complete Organ United States 

In this illustration, A is the Key-desk; B, the Wind-chest; C, the 

Exterior of Chest; D, the Door; E, the Action. 
(These illustrations are taken from the Catalogue of the Austin Com- 
pany which, with still other important catalogues referring to vari- 
ous types of instruments and appliances, is placed in Case XV for 



1426. Structural Parts of Organ Action United States 

Armature, cable, pneumatic bellows. 

1427. Reed, Socket, and Foot. Metal United States 

The brass beating-reed is placed inside the "foot" and the combination 

is placed on the "socket." A wire tuning device pressing against 

the reed determines its vibrating length. 
Length, of foot, 18 cm.; of reed, 3.2 cm.; diameter of foot, 3 cm.; 

of reed ,7 mm. 
(Nos. 1426 and 1427 were presented by Earl V. Moore.) 

1428. Three Draw-stops United States 

TTiese specimens are taken from the "Frieze Memorial Organ," be- 
fore its reconstruction. Their lengths, when compared with those 
in the present instrument ( 1 cm. ) , will prove the superior ad- 
vantages of the modern system. Frequently in older organs, the 
rods were double the length of the above. 

A. "Doppel Floete," 8 ft. pitch, Gr. Length, 84 cm. 

B. "Bourdon," 16 ft. pitch, Sw. The split knob was an ingenious 

device by means of which the lowest octave could serve as a 
pedal stop. Length, 84 cm. 

C. "Aeoline," 8 ft. pitch, Sw. Length, 84 cm. 

1429. Parts of Austin Electric Action United States 

The delicacy of these parts illustrates a notable characteristic of this 

action. They are not arranged in sequence. 
(Austin Organ Company.) 

1430. Structural Parts of Organ Action. 

1431. Structural Parts of Brass Instruments. 

1432. Plate. Brass United States 

This is the first step in construction. The flat sheet is formed into a 

conical tube, after which the tube is filled with molten lead and 
gradually bent into its proper form. The lead is then melted out, 
the mouth-piece section and rim of bell are added, and the instru- 
ment is complete, unless valves are necessary. 

Length of plate, 1 30 cm. ; width at mouth-piece, 2.6 cm. ; at bell, 
27.6 cm.; at three equidistant points from bell, 5.6, 4, 3.4 cm.; 
thickness, 1 mm. 

The complete instrument is the Standard Service Bugle, in B flat, 
used in the United States Army. 

1433. Bell-section, and part of the tube formed from such a sheet of 

brass as is shown in No. 1 432. 

1434. French Horn Crooks. 


1435. Box Valve. 1830. Two pistons United States 

This valve consists of a tube sliding within another. A hole in the 

inner tube allows free passage of the air, which, when the piston 
is pressed down, is directed to a crook which increases the vibrat- 
ing length. Introduced by Graves and Co., of Boston. 

1436. Box Valve. 1875. Three pistons United States 

An application of the same principle displayed in No. 1435 is seen 

in this mechanism, which was introduced by B. F. Quinby, of 

1437. Cross-section of Piston Valves. Modern France 

This beautiful model was constructed by Besson, of Paris, to illus- 
trate the action of the piston valve. In this connection it may be 
stated that the action of valves frequently results in impurity of 
intonation, a defect remedied by the "Enharmonic Valve," which 
is a product of the Besson establishment. 

1438. Rotary Valve. Three valves United States 

In this form, devised by J. S. Johnson, the defects of the ordinary 

rotary valve are corrected. When the flat key is pressed down, a 
connecting arm causes a tube, in which are openings, so to rotate 
that the air can pass into a crook which is a part of the body of the 
instrument. A spring brings the key back into its proper position 
(closed) when the finger is lifted. 
(Nos. 1432-33-35 and 38 were presented by "The House of York.") 

1439. Cup Mouth-pieces. 

A, Corno; B, Cornet; C, Section of B type; D, French Horn; E, F, 
G, Trumpet; H, Trombone; I, J, Baritone; K, Tuba; L. Contra- 
bass Tuba; M, Cornet Mute. Brass, nickel-plated. 
(Carl Fischer, Importer, N. Y.) 

1440. Music-holders, or Racks. 

Used on brass instruments of various types. 

1441. Dismantled Violin. Usual size Germany 

Of the separate pieces of wood and the movable fittings, the most im- 
portant are indicated by letters as follows: (A) Belly — (B) Bass-bar — 
(C) Back — (D) Rim, showing outline — (E, F, G, H) Corner blocks — 
(I) Sound-post — (J) Bridge — (K) Finger-board, running over neck, which 
ends in Scroll (L) and Peg-box (M) from which the strings run to Tail- 
piece (N). 

Three varieties of wood are used: maple for back, neck, ribs, and bridge; 
pine for belly, bass-bar, blocks, linings, and sound-post ; ebony for finger-board, 
nuts, screws, tail-piece, and button. The strings and loop are the only parts 
not of wood. 



1442. Block, representing a part of the table from which No. 1284, Case 

XIII, was constructed. 

1443. Strings, of various sizes. 

(Schaeberle and Son.) 

1444. Structural Parts of Oriental Instruments. 

These parts (tuning-pegs, etc.) are arranged in the cover of the 
case in which No. 7 1 4, Case VII, was placed. 

1445. Bows, of various sizes. 

1446. Guitar (dismantled). 

The top has been removed to show the construction of the body of the 
instrument, which is of the usual size and stringing. 

1447. Mandoline (dismantled). 

The vaulted form is clearly apparent. Usual size and stringing. 
(Nos. 1446-7 were presented by Grinnell Brothers.) 

1448. Clavichord Action (Model). 

This example of the gebunden system shows A, Keys; B, Tangent; 
C, Strings; D, Damper. C and C sharp are obtained from one 
pair of strings, D and D sharp from another pair, and E from still 
another. This is the simplest form of action ever devised, and 
makes possible an intimate relation between the performer and the 
tone-producing media denied to other forms. 

1449. Harpsichord Action (Model). 

A, is the Key; B, the Jacks; C, the Strings. 

This is an indirect type, as a mechanism intervenes between the key 

and the strings. 
(Nos. 1448 and 1449 were constructed and presented by Mr. F. M. 

Watson. ) 

1450. Organ Key-board. 

This is a Solo and Echo Organ Key-board, and is of interest in that 
it was taken from the old key-desk of the "Frieze Memorial 

The couplers are operated by tablets on name-board, while com- 
binations can be set on the pistons, under the keys. The tablets 
just over the keys refer to combination pedals above the pedal key- 
board. One of these double-acting pedals switches from Solo 
organ to Echo. Length, 92 cm. ; depth, 26 cm. ; height, 20 cm. 

The Couplers operated by the Tablets are: Great to Pedal, Swell to 
Pedal, Choir to Pedal, Solo to Pedal, Swell to Great, Choir to 
Great, Solo to Great, Solo to Swell, Swell to Choir, Choir to Great 
Sub-Octave, Swell to Great, Super-Octave, Solo to Great, Super- 
Octave, Solo Super-Octave. 

/\ct/on of No. J33d. A.6/r/V?^y B,/<ey-6ec/,C,/<eY, O.Jac/f; 

'■^'^VvS^vyW^-^^^^'-'VS^V ^'-VVV'^^^^^ 




^^ ra fi^>:^>>^^^gg^^^r^ 



145 1 . Tuner's Outfit United States 

This extremely valuable outfit formerly belonged to Henry W. Sam- 
son of Ypsilanti, Michigan, who was the tuner of the University 
School of Music from its inception. Mr. Samson was of great as- 
sistance in restoring defective actions of the key-board instruments 
in the Collection, and freely gave of his time and experience in still 
other directions. 

(Charles A. Sink.) 
The following instruments (new accessions) belong in Case VI, but 
could not be placed there on account of lack of room: 

492a. Shepherd's Pipe Bulgaria 

540a. Syakuhachi Japan 

543a. Minteki Japan 

Descriptions of these instruments are given on pages 80, 86, and 85. 
Chart exhibiting interesting details of Japanese INSTRUMENTS: 

1452. Shaku-HACHI (No. 540). Fingerings. Through these a chro- 

matic series from d' to d'' is obtained.^ 

1453. Ryu-TEKI (Ry^u — dragon, ieki — flute). Fingerings. To obtain the 

following tones — d''\ d sharp'", e'", f sharp"', g'", a'", b'", 
c"". c sharp"". (No. 533).=^ 

1454. HiCKI-RlKI. Fingerings through which the diatonic scale from g" to 

a"' is obtained. No. 662).^ 

1455. Tunings of the Japanese Koto (No. 992).* 

1. Hirajoshi; 2. Akebono; 3. Kumoi; 4. Sakura; 5. Han-kumoi; 

6. Iwaio; 7. Cosagari Roku-agari. Special tunings: 8. Kurama- 

Jishi; 9. Hirajbshi 
No. 1 has four forms; No. 8 is changed to No. 1 by lowering the 6th 

and 1 1 th strings a semi-tone. In No. 9 the 4th and 9th strings are 

raised a semi-tone from No. 1. Nos. 1,3, and 6 are the tunings 

most frequently used. 

1456. Tunings of the Chinese Sono-koto (No. 997)." 

1. H^ojo; 2. Taisiki; 3. Banshiki; 4. Another form; 5. O'shiki: 
6. Suijo; 7. Ichiotsu; 8. Another form; 9. So jo; 10. Another form. 

1457. Tunings of the Bugaku-biwa (No. 1257).'' 

Four tones of Nos. 1 , 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 of the preceding tunings. 

1 Mahillon, Cat. II, p. 84. 

2 Mahillon, Cat. II, p. 85 

3 Mahillon, Cat. II, p. 76. 
*, 5, « Piggott, pp. 92, 93. 

234 1*he stearns collection 

1457a. Oriental Scales. 

I. Arabian; 2. Hindoo; 3. Chinese; 4. Japanese. 

The following do not strictly come within the most liberal definition of a 
musical collection, but, as they are of interest and came with the instruments, 
they will be listed as follows : 

In East Room. 

1458. Egyptian Musicians. 

Taken from a wall-painting on an Egyptian tomb. The instruments 
in use at the time are graphically represented. 

1459. Old Italian Print. Inscribed — "Compagni a di Borgognoni che 

Studian Musica. Essiste nel Palazzo della Ju, Sig. Marcha Cas- 
sandra Cerretani in Firenze — No. 1 8, Carravagio-pin. Geo. Batta 

1460. "Bohemia." A Group of Musical Instruments. 
In Foyer. 

1461. Portrait of Frederick Stearns. 
Over East Door. 

1462. Old Italian Print. Inscribed — "102 grandezza del vero, 3, 4, 5 

meta del vero. C. Weidenmuller lit. Fr. Niccoline dir. Lit. Richter 
and C in Napole." Stamped — "A. Niccolini, Pompeii, Editore." 

The following instruments are represented: 1, Roman Cymbals; 2, 
Reed instrument; 3, Roman Flutes; 4, Egyptian Sistrum. 

Over Case I. 

1463. Missal '. Spain 

This beautifully illuminated missal came from a cathedral in Santiago, 

Spain. Its date cannot be fully determined, but is not earlier than 
the fifteenth century. 

1464. Bust OF Frederick Stearns. 
Over middle door. West side of Foyer. 

The total number of exhibits — including new accessions (35 in number) 
which, in order to preserve the sequence in classification have necessitated the 
addition of letters to certain numbers, and making the deductions noted under 
No. 54, Case I — is 1461, represented by 1496 numbers. They are divided 
as follows:— Class I, 236; Class II, 144; Class III, 525; Class IV, 381 ; 
Class V, 19; Class VI (Mechanical Instruments), 24; Class VII (Unusual 
Processes), 24; Accessories, 108. 

Of the above total, 1343 represent Mr. Stearns' original gift; 30 are 
from the Beal-Steere Collection, while 88 were contributed by the individuals' 
noted in List of Donors, in Appendix. 


In this list of works relating to musical instruments and their uses, to be 
found in the Library of the University of Michigan, only the most important 
monographs, and — with the exception of a few distinctly valuable contributions — 
no reprints, are included. In series, such as the Hakluyt Society's publications, 
reports of museums, files of the journals of learned societies, etc., it has been 
found impossible to specify single numbers, as such a procedure would extend the 
list beyond reasonable limits. For the same reason books of travel have been 
excluded, although, in many instances they are valuable sources of information. 

Works of special assistance to the general reader are designated by an 

AALST, J. A. van. 

Chinese music, Shanghai, 1884, 


Studien iiber das tonsystem und die musik der Japaner. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang IV. Hf. 2, p. 302, 

ff. Leipzig, 1903. 


The shofar, its origin and use. 

U. S. National Museum. Proceedings. Washington, 1983. 


Musica instrumentalis deudsch. Wittenberg, 1528; 1545. 
Reprint, Leipzig, 1896. 


Geschichte der musik. 5 vols. Leipzig, 1887. 

AMERICAN anthropologist. Washington, 1888-1914. 

AMERICAN folk-lore society. Journal. 
Boston, 1888-1915. 


De la musique des Chinois. Paris, 1780. 


♦American history and encyclopedia of music. Vol. Ill, New York, 1910. 
This volume contains an article on the evolution of the orchestra, by Frederick 


Die afrikanischen musikinstrumente. Berlin, 1901. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal. London, 



See Tabouret, Jehan. 


The Irish and Highland harps. Edinburgh, 1894. 


*Art of organ building, 2 vols. New York, 1905. 

Organ of the twentieth century. New York, 19 18. 

— Organ stops and their registration. New York, 1921. 


Biographical dictionary of musicians. New York, 1900. 

Third edition, enlarged and revised by Alfred Remy, New York, 1919. 
Ueber die musik der nordamerikanischen wilden. Leipzig, 1882. 


The natural history of the musical bow. Oxford, 1899. 

Denkmaler des classichen alterthums. Leipzig, 1885- 1888. 

BERICHT iiber den dritten kongress der intemationalen musikgesellschaft, Wien,. 
25. bis 29, Mai, 1909. Wien, 1909. 


A treatise on modern instrumentation. London, 1858. 

Instrumentationslehre von Hector Berlioz, erganzt und revidiert von Richard 
Strauss, 2 Theile. Leipzig, 1905. 


Die fabrikation musikalischer instrumente. Leipzig, 1876. 


(Besson, Jacques.) 

Theatrvm instruvmento- 1 1 rvm et machi- 1 1 narum Jacobi Bessoni 1 1 Delphin- 
aris, mathe || matici ingeniosissimi, || cum Francisci Beroaldi || figurarum 
declaratione demonstratina, 1 1 necnon vbique ne- 1 1 cessariis ac vitilissimis 
additionibus nun- 1 1 quam hactenus editis auctum atque il- 1 1 lustratum ; 1 1 per 
Ivlivm Paschalem nobi- || lem Messanensem. || Lvgdvni || apud Earth. 
Vincent. || Cum priuilegio regis. || 1582. 


Theorie der pneumatischen orgeltraktur. Leipzig, 191 1, 


Francisci Blanchini Veronensis De tribus generibus instrumentorum 

veterum organicae. Roma, 1742. 


♦History of the pianoforte. London, 1899. 



Die sammlung der musikinstrumente des baireschen nationalmuseums. 
Miinchen, 1883. 


Gabinetto armonico pieno d'instrumenti sonori indicati offerti al Santore 
David. Roma, 1723. 


Temperament. London, 1876. 


See Grove. 


Catalogues of the Crosby-Brown collection. Nos. L, IL, IIL, IV, New York, 

1 902- 1 903. 

Introductions and explanatory notes by F. W. Galpin and A. P. Hipkins. 


♦Musical instruments and their homes. New York, 1888. 


Arbeit und rhythmus. Leipzig, 1899. 

BUREAU of American ethnology. Publications. 
Washington, 18801914. 


A general history of music. 4 vols. London, 1776- 1789. 

CATALOGUE of the loan exhibition of the worshipful company of musicians. 
Fishmonger's Hall. London, 1904. 
Introduction by A. J, Hipkins. » 

CATALOGUE of Lucknow exhibition (1885). Lucknow, 1885. 


The history of music. Vol. I. London, 1874. 


Catalogue of the historical musical exhibition, Horticultural Hall. Boston, 


Catalogue raisonne des instruments de cette collection. (2 editions.) Paris, 


Esquisse historique de la musique arabe. Cologne, 1863. 


Structure of the pipe organ. Boston, 1877. 


Pascal Taskin. 

Sammelbande der internatlonalen musikgesellschaft. Jhg., XII. Heft IL 



The evolution of modem orchestration. New York, 1908. 


La musique, les musiciens et les instruments de musique. Paris, 1869. 
Musique et musiciens. Paris, 1862. 


Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines. Paris, 1887. 


The violin. London, 1881. 


Musical instruments in the Royal Military Exhibition. London, 1891. 

* The music and musical instruments of Southern India and the 

Deccan. London, 1891. 


Etude sur le systeme musical chinois. 

Sammelbande der internatlonalen musikgesellschacht. Heft II. 


Chippewa music. 2 vols. Washington, 1910-1913. 
American Bureau of Ethnology. 

Die DEUTSCHE instrumentenbauzeitung. Berlin. 


Musikalisches lexicon. Heidelberg, 1865. 


The violin. London, 1878. 


Ethnological charts of the Pacific islands. Series I, II, and IIL 
Manchester, 1888, 1895. 


Die trompete in alter und neuer zeit. Leipzig, 1881. 

Das alte clarinblasen auf trompeten. Leipzig, 1894. 

Die dampfung beim horn. Leipzig, 1897. 


Musical scales of various nations. 

Jour, royal society of arts, 1884-5. London, 1885. 

See Helmholtz. 


Orchestral instruments and their use. Boston, 1902- 1903. 


Famous composers and their works, N. S. Vol. 1. Boston, 1912. 

Editor, Modern music and musicians. 10 vols. *(vols. I. and IIL, 

encyclopedic section, valuable). New York, 1918. 



Catalogue of the special exhibition of ancient musical instruments, South 
Kensington Museum, London, 1872. 

Descriptive catalogue of the musical instruments in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. London, 1874. 

*Musical instruments. London, 1875. 

*The music of the most ancient nations. London, 1864. 

*The violin family. London, 1883. 

Myths and facts. 2 vols. London, 1876. 

FACH-KATALOG der musikhistorischen abtheilung von Deutschland und Oester- 
reich-Ungarn, internationale austellung fiir musik und theaterwesen. Wien, 


Anthony Stradivari. London, 1864. 

Biographic universelle des musiciens. 8 vols. Paris, 1877. 

Supplement et complement, Arthur Pougin, Ed. 2 vols. Paris, 

1 878- 1 880. 

Historic de la musique. 5 vols. Paris, 1869-1876. 


Fiihrer durch die konigliche sammlung alter musikinstrumente. Berlin, 1892. 


Old violins and their makers. London. 


Allgemeine geschichte der musik. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1788-1801. 


♦Orchestration. London, 19 14. 
See Stanford. 


Annals of Irish harpers. New York, 1912. 


Historical sketches of the violin and its master makers. Chicago, 1900. 

Rare old violins. 4 vols. Chicago, 1890, 1896, 1900, 1901. 

*The Hawley collection of violins. Chicago, 1904. 

Preface by Theodore Thomas. 

FUEHRER durch die sammlungen des museums des konigreiches Bohmen, in 
Prag. Prag, 1897. 

FUEHRER durch das museum fiir volkerkunde. Berlin, 1898. 


See Grove. 


Les luthiers Italiens aux XVH. et XVIH. Siecles. Paris, 1869. 



Aztec influence on American Indian instruments, 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang IV. Heft 4. 

Notes on a Roman hydraulos. 

Reliquary. London, 1904. 

*01d English instruments of music. London, 1910. 

The origin of the Clarsech or Irish harp. 

Report of the fourth congress of the international musical society. 

*The whistles and reed instruments of the Indians of the N. W. 

coast of North America. 

Musical association. Proceedings. London, 1903. 

Notes on old English Positive Organ. 

Musical antiquary. Vol. IV, 1912. 

*The Sackbut; Its Evolution and History. 

Musical association. Proceedings. London, 1907. 

See Brown. 

See Stainer. 


Nouveau traite d' instrumentation. Paris-Bruxelles, 1885. 


Verbessert das alter und vieles spielen wirklich den ton und die ansprache 
der geige? Berlin, 1907. 


Dictionary of music and musicians. 4 vols. London, 1880- 1890. 
Second edition, J. A. Fuller-Maitland, Ed. 5 vols. London, 1904-1910. 
American supplement. Vol. VI. Waldo Selden Pratt, and Charles N. Boyd, 
Editors, New York, 1920. 


An historical enquiry respecting the Highland harp. Edinburgh, 1807. 


Publications. London, 1847-1915. 


Das musikhistoriche museum zu Kopenhagen. Beschreibender katalog. 
Kopenhagen, 191 1. 


*The violin, its famous makers and their imitators. London, 1887. 

The violin and its music. London, 1881. 


History of music. 5 vols. London, 1776. 

Edition of 1875, 2 vols. 

Its chief value lies in the numerous excerpts (translations) from early works. 


The sensations of tone as a physiological basis for the theory of music (trans- 
lation by Alexander J. Ellis). London, 1875. 




The orchestra and orchestral music. New York, 1899. 

De fidiculis bibliographia. 2 vols. London, 1890- 1894. 

*The organ cases and organs of the middle ages and the renaissance. Lon- 
don, 1883. 


Guide to loan collection of musical instruments. London, 1885. 

*History of the pianoforte. London, 1896. 

Musical instruments. Edinburgh, 1888. 

International inventions exhibition, 1885. 

Pianofortes, John Broadwood and Sons, London, 1885. 

See Brown. 


The organ. London, 1865. 


Phonographierte tunesische melodien. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. H£t. 1, p. 1, ff. Leipzig, 1906. 

See Abraham, and Sachs. 


Bells. New Haven, 1889. 


The aulos, or tibia. Boston, 1893. 

The mouth-piece of the aulos. Boston, 1899. 

Both articles are in the Harvard studies in classical philology. 

INTERNATIONAL MUSICAL SOCIETY. (Quarterly and monthly.) 
Leipzig, 1 899- 19 14. 

JAN. KARL van. 

Die griechischen saiteninstrumente. Leipzig, 1882. 


On the musical modes of the Hindoos. 
Complete works, Vol. I. London, 1799. 


Paris, 1822-1917. 


♦Military music. London. "^ 


Les danses des morts. Paris, 1852. 

Manual general de musique militaire. Paris, 1848. 



Die musik der Araber. Leipzig, 1842. 


Orgel und klavier. Leipzig, 1910. 


Katalog des musikhistorischen, museums von Wilhelm Heyer in Coin, 

1 Band: Besaitete tasteninstrumente. Frictioninstrumente. Coin. Leip- 
zig, 1910. 

2 Band: Zupf-und streichinstrumente. Coin. Leipzig, 1912. 

Kleiner katalog der sammlung alter musikinstrumente. Coin. Leip- 
zig, 1913- 

Musurgia universalis, sive Ars magna consoni et dissoni in X libros digesta. 
Roma, 1650. 


Das orchester der Hamburger oper. 1678-1738. 
Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang I. 


Ueber Annamitischemusik. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang VIII. 


Laute und lautenmusik bis zur mitte des 16 jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1901. 


Catalogue des instruments de musique du musee Kraus a Florence. Flor- 
ence, 1878. 

La musique au Japon. Florence, 1880. 

The one-key-boarded clavicytherium of the Kraus collection in 

Florence. Florence, 1910. 


The pianoforte and its music. New York, 191 1. 


Essai sur la musique ancienne et modeme. 4 vols. Paris, 1780. 

The organ and its structure. Boston, 1910. 


The manners and customs of the modern Egyptians. 2 vols. London, 1871. 


*Music and musicians. New York, 1899. 

Encyclopedic de la musique et dictionnaire du conservatoire. 4 

vols. Paris, 1920. 

Was lehren uns die bildwerke des 14-17 jahrhunderts iiber die instrumen- 

talmusik ihrer zeit? 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jhg. VII. Hft. 3, p. 315, ff. 



Die signalinstrumente in den altfranzoschen texten. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jhg. XII., Heft 8. 


Organ stops. London, 1888. 


Les flutes Egyptiennes antiques. 
Journal Asiatlque. 


L'encyclopedie des arts et metiers. Vero..,, 1750. 


A popular account of ancient musical instruments. (Galpin collection.) 
London, 1897. 



Quarterly magazine, international musical society. Year VII. 

*The principle of the hydraulic organ. 

Ibid, year VI. Part 2. 

*The zither (Bavarian Highlands). 

Monthly magazine, international musical society. Year I. Part 11-12, p. 341. 
Leipzig, 1909. 


Catalogue descriptif et analytique du musee instrumental du conservatoire 
royal de musique de Bruxelles. 4 tom. Gand, 1893- 1896- 1900 19 12. 


Les fondements naturel de la musique Grecque antique. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang X. Heft III. 


The musical instruments of the Incas. 

American museum of natural history. Journal. New York, 1903. 


The science of musical sounds. New York, 1916. 


Catalogue of the Crosby-Brown Collection, N. S., Vol. II. (Oceanica and 
America) New York, 1914. 


♦Chinese music. 

Journal of the North-China branch: of the royal Asiatic society, Shanghai, 1904. 

MUSICAL association. Proceedings. London, 1874-1920. 

IttUSICAL quarterly, (O. G. Sonneck, Ed.). New York, 1915-1922. 

MUSICAL times. London, 1899- 1907. 



The history of music. London. 

TfEUE zeitschrift ftir musik. Leipzig, 1888-1915. 


Structure and preservation of the violin. London, 1875. 


Harfe und lyra im alten nord-europa. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang VU. 


Traite d'instrumentation (Musique militaire), 2 vols. 


The art of music. New York, 1893. 

PELLISOY, C. F., psend. 

See Schafhaeutl, Carl Emil von. 


Les facteurs d'instruments de musique. Paris, 1892. 


The music and musical instruments of Japan. London, 1893. 


Le musee du conservatoire national de musique. Supplement au catalogue 
de 1884. Paris, 1894. 


Celebrated violinists. London, 1887. 


Catalogue of first musical exhibition at the Royal Aquarium. London, 1879. 


Die harmonisierung indischer, tiirkischer und japanischer melodien. Leip- 
zig, 1905- 

Andamese music. Jour. Asiatic Soc, N. S., XX, 1888. 


See Fetis. 


Syntagma musicum, Wolfenbiittel, 1618. Reprint. Berlin, 1884. 


*The history of music. New York, 1907. 
See Grove. 


Instrumentation. London. 

The orchestra. London, 1897. 




Catalogue of musical instruments (principally the history of the pianoforte). 
Manchester, England, 1888. 


Chats on violins. Philadelphia, 1905. 


Histoire des instruments de musique. Paris. 

Les harmonies du son et I'histoire des instruments de musique. 

Paris, 1878. 


The bells of England. New York, 1906. 

The five great monarchies of the ancient world. 4 vols. London, 1862. 

BECUEIL de planches sur les sciences. Vol. IV. 

BEPOBT of fourth congress of the international musical society. London, 1910. 

BEVIEW, new music. New York, 1920. 


Critical and bibliographical notes on early Spanish music. London, 1887. 


Carillons of Belgium and Holland. New York, 1914. 


A dictionary of music. London, 1893. 


A history of music. 3 vols. London, 1885. 


Die geschichte der bogeninstrumente. 2 vols. Braunschweig, 1882. 


Geschichte und wiirdigung der music bei den Hebraeern. Berlin, 1829. 


♦Real-lexicon der musikinstrumente. Berlin, 1913. 

Zur f rage des clavicen d pe(mc\ de buffe. 

Sammelbande der internatlonalen muslkgesellschaft. XII. 

Die musikinstrumente Birma und Assams im k, ethnographischen 

museums zu Miinchen. Miinchen, 191 7. 

— Altagyptische musikinstrumente. Leipzig, 1920. 

Die maultrommel. 

Zeltschrift fiir Ethnologie. Jahrg. 1917, Heft 1-6. 


Systematik der musikinstrumente. 

Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. Jahrg. 1914. Heft. 4 u. 5. 


The bow, its history, manufacture and use. London, 1896. 



Arab music and musical instruments. New York, 1916. 


♦History of the violin. London, 1864. 


Theorie gedeckter cylindrischer und konischen pfeifen und der querfloten. 
Halle. 1833. 


Iconographie des instruments de musique. La Haye, 1914. 


♦Instruments of the orchestra and precursors of the violin family. 2 vols. 
London, 1910. 

Researches into the origin of the organs of the ancients. 

Sammelbande der internationalen musikgesellschaft. Jahrgang II. 


II pianoforte, guida practica per costruttori, accordatori, dilettanti e posses- 
sori di pianoforti. 2 Lib. Naples, 1868. 


♦The modern organ. New York, 191 7. 


♦A noble art. New York, 1892. 


The making of soimd in the organ and in the orchestra. New York-Lon- 
don, 1911. 

SMITHSONIAN institution. Reports. Washington, 1847-1921. 


Catalogue d'instruments de musique anciens ou curieux. Gand, 1894. 


See musical quarterly. 


English music, 1604-1904. London, 1906. 

The viol da gamba and its music. Manchester, 1914. 

*Flute music ; a brief survey. 

Musical Association Proceedings. London, 1910. 


History of the American pianoforte. New York, 1890. 

♦The music of the Bible. London, 1882. 

♦Second edition, with additional illustrations and supplementary notes by 

F. W. Galpin. London, 19 14. 


♦A history of music. New York, 1916. 



The Steinert collection of keyed and string instruments. New York, 1893. 


La musique aux Pay-Bas. Ill vols. Bruxelles, 1867. 


The Hindu scales. 

Sammelbande der internatlonalen musikgesellschaft. IV. 


See Berlioz. 


The sports and pastimes of the people of England. London, 1903. 

Beitrage zur akustik und musikwissenchaft. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1898-1909. 

Die anfange der musik. Leipzig, 191 1. 


Orchesographie. Paris, 1888. 

Reproduction of old edition with plates. Thoinot Arbeau is an anagram for Jehan 

Tabouret, Canon of Langres. 


Yantra kosha. Calcutta, 1875. 


L'art du luthier. Paris, 1903. 


The violin. London. 

UNITED STATES national museum. 

Proceedings and Reports. Washington, 1878-1920. 


Les instruments a archet. 3 vols. Paris, 1876. 


Musica getuscht. Basel, 151 1. Reprint, Leipzig, 1883. 

TIEBTELJAHRSCHRIFT fiir musikwissenschaft. Leipzig, 1885-1904. 


♦Primitive music. London, 1893. 


Die violine im XVII jahrhundert. Bonn, 1874. 

Geschichte der instrumental musik. Berlin, 1878. 

The violoncello. London, 1894. 


♦Contributions to the history of musical scales. Washington, 1902. 



Geschichte des clavierspiels u. s. w. Stuttgart, 1879. 

A history of pianoforte-playing, etc. 

Translated by Theodore Baker. New York, 1897. 


♦History of the Boehm flute. London, 1896, 

*Six lectures on the recorder and other flutes in relation to litera- 
ture. London, 191 1. 


Organ building for amateurs. London, 1887. 


The ancient Egyptians. London, 1878. 


The story of notation. New York, 1903. 

*The story of the organ. New York, 1894. 


The middle kingdom. 2 vols. London, 1871. 


♦Prehistoric art. Washington, 1896. 
Report United States National Museum. 

WIT, PAUL de. 

Katalog des musikhistorischen museums. Leipzig, 1893. 

Nachtrag zum katalog u. s. w. Leipzig, 1893- 1894. 

Perlen aus der instrumentensammlung von Paul de Wit in Leipzig. 

Leipzig, 1892. 


Essai sur I'histoire du violin. Frankfort S/M 1856. 


* Sound and music. Chicago, 1892. 

*Die musik imd die musikalischen instrumente in ihrer beziehung zu den 
gesetzen der akustik. Giessen, 1855. 


Le istitutioni harmonische del Gioseflfo Zarlino si Chioggia ; nelle quali ; oltra 
la materie apparentenenti alia musica; si trouano dichiarati molti luoghi di 
poeti, d'historici, e di filosofi. si come nel leggerle si potra chiaramente revide. 
Venitia, 1566. 
Zeitschrift fiir ethnologie. Berlin, 1869-1911. 

ZEITSCHRIFT fur instrumentenbau. Leipzig, 1904-1914. 
Zeitschrift fiir ethnologie. Berlin, 1869-1911. 






Ann Arbor Music Co. 
Austin Organ Co. 
Rice a. Beal 

(Beal-Steere Expedition) 
M. Casman 

Chicago Orchestrai, Association 
James E. Church, Jr. 
Mrs. S. T. Cook 
Theodore De Lacuna 
Robert R. Dieterle 
J. E. Ecker 
John R. Effinger 
WHUAM R. Farrand 
Farrand and Votey 
Carl Fischer 

Gibson Mandoline and Guitar Co. 
Mrs. Lucy Granger 

Grin NELL Brothers 
Robert Gwinner 
M. R. Harrington 
N. W. House 
House of York 
Marvin A. Ives 
S. Olin Johnson 
Francis W. Kelsey 
Leo R. Lewis 
Miss Nellie S. Loving 

Lyon and Healy 
James H. McDonald 
August Moeller 
Earl V. Moore 
Mrs. Frederick G. Novy 
Allen B. Pond 
Irving K. Pond 
Miss Julia Rominger 
Israel G. Russell 
George Schwab 
Miss M. Scott 
Mrs. M. B. Sheley 
Charles A. Sink 
Albert A. Stanley 
John P. Stanley 
Frederick Kimball Stea»ns 
James B. Steere 
Steinway and Sons 
Frederick Talcott 
John B. Taylor 
University of Michigan 
University Music House 
University Musical Society 
J. Mackenzie Watson 
William Wheeler 
John E. Whitset 
Norman A. Wood 





The Instruments May be Identified Through the Case Numbers which Foiiow 
THE Names of the Makers 

Abbate e figlio, 842, 1356 

Abbaye, de la, 884 

Adler, J. G., 680 , 

Allen, J. Lathrop, 938 

Allovon, 1343 

Ata — key. . .oh. .gah, 1075 

Altricher, J., 936 

Amatus, Nicolaus, 1277 

Amman, C, 642 

Andrade, Joas Miguel, 1082 

Austin, C, 740 

Austin Organ Co., 756A, 1423, 1424, 1425, 

Azevedo, L. A., 1083 
Baack, E., 671 
Baduel, M., 587 
Bainbridge, W. H., 515 
Battista, Giov., 1130 
Bechonnet in Effiat, 693 
Becker, 1164 
Bernareggi, 931 
Besson and Co., 887, 1437 
Besson, F., 857, 891, 940 
Brambilla, Domenico, 1049 
Broadwood, John, and Sons, 1339, 1344A 
Brotherhood, J., 1393 
Buffet, Crampon, 638 
Buffet, Crampon et Cie., 631, 639 
Buffet, A. jne., 635 
Bullenheimer, John (Johann?)., mi 
Bussetto, Gio. Maria del, 1292 
Busson, ^yj 
Cahusac, 560, 665 
Chanot Frangoise, 1285 
Chappel, S. Arthur, 949 
Child and Bishop, 1348 

Christman, C, 621 

Coeffet et Gissen-Enri, 899 

Colas, Prosper, 503 

Compagnie General de L'Ocarina, 485 

Conn and Dupont, 860 

Costa, Augusto M. Da, 1052, 1076, 1085, 

1093, 1095, 1 1 12, 1377?, 1380, 1381 
Courtois, Antoine, 869 
, Courtois, Antonine, et mille, 894 
Courtois, Antoine, Mille-Mille, Jr., 885 
Courtois, Freres, 882 
Couturier, 850 
D'Almain and Co., late Goulding and 

D'Almain, 516 
David, 933 

Dietz, Joh. Ch, sen., 1346 
Distin, Henry, and Co., 867 
Dize, F., 1008 
Dubois et Couturier, 902 
Durrschmidt, 883 
Ebblewhite, J. H., 565, 717 
Embergher, Luigi, 1058 
Erard, Freres et Cie.^ 1340 
Eschenbach, G., 822 
Euw, M. von, 791 
Farrand and Votey, 749-SO-SI-52-53-S4-5S- 

58, 1388, 1390, 1426, 1450 
Filano, Luigi, 1108 
Fischer, Carl, 1439 
Fischer, J. L., 507 
Frenzel, 1345 

Fumigalli, Angelo Marco de, 541 
Gautrot, M., 685, 686, 944 
Geipel, Ch., 684 
Gennaro, 1123 
Gibson, Claget G., 1086 



Gibson Guitar and Mandolin Co., 1070, 1116 

Giusti, Joannes Baptista, 1332 

Glasel, Moritz, 1308 

Grandjon, J,, 1307 

Graves and Co., 855, 1435 

Grenser, H., 633, 785 

Guersan, Louis, 1296 

Gunckel, Henry, 618, 853 

Gunter, 735 

Halary, J. L. Antoine (Aste), 630 

Hale, J. P., 1342 

Hall and Quinby, 856 

Hartmann Brothers and Reinhard, 1136. 

Harton, Michielle, 1045 

Hasert, Johann Georg, 13 12 

Haslwanter, J., 1325 

Heckel, W., 676A, 683 

Henderson, R., 696 

Hesse, W., 634 

Hintz, Fred, 1313 

Hoffman, 1040 

Holly, Anton, 865 

House, N. W., 1284 

Jaquet, 742, 1375 

Johnson, J. S., 1443 

Keat, Henry, and Sons, 852, 892 

Kempter, Andreas, 1315 

Kersten, Johann Gottfried, 874 

Key, 617 

Keys, 679 

Kirchhoflf, 486, 486A 

Kliih, 848 

Koch, S., 669, 672 

Kodisch, Johan Carl, 824 

Kohler, 863 

Konig, 250 

Kova, Terezija, 1066 

Kren, Franz, 1151 

Kruspe, C, 636 

Kruspe, Ed., 508, 893, 89S 

Lacote, 11 27 

Ivanghammer, A., 945 

Laurent, 571 

Le Conte, A., et Cie., 682 

l,e Riche, A., 875 

Lindenburg, 823 

Longman and Broderip, 1338 

Louvet, Pierre, 1 109 

Lyon and Healy (Reproductions), 997. 1005, 

1019, 1091, 1092, I IDS 
Macchi, Braziano, 113X 

Mackenzie, 1172 

Maggini, Giov. Paolo, 1276 

Mahillon, C. Victor, 640 

Mahillon, and Co., 681 

Mahillon, Jeune, 847 

Mangeaut, 675 

Marcus, Joanes, 1293 

Marin, Q., 1121 

Marquett, Gautrot, 685, 686 

Martin, 616A 

Martin, G. F., 1106A 

Mason and Hamlin, 1414 

Mathieu, C, 512, 575, 643 

Mayr, Josef, 1147 

Mediot, E., 1 103 

Messner, Ch., 730 

Messori, Pietro, 1132 

Metzler and Co., 1396 

Metzler, V., 615 

Meyer, 569 

Mezzetti, A. E., 484 

Michaud, Urich, 871 

Miller, 1162 

Moller, A., 756, 757 

Mollenhauer, J., 622 

Monzani and Co., 562, 563 

Morley, J. G., 1006 

Muller, 84s 

"Musique de Geneve," 251 

Mustel, Victor, 249 

Nadermann, Frangois Joseph, 1007 

Neuner, Jos., 1148 

Novlet, D. aine, 510 

Ott, Andreas, 1089 

Orme, J. L., and Sons, 1134 

Palanca, Carlo, 558 » 

Payne, 567 

Pelitti, G, 502, 599, 656, 782, 809, 811, 812, 
814, 817, 876, 905, 906, 910, 912, 913, 
916, 919, 920, 924 to 930, 98s, 1353, 
1354, 1355, 1360, 1361, 1366, 1367, 1368, 

Peloubet, C, 573 

Perinet, F., 810 

Perry, 1324 

Persiceto, G. Riva de, 668 

Potter, 564 

Potter, Henry, and Co., 939 

Potter, Will'm Henry, 566 

Pouget, pere et fils, 1329 

Prescott, Abraham, and Son, 741 



Preston, 1087 

Prince, Geo. A. and Co., 1349 

Quinby, B. F., 1436 

Raoux, 880 

Reli, M., 405 

Rigunini, Christoforus, 1333 

Riviere and Hawkes, 868 

Roedel, J., 568 

Rosis, Ferandi de, 1335 

Roth, C, 637 

Rottenburgh, L H., 667 

Sattler, J. C, 505 

Salo, Gaspero da, 1291 

Sambruna, C, 907, 908, 915, 921 

Sartosio, Luigi, 1072 

Sauerharing, 625 

Saurle, Michael, 821 

Sax, Adolphe, 637, 641, 844, 896, 937 

Sax, Adolphe, et Cie., 900 

Sax, Henri, 687 

Scherzer, Joh. Gottfried, 1097 

Schmittschneider, 897 

Schmidt, J. A., 888 

Schoenhut, 245, 1418 

Scholnast, F., 632 

Schreiber, L., 8s6A 

Schwanskowsky, 1 129 

Sebastiano, O., 1120 

Seidel, 629 

Sett, J. W., 1282 

Stowasser, Ignaz, 866 

Soblick, 1398 

Sprenger, A., 1 106 

Steinway and Sons, 1413 

Sulz (or Sulzer), E. S., 619 

Surpriar, Ashraf Ali, 1031 

Tabard, 509 

Taylor, P. H., 573 

Tesio, Jean, 721 

Thibouville, G., Buffet, 570 

Thie, William, 732 

Tiefenbrunner, Georg, 1117, 1320 

Thomas, G. E., 1146A 

Trahm, K., 1144 

Trepaben, 889 

Triebert, 674, 676 

Uhlman, Leopold, 841 

Uhlman und Sohn, 947 

Venere, Vendilio, 1044 

Ventura, Angelo, 1016 

Victor Talking Machine Co., 1417 

Viehn, H., 483 

Wallace, F., and Son, 946 

Walch, C. Paul, 581 

Warnum, R., 1122 

Watson, J. M., 1448, 1449 

Weinhold Brothers, 731 

Wheatstone, Chas., 1017 

Whitney, C. J., and Co., 864 

Willame, 620 

Wilson, Harry, 870 

Worden, 434 

Wurlitzer, and Brs., 858 

"York, House of," 1432, 1433, 1435, 1438 

Zavelberg und Kremer, 1166 

Zencker, G., 614 




(The numbers refer to pages) 

Afriano, Canon of Ferrara, 103 

Albert M., 96 

Austin, John T,, 216 

Babcock, Alpheus, 211 

Backers, Americus, 214 

Barberi, Giovanni, 225 

Besson, F., 96 

Bliihmel, F., 128 

Bliithner, Jul. Ferd., 194 

Boehm, 212 

Boehm, Theobald, 88 

Breit, Leopold, 203 

Broadwood, John, and Sons, 214 

Chanot, Franqois, 197 

Chickering, Jonas, 211 

Collona, Fabio, 208 

Costa, Augusto M. Da, 223 

Cristofori, Bartollemeo, 179, 210, 211, 212, 

Ctesibius, 215 

Dallam, Martin Thomas, 210 
Damian, 109 

Debain, Alexandre Fran<;ois, 212 
Denner, Joh. Chris., 94 
Desfontelles, 97 
Doni, Gio. Battista, 208 
Dumas, 96 

Farrand and Votey, 224 
Ferlendis, J., 102 
Franciolini, 172, 223 
Grenser, H., 96 

Guillaume, Canon Edme, of Auxerre, 124 
Gulam, Mohammed, 154 
Halary, J. L., Antoine (Aste), 137 
Hawkins, J. L., 213 
Heckel, J. A., 103 
Heron, of Alexandria, 225 
Hillmer, Fred, 199 
Hochbrucker, 151 
Hutchings Organ Co., 224 
Ibn Achwas es-Saadi, 194 
Janko, Paul von, 212 
Johnson, J. S., 129, 231 
Kaufmann, Friedrich, 98 
Kaufmann, Friedrich Theo., 98 
Konig, Karl Rudolph, 40 
Kirschnigk, 107 

Labbaye, J. M., 137 

Le Gay, M., 212 

Loud, Th., 213 

Lunn, W. A. B., 209 

Luyton, Karl, 208 

Lyon, G. F., 151 

Lyon and Healey, 151 

Maelzel, J. N., 227 

Marquette, Gautrot, 104 

Montal, 212 

Moritz, 128 

Mustel, Victor, 39 

Nigetti, Francisco, 208 

Pelitti, G., 81, 92, 136, 146, 222 

Perinet, E. F., 128 

Pfundt, Ernst Gotthold Benj., 52 

Oekelen, Cornelius van, 98 

Riedt, Joh., 129 

Ritter, Hermann, 206 

Rowe, of Liverpool, 132 

Riickers, Hans, 210 

Sarrus, 104 

Sax, Adolphe, 97, 127, 128 

Sax, Alphonse, 128 

Sax, Charles Joseph, pere, 130 

Schmidt, Joh., 213 

Schnitzer, Jobst, 132 

Schroter, Chris. Gottlieb, 178 

Shaw, John, 128 

Silbermann, Gottfried, 207, 214 

Southgate, T. Lea, 27 

Steinert, Morris, 212 

Steinway and Sons, 212 

Stolzel, Heinrich, 128 

Stone, W. H., 104 

Stradivarius, Antonius, 166, 168 

Streitwolf, Joh. Heinrich Gottlieb, 96 

Surpriar, Ashraf Ali, 155 

Taskin, Pascal, 212 

Tielke, Joachim, 165 

Tourte, Frangois, 196 

Vicencio, Nic, 208 

Virgil, A. K., 226 

Weber, Gottfried, 132 

Wheatstone, Sir Charles, 109 

Winkle, Dietrich Nicholaus, 227 





Aalst, J. A. van, 148, I49f i8S 
Agricola, Martin, 209 
Akbar, the Mogul, 53 
Al Farabi, 156 
Altenburg, J. E., 131 
Ambros, Aug. Wilhelm, 207 
Angell, Mrs. James Burrill, 93 
Ankermann, Bernhard, 75, 113, 142 
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 131 
Balfour, Henry, 142 
Baroja, Pio, 170 
Baumeister, Karl August, 92 
Beal, Rice A., 19 
Beck, Rev. J., 124 
Berlioz, Hector, 52, 131 
Bessoni, Jacobi, 202 
Bizet, Georges, 97 
Boas, Franz, 72 

Bonanni, Filippo, 24, 91 ( 

Borumna, King Brian, 151 
Brusch Bey, 120 
Cable, George W., 22 
Cadman, Charles Wakefield, 84 
Campion, Thomas, 130 
Canongia y Cia., 138 
Cardi, Le Conte de, 72 
Gasman, the Belgian explorer, 25, 145 
Castre, Berthomen de, 207 
Ceretani, Marcha Cassandra, 234 
Cersne, Eberhard, 207 
Chantre, Ernest, 22 
Charpentier, Gustav, 74 
Closson, Ernest, 212 
, Cocchi, Giov. Battista, 234 
Columbus, Christopher, 32 
Cooper, 180 
Covel, John, 162 
David, King of Israel, 140 
Day, Capt. C. R., 154, 155, 179 
Desnoiresterre, M. Gustav, 69 
Ditchfield, P. H., 210 
Drake, Sir Francis, 19 
Drayton, Michael, 130 
Eastwood J. (and W. Aldis Wright), 100, 

Edge- Partington, James (and Heape), 20, 


Ellis, Alexander J., 109 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 166, '209 

Engel, Carl, 34, 161, 173 

Fetis, Franqoise, 154, 161 

Forsyth, Cecil, 103 

Foxe and James, 63 

Francis I., and Francis II,, of France, 115 

Frank, A. W., 124 

Frieze, Henry Simmons (See Frieze Mem- 
orial Organ in Index) 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, 63 

Fu Hsi, 148 

Galaubet, 80 

Galpin, Francis W., 102, 106, 108, 121, 123, 
130, 132, 137, 138, 195, 196, 198, 204, 
209, 216 

Gason, S., 72 

Gerbert, Martin, Baron von, 204 

Gluck, Christopher Willibald, 6g, 131 

Gogol, Nikolai Vasilievitch, 167 

Gregory the Great, 46 

Guido d'Arezzo, 207 

Gwinner, C. Jacob, 127 

Haddon, A. C, 19, 49 

Hainhofer, Phil., 71 

Hamilton, Angus, 148 

Hammerich, Angul, 120 

Hampel, A. J., 129 

Harsdorffer, Geo. Phil., 69 

Hawes, Steven, 130 

Hawley, E. H., 108 

Haydn, Josef, 204 

Heape, (See Edge-Partington) 

Hedges, Sir William, 100 

Helbig, Karl Friedrich Wolfgang, 92 

Henry II., of France, 115 

Henry VII., of England, 100, 130, 209 

Hill, Arthur George, 216 

Hipkins, Alfred James, 210 

Hitchcock, Romyn, i8l 

Holbein, Hans, 42 

Hopf, 197 

Howard, Albert A., 92, 220 

Howes, John, 130 

Howitt, A. W., 72 y 

Hudson, John M., 79 

Ibanez, Vincente Blanco, 196 



Johann Georg III., of Saxony, 131 

John I., of Aragon, 207 

Jones, Robert A., 71 

Kanda, Senator, 43 

Kappey, J. A., 133 

Kastner, Johann Geo., 80 

Kidson, Frank, 166 

Kiesewetter, Rafael G., 157 

Kinsky, Georg, 95, 132, 165, 200 

Kirscher, Athanasius, 207 

Knosp, G., 107, 149 

Kraus, Alexander, 211 

Krebs, Carl, 207, 208 

Kuhnau, Johann, 131 

Lane, Edward William, 162 

Lippi, Filippino, 179, 204 

Liszt, Franz, 226 

Loret, Victor, 92 

Lunn, (See Walbridge) 

MacCurdy, 159 

Maclean, Charles, 176 

Mahillon, Charles Victor, 20, 35, 84, 142, 

154, 155, 161, 179, 184, i8s, 233. 
Mansfield, Orlando, 124 
Marie Josephe de Saxe, Dauphine of 

France, 67 
Marin, 195 
Marnold, Jean, 92 
Mary, Queen of England, 166 
Mathews, R. H., 72 
Mathews, Washington, T2 
Marx, Adolph Bernard, 69 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix, 124, 137 
Meredith, George, 64 
Mersenne, Marie, 206 
Mistral, Frederic, 80 
Morris, Frances, 18, 21, 56, 65, 78, 83, 84, 

108, 159, 173, 182, 189, 196 
Moule, A. C, 22, 43, 108, 185 
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 94 
Murphy, W. H., 63 
Musician, An English (Anon), 124 
Newman, Ernest, 69 
Nicolini, Fr., 234 
O'Connor — probably Charles O'Connor 

(1711-1791), 106 
Odo of Cluny, 204 
Oka-i-uyi, 43 
Palmer, E., 72 
Pastor, Willy, 45, 120 
Petetin, Eugene, 167 
Peyrac, Almeric de, 105 

Piggott, F. T., 23, 58, loi, 107, 186, 187, 
188, 233 

Playford, John, 166 

Polak, A. J., 148 

Polo, Marco, 64 

Praetorius, Michael, 90, 100, 208, 221 

Puckeridge, 69 

Purcell, Henry, 131 

Radisson, Pierre Esprit, 50 

Raflfles, Sir Thomas Stafford, 25 

Regents, Board of, 11 

Ricold of Monte Croce, 46 

Rominger, Ludwig Friedrich, 226 

Sachs, Curt, 24, 28, 30, 34, 35, 45, 52, 67, 
69, 71, 1Z, 74, 80, 85, 87, 88, 91, 92, 98, 
100, IDS, 107, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 143, 
146, 149, 151, 155, 165, 179, 183, 184, i8s, 
191, 193, 194, 196, 199, 208, 209, 212, 213, 
22s, 226 

Samson, Henry W., 233 

Saul, King of Israel, 140 

Savart, Felix, 206 

Schenck, Philip G., 11 

Scott, Sir Walter, 196 

Shakespeare, William, 90, 130 

Spenser, Edmund, 144 

Stearns, Frederick, 11, 43, 61, 92, 155, 172, 

Stearns, Frederick K., dz 

Steere, James B., 19 

Strachey, Wm., 18 

Straeten, Edmond van der, 207 

Strauss, Richard," 103, 140 

Terada, P., 85, 87 

Vega, Garcilaso de la, The Inca, 74 

Venantius, Fortunatus, 195 

Verdi, Giuseppe, 97, 125 

Vereshchagin, Vassili Vassilievitch, 58 

Viera, Manuel, 74 

Vincent, C, (fj 

Virdung, Sebastian, 208, 221 

Wagner, Richard, 124, 125 

Wallbridge, pseud, for Lunn, 209 

Watson, R. Spencer, 182 

Wead, Charles Kasson, 79 

Weidenmuller, C, 234 

Weitzmann, Carl Friedrich, 212 

Williams, C. F. Abdy, 210 

Wilson, Thomas, 22, 120 

Wolf- Ferrari, Ermanno, 52 

Wright, W. Aldis, (See Eastwood) 

Wyclif, John, 204 

Zarlino, Gioseffo, 208 





Africa (in general), i8, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 
29, 34, 3(>, 37, 38, 45, 51, 53, 55, 56, 57, 75, 
114, 115, 116, 118, 141, 142, 143, 144, 
145, 146, 182, 184, 189 

Africa (specific divisions — Egypt excepted) 
—Cameroon, 18, 115, 141, 145; Congo, 
Upper and Lower, 20, 25, 36, 44, 45, 
114, 141, 142, 145; Congo River, 36, 47; 
Dahomey, 20, 56, 114; Madagascar, 

141, 182, 183, 189; Sierra Leone, 47, 53, 
55, 184; Soudan, 23, 37, 48, 56, 117, 145, 
182, 183, 189, 190 

Alaska, 19, 20, 21, 23, 65, 77, 189 
Algeria, 54, 55, 66, 67, 86, 156, 170, 183 
America, South, 79, 83, 117 
America, North (in general), 24 
Anam, 27, 29, 35, 50, 51, 57, 58, 60, 85, 146, 

149, 186, 187, 192 
Arabia, 50, 167, 184 
Argentina, 23, 91, 108 
Asia (in general), 201 
Austria, 78, 95, 102, 125, 128, 139, 176, 214 
Bahama Islands, 18 
Belgium, 95, 97, 102, 104, 117, 125, 126 
Bengal, 82, 84, 118 
Bogota, 74 
Bohemia, 165 
Borneo, 27, 30, 39, 46, 58, 65, 86, 107, 141, 

142, 182 

Brazil, 17, 18, 73, 91, 118, 175 

British Columbia, 19, 21, 87, 108 

British Guiana, 20, 84 

British West Indies, 66, 141 

Bulgaria, 80 

Burmah, 29, 33, 41, 44, 54, 147 

Cambodia, 33, 185 

Canada, 173, 225 

Celebes, 54 

Chile, 196 

China, 22, 29, 30, 35, 36, 49, 50, 58, 61, 77, 
85, 99, 107, 108, 119, 120, 148, 149, 179, 
180, 185, 186, 187, 192, 223, 224 

Corea, 87, 148, 180, 191 

Croatia, 160, 161 

Cuba, 152 

Cyprus, 67 

Ecuador, 74 

Egypt, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 41, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 

68, 76, 143, 156, 157, 160, 161, 172, 184, 

190, 191 
England, 24, 32, 71, 82, 83, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 

95, 98, 100, 102, 104, 108, 109, 122, 126, 

127, 128, 131, 132, 138, 139, 151, 152, 

153, 157, 164, 165, 168, 170, 171, 173, 174, 

179, 197, 198, 200, 201, 212, 213, 214, 219, 
225, 226 

Fiji Islands, 73 

France, 26, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 52, 62, 67, 70, 
71, 74, 78, 80, 81, 82, 89, 91, 94, 95. 96, 

97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 104, IDS, 106, 109, 
no, III, 115, 121, 123, 125, 126, 128, 
129, 130, 132, 133, 137, 138, 151, 152, 160, 

164, 168, 169, 171, 175, 179, 197, 199, 200, 
203, 204, 207, 213, 220, 222, 227, 231 

Germany, 28, 32, 34, 39, 41, 68, 70, 71, 77, 78, 
79, 81, 82, 88, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 

98, 100, 102, 103, 104, 109, no, 117, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128 129, 130, 131, 
132, 138, 139, 146, 151, 152, 161, 164, 

165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 175, 176, 177, 
178, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 202, 
203, 208, 214, 222, 224, 225, 226, 
227, 231 

Gilbert Islands, 83 
Greece, 26, 80, 81, 93, 163 
Hawaii, 20, 21, 49, 50, 142, 167, 168 
Holland, 26, 227 
Hungary, 90 

India, 20, 23, 27, 31, 38, 51, 53, 57, 58. 59, 
60, 61, 65, 66, 80, 81, 84, 92, 99, 121, 153, 

154, 155, 174, 179, 181, 184, 190, 192, 
193, 194 

Ireland, 106, 151, 203 

Italy, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 
38, 41, 43, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 
77, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 100, lor, 
102, 103, 105, 108, no, 112, 117, 119, 
120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 129, 132, 133, 
134, 135, 136, 146, ISO, 152, 157, 158, 159, 
160, 163, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 

180, 19s, 197, 198, 199, 201, 209, 210, 211, 
213, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 227 

Japan, 23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 39, 43, 44, 



54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 84, 85, 86, 
87, 107, 108, 109, 117, 146, 147, 148, 149, 
181, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192, 223, 226, 227 

Java, 25, 35, 49, 72, 74, 86, 87, 144, 182, 191 

Laos, 107 

Madeira, 74, 159, 163, 164, 166, 167, 169, 202, 

Malaysia, 55, 61, 94 

Mexico, 19, 21, 44, 45, 46, 159, 160 

New Brunswick, 222 

New Caledonia, 48, 83, 118 

Newfoundland, 222 

New Guinea, 23, 39, 46, 47, 48, 49 

New Hebrides, 73, 74 

Nicaragua, 188 

Nias Island, 35, 80 

Norway, 175 

Oceanica (in general), 87 

Persia, 28, 29, 31, 55, 99, I50, 156, 186 

Peru, 19, 76 

Philippine Islands, 39, 81, 118, 144, 150, IS9» 
169, 189 

Porto Rico, 21 

Portugal, 164 

Russia, 122, 167, 185, 186 

Scotland, 106 

Siam, 33, 4i, 54, 55, 99, 185, 188 

Slavonia, i6i, 163, 185 

Solomon Islands, 83 

Spain, 68, 70, 76, 106, 131, 137, 164, 170, 226, 

St. Thomas Island, 21, 22, 23 

Sumatra, 67, 141, 191 

Switzerland, 26, 30, 40, 42, 62, 77, 78, 90, 

Syria, 55, 66, 80, 86, 87, 92, 93, 115, 116 

Thibet 55, 114 

Tunis, 55, 58, 105, 191 

Turkey, 23, 59, 131, 161, 178, 190 

United States, 18, 19, 24, 35, 38, 39, 63, 69, 
70, 71, 78, 79, 82, 89, 90, 92,, 95, 102, in, 
113, 126, 127, 128, 137, 138, 139, 160, 
161, 168, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175, 177, 180, 
189, 197, 213, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 
226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233 

United States Indians, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 50, 
52, 68, 76, 79, 83, 84, 109 

Uruguay, 24 

Venzuela, 84 

Wales, 195 

Unknown, 20, 23, 49, 62, 83, 115, 142, 163, 




Classes I. 

Africa 55 

America, North 41 

America, South 6 

Asia 68 

Europe 78 

Oceanica 21 

Unknown 2 

271 144 525 381 19 24 24 108 
Total 1496 

Class VI. represents Unusual Processes of Tone-production. 

Class VII. represents Mechanical Instruments; including such as employ unusual 

methods of manipulation (Nos. 737, 11 16, 1330, 1346). 
Class VIII. includes Models, Parts of Instruments, Dismantled Specimans, Charts, 
and Miscellanious Adjuncts. 













































• • 










(Names of foreign and primitive musical instruments, and titles of literary, musical, and 
scientific works by foreign authors, or composers, are given in italics ; "trade," uncertain, 
and borrowed names carry quotation marks). 

Abbott, The, a novel, 196 

Abendair, pi. ibendiiren, 67 

Abu-Said Fiddle, 191 

Abu-Said Romance, 191 

Abyssinia, church use of drum in, 63 

Acetabula, 26 

Accompaniment party, 188 

Accordeon, 109, iro 

Accordion, invention and structure of, 109; 

specimens of, 109, no 
Acre, Fall of, 46 
Adharcardth Cuil, 106 
Aegina, Island of, 93 
Aelyau, 54 * 

Aeolian Harp, 152 
Aeolsharfe, 152 
Afficktncch, 50 

Afghanistan, Call to prayer in, 118 
Age du Bronze, a treatise, 22 
Agong, 144 
Agonto, 184 
Aida, an opera, 125 
Aida Trumpet, 125 
Ainos, The, 181 
Aino psaltery, 181 
A lameo d'acer, 38 
Alaskan Drum, 65 
Alaude, 156 
Alghoza, 80 
Aloi, 27 
Alp-horn, 118 

Alpine Horn, 118 ' 

Altklarinette, 96 
Alto Clarinet, 94 
Altposaune, 131 
Alud, 156 

Amazon Indians, 17 
Amor, a ballo, 219 
Amsel (ousel), 226 
Anam, 147 
Ananda^lahari, 181 
Anche, 91 

Ancia, 91 

Androide, 98 

Angatkut, 68 

Animal-horns, or tusks, 113, 114, 115, 116: 
tone-production in, 113; names of vari- 
ous types of, and of tribes in which 
they are used, n6 

Anklang, or Anklung, 25 

Apache Flute, 84 

Apollo Citharoedus, 146 

Arabia, 156 

Arabians, The 188 

Arbeost, 74 

ArcfUluth, 158 

Arch-lute, 158 

Arcicembalo, 208 

Arcxliuto, 158 

Arghool, or Arghul, 93 

Arghool el-asgha, 93 

Arghool el-kebyr (kebir), 93 

"Ariophone", or "Mytheria", no 

"Ariston," 227 

Armadillo (proapus novemcinctus) , guitar- 
body from carapace of, 159 

Armgeige, 198 

Armonica a tnanticino, 109 

Arm Viol, 198 

Arpa, a drum-type, 46, 47, 48, 49; a harp, 
151, 222 

Arpa a nottolini, 150 

Arpa a pedali, 151 

Arpa-chitarra, 170 

Arpa doppia, 152 

Arpa eolia, 152 

Arpanetta, 152 

"Arpanetta", 178 

Arpanette, 152 

Ascending valve, 128 

Astro degli Afgani, L', a ballo, 221 

Atabule, 55 

Atupani, 45 

AtupanUasi, 45 ' 



Atupani^atsu, 45 

Aulos, 92 

Austin Wind-chest, description of, 216; cut 

of, 229 
"Auto Harp," or "Miller's Akkord Zither", 


Automatic Clarinet-player, 98 

Autophonic instruments, 35 

Auwi kakueng, 87 

Ayacachtli. 21 

Azor, 178, 211 

Aztec Mexico, 63 

Babylonians, The 105 

Bachi, or Batsi, 188 

Bagpipe, antiquity of, 105; construction of, 
105; specimens of, 105, 106 

Balalaika, or BaPalajka, 167, origin of, 167; 
Gogol's reference to, 167 

Bamboo, material of jewsharp, 38; of trum- 
pet, 118 

"Bamboo Bells," 35 

Bandar, or Bendyr, 67 

Bandolin, or Bandolim, 159 

Bandurria, 159, 164; model of, 226 

Banjo, possible derivations of, 173; speci- 
mens of, 174 ; uses of body of, 174 

Banjo-guitar, or Guitar-banjo, 173 

Banjo-harp, 152 

Banjo-monochord, 175 

Banjorine, 174 

Banf you, 37 

Barugumu, 114, iiS 

Barataka, 118 

Barrel Organ, 219, 225 

Bass Clarinet, development of, 96; speci- 
mens of, 96, 97 

Bass Colascione, 158 

Bass Drum, 63 

Basse-cor, 133 

Basse de Flandres, 71 

Bassett Horn, specimens of, 96; modern 
rehabilitation of, 140 

Bass Fiddle, 201 

Bassflote, 90 

Bass-horn, 133, I37 

Bassklarinette, 96 

Basso di camera, 201 

Basson, 103 

Basson russe, 133 

Bassoon, structure of, 103; specimens of, 
103, 104 

Basstrotnpete, 125 

Bass-Viola da braccio, 201 

Bate, 47 

Batman vppon Bartholome, an early trea- 
tise, 144 

Bavarian Alps, 176 

Bayard-fish, 55 

Bayreuth, 226 

Beaked Flute, definition of, 75; specimens 
of, 76, 79, 80, 81, 87 

Beal-Steere Expedition, 19 

Beating Reed, definition of, 91, 99; Oriental 
types of, 99, 112; modern types of, 112 

Bebung, 207 

Becken, 27 

Becker's "Solophone", 178 

Beirut, 80 

Bell and Whistle, 25 

Bell of the Mosque, 28 

Bell over shoulder model (brass instru- 
ments), 126, 128, 138 

Bellows of bagpipe, 106 

Bells, various types of, 17, 26, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 32, 41, 42; materials used in: bell- 
metal, 26, 27, 32; brass, 26, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 31, 32, 40, 55, 66; bronze, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 32, 42; copper, 27, 41; iron, 
26, 28 ; nut-shell, 25 ; pottery, 30 ; terra- 
cotta, 25 ; wood, 25 ; new type of, 27 

Berecynthian horn, 220 

Bible-regal, ill 

Bible Word-Book, The, 100 

Bierbass, 201 

Bijuga-cither, or Zwolfchorige-cither, 171 

Bileke wood, 184 

Bin, 153 

Binou, 104 

Binou Auvergnat, 106 

Binou de Berry, 105 

Bird-call, 77, 78, 91 

Biwa, 187, 223; model of, 226 

Bladder and Strings, 71 

Blasharmonica, no 

Blatt, 91 

Blikan, 182 

Block (See No. 1284), 232 

Block flote, 90 

Boehm system, 88, 90, 139; modified, 89, 95 

Bohemia, a print, 234 

Bombarda, 100 

Bombard Bretonne, 105 

Bombardon, 139 

Bom-hart, 100 



Book Organ, lii 

Bora, initiation ceremony of the, 72 

Bow, discovery of, 188; possibilities of, 188; 

specimens of, 232 
Box valve, 232 
Brahma, reputed inventor of the mridanga, 

Brau, 69 

Brazil Indians, 115 
Breda, 98 
Breitoline, 203 

Brothers of Purity (Ikwan as Safa), 157 
Brummeisen, 38 
Brummtopf, 69 
Buche, 175 

Buckeye (Aesculus Cal.), 79 
Budbudiki, 58 
Buddha, Foot-prints of, with Swastika, in 

Amaravati Topi, 22 
Buebalabala, 74 

Bugaku-biwa, 187; tunings of, 233 
Bugaku dance, 84 
Bugaku orchestra, 44 
Bugle, 125 
Bugle a clefs, 126 
Buglet, 126 

Bulgarian bulgarina, 161 
Bullroarer, 72 
Bumba, 71 
Bumbass, 71 
Bundfrei (fret- free) type of clavichord, 

Bunduma, 37 
Busine, 121 
Cabinet Organ, 217 
Caccarella, 69 
Cacha-vina, 154 

Cat bom (Anam, ca*-large), 58 
Cai chieng, 29, names of parts of, 29 
Cai chuong, or Cai chtiong chua, 27 
Cai dan bau (Anam. &a«-gourd), 146 
Cai dan thap luc, or Thap luc (Anam, ihap 

/«c-sixteen), 149 
Cai dan ngnyet (Anam, ng ny e t-moon) , 186 

Cai mo, 43 
Cai nhi, 192 

Cai ong dich (Anam. dtV/^-tube), 85 
Cai tam^, 187 
Cai trong boc, 50 
Cai trong cai, 57, 60 
Cai trong com, 60 

Cai xinh tien, 71 

Calabash {Lagenaria vulgaris), uses of, 17 

Cambodia, 142, 147 

Cambreh, 184 

Camel Bells, 41 

Campana, 27 

Camphor wood, 147 

"Campione," 135 

Cane Clarinet, 98 

Cane Flute, 82, 86, 89, go 

Canguenca, 115 

Cane Psaltery, 143 

Cane Violin, 200 

Canne-clarinette , 98 

Canne- flute, 82, 89 

Canne-violon, 200 

Capo d'astro, or Capo tasto, 167 

Caradiya-znna (Autumn vina), 194 

Carillons, 17, 31, 38 

Casket-makers of Cordova as makers of 
guitars, 170 

Castanets, 17, 23, 24 

Castagnette, 17 

Castagnettes, 17 

Catalonian bagpipe, 100 

Catedral, La (The Shadow of the Cathe- 
dral), a novel, 196 

Cathedral Library, Canterbury, Eng., 216 

Causasus, 178 

Cavaco, 166 

Cavonto, 163 

"Cecilian", 224 

Celesta, 112 

Cembalo, 172, 208 

Cembal d'amour, 207 

Century Dictionary, The, 147 

Century Magazine, The, 22 

Ceremonial Whistle, 108 

Cervelat, 103 

Cetera, 165 

Cetera Napoletana, 223 

Cha kiao or Tung kio, 120 

Chalam, 184 

Chalutneau, 100 

Chandannah wood, 99 

Changura, or Chonguri, 185 

Chank, 150 

Chank-shell (Turbinella pyrum), rattle of, 
21 ; trumpet of, 117 

Chanson de Roland, 100 

Chanterelle, 173, 174 

Chanuci, 19 



Chapeau chinois, 41 

Charlottenburg (Copenhagen), 69 

Chart, exhibiting (a) fingerings of certain 

Oriental instruments, and (b) Oriental 

scale-forms, 233, 234 
Chau-i-yak, 65 
Cha-yakh, 65 
Chemulpo (Corea), 180 
Cheng, French spelling of sheng, 108; an 

instrument, 149, 223, 224 
Chicharra, 70 
Chikara, 193 
Chilkat Tribe, 6z 
Chime, 17, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32 
Chime-harmonicon, 35 
Chimes, 17 
Chinchichi, 30 
Chinese Pavilion, 41 
Chiriqui, The, 159 
Chirola, 80 

Chitarra, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170 
Chitarra battente, 165 
Chittarra col'arco, 165 
Chitarrqne, 158 
Chiterne, 165 
Chlui, 107 
Chor, a family, or group of instruments, 

Chorus, 105, 221 ; early use of name, 221 
Chou, or tsui, 108 
Chromatic Harp, 151 
Churula, 62, 80, 179 
Ch'u wood (Catalpa kaempfen), 22 
Cialamello, lOO, loi 
Cilindro rotativo, 128 
Cimbalon, 178 
Cistre, 165 
Citharino, 165 
Cither, 169 
Cither-viol, 203 
Cithrinchen, 165 
Cithrinchen, Hamburger, 165 
Cittern, 164, 165; vogue of, 165 
Clappers, 17; of bone, 20; of wood, 21, 23 
Clarinet, invention, and musical character 

of, 94; specimens of, 94, 95, 96; an 

organ pipe, 113 
Clarinette, 94 
Clarinette basse, 96, 97 
Clarinette tenor, 96 
Clarinetto, 94, 95 
Clarinetto basso, 96 

Classification, general, 13; specific, 13, 14, 


Clavecin, 208 

Clavicembalo, 208 

Clavichord (Clavis-chorda) , origin of, 173; 
structure of, 207, 208, 211, 217; speci- 
men of, 208; action of (model), 232 

Clavicordo, 207 

Clavi-harp, 214 

Clazfi-harpe, 214 

Clavitherium, 211 

Cloche, 27 

"Cloche de Timon," 31 

Cloisenne, 58 

Coach Horn, 121, 122 

Co colas, 141 

Collas district Indians (Peru), 74 

Collections referred to; Crosby Brown 
(New York), 18, 50, 174, 182; Copen- 
hagen, 120; Wilhelm Heyer (Cologne), 
132, 165; Paris {Conservatoire), 174; 
South Kensington (London), 34, 168; 
Stearns (Ann Arbor), 174; Volker- 
kunde (Berlin), 49, 146 

Colonde, 184 

Color-symbolism, 119 

"Compass," definition of, 16; distinction 
from "Pitch," 16 

Composite Sitar (Es-si-tam) , 155 

Concert Flute, 88, 89 

Concertina, invention of, 107; specimens of, 

Concert Roller Organ, 225 

Conductor's baton, 226; desk, 223 

Console, movable, 216; of 

Portland Organ (cut), 229 

Contra-bass, 196 

Contra-bass (Pedal) Clarinet, 96 

Contra-basso, 202 

Contra-bass Trombone, 132 

Contra- fagotto, 103 

Contre-bctsse, 202 

Contre-basson, 103, 104 

Cor, 130 

Cor anglais, development of, 102; theories 
as to origin of name of, 102; speci- 
mens of, 102 

Cor a pistons, 128 

Cor de bassette, 94 

Cor de chasse, 129, 130 

"Cor de chasse," 71 

Cor des Alpes, 118 



Cor d'harmonie, 129, 130 

"Cor d'harmonie," 138 

Cor de rechange, 129 

Cor de d'un violon, 174 

Corea, use of drum in, 63 ■ 

Coriolanus, a drama, 90, 130 

Cortiamusa, 104 

Comemuse, 104, 105, 106 

Cornet, 125, 126, 127, 128 

Cornet d bouquin, 124 

Comett, 123 

Cometta, 91, 108 

Comettino curvo, 124 

Cometto, 131 

Cornetto curvo, 123 

Corno, 129, 133, 13s 

Corno basseito, 94 

Corno curvo, 124 

Corno da nebbia, 222 

Corno di caccia, 129 

Corno Inglese, 102 

Coma torto, 123, 124 

Corno torto Michiganensis, 221 

Cornu, 120, 122 

Cor omnitonique , 130 

Covel's opinion of Turkish and Arabian 
lutes, 162 

Cowbells, 26, 28, 41 

Cowrie-shells (Cyprae tnoneta) as decora- 
tions, 18, 23, 48, 54, 66, 67, 146, 182, 189 

Crecelle, 24 

Cree Indians, 50 

Cremona, 166 

Cremona Society (Berlin), 206 

Crook, function of, 123; specimens of, 
129, 230 

Crwth (crooth), or Crowd (early spelling 
croud), 19s 

Cuckoo-call, 77 

Cup mouth-piece, evolution of, 118; tone- 
production through, 118; specimens of, 

Curtail, 103 

Cybele, 42 

Cylindre d rotation, 128 

Cymbala, 26 

Cymbale, 27 

Cymbals, 17, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32 

Csakan, 90 

Dabbous, 23 

Daff, or Deff, 66 

Daibyoshi, or 0-Kakko, $7 

Daiko, 62 

Dai Nippon (Great Japan), 58 

Damama, 53 

Damaru, 59, 115 

Dance in Square Congo, 22 

Dance of Death, 42 

Danses des Morts, Les, a treatise on, 80 

Dara, 66 

Daraboukkeh, 54, 55 

Darubi, 39 

Darubiri, 39 

Dasiri tamburi, 154 

"David's Harp, no 

Dead Souls, a novel, 167 

Decorated Standard (Oriental), 6i 

Delhi, sacred elephants at, 27 

Dega tari, 188 

Den-den-daiko (Fan-drum), 54, 61 

Dendrocolamus giganteus, 33 

Denmark, golden horns in, 120 

Dervish-horn, 117 

Dhol, 57, 59 

Dhola, 59 

Dholaka, 57, 59 

Diana, 165 

"Diapason," 32 

"Digitorium," 225 

Discourse, a famyliar and friendly, 130 

Diskantposaune, 131 

Diskant-Viola da gamba, 203 

"Dital Harp," 152 

Dobachi, 31, 43 

Do-byoshi, 31 

Dokaku, 120 

Doli-doli, 35 

Domra, 185 

Donbek, 55 

Doppelharfe, 152 

Dora, or Corean Gong, 31 

Dorje, 29 

Double-bass, 202 

Double-Bassoon, 103 

Double Beaked Flute, or Flageolet, 82, 83 

Double Harp, 152 

Double Reed, definition of, 99 

Double-slide Bass Trombone, 132 

Double-slide Contra-bass Trombone, 132 

Dougaine, 103 

Douco, 192 

Drehleier, 203 

Drehorgel, 225 

Drehventil, 129 



Dresdener Reisetagehuch, 71 

Drilbu, 29 

Drum, structural details of, 45, 46; speci- 
mens of, 46 to 66; ethnological and 
sociological implications of, 63, 64; use 
of for signaling, 44, 45, 64; George 
Meredith's apostrophe to, 64 

Drutna-umha, $2 

Drum Major's Staff, 224 

Dulcian, 103 

Dulcimer, 143, 208; development of, 178; 
specimens of, 143, 179 

Dulcimore, 175 ; origin of, 175 

Dumb Piano, 226 

Duoterpschicoreanclogpedality, 221 

Durramoolan, The voice of, 72 

Early Irish Harp, 151 

Egyptians, The, 75 

Egyptian Musicians, representations of, 54, 

EkoTantrika, 181 

Eka-tara (one-stringed), 181 

Ekende, 36 

Ekirei, 23 

Embouchure, (mouth-hole), 83; definitive 
character of, 113; differentiation of, 
113, 114; tone-production through, 113 

English Horn, 102 

Englisches Horn, 102 

Enharmonic Valve, 231 

E'oud, or Ud (PI. idan), 156, 167; early 
origin of, 156; names of parts of, 157 

Epinette, 209 

Epinette des Vosges, 158 

Erlich's Realm (Hades), 68 

Erzlaute, 158 

Espinetto, 210 

Esrar, 155, I93 

E-sudsu, 30 

E-tsusumi, 61 

Eunuchenflote, 70 

Euphonium, 138, 139 

Ewe Tribe, 45 

Exaquir, 207 

Excelsior, a ballo, 121, 221 

Exposition, Calcutta (International Exhibi- 
tion), 44; Columbian (Chicago), 149, 
150, 151; Paris (1900), 61, 147 

Fagott, 103 

Fagottino, lOI 

Fagotto, 103 

Fairie Queen, a poem, 144 

Fango-fango, 87 

Fanke, 47, 55 

Fan Tribe, 34 

Fen-ling, 28 

Feria de los discretes, La (The City of the 
Discreet), a novel, 170 

Fiddle, origin of name of, 196 

Fieould, 74 

Fife, 83, 90 

Fifre, 83 

Finch (serin), The, 226 

Finger-cymbals, 30 

Finger-holes, function of, 75, 123 

Finger Masks, 24 

Flageolet, 75, 82 

Flauto, 75, 83 

Flauto a becco, 75, 81 

Flauto d'amore, 88, 140 

Flautophon, 91 

Flauto traverso, 83, 88 

Flote, 75 

"Floetuse," 82 

Floss-psalterium (raft-psaltery), 143 

Flugel, 213, 214 

Flute, antiquity of, 75 ; structure of, 75, 
88; improvements of, 88; specimens of, 
76 to 90; use of in Japanese orchestra, 
188; African native's choice of material 
for, 115 

Flute du cim {doo a thim), 79 

Flute, 75 

Flute d bee, 75 

Flute d'amour,, 88 

Fliite de Pan, 73 

Flute des vielleurs, 179, 204 

Flute douce, 75, 81 

Flute eunuque, 70 

"Flute Harmonique," 91 

Flut<e nasale, 75 

Flute traversicre , 83, 89 

Foghorn, 222 

Folding Violin, 200 

Frau ohne Schatten, Die (The Woman 
without a Shadow), an opera, 140 

Free Reeds, characteristics of, 107; Oriental 
origin of, 107; specimens of, 108, 109, 
no. III, 112 

French Horn, 129 

Frieze Metnorial Organ (a tribute to Henry 
Simmons Frieze), draw-stops from, 
230; key-board (Solo) of, 232; original 
electric action of (model), 224 



Funchal, 138 

Furin (wind-bells)^ 

Furuco, 69 

Fuye (Japanese generic name of flute), 85 

Gadza, 18 

Gah-no-ztfa Gustah-we-seh, x8 

Gaita, 106 

Gaiia gallega, 106 

Gaita grileira, 106 

Gaita redonda, 106 

Gaita lumbal, 106 

Gaita zamorana, 106 

Galevu-kauhautnumu, 74 

Galevu-nunga, 74 

Galevu-soniruka, 74 

Galoubet, 62, 80, 179, 204 

Gambang, 33 

Gambang gansa, 33 

Gambang kaju, 33 

Gamelang, 33 

Gandharva, 154 

Gangurih, 115 

Ga-no-go-o, 50 

Ga-non-gah Gasda-we-sa, 21 

Gah-no-wa Gus-teh-we-seh, 18 

Garon bark, 143 ; tree, 144 

Gebunden (fretted) type of clavichord, 207 

Geige, 196 

Geisha dances, 60 

Gekkin, 186 

Gendang bawoi, 141 

Gendang bulu, 141 

Gendang prang, 58 

Gendang rebana, 54 

Genis, 132 

Genkwan, 186 

Ghaida, 106 

GA^/?, 94 

Ghironda, 203 

Ghunguru, 20 

"Gibson" Guitar, 170 

"Gibson" Mandoline, 161 

Gittar (Old English name of guitar), 166 

Glass harmonica, 34, 140 
Gloche, 27 
Glochenspeise, 27 
Glockenspiel, 27 

Gluck and the Opera, a study of, 69 
Gluck et Piccinni, a treatise, 69 
Gluck und die Oper, a treatise, 69 

Gobi Desert, 64 

Goflf^, pi. goguna, 189 

Gongs (onomatopoeic), 17, 27, 29, 30, 31, 43, 

Gopi-yantra, 181 

Gottingen, 96 

Gourd (cucurbitacae) as material for rat- 
tles, 18; for trumpets, 118 

Graile, 100 

Grail, 100 

Grand Pianoforte, 213, 214; action of 
(model), 227 

Gravicembalo, 208, 209 

Great Bass Flute, 75 

Greeks, The, 75, 105, 162 

Gubo, 141 

Guenbri, 182, 183, 184; various names of, 
182, 183 

Guesba, or Gsba, 86 

Guidonian hexachords, 173 

Guimbarde, 38 

Guiro, or Wiero, 17, 21, 22, 23 

Guitar, structure of, 166, 167; specimens 
of,i67, 168, 169, 171, 172, 183, 185, 188; 
obsolete names of, 166; dismantled, 232 

Guitare, 166, 168, 169, 171 

Guitare decacorde, 171 

Guitare en bateau, 165 

Guitar e-harpe, 171 

Guitare-luth, 168 

Guitare toscana, 165 

Guitarra, 166 

Guitarre, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171 

Guitarrenharfe, 171 

Gwinner's Band and Orchestra, 127 

Hackbrett, 179 

Haggum, 148, 191 

Hai'alilagas, The voice of, 72 

Hai-kom, or Haing-kom, 191 

Hai-lo, 117 

Haken-harfe, 150, 152 

Halam., 184 

Halbbass, or Half-Bass, 201 

Hand Horn, 129 

Han-koto, or Half-^ofo, 147 

Hano, or Kio-kio, 78 

Hanumunta ottu, 99 

Haofung, or Huang teih, 120 

//ar/e, 151, 152 

Harmonica d bouche, no 

Harmonica Trompete, no 



Harmonic Flute, (organ pipe), 113 
Harmonicon, distinction from xylophone, 

Harmonicor, ill 

Harmonic Trumpet, org^n pipe, 113 
Harmomiflute, ill 
Harmonitrompe, ill 
Harmonium, 217 
Harp, antiquity of, 140; reference to by 

Victorian novelists, 140; structure of, 

141; specimens of, 142, 144, 145, 150, 

178, 222 
Harpe, 151 

Harpe a clavecin, 214 
Harpe d crochets, 150 
Harpe a pedales, 151 
Harpe d'Eole, 152 
Harpfe, and Herpfe (Old German for 

harp), 151 
Harp-guitar, 171 
Harp-lute, 152, 153 
Harpsichord, mention of, 172, 211, 217; 

structure of, 208; specimens of, 209, 

210; action of (model), 232 
Harpsicordo, 109 
Hati, (Jap.-8), 85 
Hau-hala cords, 50 
Haussa Tribe, 55 
Hautbois, loi 
Hautbois d'amore, 140 
Hautbois d'amour, loi 
Hautbois de chasse, loi 
Hautbois jardin, iii 
Hawaii, 78 
Hebrews, The 105 
Heckelphon (Baritone-oboe), 103 
Helicon, 139 
Herrauu, 182 
Hichi-riki (sad-toned tube), 191; fingering 

of, 233 
Highland Bagpipe, 106 
Hindoos, Call to prayer of, 118 
Hiogo, 43 
Hito-yo-kiri, 87 
Hitzu no koto, i8S 
Hiuen-chung, 28 
Ho (artificial heat), 79 
ifo-bird. 43 
Hoboe, loi 

Hochdiskantpommer, 100 
Hochet, 17 

Hoeboy, loi 

Hog-fiddle, 18 

Ho-ho-hnd, 43 

Holarcha sur, 99 

Holarcha surnai, 99 

Hooked Harp, 150 

Hoorts (the bear), 20 

Hooyeh (the raven), 21 

Hopi Indians, 18, 56 

Horagai, 117 

Hora-no-kai, 117 

Horn, 221 

Horns of bronze, and of gold, 120 

Hsui chua, or kuan, 108 

Huang, 108 

Huayra-puhura, 74 

Huehuetl, 63 

Hula, 20 

Hula-hula, 20 

Hungary, 178 

Hunting Horn, 117 

Hurdy-gurdy, 203 

Huruk, 59 

Hyashi-kata, 188 

Hyoshigi, 23 

Hydraulos, 215 

Ibeka, 36 

Ichi^gen-kin, or Suma-koto, 146 

Idiophonic instruments, 35 

Idomeneo, an opera, 94 

Itnproznnsatori, 166 

Inanga, 143; names of parts of, 143 

Inca graves, 76 

Indra's heaven, 154 

Information, general, 16 

iNgombi, 47 

Instrument e et propemant tanbur, 46 

Ireland, Disertations on the history of (see 

O'Conor, App. IV.), 106 
Inventions horn, 129 
Isis, 22 
Isturment semblant d'orgue qui sona ah 

cordes, 207 
Itikotu, a Japanese tonality, 85 
/mo, 88 
Izambilo, 34 

Jagdhorn, or Sauhorn, 117 
Jamaica, use of drums in, 63 
Jami', as distinguished from masjid, 28 
Janko key-board, 124 
Jantar, 184 



Java, 25 

Javanese orchestra, 25, 33 

Jerusalem district, 80 

Jewsharp, 38, 39; names of, 38 

Jhangh-khanjani, 66 

Jindaiko, 56 

Jindai-rappa, 117 

Jingles, 55, 65, 66, 68, 174 

Joraghai, or Yoraghai, 57 

Jordan district, 93 

Ju Ju Tribe, 72 

Kaba, 47 

Kabyle Tribe, 67 

Ka'ddabah, 53 

Kagura orchestra, 57 

Kagura-sudsu, 30 

Kajirei, or Zichirei, 32 

Kakko, 61 

"Kakoka," 163 

Kala-fish, 50 

Kalangu, 55 

Kalmucks, The, 115 

Kamilaroi Tribe, 72 

Kang-dung, 114, 119 

Kang t'ung, 119 

Kankobele, pi. tunkobele, 37 

Kanoon, Qanon, or Qanun, 178 

/^anttno, 179 

Karabib, 23 

Karaja Indians, 20 

Kasso, 144; manipulation of, 144 

Kastagnetten, 17 

"Kazoo," 70 

ifei, or Hokyo, 39, 43, 44 

Keiktn, 192 

Keisu, 31 

Keluri, 107 

Ketnangeh, or Kemanjeh, 190 

Kemanjeh a gouz, 190 

jK"en, ^/»^n or Phan, 107 

Ketjapi, 144 

Ketobong, 46, 65 

Kettle-drum, structure of, 52; specimens of, 

Ke'ya (Ukiah) Indians, 79 
Keyed (or valved) Bugle, 125; Trumpet, 


Keys, Zarlino's theory respecting color of, 

Khanjani, or Khanjari, 65 
Khattala, or Khattali, 23 
Khudra-katyayana-vina, 179 

Kielfhigel, 208 

/C'tn, 148 

Kinanda, 36, 142 

iCJri wood (Paulovnia imperialis,) 192 

Kisanghi, 36, 37 

Kissar, 144, 145, 146 

Kit, 206 

Kiu-shiu Island, 36 

Klappenhom, 126 

K lap per, 17 

Klarinette, 94, 95 

Klaznchord, 207, 208 

Klaznerharfe, 214 

Klavierharm onica, 1 1 1 

Klavier zither, 178 

Klavizimbel, 218 

Kleiner Zink, 124 

Kniegeige, 201 

Ko'ch'ing, 44 

Ko-kin, or Girine, 192 

Ko-k'ing (Engel gives king), 34 

Kokolo, 141 

Kokiu, or Kokyu, 191 

Komounko, 148 

Kontrabass, 202 

Kontrabasspomtner, 100 

Kontrabassposaune, 132 

Kontrafagott, 103, 104 

Kontraschika, 185 

Konzertina, 109 

Korea, a book of travel, 148 

Kornett, 128 

Korro, 143 

JTo/a, 147, 149; names of parts of, 149; 

tunings of, 233 
Ko-tsuzumi, Oto-tsuzumi, or 0-tsuzumi, 59, 

61, 188 
/foi* (Chinese generic name for drum), 49^ 

SO. S8 
iT'oM cAin, 38 
Koulintaugau, 27 
Kove, 73 

Kra-chapee or X^a: chabpi, 188 
Kre--tsi, 44 
Kre-wain, 41 
Kriang (Borneo), marriage festivities at, 

Krumba, 144 
Krummer Zink, 124 
/ir«rfa (plectra), 146 
Kuitra, or Kouitara, 156, 157 
Kulang, 39 



Kulepa-ganez, 69 

Kurnai Tribe, 72 

KwakuitI Tribe, 72 

Kwa yen (flame ornament), 44, $8 

Kyse-zee, 44 

Landknechts-trommel, 62 

Languedoc oboe, 100 

Lan kan, 44 

La pa, 120 

Lap Organ, in 

Laud, 156 

Laudaphone, in 

Laute, 156 

Lautenguitarre, 168 

Z^jw banci, 84 

Z^;ya vanci, 84 

L« /roij coups, 24 

Lewte, early English spelling of lute, 156 

Liebesflote, 88 

Liehesgeige, 199 

Liehesohoe, loi, 140 

Lime-spoon, 23 

Lira-chitarra, 171, 172; model of, 227 

I,ira rfo gamba, 206 

Lira-guitarra, 170 

Z-iMfo, 156, 157 

1,0, 29, 30 

Lokanga, 183 

Z,o*«, 118 

Lombardy type of mandoline, 158, 159 

Louise, an opera, 74 

Lozeu, 117 

Zwr, pi. /Mrer, 120 

Lute, antiquity of, 156; specimens of, 156, 

Lute-banjo, 173 
Lute-guitar, 168 
Luth, 156 
Luthier, 156 
Lyra-guitarre, 172 
Lyre, 146, 223 
Lyre-guitar, 167, 170, 172 
Lyre-guitare , 171 
Macaroni Sticks, 69 
Machete, 163, 164, 166, 223 
Machete de braco, 167 
Machete rajio, 166 
Mafatih al'Ulum (Key to the Sciences), a 

tenth-century Arabian encyclopedia, 156, 

"Magic Flute", 78 

Maha-mridanga, 60 

Mahati-vina, 155 

Makimono, 181 

Mandola, 157 

Mandoline, structure of, 158; specimens of, 

159, 160, i6i; dismantled, 232; model 

of, 227 
Mandolin-banjo, 174 
Mandoline-guitar, 171 
Mandolino, 158, 159, 160 
Mando-lyra, 163 
Manjaira, 80, 87, 93 
Manor House at Leckingfelde, 100: "Pro- 

verbis in the Caret of the New Lodge 

in the Parke of Lechingfelde", 209 
Man T'ou Kou, 49 
Maraca, Marraca, (Marraga) , Maraka, or 

Maruga, 17 
Marimba, 34 

Marotfany, or Marouvana, 141 
Matto Grosso, 91 
Maultromtnel, 38 
Mayuri, or Mohur, 193 
Mbira, 36, 38 
Mebachi, 58 
Mechanical instruments, first appearance 

of, 225 
Medici Family, de, 29 
Megyoung, or Megyun, 147, 185 
Meijiwitz, 92, 93 
Melodeon, iii, 217 
"Melodion", 109 
Melodia, an organ pipe, 77, 113 
Melophone, ill, 222 
Menzan, 34 
Mertine, 226 

Messalina, an opera, 134, 219 
Metallo da campana, 27 
Metronome, 227 

Mexican Agave (Agave Mexicana), 189 
Mexican War, 24 
Micmac Indians, 222 
Migurg, 93 
Mijue mijue, 183 
Mijwitz (double), 93 
Milanese type of mandoline, 158 
Mingasah, 93 
Miniature Violin, 200 
Minjaira, 93 
Minjorah, 80 
Minneregelen, 207 



Mino paper, loi 

Minstrel's Harp, 151 

Minteki, 85, 233 

Mirliton, 70 

Mir sang, pi. sanguna, 118 

Missal, Old Spanish, 234; use of leaves of 
for drum-heads, 46 

Mitsuto-tnoye, 60 

Mitz-shio- shi, 108 

Mobolah, 72 

Modern Irish Harp, 151 

Mokkin, z^i 

Mo-kug-yo, 43 

Monochord, antiquity of, 173; specimens of, 
141, 146, 174, 17s 

"Monopol" (music-box), 39 

Moon Guitar, 186, 187 

Moors, The, 156, 188, 191 

Moose-call, 222 

Moralia, an ancient treatise, 46 

Moslem immigration, 53 

Mousal, 46 

Mouth-harmonica, 34, no 

Mouth-piece, 75; various types of, 91 

Mozambique, 183 

Mrldanga, 60, 61 

Mudji, 72 

Mukavitta, 99 

Muk-brogan, 72 

Mukkuri, or Mokuri, 38, 39 

Mundharmonika, no 

Murrawan, 72 

Musaher, 51 

Musette, 104 

Musette Bretonne, 105 

Museum, Art (Detroit), 11; Barnum's 
(New York), 98; British (London), 
124; Gizeh, 120; Metropolitan (New 
York), 50, 182; Naples, 26, 120; Na- 
tional (Copenhagen), 120; South Ken- 
sington (London), 168; Volkerkunde 
(Berlin), 49, 146 

Musica getuscht, an early German treatise, 

Musical Bar, 38 

Musical Bottle (music-box), 39 

Musical Bow, 140, 141 

Musical Coins, 38 

Musical Glasses, or Verrillon, 69 

Musical instrument, definitions of, 13, 14 

Musical Sleigh-bells, 27, 28 

Musical Weather-vane, 22a 

Music-box, 40 

Musicians in Germany, a book of travel, 124 

Musick's Delight on the Cithren, an old 

Eng. treatise, 166 
Musikalische Quacksalber, Der, a satirical 

treatise, 131 
Mute Violin, 201 
■^« y^. 43; significance of the lidless eyes, 

Mvet, MverJi, Mver, or MvSt, 144 
Mycolon Tribe, 72 

Nacareh, or Noqqareh, derivations from, 52 
Nachtwachter shorn, 92 
Nadecvara-vina (The loud-toned vina), 

Nagara, 51 
Nagelgeige, 68 
Nageum (?), 148 
Nag-pheni, or Turi, 119 
Nahabat (marriage festivities), 53 
Nail Violin, 68 
Naker, 52 
Nanga, 144 
Nanitouckfingagort (Pictured Rocks, Lake 

Superior), 50 
Naqqareh, Si, S3 
Nara, 43 
Nasenflote, 75 
Nautch girls, 20 
Navajo Indians, 72 
Nave, 93 
Nay, 86 
Nay ghiref, 86 
Nazareth, 93 

Neapolitan type of mandoline, 158, 159 
Nebelhorn, 222 
"Nefer," no 

Ne-gah-ne-ga-ah Gus-tah-we-seh, 17 
Ne-gah-ne-go-ah Gus-tah-we-seh, 18 
New Guinea, 88 

New Musical Review, a journal, 124 
Ngkratong, 142 
Ngotna na shuma, 25 
Ngotno, 145 
Nicoya (Mexico), 76 
Ni-g en-kin, 147 
Nihoihagi, 30 
Nineveh, Jonah's, 46 
Ninfale, 219 



Nonnengeige, 195 

Nose Flute, 75, 80, 83, 84, 86, 87 

Niirnberger Trichter (Nuremberg Funnel), 

Obachi, 58 

Oberflacht, Wiirtemberg, 146 

Oboe, derivation of, loi; specimens of, 
102; an org^n pipe, 113 

Oboe d'amore, loi, 140 

Oboe da caccia, loi 

O'Brien Harp, 151 

Ocarina, 78 

Ocarina walking-stick, 82 

Odang wood, 180 

Old English Instruments, an historical and 
scientific treatise on, I2i 

Old Italian Prints, 234 

Oliphant, 115 

Otnbi, or Bambur, 145 

Open Diapason, an organ pipe, 113, 229 

Ophicleide (chromatic bullock), 124, 137 

Ophicleide, 137 

Ophikleide, 137 

Orca (whale-killer), 48 

Orchestra which appears, 188 

Orchestrelle, 98 ~ 

Orchestrion, 34, 98 

Orfeo, an opera, 131 

Organ, evolution of, 215, 216; structural 
parts of, 230; tone-production in, 112, 
215, 224; elevation of Austin organ 
(cut), 229 

Org an a cilindro, 225 

Organistrum, antiquity of, 204; former 

church use of, 204 
"Organ Nightingale," no 

Organo di legno, 216, 217 

Organo de mano, 225 

Organum, pi. organa, 210 

Orgelklavier, 107 

Orgue de barbarie, 22$ 

Orgue portatif, 219 

Orpheoreon, 158 

Oro, The voice of, 72 

Ousel (turdum merula), the dmsel, 226 

Outa, 141 

Osee, 48, 54 

Padatrong, 19 

P'ai pan, or P'e pan, 22 

Pa-ipu, or Hokeo, 49 

Pakhbag, or Pakhabaga, 61 

Pan, the god, 73; Pan, an instrument, 35, 
Z(), 49; a Chinese time-symbol, 23 

Pan bomba, 70 

Pandean-pipe, or Pan's pipe, 73 

Pandora, 158 

Pandourina, 159 

Pang-kiang, 28 

Pang kou, 22, 35, 49 

Pansflote, 73 

Panteleon, 178 

"Papeha," 163 

Papuan Tribe, 88 

Partition Mustel, 39, 112 

Pastyme of Pleasure, 130, 204 

Patagonian Indians, 19 

Pattina (Aerugo), 26 

Pattala, 33 

Pauke, 52 

Peasant's oboe, loi 

Pedale de prolongement, 212 

Pedalharfe, 151 

Pedal Harp, 151 

Pedlar's Horns, 92 

Pelittoni Faggatona, 134 

Pepa, or Pipa, 187 

Persia, Call to prayer in, 118 

Persian Commissioners, 150 

Pessarola, \(fj 

Petit Casson, 103 

Petite flute octave, 83 

Petit vielle, 203 

Pfeife, 83 

Phagotus, 103 

Philomele, or Stahlgeige, 203 

Phonograph Top, 71 

Photographs of early rosette sound-holes, 

Phrygian pipe, 220 
P hung a, 119 
Pi, 99 

Pianino, 213 
Piano a queue, 213 
Pianoforte, development of, 211, 212 
Pianoforte d. coda, 213 
Piano Harp, 180 
"Piano Melodico," 225 
Piatti, 27 
Piccolo, 83, 90 
Piedigrotta fiesta, 69 
Pikkolo, 83 
Pipe and Tabor, 62 



Pipes o'Pan, 211 

Piston valve, 129; models of, 231 

Pistons ascendants, 128 

Pitch-pipe, 109 

Pito, 76 

Planchette ronplante, 72 

Plane, and serrated surfaces, 17 

Po, or Seattr-po, 30 

Poccetta, 200 

Pochette, 200 

Pocket Cornet, 126 

Pocket Signal-horn, 108 

Pokido, 38 

Polychord, 199 

Polyolbion, common form of Poly-Olbion, 
a chorographical work, 130 

Poma Indians, 79; myth of, 79 

Pompa, 129 

Pompeii, ampitheatre of, 120; door-bell in, 
43; festival at, 81, 92, 135; wall paint- 
ings in, 66, 146 

Poongi, or Tumeri, 92 

Porcelain Violin, 200 

Portable Piano, 213 

Portatif, 219 

Portativ, 219 

Portative Organ, 219 

Porter's Zouave Band, 127 

Portmanteau, formerly belonging to Franz 
Liszt, 226 

Posaune, 130 

Positif, 216 

Positiv, 216 

Positive Organ, 216, Notes on an Old Eng- 
lish, 216 

Post Horn, 120 

Post Rytter, a Danish newspaper, 69 

Practice Chaunter, 106 

Prasanari-vina, 155 

Principle of survival in musical instru- 
ments, 196 

Prolongation pedal, 212 

Proteus cembalo onnisono, 208 

Psalmodikon, 175 

Psaltery, 142, 144; differentiation from 
harp, 144 

Psaltery-viol, 202 

Puili, 21 

Puniu, 50 

Punta Santa, 32 

Pur-pi-shuk-p*-po-ya, 56 

Querflote. 83, 89 

Quinterne, 165 

Quinton, or Quintus, 198 

Rabecao, 202 

Rabel, pi. rabeles, 196 

Rabelillo, 196 

Rabel jo, 196 

Raganella, 24 

Ramadan, 51 

Rana-cringa, 119 

Ranat-ek, 33, 34 

Ranat lek, 33 

Ranat thong, 33 

Ranat t'hutn, 33 

Ranjani-vina (The colorful vino), 155 

Rappakai, 117 

Rassel, 24 

Rattles, tone-production in, 17; various 
types of, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24 

Rattle-drum, 61 

Re Arduino, a ballo, 220 

Rebab, 156, 184, 189, 190, 191 ; derivation of 
name, 191 ; names of parts of, 191 

Rebab el mughanni (The singer's rebab), 
190, 191 

Rebab esh sha'ir, or Booga (The poet's 
rebab), 189, 190, 191 

Rebana, or Adok, 67 

Rebeca, 223 

Rebecke, 196 

Recapitulation of structure and uses of in- 
struments in Class I.; 42, 43; Class II., 
63, 64, 72, 73; Class III., 139, 140; 
Class IV., 204, 205, 206; Class V., 217, 

Recorder, 90 

Reed Horn, 91, 92 

Reed Pipe, 94 

Reeds, material and function of, 91; speci- 
mens of various types of, 112 

Reedless Trumpet (organ), 216 

Reedless Vox Humana (organ), 216 

"Regent" Zither (Nos. 3 and 5), 177 

Regina di Cipro, an opera, 134 

Rek, 68 

Requiem, a sacred composition, 52 

Resonator, its function, 12; primitive and 
Oriental types of, 34, 35, 141, I53, I54, 
ISS, 182, 183 

Revolver Vertical Whistle Flute, 79 

Riensi, an opera, 124 



Riqq, 67 

Ritter Viola (Viola alta), 206 

Robel, or Rovel, 196 ^ 

Rocking Melodeon, iii 

Rodope, a ballo, 125 

Roku-kin, or Roku-gen-k\n, 147 

Roller-board (organ), 229 

Romans, The 75, 105, 119 

Roneat, 33 

Roneat-ek, 33 

Rotary valve, 128, 231 

Rotta, or Rotte, 146 

Royal Commentaries of the Incas, a chron- 
icle, 74 

Rudra-vina {Vina of the god Rudra; howl- 
ing vina), or Rehaba, 155, 192; finger- 
ing of, 23Z 

Rufhorn, 121 

Rukut-tundun (the woman), 72 

Ryu-feki (Dragon's flute), 84; fingering 
of, 233 

Sacabuche, 130, 131 

Sacciapensieri, 38 

Sackpfeife, 105 

Sadiou, 142 

S'a^rof (sajat), or Saggat (sajjat), 30 

Sage-koto, 188 

Saghalien, Island of, 181 

Sakbut, 130; early English spellings of, 130 

Salicional, an organ pipe, 113 

Salome, an opera, 103 

Salterio, 180 

Sambuca lincea, Instrutnentum perfectum, 

Samisen, 188, 191 ; use of in Japanese 
orchestra, 188; model of, 227 

Samoa Islander, 45 

Sanai, or Surnay, 99 

Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Church of, 179 

Santir, 178 

Sansa, 36 37, 38, 40; appeal of, 38 

Saracens, The, 46 

Sarala-vanci, 84 

Sarangi, or Sarungi, 193, 194 

^■argi, 193 

Sarinda, Sarah, or Chihikong, 192, 193 

Sarrusophone, 104 

Satsuma-biwa, 187 

Sausage Bassoon, 103 

Sawtrey (Old English for psaltery), 144 

Saxhorn, invention and musical character 

of, 127 ; specimens, of, 127, 128, 133, 137, 

138, 139, 222 
Saxhorn sopranino, 127 
Saxophone, development of, 97; specimens 

of 97 
Saxophone contrebasse, 97 
Saxophone sopranino, 97 
Saxophone tinor, 97 
Saz. 156, 161 
Schalmei, lOi 
Schalmey, 74, lOO, loi 
Scheitholt, 175, 176 
Schellenbaum, 41 
Schepochka, 185 
Schlagguitarre, 165 
Schlangenhorn, 137 
Schnabelflote, 75, 77, 81 
Schoenhut's Door-harp, 228 
Schwalbe, and Swalwe (Middle High Ger- 
man names of harp), 151 
Schwegel, 80, 179 
Schweinskopf, 179 
Schweitzerflote, 83, 90 
Schzenrrholts, 72 
Schwyz, Canton of, 118 
Sei-teki, 85, 86 
Semi-lunar, 68 
Sequential key-board, 209 
Serinette, 226 
Serpent, invention of, 124; specimens of, 

^3Z, 135, 137; tone of, 124;, use in 

church of, 124 
Serpentone, 137 
Shakujo, 22 
Shaman, 68, 87 
Sharode, 192, 194 
Shawm, 100; early names of, 100; naive 

description of (time of Henry VII), 

She, 149 

Shell Trumpet, 117, n8 
Sheng, 107 

Sheng tou, or Pao, 108 
Shepherd's Horn (Ibex), 115 
Shepherd's Pipe, 80, 8i 
Shinto god of wealth, 29 
Shiraz, 55 

Shita (reed-holder), loi 
Shita-kata, 188 

Shitan wood, 186, 187, 188, 191 
Sho (the Japanese sheng), 107; descrip- 



tion of structure^ and names of pipes 
of, 107 

S ho far, 116 

Shoko. 29, 30» 31, 44 

Sho-shi, 108 

Sho-shi-buye, 108 

Shubbaheh, 80 

Shu-kou, or shuku, 61 

Siam, 33, I47 

Siamese orchestra, types of, 33 

Side Drum, 56, 62, 63 

Signal Whistle, 75 

Sign nihu, 84 

Silvadores (whistling vases), 76 

Singing Disc. 71 

Singing Top, 72 

Sing Schalmei, 76 

Sioulet christedou, 74 

Sistre, 22 

Sistrum, 22 

"Sistrum," 31 

5i/ar, or 5^/ar, 153, 155 

Siusi Indians, 88 

Slide, of trombone, 123, 130; organ, struc- 
tural part of, 215 

Slide Cornet, 131 

Slide Trumpet, 131 

Smithsonian Institution, 45 

"Soblick's Patent Claviatur," 226 

Sociedade Philharmonica des Arfistas, A, 

Solomon Islands, 74 

So tta, 99 

Sonaglio, 17 

Sotu^rappa, or Dosn, 119 

"Sonatina" 224 

Soneria di campane accordate, 17 

Sonnaille, 17 

Sonog-tohoce-wa-farah, 28 

Sono-koto, 149; tunings of, 233 

Soprano Trombone, 130, 131 

Souling or Suling, 86, 143 

Souling ketjil, 86 

Soung, 147 '• 

Souqqareh, 10$ 

Southern mna, IS4 

Spain, 188, 191 

Speaking Trumpet, 71 

Spinet, 209 

Spinett, ao9 

Spinetta, 209, 310 

Spinettino, 210, 211 

Spitzharfe, 152 

Square Pianoforte, 211, 212, 213 

Staff-ruling Pen, 226 

Standard Service Bugle, bell-section of, 

230; plate from which the body of the 

instrument is formed, 230 
Statuette of bagpipe-player, 108 
Stearns, Frederick, bust of, 234; portrait 

of, 234 
Steel Bars (supplementary), 41 
Steel-harmonica, 35, 39 
Steinertone, 212 

Stiefelknechtgeige, (bootjack violin), 200 
Stiftgeige, or Stiftspiel, 68 
Stitnmbogen, 129 
Stockflote, 82, 89, 90 
Stockgeige, 200 
Stopped Diapason, organ-pipe of metal, 112, 

217; of wood, 113 
St. Paul, an oratorio, 124, 137 
Street Piano, 226 
Streichmelodion, 203 
Streichsither, 202, 203 
Stringed Instrument, 182, 185 
Stringing Device, for pianoforte, 227 
Strohfidel, 34 
Structural Parts of brass instruments, 230; 

of Oriental instruments, 232 
Strumenti da porco, 179 
Strychnos McKenii, resonator from shell of, 

Stumnte Violine, 201 
Styrian Alps, 176 
Subkontrabasstuba, 127 
Sultana, 203 

Summary of Collection, 234 
Sun, and syaku, Japanese measurements, 

Super-octave (organ), 217 
Sur-cringara, 156 
Sur-sanga, 193 
Sur-vahara (The beautiful-toned vina), 

Svaramandala, 179 
Swastika, 22 
Swiss lake-dwellings, 22 
Syakuhati, or Shakuhachi, 85, 86, 233; 

fingering of, 233 
Sympathetic Strings, use of, 154, 155, 192, 

193, 194 



Sympathetic Vibration, 69, 70 

Symfonie, or Symphonic, 204 

Syntagma Musicutn, an early German 
treatise, 221 

"Syrette," 178 

Syrinx, structure of, 73; specimens of, 73, 
74, 75 ; use in church of, 74 

Tabl, pi. atbal, derivations from, 52 

Tabl baladi, $6 

Tabl shamee, 53, 54 

Tabla, 60 

Tabla arrakcb, So 

Tabla el-darausha, 51 

Tabla el-musaher, 51 

Tabor, 60, 80 

Tadibei (Siberian shaman), 68 

Taiko, 59, 62; differentiation from daiko, 
62; from tsusumi, 59 

To'ib/i^ (lizard), 185 

Takkag, 33 

To/a, 31 

Talking-drum, 45 

Tallharpa. (Scan. *c/-horsehair), 146 

Tambour, a drum, 59, 62, 63; a stringed in- 
strument, 162 

Tamboura, 153, ISS 

Tambourin a cordes, 80, 119 

Tambourin de Gascogne, I79 

Tambourin de Province, 62 

Tambourin du Beam, I79 

Tambourine, derivation and structure of, 
65; specimens of, 66, 67, 68; Shaman's 
use of, 68 

Tambura, 155 

Tambour bouzouck, or Tanbur buzurk, 161 

Tambourica, 160, 161 

Tambouritza, 160, 163 ^ 

Tam-tam, 47 
. Tanbur, 156 

Tan&Mr, or Tanbour, baglamah, 161 

Tang dynasty, 22 

Tango, VJ 

Tanta, 30 

Tanzmeistergeige, 200 

Tar, a tambourine, 68; a stringed instru- 
ment, 186 

Tarraffedar Sitar, IS5 

Taro-patch fiddle, 167 

Taschengeige, 200 

ToMf (Peacock-wno), or TayMC, 193 

Tcheng, or Cheng, 149 

"Technicon," 225 

Tenner hoboy, 107 

Tenor Flute, 88 

Tenor, and Treble Quinton, 198 

Tenor Trombone, 131, 132 

Tenor-Viola da braccio, 198 

Teponatzli, 34, 44, 45 

Thari, 186 

Theatrvm Instrvmentorvm (1582), a scien- 
tific treatise, 202 

Thij, or r/iiV/t, 83 

Thone, 54, 55 

Thong, 51 

Thuringian Lute, 164 

Tibia, 92 

Ti&ta dextra, 220 

Tt6io impares, 219 

Tt&ia obliqua, 87 

Tt&io pares, 92, 219 

Ttftwi sinistra, 220 

Ti&ia utricularis, 105 

Tikara, 51 

Timbale, 52 

Time-beater, 23, 35 

Time marker, 23 

Time-symbols, Chinese, 22 

Timpano, 52 

Titurel, an early German poem, 151 

Tt f^o, RE 

Tjalang, 35 

Tombah, 55 

Tonkari, or Mukko, 181 

Toung-yah, 60 

Tournebout, lOi 

Transverse Flute, definition of, 83; speci- 
mens of, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89 

Transverse Whistle Flute, 78, 79 

Transylvania, 178 

Triangle, 38 

Tricca-ballacca, 24 

TnV/^ Varlach, 24 

Triple Dulcimer, 180 

Triple Whistle, 76 

Tromba, 121, 122, 123, 134, 135, 136, 219, 
220, 221, 222 

Tromba a chiavi, 125, 134, 135, 136 

Tromba da tirarsi, 131 

Tromba di zucca, 91 

Tromba doppia, 13S 

Tromba Mariana (Virgm's Trumpet), 195 

Tromba marina, 195 



Trombone, derivation of, 130; specimens of, 
131, 132, 219, 220 

Trombone a clefs, 132, 220 

Trombone a chiavi, 219, 220 

Trombone d coulisse, 131 

Trombone d coulissee double, 131, 132 

Trombone tenor, 132 

Trompe, 222 

Trompete, 121, 122, 123 

Trompette, I2i 

Trompette d, clef's, 125, 126 

Trompette d, coulisse, 131 

Trumpet, ancient origin of, 121 ; African 
types of, 114, 115, 116; Oriental, 117, 
118, 119, 120, 121 ; modern, 120-1-2-3- 
4-5-6, 133, 134, 135, 136; reference to, 
90, 130 

Trumpet Marine, 195 

Trumscheit, 195, 196 

Tsin-ce'ni (groaning stick), 72 

T'soungye, or T'oungyo, 87 

Tsume (plectra), 147, 148 

Tsuri-daiko (fjMn-hanging; daiko-drum) , 
44, 57, 58, 60 

Tsusumi, 59, 60 

Tuba, ancient, 122; modem, 137 

Tumburu-vina, 154 

Tuner's Outfit, 233 

Tundun (the man), 72 

Tuning Fork, 40 

Tutupomponeyer, or tutu-panpan (Prov. 
onomatopoeic), 179 

Tympanum, 66 

Tsit-idoatl (music-wood), 189 

Uiilu, 20 

Udono, loi 

Ugab, 73 

Uilleann (elbow-pipes), 106 

Ukeke (uke-to strike), 142 

Ukeke-laau, 142 

Uli-Uli, or Uliuli, 20 

Union Pipes, 106 

Universalklaznzimbel, 208 

University of Michigan, 149, 151, 165, 166, 
168, 224 

Unterwalden, Canton of, 118 

Upright Piano, development of 213; speci- 
mens of, 213; action of (models), 227 

Uri,. Canton of, 118 

Uta-daiko, or Shimee-daiko, 60, 188 

Utaguti. (Jap. uta-s'mg; kuti-mouth) , 
mouth-piece of syakuhati, 86 

Valiha, 141, 144 

Valve, evolution of, 123, 125, 128, 129; 
earliest type of, 127; models of, 231 

Vatican, Rome, MSS. in Library of, 46; 
Hall of the Busts in, 146 

Ventilposaune, 132 

Ventiltrompete, 125 

Venu, 82 

Verkurzungsventile, 128 

Vertical Flute, definition of, 75; specimens 
of, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 

Vertical Whistle Flute, 79 

Vibrating Bodies, classification, and tone- 
production of, 12 

Victrola, 227 

Vielle, development of, 204; literary allu- 
sions to, 204 

Vielle a roue, 203 

Vina, 60, 155 

Viola, 198 

Viola d'amore, 199 

Viola d'arame, 164 

Viola da braccio, 198, 199 

Viola da gamba, 201 

Viola da kavan, 182 

Viola da mono, 198 

Viole, 204 

Viole d'amour, 199 

Violetta piccola, 203 

Violin, derivation of, 196; structure of, 
196 ; early names of, 196 ; specimens of, 
197; model of, 227; dismantled, 231; 
various attempts at improvement of, 
205, 206 

Violin-cases, 202, 223 

Violin-strings, 232 

Violine, 196, 197 

Violino, 196-197 

Violino di ferro, 68 

Violino sordino, 201 

Violon, 196, 197 

Violbn avec clamer, 207 

Violoncello, 201 

Violon Chanot, 197 

Violon de fer, 68 

Violon sordine, 201 

"Violone," 68 

Violonc grosso, 202 

Violon monocorde d clavecin, 207 

Vipanchi-vina 153 

Virginal, 209; a pare, or payre, of, 210 



Virginian Indians, 18 

Virgynall, 209 

Vita Nuova, a cantata, 52 

"Vocophone," 70 

Vogelpfeife, 78 

Wait, 100; early names of, lOO 

Waldhorn, 129, 130 

Waldteufel, 69 

Wales, 195 

Wal wal, 79 

Wambee, 145 

Wandgemalde, 92 

Wamguchi (Shark's-mouth gong), 32 

Warup, 49 

Wazan, A visit to, 182 

Weintwin, 72 

Whistle, 75, 76, 77 

Whittle and dub, 179 

Whizzer, 72; various names of, 72 

Wina lag'ilis, The voice of, 72 

Wis guirra, 21 ; guiro, and wisharow, de- 
rivations from, 21 

Witham (Essex, England), 137 

Wurstfagott, 103 

Wu t'ung wood, 108, 148, 168, 187 

Xylophone, 33, 34, 35, 42; dififerentiation 
from harmonicon, 34 

Yamada-koto, 148, 149 

Yainato-fuye (side-blowing flute), 85 

Yang-k'in (foreigfn kin), 179, 180 

Yang-kom, 180 

Yang'ong, 35 

Yatta-yatta, 183 

Yeembomul, 72 

Yektar, or Tuntuni^ 181 

Yezo, 181 

Yonghar, 185 

y«, or Gyo, 22 

Yueh ch'in, or Fu^ jb'w, 186 

Fttn^r-uA-jAona, 18 

Yuntha, 72 

Zahs-dung, 119 

Zampogna, 105 

"Zampogna." 74, 75 

Zamr, pi. zumur, 93, 99 

Zamr el-kebyr, 99 

Zomr el-soghair, 99 

Zang-i-Jami', 28 

Zanzibar, 18 

Zeng. pi. zengil, 28 

Z^5?, or 5"^j^, 142, 183; Swahili names for 

strings of, 183 

Ziehharmonica, 109 

Zinfe, 123 

Zither, mention of, 173; origin of, 176; 

evolution of names of (Maclean), 176; 

specimens of, 176. 177. 223 
Zither-banjo, 174 
Zither Piano, 178 
"Zobo Cornet," 70 
Zugtrompete, 131 
Zummarah, 93 
Zummarah settauia, 93 
Zurna, or Somay, 99 

Detailed Illustrations of Instruments 

Singly and in Groups, following the 
Succession of Cases and Sequence of Classification 


1, Castanets (71); 2, Time-marker (59); 3, Clapper (40); 4, Tricca-ballacca (68); 5, Clapper 
(60); 6, Clapper (29); 7, P'ai pan (51-2-3). 


1. Bell (134); 2. Bell (135); 3, Vemts Bell (138); 4, Dobachi (168); 5, DeMedici Bell (131): 
Mass Bell (118); 7, Cow-bell (127); 8, Lo (128); 9, Cai chieng (137); 10, Shoko (140). 


1, Ibeka (222); 2, Bant'you (229); 3, Kisanghi (221); 4, Kisanghi (226); 5, Kinanda (218); 
6, Ekende (220); 7, Kisanghi (225). 


1, Gourd Drum (297) ; 2, Arpa (274) ; 3, Kaba (276) ; 4, Arpa (278) ; 5. New Caledonian Drum 
(293); 6, Ketobong (273). 

Tsiui daiko (300). 


1, Jhanjh-khanjani (398); 2, Rebana (i03); 3, Tympanum (399); 4, Tambourine (404); 5, Venu 
(514); 6, Syakuhati (540A) ; 7, Double Beaked Flute (516); 8, Bassflote (576); 9. Poongi (600); 
10, Bird-call (588); 11, Meijiwitz (601); 12, Arghool el-kebj'r (610); 13, Klarinette (614); 14, Bas- 
setthorn (632); 15, Altklarlnette (629); 16, Bassklarinette (636). 


1, Pi (645); 2, So na (646); 3, Touraebout (661); i. 
Ziirna (647); 5, Zamr el-kebyr (649); 6, Hlchi-riki (662); 
7, Cialamello (664); 8, Shawm (653); 9, Oboe (666); 10, 
Englisches Horn (672); 11, Heckelphon (676A) ; 12, Kelnri 
(701); 13. Sho (704). 


1, Kontrafagott (683); 2, Basson (682); 3, Basson (681); i. Bassoon (679); 5, Bassoon (678); 
Fagott (680); 7, Kontrafagott (684); 8, Contre-basson (685). 


1, Tusk Trumpet (765); 2, Tusk Trumpet (759); 3, Barugumu (769); i, Horn Trumpet (766); 
5, Horn Trumpet (772); 6, Shofar (773); 7, Ivory Trumpet (761); 8, Ivory Trumpet (775); 9, 
Kang-dung (767); 10, Kang t'ung (796); 11, Tusk Trumpet (760); 12, Barugumu (764); 13, Trumpet 
(762); 14, Rappakai (783); Oliphant (768). 

Oliphant (768) in detail. 


1, Zabsdung (797); 2, Bamboo Trumpet (790); 3, Alphorn (792); 4, Jagdhorn (785); 5, Corno 
curvo (832); 6, Corno torto (834); 7, Corno curvo (835); 8, Cornett (830); 9, Cornetto curvo (829); 
10, Kleiner Zink (833); 11, Zink (831); 12, Shell Trumpet (787); 13, Corno torto (836). 


1, Buzine (804); 2, Sacabuche (889); 3, Turkish Trombone (890); 4, Kontrabassposaune (893); 
5, Trompete (821); 6, Serpent (935); 7, Slide Cornet (887); 8, Basson russe (902); 9, Trompete 
(823); 10, Cornet, (863); 11, Basstrompete (841). 

1, Soung (991); 2, Megyoimg (990); 3, K'in (992A) ; i, Komounko (993). 


1, Sarungl (1266); 2, Composite Sitar (1031); 3, Sariuda (1258); i, Tans (1262); 5, Sitar (1018); 
6. Southern-vina (1026); 7, Rudra-vina (1269); 8, Tiimburu-vina (1025); 9, Cbikara (1261); 10, 
Sarangi (1265); 11, Tarrafedar Sitar (1027). 

(Nos. 1, 3, 7, 9 and 10 are placed in Case XII). 


1, Sur-vahara (1024); 2, Cacha-vina (1023); 3, Prasanari-vina (1028); 4, Nadecvara-vina (1021) 
5, Sur-sanga (1264); 6, Sarinda (1256); 7, Sarinda (1257); 8, Ranjani-vina (1029). 
(Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are placed in Case XII). 


1, Bass Colascioue (1045); 2, Chittarone (1043); 3. Pandourina (1049); 4, Arciliuto (1044); 
5, Knitra (1034); 6. E'oud (1035); 7, Liiito (1037). 


1, Chitarra battente (1090); 2, Chitarra battente (J089); 3. Cittern (1086); 1. Guitare (1103); 
5, Lira-chitarra (1130); 6, Zither (1147); 7, Epinette des Vosges (1146); 8, Yang k'in (1174); 9. 
Scheitholt (1145); 10, Dulcimore (1146A). 


1, Trnmscheit (1274); 2, Trumscheit (1271); 
4, Tromba Marina (1273); 5, Crwth (1270). 

3, Trumscheit (1272) ; 


1, Viola d'amore (1296A); 2, Viola da gamba (1314); 3. Viola d'amore (1295); i. Arm Geigc 
(1289); 5, Sultana (1324); 6, Vlolc d'amour (1296); 7, Violoncello (1313). 

Spinetta (1334). 

Keyboard of No. 1334. 

Splnettino (1337) 

Spinetta (iri35), Ferandi di Bosis. 

Pianoforte (1338), Longman and Eroderip. 

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