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CHILDREN AND THE LAW 



2000/2001 


Volume I 


R. Bessner 















CHILDREN AND THE LAW 


2000/2001 


Volume I 


R. Bessner 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
University of Toronto 


https://archive.org/details/childrenlaw01bess 


NOTICE 


These materials are not to be considered as published. They 
are for the sole educational use of students of the Faculty of 


Law, University of Toronto. 










CHILDREN AND THE LAW 


Table of Contents 


Volume I 

1. Children's Rights 

2. Child Witnesses 

a) Psychological Studies on the Reliability of Children's Testimony 

b) Competency Rules for Children 

c) Corroboration for Children's Testimony 

d) Apphcabihty of the Hearsay Rule to the Statements of Children 

e) Accommodation of the Child Witness 

3. The Legal Representation of Children 

4. Child Abuse 

a) The Duty to Report 

b) Limitation Periods 


Volume H 

5. State Intervention in Pregnancy 

6. Child Pornography 

7. Education 

8. Young Offenders 


9. LFnited Nations 



CHILDREN AND THE LAW 


Volume I 


1. Children's Rights 

Introduction 


a) M.S. Wald, "Children's Rights: A Framework For Analysis" in Children's 
Rights In The Practice of Family Law: A Framework for Analysis, edited by 
B. Landau (Carswell) (1986). 1 


b) BLA Hughes and H.T.G. Andrews, "Children's and Family Rights and the 
Role of the State in Custody and Child Protection Matters" in Justice 
Beyond Orwell, edited by R.S. Abella and M.L. Rothman (Les Editions 
Yvon Blais Inc.) (1985)_.25 


c) M.D. A Freeman, "Children's Rights: The Evolution of a Concept" in The 

Rights and Wrongs of Children, (Francis Pinter) (1983) 43 

d) B.C. Hafen, “Children’s Liberation and the New Egalitarianism: Some 
Reservations About Abandoning Youth to Their ‘Rights’” (1976), B.Y.U.L. 

Rev. 605.54 


e) C.D. Gill, "Essay on the Status of the American Child, 2000 A.D.: Chattel 
or Constitutionally Protected Child-Citizen?" (1991), 17 Ohio Northern 
Law Rev. 543 59 


f) C. Lasch, "Hillary Clinton, Child Saver: What she values will not help 

the family" Harper's Magazine, October 1992 .72 

g) S. Fine, “Children start to flex legal muscles in Canada” The Globe and Mail, 

April 22, 1993..78 


2. The Child Witness 

(1) Psychological Studies on The Reliability of Children's Testimony 

a) G. Goodman and V. Helgeson, "Child Sexual Assault: Children's Memory 

and The Law " (1988), 12 Provincial Judges Journal 17 ______80 

b) R.K. Oates, "Children as Witnesses" (1990), 64 Australian L.J. 129,.... .92 

c) J. Spencer and R. Flin, "Child Witnesses - Are They Liars?" (1989), 139 

New L.J. 1601.98 

d) D. Jones and R. Krugman, "Can A Three-Year-Old Child Bear Witness to 
Her Sexual Assault and Attempted Murder?" (1986), 10 Child Abuse and 

Neglect 253 ...100 














(2) Competency Rules for Child Witnesses 
Ontario Evidence Act, R.S.O. 1995, s. 18. 

Canada Evidence Act, R.S.C. 1994, s. 16..106 

a) R. V. Bannerman (1966), 48 C.R. 110 (Man. C.A).107 

b) R. V. Budin (1981), 58 C.C.C. (2d) 352 (Ont. C.A).116 

c) R. V. Fletcher (1982), 1 C.C.C. (3d) 370 (Ont. C.A.). 121 

d) Khan v. The Queen (1991), 79 C.R. (3d) 1 (S.C.C.).129 

e) R. V. Marquard (1993), 25 C.R (4th) 1 (S.C.C.).136 

f) A. Peter Nasmith, "High Time for One Secular ‘Oath’" (1990), 24 The Law 

Soc. of Upper Can. Gaz. 230.145 

3) Corroboration for Children's Testimony 

a) R. V. Kendall (1962), 132 C.C.C. 216 (S.C.C.).155 

b) R. V. R.W. (1992), 13 C.R. (4th) 257 (S.C.C.).159 

(4) The Applicability of The Hearsay Rule to the Statements of Children 

a) R. V. F. (W.J) (1999), 27 C.R (5th) 169 (S.C.C.).163 

b) J. Spencer and R. Flin, "A Critical Look at the Hearsay Rule Concerning 
Children’s Evidence" in The Evidence of Children: The Law and The 

Psychology, (Blackstone Press) (1990) pp. 135-178. 173 

c) D A. Rollie Thompson, "Taking Children Facts Seriously: Evidence and 

Law in Child Protection Proceedings - Part 1" (1988), 7 Can. J. of Fam L. 11 176 

d) Protecting our Students; A Review to Identify and Prevent Sexual Misconduct 

in Ontario Schools (Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General, 2000) pp.51-53 211 

(5) Accommodation of the Child Witness 

Criminal Code, s.715.1 and s.486 

a) J. Spencer and R. Flin, "The Case for Change" in The Evidence of Children; 

The Law and The Psychology, (Blackstone Press) (1990) pp. 282-305 .212 




















b) G. Davies and H. Westcott, "The Child Witness in the Courtroom: 

Empowerment or Protection?" 'm Memory and Testimony in the Child Witness, 


Maria S. Zaragoza etal. (eds.) (Sage Publications Inc.) (1995) pp. 199-213 225 

c) R V. Levogiannis (1993), 25 C.R. (4th) 325 (S.C.C.).233 

d) R. V. L. (D. O.) (1993), 25 C.R. (4th) 285 (S.C.C.).240 

e) R. V. F. (C. C.) (1997), 154 D.L.R (4th) 13 (S.C.C.)..256 

f) Maryland V. Craig (1990), 58 L.W. 5044 (U.S. Sup. Ct.).264 

g) V. Paisley, "Testimony by the Child Witness in a Criminal Court; Tactical 
and Ethical Issues in Examining and Cross-Examining a Child Con^lainant" 

(1988).273 


3. The Legal Representation of Children 

a) S. Himel, "Representing Children" in Canadian Child Welfare: Children, 
Families and the State, N. Bala, J. Homick, R Vogl (eds.) (Thompson 


Educ. Pub.) (1991) pp. 196-206 .....285 

b) M. Peterson-Badali and R Abramovitch, "Children's Knowledge of the 
Legal System: Are They Competent to Instruct Legal Counsel?" [1992] 

Can J. of Crim 139..290 

c) J.C. Pearson, "Legal Representation Under The Young Offenders Act" in 
The Young Offenders Act: A Revolution in Canadian Juvenile Justice, A. 

Leschied, P. Jaffe and W. Willis (eds.), (1991) pp. 114-127._. 301 

d) Re W. (1980), 27 O.R (2d) 314 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam Div.).308 

e) Re C. (1980), 14 RF.L. (2d) 21 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam Div.).311 

f) Lauro v. Lauro (1988), 13 RF.L. (3d) 189 (Ont. Dist. Ct.).318 

g) Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto v. C.M. and D.L. 

(1991), 35 RF.L. (3d) 1 (Ont. Ct. Prov. Div.).321 

h) Official Guardian v. M. (S) (1991), 35 RF.L. (3d) 297 (Ont. Ct. Gen. Div.).334 

i) Strobridge v. Strobridge (1994), 18 O.R. (3d) 753 (Ont.C.A).338 


4. Child Abuse 

(1) The Duty to Report 


a) Child & Family Services Act, RS.O. 1990, c. C-11, s. 72 
Child & Family Services Act, RS.O. 1999, c. C-11, s. 72 


346 



















b) R. Vogl, "Initial Involvement" in Canadian Child Welfare Law: Children, 

Families and The State, N. Bala, J. Homick & R. Vogl (eds.), (Thompson 

Educ. Pub.) (1991) pp. 33-35 .349 

c) R. V. Cook {\92,5), 46 RF.L. (2d) 174 (Ont. C.A).351 

d) R. V. Stachula (1984), 40 R.F.L. (2d) 184 (Ont. Fam Ct.).356 

e) M. Bailey, "The Failure of Physicians to Report Child Abuse" (1982), 40 

Univ. of Tor. Law Rev. 49.361 

f) F.S. Berlin, "Effects of Statutes Requiring Psychiatrists to Report Suspected 

Sexual Abuse of Children" (1991), 148 Amer. J. Psychiatry 449 .371 

(2) Limitation Periods 

a) N. Des Rosiers, "Limitation Periods and Civil Remedies for Childhood 

Sexual Abuse" (1992), 9 C.F.L.Q. 43.376 

b) M. (K.) V. M (H.) (1992), 96 D.L.R. (4th) 289 (S.C.C.)... ..... 391 

c) N. Clevenger, "Statute of Limitations: Childhood Victims of Sexual Abuse 
Bringing Civil Actions Against Their Perpetrators after Attaining Age of 

Majority" (1991-1992), 30 J. of Fam L. 447.416 


Volume II 


5. State Intervention in Pregnancy 

a) Re Children's Aid Society for the District of Kenora and J. L. (1981), 134 

D.L.R. (3d) 249 (Prov. Ct., Fam Div.).1 

b) Re Children's Aid Society of Belleville (1987), 59 O.R (2d) 204 

(Prov. Ct., Fam Div.). 5 

c) Re BabyR. (1988), 15 RF.L. (3d) 225 (B.C.S.C.).10 

d) Joe V. Director of Family and Children's Services and Minister of Justice, 

Govt, of Yukon Territory {\9^6), 5 B.C.L.R. (2d) 267 (Yuk. Terr. Sup. Ct.) 18 

e) Re A. (in utero) (1990), 75 O.R. (2d) 82 (U.F.C., Jud. Dist. Ham-Went.). 22 

f) Winnipeg Child and Family Services v. G. (D.F) (1997), 152 D.L.R (4th) 193 

(S.C.C.).28 

g) K. Moss, "Substance Abuse During Pregnancy" (1990), 13 Harvard Women's 

Law J. 278 . 51 


















h) G. Annas, "Forced Cesareans: The Most Unkindest Cut of All" (1982), The 

Hastings Center Report 16. .. 62 


i) P. King, "Should Mom Be Constrained in the Best Interests of the Fetus?" 

(1989), 13 NovaL. Rev. 393 .65 

j) "Judicial Intervention in Pregnancy and Birth" in Royal Commission on New 
Reproductive Technologies (1993), (Ottawa; Minister of Government 

Services Canada) pp.949-965.72 


6. Child Pornography 

a) Report of the Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution (The 
Fraser Report) (1985) (Vol. 2) (Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services) 

pp. 561-572.81 

b) R. V. Sharpe {1999), 172B.C.A.C. 76 (on appeal to the S.C.C.).Reserve 

c) R. V. Langer (1995), 40 C.R. (4th) 204 (Ont Ct, Gen. Div.)____92 

d) The Institute for the Prevention of Child Abuse, Connection, Spring 1993, 

Vol. 1, "MP's Pass Tough Law on Child Pornography”.109 

e) New Yorkv. Ferber, (1982), 102 S. Ct 3348 .110 

f) Osborne v. Ohio, (1990), 110 S. Ct 1691.128 


7. Education 

a) G. Dickinson and A.W. MacKay, Rights, Freedoms and the Education 


System in Canada, Selected cases and comments (Toronto; Emond 

Montgomery) (1989).152 

b) R. V. Halcrow (1993), 80 C.C.C. (3d) 320 (B.C.C.A.).173 

c) R. V. James (March 31, 1998) (Ont. Ct Justice, Prov. Div.).183 

d) Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada 

(July 6, 2000) (Ont Sup. Ct Justice).188 

e) Vivian Smith on Corporal Punishment, The Toronto Globe and Mail, 

November 5, 1992..212 


f) A. Genereux, "Corporal Punishment; Is It Violence Against Children?" in 
On The Right Side: Canada and The Convention on the Rights of the Child, 
(1990) p.29. 


213 

















g) R. V. M (M.R.) (1998), 20 C.R. (5th) 197 (S.C.C.) 


216 


8. Young Offenders 

The Young Offenders Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. Y-1 
1995 Amendments to the Young Offenders Act 
Bill C-3, 1999, Youth CriminalJustice Act 

a) N. Bala and M. A. Kirvin, "The Statute: Its Principles and Provisions and 
Their Interpretation by the Courts" in The Young Offenders Act: A 
Revolution in Canadian Juvenile Justice, A. Leschied, P. Jafife, and W. 


Willis (eds.), (Univ. of Toronto Press) (1991) p. 71.229 

b) A. Leschied and S. Wilson, "Criminal Liability of Children Under Twelve; 

A Problem for Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice or Both?" (1988), 30 Can. J. 

Crim 17.251 

c) L. Wilson, "Changes to Federal Jurisdiction Over Young Offenders: 

The Provincial Response," (1990), 8 Can. J. of Fam Law 303.257 

d) N. Bala, ""The 1995 Young Offenders Act Amendments; Compromise or 

Confusion" (1994), 26 Ottawa L.R. 643 .273 

e) R. V. T (V.) (1992), 71 C.C.C. (3d) 32 (S.C.C.).305 

f) R. V. M. (J.J.) (1993), 81 C.C.C. (3d) 487 (S.C.C.).312 

g) Fi V. /. (L. R.) (1993), 26 C.R (4th) 19 (S.C.C.).318 

h) F.N. (Re) (July 20, 2000) (S.C.C.).327 

i) R. V. M. (B.) (1999), 180 D.L.R. 297 (Ont. C.A.).344 

j) R. V. C. (J.) (2000), 143 C.C.C. (3d) 59 (Ont. C.A.).350 

k) “Fear and the Tracking of Violent Youths,” The Globe and Mail, 

January 17, 2000. 361 


9. United Nations 


a) United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.362 

b) M. Jupp, "Justice, Not Charity: The United Nations Convention on the 
Rights of the Child" in On The Right Side: Canada and The Convention on 

The Rights of the Child, (1990) p.8.374 
















c) N. Bala, "The Impact of The Convention on Canadian Law" in On The 
Right Side: Canada and The Convention on The Rights of the Child, (1990) 

p.20.;.........377 

d) J. Todres, “Emerging Limitations on the Rights of the Child: The U.N. 

Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Early Case Law” (1998), 

30 Columbia L. Rev. 159 379 


e) Sean Fine, "Narrow Approach to Children's Rights Feared," The 
Globe and Mail, October 8, 1990. 


401