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^"1. J 




United States 
Department of 
Agriculture 

Foreign 

Agricultural 

Service 

FAS-M-299 



/ 



Citrus in Mexico 







FOREWORD 



Mexico is the world's fifth largest producer of citrus and the only significant foreign supplier of fresh citrus for the 
U.S. market. This report analyzes the production, marketing and processing of citrus in Mexico. 

The author is grateful for the assistance provided by the Office of the U.S. Agricultural Counselor in Mexico City 
and the regional office of USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in Monterrey, Mexico. 
Special appreciation is extended to Robert Hardman and Alberto Suarez who are currently with the APHIS Plant 
Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Office in Matamoros, Mexico. David B. Fitz, the officer in charge of USDA's 
Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) field office in McAllen, Texas, helped collect and analyze the data presented 
in this report. 



Gilbert E. Sindelar 

Director 

Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 



CONTENTS 



Page 

SUMMARY 1 

INTRODUCTION 1 

PRODUCTION 3 

History of Citrus Production 3 

Area and Production of Citrus 4 

Characteristics of Principal Producing Regions 4 

Citrus Varieties 7 

Technology 14 

Characteristics of Citrus Growers 16 

Government Assistance 17 

Potential for Increased Production 18 

UTILIZATION 19 

Overview . 19 

Marketing of Fresh Citrus for Domestic Consumption 19 

Fresh Citrus Exports 19 

Orange and Grapefruit Processing 25 

Mexican Lime Processing 30 

U.S. EXPORTS OF CITRUS AND CITRUS PRODUCTS TO MEXICO 33 

APPENDIX TABLES 35 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 37 



May 1981 



CITRUS IN MEXICO 

By Edmond Missiaen 
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 
Commodity Programs 
Foreign Agricultural Service 



SUMMARY 



Mexico's citrus production expanded rapidly before 
1970 but, except for limes, growth was restrained 
during the 1970's. Most production is destined for 
the domestic market, but the industry in the State of 
Nuevo Leon is geared to meet the demand for fresh 
citrus exports. Grapefruit and Persian lime produc- 
tion in Veracruz State is also aimed at export mar- 
kets. Producing areas are scattered over several States, 
and varying levels of technology— from rudimentary 
to advanced— are employed in citrus production. Gov- 
ernment interference in citrus production and 
marketing is minimal, especially when compared to 
other products, especially staple foodstuffs. 

Little growth is anticipated in the production of 
oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit through the mid- 
1980's. Production of both Persian and Mexican 
(key) limes, however, is likely to increase substan- 
tially during the first half of the decade. The poten- 
tial for future expansion in citrus production is 
limited by the availability of water in irrigated areas 
and, in all areas, by the strong demand for staple 
foods which could give them a competitive edge over 
citrus. 



Mexico's fresh citrus exports vary widely from year 
to year. The United States is Mexico's most impor- 
tant foreign market. There appears to be no consis- 
tent relationship between U.S. imports from Mexico 
and possible causal factors such as crop sizes in the 
entire United States, Texas, and Mexico; prices in 
the United States and in Mexico City ; and exchange 
rates. Any future growth in exports will be con- 
strained by limited fruit supplies and the strong do- 
mestic market. 

Processors, who utilize 20 to 25 percent of Mexico's 
citrus output, are heavily dependent on exports. The 
United States is the main outlet for exports of proc- 
essed citrus products, but Western Europe and 
Canada are also important markets. There is much 
interest in expanding processing facilities for orange 
juice, especially among grower groups seeking al- 
ternate market outlets. However, both fruit supply 
and markets could present problems if expansion 
were to proceed rapidly. 

The United States exports small amounts of citrus 
products to Mexico for consumption in urban centers 
near the U.S. border. 



INTRODUCTION 



Mexico is the sixth largest producer of citrus in the 
world, ranking behind the United States, Brazil, 
Japan, Spain, and Italy. The country, however, has a 
large and growing domestic market and is, therefore, 
a relatively minor exporter of citrus and citrus prod- 
ucts. Mexican exports are destined for many coun- 
tries, but more than half goes to the United States. 



In recent years, U.S. citrus and citrus product im- 
ports from Mexico ranged from $30 million to 
$40 million per year, including an average of $12 
million of fresh fruit, $10 million of citrus juice, and 
$12 million of lime oil (appendix, table 1). Mexico 
accounts for about 70 percent of U.S. fresh citrus 
imports, but takes a smaller proportion of processed 
product imports. 





Flood irrigation of Valencia orange trees in Tamaulipas. 



A hillside orange grove in San Luis Potosi. 





Two-year-old Persian lime trees in Veracruz. 



Scene at "La Merced" wholesale citrus market in Mexico City. 



PRODUCTION 



History of Citrus Production 

Mexico's 1979/80 citrus production was close to 2.5 
million metric tons 1 -probably the best season in the 
country's history. Citrus production experienced 
many ups and downs through the 1970's, but on the 
whole it tended to increase. The following tabula- 
tion shows the relative importance of the various 
types of citrus fruit in Mexico: 



Type of 
Fruit 


Production in 
1979/80 


Rate of Growth 
1970/71 to 1979/80 


Tangerines .... 
Grapefruit . . . . 
Mexican limes . . 
Persian limes. . . 


1,000 Metric Tons 

1,630 

180 

170 

430 

52 


Percent/Year 1 

1.9 

-0.5 

14.0 

5.0 

over 15.0 


Total 


2,463 2.9 



1 Based on trend line analysis. 

The most important citrus producing States in 1979/ 
80 were as follows: 



State 


Citrus Production 


Veracruz 

Nuevo Leon 


1,000 Metric Tons 
925 
456 


San Luis Potosi 

Others 


249 
227 
606 1 


Total Mexico 


2,463 



About 70 percent of this figure represents Mexi- 
can (key) limes. 

Commercial orange production in Mexico started in 
the late nineteenth century. The Rio Verde area of 
San Luis Potosi State was probably the first impor- 
tant citrus area. Mexico's first citrus exports allegedly 
originated from Rio Verde in the mid-1 890's, but the 
first large scale commercial plantings were in the 
Montemorelos area of Nuevo Leo'n, also in the 
1890's. Production developed rapidly. At the time 



Metric measures are used throughout this report. 1 metric 
ton = 2,204.62 lbs. 1 hectare = 2.471 acres. 



of the devastating freeze of 1962, Nuevo Leon was 
the most important producing State, but the freeze 
killed 20 to 30 percent of the trees and pre-1962 
production levels were not reached again until the 
late 1960's. Nuevo Leon never recovered its leader- 
ship in citrus production. High prices for citrus after 
the 1962 freeze— which also hit Florida and Texas 
groves— stimulated the recovery of production in 
Nuevo Leon and encouraged increased plantings in 
other Mexican States. 

Citrus production in Veracruz first developed in 
highland areas in the central part of the State. Coffee 
was the most important crop in this region and over 
half of the citrus plantings consisted of seedlings 
interplanted with coffee. This was Mexico's largest 
citrus producing area during the 1930's and 1940's, 
but virtually no commercial citrus remains in the 
area today. The first commercial citrus planting in 
the coastal areas of northern and central Veracruz 
occurred in the 1930's, but heavy plantings did not 
begin until the mid-1 950's. After 1962, planting ac- 
tivity accelerated and continued until the end of the 
decade. In recent years the only notable expansion 
of Veracruz citrus plantings has been in Persian limes. 
A gradual expansion of orange plantings continues 
near the north coast of the State around Tuxpan and 
Alamo. 

Citrus production in the Rio Verde area of San Luis 
Potosi has been stagnant or declining since the 
1950's. Commercial citrus plantings in the Huasteca 
Zone of San Luis Potosi*, which now accounts for 
most of that State's citrus, began in the 1950's and 
accelerated after 1962. At one time, coffee was the 
most important commercial crop in the area, but it 
became unprofitable, partly because of the relatively 
cool winters. The Mexican Coffee Institute encouraged 
and financed the switch to citrus. The expansion of 
citrus plantings continued until the late 1 960's. 

Tamaulipas was a minor commercial citrus area for 
many years before plantings began to expand. Expan- 
sion occurred in the 1950's, after the 1962 freeze, 
and following the completion of the Vincente 
Guerrero Dam and Irrigation Project in the early 
1970's. In recent years expansion has been slow, but 
it continues. If a recently announced Government 
plan is carried out, the State's citrus area would 
more than double during the next 10 years. 



Figure 1 ( 

Mexico: Production of Citrus Fruit By States, 1979/80 

Quantity 
800 - 



600 - 




400 - 



200 - 



Nuevo Leon Tamps. 



Legend: 



San Luis Veracruz 
Potosi 
Oranges 

Grapefruit 



Other 
states 
V//////////A Tangerines 

^/V iw] Limes 



Note: Quantities in thousands of metric tons 



Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 
Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA 



The first commercial plantings of grapefruit in 
Mexico occurred in the Loma Bonita area along the 
Veracruz-Oaxaca State boundary during the mid- 
1940's. Plantings, mainly of the Ruby Red variety, 
expanded rapidly during the late 1960's and early 
1970's in the Veracruz coastal areas, Tamaulipas, 
and Nuevo Leon. The limited market was soon satu- 
rated, however, and some land was taken out of 
grapefruit production during the late 1970's. 

Mexico's first processing plant for making frozen 
concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) was established 
in the highland area of Veracruz near Jalapa and is 
still operating today. The number of processing 
facilities grew in the late 1950's, and again through- 
out the 1970's. 

The first commercial groves of Mexican (key) limes 
were established in the State of Michoacan around 
1912. Before then, all of Mexico's lime supplies had 
been harvested from wild trees. Commercial plantings 
in the State of Colima— now the largest producing 
State-started in 1926 and expanded rapidly after 
World War II to meet the growing demand for essen- 
tial oil of lime. Plantings continued to increase, es- 
pecially during the 1960's, but fell off during a period 
of depressed prices in the early 1970's. They picked 
up again during the late 1 970's. 

Persian limes are grown mostly in Veracruz State. 
Production was minor until the mid- 1970's when 



plantings increased in response to favorable prices in 
the U.S. market. 

Area and Production of Citrus 

Tables 1 and 2 list basic statistics on the area and pro- 
duction of citrus in Mexico. The data are FAS esti- 
mates developed on the basis of field trips through 
the producing areas and an examination of all avail- 
able written materials, published and unpublished. 
Notes on methodology accompany the tables. 

Good citrus crops were harvested in all major pro- 
ducing States in 1979/80. The 1978/79 crop year, 
however, saw mediocre to poor crops of oranges, 
tangerines, and grapefruit in all of the major produc- 
ing States. The culprit in all cases was poor weather. 
There were freezes in December 1978 and January 
1979 in Nuevo Leon which caused losses in later 
maturing varieties, especially Valencias. Dry weather 
harmed citrus yields in Veracruz during both the 
1977/78 and 1978/79 seasons. 

Characteristics of Principal Producing Regions 

Table 3 lists some environmental and other features 
of Mexico's major citrus producing regions. Rainfall 
in all areas is heaviest in late spring and in summer 
(table 3 and figure 3). Average temperatures for key 
weather stations are shown in figure 4. Table 4 lists 
the approximate extent of the major citrus producing 



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Table 1 .-Continued 

NOTES: 1. Nuevo Leon: Citrus area is based mostly on an infrared photo study done in 1976 or 1977. Results were reported in 
Omar Rodriguez Longoria's, Inventario de Citricos del Estado de Nuevo Leon , a thesis presented to the Agronomy 
Faculty of Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, March, 1979. Trade and Government contacts were pretty much 
in agreement that the total citrus crop is usually in the neighborhood of 400,000 metric tons. Estimates of the grape- 
fruit and tangerine share of citrus production vary greatly. All agreed, however, that tangerine production was greater 
than grapefruit. Estimates of the tangerine share varied from 6 to 20 percent with most in 10 to 15 percent range. 
Estimates of the grapefruit share ranged from 3 to 15 percent, with most estimates below 10 percent. 

2. Tamaulipas: Area estimates varied widely, but the most reliable were apparently those of Irrigation District #86 
(13,000 ha irrigated) and the growers' union (15,000 ha). Our total citrus production estimate is based largely on 
marketing information supplied by the growers' union. 

3. San Luis Potosi: Citrus production estimates ranged all the way from 100,000 metric tons to 450,000 metric tons. 
Most contacts, however, would not even hazard a guess as to the amount produced. The better contacts and published 
sources, however, all agreed on a planted area of around 18,000 to 22,000 ha. Most yield estimates were in the 10 to 
15 ton/ha range. 

4. Veracruz: Production includes output from adjoining areas in the States of Puebla and Oaxaca. Puebla's production is 
mostly oranges and tangerines, while Oaxaca's is mainly grapefruit. Contacts in Veracruz provided a hodgepodge of 
conflicting information. Estimates of total citrus production ranged from 400,000 metric tons to 1.4 million metric 
tons. Average yield estimates ranged from around 10 metric tons/hectare to over 20 metric tons/hectare. Most, how- 
ever, were closer to 10 tons/hectare. The information supplied by the regional growers' unions was important in 
determining our area and production estimates. About 7,000 of the 8,600 hectares in tangerines are in the Martinez de 
la Torre area. Grapefruit area includes plantings in the traditional citrus zones of Veracruz plus the extreme south of 
the State and northern Oaxaca (Loma Bonita zone). 

5. Others: The other most important States for orange and grapefruit production are Yucatan, Sonora, and Sinaloa. 

6. Mexican (Key) Limes: The most important source of information was the 1978/79 lime census made by the Mexican 
Government agency Fidelim (Lime Trust Fund). See appendix table 1 for more details on Mexican lime production. 

7. Tree Spacing: We estimate average planting densities as follows: 

Nuevo Leon 1 80 trees/ha 

Tamaulipas 1 70 trees/ha 

Veracruz 220 trees/ha 

San Luis Potosi 220 trees/ha 

Persian limes 450 trees/ha 

Mexican limes 1 00 to 200 trees/ha 

Source: Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) estimates. 



Figure 2 

Mexico: Production of Citrus Fruit 1970/71-1979/80 



Volunr 


le 


1500 


- ..... /""\ ./ 

♦•♦» <S *••> ■■.-•♦ «■■■■•■•♦ 


1000 




500 


~- — ' 




r ^^^ a 1^ 





r i i i i 



1979/71 



1972/73 



1974/75 
Year 



1976/77 



1978/79 



Legend: 



Grapefruit 



^— ^— ^— "- Tangerine 



'• Oranges 
■ Total Limes 



Note: Quantities in thousands of metric tons 



Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 
Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA 



zones in the principal orange, tangerine, and grape- 
fruit producing States. Figure 5 is a map showing the 
location of the major producing zones. In 1978/79, 
the lime area in the principal producing areas on the 
Pacific Coast was roughly as follows: 



State 


Hectares 


Colima 


28,000 


Oaxaca 


12,000 
5,000 
5,000 



1 Includes about 1,000 hectares in an 
adjacent area of Michoacan State. 

Source: Fidelim, 1978/79 Lime Cen- 
sus. 



Citrus Varieties 

Tables 5 and 6 show the principal varieties of citrus 
fruit produced in Mexico and their peak harvest 
seasons. Pertinent comments on each type of citrus 
follow: 

Oranges: Valencias dominate orange production 
in all States except Nuevo Leon where early and 
midseason varieties are also important. For Nuevo 
Leo'n growers the early season fruit provides insur- 
ance against winter freeze losses and supplies fruit 
for the early season export market. More than one 
early season variety is often planted in the same 
block of trees. Oranges can be kept on the tree 
into the summer months in irrigated areas, es- 
pecially in Tamaulipas, but in other areas the har- 
vest season is relatively short because fruit quality 



Table 2.-Mexico: Citrus Production by States, 1970/71 -1980/81 



Type of 
fruit 



Nuevo 
Leon 



Tamaulipas 



San Luis 
Potosf 



Veracruz 



Others 



Total 
Mexico 



ORANGES 

1970/71 . . . 
1971/72 

1972/73 . . . 

1973/74 . . . 

1974/75 . . . 

1975/76 . . . 

1976/77 .... 

1977/78 . . . 

1978/79 . . . 

1979/80 . . . 

1980/81 . . . 

TANGERINES 

1970/71 . . . 

1971/72 . . . 

1972/73 . . . 

1973/74 . . . 

1974/75 . . . 
1975/76 

1976/77 . . . 

1977/78 . . . 
1978/79 

1979/80 . . . 
1980/81 

GRAPEFRUIT 

1970/71 
1971/72 
1972/73 
1973/74 

1974/75 . . . 

1975/76 . . . 

1976/77 . . . 
1977/78 

1978/79 . . . 

1979/80 . . . 
1980/81 

PERSLANLIMES 

1970/71 

1971/72 . . . 

1972/73 . . . 

1973/74 . . . 

1974/75 . . . 

1975/76 . . . 

1976/77 . . . 

1977/78 . . . 

1978/79 . . . 

1979/80 . . . 

1980/81 . . . 

MEXICAN LIMES 

1970/71 . . . 

1971/72 . . . 

1972/73 . . . 

1973/74 . . . 

1974/75 . . . 

1975/76 . . . 

1976/77 . . . 

1977/78 . . . 

1978/79 . . . 

1979/80 . . . 

1980/81 . . . 



360 
290 
350 
300 
200 
250 
350 
320 
290 
350 
320 



90 
35 
90 
70 
85 
30 
85 
50 
40 
70 
50 



6 

12 
14 
30 
23 
30 
28 
30 
36 
39 



1,000 metric tons 



140 
100 
190 
150 
120 
130 
280 
170 
150 
210 
200 



16 
12 
18 
18 
20 
22 
25 
22 
25 
29 
29 



10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

11 

8 

9 

8 



180 
140 
200 
190 
170 
120 
200 
180 
170 
200 
160 



15 
9 
17 
17 
22 
12 
25 
15 
18 
25 
16 



530 
500 
560 
520 
600 
630 
720 
450 
500 
700 
750 



65 
60 
70 
60 
70 
65 
75 
40 
60 
85 
54 



20 
20 
30 
35 
40 
50 
70 
60 
75 
90 
80 



10 
10 
10 
12 
13 
14 
16 
24 
37 
50 
58 



100 
100 
110 
120 
140 
150 
160 
170 
170 
170 
170 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 



320 
300 
260 
260 
290 
290 
310 
350 
407 
421 
461 



1,310 
1,130 
1,410 
1,280 
1,230 
1,280 
1,710 
1,290 
1,280 
1,630 
1,600 



170 
104 
177 
147 
177 
107 
185 
105 
118 
180 
120 



54 

48 

70 

77 

100 

110 

140 

125 

145 

170 

163 



10 
10 
10 
12 
14 
15 
18 
26 
39 
52 
61 



330 
310 
270 
270 
300 
300 
320 
361 
415 
430 
469 



Continued 



Table 2.-Mexico: Citrus Production by States, 1970/71-1980/81-Continued 



Type of 
fruit 


Nuevo 
Leon 


Tamaulipas 


San Luis 
Potosf 


Veracruz 


Others 


Total 
Mexico 


LEMONS 

1979/80 

1980/81 




1 - - - 1 

2 - - - 2 


TOTAL CITRUS 

1970/71 

1971/72 


458 166 195 625 430 1,874 
331 122 149 590 410 1,602 


1972/73 

1973/74 


452 218 217 670 380 1,937 
384 178 207 627 390 1,786 


1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 


315 150 192 723 440 1,820 
303 162 133 759 455 1,812 
465 315 227 881 485 2,373 


1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 


398 203 197 574 535 1,907 
360 183 190 672 592 1,997 
456 249 228 925 606 2.463 


1980/81 


409 


239 


179 


942 


647 


2,416 



NOTES : Estimates for 1970/71 are based upon FAS estimates made by Gilbert E. Sindelar and James H. Starkey after a field trip in 
1971. Their figures were used in most cases, but adjustments were made where evidence warranted. The most important 
source for yearly changes in production were estimates and comments made by David B. Fitz, Officer in Charge, USDA, 
Agricultural Marketing Service Field Office, McAllen, Texas. Production estimates for 1978/79 and 1979/80 are based 
upon a February/ March 1980 field trip (see table 1). Tamaulipas estimates for 1974/75 to 1977/78 rely heavily upon mar- 
keting data supplied by the growers' association (union) in Victoria. Production in "Other States" assumes stagnant produc- 
tion in Sonora and Sinaloa but rapidly increasing production in Yucatan due to heavy plantings around 1970. 

See appendix table 1 for 1960/61-1969/70 citrus production estimates. 



deteriorates rapidly late in the season. The out- 
ward appearance of oranges from Nuevo Leon and 
Tamaulipas is usually superior to those from San 
Luis Potosi and Veracruz. 



Tangerines: Tangerine trees in Mexico tend to be 
short-lived and are alternate-year bearing. Tanger- 
ine research at the National Citrus Research Center 
in General Teran, Nuevo Leo'n is concentrating on 
identifying varieties with less of an alternate-year 
bearing pattern. In Veracruz, most of the tanger- 
ine plantings are located in the Martinez de la 
Torre Zone, especially in the higher elevation areas 
(200 to 600 meters) in the zone's western ex- 
tremity. 

Grapefruit: Plantings were heavy in the late 
1960's and early 1970's (see "Foreign Agricul- 
ture," April 16, 1973), but by the late 1970'sthe 
market had become glutted and some growers 
pulled up trees or grafted them to oranges or 
limes. Most Mexican grapefruit is pink fleshed, 
mainly the Ruby Red variety, but in the Loma 
Bonita zone of Veracruz and Oaxaca white grape- 
fruit predominates. The Loma Bonita groves are 
said to be semi-abandoned, but there is still a 
relatively large quantity of fruit. Elsewhere in 
Veracruz, grapefruit is concentrated in the Tuxpan 
and Alamo areas and Gutierrez Zamora Zones. 



Persian Limes: In 1980 only 30 to 40 percent of 
Mexico's Persian lime plantings had begun to bear. 
Most of the plantings are in the State of Veracruz. 
The heaviest concentration is in the Martinez de la 
Torre Zone, which reportedly accounts for over 
half of the plantings in the State. There are also 
some plantings near Ciudad Valles in San Luis 
Potosi and near the city of Autlan in Jalisco State. 
Persian limes have been planted with an eye on the 
U.S. market— Mexican consumers prefer Mexican 
limes. Growers have been planting Persian limes 
since the late 1960's, but the heaviest plantings 
have been during 1977-80. About 20 percent of 
plantings during the late 1970's are said to have 
been made by top working (grafting onto) grape- 
fruit and orange trees. By 1981 new plantings of 
Persian limes had reportedly ceased. 

Mexican (Key) Limes: The market for Mexican 
limes and lime oil-about 45 percent of output is 
processed for essential oil— was depressed in the 
early 1970's, but by 1980 the market had become 
favorable and plantings were increasing. Colima is 
the most important and dynamic producing State. 
Production in the Apatzingan Zone of Michoacan, 
where there are many alternative agricultural ac- 
tivities, has been stagnant for many years and a 
large proportion of groves there are reportedly 
abandoned. 



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Figure 3 

Mexico: Average Monthly Precipitation in Selected Locations 

Millimeters 



300 



200 



100 




Inches 
-11.8 

7.9 

3.9 



Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 

Month 



Legend: 



Ciudad Valles 



■ ■ Ciudad Victoria 



"— ■—.—.- Martinez de la Torre — — - Montemorelos 



Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 
Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA 

Figure4 



Mexico: Average Monthly Temperatures in Selected Locations 



Degrees" 
Centigrade 



Degrees 
Fahrenheit 



- 11 





^^^^MCMtMS^^ 








/^^^Z!T^* 


lfc# 




25 








20 


... y 


^ 

N 




15 


* 


s 


— 


10 


- 1 I I I I I 1 1 


1 1 1 1 


- 



- 68 



- 59 



- 50 



Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 

Month 



Legend: 



Ciudad Valles 

Martinez de la Torre - 



Ciudad Victoria 
Montemorelos 



Horticultural and Tropical Products Division 
Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA 



11 



Table 4. -Mexico: Citrus Zones Within the Principal Citrus Producing States 



State 


Zone 


Approximate 
Area in Citrus 


Comments 






hectares 






Montemorelos 


32,000 






Linares 


6,000 






Santa Engracia/El Carmen 
(area north of Victoria) 


11,000 






Llera 


2,000 


About 60% in Mexican limes; Government operates 
a lime oil distillery here. 




Chamal 


1,000 


Nonirrigated. Located east of Ciudad Mante. 




Huasteca 


18,300 






Rio Verde 


2,000 






North Coastal Zone: 








Alarnp/Tuxpan 


30,000 


Follows Tuxpan River Valley and, to a lesser extent, 
the Cazones River Valley. 




Gutierrez Zamora 


20,000 


Follows Tecolutla River Valley. 




Martinez de la Torre 


25,000 


Extends into adjacent areas of Puebla State. Follows 
Nautla River Valley. Eastern extremity of zone 
extends into mountain foothills. 




Loma Bonita 


4,000 


Extends into adjacent areas of Oaxaca State. Mostly 
grapefruit, some Persian limes. 




Rest of State 


4,600 


Widely dispersed throughout State. 



Table 5. -Mexico: Principal Citrus Varieties, by States 



State 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 




Early & midseason 
varieties (include Ham- 
lin, Parson Brown, Pine- 
apple, Marrs, and Navel- 
40-50%; Valencia-50- 
60%) 


Dancy-close to 100% 


Ruby Red-90%; Marsh 
Seedless- 10% 






Valencia-85-90% 




Ruby Red-close to 
100% 


Mexican 


r 

San Luis Potosi . . . 


Valencia -90%; Early 
& midseason (mostly 
"corriente" & San 
Miguel)- 10% 


Dancy-close to 100% 








Valencia-80-90% 


Dancy-90%; Others 
(include King Mandarin 
& Monica)- 10% 


Ruby Red-70%; Marsh 
Seedless & other white 
fleshed varieties-30% 


Persian-close to 100% 


Colima & Michoacan 








Mexican-close to 100% 



12 



Mexico 




Shading indicates 
citrus areas 



Tututepec 



13 



Table 6.— Mexico: Peak Citrus Harvest Months, by States 



State 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 


Nuevo Leon 


October-June 


November-J anuary 


November-May 




Tamaulipas 


December-August 




November-May 




r 
San Luis Potosi . . . 


January-May 


October-January 








January-April 


October-January 


August-March 


Year round 


Colima & Michoacan 








Year round but heaviest 
April-December 2 



1 2 

Persian limes. Mexican limes. 



Lemons: In Tamaulipas, about 100 growers 
planted a total of 600 hectares of lemons between 
1974 and 1979. These plantings were jointly pro- 
moted by the Government and a large beverage 
maker who intends to utilize all of the lemons 
produced for making essential oil of lemon which 
is a key soft drink ingredient. 

Technology 

Only a minority of growers in Mexico follow all rec- 
ommended techniques for citrus growing. The use of 



these techniques increases when citrus prices are 
favorable, but even then they are not used by a large 
number of small, marginal producers. Thus, there is 
potential for greatly improving yields just by spread- 
ing adoption of currently available technology. 

Tree Spacing and Cultural Practices: Trees are planted 
mostly in square patterns of 9 meters by 9 meters, 8 
meters by 8 meters, 7 meters by 7 meters, 6 meters 
by 6 meters, etc.; but they are also planted in trian- 
gular or rectangular patterns. Average tree spacing is 
as follows: 



State 


Most Common Spacing(s) 
(Meters) 


Estimated Average 
Density Per Hectare 


/ 


8x8 

8x8 

6x6 (mountain sides) 
8x8 (valley floor) 

4 x 4, 4 x 5 
7x7, 8x8x8 

9x9, lOx 10 

8 x 8,9 x 9 


180 


San Luis Potosi 


170 
220 


Others 


450 
220 

100 

120 



In Colima, 70 percent of the Mexican (key) lime area 
is interplanted with other crops, mainly coconuts. 

Root Stocks: Sour orange is the most commonly 
used rootstock throughout Mexico. Most of the 
Mexican lime trees in the Pacific Coast States 
(Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero, and Oaxaca) are seed- 
lings, but growers in Colima are now switching over 
to budded trees. In 1978/79, 20 percent of all lime 
trees and 50 percent of nonbearing lime trees in 
Colima were budded, mostly on sour orange, but 
some also on Troyer. In Michoaca'n, only 1 percent of 



all trees and 6 percent of nonbearing trees were on 
budded stock. No budded stock was in use in Guer- 
rero or Oaxaca lime groves. 

Irrigation: Irrigation is important in the drier citrus 
growing zones of Mexico. Most of the water is drawn 
from rivers and privately maintained irrigation canals. 
However, 40 percent of the water for irrigated citrus 
in Tamaulipas is supplied by a Government-run proj- 
ect. Water from wells is often used to supplement 
river water. In Nuevo Leon, about 10 to 15 percent 
of the irrigation water is from wells. 



14 



The flood system of irrigation is practiced in all areas. 
In Nuevo Leon about 1,000 hectares of groves (equal 
to 4 percent of the State's irrigated citrus area) are 
watered with pressurized systems— drip, microjet, or 
under-tree sprinklers. 



The proportion of citrus area under irrigation, by 
States, is as follows: 



State 


Percent 


Note 


Nuevo Leon 


70 
90-95 






all except small area in 






southern part of State 


San Luis Potosi 








100 




Huasteca Zone 


3-5 


small areas near city of 
Valles are irrigated 






insignificant 


small area near Veracruz 
City is irrigated 


Sinaloa & Sonoia 


100 
50 






- 




100 


- 




zero 


- 



Some growers in rainfed areas, such as Veracruz, are 
now considering irrigation as a guarantee against 
losses in dry years and as a method of controlling the 
time of the bloom. 

Fertilization: Probably no more than one-half of 
Mexican citrus growers use fertilizer regularly. 
Fertilizer use, however, increases when citrus prices 
are favorable. 

The majority of growers with irrigated groves in 
Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas fertilize on a regular 
basis with NPK, but the use of micronutrients is not 
widespread. Most of the citrus in the Huasteca Zone 
of San Luis Potosi is not fertilized. In Veracruz, one- 
half or less of the growers fertilize their groves on a 
regular basis. 

The Government of Mexico maintains a monopoly on 
the production of fertilizers and requires that they be 
sold at fixed prices. In 1980, fertilizer prices in Nuevo 
Leon were 40-60 percent less than average prices in 
the United States. Prices compared as follows: 



Fertilizer 


Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico 


United 
States 1 


Ammonium nitrate 

Urea 

Single superphosphate .... 
Triple superphosphate .... 
18-46-0 


Dollars per metric ton 2 
113 186 

64 152 
140 251 

61 146 
159 277 
200 328 



'Average prices on May 15, 1980. Pesos converted to 
dollars at 23 per U.S. dollar. 

Source: Mexican data from a fertilizer dealer in Monte- 
morelos, Nuevo Leon. U.S. data from the Crop Reporting 
Board, Economics & Statistics Service, USD A. 



15 



Disease Problems: Most serious disease problems in 
Mexican citrus are foot rot, psorosis, greasy spot, and 
anthracnose. Foot rot or gummosis is found through- 
out Mexican citrus areas. Recommended treatments 
include use of proper rootstocks and grafting meth- 
ods, improvements in irrigation techniques, surgery, 
and elimination of the most seriously affected trees. 
Gummosis is especially serious in Colima where Mexi- 
can lime growers have responded by replanting with 
budded stock. Psorosis affects all citrus except 
Mexican limes. Affected trees are not treated. The 
best remedy is to use virus-free bud wood. This 
disease reduces the life span of citrus trees and is 
partly responsible for the rapid decline of tangerines 
which in Veracruz, reportedly happens after 12 
years. 

Greasy spot appears throughout the country but is 
most prevalent in humid areas, especially Veracruz 
and the Huasteca Zone of San Luis Potosi. It has a 
negative effect on yields, but is not usually treated. 
This disease is considered to be a less serious prob- 
lem than either foot rot or psorosis. Anthracnose is 
endemic only in the Mexican lime areas. It is treated 
with fungicides. There is no tristeza in Mexico, but 
trees grafted to the almost universally used sour 
orange rootstock are highly susceptible to the dis- 
ease. 



Insect Pests and Pest Control: The insect pest caus- 
ing the most damage in citrus groves is the Mexican 
fruit fly. This pest attacks oranges, tangerines, and 
grapefruit, but is most troublesome with grapefruit. 
It does not attack limes. It can be controlled by a 
regular spraying program, a practice followed in most 
irrigated groves in Nuevo Leo'n and Tamaulipas. In 
Veracruz only about a third of the growers regularly 
spray to control the Mexican fruit fly, and very few 
growers spray in San Luis Potosi. The number of 
growers using chemical sprays to control the Mexican 
fruit fly and other troublesome pests such as the rust 
mite and aphids varies according to the market price 
for citrus. 

The citrus black fly, which attacks the leaves of citrus 
fruit trees, is now controlled with the release of a 
parasite. It is no longer considered a serious problem. 

Weed Control: Mexican citrus growers use very little 
herbicide for weed control. The flood method of ir- 
rigation which requires cleaning the area under the 
trees before watering, keeps weeds well under control 
in irrigated groves. In other areas, weeds are generally 
kept down by mowing and cultivating. 



Pruning: Mexican citrus growers do not mechanically 
hedge or top their groves. Except for removing dead 
wood, little pruning is done in Nuevo Leo'n or Tamau- 
lipas. In the humid growing areas of Veracruz and the 
Huasteca Zone of San Luis Potosi many growers 
prune heavily to keep branches away from the ground 
and to thin out the inside. The more progressive 
growers do not follow this practice. Well cared for 
Mexican lime groves are usually pruned every year or 
two. 



Characteristics of Citrus Growers 

There are about 35,000 citrus growers in Mexico who 
maintain groves on around 225,000 hectares of land 
(table 7). Three-quarters of these growers are ejidi- 
tarios who control 40 to 45 percent of the land in 
citrus. The remaining growers are private property 
owners. 

Ejiditarios are beneficiaries of Mexico's agrarian re- 
form program which was initiated after the Mexican 
Revolution of 1910-20. They are members of rural 
communities called ejidos which have the right to use 
a designated parcel of state-owned land. In citrus 
growing areas, plots within the ejidos are usually as- 
signed on a permanent basis to each member family. 
Ejiditarios tend to be less well educated and to have 
less access to purchased agricultural inputs and to 
technical advice than private property owners. 
Groves in ejidos are universally small and probably 
range from 1 to 10 or 12 hectares. 

Private property owners range from poor peasant 
farmers with no more resources than ejiditarios to 
the owners of large groves with tens of thousands of 
trees. The agrarian reform laws, however, place upper 
limits on private farmland ownership. Although 
family members often pool their ownership rights to 
form relatively large parcels, the largest holdings 
probably do not exceed 300 or 350 hectares. The 
larger holdings are usually divided among more than 
1 block of trees. More typical are privately owned 
groves in the range of 10 to 40 hectares. The ex- 
istence of many very small groves, however, keeps the 
average grove size down to the lower end of the 
range. 

An infrared photo survey of the Nuevo Leon citrus 
area in 1976 and 1977 revealed 6,298 individual 
groves. It is likely, however, that the number of grove 
owners is substantially less than this, because many 
own more than 1 block of citrus. The proportion of 



16 



Table 7.-Mexico: Citrus Grower Characteristics, 1979/80 



Region and State 



Number of Growers 



Ejiditarios Private 



Total 



Citrus Grove Ownership 



Ejiditarios Private 



Average Size of 
Citrus Holdings 



Ejiditarios Private 



MEXICAN LIME AREAS 1 

Colima 

Michoacan 

Others 2 

Subtotal 

OTHER CITRUS AREAS 3 

Nuevo Leon 

Tamaulipas 

San Luis Potosi 

Veracruz 

Others 4 

Subtotal 

Total Mexico . . . . 



1,800 
1,720 
3,760 



Number 
480 
270 




2,280 
1,990 
3,760 



Percent of Area 

29 71 

53 47 

100 



Hectares 



1 

4 

2-3 



41 
21 



7,280 



750 



8,030 



49 



51 



900 
1,700 
4,700 
9,500 
2,700 



2,700 
450 
500 

3,000 
600 



3,600 
2,150 
5,200 
12,500 
3,300 



10 
50 
70 
45 
55 



90 
50 
30 
55 
45 



3-5 

4-5 

3 

3-5 

2-5 



10-15 
15-20 
15-20 
15 
12-15 



19,500 



7,250 



26,750 



42 



58 



26,780 



8,000 



34,780 



43 



57 



1 Data from 1978/79 Lime Census conducted by the Fidecomismo de Limon (Fidelim), an agency of the Mexican Government 
2 Includes 3,048 growers with 5,054 hectares of groves in Guerrero, and 716 groves with 5,276 hectares of groves in Oaxaca. The 
growers in Oaxaca are all comuneros, Le., indigenous Mexicans farming community held land. In the table they are grouped together 
with ejiditarios. 3 Data obtained on field trip, February and March, 1980 and from review of available written sources. 4 Include 
Yucatan, Sonora, Sinaloa, and other minor producing States. In Yucatan and Sinaloa, most citrus growers are ejiditarios, and in 
Sonora most are private property owners. 

Source: FAS estimates. 



Nuevo Leon's citrus area in various size groves was as 
follows: 



Grove Size 

(hectares) 


Number of 
Groves 


Percentage of 
Total Citrus Area 


1- 4.99 


2,166 
2,240 
868 
394 
233 
126 
253 


3 
16 


5- 9.99 


17 


10-14.99 


13 


15-19.99 


11 


20-24.99 


8 




32 



Total 



Source: Rodriguez, p. 33. 



6,298 



100 



Government Assistance 

Research: The principal agricultural research entity 
in the Mexican Government is the National Agricul- 
tural Research Institute (INIA) which maintains the 
National Orange, Tangerine, and Grapefruit Research 
Center in General Teran, Nuevo Leon and the Na- 
tional Lime Research Center in Tecoman, Colima. 
The INIA also sponsors citrus research at experiment 
stations in Culiacan, Sinaloa, and Uxmal, Yucatan. 
Future plans call for extending citrus research ac- 
tivities to stations in Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Micho- 
acan, and Oaxaca. 

The National Fruit Commission (CONAFRUT) main- 
tains a citrus research and experimentation center in 
Guemez, Tamaulipas. The Government-controlled 
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Trust Fund 3 sponsors lime 
production research at its demonstration farm in 
Tecoman, Colima. 



About 35 percent of Mexico's growers are active 
members of various local, regional, and State citrus 
grower associations. 2 Grower cooperatives are not 
widespread. 



-Ramirez, p. 32. 



The most significant Government-sponsored agricul- 
tural extension work in citrus areas is done by the 
agents of the Secretariat of Agriculture and Hydraulic 
Resources (SARH) Plant Health Division (Sanidad 



Formerly Lime Trust Fund (Fidelim) 



17 



Vegetal) which has experts scattered throughout the 
citrus producing areas. Local CONAFRUT offices 
also provide growers with technical assistance and 
low-priced agricultural inputs. Growers of Mexican 
limes receive technical assistance from agents of the 
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Trust Fund. 

Credit: Government banks supply citrus growers 
with credit on more favorable terms than commercial 
banks, but larger growers often use the latter to avoid 
delays and other inconveniences associated with sub- 
sidized funding. In some regions, the Government 
banks have special programs aimed at reaching small, 
marginal citrus growers and providing them with a 
combination of credit and technical assistance. 

Price Supports: There are no Government price sup- 
port programs for citrus or citrus products. 



Potential for Increased Production 

Mexico's citrus plantings and citrus production in- 
creased rapidly in the 1950's and 1960's but, except 
for limes, there was little growth during the 1970's. 
Given the relatively small numbers of nonbearing 
orange, tangerine, and grapefruit trees in 1980- 
about 10 percent— little growth is anticipated in 
these varieties through the mid-1 980's. Lime produc- 
tion, however, should increase substantially during 
the next several years. In 1980, nonbearing acreage 
was over 60 percent of the area in Persian limes and 
20-25 percent of the area in Mexican limes. Much 
of the anticipated growth in lime production will be 
destined for export, either as fresh Persian limes or 
as essential lime oil. 

Limited expansion of orange and tangerine plantings 
is occurring in Tamaulipas and in the north coastal 
area of Veracruz, near Tuxpan and Alamo. 1 Else- 
where, the nonbearing orange, tangerine, and grape- 
fruit trees generally represent no net growth in citrus 
area. They are replacement trees within existing 
groves, or new groves that merely compensate for 
other abandoned groves. Some expansion could take 
place in nontraditional areas, especially along the 
Southern Gulf Coast. Private entrepreneurs began to 
plant near the town of Chontalpa in Tabasco State 
in the late 1970's. By 1980, about 300 hectares had 
been planted, mostly to Ruby Red and Star Ruby 
grapefruit and to Persian limes. The attraction of 
planting in this area, which was a maximum potential 



1 The Government reportedly has plans to promote the 
planting of 15,000 hectares of citrus, mostly Valencia 
oranges, in Tamaulipas and 10,000 hectares in Yucatan. The 
likelihood of fulfilling these plans is unknown. 



of probably 2,000 to 3,000 hectares, is that the grape- 
fruit matures very early (late July) and earns high 
prices in export markets. Other possible areas for 
expansion are in the vicinity of the city of Veracruz 
and on the Yucatan Peninsula. The biggest drawback 
to the major expansion of citrus area in Tabasco and 
the Yucatan Peninsula are their relative isolation from 
markets, both foreign and domestic. Little or no ex- 
pansion is anticipated in the Pacific Northwest States 
of Sonora and Sinaloa because of the strong competi- 
tion from alternative crops. 

Future growth in citrus plantings will be determined 
by: (1) grower returns for citrus; (2) the grower re- 
turns and Government incentives for alternative 
crops; and (3) in some areas, the availability of irriga- 
tion water. 

Future price levels for citrus cannot be determined, 
but given Mexican Government policies, returns for 
some alternative agricultural activities are likely to 
improve relative to citrus. Mexican production of 
staple foods— corn, sorghum, wheat, oilseeds, dry 
beans, etc.— has not kept up with demand in recent 
years. The result has been an unprecedented level of 
agricultural imports which have strained the coun- 
try's balance of payments and its transportation and 
food distribution system. The Mexican Government's 
response has been to provide the economic incentives, 
know-how, and infrastructure necessary to increase 
domestic production of staple foods. Thus, growing 
staple crops could become more attractive, relative 
to citrus, in some areas. 

Given prevailing water management techniques, the 
availability of water precludes the expansion of irri- 
gated citrus in Nuevo Leon, and limits irrigated citrus 
expansion in Tamaulipas to about 10 to 20 percent 
of the current area (without cutting into the area of 
other crops). If irrigated citrus area were expanded in 
these States, more water-efficient irrigation systems, 
such as drip or micro-jet, would have to be used. A 
good deal of experimental work in irrigation tech- 
niques, other than the normal flood system, is being 
conducted in research centers and by growers. A few 
growers in Nuevo Leon have put in alternative sys- 
tems, but high installation costs are limiting wide- 
spread adoption. 

The potential for increasing per tree or per hectare 
citrus yields in Mexico is great, but progress is likely 
to be slow. Average orange yields now range from 10 
to 20 metric tons per hectare depending on the State 
or year, and they averaged about 1 3 tons per hectare 
for all of Mexico in 1979/80. This compares to recent 
average annual yields ranging from 30 to 55 tons per 
hectare in Florida, 19 to 25 tons in California, 14 to 



18 



22 tons in Texas, and 13 to 19 tons in Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. 

Much of the research by Mexican research institutions 
is aimed at improving citrus yields. The major cause 
of low average yields, however, lies in the failure to 
use available technology such as virus-free budwood 
and other disease control methods, adequate fertiliza- 



tion, and spraying to control insect pests. Reaching 
the Mexican grower with technical assistance is, how- 
ever, a difficult problem. The large number of small- 
scale growers makes direct contact with all but a 
minority an impossibility. In addition, the limited 
financial resources of most growers and the wide 
year-to-year swings in prices discourage investment 
and heavy use of purchased inputs. 



UTILIZATION 



Overview 

Table 8 shows a 10-year series for supply and dis- 
tribution of oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, and limes. 
Note that exports play a relatively minor role in the 
total distribution of the crop-oranges 2 to 4 percent, 
tangerines 10 to 20 percent, grapefruit about 10 per- 
cent, and limes about 3 percent. Processing now ac- 
counts for 1 5 to 20 percent of orange production, up 
to a third of grapefruit production, and about 40 per- 
cent of lime production. Domestic utilization of fresh 
citrus varies according to availability. 

Marketing of Fresh Citrus for Domestic 
Consumption 

Mexican citrus growers market their fruit in a variety 
of ways. Most oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit for 
domestic consumption are marketed through middle- 
men who generally purchase the fruit on the tree, 
pick it, and load it loose into 10 metric ton trucks for 
transport to wholesale markets in the major urban 
centers. In some places, especially where groves are 
small and inaccessible, like the Huasteca Zone of San 
Luis Potosi', middlemen purchase the fruit placed at 
roadside. Often there are two middlemen, one at the 
local level who purchases fruit from growers and a 
second who buys fruit from the first and transports 
it to urban centers. 

Oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit for the domestic, 
fresh market are not usually cleaned or sorted, and 
only tangerines are boxed. The exceptions are fruit 
destined for the northwestern States of Sonora and 
Baja California which require packed, fumigated 
fruit and some supermarket chains which buy a por- 
tion of their supplies from packinghouses that clean 
and wax the fruit, but do not size or box it. 

Most fruit marketed in the Mexico City area passes 
through that city's La Merced wholesale fruit and 
vegetable market. At La Merced, trucks that hold 10 
tons of loose citrus gather in a large parking lot 6 
mornings a week after making the overnight haul 
from the growing areas of Veracruz and other States. 
An average of 200 truckloads of citrus per day is 



negotiated during the peak February-April season, 
but volume dips to as low as 20 or 30 trucks per day 
during the summer months. La Merced is a distribu- 
tion point not only for Mexico City and environs, 
but also for several other cities, some as distant as 
Acapulco. Many cities, however, particularly those 
in the north, have their own wholesale citrus mar- 
kets. 

Mexican (key) limes, from Colima and other growing 
areas in western Mexico, are marketed differently 
than the citrus from eastern Mexico. Limes are most 
commonly sold by growers directly to lime packers 
and processors, with the grower being responsible for 
picking and hauling. About one-third of the produc- 
tion, however, is sold in the grove to middlemen. 
Most fresh lime packing facilities are run in conjunc- 
tion with lime oil distilleries, although a few separate 
packinghouses do exist. About 70 percent of the 
Mexican limes destined for the domestic fresh fruit 
market are sorted and packed in boxes before being 
shipped to urban centers. 

During the 1970's, estimated per capita consumption 
of citrus fruits fluctuated greatly from year to year, 
but for the decade as a whole it increased only for 
grapefruit (table 9). Mexican consumers tend to use 
fresh oranges and grapefruit for home juicing. Thus 
the physical appearance of the fruit often is not as 
important as its perceived juice content. Limes are 
widely used for seasoning foods and the Mexican lime 
is much preferred over Persian limes. 

Fresh Citrus Exports 

Export Trends: Mexican exports of oranges and 
grapefruit are shown in tables 1 and 1 1 . The United 
States and East Germany are the principal foreign 
markets for oranges. Grapefruit exports are destined 
for the United States, Western Furope, and Japan. 



4 Material on Mexican lime marketing is mostly from Marcos 
Peralta Porras, "La Comercializacion de Frutas con Enfasis 
en Ci'tricos," in Manuel del Castillo Turin, ed., Memoria del 
Seminario de Citricultura efectuado en Monterrey, N.L. del 
28 de Mayo al 1 de Junio de 1979, Mexico City, 1979. 



19 



Table 8.-Mexico: Production and Utilization of Citrus Fruit, 1970/71-1980/81 

(1,000 Metric Tons) 



Fruit and Year 



Production 



Utilization 



Fresh 



Exports 



Apparent 

Domestic 

Consumption 



Processing 



ORANGES 

1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 

1980/81 (forecast) 

TANGERINES 

1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 

1980/81 (forecast) 

GRAPEFRUIT 

1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 

1980/81 (forecast) 

LIMES 3 

1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 

1980/81 (forecast) 



1,310 
1,130 
1,410 
1,280 
1,230 
1,280 
1,710 
1,290 
1,280 
1,630 
1,600 



170 
104 
177 
147 
177 
107 
185 
105 
118 
180 
120 



54 

48 

70 

77 

100 

110 

140 

125 

145 

170 

163 



340 
320 
280 
272 
314 
315 
338 
387 
454 
482 
530 



27 
43 
48 
48 
39 
11 
13 
35 
21 
27 
20 



19 
7 
24 
20 
22 
16 
32 
18 
22 
19 
13 



2 

3 

6 

6 

8 

5 

11 

12 

13 

20 

20 



2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

4 

5 

9 

12 

15 

20 



1,188 
997 
1,192 
1,057 
1,031 
1,369 
1,416 
1,040 
1,002 
1,376 
1,350 



151 

97 

153 

127 

155 

91 

153 

87 

96 

161 

107 



37 
30 
49 
56 
72 
90 
109 
86 
67 
86 
83 



258 
248 
188 
170 
191 
201 
243 
208 
262 
267 
310 



95 
90 

170 
175 
160 
140 
281 
215 
257 
227 
230 



15 
15 
15 
15 
20 
15 
20 
27 
65 
64 
60 



80 

70 

90 

100 

120 

110 

90 

170 

180 

200 

200 



Oranges and grapefruit: Official Mexican Government statistics for calendar years with 1970 
represented as 1970/71. Tangerines: Derived from U.S. imports in fiscal years under regulations ad- 
ministered by Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, APHIS, USDA, in Foreign Agricultural 
Trade of the United States, USDA, ESS, various issues. Estimates in this table are 5 percent higher 
than U.S. import numbers to account for exports to other destinations. Limes: Equal to U.S. im- 
ports according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2 About 5,000 to 10,000 tons are processed 
every second year, but this number is included with processed oranges. 3 Includes both Mexican 
and persian limes. 

Source: USDA estimates. 



20 



Table 9. -Mexico: Estimated Per Capita Consumption 
of Fresh Citrus, 1970/7 1-1979/80 

(Kilograms Per Capita) 



Year 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 


1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 


22.6 2.9 0.7 4.9 

18.4 1.8 0.6 4.6 
21.2 2.7 0.9 3.3 
18.2 2.2 1.0 2.9 
17.1 2.6 1.2 3.2 

22.0 1.5 1.4 3.2 
21.9 2.4 1.7 3.8 

15.5 1.3 1.3 3.1 
143 1.4 1.1 3.8 

19.1 2.3 1.2 3.8 



Source: Calculated from data in table 8. 



Table 10,-Mexico: Exports of Fresh Oranges, 1970-79 
(Metric Tons) 



Year 



Country of Destination 



Argentina 



Canada 



G.D.R. 



Netherlands 



U.S. 



Others 



Total 



1970. 
1971. 
1972. 
1973. 
1974. 
1975. 
1976. 
1977. 
1978. 
1979. 



475 

285 

704 

5,785 

2,780 

1,569 



304 
1,128 



143 

600 

1,212 

1,514 

510 

107 
52 
82 
62 



4,457 
14,992 
15,980 
16,743 
18,464 

4,002 

7,393 
17,220 

3,232 



16 



180 
53 
301 
376 
256 



21,636 
27,055 
30,134 
24,148 
16,828 
5,203 
4,866 
17,407 
16,616 
25,336 



1 

45 

248 

4 

1 

2 

147 

22 



26,727 
42,933 
48,075 
48,438 
38,766 
10,828 
12,667 
35,057 
20,637 
27,355 



1 2 

East Germany. May include some exports for other countries that were transshipped through the United States. 



Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 



21 



Table 11. -Mexico: Exports of Fresh Grapefruit, 1970-79 
(Metric Tons) 



Year 


Country of Destination 


Argentina 


Canada 


France 


Japan 


Netherlands 


U.S. 1 


Other 


Total 


1970 


414 145 - 1,712 - 2,271 

- - 87 2,692 - 2,779 

306 22 5,197 - 5,525 

946 43 4,617 95 5,701 

3,519 367 257 3,807 343 8,293 

775 154 121 545 3,301 134 5,030 

386 513 373 2,056 7,144 311 10,783 

300 - 1,090 90 4,126 6,003 25 11,634 


1971 


1972 

1973 


1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 


1978 


380 998 470 3.073 5.122 3 071 1 0R 11777 


1979 


3,070 


733 


1,146 


16 


7,165 


7,144 


1,033 


20,307 



1 May include some exports for other countries that were transshipped through the United States. 
Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 



The United States is the only important export mar- 
ket for tangerines and limes. 

U.S. imports of fresh citrus from Mexico are shown 
in tables 12 and 13 on a marketing year basis. In 
1979/80 imports of citrus fruit from Mexico repre- 



sented less than 2 percent of U.S. domestic fresh 
citrus utilization. This was a small but important 
share because a large proportion of imports are mar- 
keted early in the season when prices are most favor- 
able. Lime imports from Mexico accounted for 40 
percent of U.S. fresh lime utilization in 1979/80. 



Table 12.-United States: Imports of Fresh Citrus from Mexico, 1970/7 1-1979/80 



Year 



Oranges and Tangerines 



l 2 



Grapefruit 



Limes 3 



1970/71 
1971/72 
1972/73 
1973/74 
1974/75 
1975/76 
1976/77 
1977/78 
1978/79 
1979/80 



Metric Tons 
37,769 

34,460 

41,654 

38,237 

27,412 

20,501 

41,651 

26,525 

41,507 

33,218 



$1,000 

NA 

NA 
5,984 
6,122 
5,449 
3,753 
10,041 
6,024 
8,951 
7,529 



Metric Tons 

1,707 

1,732 
3,275 
3,470 
2,531 
1,667 
5,298 
2,410 
1,432 
4,260 



$1,000 

NA 

NA 
972 

1,034 
799 
631 

1,496 
664 
363 

1,251 



Metric Tons 
1,902 

1457 

1^74 

2,259 

3,331 

3,759 

5,188 

9,443 

11,602 

15,148 



$1,000 

NA 

NA 

301 

493 

937 

1,252 

1,808 

2,764 

2,990 

4,796 



Note: NA indicates not available. 



Data on oranges and tangerines are not available separately before 1978. October-September. 
April-March. 

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



22 



Table 13.-United States: Imports of Oranges and Tangerines 
From Mexico, 1978/79 and 1979/80 



Year 1 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


1978/79. . . 
1979/80. . . 


Metric Tons 
20,381 

14,269 


$1,000 
4,097 

3,083 


Metric Tons 
21,126 

18,949 


$1,000 

4,854 

4,446 



October -September. 

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of 
Census. 



Note that the U.S. import data in table 14 are from 
an alternate source— data on the imports inspected 
under the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) 
Programs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
This table is included because Bureau of Census data 
from the U.S. Department of Commerce did not sep- 
arate orange and tangerine imports before 1978. 

In summary, tables 10 through 14 show that during 
the 1970's, Mexican exports of oranges and tanger- 
ines tended to stagnate while exports of grapefruit 
and limes tended to increase. During this decade, 
little or no growth is expected in orange or tangerine 
exports, gradual increases in grapefruit exports are 



possible, and lime exports are likely to continue their 
rapid growth. 



Trade Facilities: All oranges, tangerines, and grape- 
fruit exported to the United States must be fumi- 
gated in packinghouse facilities approved by USDA 
Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) inspectors. 
Limes, which are not a host for the Mexican fruit fly, 
do not need to be packed in USDA approved facili- 
ties. Packinghouses are most heavily concentrated in 
the Montemorelos area of Nuevo Leon State, but are 
scattered through the four major citrus producing 
States. 



Twenty-eight of these packinghouses are united in a 
trade association, the Mexican Association of Citrus 
Packers. The association includes all but one of the 
packers in Nuevo Leon, one in Tamaulipas, one in 
Veracruz, and one in San Luis Potosi. Three of the 
packinghouses, two in Veracruz and one in San Luis 
Potosi, began operations during the 1980/81 season. 
Packinghouses are often owned and operated by a 
group of medium-sized growers, or in a few places, 
by one large grower. Packinghouses often finance 
small-scale growers in return for the right to pur- 
chase fruit. 



Table 14.-United States: Imports of Fresh Citrus from Mexico under Regulations 

Administered by Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, APHIS, USDA, 

Fiscal Years 1961-1980 

(Metric Tons) 



Year 1 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 


1960/61 

1961/62 

1962/63 

1963/64 

1964/65 

1965/66 

1966/67 

1967/68, , , , 

1968/69, 

1969/70 

1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 


5,549 2,468 - 2,865 

8,280 2,703 2,572 

24,756 3,741 713 2,462 

51,653 5,138 407 2,149 

41,984 5,220 714 1,920 

16,415 6,375 41 1,777 

11,177 8,154 15 1,450 

53,513 8,811 16 1,282 

29,637 18,939 245 1,484 

15,695 11,014 889 2,262 

22,425 18,112 1,155 1,564 

25,456 6,791 2,036 1,703 

24,668 23,007 3,355 1,859 

20,196 19,445 3,147 3,226 

8,191 20,711 3,842 3,432 

5,126 15,292 2,332 4,769 

16,706 30,374 5,544 7,786 

9,034 16,889 2,115 9,841 

19,702 20,634 1,878 13,357 

13,745 17,921 6,158 16,620 



Years beginning in July for 1960/61 through 1975/76 and years beginning in 
October for 1976/77 through 1979/80. 

Source: USDA, Economics and Statistics Service, Foreign Agricultural Trade of 
the United States, various issues. 



23 



Table 15. -Eastern Mexico: USDA/PPQ Approved Fresh Citrus Packinghouses, 1981 



State 


Zone 


Locality 


Number 


Tamaulipas 

Sari Luis Potosi . . . 

Veracruz 


Montemorelos Montemorelos 17 
Allende 3 
General Teran 2 

Linares Linares 3 
Hualahuises 1 

Santa Engracia/El Carmen El Barretal 1 

Huasteca Ciudad Valles 1 
Matlapa 1 

Alamo/Tuxpan Tuxpan 1 

Guitierrez Zamora Coatzintla 1 

Martinez de la Torre San Rafael 1 

Martinez de la Torre 2 


Grand total . . . 


34 



Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ). 



Export orders for the United States and overseas 
markets are the principal business of Mexican citrus 
packers, but they also pack for the northwestern 
Mexican States which accept only fumigated fruit. In 
addition, they prepare bulk shipments of washed and 
waxed fruit for supermarkets throughout Mexico. 
Roughly speaking, about half of the fruit processed 
by fresh fruit packers is destined for export and half 
for domestic customers. Citrus is packed only in 
response to specific orders for fruit. All packed citrus 
is transported by truck. The principal U.S. port of 
entry is Hidalgo, Texas, which is about 3 hours driv- 
ing time from the Montemorelos area of Nuevo Leon. 

There is no export tax on fresh citrus exports, and no 
export permit is required. There are no other Govern- 
ment incentives for exports. 

Exports to U.S. and Canadian Markets: Mexican cit- 
rus exports to the United States and Canada have tra- 
ditionally been channelled through brokers in the 
lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. This, however, has 
begun to change in recent years. Now, increasing 
numbers of Mexican packers are exporting directly to 
consuming centers in North America. Some packers 
are owners or part-owners of brokerage houses in 
Texas, while others continue to export through tra- 
ditional brokers. U.S. brokers often advance operat- 
ing capital to their Mexican suppliers. 

U.S. imports of Mexican oranges, tangerines, and 
grapefruit fluctuate from year to year. It is difficult 
to determine, however, which combination of factors 
causes changes in import levels. Recent bumper crops 



in the United States have been associated with lowei 
imports from Mexico, but regression analyses for 10- 
and 20-year periods indicate that changes in the en- 
tire U.S. crop or the Texas crop can explain no more 
than 30 percent of the year-to-year variation in im- 
ports. Other variables that were analyzed include U.S. 
prices, prices in Mexico City, exports to third coun- 
tries, and Mexican production. No one variable or 
combination of them was decisive in explaining the 
level of U.S. imports of oranges, tangerines, or grape- 
fruit from Mexico. 

Overseas Exports: When preparing overseas ship- 
ments, most Mexican packers are able to run only 
the fruit for that shipment. They are unable to pre- 
pare orders for U.S. delivery until the overseas order 
has been put together. Under the auspices of the 
Citrus Packers' Association, several packers are able 
to work together to assemble the large orders for 
overseas shipment. 

Exports to Argentina are usually embarked on shal- 
low draft ships in the Mexican port of Tampico. 
Mexican exports to Argentina benefit from favorable 
tariff treatment through the auspices of the Latin 
American Integration Association (LAIA, formerly 
LAFTA). Export shipments to East Germany and 
Western Europe are generally embarked at the Texas 
port of Brownsville, because deeper draft ships 
are able to call at that port. Shipments for Japan are 
trucked to California and embarked at Long Beach. 
Table 16 gives an idea of the quantities of Mexican 
orange and grapefruit exports that are transshipped 
through the United States. 



24 



Table 16. -United States: Entries of Fresh Oranges and 
Grapefruit for Export or Transportation and Export, 
Supervised Under Regulations Administered by Plant 
Protection and Quarantine, APHIS, USDA, Fiscal Years 
1973-19801 

(Metric Tons) 



Year 3 



1972/73. 
1973/74. 
1974/75. 
1975/76. 
1976/77. 
1977/78. 
1978/79. 
1979/80. 



Oranges 



Grapefruit 



19,057 
17,330 
17,865 

3,998 
11,059 
12,453 

6,911 
633 



973 
1,349 
1,002 
2,414 
6,679 
9,186 
12,208 
5,505 



Mostly fruit from Mexico but includes some fruit from 
Israel and other countries. Years beginning in July for 

1972/73 through 1975/76 and years beginning in October 
for 1976/77 through 1979/80. 

Source: USDA, Economics and Statistics Service, For- 
eign Agricultural Trade of the United States, various issues. 



Orange Exports: Practically all of Mexico's fresh 
orange exports are from the State of Nuevo Leon, 
although a small amount also comes from Tamaulipas. 
Overseas exports, which are mainly destined for East 
Germany, are usually of early and midseason oranges. 
Exports to the United States are spread through the 
entire October to June season. In recent years, most 
Valencia exports reportedly have gone to California 
where they are used in supermarket juicing ma- 
chines. 

Tangerine Exports: Mexican tangerine exports, vir- 
tually all of the Dancy variety, are destined almost 
exclusively for the United States and Canada. The 
export season runs from October through January. 
During the early weeks of the season, export sup- 
plies come from the States of Veracruz and San Luis 
Potosi. Some of the export tangerines from these 
States are packed in Nuevo Leon and some are 
packed at their origin. The trend is toward more 
packing in the producing States. Nuevo Leo'n tanger- 
ines are later maturing, but as soon as they become 
available they take over most export business. U.S. 
importers believe that Nuevo Leon tangerines, which 
account for about two-thirds of all Mexican exports, 
have a longer shelf life than fruit from other states. 
Because there is no tangerine production in Texas, 
imported Mexican tangerines tend to complement 
the offerings of Texas fresh citrus shippers. 



Grapefruit Exports: Most of Mexico's grapefruit ex- 
ports originate in the State of Veracruz. Ruby Red is 
the principal variety shipped. Fruit for export is 
packed in both Veracruz and Nuevo Leon, but the 
tendency is for a larger proportion to be packed in 
Veracruz. The principal shipping season is Septem- 
ber to November, before large amounts of fruit are 
available from other suppliers and prices, therefore, 
are higher. In some years, however, relatively large 
shipments are made to the United States during 
December to May. These late season exports often 
come from groves in Nuevo Leon. 

There is much interest among some entrepreneurs 
in maximizing returns from exports by shipping as 
early as possible. Generally speaking, the farther 
south the producing region, the earlier the grape- 
fruit matures. With this in mind, some growers have 
planted Ruby Red and Star Ruby grapefruit in 
Tabasco State, where fruit can be harvested as early 
as July. The first commercial fruit in this region was 
picked in 1979/80. By 1980, about 300 hectares 
had been planted, but plans for additional plantings 
could bring the total area up to as much as 2,500 
hectares. 

Persian Lime Exports: Mexican exports of Persian 
limes, destined almost exclusively for the United 
States, have increased rapidly in recent years. Most 
exports originate in and are packed in Veracruz, 
although small amounts also come from San Luis 
Potosi, and new plantings in Jalisco State should 
soon be yielding fruit for export. Limes are shipped 
year round. Because limes are not a host to the 
Mexican fruit fly and do not have to be fumigated 
before export to the United States, packers are not 
required to operate from facilities approved and 
inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Orange and Grapefruit Processing 

In Mexico, processing plays a secondary role to the 
fresh market. Processors utilize only 15 to 20 percent 
of orange production and about 30 percent of grape- 
fruit production. Because of the dominance of the 
fresh market, processors usually have to compete 
with fresh market buyers for fruit supplies. Thus, 
with the exception of some bumper crop years, the 
cost of oranges and grapefruit for processing tends 
to be only slightly lower than fruit destined for 
fresh consumption in the domestic market. Table 
17 shows estimated quantities of oranges and grape- 
fruit used for processing. 

Concentrate Juice Processing Facilities: There are 
nine processing plants now in operation which can 
produce frozen concentrated orange juice and grape- 
fruit juice (FCOJ and FCGJ). Most of the processing 
capacity is in the States of Nuevo Leon and Veracruz. 



25 



Table 17. -Mexico: Estimated Utilization of Oranges and Grapefruit by Processors, 1970/7 1-1979/80 

(1,000 Metric Tons) 





Oranges 


Grapefruit 


Total 


Year 


For 
FCOJ 2 


For 

Sections 


Total 


For 
FCGJ 2 


For 
Sections 


Total 


Oranges and 
Grapefruit 


1970/71 . . 




95 


f 3 ) 


95 


15 


( 3 ) 


15 


110 


1971/72 . . 




90 


,3x 


90 


15 


( 3 ) 


15 


105 


1972/73 . . 




170 


f 3. 


170 


15 


( 3 ) 


15 


185 


1973/74 . . 




175 


,3. 


175 


15 


( 3 ) 


15 


190 


1974/75 . . 




160 


( 3 ) 


160 


20 


( 3 ) 


20 


180 


1975/76 . . 




140 


,3. 


140 


15 


( 3 ) 


15 


155 


1976/77 . . 




280 


1 


281 


18 


2 


20 


301 


1977/78 . . 




210 


5 


215 


20 


7 


27 


242 


1978/79 . . 




250 


7 


257 


50 


15 


65 


322 


1979/80 . . 




220 


7 


227 


50 


14 


64 


291 



1 2 

Includes a small amount of tangerines. FCOJ— frozen concentrated orange juice; FCGJ -frozen concentrated 



grapefruit juice. 3 Insignificant. 
Source: USDA estimates. 



In addition to the operating plants shown in table 18, 
there is a small plant capable of producing frozen 
concentrated grapefruit juice in the Loma Bonita area 
of Oaxaca, but in recent years it has produced only 
pineapple juice, and a small plant in Sinaloa which 
produces only canned, single strength juice. The ca- 
pacity of Mexico's operating orange and grapefruit 
concentrate plants is now over 500,000 tons of fruit 
per year. The largest amount of citrus ever processed 
in one year was about 300,000 tons, but many of 
these plants also process other fruits, especially pine- 
apple. 

All of the plants now operating are owned by Mexi- 
can private entrepreneurs. Two of Nuevo Le6n's 
plants are in Montemorelos and one is near Monter- 
rey. The largest plant in the State was expanded for 
the 1980/81 season and now has 24 high speed ex- 
tractors and 80,000 pounds per hour of water- 
evaporating capacity. This plant is owned by about 
100 grower-partners, some of whom also own fresh 
fruit packinghouses. In 1980/81, it was the only 
Mexican plant which had bulk storage tanks for FCOJ. 
The largest plant in Veracruz, with 1 3 extractors and 
30,000 pounds per hour evaporating capacity, is lo- 
cated near San Rafael in the Martinez de la Torre 
Zone. Other Veracruz plants are in Coatepec, near 
Poza Rica, and in Los Robles. The latter plant, with 
only 4 extractors, is the smallest in the State. 

As of early 1981, there were two small citrus process- 
ing plants under construction. A small group of 
growers was building a plant in Allende, Nuevo Leon, 



and the Mexican Government's agricultural credit 
bank was financing a plant in Oxkutzcab, Yucatan. 

As of 1981, proposals for at least five other new proc- 
essing plants had been advanced. Prospects for frui- 
tion of these plans, most of which involve Mexican 
Government financing, are quite uncertain. Grower 
groups have lobbied for the construction of these 
plants because they feel the need for marketing al- 
ternatives. 

Mexico's citrus processing season runs from October 
to May. Plants can start running grapefruit in October 
and then switch to early season oranges in November. 
Processors often shut down in January, after the end 
of the early and midseason orange harvests and before 
large quantities of Valencias become available. Some 
plants use this period to process pineapples or other 
fruit. Small amounts of tangerines-5,000 to 10,000 
tons— are processed during "on seasons," that is, 
years of large crops. No tangerines are processed dur- 
ing "off seasons." s 

There is no set system for fruit purchases by proc- 
essors. Generally, they buy fruit delivered to the 
plant by middlemen or growers, but some also buy 
fruit on the tree. Packinghouse culls are an important 
source of fruit, especially in Nuevo Leon. The large 
grower-owned plant in Montemorelos takes deliveries 



s Tangerines are included with the totals for processed 
oranges in tables 8, 17, and 19. 



26 



Table 18. -Mexico: Location and Capacities of Plants for Producing Concentrated Citrus Juices, 1980/8 1 



Category and State 


Plants 


Total 
Extractors 


Total 

Evaporating 

Capacity 


OPERATING PLANTS 

Nuevo Leon 

Veracruz 

Sonora 


Number 
3 

1 
4 
1 


Number 

41 

3 

31 

5 


Lbs. of Water /Hr. 

70,500 

5,000 

105,000 

5,000 




Total 


9 


80 


185,500 


PLANTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 

Nuevo Leon 


1 

1 


6 or 8 

5 


10,000 


Yucatan 


10,000 


Total 


2 


11 or 13 


20,000 


PROPOSED PLANTS 2 

Nuevo Leon 


1 
1 
1 
2 


9 

6 

6 

23(?) 


15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
55,000(?) 


Tamaulipas 


San Luis Potosi 


Veracruz 


Total 


5 


44(?) 


100,000(?) 



1 1 

Located in border city of Reynosa, not in citrus producing zone. As of early 1981, only the Tamau- 

lipas proposal was close to getting underway. 

Source: FAS survey. 



only from its grower-partners. During the 1979/80 
season, processors were paying about $40 or $50 
per metric ton of oranges, on-the-tree basis, which 
was equivalent to $1.60 or $2.00 per 90-pound box. 
This was roughly one-half of 1979/80 season prices 
in Florida, and slightly higher than 1 980 season prices 
in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pick and haul costs in 1979/80 
were around $17 to $22 per ton (70 to 90 cents per 
box). During the 1980/81 season, processors in 
Nuevo Leon paid around $50 to $60 per ton, de- 
livered to the plant for early and mid-season oranges, 
but Valencia prices were up to $85 or $90 per ton, 
delivered. 

Production of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice 
(FCOJ): In recent years, Mexican production of 
FCOJ has averaged around 20,000 metric tons of 
65 brix concentrate (equivalent to 6.6 million gal- 
lons of 43.4° brix concentrate) per year, up from less 
than 10,000 tons annually in the early 1970's (table 
19). Domestic sales account for 25 to 30 percent of 
FCOJ output, with the remainder earmarked for ex- 
port. Large stocks buildup in years of low exports. 
An estimated 10,000 tons of concentrate were carried 
over following the 1979/80 season. 

FCOJ Exports: Most Mexican orange juice exports 
consist of 65 brix concentrate packed in 55 gallon 



drums (about 52 gallons actual fill). One processor, 
however, can ship bulk concentrate in tank trucks. 

During the 1979/80 season a small processing plant 
located near the U.S. border was reportedly export- 
ing bulk, single strength orange juice to the United 
States. U.S. imports of nonconcentrated citrus juices 6 
from Mexico were 797,000 gallons (equivalent to 
570 to 860 tons of 65° brix concentrate) in calendar 
year 1980, up from only 21,000 gallons in 1979. U.S. 
imports of single strength orange juice are subject to 
a tariff that is 43 percent lower than that charged for 
concentrated orange juice. 7 With this incentive in 
mind, other Mexican processors are now exploring 
the possibility of exporting single strength juice to 
the United States. 

Mexican processors are reportedly able to produce 
FCOJ with better color and higher sugar-acid ratios 
than Brazilian concentrate. This makes the Mexican 
product potentially valuable for blending with lower 
quality juice from other origins. Because of their 

"This category includes all citrus juices except lime juice. 

7 Tariff is 35 cents per single strength equivalent gallon for 
concentrate juices and 20 cents per gallon for single strength 
juices. 



27 



Table 19.-Mexico: Estimated Supply and Distribution of Frozen Concentrate Orange Juice (FCOJ), 1970/71-1979/80 

(Metric Tons) 





Oranges 
Processed 
for Juice 2 


FCOJ, 65° BRIXi 


Year 


Beginning 
Stocks 


Production 3 


Domestic 
Consumption 


Exports 4 


Ending Stocks 


1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 


95,000 8,000 3,600 1,800 2,600 
90,000 2,600 7,600 3,600 6,600 
170,000 14,300 3,900 10,400 
175,000 14,700 3,700 11,000 
160,000 13,400 3,800 3,500 6,100 
140,000 6,100 11,800 4,200 8,500 5,200 
280,000 5,200 23,500 4,800 23,900 
210,000 17,600 4,700 12,900 
250,000 21,000 5,500 9,800 5,700 
220,000 5,700 18,500 6,200 s 8,000 10,000 



One metric ton of 65° brix concentrate = 200.84 gallons of 65° brix concentrate or 331.6 gallons of 43.4° brix concentrate. 
2 In some years includes 5,000-10,000 tons of tangerines. 3 Assumes 1 ton of oranges will yield 84 kg of 65° brix FCOJ or one 
90 lb box of oranges will yield 1.14 gallons of 43.4 brix concentrate. 4 Calendar year data from Mexican official trade statistics. 
Calendar Year 1971 corresponds to 1970/71 marketing year. 5 USDA estimate. 

Source: USDA estimates. 



relatively small output and exports, Mexican ex- 
porters of FCOJ have little influence in determining 
world prices for their product. They must accept 
prices that have been determined in Florida and 
Brazil, and which often have no relationship to their 
costs. As a result, processors are sometimes hesitant 
to sell when world prices are low, prefering instead 
to hold on to stocks in the hope that prices will im- 
prove. 

Citrus juices are not subject to an export tax, but 
shippers must obtain export licenses. There are no 
other Government incentives for exports. Mexican 
exports of FCOJ, shown in table 20, vary widely 
from year to year. Since 1972 they ranged from 
3,500 to 24,000 tons. The principal market is the 
United States, which has taken, on the average, about 
40 percent of Mexican exports. 

U.S. imports from Mexico were 1,559 metric tons of 
65° brix concentrate (517,000 43.4° brix gallons) in 
calendar year 1980, down substantially from the peak 
imports of 9,901 tons in 1977 (table 21). The rela- 
tively high imports in 1977 were in response to the 
damage done to the Florida orange crop by a freeze 
in January of that year. Mexico accounted for only 



2 percent of U.S. concentrated orange juice imports 
in 1980. The January, 1981 freeze in Florida is likely, 
however, to cause another spurt in U.S. imports of 
Mexican FCOJ. Given recent increases in Brazil's 
productive capacity, Mexico is unlikely to duplicate 
import shares as high as the 28 and 29 percent levels 
achieved in the mid-1 970's. 

Domestic Market for FCOJ: The Mexican domestic 
market now absorbs about 25 to 30 percent of the 
country's output of FCOJ. No recent data are avail- 
able, but trade sources believe domestic sales have 
been growing. Processors are interested in developing 
this market and in directing a larger share of their 
output toward it because of its stability relative to 
the export trade. Growth is limited, however, by con- 
sumer preference for freshly squeezed juice, high 
prices for processed products, and the low incomes of 
most Mexican consumers. 

The most important consumer products sold in the 
internal Mexican market are chilled orange drinks and 
chilled single strength orange juice sold in paper car- 
tons. Most of these products are distributed by dairies 
who purchase the bulk product from the processors, 
reconstitute it, and package it. In terms of single 



28 



strength juice equivalent, the approximate market 
share held by each product in 1977 or 1978 was: 



Chilled orange drinks in paper cartons 
Chilled single strength orange juice in 

paper cartons 
Orange juice concentrate in paper cartons 
Canned single strength orange juice 
Bottled single strength orange juice 
Soft drink bases 



Percent 
40 

38 

4 
11 

5 

2 



Source: Calculated from: Edgar E. Mora Blancas, 
"La Fruiticultura Mexicana," in Manuel de Castillo 



Trulin, ed., Memoria del Seminario de Gtricultura, 
Banco de Mexico-FIRA, Mexico, DF, 1979. 

Mexican law requires orange juice to be at least 1 2° 
brix, and orange drinks must contain at least 40 
percent juice to escape the soft drink excise tax. Soft 
drink prices are subject to Government controls, but 
orange drink and orange juice prices are not. 

Frozen Concentrate Grapefruit Juice: Estimated 
Mexican production of FCGJ more than doubled be- 
tween 1977/78 and 1978/79. The growth is mainly 
attributable to good export demand for the product, 
but growing domestic consumption and bigger grape- 
fruit crops were also important factors. 



Table 20,-Mexico: Exports of Frozen Concentrate Orange Juice (FCOJ), by Country of Destination, Calendar Years 1970-1979 

(Metric Tons of 65° Brix Concentrate ) 



Country of 
Destination 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



1978 



1979 



Australia 

Austria 

Bahamas 

Canada 

Finland 

West Germany . . 
Netherlands . . . 

Sweden 

Switzerland . . . 
United Kingdom . 
United States. . . 
Other 



Total 



688 

3 
116 



172 
566 

18 
34 

27 

23 
967 



57 
1,499 

217 

320 



4,548 
1 



37 
3,021 
1,404 

11 

514 



939 

904 
1,226 



322 
873 



5,390 6,779 



1,392 
142 

1,020 
95 



384 



507 
1 



2,621 

501 
1,489 

116 

1,500 

513 

1,721 



761 

2,058 

5,797 

270 

635 

4,432 

2,415 

7,450 

127 



2,719 
2,490 



537 

1,762 

5,231 

151 



383 

174 

2,472 



6,728 
64 



808 



1,807 6,642 10,377 11,043 3.541 8,461 23,945 12,890 9,821 



—Denotes zero or less than 500 kg. 

1 One metric ton = 200.84 gallons of 65° brix concentrate or 331.6 gallons of 43.4 brix concentrate. 

Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 



Table 21. -United States: Imports of Concentrated Orange Juice from Mexico 
Calendar Years 1970-1980 



Year 


65° Brix 


o 
43.4 Brix Equivalent 


Mexico's Share 

of Total 

U.S. Imports 


1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 


Metric Tons 
108 

854 

4,111 

4.254 


1,000 Gallons 
36 

283 

1,363 

i 4in 


Percent 
10 

6 

15 


1974 


3,705 1 7/JQ 7R 


1975 

1976 

1978 

1980 


2,380 
1,058 
9,901 
7,079 
5,296 
1,559 


789 

351 

3,283 

2,348 

1,756 

517 


10 

5 
29 

7 
5 

2 



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 

29 



FCGJ for export is usually shipped in 55 gallon 
drums of 58 brix concentrate. Exports in recent 
years have been as follows (in metric tons): 



Destination 



1976 



1977 



1978 



1979 



United States . . 





N.A. 


472 


1,665 


West Germany. . 





N.A. 





1,343 


Canada 


2 


N.A. 


113 


585 


Other 


. 162 


N.A. 


10 


198 


Total 


. 163 


N.A. 


595 


3,791 



N.A. indicates not available. 

Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 

U.S. data show calendar year 1980 imports from 
Mexico of only 1 1 5,000 gallons, single strength equiv- 
alent, of concentrated citrus juice 8 (equal to 80 or 90 
tons of 58 brix concentrate). This was a decrease 
from 770,000 gallons imported in 1979. 

Dried Citrus Pulp: Most Mexican citrus processors 
produce citrus pulp meal as a byproduct of their con- 
centrate juice operations. Annual output in recent 
years has probably been around 25,000 tons, all of 
which has been sold domestically for dairy cattle 
feed. The product is not pelletized. 

Citrus Sectioning Industry: Mexico's first citrus sec- 
tioning plant was set up in the mid-1 960's, but pro- 
duction did not reach significant proportions until 
the 1976/77 season. Growth since then has been 
rapid with production rising from about 1,000 tons 
of grapefruit sections, orange sections, and citrus 
salad in 1976/77 to about 8,300 tons in 1979/80 
(table 22). Practically all of Mexico's output of citrus 
sections and citrus salad is exported to the United 
States. 

There are now five citrus sectioning plants in Mexico: 
one in Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon; two in Linares, 
Nuevo Leon; one in Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas; and 
one in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas which is a border 
town opposite Laredo, Texas. There are currently 
plans to construct at least three more sectioning 
plants— one in General Teran, Neuvo Leon and two in 
Veracruz. As of early 1 98 1 , construction had begun 
on at least one of these new facilities. 

Citrus sectioning plants generally use cull fruit from 
fresh citrus packinghouses for their raw material. Sec- 
tioning in all plants is done by hand. The finished 
product is shipped in one gallon glass jars as well as in 
30- and 45-lb containers. In addition to the usual 
grapefruit and orange sections, citrus salad shipments 
usually contain about 1 5 percent pineapple. 



U.S. imports of citrus sections and citrus salad from 
all origins were about 13,000 tons in 1979/80 9 , and 
accounted for about 43 percent of U.S. availability 10 
of these products. Mexico supplied about 64 percent 
of imports in 1979/80. By product, the Mexican 
share of U.S. imports was 51 percent for grapefruit 
sections, 62 percent for orange sections, and over 90 
percent for citrus salad. Israel supplied most of the 
remaining U.S. imports, although a small amount, 
around 4 percent of the total, originated in other 
countries, mainly Ecuador, Spain, South Africa, and 
Brazil. 

Mexican Lime Processing 

In recent years, around 45 percent of Mexican (key) 
lime production has been processed. The most im- 
portant product is essential oil of lime, but in recent 
years increasing amounts of byproducts have been 
produced. Mexico is the world's largest producer and 
exporter of lime oil. The production and processing 
data in table 23 are estimates. There is no published 
information on lime oil production and carryover 
stocks. 

There are between 50 and 60 lime oil producing 
facilities in Mexico. A little over one-half of these 
are in the State of Colima, mostly in the city of 
Tecoman. Most of the remainder are in the Apatzingan 
area of Michoacan, but there are also distilleries in 
the States of Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Tamau- 
lipas. The processing season runs from March to 
November, when lime supplies are the heaviest. 

Most lime oil producing plants are small, quite un- 
elaborate distilleries, which are usually associated 
with fresh packing operations. Most either have no 
equipment for recovering byproducts, or recover only 
a low quality lime juice. In recent years, however, a 
few modern lime oil extraction facilities have been 
constructed. In addition to essential oil, these facili- 
ties produce a good quality juice, plus dried pulp and 
peel for cattle feed, and, in a couple of instances, 
pectin. Many lime oil distilleries are owned by large 
growers who produce their own fruit for processing 
and may, or may not, buy additional fruit from 
independent growers. A few processing plants, es- 
pecially ones that work with ejido growers, are owned 
by Government agencies. 

Mexico exports about 90 percent of its lime oil pro- 
duction, and the United States is the destination for 



Category includes all except lime and orange juice. In the 
case of Mexico, it is practically all grapefruit juice. 



'Grapefruit sections, 5,700 tons; orange sections, 4,500 tons; 
and citrus salad, about 2,800 tons (the estimated weight of 
pineapples is deducted from the citrus salad figure). 
10 Availability is production (based on the assumption that 
Florida accounts for 90 percent of the total), less exports, 
plus imports. 



30 



Table 22,-Mexico: Estimated Production of Citrus Sections, 1976/77-1979/80 

(Metric Tons) 





Fruit Utilized 1 


Sections Produced 


Year 


Grapefruit 


Oranges 


Total 


Grapefruit 
Sections 


Orange 
Sections 


Citrus 
Salad 3 


Total 


1976/77. . 
1977/78. . 
1978/79.. 
1979/80. . 


2,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 

9,000 8,000 17,000 4 1,300 4 1,700 2,800 5,800 

15,000 9,000 24,000 3,100 2,000 3,000 8,100 

14,000 11,000 25,000 2,900 2,800 2,600 8,300 



Rounded to the nearest 1,000 metric tons. The weight of fruit utilized is approximately three times the weight of the sections 
produced. 2 U.S. imports according to the Census Bureau, rounded to the nearest 100 metric tons. 3 Eighty percent of U.S. im- 
ports of mixed fruit, prepared and preserved. Most of the remaining fruit in this category consists of pineapples. It is assumed that 
citrus salad consists of two parts grapefruit sections and one part orange sections. 4 Partially estimated. 

Source: USDA estimates. 



Table 23. -Mexico: Estimated Production and Processing of 
Mexican Limes, and Production of Lime Oil, 1970/71- 
1979/80 

(Metric Tons) 



Year 


Mexican Limes 


Lime Oil 


Production 


Processed 


Production 1 


1970/71. . . 
1971/72. . . 
1972/73. . . 
1973/74. . . 
1974/75. . . 
1975/76. . . 
1976/77. . . 
1977/78. . . 
1978/79. . . 
1979/80. . . 


330,000 80,000 288 
310,000 70,000 252 
270,000 90,000 324 
270,000 100,000 360 
300,000 120,000 432 
300,000 110,000 396 
320,000 90,000 324 
361,000 170,000 612 
. 415,000 180,000 648 
430,000 200,000 720 



3.6 kilograms of lime oil per metric ton of limes. 

Source: Mexican lime production data for 1975/76, 
1977/78, and 1978/79 are Fidecomiso de Limon (Fidelim) 
estimates. Other years are USDA estimates. Lime processing 
and lime oil production estimates were developed around the 
following assumptions: 1 metric ton of times yields 3.6 kg of 
essential oil, 90 percent of the lime oil produced is exported, 
90 percent of exports are destined to the United States, and 
that Mexican exports and U.S. imports for calendar 1970 
correspond to the 1970/71 marketing year, 1971 corresponds 
to the 1971/72 marketing year, and so on. 



80 to 95 percent of exports (tables 24 and 25). The 
United Kingdom is the only other major market. Ex- 
port shipments are heaviest during May to December. 

Lime juice exports (table 26) are small, but have in- 
creased in recent years as a few modern processors 
have come into production. The United States and 
Canada have displaced the United Kingdom as the 
main export market for lime juice. 

Lime oil exports are channelled through two export 
pools. The oldest and largest is the National Union 
of Lime Oil Producers-UNPAL, which was founded 
in 1943 when Mexico began exporting large quan- 
tities of lime oil. UNPAL, which includes 48 or 50 
distilleries, accounted for 60 percent of Mexico's 
lime oil exports in 1978. The other pool is operated 
by the Federal Government's Citrus and Tropical 
Fruit Trust Fund (formerly the Lime Trust Fund or 
Fidehm) and handles exports for five or six distill- 
eries. In 1979, two of the distilleries represented by 
the Trust Fund pool were privately owned, and the 
remainder were Government owned. This pool, which 
began operations in 1974, handled 40 percent of 
Mexico's lime oil exports in 1978. 



31 



Table 24.-Mexico: Exports of Lime Oil, 1970- 1979 

(Metric Tons) 



Yeai 


Country of Destination 




United States 


United Kingdom 


Others 


Total 


1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

1979 


172 8 14 194 
289 6 15 310 
204 32 20 256 
262 60 19 341 
357 63 20 440 
324 15 7 346 
274 42 14 330 
474 70 38 582 
574 130 22 726 
538 187 23 748 



Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 



Table 25. -United States: 



Imports of Lime Oil from Mexico, 
1970-80 





Imports from Mexico 


Year 


Metric Tons 


Percent of Total 
Lime Oil Imports 


1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

1979 

1980 


222 59 
215 65 
279 65 

281 63 
342 65 

282 66 
235 54 
429 68 
473 64 
515 63 
377 59 



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 

Table 26.-Mexico: Exports of Lime Juice, 1970-1979 1 

(Metric Tons) 









Country of Destination 


Year 


United 
States 


Canada 


United 
Kingdom 


Belgium 


West 
Germany 


Japan 


Swit- 
zerland 


Others 


Total 


1970 . . . 


79 











47 


20 








146 


1971 . 






65 


1 


133 








34 





63 


296 


1972 . 






271 





154 








13 





17 


455 


1973 . 






6 


10 


358 








67 





90 


531 


1974 . 






169 





1,056 














1 


1,226 


1975 . 






146 


33 


1,063 





23 





5 





1,270 


1976 . 






169 





748 


13 


32 


9 


4 


52 


1,027 


1977 . 






1,038 


58 


559 


12 


5 


11 


10 





1,693 


1978 . 






1,398 


1,045 


198 


159 


93 


14 


12 


75 


2,994 


1979 . 






1,628 


627 


NA 


145 


NA 


NA 


NA 


114 


2,514 



NA indicates not available. 

Probably includes both single strength and concentrated juice. 
Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 



32 



U.S. EXPORTS OF CITRUS PRODUCTS TO MEXICO 



The United States exports around $1 million to $2 
million worth of fresh citrus and citrus products to 
Mexico each year (table 27). These exports, with the 
exception of essential oils, are destined for border 
areas and do not go into the interior of Mexico. 

U.S. fresh citrus exports to Mexico were valued at 
$927,000 in 1980. Shipments for a 10-year period are 



shown in table 28. In 1978 exports of citrus juices 
expanded to $717,000, up from only $127,000 the 
previous year. Most of the increase was FCOJ in bulk 
containers, but shipments of other concentrated 
juices also grew. In more recent years, exports of 
nonconcentrated orange juice have grown rapidly. 



Table 27. -United States: Exports of Citrus and Citrus Products to Mexico, 1975-1980 

($1,000) 



Commodity 



1975 



1976 



1977 



1978 



1979 



1980 



FRESH CITRUS 

Tangerines 

Temple oranges 

Other oranges 

Limes 

Lemons 

Grapefruit 

Other citrus 

PROCESSED CITRUS 

Grapefruit, prep, or pres. . . 
Other citrus, prep, or pres. . . 

Orange juice, cone, froz. . . 

Orange juice, cone 

Orange juice, not cone. .... 
Grapefruit juice, cone, froz. 

Grapefruit juice, cone 

Grapefruit juice, not cone . . 
Other citrus juice, cone., froz. 
Other citrus juice, cone. . . . 
Other citrus juice, not cone. . 

Orange oil 

Lemon oil 

Total citrus and products 



6 


4 


1 


(») 


(') 


( x ) 


I 94 


1 105 


1 100 


54 


82 


76 


112 


190 


114 


18 


26 


104 


15 


81 


17 




















19 


4 


11 


8 


2 


1 


153 


194 


69 


1 


1 





8 


7 


7 


39 


19 


34 




















1 


3 


5 


3 


14 


3 


3 


9 


9 



535 



741 



3 
22 
39 
26 

115 
17 

148 



6 
10 

393 
39 
97 
70 
24 
37 
49 

8 

46 
33 



551 



1,182 



11 
1 

22 

50 

114 

9 

18 



1 
2 

204 
13 

234 

162 
12 
55 

148 

4 

15 

57 

232 



1,364 



237 
33 
88 
42 

116 
20 

391 




6 

261 
37 

302 

163 
12 
67 

105 
15 
30 

145 
89 



2,159 



Temples included with other oranges. 
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



33 



Table 28.-United States: Exports of Fresh Citrus to Mexico, 1970/71-1979/80 

(Metric Tons) 



Season 


2 

Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Lemons 


1970/71 

1971/72 

1972/73 

1973/74 

1974/75 

1975/76 

1976/77 

1977/78 

1978/79 

1979/80 


172 54 1,951 

66 57 303 814 

71 28 95 161 

46 23 41 615 

287 23 105 658 

831 8 174 1,061 

579 10 220 638 

275 1 148 668 

90 28 45 530 

335 670 47 404 



Season for oranges and tangerines begins in Nov.; season for grapefruit begins in Sept.; season for 
lemons begins in Aug. 2 Includes temple oranges. 3 Includes tangelos. 

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



34 



APPENDIX TABLES 

Appendix Table 1. -United States: Imports of Citrus and Citrus Products from Mexico 1978-1980 

($1,000) 



Commodity 



1978 



1979 



1980 



FRESH CITRUS 

Oranges . . . . , 

Tangerines 

Limes 

Lemons 

Grapefruit 

Other citrus 

Total fresh citrus 

PROCESSED CITRUS PRODUCTS 

Oranges, prep, or pres. 

Grapefruit, prep, or pres 

Fruit mixtures, prep, or pres 

Orange juice, cone 

Lime juice, cone 

Lime juice, not cone 

Other citrus juices, cone 

Other citrus juices, not cone 

Orange oil 

Lime oil 

Grapefruit oil 

Other citrus oils 

Total processed citrus 

Total, citrus and citrus products 



2,272 


4,926 


5,776 


3,818 


3,035 


4,225 


6 


5 


325 


1,001 





1 



11,414 



23,603 



35,017 



13,796 



1,207 


1,438 


974 


1,438 


2,278 


2,307 


8,826 


6,041 


594 


969 


159 


12 


73 


580 


16 


43 


_ 





9,476 


14,692 











51 



27,571 



41,367 



1,806 
3,559 
4,669 


1,137 





11,171 



1,412 

1,495 

918 

1,506 

351 

17 

133 

1,090 



11,911 

8 





18,841 



30,312 



-Indicates less than $500. 

Contains relatively small amount, maybe 20 percent, of noncitrus fruit. 
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



Appendix Table 2. -Mexico: Estimated Production of Citrus Fruit, 1960/6 1-1969/70 1 

(1,000 Metric Tons) 



Year 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


2 

Limes 


Total Citrus 


1960/61 

1961/62 

1962/63 

1963/64 

1964/65 

1965/66 

1966/67 

1967/68 

1968/69 

1969/70 


730 70 15 150 965 
560 40 15 150 765 
470 60 15 170 715 
540 50 15 180 785 
650 70 20 180 920 
720 60 20 220 1,020 
770 100 30 250 1,150 
880 80 30 280 1,270 
1,000 120 45 280 1,445 
1,150 100 40 300 1,590 



Rough approximations. 
Source: USDA estimates. 



Mexican limes only. Production of Persian limes was insignificant during this period. 



35 



Appendix Table 3.-Mexico: Exports of Citrus and Citrus Products, 1960-69 
(Metric Tons) 





Fresh Citrus 


Citrus Products 


Year 


Oranges 


Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 


F S 0J 

65 Brix 


Lime Oil 


1960 


23,737 






824 


2,616 65 


1961 


30,579 


- 


- 


1,311 


3,207 128 


1962 


10,015 


- 


1 152 


866 


2,264 265 


1963 


42,267 


4,498 


677 


2,195 


2,619 255 


1964 


59,420 


11,825 


1,543 


1,811 


4,305 85 


1965 


79,093 


8,101 


118 


1,050 


775 289 


1966 


25,633 


5,989 


93 


661 


465 279 


1967 


29,781 


15,651 


52 


368 


177 399 


1968 


62,060 


20,594 


984 


294 


797 367 


1969 


32,596 


19,759 


1,291 


254 


282 150 



-Indicates zero or not available. 

1 June-December only. 

Source: Official trade statistics of Mexico. 

Appendix Table 4. -United States: Imports of Citrus and Citrus Products from Mexico, 1960-1969 

(Metric Tons) 





Fresh Citrus 


Citrus Products 


Year 


Oranges and 
Tangerines 


Grapefruit 


Limes 


FCOJ 65° Brix 


Lime Oil 


1960 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 


9,805 2,081 1,354 80 
8,512 2,660 1,440 167 
12,566 433 1,985 798 246 
51,233 62 2,218 1,155 246 
50,184 981 1,857 2,849 97 
31,751 40 1,549 190 259 
21,680 47 1,547 17 266 
22,844 16 1,142 348 
53,017 211 1,190 546 337 
29,285 831 1,328 126 133 



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 

Appendix Table 5. -Mexico: Area and Production of Mexican (Key) Limes by State, 1978/79 



State 


Number of Trees 


Planted 
Area 


Production 


Bearing 


Nonhealing 


Total 




I Of)0 Trpp': 




— Metric Tons 

240.374 


Colima 


2,016 804 2,820 


27671 


Michoacan 


1,236 187 1423 1 1 Q5fi 102 492 


Guerrero 

Tamaulipas 

Total 


456 

356 

131 

4,195 


27 

126 

35 

1,179 


483 
482 
166 

5,374 


5,054 

5,276 

1,174 

51,101 


35,613 

28,962 

7,749 

415,190 



1 Municipality of Coahuayana, Michoacan is included with Colima. 
Source: Fidecomismo de Limon (Fidelim). 

36 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Aleman Aleman, Eloisa. 1966. Investigation Socio- 
economica Directa de los Ejidos de San LuisPotosT. 
Mexico City. 

Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior, S.A. 1976. 
"Lemon or Lime and By-Products. " Comercio 
Exterior de Mexico, 22 (April): 159-164. 

. 1975. "Oranges, Tangerines, 

and By-Products." Comercio Exterior de Mexico, 
21 (Dec): 502-512. 

Becerra Espinosa, Gamaliel. 1976. Aprovechamiento 
Economico de los Citricos en Mexico. Mexico 
City. 

Becerra Rodriguez, Salvador, Juan Valdez Verduzco, 
and Victor Emanuel Metina U., eds. 1979. Me- 
morias del Primer Simposium sobre el Cultivo del 
Limon en el Estado de Colima. Secretaria de 
Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicas (SARH), 
Campo Agricola Experimental Tecoman. 

Burke, J. Henry. 1962. The Citrus Industry of Mexico. 
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tural Service, FAR-121, Washington. 



Calabrese, Francesco. 1976. "Agrumicoltura 
Messico." LTTALIA Agricola 13: 73-84. 



m 



Castillo Trulin, Manuel del, ed. 1979. Memoria del 
Seminario de Citricultura, Efectuada en Monter- 
rey, N.L. de 28 de Mayo al l°de Junio de 1979. 
Banco de Mexico, S. A.— FIR A, Mexico City. 

Citrograph. 1976. "Colima: Lime Capital of the 
World." Citrograph 61 (March): 151-152, 175- 
178. 

. 1975. "Mexico Looks to 

Lemons- American Style." Citrograph 60 (March): 
139-140, 152. 

Mexico, Direction General de Estadistica. 1975. V 
Censos Agricola-Ganadero y Ejidal-1970. Mexico 
City. 

Mexico, Fidecomismo de Limon (Fidelim). 1980. 
Resumen de Actualization de los Censos Limoneros 
en los Estados de Colima, Oaxaca, Michoacan, 



Guerrero, Tamaulipas y Veracruz durante 1978/ 
79. Mexico City. 

Mexico, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganadena (SAG). 
1973. El Mercado de Limon en Mexico. Mexico 
City. 

Mexico, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraul- 
icos (SARH). 1977. Econotecnia Agricola— Con- 
sumos Aparentes de Productos Agropecuarios para 
los Anos de 1925 al 1976. Mexico City. 

Mexico, Servicio Meteorologico Nacional. 1976. 
Normas Climatologicas— Periodo 1941-1970. 
Mexico City. 

Motz, Fred A., and Lester D. Mallory. 1944. The 
Fruit Industry of Mexico. U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Office of Foreign Agricultural Rela- 
tions, Washington. 

Nagy, Steven, Philip E. Shaw, and Matthew K. 
Veldhuis. 1975. Citrus Science and Technology. 
Westport, Connecticut. 

Ramirez Diaz, Juan Manuel, et al. 1980. Plan Re- 
gional de Investigation del Programa de Citricos. 
Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos (SARH), 
Campo Agricola Experimental, General Teran, 
N.L. 

Rodriguez Longoria, Omar. 1979. Inventario de 
Citricos del Estado de Nuevo Leon. Unpublished 
thesis presented to Universidad Autonoma de 
Nuevo Leon, Monterrey. 

Sanchez Colin, Salvador. 1975. "Mexican Limes: 
Some Solutions to the Problem." Citrograph 
60 (May): 255-257. 

1975. "Problems of the Lime 

Industry in Mexico." Citrograph 60 (April): 185- 
186,222. 

Smith, Richard A., and David B. Fitz. 1973. "Mex- 
ico's Changing Citrus Industry Finds a New Star 
in Grapefruit." Foreign Agriculture 11 (April 16, 
1973). 



37 



U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural 
Service. 1979. "Mexico to Expand Production and 
Exports of Citrus Fruit." Foreign Agricultural 
Circular, FCF 3-79 (November). 



U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural 
Service. 1962. "January Freeze Hurts Mexican 
Citrus." Foreign Agricultural Circular, FCF 3-62 
(April). 



. 1968. "Mexican Citrus Produc- 
tion Continues to Expand." Foreign Agricultural 
Circular, FCF 2-68 (July). 



Universidad de Nuevo Leon, Centro de Investigaciones 
Economicas. 1967. La Citricultura en el Estado de 
Nuevo Leon. Monterrey. 



1966. "Mexican Citrus Plant- 
ings Double in 5 Years." Foreign Agricultural Cir- 
cular, FCF 3-66 (May). 



Wellhausen, Edwin J. 1976. "The Agriculture of Mex- 
ico." Scientific American 235 (September): 128- 
150. 



38 



*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE! 1981-0-340-932