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MKRocorr tBouniON tist chart 

(ANSI end ISO TEST CHART No. 2} 




A APPLIED IM^OE Inc 

SE 1653 Eost Moin Str««t 

S^ Rochnttf, }*vm York 14609 USA 

'•yS (71fl) 482 - 0300 ~ Phorw 

^S (7lfi) 288 - 5969 - Fax 



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THE FLEETS AT WAR 



WAR BOOKS 



CLOTH 



NCr. 



VOL. I. («-"•-,„, ,._ fct«^. 

^^^ THE WAR RPrAhi 

VOL. 11. 

THE FLEETS AT WAR 

^ 'a ARCHIBALD HURD. 

VOL. 111. 

THE CAMPAIGN OF SEDAN 

B, CBORCE HOOPER 

™« kV book t, th, MttlTABY rit^^tl^ 

VOL. IV. 

THE CAMPAIGN ROUND 
UEGE 



1 




ADMIRAL SIR JOHN JELLICOE. 

Supreme Admiral, British Home Fleet. 



THE FLEETS AT 
WAR 



ARCHIBALD HURD 



Aatkor ol' 



ofthaSM,' 

Iti lUi 

(part MtiNf)* iiOt 



Mv/al 



HODDER AND STOUGHTON 

LONDON NBW YORK TOKOKTO 



PREFACE 



It ia hoped that this voltmie will prow ol pu- 
manent vmhw as prewntmg a oonapectus of the 
great navies engaged fai war wheo hostilities 
opened, and in particular of the events of rin- 
gukr significance in the naval contest between 
Great Britain and Germany ^liiich oocnmd ia 
the years immediately preceding the war. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made to Ifr. H. C. 
Bywater for valuable "fiftflncf in preparing this 
volume. 

A.H. 



CONTENTS 



Intioooctiom — ^Th> OmmiG Pbasi 9 

I. THB HKLATIVB STANODrC OT TBS 
BRinSB AND CBXMAM ILim 



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m. TBI CUMAir NAVr .... 

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CBBHAN VIBBT .... 

VU. 0FFICXI8 AND HBM OF THB F(»BIGN 



NAVnS 



Vni. CBKIIAM NAVAL BASBS 

IX. THE XIEL CANAL 

X. TBB G8BAT FLEETS ENCACEO ; 
TABOIAX 8TATBMENT 



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54 

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GERMANY 



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V 



INTRODUCTION 



THE OPENING PHASE 



Peaceful Victokibs of British Sea Power 



The declaration of war against Germany, followed 
at it was by similar action against Austria- 
Hungary, was preceded by a sequence of events 
so remarkable in their character that if any 
British writer had made any such forecast in 
times of peace he would have been written down 
as a romantic optimist. 

Owing to a series of fortimate circumstances, 
the British Fleet — our main line of defence and 
ofEence— was fully mobilised for war on the 
morning before the day — ^August 4th at 11 p.m. 
— ^wben war was declared by this country, and we 
were enabled to enter upon the supreme contest 
in our history with a sense of ctmfideace which 
was communicated to all the peoples of the 
British Empire. This feeling of .. 'u:ance and 
courage furnished the best possible augury for 
the future. 

^tbin a fortni^t of diplomatic relaticms 
being broken <^ with Germany, and less thqn a 
» 



10 The Fleets at War 

week after Austria-Hungary by her acts had 
declared her community oi interest with her ally, 
the British Navy, without firing a gun or sending 
a single torpedo hissing through the water, had 
achieved four victories. 

(1) Germany's elaborate scheme to produce 
a feeling oi panic in this country— hence the 
army of spies, who took advantage of our 
open hospitahty, using the telephone and 
providing themselves with bombs and aims 
had failed. 

(2) Germany's over-sea commerce was 
strangled. 

(3) British trade on the seas began to 
resume its normal course owing to the 
growing confidence of shipowners and 
shippers. 

(4) The British Expeditionary Foicr, as 
detailed for foreign service, had been trans- 
ported to the Continent under a guarantee 
of safety given by the British Fleet, 

These successes were due to the influence of 
sea-power. Confidence in the Navy, its ships 
and men, and a belief in the competency of Mr. 
Winston Churchill and Prince Louis of Battenberg 
and the other Sea Lords, and the War StaH. 
steadied the nerve of the nation when it received 
the first shock. Apparently the crisis developed 
so swiftly that there was no time for effective 
co-operation between the German spies. All the 
mischievous s*ories of British reverses which were 



The Opening Phase 11 

dnmiily pnt in diculation in the early period ol 
hoetiUtiei weie tncked down ; tot ooce truth w«s 
nearly as swift at rnrnour, thou^ the latter was 
the result of an elaborately orgudaed scheme for 
throwing the British people off their mental 
balance. It was conjectured that if a feeling of 
panic could be created in this country, a fright- 
ened nation would bring pressure to bear on the 
naval and miUtary authorities and our strategic 
plans ashore and afloat would be interfered with. 
A democracy in a state of panic cannot make war. 
The carefully-laid scheme miscarried. Never was 
a nation more self-possessed. It had faith in its 
Fleet. 

In the history of sea power, there is nothing 
comparable with the strangulation of German 
oversea shippmg in all the seas of the world. 
It followed almost instantly on the declaration of 
war. There were over 2,000 German steamers, 
of nearly 3,000,000 tons gross, afloat when hos- 
tiUties opened. The German sailing ships — 
mostly of small size— numbered 2,700. These 
vessels were distributed over the seas far and 
wide. Some — scores of them, in fact — ^were cap- 
tured, others ran for neutral ports, the sailings of 
others were cancelled, and the heart of the Ger- 
man mercantile navy suddenly stopped beating. 
What must have been the feelings of Herr Ballin 
and the other pioneers as they contemplated 
the ruin, at least temporary ruin, of years of 
splendid enterprise ? The strat(^cal advantt^es 
enjoyed by England in a war against Germany, 
lying as she does like a bunker across Germany's 
approach to the oversea world, had never been 



12 



The Fleets at War 



nndentood by the maia of Gfuouna, nor by thdr 
■tateuiMn. Shipownen lud wme coaception of 
what would happen, but even they did not antici- 
pate that in lew than a week the great engine 
of commercial activity ovenea would be brought 
to a ttandttill. 

By its prompt action on the eve of war in in- 
stituting a system of Government insurance of 
war risks, Mr. Asquith's administration checked 
any indication of panic among those responsible 
for our sea afiairs. The maintenance of our 
oversea commerce on the outbreak of hostilities 
had been the subject of enquiry by a sub- 
committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence. 
When war was inevitable, the Government pro- 
duced ^his report, and relying on our sea power, 
immediately carried into efiect the far-reaching 
and statesmanlike recommendations which had 
been made, for the State itself bearing 80 per 
cent, of the cost of insurance ot huU and 
cargoes due to capture by the enemies. Thus 
at the moment of severest strain — ^the outbreak 
of war — ^traders recognised that in carrying on 
their normal trading operations overseas they 
had behind them the wholehearted suppcnt of 
the British Government, the power of a supreme 
iieet, and the guarantee of all the accumulated 
wealth of the richest country in the world. None 
of the dismal forebodings which had been indulged 
in during peace were reaUsed. Traders were con- 
vinced by the drastic action of the Government 
and by the ubiquitous pressure of British sea 
power on all the trade routes that, though some 
losses might be suffered owing to the action of 



The Opening Phase 18 

GarmiB cndMn and ooovarted maithaiitiiMa, 
tha dangar wu of to natiictad a charaetar and 
had bean lo admirably covarad by the Govern- 
ment'a insurance icheme that they conld " cany 
oo " in cahn courage and thna contribute to the 
mooeaa of BiHi3h arms. Naviea and armies must 
accept defeat if they have not behind them a 
civil population freed from fear of starvation. 

Even more remarkable, perhapa, than either 
of these victories of British sea power wu the 
safe transportation to the Continent of the 
Expeditioaary Force as detailed for foreign 
service. Within a fortnight of the declaration 
of war, while we had snfiered from no threat 
of invasion or even of such raids on the coast 
as had been considered probable incidents in the 
early stage of war, the spearhead of the British 
Army had been thrust into the Continent of 
Europe. 

It is often the obvious which paaaea without 
recognition. The official btelligence that the 
Expeditionary Force had reached the Continent 
fired the imagination of Englishmen, and they 
felt no little pride that at so early a stage in 
the war the British Army— the only^Iong-service 
army fai the world— should have been able to 
take its stand beside the devoted defenders of 
France and Belgium. 

It is, of course, obvious that the army of an 
island kingdom cannot leave its base except it 
receive a guarantee of safe transport from the 
Navy. The British Army, whether it fights in 
India, in Egypt, or in South Africa, must always 
be carried on the back of the British Navy 



14 The Fleets at War 

If during the yean of peaceful dalliance and 
fearful anticipation it h*d been suggested that, 
in face of an unconq iwred Genoan fleet, we could 
throw an immense b -dy of man va the Continent, 
and complete the oprtation w'thin ten days or 
so from the declaration oi war, the stot emm t 
would have been regarded as a gross exaggera- 
tion. This was the amazing achievement. It 
reflected credit on the military machinery ; but 
let it not be forgotten that all the labours of 
the General Staff at the War Office would have 
been of no avaU unless, on the day before the 
declaration of war, the whole mobilised Navy 
had been able to take the sea in defence of British 
Interests afloat. 

We do well not to ignore these obvious facts, 
because they are fundamental. The Navy must 
always be the lifeline of the Expeditionary Force, 
ensuring to it reinforcements, stores, and eveiy- 
thing necessary to enable it to carry out its 
high purpose. That the Admiralty, with the 
approval of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, fdt 
itself justified in giving the military authontlM 
a certificate of safe transport before the command 
of the sea had been secured indicated high con- 
fidence that when the German fleet did come 
forth to accept battle the issue would be m 
no doubt, though victory mi^t have to be 
purchased at a high price. 

Nor was this all. Thanlts to the ubiquitous 
operations of the British Navy, the Govemmwit 
was able to move two diviaons of troops from 
India, and to accept all the offers of miUtary aid 
which were immediately made by the Dominions] 




HMS. Kim Oeortt V. photo: Cribb. SoMtei. 

KING GEORGE V CLASS. 

KING GEORGE V, CENTURION, AUDACIOUS, 
AJAX. 

Displacement: 23,000 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 I3.5in., 16 4m.; 
Torpedo tubes: 5. 




Astern fire: 
4 >3-5in. 



Eroadsidc 
10 I3.5in. 



Ahead fire : 
4 l3-5in- 



The Opening Phase is 

It was realised in a flash by aU the scattered 
peoide of the Empire that the Fleet, with its 
tentacles in every sea, maintains the Empire 
in umty: when "the earth was fuU of anger" 
the seas were full of British ships of war. 

It was in these circumstances that the war 
opened. Every incident tended to remind the 
people of the British Isles and the subjects of 
the King who Uve in the far-iiung Dominions 
and those who reside in the scattered Crow" 
Colonies and Dependencies of the essential truth 
contained in the phrases which had come so 
tnppmgly to the lips in days of peace. Men 
recognised that the statement of our dependence 
upon the sea as set forth in the Articles of War 
was a declaration of policy which we had done 
well not to ignore : 

"It fa upon the Navy that, under the 
good Providence of God, the wealth, pros- 
pmty and peace of these islands and of 
the Empire do mainly depend." 

How true these words rang when, in defence of 
our honour, we had to take up the gage thrown 
down by the Power which claimed supremacy as 
a mihtaty Power and aspired to primacy aa a 
na^ Poirar. Those who turned to Mr. Arnold 
White s admirable monograph on "The Navy 
and Its Stoiy," must admit that this writer, in 
picturesque phrase, had set forth fundamental 
tacts i 

"Since the first mariner risked hu life 
in a canoe and travelled coastwise for his 



18 The Fleets at War 



tance. Sosucce^y^ generations o4 
done its work t^J^^Xout hearing 

of iordgn Bo^fS'S.e lii^S'slLe of 
stiU Uving and Idt tne pam *" 

the Bntish fjavy n» j^^^^. 

would-be ™«t«,?^„^T£i^e. Charies 
ment of his ambition. i^*^**^^of France, 
v.. PhiUp II. of SP^. Lo^j^IV. of^^^ 

rCc^edtSs^P^ansby 
British sea power." 

that they ow^^^*^^^er tyrant, th^ 
to om in ,''™"'?™f. .^ V „hich cMifronted 
gained confidence in t^fJL'^/^r^ 

='«'*' °^*^^2l^^ dSt the mi«hti«t 
SeTti^UirfviSed to impose Uieiryolce 

°^^TlS?-of cal^^ess. ^^^^^^ 
the Brit^ people took up the i^* wm 



p. 
es 

i»- 
vy 
of 

sry 
mp 

I of 

and 
the 
ain- 
ules 
ince, 
ersal 
s in 
s by 

i fact 
' past 
they 
^>nt^ 
bieve- 
tiid of 
ghtiest 
r yoke 

xKinge 
h thdr 




H.M.S. Orion, 



Photo: Sport & C«neraJ. 



ORION CLASS. 

ORION, CONQUEROR, MONARCH. 
THUNDERER. 

Displacement : 22,500 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 I3.5in., 16 4in.; 
Torpedo tubes: 3. 




Astern fire: 
4 i3-5'n- 



Broadside : 
10 I3.5in. 



Ahead fire: 
4 l3-5in- 



The Opening Phase 17 

smse ot honour forced upon them aU unwillingly 
Glanang back over the record of naval prognM 
dunng the earlier yean of the twentieth cootury 
we cannot fail to recognise that, in spite of many 
cross currents and eddies of pubUc opinion. 
»te had been preparing the British peoples, all 
unconsciously, for the arbitrament of a war 
on the issue of which would depend aU the inter 
ests, tangible and intangible, of the four hundred 
Mid forty miUion subjects of tiie King-4heir 
fntdom. their rights to self government, their 
world-wide trade, and that atmosphere which 
distinguishes the British Empire from every 
other empire which has ever existed. In the 
yMTs of peace men had often asked themselves 
whether a new crisis would produce the men of 
dKtiny to defend the traditions we had inherited 
from our forefathers. While peace still reigned 
th^ httie realised that the men of destiny^ 
quietiy, but persistentiy. working out our salva- 
tion. When the hour stinck England was fuUy 
prepared, confident in her sea power, to take up 
the ^ m defence of all the democracies of the 
world against the tyrant Power which sought to 
impose the iron caste of mihtarism and material- 
ism upon nations that had outgrown medieval 
I conditions. 
It we would reaUse tiie bearing of British naval 
pohcy m the years which preceded the outbreak 
of war. we shall do wea to cast aside all party 
bias and personal animosities and study the 
^sequence of evente after the manner of the 
^histonan who collates the material to his hand, 
■analyses it without fear or favour, and sets down 



18 The Fleets at War 

his conclusions in all faithfulness. Puituing this 
oouree we are carried back to the year 1897. 
Since the German Emperor had ascended the 
throne in 1888, he had endeavoured to communi- 
cate to his subjects the essential truths as to 
the influence of sea power upon history which he 
had read in Adr^iiral Mahan's early books. His 
educational campaign was a failure. In spite of 
all the efforts of Admiral von Hollmann, the 
Minister of Marine, the Reischstag refused to 
vote increased supplies to the Navy. At last, 
when he had been finally repulsed, first by the 
Budget Committee and then by the Reischstag 
itself. Admiral von Hollmann retired admitting 
defeat. The Emperor foimd a successor in a 
naval officer who, then unknown, was in a few 
years to change radically the opinion of Germans 
on the value of a fleet. Bom on March 19th, 
1849, *t Custrin, and the son of a judge, Alfred 
Tirpitz became a naval cadet in 1865, and was 
afterwards at the Naval Academy from 1874 to 
1876. He subsequently devoted much attention 
to the torpedo branch of the service, and was 
mainly responsible for the torpedo organisation 
and the tactical use of torpedoes in the German 
Navy — a work which British officers regard with 
admiration.* Subsequently he became Inspector 
of her Torpedo Service, and was the first Flotilla 
Chief of the Torpedo Flotillas. Later he was 
appointed Chief of the Stafi at the naval station 



• German Sea Power: Its Rise, Progress and 
EconcHuic Basis, by Archibald Kurd and Heniy Castle 
(London : John Murray 1913). 



The Opening Phase 19 

in the Baltic and of the Sopreme Command of 
the German Fleet. During these earlier yean 
of his sea career. Admiral Tirpitz made several 
long voyages. He is regarded as an eminent 
tactician, and is the author of the rules for Ger- 
man naval tactics as now in use in the Navy. 
In 1895 he was promoted to the rank of Rear- 
Admiral, and became Vice-Admiral in 1899. In 
1896 and 1897 he commanded the cruiser squad- 
ron in East Asia, and immediately after 
became Secretary of State of the Imperial Navy 
Office. In the following year he was made a 
Minister of State and Naval Secretary, and in 
1901 received the hereditary rank of nobility, 
entitling him to the use of the honorific prefix 
" Von." 

With the advent of this sailor-statesman to 
the Marineamt, the whole course of German 
naval policy changed, and in 1898 the first 
German Navy Act was passed authorising a 
navy on a standard which far exceeded anything 
hitherto attained. It provided for the following 
ships: 



THE BATTLE FLEET 
19 battleships (2 as material reserve). 

8 armoured coast defence vessels. 

6 large cruisers. 
16 small cruisers. 



ao 



The Fleets at War 



FOREIGN SERVICE FLEET 

Large Cruisers 

For East Airica a 

For Central and South America - - i 

Materia] reserve 3 

Total 6 

Small Cruisers 

For East Asia 3 

For Central and South America - - 3 

For East Africa 2 

For the South Seas - ... 2 

Material reserve - - - . . ^ 

Total 14 

I Station ship. 

This dramatic departure in German naval 
policy aroused hardly a ripple of interest in 
England. Then occurred the South African War, 
the seizure of the " Bundesrat," and other inci- 
dents which were utilised by the German Emperor, 
the Marine Minister, and the official Press Bureau, 
with its wide extending agencies for inflaming 
public opinion throughout the German Empire 
against the British Navy. The ground having 
been well prepared, in 1900 the naval measure of 



The Opening Phase 21 

iV. which WH to have <H>verad a period of dx 
yean, wat supeneded by another Navy Act, 
practically doubling the establiihment of ships 
and men. This is not the time, nor does space 
permit, to trace the evolution of German naval 
policy during subsequent yeare or to analyse 
the successive Navy Acts which were passed 
as political circumstances favoured further ex- 
pansion. The story'— and it is a fascinating narra- 
tive in the light of after event»— may be read 
elsewhere. The fact to be noted is that the 
British peoples generally viewed the early indica- 
tions of German naval policy without suspicion 
or distrust. Most men found it impossible to 
believe that any Power could hope to challenge 
the naval supremacy which had been won at 
such great sacrifice at the BatUe of Trafalgar, 
and which the British people had continued to 
enjoy virtually without challenge throughout 
the nineteenth century. 

Happily, the hour when preparations had to be 
made, if made at all, to maintain in face of any 
rivalry our sea command, produced the man. 
In the autumn of 1901 Lord Selbome, then Fir»t 
Lord of the Admiralty, paid a special visit to 
Malta to discuss the naval situation with a naval 
officer with whose name not a thousand people in 
the British Isles were then familiar. Sir John 
Fisher had, as recently as 1899, taken over the 
command of the Mediterranean Squadron; he 
had already made a great name in the service as 
a man of original thought and great courage, 
possessing a genius for naval politics and naval 
administration. He had represented the British 



22 The Fleets at War 

Navy at the Hague Peace Conference, but he 
night have walked from end to end of London, 
and not a dozen people would have recognised 
him. In the following March, thanks to Lord 
Selbome, he became Second Sea Lord, and a naval 
revolution was inaugurated. Elsewhere I have 
recapitulated the remarkable Navy of the renais- 
sance of British sea power.* 

First, attention was devoted to the personnel. 
New schemes of training for officers and men and 
for the Naval Reserve were introduced. A new 
force— the Royal Fleet Reserve— was established, 
consisting of naval seamen and other ratings who 
had served afloat for five years or more; a 
Volunteer Naval Reserve was initiated; steps 
were taken to revise the administration of the 
naval establishments ashore, and to reduce the 
proportion of officers and men engaged in peace 
duties, freeing them for service in ships afloat. 
On the anniversary of Trafalgar in 1904, after a 
short period in command at Portsmouth m order 
to supervise personally the reforms in training 
and manning policy ahready introduced. Sir John 
Fisher — Lord Fisher as he is now known — returned 
to the Admiralty as First Sea Lord. Instantly, 
with the support of Lord Selbome and Mr. Bal- 
four, then Prime Minister, to whom all honour is 
due, the new Board proceeded to carry into 
effect vast correlated schemes for the redbtiibu- 
tion of the fleets at sea and the more rapid 
mobilisation of ships in reserve, the reorganisation 
of the Admiralty, and the re-adjustment of our 

• Fortnightly Review, September, 1914. 



The Opening Phase 23 

world naval policy to the new conditiona In accord- 
ance with a plan of action which the new First 
Sea Lord had prepared montiu in advance. 

Our principal aea frontier has been the Mediter^ 
ranean. It was necessary to change it, and the 
operation had to be carried out without causing 
undue alarm to our neighbours — at that time we 
had no particular frienck, though the foundations 
of the Entente were already being laid. Without 
asking your leave from Parliament, the great 
administrative engine, to which Lord Fisher 
supplied fuel, proceeded to carry out the most 
gigantic task to which any Governmental Depart- 
ment ever put its hand. Overseas squadrons 
which had no strategic purpose were disestab- 
lished ; unimportant dockyards were reduced to 
cadres ; ships too weak to fight and too slow to 
run away were recalled ; a whole fleet of old ships, 
which were eating up money and adding nothing 
to our strength, were scrapped ; the vessels in 
reserve were provided with nucleus crews. Wth 
a single eye to the end in view — victory in the 
main strategical theatres — conservative influences 
which strove to impede reform were beaten down. 
With the officers and men taken out of the weak 
ships, and others who were wrenched from com- 
fortable employment ashore, a great fleet on our 
new frontier was organised. 

In the preamble to the German Navy Act of 
1900 it had been stated : 

" It is not absolutely necessary that the 
German Battle Fleet should be as strong as 
that of the greatest naval Power, for a great 



24 The Fleets at War 

naval Power will n^i, as a rule, be in a 
position to concentrate aU its strildng foroe 
against us. But even if it should succeed in 
meeting us with considerable superiority of 
strength, the defeat of a strong German 
Fleet would so substantially weaken the 
enemy that, in sjMte of the victory he might 
have obtained, his own position in the world 
would no longer be secured by an adequate 
fleet." 

Lord Fisher had not studied the progress of the 
German naval movement without realising that 
in this passage was to be found the secret of the 
strategic plan which the German naval authorities 
had formed. With the instinct of a great stra- 
tegist, he reorganised the whole world-wide 
machinery of the British Navy, in order to suit 
the new circumstances then developing. 

The war in the Far East had shown that changes 
were necessary in the design of British ships of all 
classes. The First Sea Lord insisted that the 
matter should have inmiediate attention, and a 
powerful committee of naval officers, shipbuilders, 
and scientists began its sittings at the Admiralty. 
The moment its report was available. Parliament 
was asked for authority to lay down groups of 
ships of new types, of which the " Dreadnought " 
was the most famous. In the preceding six years, 
sixteen battleships had been laid down for Great 
Britain, while Germany had begun thirteen ; our 
sea power, as computed in modem ships of the line, 
had already begun to shrink. Secretly and rapidty' 
feur units of the new type— the " Dreadnought "' 



The Opening Phase 26 

with her swift sisters, the " Indomitable," " In- 
flexible," and " Invincible "—were rushed to 
completion. No battleship building abroad 
carried more than four big guns ; the " Dread- 
nought " had ten big guns, and her swift consorts 
eight.* Thus was the work of rebuilding the 
Bntish Fleet initiated. Destroyers of a new type 
were idaced in hand, and redoubled progress was 
made in the construction of submarines, which 
Lord Fisher was the first to realise were essential 
to this country, and were capable of immense 
development as offensive engines of warfare. 
We gamed a lead of eighteen months over other 
Powers by the determined policy adopted. 

Jost as the task of rebuilding the Fleet had been 
mibated. a change of Government occurred, 
and there was reason to fear that the stupendous 
task of reorganising and re-creating the bases 
of our naval power would be delayed, if not 
abandoned. In Lord Fisher the nation had, 
fortunately, a man of iron will. Though Sir 
Henry Campbell-Bannerman, above all things 

• It b offidaUy admitted by the United States 
Na\^ Department that it had prepared plans for 
a smp similar in armament to the Dreadnought in 
1904, and was awaiting the approval of Cmgnss 
before begummg construction. American olceis 
nad come to the same conclusions as to the inevit- 
AtotaS ^^ »* battleship design as the British 

r>\^P^' lu *''* ^*^y imposed by the necessity of 
obtaining the consent of Congress, the United SUtes 

ij« R^'t-^^f^*^.' "• ^^ exetase of its powers, 
tne Bntidi Admiralty acted directly the designs of 
the new ships were ready. ^ 



26 



The Fleets at War 



desirous of airesting the rivalry in naval anna- 
ments, was Prime HGnister, and Lord Tweed- 
mouth was Fiist Lord of the Admiralty, Lord 
Fisher, supported by his colleagues on the Board, 
insisted on essentials. Delays occurred in German 
shipbuilding, and the Admiralty agreed that 
British shipbuilding could be delayed. In 1906, 
1907, and 1908 only eight Dreadnoughts were 
begun. Subsequent events tend to show that this 
policy was a political mistake, though we 
eventiutlly obtained more powerful ships by the 
dday. Germany was encouraged to believe that 
under a Liberal Administration she could overtake 
us. Between 1906 and 1908 inclusive we laid down 
eight large ships of the Dreadnought type; and 
Germany laid down nine, and began to accelerate 
her programme of 1909. 

liien occurred a momentous change in British 
affairs. Lord Tweedmouth, after the famous 
incident of the German Emperor's letter, retired 
from office (1908), and Ms place was taken by 
Mr. Reginald McKenna, who was to show that a 
rigid regard for economy was not incompatible 
with a high standard of patriotism. In associa- 
tion with the Sea Lords, he surveyed the naval 
situation. In the following March occurred the 
naval crisis. Germany had accelerated her con- 
struction, and our sea power was in peril. The 
whole Board of Admiralty determined that there 
was no room for compromise. Mr. McKenna, it is 
now no secret, found arrayed against him a large 
section of the Cabinet when he put forward the 
stupendous programme of 1909, making pro- 
vision for eight Dreadnoughts, six protected 



The Opening Phase 27 

cruiseis, twenty destroyers, and a number of 
submarines. The naval crisis was accompanied 
by a Cabinet crisis, in spite of the fact that Sir 
Edward Grey, as Foreign Secretary, gave the 
naval authorities his fuU support. Unknown to 
the nation, the AdmiraUy resigned, and for a time 
the Navy had no superior authority. This dramatic 
act won the day. The Cabmet was converted ; 
the necessity for prompt, energetic action was 
proved. The most in the way of compromise to 
which the Board would agree was a postponement 
in announcing the construction of four of the 
eight armoured ships. But from the first there 
was no doubt that, unless there was a sudden 
change in German policy, the whole octette would 
be built. When the programme was presented 
to the House of Commons, the Prime Ifinister 
and Sir Edward Grey gave to Mr. McKenna thair 
wholehearted support; either the Govenunent 
had to be driven from office, or the Liberal Party 
had to agree to the immense commitment repre- 
sented in the Navy Estimates. The programme 
was agreed to. 

This, however, is only half the story. Neither 
the Government nor the Admiralty was in a 
position to tell the country that, though aU the 
ships were not to be laid down at once, they 
would all be laid down in regular rotation, in order 
that they might be «ady m ample time to meet 
the situation which was developing. Perhaps it 
was well in the circumstances that this fact was 
not revealed. Public opinion became active. 
The whole patriotic sentiment of the country was 
roused, and the jingle was heard on a thousand 



28 The Fleets at War 

pUttfoma, " We want eight and we won't wait." 
The Admiralty, which had already determined 
upon its policy, remained silent and refused to 
hasten the construction of the ships. Quietly, 
but finnly, the Boaxd resisted pressure, reali-^g 
that it, and it only, was in possession of all the 
facts. Secrecy is the basis of peace as well as 
war strategy. The naval authorities were unable 
to defend themselves by announcing that they 
were on the eve of obtaining a powerful weapon 
which couid not be ready for the ships if they 
were laid dovn at once. By waiting the Navy 
was to gain the most powerful gun in the world. 

In order to keep pace with progress in Germany, 
it was necessary to lay down two of the eight 
ships in July, and be satisfied with the la-inch guns 
(projectile of 850 lbs.) for these units. The con- 
struction of the other six vessels was postponed in 
order that they might receive the new i3-5-inch 
gun,withaprojectile of about i,4oolbs. Twoof the 
Dreadnoughts were began at Portsmoux.< and 
Devonport Dockyards in the following November, 
and the contracts for the remaining four were not 
placed until the spring, for the simple reason that 
the deUveiy of the new guns and mountings 
and their equipment could not be secured for 
the vessels, even if their hulls were started with- 
out a moment's delay. Thus we obtained six 
battlediips which are still unique; in no other 
Navy is so powerful a gun to be found to-day as 
the British iS'S-mch weapon. In 1910 and in 
191 1 Mr. McKenna again fought for national 
safety, and he won the essential provision for the 
Fleet. He risked his all in defence of our sea 



The Opening Phase 29 

power. He was probably during thon years of 
struggle the most unpopular Minister the Liberal 
Party ever had. What has been the sequel of his 
tenacity and courage and patriotism? What 
has bwi gained owing to the bold front which 
Lord Fisher presented, as First Sea Lord, sup- 
ported by his coUeagues ? Sixteen of the eightem 
battleships and battle-cruisers of the Dread- 
nought type, the fifteen protected cruisers, and 
the Mxty destroyers, with a group of submarines, 
which the Board over which Mr. McKemu pre- 
«ded secured, constituted the spearhead of tte 
Bntish Fleet when the crisis came and war had 
to be declared against Germany in defence of our 
plighted word. 

With the addition of one more chapter, this 
story of the renaissance of British sea power is 
complete. In the autumn of ign, over seven 
years afti Lord Fisher had begun to shake the 
Navy mto renewed life, encouraged Sir Percy 
Scott m his gunnery reforms, and brou^t to tl^ 
Board the splendid inteUect of Sir John Tellicoe 
Mr Winston ChurchiU replaced Mr. McKemu^ 
as Fust Lord. Thus the youngest statesman of 
tHe EngUsh-speaking world realised his ambition 
Lord Fisher, under the age clause, had already 
been compelled to vacate his seat on the Board 
retuing with a peerage, and his successor. Sir 
Arthur Wilson, was also on the eve of retirement 
,« , 5^^j?«^ had to be freed to take over the 
Weldi Church BiU and to place his legal mind 
aj the service of the country at the Home Office. 
He had done his work and done it weU. Mr 
Wmstwi ChurchiU proved the ideal man to put 



30 



The Fleets at War 



the finishing touches to the great task which 
had been initiated during Lord Selbome's period 
of office. Perhaps the keynote of his administra- 
tion is to be found in the attention which he 
devoted to the organisation of the War Staff, the 
elements of which had been created by lormer 
Boards, and the readjustment of the pay of 
officers and men. No service is efficient for Mrar 
in which there exists a rankling feeling of in- 
justice. The rates of pay of officers and men 
were revised and increased ; facilities were opened 
up for men of the lower deck to reach com- 
missioned rank. About 20,000 officers and men 
were added to the active service of the Fleet. 
At the same time with the ships provided by 
former Boards, the organisation of the ships in 
Home waters was placed on a higher standard 
of efficiency, particular attention being devoted 
to tha organisation of the older ships so as to 
keep them efficient for war. The Naval Air 
Service was established, and its development 
pressed forward with all speed. Thus the work 
of reform and the task of changing the front of 
the British Navy had been brought to completion, 
or virtual completion, at the moment when 
Germany, by a concatenation of circumstances, 
was forced into a position where she had to fight 
the greatest of sea Powers, or admit the defeat of 
all her ambitions. 

A study of the sequence of events which 
immediately preceded the outbreak of hostilities 
is hardly less interesting than the earlier and 
dramatic incidents which enabled us to face 
the supreme crisis in our history with a measure 



The Opening Phase 81 

of asmred confideooe. On March 17th, 1914, 
Mr. Winston Churchill spoke in the House of 
Commons on the Navy Estimates. It is common 
knowledge that he had just fought a stem battle 
in the Cabinet for adequate supines, and It was 
assumed at the time, from various incidents, that 
he had been compelled to submit to some measura 
of retrenchment. He received, however. Cabinet 
authority to ask Parliament for the largest sum 
ever devoted to naval defencfr-^51,500,000. 
In the course of his speech on these Estimates he 
made the announcement that there would be no 
naval manoeuvres in 1914. He stated : 

" We have decided to substitute this year 
for the grand manoeuvres— not, of course, 
for the numbeiless exercises the Fleet is 
always carrying out — a general mobilisation 
of the Third Fleet.* We are calling up the 
whole of the Royal Fleet Reserve for a 
period of eleven days, and those who come 
up for that period will be excused training 
next year, and will receive £1 bounty in 
addition to their r^ular pay. 

" We have had a most admirable response. 
10,170 men, seamen, and others, and 1,409 
marines, are required to man the ships of 
the Third Fleet. We have already, in the 
few days our circular has been out, received 
replies from 10,334 men volunteers, and 
from 3,321 marines. I think that reflects 
great credit on the spirit of the Rnerve 



* The Third Fleet consists of the oldest ships of the 
Navy maintained in peace with skeleton crews. 



82 The Fleets at War 

generally, and aho reflects credit npon the 
employen, who must have greatly facilitated 
this operation all over the coontry. I henby 
extend to them the thanks of the Admiralty. 
" This test is one of the most important 
that could possibly be made, and it is raally 
surpri^ to me that it has never been 
undertaken before. The cost, including the 
bounty of ;£i. wiU be about ;£5o.ooo. Having 
no grand manoeuvres yields a saving of 
£230,000, so there is a net saving on the 
substitution of £180,000." 

It was hardly surprising in the circumstances 
that many persons thought the Admiralty was 
bent merely upon economy. If the naval authori- 
ties had had foreknowledge of the course of events 
they could not, in fact, have adopted a wiser 
course. From March onwards, week by week 
down to the middle of July, the eUborate and 
complicated drafting arrangements were examined 
and readjusted. Then, after the assassinations 
at Sarajevo and on the eve of the final develop- 
ments on the Continent, which were to make war 
inevitable, the test mobilisation was carried out. 
The principal ships passed before the King off 
the Nab Lightship, a column of seaplanes and 
aeroplanes circling high above the ships, and then 
disappeared in the Channel to carry out what were 
believed to be peace exercises, but were, in fact, 
to prove the manoeuvres preliminary to war. Later 
in the same week, the vessels of the Patrol 
Flotillas were engaged in testing a new scheme 
for sealing this narrow exit to the North Sea. 




NEPTUNE CLASS. 

COLOSSUS, NEPTUNE, HERCULES (slight 
differences). 

Displacement: 19,200 to 20,000 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 I2in., 16 4in.; 
Torpedo tubes: 3. 




Astern fire: 
8 i2in. 



Broadside : 
10 I2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 i2in. 



The Opening PJuue 88 

cjto looad the Fim «Kl sWSmL »iv^ 
•n mpecti for wir, «Kl, irftar «IdltiSSJ; 

war footins, and wm tdOy moMbeiL^ 

Immediately the cnrtain feU. Udfaw from vImt 
the movemento of aU British m»!itwS IZ 
on^y in the nuin rt«t,,icd th-tSTboT^ £ 
oaterieafc Two battlnhii». which tadinrtW 

Paris had denounced only a riiort time befbn 
in his pamphlet as the " War Tiadon "WmS^ 
ow by the Admiralty. prov^^LST^ 
«onjtoo»na^rt«ngth ^o^^Z^ 
to^ were also compulsorily porohasedfrm 
Clule, the appointment ot Admind Sir JoS 
JeUicoe as supreme British Admiral ct ^H^ 
neets was announced. andTS. pX£Si 

to Ae y«it war dnuna on the sea we^ cSKd 
mUioutdelay^confadon. or panic. iSiSS 
win remember in gratitude thT countfTS 
<tec»ion exhibited by Mr. ChmchiuTSw 
^pr«ne crisis. He provedlSLS ^Ita^ 

Thk is not the phce to rebte the storv of th« 
«njj«.ce of British miBtaiy pow«J ^ SrS: 
Secretaiy for War lay in the fact that he did 
unteMe all sd«aes of defence^by an i^ 
Wnrtan. which is the nerve centiJdfa maSe 



** The Fleets at War 

Empire A« in Oppodtlon he had been foremoet 
in advertising our dependence upon the itiZ^ 
offi«M Minister reeponsible rthTySy £ 
hwed aU hi. Kheme. on the assumption that tS 

to be hurled oven^a as soon as the naXuthSy 
tt able to give guarantee of safe passage. ItiS 
m the hght of this essential truthXuhe W 
ditionary Force was organised, and the VoluntS 
wrJo'^d "i? ^^Territorial Army. M^tSS 
w«e no doubt, made ; no man who avoids them 
can ever expect to do anything. But at m^ 

fore withdrawmg a penny from the nwessan^ 
provision of the fleet. Lord Haldane initSS^S 
c^eted miUtary schemes, the value of w£ 
|>Bcame apparent when we were confronted vdih 

ottSrS ''ri''^' "^ -^ contest^SiTw^ 
^ i^* °^*"y ^"^ of Europe, which 
^esg fleets of such a standing that Sy^S 

offw challenge to our supremacy afloat 

The survey of British naval poUcy in the 
years umnediately preceding the W^oSd be 
mcomplete were no ref^c madTJoX^ f JT 
of which we were insistently reminded wS 
hostUitiea opened, that sea JoweTevS moS 
than mUitary power, must st^d defeated torn 
the very outset, unless it is supplemented by 
economic power. In the past the weaJnS. o^ 

«D^t°^r *^*^ "^"^ ^y ^ has^ 
apparent. However great the power on the 

^. howev« formidable the militai^Tarm Z^ 
It must be ready on the instant to organic 



The Opening Phase 3S 

every department of life oo a wtf bull. Armed 
forces which have not behind them a reeolute 
community are robbed of more than half their 
power. A feeling of panic is always apt to 
infect a democracy, and then tmder the paby 
of fear the tendency is for pressure to be brought 
to bear on the supreme naval and military 
authorities, with the result that strategic plans, 
matured in peace, become confused and in- 
effective. An illustration of the influence of 
the fears of the civil population upon war policy 
was furnished during the Spanish-American War. 
Under the pressure of nervous public o^idoa, 
the Naval Board was compelled to depart from 
the sound strategy of concentration upon the 
main objective, and to dissipate no little of the 
power at its command in order to provide some 
measure of local protection for various coast 
towns. Fortunately, British naval policy had 
be«j developed on lines which minimised this 
peril, and our economic resources had been sur- 
veyed, and adequate preparations made to 
afford to our sea power every possible economic 
support. As to the first, fear of mvasion or 
raids, the coast and port guard ships, with little 
more than skeleton crews, had been abolished; 
in their place patrol flotillas of destroyers and 
submarines had been created to keep an efficient 
and active watch and ward along the sea frontier 
wWch the enemy at our door -n'^bt threatoi. 
This provision was supplemented by the mobili- 
sation of all our national rescurces, under the 
direction of the Committee o' Tt -lerial Defence. 
When Jfr. Balfour foimded (his Dwiy he buOded 



3« The Fleets at War 

hrttothanhelmew. When war came not only 
were the nuun fleete not tied to our shores but 
every department of State had befoiJk T'roT 
plete plan of the duty which itlSTto l??™ 

Lt'^th?.'^ V ^' °**''"'^ suppSt'^'S 
flg. mthout which It could not hopTto achie^ 

During the yem which immediately preceded 

Tetl^at °^**'* of Imperial Dd<S^ 
qmeUy at work co-ordinatmg the naval and 
'^ arms, and laying thf fouSdS oTt 
wde^preadmg organisation. On July 35th loia 

Mr.A^uith inaspeechintheHoieofO^mmoS' 
gave the nation , ,me conception of tli^^^' 
of one aspect of the work which was then K?n^ 
^tly performed by this smaU Zy^Z^. 
BBed by our Constitution, and regarieTaTit 

^ be^ smce .^ birth, with no hSnipSi 
and (hstrust. Mr. Asquith related that X 
Committee of Imperial Defence hal apSLt^ 
r^.r '!t^ "" ««b<ommittee fcJT^*^ 
;r^*!?° n <fepartmental action at the ooSiS 
of war Descnbmg this particular work of the 
2^ttee of Imperial Defence. Mr A^uSS 

"This subcommittee. wWch is composed 
of the pimapal officials of the various 
D^artaents of State, has. after ^^ 

g.ti^l-^chdefiJitSy^^rt^^ 
Department-^.ot merely thTwar (SS 
and the Admiralty, but the Home (SSJ 



The Opening Phase 87 

the Board of Trade, and every Department 
of the State-^ts responsibility for action 
under every head of war p(dicy. The 
Departments themselves, in pursuaaoe of 
the instructions given by the War-Book, 
have drafted all the proclamations, Orden 
in Council, letters, telqpams, notices, and 
so forth, which can be foreseen. Every 
possible provision has been made to avoid 
delay in setting in force the machinery in 
the unhappy event of war taking place. It 
has been thought necessary to make this 
Committee permanent, in order that these 
war arrangements may be constantly kept 
up to date." 

What happened in the last days of July, 1914 ? 
During the period of strained relations, the War- 
Book was opened, and every official in every 
State Department concerned— eleven in all- 
had before him a precise statement of exactly 
what contribution he had to make in mobilising 
the State as an economic factor for war. Procla- 
mations, Orders in Council, letters, and telegrams 
flowed forth throughout the British Isles, and 
to the uttermost parts of the Empire, in accord- 
ance with the pre-arranged plan which had been 
so assiduously elaborated. Hardly had the Navy 
been mobilised, the Army Reserves called out to 
complete the regular Army, and the Tenitoiials 
embodied, than the nati<m realised that, without 
wmfasion, it had itself been placed upon a wmr 
footing. The creatirai of the British War- 
Book must be acclaimed as a mooameiit to the 



38 



The Fleets at War 



perepicaaty of Mr, Asqnith and the Ministers who 
assisted him on the Committee of Defence, and 
to the splendid labours of the Secretary of the 
Committee, Captain Maurice Hankey, C.B and 
the smaU staff associated with him. 'xhis 
organisation, which owed so much to the " staff 
mmd " of its former secretary. Rear-Admiral 
Sir Charles Ottley, imposed upon the nation a 
charge of only about ^fo.ooo a year, which was 
returned mcreased by a thousandfold when the 
cnas came, and the United Kingdom, existing 
under the most artificial conditions owing to its 
dependence on the sea for food and raw materials 
was prepared, for the first time in its history to 
offer to Its fleets and armies the wholehearted 
and organised support of the richest nation in 
the world. 

Whai the curtain fell upon the seas, the nation 
had the assurance that everything which fore- 
sight could suggest had been done to make 
secure our essential supremacy. The newspapers 
preserved a discreet sUence as the Home Fleets 
took up their stations in the main strategical 
area. They were convinced, by irrefutable evi- 
dence, that adequate power had been concen- 
trated m this theatre to enable the North Sea 
to be sealed, thus confining the main operations 
of the naval war to one of the smaUest water 
areas m the world. 

Those who study the conspectus of British 
sea power at the moment when the fog of war 
tad from view all that was occurring in distant 
waters would miss the rtsal significance of the 
picture which British sea power presented at this 



The Opening Phase 8fl 

dramatic moment if they failed to recognise the 
means by which the British Navy was able to im- 
pose an iron grip upon the great highways which 
are the life blood of British commerce. When war 
occurred the British sea power was predominant 
in all the outer seas in contrast with every 
other Power engaged in hostihties. At every 
point the British fleet was supreme in con- 
trast with every other Power now engaged 
in hostilities. Austria and Italy were hardly 
represented outride the Mediterranean; Ger- 
many had only one armoured ship and two small 
cruisers in the Mediterranean and a few small 
cruisers in the Atlantic ; in the Pacific, though 
she had the largest squadron of any Con- 
tinental Power, the Admiralty r^^arded our 
forces as being at least twice as strcmg. This 
balance of strength was maintained in accord- 
ance with the terms of the Anglo- Japanese 
Alliance. 

From the moment of the ultimatum all the 
Empire was at war. At a hundred and one 
points of naval and military importance a state 
of war existed. Wherever the British flag was 
flying — and it flies over about one quarte. of 
the habitable globe— officers and men of the sea 
and land services stood awaiting the devdop- 
ment of events. 

What precise orders were issued by the . 
alty cannot be revealed, but telegnma 
were received during the early days trf hou- . 
mdicated that at all the great junctkxM ot 
Empire sections of the British Navy lad 
concentrated, and their ."^NiuMndtiM 



40 



The Fleets at War 



Jwcted to omit no measure necesuiy to mUii- 
tarn the lifeline of the Empire. ^^ 

Under the icheme of concentration which for 
tm y«m previou-ly had been the ouUtanding 
fwture. not only of British naval policy, but3 
the naval pohcy of aU the Great Pow^EnropT 
tte nmnber of ships in distant seu had beS 
reduced, but the fighting vahie of the BriS 
umts was higher than ever before. The char- 
actcr of the British naval representation outside 

from the following official statement of the 
composition of the squadrons which were held 
on the leash by the Admiralty, awaiting the 
develoiHnent of events : "«6 "« 

MEDITERRAJIEAN FLEET. 

T«Sf^^"'?"" SflOADRON.-Inflexible (Flag), 
Indefatigable. Indomitable. ^ 

/in'i^m"?Tv.^'"^* Sqdadron. - Defence 
(Flag), Black Prince, Duke of Edinburgh. Wairior 

jjj^'«"S.-Chatham. DubUn. Gloucester, Wey- 
Attached Ships.— Hussar, Imogene. 

ftS^T'^'J'-T^-^'"*'^ (^«Pot Ship). 
B^. Beagle. Bulldog, Foxhound. Grampis 
GTMjtopper. Harpy, Mosquito, Pincher, RacSon, 

SowuwNis.— B 9, B ro, B «, 






The Opening Phase 41 

Toi«DO BoATi.— No». 044, 045, 046. 063, 
064, 070. 

GIBRALTAR. 

SuBUARnos.— B 6. B 7, B 8. 

ToRPBDO Boats.— 83, 88, 89. 90, 91. 98, 93, 
94. 95. 96. 

EASTERN FL^:ET. 

East Indies Squadron.— Battleship Swiitsure 
(Flag), crnisen Dartmouth, Fox ; sloops Alert, 
Espi^le, Odin. Spidax. 

China Squadron.— Battleship Trtoa^ ; 
annouzed cruisers Minotaur (Flag,, Hampshire ; 
cruisers Newcastle, Yarmouth ; gunboats, etc.. 
Alacrity, Bramble, Britomart, Cadmus, Qio, 
Thistle. 

New Zeaiand DnasiON.— Croiaeis Philomel, 
Psyche, Pyramus, Torch. 

ATTACHED TO CHINA SQUADRON. 

Destroyers.— Chelmer, Cohie, Fame, Jed 
Kemiet, Ribble, Usk, Welland. 

Submarines.— C 36, C 37, C 38. 

Torpedo Boats.— Nos. 035, 036, 037, 038. 

River Gunboats.— Kinaha, Moorhen, Nightin- 
gale, Robin, SandfHper, Snipe, Teal, Woodcock, 
Woodlark. Widgeon. 



42 



The Fleets at War 

AUSTRAUAN FLEET. 
Battle Croisbrs.— AustnOia (Flag.) 
CROiSEH8.-Eiicounter. Melbourne, Sydney. 
DEsraoYBRS—Puiamatta, Wanego, Yana. 
SOBMARINBS.— AE I. AE a. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 
CROiSBi».-Hyacinth (Flag), Pegasus. Astnta. 

WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 
GnNBOAT.— Dwarf. 

S.E. COAST OF AMERICA. 
Crdisbr. — Glasgow. 

WEST COAST OF AMERICA. 
Sloops.— .Algerine, Shearwater. 

WEST ATLANTIC. 

AR»iooRHDCRnisERs.-Suffolk. Berwick, Essex 
Lancaster; cruiser Bristol. «*.i!«ex, 

wJ'i*!!!!!'**^ ^ *^ °P«>^ PJ»«s of the 
war between mx of the great fleets of the worid 
wo^ be i^mplete wen. no referent Sde 
to the conditions of the Gennaa Fleet. A month 



The Opening Phase 4S 

before the final cleavage between the two natioai, 
Kiel had kept high festival in honoar of the 
British Navy. At the invitation of the Gennan 
Govenunent, Vice-Admiral Sir George Wairender 
had taken some of the finest battleships of the 
British Navy into this Gennan port. During the 
Regatta Week official Germany entertained the 
officers and men with the utmost hospitality, 
and, for a time, the Emperor had his iag, the 
flag of an honorary admiral of the British Navy, 
flying from the mainmast ol one of the latest 
"Dreadnoughts," the "King George V..» and 
was in technical command of this important 
section of the Home Fleet. Luncheons, dinners, 
and receptions filled the days over which the 
yacht racing extended, and when Sir Geoige 
Warrender steamed out of Kiel to meet at a 
rendezvous at sea the British squadron, under 
Rear-Admiral Sir David Beatty, which had been 
visiting the Baltic ports of Russia, and the other 
squadrons which had been entertained by the 
peoples of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, every 
indication encouraged the belief that peace was 
more completely assured than at any time during 
this century. 

The Kiel festivities at an end, the High Sea 
Fleet, reinforced by a number of reserve sh^, 
put to sea for its summer cruise in Norwegiai' 
waters. The Emperor, in the Royal Yacht 
" Hohenzollem," ako left fcnr the coast of Norway. 
These were the conditions when the b(dt f^. 
Can it be doubted that, when in after years and 
in full knowledge, the history of the war is 
written, it will be ccmduded that Germany, in 



** The Fleet! at War 

^vtag hir ropport to Awtria-Huagtiy, had no 

With much labour, and at gnat sacrifice sha 
be tawdiihed in the eyes of a timid and com- 
the Britbh people to be ; but it was not a fleS 

S^Sco'SSS*"'^^^*-- 

J^ni^o,rs.;:b-tW^?s 

S^r^'^ ^." »ea power was ^S. 

n« first programme of four "Dreadnoughts" 
buther navy was still deficient in crSeSl 
possessmg six only-as weD as in torpSo^ST 

oave ftced the naval forces of France and 
Great Britain in the MediterTaneaTtot to 
»JUon the former's portion was fTm tS fiiS 
weU-nigh hopeless, and her ships retired toS 
at the outbreak of the war. *" "~ " *^«» 
The French fleet was in good condition to 

German acts and German words irSd beS 
strengthened m ships and men. its admiTtnS 
asboieremodeUed. and its fleets at searo^SS 
I^LlT^^ Government had coSTS 

the most conspicuously able sailors of the period 
Ainmd Bou^ du Lapeyr^re. and could enteS 
c^^ " •*»°»val"P«ts with confidence aS 



The Opening Phase 48 

RoMia WM not to fortunate. She htd ioly 
compuativdy noentty takm Mriooa stepo to 
replace tbe fleet the kwt in the war whh Japan. 
A ihip-building project, known as the " Ifinor 
Progianune," was being carried out, bat lo far 
none of the vessels it comprised had become 
available for service. When war occuircd. four 
" Dreadnonghts," which were begun as far back 
as Z909, were not 3ret ready, and seven others 
were on the stocks, but not yet launched. Eight 
small cruisers kid down under the "Minor 
Programme" were buUding, two of them in a 
Gennan yard, and the remainder in Russia, and 
there was besides a laige fiotiUa of torpedo 
craft under construction. With all these vessels 
in c ommis si o n, the Russian Navy would have 
become once more a factor to be reckoned with. 
As it happened, Russia faced the war practically 
without any considerable sea power. 

When hostilities had begun, a dramatic faid- 
dent reminded the world that Japan, the ally 
of Great Britain in the Far East, was not viewing 
the course of events unconcerned. On Monday, 
August 16th, it was announced that the Japanese 
Government had delivered an ultimatum to 
Germany in the following terms : 

"We consider it highly important and 
necessary in the present situation to take 
measures to remove the causes of all dis- 
turbance of peace in the Far East, and to 
safeguard general interests as contemplated 
in the Agreement of Alliance between Japan 
and Gtatt Britain. 



46 The Fleets at War 

"In otder to lecare fim and enduring 
peace in Eaitera Asia, the esUblishment 
of which is the aim of the laid Agreement, 
the Imperial Japanese Government sincerely 
believes it to be its duty to give advice to 
the Imperial German Government to carry 
out the following two propositions : 

"I. Withdraw immediately from 
Japanese and Chinese waten the Ger- 
man men-o'-war and armed vessels at 
all kinds, and to disarm at once those 
which cannot be withdrawn. 

"a. To deliver on a date not later 
than September 15th to the Imperial 
Japanese authorities, without condition 
or compensation, the entire leased terri- 
toty of Kiau-Chau, with a view to the 
eventual restoration of the same to 
China. 

" The Imperial Japanese Government an- 
nounces at the same time that in the 
went of its not receiving by noon on 
August 23rd an answer from the Im- 
perial German Government signifying un- 
cOTditional acceptance of the above advices 
ofiered by the Imperial Japanese Govern- 
ment, Japan will be compeUed to take such 
actiOT as it may deem necessary to meet 
the mtuation." 

When Germany was confronted with heavy 
odds, Japan remembered the events tolloi^ 
ing the war of 1894-5, when this Power, 



The Opening Phase 47 

having joiiMd in robbing her of the tpoU of her 
victory over China, henelf entered into pone*- 
sion of Ktao Chau, as the price for the lives 
of two murdered missionaries. 

Thus, at the touch of German arrogance, 
four great sea Powers of tlie world anayed 
themselves against her— the British, Freoch. 
and Russian fleets in European waters, and the 
great navy of Japan in the Pacific. 

In this wise did the struggle for the command 
of the sea open. Germany reaped as she had 
sown. Since 1898 she had boasted how she 
would challenge the greatest sea Power. When 
the day and hour came it was not the British 
fleet only, but the navies of France. Russia, and 
Japan which confronted her. By her words 
and acts she had alienated the sympathies of 
every nation except her ally, Austria-Hungary. 
The war began with her fleets and squa^boos 
sheltering behind the forts of her naval bases, 
and with a few cruisers in the Atlantic being 
hunted by an overpowering force of British and 
French ships. Sudi was the fruit of her diplo- 
macy and her forward naval policy ; her shipping 
suffered instant strangulation ; her colonies were 
divorced from the Motherland, and she was con- 
fronted with the approaching ruin of that world- 
politic which had been her pride and inspiration. 




HMS. V..t„rd. pj^„. s^, ^ f.^^j 

VANGUARD CLASS. 

ST. VINCENT, VANGUARD. COLLINGWOOD. 

Displacement : 19,250 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 I2in., i8 4in.; 

Torpedo tubes: 3. 




Astern fire: 
6 I2in. 



Broadside : 
8 i2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 i2in. 



CHAPTER I 

The Relative Standing or the British and 
Germam Fleets 

The relative strength of the British and G<nnan 
navies at the moment when war was declared 
is of historical interest. 

The appended particulars have been pnpared 
from " Fightinc Ships, 1914." and brought-up to- 
date by the inclusion (rf the two Turkish battle- 
ships and the two Chilian destroyer leaders, which 
were purchased on the outbreak of hostilities by 
the British Goveramnt 



BRmsB Navy. 

Snpcr-Dreadnougfat battleships • 11 
Super-Dreadnought battle^ruisers - 3 

I>readnou(^t battleships 
I^nxlaoaiht battle-cr^sen • 



— M 
5 



Total of ships of Dreadnou^t era : 
(Three more super-Drndnoughts 
Msr completioa, and due to 
commission late in 1914.} 

48 



18 
3a 



80 The Relative Standing of the 

Pra-Dntdnoo^ts I 

Foiwenhil ihipt all completed be- 
tween 1905 and 1908 • - 8 

Older and less powerful ships com- 
pleted between 1895 and 1904 • 30 

- 38 



Total battleships • 70 

AmKnaed Cniiaeis : 

Big, heavily-aimed shipe com- 
pleted between 1905 aid 1908 - 9 

" County " daas, slower and less 
powerful, comideted between 
1903 and 1905 - - 15 

"Drake" and "Ciessy" dass, 
bigger and better, but sli^tly 
older ships, completed between 
1901 and 1903 - - -10 

Total armoured cruisers - — 34 



Cruisers: 
Big protected cruisers, " Diadem " 
class, ai knots. 6in. guns (1889- 

1903) 6 

Older and smaller (1890-1893) - 9 



- 15 



Fast Light Cruisers : 
" Arethusa " class, 3.500 tons, 30 
knots, burning oil, c(Hnpleted 

1914 8 

"Town" class. 5.400 to 4.800 
tons. 25 knots (1910-1914) - 15 



British and German Fleets 51 

35-knot ihipt, round about 300 
tow (1903-1907) . - -15 

— 30 
20-lmot ships, 3,100 to 5.400 tona 
(1896-1900) - - . i6 i6 

19-knot shipt. 5.600 tool (1805- 
1896) - - . .^. 9 5 

Older ^ps, a.500 to 4.300 teas. 
i6-5 to 195 knots (1890-1893) 9 9 

Total protected cruisers • 87 

Destroyers. 36 to 35^ knots (1893. 

^914) aa; 

Torpedo-boats, 36 to ao knots (1885- 

^9^*) 109 

Submarines, from i.ooo to aoo tons. 
q>eed from 20 to 11-5 knots 
surface. 13 to 7 knots sub- 
merged (1904-1913) . yj 

Minelajrera « 

Repair Ships • 

It need hardly be added that a number 
of these vessels— including the two Pie-Dtvad- 
nought battleships " Swiftsure " and " Triumph " 
»nd groups of cmiaen, destroyers, and sub- 
narines— were on duty in the outer seas when 
war opened. 



68 The Relative Standing of the 

GnMAN FtSBT. 

Super-Dreadnougfats (3 bailding) - None 

Dnidnouglit battleihipt - 13 

Dreadnought bftttle-cruisen • - s 

- rt 
(Three other battleshipt are due 

to oaauniMkm in 1914.) 
Pre-Dreadnouc^t battleahipa (1891- 

1908) aa 

Old coast defence battleships (1889- 

1893) 8 

Annoured cruisers (1897-1909) 
8.900 to 15,500 tons, 24-5 to 19 
Imots 9 

Big protected cruisers (1893-1910), 
6,000 tons, 19 knots - - 6 

24-Jmot cmisos (1904-1913), 3,000 
to 5,000 tons - - - a5 

— 31 
(Most of these ships have belt 

armour as thick aa that of thr 

Biitish " County" dass of 

armoured cruiaen.) 
Small cruisers, ai knots (1893-1910) a 

Destroyers (1889-1913J, 34 to a6 

knots 15a 

Torpedo-boats (1887-1898), a6 to 32 

knots 45 

Snhtnarines, about equal to British 

in siae and speed 301040 

Minelayers a 



British and German Fleets 88 

AH the Gennu Navy, except one battto- 
cruiMT, two aimoand crniMis, and a few 1^ 
cruiian. wore concentrated in the North Sea 
and Baltic whan war occonad. 



II 



CHAPTER II 
The British Navy 

BRITISH BATTLESHIPS 

DREADNOUGHTS 

IRON DUKE CLASS. 

IRON DUKE (Flagship of Vice-Admiral Sir John 

Jellicoe, Conunuder-m-Chief of the Home 

FleeU). 

MARLBOROUGH, EMPEROR OF INDIA. 
BL.'.BOW. 
(Completed 1914.) 

These fine ships are the very latest additions to 
the British battle-fleet. The displacement is 
35.000 toK. but with a full supply of coal, ammu- 
nition, and stores on board the actual figure is 
nearly 27,000 tons. The length over all is 645 ft., 
the maximum breadth is 89I ft., and under normal 
conditions the ship draws 28ft. of water. Par- 
sons' turbines, designed for 29,000 h.p., give a 
speed of 21 knots, which was excMded by over 
one knot on trial An octremely powerfid arsia- 
ment is carried. It consists of ten 13.3-in. and 
twdve 6-in. guns, with some small quick-fireis 
on high-angle mountings for use against aircraft. 
The big guns, mounted in twin turrets, are 
all on the centre line, and can thus be trained 

M 



Iron Duke Class 66 

OB dthar txoadside, while lour train ahead and 
the lame nnmber astern. Ten of the 6-in. gvuu 
are disposed in an upper-deck battery forward, 
the remaining two in casemates right at the 
stem. This disposition was adoptcKi owing to 
the fact that torpedo attacks are usually de- 
livered from ahead, and it is necessary, there- 
fore, that as many quick-firing guns as possible 
can be trained on the approaching boats before 
they are able to discharge their torpedoes. 

Armour protection is very complete in this 
class. On the waterline there is a i2-in. bdt. 
with lo-in. armour rising above this as for as 
the upper deck. The belt thins to 6-in. forward 
and aft, but the extreme ends of the ship are 
unarmoured. On the turrets there is la-in. 
armour, with 6-in. plating over the secondary 
battery. Four 21-in. submeiged torpedo tubes 
are fitted. The fuel supply is well over 3,000 
tons. The complement of these ships totals more 
than 1,000 officers and men. Thiey each cost 
over £2,000,000 complete. 



AGINCOURT. 
(Completed 19x4.) 

This battleship, although she was only launched 
in January, 1913, has had a very chequered 
career. Originally laid down as the Rio de 
Janeiro for the Brazilian Govenuaent at Els- 
wick, she was purchased before conpletion by 
Turkey, and was on the point of leaving for 
Turkish waters imder the name of Osiqan I., 



M Agincourt and Erin 

«4iMi dM WM takan ov«r by tlM BfitUi Adminlty 
on the outbrwk of war with Gmaaay. Totey 
ia uadentood to h»v« made a proteit. but tha 
transfer is an accompHihwl fact, and this ftae 
v«iiel has already passed into onr battle fleet. 
She is quite unique in desiga. The dlq>iaoemeat 
is 37,500 tons, Isifth 63a ft., and the -*-'r-d 
^Med, which was made 00 trial, 33 knots. 

Her main aimameDt consists of no fewer than 
fourteen ts-in. garx mounted in seven doable 
turrets on the cenue-Nne, an anangemant whkh 
pennits all touiteoi weapons to be find on either 
broadude. In the secondaiy battery are mounted 
twenty 6-in. quick-firing guns, and the tale of 
wei^poas is ccunpleted by sixteen mall quick- 
firers and three torpedo tubee. The ship k 
anaoured with 9-in. ptaites fifn^hirs. taperh^ 
to 6 in. and 4 in. at the eads. Annour ^ the 
same thickness (^-in.) protects the la-in. tuiiets, 
and than ia 6-in. platii^{ over the aeoondary guna. 
The maximun coal capacity ia 3,500 tone. A 
complement of 1,100 ci&om and maa ia reqnkad 
to woi^ this huge veaaai. which eost aawfy 
£3,700,000 to build and equip. 



ERIN. 
(Completed 1914.) 

lUa veaael waa laid down at Ban 
Turkish Govesament, and named 
tet waa taken over by the British .„ 
the ouAieak of war with Germany. _ 

in September, 1913, sh^-. '^^fpjam n^Mo teaah 



King George V. Clau 67 

>• 5»5 ft. loag. aad hM tnrUaM at 31.000 b.a. 
lAMi tn «xpeetod to giw • tpeed of ax kiu^ 
In fentnl her datign cormponds to that of 
the Iron Duke elMs. The enrnment eomiiti 
ol ten X3S-iB., lixteea 6-la., tad four la-pounder 
guai^ with five nbmerged toipodo tnbee. 

The five douUe tvmti ia iriiich the big font 
•re moonted «re 00 the centre-line, thus eDowfaic 
•n ten wM^ooi to be uicd on etch bioediide. 
Armour pnrteetioB is very complete, the main 
belt being la in., the turrets ta in., end the 
secondary betteiy 5 in. thick. Her coal capwrity 
is 3,100 tons. Tha complement b 900 officers 
and men. The price paid for this ship has not 
yet been made public. 



KING GEORGE V. CLASS. 
(Completed 1913-13.) 

KIMG GEORGE V. CENTURION. 
AJAX. AUDACIOUS. 

Thtm im "wseJs are affl07ig tlie meet powerful 
^ — ' sy r-Pttviao'jght battkeh^M. The dis- 
f***^ — * » uoii.i«a]iy 43,000 tons, but >iHien in 
s«*ice, with mask^miw ioe.", st jtss, &c., on board, 
^l«"y*ylaee about 85,000 tma. They are 596 ft. 
in Ingth, with a beam of S9 ft., and their turbines 
o< 37.000 h.p. drive them av a speed of aij haets. 
The armameat consists of t-i i3-5-in. ad six- 
tasn 4-in. guns, with tfeTse su -■aeiwed torpedo 



68 



Orion Class 



All the big gnna, which an moontad in pain 
in turrets on the centre line, can fire on either 
broadside. Protection is afforded by a za-ia. 
armour belt amidships, with tUnaer pUMw ^ 
above and at the ends. The turrets are of ii-in. 
armour. The secondary battery of 4-in. quick- 
firers is practically unprotected. A "axinium 
fuel supply of 2,700 tons can be carried. The 
complement is 900 officers and men. Each of 
these ships cost more than £1,900,000 to build 
and equip. 



ORION CLASS. 
(Completed 1911-ia.) 
ORION. CONQUEROR. 



MONARCH. 



THUNDERER. 



Super-Dreadnoughts of 33,500 tons displace- 
ment and 545 ft. in length. The Orirai dass, 
to which these ships belong, inaugurated the 
" super-Dreadnought " era by reason of the 
super-calibre guns with which they are armed. 
TlMy are propelled by Parsons' turbines of 
37,000 h.p. at a speed of 21 knots, but did con- 
siderably better than this on the trial runs. 
The main armament comprises ten i3'5-in. 
breech-loading guns, firing a 1,350 lb. projectile 
at the rate of two per minute. 

These guns are mounted in five twin turrets 
on the centre line of the vessel, and all of them 
can be trained on either broadside. Sixteen 



Neptune Class 



4-la- q uick-firwi tra moantod for uw agtinst 
torpedo ormft, and there are three ax-ia. nb- 
meiged torpedo tubes. The annour belt it 
i3-in. thick emidihipt. the tuireto xi-in. 
Some of the malfer gum are protected by 4-iii. 
aimour. Coal and oU to the amount of 3,700 
tons can be canied. The complement of these 
ships is 900 officers and men. They cost com- 
plete neariy £3,000.000. 



NEPTUNE CLASS. 
(Completed 1911.) 

NEPTUNE. COLOSSUS. 

HERCULES. 

These are Dreadnought battleships of 30,000 
tons diq)lacement. They are 310 ft. in length, 
and have Parsons' turbines of 35.000 h.p., which 
give them a speed c * 31 knots. The main batteiy 
consisU of ten la-in. guns. 50 cahbies (f.#.. 50 ft.) 
long, mounted in five twin turrets. Two of 
these turrets are in echelon amidships, the re- 
maining three being on the centre Une. an aiiange- 
ment that pennits all ten guns to come into 
action on either broadside through a limited 
arc. 

In the class to which these ships belong the 
super-posed turret appeared for the first time 
in the British Na y. Sixteen 4-in. quick-firers 
and three submeiged torpedo tubes complete 



MicMCorr nsoiuTioN tht chmt 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2) 




Ui 13.2 



US 



L25 i 1.4 



M2.2 



^ I 



2.0 



1.8 



1.6 



APPLIED ItVMGE In 

16S3 East Main Str«at 

Rochaiter, New York 14609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phorw 

(716) 288 - 5989 - Fan 



w 



60 



St. Vincent Class 



the aimament. There is an ii-in. annour belt 
on the waterline. siniilar protection being given 
to the big guns. The fuel capacity is 2,700 
tons. The complement numbers over 800 officers 
and men. These vessels cost about £1,700,000 
apiece to complete. 



ST. VINCENT CLASS. 
(Completed 1910.) 

ST. VINCENT. COLLINGWOOD. 

VANGUARD, 

These ?i« Dreadnought battleships with a dis- 
placement of 19,250 tons. They are 500 ft. long, 
and have Parsons' turbines of 24,500 h.p.. which 
give them a top speed of 21 knots. Their main 
battery comprises ten i2-in. guns of powerful 
type, mounted in five twin turrets, the ^apo- 
sition of which allows eight guns to be used 
on either beam. They also carry eighteen 4-in. 
quick-firers, some mounted on top of the turrets, 
and others in the superstructure. There are 
three submerged torpedo tubes. 

The waterline is protected by armour barely 
10^. thick, this being also the thickness of the 
turret armour. Coal and oil to the amount of 
2,700 tons can be carried. The comidement of 
these battleships numbers rather more than 800 
officers and men. They cost about £1,700,000 
to build and complete. 



Bellerophon Class— Dreadnought 61 

BELLEROPHON CLASS. 

(Gnnpleted 1909.) 

BELLEROPHON. TE2IERAIRE. 
SUPERB. 

These ships are some of our earliest Oread- 
noughts. Thieir displacement is 18,900 tons, length 
490 ft. Parsons' turbines of 23.000 h.p. propel 
them at a maximum speed of 21 Imots, which they 
can maintain for several hours without difficulty. 
Ten i2-in. guns form the piimaiy armament, 
which is mounted in five twin turrets, so ^&- 
posed as to allow eight guns to fire on the broad- 
side. They cairy, further, sixteen 4-in. quick- 
firing gons to repel attack by torpedo craft, and 
there are three torpedo tubes below water. 

On the waterline and the big-gun positions 
there is ii-in. annour. The maximum supply 
of coal and oil is 2,700 tons. The complement 
is 800 officers and men. These battleships cost 
about £1,700,000 to build and complete. 



DREADNOUGHT. 
(Completed 1906.) 

This famous battleship was laid down at Ports- 
mouth m October, 1905, and comfitiied by 
December, 1906, and thus establidied a rec(»d 
for speedy construction. She was de s igned by a 



Lord Nelson Class 



I 



lis 



oommittee of experts to meet the requirements of 
modem naval tactics, and with various modifica- 
tions the main principles she embodied have 
since been almost universally adopted. She dis- 
places 17,900 tons, and is 520 ft. long. Parsons' 
turbines of 23,000 h.p. give her a speed uf 21 
knots. She was the first battleship ever fitted 
with turbine machinery. 

The armament con^sts of ten 12-in. guns, 
mounted in five twin turrets, which are so pl,iced 
as to give a broadside fire of eight and an axial 
fire of six guns. For keeping off torpedo craft a 
battery of twenty-four 12-pounder quick-firers is 
provided. There are five submerged torpedo 
tubes. Waterline and vitals are protected by 
ii-in. armour, as also are the gun turrets. The 
ship has a great amount of internal protection 
against mine or torpedo explosion. She can 
carry 2,700 tons of coal. The complement num- 
bers about 800 officers and men. This' battleship 
cost upwards of £1,800.000 to build and equip. 



LORD NELSON CLASS. 

(Completed 1908-09.) 

LORD NELSON. AGAMEMNON. 

These battleships are sometimes called semi- 
Dreadnoughts, because they approximate to the 
Dreadnought type in tonnage and armament. 
The displacement is 16,500 tons, length 410 ft., 
and engines of 16,750 h.p., giving a speed of over 
18 knots. Each of these vessels is armed with 



Battle Cruisers 



<B 



four la-in. and ten g-i-in. breech-loading guns, 
all mounted in armoured turrets. The four la-in. 
and eight of the 9-2-in. guns are in twin turrets, 
the other two 9-2-in. being in single turrets. 
The disposition of the armament is such that 
four la-in. and five 9-2-in. can fire on each broad- 
side. An outstanding defect is the smalhiess oJE 
the double 9-2-in. turrets, which hardly give 
elbow room to the crews and do not allow full 
advantage to be taken of the extraordinary 
rapidity with which the 9-3-in. piece can be 
worked when there is plenty of space. 

On the whole, however, these ships are ex- 
tremely powerful units. For driving ofi torpedo 
craft there are twenty-four 12-pounder quick- 
firers mounted in the superstructure. Five tor- 
pedo tubes are fitted. Armour protection con- 
dsts of a i2-in. belt amidships, and there is 
similar plating on the 12-in. turret' le smaller 
turrets having 8-in. armour. The lad capacity 
is 2,500 tons. Each battleship carries 750 
ofi&cers and men and cost £1,650,000 to build and 
complete. 



BATTLE CRUISERS 

TIGER. 

(Completed 1914.) 

Th the largest battle cruiser in the British 
Navy. She was built at Clydebank, and was 
approaching completion at the outbreak of war. 
The displacement is 28,000 tons, length 660 ft. 



64 



Lica Clati 






and Panooi' tuiliiiiM oi 100,000 h.|». gives ^aed 
oi at leait 38 knots. Her aimameot "f^-fU m 
ei|^t 13'S-in., twelvu 6-in., and lome mailer 
guns, with three torpedo ^tubee. The Ug 
guns are in double turrets on the centr»-litte, 
and all can be fired on either broadside. The 
6-in. guns are mounted in an annoured battery. 
For a battle cruieer this ship is heavily 
armoured. She has a belt at least 10 in. thick 
amidships, and the turrets are of equal thirinH m, 
She can stcce as much as 4,000 tons of coal and 
oiL The complement is about 1,100 officen 
and men. In appearance the " Tiger" is quite 
unlike other British battle cruisers. She has 
three equal-sized funnels and only one mast. 
Her total cost is understood to be not less than 
£3,300,000. 



LION CLASS. 




(Completed I9i2-i3.) 




LION. PRINCRSS ROYAL. 




QUEEN MARY. 




These battle cruisers displace 27,000 


tons. 


are 660 ft. in length, and 88} ft. btoad. 


They 


have turbines of about 70,000 h.p., which enable I 


them to steam at 28 knots, though this 


speed 1 


has been greatly exceeded in servicft The 




armament consists of ten 13'5-in. guns, 


dis- 1 


charging a {Kojectile oi 1400 lb. weic^t, at the 3 


rate of two rounds per minute. 






HM.S. BtlUrophoH, 



BELLEROPHON CLASS. 

BELLEROPHON, TEMERAIRE, SUPERB. 

Displacement: 18,000 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 i2in., 16 4in.; 
Torpedo tubes : j. 




o ^H-- 



Astern fire: 
6 l2in. 



Broadside : 
8 i2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 I2in. 



' ii 



lodetedgtble Om u 

The* WMpdu are mounted in four donUe 
turret! on the ceDtre-L'oe. and can thus be fiied 
on either broadBde. Sfacteen 4^ quick-fiien 
are carried for repeUfaig torpedo attack. Thera 
are alio two submeifed torpedo tubet. The 
mam annour belt is abcut 9 to. thick, with xo-in 
plating on the turrata. The fnU fuel capacity 
a 3,000 tons, and the complement numben 
980 officers and men. Theee ships averand 
£3,085.000 to build and complete. 

INDEFATIGABLE CLASS. 

(Completed 1911-13.) 

INDEFATIGABIE. AUSTRALIA. 
NEW ZEALAND. 

These vessds displace about 10.000 tons 
They are 555 «• to length. 80 ft. brwd. and ar» 
designed for a speed of 35 knots, which was nmch 
exceeded dunng triab. The mam armament 
conasts of eight la-to. gmis. mounted to four 
double turrets, two being placed tee and 
aft and two diagonally amidships, thus per- 

In addition there are sixteen 4-to. quick- 
taws mounted to the superstructure, and two 
submerged toipedo tubes. A 7-to. annour belt 
protects the waterlme, the same thickness beinc 
on the turrets. The fuel capacity is 2.500 S 
mdudmg oU. A complement of 790 offic«^ 
and men IS carried. These ships cost about 
£i.3«o.ooo each to build and comjrfete. 

8 



66 



Invincible Class 



INVINCIBLE CLASS. 

(Completed 1908-09.) 

INVINCIBLE. INFLEXIBLE. 

INDOMITABLE. 

The Invincible class were the first battle- 
cruisers to be built. The type is a cruiser edition 
oi the Dreadnought, combining great ofiensive 
qualities with high speed. The displacement is 
17,350 tons, length 530 ft., and the turbines of 
41,000 h.p. are designed for a speed of 25 knots. 
In service, however, these vessels have steamed 
at more than 28 knots. They are armed with 
eight i2-in guns, mounted in four double turrets, 
one turret being placed at each end and the 
other two en echelon amidships. 

This system enables all eight weapons to be 
fired on either broadside through a very limited 
arc. Sixteen 4-in. guns are mounted for re- 
pelling torpedo attack. The waterline and vital 
parts are protected by 7-in. armour, this being 
also the thickness of ihe turret plates. Coal 
to the amount of 2,500 tons can be carried. The 
complement is 780 officers and men. These 
vessels each cost over £1,700,000 to build and 
equip. 



King Edward Class «7 



PRE-DRF A ONOUGHTS. 

KING EDWARD CLASS. 

(Compteted 1904-06.) 
KING EDWARD DOMINION. 

VII. COMMONWEALTH, 

.""^EALANDIA. HINDUSTAN. 

BRITANNIA. AFRICA. 

HIBERNIA. 

The King Edward class u considered to be the 
an^ homc^eous group of pre-Dreadnonght 
battieshipe in the world. The displacem^i, 
16.350 tons, length 435 ft., and engines of xS.ooo 
h.p. give a speed of over 19 knots. Tht anna- 
mmt consists of four 12-in. iour 9-2-in.. t«n 6ix. 
twdve 12-pounder. and twelve 3-Ponnder guni.' 
with four torpedo tubes. " " 

tJ^^^t^ *^"' "° "°™*«'^ ^ armoured 
i^'^^"^. '***P°'" being in a box batteiy. 
Broadside fire is f«,m four 12-in.. two 9^^ 
and five 6-in. gur , A 9-in. armour belt pro^ 

rr^P*^ On the main turrets t;.rS 
i2-m. pktmg, and the smaller guns <0so have 
good protection. The maximum coai .-oplyfa 
3.200 tons. A complement of 820 officera^and 

^.„'*J!T^-. '^^^ ^P« '^^ ««t about 
41450.000 to build and equip. 



61 



Swittiure Claii 



SWIFTSURE CLASS. 
(Compltted 1904.) 

SWIFTSURE. TRIUMPH. 



I 

I ■ 
i • 



ThMe faftttlMhipt wen bnilt for the Chilian 
GovemmeBt, but both were poxchkied by Gntt 
Britain before they were comoleted. The dis- 
placement it 11,980 tons, lenfth 436 ft., and 
engines of ia,500 iLp. give a speed of 30 knots. 
For their ti«f the aimantent of these vessels is 
most formidable. It comprises four n>*in., foui^ 
teen 7'S-hi., and fourteen 14-poander gons, wHh 
two torpedo tubes. The lo-in. wsa p oas are fai 
two twin turrets, the 7'5*'''. guns being in an 
armoured battery. 

The waterline and vital parts are protected by 
7-in. of armour, which te increased to lo-in. 
on the turrets and there is 6-in. {dating over 
tlie secondary battery. The coal supply is 
3,000 tons. A complement ci 700 offieen 
and men is carried. The ships eadi cost 
£845,000 to build and complete. In all but very 
calm weather they lose much at their fighting 
value owing to the nearness of the 7'5in. battery 
to the water, a positi(»i which makes it impos- 
able to work these guns in a seaway. In othv 



respects, too, the type is considcnd latmitK to 
standard British desJfpL 



Ian 
wt 
Ife- 
tnd 
Its. 
I it 

rtth 
in 
an 

by 
-in. 
ver 
is 
*n 

Mt 

ery 

1«« 
ery 
io»- 

to 





HM.S. DrtaJnott^t. 



Photo: Sport & Genera/. 



DREADNOUGHT. 

Displacement : 17,900 tons. 

Speed: 22 knots; Guns: 10 I2in., 24 I2pdrs.; 
Torpedo tubes: 5. 




Astern fire: 
6 I2in. 



Brokdside : 
8 I2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 i2in. 



Duncan Class 



DUNCAN CLASS. 

(Completed 1903-04.) 

DUNCAN. ALBEMARLE. 

EXMOUTH. RUSSELL. 

CORNWALLIS. 

These are vessels of 14,000 tons displacement, 
405 ft. in length, with engines of 18,000 h.p., and 
a speed of 20 knots. Their armament consists 
of four i3-in., twelve 6-in., and ten la-pounder 
guns, with four tubmerged torpedo tubes. The 
i2-in. guns are in turrets, the 6-in. ia casemates. 
Broadside fire is from four 12-in. and six 6-in. 
guns. 

The dass to which these ships belong was de- 
signed with a view to speed, to gain which sacri- 
fices were necessary. Hence the annour pro- 
tection b very light, the thickness of the belt 
being only 7-in. on the waterline. The turrets 
are of the same moderate thickness. The maxi- 
mum fuel capacity is 2,000 tons. A ccnnplement 
of 750 officers and men is carried. The average 
cost was £1,000,000 to build and complete. 



70 Formidable Class—Canopus Class 

FORMIDABLE CLASS. 
(Completed 1901-04.) 



FORMIDABLE. 
IMPLACABLE. 
VENERABLE. 
PRINCE OF WALES 



IRRESISTIBLE. 
LONDON. 
BULWARK. 
QUEEN. 



This class displaces 15.000 tons, is 400 ft. long, 
and has engines of 15,000 h.p.. giving a speed 
of about 18} knots. It is anned with four 12-in., 
twelve 6-in., and sixteen la-pounder guns, with 
four submerged torpedo tubes. The waterline 
IS armoured with g-in., the turrets with la-in. 
plates, and there is 6-in. armour on the case- 
mates containing the secondary guns. The full 
coal capacity is 2,100 tons. These ships carry 
780 officers and men. They cost more than 
£1,000,000 to build and equip. 



CANOPUS CLASS. 
(Completed 1900-02.) 



CANOPUS. 


OCEAN. 


GOLIATH. 


GLORY. 


VENGEANCE. 


ALBION 



These diijK belong to a class of old pre-Dread- 
noughts which are rapidly losing their fighting 
value. They displace 12,950 tons, are 390 ft. long. 



Majestic Class 71 

and have engines of 13,500 h.p., which give a 
speed of nearly 19 knots. The annameot con- 
prises four la-in., twelve 6-in., and ten 12-poimder 
guns, all of obsolescent pattern. There are four 
torpedo tubes. A belt only 6-in. thick protects 
the waterline, but there is 12-in. amunir <» the 
gun turrets. Cool to the amount of 1,750 tons 
can be carried. The complement^numbers 750 
officers and men. These ships cost about £850,000 
each. They were designed with very light 
draught to enable them to navigate the Suez 
Canal. They are still comparatively fast steamen. 



MAJESTIC CLASS. 
(Completed 1895-98.) 

MAGNIFICENT. JUPITER. 

MAJESTIC. CiESAR. 

VICTORIOUS. MARS. 

PRINCE GEORGE. HANNIBAL. 
ILLUSTRIOUS. 

The Majestic class is the oldest group of 
battleships in the Navy. The displacement is 
14.900 tons, length 390 ft. and engines of 12,000 
h.p. give them a maximum speed of 17J knots. 
They are armed with four 12-in., twelve 6-in,, 
and sixteen i2-pounder guns of old type, with 
five torpedo tubes. The armour belt is 9-in. 
amidships, and there is 14-in. armour on the 



,i1 



7S 



Armoured Cruisers 



big gun tuirets. Coal to the amonnt of 1,900 
tons can be stowed. A complement of 750 
officers and men Is caiiied. The ships cost 
slightly more than ;f90o,ooo each to build and 
complete. 



ARMOURED CRUISERS 

MINOTAUR CLASS. 
(Completed 1908.) 

MINOTAUR. SHANNON. 

DEFENCE. 

These vessels are armoured cruisers of 14,600 
tons, 490 ft. in length, and have engines of 27,000 
h.p., giving a speed of 23 knots. They cany 
a very powerful armament, consisting of four 
9.2-in., ten 7.5-in., and sixteen 12-pounder 
guns. The 9.2-in. and 7.5-in. guns are in 
aimotired turrets, the four first named being 
mounted in pairs, the 7.5 in. singly. 

Protection is afforded by a 6-in. belt amidships, 
with 8-in. armour on the 9.2-Jn. turrets, and 6-in. 
armour on the smaller turrets. The maximum 
coal supply is 2,250 tons. A complement of 
about 800 officers and meu is borne. These 
ships cost more than £1,400,000 each to build 
and complete. 



Warrior—Black Prince Classes 78 



WARRIOR CLASS. 

(Completed 1906-07.) 

WARRIOR. NATAL. 

ACHILLES. COCHRANE. 

These are armoured cruisers of 13,550 tons. 
They are 480 ft. in length, and have engines of 
23,000 h.p., giving a speed of 33 knots. The 
armament consists of six g-2-ia. and four 7'5^n. 
guns, all mounted in single turrets, and so dis- 
posed that ax heavy goas bear on each broad- 
side. There are, besides, twenty-four 3-pounder 
quick-firers for use against t(wpedo-craft, and 
three submerged torpedo tubes. The armour 
belt and turrets are 6 in. thick. The maximum 
coal capacity is 2.000 tons, and a comirfement 
of over 700 officers and men is carried. Each 
vessel cost about £1.200.000 to build and com- 
plete. 

BLACK PRINCE CLASS. 

(Completed 1906.) 
BLACK PRINCE. DUKE OF EDIN- 
BURGH. 

These armoured cruisers have a di^lacement 
oi 13.550 tons, are 480 ft. long, and have ogines 
of 23,000 h.p., giving a speed of 23-3 knots. 
They are armed with six 9-2^0., ten 6-in., and 
twenty 3-poimder gv», with three toq>edo 



74 



Devonshire Class 



tnbes. The big guns are mounted in tingle 
tunets, the 6-in. weapons being in an armound 
battery. 

Owing to the low freeboard of these ships, 
their 6-in. guns are too near the water to be 
worked in rough weather. They are protected 
on the waterline by a 6-in. armour Mt, with 
similar plating on the gun turrets and battery. 
The full coal capacity is 2,ooo tons. These 
cruisers carry 700 officers and men. They cost 
nearly £1,200,000 to build and complete. 



DEVONSHIRE CLASS. 
(Completed 1905-06.) 
ANTRIM. DEVONSfflRE. 

CARNARVON. ROXBURGH. 

HAMPSHIRE. ARGYLL. 

Armoured cruisers displacing 10,850 tons, 450 ft. 
in lengtl', with engines of 20,500 h.p., giving 
a speed of 22.3 knots. The armament is weak 
for vessels of this size, and consists only of four 
7.5-in. and six 6-in. gims, with twenty small 
quick-firers and two torpedo tubes. 

The 7.5-m. guns are mounted in turrets, the 
6-in. weapons in casemates. There is a 6-in. 
belt amidships, and 6-in. plating on the turrets 
and casemates. The maximum coal capacity 
is 1,800 tons. A complement of 655 officers 
and men is carried. The average cost, complete, 
of these ships was nearly £900,000, 



" County " Class— Drake Class 78 

" COUNTY " CLASS. 

(Completed 1903-04.) 

KENT. DONEGAL. 

ESSEX. LANCASTER. 

MONMOUTH. CORNWALL. 

BERWICK. CUMBERLAND. 

SUFFOLK. 

The displacement of this class is 9,800 tons. 
They are 440 ft. in length, and have engines 
of 22,000 h.p., which drive them at a speed 
of 23 knots. The armament consists of fourteen 
&-in.. eight 12-pounder, and three smaller quick- 
firing guns. Fotir of the 6-in. weapons are 
mounted in twin turrets placed at the bow 
and stem, the remainder being in casemates. 
There are two torpedo tubes. 

Protection is very light throughout, there being 
only a 4-in. belt amidships, with 5-in. armour on 
the turrets. The full coal supply is 1,600 tons. 
A complement of 540 officers and men is carried. 
Each ship cost complete about £750,000. 



DRAKE CLASS. 
(Completed I902-03.) 

DRAKE. GOOD HOPE. 

LEVIATHAN. KING ALFRED. 

These vessels are among the best of the older 
armoured cruisers. Each disfdaces 14,100 tons. 



76 



Cressy Class 



is 500 ft. long, and hu enginet of 30,000 h.p., 
giving a speed of 23 knots. On trial and in 
service this speed has been much exceeded, 
1^ and the ships can still steam at 24 knots. They 

IH! are armed with two g-a-in. breech-loaders, rix- 

teen 6-in., and twelve la-pounder quick-fiiing 
guns. 

The Ug weapons are in single turretk, one 
placed at each end of the ship, the 6-in. guns 
being mounted in casemates. Two torpedo tubes 
are fitted. The armour protection on the turrets, 
casemates, and belt has a uniform thickness 
of 6-in. Coal to the amount of 2,500 tons is 
stored in the bunken. The complement consists 
of 900 officers and men. These cruisers averaged 
about one million sterling complete. 



CRESSY CLASS. 
(Comideted 1901-04.) 



CRESSY. 
SUTLEJ. 
ABOUKIR. 



HOGUE. 

BACCHANTE. 

EURYALUS. 



The Cressy group are the oldest class of ar- 
moured cruisers on the active list. They dis- 
place 12,000 tons, are 440 ft. in length, and have 
engines of 21,000 h.p., producing a speed of 21 
knots, which was exceeded on trial by one knot. 
The armament comprises two g'2-in. breech- 
loaders, twelve 6-in., and twdve 12-poimder 
qnkk-firing guns, with two torpedo tabes. 




H.MS.AHmm,,n. P*.l.: CriM. &.,»,„. 

AGAMEMNON CLASS. 

AGAMEMNON AND LORD NELSON. 

Displacement: 16,500 tons. 

Speed: i8i knots; Guns: 4 i2in., 10 g.zin.; 
Torpedo tubes: 5. 




Vstern fire: 


Broadside : 


Ahead fire 


2 12m. 


4 I2in. 


2 i2in. 


4 9.2in. 


S 9-2in. 


4 9-2in. 



ArethuM Cbut 



77 



TIm Ug gga* an mounted ia 
fore and aft, tbe 6-in. mapona in aaaamataa. 
Then is a 6-in. bdt anidihipa, annour at fb» 
■ame thJcloiew oo the tnrrets, and s-in. piatinf 
on the caiemataa. The eoal bunlcms can ttore 
i,6oo tona. A cgmpleiMnt oi y > ofiloen and 
men ia carried. The coat of this class whan 
complete avenged £750,000. 



ARETHUSA CLASS. 
(Completed 1914.) 

ARETHUSA. PENELOPE. 

AURORA. PHABlXm. 

GALATEA. ROYAUST. 

INCONSTANT, UNDAUNTED. 

These an the light annonnd crniien which 
llr. Chnrchin has described as "destroyers of 
destroyers." They displace 3,600 tons, are 410 
ft. long, and have turbines of 37,000 h.p., giving 
a speed of 30 knots. The armament consists of 
two 6>in., six 4-U1., and four macliine guns, with 
four torpedo tubes. 

Then is a belt of 3-in. armoor amidships, 
with 3^in. plating above this. The boilera an 
fired entirely by al fud. el which about 790 trnw 
an carried. The complement numlien about 
370 offiesn and men. The ooat of this daaa haa 
not yet been made puUic. 



78 



Protected Cruisers 



PROTECTED CRUISERS 

{y/lih protective deck* instead of umouied 
belts.) 

EDGAR CLASS. 
(Conpleted 1893-94.) 



EDGAR. 

HAWKE. 

THESEUS. 



ENDYMION. 

GRAFTON. 

GIBRALTAR. 



These vessels are the oldest cruisers we posseu, 
diq>lacing 7,350 tons, and having a speed of 
i9i knots. They are armed with two 9.3-in., 
ten 6-in., and seventeen smaller gmis, with two 
torpedo tubes. Coal capacity, 1,350 tons. Com- 
plement, 544 officers and men. Cost over 
£400,000. 



ROYAL ARTHUR CLASS. 
(Completed 1893-94.) 

ROYAL ARTHUR. CRESCENT. 

This class displaces 7,700 tons, and has a speed 
of 19} knots. The ermarient is one 9.2-in., 
twelve 6-in., and seventeen smaller guns, with 
two torpedo tubes. There is a steel deck over 
engines and boilers. Coal capacity, 1,350 tons. 
Complement, 560 officers and men. Cost, about 
£400,000. 



Terrible-Diadem Clais 79 

TERRIBLE 
(Completed 1898.) 

This is the largest protected cruiser in the 
British Navy. She diq>laces 14,200 tons, and 
can steam at aa knots. Her armament consists 
of two 9.a-in., sixteen 6-in., and many smaller 
guns, with four twpedo tubes. Over engines 
and boilers there is a steel deck 6-in. thick. 
Coal capacity, 3,000 tons. Complement, 840 
officers and men. Cost complete, £708,000. 



DIADEM CLASS. 

(Completed 1899-1902.) 

DIADEM. EUROPA. 

NIOBE. ANDROMEDA. 

AMPHITRITE. ARGONAUT. 

ARIADNE. SPARTIATE. 

Protected crusiers of 11,000 tons and 20) knots 
speed, anned with sixteen 6-in. and twelve 
i2-pounder quick-firing guns, with two torpedo 
tubes. Engines and boilers are protected by a 
4-in. steel deck. Coal capacity, 2,000 tons. 
Complement, 677 officers and men. Cost, about 
£550,000. The Niobe is now, a unit of the 
Canadian Navy. 



80 Melbourne— Nottingham Classes 

MELBOURNE CLASS 

(Completed 1913.) 

MELBOURNE. SYDNEY. 

These are protected cniisos belonging to the 
Australian Navy. They displace 5,600 tons, 
are 430 ft. long, and have a speed of 25} knots. 
The armament consists of eight 6-in. and some 
small quick-firers, with two submerged torpedo 
tubes. 

The coal capacity is 1,000 tons. A comple- 
ment o! 400 officers and men is carried. They 
each cost complete about £350,000. 

NOTTINGHAM CLASS. 
(Cnnpleted 1914.) 

NOTTINGHAM. BIRMINGHAM. 
LOWESTOFT. 



Three of our latest light cruisers. They are 
of 5,440 ttms, with turbines of 22,000 h.p., giving 
a speed of 25} knots. The armament is nine 
6-in. and four small quick-firers, with two snb- 
moged torpedo tubes. There is a thin armour 
belt on the wateriine. Coal capacity, zfioo 
ton?. The oanplement is 400 officers and men. 



ses 



the 
ins, 
its. 
•me 
edo 

3le- 
iey 



me 
ing 
ine 
lb- 
>ur 
too 
1. 




LION CLASS. 

LION, PRINCESS ROYAL. 

Displacement : 26,350 tons. 

Speed: 28 knots; Guns: 8 I3.5in., 16 4in.; 
Torpedo tubes: 3. 




3t -^^^J—^-^-^f^jrl 







TzTrT- — 



Astern fire: 
2 i3-5in. 



Broadside : 
8 I3.5in. 



Ahead fire: 
4 i3-5in. 



Chatham Class— Falmouth Class 81 

CHATHAM CLASS 
(Completed 1912-13.) 

SOUTHAMPTON. DUBLIN. 

CHATHAM. 

These vessels are light cruisers of 5,400 tons, 
with turbines of 32.000 h.p., and a speed of 25) 
knots. They carry an armament of eight 6-in. 
and four small quick-firers, with two torpedo 
tubes submerged. Coal capacity, 1,000 tons. 
Complement, 400 officers and men. Cost com- 
plete, about ;£35o,ooo. 



FALMOUTH CLASS. 

(Completed 1911-12.) 

FALMOUTH. DARTMOUTH. 

WEYMOUTH. YARMOUTH. 

Light cruisers displacing 5,250 tons, driven 
by turbines of 22.000 h.p. at a speed of 24! 
knots. They are armed with eight 6-in. and 
four small quick-firers, an^ two submerged 
torpedo tubes. The coal capacity is 1,000 tons. 
Complement, 390 officers and mm. Cost c«m- 
plete, about £335.ooo. 

r 



83 Bristol Class— Active Class 

BRISTOL CLASS. 
(Completed 1910.) 

GLASGOW. GLOUCESTER. 

LIVERPOOL. NEWCASTLE. 

BRISTOL. 

These vessels are light cruisers of 4,800 tons, 
propelled by turbines of 22,000 h.p., at a speed 
of 25 knots. The armament is two 6-in., ten 
4-in., and some small quick-firers, with two sub- 
meiiged torpedo tubes. Coal capacity, 850 tons. 
Complement, 375 officers and men. Cost com- 
plete, over £350,000. 



ACTIVE CLASS. 

(Completed rgxi-ia.) 

ACTIVE. FEARLESS. 

These vessels belong to the Scout category, 
and displace 3,440 tons. Their turbines of 
18,000 h.p. give a speed of 25 knots, but this is 
often exceeded. They are armed with ten 4-in. 
and four smaller quick-firers, and have two deck 
torpedo tubes. Coal capacity, 600 tons. Com- 
plement, 320 officers and men. They averaged 
complete about £270,000. Th^ ill-fated Amphioo 
was a sister-ship. 



Blanche Class— Boadicea Class 8:1 

BLANCHE CLASS. 

(Completed 1910-11) 

BLANCHE. BLONDE. 

Light cniisen of the Scout type. They dis- 
place 3,350 tons, and have turi>iiies of 18,000 
h.p., giving a speed of 35 knots. The aimament 
is ten 4-in. and four 3-pounder quick-firers, with 
two torpedo tubes mounted on deck. Coa 
capacity, 600 tons. Complement, 385 officers 
and men. Cost complete, about £375,000. 

BOADICEA CLASS. 



(Completed 1909-10.) 

BELLONA. BOADICEA. 

Light cruisers of the Scout type, displacing 
3,300 tons, and having a speed of 35 knots, 
which is frequently exceeded by two knots. 
Armament: Six 4-in. four 3-pounder quick- 
firing guns, two deck torpedo tubes. Coal 
capacity. 600 tons. Complement, 363 officers 
ai^ men. Cost complete, £330,909. 



84 Sentinel Class-" Gem ** Class 



SENTINEL CLASS. 
(Completed 1905-06.) 
ADVENTURE. PATHFINDER. 

ATTENTIVE. PATROL. 

FORESIGHT. SENTINEL. 

FORWARD. SKIRMISHER. 

These vessels were the first fleet scouts. They 
are of about 3,000 tons dispkoonent. and have 
engines of 16,500 h.p., which give them a speed pf 
25 toots. As originally armed, they carried a 
battery of la-poundeis. but these were replaced 
recently by nine 4-in. quick-firers, a change which 
much mcreased the fighting value. The coal supply 
IS 400 tons, and they have a complement of a68 
officers and men. The average cost, complete, 
was over £270,000. . f w. 



" GEM " CLASS 

(Completed 1905.) 

AMETHYST. DIAMOND. 

TOPAZE. SAPPHIRE. 

Light cruisers of 3,000 tons, wi*h a speed of 
22 knots. Armed with twelve 4-in. and some 
smaller qm^c-firing guns, with two torpedo tubes 
on deck. The coal supply is 500 tons, the comple- 
ment 296 officers and men, and the average cost 
complete, was ibotrt £a35.b6o. 



Challenger Class— Highflyer Class 86 

CHALLENGER CLASS. 
(Completed 1904-06.) 

CHALLENGER. 

ENCOUNTER (Australian Navy). 

These vessels an protected cruisers of 5,880 
tons, capable of steaming ai knots. The arma- 
ment ccmsists of eleven 6-in. and some smaller 
quick-filing guns. Over the engines and bdlers 
there is a 3-in. steel protective deck. The coal 
capacity is 1.335 tons, the complement 454 o£BoeiB 
and men, and they averaged, complete, £360,000. 



HIGHFLYER CLASS 

(Completed 1900-01.) 

HERMES. HIGHFLYER. 

HYACINTH. 

These protected cruisers displace 5,600 tons. 
They have a speed of 20 knots, and are armed with 
eleven 6-in., several smaller quick-fiiing guns, 
and two torpedo tubes. The coal capacity is 
1,100 tons. They carry a complement of 456 
offioos and men, and each ship cost, complete, 
over £a8o,ooo. 



86 Pelorus Class—Arrogant Class 

PELORUS CLASS 
(Completed 1897-1901.) 

PROSERPINE. PERSEUS. 

PELORUS. PROMETHEUS. 

. PEGASUS. PSYCHE. 

PYRAMUS. PIONEER. 

PANDORA. 

The displacement of this class is about 3,300 
tons, speed 30 knots, and the armament consists 
oi dgfat 4-in. and some smaller quick-fiiing gnns, 
with two torpedo tubes mounted on "'ack. The 
coal capacity is 530 tons. They have a comple 
ment of 334 officers and men, and each vessel cost 
complete, about £150,000. 



ARROGANT CLASS. 

(Completed 1898-99.) 



FURIOUS. 



VINDICTIVE. 



Protected cruisers of 3,750 tons and 19 knots 
speed, armed with ten 6-in. and some smaller 
quick-filing guns, and two torpedo tubra. Coal 
capacity is 1,175 tons. The complement con- 
sists of 439 officers and men. Each cost complete, 
over £380.000. 



Talbot Class— Astrea Class 87 

TALBOT CLASS. 
(Completed 1897-98.) 

ECLIPSE. JUNO. 

MINERVA. VENUS. 

TALBOT. ISIS. 

DIANA. DIDO. 

DORIS. 

These vessels are protected cndsers oi 3,600 
tons, with a speed of 19} knots. Tbey are aimed 
with eleven 6-in. and some smaller gmis, and have 
two torpedo tubes. The coal capacity is 1,030 
tons, and the complement 416 officers and men. 
Each coat complete about £375,000. 

ASTR^A CLASS. 

(Completed 1894-93.) 
ASTRiEA. FLORA, 

CAMBRLAN. FOX. 

CH.*.RYBDIS. HERMIONE. 

The displacement of these cruisers is 4,360 tons. 
They have a speed of 19} knots, and are armed 
with two 6-in., eight 4.7-in., and some smaller 
guns. The coal capacity is 1,000 tons. A com- 
plement of 312 officers and men is carried. They 
averaged complete about £223,000. 



88 Sappho Clftsi— iEolui Class 



SAPPHO CLASS. 

(Completed X893.) 

SAPPHO. 

A light cruiser of 1400 tons displacement, with 
a speed of 19} knots. She is armed with two 
6-in., eight 4.7-in., and some smaller guns, and 
has four torpedo tubes. The coal supply is 1,000 
tons. Her complement is 373 officers and men. 
She cost complete £176,000. 



^OLUS CLASS. 

(Completed 1892-93.) 

MOLVS. SIRIUS. 

RAINBOW (Canadian MELPOMENE. 
Navy). BRILLIANT. 

These light cruisers displace 3,600 tons, and 
Live a speed of 20 knots. They are armed with 
two 6-in., six 4.7-in., and some smaller guns, 
b«ides four torpedo tubes. The coal capacity is 
535 tcnis. Hie complement is 273 offioers and 



Pearl Clais— Medea Class 89 



PEARL CLASS. 

(Compteted 1893.) 

PHILOMEL. 

A light cruistt of 3.373 tooi, with a speed of 
iQlmots. Annament: Eight 4.7-in., and thirteen 
smallergmis. Two torpedo tubes. GMlcapadty 
440 tons. The complement is 317 officers and 
men, and the ship cost complete aboat £164,000. 
She is the co^ vessel of the Pearl Class lemahiing 
on the active list 



M£dea class. 

(Ccnnpleted 1889.) 

MEDEA. 

This is the oldest li^t cruiser <» the active 
list. She displaces 2,800 ti»s, has a speed of 
19 knots, and is armed with six 4.7-in., and rour- 
teen smaller guns, besides four torpedo tubes. 
The coal capacity is 400 tcm. The eonplemest 
is about 300 officers and man. 



90 Destroyers " L" Clais 



DESTROYERS. 



L" CLASS. 



(Completod 1914.) 



LLEWELLYN. 

LENNOX. 

LOYAL. 

LEGION. 

LAFOREY. 

LAWFORD. 

LOUIS. 

LYDIARD. 

LEONIDAS. 

LUCIFER. 



LAERTES. 

LYSANDER. 

LANCE. 

LOOKOUT. 

LAUREL. 

UBERTV. 

LARK. 

LANDRAIL. 

LAVEROCK. 

LINNET. 



These are among the very latest destroyers. 
They were launched in 1913, and have a disfdace- 
mentof965tons. The designed speed is 39 knots, 
which was exceeded on trial. They consume oil 
fud only. The armament condsts cS three 4-in. 
guns and four torpedo tubes, and they cany 100 
officers and men. 



Dettroyen " K " Clau n 



K " CLASS. 



(Completad 1913.) 

ACASTA. 

ACHATES. 

AlfBUSCADE. 

ARDENT. 

FORTUNE. 

CHRISTOPHER. 

COCKATRICE. 

CONTEST. 

GARLAND. 

PARAGON. 



PORPOISE. 
UNITY. 
VICTOR. 
LYNX. 

MIDGE. 

OWL. 

SHARK. 

SPARROWHAWK. 

SPITFIRE. 

HARDY. 



These destroyers were built under the 1911 pro- 
gramme. The displacement is 935 tons, and 
they can steam at mOTB th an 30 knots. The 
armament is three 4-in. guns and two torpedo 
tubes. Oil fuel only is consumed. The compte 
ment is 100 officers and men. 



92, Destroyers " I" Class 



I " CLASS. 






(Com{deted 


1911-12.) 


LURCHER. 


HORNET. 


FIREDRAKE. 


HYDRA. 


OAK. 


DEFENDER 


BADGER. 


DRUID. 


BEAVER. 


JACKAL. 


ACHERON. 


TIGRESS. 


ARIEL. 


LAPWING. 


ARCHER. 


LIZARD. 


ATTACK. 


SANDFLY. 


GOSHAWK. 


PH(BNIX. 


HIND. 


FERRET. 



FORESTER. 

Ocean-going destroyers of about 700 tons, with 
a speed of more than 30 knots. The annament 
consists of two 4-in. and two iz-pounder guns, 
with two torpedo tubes. Oil only is consumed. 
The complement is seventy-two officers and men. 
These boats were buih under the 1910 projramme. 



Destroyers "H" CidS8-«G" Class 93 



ACORN. 

ALARM. 

BRISK. 

CAMELEON. 

COMET, 

FURY. 

GOLDFINCH 

HOPE. 

LARNE. 

LYRA. 

These destroyers were 



"H" CLASS.. 
(Comp: irfed 1910-1 '..) 

5MRTIN. 



MINSTREL. 
NEMESIS. 
NEREIDE. 
NYMPHE. 
REDPOLE. 
RIFLEMAN. 
RUBY. 

SHELDRAKE. 
STAUNCH, 
bnilt under the 1909 



programme. Their displacement is ;6o tons, 
the designed ?peed 27 knoU. The armament i^ 
:'!lj,"'°\'?'* ^° la-pounder guns, with two 
torpedo tubes. OU only is conamied. Tlie 
complement is 76 officers and men. 

"G" CLASS. 

(Completed 1910.) 



BASILISK. 

BEAGLE. 

BULLDOG. 

FOXHOUND. 

GRASSHOPPER 

HARPY. 

MOSQUITO. 

GRAMPUS. 



PINCHER. 

RACOON. 

RATTLESNAKE. 

RENARD. 

SAVAGE. 

SCORPION. 

SCOURGE. 

WOLVERINE. 



These destroyers, which were built under the 
1908 programme, hav« a displacement of 976 



U Destroyers "F" Class 

tons and a speed of 27 knots. They are armed 
with one 4-m. and three la-poundcr guns, and 
two torpedo tubes. The complement is 96 
officers and men. 



"F" CLASS. 
(Completed 1908-9.) 

AFRIDI. MOHAWK. 

COSSACK. TARTAR. 

GHURKA. 

These are ocean-going destroyers, displacing 
about 880 tons, with a speed of more than 33 
knots. They an armed with five la-pounder 
Kuns and two torpedo tubes. OU only is con- 
sumed in the furnaces. Complement. 60 officers 
and men. 

"F" CLASS. 
(Continued.) 
SARACEN. NUBIAN. 

AMAZON. 

These destroyers are of 975 tons displacwnMt, 
and have a speed of more than 33 knots. The 
armament is two 4-in- PJ^ and two torpedo tub«. 
OU only is consumed. The complement is 67 
officers and men. 



Destroyers " F " Class 95 



"F" CLASS. 

(Continuad.) 

CRUSADER. ZULU. 

MAORI. 

Ocean-going destroyers of more than i,ooo 
tons displacement, with a speed of nearly 34 
knots. They bum oil fuel only. Armed with 
two 4-in. guns and two torpedo tubes. Com- 
plement, 71 officers and men. 

"F" CLASS. 
(Continued.) 

VIKING. 

An ocean-going destroyer of 1,090 t<»is and 
a speed of 34 knots. She is armed with two 
4-in. guns and two torpedo tubes. Oil only is 
burned. The complement is 71 officen and 
men. 

SWIFT. 

(Completed 1908.) 

This is the largest destroyer in the British 
Navy, and also the fastest. She displaces 2,170 
tons, and is designed for a speed of 36 knots, 
but is said to have done as much as 39 knots in 
service. The armament is four 4-in. guns and 
two torpedo tubes. She is officially classed as 
a flotilla leader. 



1^ 



96 



Destroyers " E " Class 



Hj: "E" 


CLASS. 


1 ' (Completed i90*-5.) 


ARUN. 


KRNNET. 


1 BOYNE. 


LIFFEY. 


CHELMER. 


MOY. 


1 CHERWELL. 


NF.SS. 


1 COLNE. 
j DEE. 


NITH. 


OUSE. 


1 DERWENT. 


RIBBLE. 


DOON. 


ROTHER. 


EDEN. 


STOUR. 


ERNE. 


SWALF- 


ETTRICK. 


TEST. 


EXE. 


TEVIOT. 


1 ;; FOYLE. 


URE. 


f !' GARRY. 


USK. 


ITCHEN. 


WAVENEY 


JED. 


WEAR. 


1 KALE. 


WET.LAND. 



These destroyers comprise the " River " class. 
They displace about 550 tons, have a speed of 
2$i knots, and are armed with four 12-poander 
guns and two torpedo tubes. The complement 
is 72 officers and men. 




INDEFATIGABLE CLASS. 

INDEFATIGABLE, AUSTRALIA, 
NEW ZEALAND. 

Displacement: 18,750 tons. 

Speed: 28 knots; Guns: 8 12m., 16 4in. ; 
Torpedo tubes: 3. 




Astern fire: 
6 I2in. 



Broadside : 
8 I2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 uin. 



' 3 



Destroyers "D"Cla88— « C " Qass 97 

" D " CLASS. 
(Completed 1897-1900.) 

ANGLER. DESPERATE. 

COQUETTE. FAME. 

CYGNET. MALLARD. 

CYNTHIA. STAG. 

These boats represent the dder type of de- 
stroyers. They displace more than 300 tons, 
have a speed of 30 knots, and are armed with 
one i2-pounder, five snnller guns, and two 
torpedo tubes. The complement is 60 officers 
and men. 

"C" CLASS. 
(Completed 1897-98.) 

ALBATROSS. KESTREL. 

AVON. LEOPARD. 

BAT. LEVEN. 

BITTERN. MERMAID. 

BRAZEN. OSi?REY. 

BULLFINCH. OSTRICH. 

CHEERFUL. RACEHORSE. 

CRANE. RECRUIT. 

DOVE. ROEBUCK. 

ELECTRA. STAR. 

FAIRY. SYLVU. 

FALCON. THORN. 

FAWN. VELOX. 

FLIRT. VIGILANT. 

FLYING FISH. VIOLET. 

GI?SY. VIXEN. 

GREYHOUND. VULTURE. 

A comparatively old group of destroyers of 
30 knots speed. Armed with one la-poondes. 



M Destroyers " B " Class-" A" Class 

five nnalkr gun, and two torpedo tuba. The 
complemeat is about 60 oflken and men. 

" B " CLASS. 
(Completed 1895-1900.) 
ALBACORE. PANTHER. 

ARAB. PETEREL, 

BONETTA. QUAIL. 

EARNEST. SEAL. 

EXPRESS. SPITEFUL. 

GRIFFON.} SPRIGHTLY. 

KANGAROO. SUCCESS. 

LIVELY. SYREN. 

LOCUST, THRASHER. 

MYRMIDON, WOLF. 

ORWELL. 
An early class of destroyer, with a speed of 
30 knots. Amuunent: one la pounder, five 
6 pounder guns, two torpedo tubes. Comple- 
ment : about 60 officers and men. 

"A" CLASS. 
(1894-5.) 
CONFLICT, RANGER, 

FERVENT, SUNFISH, 

LIGHTNING. SURLY, 

OPOSSUM. ZEPHYR, 

PORCUPINE. 
These are our oldest destroyers, having been 
launched nearly twenty years ago. The speed 
is 27 knots. Armament : one 12-pounder, five 
smaller guns, two torpedo tubes. Comiriement, 
50 officers and men. 



lass 

The 



i of 
five 
iple- 



eed 

five 
mt. 





H.M.S. litJomilaklt. 

Photo; SymonJt & Co. 

INDOMITABLE CLASS. 

INDOMITABLE. INFLEXIBLE, INVINCIBLE. 

Displacement: 17,250 tons. 

Speed: 28 knots; Guns: 8 I2in., 16 4in.; 
Torpedo tubes: 3. 




Astern fire: 
6 I2in. 



Broadside : 
8 i2in. 



Ahead fire: 
6 i2in. 



Flotilla Leaden— Submarines 99 



FLOTILLA LEADERS. 

(Completod 1914.) 
KEMPENFELT. NIMROD, 

Thate two large dattroyen wwe orderad by the 
Chilian Govcnumnt from Meatn. White ft G>., 
and pnrchaaed by the Britiih Admiralty on the 
outbreak of war. The diapUoenuDt ia 1.830 
tons, speed man than 31 knots, and the arma- 
ment consists of six 4-in. quick-firm, two Maxims, 
and three torpedo tubM. The comidement is 
about no officers and men. 



SUBMARINES 

" A " CLASS.— These submarines are the oldest 
in conunission. The displacement is 304 tons, 
and on the surface they can travel at la knots, 
below water at 9 knots. They are armed with two 
torpedo tubes. Complement: 11 officers and 
men. 

" B " CLASS.— These boats displace 314 tons, 
and have a surface and submerged speed of 13 
and 9 knots respectively. They are armed with 
two torpedo tubes. Sixteen officers and men are 
carried. 

" C " CLASS.— This class has a disidacement 
of about 320 tons. Above wato- their speed is 
14 knots, below it is 10 knots. They are fitted 
with two torpedo tubes, and have a crew of 16 
officers and men. 



100 



Submaritiet 



" D " CLASS.-TheM an tabfy new boats o< 
about 350 tout disptaoemnt. On tbe nnteco 
tbe speed is 16 knots, below water it is zo knots. 
They are armed with three torpedo tubes, and 
are also believed to have a qniek'^ring gun. 
The complement is about 30 officers and men. 

"E" CLASS. 
The " E " class comprises our latest boats, and 
no official details of the class have been 
published. The displacement, however, is about 
800 tons, and the surface speed 16 knots. Then 
are four torpedo tubes and two quick-firing 
guns, the latter being on disappearing mountings. 
About 23 officers and men are carried. 

A.E. z and A.E. a. 

(Australian boats.) 

These boats are identical with the " E " 
dass. 



NAUTILUS. " F " CLASS. 

SWORDFISH. 

These boats, although not officially described, 
are known to be of extremely powerful type. 
They displace nearly z.ooo tons, can travel at 
18 or 19 knots on the surface and 12 below, and 
are armed with six torpedo tubes and two guns. 
The complement u about 27 officers and men. 



CHAPTER in 
Thb Gikmam Navy 

german battleships. 

dreadnoughts. 

kOnig class. 

(Completed 1914-15.) 
GROSSER KRONPRINZ. 

KURFURST. HARKGRAF. 
KONIG. 

Thb "KSnig " clue, to yMdh thew vesseb be- 
long, are the last Uttleahipa to cany the la-in. gnn, 
as the battleships laid down rince are to be anned 
with 15-in. weapons. 11ie''KAiiigs"arec(nisidend 
by Goman eiqwrts to be veiy successful ships. 
The displacement is 35.500 tons, the length on 
the water-line 574 ft., and the enguies an in- 
tended to develop 38,000 s.h.p. ■■ 3o| knots. 

The normal coal supply is 1,000 tons, but, if 
necessary, no fewer than 3,600 tons of fuel, 
including (nl, can be carried. Ten izin. guns, 
50 cals. long, represent the main armamaot. 
They are mounted in five twin turrets, all on 
the centre line, so arranged that four guns can 
fire ahead or astern, and all ten cm eithn broad- 
side. Fourteen 5.0-is. onick-firiog guns are 
101 



102 Konig Class-Kaiser Class 

momted in an armoured broadside battery, sevm 
bong available on either beam. 

There are also ten ai-pounder quick-firere for 
repeUmg torpedo attack. Five submened 
torpedo tubes, to discharge the igf in. torpedo, 
are fitted. 

These ships are strongly armoured, having a 
belt i3j m. thick amidships, with good protection 
to guns and main fighting stations. The last 
vessel of this class, the " Kronprinz." is not 
expected to be ready before next year. 

The complement nimibers 1,130. 

KAISER CLASS. 
(Completed 1912-13.) 

KAISER. PRINZREGENT 

FRIEDRICH DER LUITPOLD. 

GROSSE. KONIG ALBERT. 

KAISERIN. 

In design the ships of this class are very similar 
to our " Neptune " class, but are much larger, the 
dwptacement being 24,300 tons. The designed 
speed IS 20} knots, but some ships of the class did 
much better than this on trial, one of them, the 
•*^'V.**®*'™"S at 23j knots for a short 
penod. These were the first German battleships 
to be fitted \wth turbines, 

The armament consists of ten 12-iii. /nms 
fourteen s.g-in., and twelve 21-pounder quick- 
arers, with five submeiged torpedo tubes. The 
rag guns are twin-mounted in five turrets, two 



Helgoland Class 



103 



of which are placed di'^jonally amidships, whilst 
the other three turrets are on the oeatn Una. 
By this means all the big guns can be trained 
on either broadside, throuj^ a fairly wide arc. 
Stem fire is nominally from eight, bow fire from 
six guns. The 5.9-in. quick-firers are in an 
armoured battery. 

A feature of this class is the very strong 
armour belt, which is 13I in. over vital parts 
amidships. Each ship carries 1,080 officers and 
men, but the Friedridi der Grosse. which is the 
flagship of the commander-in-chirf, has a com- 
plement of more than i.ioo. 

Two vessels of this class, " Kaiser " and 
" Kdnig Albert," recently completed an ocean 
cruise of 20,000 miles, and are said to have proved 
excellent sea boats. Their maximum fud capa- 
city is 3,600 tons. 

HELGOLAND CLASS. 



(Completed 1911-12.) 



HELGOLAND. 
OSTFRIESLAND. 



THURINGEN. 
OLDENBURG. 



The " Helgoland " rl.% to which these vessels 
belong, represents the second group of German 
Dreadnoughts. They are undoubtedly power- 
ful units, but the d^gn has been shaiply criti- 
cised in Germany. Displacing 22,440 tons, and 
with a designed speed of twenty knots, which 
has been slightly exceeded in service, this class 
is armed with twelve ia-in„ fourteen 5.9-in., 



104 



I 



I 



!;i 



Nassau Class 



fonrteen ai-pomden, and six sabmened torpedo 
tubes. *^^ 

The big guns are in twin turrets, of which four 
are placed on the broadside, and two <m the 
centre-line. This disposition aBows onty elAt 
guns to be trained on either beam j in other 
words, only 66 per cent, of the heavy anna- 
ment is availaUe on the broadside. The de- 
signers have exi^ained this appemit defect by 
pointing out that if the ship we» attacked on 
both sides simultaneonaly it could reply effec- 
tively on each broadside. Nevertheless, this 
system was not aM)roved by German experts, 
and was subsequently abandoned in favour of a 
turret (fispositien whidi permits the free use 
of all big guns on each beam, as in the " Kaiser " 
and " Kftnig " classes. 

The "Helgolands" have iif-in. armour on 
the water-line. They are very steady in rough 
wither, and all have dene wdl at gunnery. 
The maximum coal supply is 3,000 tons. A 
cwnplement of 1,106 officeis and men is carried. 



NASSAU CLASS. 
(Comideted 190^10.) 

NASSAU. RHEINLAND. 

WESTFALEN. POSEN. 

The " Nassau " class, to which these vessels 
bdoog, were the first Dreadnouj^ to be built 
by Germany. For their size they have an ex- 
tremely powofttl armament, but too much was 



;|S 



Nassau Class 



lOS 



obviously attempted on the displacement, and 
they are admittedly faihues. 

These ships displace 18,600 tons. They have 
exceeded their designed speed of nineteen knots 
by more than one knot. 

The armament comprises twelve iz-in., twelve 
5.9-in., sixteen 2i-po«iden, and six sabmerged 
torpedo tubes. Owing to the disposition of the 
four broaddde tmtets only eight of the big 
guns can be used on one bnndside, so that 
the ships, in spite of their more numerous arma- 
ment, can train only the same number of heavy 
guns on the beam as the British Dreadnou^t. 
So much room is taken up by the gun positions 
and their magazbMS, Ac, that q»oe between 
decks is very limited, and the officers and men 
can scarcely be accommodated. 

Over vital parts df th6 hull there is zzj^n. 
armour, but the turrets have much th&meir pro- 
tection. It is hdd by experts that these ships 
would be quickly put out of action if subjected 
to heavy fixe, and it is considered doubtful 
whether they would be able to stand for long 
the concussion of their own numerous heavy 
guns. 

The complement is 966 officers and men. The 
full coal capacity is 2,700 tons. 



106 



Derfflinger 

BATTLE-CRUISERS. 

DERFFLINGER. 

(Completed 1914.) 



The 



■ Derfflinger " it Germany's newest battle- 
cruiser. Laid down at the end of 1911 at Ham- 
burg, she was intended to be launched on June 
14th last year, but, owing to a mishap to the 
slipway, she did not go afloat until a fortnight 
later. 

She was performing her trials when war broke 
out, but was then no doubt hurriedly com- 
pleted and placed in commission. Her displace- 
ment is 26,300 tons, and she has a length on 
the waterline of 689-ft., with a mmrimntn breadth 
of 95.ft. 

High speed and great fuel endurance are the 
outstanding features of this ship, which in pro- 
pMtion to her size is by no means heavily rrmed. 
The main battery consists of eight i2-in. guns 
in four double turret^, all on the centre line. 
Twelve 5 -g-in. quick-firers represent the secondary 
battery, and twelve 2i-pounders the anti-tnpedo 
armament. There in in addition some special 
anti-aerocraft guns. Four submerged torpedo 
tubes are fitted. 

The macimum thickness of the armour belt ir 
i2-in., but great attention has been paid to the 
protection of the guns and other important 
positions. The fuel capacity reaches the enor- 
mous figure of 4,300 tons, which includes about 



Seydlitz 



107 



1,000 tons of oil. The turUim an of a new 
pattern, designed to irork up to 63,000 shaft 
hoise-power, giving a qwed of 36^ knoU ; but 
there is eveiy reason to suppose this figure will 
be exceeded in service. 

A peculiarity is the straight stem, no ram 
being fitted. The appearance of this huge vessel 
is strikingly formidable, and she is undoubtedfy 
a most valuable addition to the German cruiser 
squadron, though in armament she is outclassed 
by contemporary British battlessuisers. Com- 
plement, 1.135 of&cen and men. 

SEYDLITZ. 



(Complsted 1913.) 

The battle-cruiser Seydlitz is in a dass by 
herself, though her design dosdy resembles that 
of the Holtke and the Goeben. of wh: -h she is 
a slightly larger edition. Her displacement is 
24,600 tons, length 656 ft., and she has Parsons' 
turbines of 63,000 h.p., designed for a speed of 
26} knots, though she is reported to have attained 
over twenty-eight knots on trial. 

She was built at the Blohm and Voss yard, 
Hamburg, and was commissicmed last year. 
Her armament comprises ten ii-in., twelve 
5 -9-™., and twelve 21-pounder guns, with four 
snbmerged torpedo tubes. The b%gui», mounted 
in double turrets, are so disposed that all can be 
fired on either broadside, whilst eight can be 
trained astern and six ahead. 



loe 



Moltke Class 



On the watecUne amidslups there u » i»-in. 
armour belt. The gun positiaiM are also well 
protected. The maTimnm fuel capacity b 
3i35o tons, equivalent to a steaming radius of 
13,000 miles at moderate speed. 

This ship, however, is a notorious "coal- 
eater," and consumes an enormous amount of 
fuel when running at high speed. 

Her complement numbm i,io8 officers and 
meUa 



MOLTKE CLASS. 



Si 



MOLTKE. GOEBEN. 
(Completed 1911-12.) 

These ships displace 22,640 tons, the length 
on water line is 610 ft., and the extreme breadth 
96J ft. They are propelled by Parsons' turbines, 
of 52,000 h.p., designed to give a speed of twenty- 
five knots, but on trial the maTimnm speed was 
slightly over twenty-eight knots, and since being 
in service these two battle-cruisers are said to 
have proved themselves to be the fastest armoured 
vessek in the German fleet. The fuel capacity b 
over 3,000 tons, and at economical speed the 
vessels can cover 12,000 miles witliout replenish- 
ing their bimkers. 

The armament is fairly powerful. It consists 
of ten ii-in., twelve s-g-in., and twelve 21- 
poimder guns, with four submerged tcwpedo 
tubes. Two turrets amidships are en TMim , 



Von dcr Tann 1O0 

the xenniniiig three being on the centra line, 
80 that eO ten Ug gmis can be find on either 
broadside. Theie ships an reported to have 
special anangements for rapidly loading the 
heavy gnns. but the report is not authenticated. 

For battle-cmisers the protection is remark- 
ably good, there being ii.in. armour on the water- 
line. In eveiy respect these vessels an among 
the most powoful units of the Genmui fleet. 

They have a complement of 1,013 officers and 
men. 



VON DER TANN. 
(Completed 2910.) 

The Von der Tann was the first battle-cruiser 
built by Gennany. She was launched in 1909 
and ommiissioned in the following year. The 
design of the British Invincible was closely 
followed, but certain improvements were intro- 
duced. 

On a displacement of 19,100 tons there is 
carried an annament of eig^t ii-in. and ten 
5-9-in guns, with sixteen 21-pounders for re- 
pelling torpedo attack. Four submerged tor- 
pedo tubes are fitted. The vessel has a length 
of 560 ft. She is equipped with Pars<ms' tur- 
bines of 43,600 h.p., deigned for a speed of 
twenty-five knots. On trial she touched twenty- 
dght knots, and has done even better than this 
^ce. 



110 



Deutschland Class 



The four double turrets ue lo dispoaed tbat 
all eight guns are availaUe on dther broad- 
side through a very wide arc. The vitals of 
the ship are protected by an armour belt 9{-in. 
thick. She can carry 2,600 tons of fuel, which 
enables her to steam about 11,000 miles at econo- 
mical speed. 

Her complement numbers 911 officers and men. 
The Von der Tann flies the flag of Rear-Admiral 
Tapken, Junior Admiral of the Scouting Squadron. 



PRE-DREADNOUGHTS. 
DEUTSCHLAND CLASS. 

(1906-08.) 

DEUTSCHLAND. SCHLESIEN. 

POBIMERN. HANNOVER. 

SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 






The main characteristics of the " Deutschland " 
class, to which these vessels belong, are as follow : 
Displacement, 13,000 tons; spe«l, 19I knots; 
armam<Jit, four ii-in., foiurteen 6.7-in., twenty 
2i-pounder guns, and six submerged torpedo 
tubes. The armour belt is 9I in. at its thickest, 
with ii-in. armour on the turrets. The 6.7-in. 
guns are in a broadside battery, protected by 6i-in. 
pUtes. 



Out 
aod- 
I of 
Hn. 
bich 
mo- 

nen. 
liral 
ron. 



id" 
>w: 
>ts; 
nty 
edo 
est, 
-in. 
-in. 




VICE-ADMIRAL INGENOHL. 

Commander-in-Chief, German High Seas Fleet. 



Bnuntchwdg Class ill 

Thm an pepntar diipi in the G«iMa nvy, 
owing to tiMir handiiMM, good ^aed. and aaa- 
In^faig qnaUtiea. Th« annament is not ao loc^ 
midable ai it looks, owing to the slow rate of 
fin iron the secondaiy battoy. The 6.7-in. 
projectile weighs is^lbs, and is thus too heavy to 
be handled by manual power, a fact which takes 
this gun out of the quidE-fiiing category. 

In fij^ting value the ships compare with our 
ForaidaUes. The coal supply b limHH to 
i,7Jo tons. The complement is 743 a&om and 
men. The " Deutschland " was for seme years 
flagship of the High Sea Fleet. 

BRAUNSCHWEIG CLASS. 

(Completed 1904-06.) 

BRAUNSCHWEIG. HESSEN. 
ELSASS. LOTHRINGEN. 

PREUSSEN. 

The same in every respect as the " Deutsch- 
land " class, except that the armour belt is only 
QHn. thick. 

WITTELSBACH CLASS. 

(Completed 1902-03.) 
WITTELSBACH. SCHWABEN. 
WETTIN. MECKLENBURG. 

ZHARINGEN. 
The " Wittelsbach " class, to which these vessels 
belong, has the following characteristics: Dis- 
placement, 11.643 tms : q>eed 18 knots ; arma- 
ment, four 9.4-ui.. eighteen 5-9^a., twdve 



112 Kaiier Friedrich Clau 

aji-fcmitu, uid (riz nboMitd to^pado tnbw. 
Anldrii^ tkm k a Mt of »4a. annoor. with 
x»4ii. pladag w tbc bifiiai tnmtt. 

AHlwa^ the hMvy fan* an too wwk for 
modm taetics, the eiceptioaaBy pomrful 
noondaiy batteiy was ooMidered to compeniate 
for this defect. To older ships of the pte-Dread- 
nou^t period the " Wittelsboch " class might 
still prove formidable opponents. 

In service tlwy have been found defective in 
sea-keeping qualities, and the high fneboard 
and kfty supentnictan oAer an inviting target 
to hostile guns. 

Normally these ships form part of the reserve 
fleet. Prt^ioeals to reooostmct and modernise 
them two years ago were rejected, oo the ground 
of their insignificant fighting value. 

The coal supidy is i,8oo tons. A complement 
of 683 officers and men is borne. 



KAISER FRIEDRICH CLASS. 

(Completed 189&-1901.) 



KAISER FRIED- 
RICH III. 

KAISER WILHELM 
II. 



KAISER KARL 
DER GROSSE. 

KAISER BARBA- 
ROSSA. 



KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE. 

Particulars of the Kaiser Friedrich class, of 
which these ships are representatives, are as 
follows : Displacement, 10,600 tons ; q;>eed, 17 
knots ; armament, four 9-4'in., fourteen S-^^n., 




KAISER CLASS. 

KAISER, FRIEDRICH DER GROSSE, KAISERIN 
PRINZREG-LUITPOLD, KONIG ALBERT. ' 

Displacement : 24,200 tons. 

Speed: 21 knots; Guns: 10 I2.2in, 14 6in., 12 24pdr3.; 
Torpedo tubes: 5. 



j^.fJrW^.'TV^i 



*^ 




Astern fire: 
8 I2.2in. 
4 6in. 



Broadside : 
10 i2.2in. 
7 6in. 



Aliead fire: 
6 I2.2in. 
4 6in. 



Brandenburg Class lis 

fourteen 21-pounder guns and five submerged 
torpedo tubes. Protection is afforded by a 
narrow belt la-in. thick amidships, which tapers 
to 4-in. at the bows. The stem has no side 
armour. 

In their original form each ship carried eigh- 
teen 5-9-in. guns, but all, excepting the Kaiser 
Karl der Grosse, underwent complete reconstruc- 
tion six or seven years ago, when four sg-in. guns 
and much of the clumsy top-hamper were re- 
moved. This reduction in weight brought the 
lower edge of the armour belt dangerously near 
the surface, with the result that when the ships 
are rolling the bc't comes out of the water, and 
the lower huU is thus exposed to the smallest 
projectile. 

Owing to this grave defect the ships were 
withdrawn from active service, and have been 
in reserve ever since they were reconstructed. 

Maximum coal capacity is 1,000 tons. The 
complement numbers 622 officers and men. 



BRANDENBURG CLASS. 

(Completed 1893-94.) 

BRANDENBURG. WORTH. 

These vessels are the two oldest battleships in 
the German navy. The class consisted originally 
of four ships, but two of them (Kurfiirst Fried- 
nch Wlhelm and Weissenburg) were Mid to 

B 



114 German Coast Defence Ships 

Turkey in 1910, and are now included in the 
Turkish fleet as the Haireddin Barbarossa and 
Toigut Reis. The displacement is 9,870 tons, 
the present speed about 16 knots. 

Six ii-in. guns of obsolete type form the main 
armament, which is mounted in three double 
turrets on the centre line. This disposition 
enables all six heavy guns to fire on either beam. 
There are also eight 4-1-in. and eight 21-pounder 
guns, with two submerged and one above-water 
torpedo tubes. 

On the water-line amidships is a i6-in. belt of 
compotmd armour, and the big gun positions 
are protected by i2-in. plating. About 1,050 
tons of coal can be stored. The complement is 
585 officers and men. The fighting value of 
this class imder modem conditions is practically 
nil. 



COAST DEFENCE SHIPS. 

(Completed 1890-7.) 



11 


AEGIR 


ODIN. 




HAGEN. 


HEIMDALL. 


i- 


HILDEBRAND. 


FRITHJOF. 


1^ 


BEOWULF. 


SIEGFRIED 



These vessels comprise the very oldest class 
of German armoured ships, and are used only 



Gennan Annoured Cruisers 116 

for the local defence of harbours and coasts. 
The displacement is 4,000 tons. The speed 
originally was 15 knots, but is now considerably 
less. 

The armament consists of three old 9-4-in. 
and ten 2i-poimder guns, with four torpedo 
tubes. A narrow belt of g-m. armour protects 
the waterline, but elsewhere the hull has very 
little protection. 

The complement numbers 307 officers and 
mtsa. 



GERMAN ARMOURED CRUISERS. 
BLtJCHER. 
(Completed 1909.) 

The " Bliicher " is the most modem of Ger- 
many's armoured cruisers, as distinct from the 
battle-cruiser class. She was laid down in 1906, 
at Kiel, as a " reply " to the British " Invin- 
cibles," then building. 

At that date the details of the new British 
ships were carefully guarded, with the result 
that the Germans, acting on incorrect information, 
designed a cruiser which was far behind the 
" Invincible " in every respect. The Blucher 
displaces 15,550 tons, and is 527-ft. in length. 

She has reciprocating engines of 32,000 h.p., 
for a designed speed of 24 knots, which was 
increased to 25 -8 knots on trial. 

The armament consists of twelve 8-2-in., eight 
5-9-in., and sixteen' 21-pounder guns, with four 
submerged torpedo tubes. The 8-2-in. guns are 



116 German Armoured Cruisers 

twin-mounted in annonred tunets, so amnged 
that eight of these weapons bear on the brtMid- 
side. The 5-9-in. guns are in an annoured 
battery. 

A 7-in. belt protects the waterline and vitab, 
and there is plating of equal thickness on the 
turrets. The coal supply is 2,200 tons. 

The complement numbers 888 officers and 
men. The " Blucher," which until lately was 
used for gunnery training purposes, is the only 
German warship to be fitted with a tripod mast 
and a fire-control station on the British pattern. 



SCHARNHORST. GNEISENAU. 
(Completed 1907-08.) 

Both these armoured cruisers were launched 
in 1906. They displace 11,400 tons, and are 470-ft. 
in length. With engines designed for a8,ooo h.p., 
the trial speed was 23 knots. The armament is 
very powoiful for a ship of this dass, and con- 
sists of eight 8-2-in., six S-9-in., and eighteen 
2i-pounder guns, with four submerged torpedo 
tubies. 

Four of the big guns are mounted in twin 
turrets, the remaining four in broadside case- 
mates. Six of these weapons can be fired on 
either broadside. The 5-9-in. guns are in an 
armoiured battery. 

Six-inch armour protects the waterline and 
vital parts, the same thickness being on the 
main gun positions. The maximum cral supfdy 
is 2,000 tans. 






German Armoured Cruisers 117 

A compleinent of 764 officers and men is 
earned. 

The "Schambont" flies the flag of the ad- 
miral in command of the cruiser squadron in 
China, and the "Gneisenau" is also a unit of 
the China squadron. 



YORCK. 



ROON. 



(Comideted 1905.) 

The principal details of these ships are : Dis- 
placement, 9,350 tons ; length, 417-ft. ; designed 
h.p., 19,000 ; speed, ai knots. Armament con- 
sists of four 8-2-in., ten 5-9-in.. and fourteen 
3i-pounder guns, with four submerged torpedo 
tubes. The 8-2-in. guns are mounted in iwo 
double turrets placed forward and aft, the 5-9-in. 
being in an armoured battery. 

Protection is very poor. At its thickest the 
belt is only 4 ins., but there is 6-in. armour on 
the turrets. The general design of these ships is 
faulty, and they have not proved successful in 
service. The maxitnnm coal capacity is 1,400 
tons. 

A complement of 633 officers and men is 
carried. 



. PRIWZ ADALBERT. FRIEDRICH KARL. 

(Completed 1903.) 

These are vessels of 8,850 tons disi^acement, 
and 4X0-ft. in length. They have engines of 
17,000 h.p., giving a speed of 31 knots. Their 
araument compTises four 8-3-in. guns in twin 



118 German Armoured Cruisers 

turret*, ten s-g-in., aad twelve ai-pounder qnick- 
firers, with four torpedo tubes. The armour 
belt is only 4 ins. thick, but the two turrets are 
protected by 6-in. armoiu'. 

Coal capacity is 1,600 tons with bunkers full. 
A complement of 591 officers and men is borne. 



PRINZ HEINRICH. 
(Completed 1903.) 

This vessel is one of the earliest German 
armoured cruisers. She was built specially for 
service abroad, and was formerly on the China 
station. She displaces 8,760 tons, is 410-ft. in 
length, and originally steamed at 20} knots, 
but is now considerably slower. 

Her armament consists of two 9-4-in., ten 
5'9-in., and ten 2i-pounder guns, with four 
torpedo tubes, three of them submerged. The 
big guns are in single turrets placed at each end, 
whilst the secondary armament is mounted partly 
in small turrets, and partly in battery. 

There is only a 4-m. belt on the waterline, with 
6-in. plating on the heavy turrets. The full fuel 
supply is 1,450 tons. Her complement numbers 
567 officers and men. 



FURST BISMARCK. 
(Completed 1900.) 

This is the oldest armoiued cruiser in service. 
She is at present being converted into a torpedo 



Gennan Cruisers 



Its 



training ship, and may not have her full arma- 
ment on bosurd. The disfdacement is 10,750 tons, 
length 4ii-ft., speed 19 knots. She carries four 
9-4-in., twelve s-Q-in., ten ai-pounders, and six 
torpedo tubes. The big guns are in two twin 
turrets. An 8-in. belt protects the waterline, and 
the main gun positions have plating of equal 
thickness. This vessel was completed in 1900. 
having taken more than four years to build. Her 
present fighting value is small. The complement 
is 594 ofiUcers and men. 



PROTECTED CRUISERS. 

KAISERIN AUGUSTA. 

(Completed 1893.) 

This is the oldest German protected cruiser in 
service. Launched in 1892, she has a displace- 
ment of 5,900 tons, and a speed of 20 knots. 
She is armed with twelve 5-9-in. quick-firing 
guns, and eight ai-pounders, with three torpedo 
tubes. There is a thick steel deck, which ex- 
tends from bow to stem. The compIement|[is 
439 officers and men. 

VICTORIA LUISE. HANSA. 

HERTHA. FREYA. 

VINETA. 
(Completed 1898-99.) 

These are vessels of 5,600 tons displacement, 
and belong to the training squadron for cadets 



p - 



120 German Light Cruisers 

and boys. They can steam at aboat 19 knots, 
but the small coal capacity of 900 tons limits 
their radius of action. The armament consists 
of two 8-a-in. guns m single armoured tuircts, 
six 5-9-in., and fourteen ai-pounder quick-finrs 
with three torpedo tubes. 

Amidships there is a 4-in. protective deck, 
and armour of the same thickness protects the 
guns. A complement of 465 officers and men is 
carried. 

GEFION. 

(Completed 1894.) 

This is a protected cruiser of 3,700 tons, with 
a speed of about 19 knots, armed with ten 4.1-in. 
and six smaller quick-firers. There are no tor- 
pedo tubes. A complement of 296 ofiicers and 
men is carried. 

HELA. 

(Completed 1896.) 

The " Hela " is a small cruiser of a.ooo tons, 
with a nominal speed of 20 knots. She is armed 
with two 2i-pounder and foii- smaller guns, and 
has three torpedo tubes. There is a steel deck 
over boilers and machinery. The complement is 
191 ofiicers and men. 

GAZELLE. NIOBE. 

(Completed 1898-1901.) 

These vessels were the first fast light cruisers 
which Germany has built in such numbers during 



German Light Cruisers 121 

Rcent yean. The displacemant is a,6oo tons, 
and the present speed about 30} knots. They an 
armed >with ten 4.1-in. quick-firmf guns and two 
submerged torptxio tubes. With coal bunken 
full the steaming radius at moderate speed is 
4,000 knots. A a-in. steel deck protects boilers 
and engines from shell fin. Complement : 370 
officers and men. 



NYMPHE. 
THETIS. 
ARIADNE. 
AMAZONE. 



MEDUSA. 
FRAUENLOB. 
UNDINE. 
ARKONA* 



* Fitted as a mine-layer.) 

(Completed 1901-03.) 

These ships an protected cruisers of 2,620 tons, 
with a speed of about 21} kn»ts. Aiinament : 
Ten 4.1-in quick-firers and two torpedo tubes. 
There is a 2-in. curved deck over boilen and 
machinery spaces. With a full coal supply on 
board, these cruisers have a steaming radius at 
low speed of slightly mon than 4,000 knots. The 
complement numbers 27s officers and men. 

HAMBURG. MUNCHEN. 

BREMEN. LUBECK. 

BERLIN. LEIPZIG. 

DANZIG. 
(Completed 1904-06.) 

These are protected cruisers of 3,300 tons, with 
a speed of over 32 knots. They an armed with 



i ' 



182 German Light Cruisers 

tm 4.1-in. guni and two torpedo tubes. Starting 
with coal bunlcen full, they are capable of steam- 
ing 5,000 knots at low speed without re-co«ling. 
A complemmt of 303 officers and men is canied. 



KCENIGSBERG. 

(Completed 1907.) 

A protected cruiser of 3,350 tons, with a maxi- 
mum speed of 34 knots. She was launched in 
1905. Armed with ten 4.1-in. quick-firing guns 
and two torpedo tubes. The radius of action at 
low speed is 5,000 knots. Complement: 33a 
officers and men. 

STUTTGART. NURNBERG. 

STETTIN. 

(Completed 1908.) 

Protected cruisers of 3,350 tons, which are aUe 
to travel at nearly 25 knots. They are armed 
with ten 4-i-in. quick-firing guns and two torpedo 
tubes. Tlie steaming radius at economical speed 
is 5,500 knots. Complement, 333 officers and 
men. 

DRESDEN. EMDEN. 

(Completed 1907-08.) 

Protected cruisers of 3,540 tons, with a maxi- 
mum speed of 24} knots. The armament con- 
sists of ten 4.1-in. quick-firing guns and two tor- 
pedo tubes. The steaming radius at low speed is 



German Light Cruisers 123 

Cmaplement, 361 offlom ud 



about 5,800 knots, 
fflcn. 

KOLBERG. 
BfAINZ. 



AUGSBURG. 
COLN. 



(Completed 1909-11.) 

Protected cruisen of 4,280 tons, turbine driven, 
with a trial speed of nearly 37 knots. They are 
armed with twelve 4.z-in. quick-firing guns and 
two torpedo tubes. Their radius of action with 
bunkers full is nearly 6,000 knots. The comple- 
ments consists of 379 officers and men. 



MAGDEBURG. 
BRESLAU. 



STRASSBURG. 
STRALSUND. 



(Completed 1913.) 

Fast cruisers of 4,478 tons, able to steam at 
nearly 28 knots. TTiey are armeJ with twelve 
4.1-in. quick-firing guns and two torpedo tubes. 
On the water-line there is 4-in. vertical armour, 
so that these vessels are, strictly speaking, 
armoured cruisers. They have a large coal supply, 
and can cover more than 6,000 knots without 
taking in fresh fuel. Complement : 370 officers 
and men. 



ROSTOCK. 
KARLSRUHE. 



GRAUDENZ. 
REGENSBURG. 



(Completed 1913-14.) 

These are the very latest fast light cruisers. 
They have a maximum spaed of 28 knots. The 



124 



Gennan Gunboats 



annuMBt k tmlva 4.i'4n. qakk-firing guw and 
two torpedo tnbM. At the watw-Une thm ia n 
annour belt 4-iB. thick, and moch internal pro- 
tection. The radina of action at economical 
■peed ia 6,500 knota. A complement of 373 
officen and men ia carried. 



GUNBOATS. 



CONDOR. 
CORMORAN. 



SEEADLER. 
GEIER. 



(Completed 1893-93.) 

Gunboats of 1,600 tons, having a speed of 
15 knots. They are aimed with eight 4.1-in. 
quick-firing gnns and two torpedo tubes. Comple- 
ment : 163 officers and men. 



ILTIS. 
JAGUAR. 



TIGER. 
LUCHS. 



(Completed 1898-00.) 

Gunboats of 880 tons, with a speed of about 
14 knots, and armed with small quick-firing guns. 
The complement numbers 136 officers and men. 

PANTHER EBER 

(Completed 1903-3.) 

Gunboats of 900 tons and 14 knots speed. 
They cany two 4.1-in. and some smaller guns. 
Complement : 130 officers and men. 



Gennan Torpedo-Boat Destroyers 1S6 



TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYERS. 



Launched 1914. 



V 43-48. 
Diiplacement 630 toot, 
Annunent : Five tocpedo 



ipeed 33) knots, nnmunem: 

tubes, two az-pounder quidi-fi-Ms, and four 
machine guns. Complement, 7.1. 

V 2^-30. S 34— :'f. 
Launched 1913. Di«pla...:nent 65c tn.ii, 

speed 3a| knots. Armanicnt : Pivc torpedo 
tubes, two 2i-pounder quick-ftrnrs, and four 
machine guns. Complement, 7j. 

V 85—38. S 2X-J3. 
Launched 1913. Displacement 630 tons. 

speed 32} knots. Annament: Rve torpedo 
tubes, two ax-pounder quick-firers, and four 
machine gims. Complement, 73. 

S 13—24. G 7—12. V 1—6. 

Launched 19x2. Displacement 350 tons, 
speed 32) knots. Annament: Five torpedo 
tubes, two 2x-pounder quick-fixers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 73. 

G 192—197. V 186— 191. 

Launched 19x0. Displacement 64s tons, 
speed 32I knots. Armament: Four torpedo 
tubes, two 2x-pounder quick-fiiers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 83. 

V 180— X85. S X76— 179. 
Launched 1909. Displacement 630 tons. 

speed 32 knots. Armunent: Four torpedo 



126 German Torpedo-Boat Destroyers 

tubes, two ai-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement. 83. 

G 174—175- 
Launched 1910. Displacement 645 tons, 
^)eed 31J knots. Annament: Four torpedo 
tubes, two 31-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 83. 

G 169, 170, 172, 173. 
Launched 1908. Displacement 628 tons, 
speed 30 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, two ai-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 83. 

Hi I S 165—168. 

Launched 1908. Displacement 600 tons 
speed 33 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, two 2i-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 03. 

V 162—164. 
Launched 1909. Displacement 600 tons. 

Speed 30 knots. Annament: Three torpedo 
tubes, two 2i-pounder quick-firers, two machine 
guns. Complement, 83. 

V 150—161. 
Launched 1907. Displacement 545 tons 

speed 30 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, two 2i-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement. 83. 

S 138—149, 
Launched 1906. Displacement 515 tons 
speed 30 knots. Annament: Three torpedo 
tubes, one ai-pounder quick-firer, three 4- pounder 



German Torpcdo-Boat Destroyers 127 

quick-firers, and two machine guns. Comple- 
ment. 80. 

G 137- 

Launched 1906. Displacement 565 t<ms, 
speed 30 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, one 21-pounder quick-firer, three 4-pounder 
quick-firers, and two machine guns. Comple- 
ment, 80. 

G 136. 

Launched 1906. Displacement 480 tons, 
speed 27 knots. Armament: Three toipedo 
tubes, four 4-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 68. 

G135. 

Launched 1906. Displacement 480 tons, 
speed 27 knots. Armament : Three torpedo 
tubes, one 24-pounder quick-firer, two 4-pounder 
quick-firers, and two machine guns. Comple- 
ment, 68. 

G 133—134. 

Launched 1906. Displacement 480 tons, 
speed 27 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, four 4-poundtT quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Camptemeot, 68. 

S 125—131. 
Launched 1904. Displacement 480 tons, 
speed 27 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 
tubes, three 4-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 60. 

S 120 — 124. 
Launched 1904. Displaoement 460 tons, 
speed 27 knots. Armament: Three torpedo 






m 



I' , 



■ r 



128 German Destroyers 

tubes, three 4-pounder qmck-firets, and two 
machine guns. Comidement, 60. 

S 114— 119. 
Launched 1903. Displacement 415 tons, 
speed 26 knots. Aimament : Three torpedo 
tubes, three 4-pounder quick-firers, and two 
machine guns. Complement, 56. 

G 108— 113. S 90—101. 

S 102 — 107. 
Destroyers of 400 tons, launched in 1901. 
The maximum speed b 26 knots. Armament : 
Three small quick-firers, two machine guns, 
three torpedo tubes. The complement is 56 
officers and men. 

TAKU.— This is a destroyer of 280 tons and 
30 knots speed. She carries three small guns, 
and two torpedo tubes. Complement : 49 
officers and men. She was captured from the 
Chinese during the Boxer campaign. 

D 10.— A destroyer of 350 tons and 28 knots 
speed, armed with five small guns, two machine 
guns, and two torpedo tubes. Complement, 
60 officers and men. 

D 9.— An old destroyer of 375 tons and 24 
knots speed. She carries three small guns, 
two Maxims, and three torpedo tubes. Comple- 
ment, 49 officers and men. 

^ 3— 8 —Very old destroyers, of more than 
300 tons displacement and about 22 knots speed. 
They carry some small guns and three torpedo 
tubes. Complement, 49 officers and men. 




"''"■'""■' Photo: Topi,.! Wu, S,r«™. 

HELGOLAND CLASS. 

HELGOLAND, OSTFRIESLAND, THURINGEN, 
OLDENBURG. 

Displacement: 21,000 tons. 

Speed: 21 knots; Guns: 12 I2.2in., 14 Cm.. 14 24pdrs.; 
Torpedo tubes: 6. 




Astern fire: 


Broadside : 


Ahead fire 


6 I2.2in. 


8 I2.2in. 


6 I2.2in. 


4 Oin. 


7 6in. 


4 6in. 



German Submarines 120 

D I (CARMEN). 

D 2 (ALICE ROOSEVELT). 



Very old destroyers, displacing 325 tons, 
with a speed of 21 knots. Amuunent : five 
small guns and three torpedo-tubes. Comple- 
ment, 46. 



SUBMARINES. 

U I— 2.— These are the earliest German sub- 
marines, and displace about 150 to 200 tons. 
The speed above water does not exceed 9 knots, 
and two torpedo-tubes are carried. Thei« is a 
crew of II. 

U 3— 8.— These boats belong to the second 
German type. The displacement is about 350 
tons, and the surface and submerged speeds are 
12 and 8 knots respectively. Three torpedo- 
tubes are fitted. Complement, 14 officers and 
men. 

U 9— 20.— These boats are believed to be of 
about 400 tons, with a surface sptsed of 15 knots, 
and to be armed with three or four torpedo- 
tubes. The crew consists of 17 officers and 
men. 

U 21 — 26. — These submarines displace about 
800 tons, and are said to be able to travel at 18 
knots on the surface. They are armed with four 
torpedo-tubes and two small quick-firing guns. 
The complement is about 32 officers and men. 

U 27— 36.— These boats are the very latest 
type. The displacement is about 900 tons, the 

I 



180 



German Mine-Layers 



surface speed i8 knots, and they can travel at 
12 knots when submerged. The armament con- 
sists of four torpedo-tubes and two quick-firing 
guns on high-angle mountings. About 30 officers 
and men are carried. 



MINE-LAYERS. 

PELIKAX.— This is the oldest German mine- 
layer in commission. She was launched in 
1890, displaces 2,300 tons, and can steam at 
I5i knots. The armaaent consists of four 31- 
pounder quick-firing guns, and. of course, a 
large number of nunes charged with high a- 
plosives. She is used as a sesrgoing trainii« 
ship for mine work. The com{dement is 105 
officers and mm. 

NAUTILUS.— This ship was specially built for 
mine-laying work, and was laundied in 1906. 
Her displacement is 1,935 tons, the deogned 
speed io knots. She carries eight ai-pounder 
guns, and has magazines for a large number 
of naval mines, with special gear for dropping 
them. iUx crew numbers 198 officers and 
men. 

ALBATROSS. — This ship, which was M>eciaMy 
built for mine-laying work, was latacbed m 
1907. The displacement is 2.185 tons, tbe 
designed speed 20 knots. She is armed with 
eight 2i-pounder quick-fireis, and has maga- 
zines for a large number of naval mines, with 
spMiai gMr for dropping them. The crew 
■■M b er s X98 oificers and men. 



CHAPTER IV 

Admiral Sir John Jeiucob 

Immedutelv the Home Fleets had been mobi- 
lised the Admiralty issued the foUowing announce- 
ment: 

With the approval of his Majesty the King, 
Admiral Sir John R. JeUicoe, K.C.B., 
K.C.V.O., has assumed supreme command 
of the Home Fleets, with the acting rank of 
Admiral, and Rear-Admiral Charles E. 
Madden, C.V.G., has been appointed to be 
Ws Thief of the Staff. 
His Majesty immediately sent an inspiring 
message to Admiral Sir John JeUicoe, as repre- 
sentiag the whole Navy, and it was communi- 
cated to the officers and men of the squadrons in 
all parts of the world. 

At this grave moment in our National 
history I send to you, and through you to 
the cheers and men of the Fleets of which 
you have assumed command, the assurance 
of my confidence that under your direction 
they wiU revive and renew the old glories of 
the Royal Navy, and prove cmce again the 
sure shield of Britain and of her Empire in 
the hoiu- of trial. 



George R.I. 



tti 



132 



The Fleets at War 



I 
J 



Admiral Sir John Jellicoe't reply to the Kine'i 
message «u as follows: ^ 

Qq behalf of the officers and men of Home 
Meet, beg to tender our loyal and dutiful 
thanks to your Majesty for the gracious 
message, which wiU inspire aU with detenni- 
nation to uphold the glorious traditions of 
t.V' past. 

(Signed) Commander-in-Chief, 

c- T u T ... Home Fleet, 

bn- John JeUicoe. on whom the eyes of the 
natiMi a« fixed, is one of the most distinguished 
•dmrals of the sea service. He has wide sea 
otpanoce, is a splendid administtmtw. and is 
Jidgmeir* *™^ » '»*'> 0* c<x» "d determined 

i*^ •PPointment of Sir John JeUicoe was in 
Itself of the nature of a romance. He had no 
smaU share in shaping the instrument 1m now 
commands, and he chose as his Chief «| Staff 
anothw most distinguished officer, who happens 
to be^ brother-in-law. Sir John JefficoT^ 
R«^Admiral Charles Madder, served to^^ether 
at the AdmnraJty on more than one occasion, both 
havmg. mdeed, been Sea Lords, and they married 
daughters of Sir Charles Cayzer, Bt. 

The Admiralissimo and his chief staff officer 
are known to be in the most complete accord on 
matters of strategy and tactics, and were both 
associated m the creation and equipment of the 

^^^ V^!: u"2"' ^'"*' °" *»^ the fortunes 
of the Bntish Empire will depend. They were 
members of the famous Dreadnought Design 
Committee, and were associated with Adndral 



Admiral JcUicoc ist 

of the Ftect, Lord Fiaher of KUvmtone, in his 
many refoinu fai naval adminlatratim. 

No officer whom the Admiralty could hav« 
selected to go afloat at a juncture of luch trans- 
cendent importance enjoys lo comfdetely the 
confidence of the naval service m Sir John 
Jellicoe. In Dwember. 1918, he became a 
member of the Board of Admiralty, and then 
vacated the command of the Second Division 
of the Home - leet, to which he was aj^jointed 
over the heads of eleven vice-admiitb— a fact 
which m itself points to the high estimation in 
which he is held by the naval authorities. 

Bom on December 5, 1839, he is the son of 
Captain J. H. JeHicoe. Educated at Rotting- 
dean, Sir John Jellicoe entered the Royal Navy 
as a cadet on July 15, 187a. passmg out of the 
Bntannia " first of his " batch " by over a 
hundred marks. In the examination for sub- 
heutenant, which rank he attained six yean 
later (December 5, 1878), he took three " firsU," 
m Itself a remarkable achievement. 

On August 23. i88o. he wm promoted lie» 
tenant, and two yean afterwards, aa a Ummt,^^ 
on board the " Agincourt." be served in the 
Egyptian War. He was awartled the Egyptian 
medal and the KhecKve's braise star. On Us 
letum to England, in the foKkw^ yev he 
studied at the Royal Naval Coliege, Greenwich 
where he won the special £80 ptix tot omaery 
lieutenants. In May. 1886, while serving on 
board the "Monarch." he was awanied the 
Board of Trade sil.er medal for galtoitiy in 
»vmg life at sea. by commanding a pg wlueh 



1«* The Fleets at War 

went to the mcue of a itianded ship near Gib- 
itltar. the lea being «, heavy that tte^t w» 

Colossus, and on the staff of the " ExceUent " 
pinnery establishment. ^xceuent 

Gawtted a commander in 1891, he was for a 

fa collision with the " Camperdown/^eS^ 

itnii T^hrt °'"="?' i"'^ ^50 ™- -« 

urownea. At the time of the rnlliainn r 

m^^er Jellicoe was on the si^k JST'S c^S" 
Wh«i the ship capsized he, with the aid of wJ 
»T ; ^,'^*'^«^'P•"»n. contrived to keep Umself 
afloat tiU picked up. Commander JeSs 
«lver medal was lost with other ef!ecti iS^J 

m£? I fi u*** *""*• 'ntimated that another 

m^al could be obtained on payment. 
After serving as commander of the " Ramillies " 

flagship 1". the Mediterranean, he was m^T-^ 

o the rark of captain (January 1^1^^ 
jomed the OnhiaLe c!oUt7."*XdSl t 
tL^-.^T^"' **'«=*«! Wm as flag captan in 
the centunon " on the China station. D^J 

•n 1900. m which he narrowly e^aped death bJ 
a severe gunshot wound, Captain Id W com 
-anded the Naval Brigade Ld aS'S cS 



Admiral Jellicoc w 

staff Officer, when he gtined not only the C B 
bnt was awaided by the Gennan Emperor th^ 
Kcond elaai of the Red Eagle with eroiMd 



Retiiming from China at the end of looi he 
was in Nownber of that year, appofated to 
superintrad the building by contiart of diipa 
of war : he next served as Naval Assistant to the 
ControUer of the Navy, which post he vacated 
in Augtist, 1903, to take command of the " Drake " 

Director of Naval Ordnance and Torpedoes in 
succession to Captain Barry. 

Much has been said about the improvement 
of good shootmg in the Navy, and fai this con- 
nection considemble praise is due to Admiral 

m^^\I^T ^.^'^J'-^ » writer in the 
untied Seme* Jourtwl once remarked, reflec«n/r 
a judgment which is known to be weU founded- 
the good work fostered by Admiral Sir Peroy 
Scott would have been heavily handicapped- 

N.if^?*'^"""= *« ^^ *"« DirectoTof 
Naral Ordnance proved himself a man of original 
t^^ir-M nnd prompt action, and one of the Sort 
cabbie gunnery experts in the Navy. 
., Dnring the time he was m command of the 
urake, he turned it into one of the best shoot- 
mg sh.^ of the Navy, and while he was at the 

Cat«^n^Tn" "^*°'" "^ Naval Ordnance 
S«!~ .J*"'"* *''*' *" *"''* was possible to ■ 

Jghtmg l,ne being fitted with the most uj^t.^ 

tlrtl T^ '"^*'* ''^''*^' »^ well as to instal a 
Jire-control set of instruments m each ship for 



MKtOCOnr RBOUITION TBT CHART 

'ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




Ui IM 



I.I 



L25 i 1.4 



1^ 



J& 



^ APPLIED IN/MGE Inc 



1653 East Main StrMl 

Roch««t8r. Nbw Yorit U609 USA 

(716) 482- 03OO- Phorw 

(718) 288- 5989 -Fa« 



186 The Fleets at War 

SSf 1^*^ "^ '^^'y improved dSrS 
tenure of his appointment. * 



:|!JW 



CHAPTER V 

bFFICERS AND MeN OF THE BRITISH NaVT 

From the current Navy Estimates the foHow- 
ing particulars are taken of the number of officers 
md men voted in 1914-15 for the naval service. 
First the strength of the Reserves is given, then 
the number of active service ratings and lastly 
the aggregate mobilised for war : 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

(Contlrttog of Merchant Seamen. Yachtanen, etc.) 

HoHE Force— Genbrai Service 



Numbers Voted 
I9i4-"9IS. 



Executive Officera 
Com. Engr Officers 
Accountant Officers 
Warrant Engineers 



OFFICERS. 



Nombets 

borne on 

ist Jan., 

i»>4 



'.340 
14a 

I20 
190 



'■} 



1.790 



Leading Seamen • 
Seamen . . . 

Wireless Tel. Operators - 
Engine Rm. Art. - 
Ldg.Strs. - 
fitoiteia - . . 



Officers 
Men 



MEN. 

220' 
10,780 

120 

j6o 17.^80 

no 
- 3.490. 
Home Force— Trawler Section 



14a 



187 



^1 



138 Officers and Men 



NsWIOUNDbAND I 

lun 
UAiiiA: 

Urn - 
AusnucAsiA : 

Officers 

nun 



CObOMIAA BlANCm 

600 



400 



3.8oo 

2,300 

187 

1,840 

9.1501 
6,joo I 

10 { 



} 



8.S»7 



18,710 



ai,S48 

ROYAL FLEET RESERVE 

(Consisting of Naval Seamen and othen who hav* 
the Fleet for five yeara or more) 

MEN 
aaas A.— Pensioners. 

Seamen Class • 

Stoker Class 

Police rat. 

Royal Marines ■ 
Class B — ^Non-Pensionera. 

Seamen Class 

Stoker Class 

Police rat. 

Royal Marines - 3,«3>-/ 

Immediate Class. — Non-Pensioners. 

Seamen Class ■ . 1,600 

Stoker Class . . 1,870 

Royal Marines - . fioo 

- 31.107 
ROYAL NAVAL VOLUNTEERS 

Officers and Men (efficients) - (a) 4,500 

4.500 

PENSIONERS 
Sesmen > • _ . g .-^ 

Royal Marines ... ,]^^ 

8,110 



65.065 



«9.4«7 
in 



4,070 



Total 

Total, Active Service Rat- 
ings 
Totd Reserves - 



»7.734 
4.603 

8,740 
60,546 



151,000 
65,065 



I44.»7I 
60,546 



Grand total . . . (j) 216,065 
(a) Includes joo Sooth African Division. 
(^ 1,562 Ranks and Ratings on the Activ* List. 
Flwt Reserve Men and Pensioners have been lent for 
tinder Colonial and Foreign Govenimmts. 



205,417 



Rwra 
serno0 



of the British Navy 189 

When war was declared there was no dearth of 
officers and men for the British Fleet. The 
presentation of a Supplementary Estimate to 
Parliament by the Admiralty, after the declaration 
of hostilities, gave rise to a misunderstanuing. 
This action was a mere formality in order to keep 
the right side of Treasury precedure, and it did 
not mean that 67,000 additional officers and men 
were going to be raised. What happened was 
that Reservists to the number of about 60,000 
were called up and they were forthwith trans- 
ferred to Vote A., which fixes the number of active 
service officers and ratings and provides pay for 
them. 

Whereas ParUament provided in the spring of 
1914 for an active persoimel of 151,000 with 60,000 
Reservists, the two totals had to be added together 
so as to obtain Parliamentary sanction for full 
pay being provided for 211,000. In addition the 
new vote left room for a slight actual expansion — 
consisting of a number of retired oificers and a 
quota of artisan and other skilled . ngs to be 
forthwith raised. 

Thus we get an aggregate of 218,000 officers 
and men for service ashore and afloat. This total 
includes cadets and boys under training, and 
approximately 200,000, it may be assumed, were 
available for service in the Home Fleets and the 
squadrons in distant seas. It is an axiom that 
in peace we have more ships than we can man, 
whUe in war we shall have a good surplus of men 
after planning all the ships. When passing from 
a pe 3 a war footing. Royal Fleet reservists — 
well-udined men with from five to seven years' 



140 



Officers and Men 



Mrvice — and othen became available and the 
?leet was fully mobiliaed, having no incooaidei^ 
able surplus to make good the i-amMitj^ of 
battle. 



CHAPTER VI 

The Comiiander-in-Chikf of the German 
Fleet 



There is a certain parallel between the dr- 
cumstances which have brought the commanr 
deis-in-chief of the British and German battle 
fleets into the portions they respectively hdd 
to-day. Just as Admiral Sir John Jellicoe was 
long since " ear-marked " for the supreme com- 
mand of the Home Fleets, so was Admiral Fried- 
rich von Ingenohl selected for the control of the 
German Hi^ Seas Fleet years before his appoint- 
ment was actually gazetted. 

The German commander-in-chief, whose flag 
now flies in the Dreadnought, Friedrich der 
Grosse, is without doubt one of Europe's most 
distinpmhH naval officers. In a navy where 
more than elsewhere, a premium is placed upon 
scientific leadership, this officer early attracted 
the attention of his superiors by reason of the 
skill and resourcefulness he displayed during 
manoeuvres. He is said to have specialised in 
cruiser tactics, and to have been cue of the 
first officers to urge upon the Navy Department 
the wisdom of adopting the battla^ndser design 
ui 



142 The Gommander-in-Chict 



1 11 



when that novel conception materialised in the 
British " Invincible." He is also known as the 
leading advocate of that system of tactics which 
is known in Gennany as the " riickdchtslose 
Offensive," and wluch in homely idiom may be 
translated as " going for " the enemy hammer 
and tongs. 

In a word, Admiral von Ingenohl is the em- 
bodiment of the strikingly progressive spirit 
which pervades the modem German navy. It 
is by no means a spirit of mere reckless dash, 
which reckons on gaining a victory solely by 
impetuous onslaught. Under modem con- 
ditions, tactics such as these might well be fatal 
to those \v!io employed them, owing to the deadly 
precision of heavy guns and the development 
of the torpedo. The German school of naval 
thought favours, instead, a preliminary period 
of " mosquito warfare," seeking thus to reduce 
both the material and the moral strength of an 
enemy before the actual clash of armoured squad- 
rons takes place. That this idea is'faithfully to 
be adhered to is clear from the opening incidents 
of the present campaign at sea, which have already 
shown that reliance is placed on the torpedo and 
the mine as a preliminary means of di linishing 
our preponderance in big ships. So far, indeed, 
the German plan of campaign has been singularly 
true to the principles advocated by the leading 
German authorities who have written of nav^ 
warfare. They lead us to anticipate a good deal 
of this " Kleinkrieg " before the High Seas Fleet 
emerges from cover. On the other hand, it were 
unwise to suppose that the Gerr^an Fleet will 



of the German Fleet 148 



continue to act strictly by the book, especially in 
view of the character of its commander-in-chiief. 

Id Gennan naval circles Admiral van Ingenohl 
is known as one of the first German flag officers 
who completely freed themselves from the miU- 
tary traditions in which the fleet was cradled and 
has been reared. The German navy, as is well 
known, was founded as a branch of the army, 
and its early development proceeded on dis- 
tinctly mihtary Unes. Until *Se present Em- 
peror came to the Throne the Head of the Ad- 
miralty was always an anny officer, and it followed 
that, in so far as the different conditions per- 
mitted, the strategy and tactics of the fleet were 
brought into line with those of the land forces. 
Ships were regarded primarily as imits for coast 
defence, in the most Umited sense of the word. 
This held true far into the nineties, and it is 
actually less than two decades since Germany 
first undertook the construction of ships which 
were specially designed to meet and defeat the 
foe in open sea. It seems probable that Admiral 
von Ingenohl owes something of bis broader 
views on naval strategy to the large amount of 
foreign service he has seen. 

Bom in 1857 of comparatively humble parents, 
he entered the navy at the age of 17. The service 
in those da3rs enjoyed nothing like its present 
prestige. It oflered no attractions to the sons of 
the upper classes, and was completely over- 
shadowed by the army, then in the zenith of its 
brilliance and popularity, after the successful war 
against France. The navy drew a large majority 
of its offioeis from a class whose social status was 



144 The Commander-in-Chiet 

cooflidend waicdy high enough to give its mmh 
the entrte to the anny. Proof of this will be 
seen in iae conspicuous absence of naval officers 
who are hereditary nobles. Admiral von Inge- 
nohl, in conunon with Grand-Admirals von 
Tirpitz, von Koester, and several other flag 
ofikers, received his patent of nobihty as a mark 
of Imperial favour. 

WlJle on his maiden cruise in foreign waters 
the young officer was privileged to see smne 
fighting. His ship, the old " Vineta," was one of 
a small German squadron which was assembled 
to teach the Chinese pirates a lesson. Nineteen 
years later he was again in action in the same 
quarter of the globe, and against the same 
opponents, when the gunboat " litis," which he 
conimanded, shelled a battery at Tamsni, whieb 
had fired on a German steamer. In the intervals 
of command afloat he was engaged at the Navy 
Department, where he put in (me spell of neariy 
three and a half years as divisional chief of the 
ordnance board, and subsequently directed a 
department of the Admiral Stait. His first 
important independent command was the battle- 
ship " Worth," in her day one of the best ships 
in the navy. He was next appointed to the 
cruiser " Kaiaerin Augusta," and shortly after 
to the " Hertha," a more powerful ship of the 
same class. After another short interval of 
shore work he was appointed to command the 
Imperial yacht " Hohenzollem," where, of course, 
he came under the direct eye of the Kaiser, who 
was quick to recognise his quaUties. 
As early as 1889 he had been a Ueutenant in 



b« 

sen 

ige. 

von 
flag 
Ark 

ten 

MM 

«of 
l>]«d 
teen 



une 
1 he 
hieh 
vals 
favy 
lariy 

the 
d a 
fint 
(ttle- 
ihipa 

the 
after 
i the 
1 of 
i the 
urse, 

who 



Dt in 




POSEN CLASS. 

NASSAU, POSEN, RHEINLAND, WESTFALEN. 

Displacement: 18,900 tons. 

Speed: 20 knots; Guns: 12 iiin., 12 6in., 16 34pdrs.; 
Torpedo tubes: 6. 




Astern fire: 


Broadside : 


Ahead fire 


6 iiin. 


8 Iiin. 


6 Iiin. 


4 6in. 


6 6in. 


4 6in. 



of the Gennan Fleet itf 

the old Imperial sradit ia iriiidi the Bmptrar 
made hie fint long eraiaea. On leaving the 
" Hohouolleni " in 1908 he waa pfomotad to 
Rear-Admiral, and phuied in chuge oi the eecood 
division of the First Sqnadroa. In the following 
year he hoisted his flag aa admiral of the cmiaer 
squadron in China, whence he wu recalled twelve 
montha Uter to aaanme charge of the Second 
Battle Squadron in home waters. The com- 
mander-in-chief of the High Sea Fleet waa then 
Admiral von Holtzendorft, who, after Grand- 
Admiral von Koester (the presidnt of the Navy 
League), is considered to be the fineet naval 
strategist in Germany. Under this officer the 
battle fleet u said to have increased remarinUy 
in efficiency, both in regard to gwmery, seaman- 
ship, and general smartnese. This period wit- 
nessed the introduction into the flee' >f up-to- 
date shooting methods, and notably of kog^ 
range practice. In the manoeuvres of 1911 the 
Second Squadron, commanded by Admiral vou 
Ingenohl, was held to have scored a decisive 
success against a much stronger fleet, which in- 
cluded seven Dreadnought battleships, whereas 
his own squadron was composed of older and 
weaker ships. In January, 1913, Admiral von 
HoUzendorf! hauled down his flag, and was 
succeeded by Admiral von Ingenohl as com- 
mander-in-chief. 

The leader of the German battle fleet has, 
theref(»«, held his present appointment for up- 
wards of eighteen months, and it is to be sup- 
posed that he is thoroughly familiar with every 
unit of his fine force, especially as the ships in 

K 



14^ The Commandcr-in-Chirf 

active conunission spend more than nine months 
of the year at sea. The fleet certainly stands 
to benefit by thte comparatively long poiod of 
single command. It will feel the confidence bom 
of experience in its distinguished leader, and he in 
turn, knowing exactly what his ships can do, 
need fear no check to nis plans by unsuspected 
defects in personnel or material. Whatever the 
near future may bring, it is certain that the 
German navy will put forth its utmost efiort to 
fulfil the hope placed in it by the nation, and 
those who anticipate a cheaply purchased naval 
victory for us are laying up a rude disappoint- 
ment for themselves. The material resources of 
the German fleet alone can give some idea of its 
formidabiUty, but its potentiahty will be incal- 
culably increased if the leadership is of the high 
order which the reputation of the present com- 
mander-in-chief leads us to expect. 



CHAPTER VII 

Officers and Men of the Foreign Navies 
personnel of the navies 





Officers 

(including 

cadets). 


Non-conunissioned 
officers and 

men. 


Total 

(an 

ranks). 


Germany • 


4.491 


74.89J 


79.386» 


Fiance 


».844 


6a,6ii 


65.433 


Rnnia 


3.404 


57,000 


60,404 


Anstria-Hungary - 


1.377 


19.13* 


»o,509 


Japan - 


4.713 


49.930 


54.663 



• Including 7,726 " Seamen Artillaists " and " Mafines " 
who do not serve at sea. 

NOTES TO PERSONNEL STATISTICS 

GERMANY.— The Imperial German Navy is 
mamied largely by conscription. About 25 per cent, 
of the non-commissioned personnel consists, how- 
ever, of volunteers, or long-service men, who have 
made the Navy their profession. These " profes- 
sionals," as they are called, are the backbone of the 
fleet. They fill all the really important posts, such 

ua 



148 



Officers and Men 



■ W 



Bl 



i 



as that of gun-captain, gun-layer, torpedo-gnnner, 
leading signalman, and they are responsible for 
the efficiency of the conscripts under their charge. 
Seventy-five per cent, of the personnel is represented 
by conscripts mainly from the inland districts whose 
term of service is three years, and who see the sea 
for the first time after entering the Navy. Enrol- 
ment takes place each October, and after two or three 
weeks of rudimentary instruction on shore, they are 
distributed among the battle-fleet and the torpedo 
flotillas. Hence, at the outbreak of war, 25 per cent, 
of the German personnel had been under training 
about 34 months, 25 per cent, about 22 months, and 
25 per cent, no longer than 10 months. 

Owing to the limited period of service German 
naval training is extremely strenuous and intensive. 
Every effort is made to specialize, newcomers being 
selected for certain duties according to the aptitude 
they display. The German bluejacket is not a 
" handy man " in the sense that the British sailor 
is, but he is said to be efficient in his own par- 
ticular groove. Discipline is exceedingly strict, and 
the relations between officers and men are rarely 
cordial. 

The officers are well educated and very scientific 
in their methods. 

FRANCE.— The French Navy is manned prin- 
cipally on the conscript system, but as France has a 
large maritime population, the majority of the naval 
recruits are men who have followed the sea since 
boyhood and who, therefore, adapt themselves very 
quickly to service in the Fleet. There is also a large 
percentage of long-service volunteers. The period 
of compulsory service was, until lately, two years, 
but nnder the new Law this has been raised to three 



of the Foreign Navies 149 

years. Authorities speak highly of the French blue- 
jacket's intelligence and courage. Discipline is good, 
but not so strict as in the German Navy. The 
officers are, as a rule, men of high scientific attain- 
ments and very keen on their work. 

RUSSIA.— The Russian Navy is manned ahnost 
exclusively by conscripts, who serve for five yean 
afloat. Although his education generally leaves 
much to be desired, the Russian sailor has many 
excellent qualities. He is obedient, courageous, and 
never gets into a panic. Since the disastrous war 
with Japan, the Navy has been purged of many of 
the elements which impaired efficiency. The officers 
are now capable and zealous. The change which has 
come over the Fleet is evidenced by an "order of 
the day," recently promulgated, which enjoins all 
naval officers never to surrender their ships under 
any circumstances, but to sink them if capture is 
imminent. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.— The Austro-Hungarian 
Navy is manned by conscripts and volunteers, the 
former largely predominating. Four years is the 
period of service. The men are drawn almost exclu- 
sively from the Dahnatian coast, and represent a 
very hardy and courageous type. The average of 
education is, however, very low, the percentage of 
illiterates being abnormal. Although Italian is the 
mother tongue of the majority, German is the official 
language of the Navy. All-round efficiency is main- 
tained on a high level. The officers are men of 
excellent education, wide knowledge, and unlimited 
zeal. 

JAPAN.— The Japanese Navy is principally 
manned on a compulsory basis, the term of activi 



1*0 Officers and Men 

Nnrioe being three yean. The men are escdleBt 
in every way, smart, intelligent, rewureefal, and 
amenable to discipline. They display a wonderful 
aptitude for manipulating the complex mechanism 
of a modem warship, as was proved in the campaign 
against Russia. The officers are highly trained and 
enterprising. 



:ni 



II 



CHAPTER Vni 

German Natal Bases 

KIEL 

Kiel, in spite of the growing importance of 
V^elmshaven, still retains its podtion as Ger- 
many's premier " Reichskriegshafen," or Imperial 
War Port. Its superb harbour, and the intei^ 
national regatta, known as the " Kider Woche," 
which is held each June, have made Kid one of 
the best known por'.a of Europe. This year's 
r^atta, it wiU be remembered, was rendered 
memorable by the presence of the Britisii Second 
Battle Squadron and some of our light cruisers. 
The Imperial Dockyard at Kid is said to be one 
of the best-equipped establishments of its kind 
in the worlda 

It has two large building slips, on one of which 
the Dreadnought battleship " Kaiser " was coo- 
stracted, and there are other slips for the building 
of smaller vessels. Of the six graving docks, two 
are large enough for Dreadnoughts. There is also 
a mammoth floating dock capable of raising vessels 
up to 39,500 tons, and five other pontoon docks 
for ships of smaller dimensions. Upwards of 
10,500 (^dals and hands are employed at the 
yard, which qpecialiaes in repair and refitting woik, 
in 



182 The Fleets at War 

though a good deal of new constniction U also 
undertaken. 

ffiel ti the official residence of Prince Hemy 
^ PruMu, the Kaiser's brother, who is Inspector- 
General of the Fleet. Some four miles down the 
Iwrbour IS Holtenau and the locks of the Kaiser 
Wilhehn Canal. Kiel fa very strongly defended 
against both land and seaward attack. The har- 
bour entrance fa guarded by the batteries of 
Fnednchsort on the west, and those of Uboe and 
MSltenort on the east. At Friedrichsort the fair- 
way IS less than 1.000 yards wide, so that ships 
attempting to force an entrance would have to 
run the gauntlet of the heavy fortress guns at 
almost point-blank range. Friedrichsort fa the 
home of the State torpedo factory, which 
supphes practically the entire navy with these 
weapons. ^^ 

In normal times the Second and Third Battle 
Squadnms are based on Kiel, which fa afao the 
tase for the Baltic Reserve Squadron, the First 
Torpedo Divfaion.^and the submarine flotillas 
Besides the SUte yard, there fa the Immenni 
shipbuildmg and engineering establfahaent known 
as the Germania Yard, owned by Krupps. and 
tbt Howaldt Ym^, both of which coastmct war- 
ships of the largest sfae. Hence the building and 
r^ainng facilities at Kiel are very extensive, and 
they pass automatically under State control in 
TOrtime. Kiel itself fa a large and thriving dty 
TOth a population'of 180.000. Its growth datw 
from 1866. when it was wrested from Denmark by 
Prussia, with the w*oIe of the Schleswig-Hobtein 
proviace. 



German Naval Bases 163 



HELIGOLAND. 
HeligoUnd is the most remarkable of Germany's 
naval strongholds. This island, it wiU be remem- 
bered, was ceded to Germany by us in zSgo. At 
that date the sea had made such inroads on the 
soft difis that the complete disappearance of 
^Teligoland at no very distant date was freely 
predicted. 

M^th characteristic thoroughness the Germans 
took measures to preserve their new acquisition. 
Immensely strong breakwaters and sea-walls were 
buUt all round the coast, but violent gales demo- 
lished much of the work, which had to be replaced 
at great expense, and it is only in recent years 
that the ravages of the sea have been completelv 
checked. ' 

Simultaneously with this work a good deal 
of land reclamation went on. with the result 
that the area of the island has been sreatlv 
increased. ' 

A large harbour for torpedo-boats and sub- 
marmes has been enclosed by two long moles 
Inside there is a miniature dockyard, with rwair 
shops, magaanes. stores, &c. Outside this har- 
bour there is a safe anchorage for warships of 
gieat size. It is estimated that from beginning 
to end the naval works at Heligoland have cost 
GMmany something like £10.000.000 sterling. 

Fortifications of remarkable strength have been 
erected. These consist chiefly of heavy guns 
mounted in steel turrets. weU concealed from the 
view of an enemy at sea, and so placed that every 
approach to the island is swept by their fire. As 



184 The Fleets at War 

these gmu are mounted on the plateau thejr have 
a high command, and attacking ships would have 
to encounter a plunging fire. 

Nnmerous bomb-proof control stations and 
magazines have been excavated. It is under- 
stood that, given an ample supply of ammunition 
and provisions, Heligoland is in a position to 
resist attack by the strongest naval force for an 
indefinite period. 

There is a powerful wireless station, a naval 
flying depot, and a large naval hospital. The 
garrison consists in the main of four companies 
of seamen gunners. The commandant is Rear^ 
Admiral Jacobson. 

The high strategical importance of Heligoland 
is self-evident. Its position, some thirty-five 
miles from the mainland, is that of a strong out- 
post, defending the estuaries of the Elbe and 
Weser. A flotilla of destroyers or submarines 
based on the island could make things very 
uncomfortab's for a fleet endeavouring to blockade 
the German coast, and it was the recognition of 
this fact which led to the construction of the new 
torpedo harbour. 

Thanks to the wireless station, communica- 
tion can always be maintained with the mainland, 
and also by means of aircraft. 

In common with most military nations, Ger- 
many appears to place undue reliance on fixed 
defences as an element of sea power, but it is 
obvious, from the vast sums of money she has 
spent on its development, that Heligoland plays 
a leading part in the German plan of naval 
strategy. 



German Naval Bases 155 



BORKUM. 

The island of Borkum came into prominence a 
few years ago as the result of an aUeged case of 
espionage, in which two young British naval 
officen were concerned. 

Borkum is the first German island of the 
Frisian group. It commands the approach to 
the Ems, and would offer a convenient foint 
d'appui for naval operations against the German 
coast. This, apparently, explains why it has been 
strongly fortified by the Germans. 

Its guns are said to be numerous, and are well 
placed among the lofty sanf" dunes which are a 
feature of the island. The garrison is supplied 
by the army, and includes some batteries of field 
artillery and machine guns. 

The experience gained during naval manoeuvres 
has shown that Borkum would be a difficult place 
to surprise. According to report, some of the 
guns in position are powerful enough to inflict 
serious damage on the largest warships. 

EMDEN. 

Emden, the southernmost port of Germany 
on the North Sea, has of late years acquired con- 
aderable naval importance. There have been 
frequent reports of the pending establishment of 
a btate dockyard there, in connection with the 
EiM-Jade canal, which was to be deepened 
suffiaenUy to allow fairly large warships to 
teavCTse it. So far, however, this project has not 
been earned out. 



16« The Fleet! at War 



Two yean ago Emden became a mine ttatioo, 
and the headquarters of the "Arkona," a light 
cruiser converted into a mine-layer. Harbour 
works on a grand scale have lately been com- 
pleted at Emden. There is a commodious basin 
fronted by wharves and warehouses, and fitted 
with up-to-date coaling plant. The canal which 
connects the port with the river is deep enough 
to allow the largest ships to oraie up. 

During the present war it is probable that 
Emden is being used both as a mine and torpedo 
base. It relies for its defence on the batteries at 
Borkum, some miles out at sea, as ships entering 
the River Ems are compelled to pass dose to this 
island. 

The railway connections of Emden are very 
good, so good, in fact, that they are believed to 
have been dictated by strategical considerations. 
Emden has often been spoken of by German 
writers as a sally port, and as a convenient point 
of assembly and embarkation for an army of 
invasion. 



Si- 






11 „ i H^i ::\ 



WILHELMSHAVEN. 

Wilhelmshaven ranks officially as Germany's 
second war harbour, though its strategical posi- 
tion makes it, in fact, the principal base of a 
German ileet operating in the North Sea. It 
began its career as a naval station as late as 
1869, since when enormous sums of money and 
infinite labour have been expended on its develop- 
ment. 

In area the dockyard is almost four times as 
laige as that of Kiel, and it is even more modem 



Gemum Naval Bates 157 

In eqidpinmt. It •ootains a bewildtriaf number 
of dock! and buint, tofeUwr with boUdinf 
slips, npeir ihopt, depots, and tton-houMe. 
There are three Dreadnought graving docks and 
four smaller ones, and five floating docks, of 
which the hitest can raise vessels up to 39.SOO 
tons. 

Only one of the building slips is available for 
constructing Dreadnoughts, but a so ^nd is 
being lengthened sufficiently for this purpose. 
The total number of officials and workmen is 
about 10,500 under peace conditions. At Wil- 
helmshaven were built the Dreadnought battle- 
ships " Nassau," " Ostfriesland," and " KOnig," 
and at the present moment tlie battle-cruiser 
" Ersatz HerUia " is building there. 

The terminus of the Ems-Jade Canal is faiside 
the dockyard, but so far as is known this water- 
way is too shallow to permit the passage of any 
class of warship. 

The Jade Channel, which leads to Wilhebns- 
haven, is exceedingly difficult to navigate, owing 
to the innumerable and constantly shifting 
shoals with which it is infested. To luep this 
channel clear elaborate dredging operati(»s 
have to be carried on tliroughout the year, as 
otherwise it would speedily dlt up and become 
impassable. Access to the harboiu- is gained 
through huge locks, most of which can be used, 
if necessary, as emergency docks for repuring 
damaged ships. When these locks are ckised 
the labour is entirely cut off from the sea, thus 
affording the ships inside complete tecaiity 
against torpedo attack. 



168 The Fleets at War 



Commodioai u the hubour b, howevw, it 
is not large enough to contain the iHiole flbet, 
and comeqoently extra mooringi were reoea^ 
laid outside for cruisers and oUmi sdmU craft. 
The locks are designed on so huge a scale, and 
are so efficiently operated that several squadrons 
of big ships can be passed through te a few 
hours. 

Wilhelmshaven is the base of the First Battle 
Squadron, the Scouthig Squadron (•'.«., all the 
battle-cruisers and other cruisers of the High 
Sea Fleet), the and Torpedo Division, and of 
a submarine flotilla. It is very heavily fortified. 

The approach to the Jade Channel u com- 
manded by the batteries of Wangerooge, an 
island garrisoned by seamen gunners, and said 
to have very powerful guns. There is a flying 
station at Wilhelmshaven, with hangars for a 
dozen seaplanes. 

CUXHAVEN 

Cuxhaven has lately become an important 
German naval base. Situated as it is at the 
extreme entrance of the Elbe estuary, it com- 
mands the approach to the great commercial 
port of Hamburg, seventy miles up the river. 

Cuxhaven has no dockyard of its own, but 
it possesses a harbour large enough to accommo- 
date great ships o*. war, and certain facilities 
for carrying out repairs are provided by the 
depot of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, of which 
it is the headquarters. 

A mile or two west of the harbour are the 
batteries of Ddse, mounting a.nomber of heavy 



Gemian Naval Baiet IM 

guns and quicMrm. TImm defmoM an wo' 
tnltod by tht navy, and an faniicaad by ftv* 
companiaa of MaoMo guanen. 

Altboo^ tha moath of the Elbe it wide, only 
a nanrow chaimel it available for vaeelt of 



moderate dnuight, and the defencea have coo> 
tequently been designed to bring an overwhelm- 
ing fire to bear on hoetile veieelt cring thit 
navigaUe approach. 

For tome yeara Cuxhaven hat been the inindpal 
mine ttation of the Gemian navy. It it the 
bate for the mine-laying and mine-kweeping 
diviaiona, compoaed of apwial ihipa and a large 
number of old torpedo-boata equipped for tLd 
work. Thia atation ia reaponsible for the obiervar 
tion mine-fielda which doae the Elbe to hoatile 
uipa in war. It r^witaina an artilleiy depot, a 
powerful wireleaa aUtion, and barracka for a large 
contigent of aeamen gunnera and ma rin e a 

Cuzhaven, moreover, ia the principal bate of 
the German air fleet. An immenie ahed, 590-ft- 
long, 98-ft. high, and capable of shdtering two 
of the largeat dirigiblea, is approaching com- 
pletion. This structure ia of the revolving type, 
thus permitting airshipa to dock or emerge 
without being exposed to the wind. It resta in 
an excavaition. When the shed is lowered the 
roof is on a level with the surrounding country, 
and by this means the location of the shed is bidden 
from hostile aircraft. 

Near at hand there are permanent hangars 

for a number of seaplanes, with workshops for 

repairing; and fitting aircraft of every description. 

The German authorities are credited with 



160 



Th< Fleetaf at War 



the intention of gradually developing Cuxhaven 
into a first-class naval tnse, in order to relieve 
the congestion at Wilhehnshaven. 



II 






BRUNSBUTTEL. 

BrunsMttel is the western terminus of the 
Baltic-North Sea canal. It is situated about 
ten miles up the River Elbe, on the Schleswig- 
Holstein shore. Some batteries are believed to 
exist at this point, armed with guns powerful 
enough to repel torpedo craft, but the real 
defences of the canal locks are the forts at Cux- 
haven, at the mouth of the river. 

The widening of the canal, which is now 
practically completed, necessitated the con- 
struction of new locks on a gigantic scale at 
each end. Those at Brunsbiittel were completed 
eariy this year, in advance of the locks at the 
Kiel end. 

Bnmsbiittel has a harboiu: nearly 1,700-ft. 
long and 680-ft. wide. Large supplies of coal 
and oil are kept here, and there is a well-equipped 
coaling plant which enables vessels to coid with 
great rapidity. The canal locks are of such 
ma«sive construction that it is doubtful whether 
they could be seriously damaged by torpedo 
attack. 




Mollkc Photo: Ctitlral Nam. 

MOLTKE CLASS. 

MOLTKE AND GOEBEN (slight differences). 

Displacement: 23,000 tons. 

Speed: 28 knots; Guns: 10 iiin., 12 6in., 12 24pdrs.; 
Torpedo tubes : 4. 




"I 1 r 



Astern fire: 


Broadside : 


Ahead fire 


8 nin. 


10 iiin. 


6 nin. 


2 6in. 


6 6in. 


2 6in. 



CHAPTER IX 

The Kiel Canal 

Although it is a generally accepted fact that 
the Kiel Canal forms one of Germany's most 
valuable naval bases, it is just possible that its 
value in war will be found to be greatly over- 
rated. There is no questicm that the size of 
the locks and the depth of the canal, viz., 36 ft., 
will allow battleships of the greatest draught 
to pass through ; but, to make the point clear, 
it is necessary to consider the natuiv of the 
navigable channels leading to both the Baltic 
and the Elbe entrances to this great strat^ical 
undertaking. 

Dealing with the Kid end of the canal first, 
the entrance is situated some seven or ei^t 
miles up the estuary leading into Kid Bay. 
From Kiel Bay to the North Sea a vessd has, 
according to her draught of water, the chmce of 
toree routes into the Kattegat, viz.. Little Belt, 
Great Belt and tin Sound. The fiist-oamed 
could only be used by suull H^t drau^t veaseb. 
MI L 



•i'f 



1«2 The Fleets at War 

such as destroyers and submarines. The passage 
through the Great Belt, and also that via the 
Sound, would have to be navigated by a heavy 
battleship on a favourable state of the tide 
The least width across the LitUe Belt is abreast 
of the town of Fredericia, in Denmark, where 
the passage is less than three-quarters of a mile 
wide. In the Great Belt the navigable channels 
are restncted in places to about a mile or even 
lew m width. Between Helsingor, in Denmark, 
and Helsmborg, in Sweden, the Sound is but 
htUe over a mile wide and only about 20 ft 
deep at low water. The eastern channel of 
the Kattegat has deep water, and the dis- 
tance between the Scaw, the northern end 
of Denmark, and the nearest outlying island 
off the Swedish coast, is about twenty-five 
miles. ' 

From the above showing, it will be seen that 
the narrow and tortuous passages which a war- 
ship must use if she wishes to proceed from 
Kiel Bay to the North Sea present an easy prob- 
lem to render them unnavigable by the use of 
submarine mines. And, again, the narrowness 
of the entrance to the Kattegat lends itself to 
easy watching by the scouts of a fleet in 
the North Sea. German naval authorities, of 
course, realised the geographical disadvantages 
of Kiel years ago, and, in an attempt to 
remedy the evil, widened and deepened the 
Kiel Canal. 

The Elbe entrance of the canal, which is 
situated at Briinsbuttel, is some seventeen miles 
from Cuxhaven. which, as is weU known, is the 



The Kiel Canal 163 

Gravesend of Hamburg. The cbannels between 
Briinsbuttel and Cuxhaven, wtach are very 
narrow, have a sufficient depth at low water for 
vessels of a moderate draught, and the anchor- 
age room, except for ships drawing but a few 
feet of water, is somewhat limited. A big battle- 
ship, drawing 30 ft. or more, as she would do 
with stores and ammunition on board, would 
have to navigate the distance from the canal 
entrance to Cuxhaven on a flood tide, and if 
required to bring up would have to moor in the 
usual manner with two anchors. In fact, the 
same navigational procedure would have to be 
followed after passing Cuxhaven until the ship 
would nearly reach No. 2 Lightship at the mouth 
of the Elbe. 

Of course, the Germans have no need to block 
all the available room in the Elbe with big ships, 
for they have many other deep-water anchor^ 
ages close at hand. The entrance of the Weser 
River, from Roter Sand Lightship to Hohe Weg 
Lighthouse, and Schillig Road, in the Jade 
River, are both excellent big ship anchorages. 
Turning to available shelter for smaller craft 
on the German North Sea coast, this can be 
found in numerous inlets and channels from the 
borders of Denmark in the north to the entrance 
of the Ems in the south. 

But now we have reached an important point. 
We know that the long chains of off-shore light- 
ships along the German coast have been with- 
drawn from their stations, and that the navigation 
lights on shore have been discontinued. Should 
Geman warships, which we may assume ar« 



I 



Land btim M of Canil sho»nthus -^-^r 
Forts „ K 



Roods ft 

RgurtadmciUdipUisiitMansfiWiaa'sHiQ 




coinnicHT.sKciAUTn(tfM(wn««|rflii|iffi*tt««| itCEOCBaphwi'w 




«uxANiiaiGMi$tr.itu 



i 



166 The Fleets at War 

^read about in the various anchorages already 
referred to, make a dart to sea, especially at 
night-time, there is every probability of some 
of them stranding on the numberless flats and 
shoals which extend for many miles seaward 
from the low-lying shore of Germany. And, 
with the absence of lights and with mine-sown 
channels to navigate, getting back on a dark, 
dirty night to their havens would inevitably 
cause destruction to many a ship, whether large 
or small. The wilder the weather, the more 
toll would this dangerous coast claim. The 
British cruisers, when chasing their quarry, 
would hold the whip-hand. The sounding 
machine and hand-lead would tell them when 
to 'bout ship. 

It is mterestmg to mention that for two- 
tWrds of the fifty-six miles m length of the 
Kiel Canal the banks on either side are pr Ai- 
cally flat, and, owing to the nature of the soil, 
which is largely peat, they are constantly sub- 
siding into the channel. This, besides necessita- 
ting constant dredging, m order to maintain the 
great depth of water required for battleships, 
forces vessels to proceed at their slowest speed 
possible. A battleship would take, therefore, 
the best part of twelve hours to get through from 
the Elbe to Kiel. 

In view of the fact that the distance from 
Kiel to the Scaw, via the Sound passage, is 
325 miles— from Kiel to the Scaw via the iiitri- 
cate channels of the Great Belt is about 245 
miles— a battleship would occupy thirty-six hours 
fully, under the best conditions of tide and 



The Kiel Canal 



167 



weather, to reacti the waten of the North Sea. 
In these days a naval battle can be decided in 
a fractional part of that time. 



' 



168 



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The British Navy 

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174 The British Navy 



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w 



178 






as 






The British Navy 



i 



3 



i 






I- 



cn 9 9 o^ Ot ot 



es 



I 



I 

lillll li 



I I I I I 



I 

I 

i 

I 



s; 
1 



I 



Iffi 



o3a» 



K^iM 



Cruisers 



179 



It 
at 



% 









I 

I 



ill 



1 .c ' 



M <« N M A fO 

M M M nM 5 6 

9 Ot 9t * Ot o> 9> 



• '•III 



Mil illllll 









1 



180 



The British Navy 



'I 



t 



l, 



5 II 



5 



Is 

ml 



1' 






■ ■III 



l'lli"'g l"l""l 

llllllll llllfel 



.ss 



S 



• '._•' 



liss-* 



Destroyers 



181 



1 


8 


»A 


»^ 




« 



isffllli 



I 
I 




5J!h 



9 

""sflll I -I" 
g|l|i89l 

•J M 



i 



The British Navy 

M M 8 'M m 




J el 
^1 



f3«5 



liMikiiiiiil 

•?''illllsri^ 

P o 



r^ssi^i 






Torpcdo-Boats— I 




mi mm 

Hiii mm 

' an 



if 

sea 



4 

I 



i 



'^ntrann 



184 



The German Navy 

i iii M Hi 
ii m illl fill 



it 

W gP 
O S 

U (A 

1 



1 


1 |^== |"^= 


11 


1 |::f M:g ||| : ' 







Ml " 



k 



\ 



I I 



M ^ 



|L I ft fill 



I t I I 




0; X 



m 

<f>ng 

III 



•A 



r. 8 



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llJI 



Pre-Dreadnoughts 



186 






i 



go 

Hit 



I 

I— I 
X 

i 



44 



ii'J jsrd li-.i 

m mi ilii 






n-i- i.u. u-ti 

MM H M MM MM MM 

»5 m #^ 

S S 3 






4 > 8 V E V 



.§. 



Ml 



a>i 



,f 



i! 



18« The German Navy 



I 

1 



I 



ii 



in 



J 

.SS3 



3 ••«Sh 



8^1^11 



bJb 



mi 



g 



i m Hi 

•n tins *>«5 

hhfd 

•?ldlJdll 






:.i 



? 



n # 



• •♦ • I I 



hi hie 



>3 



s 



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I 



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Armoured Cruisers 



187 



44] 


[i^i 


i.V 


S. ^"S. 


mm 


3 «-'l 


|...J|i i 


M 


M 


M 


M 


. 







q 


(^ 


p. 


d 


i 


■T 


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*■•* 


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o 






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ei 




M 


«^ 


3. 


o 


•0 


M 




00 
N 


« 


i 


8 


«. 




M 


» 




M 


^ 


• 




i 


, 


H 


SI 


1 


,?l 


1 



liitelll iiji 






i'i 1.4 



t n I 



I 



1 



Ill 



fit.J 






188 The German Navy 

M il m 
ill 'A 

•li'il ill ill 



I 



g 



i 



?M|^ ®« mi 




8.8. 



88. 



3> 



i 






11 



Cruisers 



189 



'3 

?3 




rr^ 







El ! 






190 



The German Navy 



it 






It 



I 
I I 



i I 



I 



S o 



I 
I 



J| lilf II II - I 41 =1 ^ 



* • I ■ I I 



• II I 



S»' «• ' ' • • « 



Us J l,i' 'llll llll; 



I' 



Ml 




I 



% a 



(/} S 



Submarines— Minetvers 



I 
I 



Mi 

.. "^ 4* 

t: 'if fl 



2 i a S 

°^ III 

5 I -S 
- 6, 2 



^ 4? -a 



I I' 

=3 -; ■? 



11 

5 \ %. 

* r ^ 

w *i •** 



If 



^ 



^ Is 



g 

s 






idd 



I 






'^ s ^ a 



S 



• : a s 



Iff 
III 

* * s 



IMIIJ 111 

. _ •« • « * * 



II* 



J: !.! 



I 'ill 



I'): 



IW The Fleets at War 



< . 

Si 



v 



iiiiil Mmi 






|.o.ia |; 






i.|:|:.:::|:| |, 



I I s 



§ I 1 



S I 






llllllllll 



I 



The French Navy 198 




2 



/ si^i H^ m A: m 



I I:| 3 



% s 



o 



I S I I 



I t I 



M « 



) ■ > 



in III 



ill 






:ll, 



m The Fleet* at War. 

nil ^ . 

viffi liU 



H 



M^ 



^ 



"P' 



IS 






:*5 






£■ 


— «---- 


"B'" 


i 


11 = 


Ml 


II « 


g 




s 


^ 


1 

<5 


s 




S 


o 


1 


s 



:3 . 

In 




The French 



ill 



ilil i 

lis 



m. 



>* j"d|"j8'' 



i-i' 






2 .Sii 



^zr. 



^ H' 



jid*ti:i|TlliJ 



hi: 



I 


III 


1 


§; 




« 




1 



aai 




IW The Fleets at War 



i 



I 



2; 
s S3 



S 



^1 WHH 
f'li ilfililliil 









I I 






I 



I 



!S 



The Russian Navy IM 






nm i 




I 



'Sift mmi Hto 



1--.5 



5 



pig^^llSp^llp! 



J.. J. 

iiif 



i'" 



s 






J o 



5> 



I i 



11 



I 



P 










The Fleets at War 



{tllfailhilllli 



Iddl - fill •!«ll 



12.8 % 



I I 



I 



\A $ 



.9 



m 



if- ii I 






W^l^ Is 



Slrj|fs| J- 








The 



Austro-Hungarian Navy. aM 

£i m 4m ill? 

I is «| 1*6 



> 

< 

< 

t— I 

Pi 
< 
O 

z 

K 

o 

H 

< 

M 
K 
H 



Si 



§1 






lla -al^l "lltij^"! 















O^ 0^ O^ 9> C<< 



I :| Sll 



o 
in 







ri 

'B S 

>^ a 



2es The Fleets at War 



mm 



1 "III "I* 4 



I ! 



m 






I 






I 



I 

s 



I 



i f Is.' H i I 

g H!f|ffl i s { 

^ ;^liA&r:^ ? I » 

I tl's-lll I i ^ 



r^!ii. 



(^ oc 



nlM 11 3| 



Si ii 



i 

M 

X 



Japanese Navy 

2 i 10^ it 

1 "' Si '/ 

4.-8 3 III 11 '^l §■ 

i Ii ll sjii II 1 

>'■ ii tlPh II* ' 

fi u IM ! il 



SOS 



'^••1 ..".8. 

fililliii]^ 



i04 British and German Naval Guns 

BRITISH. 



Calibre 


Wdghi 


Length 

(in 
caUdtm) 


wjy.t 


Mnuh 
Vtlodty 


Hnssla 
Battgy 


of Gnn 


(ton.). 


Piojeetil 


B (infoot- 


(inibot- 


in. 






(ialbft) 


wcondi) 


toni). 


15 


96 


45 


1,950 


2,500 


84,510 


13-5 


76 


45 / ^'^5° 
^^ I 1,400 


} 2,800 


69,000 


12 


68 


50 


850 


2,950 


51,290 


12 


58 


45 


850 


2,900 


49,500 


12 


50 


40 


850 


2.580 


39,250 


10 


H 


45 


500 


3,000 


30,000 


9-2 


28 


50 


380 


3,000 


23.000 


9-2 


25 


40 


380 


2,350 


14,520 


7-5 


i5i 


50 


200 


3,000 


12,500 


l'^ 


J'* 


45 


200 


2,600 


9,300 


6 


8 


50 


100 


3,000 


6.000 


6 
6 


7i 


45 


100 


2,750 


5,250 


7 


40 


100 


2,200 


4,300 


47 


2 


40 


40 


2,l88 




4 


2 


50 
G£R] 


31 

HAN. 


3,000 


1,900 


15 


82J 


45 


1,675 


2,920 


99-000 


12 


"♦^i 


50 




3,084 


56,660 


12 


S* 


45 


860 


2,920 


50,830 


II 


36 


50 


661 


3,084 


43,600 


II 


32| 


45 


661 


2,920 


39,000 


II 


^ 


40 


661 


2,756 


34,800 


g-4 


18 


40 


419 


2,750 


22,000 


8-2 


15, 


50 


275 


3,084 


18,170 


8-2 
8-2 


I3l 


45 


275 


2,900 


16,300 


12 


40 


275 


2,750 


14,500 
6,452 


67 


61 


40 


154 


2,756 


5-9 


5 


45 


lOI 


2,920 


5.856 


5 9 


4l 


40 


lOI 


2,756 


5.200 


41 


I* 


40 


35 a,750 


1,890 


3-4 


i-i 


40 


ax 2,730 


— 













Wfw * ««■ U*., PriKim, UmLn md «««■«. 



INDEX 



Axiultl?. Mr.. M, j6, 5l 

BiMouT, Hr. A. J., n, sj 

BaltonlMCb Ptlaee Lonb M, lo 
Beattr, Rev-Admlial Sii David. i< 
BlilidiNtTT.The: 
Armoured Cniiien : 

Abookir, 76 

AcliUIea.7] 

Aotrlin, 74 

Aictbnu, 77 

Ani7B,74 

Aiinra,77 

Bwchule, 7< 

Bnwidi,4J,7] 

Bl«*l'*e.,4..7j 

Cuiurma,74 

Caehfue,7] 

Comn||,75 

C»«J.7« 

CumberiHid. 73 

DefeDce, 40, 7s 

Devonfhlie, 74 

OoMf.1,7, 

'>'"1». 73, 133 

D»la of Edinbarili, 40, 7. 

S»». 41, 73 

Ear]n]iii,76 

G«Ut<^77 

Good Hope, 73 

Hampthlre, 41, 74 

Hofue,76 

locOQitant, 77 

K«nl.73 

Kta« AH red, 73 

l-ancuter, 43, 73 

Uviattu, 73 

■ilwtMr, 41, 7j 
UoDmoatb, 73 
K.nl,73 
F(«lope,77 



* "^ — rrrt fi nil I 11 art. 
Plurton, 77 

K«mi*.77 
Sbusa«,7s 
SnOolli, 41, 75 
S<>thi.7< 
Undiiatod, 77 
Wanior. 40,73 
AtUdud SUpt 
HiaHr,4o 



ao5 



BMIla Crateni 
Amtnlli, 4t, (3 
iKlebtliibli, 40, f3 
Indomllabla, •3, 40, «6 
iBAuiUi; t3, 40> M 
loTindbltk OS, «6, 141 
Una, (4 

NevZMlud,«3 
Maew RoTil, «4 
Oman Mur, 64 

Drnttofta: 
Acuta, (I 
Achate!, 91 
AelKna, gs 
Acon,)3 
AMdi,94 
Alann. 93 
AIbacoie,9a 
AA>troaa,97 
A]naiao,94 
Amboicult^ (t 
Angler, 97 
Anb, 98 

An)«t,9i 
Arid, 9a 
Ara,9« 



206 

■illl* Niry, n*— (ml. 



Index 



AI<Mk.»i 

BMiw.ta 
■■MMm(DapolSliir).4o 

aa]FM,9« 

BnM,9r 

BaDliieb,97 

Ca6laoa,(] 

CkMifd,97 

n i» l i » . r .4i,9« 

CkM««ll.9« 

Cl>ilitii|>bac,9i 

Cock«MM,9l 

Colai,4i.9« 

Cooat,9j 

ClMMt;9t 

CoqwtK9r 

CoMOll.94 

Cruw,97 

Cnia«br,95 

C»«i>et,97 

C]«tut,9r 

1>M*9« 

I>i<eDikr,9« 

D«nwii»,9« 

I>«V«al>,9; 

I>o<a,9< 

Don, 97 

I>ciild,9i 

a«M,9« 

»"lM,9r 

■«»,9« 

BtMcl[,96 

Ba>9< 

«VW*9l 

Mn'.9r 

Faloin,97 
FtaBo, 41, 97 
Fawn, 97 
Flfnt.9s 
Arnat,9i 



MtUkHnr, 



Mmtsr, 9' 

hctone, 91 

Foihonad, 40, 9) 

FB|fK9« 

F^.9> 

Culud,9l 

0««^.9« 

akuikl,94 

GlWr.9r 

GMiiHb,9l 

Goiliawk,9< 

Gnapui,4o, 91 

G rm b<ipp«c,4»,^3 

Gnxhouad.9y 

Gflfl0D,9« 

Budy, 9t 

Hupr, 4«i 9S 

Mail. 91 

»>»^95 

Ifonwt,9> 

IlclHa,96 

jKsk>l,9i 

J«<l.4i.*« 

ibK9< 

Kiii|UDo,9l 

KtaiMI,4i,9« 

IMlal,9f 

LMCt«,9a 

tafoc»7,9a 

Uaoa,9« 

LuidxaU,99 

Upw<ac9a 

Uik,9a 

LUMb9] 



LAv«coek,9« 
LAwfi>nt90 

1^00,90 

LannoK, 9» 

Le(Nildu,9a 

'*>l«<l,9? 

I*™i^9r 

Ubutr.f 

u*r.9« 
Uiktaia(;9« 



Uwly,9l 



Index 



9tr 



aritkkNiT7, 



UM«o 



LnelHr, ft 
Lrdtacd,** 
Lyai, gi 
L)m,9] 
Ljiudn,** 
lUhid.*; 
Hurt, 95 
>lutln,«] 

■iMl>.9> 
lilDslnl,M 
l«<*«wk,»« 
MotqoJto, 4», f $ 

HjmiMoa, t* 

NtRkHf] 
N<ii,9« 
Nllll,9< 
NnUu, 94 

OiUi,«> 
flpo»>m,«i 
OndI,9( 
0^n»T.»7 

•Mlfch,97 
Oaaa,9« 
Owl, (I 

{"•iniauta, «a 
Betenl,)* 
I'koali.ft 
Plnchar, 40, 9) 
INxctipliM, ft 
Focpoln,*! 

(hull, 98 
lUoebane, fr 
"«»»". 40, 9j 

RitthmkB, 4>, 9j 
lUeniit, 97 
«»*<>K9J 
Ra>td,4«,9j 
RiUib, 4t, 9* 

'. 9J 

•.97 



Brill* M**y, 



««ity.9« 

i « ll — .94 
••"IP.40.9J 



>.9t 
ktki^9> 

Spwnwkawk, tf 

S|>4HfDl,«« 

Spttfn,9( 

StMr.97 
Star, 97 
Staiiaeb,9| 
Stonr, 9« 
SBooeti,9t 
SanlUb, 9< 

Swale, 9* 

Swift. 95 

Syl»ia,9r 

Stiib,9I 

Tartar, 94 

T«,9« 

Tovlot, 96 

Tkoni,9; 

Thiaaher, 9l 

"•»"•. t» 

Ualtr.91 

Un.9( 

Vlk.4l.9( 

Valoa,9r 
Vletor,tl 
Vll|llanl,97 
VlUat, 9] 
VM.t,97 
Vlao, 97 
Valtiin,9r 
Wan>|D, 41 
WaTCMy, 96 
Wtar,9C 
Willaad, 41, 9« 
Wiilf,9< 

WaiveilBB. 40. 91 
Yam,4> 

ai«ii»t.9» 

Zulu, 95 



908 



Index 



A(o.5, 



97 
<l 
'•M 

"•. 9». «94 

C«*>|Mod,ee 
«<*»«<. St. 134 

I>i«4nn|fct, M. <I, «l 
■ap<i>gro(Ia4ii,54 
■*. J» 
HnalMiM 
Ita*DriB,94 
KhtG«ai.V..43,5> 
L«<INelMB,6l 
Mullxmiitb, 54 

St Vlncait,<a 

TimmiR, «i 

1lranileRr,s< 

Vaofiianl, <« 
VMflhUuleii: 

K«Bi|nnleH,f9 

MliiiTod,f9 
GattMla: 

AkaUT,4i 

Bnmble, 4z 

Bfltonart* 41 

Cadmus, 41 

00,41 

I>«aif,4a 

TUatle, 4t 
Pto-DKAdnonglits 

Africa, 67 

AJbamark, 69 

AlUoa, 70 

Britaimla, t}, 153 
Bnlwarit, 70 
CaaaT,7z 
Caaoinia,;o 
CoauBooinalUi, <; 
Caawallia, «9 
DoBliiloB, 6; 
Doncan, 69 
BuMoth, 69 
FomldabV, 79 
GIoiT, 70 
Gollalk,7a 



B!<ll*llr^.H_«^ 



71 



•7 

7« 

,70 

,70 

Ji*Har,7i 
*lHUwu»VU.,tt 

>(a»>Mc»l,ri 
>ia|aalle,7l 

••B1.7I 

0«<a»,70 

MMaGa(iap,7i 

MaoaiilWaIia,7* 

Q<M«.7D 

IliaiaU,<( 

SvUlaan, 41, ]i, M 

TMiiaph,4i,]i,M 

Vaoaial>la,7B 

VaafgaMa,7o 

Vle«oiloai,7i 

■ ■ i.«7 



Actln,aa 

AdTaiita»,l4 

Jlabt,U 

Aaa«b|it,l4 

*»«*lliW^79 

AadniMda, 7f 

*•»»»••, 7» 

*«<•*>», 7» 

Aatna,4i,l7 

Att>atiia,l4 

BeOoaa,!] 

Binntinham, $» 

Bkiidia,ls 

Blonda, 83 

Boa(lieia,l3 

BillIlait,M 

Bcl>to'.4i, la 

Cambri u, 17 

ChaOaier, 15 

Cbanrbdis, (7 

rh a tham, 40, it 

CRaianl,7> 

Dartaontli, 41, il 

Diaden, 79 

Diaaaad,a4 

Dia]ia,t7 

Dido, 17 

Doriii»7 



Index 



la,40,ti 

t.f 

._r,4f,lj 

*«•*•. 79 

Tmikm,U 
rkn.tf 

Fenatd,<4 
Fai,4i,i7 
FWaii>.M 
UbnUtx,}! 
GiMfow, 4>, •> 
Clooewttr, 40, *• 

IlanloDt,<7 
llllli<7>r,(] 
Ryidntb, 43, ts 

J"0.»7 
Umpool,*! 
La«nto(l.lo 
ll«lM,6t 

MdioiinM, 41,10 



l,«7 

•h«e>itli,4i,ta 

Nottindwrn, ae 

itedon,M 

fktbtadir,l4 

Fktnl,l4 

'•«Hil>,4<,M 

MDfa,M 

l^nra>,M 

FkU<iaid,4i,lt 



Pnmtttm,t6 

nMnfriaCiM 

l'»»<**4«,M 

RaMww.M 
RoTdAiUmi,;! 

Sappbin, 14 
Sttppbo,U 

Slilii«,M 

r,a4 



BM*lb«y,1 



210 



Index 



T^'H««lc»li mm. 

N«kO]l,4l 
N*. 044,41 
"•■045,41 
N*.04(,4I 
Na.06],4i 
N* 0*4,41 
Na.O;*,4l 
N«kiS.4> 
No.N,4l 
»•.•», 41 
Ma«*.4> 
N*. )i, 41 
No. t<. 41 
>l*'f]>4l 
'fc-»4.4« 
Mo- 9S, 41 
N*. 9«. 41 
CmpbaB-BuiMniiu, Mr itair. ts 
CajFw.SIt ChuK Bt, i)( 
CkgRhm, Mr. vnutot, le, •«, ji, ij 
RikK, Ucd, ti-M, If, 15] 
GerauNavr.Tke: 
AlBosnd Cnitim I 
BMokir, Its 
Mabkb Kail, iir 
nm Biamank, liS 
CBlnnau, 116 
Mu Adilbwt, iiy 
MuIMulek,iia 

SAuakcnt, lit 
y«di,iiy 
BMthCcnlMn: 

aorti«a,ie« 
IMtlH,n« 
s>^ts,ior 

VoaderTku,f4f 
dan Deiewie SUpa : 

Aeglr, 114 

Biowolf, 114 

mthM 114 

Ham, 114 

IMmdall,it4 

HUdebiaad, 114 

0<ta, 114 

Slcffrla^ XX4 
DnadDoackta I 

I'He<Meh*cGfaaia,m,i4i 



Navy, 



I, Ml 
_. .J«, 151 

Xalanla,iaa 

KaWf, lei, 13^ 

KMrMbat«,iM 

*™WHa«,i« 

KwfaiM,in 

>(uk(iil,m 

Naam, i«4, i,^ 

OUwImi, U] 

**'»<«Ua»d, »], ijf 

haaa, ia4 

Mamfiai UlfoM, ■« 

■tMalaad, 104 

Tklflafw, loj 

WailhiM, 1,4 
Qnaboali: 
Coador, i>« 
Cocnocaa.ia4 
■bar, 1*4 
Gclar, ti4 
IMa. 114, 144 
Ji|«ar, »4 



ttetkar, 114 
Sawdbf. 114 
TIi«, 114 
Mlaa-Uran: 
Albalmia,ij* 
Aitoaa,iai 
NaatUaa, is* 
MIIU.IS0 
Pn-DnadwMiklBi 
BiaadtabiBi, tsi 
BmMakinIt, III 
£ottnUaad,iu 
I, III 

:, no 
1,111 



Kalaar, Baitantiat, iia 

KaiNinMitekni:, tit 

Kaiaar Kad dtr Gfoiiab lla 
Kalaar WUkala tfar Ottm, 
III 

KaiaarWnhalaa,iM 
Lalhrioin, til 
t. Ill 
L iia 




, 110 
SaUaawtrHtMriii, I 



Index 



211 



III 

Wtiia,iii 
ftiiMkkMk, III 
W«rt», iij, 144 
'^■''■•■•iii 

• in 
^in 

.Ml 

• III 

CMQ.111 

;iii 

. 121 
>i» 

• in 
'»•»»• ii» 



Gt>a<kiu,it] 
llmliilH. m 
Hwn,ii« 
Hih,iM 

riiMikiA«mi,iif,i44 

'"■"" «« 
lu 
"1 
"1 
lit 

■•Ill 

MIoKiao 
NoUnii.im 

«*■*««. MJ 
Sl>Mfe«it.M, 

StUtdil; lu 

Uadiaikiu 
WmU, i«9. 144 




Noi. Ui, Ut, „f 
"o-I'ltoW.iil 



i(««.uirteU|«,itt 

No.Oi(CMa«|,iif 

Not. O] to m, III 

No. Df, iM 

No. Dio, lit 

Nat. Q; to Oil, IMS 

N» 0» to C4«, tij 

N<a. Gio( to Giij, lal 

Noi. Giji to G|J4, i>7 

N". GlJSi 117 

No. Glj«, iiy 

No. Olj7, 11^ 

Hot Ollt, Giro, Gin. 

Gi;j. IM 

N» 01/4, Ol»>, ia« 

Nn. Gifi to OifT^ m 

Noi^ Sli to Sm^ Its 

Nm. Sii to «!), laj 

NoLaMtoSj«,it5 

Not. «)• to Sim, It! 

N« Slot to Sior, Its 

'•••' Sim to Siif, III 

>!<>«.*IMtoSlt4,Ity 
Nti. Slt5 to Sljl, 117 
Km. Sij( to Si4», It* 
NM.Sl«f toSiM, It* 
Mta,Si;«toSi;t,it| 
"*.VitoV».Ji5 
Ma. Vij to Vi(, • I) 
Not. Vtf , Vw Its 
No* V4J to V4». It) 
Not. Vljo to Vi«i, It* 
Wot. Vi(t to Vl»4, It* 
Not. Viio to Vi«5, 111 
N.1. ViM to Vi(i, It) 
"Mniiii 
Gnr,SltM<niil,t7 

BddlM,Lt«l,)],]4 

Ktaktr, Ctptoia Htuilia, CA, ,| 



riokt4S.I44 



IMtol 



>do«i A4i«lnl Tta, 14J 



'f " >■ ■ A*«tal nt(tiioh nw. ,4, 



212 



Index 



'''•'•Alb AdBlnl Bom 4^ ^ 



••»"•.***-» ill, .„ 

'.VI»A4iirinlair<i«iq« 
WllMi,lirAitkw,ff 



f; 



u 
J* 

IR, IJ4 

IW«.ll,l4< 

•IHr GMft 



.i -286 50068 2469