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ARBOR DAY, 



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01SrT.A.."RI0. 



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SUGGESTIONS AND REGULATIONS 



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IN EEGABD TO ITS OBSERVANCE BY 



SCHOOL TRUSTEES, TEACHERS AND PUPILS 






IN ONTARIO. 




TORONTO : 

Prinvbd by Wauwick & SoKs, 2(» AND 28 Front Stkekt West, Toront», 

1887. , 




The accompanying suggestions are designed to aid scliool trustees, teachers 
and pupils, in carrying out the Departmental Regulations in regard to the 
observance t>f Arbor Day throughout Ontario. 

It is a matter of sincere congratulation to see how generally and heartily 
all parties concerned in our schools have entered into the practical wcn-k (jf 
duly observing this pleasant and useful holiday. This feeling and sympathy 
with the prosecution of so beneficent a work have shown themselves very 
generally elsewhere, especially in the United States. The value of Arbor 
Day as an educating agency is thus referred to by the Hon. John Eaton, 
late United States Commissioner of Education. He spys : 

" In several States of the American Union theie is a growing disposition 
among school officers to avail themselves of this effective means of culture, and 
to foster a spirit in the community which will facilitate the operation of laws 
passed for the encouragement of tree planting and the protection of trees ; m 
Connecticut, (jspecially, the late energetic Secretary of the State Board of 
Education, H(jn. B. G. Northrop. Miaugurated a movement which is improving 
the surroundings of schools in th .■ rural districts almost beyond recognition, 
and in West Virginia the connuendable efforts of the Department of Public 
Instruction, under the direction of Hon. B. L. Butcher, have resulted in 
siiuilar iinprovem nts. The work of Dr. Peaslee, City Superintendent of 
Cincinnati, in the same direction, has also been especially successful." 

The prosecution of this work on Arbor Day, will prove in Ontario, as it has 
elsewhere, a highly valuable and " effective means of culture." and as such is 
commended to the special attention of trustees, teachers and pupils. 



Education Department, March, I88< 



J. G. H. 




ARBOR DAY. 



REGULATIONS OF THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. 



I. —The Reuulations in recjard to S(;hool A(x;omodation, prescribe :— 
(3) Tliat the school grounds should ])o i.roperly levelled and drained, 
planted with shade trees and enclosed with a substantial fence. 

II. — The General Reoulations also trescribe as follows : — 

Arbor Day. 

302. The first Friday in May should be set apart by the trustees of every 
rural school and incorporated village for the purpose of planting shade trees, 
making flower beds and otherwise improving and beautifying the school 
grounds. 

III.— SUOOESTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT THE DEPARTMENTAL REGULATIONS. 

Preliminary JNTofe.— Now that Arbor Day in spring is one of the school in- 
stitutions of the province, it is desirable that t .e school grounds, and the 
outside strip in front of the school house and on the street, or road side, 
should be judiciou>,ly ])lanted. Care should be taken to select the most suit- 
able trees and shrubs for that purpose, considerhig the nature of the s(jil and 
ihe size of the school lot, etc. Flowers, too, should be pr.n'ided f..r the beds 
in front of the buildings, and, if practicable, at the sides of the walks leadint^ 
to the school entrances. "" 

1. Trees and Shrubs best adapted to our Climate. 
Mr. R. W. Phipps has furnished the Minister of Education with a list and 
explanatory information on this subject, from which the following is taken 
viz. : — 

The trees which experience proves to bo l>eHt adapted to our Canadian 



climate are divided into several classes. First, the deciduous trees, which are 
easily grown — that is to say, they have hbrous roots, rendering them easy to 
transplant. The ycjung .saplings, as they stand in the undergrowth of the 
for'jst, will be found with sutticient roots, if care l)e taken, to transplant well. 
The term deciduous is applied to all trees not evergreen. 

Maples. — Native Hard Maple (acur saccliarinum) ; Scarlet or Soft Maple 
(acer rubrum; ; Silver Leaf Maple (acer dasycarpum) ; Norway Maple (acer 
jdatanoidesj ; Ash Leaved Maple (^acer negundo) ; [aceroides negundo of Dr. 
F. B. Hough, see paragraph No. 2 page 5.] 

Elms. — American or White Elm (ulmus Americana) ; Cork Barked or 
Winged Elm (ulmus inflata ; Scotch <»r Wych Elm (ulmus montana). (See 
paragraph No. 2 page 5). 

Lindens. — European Linden (tilia Europa;a) ; Basswood (tilia Americana). 

Ash. — Native, white (fraxinus Americana) ; European Ash (fraxinus Euro- 
pfea). 

Chestnuts. — Horse Chestnut (tesculus hippocastaneum) ; Sweet Chestnut 
(castanea Americana), 

Mountain, Ash. — (Pyrus Americana). 

The following native trees are also well adai)ted for transplanting, but 
they cannot be handled like the former, owing to their having but few roots. 
Tliere are two ways of treating them— one, to plant the nuts Avhere the tree is 
to grow, the other to transplant them several times when young. This 
gives them a mass of roots of far more certain growth for planting in their 
ultimate position. 

Hardwood Trees, such as Hickory (carya) ; Oak (quercus) ; Beech (fagus) ; 
Walnut (juglans). 

The time for planting all of the above is in spring, from the time the 
frost leaves the ground till May 15th. The season, however, can be prolonged 
to the 15th June, by observing to cut back the tops of the trees. In the fall 
the time of planting may be from the 20th of October till the ground is frozen 
too hard for digging. When planting them care should be taken to strip the 
leaves off, as the sap remaining in the trees soon evaporates through the 
leaves, causing them to shrivel up and so destroy their chance of growth. 

The next class peculiarly suited for transplanting is the evergreen- 
Those of the spruce and cedar variety are grown more easily than pines o^' 
junipers, as they have a greater quantity of good roots. This class comprise^ 
the White or Native Spruce (abies alba), Norway Spruce (abies excelsa), Bal- 
sam Spruce or Fir Proper (thuja balsamifera), Heudock (abies Canadensis)' 
White Cedar (thuja occidentalis). The spruce and cedar family will grow in 
damper situations than will the pines, but all succeed better in fairly drained 
soil. 

The next variety of evergreen (is the pine. Unless transplanted several 
times when young, these do not throw out many roots, and those thrown out 
are fine, long and easily disbarked, unless great care be taken in removing 
them fr<jm the sod. The most suitable varieties are : — 

Pines.— White Pine (pinus strobus) ; Weymouth Pine (pinus cembra) ; 
Norway Pine (pinus rid)ra) ; Austrian Pine (i>inus Austr-i cea) ; Scotch Pine 
(pinus sylvestris). 






5 



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The planting season for all these evergreens is from May 15th to June 
15th, or just as the buds .ire connnenting to burst. 

The last which need be noted is the larch. 

Larches. — European Larch (larix Europ;ea) ; Native Larch, Tamarack (larix 
Americana). 

This tree may be termed a deciduous evergreen, and succeeds best when 
planted late in the fall or the tirst thing in spring. It commences to grow 
with the tirst warm rays of the sun, but is uncertain unless great care is taken 
t(j keep it damp. This advice is meant in case of large trees, such as those 
five to seven feet high. Small trees are grown more easily. 

With respect to soil, all trees thrive best in well-drained soil, varying 
from a sandy loam to a clay soil, not of tot) stitl" a nature. A clay loam suits 
all of them. 

If chestnut trees be planted in spring, the heads or leaves should not 
be cut oft", as this tree makes all its growth in the first few growing days and 
is then stati(mary for the season. The branches may, if necessary, be 
thinned. 

When trees are finally planted, care should be taken to mulch around 
them with old manure, leaves, spent hops, straw, if it can be kept in place — 
stones laid on it do this — or other substance not injurious to growth, but 
never, for example, with i)ine sawdust or tan bark. Some cultivators prefer 
keeping the ground stirred to mulching. 

When transplanting evergreens, the roots should never be exposed to 
air or light — especially sun heat — more than can be helped. The voot is 
resinous ; if the resin hardens, the process of growth in future will be 
rendered impossible. 

2. The Trees most suitable for School Grounds. 

Dr. F. B. Hougli, Chief of the Forestry Division of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, referring tt) the i)huiting of trees in sch' ol 
grounds, makes the following statements and suggestions as to the best kind 
of trees to be planted : — 

Of all tlie native trees of the Northern States, the American elm (ulmus 
Americana) is perhaps least liable to accident from a bruise upon the bark ; 
and then' are few, if any, that should be more generally preferred. It 
carries its shade high ab(jve the level of our windows ; it is seldom broken 
or thrown down by the winds ; it lives to a great age and grcws to a large 
size, and it jiresent-! a majestic and graceful outline as agieeaole to the view 
a:-i its s[)readii)g canopy is refreshing in its shade. The red or slippery elm 
might be liable to be peeled by unruly boys, for its inner bark, and should 
for this reason be planted only upon private grounds. 

The maples are justly prized as shade trees, and the sugar maple (acer 
saccharinum) may, perhaps, be placed tirst on the list, as aiibrding a dense 
shade and a graceful oval outline All the maples are con- 
spicuous in the declining j^ear from the bright coloring of their autunnial 
foliage. The box elder, or ash-leaved ma[)K; (aceroides negundo), a nearly 
allied species, is a favorite shade trec^ in the Western States, and grjws well 
in the middle hititudes of the Atlantic States. 



6 

3. The Shrubs and Climbers most suitable for School Grounds. 

In ii valuiible book on Knral School Architecture, recently issued by the 
United States Commissioner of Education at W aahington, a list of shrubs is 
,t,'ivon, to which additions are made suitable to Canada, viz : 

The Missouri currant, r,arl)erry, Weij,'elia, Cornel, Laurel, Lilac, Kf.ses, 
(white, yeUow, and red). Viburnum oriJuelder rose, California privet, For- 
sythia, Si)irjea, Tartarean honeysuckle, Doi^wood, Deutzia. 

To these 1 add the following, which will grow freely in any ]y.\vi of Ontario, 
VIZ. :- Syringa. Yellow flowering currant, Hydi'angea, Snowberry, Ashberry, 
etc. Of clind)ing {dants I may mention the Virginia Creeper, Clematis, Big- 
nonia radicans, Japanese Ivy, Birthwort, Roses, etc. 

The Wisconsin State Superintendent of Schools adds : — 

"Damp sjHjts may be improved by covering them with clusters of the 
beautiful pyrus japonica, and porches may be ornamentetl by clind)ing vines, 
such as ivy (English, German, Tapanese, or the small leaved varieties^ wood- 
l)ine, or wistaria, roses and honeysuckles [Virghiia creeiter, tiumpet flower, 
clematis, etc.]; and if any one will take the trouble to sow the seeds in sprinu,' 
the red and white cypress vines, the fragrant jessamine, morning glories' 
and the i)uri)le and white Jaiianese clematis, may be added ' 

'■ It is best to plant several varieties of shrubs together in clumps. The 
thirk evergreens or the holly and laurel then set ott" the brighter kinds, and 
the mutual ])rotection which they afl'ord each other atjainst the winds helns 
the growth of all." '^ 

4. Suggestions as to the Planting of Trees in School Grounds. 

Dr. F. B. Hough, Chief of the Forestry division of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, as (quoted above, makes the following useful 

1. — As TO THE Roots. 



suggestions : — 



" To secure success trees should be selected from nursery jjlantatiims, or 
from those that have sprung up in open places, such as the seedling trees 
along fences, so that there may be an abit nda ace, of the smttllJihrouH roofs. 
Without this precaution they will be very liable to fad. It should be further 
])orne in mind, that if the roots are much exposed to the sun, or to a cold, or 
drying wind, their vitality may be soon lost. Creat care should be taken, if 
they are brought from an adjv)ining place and planted innnediately . to retain 
as much soil among them as ])ossible, and to prefer a damp and cloudy 
day. By jdacing the roots of the trees as soon as they are drawn from the 
ground upon a coarse, strong piece of canvas, and binding it around them, 
this ol)ject may be best secured. Straw or moss, a little dampened, will serve 
the purpose very well, and sometimes the trees may be set in a box or barrel, 
with some of the better soil in which they gre\\, for their removal. Some- 
times trees may be removed in winter with great advantage l)y digging a 
trench around them in the fall and allowing the earth to freeze, so that a 

disk, including the tree and its roots, may be removed entire 

The ends of the broken roots slujuld be cut ofl" smooth before the tree is 
planted. 



2.— As iO TUAN.M'LVNTIN*!. 

"The holes for the trous sliouhl 1)u ulways niiulu bofuro tho truu» aro 
brought on tho grourul. Thoy shoiikl l)o soiuowliat larger and deepor than 
those iicedod in coninion planting on i»iivate hinds, lnHiause it is desirable to 
give the trees the best possible opportunity at the start. The surface soil 
beuig generally the best, shouhl lie thrown up on one side, and the poorer soil 
from below on the other. In tilling hi, tho better soil shouhl be returned 
tu-st, so as to be nearer the njots. In hard clayey soils grejit advantage is 
gamed by digging the holes in the fall, so that the earth may be exposed to 
the weather through the winter. The holes might be loosely covered with 
boards when necessary. If the soil be somewhat sterile, a waggon-load of 
rich loam, comi)ost, or wood's earth, [)laced below and around the roots, 
would be the cheapest means for insuring success. In applying manures, 
care should be taken that they be placed below and near, but not in contact 
with the roots. In setting the tree it should be placed a trifle deeper than it 
stood before, the roots should be spread out so that none are (hmbled, and 
tine rich soil should be carefully sifted in among them so as to till every 
sjijice. Sometimes the roots are dipi)ed in a tub containing a thin mud of 
rich soil before they are set. In any event, unless the soil is evidently damp 
enough, the trees should be well watered as amm as they are jilaiited, and 
this process in dry seasons should be repeated from time to time through the 
hrst and second years." 



5. Physiological advantage of Trees— their relative Position. 
The Wisconsin State Superintendent further adds :— 

" The constant care f'>r these shrubs and trees and their unrivalled beauty 
help to educate the children ; their shade is vtny grateful in the summer ; 
they cool the atmosphere in the hot days by condensing moistuie ujx.ii their 
leaves at night, and by evaptjrating vast amounts of it through their leaves in 
the day time ; they absorb or destroy the poisonous j^ases and the noxious 
exhalations often found about the school buildings; and they jn'oduce a 
constant motion in the atmosphere, tending towards slight and he.ilthful 
bi'eezes. 

" No shrub or tree should be planted . . . near the school buihlinir 
where it will interfere with the light admitted through the wiiulows." °' 

6. Suggestions as to Flower Beds. 

As to flower beds suggested, the variety of annuals is so numerous that it 
is not necessary here to name any. A writer, already quoted, says :— 

"A judicious selection of seeds, supplemented by slips from private gardens 
and young shoots transplanted from the woods, will cost almost nothing • 
while the civilizing influence of their beauty upon the children's minds to- 
gether with the pride and interest which their gardening operations 'will 
awaken, should not be undervalued." 



7. Collection of Native Woods. —Its Usefulness and Value. 



Spoaking «if the value and usofuluoss of collections of nail - woods 
made by puinis oi a school, Dr. F. B. Hough, liofore quoted, makes the 
following practical suggestions as to ho\V and why such collections should 
bo made : — 

" There is no school house in the country, whether in city or vilhige or 
rural district, which might not have at slight expense an interesting collec- 
tidU of the native woods of the vicinity. These specimens should be prepared 
by liaving one or more faces planed and polished or varnished to show tlie 
grain of the wood when worked to the best advantage, and another face 
simply planed and left in its natural color. There should be some portion 
of the bark, and it would be still better if there were shown in connectio i 
with the wood dri' d specimens of the leaves and blossoms, the fruit, and the 
resinous or other products. Such collections made up by the scholai\s, and 
correctly labelled, under the care of the teachers, would become object 
lessons of first importance as an agency for nistructicm. They would aft'ord 
the mo>t profitable kiurl of emiJoyment for the leisure hours, and might 
awaken a love of close observation and a thirst for further knowledge that 
would rii)en into the best of fruits."