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THE 



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COIN COLLECTOR'S MANUAL, 



OB GKHDE TO THE NUHISMATIO STUDENT IK THE FOBMATION OF 



A CABINET OF COINS: 



OOMPBISmO 

AN HIBTOBICAL AND ORITIOAL ACCOUNT OF THE OBIOIN AND PBOOSESS 

OF COINAGE, FBOH THE EABLIEST PERIOD TO THE 

FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE; 

WITH 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE COINAQES OF MODERN EUROPE, 
MORE ESPECIALLY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Bt H. NOEL HUMPHEEYS, 

Author (rf *'The CoinB of England," "Ancient Coint and Medals," 

etc. etc. 



WITH ABOVE ONE HUNDBED AND FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS 

ON WOOD AND STEEL. 



IN TWO VOLUMES.— VOL. IL 

LONDON : 
H. G. BOHN, YOEK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1853. 



FDGCMl'SFIJM LIBRARY 









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BBAbBtrST AKD SVAlTB, PBIKTltBi, WHitKFBIABS. 



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COINS PBOM MAXIMUS TO BALBINUS. 353 



:MAIIMTJS, GOEDIANUS APEICANTTS, GOEDIANrS ATBICAIfUS 
JUmCOB, BALBINUS, PUPIENITS, AND GOBDIANTIS PIUS, 
AND PHILIP THE ABABIAN (PBOM 218 TO 249 A.B.). 

The extent of this work and the great similarity which 
pervades the coins of these emperors prevent the possibility 
of describing examples of each reign, especially as the style 
of art falls off very rapidly after Septimus, and a dry, hard 
manner of execution becomes general.* These princes all 
died untimely deaths after reigns of a few months each, 
the last two only excepted, who reigned respectively nearly 
five years. 

Of Maximiis, the son of Maximus, slain with his father, 
there are coins, though rare, of nearly every class except 
those of the Alexandrian mint. The denarii and the large 
and middle bronze are the most common, but all are rare. 

Marcus Antonius G-ordianus was a descendant of the 
ancient race of the Gracchi, and by his mother, XJlpia 
Gordiana, of the Emperor Trajan : he was proclaimed emperor 
at Carthage ; but in the contest which ensued with 
Maximinus both he and his son were slain, A.n. 238, after 
a reign of five weeks. There are coins both of himself and 
his son, with the inscription IMP. CAES. MANT. GORDIANVS 
AFB. AVQ., and it is difl&cult to distinguish one fipom the 
other, except by the style of the portraits. Those of the 
younger Gordian are extremely rare. 

Balbinus was of ancient Eoman family, being descended 
fi'om Cornelius Balbus Theophanes, a friend of Pompey 
the Great, while Pupienus was the son of a poor 
mechanic, and had raised himself to an eminent position 
entirely by his own merit. These two personages were 
elected co-emperors by the senate in opposition to 
Maximinus; but the death of Maximinus, which almost 
immediately followed, removed all opposition to the sena- 
torial choice. The Praetorian guarcl^ who considered it 
an interference with their own election of Maximinus, 
broke into the palace and murdered both emperors, in the 
year 238 a.d., after a reign of three months. 

* See Chapter on types, weights, values, &c., of the Roman coinage, p. 373. 

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358 COINS OP iEMILIAirrS, and op VALBEIANrS. 

much resemble those of his father, and are of about the 
same degree of rariiy ; of the latter, those of silver, and 
the large and middle bronze, are the most common. 

J3MILIANUS. (dECLABED EMPEBOB A.D. 254, AND ASSAS- 
SINATED THE SAME TEAE.) 

A Eoman mintage took place in honour of this ephemeral 
emperor, in each of the metals and all the sizes ; for there 
are even asscma with the S. C. But they are, together with 
the Grreek Imperial and colonial, of great rarity. 

Those of his wife Caia, or Cnea Cornelia Supera, are still 
more rare and of Eoman mintage, and restricted to silver 
and small bronze. 

VALEBIANtrS, PBOM 254 TO 263 A.D. 

Publius Licinius Yalerianus was bom in 190. He was 
unanimously appointed censor in 251, and was chosen Em- 
peror by his soldiers when marching against iEmihanus. 
Having overcome that leader, he established himself firmly 
on the throne. In 258 a.d., while repelling one of the 
repeated invasions of the Persians under Sapor, he was 
umortunately taken prisoner by that barbarian, by whom he 
was put to cruel torments, and eventually to death about 
the year 263. He was much regretted for his many fine 
qualities by all but his infamous son, Gallienus. 

The coins of Valerian are found in every form and metal, 
the most common being middle bronze and silver. The 
sefiTtertii, or large bronze, have generally common reverses of 
the usual style of the period, such as Apollo, Salus, Fides, 
Concordia, &c. ; one of the most sought by the curious in mere 
rarities is that with DEO VOLKANO, " to the lame god." 
The large bronze coin described below was probably minted 
early in 254 a.d., and refers to the attachment of the army to 
the emperor, a most important circumstance at this critical 
period of the empire, when the barbarians began to press 
the Boman armies closely on all sides, and the formidable 
Franks made their first appearance on the scene of history. 
As usual, the obverse bears a head of the sovereign, with 
.his name and title. The type of the reverse is a figure 



conrs OF the bei&k ot eALLiSNvs. 859 

of a Boman matron, standing in the middle of a field, and 
holding in each hand an ensign, &om which are suspended 
small bucklers. It has the legend FIDES * MILITVM, ''the 
fidelitj of the soldiers." 

Coins exist of this period bearing a female portrait with 
beautiful features, and the inscription, DIVAE MARINIANAB. 
She wears a veil, the type of deification. These are evidentlj 
ibe coins struck after her death, at the time of her conse- 
cration. She is supposed to have been the wife of Yaleriaii. 
The reverse is a peacock, with, CONSECRATIO. 

GALLIEITTIS, PEOM 268 TO 268 A.D. 

The degenerate son of Valerian was associated with his 
fiither in the empire on his accession, and he became sdie 
emperor in 263. On his first accession to this dignity he 
guiied several important victories over the Qoths, Alemanni, 
Franks, and Burgundians, but soon after showed himself 
unequal to the difficult task of repressing the increasing 
hordes of barbarians, and was assassinated in 268 a.d. 

There exist abundant examples of the profuse coinage of 
this reign, of every class. On account of the continuance of 
the fearful pestilence, aU the deities of the Pantheon were 
invoked, and an incredible quantity of denarii and assana were 
struck in honour of Jupiter, Apollo, jEsculapius, Hercules, 
Janus, <&c., &c. GaUienus abo restored the consecreUionary 
coins of Augustus, Vespasian, Titus, Nerva, Trajan, HadriaOy 
Antoninus Hus, Aurelius, Sevenis and Alexander, but they 
were struck in base metal, on hillon, as it is sometimes termed. 
A great number of different animals are found on the small 
brass series of this reign, being such as were sacred to the 
various divinities sought to be propitiated on account of the 
pestilence. 

The specimen of the large brass described below is of a 
peculiar class ; and not having the usual S 0, is supposed 
to have been struck by the independent order oi the 
emperor, on some alterations being effected in the admir 
niatration of the mint. The symbols used, a divine superin*- 
tendence of the miut, are not altogether appropriate, when 
it is considered that the debasement of the purity of the 
coinage was carried to a shameful extent in this reign. 



360 COINS OP THE THIETT TTEANTS. 

The obverse has a head of GallienuB, with his name and 
the titles iMP(erator) GALLIENVS P(ius) F(elix) AVG(ustiis). 
The reverse bears three figures, apparently deities of the 
mint, with a cornucopia, to signify that money supplies 
everything, and scales to denote that equity is required in 
money transactions. At the feet of each of these three 
figures is a lump of the respective metals, gold, silver, and 
brass. It has the inscription MONETA. AVGG(ustorum), 
" the money of the Augustus's." 

There are coins in honour of Cornelia Salonina, the wife of 
Gallienus, and also of his son, Publius Licinius Cornelius 
Saloninus Valerianus Gallienus. The inscriptions on the 
latter coins stand, p(ublius) c(omelius) S(aloninus) VALE- 
RIANVS CAES(ar). He was murdered by the revolted 
legions at Colonia Agrippina. The coins struck after his 
death have on the reverse a stately rogus, or mausoleum, 
of five stories, surmoimted by a quadriga bearing a statue 
of the deceased prince, and the usiial legend CONSECRATIO. 

With the reign of Gallienus the noble series of Boman 
sestertii, or coinage of the class termed by collectors ^^ first 
hronzey^ ceases, as does also, with few exceptions, the colo- 
nial and Greek Imperial mintage; while the Egyptian series 
struck in Alexandria continue still in hillon, or debased silver. 
Indeed, the series of Boman coins as a succession of works 
of monetary art may be said to cease with the reign of 
Gallienus, and I shall therefore treat the remainder of the 
series very briefly. Historians have already agreed to 
establish a grand division upon this epoch, the subsequent 
existence of Boman power in the "West being termed the 
lower empire. 

THE THIETT TTEANTS. 

Between the great dramas of the upper and lower empire^ 
a pausing plaice or interregnum is formed by a period of con- 
fusion immediately preceding and followmg the death of 
Gallienus. Almost every leader of a provincial army de- 
clared himself independent, and exercising supreme power in 
his own province, aimed at extending it over the whole empire. 
These pretenders have been termed the Thirty Tyrants, 
though only nineteen can be enumerated. They may be 
classed numerically as those of whom coins are known of 



COINS OF THE LOWEB XMPIBE. 



861 



undoubted genuineness, those whose coins are doubtful, 
and those of whom no coins are known, which is the method 
Captain Smith has adopted for dismissing the subject briefly 
in his exceUent catalogue. 



Those whose Corns are 


Those whose Coins are 


Those of wham no Coins 


Genuine. 


DimbtfiU. 


exist. 


Posfcuinus 


Cyriades 


Valens 


LsRlianuB 


Ingenuus 


Balista 


Victorinus 


Celsus 


Satuminus 


Marios 


Piflo Fnigi 


Trebellianus 


Tetricua 






MacrianuB 






Quietus 






Begalianus 






Mex. /FiTnilianuR 






Aureolus 






Sulpitius Antoninus 







Among these may be classed also Odenathus, husband of 
Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, whose bravery prevented the 
Persians from subduing the whole of the £oman empire in 
the East, and who, but for his base assassination, would have 
completely humbled that barbaric power, the then most 
formidable enemy of Home. Coins of Odenathus, as well 
as Zenobia, exist, though somewhat rarei 



CHAPTEE XXV. 

THE ROMAN COINAGE. 



COINS OF THE LOWER EMPIRE, FROM THE REIGN OF CLAUDIUS 
GOTHICUS (268 a.d.) TO THE DISSOLUTION OP TEffi WESTERN EMPIRE 
UNDER ROBfULUS AUGUSTULUS (476 A.D.) ; WITH A DESCRIPTION OP 
THE MONEY CIRCULATING IN ITALY AFTER THAT EPOCH, AND A 
KETCH OF THE COINAGE OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE TILL ITS 
DISSOLUTION. 

After the period of confusion which, following the capture 
of Valerianus by Sapor King of Persia, lasted till some 
time after the death of his son Qallienus, such was the 
apparent tendency to dismemberment in all the extremities 



862 COIKS OF VKE XOWEB EMPIRE. 

of the paralysed empire, thofc its immediate fall appeared 
inevitable, when^ as though called iQto existence by the 
urgency of the occasion, a succession of such men as 
Claudius Gt)thicus, Aurelianus Tacitus and Probus ap- 
peared, who, by vast energy and talent, cemented the 
crumbling fragments, and gave such renewed vigour to the 
whole political system, that the prestige of the Eoman 
name was, for a tune, re-established on aU the wide-spread 
frontiers of the empire, which, thus invigorated, endured in 
nearly aU. its integrity for two centuries longer. Claudius 
G-otmcus first restored order, and drove back the presiunp- 
tuous and daring barbarians along the whole northern and 
western frontier ; while his successor undertook the well- 
known expedition to the East, by which the suddenly ac- 
quired power of the Queen of Palmyra was crushed, and the 
eastern frontier of the Eoman world reconquered, and m 
some respects extended. 

But the ancient glory of the coinage was never restored ; 
art never revived iu the Eoman world (unless the Byzantine 
style may be called a partial revival). The coinage under 
Claudius Gothicus, who never recovered Spain and Gaul 
from Tetricus, is not remarkable, but the money of billon, 
a mixture of tin and silver, disappeared, and was replaced by 
copper silvered over, or plated. The bronze coinage is 
connned to the second ana lesser bronze, and not remark- 
able. The best examples of the monetary art of this reign 
are medallions, which do not come within the scope of 
this work. 

In the reign of Amrelianus, the celebrated revolt of the 
workmen of the mint took place at Eome. To these 
artisans and their officers, who probably took advantage 
of the public troubles to defraud the mint, the Eoman 
empire was perhaps indebted, more than to the govern- 
ment, for the debased coin which had been put forth since 
Septimus Severus, when the standard first began to decline. 
Upon the attempt of Aurelian, who was active and 
determined in every department of reform, to remove the 
abuses of the vast establishment which had coined the 
money of the whole civilised world, the entire body of 
laoneyers, headed by Eelicissimus, one of their officers, 
took up arms to derend with their lives the abuses upon 



conrs or the loweb xmpibe. 368 

which they had thiiyen so long at the expense of their 
feilow-citizens. Their numbers must have been veiy great, 
as seven thousand soldiers are said to haye perished before 
the rebels were subdued. 

The gold coins of Aurelius are good examples of the 
hard and peculiar stjle of the period. His portrait is 
clad in the mail armour become general since the time of 
Gbdlienus. The radiated crown of the East also became 
general in the late reigns. 

Tacitus, Elorianus, Probus, Cams, Carinus, Numerianus, 
Biodesianus, and Maximianus; Ghderius, Valerius .Maxi- 
mus, Constantius Chlorus, the father of Oonstantine the 
Great, and the independent emperors of Britain, Carausius, 
and AUectus, occupy the time between the years 275 and 
305 A.D., and the comage offers no important features which 
require dwelling upon in a work of this nature. Some 
of the coins are, however, of interesting character, especially 
those of the profuse coinage of Probus for instance, on 
which he appears with his empress, one profile over the 
other, and with the three figures referring to the coinage on 
the reverse, similar to the type described on the coins of 
Ghdlienus. The varieties of type on the coins of Probus 
may be reckoned by hundreds. 

A coin of Maximianus Herculeanus, the colleague of 
Dioclesian, is remarkable as exhibiting the emperor in a Hon 
skin head-dress, after the manner of the coins of Alexander 
the Great. On the reverse of this coin the two emperors 
appear in the characters of the surnames they had assumed, 
Dioclesian as Jupiter, a^d Maximian as Hercules, with the 
inscription, MONETA JOVI ET HERCULIS AUGG, "money of 
the tfovian and Herculean Augustus's/' The second G 
denoting the plural. 

On the coins of the subordinate Caesars, appointed by 
Dioclesian, the inscriptions have a character new to the 
Boman coinage. On those of Valerius Severus, for instance, 
the title assumed is, SEVERUS NOBILIS CAESAR, (the noble 
Severus Caesar), and on the reverse VIRTUS AUGUSTOBUM 
ET CJESARUM NOSTRUM, (the virtue of our Augustus's 
and CsBsars), expressing the difference between the supreme 
power of the Augustus's, and the limited power of the 
Caesars, by the precedence given to the title '' Augustus." 



364 COINS OF THE LOWEB £MPIBE. 

The coins of Carausius, the independent Emperor of 
Britain, and his successor Allectus, are very numerous, and 
interesting to Englishmen, as virtually forming part of the 
national series, for Carausius issued his coinage quite inde- 
pendently of that of Eome. The coin engraved in Plate VII. 
is from tne fine aureus of Carausius in the British Museum. 

The coins of Constantine the Great mark a new epoch in 
the Roman coinage. A new metropolitan mint was esta- 
blished at Constantinople, and the Byzantine style of art 
began from that time to influence more or less the whole 
Eoman coinage ; besides which, the size and character of 
many of the coins were changed, as weU as their names, as will 
be found detailed at some length in the chapter on weights, 
values, &c., of the Eoman coinage. The coins of Constantine 
and his colleague for a time, Licinius, are very abundant 
in silver and gold, and common in the smaller sizes of 
bronze. After Constantine became sole emperor in 3243 A..D., 
he removed the seat of empire to Byzantium, under the new 
name of Constantinople, and from thence great numbers 
of coins were issued, as also from the mints of a number 
of western provincial cities which appear about this time, 
such as those of Treves, Lyons, and perhaps London ; for the 
usurpers had been put down in Britain, and that island 
formed again an integral portion of the great Soman Empire. 
The p. LON on coins of Constantine, found abundantly in this 
island, may probably be read p(ecunia LON(dinensis) like 
the "Pecunia Treveris" of the money minted at Treves. 

We seek in vain for Christian emblems on the coinage of 
the first Christian Emperor, who does not appear to have 
given much thought to the subject of his conversion as it is 
called, except in matters of political expediency. 

The ordinary coins of Constantine are of various types, 
and those minted at Constantinople have sometimes the 
letters CORNOB., which have puzzled numismatists from the 
time of the venerable Du Pois to the present time. One of 
the most probable interpretation appears to be CO.(onstan- 
tinopoli) R.(omae) N.(ovae) 0.(fficina) II. The B standing 
according to the Greek mode of numeration for 2. This 
inscription may be translated as, " (money) of Constanti- 
nople, New Rome, of the second department of the mint." 

Many of the copper coins of Constantine have a Roman 



COINS or THE LOW£B XMPIBE. 3G5 

soldier on the reverse, holding in one hand a trophy, and in 
the other a standard, the inscription being Victus exercitu 
Romanorum, " Conquered by the army of the Eomans." 

The common gold coin, or aureus, of Constantino, (in the 
latter period of the Empire, termed the solidus,) is a neatly- 
executed coin, and was issued with various devices. 

His copper consists of second and third bronze, corres- 
ponding about, in size and value, to our modern hal^ence and 
farthings. 

On the coinage of his son Constantius, who became 
emperor in 353, and reigned till 361, Christian emblems 
first begin to appear. The principal one being the labarum, 
or sacred banner, bearing the monogram of Christ, which is 
held in the right hand of the emperor. The inscriptions do 
not refer to the Christian symbol, but are such as, Teitjm:- 
rA.T0E Gentium babbaboetjm (The conqueror of the barba- 
rians), or GrLOEiA EoMANOBUM, (The glory of the Bomans). 
The legend respecting the labarum bearing the monogram of 
Christ, is that it was presented to Constantine on the eve of 
his great battle with Maxentius, and that by its influence he 
gained the victory which gave him the domination of the 
IU)man world. Doubtless some circumstance of the kind 
forms the real foundation of the fable which caused Con- 
stantius and the immediate successors of Constantine to 
place the banner bearing that symbol upon their coinage, as 
a token of victory ; for there is pretty good evidence that 
it was not from any deep convictions concerning Christianity. 

The successors of Constantius placed the monogram alone 
on the reverse of the middle bronze coinage, where it occu- 
pies the whole field; the angles formed by the letter x 
are being occupied by the first and last letters of the Greek 
alphabet — ^the Alpha and Omega — an allusion, perhaps, to 
the declaration oi Christ, referred to in the 22nd chapter of 
Eevelations, " I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the end, the first and the last." As in the former example, 
the inscription does not refer to the type. It exhibits, 
however, the different style of title adopted a little before 
the time of Constantius. .The inscription on the coin under 
description stands thus — SALVS • DD • NN • AVGG', for Salw 
Daminorum Nostrorimi Augustorwm, (The health of our lords, 
the Augustus's), alluding to the associated emperors, the 



366 COIKS OF THE LOWEB BMPIBE. 

plural being expressed by two terminal letters instead of 
one, as AVGG lor Augustorum, or August! ; or D • D* for 
Domini, or Dominorum. 

On the coins of Constantine, the inscription round tbe 
portrait fipequently runs thus — D • N • CONSTANTINVS • MAX, 
for Dominus Noster Oonstantinus Mcutimus. 

On another coin belonging to the period immediately 
following that of Constantine — a> third bronze — ^a Eoman 
soldier is represented in a galley, holding the sacred labarum 
in his left hand, and iu his right what appears to be a dove, 
with its head surrounded by a Nimbus, or Glory, while an 
angel steers the gaUey. The dove, however, is generally 
termed by numismatists a phoenix, and the angel a Victory. 
This type belongs to the mintage of Treves, as may be seen 
by the letters TRS in the exergue, for TR(everis), s(ignata). 
On the coins of the reign of Julian the Apostate, from 355 
to 363 A.D-, the Christian emblems of course disappear. He 
was the last of the Flavian family (that of Constantine), 
and his name and titles as they appear on the coinage, gene- 
rally run, FL(avius) CL(audius) IVLIANVS. P(ater p(atri8B) 
AVG(ustus). His coins are principally third bronze, even 
the second class having now nearly disappeared. The gold 
and silver are less deteriorated at this period. 

Duriug the reigns of Jovian, Valentinian, Valens, and 
Gratian, which occupy the period between 363 and 383 jl.h)., 
the copper money became altogether insignificant, both in 
dimension, types, and execution; but the gold and silver 
still maintained some of the characteristics of the Constantine 
period. The medallions, however, not coined for circulation, 
and therefore beyond the limits of this volume, are as good, 
or nearly so, as those of the reign of Constantine. 

A peculiarity of the inscriptions of this period is, that the 
word " Eoma " is again placed upon the coinage, which had 
disappeared since the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, and, 
in fact, since the close of the Eepublic, except in a few 
unusual instances in the reigns of the first emperors. 

In the great days of the Empire, when all provincial and 
colonial coins bore the name of their place of mintage, 
those of Eome alone had no such indication of the plaoe of 
their issue, as all without such provincial stamp were at once 
known to be issued from the great metropolis of the world. 



OOIK8 OF THE LOWEB BMFTBB. 867 

In the reign of Theodosius, sole emperor from 379 to 395 
▲.B., one naturally expects to find some renewed yigour in the 
management of tne Imperial coinage ; but such was not the 
case. His gold and silrer are much the same in execution 
as those of his immediate predecessors, while the copper is 
perhaps still more neglected. Coins in each meted are 
found of this reign, and are abundant; but they hardly 
repay the trouble of collection, certaLoly not as works of art ; 
but as historical monuments they are valuable. The coins of 
the pretender who assumed regal power ^n Britain and 
Ga.ul are not very rare, nor are the coins of the sons of 
Theodosius, Arcadius and Honorius, between whom he 
divided the empire, Arcadius taking the East, and Honorius 
the "West : they are found either in gold, silver, or small 
copper ; but all are very poor. 

The occasional division of the Empire into East and West 
had occurred as early as Dioclesian, but the permanent 
division may be said to have taken place afber the death 
of Theodosius the Great, and at that period, I must at 
present leave the Eastern emperors to follow the coinage of 
the Western empire to its close. 

Puring the weak reign of Honorius, as is well known, 
the barbarians who had been kept in check by the vigour 
and talents of Theodosius, suddenly broke into the Boman 
frontiers with renewed fury, and the hordes under Alaric 
actually captured the great capital itself, while the weak 
emperor was sheltering himself in Bavenna. But this was 
not the final blow. The enemy, after the death of Alaric, 
gave way, and a number of ephemeral emperors filled the 
Imperial throne of the West, from 425 to 476 A.n. These 
were Valentinian III., Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Ricimer, 
Anthemius, Olybrius, Julius Nepos, Qlycerius, and finally 
Augustulus Eomulus, who occupied, in rapid succession, the 
chief power in the gradually crumbling empire of the West. 

Coins in gold, silver, and copper, the latter of very 
wretched workmanship, mark the reigns of these last native 
rulers of Eome. Those of Somulus Augustulus, expelled 
by Odoacer, King of the Heruli, who was proclaimed Kmg of 
Italy, are the most rare, and are marked in catalogues ^* as 
gold, rare in the fourth degree; copper being even of the 
eighth degree of rarity," while no silver are known. The 



368 COINS or the loweb shfibe. 

conquest of Eome by Odoacer was followed by the establisb- 
ment of a Gothic kingdom in Italy, which was furmly cemented 
and ably administered by Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, who sub- 
dued Odoacer, and who, emulating the manners and refine- 
ments of the emperors of the ^at epochs of Eoman power, 
wished especially to do so in his coinage, as we learn from 
the records of his secretary, Cassiodorus, who makes 
Theodoric say, at a public distribution of money after the 
manner of the ancient liberalities, " With the assistance of 
coins you teach posterity the events of my reign." From 
this passage it might be imagined that he had caused the 
victories and conquests to be represented on his coins as on 
those of Trajan and other Eoman emperors ; but if such 
coins were issued in the reign of Theodoric, they have been 
destroyed or lost, for none have reached our time except 
wretchedly executed silver of small dimensions, and still 
more wretched copper of the smallest class. 

Theodahatus, Athalasicus, Witiges, and other barbarian 
princes, now assumed the supreme power over the whole or 
different parts of Italy, issuing small copper coins of less than 
half the size of a modem farthing, and with no device beyond 
the name of the chief, and sometimes the title of hex. 

Justinian, now firmly established in the East, determined 
to attempt the recovery of Italy, and, sendiQg an army under 
the command of Belisarius in the year 536 a.d., defeated 
"Witiges, and for a time held the whole of Italy in subjection ; 
but at the same time Gaul was acknowledged an independent 
Frankish kingdom, under Childeric, the grandson of Clovis, 
to whom similar privileges had been granted by Anastasius, 
A.D. 610, though not ratified by treaty. This acknowledgment 
of the independence of Childeric included the power to coin 
money, and all other rights and immimities of an independent 
sovereign ; while similar concessions were made to Amalric, 
the Gothic king of Spain. Britain had been given up even 
in the reign of Honorius, and the Saxons, at the tmie of 
which we are speaking, (say the end of the career of Witiges, 
640 A.D.,) were firmly established in possession of that 
island, so that the series of ancient coinages in the West 
may be said to have ceased, and those of the modem king- 
doms of Europe to have commenced about that time; or 
probably, the accurate time to commence the modem series is 



COINS or THE EASTESK EMFIBE. 369 

the year 537 a.d., when the independence formerlj conceded 
to Clovis, was finally acknowledged by treaty in the reign 
of Childeric, his grandson, with the privilege to coin money 
as before stated. 

The coins of the Gothic princes of Italy are frequently 
found with the head of Justinian on one side and the name 
and title of the Grothic king by whom they were issued, on 
the reverse, as on those of Witiges and others. On those of 
"Witiges the name and title stand D. N. WITIGES REX, within 
a small wreath of foliage. This, with the suppression of the 
late Eoman form, the D. N. " Dominus Nosttr," became the 
simple style of the names and titles on all the coinages of 
the early kings of the different countries of modem Europe. 

There are gold coins of the late Eoman emperors of the 
West, even to Eomulus Augustus ; but of the Gothic kings 
only silver and copper are known, of which a list wiU be 
found in the Appendix, as well as of those of the Vandal 
princes, who conquered the Eoman possessions in Africa* 



COINS OJ" THE EMPEROES OE THE EAST, EEOM THE SEPA- 
BATION or THE EASTEEN AND WESTERN EMPIRES TO 
THE TIME OF THE TAKING OF CONSTANTINOPLE IN 
1453 BY MAHOMET II. 

The coinage of the eastern empire after the death of 
Justinian, and commencing with the reign of Justin II. in 
565 A.I)., may be said to belong, strictly speaking, to modem 
history, as it extends to the recent date of 1453, when this 
last portion of the Eoman world, or rather its capital, which 
had for some time been nearly all that remained of the 
Eastern empire, fell before the furious onslaught of the 
Turkish conqueror, Mahomed II. ; but as the Byzantine 
coins are of a distinct class from those of the kingdoms of 
modem Europe, and closely allied to those of the lower 
Eoman empire of the West, it appears better to allude to 
them here, before proceeding strictly to the modem portion 
of the subject. 

The series of Greco-Eoman emperors, from Anastasius^ 
518 A. D., to Gonstantine Faleologus, 1453, are only 
interrupted by the Erench emperors as they are termed, 
who held the city from 1205 to 1261 a.d., who occupied 

BB 



370 COINS or the eabtebk bmhke. 

but little more of the territoiy that then remained to 
the Greco-Boman empire, than the city of Constantinople 
and its immediate dependencies. These usurpcrB, Baldwin. 
and hia Huccesaora, had reduced ConBtautinople by meana 
of the crusading armieB of lEjurope ; but Michael VIII., 
Faleologus, who, with several predecessors, had made !N^icea, 
in Bithynia, the seat of govermnent during the French occu- 
pation of Constantinople, and coined money there, having 
re-conquered Constantiaople, again established the seat of 
government in tbe ancient capital, uid the coinage of the 
remaining empwors was minted there. 

The monetary system of the Boman empire in the East 
appears to have undergone a thorough reform in the reign 
of Anastaflius, and it is consequently with that emperor that 
De SaultT commences his study of the Byzantine series. 
Indeed, that period, when the Weston empire was extin- 
guished, while the Eastern portion still to a great extent 
remained intact, appears the proper one to commence the 
Eastern series of Boman coins as a separate series. 

The gold money of Anastasius is the solidua and the 
triens, or third of the solidus; which, in the countries of the 



Ooin of Anastashu X- 

"W^est, became known ta Bezants or (Byzantiums). They 
formed the model of the gold triena of the Merovingian 
princes of France, the only sovereigna of the new barbaric 
kingdoms, with the exception of the Gothic princca of Spain, 
who issued gold money at that early period. 

The copper also was reformed in the reign of Anastaaiua, 
and an attempt made to issue a large coinage similar to the 



COTSfS OF THS SASTXBN EMFIBE. 371 

old Eoman sestertius, as will be seen hj the annexed 
engraving of a copper coin of this reign. 

This copper coinage is considered to be a re-issue of the 
foUis* increased in size. The large M, the monetary index 
pkced beneath the cross, is thought by some to be the Greek 
numeral 40, expressing the value of the piece as that of forty 
noumia ; the CON" is the abbreviation of Constantinople, and 
the other types are moneyer's marks. Money continued to 
be struck in several Greek cities in the reign of Phocas, such 
as Carthage, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, &c., but the workmanship 
is very barbarous. On the copper, the large M of the 
coinage of Anastasius and his immediate successors, disap- 
pears in the reign of Phocas, and is replaced by the Italic 
numerals XXXX* On the obverse of these coins the emperor 
holds a purse or scroll, and a cross. 

The name and titles of the emperor are, at this period, 
still in Eoman letters, and in succeeding reigns the l^ge M 
reappears on the copper, and the letters expressing the place 
of mintage are also generally Greek, except those of the 
Imperial mint at Constantinople. The gold solidus and 
triens continue the best coins of the Eastern empire. * 

Eventually the Latin inscriptions become partially Greek 
and the titles also are Grecianised, as on the coins of Leo 
the Wise, on which the legend stands, LEOn EnX« EVSEbES 
bASILEVS ROmAIa)n; on some LEOn En eEO bASILEVS 
ROmEfflN; and on others, • IhSVS XRISTV nICA, with the 
head of Christ. 

On the reverse of one gold coin of this reign, 886 to 911, 
the head of the Virgin Mary appears, with MARLA., and 
M-R.— ©u, which appears to be a strange jumble of Latin and 
G^reek, both in letters and language, and seems to be in- 
tended for M(ate)R. e(ij)t;. * 

The emperor Andronicus, a son of Michael Paleologus, 
changed the type of the Byzantine gold, making the reverse 
represent a plan of Constantinople with its fortifications. In 
the centre of which a figure of the Virgin Mary is generally 
found. 

On the obverse the emperor is seen kneeling to St. Michael. 
The titles of Basileus — ^autocrator, or despotos — ^were, to- 
wards the close of the series, generally assumed instead of 

* See next Chapter. 

bb2 



iiJZ CDIKS OF TEX EASTEBTT EUFIHE. 

Csesar or Augustus ; and the coins engraved below will con- 
vey a good general idea of the style of types, and the treat- 
ment of the head of Christ, a irequent type on those coins. 

The later inscriptions on this series of coins are in a strange 
jumble of Greek and Latin characters and terms, being 
sometimes all Greek. 



The last two emperors died bravely, as became the last 
representatives of the great BoKLan empire, defending the 
walls of Constantinople, and the last one has left coins ; but 
the last of his line, Constantino Faleologus, foreseeing his 
inevitable doom, refused to eiercise the privileges of sove- 
reignty, ercept in dying as became an emperor, resisting to 
the death his relentless enemy. 



Copper toln of CoMliuiUmi XL 

A coin of Mahomet II., struck after the taking of Con- 
stantinople, appropriately closes the series of the Imperial 
coinage of the Eastern dominions of Bome. 

The inscription — a strange mixture of Turkish and Greek, 
as those of tne later Greek sovereigns had been of Greet 
and Latin, both in the letters aud the luigut^e— stands, 
OH MHAiKic IIACHC FRMAC KAi ANATOAAEc : (the sovereign 



WEIGHTS, YALITES, ETC., OIT BOMiJr COIKS. 873 

of all Greece and Anatolia, Mahomet). The coin is counter- 
marked in Arabic characters. 

A list of the Eastern emperors who coined money, with 
the comparative rarity of the coins, will be found in the 
Appendix. 



CHAPTEE XXVI. 



ON THE WEIGHTS, METALS, VALUES* TYPES, INSCBIFnONS, ETC., 

OF THE BOMAN COINAGE. 

THE irEIOHTa, TALVXS, AKD DEKOMIXATIONS OF BOXAN XFTALS, 

COPPXft OK BSOXZI. 

I HAVE endeavoured to trace, in my article on first Eoman 
copper money, its origin, devices, &c. ; it remains, therefore, 
in this place, only to sum up, in few words, the principal 
points connected with the adoption of copper as the standard 
of the Soman coinage. It appears from many detached 
passages of ancient authors, that the early people of Italy 
(the Bomans among the number) had, like other races in a 
primitive or barbarous state, used pieces of wood, leather, or 
shells, as a sort of money. We find the next step to be the 
adoption of pieces of metal passed by weight, and with the 
Eomans this metal appears to have been copper* which 
must have been abundant in Italy and Sicily, as its export 
from those countries is even mentioned by Homer, while 
copper mines exist at the present day in the neighbourhood of 
Mount jEtna, which till very lately were still worked. Some 
confusion exists with respect to the Eoman copper coinage, 
in regard to values, sizes, weights, &c., &c., partly in con- 
sequence of the undefined terms, trci88, copper, and hronze. 
What the ancients called orichalcum, was similar to the 
mixed metal now termed bronze. Ms, the term from which 
the name of the first Eoman coin was derived, was given to 
the mixed metal of which these coins were formed. The 
modem Italian term, ottone, rame, the French airain, and 
the English brass, have been long used to express this metal, 
but are all incorrect, brass being composed of copper and 

* Not, as among the Greeks, silver. 



374 "WEiaHTS, YiLLITES, BTO., OF BOMAIT COTlTa. 

tin. As no tin is contained in the Eoman ^s, bronze is 
now the term generaUy given b^ numismatists to this metal, 
brass bedng incorrect, as applied to it; and as regards 
Eoman coins, Dr. "W. Smith formally recommends the term 
hronze, instead of brass, in order to prevent confusion.* 

The ancients were acquainted with several distinct mixtures 
or bronzes ; there were the jEs Corinthiacum, the .^s 
Delicum, the ^s ^giniticum, the JEs Hepotizon, and many 
others. Most of these were considered by the ancients, as 
appears from Procopius, much more valuable than the red or 
Cyprian copper (iEs Cyprium), and he goes so far as to say, 
speaking of a statue of Justinian, that " bronze, inferior in 
colour to gold, is almost equal in value to silver." But this 
is strangely at variance with the fact, that four sestertii, 
which are, nearly always of the yeUow copper, and weighing 
each one ounce and a half, were only equal to a silver 
denarius weighing fifty-eight grains. It is, however, main- 
tained by modem authorities upon the subject, that yellow 
copper (which with the Romans was a natural product), 
being a rare and singular combination of copper with Lapis 
calaminaris, was of twice the value of the red copper ; and 
hence they infer that the yellow and red copper coinages 
were kept as separate as those of gold and silver ; and it is 
stated that pieces of the same size, the assarius, or third 
copper, for instance, which was always coined in red copper, 
are — if in yellow copper, or brass as it is commonly termed 
— ^not assaria but dupondii,f in other words, of double the 
value of the red copper pieces. It is stated, also, that they 
are of finer workmanship than the red copper assarius, and 
thus it would appear that the sertertius, or quarter denarius, 

* Xt is still, boweyer, the castom of many numismatists to term this metal 
bcasB, and term the sestertius first brass, &c. &c., but recent investigations 
appear to show that the term bronze is more appropriate. 

i* The best authority upon this point, except the monuments themselves, 
is the passage of Pliny, in which he says, ** The greatest glory of bronze is 
now due to the Marian, also called that of Cordova : this, after the Livinian, 
most absorbs the lapis calaminaris, smd intimates the goodness of native 
orichalcum in our sestertii and dupondiif the ases being contented with 
their own Cyprian copper.** The Livian mine here mentioned is thought to 
have received its name from livia, the wife of Augustus, and those of her coins 
of the beautiful yellow bronze are probably of that mine. The Cordova mines 
were early worked by the Romans. 



WEIGHTS, TiXUBS, XTC, OF BOMAN OOINS. 275 

aad the half sertertins, or dupondius, and the assarius, or As, 
which are technically termed the first, second, and third 
brass, must receive their names, not by their si^e, but bj 
their metal. The imperial As, or assarius (the third bronze), 
is said to have been inyariably made of red copper till GtiUienus, 
after which it was made of the jellow copper. At which time 
it weighed only one-eighth of an ounce. 

The first step of the Bomans towards a coinage appears to 
have been the adoption of the libra, or pound, as the standard 
weight of their copper pieces ; which pound appears, according 
to Mr. Hussey, to have corresponded to about eleven ounces 
and three-quarters avoidupois.* A piece of copper adjusted to 
this weight was called an ^S or AS, a term which afterwards 
was used either to express the coin, a pound weight, or the 
material, bronze. It appears also that 2k foot measure received 
the same name, holding the same standard relation to other 
measures, as the pound did to other weights. The first 
pieces, which were no doubt square, were without impress, 
and it is recorded that Servius Tullius first added the impress 
of an ox, sheep, or swine.f Square pieces, bearing such 
types, but still passing by weight, were in use till about the 
tune when the Bomans, after the conquest of the Greek 
cities of the south of Italy, copied the style of their coinage, 
giving to their unwieldy copper ingots the circular form of 
Greek coins, and at which period the types were changed, 
and the As was divided into the following parts : — 

1st. The As or unit, which was distinguised by the head 
of Janus on the obverse, and on the reverse by the prow of 
a ship, and the mark L or I, for one pound. 

2nd. The Semis (half the As), with the head of Jupiter, 
and the mark S, for Sends, half. 

3rd. The Triens (one-third of the As), with the head of 
Minerva, and four globules, to mark the number of ounces. 

* It seems probable that both the name of the weight, and the uncial 
coinage, maj have been derived from Sicily. The Roman libra, and the 
Sicilian litn^ having many points of analogy : and there are early copper 
pieces of Syracuse, bearing a head of Minerva, that have a strong resemblance 
to this class of money, on which the Sicilians, as well as the Romans, used 
<dots to mark the weight ; and the Sicilian names, trizas, dizas, &c., further 
tni^rt the analogy, the trixas of Sicily corresponding to the terundus of the 
RomanB. t See page 255. 



376 THE SESTBETIUS, OB FIEST BRONZE. 

4th. The Quadrans (one-fourth of the As), with the head 
of Hercules, and three globules, for three ounces. 

5th. The Sextans (one-sixth of the As), with the head ot 
Mercury", with two globules for two ounces. 

6th. The Uncia (one-twelfth), with the head of Minerva, 
or Eome, and one globule, for one ounce. 

There was also the Semuncia, or half-ounce. 

All these pieces have the national device, of the prow of a 
ship, for reverse. Some of the obverses have the marks of 
quantity as well as the reverses, but not always, as the club 
sometimes occupies their place under the head of Hercules 
on the quadrans. When the As was reduced in weighty 
pieces were struck called dussis, or dupondius, tressis, qua- 
drussis, and decussis, which were pieces of two, three, four, 
and ten As's, and it is said that these pieces, up to centusses, 
one hundred As's, were coined, though none have as yet been 
discovered. There was also the deunx, of eleven ounces; 
dodrans, of nine ounces; septunx, of seven ounces; and 
quincunx, of five ounces. 

The As appears to have gradually decreased from its 
original weight of one pound, at the following periods : * — 
About 300 B.C. it weighed only ten ounces ; about 290, eight 
ounces; about 280, six ounces; about 270 four Ounces*; 
about 260 two ounces ; and about 175 B.C. it was reduced by 
the Papyrian law to half an ounce, when it was sometimes 
termed a lihella. These dates are not all fully to be depended 
on, but coins exist in great numbers of the As and its parts 
of all intermediate weights between the highest and the 
lowest, except those of the full pound, none of which have 
reached us, the heaviest being about nine and a half ounces. 
The pieces of the heavier period were most probably of the 
square or ingot form. 



THE SESTEETITJS, OB EIEST BEONZE. 

Sestertius is a term originally belonging to the Eoman 
silver coinage, in which series it was a quaver of the denarius ; 
but the silver coins of this small size being found incon- 

* Ascertained, by comparison of the records of Pliny and other authors, 
with the apparent date of the coins themselves, from workmanship, &c. &c. 



THB BESTEfiTIVS, OB 7IB8T BBONZE. 377 

veBient, no doubt suggested the idea of coining it in copper. 
In this metal, as in silver, it represented two and a half 
Ases, as its name imports, being an abbreviation of semister- 
tius, that is, two and half the third, the word twobeidg 
understood. It is in writing, expressed by the symbol II. S., 
or HS., both of which represents two-and-a-hsJf, being IL 
in Homan numerals, and S, for semis (half) ; sometimes it 
is found as LLS, which is Z«5ra libra semis (two pounds 
and a half) ; pondus was a hundred weight ; sestertium 
pondus, two hundredweight and a half. "When the denarius 
was declared worth sixteen Ases, instead of ten, then the 
sertertius became worth four ases, but still retained its 
original name. After the general acceptance of the sester- 
tius as the standard copper coin, and consequently the 
standard national coin, as the Soman currency was founded 
upon a copper standard ; the Eomans made all their calcu- 
lations in sestertii, and not, as might be supposed, in the 
jmncipal sUver coin, the denarius. 

The manner of expressing different sums in sestertii was 
rather complicated, but which, by reference to ancient autho- 
rities, we fGid thus isxplained — 

When sestertius is in the masculine, as trecenti sestertii, 
it expresses directly the number named — 300 sesterces. 

If in the neuter gender and plural number, as trecenta 
sestertia, the number must be multiplied by 1000, making 
300,000 sesterces. 

If the word sestertius is in the neuter gender of the 
singular number, and preceded by an adverb ending in ies, 
as decies sestertium, then the number must be multiplied by 
100,000, making the ten sesterces into a million. 

In writing, such amounts were thus expressed — ^IIS. 
trecenti, IIS. trecenta, IIS decies ; but if the number of 
sesterces was only expressed by Eoman numerals, it became 
often difficult to guess the number meant. If, for example, 
we find IIS. CCC., one may read it either as sestertii tre- 
centi, sestertia trecenta, or sestertium trecenties ; and upon 
this variety of meaning was grounded the fraud by which 
the Emperor Tiberius obtained from Galba a large sum, in 
the following manner : — ^Livia, the wife of Augustus, wrote 
in her will, " Galba shall receive IIS. D.," by which she 
intended IIS. quingenties ; but her son and heir, Tiberius, 



378 SSOOITD AST} THISD BBOITZX. 

chose to read it " sestertia qningenA," giving to Galba onlj 
500,000 sesterces, instead of fifty millions. 

The absolute ancient yalue of the sestertius cannot be 
accurately ascertained, as we do not strictly know the relatire 
value of copper to silver and sUver to gold in those times ; 
but, says Eckhel, we can come to its approximate value in 
relation to the modem value of silver. As a denarius is 
worth 16 Austrian kreutzers, so, as a sestertius is the fourth 
part, it is worth 4 kreutzers — rather more than twopence 
English. By this valuation we can suffiiciently under- 
stand the value of different sums we find occasionally named 
in ancient authorities, as when Gellius says that "Alexander's 
horse, Bucephalus, cost sestertia trecenta duodecim," or when 
Suetonius says of Julius Caesar, that " he bought a pearle for 
sexagies sestertium," or when Tacitus says of Nero, that ^ he 
had given in presents, bis et vicies miUies sestertium." 



SECOin) AITD THIBD BBONZE. 

The second and third bronze as they are termed, are 
rather parts of the As than of the sestertius ; but this is a 

?oint to which archsBologists have not given much attention, 
t appears to stand thus : — ^The sestertius was originally 
2 ases and a-half, but when reckoned as a quarter dena- 
rius it became worth four ases; the second bronze, which 
was called the dtipondiusy or double as, was really founded 
upon the true existing value of two ases of copper, and was 
therefore, though in fact founded upon a different standard, 
exactly half the sestertius. The third brass was called 
the Assarius, an ancient name of the As.* The assarius 
was, therefore, half the dupondius, so that the second and 
third bronze were, though in fact reduced forms of the 
double and single as, the half and the quarter of the sester- 
tius. Even during the reigns of the early emperors a 
minute copper coioage existed, the pieces of which are by 
some termed minimi^ but they were, doubtless, more strictly 
speaking, wicia, or twelfth parts of the as. In addition 
to the new forms of the dupondius and the assarius, the As 

* In Greek called AtBO/rion, At the time of its introduction the Romaa 
Aanrius yna worth half a Greek oholuB. 



BSGOITD AISTD TUTRJ) BBOVZS. 379 

itself, with its ancient types, was still coined during the 
reigns of Nero and Domitian, at the reduced weight of half 
an ounce, the uncia, then called minimi, as I have stated, 
being only the twenty-fourth part of an ounce. 

The sestertius sustained no material decrease in weight 
till the reign of S. Severus, when it was coined one-tMrd 
lighter ; it was still further reduced in the time of Trajanus 
Decius, but who at the same time, as if wishing to pre- 
serve the noble dimension of the early sestertian coinage, 
coined double-double sestertii, or quinarii, which were about 
the size of the sestertii of the first twelve Caesars. From 
the time of Trebonius GaUus, to Qallienus, when the first 
bronze or sestertius, in its original form ceases, the sester- 
tius does not weigh above one-third of an ounce. 

After Dioclesian even the second bronze was no long^ 
coined, and i^e third was diminished to the twentieth part 
of an ounce, only twenty-four grains. But this emperor, 
having restored the purity of the silver coinage of denarii, 
established a new copper coin, the follis, of somewhat more 
than half an ounce m weight. Constantino reformed this 
coinage, issuing the follis of half an ounce exactly, twenty- 
four of them going to his silver coin called the milUarerms, 
The word follis signifies a jpurse, in which sense we find 
it sometimes mentioned in Byzantine history. Dioclesian's 
foUiB, from his time till shortly after Constantine, occupied 
the place of the departed second bronze, but then disap- 
peared in its turn. After Julian, the last of the family of 
Constantino, even the third bronze is no longer found, and 
a reduced form of the foUis of Dioclesian becomes merged 
in other small coins. The small copper coin of the last 
emperors was the leptofij a small piece of twenty grains, by 
some thought to be the uncia, or minimus, of the early 
emperors ; but it is, in fact, the extreme point of reduction 
of the Imperial assarius. It forms the pnncipal copper cur- 
rency after Jidian, and there was also me noumia,* of only 
ten grains ; the sestertius had long disappeared. After this 
period little or no silver or gold was corned in the Western 
portion of the empire ; so that a fraction of the As, the first 
grand coin of the Herculean infancy of the great republic, 

' * But few of these small pieces are found ; for tlieir comparatiye rarity, see 
Appendix. 



380 BOMAK SILVEE, ITS WEIGHTS, TALTJES, ETC. 

was in the degenerate fonns of the lepton and nouinia, the 
last money of the expiring Empire. In the East, however, 
an attempt was made to restore a large copper coin- 
age — a fact I have referred to in the chapter on the 
Byzantine coinage. This coinage appears to be the follis 
in an increased size, and the M which forms its type is 
thought by some to be the G-reek numeral forty, expressing 
its value as that of forty noumia. 



METALS. — E0MA2f SILVER, ITS WEIGHTS, VALUES, AKD 

DEIS'GMINATIONS. 

The first silver bearing Boman types were in fact Greek 
drachmsB ; but these pieces coined with Eoman types by newly 
subjected Greek states in the south of Itqly disappeared 
after the issue of the national denarius. It was not, how- 
ever, tin the conquest of Tarentum, about 281 B.C., that the 
Eomans acquired sufficient wealth of silver to adopt an ex- 
tensive silver coinage of their own. At that time the A.s was 
reduced to such a scale of weights and values as rendered 
its parts not very dissimilar to the copper money used as smaU 
change for silver among the Greek states of southern Itfdy. 
This change in the copper coinage, about the time of the 
adoption of silver, appears to have been effected in the follow- 
ing manner. The vast influx of foreign silver coin caused 
an apparent rise in the value of produce — ^that is to say, for 
instance, a portion of wheat which could previously be 
obtained for a piece of copper, could now only be obtained 
for one of sflver, so that a money of copper of large 
dimensions became useless, and a national coinage of silver 
was consequently introduced. 

The Denarius was first coined by the Eomans of the 
value of ten Ases ; from which it received its name (which 
means ten hronzei)* As the As decreased in weight while 
the denarius continued to retain more nearly its original 
dimensions, sixteen Assaria or Ases were, in the time of 
Augustus, ordered to go to the silver denarius. The dena* 
rius, like the victoriatus which had preceded it, and which 
was in fact a Greek drachma, was also known as a quadri" 

* The term denarius is from Denaeria ; there is also the term milleaeris and 
deciesaeris, respectively 10,000 and 100,000 Ases. 



' HOMAK SIXTEB, ITS WEIGHTS, TALTJES, ETC. 381 

gaiuBy from its car with four horses, or quadriga, and the 
qumarius or half sestertius as a higattM, from the two-horse 
car, which formed its chief type. The denarius eventually 
decreased in weight, but originally eighty-four were coined 
out of a pound of silver. Its in£vidual weight about the 
beginning of the Empire was about sixty grains, and towards 
the middle of the Imperial period about fifty-eight grains, 
making it worth eightpence-half-penny of our money at the 
first period, and seven-pence-hal^enny at the second. The 
parts of the denarius mentioned by historians are the 
following, though I have seen none but the quinarius or half. 





In our money. Fence. 


Farthings, 


Teruncius 




. 3-3125 


Sembella 




. 10625 


liibella . 




. 2125 


Sestertius 


." 2 


. 0-5 


Quinarius 


. 4 


. 1 


Denarius 


. 8 


. 2 



The weight of the denarius went on gradually decreasing, 
and in the time of Caracalla it was struck of two sizes, the 
largest beiug called an argentetcs, the smaller one a minutus, 
which last appears to have been the old denarius reduced, 
whilst the former was a new coin. 

About the time of Valerian and Gallienus, we find such 
coins mentioned as the denarii aeris (copper denarii) ; of 
these there were two sizes, one being of the usual (nomrual) 
value of sixteen assaria, or four sestertii ; the other being 
declared worth twenty-four assaria. Examples of these coins 
exist in modem cabinets. Some class them with silver, as they 
bear the name of a silver coin, and are, in fact, washed over 
with tin or silver, or made of a combination of base metals. 
Of base money of this description we have many modem 
examples — ^the ten-centime piece of Napoleon, for instance, 
being of copper washed with silver ; and a little farther 
back the shillings of our Henry VIII., which, issued by the 
miut at 12<?., were eventually called in at 4^\d. Some of the 
base shillings issued by Edward VI. were three-fourths alloy, 
and were called ia during the reign of Elizabeth at 2i^., 
realising a veiy good profit to the Crown, but by means that 
can scarcely be called respectable. The base shillings of 



382 EOMAN SLLVEB, ITS WEIGHTS, TALTIES, ETC. 

Henry VIII. liad a full face of the king, a very good like- 
ness, Dut the end of the nose, being the most prominent part 
of the coin, soon began to show the base metal ; and £*om 
this circumstance he received his well-known soubriquet, 
" copper nose." All these were pretended silver coias ; while 
the billon money, or black money, of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, forms a close parallel to bronze denarii ef 
the Eoman emperors. 

Goerfcz, minister of Charles XII. of Sweden, made a trial 
of base money. He thought, like many finance ministers 
of his time, that a debasement of the currency was a panacea 
for financial distress ; but instead of paper, or adulterated 
silver, he endeavoured to give a higher and fictitious value 
to copper, and to these new copper coins, which were to pass 
for more than their intrinsic value, he sought to give impor- 
* tance by naming them after classical divinities. There was 
the Jupiter, the Saturn, &c. &c. But eventually the unhappy 
minister paid the penalty of his experiment with his life. 

Under G-allienus the argenteus eventually took the place of 
the denarius, but its name still liugered about the principal 
silver money. At a late period it was worth sixty of the small 
copper of the last emperors (assaria). Constantino intro- 
duced the milliarensis (or thotieander as Pinkerton terms it, 
in consequence of a thousand of them going to the pound 
weight), these he caused to pass for twenty-four of the 
brass coin of Dioclesian, called the foUis. The term follisy 
given to his new copper coin by Dioclesian, was also applied 
to silver in the time of Constantino, and the follis, or purse 
of silver, then meant 250 miUiarenses, just as sestertium 
meant 250 denarii, equal, as previously stated,* to 1000 
sestertii. This mode of calculation, and the term (purse), 
is preserved even to the present day in Constantinople and 
the Turkish states, where they stUl occasionally compute 
values by purses, iu the mode established in the time of 
Constantino. Denarii, imder various names, but of continu- 
ally decreasiug weight, were struck tiQ the time of the Eastern 
emperor HeracHus, at which time they only weighed ten 
grams ; so that this silver coin, originating in the republic at 
the weight of ninety grains, beiug iu the reign of Augustus 

* See article on Roman copper. 



BOMAN G0L1>, ITS WEIGHTS, . VALUES, ETC. 383 

sixty, and in the mid-empire fifty-eight, was eyentually reduced , 
to ten. It is the parent not only of the French denier, but 
also of the Anglo-Saxon silver penny, which at its best time 
weighed twenty-four grains, and which preserves to this day 
the initial of the name of its parent in the D. which distin- 
guishes it in our £ s, d. 



KETiLLS. — BOMAN OOLI) — ITS WEIGHTS, VALUES, AND 

DEIS^OMUTATIONS. 

The first gold coinage in Eome, according to Pliny, was in 
the year 207 B.C. He must have alluded to the scrupular 
coinage, which lasted but for a short time. The coins, as 
previously described and engraved at a previous page, are of 
beautiful Greek art, and are very rare.* Gi^e aureus was the 
first truly national gold coin of the Eomans ; at first they were 
made at the rate of foriy out of the pound weight of gold, 
about 130 grains to each piece. The value of the aureus of 
the reign of Claudius was (its weight being then 120 grains) 
about £,\ 1«. Id, of our money ; but accor£ng to the relative 
values of gold and silver in Eome, where it passed for twen^- 
five denarii, it was only worth VJs, 8^^. of our money, the 
value of gold at that time being about twelve times greater 
than silver. 

Alexander Severns coined pieces of one-half and one-third 
of the aureus, c^ed semisses and tremiMes, 

At the time of Constantine the princmal gold piece was 
called the solidus. These new aurei of Constantine were 
seventy-two the pound weight of gold, at which standard 
they remained till the end of the Eastern empire ; and in 
later times were known in "Western Europe as Bezants 
(Byzantiums) as coming from Constantinople. No other 
European gold coin exii^ing at that time except the gold 
iriens of the Merovingian princes of Gaul, and the Gothic 
kings of Spain. 

* This gold hiis the head of Man <xl the obverse, and an eagle on the 
reverse, and it is marked with the numerals XX., which confirm Pliny's 
account that it went for twenty sesterces (or quarter denarii). There is also 
the double^ marked XXXX., and the treble, marked YX 



384 TYPES OS THE BOMA.K COINAeE. 



TYPES OF THE ILOMA>'^ OOIlirAGE. 

In Speaking of the types of the Greek coinage, I thought 
it necessary to give a short introduction to the subject, in 
the form of a few observations on their original religious 
character ; I intend to pursue the same course in speaking 
of Eoman types, of which the most striking feature is the 
dual or twofold character of the principal emblems, especially 
that of Janus. This idea, or myth, appears to be founded on 
that of antagonist powers, producing the fruitfuLiess of all 
things, as light and darkness, youth and age, male and 
female, &c. The myth of all germinating powers being dual 
or double, is reproduced in a number of forms by the 
ancients; we even find the four elements added to the 
double nature of Janus, under the figure of the four- 
ironted Janus, or Quadrifons. The Penates, or household 
gods, were also a dual or double myth. 

The Dioscuri, or Castor and Pollux, the hero twins, who 
are accompanied by two stars, generally placed above the 
heads,* to denote their celestial influence, were one of the 
earliest and most favourite types of the Boman coinage; 
they are a form of the dual myth, representing perhaps 
youth and courage. Castor and Pollux were the sons of 
Jupiter and Leda, and the birth of the twins in an egg is the 
reason of representing them in the peculiar cap which they 
always wear, evidently the half of an egg-sheU. Castor 
shared with Pollux the immortality conferred upon him by 
Jupiter, so that they lived and died alternately. The term 
Dioscuri expresses " Sons of Jupiter." Occasionally their 
heads only are represented, as two profiles joined at the 
back, with a star over each. 

Whether the double heads on the early Eoman gold and 
silver are Janus yoimg, or Castor and PoUux, or the youth- 
ful Jupiter worshipped at Auxur, is doubtM ; they, how- 
ever, have no stars, which nearly always accompany Castor 
and PoUux, who were, according to tne fable, transformed 
into stars, in which character they occupy a place among the 

* Sometimes they each wear a cap sonnounted by a star, and sometimes 
they are symbolised by these caps alone. 



TYPES OF THE B0MA2S" COINAOE. 385 

signs of the zodiac ; nevertlieleBs, they sometimes appear on 
the coins without the usual accompaniment of the two 
stars. Of the types foimded upon the fable of the Dioscuri, 
there are, as I have said in another place, several ; there 
is a reverse of the Posthumian family, with three horsemen 
galloping over an enemy on foot, the caps of the Dioscuri 
flying before them, signifying the irresistible charge of the 
Eoman cavalry, when associated with their aid.* When 
ridiug at full gallop with levelled spears, they are supposed 
to be in the act of charging in the battle near Lake Eegillus ; 
when represented on prancing horses in different directions, 
they are triumphing after the victory ;t when watering 
their horses at the fountain near the Temple of Vesta, by 
moonlight, they illustrate another part of the elegant fable 
related by Dionysius of Halicamassus ; this subject is found 
on an interesting early denarius of the family series (see 
article on the Tamily Coins). 

On the early Eoman As we sometimes find a double head, 
formed of Janus and Jupiter joined, the As being the com- 
plete or dual form of the Eoman measure of value, whilst on 
the Semis, or half As, we have the head of Jupiter aJone, as 
denoting an incomplete instead of a perfect unity, the 
double-unity alone being complete. The myth of Eomulus 
and Eemus beneath the wolf is another form of this myth, 
which we find placed on the coins of other ancient nations 
than the Eoman. Another form of this device is the head of 
the two-fronted Janus beneath the ram. Matter and motion 
form an essential figure of duality, expressinff the principle, 
that the earth standing stiU would revert to Chaos ; a form of 
duality which we find personified by the Earth and Mercury, 
in whom motion is typified by the winged helmet or cap. 
These combinations are generally accompanied by some 
emblem of germination, such as a plant shooting up, or a 
young branch budding into leaf, &c. The sacredness of these 
emblems is sometimes denoted by special emblems of a divine 
power, such as a lance, which represents the Eoman Mars 
(Quirinus) ; J sometimes we have a two-headed axe, the axe 

♦ See passage in Floras, **Apud Regilli lacum dimicatur commilitonibus 
dels." — Lib. I., chap. 2. t See woodcut at page 139. 

J See Michelet, " La Republiqne Ronaaine.*' 

cc 



386 TTPES or THE BOHAK COINACKE. 

being a well-known emblem of divinitj in the eady hiero- 
glyphic writing of the Egyptians, where the idea of Qod was 
expressed by an axe, an idea to which the Italic symbolifim 
gave a dual character. In the Bacred writings of thelUraeliteB 
we find a flaming or two^dged sword sunilarly expressing 
the idea of divine power. The myths of the Eomans were 
nearly ail imported, and modified to suit the peculiar nature 
of the country, and the genius of the people.* 'In the 
island of Tenedos two sacred axes were objects of worship, 
and on their coins we find the double-headed Janus or 
Jupiter, while on the reverse of the same coins a double- 
headed axe is found. The Eoman cult of Mutunus, a name 
under which they worshipped the garden god, or god of 
finiitfulness, was derived from Lampsacus, the principal seat 
of this worship. But it is impossible in the space of this 
small volume to attempt the dissection of the pages, nay 
volumes, weary volumes, that laborious investigators have 
printed on the myths, or religious doctrines, of ancient 
nations : Bu£ee it to say, that even on the coins of some of 
the later Eoman emperors, this idea of duality is still found 
as an emblem implying mysterious connections, such as 
body and spirit, humanity and divinity, or some other such 
combination. On a coin of the Emperor Commodus, for 
instance, a head of this description is found, which M. Le 
Normand describes as Janus, but if so, it is evidently Janus 
in the features of the emperor, as we find Hercules repre- 
sented on the coins of Alexander the Great, &c. : it appears 
more probable, however, that it refers to the deification of 
the emperor, the head, on one side, representing the features 
of Jupiter, on the other, those of Commodus, — ^that is, on 
one side divinity, and on the other imperial power. As 
no person, except when deified, could be placed upon the 
public coins (sacra moneta), this would appear an ingenious 
manner of expressing the idea of deification, through the 
medium of one of the most andent and sacred myths of 1^ 
national religion. Among the myths of a dual, or double, 
or antagonistic form, that of Hermaphrodite is not the least 
singular. 
The early republican money long preserved the antique 

* Seo Michelet, ^ La Bepnblique Bomaine.^ 



TYPES or XHE BOMAK GOINAGS. 3S7 

Italic mytli of dual character, either in the form of Janus, 
or the I)iogfcuri; but both these eventually gave way, or 
became secondary, to iypes connected with the national 
triumphs; first, in republican times, to such as were con- 
nected with the famines holding office ia the putlic mint, 
and afterwards to the personal triumphs, real or assumed, of 
the emperors. The series of coins which were at one time 
termed consular, and thought to be issued by successive 
consuls, are now known to bear, not the name of the consuls, 
but those of , the monetary triumviri * of their time. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be perceived that the 
first Soman types were of a mythic or religious character, 
like those of the Greeks ; and that in the series of types 
of the " family coins," t an original and truly national and 
historical class of types begins to appear, which was carried 
out with greater effect on the superb copper coinage of the 
empire. The types of the imperial coinage of Eome form at 
once the most striking,, most interesting, and most histori- 
cally valuable series of types ever engraved on a national 
coinage. I had almost added the most beautiful, which might 
also be said, but for the exquisite art with which the Greeks 
found means to invest- with exquisite symmetry, even a 
dolphin, or vine leaf. 

A volume has yet to be produced, arranging chrono- 
logically all the most beautiful types found on Eoman coins, 
with suitable explanatory descriptions ; but I have only 
space to allude here to a few of the most striking of these 
lypes, and in that I shall not attempt chronological order, 
as occupying too much space, but merely attempt to show 
the general principles upon which they were adopted. Some 
of the most interesting are those recording such well-known 
historical events as that celebrated on the coins of Vespasian 
and Titus, which bear the inscription Judaa Capta, as de- 
scribed in the chapter on the imperial copper, or, the con- 
quest of Egypt, of Dacia, of Parthia, &c., which are recorded 
on the Boman coinage in a similar manner to that of Judaea. 
Equally interesting are the records of public buildings now 

* The monetaiy triuniTirs were tbree Msodated minUmutenii who clirecte4 
the opentioQg respectively of the gold, the siWer, and the copper coinage, 
t See coins of the Boman RepuhUc. 

cc2 



388 TYPES OF THE EOMAN COINAGE. 

no longer in existence, the appearance of which has been pre- 
served on this interesting series of coins. The manner in 
which qualities, virtues, privileges, &c., are represented, such 
as Piety,* Beneficence, Liberty, &c., is also highly charac- 
teristic and pictorial, as the following few examples will 
testify. 

Fax, or Peace holds an olive-branch, and a horn of plenty; 
or sometimes, is beautifully expressed by a similar figure 
extinguishing the torch of war, against a pile of arms. 

Frovidentia — is a figure holding a wand or rod of protec- 
tion over a globe, and bearing a horn of plenty, &c. Some- 
times the gate of a Prsetorian camp has a star over it,, 
symbolising the protection of Heaven, providentia being the 
inscription. 

Fietas, (piety) — ^is an exquisite figure, full of expression, 
in the act of sacrificing at an altar. On other coins pon- 
tifical instruments of sacrifice alone represent Piety. 

Fecunditas, (fruitfulness) — ^is a finely-designed female 
figure, surrounded by children. 

JEguitas, the equity type, is a figure with a horn of 
plenty in one hand, and a pair of scales in the other; 
expressing, very ingeniously, that the distribution of public 
protection is to be awarded by the scales of justice. 

Clemency, is a favourite type, equally well expressed; 
and also Concord, which is expressed by two figures joining 
hands. 

A number of other sentiments and moral virtues, too 
numerous to mention, are expressed with equal felicity, 
and accompanied by concise and appropriate inscriptions; 
in fact, examples of this kind might be multiplied ad infi- 
nitvm; but I must proceed at once to give a selection of 
Boman types, of different character. 

Conservator Augusti. (the preserver of the emperor.) The 
types accompanying this inscription are various ; on a coin 
of Elagabalus, the stone god, Fl Gabal, guarded by an eagle, 
is drawn in a quadriga, above which is a star, indicating 
the celestial origin of the protective power. Sometimes a 
figure of Jupiter is the principal object; beneath whose 
extended arm is a small figure of the emperor. 

The Decursio type, (literally course or excursion,) alludes 
to a military expedition, and represents the emperor 



TYPES or THIS BOHA^' COINAGE. 3SD 

on horseback, armed, and accompanied by one or more 
attendants. 

Concordia Militum (the concord of the soldiers), is repre- 
sented by a female holding two standards, or sometimes 
by two clasped hands only. 

The AdlocuHo type represents the emperor addressing the 
legions. 

The Advent us type (the coming of the emperor), is gene- 
rally an equestrim figure of the emperor represented in 
Tarious ways ; sometimes with a lance turned downward in 
token of cessation of hostilities, after victories, the other hand 
stretched forward with an amicable and protective action. 
The emperor is sometimes accompanied by a female figure 
bearing a comucopiae, expressing that he not only comes 
accompanied by victory and peace, but also by beneficence 
and plenty. ^ 

Fides Militum^ alludes to the fidelity of the soldiers, and 
is ingeniously expressed in various ways. 

Genius JSxercituSy the genius of the army, and Oenio 
JPopuli Momanij are also neatly expressed by appropriate 
figures and symbols. 

Jlfow^^tf, the goddess superintending the public coinage 
holds a horn of plenty and a pair of scales, beneath which 
is a heap of com or metal. On later coins three such 
J&gures are sometimes represented, as presiding over the 
three metals, copper, silver, and gold ; as did the three 
chiefs of the mint, the triumviri monetales. 

Beetor Orhis (the governor of the earth) : beneath this 
inscription the Eoman emperor is represented holding the 
globe in his hand. 

Ihrttmey is accompanied by the prow of a vessel, or an oar, 
and bears a cornucopia; she is also represented in other 
manners. 

The different types on coins struck in commemoration 
of emperors or empresses are very various. On some, a 
statue of the deceased is borne in a magnificent biga or 
quadriga. Claudius ordered that there should be a quadriga 
drawn by elephants in the funeral procession of his grand- 
mother Livia. On other coins is a tomb, the door of which 
is partially open, as just having received another tenant ; 
sometimes the type is a magnificent funereal pile. 



390 TYPES OP THE BOMAIT COIKAGB. 

The Apotheosis types are also rarious : sometimes we see 
an empress borne to heaven by an eagle, the bird of 
Jupiter, as in the case of those struck by Hadrian in com- 
memoration of Sabina ; sometimes the figure of the deceased 
empress appears in a car drawn by peacocks, symbolic of the 
protection of Juno. 

The Annona type appears on coins struck on the peri- 
odical distribution of com and other similar occasions ; it is 
generally a female figure, holding a comucopise, and ears of 
com. Other types of a similar class record the periods of 
celebrated national games. Both these types are frequent, 
and form curious records of the craving of the Soman 
populace for *^ pattern et Cir censes ^^ (bread and games 
of the circus), which was frequently their only cry in 
seditious risings. 

Idbertas, liberty, is a female figure holding the cap of 
Liberty and a sword. 

Idberalitas : this inscription is accompanied generally by 
the representation of the emperor in the act of distributing 
the periodical liberalities, a sort of maundy money upon a 
large scale. 

Britannia: the so-called Britannia, onBoman coins,beneath 
the inscription BRITANNIA, is not Britannia, but the goddess 
Monfta, seated on a rock symbolising the subjected pro- 
vince. A similar figure appears on coins recording other 
conquests. 

Securitas jReipublica, is represented by a bull, as one of 
the symbols of Italy, with two stars above, most probably 
those of the Dioscuri. 

Victoria : the figure of Victory is very variously and beau- 
tifully represented, sometimes holding trophies of arms, or 
standards, or erecting a trophy, or drawn in a triumphal 
quadriga, or holding laurel crowns, &c. 

Vota PMica, a public offering or sacrifice, represented 
by a very pictorial group, in the act of sacrificing. 

On late coins, after Constantine, the initials of Christ are 
the most conspicuous type.* 

Soma Besv/rges, on the coins of some of the late emperors,, 
expresses that Eome shall recover her ancient glory, by 

* See reign of Constantine in coinage of Ronaan empire. 



HfSCBIPTIOlBrS Oir the SOMAIT 00IVA6£. 391 

meaaft of the emperor, whose figure, tinder the protection of 
'Mmerva, raises ttp the fallen figure of Some. 

Not l^e leMt mteresting of Eoman types are the portraits 
ef the emperors, empresses^ and other members of the 
impeiM &mily ; the whole series inoluding above three 
hundred aaxthentie poitraits, the great majority of them 
being of &e aiid highly ehara<;teristic execution. 

S^ch face a few of the t3rpe» fiDmnd on the noble series 
of Boman imperial coins; but the present list ean but 
suggest the great variety and number of these interesting 
re^lrds of the great eweer of Borne ; for a collection of 
the whole of the types, even of the reigns of Trajan and 
Hadrian^would half fill my volume. 



The inscriptions of Eoman coins are more interesting 
than those oi the Greek series, inasmuch as they are not 
confined to the name of a town, a magistrate, a prince, or 
the inflated titles of the latter, found upon the later series 
of Greek regal coins, but refer to a great variety of subjects 
connected with the government of the Eoman empire, its 
historical ev^its, <&c. Some of the elder numismatist^ not 
content with these legitimate sources of interest, sought 
further excitement in " blundered* inscriptions," or partially 
obliterated ones, which they prized as greater rarities than 
perfect coins ; seeking to give overstrained interpretations 
td sueh accidental mistakes, many of which were ridiculous 
enough. On a coin of CarausiuSi^ for instance, it was 
thou^t liiat the name of hm wife had been discovered, the 
inficrigtion being made out, " P. Oriuna Aug.," while the 
simple &£t is that a crack in the coin separated the F from 
the rest of the word, and an. imperfect T was converted into 
an I to aid the supposed discovery; the real inscription 
being FOBTVNA. AVG(usti), the fortune of Augustus, a 
very common inscription on late Eoman coins. Another 
similar example is of one of the common coins of ^Faustina, 
on. which the name was blundered as SOVSTI, instead of 

» 

* Inscription^^ blundered by the die engraver, are frequently found both on 
the coins of classical antiquity, and of the middle ages. 



392 INSCRIPTIOKS OK THE BOMAV COINAOE. 

Eausti, a usual abbreviation. But SOVSTI afforded the 
G-erman cognoscenti an excellent opportunity for racking 
their brains in a delightful agony of doubts and absurd 
suppositions respecting its interpretation, until Klotz ridi- 
culed them out of their learned investigations by proposing 
the following satirical interpretation : " Sine Onme UtiliJ»te 
Sectamini Tanti Ineptias." Such a morbid kind of enthu- 
siasm in this delightful science is much less common now ; 
but still, in this, as in other branches of archseology, things 
possessing no value but that of rarity, are sometimes more 
liighly prized than those having real interest and real beauty 
to give them a lasting and legitimate value. 

In the republican period it has been shown that the mone- 
tary inscriptions of the Eomens were at first very brief, the 
earliest being merely the name of the city, BOMA. To this 
was eventually added the name of the mint-master by whom 
the coin was struck, and eventually the name also of any 
one of his ancestors, whose deeds, if of a national character, 
he appears to have had the right of placing upon the coinage 
as types. About the time of Sulla, the names of eminent 
living personages, not connected with the mint, were placed 
upon the coinage — ^a custom which continued to the end of 
the repubHc* 

Of the various kinds of inscriptions which distinguish the 
coins of the empire, those relating to the titles of the emperor 
ought perhaps to be mentioned first, as beins; most common. 
Augustus, when he permanently adopted the title of 
Imperator, affected to receive it only for a certain period, 
at the end of which it was to be renewed or withheld oy the 
senate, this renewal being well understood to be merely 
ceremonial. This form was long continued, and accounts 
for the inscriptions iMP(erator) li. or III., as imperai^r, for 
the second or third time, «&c. The title of Augustus, which 
he assumed, became greater than that of imperator and 
was frequently used without the former title ; it is almost 
invariably expressed by AVG., though sometimes by A alone. 
AYG. on the coins of Antony, before the title of Augustus 
was established, expresses Augur, an oflRce held by that 
triumvir. AYGGG. is found on coins of associated emperors, 

See family coins, and coins of tlie Social War. 



rffsCBiPTioirs on the bomak coinage. 393 

expressing three Augustuses, as CC express two Csesars. 
On some of tlie coins of the sons of Constantino we find 
the Greek title basiaets (king), assumed in addition to 
that of Augustus. 

Dunng the empire the consulate was an office of mere 
form, accepted b^ wealthy citizens for the sake of 'the 
inaugural procession^ and other empty pageantries con- 
nected with it ; but it was continued to the end of the 
empire, consuls being elected every year, as in the time 
of the Eepublic, of whom an interesting list of names has 
been preserved by historians, with scarcely a single omission. 
The emperor himself was frequently one of these honorary 
consuls, and we generally find the number of times of his 
consulship recorded on the coinage, as COS. L, or VIIL, or 
X, as the case might be. Proconsul is generally expressed 
hyPROC. The office of tribune, or as it was termed in 
imperial times, the " tribunitian power," was also conferred 
on the emperors ; for few of the ancient republican offices 
were obliterated during the empire, but superadded to the 
dignity of the emperor. The investiture with the tribunitian 
power was renewed periodically, like that of imperator, but 
more frequently and regularly, and is generally expressed by 
the letters TRIB(unitia) POT (estate), or TR. P., or sometimes 
only T. P., generally with the numerals i. ii. or X., as the 
case required. 

Pontifex Maximus, or high pontiff, was another of the 
important public offices, and is one which has even outlived 
the empire, the title being found at the present day on the 
coins of the Popes,* who succeeded the Emperors in the 
Bovereienty of the eternal city. Pontifex Maximus, is 
generaUy abbreviated as PONT. MAX., or p. M. All these 
titles are found together in the following inscription on a 
coin of Claudius, thus written: — Tl(berius) CLAVD(ius) 
OAESAR AVG(ustus) p(ontifex) M(aximus) TR(ibunitia) 
P(ote8tate) VI (for sextum) iMP(erator) XI (for undecimum) ; 
which may be Englished, Tiberius Claudius CsBsar, Augustus, 
high pontiff, holding the tribunitian power for the sixth 
time, and imperator for the eleventh time. It will be 

• On a coin of Pope Gregory XVI., now before me, it stands, ** Gregorius 
XVI. PON. MAX. A. IV. ROMA, 1834." 



394 INHCBIMIOKS OK THE BOMAIF COXSTAGJI. 

understood that the smaller letters, witlriii brackets, are 
added to supply the abbreviations, i^e capital letters alone 
appearing in the inscription on the coin : nearly all Soman 
monetary inscriptions are abbreviated in a simikr manner. 
The title of Pnnce of the Eoman youth, '*princeps juven- 
tutis," was, at an early period of the empire, conferred upon 
the Caesar or heir apparent to- the throne, the term Caesar 
becoming subordinate to that of Augustus. It sometimes' 
appears on the coinage abbreviated, as PRIK iVVKM'. 
The p.p. of Eoman monetary inscriptions expresses PATER 
PATRI^ (father of the country), a title frequently assumed 
by the emperor, or conferred by a servile senate. DITTS is 
found on the coins of deified emperors, sometimes written 
at fall length and sometimes DV. The characters n. VTR. 
or ni. VIR. express Duum-vir or Trium^TO. On the coins 
of the later Caesars, K C. sometimes expresses- N(ob3i»Bimu») 
C(8esar). On the coins of the last emperors the word 
Ijnperator appears to be superseded by DominuB, or ]Lopd, 
generally written DK, as on a coin of Talens, bk TALENS 
P(ater) p(atri8B) AVG(ustus). D. IT. is sometimcB read 
D(ominus) N(oster), as Our Lord Valens, <fec. 

The letters s. C. invariably express, Senatus Consulto, by 
consent, or decree of the senate ; and s. p. Q. R. s(enatu&) 
p(opulus) Q(ue) R(omanus), The Eoman senate and people. 

Inscriptions referring to the coinage and places of coining 
are expressed in the following manner : — 

A. A. A. F. F. A(auro) A(rgento) ^(re) F(laiido)F(eriundo), 
allusive to the treble coinage of gold, silver, and copper. 

A.P. F, A(rgentes) p(ublico) F(eriundo). — RO. P. 9. is 
RO(nia) p(eeunia) a(ignata) : money struck at Eome: 

a M, R. s(ignata) M(oneta) R(om8B). — s. CONST. s(ignata) 
C(onstantinopoli) : money struck at Constantinople. 

After money began to be coined at Constantinople, 
inscriptions relating to the place of mintage are always 
placed in the lowar portion of the coin, termed the exergue. 
Maajy abbreviated forms of inscriptions ©eeur which have 
not aU been, as yet, satisfactorily explained. The following 
are a few of them, with the suggested interpretations : — 

CONOB. may be co(nstantinopoli) OB(signata). CORNOR 
is, perhaps, CO(nstantinopoli) R(omaa) ]sr(ovaB) OB(signata) ; 
andcOMOB. CO(nstantinopoli) M(oneta) OB(signata). 



INSOBIFTIO^S OS THE JtOUAJS COIKAGE. 395 

Some of the late Byzantine medallionfthacve a H. IT., whidi 
may be S(ignata) M(oneta) N(obilis), which, if so, would 
prove the medaUions to be a large class of com so termed, 
and not merely medals, as is generally supposed. 

Inscriptions relating to groat triumphs are generally in 
full, as that on the coins of Trajan, recording the subjection 
of the PariMains, and the placing a new king upon the throne, 
which stands REX PARTHIS DATVS (a krng given to the 
Parthians) ; or on those of Vespasian, recording the reduc- 
tion of Judea, JVD-<EA CAPTA (Judaea tahen). 

For further particulars of the inscriptions found on 
Boman coins the reader is referred to the Appendix, where 
a great number of inscriptions are given, with the transla- 
tions. 

The student may think the system of abbreviation adopted 
on the Boman money rather complicated and confusing, but 
it is nothing to some modem examples, of which I will only 
cite one. On a half-crown of George I. the inscription 
fltwids, " BRVX. ET. L. DVX. S. R. I A. TH. ET. EL." * It 
is quite certain that, if the explanation of this inscription 
should be lost, it will form an exquisite puzzle for future 
numismatists, and help some ftiture Klotz to a satire against 
the wild interpretations that enthusiastic archseologists would 
doubtless suggest. But, fortunately, Mr. Hawkins has 
recorded the proper interpretation in a valuable work that is 
likely to exist as long as the coins themselves. It is as 
follows : — " BRVN(svicenci8) ET. L(unenbergen8is) DVX 
S(acri) R(omani) l(mperii) A(rchi) TH(esaurarius) ET. 
EL(ector) :" Duke of Brunswick and Lunenberg, and 
Archtreasurer and Elector of the Holy Eoman empire. 

The word £ome does not occur, as I have stated, on 
Boman imperial coins, struck in Borne, till a late period of 
the empire ; whilst the name of other cities where the money 
was struck by the Bomans was placed beneath the principal 
device, in what is called the exergue. On those of Antioch is, 
ANT. A. for Antioch, of the first mint, &c.; or p. TR. (pecunia 
Treveris), on money of Treves. The absence of such a name, 
says the JEncychpedie, was sufficient to denote that the coins 
were struck in the capital of the known universe (Vimwers 

* Humphrey's ** Coins of England," p. 105. 



396 ABT DISPLAYED ON BOMAIT COINAGE. 

connu) ; just as urhs, the city, was fully understood to mean 
none other than Home. 

Occasionally, fantastic variations of well-known inscrip- 
tions occur, and it is supposed that the coins on which they 
are found were struck by the slaves employed in the mint 
during the Saturnalia. On a coin of Gtdlienus, which has 
been described as a Satumalian coin, the inscription stands 
" G-aUiena Augusta ; " thus placing his name and title in 
the feminine gender, in allusion to his unmanly neglect of 
his father Valerianus, when taken prisoner by Sapor. "We 
have similar modem examples of medallic caricatures, among 
which may be mentioned those of CromweU, struck, no 
doubt, by the Eoyalist party at the latter part of the civil 
war, or immediately after the Eestoration. 

The s. C. on these Eoman Satumalian coins must be 
understood, not as " Senatus Consulto," but as " Satumi 
Consulto," in ridicule of the senate ; for neither emperor nor 
senate were spared in the lazzi of that orgie ; of which the 
vivid reminiscence still exists in the modem Carnival. Much 
more might be said in this place on the interesting subject 
of Eoman monetary inscriptions, but in an elementary work 
like the present, it is impossible to extend the treatment of 
any single subject beyond a very confined limit. 

G-reek inscriptions on coins struck in the Grecian States 
under the domination of Eome, will be found briefly described 
at p. 303. 

THE ABT DISPLAYED ON THE SOMAN COENAGE. 

The art displayed upon the Eoman coinage is not of so 
high a character as that of Grrecian money of the finest 
period; but it possesses characteristics of its own, of 
great and peculiar beauty, which give it, in the history of 
art, a place almost as important as that of the monetary art 
of Greece. 

The Eoman mode of producing the earliest copper coinage 
of ingots was no doubt an art, learned of their more polished 
neighbours the Etrurians, whose skill in working copper is 
mentioned by ancient authors. 

Etrurian skill in painted vases, in sculpture in marble, or 
in architecture, is not mentioned ; but their skill in working 



ABT DISPLAYED OK BOMAK COIITAOE. 397 

the abundant national metal, copper, is frequently alluded to; 
and tlie bronze ccmdelahra of Etrurian workmanship were 
celebrated at Athens ia the time of Pericles* Their know- 
ledge of art was originally derived from the Greeks, but 
working upon an abundant native material — the Italian 
copper — ^they created a national and original branch of art, 
which soon displayed characteristics entirely its own. Just 
as the occurrence of an unusually abundant supply of coal, 
and iron stone, both in the same locality, in our midland 
counties, have led to the immense superiority of English 
cutlery, and its celebrity all over the world. 

It IB now the general opinion, that the arts of Etruria 
were originally derived from Greece, even the earhest and 
most grotesque styles of Etrurian art, finding their proto- 
iypes in undoubted Grecian works. Of this the grotesque 
vases found at Corinth are a proof, which have the four- 
winged Genii, subsequently found on the earlier Etrurian 
works, and recently discovered on the sculptures of Nineveh. 
Etmria, colonised by Tyrrhenians, may have been influenced 
by Greek art, at a much earher period than the Greek 
colonisation of Magna- Graecia and Sicily ; and in course of 
time, its arts must have taken a direction partially their own, 
to be influenced, however, a second time by those of Greece, 
when the south of Italy was peopled by Greeks who left the 
mother country, when Hellenic civilisation was in a more 
advanced period of its growth. Etrurian artisans most likely 
cast the first Boman stips, or square pieces, when distinctive 
types were first adopted ; whilst about the time of the issue 
of the great circular copper money, the types and style of 
art were influenced in their treatment by the employment of 
Greek artists from the south. There is a fine rugged grandeur 
about the great copper pieces of this latter epoch, which is 
not entirely Greek, and no doubt exhibits a reminiscence of 
Etrurian character.f High finish could not be attained in 
the mode by which this massive money was produced, that 
of casting, and particidarly in the wholesale manner in 



* See Micali's engraying of a fine bronze Etrurian candelabrum in his 
Momimenti inediti. 

t See engraving of As, plate vii. The early gold and silver, though in 
a more finished manner, exhibit a similar combination of styles. 



398 ABT DISP3;,AJED OK BOM.AJT COINA&E. 

whicih the worik appears to have been carried on, several 
being east at onee, as is proved by curious specimens id the 
British Museum, several of wluch are stuck together/ just as 
they came out of the mould, above two thousand years ago. 

The grandeur aad high relief of the style displayed on the 
uncial copper, gradually gave way, towards the close of the 
issue of that ckss of money, to one diametrically opposite ; 
of which an exceediugly low relief, but of more refiied and 
careful outline, were the characteristics. The art displayed 
on the As and its divisions, in this style, is well exemplified 
by the head of Mercury on the Sextans or sixth of the 
As, of a period just previous to the reign of Augustus. 
The same manner, but inferior in treatment, appears on 
coins struck by Augustus bearing the pori;rait of Julius 
Cffisar.* This, however, marks a period when certain 
proportions were assumed in monetery portraits, which 
distinguish it &om G-reek art of a similar class. The intro- 
duction of more of the neck, which was generally made 
somewhat long and thin in proportion to the head on the 
early imperial coinage, caused the head to occupy much less 
of the field of the coin than it does on Grreek money ; as 
may be exemplified by comparing the monetary portraits 
of Augustus, or of Trajan, with the head of Alexander the 
G-reat on his coins ; in the latter case no neck being shown, 
while the head itself nearly fills the circle. It is this 
different proportion of the size of the h^, in relation to 
the dimensions of the coin, that creates upon the eye the 
first sensation of dissimilarity betweaoi the Greek and Eoman 
styles of monetaFy portraiture. 

The coinage of Nero exhibits Eoman art in its highest 
form, as &r as portraiture is concerned; and his deoursio 
type is, perhaps, the most favourable specimen of pictorial 
composition on the Eoman coinage. It should be compared 
with the gaUoppi33!g quadriga on Symcusan medallions, and 
although it cannot pretend to the almost Fhidian magnifi- 
cence of those compositions, it yet possesses a character of 
its own, artistically skilful, and very agreeable, which is fer 
jfrom being devoid of grandeur, though not of that high 
and ideal quality which distinguishes Greek work. It is 

* Soe plate tu. 



ABT DISPUlTED OJSf BOKAJf OOIKAGE. 399 

more real, and therein consists its inferioritj. The same pecu- 
liarity of proportion may be observed in the decursio, as in the 
portraits; the fiield of the Boman coin is but sparingly occu- 
pied with the subject, while in the Greek coin with which it 
has been compared, the quadriga nearly covers the entire field. 

Certain coins of Trajan exhibit the same style of composi- 
tion as the deeursio, but of a period when E^oman art had lost 
the peculiar grandeur of the epoch of Kero and Claudius, 
haviag gained a refinement and finish that scarcely replace it. 

The monetary artists of the period of the Antonines 
sought to restore the high and bold relief of the earlier 
epochs, and in some respects very successfully. This remark 
applies more especially to tl^e medallions of Antoninus Pius. 
The relief of the subjects upon these pieces is bolder, and 
the composition more intricate, than on the coins of Trajan, 
while the field is more amply and richly filled, after the 
Greek manuer, and to Eoman, and less poetic feelings, the 
work might appear to surpass even Greek art in interest, 
as being more real. But on reference again to the Greek 
quadriga, it will be acknowledged that however attractive 
the Bmnan work may be, with its neat yet bold execution, 
and its interesting bjoA accurate details of costume, manipu- 
lated with that exquisite artistic skill which attracted even 
the admiration of the classical Winkelmann, who notices 
especially the medallions of Commodus, yet the rounded 
and flowiug Eoman forms will not bear critical comparison 
vdth the nervous angularity, full of energy, action, and ideal 
grandeur, which characterises the Grecian work. Eoman 
artists, nevertheless, produced many works of high merit in 
other branches of art at this epoch, and had nothing re- 
mained to us but the colossal busts of Lucius Verus and 
Antoninus, in the Louvre, they alone would be suffident to 
stamp it with a character of great exeellence. 

The last period of art worthy of note on the Eoman coinage 
is that of the Byzantine period, begroning with the age of 
Constasitine, when, in the renovated Byzantium, raised tothe 
TVE^ of .the eastern capital of the E^nan world under the 
same of Constantinopie, a curious blending of Boaosan and 
Ghrei^ art produced that singular style, termed Byaantine, 
which, nfith all its stiffiifiss, possesses a certaiu indefinable 
charm, And eioen^prandeur, iniich is very fascinating. It is 



400 CLASSiriOATION OP GBEEE AIO) BOMAK COINS. 

the style which influenced the feeling of the early arts of the 
middle ages all over Europe. It is the style we see glittering 
in a blaze of gold in the massive illununated gospels of the 
early centuries of the Christian era ; such as Mr. Curzon, 
in exploring the monasteries of the Levant, found sparkling 
in the gilded pages of vellum, that were serving as knee- 
rests to the monks on the dank stone pavements. It is the 
style which still lends its peculiar and mystic character to the 
painted saints, dimly frowning from their gleaming golden 
Dack-grounds in the old churches of Eussia ; and such as 
M. Papeti found the monks of Mount Athos still practising- 
in the decoration of their convent walls, in the middle of the 
nineteenth century. The peculiarities of this style may be 
studied in the coins of Constantine and his successors, 
which are of the most decided Byzantine character. The rigid 
but careful and numerous folds of the drapery, the studied 
and yet stiff position of the figures, and the careful finish of 
the minor bead-like decorations, borders of pearls, &c., are 
just such features as we find in the carved ivory diptycs, the 
iQuminated gospels, and jewelled reliquaries from the sixth or 
seventh to the tenth century. In some parts of the Levant, 
and in Eussia, as I have stated, this style is practised even to 
the present day, so deeply did Eoman art, even in its latest 
and fallen form, influence that of the barbaric kingdoms that 
rose upon the ruins of the empire. 



CHAPTEE XXVII. 



OP THE CLASSIFICATION OP A CABINET OP QBEEK AND .BOMAN 
COINS. OP THE SELECTION OF SOME PABTICULAB CLASS OE 
COINS AS THE SUBJECT OF A SMALL COLLECTION. AND ON 
THE POBGEEIES AND IMITATIONS OP ANCIENT COINS. 

The student who has found sufficient interest in the pre- 
ceding pages to read them carefrdly, will already nave 
perceived the nature of the general system of dassifieation 
of ancient coins, now found most convenient in a cabinet. 
He will at once perceive the advantage of the first grand 
division into Greek and Eoman. The Greek, he will have 



CLASSUriCATIOK OF OBEEK AKS BOMAK COINS. 401 

seen maj be divided into two grand sections ; the first con- 
sisting of autofiomous coins, or those coined by independent 
cities or republican states ; the second, of those corned by 
princes. The autonomous class may be advantageously 
collected into groups, each group containing the coins of all 
the cities and petty states within a certoin well-defined 
tract, kingdom, or province; such as Caria, BoBotia, 
Macedonia, Sicily, &c. The coins of towns, &c., within 
each great district, might be arranged either alphabetically 
or numerically, the name of the district being placed in larae 
charcuitera on each drawer of the cabinet, and that of the 
towns in smaller letters, A certain chronological order may 
be preserved, by making the upper drawers of a cabinet 
contoiQ the coins of those states which were the earliest 
to coin money; the next most ancient coining district 
being placed next iu/ succession ; for instance, the Lydian 
drawer might be the first, and other Asiatic early coining 
states next; then the jEgina drawer, the Boeotian, the 
Argian, the Macedonian, £c. In each grand district or 
division, those places, the coins of which exhibit the most 
ancient character, should come first ; and of each individual 
city, the most ancient coins should take precedence, de- 
scending gradually to the most recent. 

In the Sicilian, African, and some Asiatic districts, the 
coins with inscriptions in the Phoenician or Punic characters 
may be classed into separate subdivisions, though probably 
in many instances the work of the same artists as those with 
'the Greek characters ; for it appears pretty certain that the 
Carthaginians nearly always employed Greek artists to 
execute their money, and there is reason to believe the same 
of other Phoenician races. A similar order may be observed 
with respect to the Greek regal coins (that is to say, those 
bearing the names or portraits of sovereign princes) ; in this 
division the most ancient coining kingdoms coming first, &c., 
as just detailed in the arrangement of the autonomous coins; 
such series as those of the Arsacidae and Sassanidse of course 
coming last; which, though comparatively speaking, barbarian 
in character, are yet linked on to the Greek series by dynastic 
succession, by the use of the Greek character in inscriptions, 
or other chains of association. 

The Boman series may be separated into three grand 

D D 



402 conro sos a smajjj ooilsotiok. 

diyisions — ^the Hepublioan, the Imperial, and the Imperial 
Greek. The repubHoBn diyision would comprise the early 
micial money of copper, that is to say, the As and its aub- 
divisions ; the early silver and gold of mixed Greek character ; 
aad the .eriee termed oonsukr, or family commeaoh arranged 
chronologically, as far as practicable. The chronological 
arrangement of the imperial series, with a subdivision for 
coloBifll and provincial coins is very «mple, the Buceewion 
of emperors affording certain indices for, the preservation of 
chronological order. The Imperial Greek, or those eoins 
struck in the Grecian dependencies of Borne, both in Eurc^ 
and Asia, which have a partially Greek character, with Greek 
inscriptions, &c. &c., may be appended to each reign, or may 
be arranged, like the Autonomous Greek, in grand divisions 
of districts, such as Syria, Macedonia, the Greek Mlandsy&Cy 
with subdivisions for the few cities still coining aAitonomoasly 
during the reigns of successive emperors. The Alezaadrian , 
series of Imperial Greek is of a somewhat distinct olaas, 
which merits, perhaps, an entirely distinct division. But I 
should prefer arranging both the Imperial Greek and the 
colonial coinage of Eome along with the coins of Boman 
mintage of each successive reign, afi* forming part of the 
great imperial coinage of Borne ; and in this manner the 
state of art in various parts of the Empire woidd be exhi- 
bited in a more instructive manner than if the eotnage waa 
brdken up in a cabinet into- distinct classes. 



Ol' THE SEEBCWON or S(mU :PAKWCXTt.XB CLASTS Ot OOHSTB 
AS THB StJKJECI? OP A SHALL OOLLBCMOSr. 

The accumulation of a tolerably complete collection of 
ancient coins, embracing the whole subject, would, as the 
student must by this time have perceived, require both 
opportunities and means within the reach of but few. In 
most cases it will therefore be desirable to look to a small selec- 
tion from each class, formed upon the plan of the one made 
for the illustration of this volume, ^as being just sufficient 
to illustrate the subject generally ; and then, the student 
may devote his collecting enwgies to some espeoial dafis 



COIKS rOB A «]CASL COLLEGTIOK. 406 

occupying moderate limits; which may, by occupying solely 
the attention of his leisure, be made more rich ana complete 
than even the same especial class in many of the greatest 
public collections* 

The Macedonian regal series is admirably adapted for this 
purpose, as it includes the earliest regal coin known, bearing 
a name, and thus exhibits nearly all the successive peculia- 
lities of the yarious phases of the G^reek coinage, from nearly 
the earliest period, to the subjection of the country to Bome ; 
and woidd conseq«i^itly form a most interesting i^abinet in 
iiisdf. 

Or, -a more compact series, and one extending over the 
fine period of the sat only, would be that of the Seleucidan 
dynasty of "Syria ; or that of the Ptolemies, occupying 
about the same period ; the completion of either of which, 
would sufficiently occupy the attention of an enthusiast, 
aiportion only of whose leisure could be devoted to the 
purniit. 

Some have suggested that a coniplete collection of the 
coins of Chios would exhibit specimens of every period of 
the art better than those of any other single state. 

The econage of Sieily, or eren those of Syracuse alone, 
would tuSord ample scope for furnishing ^ most exquisite 
cabinet, exhibiting coins j&om nearly the earliest infancy of 
the artto its most splendid development. 

Some'distnets of Magna- Grsecia also afford ample scope 
^ separate and distinct fields of study and collection ; as 
^fer^tum, and JSleapolis. * 

If the student prefers the Eoman series, as more historically 
instructive, a very complete cabinet may be formed of the 
coins of the Empire, those of nearly every emperor being in 
^xi^nce, in several classes of coins. Some have made col- 
fections of Boman imperial gold ; others, of silver. The most 
80endM Eoman series, however, in an artistic point of view, 
^, undoubtedly, that of the large bronze. But as that ceases 
With GalMenus, a collector may form a more complete series 
of the copper coins of the ifcman emperors by taking the 
second bronzy, which will be, at tiie same time, more econo- 
mical, few of that class bringing anything like the prices of 
the hu^er «eri«a. 

DD 2 



404 rOBGBI). COINS. 



OF rOBGED COINS * 



In forming a collection of ancient coins the amateur must 
make himself acquainted with the aspect of forged coins, 
which are of two distinct classes ; first, those which are the 
works of ancient forgers, against whose base imitations of 
the public money severe laws existed as early as the time of 
Solon; and, secondly, those modem imitations of ancient 
coins produced by the ingenuity of unscrupulous artists who, 
ever since the fifteenth centiiy, when ancient coins first 
began to attract the attention of the curious, have been 
engaged in this fraudulent branch of manufacture, reaping a 
rich hanrest from the unwary or uninformed coUector. 

Human ingenuity is so prone to evil, that scarcely had the 
art of coinage been developed, and money of that convenient 
form put in circulation, than the labours of forgers com- 
menced ; and their productions are frequently of execution 
quite equal to the real coin, and much more ingenious in 
Kibric ; for the base metal is so skilfully plated with its thin 
coating of gold or silver, that even at the present day pieces 
are continually found still perfect ; and I myself, very recently 
discovered a beautiful silver coin, which had long been the 
pride of a fine collection, to be an ancient forgery, as ancient 
as the true coins themselves. Its value is of course decreased 
by this discovery, but its beauty is undiminished, and it must 
still form a very interesting monument both of the artistic 
and manufacturing skm of the period. Indeed, so beautiful 
were some of these fraudulent imitations of the coin, that 
they were, as specimens became rare, highly prized by the 
ancients themselves. 

There are ancient forgeries existing even of the early 
coins of JEgina ; and Herodotus mentions other forgeries of 
coin as a common offence, but does not appear to believe in 
the wholesale forgery of gold money attributed to Polycrates, 
who is said to have defrauded the Spartans by a large pay- 
ment of base gold coin. There are, however, existing 
forgeries of the early Lydianf gold coins, bearing the fore 

* Beauvais and Pinkerton Lave both interesting remarks on forgeries of 
ancient coins. f Numismatic Chronicle, vi. 61. 



FOBGEB COINS. 405 

part of a bull and a lion, wHicli were in circulation in many 
parts of Ghreece at that time, and which maj have formed 
part of the very pieces with which the craSty Polycrates 
cheated the rugged Spartans, less accustomed to the inter- 
change of money. 

Eoman forgers were less skilful than the Greeks ; and 
most of their forged money is merely cast. On a recent 
excayation in France, a complete set of Soman forging 
implements was discovered, consisting of clay moulds, &c. 
It 18 thought that in some instances the Eoman cast^money 
of the late periods of the empire is not forged ; but that this 
mode of fabric was adopted in some of the military expe- 
ditions, or sudden changes of government, when a more rapid 
mode of producing money than the usual one was desirable. 
Such casts, however, whether the works of the state or of 
forgers, are worthless to a collector, unless they bear some 
rare type, or have some special ground of interest. 

Of modem imitations of ancient coins, those of the Faduan 
forgers are the most celebrated ; but long before that time 
the trade had commenced. G-uillaume du dhoul, a French 
writer, and one of the first who studied and wrote upon the 
long-neglected monuments of Greece and Eome, caused 
two medals to be engraved in his work, as illustrations of 
the ILoman coinage, which have since been proved to be 
modem forgeries. Antoine le Fois, also, who wrote about 
the same time, and whose book is a fine monument of the 
typography of the period, cites, as antique, several coins, 
which were evidently of modem fabrication. 

The most skilful of modem forgers were Jean Cavino 
and Alessandro Bassiano, whose productions are generally 
described as the Faduan forgeries, Fadua being the city 
where these skilful engravers exercised their profession. In 
the beginning, they had probably no intention of deceiving, 
but merely intended to reproduce beautiful copies of things 
so rare ; but the opportunities of gain, by selling their 
work as really antique, was too tempting, and these two 
engravers became associated in the trade of forgery about 
1540. 

The common forgeries, now aU termed Faduans, are ob- 
vious cheats enough; but those of Cavino and Bassiano 
are too weU done to render detection easy ; one of the 



406 FOBOED 0OI19B, 

only modes of detecting them being through the means 
of the inscriptions, the letters of which are generaiiy 
squatter than in the oi^ginals. These Faduan forgers were 
very careful in taking for their subjects rare rev^^ses, and 
they even invented others, taking their subjects from tiie 
best known historical events, or fables of antiquity. 

]\fiGhael Dervieu, a Frenchman, afterwards established 
himself at Elorence, where he very successfully counterfeited 
all kinds of aacient coins ; but took up more especially the 
department of Bomon copper, and found the manufacture a 
very profitable trade. 

Carteron, in Hollaud, produced beautiful forgeries, which 
frequently pass for Faduan. 

Congornier afterwards appeared at Lyons. ISiis forg« 
restricted his inventions to coins of the thirty tyrants^^ 
finding that single^ bmncb of the buftiaees^ suffieiejttly 
profitable for his purpose. The greater portion q£ hu 
forgeries of these coins were pufe iuventions, for those 
known to be genuine are but few ; only eighteen of even 
the names of these thirty tyrants being mentioned by 
historians. 

Laroch, of Grenoble, made copies of some of the most 
rare coins of the Fellerin cabinet, which he sold as originals* 

In Madrid, a great number of imitations of this descrip* 
tion were struck; a pofrtion of which were purobaaed 
and deposited as real, in the cabinet of the Infaiit: Den 
GhabrieL In the great period of numismatic Jwvre foj 
ancient coins, which was at its- height fix>m the middle of 
the seventeenth to the middle of the eighteenth century, 
Stutgardt had its workshops, and Yeniee her ateliers^ whdra 
denarii and quioarii of the Boman emperors and empresaels 
were fabricated by the thousand. They may be genera^y 
known by a thm and Jlat appearance. 

GaUi, at Home, struck quinarii of the emperors of the 
East:; and Becker, who died at Hambui^ as recently as 
1830/ engraved a vast number of false rwr<5 coinsy of various 
sizes. Ha struck even ihe curious incused coins of Magn»» 
Grsecia; and not content with imitating, he invented 
ad' liUtvm; some of hi* inventions being very- curious, 
though the most easily deteeted. But though the scientifie 
ddn of a^fefwexperieaeed'colleetors was not to b& imposed 



sosasD ooiKfB* 407 

upon, the ignorance of the great bulk of amateurs furnished 
Becker with plentiful purchasers. A catalogue of this 
ingenious artist's disgraceful forgeries was published by 
Sestini in 1826, and completed by M. Clouet, of Verdun, in 
1827. This catalogue will be very useful to collectors who 
have not confidence in their own judgment ; for M. Becker 
was a very industrious gentleman. 

As the taste for Greek coins grew up and strengthened, a 
person named Caprera. established a manufactory for them 
at Smyrna, and his productions, when ready for circulation, 
were buried in likely localities in the neigabourhood, to be 
9SKiswaar3» aoeidentaJly dug up by innocent little boys, who 
disposed o£ tb^n, at good prices, to un^'ary strangers, asto- 
nished and delighted to see these beautiful monuments of 
aulaquity deterre under their own eyes. 

A person, named Saintot, at Paris, struck recently some 
exceuent imitations of denarii, only, it is said, for amuse^ 
ment; but several manufactories of the same description, 
l^ough on a small scale, exist at this moment in Paris, 
complaiiung sadly of the bad times. A complete list of 
Paduan forgeries is published in " Le Cabinet de T Amateur 
et de rAntiquaire.''--Paris, 1842, 

An ingenious mode of imposition is also known, by which 
rare, in fact unique coins, are produced without forgery at 
all; it is effected by sawing two moderately-fine coins in 
two, longitudinally, and then soldering the rjBverse ; say, of 
the Nero, to the back of the Antoninus, and of the Antoninus 
to the Nero ; so producing, at one operation, two rare coins, 
a Nero, and an Antoninus, both with reverses, never seen 
by the most experienced numismatist. 

With these cautions to the amateur I close my attempted 
account of the Greek and Eoman coinages ; trusting, that 
however imperfect the work, it may convey much useful 
information to the student, and induce him to exhaust 
more completely the mines of interesting and delightful 
knowledge, which I have done little more than suggest to 
him. 



408 THE COHrAGE or MOBXSK EUSOPE. 



CHAPTEE XXVIII. 

THE COINAGE OF MODERN EUROPE, ILLUSTRATED BY 
THE PROGRESS OP THE ART IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



THE COINS OF ENGLAND, AFTER THE DEPARTURE OP THE ROMANS, TO 
THE INVASION OF IIVILLUM THE CONQUEROR. 

I HATE already spoken of the class of coins circulating in 
Spain, Gteul, and Britain, previous to their subjection to the 
Itomans. The Soman coinage circulating in Britain was of 
the same character as that of the rest of the western portion 
of the empire ; and of Soman coins, bearing types referring 
especially to the British portion of the empire, I have 
spoken, in treating of the coinage of the reigns in which 
they were issued. 

At the time of the final fall of the "Western Empire, the 
Soman coinage had dwindled, as stated in another place, to 
a scanty issue of most wretched copper, or rather bronze, of 
the smallest dimensions ; and on the establishment of the 
new kingdoms on the ruins of the fallen empire, no improve- 
ment took place, and apparently very little new coin was 
struck, — with the exception of the gold frientes of the first 
Gothic kings of Spain, and those of the Merovingian race of 
Prankish kings,—till the beginning of the seventh century, 
when the silver pennies, and still smaller pieces, of modem 
Europe appear. These were long the only coins known, till 
gradually, and after several centuries, the groats were issued, 
then larger pieces ; and, in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, the crowns and half-crowns of silver first made their 
appearance. The first gold appeared in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and the first genuine copper coin of modem Europe 
not until much later. 

"With this brief outline of the general course of modem 
coinages, I may at once proceed to describe that of the 



T^E COINiiGB OF MODJCBK ErBOFE. 409 

United Kingdom, where the silver pennies were preceded by 
stifcas, a sm^ coin of mixed metal, peculiar to the north of 
Engird, and the Saxon skeattsD of suver, much smaller than 
the silrer pennies. . 




Skeattaof Ethelbertl. 

The departure of the Soman legions about 414 a.d., left 
the inhabitants of South Britain an easy prey to the first 
bold invaders. But before the Saxon occupation of the 
island it may be presumed that some sort of coinage, in 
imitation of the Eoman, to which the people had been long 
accustomed, must have been adopted, and traces of it exist 
in rude pieces of the Eoman style, which are very scarce, as 
they have hitherto been rejected by cabinets as bad specimens, 
or forgeries of Eoman coin. 

The next sort of money we find in use is of a totally 
different character, bearing not the slightest resemblance to 
the Eoman, with the exception of one or two devices, copied 
perhaps from some of the coin of Constantine or his imme- 
diate successors ; and it appears, therefore, that this money 
must have been brought by the Saxons, with a new set of 
weights, values, and denominations. 

The new coins alluded to are called SkeattsB (Latinised 
scata), a term which Ending derives from a Saxon word, mean- 
ing a portion, and supposes that these coins were a portion 
of some merely nonnnal sum by which large amoimts were 
calculated. They remained partially in use probably long 
after the general adoption of the Saxon sUver penny, as they 
are mentioned ia the laws of Athelstan, where it is stated 
that 30,000 skeattsB are equal to 120Z., which would make 
them in value about one twenty-fifth part less than a 
penny. 

The skeatta is probably, in form and value, an imitation, 
by the Saxons, of some Byzantine coin, fiiiding its way, in 
gradually debasing forms, irom Constantinople through the 



410 THB oonr^as ow MOBmur busopsi 

east and north of Germany.* It is thought bj some that the 
Saxons also denTod their weight, called Colonia (Cologne) 
weight, ^m the Greeks of the lower empire. It was only 
used by them for their money, and afterwards in England 
called Tower weight, in conseqiience of the principal mint 
being in the Tower. Troy weighty so called from being first 
used in France, at Troyes, is three quarters of an ounce more 
than Tower weight ; so that in coining, the prince, or other 
privileged, person, gained considerably upon every pound 
weight of metal coined, which at last induced frequent 
re-coinages ; to obtain the discontinuance of which custom, 
the people agreed to a tax called moneyage. Such impositions 
formed pajrt of what was in Norman times called seignorage, 
or, the profit of the sovereign. The skeattsd vary from tweWe 
to twsMity grams in their weight, and it is therefore difficult 
to ascertain their ciu*rent value. The specimens about to 
be described, and indeed most of the skeattse, are of very 
debased artj and the production, probably, of several distinct 
invading colonies in difi^rent parts of the island, and some, 
perhaps, of foreign importation. The art displayed on them 
became gradually worse after their first appearance ; and one 
case may be mentioned, in which a head, tolerably distinct 
at first, became graduaUy so barbarous as to be mistaken by 
some for a distinctly different type — ^the wolf and twins; 
the whole connecting series may be seen in the !&ritish 
Museum, shov^ing the gradual but well-eonnected links of 
decadence. Buding and Clarke have stated that the art 
exhibited on coins, up to the eighth century, was not better 
on the continent than in England, but I could point out 
several examples of far superior art of a Boman character in 
Erance during that period. Many skeattse are without 
inscription at all, others unintelligible — some without 
Christian emblems, oth^*s vdth ; but the following are a few 
of the most striking types, which will serve to give a general 
idea of the whole : — ^firstj a profile surrounded by a pretty 
interlaced band ; the reverse, the Christian emblems of tb^ 
dove and cross. Another has curious but unintelligibly oma* 

* A work bas been published (by Mr. Till), witb a view to trace tb« 
direct descent of the Bnglish silver penny, from the lU^maa denarius, thcoogh 
the ceiiMLQf the lovtr-enifiiM and the akeaitaN 



COINS 01" THJ9 SAXOI^ HSfTABCHT. 411 

malted devices on both sidesu Another type is a decided 
copy of a commom coin of Constantine, showiag Somulus 
aootd Bemus suckled by the wolf. The one engraved above 
(page 409) is an interesting specimen, bearing a name, and 
Bupposed to be one of Ethelbert the Eirst, king of Kent^ 
wmeh would place it in the sixth century, and before the 
introdnotion of Christianity ; indeed, it bears no Christian 
emblem ; and th^ debased form of a head on the obverse is 
80 rude^ that few would be able to recognise it as such. 



COINS OF THE SAXON HEPTARCHY^THB SERIES 

OF SILVER PENNXJBS« 
' (8m Flate IX.) 

Knsros or kent. 

With the coins of tiie he]ptarchy commences the interesting 
series of silver pennies, which formed the only money of the 
country (with occasional halfpennies) up to the reign of 
Edward IIL The word penny is variously spelt, as peneg, 
penine, i&c, and some d^ive it from the Lalin word pendo^ 
to weigh : others consider that peeubia is the parent word. 
It was intended that a pound, Tower, should make 240 
pennies, giving 24 grains each, but this weight was gradually 
decreased by the suceessive princes ; 22^ grains being after- 
wards deemed full weight, and twenty grains was about the 
average weight in the reign of Henry III. : their standard 
purity, seems to have been II oz. 2 dwts. fine, and 11 dwts* 
alloy. The name of the moneyer, or mint master of the dis- 
trict in which 1^ piece was coined, was now generally placed 
on the reverse, with some ornament. The long series of coins 
of the heptarchy are perhaps the most interesting of any 
monuments of the period, remaining to us. Of those of the 
kings of Kent, the silver skeatta of Ethelbert the First, 
previously alluded to, is the earliest example which, having 
no symbol of the cross in any part, is presumed to have been 
coined before 606 a.d., the period of the introduction of Chris- 
tianity. It has on one side ETHILIDj smrounded with three 
circles of beading, and on the otiier the debased head» 
fcarmedy supposed to be a " bicA " or " wol£" Only a few 



412 xnros or kebcia. 

impresBions of this rare coin are known : the British Mufieum 
has one. No other we'll authenticated Kentish coin occurs 
till after 725 a.d., Ethelbert II. A coin of his exists, 
supposed to be a penny — ^if so, it is the first known silver 
penny ; the inscription is ETHILBERHT II., but its genuine- 
ness has been doubted. The next existing Kentish coins 
are the silver pennies of Eadbert, from 794i to 798 a.d., the 
earliest known, with the exception of the previous doubtful 
coin. One of the Eadbert pennies has the king's name and 
title REX in three lines, and on the reverse the moneyer's 
name, with an ornament. Its authenticity is undouoted. 
The pennies of Eadbert have the name of the moneyer 
lAENBERHT on the reverse. 

The coins of Cuthred, from 798 to 805 a.d., have the 
king's bust, and Cudred Bex Cant, for Cantisd (Kent) ; 
reverse, a cross, with a small wedge in each angle, and the 
moneyer's name. All the coins of Cuthred are pennies, and 
there are four types of them, all rare, except those with the 
head, the style of which has evidently been suggested by 
debased Eoman coins. 

The coins of Baldred, the last king of Kent, who was 
subdued by Egbert, 823 a.d., have the king's bust rudely 
done, and Baldred Bex. Cant. : the reverse, in the centre, 
has DRVR CITS, for Dorovemia Civitas (Canterbury), this 
being the earliest known example of a Saxon coin with the 
place of mintage upon it. There are other types of the 
coins of this king, but all rare. 

A gold triens has been found, with the inscription 
DOROVERNIS CIVITA, which, from the spelling, is thought 
to be of the seventh century, and if geume, is a proof that 
the triens of the Merovingian princes of France was imitated 
in Kent, though, perhaps, very few were issued. 

KINGS OP HEBGIA. 

Of the South and .West Saxons no well authenticated 
coins have been found, but of the kings of Mercia a fine 
series exists, all silver pennies. 

There are coins of Eadwald (716 a.d.), supposed by some 
to be the same as Ethelwald. The silver pennies of 
Ofa (757 A.D.) are among the most interesting and 



jaSQB OF HXBCIA. 413 

beautiful in the Saxon series ; the^ heads are much better 
executed, with some attention to variety of relief: and the 
designs on the reverses very elegant and various for the 
period. It is supposed that his residence at Eome, in the 
pontificate of Adrian, possibly bringing back Italian artists, 
may account for this superiority. The inscriptions generally 
read, Offa Bex Merciorum. The different money ers'. names 
on his coins . amount to above 40. There are also silver 
pennies, but rare, supposed to be of Oynetluyth, the queen 
of Offa, having Cynethryth Eegina on the reverses. They 
are evidently of tne same period as those of Offa. On the' 
coins of Offa the moneyer's name sometimes occupies the 
obverse, but the king is then transferred to the reverse, and 
never omitted. Egbert, the son of Offa, 796 a.d., survived 
his father only six months, yet there are pennies with his 
name having the same moneyers' names as those of his father. 

Coenwlf, 796 to 818 a.d. The pennies of this king 
present a great variety of types, evidently copied from those 
of Offa, but becoming graaually more and more rude in 
execution. Ceolwlf, 819 a.d., succeeded, and reigned only 
a year. There is great difficulty in separating his coins 
from those of Ciolwf, 874 a.d. Of Beomwulf, who reigned 
from 820 to 824, a few pennies are known, but they are very 
rare. Of Ludica, from 824 to 825, and Wiglaf, from 825 to 
839, the coins are very barbarous, and those of "Wiglaf 
extremely rare; the specimen in the Museum was once sold for 
121. Those of Berthulf, 839 to 852 a.d., which are much in 
the same style as those of Wiglaf, are not so rare ; and those 
of Burgred, 852 to 874 a.i)., the last of the Mercian princes, 
who reigned two-and-twenty years, are more numerous than 
any of his predecessors. When driven from his dominions 
by the Danes he escaped to the continent, and retired to 
Kome, where he died, and was interred in St. Mary's church 
belonging to the English school there. The coins of Mercia 
had gradually declined from the reign of Offa, and Burgred's 
are the most rude of the series. 

On the expulsion of Burgred, his minister Ciolyrf seized 
the reigns of government, but held them but for a short 
time, when his expulsion terminated the independence of 
Mercia. Nevertheless, he struck coins, which I have alluded 
to as being confounded with those of Ceolwlf, but, with the 



'414 KINGS OF !FH£ BA91? dLSmLES. 

exception of the name, thej resemble much mote tkose of 
Burgred. 

ML these silver pennies are intended to \f3eigh about 22| 
grains. 

The discorery of an Arabic marcus, with the name of Offi* 
in addition to the Arabic legends, would seem to pro^ that 
in his reign the Arabic gold of Spain circulated in E^land, 
and was occasionally copied, with only the addition of the 
name of the English prince. The Arabic inscription runs, 
** In the name of God this dinar was coined in the year 
657 ;" in the centre is " Mahomet is the apostle of God,'* 
written in three lines, between which are the wo^riis Offa B«a:. 
The coin is possibly a copy, by a workman of Ofia, of an Arabic 
marcus. Offa promised the Pope's L^ate S96 gold marcuses 
every year — ^tms coiu maybe one of these promi&edmMrouws. 



KINOS 0:B> VS.E BAST AKaCBS. / 

The earliest coins of the East Angles are those of Secmna, 
about A.D. 750, contemporary with Offa, King of Mercia : his 
coins were of the form, size, and appearance of skeottse, «nd 
the King's name is sometimes written in Eoman and some- 
times in Runic characters. They read Beonna Eex ; on the 
reverse is the name of Efe, the rooneyer. There is a coin in 
the Museum with the name of Beonna on one side, and that 
of Ethelred, who succeeded him, on the other ; feom which 
it would seem that he had previously occupied 4he throne 
conjointly with Beonna. The history of the Skwst Angles, in 
the early part of the ninth century, is very obscure, but 
there appears some ground for considering Ethelw»ard,* of 
whom some coins exist, to have been a prince of this dis- 
trict: there is also a unique coin of Beorthric,'a prince of 
whom no record exists, and who is probably one of the 
unknown kings of the East Angles. Eadmimd, 855 to 
870 A.D., was murdered by the Danes, and afterwards 
honoured with canonisation, and is commonly caUed St, 
Eadmund. He is generally styled Rex, or >Rex A. or An>, 
and eighteen of his moneyers' names -are known.* Ome of 



KlSaS OF irOBTHlTMBEBULVrD — THE 8TY0AS. 416 

his coins hns the natne of Eadmund with the title of Bex, 
and on A in the centre, and on the reverse the monejrer'-s 
name and a cross, «&c., ^c. 

After the death of Eadmund, Ghithinin, (a Dane) wws 
placed on the throne, who being conyerted to Christianity, 
was baptised by the name of Ethelstan, 878 a.d. His name 
is generally found on his coins without title, but Bometimes 
with Re or Bex ; on one coin, which is very rare, Eec Ang. 
(for Anglic) appears on the reverse, instead of the moneyer's 
name, which is the first time the title of " King of England'* 
appears on a coin (unless St. Eadmund's Bex A. may be 
sdso so mterpreted) : for though Egbert, King of the West 
Saxons, subdued nearly the whole of South Britain between 
800 and 887 A.n., and gave the name of Dngland to his 
territories, it does not appear on his coins. 

Only one prince, Eohric, succeeded Ethelstan in East 
Anglia, and there are no coins known of his reign ; he was 
expelled by his subjects, and his dominions added to l^se 
of Eadward the elder, the son of ..Sll&ed the Great. 



KUTQS OF *»r0E1»HirKgEBLAKl>-^HJl STTCA8. 

The principal distinctive feature in the Northumbrian coins 
is their metal ; it is commonly termed copper, but is in ^ct 
a composition, whether accidental or intentional is unknown, 
contaming in 100 parts, 60 to 70 of copper, 20 to 25 of zinc, 
5 toll of silver, with minute portions both of gold, lead, and 
tin. These coins were termed styims, a name supposed to be 
derived £pom the Saxon «^^, ''^minute part, two being 




StyCftbf Aleht«d. 



equal to one farthing ; small money must have been wanted 
everywhere in times when an ox was sold for thirty pennies, 
and A shEoep for oneshiUiag, as was the case in the reign of 



416 THE STTCAB. 

^thelstan ; yet it appears that these stycas were con&ied to 
Northumberland, where, however, they formed the great 
bulk of the early coinage, but there were also skeattsB of the 
usual purity of silver, and eventually silver pennies of the 
same weight and purity as the Saxon money of the other 
parts of the island. One would expect in this, then 
remote region, to find a greater degree of barbarism in the 
execution of the coins, but in the earlier portion of the 
period during which coins exist, which extends from 670 to 
945 A.D., some of them are quite equal to those of more 
southern districts, with the sole exception of the coins of 
Offa; and perhaps we need not be surprised, when we 
consider the monastic establishments of the period in that 
part of the island, within the waUs of which, great artistic 
skill was exhibited as early as the seventh century in such 
wonderful works of illumination as those contained in the 
magnificent MS. known as the " Durham Book." A series 
of Northumbrian coins exists, occupying a great portion of 
the period above named, but to some of them, from the 
blundering in the writing of the names on the coins, and 
other difficulties, it is not easy to assign a proper place. 

The earliest known coin of this series is a styca ot 
Ecgfirith, who reigned from 670 to 685 a.d., and was cele- 
brated for his patronage of the Church, and religious estab- 
lishments for desseminating the light of truth, a character- 
istic of his reign which seems to have been symbolised on 
this remarkable coin, which bears a cross, surrounded by 
"Bcgfiid Eex," whilst the reverse has another cross from 
which emanate rays of light surrounded by the word " Lux " 
(light). Aldfrid reigned from 685 to 705 a.d., and there 
are two coins, one a skeatta of silver, and the other a styca, 
which are supposed to be of his coinage. 

Of Eadbert, from 737 to 758 a.d., coins are now known, 
which were formerly assigned to Ecgberht, King of Kent. 

Of Alchred, 765 to 774, there is a supposed coin, and in 
the list of Northumbrian kings the name of Elfwald occurs, 
between 779 and 788, to whom Mr, Hawkins is induced 
to attribute three coins of difierent readings, all evidently 
corrupt and blundered (as is frequently the case on coins of 
this period). One is in the collection of Mr. Cuff, and 
reads E^FVAiD; the L*8 are reversed, but by turning them 



THE 8TXCAS. 417 

we obtain "Elfvald.'* The other is in the possession of 
Mr. Brummel, and reads VALD^ELA : one-half of this word 
has the F upside down, and reads backwards : if we read 
from right to left, first correcting the F, we get ALFE, 
and then taking the other half of the word, from left 
to right, we obtain, by the double process, ALEFVALD. 
The engravers of the dies, or rather punches, could not, 
most likely, either read or write, but copied the cha- 
racters mechanicaUy. The engraving having to l)e made 
backward^ as on a seal, in order that the impression may be 
read forward, and by workmen ignorant of their meaning, 
Buch blunders may be easily accounted for. The coin bearing 
this curiously blundered inscription is a styca. 

Heardulf reigned from 794 to 806 a.d., but no coins ot 
his were found till 1833, when a hoard of (8000) Northum- 
brian coins was discovered in digging an unusually deep 
grave in Hexham churchyard, Durham. They were con- 
tained in a bronze vessel, and were all stycas, consisting of 
2000 of Eadred, 2000 of Ethelred, 100 of Eedulph, 100 
Archbishop Eanbald, 800 Archbishop Vigmund, a few of 
Heardulf, and about 3000 more which were dispersed with- 
out examiuation. It seems probable that they were buried 
not later than 844, as there were no coins of later date, 
Tmless those unintelligible ones, which some have supposed, 
without much ground, to be of Aella. 

Alfwold succeeded Heardulf, but we have no coins of his 
reign : he was succeeded by Eanred, from 808 to 840 a.d., 
of whom the stycas are numerous, presenting sixty or 
seventy moneyers' names. There is also a silver penny, by 
some attributed to him, but Mr. Hawkins wishes on several 
grounds to assign it to some other prince of the same name. 

Of Ethelred, from 840 to 848 a.d., there are stycas 
cliffering slightly in the disposition of the minor ornaments 
^m those of his predecessors. These principally occur in 
oonjunction with the name of the moneyer Leofdegn, who 
seems to have aimed at a little more embellishment than his 
predecessors and cotemporaries. There was in the collection 
of Mr. Brummel before it was dispersed, a coin of fine silver 
of this king, in all other respects resembling his usual 
stycas; but such pieces, of which there are examples of 
different styles and periods, can only be regarded as essays 

B B 



418 THE STTCAS. 

or caprices of some one engaged in the Mint, and not as 
forming part of the general currency. 

Of Eedulf, who usurped the throne for a few mcmths only, 
during the reign of 3Ethelred, there are some coins in 
existence of the usual character. Of Osbercht, 848 to 
867, A.D., who succeeded -Sthelred, there are a few atycas, 
but very rare. 

Of Aella, who reigned about this period, there are no 
coins, uiiless those unintelligible ones found among the 
Hexham hoard before-mentioned should prore to be his. 

Eegnald landed in Northumbria, 912 a.d, and being 
successful in estabKshing himself, reigned till 044, His 
coins are very rare, and interesting on account of the 
Eoman title rex being abandoned by him for the Saxon 
ctmtmc. The one in the collection of the Dean of 
St. Patrick's, being broken, shows only JBcy, the ndld being 
broken away, but the word ctmunc is perfect. The reverse 
shows a trefoil or triple knot, perhaps an early symbol of 
the Trinity; it is of the size and form of the Saxon 
penny. 

Amaf (called king of Ireland) next invaded Northumbria 
in 937, and, though at first defeated, eventually established 
his power, being elected in 942; he was overthrown, 
and defeated by Edmund in 945. His coins are silver 
pennies, and very rare ; some of them have the Danish 
raven, the badge of their enchanted standard, and on the 
reverse a small cross, and may perhaps be considered 
one of the earliest examples of an approach to an heraldic 
cognizance.* 

In 927, Eric, the son of Harold !N'orway, had been placed 
by Athelstan (grandson of Alfred the G-reat) as his fendatoiy 
long in Northumberland, but his authority was not acknow- 
ledged tiU elected by the Northumbrians themselves in 949, 
and in two years afberwards he was expelled and slain, and 
is considered the last king of Northumbria, Eadred having 
succeeded in fi:nally adding that district to his dominions. 
The coins of Erie are silver pennies : he is styled Eric Bex, 
with scnnetimes N for Northumbria, and a sword like that 
on the coins of St. Peter, next described. 

* Hawldat' BnUsk Silv«r Cans. 



COINS OX* BieiHTASIBS OV THE 0HT7BCH. 419 



COIITS OF BiXETTS. 

This seems to be the proper place to speak of the coins 
of saints, or rather coins bearing their names, wjiich were 
struck by particular abbots in virtue of authority granted 
for that purpose. Those of St. Peter have been caUed Peter 
pence, and erroneously supposed to have been coined for the 
purpose of paying to Eome the tribute which bore that 
name. The coins bearing the name of St. Peter are silver 
pennies, and were coined at Tork, as the legend on the 
reverse is always Eboraci (York) more or less abbreviated. 
The style and execution of the sword on the obverse being 
precisely similar to that on the coins of Eric, refers these 
coins at once to that period. 

Tbose of St. Martin are similar, with the exception of 
having ^* Lincoia civit" (city of Lincoln) on the reverse : 
thov are undoubtedly of the same period. 

Those of St. Edmund have no place of mintage : they are 
evidently earlier than the time of Edward the Confessor, and 
must be placed at latest with those of St. Peter and St. 
Martin, and possibly refer to St. Eadmund Bex, of the East 
Angles, 855 to 870, a. n. 



OOIKS OP DIGlJITjUtlES OP THE CHrSCH. 

The archbishops, bishops, and abbots, had authority, soon 
after tbe firm establishment of Christianity in the island, to 
strike money and enjoy the profits of mintage. But arch- 
bishops alone had the privilege of stamping the coins with 
their portraits and names ; a privilege withdrawn by Athelstan 
in 92i. The ecclesiastical coinage after this period is only 
distinguished from the royal by peculiar mint marks, and 
oven these terminated in the reign of Henry VIII^ The coins 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury are pennies. 

The pennies of Jaenbert, who held the see of Canterbury 
from 76B to 790, have a flower surrounded by lAKNBRHT. 
AREP., and on the reverse Offa Bex, from which it would 
appear that they had in some way joint jurisdictions. 

B B 2 



420 C0IK8 or THE MOiriLBCHS OF ENGLAND. 

A coin of Ceolnoth, who lield the see of Canterbury from 
830 to 870, has the front face of the Archbishop, with his 
name, and on the reverse a cross with "civitas" in the 
angles; the legend, DOROVERNIA* (Canterbury). 

The coins of the Archbishops of York were stycasf till 
they became by the edict of Athelstan assimilated to the 
coins of the realm ; those of Ulphere or Vulphere, who held 
this see from 854 to 892, are the last of the episcopal mint 
which bear the navne of the archbishop. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

COINS OP THE SOLE MONARCHS OF ENGLAND. 

FROM BGBEBT TO EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. 

The first sole monarch, as Egbert (Ecgbeorght) has been 
termed, became king of the West Saxons in the year 800, 
and gradually subduing nearly the whole of South Britain, 
gave the name of England to his territories. But BurCTed, 
king of Mercia, reigned as late as 874, in the time of Alfred 
the Great. Ethelstan was also king of the East Angles 
late in the reign of Alfred — as late as 890 ; and Eric, king 
of Northumberland, though tributary to the grandson of 
Alfred in 951, might even till then be considered as holding 
separate jurisdiction; and it was not till Eadred, another 
grandson of Alfred, who succeeded his brothers Athelstan 
and Eadmund, that Northumbria was annexed, and not till 
Edgar that the whole kingdom may be said to have beeu 
firmly united und^ one monarch. But having already 
spoken of the kings of the heptarchy separately, I may 
henceforth, for the sake of convenience of arrangement, 
treat of the coins of Egbert and his successors, as those 
of sole monarchs of England. 

The coins of Egbert do not differ in general from those of 
the kings of the heptarchy; some have the king's profile 

* There are also coins of Yulfred, 803 to 830 ; Plegmund, 891 to 923 ; 
and Ethered, 871 to 890. 

f There are also stycas of Eanbald, 796 ; and Yigmund, 851. 




corsrs oi* the hokabchs ot xiroLAin). 421 

witk his .name, as " Bcgbeorht Eex," with a cross and the 
moneyer's name on the reyerse; others have a cross with 
his n/me and title, and on the reverse a different cross with 
the monejer's name ; some have a monogram supposed to 
be "Dorob. C." (city of Canterbury), and others " Saxo" 
or " Saxon," with the king's name and title as legend. 

Ethelwtl (837 to 856) succeeded his father 837 a.d. ; but 
his brother, ^thelstan, took a part of the territory ; namely, 
Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Surrey. On his death they reverted 
to Ethelwfl ; so that some of his coins exhibit the legend, Bex. 
Cant. Saxoniorum, and sometimes Occidentalium Saxoniorum. 
Canterbury is the only mint named on the coins of this king. 
His portrait is generally surrounded with "Edelwfl Eex," and 
the reverse of the coins has a double cross, with the 
moneyer's name. But there are many varieties, iu 
which the small crosses are of a different design, &c. ; 
and some have the monogram of Christ in the centre 
of the reverse. 

Ethelbald (855 to 860). A coin of this king is said to 
have been in existence, and there is an engraviug of it, 
made under doubtM authority. But Dr. Coombe affirmed, 
that the coin reaUy was once in the collection of Mr. Austin. 

Ethelbeabht, second son of Ethelwfl (856 to 866) . Sixty 
varieties of the moneyers' names upon his coins are known. 
Coins of this king, have his bust, with the legend " Edel- 
bearht Bex," and on the reverse the letters of the money er's 
name, arranged in the angles of a cross. 

Ethelbed (866 to 871) deprived ^thelbearht's children 
of their inheritance, and ascended the throne himself. His 
coins are generally light, and of impure silver, and somewhat 
resemble those of Burgred, king of Mercia. * 

Aelfiubd the G-beat (871 to 901) was the younger brother 
of ^theked, and sugceeded him. His portrait is very rudely 
execdted on his fii^t coins, and in the same style as those 
of his predecessors; but others of later date have the 
portrait in a somewhat improved style, and on the reverse a 
large monogram of "London," occupying the whole field. 
Gn some the word " Omsnatbrd," for Oxford, occurs, 
forming, with the kiag's name, three lines. There is also a 

♦ Hawkins* British Silver Coins. 



422 oonra or the Kosi^ioas 07 utolahd. 

Bmall coin of hie, appeariog to be a half-peimy. A vetj 
peculiar piece is also in existence, weighing 162 grams, 
instead of about 20 grains, the avenge weight of his pennies. 
It most, ho'wever, be isther considered in the light of a 
medal than a coin.* 



BUtcr Poitij or SUKd the Gnat. 

Edwasd the xij)EK (901 to 925) succeeded Us faljier, 
jElfred. His coins are very numerous, exhibiting above 
eightv vaiieties of moneyera' names ; both pennies and half- 
pennies of his reign occur ; the latter, nowever, s^dom 
weigh more ^an fiv>m seven to nine graioa. Hia heaj 
^pears on his coin in a rude but somewhat Roman style, 
and the reverses are very various, some with a building, of 
too coarse execution to be interesting as a record of any 
period of iH«hitecture, and others with a large hand ex- 
pressed by raised outlines. Some have a hand issuing from 
a cloud, with " Eadweard Eex," and a small cross in the 
centre, or " Eborace, cv." (city of YoA). The buildings on 
the reverses of these coins are very much in the style of 
some that are found on late Boman coins, perticulariy Utoee 
of Coustontine, thought to be English, from having p. LON. 
on the reverse, which may perhaps be read " Fecunia 
Londiniensis." 

jEthelstam (925 to 941) succeeded his father (see Plate 
IX). He paid considerable attrition to hia coinage, deter- 
mining, unoug other regulatioDs made at a grand synod, at 
which Wul^e[me,archbishc^ of Canterbury, and all the wise 
and powerful of the kingdom were assemblud, that the whole 
coinage of the realm should be alike, and therefore withdrew 
&»n ai«bbishops, or others, the privilege of having their por- 
traits or names on tJie coins which they minted ; and .be tiw> 

* la the poMM^on ofUr. Girtiud. 



COINS OF THE MOJTAXCfftfi OF EK^LAIfD. 423 

established plaoes of coinage at a numb^ of the then prineipaL 
towns. The ecclesiasticaJ. and royal mints have, vcom this 
period, no distiaetiye mark till about Edward L, when those 
priyHeged to mint adopted mint marks, euch as initial letters 
or badges, by which their /coins can be distinguished as late 
as the time of Henry YIII. Athelstan, however, did not 
interfere with the money er" 8 name, which still continued on the 
leYerses of the coins, and from this period more frequently 
accompanied by th6 name of the place of mintage, occa- 
sionally preceded by the word " Urbs," instead of " Civitas." 
He is gene3*ally atyled Bex, sometimes Eex Sazorum, but 
fiiequ^dtly Bex totius Britannia ; showing that Egbert and 
his descendants have not only been styled sole '^ monarchs 
of all Britain " by subsequent historians, but, that it was a 
tii^e of their own assumption: indeed, so great an event was 
the consolidation of the. heptarchy considered, that more 
than one of the British monarchs had thoughts of assuming 
iiie title of emperor (imperator), but abandoned the idea in 
deference to a contrary wish of the Pope. There are found 
on the coins of Athelatan about sixty Tariations of names of 
mints, and full one hundred of moneyers' names, and the 
reverses of some have rude buildings, like those of his father. 
Some little- confusion occurs as to some coins formerly 
attribnted to Athelstan, the (self-styled) sole monardi, which 
Mr. Hawkins is inclined to attribute to jy^lstan of the East 
Angles. 

EAJ>Min!rD (941 to 9^). His coins are similar in general 
character to those of his brother Athelstan, but none have 
been found having buildings on the reverses, like those of 
Us two predecessors. His portrait has sometimes a helmet, 
and B(Hnetimes a crown. The place of mintage is gen^itaUy 
omitted on his coins ; some of them fiare been mistaken for 
those of St. Edmund. 

EjlBBEd (946 to 955), another brother of Atl^lstan. The 
types of his coins are similar to those of his immediate 
piedeoessor. They have " Eadred Bex ;" and on the reverse 
the moneyer's name. Norwich is the only ascertained plaee 
of mintage in this reign. 

. EiJ)wio (955 to 959). The son of Eadmund succeeded 
his uncle : his portraits have the name and title with 
"Eadwig Bex;" the reverses have only the moneyer's name 



424 COINS OF THE MOKABCHS OX* EKGLAITO. 

and a small cross. The heads on the coinage of this reign 
approach the style of the continental art of the period more 
^nearly than any other specimens of the series. 

EiJ>aAB (958 to 975) had been elected to, or rather had 
usurped, during his brother's life, a portion of the country, 
and on his death became sole monarch ; the first Saxon king 
who has a real claim to that title. He renewed the edict of 
w£thelstan respecting the uniformity of the coinage, and 
also enacted, in addition, that none should refuse it, an edict 
rendered necessary by the clipping of the pennies, which 
had reduced them to half their value. St. <J)unstan refused 
to celebrate mass on Whitsunday, until three moneyers, who 
had falsified the coin, had undergone their punishment- 
loss of the right hand. The coins of Eadgar present few 
distinctive ch^acters from those of his predecessors, and he 
is styled simply ^^ JS«ar," but sometimes the letters TO. BI. 
occur, which may be "Totius BritannisB." His coins are 
numerous ; the moneyer's name frequently occurs without 
the place of mintage. 

Ei>W£ABD the Martyr (975 to 978), son of Edgar, after 
reigning three years, was murdered at the age of 17, by 
command of his step-mother, Elfrida. JS'otwithstanding mB 
early death and short reign, his coins are common, but they 
apnear somewhat ruder in execution than those of his 
father. He is styled ''Bex Anglorum," the title being 
more or less abbreviated on the coins. 

JEthelbbd, the son of Elfrida (978 to 1016). This w^ 
prince succeeded to the throne at the early age of 10, and 
the improvement in the coinage must probably be attributed 
to Dunstan, who, tired of the politics^ intrigues which had 
occupied too much of his earlier career, devoted himself in 
his declining years to those arts in which he is known to 
have been a great proficient. On the coins of this reign 
the king is represented in a sort of mailed armour peculuir 
to the period, and wearing a crowned helmet, partially 
of mail, but protected by a longitudinal ornamented bar ; 
the whole sufficiently well executed to form an interesting 
record of the arms of the period. The reverse is one of 
the first examples of the voided cross, which, with the addition 
of the martlet in the angles, formed subsequently the device 
of some of the coins of Edward the Confessor, and con- 



COIKS OF THE KOKABCHS 01* XITGLA^D. 425 

fddered 1^ some to be his armorial bearmgs. A sceptre also 
appears K>r the first time, on some of the coins of Ethelred, 
in &>nt of the profile, which in subsequent reigns became 

Ceral. There is much controversy respecting some coins 
ring this king's name, which have a strong resemblance 
to some earlj Irish coins, and they are consequently supposed 
to have been coined by iEthelrea, but in Dublin, his lather 
having possessed himself of a lar^e portion of Ireland. 

EsMinn) Ibokside, the son of ^thelred (1016 to 1017). 
On the death of his &rth^ this prince found the kingdom in 
the greatest confusion from the contest with the Danes, who 
had landed in 1013, under Sweyn, and whose son, the 
youthful Cnut, now disputed the kingdom with the successor 
of jEthelred. It was eventually agreed to divide it ; but 
Edmund dying in 1017, Cnut became sole monarch. Of 
Edmund Ironside no coins have been discovered. 

CisrrT (1017 to 1035). His coins are very numerous, 
above 340 variations of moneyers' names being known, and 
they beat the names of more places of mintage than the 
coins of any other reign. They resemble, in execution, those 
of ^thelred, and some are supposed to commemorate the 
peace established with Edmund Ironside in 1016 having the 
word *^ Facx " (peace) in the angles of a voided cross on the 
reverse. Coins have been found, but they are very rare, 
on which Cnut is described as '' Bex Danorum," but they 
were of coiu*se coined in Denmark. There are coins of his, 
also, which have the name of Dublin on the reverse ; which 
proves that he also held in subjection a portion of Ireland. 

Habold I. (1035 to 1040). His coms resemble closely 
those of his father, and those of ^thelred. They have his 
portrait in a sort of mail armour, with a sceptre, and 
"Harold Eex ;" the reverse being the voided cross, &c. 

Habthagkvt (1040 to 1042) was elected king of England 
on the death of his brother. English and Danish coins 
(both rare) of this king are found, and it is difficult to 
separate them, as there was a place of mintage in Denmark, 
the name of which cannot be distinguished from London. 
The reverse has sometimes a cross, formed of four ovals, 
similar to crosses on some of the coins of his father. He is 
merely styled " Bex," without any reference to Denmark or 
England. 



426 COIK8 OF THE MOITAmCHB OV EVaiJLKI). 

EDW1.BD THE CoiTFESSOB (1042 to 1066) . On the death of 
Harthacnut, who perished horn excess of gluttonj, thoroughly 
detested for his crueliy bj the whole nation, the Saxon line 
was restored; and the throne reverted to Eadward, the 
surviving son of ^thelred. His coins are yerj yaiious ; on 
some of them the head is bearded, possibly as intimating his 
coming to the throne at a late period oi life— a somewhat 
unusual circumstance in those tunes, or possibly from, his 
wearing a beard, in fuMlment of some yow or penance 
connected with his well-known deyotional character, to which 
he owed the cognomen of '^ Confessor." His pennies yaiy 
ezceedbigly in size, &om half an inch to an inch, but appear 
to have been all of the same nominal value, every intermediate 
gradation occurring without any regularity.^ It appears that 
halfpence and farthings were formed at this time oy cutting 
the pennies into two or four, as parcels of coins have been 
found so cut, which had evid^itly never been in circulation, 
seeming to prove that they were so issued from the Mint. 
The coins of this king exiiibit, for the first time on the 
Anglo-Saxon coinage, a full figure of the sovereign, seated 
on a throne, holdmg the orb and sceptze ; this device ia 
surrounded with EADPRD. REX ANGLO, for " Eadward Eex 
Anglorum," the Saxon p being used for w in Edward. The 
reverse bears the voided cross with martlets in the angels, 
called the Confessor's arms. On coins with more usual 
style of portrait the head is generally bearded, with a 
helmet ; and on these there is a voided cross, and the place 
of mintage, on the reverse. In a communication, by Sir H. 
Ellis, to the Numismatic Society, a hal^nny also of his 
reign is mentioned. Edward is supposed to have first 
introduced £rom Normandy, where he had long resided in 
exile, the oppressive custom of frequent re-coinages, each 
alteration causing a great loss to the nation and great gain 
to the prince ; a practice abundantly abused by the first 
sovereigns after the Norman Conquest. 

There is a gold coin of this period termed a gold penny, 
now in the cabinet of Mr. Spurrier, which is ccHisidered 
genuine ; and which may prove that, although silver pennies 
formed the bulk of the coins, yet a few gold coins ware 

* Hawkins. , 



COUrS OF THE XOKABCHB OF SSfeLlND. 427 

possibly issued, and if so, they are the laat gold issued in 
Western Europe, till the reign of Henry III. 

Habold II. (1066) . A son of the powerfiil Earl Godwin, 
whose daughter the late king had married, now usurped the 
throne. His father had married a daughter of Cnut, so that 
he had some pretension to the crown through the Danish 
line, and, overlodking the claim of the infant iSilgar Atheling, 
he assumed the title of king. His reign terminated nine 
months after his accession, in the battle-field of Hastings ; 
but though he reigned only nine months, these are coins that 
may undoubtedly be aecnbed to him, as they have been 
discovered in parcels which, contained no others except those 
of William the Conqueror and Edward the Confessor; 
otherwise they might have been attributed to Harold I. 
They exhibit the profile of the king:, with a double-arched 
cro^ (like that on some of the S of his predecessors), 
and a sceptre. The reyerses have the word ''Fax," the 
meaning of which is thus explained by Buding, (quoting 
[North, who states that the same word occurs on a coin of 
Edward the Confessor, struck, he thinks, in commemoration 
of a peace, or compact, made with Earl Grodwin (Harold's 
father), by which that &mily was to succeed to the throne — 
the word was also adopted, in rivalry, by William of Normandy, 
in token of his own alleged compact with Edward, for his 
succession to the throne. It was continued by Bufus, 
probably with the same feeling. The portrait of Harold is 
represented bearded, like that of Edward the Confessor; 
imitated, possibly, to convey an idea of his being the adopted 
successor, as beafds were not worn generally at the period, 
but merely ^a moustache on the upper lip, which the imme- 
diately succeedins^ Norman coins represent very clearly.. 
Hie coins of Hiux>Td close tiie Anglo-Saxon series. 



42d COINS OF THE AXGLO-KOBMAIT EXETaS. 



CHAPTEE XXX. 

COINS OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN KINGS. 

(See Plate IX.) 

The great political cliaiiges following the Norman conquest 
might be expected greatly to affect the coinage in some 
way — probably by the introduction of gold coins, as used, 
though sparingly, by continental nations. But such was 
not the case. In Anglo-Saxon times the gold* bezants 
(Byz<mtiumB) of Constantinople circulated in the country, 
but no attempt had been made to supplant them by a 
national coin, unless in a few isolated and unimportant 
experiments, as referred to in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor. The only changes now made were those affecting 
imctginary coins (money of account) or rather, denominations 
for certam sums, of which no positive coin existed: such as 
the mark, &c., &c., and the mancus, which was also a nominal 
sum rather than coin, though we have seen that the Arabic 
mcmcus was positively imitated by Offa, but the imitation 
soon disappeared, leaving merely its name and value, as a 
means of defining larger sums than it was convenient to 
estimate by the small silver corn of the land. The mancits 
expressed a value equal to thirty pennies, or six shillings of 
five pence each ; the then value of the shilling. 

The shilling — ^the Saxon scil, or scilling — ^was equally an 
imaginary corn. By this term, the Saxons at one time 
intended five pennies, and at another four. William I. 
settled the Saxon shilling at four pennies, but also esta- 
blished the Norman shilling at twelve pennies, the value 
which eventually prevailed; yet no positive corn of that 
denomination and value appeared till the reign of Henry 
VII. The term shilling has been favoured with many 
derivations ; some trace it to the Latin siciHcus, which 
signified a quarter of an ounce ; others to a Saxon word 
meamng a scale, or measure. 

The mark was a Danish term of computation, introduced 



COOTS OF THE AJreLO-NOBMAlT EIKGS. 429 

« 

about the time of Alfred ; it was then valued at 100 pennies, 
but, on the coming of the Normans, when their shilling of 
twelve pennies was introduced, the mark was valued at 
160 pennies. 

The pound was also what might be termed an imaginaiy 
coin, but referred principally to weight. The pounds were 
of gold or sHver, each meaniag a nominal value in money 
according to the current coin that could be made of the 
pound weight of either metal. 

These imaginary coins are termed " moneys of account," 
and it was possibly to represent such imaginary sums, when 
larger than easily represented by current coin, that the 
Clunese invented their paper-money, alluded to by Mande- 
ville in his travels in the 14th century. Sterling is another 
term early connected with our coinage, which soon became a 
name by which to distinguish EngUsh money on the continent. 
Walter de Pinchbeck, a monk of St. Edmondbury, in the 
time of Edward I., derives it from Easterling, a name given 
to persons who periodicaUy examined the mint and regu- 
lated the coinage — possibly at Easter; so that the term 
means money true according to the last examination : as, 
one himdred pennies, or pounds, Easterling, or sterling. 

With this short introduction, we may proceed to examine 
the actual coins of WiUiam the Conqueror and his imme- 
diate successors, which, however, like those of their Saxon 
predecessors, consist entirely of silver pennies ; for, with 
the Saxon era, copper entirely disappears for a long period. 

William I. (1066 to 1087). There is much difficulty in 
assigning the coins (all silver pennies) of the first two 
Williams to their respective issuers; and as there is a great 
variety of types of each, it would be impossible, in the com- 
pass of this work, to point out all the different characteristics, 
with the various reasons for attributing them to the one or 
the other William. Earthings and half pennies, a^ under 
Edward the Confessor, were formed'by cutting the pennies 
in two or four, on the pennies of "William I. Willem Eex 
is spelt " Pillem Eex," with the Saxon P instead of W, and 
the portrait is generally a profile, wearing a helmet, the nose 
sh^, and a moustache on the upper Hp (Plate IX.). 

William Etjits (1087 to 1100). The portraits on his 
coins have generally a fidl face, crowned, with rlLLEM EEX, 



430 coisrs oi> the Ai^eLO-KOBMAir kiifgs. 

as in the coins of bis predecessor. Tke number of coins of 
tiiese kings discovered together at Bearworih, in Hampshire, 
in 1833, exceeded 12,000 ; so that one or two of their tjpes 
which before that time were rare, have become amongst the 
most common of our early coins. 

HbkbtI. (1100 to 1135). It is on record that this 
king enacted especial regulations with regard to the 
coinage, but of what precise nature, numismatists are 
not agreed. He, however, ' abolished the oppressive tax 
called moneyage, alluded to at the close of the Saxon coinage ; 
and to prevent falsification of money, grown excessive, 
enacted that, in addition to the loss of the right hand, the 
guUty party should suffer also loss of sight, aad eren 
further mutilations. It seems pretty clear, however, from the 
evidence of the coins themselves, that, although sumamed 
Beauclerk, from his learning and accomplishments, he did 
not interest himself greatly in the art bestowed upon his 
moneys, for they are, if anything, rather more rude than 
those of his immediate predecessors. Some little disagreement 
exists as to the distinction between the coins of different 
Henrys ; but, as connected with the present king, that 
difficiilty can only exist with reference to those of his reign 
and those of Henry II. and Hemy III. ; and in most eases 
this difficulty does not appear very great, for the general 
features of the coins of Henry I. place them at once nearest 
to those of the two Williams. Another distinction appears 
to be, that the crown ornamented with the fleur-de-lis was 
not generally adopted till the reign of Stephen, and even then 
not perfectly defined ; but in the next reign (Henry II.) it 
became much better developed, and in Henry III. nearly 
perfect ; whilst on the coins of his son it assumed that 
complete and decisive design, which continued on all the 
silver coins through a long succession of reigns, even to 
Henry YII. If I am right in this conjecture, some coins 
may be removed from Henry I. to Henry II. Some have 
the inscription HNRE REX I. ; others have the name Henri, 
and some Henricus, but these latter are rare. The portrait 
is generally a &ont fstce, with a moustache. 

Stephen (1135 to 1154). It has been said that Stephen, 
and especially some of his barons (who during the civil wars 
of his reign assumed the privilege of coining money), 



COTSB OS TIED AJTeitO-NOKMAST USQB. 431 

debased the coin to a rerj great extent ; but these charges 
are not borne out by existing coins, either against the king 
himself, or his barons, of whose coins anj specimens exist. 

One of the most common of his coins shows the flower- 
de-luced crown before spoken of, and has a flag instead of 
sceptre, and, for legend, "StifneBex," which is, however, very 
Tariously spelt on different coins. A remarkable coin of his, 
struck at Derby, has " Stephanus Bex." The head is pecu- 
liarly barbarous ; but on the reyerse, the device (called the 
arms of the Confessor) is pretty well executed, ^ome have 
the name spelt " Steine." Of the money struck by influeur 
tud prsonTwbo dnrmg his reign asaiiied the p^yilege of 
coining money bearing their own ef^gy, the best known is 
that of Henry, Bishop of Winchester, the king's brother; 
it shows the bishop's hei^d crowned, and accompanied by a 
crorier, with the legend " Henricus Epc." Another specimen 
is one supposed to be a coin of Bobert of Gloucester, the 
illegitimate son of Henry I. It is the earliest example of 
an ^English coin with a figure on horseback, which is rather 
expressively though qtiaintly executed; it has the legend 
''Bobertus . . St.t." The reverse much resembles those on the 
coins of the king, and is curious on account of the ornament 
between the letters of the legend. Another coin of this class is 
one of Eustace, the son of Stephen, coined by him at York. It 
has a figure in a sort of mail armour, holding a sword, with a 
conical helmet, with the nose-piece. The legend is simply 
"Eustacius." The reverse has the place of mintage — 
Eboraci (Y<H>k), &c. Another coin of Eusta<5& has what 
has been turned a ^' lion passant" to the right, which, if 
it be so, is very interesting, as an extremely early example 
of a true heraldic device on a coin of the English series — the 
eaiiiest positive examples being, I believe, a i florin of 
gold of Edward III., which has a helmet, surmounted by a 
£on passant, guardant, and the subsequent noble of the same 
reign, with the royal arms complete. Another interesting 
coin of the reign of Stephen is one with two foil figures, 
formerly supposed to be Stephen and Henry, and struck 
in commemoration of the tr^ty of peace concluded between 
them in 1153 ; btit Mr. Hawkins considers the figures to be 
Stephen and Matilda his queen, struck when she commanded 
the army by which his liberation was effected. These two 



432 COINS OF THE ANaLO-KOBtfAlT KINGS. 

figures, though rude, are yet interesting relics of such art as 
was hestowed upon the coinage of the period. 

Henby II., (1154 to 1189), on ascending the throne 
after the death of Stephen, found himself perhaps the most 
powerful monarch of Europe. He had previously inherited 
from his father, Toiu*aine and Anjou; from his mother, 
Normandy and Maine. "With his wife he received the great 
duchy of Aquitaine, comprisiug a large portion of the 
south of France. So that the extent of his territories in 
Europe, without conquest or aggression, was greater than 
that of any succeeding English monarch, with the exception 
of the Henrys V. and VI., during the short and illusory 
possession of the French monarchy. His first coins were very 
badly executed, as appears by those found at Boyston, 
in 1721, and a large parcel (5700) found at Tealby, Lincoln, 
in 1807, which were as fresh as if just issued from the Mint. 
But in a subsequent coinage he procured a foreign artist, 
Philip Aymary, of Tours, and the execution, though still 
not good, was much better than the first coinage. The head 
has a full face, and the crown presents the fleur-de-lis pattern 
pretty perfect^ defined. The first coinage has " Henri Kex 
Angl.,'* the "Kex. Angl." variously abbreviated ; the type of 
the reverse is an ornamental cross, with crosses in the angles. 
The second coinage has the legend " Henricus Bex." Coins 
of this reign have been discovered bearing the moneyer's 
names, Acfaetil and Lantier, — ^names which occur in the 
record called the " Chancellor's roll," of the 11th Henry II., 
as moneyers at Wilton ; which decides positively these coins 
to be of this reign, and not of Henrys I. and III., and 
proves Buding and Combe to have been right in their appro- 
Eriation of thi coins of those reigns. ^ 

BicHABD I. (1189 to 1199) and John (1199 to 1216). 
Bichard I., during a reign of ten years, only passed four 
months in England, and those employed in oppression and 
-extortion; whilst his rival, Philip Aumstus of France, 
whose fame has been unfairly eclipsed by the barbarie 
valour of Bichard, was busily employed in reforming the 
French coinage, which in liis reign moved a good two 
centuries in advance of that of England. There are no 
English coins of the reign of Bichard in existence, and 
possibly none were struck ; but some of his continental 



COIKS or THE AKGLO-NOBMAir KINGS. 433 

pieces, describing him as Duke of Aquitaine, bear also his 
title of King of England. Of the disgraceful reign of John 
we haye some coins struck in Ireland, but no English ones, 
though records exist proving that coinages took place in his 
reign. He had, in his father's life, received the title of 
Lord of Ireland, and probably struck coins there imder that 
authority. 

BDenbt III. (1216 to 1272). His silver pennies have the 
king's head, with front face, and " Henricus Terci," or III., 
which fully distinguishes them from Henry II. The flower-de- 
luced crown, too, has become more perfect, and only requires 
to be thro^vTi into perspective, by lowering the flowers at 
the sides, and causing their exterior limbs to disappear, to 
make it, in all respects, like the fully developed crown of 
this style, of the next reign. The king's head is a front 
&ce, bearded, with the crown, and also exhibits, for the first 
time, the waving hair which afterwards became general. 
The reverse has a cross hotone (that is to say, with double 
limbs, each terminating in a pellet), and the old ornament 
of the three pellets renewed in the angles ; a reverse which, 
with the exception of the cross beiog made simple, now 
became the tjrpe of all the silver money up to the reign of 
Henry VII., and did not finally disappear till the end of 
James I.,, 400^ years after its adoption by Henry III. Nearly 
all the coiils.of the reigns recently described have still the 
moneyer's name and^ place of mintage on the reverse. Ending 
supposes thalf this priace issued a coinage of hal^ennies and 
£E^hings, which were afterwards recalled. 

Henry III. also issued a gold coinage, called gold pennies, 
which, however, circulated but a short time. They are of 
very superior style to the silver coins, and represent the 
king sitting on a throne, ornamented with mosaic work. 

Ending describes the gold issue of Henry III. as one 
called gold pennies, weighing two sterlings, and being 
coined for twenty pennies of silver ; but that the gold penny 
afterwards passed for twenty-four of silver, or two shillings 
of twelve pence. He says, this piece, properly a royal, was 
the first of the sort coined in Europe ; but he must have 
overlooked the celebrated gold coinage of the Florentines, 
which, though bearing a different name, was a coiu of the 
same class. 



434 COINS 01* THE KIKGB OF ENGLAIH). 



CHAPTEE XXXI. 

COINS OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND. 

FROM EDWABD THE FIBST TO BICHARD THE THIELD. 

EDWAED I., 1272 to 1307. 

(See Plate ix.) 

The coins of Edward I. exhibit the head of the king, 
designed, for the first time, in a style and manner (slightly 
indicated in the previous reign) that was to continue without 
alteration for eight sux^cessiye reigns, including the com* 
mencement of Henry VII* ; no difierence being made in the 
face with any view to the individual likeness of the respective 
sovereigns : it was, in fact, a merely conventional king's head. 
The reverse adopted at the same l^e, with the simple cross, 
continued, for the same period as the head, to be the only 
device on our silver coins, and remaimed in use on some of 
them even until the comparatively recent reign of James I. 

The similarity above alluded to has been the cause of 
much dif&oulty in assigning the proper coins to kings of the 
same name, especially the Edwards I., II., III., as their 
coins have no numerals after the name. Numismatists 
have, nevertheless, suggested many ingenious methods of 
effecting the separation. 

One test is afforded by the coins struck at Durham- by the 
hishops, whose personal mint-ma^ks distinguish the coins 
of each. Bishop Beck's coins (during the last twenty-four 
years of Edward I. and the first three of Edward II.) have 
a small cross moline for mint-mark ; therefore his early 
coins, if they can be ascertained, are undoubtably of the 
reign of Edward I. Bishop Kellow held the see from 1313 
to 1316, in the reign of Edward 11., and therefore all 
having his mint-mark — ^a smaU cross, with one limb bent in 
the form of a crosier, — ^are undoubtedly of the reigm of 
Edward II. Bishop Beaumont held the see during the last 
two yeajjs of Edward II. and the first three of Edward HI.^ 
and nis coins are marked with a lion rampant. 

By comparing the coins of these prelates with other coins 



C0II7S OF THE EIK08 OF EKOLAITB. 435 

of the realm, which were precisely similar, with the exception 
of the mint-mark, an approximation to a proper separation 
of the coin of these three reigns may be arrived at ; and 
this examination has suggested as a general, though not an 
unvarying rule, that the coins upon which the name is 
expressed by EDW. belong to Edward I. ; that those with 
EDWARDVS at fuU belong to Edward III., and all 
intermediate modes to Edward II.* 

It is generally supposed that Edward I. coined the first 
groats, or fourpenny pieces; if so, very few were put in 
circulation, and the specimens known are probably merely 
patterns, and not current pieces, as all that are known vary 
so considerably in weight (from 80 to 138 grains) as to 
preclude the possibility of their having been current coins. 
They have the king's front face, or rather the front face of a 
king, crowned with the perfect form of the flower-de-luced 
or crown, crovm fleurie, and the draperies at the neck fastened 
with a rosette. The whole bust is enclosed in a quatre-foil 
compartment, surrounded by the legend, " Edwardus di gra 
Bex. Angl. ;" the reverse has an ornamented cross (Jieuri) 
' with the three pellets in the angles, extending to the edge 
of the coin. Immediately round the pellets are the words, 
" Londonia civi ;" and the exterior legend is "DNS HIBNIE. 
BVX. AQVi." (Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine). 
Some authors havie ascribed these groats to Edward III., 
when the first extensive issue of them took place, and the 
name at full length seems somewhat to justify this view; 
but the drapery about the neck appears to distmguish them 
from the last named groats, as the neck is invariably bare 
on those coins of Edward III., which seems to favour thfe first 
hypothesis. 

The pennies of this reign have the head without the 
quettrc'-foil ornament, and the legend, " Edw. E." or " Eex 
Angl. Dns. Hyb. ;" the reverse of the specimen has the 
cross and pellets, with "Civitas London.," some have 
" Villa," as villa Berevvici (Berwick). 

Some of the pennies of this reign show th6 head in a 
triangle, like the Irish coins of John. Halfpennies and 
farthmgs are, for the first time, fouad pretty plentifully in! this 

* See Hawkins* Silver Coins. 

F F 2 



436 COINS 07 THE KINGS OF £NOLAKD. 

reign. The farthing was the same as the penny, with the 
exception of the omission of the circle of beading round the 
head. Up to this period it is supposed, as before mentioned, 
that halfpennies and farthings were formed by cutting the 
pennies into two or four, an operation performed at the 
Mint, coins having been found in quantities so cut, that had 
evidently been circulated. 

EDWAED II., 1307 to 1327. 

The coinage remained of the same weight and standard as 
in the previous reign. There is no record of the coinage of 
groats, but the penny has the same types as those of the 
preceding reign, and has for legend ED WAR R. ANG. DNS. 
HYB., and on the reverse " Civitas London." 



EPWAED in., 1327 to 1377. 

(See Plate iz.) 

The silver coinage of this reign consists of groats and half 
groats, pennies, half-pennies, and farthings. It will be seen 
that the title of King of France is assumed on groats of this 
king, and this, with other peculiarities, go to prove that the 
groat previously mentioned muot either have been an essay 
or pattern made very early in the reign before the assump- 
tion of that title, or, which is most probable, that it really 
belongs to the reign of his grandfather. The groat of this 
reign begms to exhibit, permanently, those characters of the 
art of the period which had been first shown in the supposed 
groat of Edward I. ; but in this and in the succeeding reigns 
the head is enclosed in a compartment formed by a tressure 
of nine small arches instead of four, terminating at their 
junction in a trefoil exactly in the same feeling of 'ornament 
as much of the decorative portion of the architecture of the 
same period. It is an ornament, however, though new 
to the English coioage, that had previously appeared on that 
of France. The words "Dei Gratia" were adopted for the 
first time on EngHsh coins in this reign ; first on the gold 
coin, and afterwards on the groats, though it had appeared 






COINS OF THE KINGS OP ENGLAND. 437 

on. the great seal since William I., and on the coins of 
Prance, with more or less variation, since the time of 
Charlemagne, who seems to have adopted " Christianity" as 
his watchword. For on the reverse of his coins the words 
Chrigtiana religio,^^ appear, and on others he was styled 
Karolus Augustus a Deo coronatus,^^ &c. Some of his 
successors adopted " Misericordia Dei," &c. ; but "Dei 
Gratia" became general on the French coins long before it 
was introduced into England. 

Groats. — The legend on the groat of Edward III. stands 
^'Edward D. Q. Eex Angl. z. France. D. Hyb. ;" the title 
of King of France having been assumed in 1339. The 
reverse of this groat of Edward III. has the plain cross 
extending to the edge of the coin, with the t!hree pellets in 
the angles, and exhibiting, for the first time, the motto 
*'po8ui Deum ajutorem meum," slightly abbreviated; in 
an inner circle is "London civitas." The half groat 
is the same, with the omission of France in the legend 
of the obverse. The coinages of some towns have their 
mint-mark in one angle of the cross, instead of the three 
pellets. 

Pennies, — The weight of the silver coinage was 
seriously reduced in this reign; first, from the previous 
general average of about 22, or 22J grains, to 20i, then to 
20, and eventually to 18. The motto is generally " Edwardus 
Eex AngH," and the reverse, " Civitas Eboraci" (York) ; 
the halfpence and farthings are similar to the pennies, but 
having the legends shortened to suit the space ; some have 
only " Edwardus Eex." 

The gold coinage. — The great feature in the coinage of this 
reign is the noble gold issue, said by English writers to be 
superior to any of the contemporary gold coins of Europe. 
It may be considered our first gold coinage, as the attempt 
in the reign of Henry III. was too partial to take the first 
rank away from the extensive and beautif td issue now effected. 
It was first determined, after much deliberation, that three 
monies of gold were to be made, to be current as 6*., Ss., and 
1*. 6d. The first was to have two leopards,* the second a 

• These leopards were lions, but So tenned in continental heraldry. See 
Ruding, Yol. ii. p. 163. 



438 COINS OF THE Knras op bbtglakd. 

mantle, with the arms of England and France, and the small 
one a helmet, &o. ; being caUed florins, half florins, and quarter 
florins, a name derived jfrom an early gold coin of Florence^ 
which had been copied, and its name adopted, in several 
countries of Europe, thus bequeathing the name of its parent 
city to the gold coins of other states, the name being still 
continued long after its original value and devices had 
disappeared. Indeed, though Edward III. adopted the 
name,* the devices and value were original and national. 
It was afterwards found that this first gold coinage was 
rated too high, and it was therefore soon recalled ; specimens 
are consequently very rare. 

Another gold coinage was then determined upon (the 
famous one of the Nobles), and the coins then produced were 
not named after a place of mintage, like most of the gold coins 
of other nations, but, it is supposed by an old writer, after the 
nohle metal of which they were composed ; or from their supe- 
rior execution, weight, and purity ; being said to be superior 
to any gold coins of the period in Europe ; but this remark 
must only apply to their weight and purity, and not their 
workmanship. The pieces were called nobles, half nobles, and 
quarter nobles ; the nobles passing as 6*. 8^. It appears 
singular that they did not derive their popular name from 
the ship forming a part of their device, then not in use on any 
other European coins. Some imagine that this type must, 
&om its singularity, have been adopted in commemoration of 
the great naval victory of Midsummer eve (1340), when two 
Erench admirals and 30,000 men were slain, and 230 of their 
large ships taken, with small loss on the part of the English. 
But the ship is the well-known Eoman symbol of "the 
State ;" and it seems possible that the king at the helm of 
the State may have been intended in this striking device — 
for striking it is, both in design and execution, and is the 
first example of anything like the best contemporaneous art 
being appKed to the English coinage. There are other 
conjectures respecting this device top numerous to describe ; 
one, however, as a very ancient one, may be mentioned, 
though evidently incorrect. Edward claimed sovereignty of 

* Edward II. hod previously coined forty-three out of the silver before 
used for forty. 



COIKS OP THE KINGS OF EKGIiAND. 480 

tlte seas in 1359, fifteen years subsequent to the issue of 
these coins, and yet the old poet sings :* — 

Bat king £dwarcL made a siege royal], 
And wonne the town, and in apeciall 
The 8ea was kept, and thereof he was lord ; 
Thus nutde he nohles coins of record. 

The legend is, ** Edward Dei Grra. Eex Anglo, et Franc. D. 
Hyb. ;" the reverse a. rich cross fleurie,t with lions under 
crowns in the angles ; and the legend, " Ihc autem transiens 
p. medium illorum iba." (Jesus autem transiens per mediun) 
illorum ibat). These words J had been used as a talisman 
of preservation in battle, and also as a spell against thieves, 
says the learned editor of the Canterbtpry Tales ; " it was 
the most serviceable, if not the most elegant inscription that 
could be put upon gold coins." There are varieties of the 
noble, having the title of Duke of Aquitaine, after Ireland, 
and others with a flag at the stem of the ship, bearing St. 
Gteorge's cross ; others, struck at the treaty of Bretigny, in 
1360, when Edward renounced his claim to Erance, omitting 
" France" in the titles. 

The half nobles have the king, ship, &c. like the nobles j 
but the reverse in some has the motto, "Domine ne in 
furore tuo arguas me ;" on one of which, in the British 
Museum, the sense of the motto from the sixth Psalm is 
entirely changed by the accidental omission of the word 
" «^ :" reading " Domine in furore tuo arguas me." Others 
have " Exaltabitur in gloria." § 

The first grand coinage of nobles proved so valuable, that 
they were secretly exported for profit, and a lighter coinage 
was made, causing, however, some unreasonable discontent. 
The Commons afterwards petitioned for gold coins of the 
value of 10 or 12 pennies, but there is no record of such 
an issue. 

* Selden, leigB of Henry YI. 

+ Go|»ed from the " ecus d'or," or "xoyal " of his riTal, Philip of Vitlois, 
whose several .gold coins were finely executed, especially the florin Geoi^e, 
where the figure is much finer than even that on the George Nohle of Henry 
VIII., executed nearly 200 years later. ^ Luke, ch. iv. ver. 80. 

4 Whiith Mme have supposed to he an allusion to his claim to the erown of 
France* 



f 



440 conrs ot the kikgs of ekola^ttd. 

To Edward the Black Prince his father granted the prin- 
cipality of Aquitaine and Gascony, to hold during his life, 
and that prince coined money there, which, however, does 
not strictly belong to the English coinage, but is classed as 
Anglo- GuUic money : one of the coins j the device of which 
is the prince on a throne, is interesting, on account of the 
detached feathers on the field, so placed in commemoration 
of his having deplumed the helmet of the King of Bohemia. 
The Anglo- GaUic coins from this period to the reign of 
Henry VI. form a very interesting series in themselves, and 
are better executed than the coins minted in England during 
the same period. 

EICHJLBD II., 1377 to 1399. 

The silver coins of Eichard (groats, half-groats, pennies, 
halfpence, and forthings) are precisely similar to those of 
his grandfather, Edward III. : the motto is " Ricard. Di. 
Gra. Eex Angl. z. Erancia." The reverse has the same 
legend as the preceding reign. His gold coins are also 
precisely similar to those of his predecessor. 

HENET IV., 1399 to 1413. 

The coins of the four Henries, who now succeeded each 
other, are very diflficult to distinguish. These princes 
issued coins of precisely the same type, without any numerals 
after the name, till Henry VII., in the eighteenth year 
of his reign, added the " VII." in the legend. There 
is) however, a tolerably secure guide for determining the 
pennies of Henry IV. In the early part of his reign they 
were of the weight of those of his two predecessors ; namely, 
18 grs. ; but in the thirteenth year of his reign they were 
reduced to 15, and the other silver coins in proportion : any 
penny of 18 grains, therefore, of the proper type, is -pTetty 
certainly of Henry IV. The groats may also be tested by a 
proportionate rule. Halfpence and farthings were also 
coined in this reign ; but as their weight was never very 
carefully adjusted, it is difficult to separate those belonging 
to the first thirteen years of this king. On specimens of 



COIKS OF THE KIKOS OF ENGLAKD. 441 

his heavy money the legend is, " Henric Di. Gra. Eex Angl. 
D. H." — ^the reverse remains as preceding reign. His 
gold coins are nobles, half nobles, and quarter nobles, which 
do not differ from those of his predecessors, but may be 
distioguished from those of his successors, by the arms of 
France, sem6 of fleurs-de-lis, instead of being charged vrith 
three only, as was afterwards the custom. 

HBIHEtT T., 1413 TO 1422, AND HENET VI., 1422 TO 1461. 

The coins of these reigns, both of gold and silver, are 
tolerably plentiful, but most of them must be attributed to 
the very extensive coinage at the beginning of the reign 
of Henry VI. It appears extraordinary that the regent 
Bedford, whose taste for the fine arts is exhibited in the 
magnificently illuminated books executed for him, and of 
which several are in existence and in beautiful preservation, 
should not have attempted some further improvement in the 
style of the coinage. He did not, however, turn his taste 
for the arts in that direction, but followed exactly the old 
types. This appears the more extraordinary, as the coins 
struck in France during this reign, after the king's coronation 
as sovereign of both countries, are quite equtd to those of 
the previous and immediately succeeding French kings ; 
especially the " Franc tPor,^^ having the king on horseback, 
beautifully executed on the obverse. The silver pieces, too, 
strock in France, where the silver coinage had not been 
latterlv much in advance of our ovni, was now much 
unproved ; and on the "ffrand hlanc*' two shields appeared, 
the one bearing the arms of France, the other those of 
France and England ; being nearly a century earlier than 
the epoch of which the royal arms appeared on English 
silver coins. 

The English coins of Henry V. and VI. are quite 
indistinguishable, notwithstanding certain very ingenious 
suggestions for their separation. Some groats, however, 
have a « V' after " Eex,'* which cause them to be assigned 
to Henry V. There were half grdats, pennies, hal^ennies, 
and farthings of these two reigns. The gold coins are, as 
before, nobles, half nobles, and gold farthings (or quarter 



442 COINS OF. THE JOSGtS OF ESTGLAJ^D. 

nobles). They are scarcely distiaguishable from those of 
their predecessors and successors. Their Anglo- Grallic coins 
of the res^pective reigns are better ascertained. Henry VI. 
did not coin angels till during his short restcwation,. and they 
were in close imitation of those of Edward lY. 

In the reign of Henry YI. the restrictions on the freedom 
of commerce, with the view of keeping the bullion in the 
country, were rendered very stringent ; the foreign merchant 
was compelled to reside during his stay with a person 
appointed, who took notes of all his bargains, causing him 
to outlay aU monies received in British products, and 
receiving by way of salary a tax of twopence in the pound 
upon .all bargains so made. 

EDWABD IV., 1461 to 1483. 

The silver coins of this king are much like those of the 
several preceding reigns, with the exception, in some cases, 
of some marks or letters in the field, or on the breast of the 
portrait. The groat has a jq[uatre-foil on each side of the 
neck, a crescent on the breast, and an annulet preceding, 
aad a rose terminating the legend, " Edward Di. Grra. Bex. 
Angl. z. Franc." The reverse has, as in the previous 
reigns, "Posui," &c. Edward lY. reduced the weight of 
the penny, after his fourteenth year, to 12 grains. A ^oat 
variety of his coins of di^rent miats exist, but all of one 
type, only varying in mint-marks and names of places of 
mintage. 

On account of several chai^ges that took place in the gold 
coinage of this reign, it is more interesting than any since 
Edwftrd III. In the first gold coinage it was established 
that the nobles should pass at Ss, 4id, ; by which it will be 
easily perceived that the value of the precious metals was now 
rapidly rising ; less gold and silver was put into coins, the 
nominal of which remained the same ; or, as in the case 
of the nobles above mentioned, the nominal value of the 
coin was increased in accordance with the raised price of the 
metal. 

In another coinage. a better price was given for bullion at 
the Mint, to ensure a supply, iot it had become scarce : .and 
the weak king had recourse, about 1455, to the assistance 



COINS OP THE EtETGS OP EyGLAKD. 443 

of the alchymists, and announced with confidence, that he 
soon should be able to pay his debts with gold and silver pro- 
duced by " the stone.'* The additional price offered at the 
Mint, however, produced gold iGwter than "the stone," and 
a new issue of nobles took place, fifty being made out of 
the pound weight. Shortly afterwards this proportion was 
changed, and only forty-five were coined out of the pound, 
but they were to pass for 10«., and to be callea rials, 
to distinguish them from the old nobles — a name borrowed 
from the French, who had coins called rials (royals), in con- 
sequence of their bearing the effigy of the king in his royal 
robes. In the case of the English coins the name was less 
applicable, as they bore the same device, or nearly so, as the 
old nobles. 

The angels and half angels of this reign were new gold coins, 
and were called angels from their type — ^the archangel Michael 
piercing a dragon with a spear. The reverse is a ship, with 
a large cross ibr the mast ; the letter E on the right side, 
and a rose on the left ; against the ship is a shield with the 
usual arms. The motto on the reverse of the half angel 
was, crux ave spes unica. This coin was probablyintended 
to replace the old noble, superseded by the rial. The nobles 
and rials differ but slightly from the nobles of previous 
reigns, with the exception of having the central portion of 
the cross-fleurie of the reverse replaced by a sun, the badge 
of the king. Great encroachments were perpetrated in this 
reign against the liberty of both the foreign and British 
merchant, principally with a view to prevent the exportation 
of .coin. 

Edwabd V. (no coins known). 

BIOHABD III., 1483 to 1485. 

In the two years of his brief but energetic reign 
tbis prince contrived to issue a considerable coinage ; but 
his coins are, nevertheless, more or less rare. Their 
types are precisely similar to those of his predecessors, and 
tne pronortion ol 12 grains to the silver penny was the 
stanoari of weight. The obverse of the groat has " Eicard. 
Di. Gra. Eex. Angl. z. Pranc." with his crest (the boar's 
bead) for the London mint mark. The reverse as before, 



44(4 . Goiirs or THE ekglish soTssEiass. 

•with !the motto "Posiii," &c. He issued groats, half groats, 
pennies, and hal^ence ; .no farthings have yet heen found. 
His gold. coins are precisely. fiTimilar to those of Edward; it 
is therefore unnecessary to .describe them. Angelets, or 
half angelets, have sometimes the mint mark of a boar*« head, 
like the groat. ' 



OHAPTEE XXXII. 

COINS OF THE ENGLISH SOVmEIGXS. 

FROM HENRY YU, TO HART. 

Hekbt VII., 1485 to 1509. The groats, pennies, &c. 
of the first portion of this reign continued* the same as 
in the previous one, and have all till recently been con- 
founded with those of Henry VI. The sagacious ingenuity 
of a numismatist,* by referring careftilly to 'the episcopal 
mint marks, has at last solved the difficulty by discover- 
ing on a York penny, the mark of Thomas "Kotherham, 
who did not possess the see of York till 1480, while 
Henry VI. died in 1461. The mark is T. on the One side 
of the neck, and a key on the other. The pennies with that 
mark are therefore indubitably those of Henry VII. The 
reverse of the groat is exactly similar to those of the 
previous reigns, and the weight is forty-eight grains. The 

Sennies of Henry VI. were only reduced to twelve grains 
uring the very short period of his restoration, and it is 
very improbable that all the groats corresponding to that 
weight should belong to that short period, and therefore 
some coins of that weight are assigned to Henry VII. 

In the second style of coinage of this reign, the design ot 
the crown is changed from the open crown of 'fleur-de-lis'; of 
his own previous coins, and of those of so 'many of Ms 
predecessors, to an arched crown, sometimes cAlfed an 

imperial crown. It has also been stated that there is' some 

» . , . . . . 

• Mr. Cuff. 



rtis OF ".(.ii,i: inn.ij.^H .'j.kkiius, 



iptal 
m. 

kt 

I ( 

iO 

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3ES8 



lat 

istil] 
toft 
i»tr 

iely: 

Eutei 
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COINS OF THE XNGUSH SOYEBEIGITS. 445 

attempt at a portrait in the full face ; but this I am not able 
to discover. This coinage is of course easily distinguished 
from those of the previous reigns. The motto is the usual 
one, but the bordering tressure is enriched with small roses 
in the angles or spandrils. The reverse is precisely as 
before. Other groats of this kind vary in the number and 
richness of the tressures which surround the head, and also 
in the style of the crown, though always arched. The 
reverses still continued to be of the old type. 

The later pennies have also the arched crown, and in the 
motto, Prance is omitted. The reverses of the pennies also 
were stiU of the old type, or nearly so. Folkes mentions a 
piece of this period (at Cambridge), which appears to have 
been a trial wr a twenty-penny piece. 

The eighteenth year of his reign (1503) was marked by an 
entirely new coinage, in which the silver coins for the first 
time received some attention as to their artistic execution ; 
a positive portrait profile being attempted, and very fairly 
executed. The shield with the royal arms was now first 
adopted for the reverse ; and in short, the model, of which 
the types of the coinage of our own times have been but a 
modification, was now first adopted. 

The most remarkable feature in the new silver coinage 
was the shilling ; first coined about the eighteenth year of 
this reign. The shiDing now, for the first time, became a 
real coin, and had at last ^'a local habitation" as well as 
" name ;" for before, as has been stated, the term shilling 
had been one of " money of account,'* and not that of a real 
coin. The legend of the shilling was " Henric. YII. Di. 
Gra. Eex. Angl. Z. Fr.," round a well-executed portrait 
in profile ; the reverse has the arms, &c. (See plate 9.) 

Of groats, half groats, and pennies (but no halfpennies 
or farthings), there was also an issue on this new coinage, 
and the first instance of numerals following the name 
occurs on these coins since Henry III., which form a 
nearly solitary instance of its occurrence in the earlier 
periods. Sometimes this coinage has Sept. instead of VII. 
The half-groat exactly resembles the groats and shillings, 
except in the absence of the numerals or " Sept.*' after the 
name. 

Some pennies have the king seated on a throne, as on the 



446 COTSB OF THE SIT&LISH SOTEBEI6NS. 

gold double rials or sovereigns, with simply "Henric. Di. 
Grra. Bex. ;" the reverse having the arms, &c. The pennies 
that appear with this device are of the ecclesiastical mints, 
and those of Durham have the initials of Dunehnensis, 
Sherwood, the bishop, and have the upper limb of the cross 
turned into a crozi^. 

The name of the place of mintage was omitted in the 
third coinage of this reign, in the inner circle of the reverse 
of the shilhng, groats, and half-groats, but continued as the 
legend on the revise of the smaller pieces. 

The great feature of the gold coins of this reign is, that 
Henry VII. first coined the double rial (or royal). Twenty- 
two and a half such pieces to be coined out of the pound 
weight tower. On this piece the king is represented in the 
royal robes as on the rials of Prance, and it thus might 
receive the name more legitimately than those of Edward 
TV. ; but to distinguish it 'from the previous rial, it was 
determined to call it a " sovereign," a term which disap- 
peared after a few reigns, not to be again adopted till the 
great modern coinage of 1817. The title on the obverse is, 
" Henricus Dei Gracia Ee3E Anghe et Franeie, Dns Ibar." 

On the reverse of the sovereign the last trace of the old 
cross-fleurie of the nobles of Edward III. disappears, and a 
tressure of ten arches encloses the heraldic rose, in the 
centre of which is placed a shield with the arms. There are 
other varieties of this reverse, some having the shield 
surmounted by a crown, in which case the rose occupies the 
whole field, to the exclusion of the tressures ; in another 
case, the rose, though larger than in our specimen, is some- 
what less than the last mentioned, and differently arranged. 
The half-sovereign is peculiar from having only the arms of 
Prance. The obverse has the king in a ship with two flags, 
one bearing the letter H, and the other the English dragon. 
The obverse and reverse of the half-angel of this reign differ 
little from those of Edward IV. 

The avarice of the king caused much light money to be 
made during his reign, and many pieces also got clipped, so 
that there were great complaints. This business was recti- 
fied in a rather summary manner, for it was ena<5ted, " that 
no person should refuse the king's coin, if good gold and 
silver, on account of thinness, on pain of imprisonment or 



COIKS or 1?HE EKGLISH BOTXRElOKd. 447 

death.^^ By the year 1609 the king had, through this mode 
of working the coinage, and by imposing extravagant fines 
and other extortions, collected greater riches than had ever 
before been possessed by* an English king. The last of the 
stringent commercial regulations referring to the bullion 
was passed in this reign, which referred to the "royal 
exchangers ;" persons through whose hands all bills of 
exchange were compelled to pass for adjustment. 



HEITBT VIII., 1609 to 1647. 

The silver coinage of this reign may be divided into five 
classes : the first exactly resembles the third coinage of his 
father, even the head being the same ; for the numerals 
alone were altered firom VII. to VIII. The fisffthings of 
this coinage are very rare. 

The second coinage has a likeness of the king in profile, 
wlueh may easily be distinguished, as he appears both 
younger and fatter than his father, the reverse remaining 
the same. The half-groats are similar ; but those of York 
have Wolsey's initials, and the cardinal's hat on the reverse. 
The pennies have the king on the throne, with the motto 
" Bosa sine spina." The hal^ennies have still the old cross 
and pellets, and the farthings, like those of his first coinage, 
have the portcullis, which for the first time appears on the 
coins in this reign. There are other varieties of the' coinage 
of this epoch, but more rare. 

On the third coinage of this reign the weight of the penny 
was reduced to 10 grains, and other silver coins in pro- 
portion, and a great increase of alloy (2 oz. in 12) was used ; 
but the execufion of this issue was bold and striking : it 
consisted of shillings, pence and hal^ence — ^groats and half- 
groats. On these coins the king is represented in fo)nt or 
three-quarter face, an excellent likeness, especially on the 
shillings, or testoons as they were named. The reverse of 
these was a large rose and a crown, a very handsome device ; 
the old motto "Posui," &c:, being still preserved. The 
groats and smaller pieces have the old reverses, the half- 
pennies still preserving the ancient type of the cross aaid 
pellets. 



448 COISS OF THE £ir0L18H SOTlSSEIGIiirs. 

The types continued the same on the fourth coinage, but 
an infamous degree of debasement took place ;* the pennies 
being of the same weight (10 grains), but the alloy increased 
to the amount of half copper to half silver. The fifth coinage, 
in the followiag year, was still more debased, and the motto 
on the groats was changed to *^ Eedde cuique quod suum 
est ; " a motto rather singularly chosen for such an 
occasion. 

On the shilh'ng or testoon of the third coinage, with 
the full face, the portrait appears in the ordinary dress of 
the time, but wearing the crown, with the legend " Henric. 
8 D. G. Angl. Eranc. Z. Hib. Eex." The reverse is a well- 
executed rose and crown, with H. R. crowned, and the old 
motto " Posui," &c. It is supposed that the testoon was so 
named from a French coin of similar value,t so called in 
France (teston), on account of the large portrait head when 
used for the first time. This term did not continue long 
attached to the English coin, and the old national term, 
shilling, soon resumed its place. • The groats, and half- 
groats were similar, but with the face not quite so fuU. 

The initials and hat of "Wolsey, placed upon his coins, 
were mentioned among the frivolous charges brought against 
him on his fall. The passage is cited by Lord Coke — " Also 
the said Lord Cardinal, of his further pompous and pre- 
sumptuous mind, hath enterprised to join and imprint the 
cardinal's hat under your arms in your coins of groats, made 
at your City of York, which like deed hath not been seen to 
have been done by any subject within your realm before this 
time." It is very true that a cardinal's hat had not been 
used before as a mint mark, but many other symbols both 
of family arms and ecclesiastical title had been used before— - 
as fleurs-de-lis, and the crozier, and'hiitre ; by which it will 
be seen that this charge was frivolous and ridiculous : but 
his fall being resolved on, such charges, or less, would have 
been all-sufficient. < .» 

* These base coins having the full face of the king, soon began to show the 
inferior metal at the end of the nose, the most prominent part ; and hence the 
soubriquet, "Old Copper Nose," bestowed by his loyal subjects on this 
monarch. '* 

f Rather teston, or great head ; as saUe, an apartment, is, when used to 
express a great apartment, made salon, our saloon — hence teston and testoon. 



COINS OP THE ENGLISH SOVEEEIGNS. 449 

There are groats of this king struck at Toumay with 
*' Civitas Tomaei," which are classed with Anglo- Q-allic 
■coins. On his Irish coins the initials of his queens occur in 
succession, and the harp first appeared upon the Irish 
coinage in this reign. 

The gold coins issued by Henry VIII. display the quarut 
characteristic feeling of the G-erman style of art of the 
period, which, through the works of Albert Durer, Lucas 
Yon Leyden, &c., influenced the whole of northern and 
central Europe. This peculiar style was more firmly esta- 
blished in England by the residence of Holbein, and may be 
especially traced in the angular folds of the king's robes in 
the obverse of the sovereign. The gold coinage was debased, 
as well as the silver, to make it accord in value with the 
certain debased coins of the continent. The first sovereigns 
had the reverse formed of the large rose with the arms in the 
centre, but afterwards the royal arms surmounted by the 
crown, and supported by a lion and dragon; the first 
example of heraldic supporters on our coins. There were 
half sovereigns of both sorts, and there was also the old 
noble, now called the "rose noble," * to distinguish it from 
the George noble which had been newly issued. On this 
last coin appeared St. George and the dragon for the first 
time, but the device was not repeated in any subseque;nt 
reign till adopted in that of George III. as the reverse 
of the silver five shilling pieces and sovereigns. The angel 
was stiU coined as before, but crowns and half-crowns of 
gold were now added for the first time, one type having for 
reverse the crown and rose, similar to the testoon or shilling, 
the other a cross-fleurie, with a large rose in the middle : 
both had the arms crowned for obverse. 

The sovereign of this reign has tlie king seated on his 
throne, with " Henric Di. Gra. Ang. Franc. Z. Hib. Eex. ; " 
the reverse having the royal arms, surmounted by the 
crown, and supported by the lion and dragon. 

The George noble has St. George on horseback, in the 
costimie of the time, about to transfix the dragon, with the 
motto " Tali dicatt sig. mes fluctuari neqt." more or less 
abbreviated, and the reverse, a ship with three crosses for 

* It is singular that Folko has no figure of this common coin. 

G a 



450 OOIKS OF THE EK6LIBH SOTrEBXlOKff. 

masts, and a rose on the centre mast, with- the motto 
" Henrious D. a.," &c. 

The angel closely resemblesr those of the previous reigns ; 
liie motto on the reyerse is '^ ^er cruce tua aahm nos, JS^. Me 
rede^^ more or less abbreviated. 

Some of the gold crowns differ fh>m the half-ciown next 
described. 

The most usual gold half-crowns have the rose and ci^wn, 
with H. R. in the field, and the legend " Henric. Dei* 
Gra*," &c. on the obverse; and on the reverse "^<wjrk?. 
VIIL ruHlane rosa sine spiny 

In this reign the pound troy eruperseded the pound tower in 
l^e Mint, and the stondard of gold was settled, which has, how- 
ever, ever since been termed crown gold. It was in the latter 
years of the reign more debased, but the standard which has 
smce been called crown gold^ was 22 carats fine, and'l^o 
carats alloy. The excessive debasement of the silver coin' in 
the reign of Henry VIII. was, unintentionally, the first blow 
struck against the oppressive regulations passed in previous 
reigns, with a view to prevent the' export of coin ; for it 
caused foreignei^ to prefer merchandise or bills of exchange, 
which thus at once rendered the whole oppressive machinery 
useless, except the office of royal exchanger ; against whose 
interference the elder Gresham* pleaded so wisely and so 
boldly, that the stem Tudor listened, and refrained, and tbe 
office became nearly a dead letter. 



Ei)WABD VI., 1547 to 1553. 

iThis prince was little more than* nine years of age, when 
he ascended the throne ; but in the journal which he It&pt, 
in his own handwriting, and which is still preserved in the 
British Museum, he makes several entries respecting the 
coinage, which show that he had been taught to appreciate 
the subject. It was determined that the base state iti which 
Beniy VIII. had left the coinage should be remedied; but 
sill honest way of going about it does not appear to have 
occurred either to the youthful king or his ministers. The 
ftpiftt silver coinage he issued was of the same low standard* as 

^ Fkther of the builder of ihe Royal Exchange. 



COINS OF THE EKQLISn S0VBBBIGN6. 451 

the last of the preyious reign ; viz., 4 oz. of silver to 8 oz. of 
alloy, and the penny was only of 10 grains. 

Of this issue there were also testooxra, groats, half-groats, 
pennies; halfpennies, and farthings ; but groats, half-groats, 
and pennies, only are known. They have a well<*exe<nited 
profile of the king, and the reverses being the arms traiversed 
oy a cross ; the motto as before. The penny has the legend 
" E. D. G-. rosa sine spina" variously abbreviated. In the 
third year of the reign there was an attempt to improve the 
coinage by issuing shillings of 5 to 6 oz. alloy. They have 
the long's profile, crowned, not very different from the pre- 
vious groats, but in the legend they have the Eoman numerals 
yi. instead of the Arabic 6, as in- the groats, and the reverse 
has, for the first time, an oval shield without a cross, 
decorated in a style of ornament which then began to super- 
sede the (so caUed) Gothic feeling, a further modification of 
which has'sinoe been termed "Elizabethan." The motto was 
"Timor Pomini fons vite;"* MBXLIV round the head, 
and the name and titles on the reverse ; but some had the 
name and titles round the head, and " Inimicos ejus induam 
confusione," (Psalm cxxxii. 19). The date being now intro- 
duced for the first time on on English coin. 

This issue seems rather to have added to the confusion. 
Testoons were cried down to ninepence, other coins in pro- 
portion ; robbing the public to the amount of one^fouorth of 
the original value of the silver coinage : subsequently the 
shillings were cried down to sixpence, and eventually, in t^ 
reign of Elizabeth, these base shillings were marked with a 
particular Mtnt-mai^ (a portcullis in some cases), afid 
ordered to pass for fourpence halfpenny; so that, in ikie 
end, a public fi!aud of three-fourths of the amount of the 
base coinage was effected. 

The confusion m the value of the precious metals at l^s 
time appears to have been extreme, silver being rated at 12#. 
the ounce, and gold at only 60«., so that gold was ottly 
rated as five times more valuable than silver; and in the 
tkiid year of the reign, gold was rated at 46^., only four 
times the value of pure silver. There could, it would 
appear, have been no freedom in the exchanges, or the value 

* Fhui Proverbs, xiv. verse 27. 

GG 2 



452 COIKB OF THE ENGLISH SOYEBEIGNS. 

of gold in England must have been eleven times greater 
than that of silver, as on the continent. Stowe tells us 
that ''this base monie caused the old sterling monies to 
be hoarded up, so that he had himself seen 21«. given for 
an old angel to guild withalV^ * 

It seems scarcely credible, that after the crying down of 
the shillings to ninepence (and those, in fact, only worth 
4i\d.)y that a still baser coinage was issued ; and to ascertain 
with what view, let us see the king's own journal : — " It was 
appointed to make 20,000 pound weight somewhat baser ^ to 
get gains 15,000Z. clear, by which," &c. &c., the coin was to 
be amended ! ! The silver now issued had 9 ounces of alloy 
to 3 ounces of silver. These shillings bear the same types 
as the preceding ones : in the reign of Elizabeth they were 
stamped with a greyhound, and ordered to pass for 2\d. 
They were alluded to by Bishop Latimer, t in a remarkable 
passage in one of his sermons : — " We have now a pretty little 
shilling, a very pretty shilling," &c., but " the fineijess of the 
silver I cannot see, yet thereon is printe'd a fine sentence, 
'Timor Domini fons vitse, vel sapientiae;' 'The fear of the 
Lord is the fountain of life, or wisdom.' I would to God this 
sentence was always printed in the heart of the king." In 
another place, speaking of the baseness of the coinage, he 
says, applying a text of Isaiah, " Argentum tuum versum est 
in scoriam : thy silver is turned into — ^what ? into testions ? 
— Scoriam ! into dross!" These passages both occurred in 
sermons preached before the king. Such allusions were 
spoken of as seditious, to which Latimer replied, in a subse- 
quent discourse, alluding to the passage in Isaiah : — " Thus 

they burdened me ever with sedition, &c but I have 

now gotten one feUow more a companion in sedition, and wot 
you who is my fellowe ? — Esay % the prophet." 

One of the remarkable monetary events of this reign is 
the first issue of crowns and half-crowns of silver, very soon 
after similar pieces first appeared on the continent. In 
1551, crowns, half-crowns, shillings, sixpences, and three- 
pences were issued of silver — 11 oz. 1 dwt. fine, to 19 dwt. 
of alloy, being only 1 dwt. worse than the ancient 

* The angrel ouglit to have been current for 6s. 8J. 
t Folkes. t Isaiah. 



COIKS OF THE ENGLISH 8OYEBEI0N8. 4!53 

standard ; and five shillings in silver became wortli five in 
gold. The silver, in the indentures respecting this coinage, 
made no doubt upon correct but too tardy information upon 
the subject, was rated at 5«. 5d, the oz., while gold was at 
QOs. : showing that the proper value of gold, with reference to 
silver, was as really 11 to 1. Notwithstanding this excellent 
advance in the right direction, groats were afterwards issued, 
as well as pennies and halfpennies, of base metal, by which 
the government still sought dishonest gain. It was at this 
time (1551) agreed, that the "stamp on the shilling and 
sixpence should be on one side a king, painted to the 
shoulders in parliament robes, with the collar of the Order," 
&c. That on the five shillings and half five shOlings, to be 
a "king on horseback," &c. Also that the fine monies 
should be coined in the Tower, and in Southwark; and 
the smaller pieces of baser metal, at Canterbury and 

The crown and half-crown of the fine coinage of 1551 
have the king crowned, and in the armour of the period, on 
horseback ; the horse, the housings, and the figure of the 
king, better executed, as to correct drawing, than the 
devices of any previous British coins. It likewise has the 
peculiarity of the date, now newly used on the coins ; the 
title appears, as on previous coinages, on the reverse. The 
oval snield of the reverse of former coins of the reign is 
abandoned, and the arms traversed by the cross, again used, 
and the old motto, " Posui," &c. 

The sixpence of this coinage, of which the same types 
appeared on the shillings and threepenny pieces, have a 
nearly full face of the king, in parliament robes, with the 
collar of the Garter, and the numerals VI. in the field, to 
denote its value — ^the shillings having XII., and the three- 
penny pieces III. ; it being the first time that the value of 
the coins was so marked. The reverse, bore the arms, with 
the cross and the motto, " Posui," &c. 

The London pennies of baser silver, coined at this time, 
had the king on a throne, with " E. D. Q-. Eosa sine Sp. ;" 
and, on the reverse, the arms, with " Civitas, London." 
The York pennies had a simple rose, with "Eosa," &c. 
The reverse like the London ones, but with " Civitas 
Eboraci." 



454 COINS OF THE ENGLISH SOYSSEIG^S. 

The whole of the coins bad Y£ffioiis mint maarks-^the tun, 
tbe rose, & swjn, &c. 

Of the gold coinage of this reign it may be said, that ova 
gold had never been so much debased. It was reiimrkable, 
howerer, in- the later issues, for its improvement in execution, 
attd the complete disappearance of the Gothic feeling of art. 
Tbe earlier isHie of double sovereigns, sovereigns, ana angels, 
closely resembled the sovereigns and angels of the previous 
re%n ; too closely to render minute description neeessaiy, 
yet distinguished easily by the name, &c. In the subse* 
quent coinages the gold coins assumed a new, and, 
ariistieally considered, superior character, if not quite so 
picturesque. 

Different standards of gold continued to be used after the 
relbm of the coinage : for instance, a pound weight of gold, 
of 28 osu^ts fine to 1 carat alloy, was coined into twenty-four 
sovereigns of 30 shillings, equal to 36 sovereigns of 20 
shillings eadi ; while a pound weight of gold, of 22 carats 
fifie to 2 carats aMoy, was coined into SB sovereigns of 20 
shillings each. 

A treble sovereign was coined also, having the king 
enthvoned (the Gothic character having quite disappeared), 
with the usual name and title, the reverse having the arms, 
supported by a lion and a dragon >8tanding on a scrolled 
ornament, in the new style, with the letters E. B., the 
flM»tto being stiU the old one of Edward III, — ^^ Jesus 
autem,"'&c. 

There is a sovereign of a later eoinage, of the pattern of 
whieh, sovereigns, half-sovereigns, five^shilling pieces, and two- 
d,mmg^d.8«penny pieces were coined; the sovereigns of 
this comage have supporters like the previous ^overei^s ; 
the "Other pieces, having the arms only, with E. E. on either 
side. The mottos on these sovereigns and half-sovereigns are 
"Jesus autem," &c. ; and on the <arown, ^* Scutum fidei 
proteget eum ;" and on the half-crown the same, abbreviated. 
The obverses have the three-quarter figure of the king, in 
embossed armour ; it is of very elegant execution, and rather 
in the Italian style of art of the period, — a feeling which is 
confined to this reign, and does not re-»appear. 

The crown, having the king's bust in armour, and bwe- 
headed, on the obverse, has on the reverse the crowned 



COIKAOB OF EiraLANS. 405 

rose. The half-crown of this type had the rose, without 
stalk. There are also sovereigns, half-sovefeigns, crown?, 
and half-crowns with the same bust, which vary in haying 
the oYel shield (Hke the first shillings) on the reverse. 
There is also another series, like the last-mentioned, whi<$h 
varies in having the head crowned, instead of bare. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

COINAGE OP ENGLAND. 

FROM MABY TO THE COMMONWEALTH. 

MAET, 1553 to 1558. 

On her accession, she declared her intention of restoring 
the old standard in the silver coinage, namely, 11 oz., 2 dwt. 
fine to 18 dwt. alloy ; but, instead of that, the new coinage 
fell 1 dwt. lower than the last coinages of Edward VI. On 
her first coins she is represented m profile, and crowned, 
and styled " Maria D. Gr. Aug. Era. Z Hib. Begi ; ** and the 
motto of the reverse is frequently " Veritas Tempcwris filia " 
— " Truth is the daughter of Time " — suggested, possibly, by 
the B,omish priesthood, in allusion to the restoration of the 
Eoman Catholic faith^aiter its suppression during two reigns. 
On her first coins, after tor marriage with Philip of Spain, 
the queen's head appears crowned as before, with the legend 
" Philip Z Maria J). Q-. Bex et Eegina." Soon afterwards, 
however, a coinage was issued, partly, no doubt, from the 
treasure brought over by Philip, and sent with so much 
ostentation to the Tower, on which the bust of Philip appears 
facing her own : to which Butler alludes in the lines— 

** Still amorous, fcmd and billing, 
lilke Philip and lAsxy upon aabiUing." 

The lagend on- these coins atandfl ^' Philip, et .Maria D.i 8-. 
Ang. Er. Neap. Pr. Hisp." and on the reverfle,?thft old motto, 
" Posui," &c,, was changed to the plural, as " PosuiiMM' 
Deum, adjutorem nostrum.'* 



45(5 COINAGE or sngland. 

There is another pattern shilling, having the king's head 
on one side, and the queen's on the other, with " Philippua 
Dei Q-. E. Ang. Fr. Neap. Pr. Hisp." on one side, and 
"Maria," with the same titles, on the other ; this coin has. 
the date 1554, and the earliest of the above-descrihed have 
the same date ; others are dated 1557. 

After Philip became King of Spain, by the abdication of 
his father, the titles Princes of Spain became inconsistent, 
and all allusion to foreign dominion was omitted, the legend 
standing " Phihp et Maria D. Q-. Eex et Eegina Ang." 

The motto of the reverse remained the same, and the 
Spanish arms were impaled on the right side, and the 
English on the left. 

There were also coined pennies of strongly-alloyed silver^ 
some with the queen's profile, some with the rose; both 
having the motto, "Rosa sine spina" on the obverse, and 
the place of mintage on the reverse. 

The gold of this reign did not foUow out the improvement, 
of style commenced by her predecessor. There were issued 
sovereigns, to be current at 30 shillings ; half-sovereigns, to 
be called the royal or rial of gold, for 15 shillings ; the angel,, 
to be current at 10 shillings ; and the half-royal, at 5 shillings. 
It is singular that no traces of Philip appear on the gold 
coins, except in the inscriptions. 

The sovereign of this reign is a return to the precise style 
of art of those of Henry VII. and VIII. The rial of gold, 
or half-sovereign, has the old ship, with the figure holding 
the shield and sword, transformed to a female, with the 
reverse similar to those of the same coins of Edward IV. ; 
while the angels have precisely the ancient type, rather 
more coarsely done, as have also the angelet or half-angeL 
It was, probably, with a strong Eoman Catholic feeling, of 
reducing aU things to the state and form they occupied 
previous to the Eeformation, that this retrograde movement 
was applied to the coinage, took place. 

This reign and that of Elizabeth left legislative interference 
with the import and export of coin in a sort of transition 
state, most of the acts remaining in force, but inactive ; and 
yet the prejudices of the commercial interest of the country 
were, from sheer habit, favourable to their retention. It 
may save trouble to mention, at once, that in the reign of 



COIKAGi: 07 EKGLAND. 457 

James I. the last part of this macbineiy, that of the office of 
royal exchanger, was swept away, after the Burleighs had 
long held it as a sinecure ; for public opinion had changed, 
and the mischievous as well as troublesome tendency of the 
office became eyident to all. 



ELIZABETH, 1558 TO 1602. 

The complete restoration of the integrity of the currency 
is justly ascribed to Elizabeth, although she only gave the 
finishing hand to what had been already commenced by 
her brother. She ascertained the amount of silver in 
the base money, and caused it to be stamped and pass for 
its true value (a course which involved loss to the nation 
and gain to the government, which received back as 2id. 
that which it had issued at 12d., and for which, perhaps, we 
do not owe her much gratitude*), but she likewise produced 
a coinage scrupulously corresponding in weight and purity 
with its nominal value — ^with the exception, of course, of a 
deduction for that rate of profit or seignorage which had 
always been considered the fair profit of the sovereign. It 
would appear, however, from the discovery of letters, &c. «&c., 
in the State-paper Officef, that we are chiefly indebted for 
the originating and carrying out of this great measure to a 
London merchant — the same illustrious Q-resham to whom 
the City owes its Eoyal Exchange and other useful institu- 
tions. It would appear that some difficulties occurred as to 
the mode of refining the base metal of which the existing 
silver coinage was composed ; and Qresham, during his resi- 
dence in ^twerp, efiected arrangements with a great firm 
in that city for refining the whole for the remuneration of 
i oz. per pound of silver, for all the silver refined, and also 
the whole of the copper contained in it. But the queen was 
quick to perceive the popularity that would accrue to her 
from connection with such a measure of reform, and there- 
fore made herself as conspicuous in it as possible, even going 

* The calling in of the base money was, in fact, unpopular at the time, 
and no wonder, from the mode of carrying it into execution, by compelling 
every man to give up for 2|d. the shilling for which he had given 12d. 

f Discovered by Mr. Burgon. 



458 COINAGE OF ENOLiOrD. 

to the Tower aad coining pieces of fine money with her own 
hand, which she graciously distributed to those immediatdy 
arouud her. A medal was struck to commemorate the 
restofation of the coinage, on which all the merit \a ascribed 
to Elizabeth; the efforts of Edward YI., and the great 
assistance derived from the intelligence of Grresham, being 
passed sub silentio. 

The coinage of the first three years of this reign consisted 
of shillings, groats, half-groats, and pennies, which were of 
the same fineness as the last of the preceding reign. But 
inconvenience being felt for want of small money, she soon 
after issued a coinage of sixpences, threepences, three-half- 
pences, and three farthings, of the full old English standard 
of II oz. 2 dwts. fine silver, to 18 dwts. alloy. 

Of these coins of three-hal^ence and three-farthings, 
none were issued in previous or subsequent reigns ; and yet 
Shakspeare, with that disregard of anachronism in such 
matters common to writers of that age, finding them current 
in his time, speaks of them as if they were current in the 
reign of John, where Faulconbridge, ridiculing the leanness 
of liis legitimate elder brother, first likens him to a "half- 
faced groat "—referring to the new-made groats— which 
had a profile instead of a fuU face ;* and then, referring to 
the rose on one side of the three-farthing pieces, he says, he 
would not own 

" a face bo thin 
That in mine ear I durst not stick a rose, 
Lest men should sc^, look where three-fjeirthings goes." 

Beaumont and Fletcher, in "The Scornful Lady," also 
refer to these three-farlbings, which had a rose like the 
sixpences, threepences, and three-half-pences of this issue, at 
the side of the head, the erasure of which made them look 
something like the penny of the earliest coinage of the 
reign. The passage occurs when speaking of a cidjH'it who 
should be "whipped, and then crept, for washing out the 
roses in three-farthvnasy to make themjpenc^." 

In the year 1582, these three-farthing and three-halfpenny 

^ It is iw^l kiMwn that no groats of any description were executed, in the 
days of John. 



COINAOE OF EKGIiAVD. 450 

pieees were dificontinued, flnddhillings, faalf-g^atSy and penee 
were revived, of einular types. Upon ibe whole of this 
coLotage the date was place<( «nd seldom omitted on lEoglish 
coins afterwards. The small coins of this reign were the 
last that bore the place of mintage, as *^ Cintas London," &c. 

But the great event in the eoinage of this reign was the 
partial introduction of the miU and screw, instead of the 
haBimer and punch principle ; bj which reformation in their 
mechanieal production, coins of a much more workmanlike 
and r^^ular appearance were produced. Indeed, theregu- 
lanty of this process, combined with the placing of the dates 
on the coins, were, together, the cause of the ultimate 
discontinuance of mint marks, previously rendered necessary 
in <»^er that irregularities in weight, execution, &c., should 
be attributed to the proper mint axxd mintage. 

As in speaking of the money of this reign in particular 
I have had frequent occasion to mention the mint marks, or 
privy marks, as they have usuallv been called in the mint, it 
may be necessanr to say a wora of the use and nature of 
those marks. I may therefore observe, that it had long 
been usual to oblige the masters and workers of the mint, in 
the indentures made with them, " to mark a privy mark in 
ail the. money that they made, as weUof gold as of sdver, so 
that at another time they might know, if need were, which 
mcHieys of gold and silver, amcmg other moneys, were of 
their own making, and which not.'* And whereas after 
every trial of the pix (periodical counts of inquiry into the 
state of the different mints), at Westainster, the masters 
and workers of the mints, having there proved their moneys 
to be lawful and good, were ** immediately entitled to receive 
ihehr quietus under the great seal, and to be discharged from 
all suits or actions concerning those moneys ;" it was then 
umal for the said masters or workers to . change the privy 
mark before used, for another, ''that so the money fiK>m 
which tiiey were not yet discharged might be distingujahed 
from those for which they had already received their quietus: 
which new mark, they then continued to stamp upon all their 
moneys, until another trial of the pix also gave them their 
quietus concerning those." 

The pix is a strong, case with three locks, the k^s of which 
are respectively kept by the warden, master, and comptroller 



460 COINAGE OF £KGLAKD. 

of the mint ; and in which are deposited, sealed up in several 
parcels, certain pieces taken at random out of every journey, as 
it is called, that is, out of every fifteen pounds weight of gold, 
and sixty pounds weight of silver. And this pix is from time 
to time, hy the King's command, opened at "Westminster in 
the presence of the Lord Chancellor, the Lords of the Council, 
the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, the Justices of 
several Benches, and the Barons of the Exchequer, before 
whom a trial is made, by a jury of goldsmiths empanelled 
and sworn for that purpose, of the collective , weights of 
certain pieces of gold and silver taken at random from those 
taken from the pix. After which, those parcels being 
severally melted down, assays are made of the bullion of 
gold and silver so produced, by the melting certain small 
quantities of the same against equal weights taken from the 
respective trial pieces of gold and silver that are deposited 
and kept in the exchequer for that use. This is called the 
trial of the pix ; the report made by the jury upon that trial 
is called the verdict of the pix for the time. 

But to return to the milled money. Eolkes says, "The 
maker of this milled money is reported to have been one 
Philip Mastrelle, a Frenchman, who eventually, however, fell 
into the practice of coining counterfeit money, and was con- 
victed, and executed at Tyburn on the 27th of January, 
1669.*' Mr. Hawkins does not place any reliance upon this 
statement, and asserts that the name of tne introducer of this 
process is imknown, and the whole history of its employment 
involved in obscurity. The principal feature in the new 
method was the power of ornamenting the edges of the coins ; 
but the whole appearance of the money so produced was 
more workmanlike. Most of the milled coins in this reign 
may be distinguished by a star of five points at the end of 
the legend. Some patterns of half-crowns exist of the coinage 
between 1561 and 1575, but none were issued tiU 1601 and 
1602, which are very handsome coins, and the first large 
silver that had been coined since the death of Edward VI. 
There are also shillings, sixpences, half-groats, pennies^ and 
hal^ennies of this coinage. It was in 1601 that silver coin 
was again reduced in weight, and, as Eolkes tells us, the 
same standard of value was then adopted which has been 
ever since retained. 



COINAGE OF EKGLAKD. 461 

On some of the coins of Elizabeth are found stamped the 
arms of Zealand ; others have H. for Holland ; both which 
are supposed to have been so stamped for subsidies taken to 
the liow Countries by Leicester. 

The East India merchants were also allowed to coin what 
have been called crowns, half-crowns, and shillings, for cir- 
culation in their foreign dealings. These were, in fact, of 
a different weight to the English crown, being struck to 
accord with the weight of the Spanish piastre, the half, the 
quarter, and the half-quarter of the same. These coins have 
been called the portcullis money, from a large portcullis 
occupying the whole of the reverse. They are handsome 
pieces, but do not come under the head of Enghsh coins of 
the realm. 

The first, or hammered shillings of this reign, have the 
profile young-looking, and crowned, with Elizab. D. G-. Aug- 
Pr. et Hib. Eegi., and on the reverse the arms traversed by 
the cross, with the old motto, " Posui,'' &c. : the oval shield 
introduced by Edward VI., without the cross, not appearing 
on any of the coins of this reign. 

The three-halfpenny and three-farthing pieces have the 
rose behind the head, with " E. G-. D. rosa sine spina ;*' the 
reverse, with arms like her other coins, has also the date 
(for the first time on small pieces), and f' Civitas London." 
The threepence is exactly the same, but the sixpence has 
the queen's titles round the head. 

The milled shillings may be distinguished by the much 
greater breadth of the cross traversing the arms. 

The five-shilling or crown piece is a very handsome coin, 
and the bust of the queen an excellent portrait in the 
costume of the time. 

It will appear extraordinary that, notwithstanding the 
restoration of the English coinage, base money was stiU 
coined for Ireland ; as though unfairness and oppression 
towards that unfortunate country had really formed part of 
a positive system with the English government at all periods. 
The gold coins of this reign do not vary much from those 
of Mary. There was the double rial with the queen on the 
throne, and the rose reverse, with the arms in the centre. 
The rial with the queen in the ship, and the reverse still' 
like the old noble. 



462 C01KA6E OI* JDVGLJlKD. 

There were two standards of gold: one called the old 
standardy 23^ earato fine to half a carat alloj, one p<mnd 
weight of which was to be coined into 24 sovereigmr of 30«» 
(equal to 36 of 20«.). Another standard of 22 carats fine, 
to two carats of alloy (crown gold), of which the pound 
weight was to be coined into only 38 soyereigns of 20s. 
Afterwards, about 10s, more was made from the pound of 
each standard. 

The angels, half-angels, and quarter-angels, wetB dmailar 
to those of Mcury and her predecessors, but rather better 
executed than those of Mary. The only new artistic 
feature of. the gold coinage of this reign being sovereigns, 
half-soyereigns, quarter^sovereigns, hal&quarter sovereigns, 
of a new type, having the profile of the queen crowned, with 
"Elizabeth, D. G-. E. Aug. Fra« et Hib. regina ;" the reverse 
being the royal arms surmounted with a crown, which has 
the arch indented in the centre, like the modem crown, 
with B. B, on either side, and the motto '' Scutum: fidei 
proteget" earn." There are several varieties of tiiis type ; 
some having the line and beading within the legend^ others 
with different forms of the crown, and in some the queen 
wearing an ermined robe. 

The rial has the device of the old nobles — ^the ship, Ac. — 
the reverse being that of Edward lY., in whieh the stm 
supersedes the cross in the centh*e. It was the bmdsonse&t 
com of this type that had appeared. 

During this reign i^eie was coined^ of silver, including 
the base silver of Ireland^ 4y718,579Z. 2s, S^d, ; of gold, 
440,552^. Bs. did. 

JAMBS I., 1602 TO 1625. 

The first silver coins issued by this king, soon a^r hi» 
accession, were crowns^ half-crowns^ shillings, half-shiUings^ 
pieces of two pennies, pennies, and halfpennies. 

On the crowns and half-crowns is a figure of the king on 
horseback, in a similar style to those of Edward YI. : the 
iities read—" Jacobus D. Ot. Ang. Sco. Fran, et Hib; Eex."* 

On the reverse are the arms on a* garnished shield, but'in* 
the usual form (not oval, like some of Edward and Maiy), 
and having the motto, " Exurgat Deus, dissipentur inimici." 



GOlKAXShE OF EKGLAKD. 468 

The axms^ of Scotland, and also Ireland, Were, for i^e 
fimt time, qua)*tered with those of England and France. 
iSie shillings and sixpences had the king's hust in profile, 
crowned, in armour; the legend as on the crowns, and 
having- respeotivfely XII. and VI. behind the head, to 
denote the value. The twopenny pieces and pennies were 
the same, with the exception that they had the motto, 
"Bosa sine spina,'' and the numemls II. and I. respec- 
livdy ; the reverse having* the arms without motbo. The 
huli^ennies were like those of Elizabeth, with a cross on 
one side, and a portcullis on the other. Shillings and 
sixp^tices 9 oz< fine, were now coined for Ireland. 

On the second coinage the words Mag. Brit, instetid of 
Aug. ScOi, were vised, and on the reverses a new and appro* 
priate motto, allusive to the union of the ci*owns, was used^-- 
"QufiB Deus oonjuniit nemo separet." The shillings were 
the same as Idle half-<a*owns and- crowns, with the exception 
of having the king's bust only, instead of the figure on 
horseback. The twopenny pieces have a rOse on one side, and 
athktle on the othef, orownedjwith the mottoes "I. D. Gt. rosa 
dne spina" on om side, and "TueatUr unita Deus." The 
pennies had the rose and thistle uncrowned, with the ^me 
legends ; and the hal^ennies the simple rose and iMstle 
without mottoes. These several pieces now oontinued to 
be minted without alteiiation till the end of the reign. 
There are no dates on the coins = of this teign, except on 
sixpences, a caprice in Pheir favour difficult to ex{>laln ; but 
l^e succession of mint marks is so complete, l^at every 
israe is easily distinguished by connoisseurs j Up to 
June 20, 1605, the fleur-de-lis is the mint mark; up to 
July 10, 1606, another mark; till June 30, 1607, the 
escallop shell, and so on, through almost eveiy remaining 
year of the reign^ a dijflei^tot mark; such as the btmch of 
grapesj the tower, the tun, the half^moon, &e. 

Silver was exceedingly scarce during a part of the rfeign, 
and the issue of a light coinage was seiHiously contemplated, 
but the scheme was happily abandoned. A good deal of 
diver was refined' from the lead mines of "Wales, and doins 
made from iMs silvei^ always hov^ fbr mint mark the Welsh 
feathers to denote the origin of the metal. 

On the suggestions- of James, many good regulations were 



464 COIKA0E or E^aLAi^p. 

made to prevent clipping and other modes of debasing tHe 
coinage, and the charges of mintage were reduced, in order 
to tempt merchants and others to bring bullion more readily 
to be coined. 

The half-crowns have the new motto, " Qusb Deus," &e. ; 
and those coined from the Welsh silver have the mint mark 
of the Prince of Wales' feathers. 

In subsequent coinages little change was made in the types 
of the shilling ; they have the king's bust, in armour, crowned, 
and on the sixpences the date X603 (others 1622), occurs on 
the reverse, above the arms. The crowned profile head on the 
obverse, and the arms on the reverse, are types common 
to all the silver, from a shiUing down to twopence; but 
the silver pence and halfpence vary, some having a rose on the 
obverse and a thistle on the reverse, the respective symbols 
of England and Scotland. Other pennies have an I. E., 
crowned with a rose and thistle on either side, and a crowned 

EortculHs for reverse, the halfpence of the same coinage 
aviog a simple portcullis for obverse, and a cross with the 
old device of three pellets in the angles for the reverse. 
The crowns and half-crowns have the king on horseback in 
armour. 

The first attempt at a modem copper coinage was made 
in this reign, though it had been adopted at a much earlier 
period on the continent, and even iu Scotland.* But this 
English copper was confined to an issue of farthings, which 
were unpopular, and soon discontinued. 

The first gold coins of James I. consisted of sovereigns and 
half-sovereigns, having the king in armour holding the orb 
and sceptre. The reverse, having the arms of England and 
Erance with Scotland and Ireland quartered, and the motto, 
" Exurgat Deus, dissipentur inimici." After the coining of 
the units — coins of similar value — these pieces were some- 
times called sceptre units. The late sovereigns of the above 
types had the more appropriate motto, " Eaciam eos in gen- 
tem unam." The double-crown of 10^. is like the half- 
sovereign, but has on the reverse, " Henricus rosas B-egna 
Jacobus.' ' The British crown of 5s, was similar. The thistle 
crown of 4*. has the rose of England on one side, and the 

. * See Coinage of Scotland. 



COINAGE or ENGLAND. 465 

thistle of Scotland on the other, both crowned, the titles round 
the rose, with " Tueatur unita Dens ' * round the thistle. There 
was also a 2*. 6d, piece, with the king's head and ** J. D. 
rosa sine spina," and on the reverse the arms, and the same 
motto as the last : also a crown and half-crown similar, but 
with the motto "tueatur," &c. 

The pieces coined in Scotland only differed by the arms of 
Scotland occupying the first place. In the pieces without 
arms there was no distinction, except the mint mark ; but in 
small silver pieces the thistle appears without the rose. 

The pound weight of gold, 23^ carats fine, and i carat 
alloy, was next coined into 27 rose rials at 30 shillings each, 
or 54 spur rials at 15 shillings each ; *or it was made into 
81 angels at 10 shillings each. The spur rial has the king 
standing between the fore and mizen masts of a ship, in 
armour, crowned, and holding a sword, and on his left arm 
a large shield, with his arms, &c. &c. ; the reverse is the 
device of the old noble of Edward III., with the exception 
of the blazing sun substituted for part of the cross by 
Edward lY., and which was now termed a spur royal, from 
the resemblance of the rays to the rowels of a spur. 

The rose rial of 30 shillinffs was similar to those of the 
preceding reigns, except that the king appears in the regular 
parliamentary robes. The motto on the reverse of the rose 
rial and spur rial is "A. Dno. factum .est istud et est 
mirabile." The angels of this issue were very nearly of the 
old device. English gold coins being in this reign above the 
standard value of those of the continent, their value was 
i^ed by proclamation as follows; — sovereign, 20 to 22 
snillings ; double crown, 10 to 11 shillings, and so on in 
proportion. At the same time regulations were made as to 
the rates at which foreign gold and silver, in coin and in the 
Jiigot, should be purchased. It was next arranged that the 
pound weight of gold of the old standard of 23^ carats fine, 
should now be coined into 44Z. 

It being found that the irregular sums at which the gold 
corns were now rated was extremely inconvenient, a new 
gold coinage was determined on. These coins were to be 
of the highest standard, now termed angel gold. First, a 
thirty shilling piece, having the king in his parliament robes 
(still called a rial), the figure finely executed in a new style, 

H H 



466 COINAGE 07 ENGLA17D. 

but the mottoes the same ; the reverse of the old rose rial, 
however, being abandoned for the royal arms. 2nd, a fifteen 
shining piece of new device, having a lion holding a shield, 
with the numerals XV., and the titles ; and on the reverse 
the old device of the noble, with the sun of Edward IV., with 
"A Dno.," &c. — 3rd, a ten-shilling piece, or angel, with the 
old devices of the angel and ship greatly improved, and 
having the royal arms on the sail, and another pattern having 
the ship scooped out to receive a large shield with the arms. 
Of crown gold new units were made, having the King's head 
laureated in the Boman style — ^for the first time on modem 
English coins, and for the reverse, the royal arms, crowned, 
and the mottoes as on the first-mentioned units. These pieces 
were soon called "laurels." There was a ten-shilling and a 
five-shilling piece of the same pattern. Standard, or angel 
gold, was now coined into 44Z. 10s,, and crown gold into 41Z. 

The units which preceded those with the laurelled por- 
traits, have the king crowned, in armour, and holding the 
orb and sceptre ; these were, as before stated, called 
sceptred units. 

The thistle crown of 4 shillings had a crowned thistle on 
one side, and a crowned rose on the other. 

The first gold coinage of James was of the same standard 
as those of the last of Elizabeth — ^namely, the poxmd weight 
of gold of 22 carats fine, and 2 alloy, to make 83 sovereigns 
and a half at 20 shillings each ; next, the pound- weight of 
the same gold was coined into 37 units at 20 shillings each, 
and a thistle crown of four shillings ; it having been found 
that the English gold coin had long been of more value than 
those of other nations, and had, therefore, been exported for 
melting. A state of things arising from the fact that the 
true proportion of the relative values of gold and silver had 
not been properly understood in England. 



CHABLES I., 1625 TO 1649. 

The silver coinage of this disturbed reign is the most 
numerous and various of any in the English annals, and it 
is remarkable that, during the gradual waste of the prinee^B 
resources in the civil wars, no debasement in the coinage 



COU^AaE or EKOLAXD. 467 

took place ; the very rudest of those coins which are termed 
siege pieces, being of the proper purity and weight. 

The first silver coins of this reign were of the same value 
and denomination as those of James. Crowns, half-crowns, 
shillings, half-shiUings, twopennies, pennies, and halfpennies : 
the four large pieces had " Caroius D. G. Mag. Brit. Era. et* 
Hib. Eex." round a well-executed bust of the king, and the 
reverse the royal arms, as in the last reign, but with the 
motto, " Cristo, auspice, regno." Pennies and half-pennies 
were like those of James, except that they had the rose on 
both sides, with " C. D. G-. Eosa sine spina*' on the obverse, 
and "Jus. Thronum firmat" on the reverse. But these 
pennies and twopenny pieces were soon followed by others 
having the king's bust, and the numerals II. and I. ; and on 
the reverse the oval shield, first introduced by Edward VI., 
with " Justitia Thronum firmat" for motto. The oval shield, 
somewhat ornamented, was soon after adopted for the larger 
pieces also, with sometimes C. R. on either side. The 
shillings and sixpences represent the king in the dress of the 
day, and three changes of fashion may be traced in them. 
He is first seen in the stiff ruff, much like that of the reigns 
of Elizabeth and James, then in a limber or falluig one, and, 
lastly, in a simple falling collar, edged with lace, as we 
see him in most of his portraits by Vandyke. On some of 
these pieces of his early coinages he appears in his parlia- 
mentary robes, but eventually both these styles disappeared, 
and he was constantly represented in armour, but with the 
felling lace collar. The crowns and half-crowns have the 
king constantly on horseback, in armour. But the whole 
coinage of the reign necessarily became, towards its close, 
extremely irregular both in design and execution, and an 
immense number of trifling variations occur — ^far too nume- 
rous to allude to in detaiL within the limits of this volume. 

None of the pieces coined in the Tower were dated, 
but the mint marts afford sure indications of the dates. To 
January 1625 they are marked with the trefoil ; to January 
1626 with the fleur-de-lis, and so on. This refers especially 
to the London coinage ; but in this reign there were exten- 
sive coinages of silver in various parts of the kingdom, even 
before the troubles. Those of the York mint are very 
beautifully executed, and have a lion passant guardant for mint 

HH 2 



468 COINAGE OF ENQLAIfD. 

mark, also tlie word " Ebor" (York). It is supposed that the 
York mint was re-established when Strafford was president of 
the north, and some were probably coined when the king was 
at York, during his magnificent progress to Scotland. There 
was also established a permanent mint in his thirteenth year 
at Aberystwith, for refining and coining the silver produced 
from the Welsh lead mines. The coins of this mint may be 
known by the Welsh feathers. Several coins of this reign 
appear to have been produced by the mill and screw, under 
the direction, it is supposed, of Nicolas Briot, who had been 
chief engraver of the French moneys. His coins may be 
known by having the letter B upon them, but their superi- 
ority consists chiefly in their mechanical execution, for the 
engravings of other artists of the time are more spirited. 
]Mr. Le Blanc, author of the " Traite historique des Monnayes 
de France,^^ says, speaking of Briot's residence in England, 
— " On ne manqua pas de se servir de ses machines, et de 
faire par son moyen les plus beUes monnoyes du monde." 
He afterwards returned to France, where certain regulations 
were altered which had caused him to leave in disgust. His 
return to France probably prevented the permanent esta- 
blishment of the mill and screw in England at that time. 
He, however, prepared many patterns, which never came into 
circulation, and these are much prized in cabinets from their 
rarity. 

In the year 1642, when the king was at Nottingham, just 
about the breaking out of the civil war, he received as a loan 
from the universities nearly all their plate, which was to be 
repaid at so much per oz. for the white silver, and so much 
extra for the gilt silver. Some of this was paid out in its 
original form to be sold for the pay of the troops ; and so 
much of it as was coined, says Mr. Folkes, was minted 
probablv at York. The king soon after removed to Shrews- 
bury, where the master of the Welsh mint, Mr. Bushell, was 
ordered to join the king, and money was coined there, but 
with what particular mark is unknown — ^probably the Welsh 
feathers. Little, however, was done, for Clarendon says, 
"it was indeed more for reputation than use, as in the 
absence of sufficient workmen and instruments, they could 
not coin a thousand pounds a week." 

After the defeat of Edgehill, the king removed the mint 



COIKAOE OF £KGLA1TD. 469 

of Aberystwitb to Oxford, to coin there, in the New Inn 
Hall, under the direction of Mr. Bushell and Sir William 
Parkhurst, all ^he remaining plate of the colleges. In this 
mint there appears to have been coined a large quantity of 
money, both of gold and silver, and as it was still considered 
the Welsh mint, although removed, the Welsh mark of 
the feathers was continued. Of the money now coined at 
Oxford, there are several varieties and types, and a great 
variety of degrees of excellence in the execution ; some being 
of very mean workmanship, and others very excellent. The 
silver 20 shilling and 10 shilling pieces are peculiar to 
this mint, and to this period, for no other such pieces occur 
in the annals of the English coinage. The best executed of 
these 20 shilling pieces is a very noble coin, having the 
king on horseback, crowned, and in armour, the horse 
trampling upon arms and armour, surrounded by the usual 
titles; the reverse has the motto, "Exurgat Deus," Ac, 
and on a scroll " Eelig. Prot. Leg. Ang. Liber. Par.,'* dated 
1644 ; alluding to his declaration at the breaking out of the 
war, that he would protect " the protestant religion, the laws 
and liberties of his svhjects, cmd the privileges of parliament,*^ 
There is also a very beautiful crown of this mint, with a view 
of the city, and the word ** Oxon " above it, seen beneath 
the horse. The smaller pieces coined at Oxford had the king's 
head as previously, but the reverses were like those of the 
great 20 shilling piece described above. Some of the half- 
shillings and groats have an open book as mint mark. 

This coining down of the plate of the colleges caused 
the barbarous destruction of many rare and interesting 
relics of the highest antiquity ; but such are the inevitable 
consequences of civil war, for in 1644, the Commons house 
of parliament, with equal recklessness, ordered all the king's 
plate in the Tower to be melted down and coined, notwith- 
standing a remonstrance from the lords, alleging that the 
curious workmanship of these ancient monuments was worth 
more than the metal. 

On many occasions during the most disastrous fortunes 
of the king in the latter part of the civil war, his partisans 
were under the necessity of striking money in a rude 
manner, by coining down their own plalfce for the relief of 
their men. By which course as many magnificent family 



470 COINAGE OF DHOLAXD. 

moBiunentB perished, as national ones had done hy the 
sacrifices at Uiford and at the Tower. The first of this 
sort of money, since called siege pieces, was coined at 
Dublin; it consisted merely of 
weighed pieces of plate simply 
stamped with numeMla, to denote 
their current value. Some had 
also a C. B. under a crown. 

In 1645, when Carlisle was 
defended by Sir Thomas GMemham 
for the king, he coined down 
plate into sbillinga, &e., with the 
king's head very rudely done. 

Some of these siege pieces are 
stamped with a castle, and nu- 
merals to denote the yalue; for 
Newark Siege Puce. instance, those struck during the 

siege of the castle of Scarborough. Others have a very 
ruinous castle, with " Oarolus fortuna reaurgam." 
*S- During the defence of Pontefract Castle, thecoin stamped 
there had the motto, "Dum spiro spero." This place was 
still defended by Colonel John Morris seven weeks after the 
execution of the king ; and after that event this staunch 
royalist struck the coins he issued in the name of Charles II. 
The shillings so struck were of an octagonal shape, with 
" Carolua secimdus, 1648," round the figure of the castle, and 
the reverse had " Post mortem patris pro fiho." 

Of these irregular coins, or siege pieces, there is a great 
variety both of gold and Bilver. Some have doubted the 
authenticity of thia money, on account of the silence of 
cotemporary documents. But of the pieces of Fontelraet, 
Sir H. Ellis has recently discovered the cotemporary notice 
required. It is contained in a newspaper of the time, — 
" The Kingdom's faithful and Impartial! Scout," February 5, 
1648 ; in which some of the square Pontefract shiUings, 
found on a royaliat prisoner by the repubhcans, are described 
as being stamped on one side with a castle, and the letters 
P. 0., and on the other with a crown, having C. it. on each 
side of it : a perfectly correct description, with the eiception 
of mistaking the C for 0, which does, in fact, iu some 
specimenii appear nearly round. 



COIKAGB OF ESTGLAKI). 471 

In tkifi rei^were coined also pieces for circolatdon in 
New England by Lord Baltimore, who waa privileged to 
strike money with his own portrait. 

The. early half-crowns of this reim, show the horse clothed 
in rich hea^houaings, similar to thoU shown on the crowns 
of Edward YI. and James I., which were abandoned for a 
merely decorative saddle-doth on the later coins of Charles. 

There are specimens of a half-crown, dated 1645, on 
which the arms are enclosed in the garter, and supported by 
the Hon and the unicorn, a device which has doubtless formed 
the model of some of our recent money. 

The early twopenny pieces had the crowned roses previously 
mentioned. 

On the Oxford 20 shilling silver piece, the horse is without 
the housings in which he is clothed in the earlier pieces ; as 
also on the Oxford crown, with the view of the city. 

The gold coinage of Charles I. is not so various as the 
silver. The fine old sovereigns, or rials, with the king 
eiithroned,^ as also the nobles, were finally abandoned after 
the begimung of the reign ; but a small coinage of angels 
was issued, similar to those of James I. with the arms on 
the sail. 

The principal gold coins in the early part of the reign 
were — the unit, or broad-piece (20 shiUings), with its half 
and quarter; first having for reverse the old shield gar- 
nished, and subsequently the oval shield ; some having on 
the reverse the motto, "Morent Concordia Eegna;" others, 
" Cultores sui Deus protegit." On the obverse, the largest 
of these pieces had XX. behind the head ; the next X., and 
the smaUest V., to indicate their value. The portrait is 
crowned, and sometimes in a plain dress, with a falling 
laced collar, and sometimes in parliamentary robes. 

The gold pieces struck at Oxford were three pounds, 
pounds, and ten shilling pieces, having a head of the king 
very meanly executed, holding the ohve branch as well as 
the sword ; and having on the reverse the motto, " Exurgat," 
&c., and "EeHg. Pro." &c. The large piece of three pounds 
had the numenils III. on the reverse, the lesser pieces XX. 
and X. respectively, behind the head. The 10 shilling pieces 
are without the olive branch and sword of the larger ones. 
The Oxford pieces, with the inscription Belig,, &c., on a 



472 COINAGE OF EKGLAlfrD, 

scroll, were called the exurgat mone^, the principal legend 
being, as stated, '^ Exurgat Deus, dissipentur ininuci." 

The coinage of copper farthings was again attempted in 
this reign, and new proclamations were issued against private 
&rthing tokens of copper or lead, but no good remedy was 
applied to the inconvenience which called them into existence^ 
while the privilege of making the authorised farthings was 
granted to the Duchess of Richmond and others for different 
periods, for their own profit. The farthings under these 
patents, being of course below their intrinsic value, caused 
endless discontent and disturbance. 



CHAPTEE XXXIV. 

THE COMMOITWEALTH TO CHAELES II. 

The Commonwealth, 1648 to 1660. The Common-^ 
wealth, with the energetic Cromwell as its directing 
genius, proceeded at once to effect great changes in the 
coinage. The royal arms and Latin mottoes were thrown 
aside, and the simple cross of St. George, as the suitable 
badge of Puritanical England, was adopted, which was 
placed within a palm and an olive branch, and had for 
legend, in good plain English, "The Commonwealth of 
England." On the reverse were two joined shields, one 
bearing the cross of St. Q-eorge, the other the harp of Ire- 
land, and the motto, also in English, " God with us," and 
the date ; that of the first being 1649. Sir Eobert Harley 
who had formerly been master of the mint for the late king, 
though he had accepted a re-appointment from the parlia- 
ment, yet refused to carry into effect this innovation in the 
types of the coins, and Aaron Guerdain, doctor of physic, 
was appointed in his place, under whose direction the 
change was effected. 

The issue consisted of crowns, half-crowns, shillings, and 
half-shillings, and pieces of two-pence, a penny, and a half- 



C0IKA6£ OF EKGLA5D. 473 

penny. The larger pieces all bore the same devices, with 
the exception of being marked with Eoman numerals, to 
indicate their value. The smaller pieces had no mottoes, 
and the halfpenny had simply the cross on one side, and the 
harp on the other. 

On the perfect restoration of tranquillity, and the cooling 
down of the national mind from the turmoil and excitement 
of the civil war, towards 1651, Cromwell resolved to avail 
himself of all the most recent improvements in coining, 
already adopted by several continental nations. It was 
determined that in beauty of mechanical execution the coins 
of this nation should not be behind any in the world, and 
a celebrated artist, Pierre Blondeau, a Pi'enchman, who had 
carried to perfection the most approved modes of stamping 
coin by the mill and screw, was invited to England. 

On his arrival, he produced patterns of half-crowns, 
shillings, and half-shillings, coined by the new mill and screw, 
by which means a legend was impressed for the first time 
upon the edge. 

One half-crown bore on the edge " Truth and peace, 1651, 
Petrus Blondeus ;" another, " In the third yeare of freedome 
by God's blessing restored." The shillings and sixpences 
were beautifully grained on the edges, and the pieces were 
brought to their true weight with the utmost exactness. 
An engagement was entered into with Blondeau to work 
these pieces, which bore the usual device of the Common- 
wealth. • But no issue was ever made of them ; they can 
therefore only be considered as patterns, and are very rare. 
The established workers of the mint also sent in fresh rival 
patterns, one of which had the double shield, supported by 
winged figures, with motto, " Guarded by angels.** In the 
end the opposition of the existing functionaries in the mint 
frustrated the schemes of Blondeau, who was prevented 
from carrying into effect his projected reforms. An interest- 
ing paper on this subject will be found in the Transactions 
of the -Numismatic Society, vol. vi., p. 261. The screw pro- 
cess was, however, eventually adopted, though without the 
immediate aid of Blondeau, who appears to have been 
iU-used. 

In the latter part of his protectorate, after his second 
solemn investiture, Cromwell caused coins to be executed 



474 COIKAOS OF EN€)>£AKJ). 

bearing his own bust, but it is supposed that few, if any, 
were issued, as coins of the old type of the same date are 
much more numerous ; they must therefore possibly be 
regarded as patterns. They are exceedingly well-executed, 
by the mill process, and haye the laureated bust of the 
Protector, with " Olivar. D. Gt, E, P. Ang. Sco. et Hib. &c. 
Pro." assuming the title of Protector of the Eepublic of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, but substituting "<&«." for 
France. The bust is the work of the celebrated Simon, and 
most beautifully executed, in a manner far superior in point 
of art to anything that had ever been seen upon an English 
coin before. The crowns and half-crowns are indeed most 
remarkable medals, as regards both the engraver's and the 
coiner's art. The reverse of these pieces has a crowned 
shield, with the republican arms of England (the cross of 
St. George) ; and those of Ireland and Scotland with the 
legend " Pax qu»ritur bello." 

The crowns and half-crowns of the Commonwealth have 
letters beautifully impressed on the edge, the shillings and 
sixpences being very neatly grained. They were the best 
executed coins that had up to that period issued from the 
English, or perhaps any other mint. The silver standard 
adopted by the Commonwealth was 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine, and 
18 dwts. alloy. 

The gold coins bore the same devices and mottoes as the 
silver ones, and were simply twenty-shilling, tenrshilUiog, 
and five-shilling pieces: the twentyrshiQing piecea contain 
3 dwts. 20 grs. of 22 carats gold. The later twenty- 
shiUing pieces have the bust of the Protector, which is not 
near so good a likeness or so well executed as on the silver 
pieces. On the ffold coin the bust is represented without 
drapery, a distinction subsequently adopted in succeeding 
coinages up to George III., with the exception of those of 
Queen Anne, who somewhat fastidiously objected on the- 
score of delicacy. Some few of her gold coins nevertheless 
exist without the drapery, but they are probatly only 
suppressed patterns. The twenty-shilling piece of the Pro- 
tector, with the portrait, appears much smaller than the 
previous pieces, but it is much thicker, the milled pieces 
becoming generally smaller and thicker than the previous 
hammered ones. 



OOINAOS OP ENOIiANB. 475 

Trials of copper farthings, similar to those which had 
been attempted in James I. and Charles I., were again 
repeated during the Commonwealth, but it is supposed 
never issued. The, patterns for this issue of farthings 
exhibit several very interesting reverses. The legend round 
the head was, like all the Commonwealth coins, in English : 
it reads, " Oliver Pro. Ing. Sco. et Ire.," and the reverses 
had " Convenient change." One, vrith the type of a ship, 
has "And God direct our course." Another, with three 
columns, bearing the badges of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land, uuited by a twisted band, has the motto, "Thus united 
invincible" ; another has "Charity and change." The only 
mint during the Commonwealth and Protectorate was that 
of the Tower of London. 



CHABLBS II., 1660 TO 1684. 

(See Plate IX.) 

On his accession, in the year 1660, there were issued silver 
coins, from half-crowns downwards, with the exception of 
grouts and quarter-shillings, which were soon after added. 
They were, with a view perhaps of returning to the extreme 
of orthodoxy, much like the earliest of his father's coins, 
with the old shield traversed by the cross fleurie, and the 
same mottoes. The new improvements of the mill and screw 
were also abandoned, and the coins were again produced by 
the old hammering process. 

The first issue was without numerals indicating the value, 
and without the line and beading within the legend ; a second 
issue had the numerals, but still no inner circle of line and 
beading. In 1661 the respective values were ordered to be 
stamped on each, and these new coins had also the inner 
circle, or line and beading, vnthin the legend, absent in the 
first. These first silver coins of Charles II. may be said to 
be the last of our series which represent the sovereign in the 
costume of the day. Some have the lace collar over armour, 
and others over an ermine robe, and aU are crovmed also for 
the last time, as no subsequent English coin bears a crowned 
portrait. 

In 1662 the previously mentioned Peter Blondeau was 
fonnally re-engaged to direct the mint, upon the new prin- 



476 COITTAGE OF EKGLAITD. 

ciple of mill and screw, and a competition for engraving tlie 
dies was entered into between the celebrated Simon, who 
had engraved the dies for the Protector's last coins, and 
John fioeter of Antwerp, which was unfairly decided in 
favour of Boeter. Simon aflbewards produced a pattern 
crown, most exquisitely engraved, which is considered quite 
a model of the art of that or even any period, and very 
superior to any cotemporary work of the class, if we except 
his own previous works, the busts of CromweU on the crowns 
and' half-crowns. On the edge of this famous coin is in- 
scribed his petition to the king against the previous unjust 
decision, which was of course unheeded. The petition runs, 
" Thomas Simon most humbly prays your Majesty to com- 
pare this his tryal piece with the Dutch, and if more truly 
drawn and embossed, more gracefully ordered, and more 
accurately engraven, to relieve him."* 

In 1663 the first issue of the improved milled coinage took 
place, consisting of crowns, half-crowns, and half-shillings, 
very handsomely aud well executed, having the king's head 
laureated, and the shoulders mantled in the conventional 
Eoman style, looking to the left, contrary to the preceding 
coins,t with the legend " Carolus II. Dei Gratia." On the 
reverse are four shields, forming a cross, having the arms of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; there are linked C's in the 
angles, the Star of the Garter in the centre, and around, the 
king's titles, and the date. The crowns and half-crowns 
have "Decus et tutamen" on the edge — an inscription 
on the edge having been adopted like the milled notching 
or graining, to prevent clipping: this motto, Evelyn 
says, was suggested by himself to the maker, to intimate 
that it was at once an ornament and a protection to the 
coin. J Thp shillings and sixpences were milled at the 
edge, at first by an upright notching, and afterwards by 
an oblique one. Some of the larger pieces have on the edge 

♦ Simon had been several years one of the chief engravers of the Mint, and 
prepared some of the first money, but it is conjectured that he was discharged 
after this trial. 

■f Now began the custom of placing the king's head on his coin in a 
direction contrary to that of his predecessor, suggested perhaps, in the first 
instance, by a feeling of aversion to the memory of Cromwell, on whose 
effigy the king probably wished that his own should turn its back. 

i Hawkins. 



COnrAOE OF EKGLAlfD. 477 

the year of the reign in numerals, as "Anno Eegni XVIII." ; 
others written, as " Tricesimo sexto" (36) : by which num- 
bers it will be seen that the reign was calculated from the 
death of Charles I., leaving out the Commonwealth. The 
character of the new designs was evidently suggested by the 
designs of Simon, who had previously introduced it in the 
busts of the Protector. This conventional Eoman style was 
introduced in France about the reign of Louis XIII., and in 
matters of taste France began very sensibly, though slowly, 
to iufluence the taste in England. 

The disposition of the four shields, on the reverse, in the 
form of a cross, is that extremely pleasing device which 
continued to George III., and was also, I have no doubt, an 
idea of Simon's, as even in early patterns of his it is imper- 
fectly shadowed out, while on the petition crown it is perfect, 
fine copies of which sell for from 150 to 200/. (See plate 9). 

The smaller coins also of this issue were milled, but they 
retwned the old tvpes. Soon after, however, the small coins 
were assimilated m style to the large silver, the groat being 
distinguished by four linked C's, the threepenny piece by 
three, the twopenny piece by two, and the penny by a 
smgle C, while silver half-pennies were no longer coined. 

The coins below sixpence, after this introduction of the 
mill, were only struck for Maundy money, in order to con- 
form to the old custom of distributing the royal bounty on 
Holy or Maundy Thursday, on which day a white bag was 
given to a certain number of poor persons containing as 
many coins as the king numbered years. 

The gold coins of this reign were not various ; the first 
had the head laureated in the Eoman style, and on the 
reverse the old shield. The next had a similar head, but the 
oval shield on the reverse. The reverses of both had the 
motto " Elorent concordia regna." There were pieces of 
twenty shillings, ten, and five. In 1664, a gold coinage by 
the new process was issued, having the bust undraped, as in 
the Cromwell gold pieces, and on the reverse, four crowned 
shields, bearing the arms of England, &c., with sceptres in 
the angles : this coinage consisted of five pound pieces, forty 
shilling pieces, and twenty shilling pieces, the latter being 
for the first time called guineas, from being made from the 
gold brou^t from Guinea by the African Company : there 



478 COXXjLOE of EFeLAIl^I). 

were also half-guineas. The coins made of the gold im- 
ported by the African Company had, in their honour, a small 
elephant under the bust of the king ; done, as it is said, to 
encourage the importation of gold. The term guinea, for a 
twenty shilling piece, afterwards continued to the reign of 
G-eorge III., witnout reference to the source of the gold. 

It was determined at the beginning of this reign, the 
English gold coins being still above the value of those of 
other nations, to increase their nominal value, and the old 
unit of 20 shillings was therefore raised to 22 shillings, and 
other coins in proportion, the new coinage being made to 
correspond ; that is to say, the pound weight of gold was 
coined into as many more pieces of 20 shillings and 10 
shillings respectively as should make them of the same 
relative value as the raised units, Ac. In 1670 the weight 
of the gold coins was again reduced, the pound of gold 
(22 carats fine) being coined into iAl. lOs, At the end of 
this reign an act was passed, with the view of encouraging 
the bringing of bullion to the mint, by removing all charges 
upon coiuage, for private individuals ; the state undertaking 
to be at the whole expense, and the ftiU weight of bullion 
was to be returned in coin without any reduction. But to 
defray the expenses incurred, a duty on foreign wines, 
vinegar, Ac, was levied. 

The money of our colonies and dependencies now became 
interesting ; but as it does not come within the bounds of 
this work, I confine myself upon the subject to the relation 
of an anecdote. 

It is said that Charles II. was much displeased with the 
colonists in Massachusetts on account of their coining 
money, which he considered a breach of his prerogative, and 
threatened to Sir Thomas Temple that they should be 
punished. Upon which Sir Thomas took scmie of the pieces 
from his pocket to show the king, on the reverse of one of 
which was a pine tree, one of that species of pine common in 
the colony, that grows flat and bushy at the top, like the 
Italian pine. The king asked what tree it was ? upon which 
Sir Thomas Temple told him that of course it was the 
Eoyal Oak, which had preserved his Majesty's life : upon 
which the king said no more of punishment, but laughing, 
called them " honest dogs." * 



COINAGE or ENGLAND. 479 

The Copper Coinage. — Copper being first used in bulk 
in this reign, this appears the proper place to give a sketch 
of the events which led to its adoption. As early as the 
reign of Henrys VII. and VIII., we learn from an incidental 
passage in Erasmus, that leaden tokens of low value were in 
use, though whether sanctioned by the government or not is 
unknown. Similar tokens were, however, in use without 
the sanction of government in the reign of Elizabeth. 
They were called pledges or tokens, passing as halfpennies 
and farthings, being issued for convenience, by grocers, 
vintners, &c. who felt the great want of small change. It 
i^pears singular that some sort of copper coinage was 
not attempted at that time, as it had long existed, and 
been found advantageous, not only on the ccmtinent but even 
in Scotland. 

The matter was taken into consideration by Elizabeth, who 
decreed that copper or leaden tokens should henceforward 
only be made at the royal mint, and only of pure copper, 
and that the halfpenny should weigh 14 grs. and the farthing 
7 grs. Neither, however, were issued, though patterns exist. 
It was probably on the failure of this scheme that the queen 
panted to the city of Bristol the privilege to coin tokens to 
circulate in that city and ten miles round. 

James again abolished (nominally) all leaden tokens of 
private traders, and issued a small quantity of copper 
fiirthings, of his own mint ; but there was no second issue, 
and the private tokens again prevailed ; and in the troubled 
reign of his son they doubtless increased, as they were a 
source of large profit to the small and greedy trader. 

During the time of the Commonwealth, CromweU endea- 
voured to put down this fi^udulent money, by an efl&cient 
coinage of copper ; he died, however, before carrying out his 
purpose, so that the excellent devices for his projected 
coinage of farthings remain as mere patterns, and it was not 
tDl long after the Restoration that copper was first issued in 
bulk. At first a patent was, granted to Sir Thomas Arm- 
strong, to coin farthings of copper for twenty-one years. 
For this privilege he was to pay the sum of 16Z. 13«. 4id, per 
annum. He was to issue twenty-one shillings of farthings, 
being only of the value of twenty shillings of silver, and 
take them back at the same rate. 



480 COIS^AGE or ENGLAND. 

In 1665, hal^ence of the royal mint were issued in small 
quantities ; some say only patterns were done. They have 
the king's head, and " Carolus a Carolo ;" the reverse being 
Britannia, with Quatuor maria vindico, alluding to the empire 
of the sea, so often claimed by our sovereigns. The figure of 
Britannia is very graceful, is beautifully executed, and is said 
to be a portrait of the beautiful Frances Stuart. The general 
character of the device was, however, suggested by the figure 
called Britannia on some of the Roman coins relating to 
Britain, but it has a character of its own, and aU. the details 
of face, figure, and drapery, are quite original, and in a 
modem feeling. The figure on the farthing is not quite so 
elegant as that on the halfpenny, and has one leg bare. 
These farthings were called Lord Lucas's farthings, from 
the circumstance of his making a speech against the state of 
the currency in the presence of the king, in which he alluded 
to the total disappearance of the Commonwealth coins, 
which, from the form of the two joining shields, were callod 
Breeches; "a fit name," he says, "for the coins of the 
Eump." He then proceeded to state, that he saw no pro- 
bability of their being replaced, "unless it be by copper 
farthings, and this is the metal, according to the inscription 
on it," he says, " which is to vindicate the dominion of the 
four seasy The halfpence and farthings positively issued in 
1665, the first real copper coinage, were the same as the 
patterns above alluded to, with the exception of haying the 
simple motto "Britannia" on the reverse, instead of the 
one ridiculed by Lord Lucas ; and these coins being of the 
intrinsic value for which they were issued, at once nearly super- 
seded the private tokens, which no law had been able to put 
down. But so great was their convenience and the profit 
upon their issue, that they were still continued for some 
time, notwithstanding stringent enactments against them. 
Tin farthings, with a stud of copper in them, to render their 
imitation difficult, were also issued at the end of this reign, 
having on the edge Nvmmoru/m famulus. 



COiyAGE OF ENGLAND. 481 



CHAPTEE XXXY. 

TEOM JAMES II. TO GEOBGE III. 

James II., 1684 to 1688. On the coinage of this reign 
the head of the king is turned to the left, the reverse 
of that of his predecessor, — a custom that we shall now 
find constantly adhered to. The coins were in other 
respects similar to the last of Charles II., having the 
bust and name on one side, and the arms and titles on 
the other, with no other motto. The arms are formed of 
four shields, arranged as a cross, but without linked letters 
in the angles : the inscriptions on the edges are " Anno 
regni secundo," &c. The shillings and sixpences are milled 
with oblique lines, and the lesser pieces, or Maundy money, 
are marked IIII to I, with a crown above. The five shilling 
pieces, in fine condition, of this king, are rare ; that of 1688, 
very perfect, sold at Edmonds's sale for 11, Us. 6d., and 
would fetch more now. 

The gold coinage of this reign differs only in tjrpes from 
the last, in having the head turned the other way. The 
guineas and half-guineas — ^names now established for all 
twenty-shilling and ten-shilling pieces — ^have the same devices 
as the larger pieces. 

Of copper money, very little appeared in the reign of 
James IL, the hal^ennies and farthings being of tin, with a 
copper plug. The revei'ses are the same as those of his pre- 
decessor, but they are not quite so well executed ; both half- 
pennies and farthings have "Famulus nummorum" on the 
edge. The tin half-pennies have the legend "Jacobus 
secundus.'* 

WILLIAM AJSTD MABT, AKD WILLIAM III., 1688 TO 1702. 

The same style of coinage in its general appearance, fine- 
ness, and weight, was continued at the commencement of 

these reigns. The profiles of the king and queen are shown 

I I 



482 coiKAeE or irsr«hLAin>. 

one over the other on the obverse of all the coins, surrounded 
with " Q-uliehnus et Maria, Dei Gratia," and are well 
executed. Most of them have four shields arranged as a 
cross on the reverse, witn the Nassau arms in the centre, 
and " W. & M." interlaced, in the angles ; but some have a 
simple crowned shield, with the arms, those of Nassau, appear- 
ing on an escutcheon of pretence. The Maundy money has 
the profiles of the king and queen, with short hair, without 
drapery, and numerals on the reverses, as previously. The 
latter small coins, after 1692, are not so well executed, and 
it is supposed that the Boeters, who still worked for the 
mint, engraved the first, but not these latter specimens. 

Notwithstanding these issues, the general coinage had 
fallen into a bad state, and much old hammered money (stOl 
in circulation) had become thin, and was counterfeited. 
These circimistances called down the attack of Fleetwood, 
bishop of Ely, as a similar state of things in the reign of 
Edward VI. had excited the indignation of Latimer. Meet- 
wood exclaimed, in a sermon preached before the Lord 
Mayor, at Guildhall, " The cry will be like that of Egypt, 
loud and universal ; for every family will be a loser ; but it 
will fall severest upon the poor, who fi'om a little can spare 
none." And another preacher, seeking a simile between 
the debased coinage and religious contentions, said, " Our 
divisions have been to our religion what the shears have 
been to our money." 

After the death of the queen, in 1695, the king, who con- 
tinued to reign by the title of WiUia^a III., determined on 
taking into consideration the bad state of the coinage, 
(partly owing, as has been stated, to much of the old 
hammered money being still in circulation, which being 
worn and clipped, was now below half its value), and restore 
its general character. A tax was therefore laid upon 
dwelling-houses, to raise the sum of 1,200,000/., to supply 
the deficiency of the clipped money ; and in order that there 
might be as little delay as possible in carrying a complete 
new coinage into effect, mints were established at xork, 
Bristol, Norwich, Exeter, and Chester, the coins of each 
mint being respectively marked with the initial letter of the 
name of the place. 

By means of the assistance of these country mints, the 



ooiKAC^s OT wxuLA^na, 483 

new coinage was completed in two years. The liigh feeling 
of the king "upon this subject, and his detennination to 
obtain the best opinion and guidance in the matter, are 
strongly exemplified by the fact of his appointment of the 
illustrious Newton to the post of the master of the mint, 
which took place in 1697. Nearly 7,000,000 of silver moneys 
were coined during the years 1696 and 1697; by far the 
greatest portion of which was minted at the Tower. Besides 
the letters indicating the places of mintage, some of the 
coins haye marks, such as the rose, indicating that the silyer 
came jfrom the west of England ; the plumes, for Welsh 
silyer; and the elephant and eastle, indicating metal from 
the African Company. These marks were generally placed 
in the angles between the shields. 

But the silver coinage was still insufficient, and continued 
so for twenty years afterwards ; for in 1717, in the reign of 
George I., Sir Isaac Newton, who was still in office, said, in 
his report, " if silver money become a little scarcer, people 
win, in a little time, refuse to make payments in silver 
without a premium." 

On the new coinage, after the death of the queen, the 
king's bust appears alone, surrounded by " Gulielmus III. 
Dei Gratia ;" the reverse has the four shields as before, but 
without "W. or M. in the angles, and all the pieces are alike, 
with the exception of miift marks. The Maundy money 
was as before, with the obvious exception of the king's bust 
being alone. 

There are a few varieties in collections, which, it is sup- 
posed, were only patterns. The shillings and sixpences 
varied sUghtly towards the close of the reign, in having the 
features of the bust a little more strongly marked, and 
having the hair more upright on the forehead. The year of 
the reign was marked on the edges of the larger pieces. 

The gold coins of WiUiam and Mary and William III. 
consisted of five-pound pieces, two-pound pieces, guineas, 
and half-guineas. 

The two-pound pieces of WiUiam and Mary have the 

single crowned shield on the reverse, and the guineas and 

half-guineas were of the same pattern; while those of 

WiUiani III. have on the reverse the four shields as a cross, 

with sceptres in the angles, as on those of Charles 11., a 

ii2 



484 con^AaE of ekglait]). 

device now continued through the next two reigns. The five- 
pound pieces, guineas, and half-guineas, were of the same 
pattern. 

The most absurd enactments were passed about this 
period, with a view to remedy the scarcity of gold. In this 
reign it was enacted that " no gold was to be worn as oma- 
ments during the war," &c. ; while in the reign of Charles II. 
it had been enacted, that no gold should be used in gUding 
carriages. 

The guineas at one time rose in this reign to the value of 
thirtv shillings, though pieces of equal weight and fineness 
could be purchased in. Holland for twenty-two shillings ; but 
an act of Parliament reduced their value to twenty-sis 
shillings, and afterwards to twenty-two shillings. These 
mere arbitrary enactments caused the greatest confusion, 
and it being eventually found that, on the continent, gold 
bore a value as 15 to 1 of that of silver, it followed, that to 
preserve something like that proportion, twenty-one shillings 
and sixpence was suflS.cient for the guinea, and it afterwards 
passed at that price. This measure, to a small degree, 
prevented the great export of silver for the purchase of 
gold. 

The copper or tin coinage of these reigns did not vary 
much in character from, those of Charles and James; but 
the hal^ence of William III. (1690) show the Britannia, 
with the right leg crossed, like that on the farthings of 
Charles I. ; except that in this case the leg is draped, and 
not bare. The tin halfpennies and farthings have a plug of 
copper in them. In 1593, Andrew Corbel obtained a patent 
for making copper hal^ence and farthings, for payment of 
lOOOJ. per annum, upon which it appears the patentee 
would have had a profit of 18,000Z. in the nine years of his 
patent, but the patent was taken from him in the following 
year. 

In some of the patterns preserved, which were essays for 
the copper of these reigns, we find the queen's head on one 
side, with "Maria II. Dei Grratia;" and on the other side 
the king's head, with " Guhelmus III. Dei Gra." Others 
had the queen's head, and " Maria 11. Dei Gra." on the 
obverse; and on the reverse a rose, with "Ex candore 
Decus." Of William III. there is a pattern farthing, half- 



COIKAaE or SKGLAKJ). 485 

brass, with a sun on the reverse, and " Non devio." These 
half-brass patterns look like the half of a sovereign and the 
half of a farthing stuck together, showing half the face red 
and half yellow. 

Airan, 1702 TO 1714. 

The coins of this reign are of the same fineness, weight, 
and denomination as those of the last. The devices are also 
the same, with trifling variations : the bust of the Queen, on 
the obverse, is turned to the right ; the hair is simply bound 
by a fillet, and the shoulders clothed in a light drapery, 
fastened in front with a stud or rosette: the legend is, 
"Anna Dei Gratia:" the reverse has the shields arranged 
as a cross, with a star of the Q-arter in the centre, instead of 
the arms of Nassau of the last reign. The titles stand 
" MAG. BR:f. R. ET HIB. REa," with the date. 

The slight variations alluded to are the marks denoting 
the sources from which the silver was derived, some having 
the plumes, for the silver of Welsh mines, and some the roses 
for west of England silver ; also some with both marks, 
denoting that the silver was mixed. Others have the word 
" Tigo " under the Queen's head, in commemoration of the 
capture of Yigo and the Spanish galleons, from the treasure 
of which, the silver of those coins was derived. In some, 
the fiHet in the hair is rather differently arranged. This 
trifling change took place in the coins issued after the legis- 
lative union with Scotland, from which time the coinage of 
the two countries was assimilated in every respect, and the 
separate Scottish coinage, with distinct national emblems, 
which had continued from James I. to this time, was 
abolished. The only distinction, now, of the Scottish coins, 
was the letter E., for the Edinburgh mint, under the Queen's 
head. Those coins with the E. were the last coins produced 
away from the Tower of London. The arms of the reverses 
were slightly changed at this time, and those of England and 
Scotland, instead of being on separate shields, were impaled 
together on the first and third shields, those of Prance and 
Ireland occupying the second and fourth. The larger pieces 
have the year of the reign on the edge — as " Anno regni 
Quinto," " Sexto," &c. 



486 COINAGE 07 TSSGtLAJSTD. 

The Maundy money lias the bust like the larger pieces, 
and crowned numerals on the reverse. 

Of the coins of the short but prosperous reign of Anne, it 
may be said that they mark another epoch in the improve- 
ment of English money. Charles I., by his natural taste for 
art, had done much for the design and execution of the coin ; 
the spirited conduct of the Commonwealth and Cromwell 
had imported foreign skill, and with its aid carried the 
coinage of the country in perfection of execution even 
beyond that of neighbouring nations ; while in the reign of 
Queen Anne, great attention was again paid to the execution 
of the coins, and great public interest seemed to be roused 
to the importance of those national monuments ; as will be 
seen fipom the following suggestions, offered to the govern- 
ment of the time, by Dean Swift. He proposed that the 
hal^ence and farthings, after the union with Scotland and 
the perfect assimilating of the two countries, should be 
entirely recoined, and that, " 1st. They should bear devices 
and inscriptions, alluding to the most remarkable events of 
her Majesty's reign. 2d. That there be a society established 
for finding out proper subjects, inscriptions, and devices," 
Ac, with other excellent suggestions and remarks.* "By 
this means," he said, " medals that are at present only a dead 
treasure, or mere curiosities, will perpetuate the glories of 
her Majesty's reign, and keep alive a gratitude for great 
public services, and excite the emulation of posterity." To 
these generous purposes nothing can contribute in so lasting 
a manner as medals of this kind, for they are of undoubted 
authority, not, perishable by time, nor confined, like other 
monuments, to a certain place, but circulating throughout 
the realm : the combination of these properties is certainly 
not to be found in books, statues, pictures, buildings, or any 
other records of illustrious actions. The great interest of 
such records on coins is fully shown by the coins of the 
Eomans, who so fully appreciated this mode of commemo- 
rating great events. Nothing, however, was done upon 
these useful suggestions, though they were warmly enter- 

* The interference of Swift was, howoTer, rather fatctioua than ginoere; f«r 
afterwards^ in the affair of Wood's copper coinage, he, out of mere oppoaitioB, 
prevented a beneficial improvement which had received the sanction of Sir Isaac 
Newton, i 



COIS±&B or EKGLAITD. 487 

tained for a time, and some patterns actually struck. " But 
if," observes Ending, " tlie Dean's project had been carried 
out, it would have ennobled our coinage, and have elevated it 
far above the rank of a mere medium of commerce." 

The gold coins of the reign of Anne were pieces of five 
pounds, two pounds, guineas, and half-guineas : the devices 
are the same as those on the siLvw coins, with the exception 
of the sceptres in the angles of the cross formed by the four 
shields. 

The queen's fastidious modesty in insisting upon the 
drapery about the bust, caused her gold coins so closely to 
resemble the silver, that shillings and sixpences were gilt 
and passed for guineas and half-guineas ; the only means of 
detecting them being the absence of the lock of hair 
proceeding from the nape of the neck, and lying over 
the right shoulder on the right breast, which is found on 
a]l the gold coins. Another mark, by which these false 
guineas might be detected, was, of course, the sceptres on 
the reverse. 

Of copper, none at all was issued during the reign ; and 
the Queen Anne farthings, of which so much has been said, 
were only patterns, and never issued; they are, however,- 
not excessively rare, the one with sunk letters being the 
most scarce. 

Among the patterns of farthings is a fine one with the 
bust well executed, and Anna Augusta for the obverse, and 
Victory in a war chariot, with the motto " Pax missa per 
orbem," a motto borrowed from a well known Boman 
coin, on the reverse (1713), probably struck with a view 
to commemorate the general peace. Others have the figure 
of Britannia, like that on the farthings of Charles II., 
but placed in a decorated niche. This is called the 
canopy pattern. Some of these patterns were struck in 
gold. 

A specimen of a copper halfpenny exists, probably exe* 
cofced with the view of celebrating the union with Scotland, 
as it has on the reverse a rose and thistle on the same stem 
crowned with a single crown. 

There is another pattern halfpenny, having on the reverse 
a small Britannia, holding a sprig of rose and thistle on the 
same stem, and above the figure a large crown. 



488 COIKAGS OF EKGLAKD. 



GEOEGE I., 1714 TO 1727. 

The coinage of this reign remained the same in weight 
and value as in the preceding : the bust of the king was 
executed in the conventional style of the time, with Bomaa 
mantle and armour, and is turned to the lefb. The legend 
on the obverse contains the titles as well as the name, with 
(for the first time, as a permanent addition) " defender of 
the faith, Mdei JDefensor,'' abbreviated like the rest, as 
"GEORGIUS D. a M. BR FR. ET HIR REX F. D.*' On 
the reverse, his German titles appear, as " Brunsvicensis 
et Lunenbergensis Dux Sacri Eomani Imperii, Archi- 
thesauriuset Elector,'' abbreviated as "BRUN. ET L. DUX. S. 
R. I. A. TH. ET EL." His own arms are not placed in the 
centre like those of William III., but occupy the fourth 
shield. The marks indicating the source from which the 
silver was derived are continued as in preceding reigns; 
some having also s. S. C. for that received from the South 
Sea Company, and some a plume and linked C's, for a 
Welsh Copper Company. The large pieces have on the 
edge, their date and that of the year of the reign, as, 
" 1718, Quinto," &c. 

The Maundy money has the bust, with " Georgius Dei 
Qra.," and on the reverse a crowned numeral with the 
king's English titles only. It is a rather disgraceful fact to 
English skill, that in this reign the coins executed in the 
petty state of Brunswick for circulation in the king's foreign 
dominions are of far better execution than the English ones. 
They are of similar device. 

Of the scarcity of silver in this reign much has been said, 
and it was certainly insufficient for the circulation required. 
Many distinguished men were consulted on this and other 
matters connected with the coinage, and in 1717, Sir Isaac 
Newton,* still Master of the Mint, in his report, previously 
alluded to, stated that " if silver money should become a 
little scarcer, people would refuse to make payments in 
silver without a premium." 

* He was appointed Master of the Mint in 1699, in the reign of William III. 
— -Snellino. 



COINAGE or BNGLAKD. 489 

The crowns, shillings, and sixpences have the same 
devices. 

The guinea, minted in the Tower as twenty shillings, was 
reduced from its current rate of twenty-two shillings to 
twenty-one shillings. The gold coins of the realm were five- 
pound pieces, two-pound pieces, guineas, half-guineas, and 
for the first time (by that name) quarter guineas. They had 
the same devices as those of the silver coins, with the 
exception of the omission of draperr on the bust, and the 
addition of the sceptres in the angles of the cross on the 
reverses. 

The copper coinage was much extended in this reign ; 
above 46,000Z. worth was coined in 1717, the pound 
avoirdupois being coined into twenty-eight pence. 

The Britannia on the halfpenny now became more like that 
of the Boman coin fi:om ^hich the figure was originally 
taken. Some patterns dated 1724 have Britannia leaning 
upon a harp instead of a shield, probably a pattern for an 
Irish coinage. 

GEOEOE II., 1729 to 1760. 

The coinage during this reign exhibits no chjinge in its 
weight, value, &c. The king's head was again reversed, as 
had now become customary, and his bust consequently 
turns to the right, the legeud being simply " GEORGIUS II. 
DEI GRATIA." On the reverse a slight alteration took 
place in the arrangement of the title, which stands thus : — 
"M. B. F. ET H. REX F. D. B. ET L. D. S. R. I. A. T. ET E." 
being merely a new abbreviation of the English titles, 
followed by a still more close abbreviation of the German 
ones, as wfll be explained by referring to the last reign for a 
description and translation. In this reign the pattern of the 
milling at the edges of shillings, sixpences, &c., was also 
slightly changed to prevent falsification, for although the 
mflled edge had put a stop to the old clippmg sy&tem, filing 
was now resorted to for robbing the coin ; by which means, 
after a portion of the edge had been removed, the upright or 
diagonal lines might be restored by the file. To remedy 
this evil, a serpentine line, very difficult to imitate by the 
file, was adopted about 1740. In addition to the previous 



490 COINiiaE 07 EN0LAlSn), 

marks indicating the different sources of tlie metal, the 
word Lima occurs on those of coins of George II. minted 
from the silver captured either by Lord Anson, in the great 
Acapulco Ghilleon, or, as some think, by the Prince Frederic 
and l)uke privateers. Some have an elephant for the silver 
imported by the African Company. The Eoman armour at 
the shoulder differs from that of his father in having a lion;8 
head for ornament. The large silver pieces have their 
date and that of the reign on the edge — as " 1741, Decimo 
quarto," <&c. &c. 

Of the now usual gold coins, the quarter guinea was 
omitted in this reign. 

Up to this time a number of the old hammered coins of 
James I., Charles I., and Charles II. were still in circulation, 
and called broad pieces, an appropriate name for the old thin 
rials and angels. They were igiow called in and their circu- 
lation forbidden by enactment. 

The principal gold coins minted were guineas and half- 
guineas, only a few five-pound and two-pound pieces being 
struck. The guinea was, by proclamation, in 1737, raised 
to 22s. 9d., and foreign gold coins passing in this country, 
principally Portuguese, settled at proportionate rates. The 
designs of the reverses of the gold coins were changed in 
this reign, and the old garnished shield, somewhat varied, 
again adopted in place of the four shields disposed as a cross. 
The disposition which was thus abandoned on the gold, was, 
however, continued on the silver coins. 

The first coinage of copper hal^ence and farthings in 
this reign was under warrant of Queen Caroline (in 1738), 
for the time guardian of the realm. There were forty-six 
hal^ence coined out of the pound avoirdupois. Though 
the false coining of gold or sUver had been made high 
treason, the coining of copper money was only deemed a 
misdemeanor, and the increased penalty of this reign only 
made the punishment two years* imprisonment ; which slight 
punishment, in comparison to that respecting gold and silver 
coins, was perhaps one cause of the great quantity of fabe 
copper money now sent in circulation. Birmingham was 
the chief seat of these illegal mints, though destined after- 
wards to become the legitimate spot where the whole copper 
coinage of the country was to oe for a time carried ob. 



J 



COTSXBH OF liNGLAjnO. 491 

Up to tliis time, however, the copper coinage appears to 
have been still a temporary expedient only. 

No monies were worked in this reign but at the Tower 
aad in the king's G-erman dominions. 

The copper coiaage of George II. presents no remarkable 
feature : the hal^enny has still for reverse, Britannia, very- 
like that of the Eomon coins, but very stiff, and poor in style. 



CHAPTEE XXXVI. 

rBOM GEOEGE III. TO VICTORIA. 

Geobge III., 1760 TO 1820. This prince, on succeeding 
to the throne of his grandfather, did not meddle with 
the silver coinage, although the currency was scanty in 
amount, and of decreased value, from excessive wear 
and fihng, which all the precautions of the last reign 
had not been able effectually to prevent. In 1762 and 
1763, a small amount of coin (5791 Z.) was issued, but of 
what denomination is not stated. In this coinage, and till 
1787, one pound of silver of 11 ozs. 2 dwts. fine, to 18 dwts. 
alloy, was coined into 62 shillings. But Mr. Hawkins 
supposes it was not from dies of George III., as no coinage 
(except the Maundy money) was issued with his portrait,* 
before 1763, when shillings to the amoimt of lOOZ. ! were 
struck for distribution to the populace of Dublin, when the 
Earl of Northumberland became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
A coinage, however, was in contemplation, as eviuced by the 
pattern shilling of 1764. In 1780, a proposal was made, 
but without success, to take the coinage out of the hands of 
the sovereign, abolishing the Mint establishment, and vesting 
the power of coining in the Bank of England. 'No serious 
issue of silver money took place, which seems almost 

• Very poorly done oa the Maundy money, till the issue (or patterns) of 
1798, caUed the wire money, from the delicate lines of the numerals, on 
which the head is Tery beautifully executed in low ielie£ 



492 COINAGE OF ENOLAKD. 

incredible, till 1787, twenty-seven years after the acces- 
sion of the king, more than the average length of a long 
reign. In 1772, the bad state of the coinage offered such 
temptations to forgery, that 1186Z. was granted over and 
above the 600Z. per year allowed in George II. for prose- 
cuting forgers. The year 1787 was marked by an issue 
of 55,459Z. in shillings and sixpences, the king's bust ap- 
pearing much in the same modem Eoman style as that of 
his predecessor, but stiff and less bold in execution, though 
an improvement on the shillings of 1763. These shillings 
resemble on the reverse, both in type and legend, those of 
George II., except that in the last-mentioned, the crowns 
are between the shields, instead of over them. As the silver 
pieces in circulation in this country at the time were aU 
light, and worn quite smooth, the new issue soon found its 
way to the melting-pot, being worth considerably more than 
the coin in circulation. In 1768 sixpences had been issued 
exactly like the shillings: but all these small batches of 
new coins soon disappeared, and the currency became gra- 
dually more and more scanty and depreciated, without 
any great effort on the part of the government to remedy 
the evil. 

In 1798, Messrs. Dorrien and Magen endeavoured to remedy 
the great scarcity of silver money to some extent, by sending a 
quantity of bullion to the Tower to be coined on their own 
account, according to the act of Charles II., upon payment 
of certain dues. But after it was coined, the government of 
this unfortunate period, destined ever to be obstructive, 
caused it to be all melted down, on the plea that a coinage 
could not be lawful without a proclamation ; so that this 
attempt on the part of the public to right the grievance 
themselves, was rendered unavailing by the government. 
These shillings, of which a very few specimens escaped the 
crucible, were, with the exception of the date, exactly like 
those of 1787. 

A small issue of shillings, sixpences, and Maundy money, 
took place in 1797 and 1798, the heads on which are very 
much more beautifully executed than those of any other 
coins of the reign. Some consider them to have been only 
patterns : they are known among collectors as the icire 
money, from the very slender numerals on the Maundy 



COIKAGE OF EVOLAIO). 493 

pieces ; and in 1797 a very considerable issue of copper coios 
waa made, coined by Messrs. Boulton and Watt. 

Inconceivable as it may appear, this state of things was 
allowed to go on, getting gradually worse and worse, till the 
year 1803, when it was attempted to patch up the grievance 
by stamping Spanish dollars,* for circulation, with a mark 
like that used at Gbldsmiths' Hall for the stamping silver 
plate. In the following year this stamp was changed for a 
small octagon containing the king's head ; and about the 
same time an arrangement was made with Mr. Boulton, of 
Soho, near Birmingham, to stamp the entire fiice of the 
dollar with a device, by means of machineiy, the result of 
the great inventions in the application of steam power, 
recently rendered practical by Watt. 

It was not till 1816, during the Eegency of the Prince of 
Wales, that it was determined to meet the difficulties of an 
entirely new coinage. This event was, perhaps, more owing 
to the activity and energy of Messrs. Boulton and Watt, 
than to any initiative feeling on the part of the government ; 
those gentlemen had, in the copper coinage confided to them 
in 1797, proved the efficacy of their vast machinery, and had 
scientifically considered ail the principles upon which the 
coinage of a great nation ought to be conducted, especially 
as regards its protection from the clipper and filer, and from 
the effect of legitimate wear and tear. The first safeguard 
was obtained by such further improvements in the milling of 
the edges as rendered manual imitation almost impossible : 
and the second, the protection of the impress, by preventing 
it from rubbing agamst other coins, was to a great extent 
effected by a rim round the extreme edge being raised some- 
what higher than the rehef of the device. Many beautiful 
and successful specimens were produced ; and at length, by 
these facilities, and the arrival of the grievance at an insup- 
portable height, the government was stimulated to meet the 
difficulty. 

Messrs. Boulton and Watt erected machinery in the 
Tower similar to their own at the Soho, and a new coinage 
began in earnest. The recent revolution in Trance had 

* The ancient Greeks also stamped the coins of another town or state, 
when they accepted them for public circulation^ as described in the early 
chapters of this work. 



494 C0IK1.GE OF XiraLAKD. 

worked great changes, not only in politics, but in art, in all 
Europe ; and the new coinage was consequently in a totally 
different style of design to all previous ones. 

The Parisian school, founded by David and his followers, 
had thrown off the fluttering pomposity of the modem 
jRoman style, and aimed at copying even nature through the 
artistic medium of the statuesque simplicity of G-beee 
models ; and, however full of exaggeration in itself, the new 
style led the way to a better and more natural school of art 
than that which sprung up about the period of Louis XIH., 
and had been growing feebly worse till the revolution of 
1784; even more characterless in England than on the 
Continent. The dies were executed for the new coinage by 
Wyon, and, iofluenced by the general new feeling in art, he 
abandoned the conventional Eoman armour and mantle, and 
produced a simple laureated bust, founded upon the style of 
antique models : those of Greece now furnishing the feeling 
rather than those of Some, which, in the previous phase of 
art, had been filtered down to the most insipid conventdonal 
mannerism ; while the new school, with all its defects, set 
forward under new and more invigorating influences. The 
design adopted was a laureated head ; the bust undraped ; 
too familiar to require description. The reverse also was 
changed, and the old disposition of the four shields as a 
cross finally abandoned. In Eebruary, 1817, the issue of 
the new half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences, took place, and 
all who recollect that event, can bear witness to the agree- 
able impression it produced, and the extraordinary beauty 
the coins appeared to possess, afber the flat, bent, and bat- 
tered bits of siLver, of half their nominal value,* that had 
been so long made to pass current as the coin of the realm. 
The new coins were, indeed, in mechanical execution, the 
finest that had ever been issued in Europe, and the artistic 
merit of the devices was very considerable. 

One of the principal defects was a coarse, or perhaps 
brutal expression in the .king's portrait. Crown pieces 
were soon after issued, having on the reverse a device similar 
to that of the George noble of Henry VIII., but in the 

* The old shillings were ahout one-quarter, and the sixpences one-third 
less than their proper value. 



CODTAaB or XHOLASD. 495 

new school of art ; the knight in armour being superseded 
by a classical naked figure in a Greek hebnet. This attempt 
to exhibit on the coin some work of art of a class superior 
to the trivialities of heraldic blazonry, was made by 
Pistrucci, whose work did not, however, give the satisfac- 
tion it deserved, and was over severely criticised. This 
figure, it is said, of St. Geoi^e and the Dragon, is nearly a 
copy firom a figure in a battle-piece on an antique gem in 
the Orleans collection; but several Greek coins I could 
point out, might equally well have furnished the model. It 
is on the whole a spirited performance ; but the improve- 
ment it might have effected in the style of art displayed on 
our coinage, was completely swamped bythe petty jealousies 
and bickerings, caused by the introduction of Pistrucci (as a 
foreigner) to the Mint. He had previously engraved a similar 
figure upon the twenty-shilling gold coin of the new issue, now 
again termed a sovereign after a lapse of three centuries. 
Notwithstanding the contemporary criticisms on Pistrucci's 
St. George and Dragon, i^is handome reverse, now that it is 
getlang scarce, is better appreciated than at the time of its 
issue, and collectors give from twenty to thirty shillings for 
well preserved specimens of the silver crowns of George III. 

On the half-crowns, engraved by Wyon, the armorial bear- 
ings are displayed on a simple shield, with the arms of 
Hanover on an escutcheon of pretence ; they have on the 
reverse, " Britanniarum Eex, Pid. Def. :" in the garniture 
of the shield are the letters W. "W. P., for "William "Wel- 
lesley Pole, Master of the Mint, and W. for Wyon, the 
engraver ; the edge is milled with a peculiar notching, and 
not lettered, as the half-crowns of previous reigns. 

The shillings were engraved by Wyon, from a bust cut in 
jasper by Pistrucci. 

The Maundy money has the new bust, but the crowned 
numerals as before. 

On the issue of this new money, individuals received in 
exchange for old coins, new ones equal in amount to the 
nomintd value of the old, the loss falling upon the general 
revenue. Twenty stations were established in different parts 
of London for effecting the exchange, which, with the assist- 
ance of the bankers, was carried through in an incredibly 
short space of time. 



496 COrETAGE OF E^QUlITD, 

The gold coinage of this reign was not quite so long 
neglected as that of silver. But, nevertheless, the issues 
were scanty and insufl&cient. In the year of the king's 
accession, a gold coinage took place, and there are guineas 
of this type with the date of almost every year between 1761 
and 1774. These coinages were principally of guineas and 
half-guineas, some larger pieces being merely struck as 
medals. In the second year of the reign, quarter guineas 
were again struck as in the reign of G^eorge I. In the gold 
coinage which took place in 1770, 44 guineas and a half 
were coiued out of every pound weight of gold, 22 carats 
fine to 2 carats of alloy (crown gold) ; seven shilling pieces 
were also added to the quarter guineas in this coinage.* 

In 1774, the head on the guineas was changed for one 
resembliQg, though in poorer relief, a beautifiil pattern 
afterwards referred to. 

In 1787, a new gold coinage took place, and the guineas, 
known as spade guineas, appeared ; they were so called fipom 
the shield on the reverse, which was quite simple, and of the 
form of a pointed spade. The latest date I have seen on 
guineas of this pattern is 1799. 

Then comes the last guinea^ that of 1813. It has the 
head in a more modern style, and the reverse is also of a 
totally new character, having the arms in a small circle 
enclosed as a "garter." The half-guineas followed nearly 
the same course as the guineas, the improved head was 
adopted about 1774, and the spade pattern about 1787; 
but half-guineas, with the arms enclosed in a garter, were 
issued before the guineas of that type, and appeared as 
early as 1801, and there are specimens with the date of 
each year up to 1813 ; guineas of this type were probably 
prepared at the same time, but I have only seen them of 
the date of 1813.t 

The seven-shilling pieces have on the reverse, a crown, but 
without a lion, as on the pattern to be referred to; the 

* In 1793, the gold coinage had become so deteriorated that it was found 
necessary to obtain a grant of 230,0002., to cover the cost of calling in the 
light gold ; which, however, was a step in the right direction. 

"^ I should state that these notes on the guineas of George III. are made 
from the collectioa in the British Museum, which I have since been informed 
is far from complete. 



COINAGE or EKGLAND. 497 

head on the early ones is very bad, but in 1804 it was 
changed for one similar to that on the half-guineas. Next 
came the 20*. piece of 1817, now again termed a sovereign, 
as in the reign of Henry YIII., while the term guinea, 
which first came into use in the reign of Charles II., finally 
disappeared. 

The wretched state of the coiuage throughout the greater 
part of this reign, though it did not tiU the eleventii hour 
stimulate the government to any effectual remedy, yet pro- 
duced a certain extent of activity in the preparation of 
patterns, * and other such preliminary steps ; some of the 
results of which may be mentioned with advantage here. 
The most remarkable gold patterns prepared are as follows : — 

First, a finely executed piece, dated 1772, the head of 
which is superior to that on any gold coin reaUy issued up 
to 1817, though a copy of it appeared on the guineas from 
1774 to 1787. 

Secondly, a curious pattern, called Mahon's, or Lord 
Stanhope's pattern : the head is very poor, and executed in 
a wretchedly wiry manner, which it is said his Lordship 
considered a style likely to wear well. This pattern has a 
curious border or edging by which it is easily distiuguished. 

In 1798, a pattern guinea was proposed by Messrs. Boulton 
and Watt, of the same design as the large penny they coined 
for the government in 1797, with the raised rim and sunk 
letters, which looks very well in gold. 

There is also a pattern seven-shiUing piece of 1775, with 
the rose, shamrock, and thistle, crowned, for reverse ; and a 
pattern half-guinea, having, with a view to durability, the 
portrait sunk instead of raised — an approach to the incavo' 
relievo style of the Egyptians, recommended for the new 
coinage of the present reign by Mr. Bonomi. 

The copper coinage received no more attention in the 
early part of this reign than the silver. The following are 
the only remarkable events connected with it. In 1770, 
the sovereignty of the Isle of Man was purchased of the 
Duke and Duchess of Athol for 70,000Z., when copper was 
struck for circulation in the island, having for its device the 

* In speaking of patterns^ sucli pieces as were never executed in quantity, 
and never issued, are alluded to. 

K K 



498 COINJLiStE OF EK&LAKD. 

tliree legs, the armorial derice of Man. This was the fiist 
step towards a general new coinage, which was in such a 
state about 1784, that private tokens were again tolerated. 
The tradesmen's tokens began with the Anglesea penny, 
and continued to spread in great variety, forming in them- 
selves an interesting collection of medals, till suppressed by 
the state coinage of 1797 ; in the July of which year a 
contract was entered into with Mr. Boulton, of Soho, near 
Birmingham, for coining 500 tons of coj^er in pence only. 

The result of this contract was the production of the large, 
boldly executed pennies, so abundantly current for some 
time afterwards. And so much better were such under- 
takings conducted at Sobo than by the government, that, 
though Mr. Boulton included many things not mentioned in 
Mint estimates, he coined more cheaply than the ofKciaLs of 
the Tower, and yet gained a large profit.* Indeed, so con- 
vinced was the government of his more acute views in the 
management of the undertaking, that they were glad te 
allow him te find his own copper for a subsequent coinage. 



OTOBOB IV., 1820 to 1830. 

Of this reign the silver coins continued of the same value 
and denomination as the recent coinage in the previous 
reign. Most of the pieces have the initials of Pistrucd 
(B. P.), who engraved all the first dies. The G-eorge and 
Dragon was slightly altered for the crowns, being also some- 
what larger. In 1824, the king disapproved of the likeness 
on the coins, and his bust by Chantrey being just completed, 
Pistrucci was directed te copy it in a series of new dies ; 
but he declined imitating the work of another artist, and 
the dies made after Chantrey's bust, w^^e consequently 
executed by Wyon : since which time Pistrucci has enjoyed 
a sinecure m his appointment in the Mint. In these coins 
after Chantrey, which is a highly flattered likeness, the 

* This penny has the inscription tuni: in the raised rim, with a view to jts 
long preservation. The whole pattern was thought so striking, that a pattern 
guinea was made from the same design. The die for this penny was executed 
by a German urtist, in the employ of Messrs. Boulton and a K exists on some 
of the coins — the initial letter of his name, {Ktighler), 



COINAGS OF £NGLJlN]>. 409 

king is represented without the laurel, which, as an emblem 
of victory, was considered inappropriate, no war having 
taken place in his reign. It is a symbol that will most 
likely not be renewed. These pieces, vriih the reverse 
engraved by Merlin, are very beautiful; and a great 
improvement on the last coins was effected in the armorial 
bearings, by leaving out the lines indicative of the colour of 
the respective fields, which rather confused the effect of the 
designs of 1817 and succeeding years. 

A reverse for the shiUing was adopted in ISiS, consisting 
of a sprig of rose, thistle, and shamrock, united under a 
crown. It had been proposed for gold seven-shilling pieces 
in 1775, but only patterns were struck. 

The Maundy money has the bust like the early issues of 
tbis reign, the new bust never being adopted for these small 
coins; the reverses have the numerals, crowned, between 
branches, and the date. Particulars respecting the slight 
differences of each separate issue appear superfluous in una 
place, particularly as most of the coins are still in common 
circulation. 

The gold underwent similar r^orms as to the head of the 
king, the flat laureated head by Pistrucci giving place to 
the Chantrey head by Wyon ; and there are double sove- 
reigns, sovereigns, and half-sovereigns of this type. The 
double sovereigns are most beautiM coin, the head is in bold 
relief, and very simple and grand in effect. Larger pieces 
were struck, but not for general circulation. 

The copper coins underwent similar alterations ; the old 
Britannia becoming a more Minerva-like figure, vnth a 
Greek helmet, and the Chantrev bust without laurel was 
adopted on the later pennies, hal4>ennies, and farthings. 



WILLIAM IV., 1830 TO 1837. 

The Duke of Clarence ascended the throne on the death 
of his brother, and arrangements were made for a new 
coinage, exactly on the same principles as those of the last 
coma of the preceding reign. 

Pattern crowns, issued only in small number for the 
cabinets of collectors, had the arms on the reverse, in a plain 

KK 2 



500 C0IKA.6E OF EKGLAlfD. 

Bhield displayed on a mantle of ermine. The half-crowns of 
the same pattern, with slight exceptions, were issued for 
currency. 

The shillings were issued with no armorial device, but 
with simply " One Shilling " on the reverse between a 
branch of oak and one of laurel, — a device affording, perhaps, 
still less scope for the talent of the artist than even the 
armorial bearings. But as long as the office of Master of 
the Mint is conferred upon some political adherent, without 
regard to his fitness for its duties, little reform in the style 
of art adapted to the coinage can be expected. * The Maundy 
money of this reign has the numerals, between similar 
branches of oak and laurel to those of the shillings. 

The groat, or fourpenny piece, was once more issued for 
currency in this reign, and proved a very useful coin. The 
reverse is similar to that on the recent copper coins, being a 
Britannia helmeted, and holding a trident. The legend is 
" Four Pence.;' 

The gold coins for circulation were like the last pieces of 
George IV., having the head without a laurel wreath, and 
very beautifully executed by Wj^on ; indeed, a perfectly new 
impression of one of the sovereigns of this reign is a very 
beautiful memorial of the art of the period. There were 
only sovereigns and half-sovereigns, the five pounds and 
double sovereigns being only coined in small nimibers, and 
principally issued among collectors. 

The copper coins continued to be pennies, hal^emiies, and 
farthings, and were modelled after those of silver and gold — 
the head being like those of Q-eorge lY., without the laurel ; 
the reverses have the figure of Britannia, like those of the 
last reign. 

* Mr. Hawkins, in his excellent work, refers to these misappointments in 
a spirited and eloquent manner. 



COIKAOE 07 £NGLA^~I>. 501 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

TTCTOniA. ASCENDED THE THEOTTE, 1837. 

The half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences of this reign 
are in the same style as those of the preceding one. 
The Maundy money has the portrait, lil^e the groat (or 
fourpenny piece), but the reverses have the crowned nume- 
rals as previously. The groat, re-established in the last 
reign, is still coined for circulation, having the same figure of 
Britannia on the reverse. The gold coins are only sovereigns 
and half-sovereigns, with a simple portrait head by "Wyon 
on the obverse, and the arms on the reverse. The larger pieces 
vere only struck as medals, which may be procured by the 
curious on application at the Mint. A pattern has, however, 
just been issued of a five-pound piece, which it is said is 
intended for circulation. It has a fine head of the queen on 
the obverse, and on the reverse, as a step towards a greater 
display of art, a beautiful symbolic figure of Una and the 
Hon. This idea, however, appears somewhat far-fetched, and 
but little appropriate. 

The issiie of the silver florin, or two-shilling piece, is 
another recent experiment made in the present reign, with 
tbe view to establish the decimal principle in the coinage. 
But, however laudable the intention, the issue of this coin 
baa been defeated by some petty errors of detail, such as 
the omission of the old Dei Oratia before the name, 
and other' minor matters connected with the internal 
administration of the affiairs of the Mint in the Tower.* 
It "Was also from difficulties of the latter class that a 
coinage of the beautiful crown piece, prepared by "Wyon, 
vas abandoned ; which is, however, scarcely to be regretted, 
as the mediaeval character of the letters, and some other 
ieatures, placed the design out of the pale of the true 

^bile this work is passing through the press, a fresh proclamation has 
uiQomiced the positive issue ^of the florin, or tenth of the pound, in an 
ttnproYcd form. 



502 GOIKAGS OV 80OILAKB. 

sympathieB of the age, which are not of a retrograde character, 
however much a taste for the beauties and peculiarities of 
medisBYal art may have leii some too far in that direction. 

The placing of the crown upon the head was another 
objectionable feature, which had no more recent example 
than the coinage of Charles II., a period with which little 
sympathy can be expected at the present epoch. 

Tne copper coinage is continued upon the same principles 
^ in the two preceding reigns, 'with the exception of the 
addition of the half-farthing — ^a very pretty little coin, not 
yet issued in sufficient numbers to test its convenience, 
especially to the poor, in the purchase of small portions of 
cheap articles of food, &c. — a source of utility demonstrated 
by the extensive use of cenU^ and other small cc^per money 
of neighbouring nations. 

A sketch of the Scottish and Irish coinages will be found 
in the ensuing chapter. 



CHAPTBE ZXXVIII. 

THE COINS OP SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. 

Havtno treated at some length, and in considerable detail, 
of the coins of England from the fall of the Eoman empire 
to the present time, it wiU be unnecessary to give more than 
a mere outline of the progress of the coinage m Ireland and 
Scotland, as in the former country, it became, at an early 
period, with few exceptions, the same as that of England, 
and in the latter its progress and development is so similar, 
with the exception of the Scottish copper, that an account 
of the one gives a tolerably accurate idea of the nature of 
the other. 

THE SCOTCH SILTEB OdHfAGB. 

The coinage of this northern portion of the great island of 
Britain is of much more recent date than the south. The 
Irish colonies of the extreme north, the ancestors of the 
Scottish islanders, were moreciviHsed than the Ficts of that 
portion of Scotland, but were by that barbaric race cut off from 



COIKAGE OF SCOTLAND. 603 

eonimimieation with tlie southern portions of Britain, and 
thus excluded from participation in the progreSsire cirilisa- 
tion there -introduced, for which thej were better prepared 
than their Pictish conquerors. The consequence is, that we 
find no authentic Scottish coinage till long after the complete 
estabhshment of that of England, and when the silTer 
pennies had long formed a steady and abundant circulating 
medium ; the eariiest Scottish coins that can be assigned with 
certainty being those of Alexander I., who died in 1124, 
and was contemporary with the Anglo-Norman Henry I. 

Coins can be assigned with tolerable certainty to his 
anecessor, David, who reigned from 1124 to 1156 ; but none 
are known of Malcolm IV., while those of the long reign of 
WilHam, from 1163 to 1214, are very numerous, and their 
attribution is certain. These last have the inscription, 
LE . REI . WILAM, or WILAM . RI. or RE. The last word 
is Scandinavian ; but when found on the Scottish coin it is 
more probably an abbreviation of the old Erench rei.* 

A large number of the silver pennies of William were 
found together near Inverness in 1780. Some of them have 
a moneyer's name, and some the names of the places of 
mintage : among the moneyers' names occurs that of Hue 
Walter, and the places of mintage are frequently ED or 
EDINBy (for Edinburgh), !>ERT (Perth), ROCESBY (Eox- 
hurgh), Ac. 

The money of Scotland continued of precisely the same 
class and denomination as the English till the time of 
David n., 1355, whose ransom paid to Edward III. is said 
to have exhausted the country of coin, and the little left was 
reduced in size. The money of Scotland and England had, 
np to this time, circulated in either country indifferently ; 
and after the diminution of the Scotch coins by David II., in 
order that it might continue to do so, Edward caused the coin 
of England to be reduced in a similar manner, in order that the 
convenience of the pre-existing fo/r might not be disturbed. 
Notwithstanding this attempt on the part of England to 
maintain the equality of the two coinages, that of Scotland 
continued to decrease, and in the first year of the reign of 
Robert III. it passed only for half its nominal value in 

* Similar to the Spanish rcy. 



(>04 OOIKAGE or BOOTLAKD. 

England. In 1393, Bichard II. enacted that it should onl^ 
pass for the weight of pure silver it contained. 

G?he depreciation of the Scottish coin still continued with- 
out interruption, and in 1600 it was only worth in England 
one-twelfth part of its nominal value in reference to English 
coin of the same denomination, and it did not recover anythiog 
like a corresponding value even up to the time of the Union. 

The silver penny was the only Scottish coin until Edward I. 
of England, during his temporary subjugation of the coun- 
try, coined hal^ence and fsurthings, which were afterwards 
continued by the Scottish sovereign. David II. (1329 to 
1371) introduced the groat of fourpence and the half-groat 
of twopence. After James II. (1437 to 1460) the terms 
groat and penny, as applied to the silver coins, no longer 
expressed the same value as in England, the groat being 
eightpence Scottish and the penny twopence. In the reign 
of Mary (1542 to 1587) the silver groats and pennies ceased, 
in consequence of the scarcity of silver, and their place 
was supplied by billon coins of four parts copper and one 
silver. 

About 1553, shillings, or testoons, and half testoons, were 
first coined, bearing the bust of the queen, and the arms 
of Scotland and France. These coins were of the same 
intrinsic value as the English shillings, and were worth more 
than four shiUings Scottish, the half testoon being in the 
same proportion. Marks of thirteen shillings Scottish were 
also struck in that reign worth 3«. 4^. English. 

In 1565 the silver crown was first stouck in Scotland. 
It weighed 1 ounce, and went for 30 shillings Scottish. 
Smaller pieces of 20 shillings and 10 shillings Scottish 
were struck at the same time. These pieces have the marks 
XXX. XX, upon them, which represents the number of 
Scottish shillings for which they passed ; while in English 
money they represented about 5s., Ss. 4 J., and Is. Sd, They 
had on the reverse a palm-tree, which, being mistaken for a 
noted yew at Cruikston, near Glasgow, the residence of 
Damley, caused them to be called Cruikston dollars. 

In the early part of the reign of James VI., 1571, new 
marks and hfuf-marks Scottish were struck, being worth 
about 22 pence, and 11 pence English. 

In 1578 the famous NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET first 



COINAGE or BCOTJaAJSTD. 505 

occurs upon the coin; and in 1582, in consequence of 
a contract previously entered into between the Earl of 
Morton, Governor of Scotland, and Atkinson, the Master of 
the Mint, 40 shillings Scottish were made to go to the 
crown of an ounce, which were in consequence marked XL., 
and in 1597 this was increased to L. In 1601 thd last and 
highest mark of the Scottish crown occurs, which is LX. 

Before quitting the subject of the early and separate silver 
coinage of Scotland, some further remarks of detail are per- 
haps required, in order to assist a collector in distinguishing 
the coins of the different reigns. 

Those of Alexander I., David I., and Alexander II., have 
all names of moneyers on the reverse. Alexander III. and 
David II. have REX SCOTORVM. Eobert I. appears with a 
profile, as on his seal. The groats of the third James are 
distinguished principally by their size ; those of James I. 
are small, being reduced to the value of 4 Scottish pence, 
and hsLYefleur-de-lis on the reverse, and TRACIA for GRACIA. 
Of James II., the groats are as large as the English 
shilling, and are worth 12 pence Scots. The first coiuage 
of James III. has mullets ; the second, bushy flowing hair, 
in the style of those of Henry VII. of England ; but, in 
the reign of James IV., the old style was resumed. Those 
of James III. have the motto DNS PROTECTOR, while those 
of James IV. have SALWM. FAC. ; they ai:e also known by 
their QT. IIII., &c. ; while those of James V. are marked 6. 

In England silver had only tripled in value siuce the reign 
of William the Conqueror, while in Scotland its value had 
apparently become 36 times greater. A similar relative 
change occurs in the value of the early and late coins in 
contmental nations ; the denier of Charlemagne being 
worth 40 modem deniers ; while in England the ancient 
silver penny is scarcely worth 3 modem ones — a monetary 
position in which Eii£:land stands nearly alone amon&r 
modem nations. 

The Scottish money struck after the union of the crowns, 
may be briefly described. Charles I. struck half-marks, 

VI 

and pieces of 40 and 20 pennies marked respectively g * XL. 

and XX. behind the head. Charles II. issued pieces of 
similar character. In 1675, Scottish dollars of 56 shillings 



506 COINA&X OF SCOTLAND. 

Scottish (4<. 8^. Englisli) were issued, with their halves and 
quarters of 28 and 14 shillings^ &c., Ac, James YII. of 
Scotland, and II. of England, issued coins of 60, 4id, 20, 10, 
and 5 shillings Scottish, but only the 40 and lO-shilling are 
known. WiUiam and Mary continued the same coins ; and 
in the reign of Aime we find only the pieces of 10 and 5 
shillings issued ; while, in this reign, after the Union, all the 
national Scottii^h money was called in, and recoined with the 
same types as the rest of the United Eingdom, those which 
were struck at the Edinburgh mint being marked with an E, 
the last trace of a Scottish coinage ; for, afber this time, all 
the money of Great Britain was minted at the Tower of 
London. 

The art displayed upon the silver coinage of Scotland is, 
in the later periods, superior to that found upon the English, 
but in the earlier periods much the same ; for instance, 
the same head which serves for a J)ortrait on the coins of 
David II. (1329 to 1S71) serves also for the coinage of his 
successor, Eobert II. (1371 to 1390), the same thing 
occurring later on the English coinage on the accession of 
Henry YIII. 

The coin of James V. of Scotland is much better executed 
than that of his cotemporary, Henry Till., while those of 
Mary are exceedingly good, espedally the testeons, dated 
1553, which bear her portrait; while the c^own piece, 
with the heads of Mary and Damley, is a remarkably fine 
coin ; but so rare that few eoILect(»8 can hope to possess 
a specimen. 

The Golb Coinaob or Scotland, like the silver, in its 
beginnings, consists of imitations of the English. The Eng- 
lish gold nobles appeared in 1344, and thirty years afterwards 
those of Bobert II. of Scotland were issued. The gold 
of Scotland is, however, upon a smaller scale than that of 
England. The first pieces were called St. Andrews, from 
the figure of that saint, which occupies the obverse, as that 
of St. John the Baptist on the Italian fiorins, from which 
the coinage of Scotland was more directly copied than fiwMn 
the nobles of England. The reverse of these coins was the 
Scottish arms, in which particular they were more directly 
copied from the Erfench coins de la couronne, and were some- 
times called "lions." In a similar matiner the gold coins of 



GOIlTAe]! OF BCOIXAKD. 507 

James IIL Tfere called mucoms, while those of James Y. 
were called bonnet pieces, from the smalL cap belonging to 
the costume of the time, which, about this time, began to be 
faithfully represented on national coin of nearly aU the 
countries of Europe. These bonnet pieces of James Y. are 
rerr fine coins, and are much thicker, in proportion to their 
size, than the EngHsh money of this period, an improvement 
adopted by the Scots in imitation of the coinage of Erance — 
a step which was not finally taken by the English till the time 
of Cromwell, when Simon first contracted the size of the 
old hroad pieces, as they began to be termed, and executed the 
20«. piece, which afterwards became the model for the guinea, 
and its present representative, the modem sovereign. 

The gold coinage of Scotland fell, in ideal value, in nearly 
the same proportion as the silver, notwithstanding the effort 
of James I. of England to estabHsh the pttr. 

The lion of Mary with her cypher weighs 78 grs., and the 
ffolden ryal of 1555, with her bust, 115 grs., being the same 
as the ryals of Elizabeth. 

Of the types, it may be said, as a general rule, that they 
continued like the first gold of Eobert II., the St. Andrew, 
and the arms of Scotland, up to James III., who introduced 
the unicorn type ; and with James Y., on the bonnet-pieces, 
the regal portraits b^ to exhibit the eostlune of the 
successive periods. 

In evidence that the form of the gold coinage of Scotland 
was in no way copied from the SSigKsh, it may here be 
stated that the Andrew of Eobert II. weighs but 38 grains, 
while the English noble weighs 107 ; so that the first forms 
no division of the litter. That of Eobert III. appears to 
be the double of that of Eobert II. on a slightly reduced scale, 
as it weighed 60 grains. That of James I. weighs only 
53 or 54 grains, and being thus the half of the English 
noble, came to be called a Demy. The Sit. Andrew or Lion 
of James II. is of equal weight. The largest coin of that 

Srince weighs 60 grains, and its double, the bonnet-piece of 
ames Y. 90, with a smaller piece of 60. 
The last gold coinage of Scotland is the pistole and half- 
pistole, coined by Wifiiam III., in 1701. 

Tbjs Coppee CoikagI: or Scotlaitd is of older date than 
the modem copper of England. Modem copper money was 



50S COIKAOB OF 8C0TLAKD. 

first coined in France in the reign of Hemy III., about 
1580, and this French coinage was soon imitated in 
Scotland. 

The billon or black money being merely debased silver, 
must not be confounded with a true copper coinage, as it 
has sometimes been ; for that species of money first appeared 
as early as 1466, in the reign of James III., when it began 
to appear in many states of Europe. The billon coins of 
James III. were called black farthings, and had the king's 
head, crowned, on the obverse, and on the reverse a cross 
with pellets, and VILLA EDINBVBGI ; of James IV. and V. 
There are billon pennies, halfpennies, and farthings. The 
billon money of Mary must not be confounded with copper, 
especially those of the size of the bodle or twopenny piece, so 
called after Bothwell, under whose auspices it was issued, and 
which have a crowned thistle on the obverse, with M. R. and 
MARLA. D. G. REGINA . SCOTORVM., and on the reverse two 
sceptres, crossed with a fleur-de-lis in the centre, and a 
flsu/ron at each side, with OPPIDVM • EDINBVRGI. These 
last, it is true, are simple copper ; but were issued as billon, 
being washed with silver, which has now, in most cases, 
disappeared. 

It was during the reign of James VI. that the copper 
coinage really began. The first copper penny has upon one 
side I. R luider a crown, with lACOBVS. D. G. K SCO. ; and 
on the reverse a lion rampant, with VILLA EDINBVRG- 
These coins decreased rapidly in size, tiU they assumed the 
proportions of the French lia/rd. 

The billon pieces which were of the lowest class of billon, 
called by the French bos-billon, or bas-pieces, were now struck 
in copper, and the corrupted Scotch pronimciation of the last 
term, bawbee, became the popular name of the piece, which 
was worth sixpence Scotch. The bawbee, though sixpence 
Scotch, corresponds only to the half-sous of the French, and 
the English halfpenny; the Scotch penny corresponding 
with the French denier and beiug one-twelfth of the English 
penny. 

The copper struck under the Mint-master, Atkinson, and 
the Earl of Morton, were termed Atkinsons, and were also 
bawbees, but one-third larger, and declared the value qf 
eightpence Scotch. Fynes Morison mentions among the 



COnrAGE OF IBELAKD. 509 

names given to the billon money, the flacks* or billon groats, 
and the hard-heads of three pennies Scotch, a corruption of 
the French hardie, or black money, struck in Guienne, and 
supposed to have been first struck by Philip le Hardie (1283 
to 1314). 

The Scotch copper penny has a little dot behiud the lion. 
The hodle, also called the turner, has two dots. A portion 
of the copper coins, especially the penny and the bodle, 
continued to be minted under Charles I. and II. ; but those 
of the former prince are the rarest of any. The bodle of 
James YI. has the lion on one side, and the thistle on the 
other. The bawbee of that prince has the royal portrait on the 
obverse : and they were issued in similar style in all the 
reigns down to Anne, those of the Charleses having only 
C. R. and C. R. II. They circulated in England as hal^ence, 
though they are not much above half the size, while the 
Scotch copper pennies of the same period do not weigh 
above ten grains. It is to be remarked of the Scottish 
coinage that no ecclesiastical coins occur, though they are 
found in almost every other mediaeval coinage of Europe. 



COINAGE OF lEELAND. 

It appears to be the general opinion, that a Spanish, or 
Iberian, colonisation of a part of teland has no foundation 
but in the similarity of the name Hybemi and Iberi ; whilst 
it appears clear the most ancient inhabitants of Hybemia 
were a Celtic nation subsequently subdued by the Scythae, 
or Scotti, a G-ermanic race, who afterwards, from Ireland, 
colonised the north of Scotland, to which they gave their 
name, which superseded the ancient one, the Caledonia of 
the Eomans, or the Pickland, used by the Anglo-Saxons till 
after 1020. That an ancient and peculiar form of civilisation 
existed in Ireland, which in the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
centuries was far in advance of that of England, is shown by 
the beautiful illuminated MSS. of those early periods which 
exist, exhibiting an elaborate style of art afterwards partially 

* The jplaegue tad jpiaegueUe were common coins in Belgium previoiu to 
the new coinage after the ReTolution of 1830. 



510 COINAOE OF IBELAND. 

imitated by the Anglo-Saxons. Ai the same time iheir wealth 
is shown by the abundance of the gold ring money, torques, 
and other ornaments belonging to those and earUer epochs ; 
while the writings of Bede, an Irishman, are superior to any 
other literary production of his era. 

No coins, however, are known tiU the eighth century, and 
those appear to have been struck by the Danes, who had then 
subdued portions of Ireland as well as England. These coins 
are very rude, and are apparently copies of Anglo-Saxon 
coins of the period, executed by workmen who did not under- 
stand the letters which tiiey have imitated by a series of 
simple strokes, IIIIIIII. This supposed Danish coinage was 
improved in the ninth century, and there are coins of native 
kings, who appear to have imitated them about the same time, 
as those of Anlaf (930 a.i).), and Sithric (994 a.d.), which are 
considered native Irish coins rather than Danish ones. They 
have the legend ON . DVFLI, or ON . DYFLL, Dyflin, or Duflin, 
being the ancient name of Dublin. Coins attributed to Donald 
O'Neal (996) have been published by Simon ; and a coin is 
mentioned as one being in the collection of Mr. Dummer, 
which has the legend DOMNALDVS . REX . MONAGH. There 
are also other coins of Danish and Irish kings of a similar 
kind, for an account of which I have no space. 

A portion of Ireland was already subject to England 
under the Anglo-Saxon race of kings, and there are coins of 
Ethebed (886) struck at Dublin, and also of Edred (948), 
and Edgar (959). Those of Canute, struck at Dublin, are 
good coins for the period, having a crowned profile, with a 
quatrefoil ornament on the obverse, with GNVT . REX 
ANGLORV(m), and on the reverse a voided cross with 
FERENN . MO . DIF., that is, Ferenn, moneyer, Dublin. 

After the period of the Norman conquest no Irish coins 
are described with certainty till the complete subjuga- 
tion by Henry II. in 1172, after which those of John 
appear, which are easily distinguished by the triangle 
within which the portrait is placed — a form supposed by 
some to allude to the Irish national symbol, the harp — a 
conjecture scarcely tenable, as it is found on the coins of 
other countries at about the same period. This type continued 
in use on the Anglo-Irish coinage from John to Heiary V. , 
Till the time of Hetay VIII. littie variety occurs in the 



COI27AGE OF IBBLA^D. 511 

ABglo-Irisli coinage. This prince coined skpenoes for Ireland, 
worth only fourpence in England, and on his Anglo-Irish 
coinage the initials of his sucpessive Queens are round — ^a 
peculiarity which has caused collections of them to be made 
by the curious in such details. 

Mary issued base shillings and groats for Ireland ; and that 
Elizabeth, while she was restoring the purity of the English 
coinage, still farther debased that of Ireland, is notorious. 

A copper coinage was also issued for Ireland in the reign 
of Elizabeth, which thus precedes the English copper by half 
a century. This coioage consists of pence and halfpence. 

The injuslice systematicaUy meted out to Ireland by the 
dominant country is as well exemplified in the progress of 
the coinage as in any other governmental department ; as an 
instance of which it may be stated here, that when James I. 
made the experiment of an issue of copper farthmgs^ they 
were made of two sizes, in order that if they failed in 
England, they might be sent to Ireland as j^enee and 
ha^pence. 

In 1635 a mint was established iu Dublin, by Charles I. ; 
but the unhappy events which followed prevented the inten- 
tion &om being carried out, and the attempt was not 
resumed. 

After the massacre of 1641, the Boman Catholics, in a 
time of general confusion, struck what have been termed the 
St. Patrick halfpence and farthings,, known by the legends 
FLOREAT REX., and on the other side, ECCE GREX. The 
farthings have QVIESCA PLEBS. 

In Cromwell's time the people sought, as in England, to 
remedy the inconvenience caused by a want of small coins ; 
and a number of tokens were struck by diiferent towns and 
tradesmen. 

In 1680, halfoence and farthings were coined by royal 
authority, with the national symbol (the harp) and the date. 

The next peculiarity to be noticed with regard to the 
Irish coinage is the base silver money struck there by 
James II., in 1689, in his last struggle for the throne from 
which he had been expelled. These coins were struck prin- 
cipally from some brass cannon, from which they took the 
name of gwn-money ; but they were composed of a mixture 
of metals, in which silver formed a small proportion. 



512 COINAGE OF IBELAITD. 

The half-crowns of the gun-money gradually diminished in 
size, as the metal began to fail; and, as the date of the 
month was placed upon them, the gradual decrease can be 
traced through all its phases. This occurred from June 
1689 to July 1690. In 1690, the white metal crowns were 
issued, and other crowns of gun-metal in the same year, 
which were reduced to the size of the original half-crowns, 
jfrom which they are only distinguished by having no month 
mark upon them. 

The crowns of white metal are very scarce. The types 
are James on horseback on the obverse, and the arms on the 
reverse ; on the obverse the legend contains the regal titles 
he had lost ; and the reverse has CHRISTO • VICTORE • TRI- 
VMPHO-; aud on the edge, MELIORIS • TESSERA • FATI • 
ANNO • REGNI • SEXTO • 

He issued, at the same time, pence and halfpence of lead 
mixed with tin; and after his defeat, and escape firom 
Ireland, a few halfpence were struck by his adherents in 
Limerick, which were, from the type of the reverse, called 
Hibemias. 

The patent granted to William "Wood, in 1772, for coining 
halfpence and farthings for Ireland, excited great discontent, 
as he coined them much smaUer than the size stipulated for 
in the patent. The coins are, however, of very good execu- 
tion, and bear a better portrait of Q-eorge I. than any found 
upon the English copper coinage. 

In the reign of G-eorge II., in 1737, Irish halfpence and 
farthings were issued, of the same size and weight as the 
English copper, with the harp on the reverse, and the 
portrait as principal type, with the same titles as on the 
English coinage. 

In 1760, coins being very scarce, a company of gentlemen 
obtained leave to issue a coinage of halfpence, upon which 
the legend "Voce Populi " appeared round the head of the 
Sovereign, which, it is said, was, in fact, a portrait of the 
Pretender, though done in the usual manner of the portraits 
of the King. 

No gold or silver was coined in Ireland since the abolition 
of the mint, established by Charles I. in 1640. 



COIKAGS OP rOBXIGK STATES. 513 



CHAPTEE XX2IX. 

THE COINAGE OF THE FOREIGN STATES OF MODERN 
EUROPE, ASIA, AND AMERICA. 

COIK» or MODBBN ITALY. 

We have seen how the coinage of Italj became gradually 
depreciated as the Western Empire of Eome crumbled 
9 beneath the repeated barbaric inyasions ; and also how the 
privilege of independent coinage was conferred upon Gaul 
and Spain by the emperors of the East. 

In Italy, after the extinction of the race pf Gothic kings, 
the coins of the exarchs of Eaveima appear as viceroys of 
the emperors of the East. These coins are only small copper, 
and generally bear the inscription FELIX RAVENNA. 

The gold and silver of the eastern empire were found to 
form a sufficient circulation in those metals for Italy. 

The Lombards, who subdued the north of Italy, 672, A.D., 
and occupied it for two centuries, have left no coinage to 
record their rule ; and we find no Italian coin belonging pro- 
perly to the modem series till the issues of Charlemagne, at 
Milan, about 780. He also struck coins at Bome. His 
Milanese coins have a cross, and on the reverse the mono- 
gram of Carolus, with MEDIOL. These types of Milanese 
coins are found of successive German emperors, till the 
13th century. 

About the period of Charlemagne, the modem Italian 
coinage of silver pennies commences, founded, like that of 
Erance, Spain, and England, on the old Eoman denarius, 
and bearing cormptions of that name in the two first-named 
countries, as well as Italy, while in England, and the 
northern countries, other denominations were ultimately 
adopted. 

Soon after the time of Charlemagne, the counts or local 
governors of towns and provinces became more or less inde- 
pendent, and their offices very generally hereditary. These 

L L 



S14 0001.01 or HODXBS ITALY. 

petty goremora all iasued coin, and a detailed account, 
therefore, or even an outline of the progreaa of all the 
variouH coinages of modem Europe, would occupy many 
ponderous volumes ; a few examples only, can therefore be 
glanced at. 

The modem independent coinage of the city of Borne, 
under the popes, began, like most others, with a series 
of silver pennies, the first being those of Pope Hadrian, 
from 771 to 795, a.d., who received the privilege from 
Charlemagne. This modem Boman-series has generally the 
name of the pope on one side, and scvs ■ petrvS on the 
other. Same few hare rude portraits, such as those of 
Benediet II., 6ergius HI., John X., Agapetus II., &c., Stc. 

Por above a ceatoiy, from 975 to 1<^, there are no coina 
Meept those of Leo IX. Prom Paschal II. to Benedict XI., 
1303, the Popes having no power in Bome, the pennies are 
of the Bomaa people, bearing on one side a rude figure of 
■ St. Peter, with ROMAN - PRINCIPE, and on the other SENAT ■ 
POPVL • Q ■ R -, accompanied by the name in succession of the 
chief senator, who was then governor of the <nty of Bome. 
Some have also the arms of this personage, as on tlie coins 
of Bmncaleo, 12d3, which have a lion on one side, with 
^UCALEO S ■ P • Q ■ R ■ i and on the other side, a female figure, 
with a orown, a globe, and a palm-branch, and the legend, 
BOUA ■ CAPVT ■ MVNDI ', Ac, &c. Charles of Anjou, when 
elected Senator of Bome, issued coins with the inscription 
CAROLVe BEX . SENATOR VRBia. 



Colli of Ghula or Aojou, as Senatoi o[ Bome. 

A. ttm «f the Popes issued patrimonial ooibb, with 
FATBIUONIVH ; but in general the coinage of the Popes, vf 



OOIKAaE OF JO^^l^:S STATUS. 5X$ 

to a Teiy recent period, n^y be considered as that of a series 
of bishops, like that of the JBishops of Metz, Liege, &c., &c. ; 
or eyen those of the Archbishops of York aad Canterbury, 
in Saxon times. 

Of Clement V., there are groats, with his portrait, three- 
quarters length, as of nearly 9II his successors, tiU Sextus IV., 
in 1470, — ^with whose eoiaage the profile portraits begin, as 
they do in England with his contemporaiy, Henry VII. The 
first gold coinage of modem Borne is of the reign of 
John XXII., 1316. After this period the coinage of the 
Eternal City begins to improve rapidly in exceUenoe of 
execution, the money of the infamous Alexander YI., the 
luxurious Julius II., and the politic Leo X., being as 
remarkable for fine execution as any of the period. ,The 
larger silver, the scucti, &c. — equivalent to our crowns, — 0$ii 
the German thalers, first appear in those reigns. 

In Milan, the first remarkable coins, after the series of the 
Gennan emperors, are those of the Visconti, the independent 
dukes of Milan. The first are those of Azo, 1330. liudovico 
il Mauro 1ms qjl his coinage the legend LVDOVICVS • M ' SF • 
ANGLVS • DVX -MLI ^ the meaning of ANGLVS has not as 
yet be^i satisfactoiily explained. 

The coinage of Florence is celebrated as being the first to 
introduce the general vme of gold, which commenced as 
early as 1252, a century earlier than the famous issue pf 
gold nobles in this country. These . gold pieces, which 
bore on one side the Florentine lily for principal typo, 
and on the other a figure of St. John the Baptist, the 
palTOQ saint of the city, were imitated first by the 
^ench, and the Popes, th^n by the Germans and English, 
and were the first gold coix^ issued in Europe after the 
eighth century.* 

The first copies of th^ Florentine ^old not only 
bore the name of Florins, from that of the city where they 
were first issued, but also their types; nothing but the 
legend or inscription b^g changed. At a later period, 
however, though the iiaj3^ Aorin was stilL preserved, the 
national types of the ooiimtri^s in which th^ were i^^u^ 

* Tke gold trien* of the MereviDgian king* of Gaul and th« Ootl^ic kinfi 
•f%aio is the gold iaoii»y alluded to, as preceding t])« florin in modern Snrops. 

LL 2 



516 COIITAOE or HODSBN ITALY. 

gradually superseded those of Florence. These Florentine 
gold coins bore around the standing figure of St. John the 
legend S • lOHANNES • B •, and round the large and elegantly 
AeBigaeiJleur-de'liSf the legend FLORENTIA. 

It is thought the national arms of France originated in 
the copying of these Italian coins, a« those flowers do not 
appear as a national badge till the reign of Philip le Hardi, 
about 1270. These celebrated coins weigh one drachm, and 
are no less than 24 carats fine, being intrinsically worth 
about twelve shillings English. 

The modem coinage of Venice begins with silver of the 
tenth century, marked Venici ; and one of the earliest with 
a name is that of Enrico Dandolo, doge in 1280. Silver 
groats of Venice appear as early as 1192, and copper about 
1471 ; while the gold followed close upon that of Florence, 
and appeared in 1280. I have, in speaking of the ancient 
coinage of Cyzicus, mentioned that the gold of that ancient 
Greek state, was the forerunner of that of Venice, from 
which the modem name, Zecchino, Anglice Sequin, was 
derived ; and it is probable that the coined gold of Cyzicus 
was in circulation till late in the eastern empire; and 
especially at Venice, at the time of the issue by Florence of 
her new gold coinage, upon which Venice, in emulation, also 
issued a national gold coinage, but founded upon the value 
and preserving the name of the ancient Cyzicenes. 

Among the earliest modem coins of Genoa are those of 
the Emperor Conrad, 1129, DVX lANVAE. ; and those of the 
Dukes of Savoy begin in the same century. 

The Patriarchs of Aquileia issued coins from 1204 to 
1440, and Ferrara has coins of its Marchesi from 1380 ; 
while several free towns issued their own money with 
peculiar types, those of Mantua being honoured by the 
effigy of Virgil, the modem Mantuans not forgetting that 
their city was the birth-place of the great bard of the 
Augustan age. 

The Neapolitan series begins as early as Duke Sergius, A.n. 
880, with which are classed the coins of the powerful Dukes 
of Benevento forming a fine early series, and those of Roger I., 
of Sicily, Eoger II., WiUiam I. and II., and Tancred, belong 
to the Neapolitan series in collections; as also those of 
Sicily under the Normans. In 1194, Naples and Sicily were 



COIKJlGE Olf lOEEIGK 8IATES. 517 

subdued by tbe German emperors, whose Neapolitan coins 
are extant. Those of Manfred next appear, in 1225 ; and 
those of Charles of Provence, in 1266 ; then those of the 
celebrated Queen Jeanne, followed by those of the 
House of Arragon, and the later series, which begin to 
improve like other modem series towards the close of. 
the fifteenth century; and after that period assume a 
strong family likeness to those of the rest of modem 
Europe. 

COINS OP MODEEN SPAJN. 

It has been seen that on the ruins of Eoman power in 
Italy, a number of petty independent states assumed the 
privilege of issuing independent coiaages. Spain, on the 
contrary, formed, tiU the irruption of the Moors, in 714, 
one compact and powerful kingdom, to the princes of which 
the privilege of coining gold had been very early conceded 
by the emperors of the East, who no longer recognised the 
possibility of seeing Spain or Qtiul again under the old 
imperial dominion. The conseq[uence of this recognised 
independence of Spain was the issue of a gold coinage of 
great interest, consisting of trienteg, or thirds of the 
Byzantine solidus, which, under the name of Bezants, long 
circulated in the west and north of Europe. These trientes 
of the Gotho-Iberian princes occur, of Leirva, 567; 
Liuvigild, 573 ; "Weteric, 603 ; G-undemar, 610 ; Seseburt, 
612 ; Svinthila, 621 ; Sisemond, 631 ; Chintila, 636 ; Tulga, 
640; Chindasvint, 642; Eecesvint, 653; Womba, 672; 
Ervigo, 680 ; Egica or Egiza, 687 ; Witiza, 700 ; and Eudric 
or Eoderic, the last of the Groths, the hero of Southey's 
celebrated poem, in 711. 

After Amabic, who was the first acknowled King of Spain 
by the emperors of the Bast, the kingdom became elective ; 
the power of election residing chiefly in the bishops. The 
coins above alluded to, however, bear the portraits of the 
kings as of hereditary sovereigns, accompanied by their names, 
the reverse having a cross with the name of the place of 
mintage, generally in the province of BsBtica, where Soman 
colonies had been most abundant. 

On the subjection of the country by the Arabs, an 
oriental coinage was issued, which, as the Mohammedan 



518 COIKAOB OF KODSBIT SPAIK. 

creed forbad the imitation of the human figure, present 
onlj Arabic iasmptions, generally sentences from the 
Kor^n. 

The generic term of the Arabs for a coin is nutrJeush, fi-om 
which the term marcus, common in monetary statements 
of the period, is derired ; payment of so many gold marcuses 
being often stipulated, which no doubt referred to these coins 
of the Spanish Arabs,* which not only droulated amongst, 
but were imitated in foe-simile by, other nations, who did 
not understand the Arabic characters, or with the 
good staunch Christian bigotry of the time, they would 
scarcely have copied and re-issued sentences of the Kor4n, 
however excellent their import. One of these imitations of 
the Arabian markueh is known, which is supposed to have 
been issued by our Saxon Offa, King of Kent, which 
bears his name in addition to the Arabic legends, which 
piece, with one or two more exceptions, forms the 
only gold coin attributed to England before the time of 
Henry ni. 

The Gothic inhabitants of Spain, driven into the fastnesses 
of the Asturian mountains, step by step recovered their 
territories from their oriental invaders ; and in the tenth 
century, when the kingdoms of Arragon and Navarre were 
thus founded, coins were issued by the sovereigns of those 
states, closely resembling the silver pennies of the rest of 
Europe at that period. The kingdom of Castillo was next 
founded, and the Moors were finally expelled from their 
last stronghold, Granada, and the whole Iberian peninsula 
(1492) in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, who, as heirs 
of the kingdoms of Castillo and Arragon, which had previously 
absorbed all the lesser states, became sovereigns of the whole 
of Spain. 

Since the re-establishment of the Christian states, the 
Spanish coinage had taken the course of that of the rest of 
Europe, gradually increasing in excellence from the middle 
to the end of the fifteenth century, at which period the gold 
coins of Ferdinand and Isabella,t convey a mir idea of the 
general style of the Spanish coinage. 

* For some account of the Arabic coinage of Spain, see MuBeum Cvficvm 
Borgianwm, — Adler. The Cufic is the ancient Arabic language, 
i* From a fine coin in the possession of H. O* Bohn, Esq. 



GOIKAGE 01 FOBfilGlT'STAMa. 519 

After this period, thd discovery of America, and the vast 
influx of goM and silyer from the mines of Mexico and 
Peru, cftuaed the coinage of Spain Uy become, for a tkne, 
i^e most abundant of Surope, dollars and half dollars of 
silver being coined in amazing numbers, which were for 
a time the onlv European coin- accepted in India, C^a, 
and other oriental nations where European commerce waa 
now fast spreading. The more recent Spanish series is 'too 
weU known to reqmre any description. 

The coinage of Portugal, fdunded as a separate kingdom 
in 1126^ followed a very similar course to that of Spami 

COURAGES or MODilEK GEBMAKY. 

G^Mrmany, after the time of Charlemagne^ exhibits an 
immense number of small' independent states, each coining 
money on its own account, a^ description of all of which 
would be an endless task, even if the space for so doing was 
unlimited. About the year 920 the Emperor Henry the 
Ealconer, conferred independent privileges on many derman 
cities, and fipom about that period the independent issues of 
coin commenced at Augsburg, Hamburg, Frankfort, Stras- 
burg, &c., which may be regarded as true republics in the heart 
of the empire. The coins of Nuremberg generally surpass 
those of the emperors of corresponding dates in both execu- 
tion and purity, while they are equalled by many of those of 
the bishops, the electoral princes, and many petty sovereigtis. 
As examples of the coinage of the smaU. states of G-ermany, 
as well as those of Prance, those of the city of Metz, the 
Coun^ of Bar, and of the Dukes of Lorraine, will form 
as good examples as could be selected, and the following 
notice will be found to explain their character pretty 
clearly. 

MOKBT OF THE COTJKTS AS^B COTKT DUKES OT BAB. 

Frederic of the Ardennes, the first Count of Bar, was a son 
of Wiegeric, Count of the Palace, under Charles the Simple. 
He married Beatrice, a daughter of Hugh Capet, in the year 
951 ; and the Emperor Otho, in consequence of the marriage^ 
conceded to him the County of Bar. His dynasty remai^d 



520 OOXKASl Of THl COimTS OV BJtB. 

in hereditary poBBeBsiou till the death of I^ederic II., in 
1034 i when his daughter Sophie married the Count of 
Monteon and Montbelliard, and lived till 1093 ; and her 
SOD, Theodoric II., succeeded her. The authors of " L' Art 
de verifier les Dates" stat« that he was the first who bore 
upon his state-seal two bar», a kind of native fish, in allusion 
to the name of the district. 

There is no money of Bar known, either of the first 
dynasty, or of the one of Montbelliard, which succeeded it, 
nor untU after the reign of Thibault 11., who died in 1297. 

The coins of his son, Henry III., who married Alienor, a 
daughter of Edward III. of England, are the earliest known 
of Bar, though M. de Sauld considers that much earlier 
coins will yet be found, aa it is scarcely probable that the 
money of Fruice formed the sole money of that independent 
state, at all erents to so late a period. 

Henry lU. invaded Champagne, where he was defeated. 



ODinofHamjin., Count otBu. 

and forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of IPrance over a 
portion of Bar, to which M. Saiild thinks the fimrt-de-Ut 
on the reverse of the coin engraved 
above may allude. The two "oars," 
with a stM, form the device of the ob- 
verse, and a croaa, with Jlewrg-de-lu 
in two of the quarters, the reverse. 

The money of Heniy IV., who began 

to reign in 1337, and reigned till 13^ 

shows a great advuice. The shield 

QtoofHMUTiT cMiM ^ *^^ obverse bears the anna of Bar, 

of Bur. ' in good heraldic style ; and the reverse 

has NOMEN DOMINI SIT BENEDICTn- 

Ac. It is silver, and weighs thirtv-eight grains. It was 

struck at Moosson, a town built by Thibault II., on the left 



COINAGE 07 TOBEIQK BTATX3. 521 

bank of the Moaelle, in 1260, the mark of which toim it 
bean. 

In the reign of JGdward I., predecesaor of Heniy IV., 
Bolandin, the moneyer of Mouaaon, wae Mxeated for having 
coined baae money, which he had given to a varlet, to get 
changed at Metz. 

In 1342, John, the blind king of Bohemia, and Duke of 
Luiemhnrg, afterwards killed at the battle of Creasy, and 
Henry IV., Count of Bar, concluded a treaty, by which 
they agreed to strike money for the common currency of 
both their dominions, more especially in Luxemburg. 
Their coinage, struck under this engagement (the original 
written document concerning which is still in existence), 
bears the inscription 4« lOHANNES : REX : ET : HEMRICYS ■ 
COUI- on a shield; on the obverse the arms of Bar and 
Luxemburg are quartered; and on the reverse, HONETA 
SOCIOHVM., &c. 

There are silver pieces described by De Saulci, of 68, 24, 
IS, and 19 gr^na ; and of billon of 90 grains. 

Some of the money of Bar, soon after this period, closely 
resembles in type that of the kings of France, eroeciaUy 
the ^og Taum&u. Coins bearing the arms of Bar and 
Lmemhuig quartered were also issued, under Eobert of Bar, 
and John Buke of Luxemburg, between 1378 and 1880. 

The same Duke Bobert appears to have struck gold 
fiorifu, the first gold in this senea, which are copies, except 
the name of the prince, of thoae of Charles T. of France ; 
and have for device of the obverse original Plorentiae t^e 
the figure of St. John the Baptist, 
wth SIOHANNESB-, and on the re- 
verse, the well-known Florentine lily, 
"ith ROBEETVS DVX ; while those of 
the kings of France have KAB0LV3 | 

REX; both being, in other respects, 
foe-timileg of the original coins of 
Florence. 

B£n6 of Anjou succeeded to the 
Duchy of Bar, in 1419, and reiened CoinotchwiM n.,Diu» 
"U 1431; and durmg his reign some compUoiBu. 

Tery excellent money was struck. He 
married the daughter of the Duke of Lorraine ; and thus 



522 OOIKAOE OT LOBBACne. 

the arms of Lorraine, of Bar, and of the kingdom of 
Jerusalem appear on the yerj handsome coins issued in 'B6r 
at this time* 

The Duke Chttrks II. of Lorraine, who was regent o^-fche 
Compt6, appears to have issued the money in his name, as ivill 
be seen by the interesting coin (See p. 621), with the legend 
KA.BOLVS • D VX • LOTHOR • Z • M • The portrait of the duke 
is full-length and wears a chaplet of roses, and the belt bears 
the martlets of Lorraine* This piece is silver, and weighs 
49 grains. On the reverse are the arms of Naples, Jerusalem, 
Bar, and Lorrame, with siT • NOME • DM • BENEDICTVM. 

After this period the Compt^ of Bar becomes merged in 
the Duchy of Lorraine, — German and French Duchies and 
Compt^s were, at their foundation, only con<;eded for life, so 
that the first Comptes and Dukes of Bar and Lorraine 
were in fact only governors, as will be seen in the short 
account which follows, of the coins of Lorraine 



MQ20IT OT IiOBBAINB. 

The two first Dukes of Lorraine were only holders of the 
titles and privileges for life ; but on the death of Gozelon, the 
second duke, the emperor, Henry III«, having given the 
duchy to Gerard, Duke of Alsace, instead of God&ey, son 
of Gozelon, God&ey caused the Duke Gerard to be assassi* 
nated ; but the emperor, nevertheless, persisted in carrying 
out his views, and appointed Albert, the nephew of Gerard^ 
to the duchy, at the same time making the office hereditaiy 
in his family, in order effectually to shut out the claims of 
God&ey : and thus commenced the hereditary power of the 
House of Lorraine, which endured for seven centuries ; issuing 
a series of money Httle inferior to that of the great European* 
monarchies. The style of the earlier pieces may be conceived 
by examination of those of Bar, given above ; but the later 
coins afford specimens of a much more advanced state 
of art. 

In comparison with contemporary silver coinage in 
England, a double denier of silver of Thibault II., who 
reigned &om 1303 to 1312, will show the immense supe- 
riority of the money of the Continent, in execution, even 



COH^AGB OF T0VSX9S 8TATSS. 



The sword on the reverse alludes to the dignity of Marchia, 
which the Duiea of Lorraine considered a high honour and 
privilege. 

The money of Farri IV., who succeeded, is still better 
executed, — a standing figure of a warrior being better than 
anything on the Enguah silver coinage till after tbe reign of 
Henry VIII. 

Of Jean or John I., taken prisoner by the Black Prince, 
at the battle of Poitiers, and carried to England with John 
of France, a few coins are known, similar in art, though not 
in type, to the Anglo-Gallic coins, struck by the Black 
Prince and Henry V. in France. 

B4n4 II., from 1471 to 1508, carried on a war againet 
Charles the Bald, Duke of Bur|iindy, and issued silver 
money ou wbich his arm appeared issuing from a cloud, and 
liolding a sword, with the inscription, ADJUVA N08 DEDS 
SALVTARia N08TER, or, FECIT POTENTIAM IS BRACHK 
SVO. ; in allusion to the greatneaB of his cause. 

Gk>ld money first appears in this reign ; and the florins 
have for type a full figure of St. Nicholas in episcopal robes, 
at whose feet is a vessel containu^ three children ; on the 
-other side are the arms of Hungary, Naples, Jerusalem, 
Arragon, Nancy, and Bar, all dludmg to territories or 
aUiuices of the reigning family. 

The dueat of gold was also issued, the principal types 
l)eing a ducal effigy, in front of which is a shield with the 
tama of Bar and Lorraine, with " 8. Seorgius," and " 1492 " 
— one of tbe earliest examples of a date on a coin of a sove- 
reign prince. Some of the silver coins of this reign are of 
large dimensionB. 



524 



TALXrS MJn> PBICJB OF f OBEIGN COIN. 



The followmg tariff, issued by the duke's authority, on 
the 11th of November 1511, will convey a good idea of the 
names and values of the coins most common in central 
Europe at that time : — 



TARIFF OF THE VALUE AND PRICE OF FOREIGN COIN. 

GOLD. 



Names of the Pieces. 



Rose-noble (the English coin of this 
name, which from its purity was 
much sought on the Continent) 

Henricus 

Buipmdian 

Half-noble of Flanders . . . . 

Ducats of Venice, Florence, Grenoa, I 

and Hungary .... J 

Papal Ducat 

Alphonsin (^ Ducat) .... 

Angelo . 

TheoldEsca 

Reaux frcma (on foot and on horseback) 

Ridde 

Salute . 

Lion 

8\m-Ecus 

Crown- JE<n« 

New Sxm-Eciu of Germany, Savoy,! 

Italy, (except those of the king) J 

Gold florm of the Rhine of the mint- 1 

age of the princes or electors . J 

GuiJIelmus 

Florins of Burgundy, Philip and Charles 

Florins of Metz 

Treves .... 

the Archduke Philip, Charles 
Denmark, Jiiliers, Cleves, 

Orlemond, Breme 
Lidge, Vheslalm, and Fries- 
land, and Germingen 
Ghieldres and Celuden in' 
Friesland 
„ Hungary .... 



ft 



» 



if 



ff 



tf 



Weighing 



Denien. On. 

6 



5 
5 

2 



2 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 



2 
2 

2 
2 
2 



2 
1 



10 
10 
16 

18 

18 
2 
2 

22 

20 

20 

8 

I7i 
16 

17i 

14 

6 

16 
17 
15 
14 

15 

15 

16 
22 



Shall Pass for 



Francs. On. 

6 



5 
5 



4 
4 
3 



2 
2 



6 
32 

34 

33 
3 
8 

35 

34 
34 
3 
33 
32 

33 



20 
25 
21 
22 

21 

20 

20 
10 



COnrAOE OF FOBEIG^ STATES. 



525 



SILVER. 



Names of the Pieces. 



Testoons of Milan, Qenoa, and all similar ones of) 
good alloy, wH^ont fieur-de-lis beyond the cross j 

„ Gknoa, with two jUur-de-lU . 

„ Savoy 

,, Metz 

Garolns of Burgundy 

Double Oro9 of Flanders, Philippus and Carolus 

Single ones 

Double Gros of Malines 

The Single 

Double Patarda of Flanders, except of Cambrai 

Single ones 

Tmsi(yM of France 

Carolus 

Oramd-hUmcs of France 

Bvii pemaZ, with the wheel 

Bugnes of Metz 

Bahoy^ea 

Coutzols of Austria (with one head) .... 

„ „ (with two heads) . . . . 

Liards and a quarter, of Savoy 

DowbUt of France 

Blaspars of Strasbourg 

Quartrains of Strasbourg 

Ihniers of Strasbourg 

Blaspars of Basle (old) 

New BUupars of Basle, Colombier, Tanne, and the 1 

like J 

Orandrhlwncs of Savoy and Bourbon . . . . 
All the coin of Old and New Lorraine, at the current 
prices. 



Shall Pass for. 



8 Grs. 
6 

n 

2 

2 

2 

1 

7 Blancs, 
14 Deniei'S. 

7 Blanca. 
14 Denier t. 
15 



11 




14 


it 


14 


ft 


10 


it 


11 


it 


6 


tt 


5 


it 


8 


it 


8 


it 


18 


it 


12 


it 


3 


it 


1 


Ors 



14 Deniera. 
9 



tt 



AH other moneys of gold or silver not mentioned in the present Tariff, 
iliall have no course, and shall not be received by the changers. 



The transition from tlie medisBval style of art to the modem 
tookplace in Lorraine in the long reign of Charles III., who 
began to reign in 1545, and reigned till 1608. The later coins 
are of finer execution than any English coins of the end of 
the reign of Elizabeth, or beginning of James I. The portrait 
is fomid on the early coins of Charles III., in extreme youth, 




526 COIKAGE OP KQUiASB JUTS BOH£KIA. 

and resembles some of those of Edward VI. ; and the larger 
pieces correspond in size to the crowns and half-crowns of 
that English reign. They are dated 1557, and have for 
reverse seven snwdl shields arranged in a circle, with different 
arms ; and in the centre, with an inner circle of beading, a 
somewhat larger shield bears the arms of Lorraine. There 
is no legend on this side of the coin. 

A magnificent ecu, or crown, was struck 
towards the close of this reign (1603), the style 
of which is similar (but finer) to those of Heniy 
lY. of France. 

The marginal cut shows the form of the cros$ 
of Lorravns, forming the type of somje of the 
coins of this series. 

Erancis III. the heir of Lorraine becoming 
SS^e. Emperor of Germany, the series of Lorraine 
coins ends with Charles III. In this, laat redgn 
the coinage of Lorraine was equal to any in Europe. 

COINAGhES OF HOLIlOTB, BOHEMI4, 4c. 

The coinage of the Counts of Hollttnd and ElaAders 
foUowed much the same course as that of Bar or Lorraine. 
In the east of Europe the coinage of the Slavonic races was 
even somewhat more imbued with the style of the Byzantine 
coinage of the still existing eastern empire of Some. 

Bohemia, the most westerly of the purely Slavonio states, 
has the earliest coinage ; it commences with that of Duke 
Boleslaus, in the year 909, the coins bearing both his portrait 
and name. These are followed by coins of BoccIaus H. 
and his wife Emence, about 970. Bocelaus III. in 1002 ; 
Jaromin, 1020 ; UdaLrich, 1030 ; Bracislaus I. and Spiti- 
heneus. "Wralislaus, the first king, in 1060 issued coins 
with the regal title, and then follow those of "Wadislaus, 
&c. &c., which space does not allow me to particularise. 

The Bracteate* money, however, of Ottocor, issued about 
1197, must not be passed over, as it is the iype of a peculiar 
class issued about that time in several parts of Europe. 

* A late kind of Byumtkn bue money, incup4ike fonn, -nrith figuies ^j 
in the concave ade, seems to hav& been the origin of the Bracteate money. 



goiNAGs OF jo^xigts fiTATXs. 537 

This species of coin is of Yeiy thin silFer, and only impressed 
with a type on one side, the back haying the hoilow indent 
of the same form. These coins form a modem variety, some- 
what analogoxis to the oucient incused money of Magna 
Grsecia, but they are much thinner, and of course greatly 
inferior in execution mid totally different in the style of 
types. This kind of money was struck in the greatest 
quantity about the twelfth century, and bears various types, 
the cross being the most common ; but the heraldic badges, 
of different states, such as the Hon, &c., &c., are found upon 
the bracteates of different eoimtries. 

The coinage of Hungary belongs to a similar class to 
that of Bohemia. 

The coinage of Poland is that of an allied race, and conse- 
quently follows a similar course in its development and 
progress to that of Bohemia. 

In Bussia, when Vladimir, or Volodemir I., Duke of 
Bussia, in 981, married the daughter of the Byzantine 
emperor, art first began to dawn on Eussia. The Tartar 
conquest of 1238 interrupted the course of civilisation for a 
long period, and not till 1462, when the foreign yoke was 
thrown off, can the modem race of sovereigns be said to 
commence. The capital was anciently Kiof, but the custom 
of dividing the territory among all the sons of the duke, 
caused many independent states to arise, so that there are 
also coins of the Princes of Twer, Bostovia, Tchemigor, 
Suenigorod, Mojaiski, Pleskow, Biazin, and Caschin. The 
most ancient money bears the names of princes, without 
dates, and as many of the same name were reigning 
in diJQbrent districts, renders it exceedingly difficult to 
classify the Bussian money of the early epochs ; but it 
may be fairly stated that no Bussian money exists much 
earlier than the thirteenth c^atury. The earliest coins of 
that country have generally a man standing with a bow, or 
spear, for principal type, somewhat similar to the coins of the 
Scythian dynasties, who auhdued the north of India ;* and on 
the reverse rude figures of different animals. Some have 

* See chapter on Bactrian and Indian coins after the time of Jllexander. 



528 COIKAGX or FBXTBSIA. A29^D bekmabe. 

St. George and the Dragon. These are nearly all kopecs, or 
silyer pennies. 

Under Ivan, or John, in 1547, the Bussian dollar, or 
rouble, commences, and also its half. Those of the Pretender 
Demetrius are very scarce. 

The recent coins of Eussia are too well known to require 
notice. 

OOn^AOE OF PETJSSIA. 

The first Prussia silver pennies were coined by the Teutonic 
Order at Culm. In the next century the rulers of Prussia 
coined schellvngs, groats, and schots, the latter being the 
largest and consequently the most scarce. The types were 
generally an eagle surmounting a cross, with a scalloped 
border, forming a quatrefoil or cinque foil, with the legend 
MONETA DOMINORUM . PRV^SIE. The reverse is a cross fleurie 
with a similar border, with HONOR . MAGISTRI . IVSTITIAM . 
DILIQIT. In the same century the first gold was struck. 

In 1466 Poland acquired the eastern portion of Prussia, and 
the Teutonic knights Ibecame vassals to that crown for the rest. 

Albert, Marquis of Brandenburgh, was the last master of 
the Teutonic Order, and in 1525 was made Duke of Eastern 
Prussia, to be held as a fief of Poland. At this period the 
money was so debased that thirteen current marks were only 
worth one mark of pure silver. In 1657 Eastern Prussia was 
declared free from vassalage to Poland, and the princes of the 
House of Brandenburgh assumed the title of Kings of Prussia, 
since which period the coins of Prussia are well known. 

COINAGE OF DEITMAEK AJH) THE KOETHEBN STATES. 

Of the northern states of Europe, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Norway, the progress of the coinages resembles that of the 
English monarchy. Of the Danes, the earliest coins* known 
are those which were struck in England and Scotland, 
spoken of in the English series. After Canute the Great 
the national Danish series may be said to commence. 

Those of Magnus Bonus, 1041, have a half-length figure 
of the king, with Bunic reverses, and are of neat execu^on. 

* Except some rude pieces, viiih. Runic letter, which are not well 
authenticated. 



COnTAOX 07 YOBSiaif BTATSS. 529 

On those of Sweno II. the portrait has an arched crown ; 
and the reverses haye curious ornaments of a tesselated form 
running across the field, with a series of linil's on either 
side, apparently an imitation of Boman letters, not under- 
stood. . The coins of Harald 11., 1074, have generally two 
heads, the throne being contested by his brother, and the 
moneyers being apparently anxious to keep in with both 
claimants for supreme power. 

The coins of Canute or Cnut, the Saint, have CNVT R. 
for CNVT. REX., and on the reverse SIVORD. I. ROCI., 
(ItosehiM) then the name of the Danish capital. 

The coins of King Nicholas, called in Danish !Niel, are 
very rude, as are those of "Waldemar and his successors, 
including those of the celebrated Margaret, whose coins 
have no legend. The coins of Olaf (1376) have a full-faced 
portrait, with a crowned O for the reverse. 

Eric (1426), after his return from the Holy Land, issued 
biUon coins, that is, of base silver, which is the "black 
money" spoken of by the chroniclers of various states about 
this time. 

The later coinage of Denmark is similar to that of the 
rest of Europe. 

The earliest coins of Sweden appear to be those of Biomo, 
about 818, which resemble those of Charlemagne, having a 
cross for principal type, though it would appear that Biomo 
was not a Christian. 

The next well authenticated Swedish coins do not occur 
till those which are probably of Olaf Skolkonung, in 1019, 
with the legend OLVF. REX. SVEVORVM., and those of 
Anund, 1026, with ANVND. REX., and on the reverse, 
THORMOD. ON. SIHTV. Sihtu being Signuta,the ancient capital 
of Sweden. On the coins of Hacon, 1067, the name 
reads AACVNE. A similar series brings the Swedish coinage 
to 1387, when we have those of Margaret, Queen of Den- 
mark and Sweden, but all very rude, Brenner's plates 
conveying the notion of very much better coins. 

Erom this period to that of Ghistavus Vasa, Sweden was 
subject to Denmark, and the coinage of that country super- 
seded the national one. The Danish types being only 
distinguished from those struck in Denmark by legends 
Moneta Stockol, or Arosiensis, or Lundensis, &c. Dano- 

M If 



530 conrA0S oi* vobeigk states. 

Swediali coins of tibis class continue to the reign of 
Christian, 1550, during which time coins struck by Danish 
governors appear, as those of Cnutson, Steno Sture, Swanto 
Sture, Steno Sture 11., &c* &c. 

Till 1470 there are only silver pennies in the Swedish 
series; after that year there are hal^eonies also; and 
G-ustavus Yasa, on re-establishing the national independence, 
greatly improved the coinage, issuing, in addition to the 
pennies and hal^nnies of former periods, a larger class of 
silver coius, similar to those then beginning to appear in 
other European states. In 1634 gold ducats were coined, 
with the head of Gustavus Adolphus, though he was killed 
in 1632 ; for his only child, Christina, beiag an infant at the 
time of his death, the portrait of the deceased king, the glory 
of the Swedish annals, was continued upon the coinage.* 

In the reign of Charles XII. such was the waste of i^e 
national wealth, caused 1^ the insane mania for military glory 
of this prince, that the Baron Gbertz endeavoured to supply 
the deficiency by issuing copper coins, bearing the heads of 
Saturn, Jupiter, &c., which were ordered to pass for dollars, 
a political expenm^it for which the unfortunate but loyal 
projector was eventually brought to the block. 

The coins of Norway begin with those of Olaf, in 1066, 
and bear the legend ONLAP REX NOR. Some Norwegian 
coins have on the reverse the letters NI. for Nidaros, 
Nidrosen, or Nidsen, now Drontheim, the capital. On the 
coinage the heirs-apparent to the crown were termed Dukes 
of Norway, and among the coins bearing the title of Duke are 
those of the Duke Philip, with PH^LIPPVS.. DUX. NORWEGUB, 
which have on the reverse MONETA. EASLOENS. Those of 
King Eric, 1280, and those of Hacon, 1309, which are good 
of the period, have also this title, and the legend on the last- 
named reads HAQVINVS. DVX. NORV. Copper coins of 
Magnus Smek occur as early as 1343. The last Norwegian 
coins are those of another Hacon, 1379. After which 
period Norway was imited with Denmark. Of Sweden, 
Denmark, and Norway, there are also coins of Bishops, 
as in Prance, G^ermany, and England, those of Sweden and 
Denmark being more numerous than those of Norway. 

* For some interesting particulars of this period see Geijer's " History of 
Sweden.** 



COINAGE OF THE FBSKOH KOKABCHT. 531 

As an example, the following may be cited : — Olaws Arch- 
bishop Drontheim. On the obverse are the titles of the 
king, SANCTVS OLAWS • REX. NORVEa, and on the reverse 
the name and title of the Archbishop, OLAWS • DEI • GRA • 
ARCEP • NID'SEN, for Nidroderms, referring to Nidsen or 
Nidrosen, now Drontheim. 

OOIWS OP THE PBEBTOH MOKABCHT. 

I have deferred speaking of the coins of Erance till the 
last, as being most interesting in their parallel coarse with 
those of England. 

The earliest coins of the Erankish monarchy are those 
coined afker permission to strike gold money was conceded 
by the Eastern Emperors to Clovis, or his immediate suc- 
cessors, about the time that a similar right was granted to 
Amalric, the Q-othic King of Spain. The series of gold 
trienteg, coined by these two states for upwards of two 
centuries, form one of the most remarkable features of the 
early history of the coinage of modern Europe, especially, 
when it is considered that this issue of modem gold took 
place at a period when aU the other emancipated portions 
of the Western Empire were in a most barbarous condition 
as regards the coinage. 

This discrepancy is partially explained when we consider 
the different position of these two great provinces, on the 
dissolution of the Empire. In Spain, Ataulf, by marrying 
the sister of Honorius, and acknowledging a nominal depend- 
ance on the sinking Empire, secured quiet possession of that 
fine country, without utterly destroying the Eoman civilisa- 
tion which existed in her rich and numerous cities, the 
greater number Eoman colonies ; while in G-aul the Eranks 
obtained at once such a firm footing, in the reign of Clovis, 
that Eoman institutions were far less overturned in that 
province than in Italy, where the spoil of the great metro- 
polis tempted host after host of savage barbarians to the 
feast of plunder. 

Afber the remarkable gold coinage of the first race of 
Prankish kings — ^the Merovingian dynasty — ^the gold coin- 
age disappears. The trientes were of the value of one-third 
of the Byzantme solidus ; and there were also coined a few 

MM 2 



3.32 comjLGE OF the fbekch monaecht. 

gemisses, or halves of the same coin. They have generallj 
a small, and not ill-executed head of the king, with his name, 
though sometimes the name is that of the moneyer. On 
the reverse is a cross, with the name of the city where the 
coin was minted. 

With PepiQ commence the coins of the Carlovingian race, 
which are as remarkable for barbarous workmanship as those 
of the preceding dynasty for good execution. Those of 
Charlemagne have generally merely the name of CAROL VS, 
without a portrait, only a few struck in Eome having a rude 
bust of the emperor. The reverse has generally R. F., for 
Eex Prancorum, or some such brief inscription. 

The coins of Louis Le Debonnaire are, however, much 
better executed, and seem to show, by their Eoman style of 
treatment, that there yet existed Eoman mints in Graul, or 
rather France, where the ancient skiU in coining money was 
fltiU lingering. 

The coins of the third race, commencing with Hugh 
Capet remain; inferior in the art of coinage, with few 
exceptions ; and in the reign of Philip I., cotemporary with 
"WiUiam the Conqueror, a species of money was issued 
formed of a piece of leather, with a silver nail fixed in the 
centre. It is not till the reign of St. Louis, 1226, that 
the French coinage greatly improves, and that the groat 
appears. This coin, of the value of four pennies, appeared 
first in Italy, where it was known as the grosso, or large 
coin; and in France it became the gros; in Q-ermany 
the groote ; in England the groat ; where, however, it did 
not appear permanently till the reign of Edward III., nearly 
a century later than its first appearance in France. 

G-old did not reappear in France till a considerable period 
had elapsed after the issue of the Italian florin, as the gold 
florins, given byLe Blanc to Philip Augustus and Louis VIII. 
belong evidently to Philip the Bold, or Philip the Fair, and 
Louis X. Under Philip of Yalois — from 1328 to 1350 — ^no 
less than ten kinds of gold coins are enumerated, by French 
numismatists, among which are la chaise, being such as exhibit 
the sovereign seated in a chair of state, or throne ; the lion, 
having a figure of a lion for principal type; the lamh, 
(I'agneau), &c. &c. 

The difficulties which ensued about this period, conse- 



COINJL&S 07 THE FBEKCH MOKABCHT. 533 

quent upon the Englisli inyasions, caused great deterioration 
in the French mintage, and base coin of all kinds got into 
circulation in the epoch of confusion and distress which 
ensued. 

In the time of St. Louis, black coin had been issued, that 
is billon, or bad silver. Of these there was the liard, or 
hardi, which was equal to three deniers, or silver pennies ; 
and the maille, or obole, half the denier; with the bour- 
geoise, orpite, of one-quarter of the denier. 

The hlancs, or hilUm groats were also issued about this 
time, but received the name of hlcmes, from being silvered 
over to hide the baseness of their metal. 

The celebrated French gold of the period of Charles VII., 
called the ectts a la couronne, or crowns of gold, were so 
called from the crown, which formed the type of the reverse, 
and gave us the term crown, which in France was first 
applied to gold, though it afterwards became the denomina- 
tion of a silver coin. The ecus a la coronne continued to be 
issued by succeeding French sovereigns; those struck by 
Anne of Brittany, a^r the death of her first husband, are 
remarkable for their elegant workmanship. 

In the reign of Louis XII., the new silver, of about the 
value of a modem franc, issued with the large portrait of the 
king, were termed testona, or great heads, a term afterwards 
applied to the shillings of Henri VIII., in the anglicised 
form of testoon. 

In the reign of Henri II., the elegant piece, called the 
Senri, was issued, which has for type a personification of Ghiul 
sitting on a group of arms, with a Victory in her hand, with 
Optimo principi, and Oallia; evidently suggested by ancient 
IComan coins, which now began to be studied, — ^the celebrated 
Hudee having written his treatise on the Eoman coinage in 
the reign of Francis I. There are other coins, of the Car- 
dinal Bourbon, who, at the time of the League, was put 
forward under the title of Charles X. 

The silver crown and its half had now commenced in 
France, as in other countries ; and on subsequent crowns of 
Louis XIII., the title of Catalonia princeps is assumed. 

The first louis d'or appeared about 1640, after which 
period the coinage of France is almost as familiar to English 
readers as it is to Frenchmen. 



584 MODEBK C0IK8 OT UIA, AniOA^ AlTD AlCBBICA. 



KODEBir COINS OT ASIA, ATBIOA, AKD AHEBICA. 

It has been seen, in the early chapters of this work, that 
the art of coining was carried £ax into the East by the 
Greeks, under Alexander the Great, and remained established 
in Bactria and India for many centimes, where money was 
long coined with Greek inscriptions; the relics of the 
ArsacidsB of Armenia, and the Sassanidse of Persia, bringing 
the ancient style of coins in central Asia down to a com- 
paratively modem period, while the Byisantine series earned 
the ancient Eoman coinage even into the I5th century, in 
Constantinople. 

The subyersion of the power of the SasHa.nidaR in Asia, 
and that of the Byzantine princes in the north of Africa, by 
the Arabs, under the successors of Mahomet, in the 7th 
century, swept away the last yestiges of the ancient style of 
coinage in those countries, and replaced it with money only 
marked with Arabic inscriptions covering the whole surfiuse, 
generally sentences &om the Koran; and this kind of 
coinage extended, Europe being established by the con- 
quering Mahomedans both in SicUy and Arabic Spain. 

Some of the coins of the Caliphs of Bagdad are angular, 
having on one side a copy of the obverse of some coin of a 
Soman emperor, or king of Syria, taken at random ; and the 
usual Arabic sentences from the Koran on the reverse. 
The later coins of the series are free from this absurdity, 
and have the names of the Caliphs on the obverse, instead of 
the stolen types of Borne or Syria ; but the portrait of tiie 
Caliph never appears. 

In the north of Asia coinage appears to be a modem 
introduction, not earlier than the era of Yengis Khan, and 
the money of that part of Asia is still very rude, and 
uninteresting. 

The recent coins of India are principally the pagod'O, a 
gold coin worth about six shillings ; the rupee, a silver coin, 
worth two shillings ; and the cash, a copper coin from which 
some derive the weU-known English word, which does not, 
in fact, appear to be older than our connection with India. 

The gold mohwr of Calcutta is worth 16 rupees of two 
shillings. 



HODSBN COIirS or ABIA, AIBXOAy AlID AlOBICA. 535 

These coins have most commonlj no other deyice than 
short sentences in the Persian character. They are very 
thick in proportion to their width, like the Eomsn series 
struck in Egypt. 

Spanish dollars circulated throughout India after the estab- 
lishment of the Portuguese settlements ; and most of the 
European states, as they acquired a footing in India, issued 
coins with Latin inscriptions on. one side, and Persian on 
the other. There are English rupees, and cash, of this 
description, of the reigns of Elizabeth, and Charles II., and 
other reigns. 

On the restoration of Persian independence, in the 10th 
century, the Arab coinage ceased, and the arms of Persia 
(the sun and lion) are found on the reverse of the copper 
" coinage, while inscriptions &om the Koran occupy the other 
side ; and on the gold and silver coins they still occupy 
both sides. 

The Turkish coins have merely inscriptions on both sides. 
Those of the emperors of Morocco, of the Beys of Eez, 
Tripoli, Algiers, <&c., are of similar character. 

The coinage of China appears to be of modem date, and 
now consists only of copper — small copper pieces, with 
a square hole in the middle, for stringing. The inscription, 
in Chinese characters, does not exf^^ess the name of the 
reigning prince, but the year of his reign, distinguished 
as "the hap^ year," "the illustrious year," &c. 

The coins of Japan are also of comparatively modem date, 
they consist of large thin plates «f gold or silver, and are of an 
oval form, with small ornamental characters stamped upon 
them. 

In the interior of A&ica it would seem that the ring- 
money — ^passing by weight — of the most ancient times is 
still m circulation; as it is occasionally brought down to 
the western coast, and metal made in that form is taken by 
their trading tribes from English merchants, which is manu- 
iJEbctured in Birmingham and other places for this trade. 

The money of America does not date further back than 
the European discovery and occupation, in the 16th century, 
when the Spanish, Portuguese, EngH^, &c., coined money 
there for their colonies ; in all cases very similar in charaoter 
to that of the mother country* 



536 PBISEKT PBICS8 OF AKOIXNT COIKS. 

The independent money since coined by the newly-formed 
republics of North and South America is of too recent date 
to require description here. 



CHAPTEE XL. 

APPROXIMATiyE TABLES OF THE PRESENT PRICES OF ANCIENT 

AND MODERN COINS. 

Unusttally fine preservation, or some other accidental 
circumstance, wiU ofben carry the prices of coins far beyond 
those of the scale here giyen, which can necessarily be 
merely an approximation to their ever-fluctuating value. Por 
instance, a coin may be unique at the present time, and 
worth the highest price at which a coin can possibly be 
estimated ; in a single month, the accidental discovery of a 
great number of the very same type will reduce its price to 
nearly the mere intrinsic value of the metal. !Fashion, 
again, has a decided influence on the price of coins ; sometimes 
one class, and sometimes another, being most sought ; those 
of the fashionable series for the moment realising greater 
proportionate prices than others. Such ancient coins as are 
termed common are not worth, when of silver or gold, 
above double their intrinsic value as metal ; while copper 
coins, though common, if of good preservation, and inte- 
resting types, are worth from twelve times to twenty- 
four times their intrinsic value as metal. But in all cases 
where rarity, beauty, fine preservation, and historic interest 
combine, the price rises rapidly, and a Greek stater of gold 
becomes wortti 20Z., 40?., or 60Z., according to circum- 
stances. The same may be said of silver and copper. 

The following is a scale of prices at which Greek autono- 
mous and regal coins may generally be purchased ; followed 
by a similar scale of Lnpenal Greek coms, or such as were 
s&uck in Greece and her dependencies after their subjuga- 
tion to Bome. These scales are followed by three others, 
relating to different epochs of the Eoman coinage. C. 
expresses common, and the degrees of rarity are expressed by 



PBSSSKT PBICIS or AjrCISNT COIKS. 



637 



W to W. Such {)ieceB as tetradraclmis and decadracbms 
of gold are proportionately above the scale. 

Scale of Prices of Greek Coins of Cities and Princes. 



Sise of Coins. 


C 


R» 


R» 


R» 


R^ 


R* 


R« 


R7 


R8 




€Md. 

Doable Stater . 
Stater . . . . 
Hemistater 


£ 8. 

3 
1 10 
10 


£ 8. 

4 
1 15 
1 


£ 8. 

6 
2 10 
2 2 


£ 8. 

10 
3 10 
3 


£ 8. 

17 
6 
5 


£ 8. 

80 

10 

6 


£ 8. 

60 

15 

7 


£ 8. 

76 

27 
10 


£ 8. 

100 
30 
12 10 




Meetrum. 






















Stater .... 
Hemiatater 


1 
10 


1 5 
12 


1 10 
15 


2 
1 


8 
1 10 


5 
2 10 


7 10 

8 15 


11 
6 


16 
7 10 




saver. 






















Larger than the) 
Tetradrachm . j 

Tetradrachm 

Didrachma or Tri- } 
drachma . . ) 


2 10 
1 
10 


3 
1 10 
16 


4 
2 
1 


5 
3 
1 10 


3 6 

4 
2 6 


12 10 
6 
3 10 


20 
9 
5 


SO 
12 10 

7 10 


40 
17 
20 




Drachma . 


3 


6 


10 


15 


1 6 


1 15 


2 10 


12 10 


17 10 


■ 


Copper (bronse). 






















First bronxe . . • 
Second bronse . 
Third bronze . * 


5 
3 
2 


7 
5 
3 


10 
8 
5 


15 
10 
3 


1 5 
15 
12 


1 15 
1 5 
18 


2 10 
2 
1 5 


3 10 
8 
1 6 


8 
4 
2 10 




Lead. 




















■ 


DiAeient sizes . 


2 


3 


5 


3 


12 


1 


1 10 


2 


3 




Scale 


of Prices of the Imperial Greek Coinage. 




Sise of Coini. 


C. 


Ri 


R« 


R3 


R< 


R5 

£ 8. 

10 


R« 


nr 


R» 




Gold. 
Differ^it sizes 


£ 8. 

1 10 


£ 8. 

1 15 


£ 8. 

2 10 


£ 8. 

3 15 


£ 8. 

6 


£ 8. 

15 


£ *. 
22 10 


£ «. 

30 9 




Medrum. 






















Different sizes . . 


1 6 


1 10 


2 


2 10 


3 16 6 


10 


15 


20 


• 


saver. 






















Tetradrachm . 
Smaller sizes . . 


10 
6 


15 
8 


1 6 
12 


1 15 
1 


3 
1 10 


5 
2 10 


7 10 
3 15 


11 
5 


15 
7 to 




JPbtin or Billon. 






















Tetradrachm . 
Smaller sizes . . 


6 
8 


12 
5 


1 
8 


1 10 
10 


2 10 
15 


8 15 
1 15 


5 
2 


7 10 
3 


10 
4 e 


• 


Ooj^per {bronze).' 

First bronze . 
Second bronze . . 
Third bronze . 


10 
5 
2 


15 
17 
13 


1 
10 
5 


1 10 
15 
8 


2 10 
1 15 
12 


8 10 
1 15 
18 


6 
2 10 
1 6 


7 10 
3 10 
1 5 


10 
5 
2 10 





This Table may be applied also to the coins of the eastern 
empire; to the fall of Constantinople. 



5^8 



:pxiaKfT vsicixs cm Azrcmrr conrs. 



ApproxigMUffe Tabie of Hu VaJm of ^ Early UnekU Chpper of Same, 

tk€ A$ and iu wMmaiont, 

The large square pieces are excessively rare, and few ever 
^pear in the market ; the finest coUection being that of the 
Kircherian Museum, at Borne ; but still, if the type is very 
much worn, and, in fiact, the piece is not a very good specinien, 
the price is not extravagant, and varies also by degrees of 
rarily. Several of the Italic ases, even of the circular 
period, are of extreme rarity, — ^those of Hatria and Iguvium 
being worth 5Z. each, and upwards. 

Scale of Prices of the Romcm As and its Subdivisions. 



Character and size of 
Coins. 


C 


Ri 


R« 


R» 


R* 


R* 


R« 


BJ 


R8 


Copper Bronze, 
square period, 
according to size • 
and type and 
preservation 

Bound period. De-1 
cussis . 

As, of nine or ten' 
ounces 

Farts of the As, 
according to size 
and preservation, 


£ 8, 

2 10 

3 
1 


£ 8. 

10 
2 


£ 8. 

16 
4 


£ «. 

1 
7 


£ 8. 

1 10 
10 


£ 8. 

2 10 
15 


£ a. 
5 

2 16 
1 


£ a. £ s. 
20 50 

11 6 15 
5 7 10 

18 2 



The quadrussis, or pieces of four ases, Mionnet values, if 
good, at about 101. ; the tripondius (three ases) at 2Z. ; and 
the dupondius, or double, at 11, 10*. 

ApproonmaHve Table of the Value of Series of Jlonum Republican Coins, 
commonly called the Family Series, which are principally Silver 
Denarii, 



Scale of P 


rices of the Roman Consular, or FamUy Coins, 




Slse of tbe Coins, && 


c. 


Ri 


RS 


R3 


R* 


R» 


R« 


R7 


R8 


Gold. . 
The usual size 

Silver. 

The usual size . . 
Sesterce . 

Copper-bronze. 

First bronze . . 
Second bronze 
Third bronze . . 


£ 8. 

2 

1 
1 

8 
2 
1 


£ 8. 

8 

3 
2 

4 
3 
2 


£ 8. 

4 

10 
5 

10 
5 
8 


£ 8. 

5 10 

1 

9 

1 6 
10 
5 


£ 8. 

7 10 

2 

12 

2 

1 
10 


£ 8. 

10 

3 

15 

3 

1 10 
15 


£ 8. 

15 

6 
1. 6 

4 10 
2 6 
1 2 


£ 8. 

22 

7 
1 15 

6 
3 
1 10 


£ 8. 

30 

10 
2 10 

7 10 
4 
2 



BEMABES OK TH£ VMCSa OP ZNaXISH COIKS. 589 

Those which form part of the as, with the old types, and 
only the addition of the femily name, may range better 
with that series on the previous table. 

Scale of Prices of the Principal Coins of the Roman Emperws. 



Size of Coins, &c. 



Gold. 

Large (medallion) . 

[For very large 

ones it is ne- 

oessary to add 

their intrinsic 

ralue.] 

The nsoal size (de- | 

narius) . ( 

Small (qninarius) '. 

Silver. 

Large (medallion) . 
Usual size (denarius) 
Small (quinarius) . 

BiUon. 
Usual size 

Brome. 

Very large (medal- \ 
lion) . . J 
First bronze . 
Second bronze . . 
Third bronze . 



£ 8. 

6 



1 5 
12 



1 
2 
1 



1 



6 

3 

2 

1 



Ri 



£ s. 
7 10 



2 
1 



1 10 
5 
3 



8 



10 

6 
6 
2 



R2 



£ 8. 
10 



3 
1 10 



2 10 
15 
8 



8 



1 

16 
6 
3 



R3 



£ 8. 
15 



6 
2 10 



3 15 

1 10 
16 



16 



2 

1 10 
10 
6 



E* 



£ 8. 
20 



7 10 

8 15 



6 10 
3 
1 10 



1 10 



4 

3 

1 

8 



B5 



£ 8. 

25 



13 
6 10 



3 10 
6 
3 



3 



6 

5 
2 
12 



R6 



£ 8. 

36 



17 

8 15 



11 10 
8 15 
4 



4 



10 

7 16 
3 
1 



R7 



£ 8. 

45 



32 10 

11 



16 

11 

5 11 



6 10 



15 

11 
4 
1 10 



RS 



£ 8. 

eo 



80 
16 



20 

15 

7 10 



7 10 



20 

16 

6 

2 



The relative degrees of rarity of almost any coin of this 
series, as well as the Greek and Imperial Greek, will be 
found in the Appendices of this work. 



BEMABKS OS" THE PRICES Or ENGLISH Al^D SCOTTISH 

coiirs. 

No strict rule can be laid down for a scale of prices of 
this series, as the relative scarcity, in consequence of new 
discoveries, is continually changing ; but it may be taken 
as a rule that most of the silver pennies after the Norman 
Conquest, if tolerably common, may be at from 1*. to 28. 
each ; and the groats from 28. to 3^, ; while the larger and 
more recent pieces, if tolerably common, are seldom pur- 



540 BXMASKS ON THB PBICXS 07 EKGLISH COIKS. 

chAsed worth more tban from one-third to doable their 
inbrinsic value as silver ; and the same may be said of the 
gold. While, on the other hand, raritj, or unusually fine 
preservation, rapidly increases their value. 

Silver penniesof Baldred, King of Kent,brought recentlyas 
much as 5Z., and others, of the series of Anglo-Saxon pennies, 
10/., and few of the series are to be had under 51, Some 
of those of Alfred the Great range from 21. to SI. The 
large recent pieces vary to the same extent, — the fkmous 
petition crown of Charles having been recently sold for 
155L : Cromwell half-crowns sometimes bring 1/. to 21.^ 
and even double those sums, while others are scarcely worth 
more than their value in silver, though fine pieces, and in 
good preservation. 

Some of the pattern copper of Anne and Charles IL 
have brought as much as IL and 21. each piece ; and many 
samples of English copper, though all recent, are worth 
from 5g. to 10«. 

The Anglo-GttUic coins are all scarce, and realise good 
prices ; especially those of the Black Prince, except tho 
salute, which is common. The gold coin of that prince, 
called the chaise, from the chair of state on which he is 
represented, was sold as high as 2bl. 14^. ^d. at a public sale, 
in the year 1766, while at the Durrant sale in 1847, a similar 
chaise was sold for 21. 7s. 

The value of the Scottish coins varies in a similar manner. 
The silver pennies of Alexander 1. have been sold as high 
as 101., while those of Alexander II. are only worth 2s. 

The first gold of Eobert II., the 8t. Andrew, is worth 51. ; 
the gold lion, a larger coin, only 21. ; the gold bonnet, a still 
larger, and -much fSier coin, 21. 

The fine shillings of Mary Queen of Scotland, with 
her portrait, are worth 11. 10*., while the inferior gold rial, 
with only her cipher, is only worth 11. 

The coinage of Ireland is valued at similar rates. The 
gun-money of James II. is all common, except the white 
crown, which is sometimes, if well preserved, worth 11. 

In conclusion, it may be stated, that no scale of prices, how- 
ever skilfully framed, can convey an exact idea of the exist- 
ing state of prices in any particular year, except one made 
for that especial year. The young collector should there- 



BEMABKS ON THS PBIC£S OF EKOLISH COINS. 541 

fore, before expending any considerable sums in coins, make 
it lus business to attend a few good sales, and carefully 
mark the price of every coin sold, taking care to ascertain, 
in case of apparently low price for a scarce coin, whether it 
is considered genuine by those thoroughly versed in the 
matter. A few days thus devoted will give the collector 
more information upon the present value of coins than all 
the most elaborate tables upon the subject ever published. 

A copious list of prices, of Greek, Roman, and British 
coins, will be found in the Appendix, founded upon prices 
recently realised by them at public sales, especially those of 
the celebrated Pembroke and Thomas collections. 



ABBREVIATIONS ON GREEK COINS. 



TBAlilSLATED AND EXPLAINED. 



-# ^ 



A . 

ABAK. 
ABT 



AA. . . 
A0, A0E 
A0PIB . 

AI, Air 

Airosno 

AIA . . 



AIN , . 

Airn . . 

AK, AKPAFAN 
AKAN . . 
AKI . . . 
AKT . . 
AAE, AAEHAN 
AAEE* TOT- N' 



AAT. 
AM 



AMBP . . . 



. Athens^ Argos, Au- 
Iu8, Asylum, (The 
letter A sometimof 
stands for liratf 
M, Z^trunf A. 
A«rtaj— "Of the 
Ephesians, the first 
people of Asia.") 
Abbassns, Abdera, 
Abydus on the 
Hellespont. Am- 
bracia, Arcadia, or 
-Aeginum. Atna. 

. Abydus in Egypt. 

. Abacaenum. 

. Abydus on the Hel- 
lespont. 

. Addada. 

. Athens. 

. Athribites. 

. Aegina. 

. Aego8XK)tamu8. 

. Aelius, Aelia Capito- 
Una. 

. Aenos. 

• Aetolia. 

. Agrlgentum. 
. Acanthus. 
. Acilium. 
. Actium. 
. Alexandria. 
. Alexander, son of 
Neoptolemus. 

• Alysia, Alvona. 

. Amyntas, Amphipo- 

lis, Amorgus. 
, Ambracia. 



AM«I . 
AN . . 

ANA . 

ANAEr 

AN©. (Avdwarop) 

AN0H . 

ANT, ANTI 

ANT 

ANTAIO 
ANTin 
ANTI2 . 
ANA . 
AH. . . 
AON . 
An . . 
AHA . 

Ano . 

AnOA . 
AHT., AHTA 

AP . . 
APr 

APFE . 

API . . 

APIM . 

API5 . 

APK . 
APKA . 
AP2I . 
APT . . 
APX. . 
APX. {Apxtfpfvs 

or hpxov) . . 
A. X (T\poroi 5w- 

ptas) . . . . 



Amphilochia. 

Ancyra. 

Anactoria. 

Andegaei. 

Proconsul. 

Anthedon. 

Antium. 

Antoninus, or An- 
tioch. 

Antiopolis. 

Antipolis. 

Antissa. 

Anolis. 

Axia and Axus. 

Aonitae. 

Appius. 

Apamea. 

ApoUonia. 

Apollonopolis. 

Aptara. 

Aradus, Harma. 

Argos. 

Argennos. 

Aricanda. 

Ariminum. 

Arisbas, |j(king of 
Epirus.) 

Arconensus. 

Afcadia. 

ArsinoS. 

Aryca. 

Arxata. 

High priest or ma- 
gistrate. 

First of Syria. 



ABBJtSYIATIOirs ON OBESE COINS. 



543 



■« » *i » » • • • 



A2I. 
A2IAPX 



ASK 
AT . . 
ATAP . 
AT., ATT. 

Kpar^p) 
ATT 
ATA 
ATE 
ATPHA 
ATTON. (A 

/iol) . . 
ATTXl . 
A* . 
A*I. 
A*P. 
AX. . . 



(A 



VTO- 



XfTOVO- 



AXh 



B. (Bov\'ns) 



BA. . . 
BAP. 

BAFHAAO 
BH . . 
BIAT 

BIZT 
BITON . 
BO, BOI 
BPTN . 
BT, BT2A2 
BTT. . 



r. . . 

r., rp., rPAM 



AscaloQ, Assylam, 
Axus in Crete. 

Asiniom. 

Asiarch^. Preti. 
dents of the games 
of Asia. 

Ascalon. 

Atabyrimn. 

Atarnae. 

Emperor. 

Augustus. 

Audoleon. 

Avenio. 

Aurelius. 

Enjoying their own 

laws. 
Automate. 
Aphrodisias. 
Aphyta. 
Africanus. 
Achaia, Acheens, 

Achaii. 
Acilium. 



. Council, Berytus, 

Bythinia. 
. Battus. 

. Bare, Bargoda. 

. Bagadaonia. 

. Berytus. 

. Biatci, (an unknown 

king.) 
. Bysia. 
. Bitontum. 
. Boeotia. 
• Bfundusium. 
. Byzantium. 
. Buthrotum. 



PA . . . 


• • Qallus, GaleriuSy or 




GaUienus. . 


FAM . . 


• . Gambrum. 


PAP . . 


. . Gargara. 


FEA . . 


• . Gelas. 


PEP . . 


• . Germanicus. 


FN . . . 


. . Gneius. 


FOPTT . . 


. . Gortyna. 


FPA . . . 


. • Gravisca. 


FPT . . 


• • Grumentum. 


A. . . . 


. • Decimus, Dymae. 


AA . . . 


. . Daorii. 


AAK . . . 


• . Dacicus. 


AAM. . . 


. . Damascus. 


AAP . . 


• • Dardanum. 


AE . . . 


. . Dccelia. 


AEK . . 


• . Becius. 


AEP . . 


. . Derbe, in Lycaonia. 


AH. (ArifMs] 


\ . The People. 


AH . . . 


. . Delos. 


AHMAPX-EH 


OT5 With Tribunician 




Power. 


AI . . . 


. • Dlospolis. 


AID . . . 


. . Biotus. 


AIOKAI . 


• . Diocaesarea. 


AIDS . . 


• . Diospolis. 


APE . . 


* . Drepanum. 


ATP . . . 


• • Dyrrachium. 



. Gains, (for Caius). 
. Grammaticus, (or 

•Keeper of the Be- 

• cords.) 
• niustrioxis. 



tj, . • . • . Eryce. 
E., EPES . . . Eresus. 

EIP Eresus,' ^Erythrae, 

Eretna. 

EA Elea,. Elatea. 

EAEY .... Eleusis. 
EAEY0. (EAcv^c 

pot.) .... Free. 
EN . • . , . Enna, Enthema, 

Entella, Encheli. 
EIT., EIII. . • . Epidaurus. 

EPI Epiza in Caria. 

EPMO .... Hermopolis. 
EPT . . . .Erythia. 



544 



ABBBEYIATIOirS OK OBEEE CODTS. 



EPX ..... Erchia. 

E2 Eppindiu 

£T Etenna in Pam. 

phylia. 
ET., ETO. (Etows) A year. 
ET., ETBO 
ETA 

EY2. (Evffefiris) . Pious. 
ETT. (EuTWXTJj) . Happy. 
E^., E^E . . . Ephesufl. 
EX. (Exoutrto.) . Power. 



• . Euboea. 
• . . • Eva. 



Za. 



ZANKA. 



. ZacynthtiB, (then Sa- 
lamia, now Zan- 
thus.) 

. Zancle, (afterwards 
Messana.) 



H Elium. 

HAAP .... Hadrtunentum. 
HAT .... Atua, 
HP. {Uyffioyos) , President. 
HAIOn. . . . Heliopolis. 

HP Heracleia. 

HPAK .... Heracleiopolis. 
H^AI .... Epbaestia. 

0A Thasos. 

0E Thespiae. 

eE., 0HB . . . Thebae. 
0E2 .... Thessalonica. 

eP Thera. 

0T. Thurium. 

I. lasuB. 

I., lEP. {Upas) . Sacred. 

lEPAIlT. . . . Hierapythia. 

I0A Ithaca. 

IKAP .... Hiccara, Icarios. 

lA Ilisium. 

lAI IlUum. 

lOT Julius, (meaning a 

city,) or Julius, (a 
man's name.) 



IOTA .... Julia. 
IHA .... Hippana. 
IP. . . '. . Irene. 

IPP Irrhesia. 

I^. ..... Isus, Istiaea. 

I2IN .... Isindus. 

TVT ..... Ipsus. 

K. • • • • . Caristus, Cyrene, 

Cyzicus, Callatea, 
C!orcyra, Cains (a 
man*s name). 

K. (Kovunos) . Quintus. 
K. KAIS. . . Caesar. 
K. K. (KoiyoyKtAi- Community of Ci- 
Kias) .... licia. 

KA • .. • • • Carystus, Catana, 

Chalcis. 
KAIA .... Caelius. 

KAA .... Chalcedon. 

KAAAI .... Calliopolis. 

KAMA .... Camara. 

KAN .... Canata. 

KAn .... Capua. 

KAnn «... Cappadocia. 
KAP, KAPP • . Carrhae. 
KAPT .... Carthage. 

KANO) .... Canopus. 

KA2T .... Castulo. 

KAT., KATA. . . Caulonia. 
KE. ..... Ceos. 

KE . . . . . Cenchrae, Ccpha- 

lenia, Cephalonia. 
KEA .... Celenderis. 

KEP .... Chcrsonesus. 

KE^, KE4AA • . Cephalaedis. 

KI. . . . . . Ciamus, Cibacum. 

KI0. .... Cithaeron. 

KIA. .... CUbrani. 

KI2 Cistena. 

KA. Cleonae, Claudius. 

KAA Clazomene. 

KAATAIO . . Claudiopolifl. 



ABBBETIATIONS OP GBEEK COIKS. 



545 



KNn . . . « 

KNI 

KO . . . . . 

KO, KOP . . . 

KOIN. (Kotpov.) . 

KOA. {Ko\ovtas) 

KOM. 

KOP. 

KP. . 

KPA. 

iCPH 

KPO 

KTH 

KT . 



KTAn 

Kre 

KTH. 
KTP 



A. 

AA 



AAAA . 
AAM. . 
AAMn . 
AAP 

AAPI . 
AE., AET. 
AEB. . 
AEON . 
AHM. . 

Ain. 
Ain. . 

AO., AGK. 

Aor 

AT. . . 
ATr., ATK 
AT2I 



Cnopns. 

Cnidus. 

Colophon, Corcyra. 

Corinth. 

A conununity. 

Colony, Colophon. 

Commodus. 

Corcyra. 

Cragus in Lycia. 

Cranos. 

Crete. 

Crotona. 

Ctemenae. 

Cydna, Cuma, Cyme, 
Cyrene, Cyzicus, 
Cytholus, Cydo- 
nium, Cyon. 

Cydon. 

Cythnus. 

Cyprus. 

Cyrene. 



A year, Lncins, Lo- 

cris, Leucas. 
Lacedaemon, Lamp. 

sacas, Larymna, 

Larissa. 
Lalassa. 

Lamea, Lampsacas. 
Lampsacus. 
Larissa. 
Larinum. 
> Leucas. 
Lebinus. 
Leontium. 
Lemnos. 
Lipara. 
LiviopoUs. 
Locri. 
Longone. 
Lystns. 
Lyctus. 
Lysmachia. 



M., MHTPO 
MA . . • 



M« • » « • . Marcos (a man's 

name), Melos, Ma- 
ronea, Malea, Me- 
galopolis, Mazaka. 
. . Metropolis. 

. Magnesia, Maasyri- 
tus, Maronea, Mas- 
silia, Macedonia. 
. Magnesia. 
. Mathyma. 
. Macrocephali. 
. Mallus. 
• Mamertini. 
. Mantinea.. 
. . Mazara.. 
. Massilia. 

. Mcnelais, on Syrian^ 
regal coins. 
ME. • . • . . Messina, Mctapon- - 

turn, Melite. 
ME., MEr. . . Megara, Megalopo- - 

lis, Megarsus. 

MEr. (MfyaXos) Great. 



MAr 

MA0T 

MAKPO 

MAA 

MAM 

MAN 

MAS. 

MA2:5 

ME. . 



MENA . 
MENE . 
MENEK 
ME2 . 
META . 
MI. . . 
MIN. . 
MK., MAiSAK. 



• Mendes. 

• Menelaus. 

• Menecrates. 
. Messana, Messcnia^. 
. Metapontum. 
. Miletus. 
. Minde. 
. Mazaka, of Cappo- 

docia, on coins of 
MithridatesYI. 

MOP .... Morgantia. 

MT Mycenae. 

MTKO .... Mycone. 

MTA .... Mylasa. 

MTNT .... Minya. 

MTP Myrlea. 

MTTI Mytilene. 

N., NAT . . . Naupactos. 
N. NEflK. . . Neocori. 

NA Naxos, Nape. 

NAPIA . . . Nagidus. 

N U 



546 



ABBBETIATIOITB OIT 0BXSE COIKS. 



NAB • • • . Naxos. 
NAYAPX. (Nou- 

apx<^'*) • • Enjoying a seaport. 

N£ Nemea. 

NEAN • . • . Xeandria. 
NEOn .... Neopolis. 

NEP Nerva. 

NIK. «... Nicaeuin, Nicome- 

dia. 

NT KisyruB. 

NTS Xysaei, on coins of 

ScythopoUs. 



Xanthns,Xatynthiis. 




Opontiam. 

Oethaei. 
. Olbiopolis. 
. Olympus. 

being. 

• Opelius. 
Opus. 

. Orycus. 

• Orchomenas. 

om or Tn. (Ou- 

iroTOSOrTiraToy) Consul. 
©♦FT .... Ophrynium. 

n» • . • • • Pitane, Panteca- 

paeum, Panormos. 
n. {UapOf Tlpos) upon. 
n., IIA. • . . Paphos, or Paros. 
n, HAN • . • Pantecapaeiun. 
n., IIH • . .Pelusium. 
n., nOIIA. . . PubUus. 
n., nPT. {Tlpvra- 

vos) .... Praefecl. 
n.,nPnT. (nporo*) First. 
IIA .... . Pales, Patrae. 
IIAIS .... Paestom. 
IIAIA .... Paeonia. 
IIAN .... Panormus. 
IIAP .... Paropinum, Paros. 
nAPe .... Parthicus. 



nAPi . 


, 


• 


. . Paros. 


n£ . . 






. Pelinna. 


HE . . 






> . Perintbus. 


n£A 






. .Pella. 


DEP 






► . Pergos. 


iiEPr . 






. Pergamos. 


nEPT . 






, . Pertinax. 


DESK . 






, . Pescennios. 


ni. . 






. . Piasdarus. 


niN. . 


1 ■ 




. . Pinamytae. 


niNA . 






, • Pinamus. 


HAA. . 






. . Plateae. 


no. . 


I 




. . Pontus. 


nOAT . 






. Polvrrhenum. 


no2. no5Ei 


, . Posidonia. 


np.,npE2. (jip 


•€(r- 


fieos) . . . 


. Legate. 


np, npo . , 


. Pronos. 


nPAi. . . . 


• Praesus. 


npA5 . . . 


. Prassus. 


npo . . . 


, . Proconnesus. 


npocn . 


. • Prosopis. 


nPOAI. {Upodu 


cos) Curator. 


irr 


. . Ptolemals. 


nT. . . 


> . < 


. . Pylos. 


DT. . . 


> * 4 


, . Pythopolia. 


OTA 


• • 


, . Pylos. 


nT0O . 


* < 


. Pithopolls. 


DTP 


r 


> < 


. . Pymus. 



" Rythynma. 

PAT Raucus. 

PH Rhegium. 

PO Rhodes. 

PT Rypac. 



2. 2A 



2A 



, Salamis, Samoi, 
Syria, Sacile, Ssla, 
Segcsta, SyraooK, 
Sycion. 

Salamis, Solgasiii 
Samosate, Saeili 
Same. 



ABBSSYXlTlOirS OS GBEEK COTSB. 



647 



2Ar .... Saguntum. 
SAAAn • . . Salapia. 

2AP Sardis. 

5E Seriphns, Segeste, 

Selgi, Seleucia. 
2EB. (^eficurros) Aogostiu. 



2EA 
2EnT . 
2EP, 2EPI 
SE^I . 
31. . . 
2IA . . 
2IKI 

2IN., SINii 
2K . . 
5MT. . 
20 . . 
2TP.,2TPA 

TTiyos) 
2TT 

2r . . 
2T., 2TPA 
2TB. . 
2TP . . 
5G. . . 



TA . . 
TA., TANA 
TABAA 
TAP. 
TATP . 
TE . . 



TEP 
TH 



TI., TIB 



TO 



(^rpor 



• SelinuB, Seleacia. 

• Septimus. 

• Seripliufi. 

• Sephyrimn* 

• Sipbnos. 
. Bide. 

. Sicinos, Sydon. 
. Sinope. 
. Scepsis. 
. Smyrna. 
.Sou. 



Praetor. 

Styrla. 

Sicily. 

Syracuse. 

Sybaris. 

Syria. 

Solae. 

Tarentan, Tarsus, 

Teos, Titos. 
Terantnm, Tabae. 
Tanagnu 
Tabala. 

Tarontom, Taxsus. 
TauromenTmu 
Tementis, Tegea, 

Tenedos, Terina. 
Terina. 
Teos, Terpilbu, 

Tenus. 
Tiberias. 
ToUstobegi. 



TPA TraUis. 

TPI Tripolis. 

TPIA .... Triadisea. 

TPO Triozene. 

TT. Tyndaris. 

TTAN .... Tyana. 

TTP. . . • • l^e (monogram). 

T, TE.,TEA . .Velia. 
Tn.,TnAT (Tira- 

ros) • . • • Constil. 
TP XXria. 

<l>. . . . . . Philip, PhoestuB, 

piiilontium, Pho- 
cis, Phoeaea, Pho- 
oians. 

4>A Pbaselis, Phaestos, 

Pharos, Phanago- 
ria, Pharae. • 

^AI . . • • Phaestas. 
4AA .... Phalonna. 
^AP .... Pharsaltis. 
4APBAI . . . Pharbaeshites. 

*I TibiuB, PhiUppo- 

poliSfPhiladelpIua. 

^INE phineinm. 

♦A FlaTins. 

^O .... Phocis. 

^OK .... Phooaenm. 
♦OTA. ... .FulvU. 

♦T phycus in Cyrene. 

♦A .... . Phocis. 



X .Chios. 

XAA .... Cbalcis. 
XEP .... Chersonesas. 
XI Chytri in Crete. 



N N 



548 



JEBA.B OF OITUB OOCrSBnTG ON COD^S. 



^IRAS OP CHIEF aREEK CITIES OCCURRING ON COINSw 
(See Chapter on Greek InaeriptUnu and Date* found on Ckivu.) 



Abila in CcBlMyria, 68 bxforb Chbibt. 
Abonitechits in Paphlagonia, 50 aftek 

Chbibt. 
AchiBi, 280 B.C. 

AdrianopoUs in Thrace, 132 a.o. 
Aegea in CUida, also called Macrinopolia 

and Alexandropolis, 47 b.c. 
Alexandria on the Issue, 68 e.c. 
Amasia in Cappadocia, 9 b.c. 
Amisos in Pontos of Oalatia, 33 b.c. 
Anazarbis in Cilicia, 10 b.c. 
Anthedonis in Syria, apparently 31 b.c. 
Antioch in Ccelosyria, 63 b.c. 
Antioch in CUicia, 19 b.c. 
Antioch in Syria uses four epochs : — 

1. That of the Selencidas, 312 b.c. 

2. The Pompeian, 63 b.c. 

8. Under Augastus and beginning 

of Tiberius, 31 b.c. 
4. Under later emperors, 49 b.c. 
Apomea in Ccelosyria, 312 b.c, and the 

Augrostan, 31 b.c. 
Aradus of Phoenicia, 260 b.c. 
Ascalon in Palestine, 104 b.c. 
Augusta in Cilicia, 20 a.c. 
Baiana in Syria, 124 b.c. 
Bersea of Macedon, 68, b.c. 
Berytos in Palestine, 66 b.c. 
Bostra, a colony in Arabia Petrsea, 106 

A.c. 
Botrye in Phoenicia, 49 b.c. 
Sybils in Phoenicia, 20 b.c. 
Caesarea Germanica in Palestine, 39 a.c. 
Caesarea on Libanus, 813 b.c. 
Ceesarea under Panium, 3 b.c. 
Canothee in Syria, 63 b.c. 
Capitolia in Celesyria, 93 a.c. 
Cerasus in Pontus, 146 b.c. 
Chalcis in Syria, 92 a.c. 
Cyrrhestus in Syria, 312 b.c. 
Daoia, 247 a.c. 
Damascus, 312 b.c. 
Dia in Syria, 63 b.c. 
Diospolis in Palestine, 93 a.c. {doubtful.) 
Dora in Cilicia, 131 b.c. 
Dora in Phoenicia, the Pompeian aera, 

63 B.C. 
Emisus in Cilicia, 312 b.c. 
Epiphanum in Cilicia, 38 a.c. 



Flaviopolia in Cilicia, 74 a.c. 
Gabala in Syria, 47 b.c. 
Gadara in Syria, 63 b.c. 
Gaza in Palestine, 63 b.c. 
HierocsBsarea in Lydia, 26 a.c. 
Irenopolis in Phoenicia, 52 a.c. 
Ilium in Troas, 81 b.c. doubtfid. 
Laodicea in Coeloeyria, 313 b.c. 
Laodicea in Caria, 189 b.c. 
Leucadiain Coelosyria, till Gordlan, 48 

A.C. After, 31 b.c. 
Lydia, 521 b.c. 
Macedon, 48 b.c. 
Mopsus in Cilicia, 58 b.c. 
Neapolis of Samaria, 70 a.c. 
NeocsBsarea, 64 a.c. 
Nicsea in Bithynia, 288 b.c. 
Nicomedia in Bithynia, 288 b.c. 
Orthosus in Phoenicia, 312 b.c. 
Pella in Syria, 63 b.c. 
Philadelphia in Coelosyria, 63 b.c. 
Pompeiopolis in Cilicia, 68 b.c. 
Ptolemais in Phoenicia, 48 b.c. 
Rhabbathamum in Phoenicia, 93 a.c. 
Baphanus in Syria, 49 b.c. 
Baphia in Palestine, 61 or 57 b.c. 
Ehesena in Mesopotamia, 133 a.c. 
Samosata in Commagene, 7 1 a.c. 
Sebaste in Cilicia, 20 b.c. 
Sebaste of Syria, or Samaria, 26 b.c. 
Seleucia in Syria, three epochs : — 

1. Under Augustus, 31 b.c. 

2. Under Tiberius, 63 b.c. 

3. 109 B.C. 

Sidon in Phoenicia, 312 b.c. 
Sinope, two ajras : — 

1. Till Alexander Severus, 45 b.c. 

2. After, 70 b.c. 
Tiberias in Galilee, 17 a.c. 
Trallis in Caria, 145 a.c. 
Trapezus in Pontus, 62 a.c. 
Tripolis in Phoenicia, two epochs : — 

1. The Pompeian, 63 b.c. 

2. The Seleucian, 312 b.c. 
Tyre in Phoenicia, two eeras : — 

1. The Seleucian, 312 b.c. 

2. 126 B.C. 
Yiminacium in Moesia, 240 a.c. 



l^AMES or MA0I8TBAT1S, AST} GAMES, OK COIKS. 549 



NAMES OP GREEK MAGISTRATES, &c, ON COINS. 



ArONOeETOT* .President of the 

Games. 
ANerilATOr . . Proconsul. 
ANTEgTPATHrOT Proprietor. 
APXIEPEXUS . . High Priest. 



APXONTO^ . 
A2IAFXOT 

rPAMMATEHS 

EmMEAHTOT 

EraSTATOT . 
E*OPOT . . 

HrEMONOS . 



Prefect of the City.f 

President of the 
Games of Asia. 

Scribe, Eeeeper of 
the Beoords.l 

Procurator of the 
Games, fto. 

Inspector. 

Tribone of the 
People. 

President of a Pro- 
vince. 



eEOAOrOY . • Interpreter of Sa- 
cred Bites. 

lEPEAS . • . . Priest. 

nANHrrPISTOT . sacred Orator. 

IIAPOXOT . . • Intendant qf the 

Inns. 

nOAIAPXOr . , Prefect of the City. 

nPESBEXn or 

nPESBETTOr . Legate. 

nPTTANEnS . . Primate of the dtj. 

SO^ISTOY . . . Counsellor. 

STE^ANO^OPOT A crowned, or su. 

perior Priest. 

JTPATHrOr . . PrcBtor. 

TAMIOY . . .Questor, 

TnATOTorOTOA- 

TOT .... Consul. 



GAMES MENTIONED ON GREEK AND ROMAN COINa 

(greek coins.) 



Adrianeif in Ephesus and Smyrna in 
honour of Hadrian. 

AgonotesU, given apparently at the pri- 
vate expense of the Agonotheti. 

Alezandri»i, at Philippopolis in Thrace. 

Aristij in honour of the emperors. 

AtelepH, in honour of .Ssculapius.. 

Attali Gordianif in honour of Attains, 
Idnir of Pergamus, and Gordian III* 

Aupustei, in honour of Augustus. 

Aetiaei, on the victory at Actium. 

Cttbiriif in honour of the gods Cabires, 
who presided over metals. 

GigaUt^ifn, in honour (rf Jupiter Gapito- 
liniM. 

CkMorei, in honour of the emperor. 

€fkeHdHriif in honour of lo. 

Obwunodumi, in honour of Commodua. 

Cbrei, in honour of Proserpine. 

Cfkrjfumtmi of Sardis, from a crown of 
gold given to the victor. 

Deatetrii, in honour of Ceres. 

Didimei, to Apollo. 



DuacorU^ to Castor and PoUuz. 

Dusari, to Bacchus by his Arabio name 
Jhuares, 

Mil, to the sun. 

JEpinicii, for some victory. 

JEpieorii, in which only people of a pro- 
vince contended; whereas, the Oecw* 
menioi permitted alL 

JSrei, to Juno. 

Eugamii, to Pluto. 

JteUutiei, so called from the applause 
given to the victor. 

iHhmU, to Neptune. 

LetaH, to Latona. 

MifsHeif for the sacred mysteries. 

NoumaehU, naval. 

ITemei, to Hercules. 

OlffmpU, to Jupiter. 

PanUmii, of aU the Ionic cities. 

JMmi Seoerianif to Severus. 

S^atmH, to Augustus. 

SemeUif to appease offended Jove. 

Soterii, for health* 



Dionysii, to Bacchus. 

* The uae of the genitive case is explained in the chapter on the inacriptioni of 
Greek efAaa, 

t The emperor Gallienus was archon of Athens, Hist. Aug. Script, p. 720. 
t On a coin, the people of Nisna called the emperor Tiberius fheir Scribe. 



550 



AUTOJTOMOtrS COIKS. 



(bohan codts.) 



Aeliana PSncensia, in honour of Hadrian, 

at Pinca in McBsia. 
CkipitoUnum Oertamen, 
OBrealia, 
Ouriamtn Qmnqutnnale, 



Oertamen Periodicum, 

IseUtUea, 

Ludi Steeulares. 

Saera Faiodiea Oeeummica. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 

or ALL 

THE MOST IMPORTANT GBEEK AUTONOMOUS COINS. 

WITH THEIB COMPARATIVE DEGBEBB OF BABITT. 



Eight degree* ofrarUy are distinguiahed by B.^ R.^, ite, ; Brmte coina are marked Br. ; 

Ooldf G.; Sikier^ S.; Sleetnm, El.; Lead^ L. 

The Name of eachiVotnnee, or Begion, is printed in capitals, and accompanied by the 
Names of all its Cities or Dependencies known to haye coined money. The capitals 
in brackets after the name of each iVovtnee, denote the situation of the provlnoe : as 
in Asia, Africa, Greece, or Italy, — A. signifying AeiOf AF. Africa, G. Greece Proper^ 
and I. Italy. IS. signifies island. 

T^ Modem Nametf when ibi^wn, are placed in brackets after the ancient ones. 



A. 

JJba, Br. — E.* These -were formerly 

attributed to Albaeti Mysi, in Mysl. 
Jbacaenum (Tripim). 8. — ^E."R,» Br. 

— R.« 
Malta, Br.— B.8 Of donbtfia attribu. 

tion. 
Ahdera (Ghinmergin, Asperoaa, Flatys- 

tomon). S.— E.»R.8 Br.— E.^ E.* 
Aboni Sichoa lonopolis (Aneh Boll 

Yneboln). With the name of Aboni 

Tiehoe. Br.— R.' 
Abydua {MiSxM, Nagara). O.— R.« El. 

— R.» 8.— R.«R.8 Br.— R.«R.« 
Ajeanthfu (Erissos). S. — ^R." R". Br. — 

R.* R.« 

AGARNANIA (G):— uilyma, Anaetorwm, 
AmphiioeMumf HeracUoy JJueaa, Me- 
tropolian OenidaCf Stratoa, Taphiaa, 
ThrytUium, 

Aeamani (in general). G. — ^R.* 8. — ^R.* 
R.« Br.— R.1R.* 

Au, afterwards Ptolemaia (Ake, Aka, 
Acri, Bpoyanni d'Acri). With the 



name of Aee : Br. — R.* With Phoe- 
nician legends: G. — R.* 8. — B.* 
With the name of Ptolemaia; Br. — 
R.^ R.* Those with Phoenician 
legends are of Alexander I. 
Aeerrae (Acerra). The coins formerly 
attributed to this town are now classed 
among those of Atella. 

ACHAIA: — Aegiahu, Aegira, Aegiwn^ 
Bura, Cartnaaa, OorinthMa^ Patrae, 
Pellene, Phlius, Shypae, Sicyon. 

Aehaia (in general). 8. — C. Br.— R.* 
BJ With the Aehaian League : S.r— 
C— R.8 Br.— R.*R.8 

AjcTierontia (Acerenza). The money at- 
tributed to this town has been reatoored 
to Aqnilonia, in Samnlum. 

Achillea (Island near Sarmatia). S. — 
R.* R.> These pieces are attributed 
to Olbia by M. Blarenberg. 

Aciaf Br.— R.« 

Aoomonia, Br. — ^R.^ 

Acrae (Falazzolo). Br. — R.^ 

Acraaua. Br. — ^R.* 



AUTOKOMOrS C0I2f». 



551 



J^ramytiium (Edremit, Adramltti). Br. 

— R.* R.« 
Jdramu (Aderno). Br. — ^E.* 
Aea. Br. — ^R.* 
Aegae (Asias Kale), in CiUeia. Br. — ^R.^ 

The coins of thlB town are numerous. 
Aegae (in Macedonia). The coins which 

were attributed are now dasaed 

among doubtful coins of the kings 

of Macedonia. 
Aegae (Ghinsel Hyssar, in Aeolis), in 

Aetolia, S.— -R.* R.^ Br.— R.^ R.» 

AEGIA (G.) (The Islanos nbaa to) : — 
AmorguSy Aegiale, Anaphey Andrus^ 
Oessa Cecte, Cartkcieay Coresia, Julis 
Ceaey Poesa Ceae, Cemolis, Cytntts^ 
DeliiSy GyaroSf Yura, los^ Melos^ 
Myconua, Naxua, Paros, Pholegan- 
druSf Seriphvs, Sicimu, SiphniUf 
Syrus, Tentts, Thera. 

Aegiale Amargi (Hyali). Br. — lEi,'^ 

AeguUua, The pieces attributed to this 
town are of Aegialus, in Paphlagonia. 

Aegina (Eghina, Eugea). Achaian league. 
S.— R.*R.8 Br.— R.«R.» The oldest 
pieces of this island were evidently 
coined during the earliest coinages. 

Aegira, Br. — R.* 

Aegitim (Yostitza). Achaian league. S. 
— R.* Br.— R.* R.« This is the 
chief place of the Achaean League. 

A^otpotamos, Br. — R.<^ 

AEOLIS (A) : — Aegae, Cyme, JSlaea, 

Sari»sa, Myrina, Neontichos, Temnus, 

Antisaa, £resti3, Methymna, My- 

telene. 
Aeolia (in general). The pieces attributed 

to this country have been restored 

by M. Sestini to Aeolium, in the 

Thracian Chersonesus. 
Aeolium, 8. — R.s Br. — R.s These 

pieces were attributed to Aeolus in 

general. 
Aenia vel Aenea, S. — ^R'' 
Aeniane9, 8.— R.* Br.— R.* 
-4«»i« (Enes, Eno). S.— R.^R.* Br. — 

R.« R.» 
AMemia {J»eiXja&), Br. — ^R.>R.s Latin 

legends. 
AetfMei (8ta. Maria di Sicodia) . S. — R.* 

R.« Br.— R.aR.s 

AETOLIA. (G.) : — Apollonia, AtJiamanes, 
Calydon, Lysimachia ?, Naupactus, 



Aetoli (in general). G.— -R.* S.— R.* 

R.«) Br.— R.« R.* 
Aeytmi9. Br.—R.^ R.' 

AFRICA {Of the tmeertain money of), 
8.— R.« Br. — R.« R.* These pieces 
hare African inscriptions. 

Agathymus (Ag^ati). Br. — R.* With 
the name of Tyndaris, in Sicily, a sign 
of alliance. 

Agrigentum (Girgenti). G. — R.» S. — 
C— R.* Br.— C— R.* The coins of 
Agrigentum are very numerous. 

Agrippias, Anthedon, With the name of 
Agrippias: Br. — R.' With the name 
of Anthedon: Br. — ^R.* Those with 
the name of Anthedon are of the 
Jewish kings, Agrippa I. and II. 

Agyrium (San Filippi d'Argite). Br. — 
R.2 R.ft 

Alaesa (Sta. Maria delle Palate). Br. — 
R.* R.* The silrer pieces formerly 
attributed to this town belong to 
Allipha, in Sanmium. 

Allaria. S.— R.« 

Alha (Albano). 8.— R.« L.— R.* Latin 
legends. 

Albaeti Mysi. The pieces attributed to 
this town have been restored to Aba, 
in Caria. 

Alhanda. 8.— R.« Br. — ^R.* R.* 

Alleta. Br.— R.* Of doubtful attribu- 
tion. 

Alexander IVoeu (Eski-Stambul). EI. — 
R.» G.— R.8 8.— R.« R.» 

Alexandria to Issum (Iskanderona, Ales, 
sandretta). Br.— R.' R.® Some of 
these coins bear the head of Anti- 
ochus VI., king of Commagene. 

Alia. Br.— R.'' 

Alinda (Muglia). Br. — ^R.* 

Allipha. 8.— R.*R.« M. Sestini desig- 
nates this town to Camp^ia. 

Alqpeconnesus. Br. — ^R.' 

Ahmtium (Alontio). Br. — R.* R.« 

Alvona. The pieces attributed to this 
town have been restored to This- 
bia. There are no pieces belonging 
to Alvona, and no coins of Libur- 
nia. 

Alyatta. Br.— R." 

Alyzia (Aelias). 8.- R.* R.« Br.— R.* 

Amamenses. Br. — B.,^ 

Amantia, Br. — R.* 

AmaMa (Amassia). Br. — R.* Some of 
these pieces also bear the name of 



552^ 



▲UTOiroHOTrs conrs. 



Nioomedia, in Bitbynia, a sign of 

alliance between tbeae two towns. 
Ameutrit (Amassreh, Amastra, Amaraa, 

Amaasera, Samatro). S. — R.® Br. — 

a.* BJ Some ef tbeae pieces bear 

tbe name of Sebasti, in Papblagonia. 
Ambracia (Ambrakia). 8. — R.^ BJ Br. 

— E.i K.« 
Ameria. Br. — R.^ Of doubtful attrl. 

bation. 
Amestratus (Mistretta). Br. — ^R.* 
Amisut (ELimiso, Samsun). 8. — R.^ 

Br.— C.— R.« 
Amnenim, Br. — ^R.'' 
Amorgus (Amorgo). Br. — ^R.* 
AtnoHum (Hergian Amoria). Br. — ^R.^ 
Amphaxus. Br. — R.^ 
Amphea. Tbe pieces attributed to this 

town do not belong to it. 
Amphieaea, Br. — R.* 
AmphilochiuM and Argot Amphilochiwn 

(Filokia). With the name of Argoa. 

8.— R.« R.* With the name of Amphi- 

locliium. S.— R.« R.* 
Amphipolit (Jeni Kioj). 8. — R.« Br. 

—€.— R.« 
Amphiaaa (Salona, or Sampeni). Br. — R.* 
Anactorium (Bonitza). S. — ^R.* R.* Br. 

— R.*R.8 
Anapke (Naufio). Br. — ^R.» 
Anaphlystut. Br. — ^R.^ 
Anazarbta Caetarea to Anazarbum 

(Aynzarba). Br. — ^R.' The coins of 

this town are numerous. 
Aneona (Ancona). Br. — ^R.* 
Anchialu* (Akldali, Ichingunene, Is. 

kellis). Br.--R.« . 
Aneyra (Angur). Br. — R.*R.» The 

coins of this town are numerous. 
Andrvt (Andro). 8. — R.* Br. — "R,* 
Anolus. Br. — ^R.* Of doubtful attribution. 
Antandnu (Antandro). 8. — R.' Br. — ^R.* 
Antiocheniad CeUlirhoen.'Dr. — ^R.^ These 

pieces bear the head of Antiochus lY., 

king of Syria. 
Antioeheni ad Daphnen, Br. — ^R.^ R.' 

These pieces bear the head of Anti- 
ochus YI., king of Syria. 
Antioeheni Ptolemais, Br. — R.* R.* 

Some of these pieces bear the names 

of Antiochus IV. and YIII., kings of 

Syria, and of Cleopatnti mother of the 

latter. 
Antioehia (Ak Chiehere). Br.— R.* Latin 

legend. 



Antioehia, Br.— R.« 

Antioehia ad Orontem, (With date of the 
Seleucidae.) Br.— C.— R.* (With an 
uncertain date.) Br. — C. — ^R.* (With 
an Achaian date.) Br. — C. — R.' 
(With a Caesarean date.) Br. — C— 
R.* 

Antioehia ad Sarum Adana (Edene, 
Adana). With the name of Antux^ia: 
Br. — ^R.* R.B With the name of 
Adana: 8.— R.» Br.— R.* R.« 

Antioehia adMteandrum (Yeni Chiehere). 
8.- R.« Br.— R.« R.* 

Anthedon (Lukisi or Talandi). 8.— R.* 

Anti$aa (Petra). Br. — ^R.* 

Apameaf Myrtea (Medana, Mudagna]. 
Br.— R.* R.* Latin legend. 

Apamea (Aftiin, Kara Hysar). 8. — R.* 
R.' Br. — C. — ^R.* The coins of this 
town are rery numerous. The silver 
pieces are of Cistophores. 

Apamea (Samiah). Br. — ^R.^ R.* Some 
of these bear the name of Antiochus 
m. and Alexander I., kings of Syria. 

Aphrodisiat. 8. — R.* Br. R.« R.* 
Several pieces bear the name of 
Plarasa, in Caria, a sign of alliance 
between these towns. 

Apollonia (Sizepoli, in Thrace). Br. — R.* 

Apollonia in Ionia, Br. — ^R.' 

Apollonia in Crete, 8. — ^R.^ 

Apollonia in Aetolia, Br. — ^R.* 

Apollonia ad Bhydaeum (Abullona). Br.* 
— R.* 

Apollonia in ObWa. Br. — R.' R.* 

Apollonia in Ionia, Br. — R.' Of 
doubtful attribution. 

Apollonia in Lytia, Br. — R.* The 
autonomous are doubtful. 

Apollonia (Polina, in lUyricum). 8. — 
C. — R.» Br.— R.* R.» The number 
of towns which bore the name of 
Apollonia renders some pieces of 
doubtfiil attribution. 

Apollonie or Apollonidea, Br. — ^R.* 

Apollonoshieron, Br. — ^R.* 

Aptera (Paleo Castro). S. — R.* R.* 
Br.— R.» R.« 

APULLk (L) : — Aeherontia, Arpi, Ateu- 
him, Bitritun, Oanuriumf Orumimnf 
Lfteeriaf Merinwn, Jfeapolia, JlybaS' 
tinif Salapoi, Sipontum, Teatei, r#« 
nuna, Ureium. 

Aphyiit {AAU), Br.— R.^ 



AUTOKOHOUS COHTS* 



653 



Afmleia (Aqoileia). Br.— R.> Latin 
legend. 

Aqmhnia (Lacedogna). Br. — ^R.'' Os- 
can legends. These coins were for- 
merly attributed to Acherontia, in 
Apulia. 

Agwnum (Aqnin). Br. — BJ B.,* Latin 
legends. 

AECADIA (C.) : — Alea, Basilis, Caphyra, 
Charmaf Sva, Mantinea, MegaJopolity 
Palktthteum, Phenetu, FhiffaleOf Stym- 
phalUf Tegea, Thelpsuna, Thiaoa, 

Aradui (Rovad, Arret, Adassi). S. — C. 
— R.* Br. — C. — R.' Some of these 
pieces bear the head of Cleopatra, 
\iitlioat that of Marcus Antonius. 
The indication of this isle is found 
on the coin of Alexander L Sonie 
have Phoenician legends. 

Max. Br.— R.» 

-Areadi (in general). S.— C. — ^R/ Br. 
— R.« R.« 

Arcadi (Capo Arcadi). S.— R.» 

Argua, 8.— R.* 

AEG0LI8 (G.) : — Argos, Asine^ Cleone, 

SpidawroSf Sermionef Methano, Thy. 

rea^ Troexen^ 
Arethtua (Al Rustan). Br.—R.* Of 

doubtful attribution. 
Argot (in CiUcia). 8.— R.« 
Argot (Planitza). Achaian league. . S. — 

C— R.* Br.— C.— R.* 
Ariarttu or Haliartut. S. 

The produced medal is false. 
Ariaa (Aricia). L. — R.^ Latin legends. 

It is probable that these pieces were 

not circulated as money. 
Arimnum (Bimini). Br.— R.* R.* Latin 

legends* 
^«Ai (Mussa-Kioy). Br.— R.* 
Arfi (Arpe). 8.— R.' Br.— R.» R.* 
Arrnei, Br.— R.» 
-^'•ino^ (in Crete). Br.— R.» 
Ar^mt (in Cyrenaica). 8. — ^R.* Br. — 

R.*R.' 
•Mttrnmi, 8.— R.' Br.— R.« 
Atealon (Askalon, Ascalona). S.— R.> 

Br.— R.1 R.« Some bear the heads 

of seTeral Syrian kings. 
-^Mcuhm (Ascoli, in Apulea). Br.— R.* 

The money attributed to this town 

bears also the name of the town 

Sadria, denoting an alliance between 

these two towns. 



A§eidum (Ascolidi Puglia, In Pioenum). 
Br. — B,.* 8ome of the coins of this 
town have been falsely attributed to 
DysceladuSy an island belonging to 
Illyria, and to Aruncia, in Campania. 

Aria, Br. — ^R.* On some coins of 
Alexander the Great the abridged 
name of this town may be seen. 

Arine (Fumoe). Achaian league. Br. — R.s 

Aspendua (Menugat Aspindus). 8. — ^R.^ 
Br.— R.» 

AspUdon. 8. — R.* Br. — ^R.* 

AMorut (Asero). Br. — ^R.* R.^ The coins 
of this town have Latin legends, very 
rare among Sicilian coins. 

Amu» (Asso). S. — K,^ Br. — ^R.* 

AMtypdUa (Stimfalia). Br. — R.« Of 
doubtful attribution. 

Astfra. S. — R.« 

Astyra Rhodi, Br.— R.^ 

Atamea. El. — ^R.* Br. — ^R.* 

AUlla (Sant Arpino). Br. — R.« R.> Oa- 
can legends. 

Athaea. Br. — ^R.* 

Athanumet, Br. — R.^ 

Athenae (Satines Atini). O. — ^R.^ S.— 
C. — B..^ Br. — C. — R.® The silver and 
brass coins of Athenae'are numerous. 
The type of the owl is the symbol of 
this town. 

Atinum (Atena). Br. — ^R.^ 

Atraz (Boidanar). 8.- R.s Br. — ^R.^ 

Attada. Br.— R.* R.* 

Attalia (Palea Attalea). Br.— R.« 

AUalia, Br.— R.* R.« 

ATTICA (G.): — AnapMyttits, Athenaa^ 
Olyetini, Deeelia, JEleugit, Megara^ 
Nisaea, Oropus, 

Atturia or Attuia, Br. — ^R.^ 

Augusta, Br. — ^R.* 

AureUopolia, Br. — ^R.' 

AuUmala, Br. — ^R.* Of doubtftd attri- 
bution. 

Axw, 0axu9 Tel Saxut, Br. — R.' Ac 
cording to M. Sestini, this town bore 
the name of Oaxus or Saxus. 

AzeHm (in Attica). The pieces belonging 
to this town are attributed by M. 
Sestini to Azetini, in Calabria. 

Azetini (in Judaea). The pieces for- 
merly attributed to this town hare 
been restored by M. Sestini to a town 
of tiie same name in Calabria. 

AzeHni (in Calabria). Br.— R.« These 



545 



AUTOKOMOUS COIVS. 



plMei» which were hefore attrihuted 
to ft town of the same name of Attica, 
hare been restored by M.8cetini to 
Gaiabria. 

B. 

Saga, Br. — ^R. B.^ 
Balanea. Br. B.** 
Baree (Berke). S. — B.'R.' One of 

these pieees bear the name of Ophe- 

lon. 
Bargusa (Arab Hjasar). Br. — 'BJ' B." 
Baryglia, 8.— R.» Br.— B.' 
Barwm (Ban). Br. — B.^ 
BatiUt. S.— B.^ 
i?0n«rm<tm»(Benevento). Br.-^B." Latin 

legends. 
Berga. Br. — R.® 
Berhaea (Yeria, Beria, or Kera Beria). 

Br.— R.« 
Berytta (Beyrat, Baruti). 8. — R.^ 6r. 

R.' R.^ The silver pieoe is false. 

Some of these pieces bear the heads 

of Antiochus lY., Alexander I., Bala, 

and of Demetrius II., kings of Syria. 
Bihidrum, Br.— R.* 
Biacdtae. H.—RJ 

BITHTNIA (A.) : — Alyatta, Apamea, 
Bffthmum, Oeaarea, Chdleedon^ Cuts 
JPnuiaSf Gratia JHa, JIadriani, Ha. 
drianopolU, Sadrianotheraef Sera- 
clea, JuHopolUf Metroumf Mieaea, 
Ifieomedia, Fruto Pruaiaa, Pythopo- 
lis, Tium. 

Biaanthe (Tekir, Dagh, Rodosto). Br. 
R.* 

Bizyia, Br.— R.« 

Blaundos. Br.— B.' R.« 

BOEOTIA {G.) '.—Anthedon, Ariartus, 
Aspledon, Oheroneaf Cbpae, Ooronaea, 
Deliumj Erythrae, JSyla, Ismene, 
Larymna, MycaleuuSy Orehomemu, 
JPelecaniaf Fharae, PUUaea, Potniae, 
Tanagra, Thebae Theapiae, Thisbe. 

Boeotia (in general). S. — ^R.^ Br. — C. 
— B.* 

BOSPORUS CIMMERIUS (6.) i—Gor- 

gippia, Phanagorea, 
BotHaea (SlanHizza). S.->~R.* Br.— 

R." R.« 
Briana, Br.— R.8 
BrvOa, Br. — ^B.' 
Brundu9i/um (Brindisi). Br.'^C.^R.' 

Latin legends. . 



BEUmi (I.) : — OauUmia. CbUm, Hyp. 
poniuiHf Locri EpizepJUri. 

Bruttii (in general). G.— R.^ 8.— R.^ 
R.* Br.— C.— R.» 

Buthrotwn (Butronto. Batrinto.) Br.— 
R.^ Colonial autonomous. Br. — R.^ 
Latin legend. 

BtUuntwn (Bitonto). Br. — ^R.* R.» 

Byllit. Br.— R.8 

Bythnium C^udiopolis (Bastan). Br.<~ 
R.« 

Bytacene, [See Hadruxetux.] 

Byzantiwn, aftern-ards Oonsteuttinopolia 
(Istambul, Islambul, Konstantini, 
StipoU, Bizzanzio, Constantinopoli). 
S. — R.« Br. C — R.* On the 
autonomous coins there is also the 
name of Chalcedon, in Bithynia, a 
sign of alliance between these towns. 

C. 

Cadi (Kedus). Br.- R.' R.® One of 

these eoins bears Uie head of Midas. 
Oadme, (afterwards Prene). With the 
name of Cadme : Br. — ^R.^ With the 
name of Prene : 8. — ^R.* Br. — R.* 
R.* 
Caelium (Ceglie). Br.— R.i R.* 
Caene (in Sicily). Br.— C.^R.* 
Oaene (Cani). The coins which were 
attributed to this island have been 
restored to Caene, in Sicily. 
Caeaaria Paniaa (Fanias, Panaas). Br. 
R.^ Some coins bear the name of 
Agrippa I., king of Judaea. 

CALABRIA {1.) I -^ AzeHne, Brmdu- 
sitim, Batuntitm Oaelitim, Grata 
Galliopo!4Sf HydrunUtm, Leuea, Arra, 
Salenti Stumium, Tarentwn Uxen. 
turn, 

Calacte (Caronia). Br. — ^R.* 

Calatia trans Vultumum or CkiHia (Le 
Galazza). Br. — R.* Latin and 
Greek legends. This town is the 
Calatia, or Caiatia, which M. Millin- 
gen caUs Latin, to distinguish it from 
the foUcwing. It was situated en 
the left bank of the Ynltumns. 

Galatia cis VtUturmum (Caiazzo). Br. — 
R.8 Osean legends. This town xk 
the Calatia that M. Seatini calls 
OapuaniOf to distinguish it from the 
preceding. It is situated on the 
right bank of the Yultnmns. 



AXJToijroicors coiws. 



KKti 



Galea (Calvi). S. — B.» Br.— C— B.» 

TAtfti legends. 
Oailatia (Mankalia, Kallati}. 8.-- B.« 

Br.— B.« B.* 
Ckaien$B» CephdUeniae (Palliki, Liseuri). 

8.— B.« Br.— B.1B.* 
Callipolia (Galliopoli). A piece formerly 

attributed to this town has been 

restored to Apollonia, in Caria. 
Calydon (Galata). Br.— B.» 
Caltfmnium (Calynae). S.^— B." 
CkUynda. Br. — ^B.^ 
Camarina (Torre di Camarina). 8. — ^B.« 

B.* Br. — C.— B.« 
Oamara (Chinsi). Br. — ^B.^ 
Ctumnu Bhodi, Br. — ^B.* 

CAMPANIA (I.) : — Acerrae, Atelkt, 
Arurtci, CdltUia, OcUeSf Capua Cbm- 
pulteria, Coaaa^ Oumuey IlyrinOf Par' 
thenope, Nola^ Mieeria, Phistelia, 
Pieentia, Stabiae, SereasOy Jeanunij 
Venafrum, 
Campania (in general). S.-^B.* B.^ 
Campania (uncertain money of). 

Br. — ^B.* Osean legends. 
Canusium (Canoso). Br. — ^B.^ B.^ 
Capae (in Boeotia). 8. — ^B.* 
Caphya. Achaian league. Br. — B.* 

CAPPADOCIA (A.) -.—CoHalala Oylestraj 

Ewehia, Saricha, Tyana, 
Capua (Santa Maria di Capua). Br. — 

C. — B.^ Osean legends. 
Ciir<Ka (Karidia). 8.— B.' Br.— B.«B.« 

CABIA (A.) i-^Albanda, Aba, Alindon, 
Antioehia ad Moeandrum, Aphrodi- 
aiaSfApollotiiaJSarguM, BorygHajCki' 
lynda, OeramuSf Onidus, Cyan, Eriza, 
Euromua, Salieamattus, Harpasa, 
HeraeUa, Hydrela, JantB, Jmbna, 
Medmaaat Mykua, Myndu$, Ntapolis, 
Nysa Orthona, Phra$9a, JhrenatBtu, 
J^frnuB, StratorUcia, Ibba, JT Wo w w - 
aua, Trapezipolit, IHpolU. 

CABIA (IsLAinra neas to) : — Artypdlea, 
Caiymna, Calymniumf Cos, Niayrot^ 
Bhodua, Astyra Bhodi, Camirua 
Rhodi, Teloa, 

Cariva (Turkai). Br. B.* 

(ktrinaea, Achaian league. Br. B.^ 

Carthae. Br. — ^B.^ A colonial autono- 
mous piece was wrongly attributed 
by Pellerin to this town, being a 
piece of Ellogababus badly preeerred. 

Carthata Ceaa. Br^ — ^B.' 



Oarthage, G.— B-'B.* EL— B.« S.— 
B.1 B.* Br.— C.— B.« 

OiWyatua (Karisto, Castel Borao). G. — 
B.« 8.— B.4B.* Br.— B.* 

Caaaandrea (Kassandra, Capusi). Br. — 
B.^ B.^ Latin legends. A piece 
with a Greek legend, given to this 
town, is of doubtful attribution. 

CiMaera, Br. — ^B.* 

Oaaaopa. 8.— B.« Br. — ^B.^ 

Oaaaope (hrcyrae (Cassopo). Br. — ^B.* 

Cbx^o^a^a (Kalat Masman). Br. — B.'' 

Caatreani, Br. — ^B.* 

CMana (Catania). 8.— B.* B.» Br.— 
C. — ^B.^ The coins of this town are 
numerous. 

GnOoma (Castel Yetere). 8.— B.« B.» 

Claenderia (Kelnar). 8.— B.* B.* Br. 
B.^ B.^ 8ome of these pieces bear 
the head of Antiochus, 6th king of 
Commagene. 

Cemolia (Kimoli TArgentiera). Br. — 
B.' 

Omnati, This name appears to be that 
of a people governed by the priests 
and princes of Olba, in Cilicia, as 
their coins bear this name,as do those 
of Diocaesarea, in Cilicia. 

Omhtripae (Centorbi). Br. — C.-*-B.* 

CEPHALLENIA (G.) (Cefalonia) :— 
Oraniumf Oallenaeaf Proni, Samer, 
ItJMca, Zacynthua, 

Cepkallenia (in general). S. — B.* Br. 
B.* 

Osphaloedium {CetHu), 8. — B.* B.'— 
Br.- — B.' B.' 8ome silver pieces of 
this town are known, which bear the 
name of Heraclea, in Sicily, a sign of 
alliance. 

Oeraite. 8. — ^B.« Br. — ^B.^ 

Ceramua (Keramo). 8. — B." Br.-— B.^ 

Oeretaphe. Br. — ^E.* 

Cerinthua, Br.— B.* 

Oeaarea, The coins attributed to this 
town have been restored to Tralles, 
in Lydia. 

(kaaor Oea (Murtad Adazzi Zea). S. — 
B.* Br.— B.» 

Ghalbaeta, Br. — B.^ 

Chaleedon (Kadi, Kioy). 8. — B.« B.'' 
Br. — B.* Some of these bear also 
the name of Byzantium, in Thrace. 

CHALCIDENE (A.) i—Chalcia. 
Ohalcia (Egripos, Negroponte, in Euboea). 



558 



▲ITTOKOICOVS COIKS. 



Dardamu (Bamn Punta da BarUeri). 
S.— R.' Br.— R.»R.* 

DECAPOLIS (A.) :—P}tUadelphia, 
I>ec€l%a. Br. — B.,* 
Delium (Delis). S.— K.« Br.—R.* 
Delphi (Castri, or Castro). &,—&.* B.* 

Br — B * B ' 
Delua (IstiUe, Stile). 8.— R.^ Br.— R.* 
Demetrida (Tene Sciehere. Tolo). S.^ 

R.^ Some pieces, which are of Cins, 

in Bithynia, were attributed to this 

town. 
Demetri&» (in Phoenice). Br. — ^R.* These 

were attributed to Demetrias Sacia, 

in Thessaly. 
Demetriaa Saeia. The pieces which were 

attributed to this town are now classed 

with those of Demetrias, in Phoe. 

nicia. 
IHa. Br.— R.« 
DUaea or Dteaeopolis (Takbeh). S. — 

R." Br. — ^R.« The known silver 

piece was wrongly attributed by 

Vellerin to the island of Icarla. 
Dionynopolu (in MoesLa). Br.^->R.* 
DUmysopolii (in Phrj^ia). Br.<^B.^ 
Dioihieron. Br. — R.* 
Dkaeuriai (Iscuriah). Br.— -R.^ 
Doeimeum (Kara Chiehere). Br.~-R.* 

R.* 
Dora (Tartura). Br. — ^R.* R.' Some 

bear the name o^ Tryphon, king of 

Syria. 
Dyrrhaohium (Durazzo). 8. — C. — ^R.^ 

Br.— C.— R-i^ 
JDyseeladm (Islands near to Illyricum). 

The piece attributed to this town has 

been restored to Asculum, in Apulia. 

r. 

.fi^Ma (lalea). S.— R.'' Br.-— R.^R.'' 

Matea (Eleuta). Br< — ^R.* 

JElaUa. Br. — ^R." 

JSleatua, afterwards SAtute (La Picola, 
Isola de Curco). With the name of 
Meusa : Br.— R.* R.« "Vtith the name 
of Sehaste: Br. — ^R.* R.'' Some of 
these bear the head of Antiochus TI., 
king of Commagene and of lotape. 

£lmu (Eles Burun). 8.— R.8 Br.— R.8 

Meuthemae. 8.— R.* R.» Br.— R.» 

JElhenestae. The piece attributed to this 
people do not belong to them. 

JVis (in general). S.— R.« R.8 Br.— 



B.* The pieces of Elis were formerly 
attributed to Faleria in Etmria. 

ELIS (G.) : — Furydieium, Shea, Fylus. 

Elynu. S.— R.* Br.— R.* 

Eneheliet or Enchelii. S. — ^R.s 

Sneaaphira, 8. — ^R.* 

Unna (Castro Giovani). Municipiam. 
S. — ^R.8 Br. — R.* There are some 
coins of this town with Latin Impends. 

JBntella (Antella, or Rocca di Antella). 
8.— R.« Br.— R.«R.« 

^henu (Ayasuluk Efese). G. — ^R.8 S. 
— R.» R.« Br.— R.1 R.« The coins 
of this town are numerous. Up<ni 
some are seen the heads of several 
distinguished Greeks. Alliances are 
found with many towns of Asia, with 
Perinthus in Thrace, and with Alex- 
andria, in Egypt. 

Epietehu, Br.— R.« R.* 

Epidauroa (Pedauro Napoli di Malvasia]. 
Achaian league. 8. — ^R.8 Br. — ^R.« 
R.* 

Epiphanea (Hamah). Br. — R.* R.8 

Epirotae (in general). 8. — ^R.* R.« Br. 
R.^R.* 

EPIRtrs (G.) : — Ambrada, Buthrotvm, 
Caaaope, Damaatium, Horremn^ 
Moloaai, Mohaai Oalkpaei, Nieopolia, 
Oruma, Pandorie, Fhoemoe. 

Erheaaua, Br. — ^R.« 

Ereaua (Eresso). 8.— R.* Br.— R.* R.« 

Eretria, 8.— R.4 R.« Br. — ^R.« 

Eriza, Br. — ^R.8 

Erythrae (Eritra, in Ionia). G.— B.« 
8.— R.iR.« Br.— R.»R.* 

Erythrae (in Boeotia). 8.— R.« R.^ 

Eryz (Monte di San OuiUano, or di 
Trapani). S.--.R.* R.8 Br.— R,* 

Eterma, Br.-^R.* 

ETRTTBIA (I.) :— flbin«r«, Coaaae, Fof 
aulae, Faleriaf Felaunat Graiotacae^ 
Luna, Peitheaa, Popuiovtia, Taiamon^ 
VeUnium, Vitema, Vetvhma, Tola-' 
terrae, 

THE ISLAin) OF EUBOEA (Eibiboka- 
OASsi, Nb»bopohtb) (G.) : — Jrfe- 
mtum Garyttua, Cerinthuaf ChaleUy 
Eratria, HiaHaea, 

Eitboea (in general). 8. — ^R.* R.* Br. 
— C.— R.« 

S^itoea (Terra Nova). 8. — ^R.8 The 
piece known to be of this town also 



AUTONOMOUS COINS. 



559 



bears the name of Oelas, ft sign of 

alliance. 
Eumenia, Br. — R.^ B.s 
JBuromtts. Br. — H.* 
Emydleea. Br. — Il.» These pieces were 

classed to Eurydicinm, in Elidia, but 

they have been lately restored to 

Macedon. 
Eurydickm. The coins attribtited to 

this town haye been restored to 

Eurydicea in Macedon. 
EtuetMf (afterwards Oaeaarea). With the 

name of EuseHa. Br. — B.« With 

the name of Caetarea. Br^^B.^ 

With the name of Ensetia and 

Caesarea. Br. — ^B.* 
£ca. Achaian league. Br.-^B.* 

F. 

foesttloe. The piece attributed to this 

town is of Telam<m, in Etrnria. 
laleria. The coins attributed to this 

town are now known to be of Elida. 
Tamm (Fano). The coins attributed to 

this town belong very probably to 

Elida. 
lekma. A gold coin of this town has 

been restored by M. Sestini to Veliay 

in Lncania. 

FRENTANI (I.) :— XaHmtm. 

iV-eiao»i (in general). Br.— B.8 Osoan 
legends. They have been falsely 
attributed to Pentri, in Samniom. 

G. 

GALILEA (A.) :— ^m, CoHhaea^ Otae, 

Oareiia Oeae, Ckphoris, liberiat, 
(Maria (QagUano). 8.— B.8 

OALLATU (A.): — Pewiwtw, Sebaate, 

Oambrium . Br. — ^B.* 

^or^ara (ineKioy). S.— B.' Br.—B.« 

Oauio$ (Gozzo). Br.— C.— B.« Greek 
ud Phoenician legends. 

Oaxa (Gaaaa, Gaza). Br.— B.* 

G(taiura (Azumis). Br.— B.« 

Oelat (near Terra Nova). G.— B.8 S. 
— C.— R.« Br.— C. — ^B.» The coins 
of this town are numerous; some 
have just been discovered which bear 
the name of Euboea. A sign of 
alliance between these two towns. 

^'w^Am (Gergiti). Br.— B.« 



Gemumicopolit, Br. — ^B.^ Of doubtful 
attribution. The piece produced may 
perhaps bekmg to Germanioopolis, in 
Paphlagonia. 
Oerme Biera Oerme, Br. — ^B.* B.« 
Oordua Julia (Gordn). fir. — ^B." 
Gorgippia. 8,— B.« |Br.— B.« 
Gomphi (Stagi Kalem Fascia). Br. — B.'' 
Gtrtyna (Kortina). O. — B.^ 8.— B.* 

B.8 C— B.« 
Graia GaUipolis (GalUpoli). Br.— B.« 
Graviseae, The coins attributed to this 

town are now regarded as doubtful. 
Grumentum (Armento). Br. — B.b The 
piece known is said by M. Sestini to 
belong to Grumum, in Apulia. 
Grumum (Gruma). M. Sestini attributes 
to this town the piece classed to 
Grumentum, in Lucania. 
Gyaros Yura, Br. — ^B." 
Chffton (Taolbolicati). Br.- B.* 

H. 

Hadria (Atri). Br. — B.a B.<: Latin 
legends. One of the pieces that is 
known to be of this town bears also 
the name of Asculum, in Picenum. 

Badriani (Edrenes). Br. — B.* One 
coin also bears the name of Nicaea, 
in Bithynia. 

Hadrianopolia (Boll). Br.— B.* 

Hadrianopolis (Edrene). Br. — ^B.* Some 
of these coins also bear the name of 
Nicopolis, in Moesia Inferior, a sign 
of alliance between these two towns. 

Hadrianotherae. Br. — B.* 

Badrwnetum (Herkla). Br. — B.* Latin 
legend. 

HaUeamauua (Bodrun, Bodroni, San 
Pedro). S.— B.' Br.— B.« 

BaUmetm (Pelagnisi, Island near Thes- 
saly). Br. — ^B.^ 

Bamoida. Br. — ^B.^ Of doubtftil attri- 
bution. 

JIofPMa (ArpacheEalesse). Br. — ^B.6 

Belena or Oranae (Macronisi, islands 
near Attica). Br.— B.« OfdoubtAil 
attribution. 

HENGITANA (Af.) : Carthaga, Bippo 

Sibea, 
Sfphaestia Vrha Zemnia (Paleopoli). 

Br.— B.* B.« 
BeracUa in Lucania (Policoro). G. — 



558 



AlTTONOMOrS COIKS. 



Dardamu (Bomn Panta da BarUeri). 
S.—R.' Br.— K.» R.* 

DECAPOLIS (A.) i-^Fhiladelphia. 

Decelia. Br. — R.* 

Delium (Delis). S.-^R.* Br.— R.s 

Delphi (Castri, or Castro). S.— R.« R.^ 
Bt — -R ■* R "^ 

Deiiw (IstiUe, Stile). 8.— R.* Br.— R.* 

Demetrida (Yene Sdehere. Volo). S. — 
R.^ Some pieces, which are of Cius, 
in Bithynia, were attributed to this 
town. 

Demetri&t (in Phoenice). Br. — ^R.* These 
were attributed to Demrtrias Sacia, 
in Thessaly. 

Demetrida Saeia. The pieces which were 
attributed to this town are now classed 
with those of Demetrias, in Phoe- 
nicia. 

Dia. Br.— R.« 

Dieaea or DieaeopoUs (Takbeh). S. — 
R." Br. — ^R.* The known silver 
piece was wrongly attributed by 
Yellerin to the island of Icaria. 

Dionygiopolia (in Moesia). Br.^ — ^R.* 

Dionpaopolis (in Phrygia). Br. — ^R.^ 

Dioskieron, Br. — ^R.* 

Dioaeuriae (Iscuriah). Br.— R.* 

Docimeum (Kara Chiehere). Br. — R.* 

D<yra (Tartura). Br.— R.* R.' Some 
bear the name oi Tryphon, king of 
Syria. 

Dyrrhaohium (Durazzo). 8. — C.— R.^ 
Br. — C. — ^R.* 

Dyaeeladua (Islands near to Illyricum). 
The piece attributed to this town has 
been restored to Asculum, in Apulia. 

F. 

Elaea (lalea). S.^-R.' Br.— R.* R.'' 

Matea (Eleuta). Br. — ^R.* 

Siatia. Br.— R.^ 

Meaiiaa, afterwards S«h(ute (La Picola, 
Isola de Curco). With the name of 
Meuaa : Br. — ^R.* R.« "^th the name 
of Sebaate: Br. — ^R.« R.' Some of 
these bear the head of Antiochns YI., 
king of Conunagene and of lotape. 

Slmu (Eles Burun). S. — lifi Br. — ^R.8 

Meufhemae. S.— R.* R.« Br.— R.« 

JElherteatae. The piece attributed to this 
people do not belong to them. 

:Eli8 (in general). S.— JR.« R.8 Br.— 



B.^ The pieces of Elis were formerly 
attributed to Faleria in Rtroria. 

ELIS (G.) : — Hurydidum^ Shea, Pylta. 

Elyrua. S. — R.* Br. — R.* 

JBneheliea or £nehelii. S. — 'B.fi 

Eneaaphira, S. — ^R.^ 

Enna (Castro Giovani). HuniciplanL 
S. — ^R.8 Br. — R.* There are some 
coins of this town with Latin legends. 

Entella (Antella, or Rocca di AnteUa). 
S.— R.« Br.— R.« R.« 

Epheeua (Ayasuluk Efese). G. — ^R.8 S. 
— R.» R.« Br.— R.» R.« The coins 
of this town are numerous. Upon 
some are seen the heads of several 
distinguished Greeks. Alliances are 
found with many towns of Asia, with 
Perinthus in Thrace, and with Alex- 
andria, in Egypt. 

Epietetua, Br.— R.« R.* 

Epidauroa (Pedauro Napoli di Malvasia). 
Achaian league. S. — B,,^ Br. — K* 
R.« 

^ipJuinea (Hamah). Br. — ^R.« R.8 

^rote« (in general). S. — ^R.* R.« Br. 
R.1 R.* 

EPIRtrS (G.) :— ^m&rocta, £uthroUm, 
Caaaopef Damagtium, Horremn^ 
Moloaai^ Moloaai Callopaei, yteopoliaj 
Otow, Pdndorie, Phoemoe, 

Erbeaaua. Br. — "R.* 

Ereaua (Eresso). S. — ^R.* Br.^E.* R.« 

Eretria, S.— R.* R.« Br. — ^R.« 

Eriza, Br.— R.^ 

Erythrae (Eritra, in Ionia). G.— R.« 
S.— R.1 R.6 Br.— R.» R.* 

Erythrae (in Boeotia). 8.- R.* R.' 

Eryx (Monte di San Guiliano, or di 
Trapani). S.— R.* R.8 Br»— ^R.* 

Etenna, Br.~>R.^ 

ETRXTRIA (I.) :— Ciamars, Coaaae, Foe- 
aulae, Ealeria, Felrnna^ Gramaeae, 
Lunay Peitheaa, Popukmia, Talamon, 
Teientwn, yitemaf Vetuhmaf Vola- 
terrae, 

THE ISLAND OF EUBOEA (Eibibossa.- 
Dxssi, NsonopoMTx) (G.) : — Arte' 
rntum Garyatua, Catinthu9f Chalda, 
Eretriaf Eiatiaea, 

EUboea (in general), 6. — ^R.* R.* Br. 
— C— R.* 

Suboea (Terra Nova). 8. — ^R.^ The 
piece known to be of this town also 



AUTONOMOUS conrs. 



559 



bears the name of Gelas, a sign of 

alliance. 
Eumenia, Br. — ^R.* R.« 
JSuromta. Br. — R.« 
Svrydieea. Br. — B.* Theee pieces were 

classed to Eorydicinm, in Elidia, but 

they have heen lately restored to 

Maoedon. 
Ewrydicnm. The coins attributed to 

this town have been restored to 

Eurydicea in Macedon. 
Buutia, (afterwards Oa$sorea)> With the 

name of Eusetia. Br. — B.* With 

the name -of Caetarea. Br.-^R.8 

With the name of Ensetia and 

Caesarea. Br. — ^R.* 
£ra. Achaian league. Brw-^B.* 

F. 

FamXae, The piece attributed to this 

town is of Telamwiy in Etruria. 
Faleria, The coins attributed to this 

town are now Icnown to be of Elida. 
Tawim (Fano). The coins attributed to 

tWs town belong rery probably to 

EUda. 
Ithma. A gold coin of this town has 

been restored by M. Sestini to FeWa, 

in Lncania. 

FRENTANI (I.):— XaWwMW. 

A-mten* (in general). Br. — ^R.* Osoan 
l^ends. They have been falsely 
attributed to Penlari, in Samnium. 

O. 

OALILEA (A.) '.—Aee, ChHhaea, (kae, 

Chreria Cme, Ckphoria, Tiberias, 
^laria (Gagliano). S.— R.* 

GALLATU (A.): — PeMMMW, SOastef 
Trocmi, 

Oambrium . Br.— R.* 

Gorparo(IneKioy). S.— R.'» Br.— R.* 

Owlot (Gozzo). Br.— C.— R.« Greek 
*nd Phoenician legends. 

<?«» (Gaaza, Gaza). Br.— R.* 

Gamura (Azumis). Br.— R.« 

Oelat (near Terra Nova). G.— R.8 S. 
— €.— R.e Br. — C. — ^R.« The coins 
of this town are numerous; some 
Itave just been diseoTcred which bear 
the name of Euboea. A sign of 
■lliance between these two towns. 

fi'«-^AM (Gergiti). Br.— R.« 



Germamcopolit, Br. — ^B.^ Of doubtftd 
attribution. The piece produced may 
perhaps belong to Germanio<qK>lis, in 
Paphlagonia. 
Oettne Hiera Qenne, Br.— R.* R,« 
Gordus Juiia (Gordu). Br. — ^R." 
Oorgippia. 8, — ^R.« |Br. — ^R.« 
Gomphi (Stagi Kalem Pascia). Br. — R.'' 
Gortyna (Kortina). G.— R.^ 8.— R.« 

R * C — R * 
Grata GaUipolis (GallipoU). Br.— R.« 
Crravi»eae, The eoins attributed to this 

town are now regarded as doubtful. 
Grumentwn (Armento). Br. — ^R.b The 
piece known is said by M. Sestini to 
belong to Grumum, in Apulia. 
Ortmum (Gruma). M. Sestini attributes 
to this town the piece classed to 
Grumentum, in Lucania. 
Gyaros Tura. Br. — R.' 
Gyrton (Taeibolicati). Br.— R.* 

H. 

Sadria (Atri). Br. — R.8 R.« Latin 
legends. One of the pieces that is 
known to be of tius town bears also 
the name of Asculum, in Picenum. 

Sadriani (Edrenes). Br. — R.« One 
coin also bears the name of Kicaea, 
in Bithynia. 

HadrianopolU (Boli). Br.— R.< 

Hadrianopolis (Edrene). Br. — ^R.* Some 
of these coins also bear the name of 
Nicopolis, in Moesia Inferior, a sign 
of alliance between these two towns. 

Hadrianotherae. Br. — ^R.* 

Eadrumetum (Herkla). Br. — R.^ Latin 
legend. 

SaHcamasws (Bodrun, Bodroni, San 
Pedro). S.— R.' Br.— R.« 

SaUmenu (Pelagnisl, island near Thes- 
saly). Br. — ^R.^ 

Hamaaia, Br.— R.® Of doubtftd attri. 
bntion. 

Harpasa (Arpache Kalesse). Br. — 'B,fi 

Helena or Cranae (Macronisi, islands 
near Attica). Br.— >R.* Of doubtful 
attribution. 

HENGITANA (Af.) : Carthage, Hippo 

Sibea. 
Hephaestia Urbt Zemnia (Paleopoli). 

Br.— R.* R.« 
Heraclea in Lucania (Policoro). G. — 



560 



▲UT0K0M0U8 COINS. 



R.« R.» S.--C.— K.» Br.— R.* R.« 
The eoini of thii town are wunerous. 
Some bear the name of Metapontum, 
which proyes an alliance between 
these two towns. 

fferofiUa in Sithynia (Baohia, Elegri, 
Ereyli, Penderaski). 8. — B.« R.* 
•— Bp.—R.* R.* 

Heraclea in Thetaaly (Traohln). S. — 
B.« Br.—B.» 

Heradea in Ionia, S. — ^B.* — Br.— B.' 
B.^ The sUrer coins are doubtftiL 

Heraelea in Sicily (Capo Bianca). 8. — 
B.^ B7 These pieces also bear the 
name of Cephlaoedium and the cities 
of that town. 

Heraelea in Aeamania, 8. — B.' B.' 
Br. — C.— R.* 

Heraelea in Carta, Br.— R.' Of doabt. 
fal attribution. 

Jleraelea Sintiea in Macedonia, 8. — 
B.* B.' These pieces were formerly 
attributed to C^marina, in Sicily. 
Some other pieces attributed to this 
town haye been restored to Heraelea 
in Bithynia, and to Heraelea in 
Ionia. 

Heracleum, Br. — ^B.® R* These pieces 
were struck in Fontus. 

Serapytna (lerapicta Girapetra). 8. — 
R.* Br.— R.*R.« 

Sermione (Kastii). Aohaian league. Br. 
R.« 

Mermocapelia, Br. — R.* 

Jlermopolit, Br. — ^B." 

Hierapolia (Pambuk, Kalessi). Br. — ^R." 
R.* The coins of this town are very 
numerous. Some bear the name of 
Ephesus in Ionia, and of Sardes in 
Lydia. 

JlieropolU in Cilieia, Br. — R.* R.' 
Some of these coins bear the head of 
Antiochus TI. The pieces bearing 
the name of Castabala, attributed to 
this town, have been restored to the 
town of that name in Cappadocia. 

JSieropolis in Cyrrhestica (MembrikBam. 
buk). Br. — ^B.* B.* Some of these 
pieces bear the heads and names of 
Antiochus rv., and Alexander I., kings 
of Syria. 

Himera^ afterwards Thermae (Termini). 
With the name of Eimera : — 8. R." 
R.8 Br.— B.* B.* With the name 



of Tftcmuw;— 8.— B.« B.« Br.— B.» 

B.» 
Hippo Sibera (Biserta). Br. — ^B.? La^ 

legend. 
Hipponium, afterwards Valentia (Mon- 

teleone). Witii the name of Hy^po^ 

nium: — Br. — B.* R.* With the 

name of Valencia: — Br. — C. — R.* 

Latin legends. 
Histiaea (Orio). 8. — C. — B.« Br. — 

R.» 
Homolium, 8.— R.* Br. — ^B.» 
Horrettm, Br. — B.* 
Hybla Magna (Patemo). Br. — TL,* 
Hyccara (Maccari). Br. — ^R.^ Of doabU 

fnl attribution. 
Hydrela (Denisli). Br.— R.> 
Hydrunttun (Otrsinto). Br. — R^^ 
Hyla, Br.— R.8 

Hypaepa (Pyrge, Birge). Br. — ^R.* 
Hyrcania, Br. — ^R.* 
Hyrgalea, Br. — ^R."' 
Hyrina. S. — R.* R.* Br. — ^R.* This 

town was formerly classed in Apulia. 
Hyrtaeua or Hyrtacintu, S. — ^R.« 



I. 

laeta (Jato, or 8. Ck)smano). Br. — -JBL* 
lotus (Askein Kalessi). Br. — ^R.* 
Icaria (Naharia). Br. — R.« Doubtful. 
loonium (Kunya^, Konzet, Cogni). Br. 

B.» 
Idalium (Dalin). 'Neither the metal nor 

the rarity of these pieces, which are 

doubtful, are known. 
Iffuvium (Oubbio). Br. — R.^ Etruscan 

legends. 
Hium (Bunar Bachi). S. — ^R.* R.' Br. 

B.« B.« 
Illua (an island on the Elbe). The piece 

attributed to this island by Lanzi is 

of Tuder, in Umbria. 
Imbrue, Br.— B.« Of doubtful attriba- 

tion. 
Imbrue (Lambro, island near to Thrace). 

Br. — R.* One piece attributed to 

this island is of Imbrus, in Caria. 

ILLYRICUM {G.):—Alleta, AtnantiOy 
Apolloniaf Bihidrumf JByllia, HaorH, 
Dyrra/shUimf £ncheliee, Olympe, 
Scodra. 

lomi (Pangala). Br. — R.^ R.* 

IONIA (A.) ',—Apollonia, Oadme, CTa- 



AUTONOMOUS COINS. 



661 



zomeMt Chlophon^ IlphestUf JErythraef 
Gambriumf Heraclea, L^>edu8^ Mag~ 
neria^ Metropolis, Miletus, Neapolis, 
JPhocea, Phygela, Smyrna, Teos. 

IONIA (IsLAHDS NBA& To) (A.) : — CSUos, 

learia, Patmos, Samos. 
I<w(Nio). Br.— -R.* 
fysus. Br. — ^R.* 
loppe (JafRft, GiafTa). Br. — ^R.^ 
Irene. S.— B.* Br. — R.* 
Irent^is. Br. — R.^ From Domitian to 

Gallienus. On some of these pieces 

is the name of Zephyrium, in Cilida, 

a sign of alliance. 
Irrhena (Islands near Thessaly). Br. — 

ISAURIA (A.) i—Olaudiopolis, Lalassis. 

Ina (Lyssa. Island near to lUyricum). 
Br.— R.' 

Imeae, Br.— R.® 

Imndm. Br.— R.' R.* 

htrvt (Kargolik, Silistria). S.— R.iR.* 
Br. — ^R.<> The gold pieces of this town 
that have been published are false. 

HALT (Upfek) : — AquUeia, Bavenna, 

and Txeinum, 
lUmtu. 8. — R.* 
/tta«a (Tiaki). Br.— R.» 

J. 

JUDAEA (A) : — Agrippias, Asealon, 

Gaza. 
Miopolis (Bey— Bazar). Br.— R.8 
JulisCeae. Br.— R.« 

L. 
Lakusis. S.— R.» Br.— R.« 
lamia (Demochi?). S.— R.« Br.— R.* 
lampa vel Lappa, S.— R.* Br.— R.* 
Lttmpsaeus (Lapseki, Lamsaki). G.— R.* 

B.— R.8R.« Br.— R,«R.* 
laodice (Eski Hyssar), in Phrygia. 8. — 

»•• Br.— R.* R.« The coins of this 

island are numerous, 
■toodiceo (Ladik), m Pontus. Br.— R.' 
Iflodtcea (Latakie, Latakia), in Seleucis, 

8.— R.« Br.— C.— R.* 
lapithae. S.— R.' Br.— R.« 
Xamaw (Larino). Br.— R.* R.« Oscan 

le^rends. 
Loriua Oremaste. Br.— R.a 
■torwio (Chizar), in Seleucis, Br.— R.« 
^'Orim (Larisa), in Thessaly. * 8.— C.— 

E.* Br.— R.«R.' 



Larymna. The piece attributed to this 
town belongs to Salamis, an island 
near to Attica. 

Loses. Br. — ^R.* 

LATIUM (I.) : — Alba, Aquinum, Arieia, 
Oora, Marubium, Mintumae, Pala- 
cium, Signia, T^s^utn, Velitemum, 
Verulae, Vescia. 

Laea (Islands near to Cyrenaica). Br. 
— R.« 

Lebedus. G.— R.« 8.— R.' Br.— R.»R.* 

LEMNUS (Lbmno), (A.) '.—Hephaestia, 

Myrhina, Samothrace, Thasus. 
Leontini (Lentini). * S.— R.« R.« Br.— 

R.1 R,« 
Lete. 8. — ^R.^ R.^ These pieces were for- 

merly attributed to the Isle of Lesbos. 

Most of them have rather coarse 

types. 
Leuca, The piece attributed to this 

town belongs to Velia, in Lucania. 
Leucas vel Leucadia (Leucadia, or Santa. 

Maura), in Acamania. 8. — ^R.* R.* 

Br.- R.« R.* 
Leucas (in Cselosyria). Br. — ^R.^ 

LIBURNIA (G.) '.—Ahona. 

Lilybaeutn (Marsalla). Br. — C. — ^R.* 

Limyra. 8. — R.» 

Lipara (Lipari). Br. — C. — R.« There 
are beliered to be some gold pieces. 

Lissus. Br. — ^R.'' 

Locri. 8.— R.« R.* Br.— R.» The 
piece with the letter A, and the type 
of Pegasus, may be of Lucas, in 
Acamania. 

Locri Epizephyrii (Motta di Burzani). 
8.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.* A gold 
piece published by Magnan is pro- 
bably fahse. 

Locri incerti. 8. — R.' Br. — ^R.* R.* 

' It is probable that these pieces be- 
long to Locri, in Bruttium. 

LOCRIS (1.) i—Amphissa, Asia ?, Locri, 
Locri Ilpicnemidii, Locri Opuntii, 
Locri Epicnemidii Opuntii, Thronium. 
Locri Opuntii Epicnemidii. Br. — R.* 
Locri Epicnemidii. 8. — R.* R.* 
Locri OptmtU. 8.- R.'* R.« Br.— R.« 

R.* 
Longone. The pieces published are 

falsely attributed to this town. 
Lopadusa (Lampadusa). Br. — R.' 

LUCANIA (I.) : — Atinum, Buxentum, 
Cbsilyntts, Orumentum, Heraclia, 





562 



ATTTOKOMOXTS COINS. 



ZoiUf Metapontumt PalmunUy IbsH- 

donia. Stria, Sybaris, Velia, Ur. 

senium, 
Lueani (in general). Br. — R.* 
Lueeria (Lucera). Br. — ^R." B.* Latin 

legends. 
Luna. A piece attributed to this town 

is now ascertained to be of P(^puloma, 

in Etruria. 
Ljfhia (in general). 8.— R.* R.^ Sestlni 

states that these pieces do not belong 

to the whole of Lybia, but to a certain 

tribe bearing the name. 

LYCIA : — ApottoniOf Araxa, ChrydaUm, 
OragtUy Oyanaea, Ojfdna, Limyra, 
MeusieyteSf Myra, OlympuSf Patara, 
Phatelis, Podalia, Bhodia, Tka, Tra- 
halOf Xantus. 

LYCAONIA (A.) i—Ieomum. 

Lyeaonia (in general). Br. — ^R.* With 

the head of Antiochus YI., king of 

Commagene. 

LYDIA (A.) : — AcreuttSf Aninemmf 
Anolua, ApoUonUf ApolUmoshieron, 
AriOf AttaUay AureliopoliSf Bagae, 
SknmdoSf Briidii, Oxystria/nif OUbianif 
Daldia, Diothieronf Gardus Jidia, 
Sermoeapelia, Hermupolit, Hiero. 
ectesarea, ffypaepa, Hyreanea, Mae- 
onia, Maffnesia, Mcutaura, Monrna, 
Mostenef NaoroMa^ Pactolei, Philadel- 
phia, SaeUenif Sardes, Silandw, To- 
hala, Temero, Shryae, Thyatira, I%y. 
eutiSf I^lue, Ibmarena, TraUee, 
Seleuda, 

Lydia (in general). One piece of the town 
of Blaundos bears this inscription, 
KOINON nPfiATAIAO. 

Jjysias, Br.^R.'' Some bear the name 
of ApoUonia, in Pisidia. 

Lysimachia f (in Aetolia). 8. — R.* 

Lyrimachia (Hexamili). 8. — R.' R.^ 
Br.— R.» ^.» 

Jjifttus, 8,— R.« R.* Br.— R.« 

M. 

MACEDONIA (6.) : — Acanthus, Aegae, 
Aenia, Amphaxus, AmphipoUs, Aphy- 
Hs, ApolUmia, Berga, Berhaea, Bis- 
altae, BoUiaera, Ousandrea, Oxssera, 
OhaMs, Ewrydicea, Seraelea, Lete, 
Mende, Neapolis, OretMa, Olynthus, 
Orestae, Orthagoria, Ossa, PeUa, 
PhUa, IhUippif J)fdna, Pythium, 



Seione, Seotussa, Stobi, Terone, 7%eu 
saloniea, jy-actiutn, J^pHssa, Urano- 
polis. 

Macedonia (in general). S. — C. — ^R.* 
Br. — C. — R.* Roman autonomous: 
8.— R.« R.« Br.— C.— R.«. Ofthefonr 
Provinces, 1st Province. S. — ^R.*, 
2nd Province, 8. — ^R.' Br. — R.*, 
3rd Province, unknown. 4tlL Pro- 
vlnce, Br. — R.'. This money was 
coined after it had become a Roman 
province. Some of these pieces have 
bilingual legends, Greek and Latin. 
Those of all the four provinces of 
Macedonia are of the same period. 

Macella (Monte Busamara). Br. — R.* 
Of doubtful attribution. 

Maeonia, Br.— R.' R.* 

JfiB9ne9Mi,tn2%«cta/y (San Giorgio). The 
pieces attributed to this town pro- 
bably belong to Magnesia, in Ionia. 

Magnesia ( Aidin Ghiusel Hyssar) , in Ionia. 
8.— R.*R.« Br.— R.1R.* 

Magnesia adSipylum (Mana8sie),in Lydia. 
Br. — ^R.' R.* On some of these, 
bearing the name of M. T. Cicero, is 
tiie figure of a head, which some say, 
is that of the orator. 

Magydus. Br. — R.^ 

Malienses Populus. 8. — ^R.' Br. — ^R.* 

Mallut (Mallo). 8.- R.' Br.— R.' 

MAMERTIUM (I.) :—Medama, Nuceria, 
Pandosia, Peripolium, Pitanata,Pete- 
lia, Bhegimn, Temesa, Terina, 

Mantinea Antigonia, Achaian lei^^. 
Br.— R."* 

Marathus. Br. — ^R.^ R.^ Phoenician 
legend. 

Mareianopolis, Br. — B^* 

Marium, 8. — R.* 

MARMARICA (A.) [See Petba]. 
Maronea (MaruUa, Maronia, Marogna). 

8.— C. — R.' Br. — 
Marubium, Br. — R.* Latin legends. 

MARRUCCINI (I.) :— r«ate. 
Massicytes, 8.^— R.' R.« Br. — R.* 
M(utaura (Tiria). Br, — ^R.' 
Mattia, Br.— R.« Of doubtful attribu- 
tion. They bear the name of Rome. 
Mazara, 8. — ^R.* Punic legends. 
Medama vel Mesma (Mesima). Br. — ^R.' 
Medeon vel Modeon, 8. — ^R.'' 
Medmeua. 8. — ^R.^ 
Megalopolis (Sinano). Achaian league. 



AUTONOMOUS COINS. 



563 



Megara (Megra, Hegara). S. — R.* Br. 

— C.— R.« 
Megara (Monte Ibla). Br. — ^R.^ Some 

pieces of this town bear the name of 

Leontini, and some that of Hybla 

Megara. 
Megarnu, Br. — ^B.8 
MOe* (Melisario). 8.— R.8 
JMtto (Malta). Br.~<C.— R.« 
Melo8 (Deyrmen — ^Adassi, Milo). 8, — 

R.«R.8 Br.— C— R.« 
JUmaenum (Mines). Br. — R.3 R.^ 
JTende (Calandra). 8.— R.* Br.— R.* 
Mengairate. Br. — H..^ Oscan legends. 
Ifermum (8. Maria di Merino). The 

pieces classed to Merusium, in Sicily, 

should be attributed to this town, 

according to M. Sestini. 
Merusium. 8. — R.> 
Metembria (MiseTria, Misimbria). S. — 

R,8 Br.— R.* 

MESSENIA (C.) -.—Amphea, Oolone, 

Cbnme, I^Jus, ThvHa, 
Meeeeni (in general). Achaian league. 

8.— R.* R.8 Br.— C— R.* 
Metaponium (Torre di Mare). O. — ^R." 

8.— C.— R.« Br.— R.*R.« The pieces 

of this town are numerous. Some 

have been recently discovered which 

bear the name of Heraclea, in Lu> 

cania, a sign of alliance. 
Methana (Metana). Br. — R.« 
Methymna. 8.— R.« R.' Br.— R.« R.* 
Metropolis ? in Aetolia. Br.— R.^ 
Metropolis (Masooluri), in Thessaly, Br. 

— R.B Of doubtftd attribution. 
Metropolis (Tireh), in Phrygia, Br.— R.* 
Metropolis (TurbaU), in Ionia, Br.— R.* 

Doabtfol. 
Metroum. Br.— ^R.8 Of doubtful attri- 

bution. 
MileUfpolis (Melte). Br.— R.« 
if*<e<t» (Balat. Palaisca. MUet). S.— R.* 

B.* Br. — C.— R.* These coins are 

numerous. 
Milyas. 8.— R.» 
Mimyas Popuhu. Br.— R.« 
MirUumae, 8. — R.8 Oscan legends. 

The money attributed to this town 

bears also the name of Yescia, in 

Latium. 
MUelene (MidiUi Castro). 8.— R.« R.' 

Br. — C. — ^R.« Some of these pieces 

bear the heads of celebrated Greeks. 



On «ome are seen the names ot 
Ephesus, in Ionia, of Pergamus, in 
Mysia, and of Smyrna, in Ionia ; a 
sign of alliance with those towns. 

MOESIA INFERIOR (A). Oallatia, Dio. 

nysopoUs, Istrus, MarcianopoUs, Ni~ 

eopoUs ad Jbtrum, loni, 
Molossi, Br.— R.B 
Molossi Oassopaei, Br. — R.* 
Mopsium, Br. — ^R.^ A silver piece, 

attributed to this town, is allotted 

by M. Pellerin to Mende, in Mace. 

donia. 
Mopsus, MqpsuesHa (M^is). Br. — ^R.' 

R.'' Some of these bear the head of 

Antiochus lY., king of COmmagene. 
Mordiaeum Appollonia, Br. — R.*, in 

Pisidia. Some of these pieces also 

bear the name of Lysias, in Phrygia, 

and of Perga, in Pamphylia, a sign 

of alliance. 
Morgantia (Murgo). 8. — "R.^ Br. — ^R.' 

R.* Greek and Punic legends. 
Mbstene, Br. — ^R,' 
Messina vel Mossinus, Br. — ^R.* 
Motya, 8.— R.« R.8 
Mycalessus. 8. — R.^ 
Myeanus (Miconi). S, — R.» Br. — ^R.* 
Mylasa (Meless, Mylasi, Marmoro). Br. 

— R.* 
Myndus (Menteche, Mimdes). S. — ^R.'' 

Br.— R.» R.* 
Myra (Mira). Br. — R.» 

MYSIA (A.) i^ANMeti^Mysi, Adra. 
mytium, AntandrtUf Apolloniaf 
Assus, AstyrOf Atamea, Oisthene, 
OyzictUf Gargaraf Gergithus, Germe, 
Siera — GertnSf LampsaeuSf MiXHo^ 
poliSy Pariwnf PergamuSt Perperene^ 
Pionia, Pitane, Poemanenif Poroselene, 
Priapus. 

Myrhina, in Lemmas (Palia Castro). Br. 
—R.8 

Myrhina^ in AsoUa, S. — ^R.' R.^ 

N. 
Nacolea, Br. — ^R.8 
Nacona, Br.— R.* 
Nacrata, Br. — ^R.* 
Ifagidus, 8.— R.* R.8 Br. R,» The 

piece in bronze is doubtful. 
ITaupacttu (Lepanto). 8. — R.* Br.—- 

R.* 
Ifaxus (SohiBo). S.— R.s R.« 

o o S 



564 



AUTONOMOUS COIKS. 



-Yoajia (Naxia). S.— R.« Br.—R.' 
iVM. T^e cohia attributed to this island 

have been restored to Neontichos, in 

Aeolia. 
Neandria, Br. — ^R.' 
Neapolia (La Cayalla), in Macedonia. 

S. — C. — ^E.« Br. — E.' The bronze 

pieces are by some considered to 

belong to Neapolis, in Ionia. 
Keapolia (Polignano). Br. — ^R.' 
Ifeapoli»{Caxia,). The pieces attributed to 

this town belong to Neapolis, in Ionia. 
Neapolis (Kuche Adassi Neapoli Scala- 

nuova), in Ionia. Br. — ^R.^ The 

brass coins attributed to Neapolis, in 

Macedonia, belong to this town. 
NeapoU* (Naples). [See Pakthemopk.] 
Neetum (Noto). Br.— R.^ Of doubtful 

attribution. There are some of these 

coins bearing also the name Hadrian- 

opolis, in Thrace, a sign of alliance. 
Neoeaeaarea (Niksar, Nixaria). Br. — ^R.^ 
Kephelia (Nephelidda). S.— ^R.« Br.— 

R.8 
Neontiehoe. Br. — R.* 
2fieaea (Isnik). Br.— R » R.« 
Nicomedia (Indd, Isnimid, Nicomedia). 

Br.— R.« 
Nieopolie (Prevesa Yecchia). Br. — ^R.' 
Nicopolie ad Istrwn (Niebul, Nigheboli). 

Br.— R.8 
Nisaea. The piece attributed to this 

town ought to be restored to Nysia, 

in Caria. 
Ninfros (Nisaro, Nicero). S. — ^R.> Br. — 

R.* 
JV()te(Nola). 8.— R.« Br.— R.« 
Kue&ria (Nooera). Br. — ^R.* 
Jfueeria Altafema (Nocera dei Pagani). 

8.— R.« Br.— R.* R.« Greek and 

Oscan legends. 
JVyaa (Nazely, Nozly). 8. — ^R.8 Br.— 

R.* R.» 
Nyaa. Br. — R.* 

O. 

Odeame (Varna). S.— R." Br.— R.« 

Odrysii (Hedrine) S.— R.* Br.— R.* 
The Odrysians were a considerable 
people among the Thracians. The 
silver coinage is of doubtftd attribu- 
tion. 

Oeniandoe Epiphanea. Br. — ^R." 

Oeniadae, Br. — C. — R.* 

Oetaei, S.— R.« Br.— R.» 



Olbia, OOriopoKs (Stromohil). S. — 
R.S Br. — ^R.* Rs. The autonomous 
money of this town, though con- 
sidered rare, is of great variety. 

Oliu. B.—RJ Br.— R.8 

Olympe. Br.— R.* Of doubtftd attri- 
bution. 

Olymptu (Porto Yenetioo). S. — ^R.« 

Olynthus. (Ayo Mama). S. — 13i.^ Br. 

— R.8 

Ophrynium. 8. — ^R.8 Br. — ^R.» 

Orra (Uria). Br.— R." R.* Latin and 
Greek legends. The situation of this 
town is considered uncertain. M. 
8e8tini has classed it among those of 
Calabria. 

Orehomenus (Skripu). 8. — ^R.* Br. — 
R.8 

Oreatae, ' 8. — ^R.* R.® These pieces are 
of the same nature as those of Olyn- 
thus. 

Orictu. Br. — B..^ 

Oroanda. Br.— R.8 Of doubtful attri- 
bution. 

Orthagoria (Stavro). 8. — ^R.8 Br. — ^R.* 
R.7 

Orthosia, Br.— R.^ R.* - 

Orreakia. 8. — ^R.* R.* These pieces are 
probably of Orestae. 

Oaaa Biaaltarum. S. — ^R.* 

Othrytae. Br.— R.8 

Otrua. Br.— R.' 

P. 

Paetolei, Br.— ^R. 

Paeonia (in general). Br. — R.8 

PAEONIA: — Nyaa, Falaciwn. Br.— 

R.8 Latin legends. 
Po/ton^tfum (Tripolizza). Achaian league. 

Br.— R.« 
Palinurua Molpia, S. — ^R.^ 

PALMYRENE (A.) '.—Palmyra, 
Palmyra (Tadmur). Br. — ^B.8 

PAMFHYLIA (A.) .—Aspendua, Attalia, 
Etennay Jaindtu, Magydtu, Perjfo, 
Sidey Sillyum. 

Pandoaia (Anglona). S. — ^R.* 

Pandoaia, 8. — ^R.* R.* 

Panormua. (Palermo). Punic pieces, 
with Phoenician characters : G. — ^R.* 
R.3 8. — R.» R.* Br.— C — R.« 
^unic pieces, without Phoenician 
characters : G. — R.^ R.» El. — 



ATTTONOMOTTS COTSB. 



565 



R.« S. — It.i R.* Br. — C. — R.« 
Pieces with Greek and Phoenician 
characters : S. — ^R.^ Greek pieces : 
8.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.* 

Panticaptteum (Kertch). G. — ^R.^ S. — 
R.6 R.8 Br.— R.« R.« 

Faphus (Baffo). S. — ^R.^ These pieces 
hear the name of the king Nioocles. 

P APHLAGONIA (A.) i—Aboni, Amaatris, 

Oromnay JftuHa, SebeutCf Segamus, 

Sinope, 
Farium (Kiemer, Kamares, Porto— Ca- 

mera). G.— R.8 S.— R.« R.« Br.— 

R.«R.* 
Paroa (Paros Nanosa). 8. — R.8 Br. — 

R.* 
Parthenope JfeapoUt (Xapoli). G. — ^R.^ 

8.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.« 

PARTHIA (A). [See Tambrax.] 
Pacta Tel PdMsia. Br. — ^R.^ Ofdonbtfca 

attribution. 
Tatara (Patera). S. — ^R.' Br. R.« 
Patmoa (Patmos, Palmosa). Br. — R.^ 

Of doubtful attribution. 
Ptitrae (Patra, Patraa). Achalan league. 

8.— R.* Br.— R.«R.3 
Peitheaa. The pieces formerly attributed 

to this town ha^e been restored to 

Veientum, in Etruria. 
POeeania. Br.— R.'« Of doubtful attri. 

bution. 
Pelwma. 8.- R.« Br.— R.' 
Pella (Ala Clissa Pella, or Palatisa). Br. 

— C. — R.* The autonomous silver 

piece attributed to this town appears 

more probably to be of Pelinna, in 

Thessaly. 
P^lene. Achaian league. Br. — ^R.* 
PELOPONNESUS: — Aehaia, Aegialua, 

AegirOf Aegium, Carinaea, Obrinthua, 

Patraea, Pellene^ Phliua, Phypae, 

Sieyon. 
Peltae. Br. R.« 
PetUri. The money attributed to this 

town belongs to FretUani. 
Peparethua (Piperi, island near Thes. 

saly). Br.— R.*R.» 
Parga (Kara Hyssar Tekie Si). 8. — B..^ 

Br. — R.* R.* Some bear the name 

of Apollonia, in Pisidia, a sign of 

alliance. 
Pergamua (Bergam, Pergamo). 6. — ^R.* 

Br. — H,* R.* The coins of this town 

are numerous. Some bear the name 



of Mytelene, in Lesbos, a sign of al- 
liance between these towns. 

Perinthua (Eraclia,Erekli). Br.— R.«R.* 

Perperene. Br. — ^R.» 

Peripolium Pitanata (Simmana). 8. — 
R.» 

Perrhaebia. 8.— R.» 

Peasintta (tJchiache Kioy), Br. — R.' 

Petelia (StrongoU). Br.— R.« R.* 

Petra, Br. — ^R. 

Petra. Br. — ^R.> Of doubtful attribu- 
tion. 

Petuni (Petralia). Br. — B..* 

Pheufium. Br. — R.* 

Phaeatua, 8.— R.* R.* Br.— R.» R.s 

PKalanna. S. — R.8 Br.— R.* 

Phalaaama. S. — R.* Br. — R.8 

Phanagorea (Taman). 8. — R.8 Br. — 
R.« 

Pharae vel Pherae. 8. — ^R.' Br. — R.« R.» 

Pharcadon. 8. — R.7 

PJuirua (Liesina, island near to Illyri- 
cum). Br. — ^R. 

Phamaeia. Br. — R.* 

Pharaalua (Tzatalze Fersala). S. — ^R.* 
R.« Br.— R.* 

Pkaaelia (Fionda). S.— R.« Br.— R.» R.> 

Pheneua (Phonia). 8.— R.* R.' Br.— 
R.* 

Pherae. 8.- R.' Br.— R.« R.« 

Phigalea rel Phiatea, Achaian league. 
Br.— R.8 

Philadelphia (Ala Chiehere). 8.— R.^ 
Br. — C. — ^R.* These pieces are doubt- 
ful. Some of them bear the name of 
Smyrna, in Ionia — a sign of alliance. 

Philadelphia (Amman). Br. — R.^ 

Phaippi (FiUppi). G. — R.8 8.— R.' 
Br.— R.* 

Phila. Br.— R.8 

PhUippopolia (Filibe). Br.— R.8 

Phliua (Santa Flica). Achaian league. 
8.— R.» Br.— R.« 

Philomelitm (Ilgun). Br.— R.« R.* 

Phiatelia or SiateUa (PuteoU?, Poz- 
zuolo). 8. — ^R.iR.* Oscan legends. 
These pieces are also attributed to 
the town of Posidonia. 

Phocea (Foya, Foggia,Fokia — ^Vecchia, Le 
FogUeri). G.— R.'— El. — R." Br. 
R.«R.* 

PH0CI8 (G.) : — Amphicaea, CSffHiriaau8f 
Delphiy JElatea, Medeon, llthorea, 

Phoei (in general). G.— R.* 8.— R." 
R.8 Br.--R.»R.* 



566 



ATJTOKOMOrS COINS. 



FHOENICE (A.): — Berytui, DemetriaSf 

Dora, ManUhM, OrthMo, 8idon, Tru 

polis, lytM. 
Ihoenice (in general). Struck at Tyros. 

Br.— B.« 
Cf the vneeriam money of PhoenUia. S. 

— R.« Br.— C.— ».« 
JftoentM yel Fhoenicape (Sopoto) . Br. — 

R.« 
Pholegandna (Policandro). Br«-^R.s 
Phyeus, Some pieces were formerly 

wrongly attributed to this town. 

PHRYOIA(A.): — Aemoma, AexanU, 
Alia, Amorium, Aneyra, Apamea, 
Attaea, Attuda, Attueia, Briana, 
Oadi, CkreUg^,<Xbyra,Oidram%u, Cb- 
lonae, Chtiaewn, Dionyeopolis, Dod- 
tneum, JEpietettu, Eucarpia, Eumenia, 
HierapoUe,Hyrgaleaf Ipeue, Laodicea, 
Lysiae, Metropolie, Nacolea, Otrua, 
PeUae, PMlomeKum, JVymneseue, 
Sola, Sebaete, SibUa, Stectorium, 8y. 
naos, Synnada, Tliemieonium, lUerio* 
poKe, Trqfonopolis, THtnenothryae, 

PICENUM : — Aneona, Ascuhun, Eadria, 

Pieeatia (Bicenza). S. — B.^ 

PUiye (Yavarino, Navarino). 8. — R.» 
Br.— B.» 

Pimoliei (Osmangik). Br. — "&,* 

Pionia, Br. — ^E. 

Pieaurum (Fesaro). Br. — ^R.> Of this 
town there are coins with Latin 
legends, and others with Greek. 

FISIDIA (A.) : — Antioehia, Moediaum 
ApoUofda, Oonane, IRlyae, Oroanda, 
Proatanna, Sagalaeem^ Sandalium, 
Selge, Termeeme, 

PUane. Br.— R.* 

PUnum. Br. — R.^ Etmscan legends. 

Plaraeta. Br. — ^R.* R.' Upon seTeral 
pieces the name of Amphridosias, in 
Curia, occurs a sign of alliance be* 
tween these towns. 

JtoeoM (Cocla); S.— R.^ 

Plotinopolii (Demotica). Br.>— R.^ 

Podalia. Br.- R.^ 

Poeeea Oaea, Br.-^B.< 

Poemaneni, Br. — ^R.* 

Polyrhenium, S.— R.* R". Br.— R.« 

PONTUS (A.) :— ^moMO, Ameria, Ami. 
am, Oabira, OhaJbaeta, Oomana, Ga- 
mutvi, Laodicea, Neoeaeaatea, Pharm 



nacia, PSmoliaa, Sarhaniaaa, Sebuto. 
polia, 

Populonia (Popukmia). Q. — ^R.8 8.— 
R,* R.® Br.— R.* R.8 Some pieces 
have Etniscaa and Osean l^fends; 
some none at all. This total abeoiee 
of inscriptions is a pecnliarity which 
is Tery rare upon ancient coins. 

Poroaelene (Musco Nisi). Br. — R.^ 

Poaidonia, afterwards Paeatvm (Fiesti, 
or Pesto). With the name of Pom- 
doma; S.— R.iR.« Br.— R.' Some 
pieces bear also the name of Sybaris, 
a sign of alliance. There axe some 
doubtful gold pieces, and others with 
the legend Phiatlva, or PhiaMia: 
8. — R.^ R.*, which may bekmg to 
Posidonia, or to a town called Fhis- 
telia or Bistelia, in Campania. 

Prianaua. S. — R.* Br. — R.* 

Potniae. Br. — ^R.* 

Praeeua. S. — ^R.* Br. — ^R.* 

Prinaaaua, or ^enaaeua, Br. — ^R.* 

Priapua (Karaboa). Br. — ^R.* R.« 

Proana yel FroertM, S. — ^R.* 

Proconneaiia (Mermer-Adassi. Harmara, 
IslandB near to Mysia). S. — R.^ 
Br.— R.» 

Proni O^halleniae, Br. — ^R.^ 

Proatanna, Br. — R.* 

Pruaiaa ad Olymptta (Brosa). Br. — ^R.* 

Pruaiaa ad Sypium (Uskubi). Br. — R.^ 

Prymneaaua. Br. — ^R.* llie pieces of 
king Midas bear the name of this 
town. 

Ptolemaia. Br.— R.« 

1V*M» (Kitro). Br.— R.1R.8 

I)flw. The coins formerly attributed to 
this town belcmg to Pythopolis, in 
Bithynia. 

Pymue. Br.— R. 

I^hium. Br.— R.« 

Pythopolia, The pieces attributed to 
this town are false. 



£av«f>na (Ravenna). Br. — ^R.^B.* Latin 

legend. 
Bhoueua* S. — ^R.* Br. — ^R. 
Bheyium (Reggto di Calabria). 8.— E.* 

R.« Br.— C.— R.« 
RhUhymna (Betimo). 8.— R.^ Br.-^ 

R.8 
IZA^wfMi (Bhodiopolis). Br.— R.« 



AITTOirOMOUS OOrCTB. 



667 



MhodM (Rhodus, Rodi). O.— E.^ S.— 
C. — '&.*■ Br.—C. — R.* The ooina 
of this island are namerous, 

Mo9W (Rhosos). Br.— R.» 

Bhifpiie, Br. — R.^ M. Sestini consi- 
ders that these coins are falsely 
attributed. 

BiyhMtini (Ruva). S.—R.« Br.— R.« 

S. 

Saerte. Br. — ^R.^ This piece hears the 

name of Antiochus YI., king of 

Commagene. 
Saetteni. Br.— R.« B.* 
8agdUu8us (Radyaklu). S. — ^R.* Br. — 

R.* 
Sola. Br.— R.* R.« 
Salanas (Kolori. An island near to Attica) . 

Br. — ^R.* R.8 A piece attributed to 

Boeotia has been restored to this 

town. 
Salamis (Costanza). S. — ^R.^ 
aalapia (Salpi). Br.— R.« R.« 
Salentu A piece attributed to this 

people belongs to Calacte, in Sicily. 

SAMARITIS :— JopiM, Sebaste, 

Same CephallemM, S. — ^R.^ Br. — ^R.* 

SAMNIUM (I.) :— ^««em«a, Allipha, 
Aquilonia^ Beneventum, Qorjiniumy 
Ifeles, Murgantiae, Pentri, 

Of the uncertain money of Samnium. 
S. — R.* R.* Oscan and Latin le- 
gends. Some bear the inscription 
of Italia, and are in diameter and 
form like the Roman consular dena- 
rius. 

8amo8 (Susam, Adassi, Samo). G. — ^R.* 
El.— R.e 8.— R.6R.» Br.— R.« R.« 
The coins of this island are nume- 
rons. 

Samosata (Chiamssatt, Sama, Samosata). 
Br. — ^R.* R.* Some of these pieces 
bear the head of Antio«hus Vl., king 
of Ciommag^ne. 

Samothraee (Samotreki). Br. — ^R.^ R.? 

BanehUium, Br. — R.^ 

'Sarhanisaa, Br. — ^R.^ These pieces were 
coined in the reign of Polemo II. 

Sardee (Start, Sard, Sarde). S.— R.* 
Br. — C. — ^R.* The coins of this town 
are numerous. The silyer coins are 
Cistophori. 

iSariimta (Sardegna). S.— R.^ Br.— R.* 



Greek, Latin, and Punic legends. 
The silver pieces of this state, with 
Greek legends, are of doubtful attri- 
bution. The bronze piece, with a Latin 
legend, is a coin of the Roman family 
Atia, which has on the reverse, Sard. 
Pater. ; for which reason it has been 
attributed to this island. 

Sarisea (.') Br.— R.'' 

Sepsis. S. — R.'' Br.— R.* R.'' 

Scione (Jeni, Kassandra). S. — ^R.^ Br. 
— R.8 

Selge. S.— R.» R.8 Br.— R.s 

Selinus (Terra deUi Pulei). S.— R.« R.« 
There are some pieces which bear the 
name of Syracusae, a sign of alliance. 

S^)phori8f afterwards Diocaesarea (Sa- 
forie, Sefuri). With the name of 
Diocaesarea, Br. — R.^ Some bear 
the name of Seleucis I., king of Syria. 

Serpihus (Serfanto). Br. — R.8 The 
silver pieces formerly attributed to 
this town have been restored to Si- 
cyone, in Achaia. 

Seetua (Zemenick). Br. — ^R.* R.6 

Sesamtts, Br. — ^B.* 

SibUa, Br.— R.8 

SldLIENSES : — Coins of Sicily in gene- 
ral. S.— R.» 

SICILIAE. Islands near Sicily: — 
Caenef Oorsica, Oossittaf Oaulos, 14- 
parOf Lopaduaaf Melita, Sardinia, 

SICILIA. Abacaenum, AbolUif Acrae, 
AdramUf Aetnaei, Agathymtu, 
Agrigentwny Agyrium, Aktesa, Ahm~ 
Uum^ AmestrattUf Ajmotus, (hena, 
Oalacte^ Oamarina^ Oatana, Oentttripae, 
OepJialoediumf Bnna, BnteUa, Br- 
beeauSf BrpXy Buboea, Oalariaf Oelas, 
Herdlceaf JEKmera, Sybla Magna, 
Siccara, laeta, Leontini, Lilybaeumf 
Longone, Maoella, Mazara, Megara, 
Menaenum, Meruaiumf Morgantia, 
Motya, Nacona, Naxua, Seetum, 
PanormuSf Petrinif Segesta, Selinus, 
SoluSf Syractuae, Tawomenium, DHor 
calOj TyndartB, TyrcuAna, 

Sicinua (Sikino). Br. — ^R.« 

Sicyon (Basilica). Achaian league. S. 
— R.1R.S Br.— C.— R.6 

Side (Candeloro). S.— R.^ Ufi Br. — 
R.1R.* 

Sidon (Seida). S.— R.* R.« Br.—R."- 



568 



AUTOKOMOUS CODTS. 



"BJ Some bear the heads of different 
Syrian kings. Several of these pieces 
have Phoenician legends. 

Sigeutn (Yeni— -Cheher). Br.— R.» R.^ 

Signia (Segni). S. — R.'' Latin legends. 

SiUmdua. Br. — 'Rfi 

Saiyum. Br. — R.« 

Sinope (Sinub, Sinab, 8ino];>e). S. — C. — 
R.8 Br.— C.— R.* 

Siphmts (Sifanto). S.— R.« Br.— C.— 
R.^ The silver pieces attributed to 
this island have been restored to 
Sycion, in Achaia. 

Sipontum. Fellerin has attributed to 
this town a coin which has since 
been restored to Hipponium^ of the 
Brutii. — M. Scstini has also given 
to Sipontum a gold coin of doubtful 
attribution. 

Siria S. — 'Sifi Br. — ^R.* A silver piece 
of this town bears the name of 
Buxentum, or Pyxus, In Lucania, 
and another that of Lagaria (?) 

Smyrna (Ismi, Smime, Smyrna). 6. 
— R.'— EL— R.'' S.— R.iR.8 Br.— 
C. — R.^ The coins of this town are 
numerous. 

Boli SolopoliSf Pompeiopolis (Lamuzo). 
With the name of Soli, S. — ^R.' R.* 
Br. — ^R.^ With the name of Pom. 
peiopoUa : Br. — ^R.* R.® 

Solus (Monte Catalfano). Br. — ^R.* 

Spectorium. Br. — R.* 

Stabiae (Stabbia). Eckhel attributed to 
this town a silver coin which really 
belongs to Gelas, in Sicily. 

Stobi (Stip). Monicipium. Br. — R.> 
Latin legends. 

Stratonicea (Eski Chiehere). S. — ^R.'' 
Br.— R.* R.» 

Stratoa (Conopina). S. — ^R.^ 

Stumium (Stemaccio). Br. — ^R.* 

Stymphalus {y^j^i). Achaian league. S. 
— R.'R.8 Br.— R.« 

Syessa (Sessa). S.— R.* Br.— R.^ R.« 
Greek and Latin legends. 

SyhariSf afterwards Thuriumf then Ooasia 
(Sibari Rovinata). With the name 
of SyharU : S.— R.« R.' With the 
name of Thurium: G. — ^R.® S. — C. 
— ^R.-* Br.— R,«R.« With the name 
Obssia : Br. — R.^ The coins of this 
celebrated town are numerous. 

Synnada (Sandakli). Br. — R.^ R.« 

Synaos. Br. — R.* R.« 



Syoripa. S. — ^R.'' Br. — ^R.* 

Syraeuae (Siracusa). G. — C. — R.' 8. — 

C— R.« Br.— C.— R.* 
Syrua (Sira). Br.— R.* M. Sestini at- 

tributed to this town several coins 

formerly classed with those of Tri- 

poli in Phoenicia. 



T. 

Tdbdla, Br.— R.* 

Tambrax, S. — R.^ This piece is of 
Arsaces XI., king of Parthia. 

Tanagra (Gremata). S. — ^R.* R.^ Br.— 
R.» 

Tanas, S. — ^R.' Br. — ^R.« 

Taphias, The piec^ attributed to this 
town has b^n restored to Tarentam 
in Calabria. 

TaretUum (Taranto). G. — ^R.* R.' 8.— 
C. — R.8 Br. — R.* The gold coins of 
Tarentum are numerous, and those 
in silver still more so. The chief 
type represents Taras, the founder of 
this town, seated upon a dolphin. 

Tarsiu (Tersus, Tarsus, Tersine, Tarso). 
S. — ^R.' Br. — C. — BJ The coins of 
this town are numerous. 

Taurotneniutn (Taormina). G. — ^R." E.' 
S.— R.«R.«» Br.— C.— R.* 

Teanurh (Tiano). S. — B.* Br. — ^R.* R.* 
Greek, Latin, and Oscan legends. 

Teate (Chieti). Br.— R.^ R.« Latin 
legends. Some authors attribute 
these coins to Teatet in Apulia. 

Teates (Pezza deUa Chiesa). S.— B.* 
Br.— R.« Of doubtful attribution. 

Tegea (Moklia). Achaian league. S. — 
R.' Br.— R.«R.« 

Tegea, S.— R.* Br.— R.* 

Telamon (Telamone). Br. — ^R.* Etrus- 
can legends. 

Telemiasus, Br. — B,* 

Telos (Elletu, Tillos, Episoopi). Br.— B." 

Temesa (Sanlucito). S.— R.^ 

Temenothyrae, Br. — ^R.* R.* ' 

Temnus (Melemen). Br. — ^R.' R.* 

Tempyra. S. — ^R.* 

Tenedus (Bozgia, vulgo Boghce Adassi, 
Tenedos, Tenedo). G. — R.® 8.— R.' 
R.« Br.— R.« 

Tenus (Tine, Tino, IstindU). 8.— B.* 
Br — f T > S 

Teos (Sigagik).* G.— |l.« R.« 8.— B.* 
R.* Br.— R.^ R.* Some of these 



AUTOirOMOTrS COTKS. 



569 



coins hare the head of Ana- 
ereon ; and some bear also the name 
of Colophon in Ionia, as a sign of 
alliance between those towns. 
Terina (Noccra). S. — ^R.* R.^ Br.— R.« 

R.* 
Termissus (Estenay). Br. — ^R.* R.* 
Terone vel Ibrone (Teroni). S.^-R.* 

Br.— R.' 
ThaUusa (Kalo Simno). Br. — ^R.^ 
Ifuuus (Tasso). G. — ^R.® Br.— C— R." 
R.^ R.* Some of these pieces in 
silver, with free types, form a part of 
the coins which are attributed, with- 
out foundation, to the Isle of Lesbos. 
Thea. M. Sestini says that the coin at- 
tributed to this town is false. 
Tfu^Kie (StiTes, Thiva, Thiba). Gr. — ^R.^ 
S.— R.« R.8 Br.— R.* R.« Several 
copper pieces with the names of 
magistrates, without the names of 
towns, are attributed to Thebae. 
Th^e Adramytenorvm. Br. — R.» R.® 
One of the pieces of this town bears 
also the name of Adramyttium in 
Mysia. 
Thelpusa, Br. — ^R.* 
Themisonium (Teseni). Br. — ^R.^ 
Thera (Santorini). Br.- R.» R.^ 
Thespiae, S.— R.» R.8 Br. — ^R.* 

THESSALIA (G.) : — AenianeSf Argesa, 
AtraXf deriumj Orannony Orannonii 
EphyrHf OtemenBy DemetriaSf Deme- 
fyriaa Sacra, Matea, Ethnegtae, 
Qomphif Oyrton, Heradeaj HomoUtim, 
Lamia, LapithMy Larissa, Larissa 
Orenuute, Magnesia, Malienaes Popu- 
hu, MetropoKSf Minyae Papulus, Mop' 
tktm, Oetaei, Othrytae, PeHmna, 
Perrhaebia, Phaeium, Phakmna, 
Pharcadon, Pluu-sahu, Pherae, P^o- 
ana, Seottuaa, J%ibro8, IHoca. 

Thestali (in general). 8. — C. — ^R.8 Br. 
— ^R.^ R.* Some of these pieces also 
bear the name of Rome, a sign of 
alliance between Thessalia and Rome. 

7%etsalonica (Saloniki, Salonico). Br. 
— C. — ^R.^ Some of these bear the 
name of Rome, a sign of alliance. 

Theudoaia (Caffa). Br.— R.^ 

TMbrot, Br.— R.8 

3%u66 (Halike, Gianikki, Langia). Br. — 
R.8 These pieces were attributed to 
Altona, in libumia. 



Tkiaoa, Achaian lei^n^e. Br. — ^B.* 

THRACIA (G.): — Abdera, Amus, An- 
chialus, Apollonia, Byzantke, Oossea, 
Oypsela, JHeaea, Sadrinopolia, Ma- 
ronea, Meaembria, Nysa Odesmta, 
Odrysii, Passa, Perinthus, Philippo- 
poliSf PloHnopolis, Tempyra, Tirida. 

I%ronittm (Paleocastro). Br. — R.^ 

Thura. Br. — ^R.» 

Thurium, [See Sybabis.] 

Thyatira (Ak Hyssar). Br. — R.» R.* 
The coins of this town are numerous. 
Some bear the name of Smyrna, in 
Ionia, a sign of alliance. 

Theasue, Br. — ^R.8 

Thygela. Br.— R.* 

Thiulum. S. — C. — ^R.« Br. — ^R.* 

Tiberaia (Tabariah). Br. — R.^ R.« Some 
bear the name of Herod Antipas. 

Tiberiopolis. Br. — ^R.* 

Tieinum (Pavia). S. — R.* Br. — R.' 
Latin legend. 

Tirida, The piece attributed to this 
town has been restored to Tricca in 
Thessaly. 

T%thorea, The piece attributed to this 
town belongs to the Phoceans. 

Thim (Thios, Tillies, Filios, Falios). 
Br.— R.» 

Tlo8. S.— R.'' Br.- R.'' 

Tomarena. Br. — ^R.' 

Trdbala, Br.— R.8 

TRACHONITIS ITUREA (A.) : — Oae- 
sarea, Paniaa. 

Traeliwn. Br. — R.* Some of these 
pieces are attributed to the town of 
Triadizza, in Moesia. 

Traianapolia, Br. — ^R.' R.' 

Trallea-Seleucia (Sultan Hyssar). S. — 
R.* R.'' Br.— R.* R.' The coins of 
this town are numerous. The pieces 
which were attributed to Caesarea, 
in Bithynia, have been restored to 
this town. The silver pieces are 
Cistophori. 

Trapeziopolia (Haragiasa). Br. — ^R.* R.* 

Triaea (Tricala, Trikki). S.— R.* Br. 
— R.8 

Tremenothry<te, Br. — ^R.'' 

Trioeola, Br. — R.^ 

Tripolia (Tribul). Br.— R.» R.* The 
coins of this town are numerous. 

Tripolia (Chiam — ^Tarabulus, Tripoli di 



670 



ArTONOMOUS COINS. 



Soria). S.— IL« K.» Br. — B.i Il.« 
Some bear the name of Antiochus 
YI., king of Syria, and others that of 
Dionysins, king of Tripolis. The 
coins of this town are numerous. 

TBOAS (A.) : — AhyduB^ Alexandria 
— 7V<NM, Ariiha^ Dardantu^ lUtun^ 
Neandria^ Ophrynium, SeeptUf 8u 
gium, I%ebe Adram^ftenorvm, 

TVoemt. Br. — ^E.» 

TroSun (Damala). 8. — K.'' Br. — ^R.* 

Tuder (Todi). 8.— R.' Br.— C.— E.« 
Etruscan legends. 

Tkueulum (Frascati). L. — B." Latin 
legends. 

Tana (Teana). Br. — 'Afi 

Tylitnu. S.— R* 

l)fndar%9 (11 Tindaro). Br.— R.* R.« 
Some pieces bear also the name of 
Agythnmns, in Sicily — a sign of 
alliance. 

Tyra^na. Br. — R.' 

U. 

UMBRIA (I.) i — Ariminum Fanumt 
Iffuium, Fisaurumf Fitnum, Iktder, 
Vettuna. 

UPPER ITALY {l.):—Aquaeia, So. 

vennOf Tieinum. 
UranopoUs (Castro). S. — ^R.* R.^ 
Ureium (Rodi). Br. — R.« 
Ursentum, Br. — ^R,® 
Uxmtum (Ogento). Br. — ^R.^ R.* 

V. 

Velmtum. Br. — ^B.* Etruscan legends. 
These coins were formerly attributed 
to FeUhesOt in Etruria. 

Telia (near Castel a Hare deUa £ruca). 
S. — C. — R.« Br. — ^R.* R.* One piece 
is known, which also bears the name 
of Croton in Bruttium, a sign of 
alliance. Some pieces with Latin 



legends were formerly attributed to 
this town. 

VeUtemwn (Velletri. Municipium.) L. 
— ^R.B Latin legends. It is doubtftil 
whether they were ever circulated as 
money. 

Venajhtm (Venafro). Br. — R.^ M. Ses> 
tini does not attribute these pieces to 
this town. 

renutia (Yenosa). Br.— R.« B.* l^atin 
legends. These coins were fonnerly 
attributed to Telia in Lucania. 

Terulae (VeruU). L.— B.8 Latin le- 
gends. These pieces were probably 
never circulated as money. 

Teecia. S.— ^R.s Br.— R.* R/ Latin 
legends. One piece is known which 
bears also the name of Mintumae, 
in Latium. 

Teetini, The pieces attributed to this 
people have been ascertained to be- 
long to the town of Ve$eia in 
Latium. 

Tetema (Massa di Maremma). Br. — ^R.* 
Etruscan legends. 

Tetulonia (Vetulonia). Br. — R.* The 
coins attributed to this town are 
classed by some among those of Tet. 
tuna in Umbria. 

Tettuna (Bettonia). Br. — ^R.* Etruscaa 
legends. These coins are also attri- 
buted to Yetulonia in Etruria. 

Tolaterrae (Yolterra). Br. — R.* "BJ 
Etruscan legends. 

Z. 

Zaoynthue (Zakintos^ Zante). 8. — R.* 
R.8 Br.— R.*R.* 

Zanele»t afterwards Meeaana^ thenJfa- 
merUni (Messina). With the name 
of Zanelee: S.— R.* R.* With the 
name of Meuana : 8. — ^R.^ R.* Br. — 
C. — ^R.* With the name of Mamer. 
Hni: Br.— C.— R.* 

Zephffnum. Br. — ^B.* 



FBICXS OP OBEEK AVTOI^OMOirS COnrS. 



571 



LIST OF PRICES OF GREEK AUTONOMOUS COINS, 

AS BBALISED AT RBOENT 8AUB9, 8U0H AS THAT OF THE PBMBBOKE AND 

THOIIIAS OOLLECnON, ETC. ETC. 



To r. ngnifiet turned to the Bight, to 1. turned to the Left; S. SiUser ; G. Gold ; 
Br. Brimae; rey. Beveree; Obr. Obveree; t. b. signifies Thonuul's Bale, 
p. s. FemJbroke Sale» 



JMera in Thraoe — (Obv.) head of 
Apollo; to right, ABAHPITEON, in 
two lines : (rey.) ini . . . KE2I02 ; 
grii&n to the left ; very fine condition ; 
weight 176^ gM.— S. 11, 3t. M, 
(t. «.) 

iftyc)u8^(IteT.) ABTAHNHN; eagle 
with wings extended ; the whole within 
a wreath, as it came firom the die.-^ 
8. 61. 6«. (p. 8.) 

ieon/Aitf— THrith AAEIS in ezergae ; fine 
oM worlt, in beantiftxl conditicm; 
weight219j'7grs. — &. 11). 15«. (t.s.) 

imttf in Thrace — Profile of Merenry, to 
right, Fetasns ornamented with a row 
of pearls : (rev.) AIN ; goat to r., In an 
indented square; branch of laurel; 
▼ery rare; weight 248^^ grs.-^— 8. 
1^. 8*. (p. B.) 

jA^'tffmtum in Sicily — ^A fSalse gold eofn ; 
weight 88-^ grs. — G. 19«. (t. b.) 

Agrigeiaum — (Obv.) [AKPAjrANTI- 
Nn[N] retrograde; two eagles to 
the r., devouring a hare : (rev.) a 
quadriga at fall speed to the r., 
driven by a female ; above is floating 
a winged Victory, abont to crown the 
charioteer with a wreath; in the 
exergue, a crab. This is extremely 
T<^« probably nniqne, and published 
for the first time in 1849 in " Hum- 



phrey's Ancient Coins." — S. 27). 10s, 
(t. 8.) 

Amphipolis — (Rev.) torch; of extreme 
rarity; weight 26/,^ grs. — S. 11a. 
(t. s.) 

Antandrus in Mysiar-(Rev.) ANTAN; 
goat standing to r., left fore-foot 
raised against a palm-tree. A coin 
of highest rarity. — C. 8). 11». (p. s.) 

^Athens — 11 tetradratehmas, 10 of Athens, 
usual ^t»es of the owl, and one of 
.Sgina: (rev.) AIFI, and dolphin, 
east, all tolerably perfect. S). Zs, 
(p. s.) 

Athens — Spread tetradrachm; AMMO- 
NI02, BTTTAKOS, KAAAIA2 ; 
two burning torches; with three 
other coins, all silver. 3?. 4«. (p. s.) 

Atraao in Thessaly— (Obv.) fsmale head 
to l,\ (rev.) ATPAnON; horse' 
walking to r.; fine work; fair con- 
dition, and of extreme rarity; weight 
40-j*Tj grs. — S. 9l. (p. a.) 

ITarce— (Obv.) AKE5I05; fWl face of 
Jupiter Ammon: (rev.) BAPKAIO 
Silphiimi; extremely rare, and in 
most perfect condition ; weight 199-^ 
, gts. — ^S. 8/. (t. s.) 
\B(Botia — (Obv.) Boeotia; buckler; (rev.) 
APKA.; vase; weight 188 grs.; with 
another. — S. 1/. 17«. (p. «.) 



672 



PMCES OF GBEEE ATTTONOMOTJS COINS. 



BiBotia — Same type as preceding. A AMD ; 
club to {., above the vase ; and on the 
handle, sprig of iyy leaves and berries ; 
▼eight 188 grs. — S. 21. 2». (p. s.) 

SruHi — Mionnet, No. 757 : very rare, 
and in perfect preservation. — G. 
12;. 15«. 

BruHi — (Obv.) head of Juno, behind 
which is a cup : — (rev.) an eagle, 
with wings extended, standing on a 
thunderbolt, in front of Neptune ; as 
fine as if fresh from the die ; weight 
70 grs.— S. II, 14». (t. b.) 

Byzantium — (Rev.) Neptune seated; 
Mionnet, No. 202 ; extremely rare. — 
S. 12/. (t. s.) 

Coles in Campania — CALENO; branch, 
instead of tripod; well preserved. \h 
(p. s.) 

Oamarina — (Obv.) IIIIIAPI^ retro- 
grade : (rev.) KAMAPINAION. This 
coin is excellently preserved, and of 
extreme rarity; weigh^t 133^ grs. 
— S. 11?. 10*. (t.s.) 

Ccftcma — ^KATANAI02; no device be- 
hind the head; fine, but in middling 
condition. — S. 21. 10». (t. s.) 

Cavlonia in Bruttium — ^Mionnet, pL 59, 
No. 2. A very excellent specimen of 
this rare incused coinage ; weight 
123^fl grs.— 8. 21. 3#. (t. s.) 

Chalcia in Macedonia — (Obv.) head of 
ApoUo laureate: (rev.) XAAKIAEXIN; 
lyre; fine, and rare; weight 221 grs. 
—8. bl. 12«. (p. g.) 

Clazomens — (Obv.) laureate head of 
Apollo seen nearly full face, but in- 
clines to r. : (rev.) swan, wings raised, 
with KAAZOMENION ; weight 250 
grs. — S. lot 10». (p. 8.) 

Onossm in Crete — ^Diademed head of Ju- 
piter to r.: (rev.) KNnp]l[nN]; 
square labyrinth ; well preserved, and 
rare; weight 262 ^^ grs.— S. 12/. 5s. 
(p. 8.) 

Chssea in Thrace — ^Mionnet, No. 445. A 
fine specimen; weight 128-^o grs.— G. 
1/. 4». (t. 8.) 



Cttmae. — (Obv.) Archaic female head to 
r. bound with a fillet : (rev.) KTME» 
boustrophidon ; oyster, on which is 
placed a palm-tree ; Mionnet, No. 188, 
cites this identical coin; extmnelyrare 

. type. If not unique.— S. 1/. 8«. (p.8.) 

^ Oyrene—{Oh\.) KXPANAinN ; quadriga 
tor.; (Bev.) Jupiter seated ; of high 
rarity and in perfect condition: 

^ weight 182^ grs.— G. 15/. (p.s.) 
Elis — (Obv.) Head of Jupiter bearded, 
and laureaj^ to /. .• (Rev.) FAAEIXIN 
around an eagle to r., standing on tiie 
capital of an Ionic column. — S. 
1/. 15». (p.s.) 

^JEpJiesus (two silver coins of) — ^The type 
of the bee with £^, and E4E, 
rev., stag standing to r. 21. 5s. (p.8.) 

^etria in Euboea. — Head of Artemis to 
r., bow and quiver behind : (rev.) 
EPETPI, buU to r. lying down, in 
exergue AAMA^I. Of fine work- 

y manship. — S. 5». (p.s.) 
Gekis — The bull with the human face, to 
r.; weight 269^ grs.— 8. 18». (t.s.) 
Similar to last, with FEAAX — S. 1/. 12*. 

*Seraclea — Head of Apollo to /^ £A 
a dolphin ; rev. Hercules standing, club 
in right hand, with left strangling 
Hon.— O. 8/. 15s. 

^'Himera — (Obv.) Cock turned to r.; 
two pellets in the field. — 8. 1/. 12*. 
(t.s.) 

►JByriain Campania— TPIANOS. Mion- 
net, No. 319; very rare inscription. 
19». (t. 8.) 

i7to«— MENE*PON02 TOT MENE- 
^PONOS ; to r., underneath, Pegasus 
drinking ; extremely rare, and nearly 
as it came firom the die; wdght 
255-^ gra.^8. 10/. 15*. 

Lamia (a coin of) — Described by Mionnet. 
with three others, all silver. 21, 17*. 
(p. s.) 

^Lampsacus — (Rev.) The forepart of a 
horse to r., with curled wings in 
Archaic style, in an indented square; 



Orotona—{0hv.) KPOTilNIATAS; head <>' extreme rarity.— 8. 40/. 10*. 



of Apollo to r. laureate, and with long 
hair : (rev.) the Infant Hercules, seen 
in Ihmt, seated on a rock, strangling 
the two serpents ; fine work and con- 
dition. — 8. 3/. 5*. (p. s.) 



Zarissa — (Obv.) Full face of the foun- 
tain Hyperia personified: (rev.) 
AAPI ; horse to r. drinking ; the 
obverse very good ; with three others^ 
aU silver.— 2/. 17*. (p. s.) 



PBICES OE GBEEE AUTOKOMOTJS COIKS. 



573 



LeotUini — (Obv.) Head of Apollo laureate, 
AEONTINTM ; lion's head in pro- 
file, three grains of barley, and fish. 
— S. 1/. 1». (p. 8.) 
Lete — Of peculiarly rude workmanship, 
with three pellets on each side of the 
figures; weight 152,9^ grs., with 
another of same town. — 2 1, 12s, (p.s. ) 
Locri — Head of Jupiter bearded, and 
laureated, to the right, under the neck, 
Z£T2 ; (Bey.) EIPHNH AOKPXIN ; 
female figure holding a caduceus in 
extended right hand, seated on a 
square altar, on which is sculptured 
a bucanium; good condition and of 
extreme rarity. — S. 122. 15«. (t. s.) 
Zydia — ^Early gold ; lion and ball facing : 
(rev.) two irregular, unequal, in- 
dented squares. — 30/. 10«. (p.s.) 
Maeedonim, in general — (Bev.) AESIL- 
LAS ; Mionnet, p. 455, No. 83 ; as 
it came from the die ; weight 264^^^ 
grs. — S. 21. 7ff. (t. s.) 
Maronea — A tetradrachma of usual size.; 
and reads AI0NT20Y. SATHPOS; 
retrograde, but not of archaic work ; 
as it came from the die, and un- 
common. — S. 15«. (p. s.) 
Mes»ana — Under a hare, the head of 
Pan, turned to the r. ; fine and rare. 
21.29. (t.s.) 
Jforyimrta— (Obv.) MOPPANTINnN; 
Minerva with crested helmet, fuU- 
fiboe; same inscription on rev. — S. 
22. 128. (t. s.) 
Metapontum in Lucania — (Obv.) head of 
Ceres to the left, with ear-rings and 
necklace, hair flowing, behind is 
AT : (rev.) META ; ear of bearded 
wheat, and an uncertain symbol in 
the field ; most beautiful work ; ex- 
cellent preservation ; weight 121 grs. 
— ^. 6/. 8». (t. s.) 
Miletua — ^ApoUo to 2. MI ; perfect con- 
dition; weight 102,1^ grs., with 
another of Miletus j both silver.-^ 
3/. U. (p. s.) 
Myritut in AeolLs (a false gold coin of) — 
Cast and tooled ; weight 444 grs. — 
S. 32. IBs. 
Naxus — Old fawn sitting near a plant 
of ivy and holding a thyrsus. — S. 
162. 15«. (t. s.) 
Neapolis — ^Mionnet pt. 1, pi. 7, No. 6 ; 



good condition, and three others, all 
silver: weight 151 grs. — 12. 5«i 
(t.s.) 

Neapolis — (Obv.) female head to the left ; 
a vase with one handle behind : (rev.) 
bull with a human face, walking 
to r. ; underneath BI ; above, a 
winged Victory, with a wreath ; 
weight 114t«„ grs.— S. 22. 5s. (t. s.) 

ybla in Campania, but with the legend 
NXIAAIHN; rare, and in perfect 
preservation. — S. 12. 17«. (t. s). 

Orestae — XlPH2KI[XiN] retrograde, 
with a pellet under the centaur; 
rubbed, but in fair condition. — S. 

\ 22. 8«. (t. s.) 

Ftmormus — ^Head of Hercules with lion 
skin to r. ; (rev.) well defined Phoe- 
nician letters under horse's head; 
palm-tree behind, club in front; 
weight 265 grs.— S. 12. 6s. (p. s.) 

Panortnus — Large head, surrounded by 
a circle of dots. — G. 12. 9s. lOd. 
(p. s.) 

Pantieapeum in Chersonesus Taurica — 
(Obv.) head of Pan to 2, bearded, and 
with wreath of ivy: (rev.) IIAN 
grifOn to 2, standing on an ear o* 
wheat, and in perfect condition' 
weight 140^0 grs.— G. 82. 6«. (p. s.) 

Terffamus — Cistophorus ; usual types ; 
but on rev. (Lat.ins.). C. PULCHEB. 
PBO. COS. above the serpents; of 
the highest rarity, if not unique. 
12. 6s. (p. s.) 

Poptdonia in Etruria. — ^Mionnet, p. 101, 
No. 46 ; fine condition, and very rare. 
— S. 12. 10*. (p. s.) 

^ostdonia. Two coins ; 1st. MOIT, usual 
incused type, in fair condition ; 2nd, 
another, same type, with HO Kt* — 
S. 12. 9«. (p. 8.) 

Pbsidia — (Bev.) the equestrian Neptune, 
to the left, with a star under the 
horse ; weight 260-^ grs. — S. 22. 4s. 
(t.s.) 

Bhegiwn — (Obv.) [PH] FINOS— head 
of Apollo to left, with broad wreath 
of laurel formed of three rows of 
leaves ; long hair ; the legend runs 
in front of the head: (rev.) full- 
faced head of a lion ; extremely rare. 
— S. 152. (t. s.) 

Smyrna — With turreted head and 



574 



FBICE8 OF GBEBK AXTTOKOKOUS OOLETS. 



SMTPNAION in wxeaXtk of oak. 
— S. 5/. (p. B.) 

jSueMono — Campania but with an ear 
of irheat behind the head; rare, 
and in fine condition ; weight 113^^^ 
gn, — 8. 11, 10s. (t. 8.) 

SyracusB—TCPAKOHa ; with K on the 
diadem, and KIMXIN, the name of the 
engrayer, on the dolphin under the 
neok ; excellent preserration ; weight 
668^5 grs. — S. 83/. (x. a.) 

Syracuse — Behind the head a grain 
of barley, likewise under Hercules, 
on rey. weight 899-^^ grs. — G. 
15/. 15«., yery high relief, (t. s.) 

^-octMd— Under the head ETAINE, 
name of engrayer, fine expression 
of face, a fall spread coin, show- 
ing the whole type on both sides. — 
8. 15/. (t. s.) 

Syracuse — (Oby.) Showing two doU 
phins, clear and well preseryed ; rey. 
head of the fourth horse not yisible. 
— 8. 9/. (t. 8.) 

Tarenium in Campania— (Oby.) TAPAS, 
retrograde, Taras on a dolphin to 
the right, with his arms extended, 
in archaic style: (rey.) TAPAS, 
retrograde; winged horse to the 
left, and a scallop shell underneath ; 
rare, and in yery good condition; 
weight 120^*^^ grs.— 8. 14s. (x.s.) 

Tarentum — (Oby.) horseman to ther^ht, 
with buckler ; two spears in his 
left hand and a third in his right, 
in the field, under the horse, KAA ; 
(rey.) TAPA2, Taras on a dolphin 
to the right, holding a helmet with 
both hands; on each side a star, 
underneath A P. I; most beau- 
tiful work, and in surprising con- 
dition. — S. 12/. (t. s.) 

Tarentum — (Oby.) helmeted head of 



Hinerya to r, with flowing hair; 
(rey.) Taras on a biga, to the right ; 
aboye a star, and under the horees a 
dolphin. — G. 9/. lbs, (t. s.) 

Teanum in Campania— TIAN7B in 
Oscan letters, retrograde; Mionnet, 
No. 262 ; but diota behind the head 
of Hercules. — 8. 3/. Is. (t. s.) 

Terina — (Oby.) female head to the left, 
hair like that of Diana ; (rey.) TE- 
PINAION; winged female seated 
to the left on a yase and holding a 
wreath in her extended right hand ; 
in perfect condition and rare ; .weight 
ll7<^grB. — 8. 7/. (t. 8.) 
'^Thasmj island near Thrace — (Obv.) Satyr 
carrying off female ; (rey.) indented 
square as usnal ; wdd preseryed. — S. 
10«. (p. 8.) 

IMtes — Buckler and yase, with 9A 
and bunch of grapes pendent firom 
r handle of yase ; with two others, 
one of Orohomenus, and another 
of Thebes, all silyer. 1/. 11«. (t. s.) 

Thurimn in Lucania — (Oby.) head of 
Bfinerya to r; 4^ in the field in 
front of the helmet, and a griflSn on 
the neck of it; (rey.) eOTPIflN; 
a bull tossing, to the right, and a fiah 
in the exergue; of yery fine work- 
manship, and in fine oonditioii. — 
8. 21/. (t. 8.) 

TeHia in Lucania— (Obr.) head of MJ^ 
nenra to the right, the hair tomed 
up behind, and tied ; (rey.) TEAH- 
TfiN in the exergue ; a lion walking 
to the r; aboye is a trident, be- 
tween the letters # I ; rare type, 
perfect preseryatjon, and fine work ; 
weight 11 7-^Q grs. — 8. 3/. 1». (t.s.) 

Z(Mi6/e»— Mionnet, pi. 47, fig. 5 ; fine 
condition, and yery rare.— S. 4/. 10s. 
(T. 8.) 



A FULL LIST OF THE ANCIENT COINS OF PEINCES 

(OB BEGAL COINS) 

OF 

EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA, 

ur 
BTATma THEIB COMPARATIVE DEOREBB OF RARTFT. 



2%« Odd are marhed G.; the Silver, S.; (he Copper^ Br. (Jw Bronze) ; the Eleetrum, EL; 
the Leadj PL or L.; oaid Base Silver, Po. or Pot, for Potin. Thoee marked C. are 
Common; those of the higheat degrees of rarity, B/ or Rfi Ac. ; and of the lower degree* 
qf rarity, B.^ or B.> dkc. 



Agbiobntttm, TnuNTS of. 

Thero, ftrom 476 to 472 b.c. The only 

piece attributed to this priace is false. 
Fhintiiu, about tiie year 280 b.c. 

Br.— B.1 B.« 

AsMxinA, Kings of. 

AnameSf about the year 245 b.c. 
Br.— B.8 

8ame9, uncertain date, Br. — ^B.'' 

Pythodoris (queen), uncertain date, 
Br. — ^B.'' The head of this queen 
is found on the reverse of the coins of 
Sames. 

Xerxes, about the year 148 b.c. Br. 
— ^B.8 This sUver piece is false. 

Abdissarus, uncertain date, Br. — ^B.* 

MUhridates, about the year 148 b.c. 
Br.— B.8 

Jlgranes I. ^ The pieces of this king 
are classed among those of Syria. 

Arta/oasdes, from 61 to 34 b.c. Br. 
—B.8 

Tigranes IT, and Eraio, his sister and 
-wife, uncertain date ; but about the 
commencement of the Christian 
era. Br. — B.'' 

Aristobuiiu and Erato, his wife, un- 
certain date; Br. — ^B.* 
Babtlok, Kings of. 

Thnarehw, Contemporary of Antiochus 



IV., king of Syria, about the year 
160 B.C. Br.— B.8 

Bactbia, Kings of. 

Theodotus I,, about the year 257 b.c. 

There are no coins known of this 

prince. 
Theodotus IL, ttom. 240 to 220 b.c. 

There are no coins known of this 

prince. 
Mfthydemus, about the year 220 b.c. 

G.— B* 
HeUacles, uncertain date. S. — ^B.8 
JSucratides I., from 165 to 150 b.c 

S.— B.8 

BOSFHOBTTS ONLY, KiNOS OF. 

li. Jul. Sauromates /., contemporary of 
Augustus and Tiberius. ,Br. — ^B.^ 
B.8 Imperial Br. — ^B.* Of Augus- 
tus and Tiberius. 

Fepa^ris or Oepaepiris, wife of Sau* 
romates. Br. — ^B.* The last of 
these two names yms most probably 
the real one of this prinoess. 

JRhescuporis Z, contemporary of Au- 
gustus Tiberius and Caligula. B. — 
B.8 Imperial G.— B.« B.* B.s Jl.8 
Of Augustus Tiberius and Caligula. 

Mithridates, contemporary of Claudius. 
Br.— .B.8 



676 



ANCIEKT COnrS OF FSINCES. 



Cotys I.f contemporary of Claudius and 
Nero. Imperial G. — R.* Br. — ^R.* 
Of Claudius, of Agrippina the young, 
and of Nero. 

Bheseuporit II., contemporary of Do. 
mitian. Imperial G. — R.* Of Do- 
mitian. 

Sawromates II,, contemporary of Adrian 
and Trt^an. Br. — ^R.* R.* Impe- 
rial G.—R.* OfTrajan and Hadrian. 

Ootya II., contemporary of Hadrian. 
Br.— R.« Imperial G.— R.* Of 
Hadrian. 

Shoemetalees, contemporary of Hadrian 
and Antoninus. Br. — ^R.* Imperial 
G. — ^R.* Of Antoninus and M. Au. 
relius. 

Eupator, contemporary of Antoninus 
and M. Aurelius. Br. — R.* Im- 
perial G. — R.* Of Antoninus, of 
M. Aurelius, and of L. Veros. 

Sauromates III., contemporary of M. 
Aurelius, of Commodus, and of Sep- 
timus Seyerus. Br. — ^R.* Imperial 
G.— R.*R.* EL— R.* 8.— R* Of 
M. Aurelius, of Commodus, of Sep- 
timus Severus, and of Cara(»lla. 

Bhescuporis III., contemporary of 
Caracalla, of Eliogabalus, and of 
Alexander Severus. Br. — ^R.* Im- 
perial G.— R.» EL— R.« S.— R.« 
Of Caracalla, of Eliogabalus, and of 
Alexander Severus. 

Ootys III., contemporary of Alexander 
Severus. G. — R.» El. — R.« S. — 
R.* Of Alexander Severus. 

Sauromates IV., contemporary of Alex- 
ander Severus. Imperial S. — R." 
Of Alexander Severus. 

Cbtya IV., contemporary of Alexander 
Severus. Imperial S. — B,.* Br. — 
R.« Of Alexander Severus. 

Ininthimeutis, contemporary of Alex- 
ander Severus. Br. — R.* Imperial 
S.— R.» Br.— R.* Of Alexander 
Severus. 

Bkescuporis IV., contemporary with 
the Emperors ftrom Maximin to 
Gallienus. Imperial S. — R.* Po. 
— R.« R.8 Br.— R.* R.8 From 
Haximin to Gallienus. . 

Sauromates V., contemporary of Pro- 
bus. Imperial Br. — R.^ OfProbus. 

lUranes, contemporary of Probus. 
Imperial Br.— R.« Of Probus. 



Tkothorses, contemporary of Diocletiaiu 
Imperial Br. — R.* R.* Of Diode, 
tian. 

Sauromates VI., contemporary of Con. 
stantine the Great. Imi>erial Br. — 
R.8 Of Constantine the Great. 

Bheseuporis V., contemporary of Con- 
stantine the Great. Imperial Br. — 
R.' Of Constantine the Great. 

SauromtUes VII. No coins of thii 
king are known. 

Btthinia, Kings of. 

Nieomedes I., from 276 to 250 b.c. S. 
R.« Br.— R.* 

ZeUu, son of Nicomedes. Tbere are 
no coins of this prince. 

Frusias I., from about 280 to 187 b.c. 
8. — ^R,« Br. — C. R.* Some gold 
pieces are false. The bronze pieces 
are uncertain whenever they are of 
Prusias I. or II. 

Prusias II., reigned from 187 to 149 
B.C. S. — R.* Br. — C. R.* 

Nicomedes II. (Epiphanes,) from 149 
to 98 B.C. G.— R.8 S. — R.« 

Nicomedes III. (Epiphanes,) from 9S 
to 78 B.C. S.— R.» 

Oradaltis, queen of Bythinia, uncer- 
tain date. Br. — ^R.* 

Mtua Orsoharis, queen of Bythinia, 
uncertain date. Br — ^R.* 

Cafpadocia, Kings of. 
Ariarathes IV. reigned to the year 

220 B.C. S.— R.« 
Ariarathes V. (Eusebes), from 220 to 

166 B.C. Br.— R.« R.s 
Ariarathes VI. (Philopator), from 166 

to 182 B.C. S. — R." R.' 
Ariarathes VII. (Epiphanes}, from 

182 to 117 B.C. S— R.« 
Ariarctthes VIII. (Philometor), firom 

117 to 105 B.C. S.— R.» 
Ariobarzanes I. (Philoromaeus), from 

91 to 68 B.C. S.— R.« 
Ariobarzanes II, (Philopator), from 

66 to 52 B.C. The first eight years 

he lived in union with his father. 

S.— R.« 
Aricharzanes III. (Philoromaeus 

Eusebes), from 52 to 42 b.c S. — 

R.* R.« 
Ariarthes X. (Eusebes Philadelpfaus}, 

from 42 to 36 B.C. S. — ^R.® 



ANCIBKT COINS OF PBINCES. 



577 



Arehtdaua, from 36 b.c. to 17 a.d. 

Caria, Knvos of. 

HecatovmtUf died about 381 B.C. S. 

MausoluSf died about 358 b.c. S. — 

E.» R.« 
Artemisia, sister and wife of Man. 

solus. There are no authentic pieces 

of this queen. 
mdrieus, died in 844 b.c. 8.— R.« 

Ada, Bister and wife of Hidriens. 

There are no pieces of this queen. 
JPixodarus, died in 336 b.c. G.^— R.« 

S.-— R.« 

Othontopates, reigned about 834 b.c. 
8.— R.» 

Cassandeba, Kings of. 

Apollodortu, uncertain date. . . . R.8 
Pinkerton, -who mentions this coin, 
neither designates the metal or the 

. model. 

Chalcisis, Tstbabchs and Kings of. 

Ptolemaew (son of Mannaeus, tetrarch) , 
reigned in the time of Pompey, and 
died in 60 b.c. Br. — R.« 

Lysanias (son of Ptolemy, tetrarch), 
reigned in the year 60 b.c Br. — 
R.« 

SerodeillL (king). The pieces of this 
prince are classed to the kings of 
Judaea, because he was king over 
that country also, which was the 
principal seat of his authority, as 
are those of Agrippa II. 

Characbnb, Kings of. 

I%raeus, contemporary of Selencus 11., 
King of Syria. 8.— R.« 

Artab<ne$, contemporary of Arsaces 
XII., King of Parthia. 8.— R.* 

AUambUut, contemporary of Augustus 
and of Arbaces XV., King of 8yria, 
Po.-— R.» 

AdinniMMS, contemporary of the Em- 
pero4|iberiu8 and of Arbaces XIX., 
King of Parthia. Po.— R.^ 

Monneses, contemporary of the Empe- 
ror Trajan and of Arbaces XXVI., 
King of Parthia. Br.— B* 



Artapaniu, or JSrtaparuu, reigned 
during the beginning of the third 
century. Po.— B.* Br.— B.* 

CiB'tKA, Kings of. 
Moagetes, uncertain date. Br. — ^B.* 

B.» 
Amintas, uncertain date. Br. — E.* 
Ohotis, uncertain date. 8. — ^B.* 

CiLiciA, Kings of. 

liweondimottis I., contemporary of 

J. CsBsar and Augustus. Br. — B.* 
PhUopator I. or II., contemporary of 
Augustus. Br. — B.^ 

CoMHAOENs, Kings of. 

Antioehus IV. (Epiphanec, Magnus, 
Deus), from 40 to 70 a.d. Br.— B.« 
B.^ 8ome of the coins of this prince 
bear the name of lotape. Some of 
the pieces of this prince bear also 
the names of the towns where they 
were struck. 

lotape, the wife of Antioehus IV. Br. 
— B.» B.« 

Epiplionei and CalUniciu, about the 
year 70 b.c. Some pieces bear the 
name of Antioehus IV., the father of 
these princes. Some bear the name 
of Lacanata in Cilicia and Lycaonia. 

Ctpeus, Kings of. 
JEvagoras, reigned about 350 b.c S. 

— B.8 Br.— B.» L.— B.8 (See 

article in body of work.) 
Nieocl^i king of Paphus, uncertain 

date. 8. — ^E.^ The known piece 

does not bear the prince's head. 

Ctbenaica, Kings of (Afbica). 
Ophilon, uncertain date. S. — B.* 
Magas, contemporary of Ptolemy I. 

and II., died in 256 b.c. Br. — B.* 
Ptolemaeus (commonly called Apron), 

died in 9C b.c S. — ^B.' Br. — B.6 

Damascus, Kings of. 
Aretas, uncertain date. Br. — ^B.^ 

Edessa, Kings of. 
MannuB, contemporary of Hadrian 
The coin published of this king ik 
false. ^ 

p P 



578 



ANCIENT COINS OF PBINOES. 



Jhfforuif (xmtemporary of Marcus 
Aurelius and Lucius Yerus. The 
published piece of this king is 
doubtful. 

JfanntM, contemporary of Marcus 
Aurelius and Lucius Yerus. Im- 
perial Br. — B.* B.* Of Marcus 
Aurelius, of Faustinus the young, of 
L. Yerus, and Lucilius. 

Ahgarus, contemporary of Commodus. 
Imperial Br. — ^B.' Of Commodus. 

AhpartUf contemporary of Septimus 
Severus. Br. — ^B.« . Imperial Br. — 
C. — B..* Of Septimus Seyerus. The 
autonomous coins of this prince have 
on the reverse his son Mannus. 

Manntta (son of Abgarus), contempo- 
rary of Caracalla. Br. — ^B.* Im- 
perial Br. — B." Of Caracalla. 

JJbgarWf contemporary of Gordian the 
Pious. Imperial Br. — C. — B.* Of 
Gordian the Pious. 

EOYFT, ElKOS OF. 

Ptolemaeut I. (Soter), team 385 to 285 
B.C. G.— B.* B.« 8.— B.* B.* Br. 
•~C. B.* Some of the bronze pieces 
of this prince have on the reverse 
the head of Berenice. Others were 
struck in Cyrenaica, with the mo- 
nogram of Mages, king of that 
country. Some pieces have also the 
monogram of Tyre, in Phcenicia. 

Berenice, Br.— C. B.^ Those pieces 
with the head of Berenice alone are 
Tery rare, and were struck in Cyre- 
naica with the monogram of Magas. 

Ptoletnaeus II. (Philadelphus), from 
285 to 246 B.C. S.— B.^ B.» Br.— 
B.' B.^ Some copper pieces of this 
prince have also the heads of Soter 
and Berenice, and others with those 
of Soter and Arsinoe. 

Arfinoe, wife of Ptolemaeus Philadel- 
phus. G.— B.» B.» S.— B.6 Br. 
— B.* 

Ptolemaeus III, (Evergetcs), from 
246 to 221 B.C. S.— B.* Br.— B.« 
B.8 Bestored by this prince with 
the words eEHN AAEA^riN. G. 
— ^B.* B.8 Some copper coins of this 
prince have on the reverse the head 
of Berenice, his wife. The pieces 
restored by this prince in honour 
of his father and grandfather, have 



on one side tlie heads of Soter and 
Berenice, and on the other those ai 
Philadelphus and Arsinoe, with the 
legend eEAN AAEA^ON. This 
legend is nearly always divided into 
two ; the one word on one side^ and 
the other on the other. 

Bereniee, wife of Ptolemaeus TTT. O. 
— B.« B.» 8.— B.T Br. — ^R.« 

Ftolemaeua IT. (Philopator), from 321 
to 204 B.C. G.— B.8 8.— R.» 

Arsinoe^ wife of Ptolanaeus lY. G. 
— B.* 

Ptolemaeut (Epiphanes), ftrom 204 to 
181 B.C. G.— B.« S.— B.' One 
silver bears the name of Berytus, in 
Phoenicia. 

Ftolemaeua VI. (Philometor), from 
181 to 146 B.C. S.— B.* Po. — ^B.» 

^ Br. — ^B.^ Some pieces, althon^ 
they do not bear the name Philo- 
metor, are attributed to this prince. 

Ftolemaeus TIL (Evergetes II., com. 
monly Physcon), from 146 to 116 
B.C. S.— B.« B.* Br.— B.1 B.» 

Cleopatra (wife of Ptolemaeus YII.], 
reigned first with her eldest son, 
Ptolemy YII., and afterwards with 
her second son Ptolemy IX., fnm 
116 to 69 B.C. Br. — C. B.* Some 
pieces have on the obverse the head 
of Jupiter Ammon witii the name of 
Cleopatra, and on the reverse two 
eagles on a thunderbolt, instead of 
one only, which Is the ordinary type 
of the coins of the Egyptian kings. 
It is thought that these two eagles 
signify two reigning powers united, 
viz., tiiat of her and her two sons. 

Ptolemaeus VIII, (Deus Soter n., com- 
monly called Lathurus), reigned first 
with his mother Cleopatra Arom 116 
to 106, and then alone from 88 to 
81 B.C. G.— B.» Br.— B.1 B.« 
Some of these pieces in bronze have 
the head of Jupiter Ammon, and on the 
reverse the legend ITTOAEMAIOT 

BASIAEnX 

(Heopatra (Selene), wife of Ptolemy 

Yin. Br.— B.« 
Ptolemaeus IX. (Alexander I.), reiRned 

first with his mother Cleopatra from 

106 to 89 B.C., and then alone from 

89 to 88 B.C. Br. — C. B.« 
Ptolemaeus X, (Alexander 11.}, ttcm 



AlfCIEKT COIITS OF PEDfCES, 



679 



81 to 65 B.C. There are no certain 
coins of this prince. 

Ptolemiteus XL (Neos Dionysos, com- 
monly called Anletes), from 59 to 
56 B.C. Br. — B..^ 

Ttolemaeus XII. (Dionysos), from 56 
to 41 B.C. 8. — R.* 

Ftolemaeiia XIII. (fh)m 47 to 42 b.c.) 
There are no certain coins of this 
prince. 

deopixtray reigned first with Ptolemy 
XII., her eldest brother and hnsband, 
firom 50 to 47 b.c, afterwards with 
Ptolemy XIII., her yonnger brother 
and second husband, from 47 to 42 
B.C., and then alone to 30 b.c. S. — 
B.8 Br.— R.*R.* Imperial 8.— R.» 
Br.— B.» R.* 

Ennirs, Kings of. 

Aru^>ast from S51 to 342 b.c. This 

prince usurped part of Epims in the 

leign of Neoptolemus, his brother. 

The pieces attributed to him belong 

to Thebae, in Boeotia. 
JV«opfo/emti«,. about 350 B.C. Br. — ^R.^ 
Alexander J., from 342 to 326 b.c. 

G.— R.» 8.— R.« R.8 Br.— R.» 
Phthia (mother of Pyrrhus) . Br.— R.« 

These pieces also bear the name of 

Pyrrhus. 
ISfrrhtay from 294 to 271 b.c. G. — 

B.* B.« 8.— R.S R.8 Br.— R.1 R.* 

Some of the coins of Pyrrhus were 

struck in Italy and Sicily. 
Alexander II., about 272 b.c. S. — ^R.^ 

R.» Br.— R.» 
J*tolemaeu8f uncertain date. Br. — R.' 
Mostis. The pieces attributed to this 

prince have been restored to a 

Thracian ling of the same name. 

Galatxa, Eings of. 

BitovkUf uncertain dtite, Br. — R.^ 
BitovioffoguSf uncertain date, Br. — ^R.'' 
BUueus, uncertain date, Br. — R.* 
Oaeantolta, uncertain date, Br. — R.* 
Psamytetf uncertain date, Br. — ^R.* 
Aetolobu8y uncertain date, Br. — R.* 
Brogitartu, from the year 56 b.c. S. 

— R.» 
Jkiotartss, contemporary of Fompey 

and J. Csesar. Br. — ^R.^ 
Amyntas, contemporary of Marc An- 
tony and Augustas. Br* — ^R,* 



Hebaclea, KnroB and Tyban^s of. 
Timotheue and Dionysitta, contempo- 

rary of Philip II., king of Macedon. 

8.— R« 
Dionysku (alone), contemporary of 

Alexander the Great. 8. — ^R.« 
Anuutris, wife of Dionysius. S. — R.' 

Br.— R.8 

AdaeuSf uncertain date. Br. — R.& 

iLLTBictrM, Kings of. 
DemetriuSf about the year 220 b.c. 

8.— R.8 
OentiuSy about the year 165 b.c. Br. 

— R.8 

BallaettSf uncertain date. Br. — R.« 
ZariaSf uncertain date. Br. — R.8 

JcDAA, Kings and Pbinces of. 

These pieces were struck in the name 
or by the order of these princes. 

Simeon (prince), ft-om 144 to 135 b.c. 
8 — ^R.* R.8 Br.— R.I R.» Struck 
in the reign of Trajan and Hadrian. 
8. — R.* Samaritan legend. The 
pieces of Simeon which were struck 
in the reign of Trajan are very sin- 
gular. 

Alexander Jannaeus and Jonatan, 
(kings). Alexander Jannaeus reigned 
from '105 to 79 b.c. The date of 
Jonatan is unknown. Br. — ^R.' R.* 
Bilingual legends, Greek and Sama- 
ritan. 

Antigonus (king), from 40 to 38 b.c. 
Br. — R.^ Bilingual legends, Greek 
and Samaritan. 

Herodes Magnus (tetrarch), after, 
wards king, from 40 to 4 b.c. Br. 
— R.* R.* 

Arehelaus (ethnarch of Judtea), firom 
4 B.C. to ... . A.D. Br. — ^R.8 

Herodea Antipas (tetrarch of Galilee), 
from 4 B.C. to 39 a.d. Br. — ^R.* R.6 
Imperial Br. — R.'' Of Caligula. 

Philipptu (tetrarch of Trachonitist), 
from 4 B.C. to 34 A.n. Imperial 
Br. — R.* Of Augustus. 

Agrippa I. Magnus (king), from 36 to 
44 A.D. Br. — R.* Imperial Br, — 
R.^ Of Caligula and Claudius. 

Serodes III, (king of Chalcidis), con- 
temporary of Claudius. Imperial 
Br. — ^R.' Of aaudius. 

Agrippa II, (king of Chalcidis), from 

p p 2 



ANCLEHr COIBS OX PBHICZS. 



. uid Domltiim. 
Zmadomi, «iDUmpoTU7 ol Au^natua. 
Impoul Bi. — K.' Cn Aogaitiu. 



iKlnff ODlj pabliflhed by Goklus, u 
doubtrnl. . . 

Oltimtnti III, 8. — B.' 

Tha oneitnl imetrlaiii kingi, 3. — B 



4IS to t9» B, 

— E.' R.' 






/7., : 



Q.— C. E,' e.— C. B 



} ass B. 



IIT, ((he Orut), (nun S3S 

Br. — C B .■ Stnck in 
[n, G.— R.* R.* B. 
.— B.' With datn, 
Tith doabUol t}p«, 
1th the title or Uhk, 
-C. R.* Br.— C. B.' 
death, a.— E," 8.— 

w II, tram SM In 
%.' E.' 8.— E.' R.* 

I«taS9S>.(i. St.— 



iTe been leetOKd tA Anligv- 

/r^ ftom 397 to 3B4 b.c. 

Bt.— C. K.* 
.JjiJ^mitf (King oT Abu), Kigned 

durfi^ the jta 2B2 n.o. & — E.' 

S^R,* Br.— R.* 
J>«H<r«w /. (PoUoraetet), Inaa 394 to 

197 B.C G.— E.« S. — R.» B.» 

Br.— R.' 
^iitfynm J. (Gonitu), from IIS to 

lis B.C. S.— R,' R,' Br. — C. R,' 
Dtmatrim II., bom :1S to 313 lc 

Br.— R.> R.' 
Antifionvt II. (Doion). reined .... 

Br.— C. R.* ThB Dolas vMch dot 

Oonatas. 

8.— R." R^'i Br.— C. a.* 
PmHU, from 178 to 198 i.e. G. — B.* 

8.— R.' E.' Br.— C. E.* 
FtaUpput VI. (Andriaeu), rdgned in 

119 B.C. The pieces atlribaled to 

thli piinoe mn o[ Philip Y. 

Idhidii and Mauikubu, Kdkm or 



Jvbal., aontemparir; orjaliniCBBT. 
G.— R.' S.— R.> R.* Po. R.' Br. 
— E.' MoM at theu pteeca limit 
the mune Jnbii in Latin, ind > 

Aia //., rroDi 39 lo IB B.C. S.— R.' 
R.' Br.— E.> K.> Berenl pi«a 
bin on the reteme the liead of bi« 
irlfe CleopBtni. Tlioee Imring iiii 
Alone, have L&Hn legends only, bat 
Ihoae beuing that of hla wife tOs, 

uid Greek on that ot the qoeen. 

OUepatra. 8. — B.< a.'. Br. — R.* B." 

Ptoitmairat. the «n of lobt IL 8.— 

E.' Br. — E.' E.' Imperial Br.— 

B.* B.' or Aogoitu and Tiberiu. 

w hns Latin legendi, isd 



nruIL, n 

Statlia IV., uncerUln date. Br.— B,' 

Theae pleoca were attribnted bj Cur 



AI?CI£NT COIKS OP FBHTOES. 



581 



to Senihes in., king of Thrace. 
£. Q. Yisconti has restored them to 
Seuthes lY. 

OI.BA, PBIXSTB AMD PbINCXS 07. 

J^olemon, contemporary of Marc An- 
thony. Imperial Br. — R.'' ; of Marc 
Anthony. These pieces bear the 
names of some of the Cennati. 

^ox, contemporary of Augustus. 
Br. — ^R.' Imperial Br. — E.* ; of 
Augustus. Some of these pieces bear 
the names of some of the CennatL 

Pakomia, Enfos or. 

jAudoleony from about the year S40 to 

SSO B.C. S.— R.» R.8 Br.— R.8 
StqMlemuSf uncertain date. Br. — R.^' 
IJyeceitUy uncertain date. S. — R." 
JPatrenUy uncertain date. S. — ^R.^ 

Paphlaoonia, Kings of. 

Fylaemenaea, uncertain date. Br. — ^R.* 

Pasthia, Kings or. 
Armee* J., uncertain date. Br. — R.* 
Arsaces II. (Tiradates), uncertain 

date. 8.— R.« 
Araaeea III. (Artabanus I.), uncertain 

date. There are no pieces of this 

king. 
Ar8€toes IV. (Priapatius), uncertain 

date. S.*-R.* 
Arsaces V. (Phraates I.), fh>m about 

190 to 165 B.C. 8.— R.* Br.— R.* 
Arsaees VI. (Mithridates I.), from 155 

to 140 B.C. 8. — R.* Br. — ^R.» 
Arsaees VII. (Phraates II.), from 140 

to about 126 b.c. 8.— R.* R.» 
Arsaees VIII. (Artabanus II.), about 

the year 100 b.c. 8. — R.* 
Arsaees IX. (Mithridates II.), from 

95 to 90 B.c. 8. — ^R.* 
Arsaees X. (Mnaskyres), uncertain 

date. There are no coins of this 

prince. 
Arsaces XI. (Sanatroeces), from 77 to 

7 B.C. 8. — ^R.^ Some of the pieces 

of this king bear the name of Tam- 

tnx, in Parthia. 
Arsaees XII. (Phraates in.), from 

70 to 60 B.C. 8. — ^R.* R.* 
Arsaees XIII. (Mithridates IH.), un- 

certain date. There are no certain 

ooins of this king. 



Arsaees XTV. (Orodes I.), from . . . • 

to 87 B.C. 8.— R.1 R.» 
Arsaees XV. (Phraates lY.), uncertain 

date. 8.— R.« R.» 
Thermusa (queen), wife of Phraates lY. 

8.— R.T 
Mnaskyres (king of Apolloniadis), 

uncertain date. 8. — ^R.* With 

Phraates lY. 
Arsaces XVI. (Phraataces), uncertain 

date. There is no certain numey of 

this king. 
Arsaees XVIL (Orodes II.), uncertain 

date. There is no certain money of 

this king. 
Arsaces XVIII. (Yonones or Onones), 

contemporary of Augustus and Tibe- 
rius. 8. — R," 
Arsaces XIX. (Artabanus III.), fh>m 

.... to 41 A.D. 8. — ^R.* 
Arsaces XX. (Bardanes), from .... to 

47 A.D. 8. — ^R.* 
Arsaces XXI. (Gotares), from .... to 

50 A.D. 8. — R.1 R.* 
Meherdates (son of Yonones I.), reigned 

during the year 49 a.d. S. — R.* 
Arsaces XXII. (Yonones or Onones II.) 

imcertain date. There are no cer- 
tain coins of this king. 
Arsaces XXIII. (Yologeses I.), un- 

certain date. 8. — ^R.'' 
Arsaces XXIV. , uncertain 

date. There are no certain coins of 

this prince. 
Arsaees XXV. (Pacorus), from 84 to 

A.D. 8.— R.* 

Arsaees J.XVI. (Chosroes), fhnn .... 

to 122 A.D. Br.— R.» 
Arsaces XXVII. (Yolageses II.), from 

122 to 146 A.D. 8.— R.« 
Arsaces XX VIII. (Yolageses III.), from 

146 to 190 A.D. 8.— R.*R.« Po. 

— R.» R.* Br.— R.* 
Arsaces XXIX. (Yolageses lY.), from 

190 to 196 A.D. Po.— R.« 
Arsaces XXX. (Yolageses Y.), from 

.... to 219 A.D. Po.— R.« 

The uncbbtain Pabthian Kings of ths 

NAMB OF ARSACXS. 

Po— R.1 R.« Br.— R.1 R.8 There 
are some pieces bearing the name 
of Arsaces which cannot with cer- 
tainty be attributed to any one of 
the foregoing princes. 



582 



ANCIENT COINS OF FBIKCES. 



PsioAMVs, KiMOS or. 

FhiUtairutt third and second oentary 
B.C. 8.— R.*— R.* Br.— E.« R.* 
The kingdom of Pergamus was 
founded by Fhiletairus, a Paphla. 
gonian of humble birth, in 281 b.c. 
His suooessors bore the same name. 
These coins are rery beautifully 
executed. 

Ov THOSB Kings or Pbbsia sntxtlxd 

THB SaSSANIDAX. 

Some pieces of the Persian dynasty 
bear unknown legends. 

The Persian Artaxerxes having con- 
quered the last of the Parthian 
Arsacidae in the year 226 a.d., 
re-established the Persian empire, 
which had been destroyed under 
Darius Codomannus. The new 
dynasty took the name of Sassanean, 
ftom Sassan, the grandfather of 
Artaxerxes. The Sassanidan dynasty 
reigned four centuries in Persia; 
until the Saracens subdued it in the 
seTenth century. 

Artaxerxes, or Arduher^ from 226 to 
240 A.D. 8.— R.« Po.— R.' Legend 
in Sassanidan characters. 

Bapor I, from 240 to 271 a.d. S. — 
R.* 

JSTormttf, or Sormisdas J., from 271 
to 273 A.Bi 8. — R.* Legend in 
Sassanidan characters. 

VarareneSf or Sahram J., ft-om 272 
to 276 A.D. O.— R.« 8.— R.8 Le- 
gend in Sassanidan characters. 
This prince reigned jointly with 
Yararanes II. 

Vararanes III., firom 293 to 297 a.d. 
G. — K.* 8.— R.» Legend in Sas- 
sanidan characters. This prince 
reigned with Yararanes II. and 
Narses. 

Jf arses, fi-om 297 to 302 a.d. G. — R.* 
8. — R.* Legend in Sassanidan 
characters. This prince reigned 
with Yararanes II. and Yararanes 

in. 

Sapor, trom 309 to 879 a.d. 8. — 
R.* R.* Legend in Sassanidan 
characters. 

Sapor III,, from 383 to 388 A.n. 8. 
— ^R.* Legend in Sassanidan cha- 
racters. 



Fhxbab, Ttbavts of. 

Als x a m d er , uncertain date. 



8.— E,* 



POKTVS AKD BoSPHOBirS ClMXBBICB, 

Knros or. 

Leuco II. and III. (kings of Bosporus), 
died in the year 353 b.c. Br. — ^K.' 

Faerisades II, (king of Bosporus), from 
289 to B.C. G. — ^R.- 

IRthridates III. (king of Pontua), from 
297 to 266 B.C. S. — ^R.^ 

Phamaees I. (king of Pontus), reigned 
l^om 184to 157 B.C. S. — R.* The 
gold pieces are false. 

Mithridates V. (Erergetus), king of 
Pontus. 8. — ^R.» 

Mithridates VI. (Eupator Dionysius), 
king of Pontus and afterwards of 
Bosphorus, from 123 to 62 b.c. G. — 
R.» Br.— R.* R.* This was the 
Mithridates who made his name so 
celebrated by his obstinate resist- 
ance to the power of Rome. 

PJutmaces II. (king of Bosphorus and 
afterwards of Pontus), fi^m 62 to 
47 B.C. G.— R.' 8.— R.' 

Asander, archon and afterwards king 
of Bosphorus, from 46 to IS b.c. G. 
_It.s 8.— R.^ Br.— R.* L.— E.» 

Mithridates (Pergamenus), king of 
Bosphorus, contemporary of Julius 
Caesar. There are no coins of this 
prince. 

Polemo I. (king of Pontus, afterwardB 
of Bosphorus), f^om 13 b.c to the 
beginning of the Christian en. 
Imperial S.— R.' Br.— R.« Of 
Marc Antony and Augustus. 

Pythodoris (wife of Polemo I.) Im- 
perial 8. — R.* Of Augustus and 
Tiberius. 

Polemo II. (king of Pontus and Bos- 
phorus), reigned from 38 to 68 b.c. 
Imperials.— R.»R.8 Br.— R.« Of 
Claudius, Agrippina the younger, 
and Nero. 

Tryphaene (wife of Polemo II.) S. — 
R.^ Without his head. 

Sicily, Eikos and Ttraxtts of. 

The coins which have been attributed 
to«Hiero I. and to Gelo, are now 
fully admitted to have been struck 
by the family of Hiero IL Those in 



A2TCIEKT COINS OP PBIKCES. 



5S3 



the memory of Gelo being struck 
during the period that Gelo the son 
of Hiero, was associated with his 
father in the government. 

7%ero, Dionyaifu^ and JHonynua II. 
No coin can with certainty be attri- 
buted to any of these personages, so 
that the coinage of Sicilian princes 
and tyrants begrins with Agathocles 
and Hicetas, and terminates with the 
family of Hiero II. 

Agathoele9f from 817 to 889 b.c. 6. — 
K.^ R.* S.— R.» Br.— C. B.« 

Mieetaa 11., reigned about the year 
380 B.O. G. — R.« 

Fyrrhtu, The pieces of Fyrrhus struck 
in Sicily have been attributed to 
Epirus. 

Hiero II., firom 269 to 215 b.c. G. — 
C. S.— R.8 Br.— C. R.* 

SReronymus, from 215 to 214 b.c. B.^ 
S.—R.* B.« Br.— B.« R.8 

PhUUtia, uncertain date. S. — ^R.* R.* 
These pieces, bearing the head of a fe- 
male with a diadem, and the inscrip- 
tion BA2IAI22A2.«IAI2TIAOS, 
are of very elegant workmanship. 
All that is 'certain resiMcting these 
eoins is, that they belong to Sicily, 
and are of the finest period. A 
coin published by Swinton suggests 
the idea that this queen reigned not 
only in SieUy, but also in Malta. 
This hypothesis was founded upon 
a piece certainly false. It is now 
generally thought by numismatists 
that PhUistis was a princess of the 
family of Hiero II., and probably the 
-wife of his son Gelo. 

Stria, Kings op. 

JSeleueui I, (Nieator), firom 812 to 282 
B.C. G. — R."* 8.— R.* R.* Br. — 
C. R.* Several copper pieces bear- 
ing the name of Seleucus cannot 
with certainty be attributed to one 
monarch more than another of 
this name. Several oopper pieces 
bear the name of Diocaeaarea, where 
they were struck. 

AfUiochus J. (Soter), f^om 282 to 262 
B.C. G. — 'R.* 8.— R.* R.* Br. — 
C. R.* Several pieces bearing the 
name of Antiochua cannot be attri- 
buted with certainty. 



Antioehut H. (Dens), ftrom 262 to 
247 B.C. G.— R.» S.— R.* R.* 

Seleueua II. (Callinicus Pogon), from 
247 to 226 B.C. G.— R.» S.--R.« 
Br. — C. R.* 

AntioehuB (Hierax), about the year 

226 B.C. S.— R.> R.' 

Seleuew III. (Ceraunus), from about 

227 to 224 B.C. S.— R.* 
Antioehtu IIL (Magnus), from 228 

to 187 B.C. S.— R.* R.6 Br.— C. 
R.» 

AcJueus, about the year 227 b.c. G. 
— R.» Br.— R.« 

Seleucus IV. (Philopator), from 187 
to 176 B.C. S.— R.* Br.— R.8 

Antiochm IV. (Deus Epiphanes Ni- 
cephorus), from 176 to 164 b.c 
G.— R.« S.— R.* R.8 Br.— C. R.* 
Several of the pieces of this king 
bear the names of the Asiatic towns 
where they were struck. 

Antioehua V. (Eupator), from 164 
to 168 B.C. 8. — R*. Br.— B» 

Demetritu I. (Soter), from 163 to 161 
B.C., G.— R." 8.— R.« R.« Br.- 
C. R.' It is not known as regards 
several copper pieces bearing the 
name of Demetrius to which Syrian 
king of that name they belong. 
Some copper pieces of this prince 
bear the names of Tyre and of 
Sidon, where they were struck. 

Zoadice, the wife of Demetrius; she 
reigned with Demetrius I. 8. 
— R.» 

Alexander I, (Theopator Evergetes 
Epiphanes Nicepborus, commonly 
Bala), ft-om 151 to 146 b.c. S. — 
R.' R.* Br. — C. R.* Some cop- 
per pieces of this prince bear the 
names of the several towns where 
they were struck. 

Demetritu II. (Deus Philadelphus 
Nieator), from 146 to 126 b.c. S. 
— R.*R.« Br.- C. R.* Some of the 
bronze pieces of this prince bear 
the names of the several towns 
where they were struck. 

Antioekus VI. (Epiphanes Dionysius), 
from 146 to 143 b.c. 8.— R.* R.» 
Br.— C. R.« 

lyyphon (Autocrator), from 143 to 
188 B.C. 8.— R.« Br.— R.^ R.» 
One of the bronze pieces of thia 



684 



▲voiBNT Gonrs or prutoeb. 



king bean the name of Don, in 
Phcenieia. 

Jniioekm FZT. (Er e igetee, oomnunily 
Sidetea), from 198 to 1S7 b.c. B. 
— E.* B.* Br.—C. B.« Some 
ailTer and bronse pieeea of this 
prince bear the namea of Tyre and 
8id(m, when they wen atmck. 

Alexander II, (commonly Zebina), 
from 129 to 123 b.c. 8.— &.s B.^ 
Br. — C. B.* One copper piece of 
fhia prince beara the name of Bery- 
toa in Fhoonicia. 

Seieueue V. about the year 120 b.c. No 
ooina an known which can with cer- 
tainty be attributed to this king. 

CHeopatra Diva Ceret (mother of An- 
tiochuB Yin.), 8.--B.' Br.-— B.* 
B.* These pieeea bear the heada of 
Cleopatra and of her son together. 
Some bronze and ailTer pieeea bear 
the name of Antiochenua, Ptolemaidis 
in Seleocia, and Sidon in Phoenicia. 

Antioehut VIII. (Epiphanea, com. 
monly Oryphoa), from 123 to 97 b.c. 
S.— B.* B.'' Br.— B.1 B.« Some 
pieces of this prince bear the names 
of Laodicea in Syria, and of Sidon m 
PhoBnicia. 

AnHochua IX, (Philopator, commonly 
Cyzioenns), from 1 13 to 96 b.c. S. — 
B.* B.« Br, — C. B.' Some of the 
pieeea of this prince bear the name 
of Sidon in Phoenicia. 

Beleucue VI. (Epiphanes Nicator), from 
96 to 96 B.C. S.— B.» B.* Br.— R.« 

AaUochua X, (Eusebes Philopator), 
about the year 95 b.o. S. — ^B.* 
Br.— B.« 

AnUochue XI. (Epiphanes Philadel- 
phos), about the year 95 b.c. Br. 
— B.* 

PhUippue (Epiphanes Philadelphus), 
about the year 95 b.c. S. — B.* 

Demerits III., (Deus, Philopator, So- 
ter, Philometor, Eusebes, CaUinicns, 
Evergetes), from 95 to 89 b.c. S. — 
B.'^ Br.— B.1 B.» 

Antioehus XII. (Dionjrsus, Epiphanes, 
Philopator, Callinicus), from 89 to 
B.C. Br.— E.* B.* 

Tiffranes (Bex Begum, Deus, Magnus), 
from 88 to 66 b.o. S.— E.* Br.— 
B.' B.* King of Armenia and 
Syria. 



Antioehtu XIII, (Epiphanea, Fb!k>. 
pator, Callinicus, commonly Aaiati. 
Goa), about the year 60 b.c. Br. — B.* 



Thbssalt, TTBAirrs or. 

Tiatiphanf contanporary of FhiUp IL 
and Alexander the Great. S. — ^R.* 
Br.— B.« 



Thbacx, Kikos of. 

SeiUhea IV., about the year 824 b.c. 
The coins attributed to this king have 
been restored to Seuihea lY., king 
of the Odryses, in Thrace. 

LyaitnaehtUf from 824 to 282 B.C. G. 
— C. B.« 8.— C. B.» Br.—C. B.* 
The coins of this king are numerous. 

Agathoelet, son of LjrsimaohuB. Some 
beUere that the head of this prince 
is sometimes found on the coins of 
his father. 

Sarias, of uncertain date. Br. — ^B.'' 

CavanUf from 219 to 200 b.c. Bt. 
— B.» 

Chtys U., reigned during the year 171 
B.C. 8.— B.« Br. — B.» Of doubt- 
ful attribution. 

Ck>tys III., contemporary with Pompey. 
Br. — ^B.* Some of the coins of this 
prince haye also the name of Sa- 
dales II. 

Sadalee II., contemporary with Pom- 
pey and J. Ceesar. Br. — B.*^ Some 
of the coins of this prince bear the 
name of Cotys III. his flEtther. 

Shcanetalcee I., contemporary with 
Augustus. Br. — B.* On some of 
the coins of this prince there are the 
heads of his wife and of his aon, 
Cotys rv. 

Cbtya v., or Bhaseuporis, contempo- 
rary with Pompey and J. Csssar. 
Br. — B.^ The coins of these princes 
are common. 

Xhcemetalces II., contemporary with 
Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudios. 
Imperial Br. — B.b, of Caligula. 

Ootya, uncertain date. Br. — ^B.* These 
pieces are attributed to one Cotys, 
an uncertain Thracian king. 

MosHi, uncertain date. S. — ^B.^ Br. 
— ^B.* These coins, formerly attri- 



PBIOES OP GBEEK B£GAL COISrS. 



585 



Imted to a king of Epinu, hare been 
restored to Thrace. 



Taipolis, Kings of. 
JHonynus, contemporary of Pompey. Br. 



YakdaluSi nr Afbica, Einos of. 

GimthcmundMty txova. 484 to 496 b.o. 
The coins of the king of Yandalus 
are generally classed with the Inu 
perial Boman pieces. 



LIST OF PRICES OF GEEEK REGAL COINS, 

AS RKAT.TRBT) AT THE SALB 07 TBB CELEJ^^TED PEMBROKE AND THOICAS 

OOLLBOnONS, AlTD t)TH£B BECSNT SALES. 
♦ 



Affctthoeles of Sicily ; Victory erecting a 
trophy. — S. 4/. 7«. (p. s.) 

Gelo, two silver coins of, with PEAONOS 
on rey. — 21.29, (p. s.) 

LsfnmaehtUt king of Thrace ; diadrachm 
of nsnal sise, in exergue a bonoh of 
ivy berries; weight 128^„ grs. — 
2/. 8«. (p. 8.) 

Mautoltu, Caria ; of large size, and of 
extreme rarity of this degree of 
perfectness; weight 22ftj^ grs. — 8. 
71. 5». (t. 8.) 

PuBod€tnUf in gold; (rev.) Ill; retro- 
grade ; a small double axe in the 
centre of a concave indentation; 
weight 15-1^ grs., with another of 
Pixodarus, both false. 1/. 7«. (t. s.) 

Arehekttt9 of Haoedon: (obv.) horse- 
man ; (rev.) forepart of a goat, 
rather rubbed and pierced. — 8. 22/. 
(p. s.) 

Pertetu of liaoedon : (obv.) his portrait 
to right; (rev.) eagle with spread 
wings; weight 256^^- grs. — S. 
6/. S«. 6(1. (p. s.) 

^myn^o* of Macedon : (rev.) AMTNTA, 
and horse in a square ; rare, and in 
good condition; weight 146^^^ grs.; 
with a coin of Archelaus, both silver. 
1/. 7s. (t. s.) 

Philip II. of Macedon : gold didrachms : 
(obv.) head of Apollo to r, with short 
hair and laurel wreath ; (rev.) a biga 
at full speed, the charioteer holding a 
wand in his uplifted right hand, and 
the reins in his left; in the exergue 
^lAinnOT; and a helmet in the 



field under the horses; beautiful 
work, and perfect preservation. 1/. 8«. 

(X. 8.) 

Philip II. of Macedon: (obv.) head of 
Jupiter to r; (rev.) ♦lAinnOT; 
naked youth with long hair, on a 
horse trotting to r ; of great rarity ; 
weight 221 grs. — S. 21. 19«.6<2. (x.s.) 

Alexander the Great of Macedon : tetra- 
drachms in gold; (obv.) head of Mi- 
nerva to the right, with a serpent on 
her helmet, and wearing ear-rings: 

(rev.) AAEHANAPOT; Victory stand- 
ing ; weight 265^ grs. 10/. (t. s.) 

Alexander of Macedon : gold didrachm ; 
(rev.) torch, and a monogram on both 
Bides of the Victory; weight 182^'o grs. 
1/. 4<. (t. 8.) 

Alexander III. of Macedon : silver tetra- 
drachm; (obv.) head of Hercules to r, 
covered with a Uon's skin, with the paws 
knotted under the chin ; (rev.)AA£E- 
ANAPOT ; Jupiter sitting to the left, 
with an eagle on his extended right 
hand, and holding a long sceptre in 
his left; in perfect preservation. 
7/. 12«. 6d. (t. s.) 

Philip Aridanu of Macedon : tetra- 
drachm, usual siae ; under the throne, 
ZO. 19«. (t. s.) 

Demetritu of Macedon : first portrait 
to r, with horn and diadem ; 
(rev.) BASIAEHS AEMHTPIOT; 
Neptune standing with trident, right 
foot on a rock; very well preserved, 
and rare. ,21. 4«. (p. b.) 

Pyrrhue of Epinu : (obv.) thunderbolt 



586 



FBICES OF GREEK BEGiX COINS. 



behind the head of Diana: and in 
the field of the reverse, 11, a crescent, 
and a thunderbolt ; exquisite work, 
manship. — O. 85'. (t. s.) 

MithridaUs F/., king of Pontos : silver 
tetradrachm; BASIAEOS. MiePA- 
AATOT. ETIIATOFOS ; a monogram 
on each side the stag, and under the 
inscription is d ; of extreme rarity, 
and a beautiful coin ; weight 259 grs. 
221. lot. (t. s.) 

iVtMUM 77., king of Bithynia : with ME 
in a monogram, under the eagl^ on a 
thunderbolt in the field ; in fine con- 
dition, and of great rarity; weight 
266j"b grs. — 8. 8^ (x. s.) 

Seleueus I. of Syria: (pbT.) head of 
Jupiter; (rey.) Minerva in a car 
drawn by four elephants ; in the field, 
an anchor and monogram ; very rare 
and fine; weight 261^ grs. 21. 

(T. S.) 

Antioehiu I. of Syria : gold didrachm ; 
(obv.) head of Minerva to the right, 
with serpent on the helmet : (rev.) 
ANTIOXOT. BA2IAEn2; winged 
and draped Victory; IIEP; weight 
180 grs. 60/. (t. 8.) 

Seleueus I. of Syria : silver tetradrachm ; 
(obv.) portrait; (rev.) Apollo seated; 
in the field, a monogram in a circle 
on each side behind the legend ; fine 
work, and excellent preservation; 
weight 26 1<^ grs. SI. 4«. 

Antioehut 11. of Syria : (obv.) with wing 
on the diadem ; (rev.) under the cor- 
tina, a horse drinking and two mono- 
grams ; extremely rare. 91. 15«. 

Antioehua III. of Syria : with AP in a 



monogram behind the head ; (rev.) t 
monogram bejrond the legend on eadi 
side ; the Apollo seated ; and in the 
exergue, three letters ; rare, and weQ 
preserved; weight 25 7-^ grs. 3/.3«. 

Demetrius 11. of Syria : (rev.) eagle with 
palm-branch; in the field, SIAH, 
and the Acrostolium, with the date, 
BHP, and a monogram; weight 
218 grs. 41. 8«. 

AntioehuB VIII. of Syria: (obv.) por- 
trait as usual ; (rev.) BA2IAEX12. 
ANTIOXOr . En»ANOr2; Mi. 

^ nerva standing, with a little Victory 
in her extendied right hand ; wei^t 
255 grs. 62. 10«. 

Ptolemy I. of Egypt and Beremee: 
octodrachm in gold ; (obv.) BKHN; 
portraits of the two ; (rev.) AAEA- 
^AN ; portraits of Philadelphus and 
ArsinOe ; behind is A. P. in a mono- 
gram ; rare, and as it came from the 
die. 19/. (t. s.) 

Ptol&ny I, of Egypt (two silver tefara. 
drachms of ) : both in middling con- 
dition ; weight 209-^ grs. 32. (t.s.) 

Ptolemy II. of Egypt : usual type ; a 
star before the eagle, and behind, 2A ; 
well preserved, and rare ; weight 
21%-^^ grs. \l. \U. (t. 8.) 

Ptolemy III. of Egypt : tetradrachm in 
silver. 6/. 12«. Qd. (t.s.) 

Ptolemy V. of Egypt: (rev.) eagle 
standing on a thunderbolt; wei^t 
220^„ grs. 4/. 10<. (t. s.) 

Ptolemy XII. of Egypt : Mionnet, vol. 8, 
pi. 5 ; on the reverse of this coin is 
a oaduceus in the field ; in perfect 
condition. II, 1S«. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



TO THX PBBCKDING LIST OF 



GEEEK COINS OP PEINCES.* 

(REOAL COINS, &c.) 



The numerals denote the columns ; the figures the page. 



A. 

ABBissAxrB, i. 575. 

Abganu, i. 587. 

AchaeuB, ii. 583. 

AdA, i. 577. 

Adaeiu, ii. 579. 

AdlnnaguB, i. 577. 

Aeropns, i. 580. 

Aetolobos, i. 579. 

Agathocles (of Sicily), 1. 
583. 

Agathocles (son of LjBi- 
machnfl}, ii. 584. 

Ageailaus, i. 580. 

Agrippal., ii. 579. 

Agrippa II., ii. 579. 

Ajaz, i. 581. 

Aleua, L 575. 

Alexander I. (of Epirns), 
i.579. 

Alexander II. (of Epirus), 
i. 579. 

Alexander Jannaeus and 
Jonatanns (of Judaea), 
il 579. 

Alexander I. (of Maoedon), 
i. 580. 

Alexander n. (of Mace- 
don), i. 580. 

Alexander III. (of Mace, 
don), i. 580. 

Alexander lY. (of Mace- 
don), ii. 580. 



Alexander (of Pherae), ii. 

582. 
Alexander I. (of Syria), ii. 

588. 
Alexander II. (of Syria), 

i. 584. 
Amadocus, U. 580. 
Amastris, ii. 579. 
Amintas, ii. 577. 
Amyntas (of Galatia), i. 

679. 
Amyntas II. (of Macedon), 

i. 580. 
Antagonna (of Asia), ii. 

580. 
Antigonos (of Judaea), ii. 

579. 
Antigonus I. (of Mace- 
don), ii. 580. 
Antigonus II. (King of 

Macedon), ii. 580. 
Autiochus IV. (of C!onuna- 

getie), ii. 577. 
Antiochus I. (of Syria), i. 

583. 
Antiochus II., ii. 583. 
Antiochus III., ii. 583. 
Antiochus IV., ii. 583. 
Antiochus V., ii. 583. 
Antiochus VI., ii. 583. 
Antiochus VII., i. 584. 
Antiochus VIII., i. 584. 
Antiochus IX., i. 584. 
Antiochus X., i. 584. 



Antiochus XI., i. 584. 
Antiochus XII., i. 584. 
Antiochus XIII., ii. 584. 
Antiochus Hierax, ii. 583. 
Antipater, i. 580. 
ApollodoruB, i. 577. 
Archelaus (of Cappadocia), 

i. 577. 
Archelaus (of Macedon), i. 

580. 
Archelaus (of Judaea), ii. 

579. 
Aretaa, ii. 577. 
AreuB, i. 580. 
Ariarathes IV., ii. 576. 
Ariarathes V., ii. 576. 
Ariarathes YI., ii. 576. 
Ariarathes YII., ii. 576. 
Ariarathes YIII., U. 576. 
Ariarathes EX., ii. 576. 
Ariarathes X., ii. 576. 
Ariobarzanes I., ii. 576. 
Ariobarzanes II., ii. 576. 
Ariobarzanes III., ii. 576. 
Arisbas, i. 579. 
Aristobulus, i. 575. 
Arsaces I., i. 581. 
Arsaces II., i. 561. 
Arsaces III., i. 581. 
Arsaces lY., i. 581. 
Arsaces Y., i. 581. 
Arsaces YI., i. 581. 
Arsaces YII., i. 581. 
Arsaces YIII., i. 581. 



\k more detailed account of the Coins of the Princes, in chronological order, will 
be found in the body of the work. 



588 



INDEX TO GSEEK COIKS OE FBIKCES. 



Arsaoes IX., i. 581. 
Anaoee X., i. 581. 
ArsaceB XI., i. 581. 
Anaces XII., 1. 581. 
Arsaces XIII., i. 581. 
AnaoeB XIY., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XY., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XYI., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XYII., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XYIII., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XIX., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XX., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXI., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXII., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXIII., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXIY., u. 581. 
Arsaces XXY., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXYI., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXYIL, ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXYIII., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXIX., ii. 581. 
Arsaces XXX., iL 581. 
Arsames, i. 575. 
Arsinoe (wife of Ptolemy 

n.), i. 578. 
Arsinoe (wife of Ptolemy 

III.), ii. 578. 
Artabazes, i. 577. 
Artapanus, ii. 577. 
Artavasdes, i. 575. 
Artaxerzes, i. 582. 
Artemisia, i. 577. 
Asander, ii. 582. 
AttambUus, i. 577. 
Andoleon, 1. 581. 

B. 

Bahram I., ii. 582. 
Ballaeus, ii. 579. 
Berenice, i. 578. 
Bitoviogus, i. 579. 
BitOYius, i. 579. 
Bitncus, i. 579. 
Bocchus, ii. 580. 
Brogitanis, i. 579. 

C. 

Caeantolos, i. 579. 
CalUnicus, ii. 583. 
Cassander, i. 580. 
CavaruB, ii. 577. 
Chotis, i. 580. 
Cleomenes III., L 580. 



Cleopatra (mother of An- 

tiochuB YUI.), 1. 584. 
Cleopatra (wife of Ptolemy 

Yll.), U. 578. 
Cleopatra (wife of Ptolemy 

Yin.), U. 578. 
Cleopatra (Queen of 

Egypt), i. 579. 
Cleopatra (wife of Juba 

n.), ii. 580. 
Cotys I. (of Bosphorus), 

i. 576. 
Cotys II., i. 576. 
Cotys III., i. 576. 
Cotys lY., i. 576. 
Cotys n. (of Tbrace), ii. 

584. 
Cotys III., ii. 584. 
Cotys Y., ii. 584. 
Co^B (of Thrace), ii. 584. 



Deiotams, 
Demetrius 

i. 579. 
Demetrius 

ii. 580. 
Demetrius 

don), 11. 
DemetriuB 

ii. 583. 
Demetrius 
Demetrius 
DionysiuB 

ii. 579. 
Dionysius 

i. 583. 
Dionysius 

i. 583. 
Dionysius 

585. 



D. 

I. 579. 
(of Illyricum), 

I. (of Macedon), 

II. (of Mace- 

580. 

I., (of Syria), 

II., ii. 583. 
lU., i. 584. 
(of Heraclea), 

I., (of Sicily), 

n., (of Sicily), 

(of Tripolis), i. 



Epiphanes, ii. 588. 
Eyagoras, ii. 577. 
Enoratides I., ii. 575. 
Eupator, ii. 582. 
Eupolemus, i. 581. 
Euthydemus, i. 575. 

G. 

GelimaruB, ii. 585. 
Gelo, 1. 583. 



Gentius, ii. 579. 
Gepaepiris, 1. 580. 
Gunthamundns, iL 585. 

H. 

Hecatomnus, i. 577. 

Heliocles, ii. 575. 

Herodes Magnus (of Ju- 
daea), ii. 579. 

Herodes in. (of Judaea), 
ii. 579. 

Herodes Antipas (of Gali- 
lea), ii. 579. 

Hicetas 11., i. 583. 

Hidrius, i. 577. 

Hiero I., L 583. 

Hiero n., i. 583. 

Hieronymus, i. 583. 

Hildericus, ii. 585. 

Hormus, i. 582. 

I. 

Ininthimoius, i. 576. 
lonatan, ii. 579. 
lotape, ii. 577. 

J. 

Juba I., ii. 580. 
Juba U., ii. 580. 

L. 

Laodice, ii. 583. 
Leuoo n., ii. 582. 
Lycceius, i., 581. 
Lysanias, i. 577. 
Lysimachus, i. 584. 

M. 

Magas, ii. 577. 
Mannus, ii. 577. 
Mausolus, i. 577. 
Meherdates, i. 583. 
Mithridates (of Armenia), 

i. 575. 
Mithridates I. (of Boepho- 

rus), i. 576. 
Mithridates II., i. 576. 
Mithridates III., ii. 581 
Mithridates lY., ii. 582. 
Mithridates Y., ii. 582. 
Mithridates YI., ii. 582. 



IKDEX TO GBEEK COHTS OF PEINCES. 



589 



Hoagetes, ii. 577. 
Monneses, i. 577. 
MoBtis (of Epims), i. 579. 
MoBtis (of Thrace), ii. 584. 
Uusa Orsobaris, ii. 575. 

N. 

Narses, i. 582. 
Neoptolemns, 1. 579. 
Nioomedes I., ii. 576. 
Nicomedes II., ii. 576. 
Nicomedes ni., ii. 576. 

O. 

Oradaltis, ii. 576. 
Othontopotes, i. 577. 

P. 

Paerisades, ii. 582. 

PatrauB, i. 581. 

Paxuanias, i. 580. 

PepaepiriB, ii. 575. 

Perdiccas n., i. 580. 

Perdiccas m., i. 580. 

Perseus, ii. 580. 

Pharnaces I., ii. 582. 

Piarnaces II., ii. 682. 

Philetairus, i. 582. 

PWlippus II. (of Mace- 
don), i. 580. 

PhiUppusin., i. 580. 

Phmppus IV., i. 580. 

Philippus v., ii. 580. 

PWlippng VI., ii. 580. 

PMUppus (of Syria), i. 
584. 

PhilistiB, i. 588. 

PWlopator, ii. 577. 

Phintias, i. 575. 

Phthia, i. 579. 

Pixodams, i. 577. 

Polemon I., ii. 582. 

Polemon II., ii. 582. 

Polydorus, i. 580. 

Pnudas I., ii. 576. 

Pnudas II., ii. 576. 

Psamytes. 

Ptolemaeus L (of Egypt), 
1578. 



Ptolemaeus II., i. 578. 
Ptolemaeus III., i. 578. 
Ptolemaeus IV., i. 578. 
Ptolemaeus V., ii. 578, 
Ptolemaeus VI., ii. 578. 
Ptolemaeus VII., ii. 578. 
Ptolemaeus Vni., ii. 578. 
Ptolemaeus IX., ii. 578. 
Ptolemaeus X., ii. 578. 
Ptolemaeus XI., i. 579. 
Ptolemaeus XII., i. 579. 
Ptolemaeus XIII., i. 579. 
Ptolemaeus (of Cyrenaica), 

i. 579. 
Ptolemaeus (of Epirus), i. 

579. 
Ptolemaeus (of Numidia), 

ii. 580. 
Ptolemaeus (of Chalddis), 

i. 577. 
Pylaemenes, i. 581. 
Pyrrhus, i. 579. 
Pythodoris (of Armenia), 

i. 575. 
Pythodoris (of Egypt), ii. 

582. 



B. 

Rhasouporis, ii. 584. 
Rhescuporis I., ii. 575. 
Rhescnporis II., i. 576. 
Rhescuporis III., i. 576. 
Rhescuporis IV., i. 576. 
Rhescuporis V., ii. 576. 
Rhoemetalces (of Bospho- 

rus), i. 576. 
Rhoemetalces I. (of Thrace), 

ii. 584. 
Rhoemetalces II., ii. 584. 



S. 

Sadales II., ii. 584. 
Salome, i. 575. 
Sames, i. 575. 
Sapor I., i. 582. 
Sapor II., i. 582. 
Sapor III., i. 582. 
Sarias, ii. 584. 
Sauromates I., ii. 575. 



Sauromates II., 1. 576. 
Sauromates III., i. 576. 
Sauromates IV., i. 576. 
Sauromates V., i. 576. 
Sauromates VI., ii. 576. 
Sauromates VII., ii. 576. 
Seleucus I., i. 583. 
Seleucus II., ii. 583. 
Seleucus III., ij. 583. 
Seleucus IV., ii. 583. 
Seleucus V., i. 584. 
Seleucus VI., i. 584. 
SeuthesIV. (oftheOdrysii), 

i. 580. 
Seuthes III. (of Thrace), 

ii. 584. 
Simeon (of Judaea), i. 579. 

T. 

Tarcondimotus, ii. 577. 
Terranes, i. 576. 
Teres II., ii. 580. 
Theodotus I., ii. 575. 
Theodotiis II., ii. 575. 
Thero, i. 575. 
Thothorses, ii. 576. 
Tigranes I., 1. 575. 
Tigranes IV., ii. 575. 
Timarchus, ii. 575. 
Timotheus, ii. 579. 
Tiraeus, i. 577. 
Tisiphon, ii. 584. 
Trisamundus, ii. 685. 
Tryphaene, ii. 582. 
Tryphon, ii. 583. 

V. 

Varanes I., i. 582. 
Vararanes II., i. 582. 
Vararanes III., 1. 582. 

X. 

Xerxes, 1. 575. 

Z. 

Zarias, ii. 579. 
Zelas, ii. 576. 
Zenodorus, i. 520. 



A LIST OF IMPERIAL GREEK COINS ; 



BXIMa 



SUCH COINS AS WERE STRUCK WITH GREEK INSCRIPTIONS IN 

THE DEPENDENCIES OF ROME 



iir 



EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA. 



The degru» of rarity, are marked by R.^ to "Rfi These Ctritu are nearly aU Bronae. — They 
are marked Br. ; the occasUmaL Silver or Lead Coins are marked reepeetively S. and L. 



A. 

Aba. Br. — ^R.^ Of M. Aurelins, L. 
Yerufl, and Alexander Seyeros. 

Abdera (Ghiumergin, ABperosa, Pla- 
tystomon.) Br. — R.« From Nero 
to Fauatina, the wife of Marcus Au- 
relius. 

Alrila Letteas Decapoleoa, Br. — ^R.* From 
Faustina the younger to Elagahalus. 

Ahoni Tiehoi — lonopoUe (Aineh — Boli 
Yneholu). Br. — R.« Of Antoninus 
and of M. Aurelius ; with the name 
of lonopoUs. Br. — ^B.* Of Lucius 
Yerus and Lucilla. 

Aehtaia (Elalia). Br.— R.* R.« Of 
Julius CflBsar and Augustus. 

Acmtmia, Br. — ^R.' R.« From Tiberius 
to Antoninus. 

AerasuB, Br. — ^R.' R.* From Trajan to 
Alexander Severus. 

Adada. Br.— R.^ Of Valerian with Gal- 
lienus. 

Adraa (Edrai). Br. — ^R.^ From Marcus 
Aurelius to Aemilianus. 

Adramytium (Edremit, Adramitti). — 
Br. — ^R.' R.« From Domitian to 
Gallienus. On these pieces are the 
names of Mytelene of Lesbos, Lao- 
dicea in Phrygia, and Ephesus in 
Ionia ; a sign of alliance with these 
towns. 

Aegae (in Cilicia). S.— R.» Br.— R." 
R.* From Augustus to Saloninus. 



Aegae (Ghiusel - Hyssar), in Aeolia. 
Br— R.* R.« From Claudius to 
Trajanus Decius. 

Aeytahta (Do Castelli, Calla de Gide). Br. 
— B.fi Of Julia Domna and Cara.^ 
calla. These pieces haye been attri- 
buted to Aegialus, of Achaia. 

Aegira (Achaian league). Br. — R.* Qi 
Septimus Seyerus, Julia Domna, and 
Phiutilla. 

Aegium (Yostitza). Br. — ^R.* "From. 
Antoninus Pius to Geta. 

Aentu (Ente, Eno). Br. — ^R.« From 
Marcus Aurelius to Caracalla. The 
imperial Greek coins of Hadrian are 
doubtful. 

Aeaanis, Br. — C. R.^ From JuUos 
CsBsar to Gallienus. 

Aldbanda, Br. — ^R.* R.* From Au- 
gustus to Gordian the Pious. 

Aloe Br. — ^R." Of Hadrian. 

Alea (Achaian league). Br. — ^R.* Of 
Marciana. This piece is doubtftQ. 

Alexandria ad Issum in Cicilia. (Iskan. 
derona, Alessandretta). Br. — ^R.* Of 
Trajan, Hadrian, and Caracalla. 

Alexandria (Rakoti, Iskenderie, Ales- 
sandria d'Egitto). Br. — R.^ Of 
Hadrian. 

Alia. Br. — ^R.^ Of Gordian the Pious. 

Alinda (Mugla). Br.— R.^ From Ao- 
gustus to Annia Faustina. 

Amaeia (Amassia). Br. — BJ R.* Fron 
Domitian to Mamaea. 



IMFESIAL aBEEK COINS. 



591 



AnuutHs (Amassreh, Amastra, Amarsa, 

Ammasera, Samatro). Br. — C. R." 

From Domitian to Gordian the Pioua. 

Theaa coins are ntunerous. 
Ambktda. Br. — R.* From Marcos Aa> 

relius to Alexander Seyerus. 
Amiaus (Himiso, Samsun). 8. — ^R.' R.* 

Br. — R.^ R.^ From Tiberias to Sa- 

loninus. 
Amorium (Hergian, Amoria). Br. — ^R.^ 

R.* From Augostus to Oallienus. 
Amphipolis (Jeni-Kioj). Br.— C. Tifi 

From Angnstns to Saloninas* These 

pieces are namerous. 
Anazarbus (Aynzarba). Br. — R.' R.* 

From ClancUus to Gallienos. 
Anefualus (Atkiali, Tchiengraene-Iske- 

lesai). Br. — C. R.^ From Domitian 

to l^anqnUlianas. These coins are 

namerous. 
Ancyra (Angar). Br. — ^R.* R.' From 

Aagostus to Gallienos. 
Andrtu (Andro). From Antoninus Pius 

to Lucius Yerus. 
Anemurium (Anamur, Scalemura). Br. 

— R.' R.7 From Domitian to Vale- 
rian. 
AMtaeopolites (Tkoou, Eaou, El Eharab). 

Br. — ^R.0 R.B Of Trajan and Ha. 
' drian. 
Antandrua (Antandro). Br. — R.^ R.* 

From Titus to Julia Paula. 
AfUhedon, Br. — R.> Of Caracalla. 
Anthemusia. Br. — ^R.^ Of Domitian, 

Caracalla, and Maximin. 
Antioehia MarUima. Br.— R.< OfPhiUp 

the elder and Valerian the elder. 
Antioehia ad Hippum Deeapoleos. Br. 

— "R.* R.B Of Nero and firom Anto. 

ninus to Commodus. 
Antioeha ad Sarum. Adana, (Edene, 

Adana). Br. — R.* Of Marcus Au- 

relius. With the name of Adana. 

Br. — R.* R.^ From M. Aurelius to 

Oallienus. 
Antiphellui, Br.— R." Of Gordian the 

Pioos. 
Apamea (Famiah) in Syria* Br. — R.* 

Of Aogustns. 
Apamea (Afiun, KanuHyssar) in Phry- 

gia. Br. — ^R*. — R.* From Augustus 

to Saloninos. 
Aphroditopolitea (Ipih, Athflhli, As- 

phoun, Asfun). Br.— R.« R.'' Of 

Tn^an and Hadrian. 



Apollonia (Sizepoli). Br. — ^R.« From 

Domitian to GaUienus. 
Apollonia. Br. — R.« Of Marcus Aure- 
lius and Alexander Seyerus. 
Apollonia (Polina) in Illyria. Br.— R.* 

R.^ From Augustus to Gallienos. 
Apollonia (in Caria). Br. — R.* From 

Augustus to Saloninus. 
Apollonia ad £kyndacum (AbuUona). 

Br. — R.' R.* From Domitian to 

GaUienus. 
Apollonia vel ApoUonidea, Br. — ^R.^ R.* 

From Domitian to Alexander Seyerus. 
Apollonopolitea (Atbo, Odfou, Edfou). 

Br.— R.'' R.8 Of Trajan and Anto- 
ninus Pius. 
Apollonoshieron (ApoUonidea). Br. — 

R.^R.« From Domitian to Alex&nder 

Seyerus. 
jlra&ia (Tiarabia). Br. — R.'' Of Trajan 

and Hadrian, 
ilroftta (in general). Br. — ^R.* Of Hadrian. 
Aradus (Royad, Ayret-Adassi). Br. — C. 

R.^ From M. Anthony to Elagabalos. 
Arae SesHanae (Capo Turingas). S. — 

R.^ Br. — ^R.8 Of Augustus. 
Areadi (in general). Br. — ^R.* Of Anti- 

nous only. 
ArethtuaiAl.BxLstoD). Br.— R.^ Of Sep- 

timos Seyerus and Diadnmenianus. 
Aruuam, Br. — R.* 
Argoa (in Cilicia). Br.— R.* R.» Of 

Valerian, GaUienus, and Saloninus. 
Argos (Planizza). Br. — ^R.' R.* From 

Hadrian to Saloninus. 
Arisba (Mussa-Kioy). Br. — R.» Of 

Trajan and Pescennius Niger. 
Arrinoites (Piom, Fajryoum). Br. — R.* 

R.^ Of Trajan and Hadrian. 
Aryeanda. Br. — ^R.'' Of Gordian the 

Pious and TranquiUinus. 
Aaeuiy or Ascuta. Br. — R.^ Of Augustus. 
Aacalon, S. — ^R.» Br. — R.* From 

Augustus to Alexander Seyerus. 
Asia, Br.— ^R.* From Trajan to Gor- 

dian the Pious. On a coin of Gor- 
dian the Pious the name of Smyrna 

(in Ionia) is inscribed. 
Aaiba, Br. — ^R." Of Gordian the Pious. 

Of doubtful attribution. 
ilnn« (Fumos). Br. — ^R.* OfthefamUy 

of Septimus Seyerus. 
Aapendtts (Menugat, Aspindus). Br. — 

R.* R.^ Of Augustus, and from Sooe- 

mias to Saloninus, 



692 



IMFEBIAX GBEEE COIKS. 



A»$u» (Auo). Br. — ^R.^ R." From An. 

gnstas to Alexander Severus. 
Atamea, Br. — B..^ Of M. Aorelias and 

Ctordian the Fioaa. 
Attaea. Br, — B..* B.* From AagiiBtns 

to Oeta. 
AttaUa (Falea-Attalia) in Pamphylia. 

Br. — ^R.' B.' From Augustus to 8a- 

loninus. 
AttaUa (in Lydia). Br.— R.* R.* From 

Trajan to Geta. 
Athrtbitea (Atrib, Athribi). Br.— R.« 

R.'' Of Trajan and Hadrian. 
Attuda, Br. — ^R.* R.» From Augrustus 

to Saloninus. 
Atigtuta. Br. — ^R.* R.* From Augustus 

to Valerian the Elder. 
Aweliopolu. Br. — ^R.* From Commo- 

dus to Gordian the Pious. 
Azotiu (Azud, Ezdod). Br. — R.® Of 

Septimus Severus with Julia Domna. 



B. 

Bagae. S. — R.« Br. — ^R.* R.« From 
Nero to Saloninus. One piece of 
OallienuB bears the name of Temeno. 
thyrae, in Lydia. 

Salanea. Br. — ^R.'' Of Mark Antony 
and Augustus. 

£aUa (Tavira) Municipium. Br. — ^R.* 
Of Caligula. 

JBargasa (Arab-Hyssar), Br. — ^R.* R.* 
From Nero to Saloninus. 

Ba/rgylia. Br.— R.* R.« From Titus to 
Geta. 

BaHa. Br. — ^R.^ Of Alexander Severus. 

Beroea (Halep, Aleppo.) Br. — C. R.^ 
From Trajan to Antoninus Pius. 

BiUnlis (Calatayud). Municipium. Br. 
R.^ R.' From Augustus to Calignila. 

JtiAynta (in general). 8. — R.'R.» Br.- 
R.' R.^ From Vespasian to Sabina. 

Bithyntum vel OlaudiopoUs (Bastan). 
With the name of Bithynium, Br. — 
R.* R.T From Antonius to Gal- 
lienus. With the name of Claudio- 
polls. Br. — ^R.* From Claudius to 
Hadrian. 

Bizya. Br. — ^R.* R.* From Hadrian to 
Philip the Younger. 

Blaundos, Br. — i.' R.» From Nero to 
Volusianus. 

Boea. Br.— R.« Of the family of Sep- 
timus Severus. 



J?<w^a (in Arabia). Br. — ^R.* R*. Fnm 

Antoninus to Caracalla. 
Botrys (Botrun). ' Br. — R.* From Mareos 

Aurelius to Sooemias. 
Briana. Br. — R.^ Of Julia Domna. 
Brtula. Br. — ^R.'' Of Trajan, Antoninus 

Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. 
Bruzu*. Br. — ^R.' R.^ From Antomnns 

to Gordian the Pious. 
Bubasiitea (Phelbes, Belbeis, Tall-Bas- 

tah). Br.— R.* Of Hadrian. 
Busirites (Pousiri, Aboussir). Br. — R.'' 

Of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. 
Bura. Br. — ^R*. Of the family of Sep- 

timus Severus. 
Byzantium, afterwards OonatanHnopolu 

(Istambul, Islambul, Konstantinie, 

Stripoli, Bizzanzio, Constantinopoli). 

Br. — C. R.^ From Julias Cesar to 

Macrinus. 



C. 

Cabantea (Chbehs, Eabas). Br. — ^EL' 

Of Hadrian. 
Cadi (Kedus). Br.— R.» B.' From 

Claudius to Gallienus. 
Cadme vel JPriene. With the name of 

Priene. Br. — ^R.'' From Augustus to 

Valerian. 
Oaesarea. G. — ^R.* S. — ^R.* B.'' Po. — 

R.* R.« Br.— C. R.6 
Oaeaarea ad Libanum (in Phoenicia). 
■ Br. — R.* From Antoninus Pius to 

Marcus Aurelius. 
Oaesarea Paniaa (Banias, Panaas). Br. — 

B..^ R.* From Augustus to Aquilia 

Severa. 
Oalagurris Naasica (Calahorra). Muni- 
cipium. Br. — C. R.* From Au^^tus 

to Caligula. 
Callatia (Mankalia, Rallati). Br.— R.« 

R.' From Marcus Aurelius to PhUip 

the Younger. 
Oalydon (Galata). Br. — Bfi. Of Septi- 

mus Severus. 
Oame, or Canay or Camena (Coloni). Br. 

— ^R.'' Of Hadrian, Commodus, and 

Septimus Severus. 
Oamatha. Br. — ^R.* From Claudius to 

Domitian. 
Xkmopta (Kahi-Annoub, Aboukir). Br. — 

R.* Of Hadrian. 
Oaphya (Achaian League). Br. — B..* Of 

the family of Septimus Severus. 



IHPSBIAI* GBEEE 0OIK8. 



593 



OaraUia, Br. — K.* R.' From Marcus 

AurelioB to Maximin. 
OarrhM. Br. — ^R^. Of Mareos Aurelius 

and Lacios Yerus. 
Cbrytttu (Karisto. Castel Bosso). Br. — 

R.* From Nero to Antoninus Pins. 
Oua. Br. — ^R.^ Of Gordian the Pious, 

Btruscilla, and Herennius. 
Ckueantmn (Cascante). Monicipium. Br. 

— ^R,« Of Tiberius. 
Oa^abdla (Kalat Hasman,. Br.— -R.* 

Of Maorinus. 
Cdenderis (Kelnar). Br. — 'Rfi From 

Lacius Vents to Etmseillus. 
Oermmm in Caria (Eeramo). Br. — ^R.^ 

Of Antoninus Pius. 
Ceraatu (Chrixonda, Qhireoin, Keresnn). 

Br. — ^R.* Of Antoninus Pius, Marcus 

Aurelius, and Elagabalus. 
Ctretape, Br. — R.^ R.< From Plotina 

to Septimus Sererus. Some of these 

pieces bear the name of Hierapolis, 

in Phrygia. 
Chaleit (Egripos, Negroponte). Br. — ^R.^ 

From Aupistus to Caraealla. 
akaieedon (Kadi-Kioy). Br.-— R.* R.« 

From Agrlppina the Younger to Tran- 

quillina. 
(Xtmrwonetta (in general). Br. — ^R.* R.* 

Of Gommodus. 
OSbyra (Buruz Buras). Br. — R.* R.* 

From Hadrian to Etrusoilla. 
Oidramus, Br. — ^R*. From Marcus Au- 

relius to Julia Maesa. 
0idye$»U8. Br. — ^R.* From Domitian to 

Caraealla. 
Cilbiam Pergameni, Br. — ^R.* R.^ Of 

Domitian. 
OUhiani Nieaenaea. Br.— -R.* R.' Of 

Caius and Lucius CsBsar to Geta. 
OUHani IftfariorM, Br. — R.^ Of Au- 

gustus. 
OUbiani auperiorti, Br. — R.*R.* From 

Augustus to Geta. 
CUmomene (Klisma). B. — ^R.' Br. — ^B^. 

R.* From Augustus to GaUienus. — 

Some of these coins have also the 

name of Smyrna in Ionia, a sign of 

alliance between these two towns. 
CSeone (Clegna). Achaian League. Br. 

— R.* Of Gommodus, and the family 

of Septimns Severus. 
dunia (Coruna del C!onde). Br. — ^R.* R.* 

Of Tiberius. 
dt^MO. Br. — R.* Of Tiberina. 



OHwitM (Porto Crio). Br. — ^R.*R.* From 

Nenra to Caraealla and Flautilla. 
Onotatu, Br. — C. R.'' Of Augustus and 

Tiberius. 
Cbela. Municipium. Br. — ^R." R.* From 

Hadrian to Gallienus. The legends 

are Latin. 
Ooelesyria. Br. — ^R.* From M. Aure- 

lius to Macrinus. 
Chkme, Br. — ^R.* Of Septimus Sererus. 
Colophon. Br. — ^R.* R.* From Nero to 

Saloninus. These pieces are Tery 

numerous. 
Obliaewn (Kutaye, Kutaya). Br. — ^R.' 

R.'' From Tiberius to Saloninus. 

One piece bears the name of Ephesus 

in Ionia. 
Oomana (Mermer Klissa. Gomanak.). Br. 

R.^ From Nero to Elagabalus. 
CotMM. Br. — ^R.^ Of Marcus Aurelius, 

Flautilla, and Philip the Younger. 
Copcte. Br. — B.* Of Vespasian. 
Coptitet (Keft, Quift, Qefth). S.— R.« 

R.* Of Trajan and Hadrian. 
(hreyra (Corfu). Br. — C. R.* From 

Trajan to Gordian the African. 
Cbropmva (Ku-Hyssar). Br. — R.' Of 

Hadrian, Faustina the Younger, and 

Maximin. 
Coryeus (Korcum, Eorcu, Korigos). Br. 

— R.' R.* From Tnyan to Gallienus. 
Obrydalltu. Br. — ^R.* Of Gordian the 

Pious and Tranquillinus. 
Obs (Istanko, Lango). Br. — K} R.* 

From Augustus to Philip. 
Crete (in general). S.— R.* R." Br. — C. 

R.* From Augustus to Caraealla. 
CVa^rM«(inLycia). Br. — ^R.« Of Augustus 

and Gordian. 
OraHa-Flanopolis (Bayndir). With the 

name of Flaviopolis, Br. — R.* R.» 

From Antoninus Pius to Gallienus. 
Oydonia (La Canea). 8.— R.« R.'' Br. 

R.^ R.* From Augustus to Julia 

Domna. 
Cyme (Sanderli, Nemert.) Br. — ^R.« R.» 

From Drusus Ceesar to Saloninus. 

One piece bears the name of Perga. 

mus in Mysia. 
Cynopolites (Kbm, El-Gis). Br.— R.» R." 

Of Hadrian. 
CyparUus. Br. — ^R.* Of Antoninus Pius. 
Cyparisaia (Castel-Rampans). Br. — ^R.* 

Of the family of Septimus Severus. 
Cyprui (in general). 8.— R.' Br.— R.« 

a a 



594 



IMPEEIAL OB£££ COlSSi 



B.B From Aagustas to Maerinos. — 
The pieces of Augustas, Livia, and 
Drusus, without the name of the 
island, with the temple of Venus Pa- 
phia, have Latin legends : those of 
Claudius, Latin and Greek legends : 
and later, the inscriptions are all 
Greek. 

Oyrenaica (in general). Br. — ^B.* B.* Of 
Augustus, Tiberius, Drusus and Titus. 

Cyrrhus (Korus). Br. — C. B.* From 
Trajan to Philip the Younger. 

Oyzieut (the Isle Artaki, the town Arta- 
Kioy). Br. — C. B.* From Augustas 
to Claudius Gothicus. 



D. 

Laedala. Br. — B.^ Of Caracalla. 
Daldii, Br. — B." B.* From Augustus 

to Philip the Younger. 
DamcactUy (Chiam,Damich,Damasco}. Br. 

B.^ B.^ From Augustas to Alexander 

Severus. 
Jktrdamu (Bumu, Punta Dei Barbieri). 

Br. — ^B.* B.'' From Augustus to 

Geta. 
Delphi (Castri or Castro). Br. — ^B.* B.* 

From Hadrian to Caracalla. 
Demetriat. Br. — ^B.^ Of Augustus and 

Tiberius. 
Dioetesarea (in Galilaea). Br. — B.^ B.* 

Of Antoninus, Commodus, and Cara- 

calla. 
Dioeaesarea (in Cilicia). Br. — ^B.* From 

Septimus to Philip the Younger. 
Dioeoelia, Br.— B.^ Of Gordian the 

Pious. 
JHonysopoUs (in Phryjgia). Br. — B." 

Of Augustus, Antoninus, and Annia 

Faustina. 
J>Mmy«opo/w (in Moesia). Br. — B.* B.* 

From Commodus to Gordian the 

Pious. 
Dioahieron, Br. — ^B.* B.' From Au- 
gustus to Alexander Sererus. 
ZHospolis (Sud). Br.— B.« B.6 Of the 

family of Septimus Severus. 
Diospolis Parva (Ho, Hou). Br. — B.* 

Of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. 
DioapoUa Magna (Tape, Mendineh-Ta- 

bore). Br. — B.'^ B.* Of Hadrian. 
JHuw, Br.— B.6 Of Caracalla and Geta. 
Dora (Tartura). Br. — B.* B.« From 

Yespa&ian to Aquilia Seyera, 



DoHifMum(KaraChiehere). Br. — ^R.*R.* 
From Nero to Gordian the Pious* 

Doron, Br. — B.*. Of Marcus Aurdius. 

Dorylaeum (Eski Chiehere). Br« — ^B.* 
B.' From Augustus to Titus. 



E. 

Ebora (Ebora) Munieipium. Br. — ^B<* 
B.* Of Augustus* 

Edeaaa in Macedonia (Edessa or Moiu 
glena). Br. — ^B.^ B.< From Augustus 
to Gallienus. 

JSdesaa (in Mesqjiotamia), Br< — C. B.' 
From Commodus to Trajanus Decios* 

J?£aea (lalea). Br. — B.* B," From Au- 
gustus to HoBtillanus. 

Eleuthemae, Br. — B.'' Of Tiberias. 

Meutheropolia, Br. — ^B.* Of Julia Dom- 
na and Caracalla. 

£Ut (in general). Br.— B.* E.* From 
Hadrian to Caracalla. 

£mi»a (Hams). Br. — ^B.^ B.^ Of Do. 
mitian and Antoninus Pius. 

JSphesiu (Ayasuluk, Efeso). S. — ^B.* Br. 
— C. B.« From the Triumvirates to 
the time of the Emperor Saloninus. 

JEpidaurtu (Pedauro, Napoli di Mai- 
vasia). Achaian League. Br. — B.* 
B.* From Antoninus Piua to Alex- 
ander Severus. 

Epiphania (Hamah). Br. — ^B.^ B.' From 
Tiberius to Gordianus Pius. 

Erae. Br. — B.* Of Augustus. These 
are of very doabtful attribution. 

Ereboea. Br. — ^B.* Of Commodus, Of 
doubtful attribution. 

Eresus (Eresso). Br. — B.^ From Ha- 
drian to Alexander Severus. 

JVyovtea (Milagro). Munieipium. Br. — 
B.^ B.' From Augustus to Caligula. 

Erythrae (Eritra). Br. — "B^* B.^ From 
Augustus to Valeria. 

^&iw (Esebon). Br. — ^B.'' Of Caracalla. 

Etmna, Br. — B.* From Faustina the 
Younger to Alexander Severus. 

Eucarpia. Br. — ^B.'B.* From Augustus 
to Trebonius Gallus. 

Eumenia. Br. — ^B.* B.*^ From Augustaa 
to Gallienus. Some of these coins 
bear the name of Attuda in Phrygia. 

Euromus. Br. — B''. Of Septimus ^verns 
and Caracalla. 

Etippe, Br. — ^B.* Of Lucilla and Julia 
Dom|ia« 



niFEBULL OBEEK COINS. 



595 



F. 

FUwiopoHt, Br. — ^B>B.^ FromDomitiAii 
to Valerian the Elder. 

G. 

Gaba. Br. — ^B.' From Titus to Caracalla. 
Gabala (Qebele). Br.— B.^ B.« From 

AngVustuB to Jnlia Soemias. 
Qadara. Br. — ^B.* B.'' From Augustus to 

Qordian the Pious. 
Gade» (Cadiz). Municipium. Br. — ^B.^ 

B.* From Augrostns to Nero, 
ffo^otui (in general). Br. — ^B.*B.* From 

Nero to Trajan. 
Oanga GernuuUccpolis (Ghiengari. Ghi- 

engra). Br. — ^B.* B.' Of Marcus 

Aurelina, Faustina the Younger, and 

the family of Septimus Severus. 
Gargaira (Ine-Eioy). Br. — B.* Of 

Commodus. 
Gaza (Gasza, Gaza). Br. — ^B.^ B.^ From 

AugrustuB to Gordian the Pious. 
Geraaa (Gerrach). Br. — ^B.* B.* From 

Hadrian to Alexander Severus. 
Germe (Hiera-Germe). Br. — ^B.« B.* 

From Trajan to Philip the Younger. 
Gardua Julia (Gordu). Br. — ^B.* B.^ 

From Trajan to Gallienus. • 
Gortyna (Kortina). S. — B,,^ Br. — ^B.' 

From Caligula to Hadrian. 
Oraceurris (Agreda). Municipium. Br. — 

B.* Of Tiberius. 
Gynaecopolites. Br. — B.^ Of Hadrian. 
Gjfthium (Kolokithia). Br.— B.* B.« Of 

the £Kmily of Septimus Severus. 

H. 

JSfMlrMmi (Edre^es). Br. — ^B.*B.* From 

Hadrian to Saloninus. Some coins 

of this town bear the name Nicaea in 

Bithynia. 
Sadrianopolia in Bithynia (Boll). Br. — 

B.' B.^ From Hadrian to Philip the 

Elder. 
ffadrianopolia {in TbAdia). Br.— B.*. Of 

Septimus Severus. 
JETadrianopolis in Thracia (Idrene). 

Br. C. — ^B.* From Hadrian to Tran- 

quillina. These pieces are very 

numerous. 
Siadrumotherae. Br. — ^B.* B.* From 

Hadrian to Philip. 



Sitdnmentum in Byzacfne (Herkla). 
Br. — ^B.* B.* Of Julius Caesar and 
Augustus. 
Sarpaaa in Caria (Arpache-Ealessi). 
Br. — B.« From Antoninus Pius to 
Gordian the Pious. 
Helena (Macronisi). Br.— B.* B.'' From 

Julius Ceesar to Otacillia. 
KeHopoKtes (On. Mathariah). Br. — B.^ 

Of Hadrian. 
Heptanomis. Br. — "R.^ Of Hadrian. 
Seraclea (in Lydia). Br. — ^B.* From 

Hadrian to Maximin. 
Seraclea (in Syria). Br.— B.* Of Ca- 
racalla. 
Eeraelea in Bithynia (Bachia, Elegri, 

Ercyli, Penderaski). Br.— B.« B.« 
Eeraelea (in Ionia). Br. — B.* Frpm 

Augustus to Geta. 
Heraea, Br. — B.« Of the family of 

Septimus Severus. 
Eennapolites (Chmoun, Ochmounein). 
Br. — B.^ B.^ Of Hadrian and Anto- 
ninus Pius. 
Eertnione (Kastxi). Achaian league. 
*Br. — ^B.* Of the family of Septimus 
Severus. 
Eermocapelia, Br. — ^B.* B.* From Ha- 
drian to Hoetilian. 
EermonthUes (Ermont, Erment, Ar- 
ment, Balad-Mousa). Br. — B.^ 
Of Hadrian. 
Eermupolia, Br. — B.> Of Trebonius 

Gallus. 
Sierapolis, Br.— B.« E.« From Au- 
gustus to Gallienus. 
Sierapytna (lerapietra, Girapetra). S. — 
B." Br. — B.* From Augustus to 
Caligula. 
Eierocaesarea. Br. — ^B.* B.' From Ves- 
pasian to Caracalla. 
Eieroopolitee. Br. — B,,^ Of Hadrian. 
JErMropo/M(Membrik). Br. — C.B.* From 

Tn^an to Philip the Younger. 
EteropoUs (in Gilicia). Br.— B.* B.< 

From Marcus Aurelius to Caraoallu. 
Sippo-Libera (Byzerta). Br. — B,» Of 

Tiberius and Drusus. 
Eypaepa (Pyrge, Birge). Br.— B.« B.» 

From Augustus to Saloninus. 
EypteUotea (Schotp). Br.— B.*. Of Ha- 
drian. 
Eyrcania. Br. — ^E.* B.« From Hadrian 
to Philip the Younger. 

Q a 2 



596 



IHP£SIAL OBEIK COIKS. 



I. 

learia (Nakaria). Br.— E.« Of Com- 
modus. 

leomum (Konyah, Konyeh). Br. — 'BL,* 
Of Nero with Poppasa, of Hadrian, 
Marciu Aureliua, and Faostina the 
Tounger. 

iZa CbfNMiia (Ampoata). Manicipium. Br. 
— ^R*. Of AugnstuB, Tiberius, and 
A^ppa. The coins of this town bear 
sometimes the name of Dertoea. 

Jlerda (Lerida). Manicipium. Br. "R,* 
Of Augustus. Some coins of this 
town bear the names Cissa, Bedesa, 
and Sabenduno; the last mentioned 
of which is unknown. 

Jonia (in general). Br.— R.* OfAntoni- 
nus and Marcus Aorelius. 

lot (Nio). Br.— E.' Of Faustina, wife 
of Antoninus, and Lucilla. 

loU^. Br.— B.7 Of Philip the Younger 
and Valerian the Elder. 

Tsaurtu (Key Chiehere) . Br. — R. » Of 
Geta and Elagabalns. 

Tstrtu (Kargolik, SiUstrik). Br.— R.« 
From Hadrian to Tranquillianus. 

Italiea (Sevilla la Yieja). Municipium. 
Br. — C. R.» From Augustus to 
Drusus. Some coins are found with 
the name Bilbilis, a sign of alliance 
between these two towns. 

Itanus, S. — R.^ Of Augrustus. 

L. 

Laeanatis. Br. — R.^ R.* Some of these 
pieces bear the name of Antiochus 
the Fourth, king of Oommagene. 

Lacedaemon (Mieitra). Br. — C. R.^ 
From Augustus to Saloninus. 

Laelia (El-Berrocal). Br.— R.» Of Au- 
gustus, Tiberius, and L. Ctesar. 

Laerte, Br. — R." From Trajan to Sa- 
loninus. 

LampOy or Lappa, Br. — R.* R.* From 
Augustus to Ckmunodus. 

Lampsaeua (Lapseki, Lamsaki). Br. — 
R.' R.^ From Augustus to Oallienus. 

Laodieea ad lAbanwn (in CkBloeyria). 
Br. — ^R.* R.» From Antoninus to 
Trajanus Decius. 

Laodieea Ckmbuata (in Pisidia). Br. — 
R.B Of Titus and Domitian. 

Laodieea in Syria (Latakie, Latakkia). 



8.— R.' Br.— C. R.' From AugaOm 
to Caracalla. 

Laodieea in Fhrygia (Eski-HTmr). 
Br.- R.1R.' From AuguBto* to Salo- 
ninus. These pieces bear the names 
of Smyrna, Nicomedia in Bythijua, 
Ephesus in Ionia, and some others. 

Las. Br.— R.'' Of the family of SeptU 
mus ScTerus. 

Latopolitee (Sne, Esne, Asna). Br. — ^E.* 
Of Hadriaa. 

Leptis Magna (Lepida). Br. — ^B.* Of 
Augustus, Tiberius, and Agripiima. 

Leueas. Br. — R.* R.» From Clandiiia 
to Goidlan the Pious. 

LeueaSf or Leueadia (Leucadia, or St. 
Maura). Br. — ^R.^ Of Commodna. 

LeOnu (in general). Br.— R.» ».• Of 
Marcus Aurelius and Ck)mmodu8. 

Libya (Niphaiat). Br.— R.^ Of Hadrian. 

LoentivoUtes (Thamoui, Tel-Essabi). Br. 
— R.8 Of Hadrian. 

Lffoia (in general). S.— R.' From CSan- 
dius to Trajan. Some of these pieces 
have the name of ApoUonia in Pi- 
sidia. 

LycopoKtet (Sioout, Asiouth, Oskrath). 
Br. — R.' Of Hadrian. 

Xyrfre. Br. — B..* 'R.* From Alexander 
Querns to Saloninus. 

M. 

Itaeonia. Br. — R.' R.* From Nero to 

EtruscUla. 
Magneeia, Br. — ^R.'R.* FromAugustns 

to Saloninus. 
Magpdus. Br. — R.* From Augustus to 

Julia Domna. 
Ifantinea AnHgonia (Achaian league). 

Br.— R.« R.« Of the famUy of SepU- 

mus SeteruB. 
ifajjtw (Mallo). Br.— R.^ From Angus. 

tus to Marcus Aurelius. 
MareianopoUa. Br. — C. — R.^ From Ha- 

drian to Philip the Tounger. 
JfarMte* (Mariouth). Br. — R.b Of Ha- 
drian and Antoninus Pius. 
Maronea (Marulia, Maronia, Marogna). 

Br. — ^R.* From Nero to Yolusianns. 
Maeayeitet. 8.— R». R.« Br.— R.* 
Megara (Megra, Megara). Br. — R.» B.' 

From Antoninus Pius to Geta. 
jr«fos (Deyrmen-Adassi, Milo). Br. — ^R. 

R.'' From Nero to Caracalla. 



IMPERIAL GBEEK COINS. 



697 



Mai^hUet (Mesi, Memfl, Massr^U 
Oadimah). Br. — R.«R.» Of Trajan, 
Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. 

Meneloitea. Br.—R.* R.* Of Trajan, 
Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus 
Aurelius. 

Mendemu (Chmoun-an Erman, Och- 
moun). Br. — ^R.* R.» Of Hadrian, 
Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelitis. 

Ife§embria (Misevria, Misimbria). Br. — 
£.* R^. From Hadrian to Philip the 
Tounger. 

MetsmU (in general). Br.— R.* R.? Of 
fhe family of Septimus Severus. 

IfeCelf^ (Damalidi). Br.— R.* Of Ha- 
drian. 

Methana (Melana). Br.— R.t R.* Of 
the family of Septimus Severus. 

Methytnna. Br. — ^R.* R." From Augus- 
tus to Alexander Severus. 

Meiropolis (TurbaU). Br.— R.^ R.« From 
Trajan to Gallienus. Some of these 
coins bear the name of Ephesus in 
Ionia, a sign of alliance between 
these two towns. 

Mideoum. Br. — ^R.' R.* From Caligula 
to Philip the Tounger. 

Miletus (Balat, Palaisca, Milet). Br. — 
R.* R.* From Augustus to Saloninus. 
Some of these pieces bear the names of 
Smyrna in Ionia and Amisus in Pon- 
tus, a sign of alliance with these 
towns. 

Uetrqpolis (in Phrygia). Br. — ^R.* R.* 
From Nero to Saloninus. 

Miletopolis {^elte). Br.— R.*R.« From 
Tiberius to Otho. 

Moca. Br. — R.^ From Antoninus to 
Septimus Severus. 

Mopnu Mopsttestia (Messis). Br. — ^R.^ 
R.'' From Domitian to Gallienus. 

Mastene. Br. — R.* R.» From Claudius 
to Saloninus. 

Mothone (Modoni, Modone]. Br. — ^R.^ 
Of the family of Septimus Severus. 

Ifyeonfw (Miconi). Br. — ^R.^ Of Augus- 
tus and Domitian. 

Mpndus (Menteche, Mimdes). Br. — R.* 
From Antoninus Pius to Septimus 
Severus and Julia Domna. 

Myra (Mira). Br.— R.* R.« From An- 
toninus Pius to Valerian. 

Myrhkka. Br. — R.* R.^ From Domi- 
tian to Tranquillina. 



Myriandrua, Br. — ^R.« R.' From An- 
toninus Pins to Marcus Aurelius. 
Mytia (in general)., Br. — ^R.* Of Domi- 

tian. 
Uytilenemi^m Castro). Br.~R.< R.^ 

From Augustus to Saloninus. 



N. 

NaeoUa. Br. — ^R.* R."' From Titus to 
Gordian the Pious. 

Naorata, Br. — R.* R.* From Domi. 
tian to Geta. 

Naueratia (Samocrat). Br. — ^R.'' Of 
Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. 

Naxtu (Naxia). Br.— R.* R.« Of the 
family of Septimus Severus. 

Neapolu (Nabolos, Napulosa). Br. — ^R.^ 
R.* From Titus to Volusxanus. 

Neocaesarea (Niksar, Nixaria). Br. — ^R.* 
R.'' From Tiberius to Gallienus. 

Neoclattdiopolis, Br. — ^R.* From An- 
toninus Pius to Caracalla. 

Neont. Br. — R.* Of Hadrian. 

Neronias. Br. — R.* Of Nero. 

Necaea (Isnik). Br, — C. — R.> From 
Julius Caesar to Gallienus; of Maori- 
nus and Quietus. 

NicephoHum, Br. — 'R..* Of Gordianus 
III. and Gallienus. 

Nicomedia (Isnid, Isnimid, Nioomedia). 
Br. — C. — ^R.« Some of the coins of 
this town bear the names of Amasia 
in Pontus, Smyrna in Ionia, and Lao- 
dicea in Phrygia ; a sign of alliance 
with all these towns. 

NicopolU in Epirus (Prevesa Vecchia). 
Br. — ^R.* R.' From Augustus to 
Saloninus. These pieces are very 
numerous. 

Nicopolis ad Istrum (Niebut, Nigheboli). 
Br. — C. — R.« From Trajan to Gor- 
dian the Pious. 

Nicopolis (in Syria.) Br.— R.* Of Corn- 
modus, Alexander Severus, and Philip 
the Elder. 

Nicopolis ad Mestum {xxiThrtifAA). Br. — 
R.'' R.* From Commodus to Geta. 

Nicopolis in Judea (Amoas). Br. — R.« 
Of Trajan and Faustina the Elder. 

JVioopoK^e* (in Egypt). Br.— R." Of An- 
toninus Pius. 

Nysa (Scythopolis). Br. — R.' R.« Frcnn 
Nero to Gordian the Pious. 



698 



iKPEBiAL osese: coiks. 



o. 

OasitMa^na (Oahliat). Br. — ^B.' Of 

Tiajan. 
Oeea. Br. — B.* Of Antoninus Pins. 
Odeuu$ (Varna). Br. — C.—B.* From 

Trajan to Saloninus. 
Oeniandos (Epiphanea). Br. — ^B*. Of 

Hadrian and Gordian the Pious. 
Olbia, OUnopolia. Br.— B.* B." From 

Domitian to Alexander Seyerus. 
OmbUei (Ambo). Br.— B.« Of Hadrian. 
OnwpAt^ (Nerf ). Br. — B.« Of Hadrian. 
OreAomeniM (Kalpaki). Br. — B.*B.* Of 

the family of Septimus Severus. 
Orthasa. Br. — B.^ B." From Augustas 

to Maximin. 
Orthona. Br. — ^B.* B.* From Tiberius 

to Alexander Severus. 
0«ea (Hoesca). Munlcipium. Br. — ^B.*B.* 

From Augustas to Caligula. 
Otieerda (Cherta). Mnnicipium. Br.— B.^ 

Of Tiberias. Some coins of this town 

bear the name of Caesar. 
Otnu. Br. — B..* B.^ From Julia Domna 

to Geta. 
(kBymehites (Pemsye, Behnese, Bahnasa). 

Br. — B.> B.* Of Hadrian and Anto- 

nlnus Pius. 



P. 

Fagae (Libadostani), Br. — B.* B.* From 

Antoninus to Septimus Severus. 
Paltos (Boldo). Br.— B.* B.« From 

Commodus to Julia Paula. 
Panemotichoi. Br, — B.« Of Julia 

Domna. 
Panopolite$ (Chmin, Chmim, Akhmim). 

Br. — ^B.» Of Hadrian. 
Parlais. Br. — ^B.* Of Gallienus. 
Faros (Paros, Naucsa). Br. — B.' Of 

Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the 

Younger. 
Patera. (Patera). Br. — B.* B.* Of 

Gordian the Pious. 
PautaUa. Br. — C. B.* From Hadrian to 

Gordian the Pious. These pieces are 

very numerous. 
Pedneliasua, Br. — B.' Of Maximin. 
Pella (Ala Clissa, Pella, or Pellatisa). 

Br. — ^B.* Of Marc Antony and 

Octavia. 
Pella (in Macedonia). Br. — ^B.^ Of Com. 

modus and Elagabalus. 



Pi$Um». Br. — ^B.* Of Commodiu and 

the family of Septimus Severus. 
Pelcponneatu in general. Br. — ^R.» B.* 

Of Antoninus, Lucius Yerus, and Sep- 
timus Severus. 
Peltae, Br. — B.^ Of Antoninus Pius. 
Peludutn (Peremoum, Alfaramo). Br^— 

B.» B.* Of Hadrian. 
Peparethtu (Piperi). Br.— B.* From 

Augustus to Commodus. 
Perpa (Kara Hyssar). S.— B,* Br. — 

B.^ B.^ From Augustus to Saloninos. 
PergamuB (Bergam, Pergamo). Br. — C. 

B.S From Augustus to Saloninos. 
P»inaM» (Eraclia, Erekli). Br.— C. — ^B.^ 

From Claudius to Saloninus. These 

pieces are very numerous. 
Perperene, Br. — B.* B.' From Nero 

to Otacilia. 
PesmntM. Br. — ^B.* B.^ Fromdaadius 

to Gordian the Pious. 
Petra (Petra). Br. — ^B,' B.* From 

Hadrian to Geta. 
PharbaethUea (Pharbait, Horbait). Br.— 

B.® Of Hadrian. 
Phaaelis (Fionda). Br.— B.'' Of Gordian 

the Pious. 
Phelltu. Br. — ^B." Of Gordian the Pious. 
Pheneiu (Phonia). Br. — B.* Of the 

family of Septimus Severus. 
Phigalea vel Phialea (Achaian League). 

Br. — ^B.' Of the family of Septimus 

Severus. 
Philadelphia (AU Chiehere). Br.— B.* B.* 

From Augustus to Yalerian the Elder. 

Some of these pieces bear the name 

of Smyrna in Ionia. 
Philadelphia (Amman). Br. — B.^ From 

Agrippina the Younger to Alexander 

Severus. 
Philomelium (Hgun). Br. — B.* B,* 

From Augustus to Trebonianus GaU 

lus. 
PhUippopolis (Filibi) . Br.— C. B.' From 

Domitian to Saloninus. The pieces 

of Domitian bear a Latin legend on 

the obverse. 
Phlius (Santa FUca). Br.- B.* B« Of 

the family of Septimus Severus. 
Phoeea (Foya, Foggia, Fokia). Br,- B.« 

B.'' From Claudius to Philip, 
Phoenice vel Phoenieape (Sopoto). Br. — 

B.0 Of Nero and Trajan. 
Phoenice (in general). Br.— B.* Of Ca. 

racalla. 



IMPEfilAL GBESK COIl^d. 



599 



Of Hadrian. 
Br.— B> Of 



PkthemphUes. Br.— B." 
Phtheneotet (Pteneto). 

Hadrian. 
Pinamys. Br.— B.* Of Hadrian. 
Pionia. Br. — B.'' Of the family of Sep- 

timns Sevems. 
JPitane* Br. — ^B*. Of Cains and Lucins 

Caesar to Alexander Sererus. 
Plotinopolis (Demotica). Br.— B.* B." 

From Antoninns to Caracalla. 
Todalia. Br. — ^B.* Of Tranquillina. 
Poemaneni» Br. — B.^ Of Trajan. 
Pogla, Br. — ^B.'' From Geta to Traja- 

nu8. 
Pdh/rhenium. S. — B.* Br. — B." From 

Augustus to Trajan. 
Pompeiopoli* (Tache-Kupru). Br. — B.* 

Of Marcus AureUus and Faustina the 

Younger. 
/'ontiM (in general). Br. — ^B.* OfMareus 

Aurelius. These pieces were struck 

at Neoecesarea. 
Poro»elene (Musco-Nisi), Br, — B.' From 

Antoninus Pius to Yalerianue. 
Priapw (Karaboa). Br. — ^B.* Of Au- 
gustas. 
Pirosopites (Pchati, Aboadi). Br. — ^B*. 

B^. Of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, 

and Marcus Aurelius. 
Prostanna, Br. — B.' Of Claudius 

Gothicus. 
Prusa ad Olympum (Brusa). Br. — ^R.^ 

B.* Of Nero, and from Trajan to 

Saloninus. 
iViMiM a<l mar«, ^Ms (Eadi Kioy). With 

the name of Prusias. Br.— B.* of 

Domitian. With the name of Cuis. 

Br. — ^B.* B." From Claudius to Saloni- 

nus. 
PnuicM cd Hypvim (Uskubi). Br. — 

B.' B.* From Vespasian to Gal- 

lienus. 
Ptymne»9U9, Br. — ^B.' B.* i^om Au- 

guBtus to GallienuB. 
PaopMt. Br. — B.* Of the family of 

Septimus Severus. 
Ptolemais. Br. — ^B.^ Of Claudius. 
Pyhis (Yavarino, Navarino). Br. — B.* 

B.* Of the family of Septimus Se- 

yerus. 



B. 

Jtahathmoba* Br. — ^B.'B.* From Sep. 
tSmns Seyems to Gordianns* 



Sophia* Br. — ^B.^ B.'^ From Commo. 

dus to Philip. 
Bephanea^, Br. — B.* From Elagabalus 

to Alexander Severus. 
Rkesaena (Bas Ayn). Br. — ^B.* Of 

Caracalla. 
Rhodus. Br. — ^B.» B.« From Tiberius 

to Commodus. 
Rhonu. Br. — ^B.^ From Commodus to 

Septimus Severus. 

S. 

Saetteni, Br. — ^B.' B.* From Hadrian 

to Saloninus. 
Sagalassug (Sadyaklu). Br. — B.* B." 
From Augustu« to Claudius Gothicus. 
Saguntum vel Perseiana (Murviedro). 

Municipium. Br.— B.« B.« Of Ti- 
berius. 
Suites (Sal, Ssa). Br.— B.* B.« Of 

Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. 
Sola. Br. — B.' B.' From Domitia to 

Herennius Etruscus. 
Salami* (Koluri). Br. — B.^ From Sep. 

timus to Caracalla. One piece of 

Severus has also the name of Aegina. 
Samaritia Oaesarea (Kayserie). Br. — 

B.* B.* From Nero to Caligula. 
Samos (Susam, Adassi Tamo). Br. — C. 

B.^ From Augustus to Valerian the 

Younger. Some of these coins have 

the name of Alexandria in Egypt, a 

sign of alliance. 
Samothrace (Samotraki). Br. — B.* Of 

Hadrian. 
Sardes (Sart, Sard, Sarde). Br. — C. B.* 

From Augustus to Valerian the 

Younger* These bear, also, the names 

of Smyrna in Ionia, Pergamus in 

Mysia, and some others. 
Savatra, Br. — B.* Of Antoninus Pfus. 
Sepsis. Br. — B.* B.'' From Marcus 

Aurelius to Maximin. 
Sebaete (Chiemium). Br. — ^B.' B.* From 

Nero to Caracalla. 
Sebaate. Br. — ^B.* B.7 From Claudius 

to Gordian the Pious. 
Sebaste (Island near to Cilicia). Br. — 

B.^ B.* From Augustus to Valerian 

the Elder. 
Sebaete (Sivas). Br.— B.« Of Trajan, 

Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus. 
Seibaetopolia. Br. — B.'^ Of Antoninus 

Pius and Julia Domna. 



600 



IMPIBIAJj a]i££K COINS. 



8tb»imifte9 (Syemiumtl, Semenoad, 8a. 

mannoud). Br. — B.* Of Tngan, 

Hadrian, and Antoniniia Pins. 
Segetta (Piierl di Barbara). Br.— R> 

Of Augttfltiu. 
SeffoMga (Segorbe). Br. — ^E.* From 

AQffuatojB to Tiberius. 
Seleueia (Snyerdieh). S. JL* Br. — C. 

B.* From Augustas to Septimoa 

Bcnreras. 
Sel&ucia (Selefke). Br.— B.^ B.* From 

Hadrian to -Saloninos. 
Sepphona. Br. — E.« Of Tn^an. 
Serdiea (Sofia). Br. — C. B.^ From 

Marcos Aurelius to Gallienus. These 

pieces are very numerous. 
8eatu9 (Zemenick). Br. — B.* B.^ From 

Augustus to Philip the Younger. 
BethroitH (Fsariom). Br. — B.^ B.* Of 

Trajan and Antoninus Pius. 
Sieyon (BasiUca). Br.— B.» Of the 

family of Septimus Severus. 
5ufe (Candeloro). Br.— B.^ B.* From 

Augustus to Sal(minus. 
Sidon (Seida). Br.— B.^ B.« From 

Augustus to Hadrian. 
Silandu*. Br.— B.* B.^ From Domitian 

to Caracalla, 
SUVjfum. Br. — B.* B*. From Antoninus 

Pius to Saloninua. 
Singara (Sengiar). Br.— B.^ B.« Of 

Alexander Severus, and Philip the 

Elder. 
8iphnu8 (Sifanto). Br. — ^B.* B.\ From 

Septimus Severus to Qordian the 

Pious. 
Smyrna (Ismir, Smime). Br. — C. B.'' 

From Augustus to Saloninus. 
SolopoUt Fompeiopolis (Lamuza). With 

the name of Salopolis. Br. — BJ Of 

Cneius Pompey, witii the name of 

Fompeiopolis. Br. — ^B.^ B.^ From 

Cneius Pompey to Trebonianus Oallus. 
Stobi (Stip.) Municipium. Br. — C. B.* 

From Vespasian to Elagabalus. Latin 

Legend. 
StroUmieea (Eski-Xluehere). 8.— B.s 

Br.— B.' B.^ From Antoninus Pius 

to Saloninus. 
Syedra. Br. — ^B.^ E.^ From Nero to 

Saloninus. 
8ynao9. Br.— B.^ B.* From Nero to 

Lucius Yerus. 
Synnada, Br.— B." B.* B.* From An. 

gustus to Gallienus. 



T. 

2Ua (Tabas). Br. B*. B.^ From Dmsos 

to Saloninus. 
Tobala, Br.'-'B.* FromTn^antoGor- 

disn the Pious and Tranquillina. 
7«fMyro(Oremata). Br. — ^B.^ B*. Fran 

Augustas to Faustina the wife of 

Marcos Aurelius. 
Tamitea, (Syani, Taan, Sean). Br.— 

B.' Of Hadrian. 
Tarnu (Tarsus, Tersns, Tersine, Tano). 

8.— B*. B.« Br.— C. B.' From 

Augustus to Saloninus. 
Tofkum, Br.— B.« B.^ From Marcus 

Aurelius to Elagabalua. 
T^M (Moklia). Aebaian League. Br. 

B*. Of the Hunily of Septimus 

Severus. 
Tmenothryte, Br.— B.* B.* From Julia 

Mamsea to Saloninus. 
Tiemntu, Br. — B*. B.* From Augustas 

to Philip the Younger. 
TentyrUe$ (Nitenthory, Dendera.) "Bx, — 

B.^ Of Hadrian and Antooimis Pius. 
Tenut (Tine, Tino, Istendil). Br.— B.* 

From Sabinus to Maxim ian. 
Teot (Sigagik). Br.— B.* B.^ From 

Augustus to Saloninus. 
Termeamu (Estenaz). Br. — ^B.** Ynm. 

Augustus to Alexander Seyems. 
ThdUuta (Kalo-Limno). 8.— B.* Br. 

— <3. B.* From Augustus to Trajan. 
Thapaum, Br.— B.^ Of Tiberius. 
Tha»ua (Tasso). Br.— ^B.* From Hadrian 

toGeta. 
TKelptua, Br.— B.6 Of Commodus and 

the fieuDaily of Septimus Severus. 
Themiaonium, Br. — B.» B.* From An. 

toninus Pius to Philip the Younger. 
Thera (Santorini). Br.— B.^ B.* From 

Marcus Aurelius to Septimus Sevens. 
Thespias, Br. — ^B.^ Of Vespasian and 

Domitian. 
ThesBoUa, (in general). Island near to 

Thessaly. Br.— -C.B.* From Augustus 

to Gallienus. 
ThettalenicQ (Silonild, Salonicco). Br. 

<— C. — ^B.* from Julius Csssar to Sa. 

loninus. 
7%«n»^(Tuna). Br. — B.* Of Hadrian. 
Thraeia, (in general). Br.— B.* B.* Of 

Caracalla. These pieces seem to have 

been struck at PhilippopoUs, in 

Thrace. 



IMFEBTAL QBEEE COINS. 



601 



7AafMn (Bnnar Bachi). Br. — B.* B.* 

From Aagrustos to Saloninua. 
J%jfaiira (Al-Hyssar). Br.— C— B.^ 

From AuguBtos to Salaninus. 
Tkmia. Br. — B.* Of the family of 

Septimus SereroB. 
nkriot (Taboriah). Br. B.^B.« From 

Tiberius to Antoninus. 
liberiopolis. Br.— B.* B.'' From Tra- 

jan to Caracalla. 
lhi»bri(u, Br. B.^ Of Hadrian. 
TUyaants — Iiftias»u». Br. — B.« Of 

Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Geta. 
2¥Mm (ThioB, TUUos, FiUos, FaUos), Br. 

^B.* B.« From Domitian to Gal- 

lienus. 
Tloa, Br.— B*. Of Gordian the Pious. 
AmAm (Buz Daghi). Br.— B''. From 

Sabina to Faustina. 
Tami (Pangala). Br.— C. B.'' From 

Tiberias to Philip the Younger. 
Topinu. Br. — B.* B.* From Antoninus 

Pius to Geta. 
lyaianopolis, Br.— B.^ OfLuoillus. 
Draionopolis, or Traiana, Br.— B.^ B.< 

From Tri^an to Gallienus. 
Tnrianopolit, Br. — R.^ From Tn^an 

to Gordian the Pious. 
TraUet Seleuda. (Sultan Hyssar.) S.— 

B.» Br.— B.1 B.' From Augustus 

to Valerian the Younger. These 

pieces bear the names of Smyrna, 

Pergamus in Mysia, and some ottiers. 
TVapeaopoUa (Karagiai.Su) . Br. — B.* B.* 

From Augustus to Saloninus. 
T^apezm (Trebisan, Trebisonda). Br. — 

B.* From Trajan to Philip the 

Elder. 



J\npoUB (Chiam Tarabulls. Tripoli dl 

Soria). Br. — C. B.« From Marcus 

Antonius to Maximin. 
Troezen (Damala). Br. — ^B.* B.* Of 

Oommodus and the family of Septimus 

Severus. 
Turiaso (Tarazona, Silbis) Munidpium. 

Br. — C. B.* Of Augustus and Tibe. 

rius. 
7S/ana (Tiana). Br. — B.' B.e From 

Nero to Septimus Sevcrus. 
lyra. Br. — B.* B.* From Tespasian 

to Gallienus. 

U. 

Urso (Osuna). Br. — ^B.* B.' Of Au- 
gustus. Some coins of ibis town 
bear the name of Amba. 

UHca (BuchUtter). Br.— C. B.* Of 
Augustus, Tiberius, and Julia. 



X. 

Xoitsi (Skooro, Sakha). 
Hadrian. 



Br.— B.» Of 



Z. 

ZaeyrUhue (Zakinios, Zante). Br. — ^B.' 

B.^ From Antoninus Pius to £la- 

gabaluB. 
Zayta. Br. — ^B.* Of Trojan and Sep. 

timus Sererus. 
Zela (Zile). Br.— B.s Of Julia Domna, 

Caracalla, and Geta. 
Zephyrium. Br. — B.* From Hadrian 

to Treboniauus Gallus. 



ABBREVIATIONS ON ROMAN COINS, 

WITH THEIB EXPLANATION, AND ENGLISH TKANSLATIONS. 



A. 

A. Aukifl. Name of a personi^; or 
Annua, a year. 

A.A. xnni, or Annos. The years, or years. 

AA. A.A.A. AQgusti. Two, m: three 
Augnstuses. 

AA.A.F.F. Anro, Argento Aere vlando 
Feriundo. An inscription in allnsion 
to tbeflandi of gold, siWer «nd copper, 
from which the coins of the re8i>ective 
metals were struck, generally follow- 
ing the name of the monetary trium- 
Yiri for the time being. The triumviri 
monetales were the three chief officers 
of the Roman mint. 
I Abn. ABNepos. Orand-nephew 

Acoz. Accitana. Accitana (a Eoman 
colony in Spain, now Guadik, in Gre- 
nada). 

Aoci.L.iii. Accitana Legio m* The 
third Legion of Accitana. 

Act. Acriacus, Acria or Acrium. Acti- 
acus or Actium (a town of Epirus, 
now PreTenza)u 

A. ACT. A. ACTiacus Apollo. The Acti. 
atic Apollo. 

Aad. fry. EXT. AD FBrges xxrmdus. 
For buying com; alluding to the 
public purchases of com for the 
people, for which money was expressly 
struck. 

Aadi. ADJutrix. Belief (alluding to a 
legion distinguished for some signal 
assistance afforded in time of need.) 

AdLOCTT. AUG. ADLOOmiO AVOUStL 

Adlocution of Augustus (alluding to 

an address to the military). 
Adlogtt. coh. p&jbtor. ADX/MTVriO 

ooHortium pRBTOBianornm, Adlo. 

cution to the Preetorian cohorts. 
AnvxNT. AUG. lUD. or MAV. or ACHA. or 

AF&ic. or Asi. or sic. or gal. or hisp. 

ADYXKrus Auousti JTTneae, or mau- 



ritaniflB, or achaIsb, or africsb, or 
ASI8B, or siciilisB, or OAiJieB, or 
Eispanin. The airiyal of Augiutu 
in Judflsa, or Maiuritania, or Achaia, 
or Aftica, or Asia, or SicUy, or Gaul, 
or -Spain. 
AxD. CTK. AEDJlis cxTBulls. The cnrale 
aediles (appointed for the Patricians). 

AbD. Dm. AVG. KEST. ASDCS Dm 

Avousti fixsTitutae. The diTine 

temples restored by Augustus. 
Aed. p. AEDilitia potestas. The Aedlle 

•power. 
AxD. PL. ASDilitia PLebis. AedOe of 

the people. 
AxB. s. AEDes sacrae, or AXDibos 

sacris. The sacred edifices, or to the 

sacred edifices (in the dative case,} 
Aex. Axxilius, or AXMilia. Name of 

a personage. 
^Bavrr. ATO. jBauiras Avaustl. The 

equity of Augustus. 
Abt. Axremitas. Eternity. 
A. p. Auli Filius. The son of Aulus. 
A. N. AttU irepos. The nephew of 

Aulus. 
AoBip. F. AGBSFpae Filius. The son 

of Agrippa. 

AoaXPPA X. T, XA. C. &E8A3U8. AVGVSn. 

AOEiPPA xarci pilia XAter c- 
aii cjESABis ATJOxrsTi, Agrippa the 
daughter of Marcus and mother of 
Caius Ceesar Augustus (the emperor 
Caligula). 

Alb. ALxxandria. Alexandria. 

Alix. ital. ALixenta iTALiae. The 
provision of Italy, in allusion to the 
public purchase of com, for distri- 
bution in Italy. 

Alvit. ALvirius. Name of a personage. 

Anic. AKzcius. Name of a personage. 

A. X. b'. Antiochiae xoneta offlcina 
seounda. Money of Antioch b (that 
is, of the second office or divisioii of 



ABBEEVTATIOKS ON BOMAlf COIKS. 



603 



fhe mint; the offices being distin- 
guished by A, B, for first and second ; 

a system eommon in Roman n^netary 

jinmerals). 
An. b. or amt. b. AKtiochiae offlfiina 

seconda. The second division of the 

mint of Antioch. 
A. v, r. T. Annum novum pelicem 

Tanstum. A happy and prosperous new 

year (wished to tiie Emperor). 
Axv. Dccc. Lxxn. nat. vbb. p. cib. com. 

AKKO tteccuaai. VAxali irBBis 

populo cntcenses ooNstituti. In the 

year of ihe city, 872, the Circenman 

games were established for the people. 
Ammona. avo. annona ATJGUsti. The 

prevision of Augustus (alluding to a 

yearly distribution of com among the 

I>ecple). 
Akt. p. AKTiochiae percussa. Struck 

at Antioch. * 

Akt. f. AKTiochiae signata. Struck 

at Antioch. 
A. ?• p. Auro populo Feriundo or Argento 

yopnlo periundo. Gold or silver 

(coins) struck for the people. 
A. r. VTQ, peconia Lvoduni a. Money 

of Lngdunum (now Lyons in France) ; 

A of the first division of 4;he mint. 
Apol. xoh. apolIo MOMetalis. The 

numetary Apollo. 
Apol. pai.. apolIo PAtAtinus* The 

Palatine Apollo. 
Apol. salvt. consxkv/.tobi. APOLloni 

sAXirrari consb&vatori^ To Apollo 

the Saviour and Preserver. 
Aq. o. b. Aauiliee officina b. Of 

Aqcilia, the second division of the 

mint. 
Ao. P> 6. AQuiliae pecxmia signata. 

Money struck at AquiUa. 
Ao. P. AQuiliae percusea. Struck at 

AquHia. 
Aa. s. AQuiliae signata. Struck at 

Aqtdlia. 
Aqta. jr. AQUA Marcia. The Marcian 

wat^r (alluding to water brought to 

fhe city through the care and liberality 

of Karens). 
Aqva. ibaj. aqva TBAjana. The Tra- 

januifi water. 
Ak. or ABL. ABehtte or ABLate. Aries. 
Aba. f AC. aba pacIs. The altar of peace. 
Arab, aiqvc. ABABia ADQxrisita. Arabia 
. conquered. 



Abmbk. cap. ABMBNia cAPta. Armoiift 
subjugated. 

ABMBNIA ET MBSOPOTAMIA POTESTATElf P. 
B. BEDACT. ABMENXA KT ICBSOPOTA- 
XIA POTBSTATEK POpuU BOmaul 

BBDAcrae. Armenia and Mesopo- 
tamia reduced under the power of the 
Boman people. 
Asi. Asia. Asia. 

A. sisc. A< sisciae. Of -Sescia a. (sig* 
nifying that it was of that town ; 
«tmck in the first division of the mint) » 

AsT. Asrigitana. Astigitana (now Eclsa 

in Andalusia, Spain). 
Ave. Auour or Auoustus, or Arousta, or 

ATToustalis. Augur or Augustus, or 

Augusta, or of the August. 
Avo. D. p. AUGUstus nivi Pilius. 

Augustus, BOB -of the deity. 
Avoo. or AvoG«. AVQUsti. Augustus: 

two or three o's after av, signified that 

two or three emperors were reigning 

jointly. 
AvB. PiA. STDOV. coLoviAt itCTBelia pia 

sii>o:«i8 coLONLi. Aurelius Pius, a 

colony of Sidon. 

B. 

B. Berythus or bono, or sraccara or 
•officina secunda. This letter b by 
itself, is used to signify either Bery. 
thus, a PhcBuician town, or for the 
-adjective good, or Braccara, or the 
second office -of the mint ; this letter 
being used as ft numeral, and signi. 
fying 2. 

-B. A. Braccara Aug^stalis. The 

Augustalian Braccara (now Brague, a 

town in Portugal). 
Baebi. baebius or babbia. Besbius 

a man's name, or Beebia (the name 

of a Boman family). 
Balb. balbus. Balbus (the name of 

« I)ersonage). 

BON. BVENT. BONUS BVENTUS, Or 

BONO EVENTui. A good cvcut, or to 
a good event. 

B&iT. BBiTannicuB or BBirannia. Brit- 
annia, or the country Britain. 

Broc. BBocchus. Brocchus (the name 
of a personage). 

B. B. p. N. Bono Bepublico Nato. 
Appointed (to be struck) for the good 
of the public. 



604 



▲BBBETIATIOKS ON BOHAIf COmft. 



Banr. BBTxdiuiaiii. Bziindiutliim (a 

town in the kingdom of Naples). 
B. Huc. B. simiii. B. Sirmiom (that 

it to say, atniok at Sirmium in the 

second ofBce of the mint, aa signified 

bj the numeral b). 
B. 8. lA. B (offidna seeonda) signata 

Lugdunnm. The seeond (monetary 

office), coined at Lyons. 
B. T. Beata TranqoiUitas. Happy 

tranquillity. 
Btthb. BVTHBotnm. Batiurotom (now 

Butrinto in Epirus). 



C. 



C. caiuB or caeear. Cains or Caesar. 

C. Carthago or censor or centum or cives 
or dypeus or cohors or colonia or 
consultom or oomelius. Carthage, 
or censor, or a hundred, or Citizens, 
or a buclder, or a cohort, or a colony, 
or a decree, or Cornelius (name of a 
a personage). 

C. ▲. A. p. colonia Augusta Aroe 
patrensis or colonia a. Augusta 
patrensis or colonia Agrippina. The 
august colony of Aroe Patrensis, 
or A (the first) august colony of Aroe 
Patrensis, or the Agrippine colony. 

Cabb. cABBllio. Cabellio (now Cayaillon 
in France). 

C. A. BTT. colonia Augusta surhrotum. 
The colony Augusta Buthrotum (of 
Butrinto, now of the same name in 
Epirus). 

C. A. c. colonia Augusta oaesarea. The 
august colony of Caesarea. 

C. A. B. colonia Augusta smerita. The 
colony Augusta Emerita (now Merida 
in Spain). 

C. A. B. AVO. PATBB. OOlOUla AUgUSta 

Bmerita Auoustus patbb. Augustus, 
the father of the colony Augusta 
Emerita, in Spain, (now Merida). 

Cabs. CABsarea or CASsar. Caesarea, a 
town in Palestine, or Caesar. 

Cabss. or CABSss. cAEsares. Caesars, 
ss signifying two, and sss three Cae- 
sars. 

CabSAB. AVO. F. DBS. IKP. AYO. COS. ITB. 

CABSAB AVGUsti fIUus DBsignatuB 
XMJPerator Avoustus consul iTsrum. 
Caesar, son of Aug^tus, chosen Em- 



peror, Augustus, and Consal for the 
second time. 

Cabsab. nivx. p. Cabsab nm pilins. 
Caesar, son of the God. This in- 
scription most frequently oocura on 
the coins of Augustus Caesar, the 
adopted son of Julius Caesar, who 
was deified. 

Cabsab. pomt. max. cabsab poirrifex 
XAxlmua. Caesar the High PontiiL 

C.AJ. or c.i.A. colonia Augusta julia. 
The colony Augusta Julia, in ^oin, 
now Cadiz. 

CaIi. cALagnris or cAi.idlu8 or cal- 
idia. Galaguris, a town in Spain, 
now Calahora. Calidius, name of a 
parsonage. Calidia, name of a family. 

C. A. o. A. p. colonia Augusta oca Anto- 
niniana pelix. The happy colony 
Oca Augusta Antoniniana, in A&iea, 

• (now Tripoli.) 

Ca« PI. XBT. BID. colonia Aurtiia 
pia METropolis smon. The colony 
Aurelius Pius, the metropolis ol 
Sidon, a Phoenician town, now be> 
longing to the Turks. 

C. A. B. colonia Angusta Bauraoorum, 
or colonia Augusta negia. The 
colony Augusta Bauracum, in Swit- 
zerland ; now Angst, near Basle ; or 
the royal colony of Asta, in Spain. 

C. C, Numeral letters signifying hun- 
dreds. 

C. c. A. colonia caesarea Augusta. The 
colony Augusta Caesarea. 

C. CABSAB. AVO, PBOM. ATO. P. X. TB. P. 

iin. p. p. caius cabsab Avousti 
PBONepos Atreustus pontifejc .naz- 
imus TBibunitia potestate ini. pater 
patriae. Caius Caesar, great grand- 
son of Augustus ; Augustus, High 
Pontiff, exercising the tribunitian 
power for the fourth time; father of 
his country. 

C. c. cox.. LTO. Claudia copia ooLonia 
Luodunum. The colony Claudia Copia 
Lugdunum (now Lyons). 

C. c. I. B. colonia camp^tris Julia 
Babba. The colony of Julia Babba, 
in the plain, in Mauritania. 

C. c. I. B. D. n. colonia campestris ntlia 
Babba necreto necurionum. The 
colony of Julia Babba, in the plain, 
by the decree of the Decuxions. 

C. c. I. H. p. A. colonia concordia /ulia 



ABBBEYIATIONS ON BOMAK C0I17S. 



605 



Hadnunetixia pia Augosta. The co- 
lony Concordia Julia Hadrometina 
Pia Augusta, in Africa. 

C. CIV. D. D. p. corona crvica Data 
]>ecreto publico. The cItIo crown 
awarded by public decree. 

C. c. N. A. oolonia carthago Hova 
Augusta. The colony Carthago Nova 
Augusta, in Spain. 

C. c. N. 0. i>. n. oolonia conoordia norba 
caesarea necreto securionum. The 
colony Concordia Norba Caesarea, by 
the decree of the Decurions (Cae- 
sarea Norba, a town in Lusitania). 

C B. centdssima aemissa, or cir- 
censes aestituti. The hundredth 
remitted. The Circensian games 
restored. 

C. c. 8. colonia claudia salaria. The 
colony Claudia Salaria. 

C. cvp. caius cupiennius. Name of a 
personage. 

Ckv. cBNsor. Censor. 

Ckns. pxb. cENsor pzapetuuB, or crms- 
oris pxamissu. Perpetual Censor, 
or by permission of the Censor. 

Cbb. sack. psb. oecvme. issla. cer- 
tamina SAcaa PEsiodica oscwsnica 
isxLAstica. The sacred periodical 
oecnmenic contests, called Iselastica. 

Czar. OTiN. aoM. cok. cEaramina quin- 
quennalia novae coNstituta. The fifth 
year games of Borne established. 

C. X. 8. cum xxercitu suo. With his 
army. 

Cbbt. CESTius, or cEsria. Name of a 
personage or family. 

C. V. caius pabius. Name of a perso- 
nage. 

C. r. caii vilius. Son of Caius. 

C. K. caii Hepos. Nephew of Caius. 

C. p. P. D. colonia plavia pacensis ne- 
veltum. The colony Flavia Facencis 
Dereltum (now Develto, a small town 
in Turkey). 

C. o. I. H. p. A. colonia eemella mlia 
nadriana pariana Augusta. The 
colony Gemella Julia Hadriana Pari- 
ana Augusta, a town in Mysia. 

C. X. c. A. oolonia julia concordia 
Apamaea, or colonia julia car- 
thago Antiqua. The colony Julia 
Concordia Apamaea; or the colony 
Carthago Antiqua (now Carthagena, 
in Spain). 



C. z. c. A. exMio. p. a. n. n. colonia 
julia concordia Augusta qbnio populi 
Bomani necreto necurionum. The 
colony Julia Concordia Augusta to 
the genius of the Boman people by 
the decree of the Decurions. 

C. I. A. D. oolcmia julia Augusta nertona. 
The colony Julia Augusta Dertona. 

C. I. AY. oolonia julia AVgusta. The 
colony Julia Augusta, now Cadix, in 
Spain. 

C. I. Avo. p. snr* colonia Julia Avousta 
peliz siNope. The colony Julia 
Augusta Felix Sinope. 

C. I. B. colonia rulia nalba. The 
colony Julia Balba, in Mauritania. 

C. I. c. A. p. A. colonia Julia carthago 
Augusta pia Antiqua or colonia 
JuUa corinthus Augusta pia Anto- 
niniana. The colony Julia Carthago 
Augusta Pia Antiqua, in Spain, now 
Carthagena; or, the colony Julia 
Corinthus Augusta Pia Antoniniana, 
now Corinth, in Greece. 

C. I. CABS, caius 4ilius cAssar. Name 
of a personage. 

C. I. CAL. oolonia mlia CALpe. The 
colony Julia Calpe, now Gibraltar, in 
Spain. 

C. I. p. colonia luli^ peliz. The 
colony Julia Felix. 

C. I. o. A. colonia julia oemella au- 
gusta. The colony Julia Gemella 
Augusta. 

C. X. X. A. oolonia immunis illice 
Augusta. The free colony Illice 
Augusta. 

C. I. II.. A. Q. PAPIB. CAB. Q. TBB. ITONT. 

n. TIB. colonia xmmunis iilice 
Augusta auinto PAPi&io cABbone 
auinto Taaentio xoMrano ii. Tzids 
Quinquennalibus. The free colony 
Illice Augusta, under Quintus Papi- 
rius Carbo and Quintus Terentius 
Montanus, the Decemyirs for five 
yean. 

C. X. N. o. oolonia nilia Korba caesariana. 
The colony Julia Norba Caesariana. 

C. X. N. c. colonia julia vova carthago. 
The colony Julia Nova Carthago (now 
Carthagena, in Spain). 

CiB. CON. ciBcenses coNstituti ; or cib- 
censes coNsessit. The games of the 
Circus establlBhed ; or, he celebrated 
the Circensian games. 



606 



▲BBSETIATIOKS ON BOMAIT 001178. 



C. X. T. colonia joUa Talentia. The 

eolon J of Julia Valentla, in Spain. 
Cl. cLaadiosorcLandiaorcLypeQS. Name 

of a personage or family, or a Irackler. 
Clam. pk. clabsIs paaefectoB or djuasis 

paaetoriana. The Fraefect of the 

fleet, or the Praetorian fleet. 
C. L. Avo. p. caiuB Lucius AVOUSti 

Filius. Caius Ludus, the son of 

Augustus. 
C. L. CAES8. caius et Lucius CAXsares. 

Caius and Lucius, the two Caesars. 
C. L. I. COR. colonia Laus Julia cor- 

inthus. The colony Laus Julia Co- 

rinthtts, in Greece. 
Cl. t. cLypeus votiyus. The Totive 

shield. 
C. K. L. colonia Metropolis Laodieea. 

The colony Metropolis Laodieea. 

CN. ATSL. PLAC. CN. POMP. PLA.C. II. YIXX8. 

a. T. I. v. 0. CKaeo atelUo plac- 
co oaeo poxpeio placco n. tiris 
QuinquennalibuB Tictricis ruliae 
Kovae carthaginis. Under Cneius 
AtelliuB Flaccus aand Cneius Pom- 
peius Flaccus, the Decemvirs for flve 
years of the rictorious Carthago Julia 
Nova. 

Cm. nov. amp. CNaeius noMitius amp- 
lus. Name of a personage. 

Cy. DOM. PRoooB. cwaeo noMitio pro- 
comule. Under Cnaeus Domitius, the 
Frooonsul. 

Cx. p. CKaei pilius. The son of Cnaeus. 

Ck. MAO. IMP. cxaeus maouus ncperator. 
Cnaeus the Great, commander; that 
is, Cnaeus Fompey, the son of Quin- 
tins Fompey. 

Co. DAM. METRO. OOlOUla DAMaSCUS 

MSTRopolis. The colony Damascus 
Metropolis. 

COHH. PRiBT. Vn. p. TX. P. COHOTtCS 

PEjBTorianae yn. piae ti. pideles. 

Alluding to the piety and fidelity of 

the FrsBtorian Cohorts, in the usual 

manner. 
OoH. I. OR. coHortis z. CRetensis. Of 

the first cohort of Crete. 
CoE. PRA. PHIL. Conors PRiSToriana 

PHiLipi>enBium. The Freetorian co- 

hort of the Philippians. A town in 

Macedonia, famous for the battle 

fought there, b.c. S8. 
Co. AS. cap. colonia Axlia CApitolina. 

The colony Aielia Capitolina. 



COL. ASL. A. H. MET. OOLOllia AElia 

Augusta HadmmetJTia. The coUxny 
Aelia Augusta Hadrumetina, in 
AfHca. 

Col. abl. cap. comm. p. f. coLonia 
AEiia CAPitolina coMModlana pia 
pelix. The colony Aelia Capitolina 
Commodlana Fia Felix. Another 
name for the modern Jerusalem. 

CoL. ALEX. TROAs. coLouia AXExandrlana 
TROAS. The colony Alexdriana Troas 
(in Fhrygia, now Carasia). 

Col. amas. or ams. coLonia AXAstria- 
norumor coLonia AMstrianorum. The 
colony Amstrianorum (in Paphlagoma, 
now Amstre). 

CoL. AMT. or ANTi. coLOula ANTiochia 
or AMTiochia. The colony Antiochla 
(in Asia). 

COL. ARELAT. SEXTAN. COLOnia ARBLATe 

sEXTAKorum. The colony Arelate 

Sextanorum (now Aries in France.) 
Col. AST. ATG. coLonia Asrigitana aug- 

usta. The colony Astigitana Augusta 

(now Exjja in Spain). 
Col. ato. pel. ber. coLonia Airousta 

PELix BBRithus. The colony Augnste 

Felix Berithus (now Beyroot in 

Fhoenicia). 
Col. ayo. iir. coLonia Axronsta piBma. 

The colony Augusta Firma (the same 

colony as that of Astigitana, now 

Exija in Spain). 

COL. AVO. IVL. PHILIP. COLOUia Auousta 
jruiia PHiLippensis. The colony 
Augusta Julia of Philippi (a town m 
Thrace). 

Col. ATG. PAT. TRXVIE. COLOnlft Auoosta 

PATema TREViRorum. The colony 
Augusta Faterna Trevirorum. 

Col. ayo. troa. vel troas. coLonia 
ATTGUsta TROAdensis or THOAnensis. 
The colony Augusta Troadensls (this 
colony was built on the site of the an- 
cient Troy). 

Col. aygtsta. emsrita. coLonia atjovsta 
EMBRrrA.The colony Augusta Emerita 
(now the town of Merida in Spain). 

Col. ayb. aktoni. ayg. troa. ooLonia 
Amelia AnroKmiana Avausta troa- 
densis. The colony Aurelia Antoni- 
niana Augusta Troadensis (founded 
on the site of Troy). 

COL. AYR. BLAR. COMM. P. P. COLOniB 

AuB«lla KABirhiw coMModiana pia pdlz. 



4.BBBEVIATI0NS ON AOMAN COINS. 



607 



The colony Aurella EarrhsB Commo- 

diana Pia Felix (a town in Asia^ now 

Oarrhes). 
Col. avb. pia. 8ID0H. coLonia Auselia 

PIA 8IDON. The colony AureUa Pia 

Sidon. 
Coi.. AYS. p. M. sinoM* coLonia Airnelia 

sia Metroiwlis sibon. The colony 

Aurelia Pia Metropolis Sidon (now 

Seid or Sayde in Syria ; it belongs to 

the Turks). 
Coi.. b. a. coLonia Braccara Augusta. 

The colony Braccara Augusta (now 

Brague in Lusitania). 
Col. be&it. l. t. yel yiii. coLonia bkrit- 

hus Legio V. or tui. The colony 

Berythus, the fifth or eighth legion 

(now Beyroot in Phoenicia). 
CoL. CABS. coLonia CABEllio* The 

colony Cabellio (in France). 
Col. cabs, antioch. coLonia CASsarea 

ANTiocHia. The colony Caesarea An- 

tiochia (in Syria). 
CoL. CBS. ATO. coLozua cABsarea Auousta. 

The colony Caesarea Augusta. 

COL. CAHALOBTNYM. COLOUia CAHALO- 

Du»T7)c. The colony Camalodunum 

(now Colchester). 
CoL. casiluv. coixmia CAsiLiNum. The 

colony Casilinum (now Castellazzo). 
CoL. CL. PTOL. coLonia cxaudia ptolo- 

mais. The colony Claudia Ptolomais 

(now Acre in Phoenicia). 

COL. BAXAS. MBTBO. COLOIUa BAHASCUS 

XETBopolis. The colony Damascus 
Metropolis (the capital of Syria). 
CoL. p. J, A. p. BABCiN. coLouia plavia 
julia Augusta pia babcimo. . The 
colony Flavia Julia Aug^ta Pia Bar- 
cino (now Barcelona in Spain). 

CoL. FLAV. AYQ. COB. COLOUia FLAVia 

AVGUsta coBinthus. The colony 

Flavia Augusta Corinthus (in Greece). 
CoL. PL. PAC. BBTLT. coLouia FLavia 

pAcensis BBVLTum. The colony 

Flafia Augusta Pacensis Deultum (now 

Zagara or Zagoria, a town in Thrace, 

in Turkey in Europe). 
CoL. H. ooLonia neliopolis. The colony 

Heliopolis. 
Col. ha. xeb. coLonia HAdriana meb- 

ouri. The colony Hadriana Mercuri 

(now Fermo in Italy). 
Col. hel. i. o. x. h. coLonia HELiopolis 

jovi optimo xaximo Heliopolitana. 



The colony Heliopolis JotI Optimo 
Maximo Heliopolitana. 

Col. ivl. avo« c. i. p. coxan. coLonia 
Juiia Arausta claudia invicta pelix 
coxANortmi. The colony Julia Aug. 
usta Claudia Inyicta Felix Comanonun 
(now Comane in Cappadocia). 

Col. itl. avo. pel. beb. coLonia xuLia 
Avousta FELIX BEBythus. The colony 
Julia Augusta Felix Berythus (now 
the town of Be3rroot in Phoenicia) . 

Col. iul. ato pel. obbxita. coLonia 
jTiia Avousta PEiix cbexna. The 
colony JuHa Augusta Felix Cremna 
(now of the same name in Pamphilia). 

Col. iyl. ceb. sac. ato. pel. cap. oeovx. 
isE. HBL. coLonia jT7Lia cBBtamen 
SAcrum Avoustum PEiix cAPitolinum 
OECYxenicum isslasticum HEiiopoli. 
tanum. The Julian colony; the 
Sacred Augustan Felician contest; 
(Ecumenic Iselastic Heliopolitan (cer- 
tain games celebrated at the Julian 
colony of Heliopolis in Syria), 

COL. lYL. COKC. APAX. AYO. B. J>. COLOni 

Julia coNOordia APAxea Avousto 
Bccreto Bccurionum. The colony 
Julia Concordia Apamea by the august 
decree of the Decurions. 

Col. iyl. lay. cob. coLonia jxriia latts 
coBinthus* The colony Julia Laus 
Corinthus. 

Col. iyl. pateb. nab. coLonia JUiia 
PATEBna NABbonensis. The eolony 
Julia Patema Narbonensis (now Nar- 
bonne in France). 

CoL. AMT. cox. coLoniae AMToninianae 
coxmodiancB. The Antoninian and 
Commodian colonies. 

Col. mex. coLonia MExausus, or mex- 
ausensium. The colony Nemausus, 
or Nemausensium (now Nismes)^ 

Col. miceph. gonb. coLonia miceph. 
orium coKBita. The Nicephorian 
colony, founded upon the Euphrates, 
in Mesopotamia. 

CoL. ^TB. coLonla pATBensis, or 
PATBicia. The colony Patrensis, or 
Patricia. This latter town is now 
CordoYa, in Spain. 

Col. p. f. ayo. f. caes. xet. coLonia 
prima plaria Auousta pelix caes- 
area xBxropolis. The colony Prima 
FlaYia Augusta Felix Caesarea Metro- 
polis, in Palestine. 



608 



ABBB£yii.TIO:Er8 OK BOMAK GOUTS. 



OUm p. FL. ATO. CAX8. HXTKOP. P. «. P. 

ooLonia prima FLavia Auoosta OAssarea 
xsTBOPolis provincae syriae palettina. 
The oolony Prima FlaTia Anflrosta 
Caesarea Metropolis of the province 
of Syria, in Palestine. 
Col. pa. p. a. cazsak. coix>nia pxima 
plavia AUgrusta cABSAxea. The colony 
Prima Flaria Augusta Caesarea, in 
Palestine. 

COL. B. p. AYO. FL. C. mTBOP. ooLonia 

Bomana pelix Auoosta FLavia caesarea 

mnopolis. The colony Romans Felix 

Aogusta FlaTia CsBsarea Metropolis, 

the Capital of Syria. 
CoL. BOX. coLonia BOxulenslB. The 

oolony of Bomola, now Seville, in 

Sx»ain. 
Col. box. lvod. ooLonia Boxanomm 

LTonunum. The colony of the 

Romans Lngdunnm (now Lyons). 
CoL. Bvs. LEO. Tx. coLonia BTseino 

LBoio Ti. The colony Rnseino, the 

sixth Leffion (now Buseino, in 

France). 
CoL. SABAB. ooLonia SABABiae. The 

oolony of Sabarla, in Paxmonia (now 

Sarwar in Hungary). 
CoL. SEBAS. CoLonia sxBAStiae. The 

colony of Sebastia, in Palestine. 
COL. SXB. O. NBAPOL. coLonla sxBvia 

oalba MBAPOLis. The colony of 

Serrins Galba Neapolis (now Na- 

plous in Palestine). 
Goi.. mu XETB. coLonia ttbus xbtb- 

opolis. The colony Tyrus Metropolis. 
CoL. T. I. CELSA. coLonia yictrix jnlia 

cxLSA. The colony YictAx Julia 

Celsa (thought to be now Kelsa in 

Spain). 
Col. tic. ptl. lbp. coLonia Tictrix 

jVLia LEPtis. The colony Yictrix 

Julia Leptis, in Africa (now Lebida). 
Col. txx. an. i. coLonia Tixinacium 

ABno X. The Yiminacian oolony, in 

the first year. 

CoL. YLP. TEA. COLOnia ULPia TBA- 

Jana. The colony Ulpia Trajana (now 
Kellen, or Yarhel, in Transylvania). 
Cox. ABi. BOX. XT. Ava. coxmunc 
Asiae Boxae et Auousto. For the 
community of Asia, of Rome, by Au- 
gustus (meaning Roman money struck 
for the use of the Asiatic provinces, 
by Augustus). 



Cox. xxp. Ave. coxes ixperatorii 
Avousti. The deputy of the sngnst 
Emperor. 

Coxx. coxxodus, or coxxodiana. 
Commodus, an Emperor's name, or 
Commodiana, a colony. 

Co. X. o. B. vel Co. X. OB. constaB- 
tinopoll xoneta officina b. or 
constantinopoli xoneta OBsignata. 
Money struck at Constantinople, b. 
that is, of the second office or divi- 
sion of the Mint ; the offices being 
distinguished by the letters a. b., for 
first and second, a system oomnum 
In Roman monetary numerals; or, 
money struck at Constantinople. 

CoH. vel CONS, vel const. coNsranti- 
nople. Constantinople, in Turkey. 

Con. avo. vni. coNgiarium Aucusti 
vni. The eighth gift of com of 
Augustus. 

CoNc. ooNCordia. Concord. 

CoNc. APAX. coNGordia APAxeae. The 
Conoord of Apamea (a town of Bi- 
thynia). 

CoNO. DAT. POP. coNoiarium BATum 
populo. A g^ift of com to the people. 

CONOIAB. FBIXUX. P. B. D. CONGIABlum 

PBixTTx populo Bomano natom. 
The first gift of com bestowed on 
the Roman people. 
CoNO. p. B. vel CoNo. PB. coNGiazinm 
populo Bomano ; or, coNGiarium 
PBimum. The gift in com for the 
Roman people ; or, the first gift in 
com. 

CONO. TXB. p. B. XXP. XAX. DAT. CONO. 

iarium xEBtium populo Bomano 
ixpensis XAximis DATum. The 
third gift in com for the Roman 
people for great benefits. 

Con. X. ooNstantinopolis xoneta. The 
money of Constantinople. 

Con. o. b. coNstantinopoli officina b. 
The money of Constantinople ; officina 
b. ; that is, of the second offios 
or division of the mint, the offices 
being distinguished by a. b., for first 
and seooad, a system common in 
monetary numerals. 

Con. OB. — coNStantinoiMli oBsignata. 
Struck at Ccmstantinople. 

CONSXNSX;. BBNAT. XT. BQ. 0BD1NI8. P. O. 
B. CONSENSU SBNATUS ET ZaueS- 

tris OBBiMis populi aue RomanL 



ABBB2TIATI0NS ON BOUAJS COINS. 



609 



By the ooaaent of the Senate, of the 
eqaestrian order, and of the Roman 
people. 

Cons. o. a. coMstaatinopoli of9.cina 
A. Of Constantinople, the office a., 
that is, of the first office or divifiion 
of the mint ; the offices being distin- 
gicushed by a., b., for the first and 
second, a system common in Boman 
monetary nameraLa. 

Coifs. p. A. coKstantinopoli percnssa 

A. Struck at Constantinople, office a. 
(see above). 

CoKs. suo. coNservatori suo. To his 
preeerver; a tiUe given to several 
emperors. 

CooPT. coopratns. Chosen, or adopted, 
cr associated. 

OOOPT. IK. OMH. CONL. SVPBA. MVM. 

Bx. s. c. coopratus in oMMe conl 
egiom STJPRA NVMernm ex senatus 
cxxnsulto. In all the eoUeges by the 
majority, and by Senatorial decree. 

Co. p. F. CAB. METBO. colonia prima 
plavia OABsarea MSTRopolis. The 
colony Prima Flavia Caesarea, Metro, 
polls (the capital of Palestine). 

C. o. p. I. A. colonia octavianornm 
pacensis Julia Augusta. The colony 
Octavianornm Pacensis Julia Augusta. 

Co. n. K. B. constantinopoli nomae Kovae 

B. Struck at Constantinople, the new 
Borne, B (that is of the seocmd office or 
division of the mint ; a.b being used 
to distinguish the first and second 
offlee, a custom usual in Boman mone- 
tary numerals). 

Cos. ITXB. BT. TBE. BSSION. COnSUl ITBn 

mn ET TExtium DssioNatus. Ap- 
pointed consul tat the second and third 
time. 

CoflB. consulee. Consuls. 

Cos. n. consul vi. Consul for the 
sixth time. 

C. PAST, caius PARTUS. CaiuB Paetns 
(name of a personage). 

C. p. PX. AVO. F. G. CAES. IfSTBO. P. 8. P. 

colonia prima puivia Augusta 
pelix oermanica CAEsarea, MBTBopolis 
provinda syriae, palestina. The 
colony Prima Flavia Augusta Felix 
Germanica Caesarea, Metropolis of the 
province of Syria in Palestine. 
C n. claritas aeipublicae. The glory of 
the Bq^nblio. 



CsAs. CEAssus. Crassus (name of a 

personage). 
C. B. I. F. s. colonia Bomana julia Felix 

sinope. The colony Bomana Julia 

Felix Sinope. 

CbISPINA. AVG. COMMODI. CEI8PINA ATJO- 

usta GomioDi Arousti. Crispina 

Augusta, wife of Commodus Augustus. 
C. SAOR. FAC. censor bacbIs PAcundis. 

Censor for performing the sacred 

duties. 
C. T. T. colonia Togata Taraco. The 

colony Togata Taraco (now Tarragona 

in Spain). 
C. V. clypens votivus. The votive 

buckler. 

C. VAL. HOST. M. QVINTVS. CaiuS HOST- 

ilianus Hessius qtjintus. Caius 

Yalens Hostilianus Messius Qulntus 

(name of a personage). 
C. VET. LANo. caius vETtio Languido. 

To Caius Yettius Languidus (name of 

a personage). 
C. VI. XL. colonia victrix iLlice. The 

colony Victrix Illice. 
C. o. p. p. consul auintum pater 

patriae. Consul for the fifth time. 

Father of his country. 
CvB. X. F. cunator x. plandorum. An 

officer for striking a certain class of 

coin. 
C. V. T. colonia victrix Taraco. The 
'colony Victrix Tataco (now Tarragona 

in Spain). 
C. V. T. T. jETEBNTT. AVO. oolouia victrix 

TOgata Taraco ^TEBNiTati ATToustae. 

The colony Victrix Togata Taraco to 

the eternity of Augustus (now Tar- 
ragona in Spain). 



D. 

D. A. nivns Augustus. The divine 

Augustus. 
Dac. DAcia, DAcicus. Daoia or Dacicus. 
Dac. cap. DAcia oAPta. Dacia taken. 
Dacia avq. pbovincia. dacia Auousti 

PBoviNciA. Dacia the province of 

Augustus. 
Dama. DAMASCUS. Damascus (in Syria). 
D. c. A. Divus csBsar Augustus. The 

divine Augustus Ceesar. 
D. c. o. V. c. necuriones coloniae con- 

cordiae Korbae caesarianae. The 

B E 



610 



ABBBEYlATIOirS O^ BOMAIT COIIfS. 



Deourions of the colony of Concordia 
Norba Caesariana. 

D. OL. SEPT. ALBIM. CAX6. SCCimUS 

GLOdiUB SKPTimUS ALBINU8 CABBar. 

Decimus Clodius Beiftimus Albinus 

Caesar. 
D. c. s. De consulum sententia. By 

the decree of the consuls. 
D. D. N. V. Domini vostri or Dominorom 

Kostronim* Our Lords, or of our 

Lords. 

DbBBLL ATOB. OBirr. BABBAB. DEBELLATObI 

oBNTium BABBABorum. To the van. 

quishers of barbarous nations. 
Dkci. DEcius or nscennalia. Decius, 

or the decennial games. 
Dx. OEBX. DE OBBManis. Of the 

Germans (that is, relating to the sports 

of that nation). 
Dbo. MEM. Deo meuausub. To the god 
• Nemansus (the tutelar divinity of 

Nismes). 
Debt. DSBTOsa. Dertosa. 
D. F. Decimi nlius. The son of 

Decimus. 
D. N. Decimi ifcpos. The nephew of 

Decimus. 
Diana, febo. diaka PEBoensis. Diana 

of Ferga. 
DiOT. FEB. Dicrator PEBpetuus. Per- 
petual dictator. 
Dii. FAT. Dii PATrii. The gods of the 

country. • 

Diis. crsT. Diis CTSTodibus. To the 

guardian gods. 
Diis. genit. diis axNixalibus. To the 

genital gods. 
D. I. M. s. Deo invicto irithras sacrum. 

Sacred to the invincible god Mithras. 

DlSCIPUIiA, or DISCIFVLINA ATO. DIS- 
CIFLIKA, or DI8CIFTTLINA AVGUSta, Or 

Auousti. The aug^ust discipline, or 
the discipline of Augustus. 
Divi. F. Dtvi Filius. The son of the g^od. 
This inscription generally appears on 
the coins of Augustus, the adopted 
son of Julius Ceesar, who was 
deified by the Senate. 

DlVO. AYO. VESP. DIVO ATOUStUS TESF- 

asiano. To the divine Augustus 
Vespasian. 
DiTO. Avo. DiTO AYGUSto. To the divine 
Augustus. 

T. DIVI. VESF. T. VESFASIAMO. Tilp DIVI 
VKSPaSIANZ FiliO VESFASIAKO. TO 



Titus Yeflpaaiaxi, the son of the divine 
Yepasian. 
Div. Fio. DIVO pio. To the divine 
pious (meaning Antoninus). 

DlWS. TBAIAN. AVO. FABTH. PATKK. DrVUS 
TBAXAMUS AVeUStUS FABTHIcUS FATSB. 

The divine Tiajan Augustus Parthicae, 
the Father. 
Dox, or DOMTT. Doidtins, or DOiuriaaaa. 
Domitius, or Domitian. 

DOXITIA AVO. IKF. CAES. DIVI. P. DOICITLAKI 

AVO. DOMiTiAAVoustaixperatrixcABs. 

aris DIVI, pilii doxitiaki AX7oastl. Do- 

mitia Augusta, mother of the divine 

Caesar, son of the august Domitian. 
D. p. Divus Pius. The divine pious 

(meaning Antoninus). 
D. p p. Dii penates. The gods Penates. 
Db. cjbs. a. PB. DBUSUS csaar Quin- 

quennalis PBaefectus. Drusus Caesar, 

the five years* prcefect. 

DbVSVS. CABAB. TI. avo. DIVI. AVO. ». 

DBvsvs CJESAB Tiberil AUGUsti Filius, 
DIVI Atrousti Ncpos. Drusus Caesar, 
son of Tiberius Augustus, and grand- 
son of Augustus Caesar. 
D. B. I. M. Deo soli .invieto Mithrae. 
To Mithras, the invincible God of the 
sun. 



Eoir. oAii. AVO. xoNatiuB oAiJienns 
Axjoustus. Egnatius Gallienus Aa« 
gustus (name of a personage). 

£iD. MABT. EiDibuB xABxii. To the 
Ides of March. 

£a. coH. EQuestrifl coHors. The 
equestrian cohort. 

£a. x. EQuitum xagistri. The mas- 
ters of the cavalry. 

Eq. obdin. Eduitum OBDods, The 
order of Equestrians. 

Etb. etbuscus. Etrurian. 

Etb* EUBopa. Europe. 

Ex. AB. p. EX ABgento puro, or 
probato, or publico. Money made 
from fine silver, or the approved 
silver, or the public silver. 

Ex. CONS. EX coNsensu. By consent. 

Ex. D. D. XX Decreto Decuiionum. By 
the decree of the Decurions. 

Ex. EA. p. Q. I. 8. AD. AE. D. E. 2X BA 

pecunia Quae #ussu senatus ao 
Asrarium nelata xst. The money 



ABBHEVIATIONS ON BOMAIT COHTS. 



611 



-which, by the command of the Senate, 
has been remitted to the Treasury. 

EjLEBdTVS. VAC. KXE&CITUS VACCeiLS. 

The Vaccenian army. 
ExsnciTVs. Tsc. exescitus Tscanus. 

The army of Isca. 
ExBsc. PSB8. xxEBcitns PEBsious. The 

Persian army. 
£x. 8. c. EX senatos consulto. By 

order of the Senate. 
Ex. 8. D. EX senatns necreto. By 

decree of the Senate. 



F. 

F. rabiQ«, or Faciondum, or Fecit, 
or Felix, or Filius, or Flamen, or 
Fortunas. The name of a person, or 
the fhtore participle of the verb to 
make, or the perfect tense of the 
same verb, made; or, happy, or, a 
son, or, a high priest, or, fortune. 

Fab. FAsius. Fabius (a man's name). 

Fabbi. FABBicius. Fabricius (a man's 
name). 

Fad. FAsius. Fadius (a man's name). 

TscwD, FiseaiTDitas. Fruitfulness. 

Fax. fakmia. Fannia, the name of a 
Boman family. 

Fatis victbi. fatis TicTBicibus. To 
the victorious fates. 

Fatbtina. avo. antonini avo. ph. p. p. 

FAirSTIKA ArOUSta ANTONINI AUO- 

usti pii patris patriae. Faustina 
Augusta (the mfe of) Antoninus Au- 
gustus Pius, father of his coimtry. 

F. B. Felicitas seata. Blessed happi- 
ness. 

F. c. Faciundum curayit, or pru- 
mento conyehendus. The making 
(of coin) superintended, or, conveying 
oonu 

FXLXCITATI AT70. FEUCITATI AUOUStffi, 

or Arousti. To the august happi. 
ness, or the happiness of Augustus. 
Fel pbo. FEiicitas PBOvinciarum. 
The happiness of the provinces. 

FXL. TEMP. BEP. FElix TEMPOrum BEP- 

aratio. The happy amendment of 

the age. 
FxB. D. FBBonia nea. The Goddess 

Feronia. 
Fdbz leg. FiDEi LEoionum. To the 

fidelity of the Legions. 



Fides xilit. fides xiLrrum. The 

fidelity of the soldiers. 
Fid. exbbc. fidcs EXEBcitus. The 

fidelity of the army. 
Fl. FLamen, or PLavius. The fla. 

men, or high priest ; or. Flavins (a 

man's name). 
FI.AM. D. FLAMsn Divi. Thc high-priest 

of the god (the deified emperor). 
Flak. dial. FLAxen diaus. The 

high priest of Jupiter. 
Flax. xabt. flaxcu xABTialis. The 

high priest of Mars. 
Fl. fel. FLaviae FEiicis. Of the 

happy Flavian (Legion). 
Fob. FOBtuna. Fortune. 
FoBT. p. B. FOBtuna or Fontitudo 

populi Bomani. The Fortune, or, the 

strength of the Roman people. 
FoBT. PBix. FOBTuna PBixigenia. The 

Fortune of the first-born. 

FOBT. BED. FOBTUnae BEDUX ; or, FOBT- 

unae beducI. The return of For- 
tune ; or, to the return of Fortune. 

FovB. FODBius. Fouiius, a man's 
name, fovbia, a Boman Gens. 

Fbvo. AC. Fbuocs Acceptae. Supplies 
of com received. 

F. T. B. Felix Temporum Beparatio. 
The happy re-establishment of. the 
times. 

FvL. FULvius. Fulvius, a man's name. 
FvLo. FXTLOurator. (Jupiter) Fulgurator. 
FvLK. FULxinator. (Jupiter) Fulminator. 

G. oalinicus, or oaudium, or oenius, 
or oermanus, or onaea. Galinieus, 
surname of Volusianus ; or Joy, the 
name given to one of the Boman 
Legions: oV the Genius of good or 
evil, a divinity; or Germanus, the 
name of a personage; or Gnea, a 
woman's name. 

Gadit. oADrrana. Gaditana, now Ca. 

diz, in Spain. 
Gal. OALindlcus, or, oALcrius. Ga- 

lindicus, or Galerius, both names of 

personages. 
G. or GEN. AVO. oenio Airousti. To 

the genius of Augustus. 
G. COB. svpBB. onea coBnelia stfebb. 

Gnea Cornelia Supera, the name of 

an empress. 

bb2 



612 



ABBBETIJLTIOKS OK BOMAIT COIKS. 



Q. D. aeimuiicas Daeiou. Oennaiii- 
eut, Dacicus, titles bestowed on the 
emperors tor their yictories over the 
Qermans and Dacians. 

GsK. i» oBMina Legio. The Doable 
Legion. 

Obk. col. cor. oBKio coumiM oon- 
inthiae. To the Genius of the colony 
of Corinth. 

Gsx. iixT. oBNios iLLTTloi. The 
Genius of Illyria, now Dalmatia. 

GbNXO. col. KEB. pate. GBNXO 001^ 

oniae NBsonianae PATnensis. To 
the Genius of the colony of Nero- 
niana Fatrensis. 

GBNrr. OBB. OBMirriz obbIs. Mother 
of the world, a title conferred on 
empresses. 

Gbn. lto. oBwio Luodunensi. To 
the Genius of Lugdunum, now Lyons. 

Gbbm. capta. oBBKania capta. Ger- 
many conquered. 

Gbb. p. OBRmanica proyincia, or obb- 
manlae populus. The German Pro- 
vince, or, the German people. 

Gl. b. b. OLoria Bzercitus BOmani. 
The glory of the Roman army. 

Gl. p. e. OLoria populi Bomani. 
The glory of the Roman people. 

Gl. b. oLoria Bomanorum. The glory 
of the Romans. 

G. l. b. oenio LOci sacrum. Conse- 
crated to the Genius of the place. 

G. X. T. oemina xinerya victrix. 
The colony Gemina Minerva Yictrix 
(in Italy). 

doTH. ooTHicus. Gothlcus, a title 
given to several emperors. 

G. p. orsBcia peragrata, or orseioB 
populus. Greece traversed ; or, the 
people of Greece. 

G. p. B. oenio populi 'nomaai. To 
the Genius of the Roman people. 

Gbac. OBACchuB, Gracchus, name of 
a personage. 

G. T. A. aenius Tutelaris Aegypti, 
or oeminae Tutator Africae. The 
tutelary genius of Bgypt, or the pro. 
tector of the two Africas. 



H. 

H. nastati. Hastati, a name given to 

a certain portion of the Roman army. 

Habbiamvs avo. cos. ui. p. p. Haihu- 



Ainrs AtToustns coksuI ui. pater 

patriae. Hadrianus Augustus, Con- 

Bul for the third time, lather of ti» 

country. 
Ha. p. or h. p. HAstatorum pris- 

cipum. Of the Hastati and of the 

princes. 
Hbl. HELiopolis. Heliopolis, a town 

of the sun, in Egypt. 
Hblv. pebt. HELvius PEBTJnax. Hel- 

vius Portinax (name of an emperor). 
Hbb. HEBCules, or HEBennius. Her- 
cules, the name of a god, or Heren- 

nius, a man's name. 
Hebac. HEBAclitus. HeracUtus, a 

man's name. 
Hbbc. coioroD. HXBCuIi comfODianc 

To Hercules Commodianus. 
Hbbo. oadit. HEBCttli QAsirano. To 

Hercules Gaditanus. 
Hbbc. bom. cokdit. Hxnculi Boxano 

coNditori. To Hercules Rtmumus 

Conditor ; the Roman Hercules, the 

founder. 

HlLABTF. TBXP. HILABTTaS TQCPOrum. 

The hilarity of the times. 
Hip. Hippius. Hippius, a man's name. 
HiBP. Hispalis, or nispana, or hisp- 

fllus ; a town in Spain. Spain 

itself ; or, Hispalus, the name of a 

person. 
Ho. Honor. The divinity. Honour. 
Hs. a sign for sestertium, the Sesterce, 

a piece of Roman money. 



L 



I. imperator, or jovis, or nmo, or 
jussu, or I, or 1. Imperator, or 
Jupiter, or Juno, or by the com- 
mand, or the first, or one. 

I. A. imperator Augustus, or indul- 
gentlA Augusti. The onperor 
Augustus, or by the permission of 
Aug^ustus. 

I. e. imperator caesar, or xulnu 
caesar. The emperor Caesar, or 
Julius Caesar. 

Ii. iKP. CO. pBiLippis. Avoo. 11. isKpera. 
toribus caesaribus phiuppis avo- 
ustis. To the two Philips, Caeaan^ 
and Augustus's. 

In. vnu A. A. A. AP. p. nium vmi atoo 
Argento Acre plando raiundo. The 



ABBBEYIATIOKS OV BOMAIT COOTS. 



613 



tke thxee offlcen for striking the pre. 

iwred metal into gold, silver, and brass 

(eoins). 
I. IT. imperator iTenun. Imperator 

for the second time. 
Ii. Tin. QviNa. Duum-TiB aviMQuennalis. 

Dnnmvir for five years. 
Imp. CASS, amtonctds atg. p.p.p. nfp- 

erator cASsar ANTOiviiirs Auoustos 

Pins pater patriae. The emperor 

CcBsar Antoninus Augustus Pius, 

Father of the Comitry. 
Ikp. caes. ato. comx. CONS. iMperator 

CAxsar AVGUstus ooxxuni coMsensn. 

The emperor CsBsar Aagustus, (chosen) 

hy the oonsmt of the community. 
Iicp. cAxs. 0. viB. TOLvsiAKo. Dcperator 

CAssari caio yibIo voLUsiano. To 

the emperor Caesar Caius Yibiua 

Yohuianus. 
Imp. caks. divi. tbazami. avo. f. tkaiaki. 

badbiano. opt. avo. bag. fasthico. 

P. M. TB. P. 008. P. P. ncperatori 

cAxsari nnn tbajamx Avousti pilio 

TRAJANI HADRIAKO OPTimO AVOUStO 

]>Acioo PABTHico poutlfici Mazimo 
TBibonitiae potestate oonsuli patri 
patriae. To the emperor Caesar 
Trajanus Hadrianns Augustus, son of 
the dirine Trajanus Augustus, the 
Best, Dacicus Parthicus, exercising 
the Tribunitian power, Consul, Father 
of the country. 

Imp. CASS. rnn. tesp. p. somit. auo. p. m. 
TB. p. p. p. uperator CAssar vm 
TKSPasiani pilius noMirianus atto. 
nstua pontifex Msximus Tsibunitia 
pot^rtate pater patriae. The em- 
peror Caesar Domitianus Augustus, 
son of the divine yespasianus,Pontifex 
Maxkniis, exercising the Tribunitian 
IK>wer, fiither of the country. 

Imp. CBS. o. m. o. xMperator oiBsar 
oneus Messius anintus. The emperor 
Caesap Gnens Messius Qnintus (name 
of a usurper). 

Imp. CJBS. x.. avrxl. txbvb. avo. abm. 
PABT. xMP«rator ossar Lucius 
AUBBliuS TEBtrs Auoustus ABMcnia- 
cus PABThicus. The emperor Caesar 
Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus, Ar. 
meniacus, Parthicus (the dissolute 
associate of Marcus Aurelius). 

Imp. cms, x.. sept. sev. pert. axjq. tr. p. 
cos. ZMPerator cjssar Lucius sept- 



imns SBverus PBRTinax Auoustns 
nibunitia potestate consul. The 
emperor Caesar Lucius Septimus Se- 
verus Pertinax Augustus, exercising 
the Tribunitian power. Consul, 

Imp. obs. m. ant. oobsiamus. apb. avo. 
Dfperator oBsar Marcus ANToninus 
GOBDiAinrs APBicanus Auoustus. The 
emperor Caesar Marcus Antoninus 
Gordianus, AfHcanus, Augustus. 

Imp. CBS. m. opel. sev. macrinvs. auo. 
uperator cBsar Marcus opelIus 
SEverus MAoniirvs Avaustus. The 
emperor Caesar Marcus Opelius 
Sevems Macrinus Augustus. 

Imp. CBS. nervb. traiamo. avo. gbb. dao. 
p. M. TB. p. COS. V. p. p. iMperatori 

CBSari MERVB TRAJANO AUOUStO 

GBRmanioo sAcico pontifici Maximo 
TRibunitia potestate consul r. pater 
patriae. To the emperor Caesar 
Nerva Trajan, Augustus, Germanicus, 
Dacicus, high pontiff, exercising the 
Tribunitian power, consul for the 
fifth time, father of the country. 

Imp. CBS. p. hxlv. pertin. avo. uperator 
CBsar publius helvIus PBRTXMax auo* 
ustus. The mnperor Caesar Publius 
Helvius Pertinax Augustus. 

Imp. c. c. va. p. oal. vend, volvsxano. 
AYG. xMPerator caesari caio va- 
lindico pinnico oAiindico vxNDen- 
dico VOLUSIANO Auousto. To the 
emperor Caesar Caius Yalindicus 
Finnlcus Galindicus Yendendicus 
Yolusianus Augustus (titles which Yo- 
lusianus assumed after his conquests.) 

Imp. c. m. cass. lat. pobtvmvb. p. p. avo. 
XMPerator caesar Marcus cASsius la. 
tienus posTUMus Pius pelix Auoustus. 
The emperor Caesar Marcus Cassius 
Latienus Postnmus, Pius, Felix, An- 
gustos, Imperator (one c^ the thirty 
tyrants). 

Imp. c. m. traiants. dbcivs. avo. iMPenu 
tor caesar Marcus trajanus degius 
ATToustus. The emperor Caesar 
Marcus Trajanus Decius Augustus. 

Imp. 0. p. Lie. valerxanvs. p. p. avo. 
XMPerator caius publius Licinius vale- 
RiANUs Pius pelix Auoustus. The 
emper<» Caius Publius Licinius Yale- 
rianus Pius Felix Augustus. 

Imp. iter. uperator iTERum. Im- 
perator for the second time. 



614 



ABBBETIATIOirS OF BOMAIT COINS. 



Ixp. M. iTL. PHIUPPT8 ATo. ncpentor 

xareiu fulius philippus ATofistTU. 

The emperor Marcus Julius Philippus 

Augustus. 
Imp. t. axl, AirroiriMO. niperatori Tito 

Axiio ANTONiNO. To the emperor 

Titus Aelius Antoninus. 

nCP. T. CJES. Din. TSSP. F. ATO. P. If . TS. 

POT. COS. RB8T. iKperatOT Titus 
CBsar Din vsspasiani rilius auo- 
ustus pontifex xaximus Tsibunitia 
porestate consul BEsrituit. The 
emperor Titus Caesar, son of the 
divine Vespasian, high pontiff, exer- 
cising the Tribunitian power, and 
Consul, restored. 

Imp. vx. iMperator ti. Imperator for 
the sixth time. 

Iksylobnt. ayoo. nr. ca&th. ximuLosN- 
Tia AVGUstorum in cA&THaginenses. 
The elemeney of the two Augustus's 
in fiBiyour of the Carthaginians. 

Ikdtlo. pia. postyxi. ATO. iNDTJLoentia 
pxA posTUMi Auousti. The pious 
clemency of Postumus Augustus. 

lo. CAiTTAB. JOTi CAMTABrico. To Juplter 
Cantabricus. 

I. o. X. D. jovi Optimo xaximo sicatum. 
Dedicated to Jupiter the best and 
greatest. 

I. o. X. H. jori Optimo xaximo xeli- 
opoUs. To Jupiter the best and 
greatest, of Heliopolis. 

I. o. X. 8. 70Ti Optimo xaximo sacrum. 
Sacred to Jupiter the best and 
greatest. 

I. 0. X. 8P0V8. BBCTBIT. ATO. JOTI OptlmO 

xaximo spoMsori sEcuBiTatis Auousti. 
To Jupiter the best, the greatest, 
the sponsor of the security of Au- 
gustus. 

I. O. X. 8. p. a. B. T. 8. PB. 8. TXP. CABS. 
aTOn. PBB. BY. BP. IN. AXP. ATO. TBAN. 

8. B. jovl optimo xaximo senatns 
populus Que Bomanus Tota snacepta 
PBO salute ixperatoris CABsaris auos 
PBB mm Bespublica in Axpliori atquc 
TBANquilliori statu Est. The Bx>man 
people and Senate (haTc) offered 
thanksgivings to Jupiter, the best, the 
greatest, for his presenration of the 
Emperor Ceesar, and that through 
him the republic ia in a richer and 
more tranquil state. 



I. o. x. T. c. 70Ti Optimo xaximo 

victori oonserTatori. To Jupiter the 

best, the greatest, the Tictorious, tiie 

presenrer. 
loT. oLTx. jovi OLTxpio. To Jupiter 

Olympius. 
loT. STAT. JOvi sTATOrL To Jupiter 

Stator. 
loT. TON. JOTi TONanti. To Jupiter 

the Thunderer. 
Ibbl. OBcm. isBLastica oBcntenica. 

The Iselastican and Oecumenican 

games (held sacred at Eome). 
I. B. X. B. nmo soepita xagna segina, 

or, nmo sospita xater Bomanomm. 

Juno Sospita, the great queen; or, 

Juno Sospita, the mother of the 

Bomans. 
Ital. iTAiia. Italy. 
Itai.. xtn. iTALicum mrNicipium. The 

Italian municipality. 
Itd. cap. junssa cAPta. Jndea taken. 
Itl. JuliuB, or Julia, or xulianus. JuUna, 

or Julia, or Julianus (all names of 

personages). 

Itl. ATO. CASSANBBBN. JViAa AITOUStB 

CAssANDBENsis. JuHft Augustft Cas. 
sandrensis (a Roman colony, for- 
merly a town in Greece ; Caaaandnw, 
supposed by some to haTC been fovmded 
by Cassander, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great; who, on the 
death of that monarch, seised upon 
the administration of Greece). 

Itl. ATO. OENIT. OBB. jnia Aireusta 
OENiTrix oBBis. Julia Augusta, 
mother of the world. 

Itlia. atotsta. c. c. a. ruiAA. ATjmnvA 
colonia caesarea Augusta. Julia Au- 
gusta, the colony of Caesarea Augusta. 

Itlia. ixp. t. ato. p. atotsta. jxtua 
ixperatoris Titi Avousti pilia aito- 
rsTA. Julia Augusta, daughter of tte 
emperor Titus Augustus. 

Itl. t. xaxixts. g. xuiius verus kaxi- 
XT7B caesar. Julius Verus Maximus 
C»8ar (name of a personage). 

Itn. xuNior or JVNius or jmro. The 
younger, or Junius (name of a per* 
sonage) ; or Juno (the goddess). 

Itn. xabt. JTTNoni XABTiali. To Juno 
Martialis. 

Itn. bbo. htno BBoina. Juno thc- 
queen. 



ABBBEVIATIONS ON EOMAN COINS 



€15 



K. 

K, carthago or Kaeso. Cartha^, or 
Eaeso (a Christian name). 

Kap. cAPitolina. Capitolina. 

Kas. CABthago. Carthage. 

Kab. o. CARtbaginensis offlcina. The 
Carthiginian monetary office. 

Ka&t or XRT. E. CAKThago officina 
quinta. The fifth Carthaginian mone- 
tary office. 

KoN. or KOM8. coNsUintinopoUs. Con- 
stantinople. 

(K is often used for C on coins struck in the 
Grecian provinces.) 

^' 

L. liius or Legatus or Legio or Lucius 
or rudi. The. colony I^aus, or an 
ambassador, or a legion, or Lucius 
(name of a personage), or the games. 

X. c. LUgdunum colonia. The colony 
Lugdunum (now Lyons in France). 

Laphk. lAPHBia. Laphria (a surname 
for Diana). 

L. ATTSBL. COMMO. OEBM. SABM. LUCiUS 

AxrBBiius coHxodus OEBManicus sabm- 
aticus. Lucius Aurelius Commodus 
Germanicus Sarmaticus (titles given 
him for his victories). 

L. CAK. Lucius cANinius. Lucius Caninius 
(name of a personage). 

Leo. LBoio. A Legion. 

LSO. AUG. PB. PB. LEOatnS ATTGUSti 

PBO PBaetore. The ambassador of 
Augustus for the prsetor. 
Leg. gem. pac or pabth. or hep. orvLP. 
Laoio GXMina PAcifica or pabthIcb 

* 

or MEPtunia or ULPia. The double 
legion Paciflca, or Parthica, or Nep- 
tunia, or ITlpia (all distinctive titles 
of this Roman legion). 
IjBO. I. ADI. p. F. LEoio I. ADJUtrix pla 
pidelis. The first legion, Pia, Fidelis, 
Adjntrix(thi8 legion probably obtained 
these names, from coming up in a 
needfal moment to the help of another 
legion). 

lata. II. PABT. V. p. V.F. LEgIo it. PABT- 

hica V. pia pidells. The second legion 
Parthica, Pia for the fifth time, and 
faithful for the fifth time (distinctive 
honorary titles of this legion). 
Leg. in. pabt. legIo in. PABThica, 
The third Parthian legion. (Legions, 



as in this case, often took the name of 
the country in which they had been 
eminently successful). 

Leg. II. TBO. or tb. fob. legIo ii. tro- 
janus or TRajanus Foatis. The second 
legion of Troy, or Trajanus Fortis. 

Leg. nil. vi. p. vi. f. leoIo iiii. vi. pia 
VI. Fidelis. The fourth legion, pious 
for the sixth time, and faithful for the 
sixth time (distinctive titles repeatedly 
conferred). 

Leg. X. XX. legIo Macedonica xx. The 
twentieth Macedonian legion. 

Leo. pbo. cos. or leg. pbo. pr. or leg. avg. 
or LEG. A. p. LEGatus PBO cousule, 
or LEGatus PBO PBaetore, or uBoatus 
AVGusti, or LEGio Armeniae provin- 
ciae. Ambassador for the consul, or 
ambassador for the praetor, or the 
ambassador of Augustus, or the legion 
of the province of Armenia. 

Leo. VII. CL. gem. fidel. legIo vii. 
cLaudia OEMina fidelIs. The seventh 
faithful legion Claudia Gemina. 

Leg. v. m. p. g. leoIo v. xacedonica 
pia constans. The fifth Macedonian 
legion, pious and constant (distinctive 
titles of honour). 

Leg. XI. CLAVDiA. legIo xi. clattdia. 
The eleventh legion Claudia. 

Leg. XVI. fbx. leoIo xvi. PREgellae or 
FREgenae. The sixteenth legion of 
Fregella (a town in Latium) ; or Fregena 
(an ancient town of Tuscany). 

Leg. XXX. nep. vi. f. leoIo xxx. insptu- 
niana vi. Fidelis. The thirtieth legion 
Neptuniana, faithful for the sixth time. 

Lek. cvr. X. F. LEKtulus cuRator X. 
Flandorum. Lentulus, an officer for 
striking a certain class of money. 

Lep. LEPidus or LEPtis. Lepidus (name 
of a personage) ; or Leptis (name of a 
town), 

L. H. T. LUciuB Hostilius Tubero. 
Lucius Hostilius Tubero (name of a 
personage). 

Lib. avg. iiii. cos. xin. Liseralitas avo- 
usti nil. consul im. The fourth 
liberality of Augustus, consul for tbe 
fourth time. 

L. K. Lucii Kepos. Nephew of Lucius. 

L. F. LUcii Filius. Son of Lucius. 

LlBERALIT. AVG. LIBERALITaS AUOUSta 

or AUGUsti. The august liberality or 
the liberality of Augustus. 



616 



i^BBSEYIATIOKS ON B0M.4K GOIKS. 



LiBBSIft. AVa. COL. ▲. A. F. UBUUS AITQ- 

tuti coLonia Augusta AToe patrensis. 

To the children of Aagu8tiiB,the colony 

Augiuta Aroe of Patras. 
LiBEST. BIST. Lus&Taa Bssiitata. liber. 

ty restored. 
Lib. n. or lu. uBeralitas n or nx. The 

■econd or third liberality. 
Lib. p. LiBero patri. To Liber the 

father (Bacchus). 
Lib. pvb. uBeralitas puBliea, or ijb- 

ertas puBlica. A public liberality, or 

public liberty. 

Lie. COB. SAL. YALKB. N. OBS. LIciniUB 

coBnelius SALoninus TALBBianus mo. 

bills cjBsar. Licinius Ck>meliu8 Sa. 

loninus Yalerianus NobUis Cffisar 

(name of a personage). 
Lie. or LiciK. Licinius ucxMianus. 

Licinius or Lidnianus (names of per. 

sonages). 
L. I. MIX. Legio I. KiNeryium. The first 

legion of Minerra (a town in Italy). 

LOCYPLXT. OBB. TEKBAR. LOCVPLXTatOli 

OBBis TEBBABum. To the enricher 
of th3 universe, 

LoM. LONgus. Longus (name of a per- 
sonage). 

L. p. D. AX. p. Lucius papirius Desig. 
natus AEdilis plebls. Lucius Papi. 
riuB chosen Aedile of the people. 

L. SBPTIX. BXVXByS. PITS. AVO. P. M . TB. 
p. XV. COS. lU. p. p. Lucius SBPTIX. 

US sxvEBVS PIV8 AUGUstus pontifcx 
xazimus TBibunitia potestate xv. 
consul in. pater patriae. Lucius 
Septimus Severus Pius Augustus High 
Pontiff (exercising) the tribunitian 
power for the fifteenth time, consul for 
ihe third time, father of the country. 

L. SXPTIM. BXV. PKBT. AVO. IMP. PABTH. 
ABAB. PABTH. ADIAB. COS. II. P. D. 

Lucius sxpTixus sxverus pxBTinax 
AUGUstus ixperator pabthIcus ababI. 

CUB PABTHicUS ADIAbIcUB COIlSUl 

n. pater patriae. Lucius Septimus 

Severus Pertinax Augustus Imperator 

Parthicus Arabicus, Parthacus Adia. 

benicus, consul for the second time, 

father of the country. 
L. VAL. Lucius vALcrius. Lucius Ya. 

lerius (name of a personage). 
Lvc. Lucanus or Lucrio or Lvcdunum. 

Lucanus or Lucrio (names of person. 

sonages) or Luodunum (now Lyons). 



Lvc. p. 8. LiTcduni peennia si| 

Money struck at Lyons. 
Lvc. AEL. Lucius Axiius. LtieiiH Aieliiif 

(name of a personage). 

LVCILUB. AVa. AJfTONIKI. AT8. F. I.V- 

cxLUB Auonstae Airrovna Aromti 
nliae. To Lueilia Augostay dangl&ter 
of Antoninus Augustus. 

LVX>. BMC. TWO. cos. XHII. LVIMM flBCV- 

lares Fxcit consul xnn. Ife oe- 

lebrated the secular games, oonsni fox 

the fourteenth time. 
Lvp. Lvpercus. Lupercna (name of a 

personage). 
Lv. PC. 8. Lirgdnni peconia sigmita. 

Money struck at Lyons. 



M. 

M. xaesia, or xarcus, or xenuDiui^ or 
xensis, or xinerva, or xometa, or 
xuniceps, or xunitae. Mawria, or 
Marcus, or Memmius (names of per- 
sons); or a month, or Minerva, or 
money, or municipal, or munitae (a 
fortifi^ town). 

M. A. xarcus Aurelius. Mareos Aure. 
lius. 

Ma. cani. XAnius CAionius. Manius 
Caninius (name of a person). 

Ma. c. avo. XAgna (aedes) caemria auo. 
usti or xAcellum Avousti. TIm 
great temple of Augustus, or, the mar- 
ket-place of Augustus. 

M. .EX. xarcus JBxilius. Mareoa 
.£milius (a man's name). 

Mao. dxcbnt. xAonentius DBcsirains. 
Magnentius Decentius (the name of a 
personage). 

Mag. pivs. xAonus pnrs. The great and 
pious (awarded to Cneius Pompey). 

M. ANN. xarcus annIus. Maroua Anniw 
(a man's name). 

M. ANT. IXP. AVG. COS. DBS. ITKB. ST TBT. 

xarcus ANTonius xxperator Aveur 
coNsul DEsignatus irxBum ar norr. 
ium. Marcus Antoninus, imperator, 
augur, and consul for the aeoomd and 
third time. 
M. ANTON. AVO. OBEX, xaroos Aino* 
Nlnus AX7oustus oBBxanieus. Marens 
Antoninus Augustus Germanicos. 

M. ANTONINVS. IXP. COS. DBSIO. ITXB. ST. 
TEBT. UI. VIE. BSIF. C. 



ABBEEVLA.TIONS OK BOMAK COINS. 



617 



TONDTcrs ncperator conbuI DisianatuB 

ITERIini ST TBKTium TTiumTIK KBIPUb- 

licae oonstituendae. Marcus Anto- 
ninus, imperator (or commander), 
oouBul for the second time, and triom- 
Tir for the third time for establishing 
the Kepublie. 
Mabc. MABcia, or mabcus, or MAntius. 
Maroia, or Marcus, or Martius. 

MaBOTA OTACIL. SBT. ATO. MABCIA OTA- 

cizia sBTera Avousta. Marola 

Otacilia Seyera Augusta. 
Mab. pbop. XAB8 PBOPOgnator. Mars 

the defender. 
Haju vlt. MABti VLTori. To Mars the 

avenger. 

M. CASS. I.AT. POSTYMTS. MaTCUS CASSiuS 

LAxienus postuxtts. Marcus Gassius 

LatienuB Postumus. 
Hat. atog. XAxer Auoustorum. Mother 

of the Augustus's. 
Hat. sen. hatct sBitatus. Mother of 

the senate. 
Hat. pat. matct PATriae. Mother of 

the eountry. 
Hat. dbvm. consebtat. MATri deum 

coMSBBVAxrici. To the mother of 

the gods, the preserver (Cybele). 
Hat. dbvm. salvt. matct dbxtm SALirrari. 

To the salutary mother of the gods. 
Matbb. avoo. mateb Airopstorum. 

Hother of the Augustus's. 

M. ATIVS. BALBVS. PB. MarCUS ATHTS 

BALBxrs PBaetor. Mascus Atius 
Balbus, Praetor. 

HATB. CASTBOB. MATBi CASTBOBUm. 

To the mother of the camps. 

H. AVF. Marcus Avpidius. Marcus 
Aufldius (the name of a personage). 

M. AVB. or MAB. AVB. Marcus AVBelius. 
Harcus Aurelius (the name of an 
emperor). 

H. AVB. amton. Marcus avbcUus an- 
TONinus. Marcus Aurelius Anto- 
ninus. 

H. AVBBL. AMTONINVS. AVO. ABMEN. P. M. 

xarcus avbelIus autoninus attous. 

tus ABMENiacus pontifex Maximus. 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus 

Armeniacus, high Pontiff. 
Max. xAximus. Maximus (the name 

of a personage). 
M. c. I. xunicipum oalaguris julia. 

The city of Calaguris Julia (now 

Lahorre in Spain). 



M. COMMODVS AMTOMIMVS AVO. BBIT. MSr- 
CUS COMMOUUS ANTONIMUS AVOUStUS 

BBzrannicus. Marcus Gommodus 

Antoninus Augustus Britannicus. 
Mbs. MEssius. Messius (the name of a 

personage). 
Met. METropolis. The Metropolis. 
Met. MBTaccus. Metaccus. 
Met. vlpiak. pak. Msrallum rLPiAmmi 

PAimonicum. Ulpian and Pannonian 

metal. 
Met. del. MBTallum del. for sAunatia- 

num. Metal of Dalmatia. 
Met. nob. METallum NOBicum. Metal 

of Noricum. 
M. p. Marci pilius. The son of Marcus. 
M. K. Marci vepos. The nephew of 

Marcus. 

M. H. ZLLEBGAVONIA. DEBT. MUnidpium 

Hibera hxbboavonu nsBToza. The 

municipal city of Hibera Illergavonia 

Dertoza. 
MxNAT. MSfATius. Miuatlus (the name 

of a personage). 
MiKXB. VICT. MiNEBvae viCTrici. To 

the victorious Minerva. 
M. K .V. Moneta carthaginensis urbem. 

Money of the city of Carthage. 
M. L. Moneta Lugdunensis. Money of 

Lugdunum (Lyons). 
M. LEP. c. Bxo. INST. MBrcus Lepidus 

dvitatem BEoinensium iNSTauravit. 

Marcus Lepidus repaired the town of 

Reginens. 
M. LL. Moneta Lugdunensium. The 

money of Lug^imum (Lyons). 
M. MABC. Marcus Marcellus* Marcus 

Marcellus. 
M. M. I. V. Municipes MunieipU julil 

irticensis. The municipals of the 

municipal city of Julius Uticmsis. 
M. N. Moneta Narbonensis. Money 

of Narbonne. 
MoN. MONCta. Money. 
MoN. AVO. MONcta Airousti. Money of 

Augustus. 
Mo. s.T. MonetasignataTreveris. Money 

struck at Treves (a city in Germany). 
M. POP. Marcus popIUus. Marcus 

Popilius (a man's name). 
M. B. Municipum navennatum. The 

city of Bavenna, in Italy. 
M. s. Moesiae superioris. Of UpperMoesia. 

M. S. AVOO. BT CABSS N08TB. MOUCta 

sacra ATJoustorum xr CASsarum 



618 



ABBBETIATIOKS OV BOMAK OOTSB. 



NOflTRoram. Sacred money of our 

Augustus's and Csesars. 
M. 8. T R. Moneta signata TBeyeris. 

Money struck at Triers. 
Mrh, nx.. KULta FKUoia. Many 

prosperities. 
Mtn. atq. bilbilis. c. coaw. bbfxc. x. 

HELY. 7B0NT. II. Via. XTTldcipiuin 

Auousta BILBILIS caio ooRNelio, 
nsFBcto MABco heltIo FBOMTOne 
DuuxYisi. The town Augusta 
Bilbilis, repaired under Caius Ciome- 
lius and Marcus HeMus Fronto, Du- 
umvirs. 

Myn. cltn. MiTNicipium CLUNia. The 
town of Clunia. 

Mtw. fans. ml. xrvicipium FANSstre 
, jBLium. The town of Fanestre 
Elium. 

Mtmicip. stob. mnncipium STOBensium. 
The town of Stobensium. 

MtKIC. ITALIC. FEB. AYO. XVNICipium 

XTALicense FBRmissu Atrousti. An 
Italian municipality, by the permis- 
sion of Augustus. 

MyN. stob., or STOBBNS, or STOBXNSIYM. 

xuidcipium STOBense or stobbksiuk. 
The town of Stobensium, in Maoe> 
donia. 
Myn. tyb. or MY. TY. mmicipium tto- 
cussae. The town of Turcussa. 



N. 



N. vatalis, or Ncpos, or MobUis, or 

Noster, or Numen, or mimmus. The 

birth ; or, the nephew ; or, noble ; or, 

our ; or, money. 
Nat. Natalis or Natus. The birth or 

bom. 
Nat. ybb. cibc. con. WATali vBBis 

ciacenses coNStituti. The Circen- 

sian games instituted on the anniYer- 

sary of the foundation of the city. 
N. c. Nero caesar, or Nobilis oaesar. 

Nero Caesar (name of a personage); or 

noble Caesar. 
N. c. A. p. a. Nummus cusus a populo 

aomano. Money struck by the Koman 

people. 
Nsp. BED. NEPtuno Bxnuci. To the 

return of Neptune. 
Nep. b. NBPtuno sacrum. Sacred to 

Neptune. 



NsPT. or NBPTYN. NEFTimalia (fssate 
held in honour of Neptune). 

Neb. nebo or NBBYa. Nero or Nerra 
(both names of personag'es). 

Nsa. I. a. YBB. NBBO I. auaestoT ttbbis. 
Nero the first Quaestor of the city. 

Nebo. clayd. dbysys. obbman. ncp. 

NBBO CLAimiuS DBUSUS OEBJCAXiC«8 

iMperator. The emperor Nero 
Claudius Drusus Germanicniw 
Nebo. bt. bbysys. caesabbs. qyinq. c. y. 

I. N. C. MSaO bt DBUSITS CAB8ARB9 

QuiNQuennales coloniae Yietrieis ju- 

liae NOYae carthaglnis. Nero and 

Drusus quinquennial Caesars of the 

colony Yictrix Julia, or Noyb Carthago. 
N. F. Numerii Filius. The son of 

Nimierius. 
N. N. Numerii nepos. The nephew of 

Numerius. 
NiCEPH. NiCEPHorium. Nicephorium 

(a colony in Mesopotamia). 
Nio. Nioer. Niger (the surname of 

the emperor Fescennius). 
Nob. c. NOBUis or Nobilissimus caesar 

Noble, or noblest Caesar. 
N. t. Numini Tutelari. To the tutelar 

Deity. 

N. TB. ALBXANDBIANJB. COL. BOSTB. 
KCTYae TBBJanae ALEXAMSBIANiB oo- 

Loniae BOSTBae, or BOSTRcnsis. Of 
the colony NerYa Trajana Alexan- 
driana Bostra, or Bostrensis (a town 
in Palestine). 
Ny. Nvma. Numa (Pompilius). 



O. 



O. ob, or offlcina, or ogulnius, or opfi- 
mo. The preposition ob ; the mint- 
mark showing where the money was 
manufactured; Ogulnius, the name 
of a personage, or " the best," (a title 
of Jupiter), sometimes bestowed also 
upon the Emperor Trajan. 

Ob. c. s. or ob. ciy. seb. or o. c. s. ob. 
ciYes serYatos. For the pre a e ave t s 
of the citizens (speaking of a crown 
wh^ch was given to those who had 
saved the life of a Bx>man citizeB). 

CEc. oscimienia. A name giYen to 
public games and combats. 

Off. ni const. OFFicinae Tertiae oon- 
sTantinopoli. In allusion to nuney 



ABBSETIATI0178 OK BOMAK COIKB. 



619 



Btrttck in the third monetary office at 

Constantinople. 
Oeyi.. oaTTUiius. Ogolniiu (a man's 

name). 
Qlt. OLTrnpius. Olympius. 
O. x. T. Optimo Maximo Tonanti. To 

the Thnnderer, the best, the gnreatest. 
Op or OPT. Prik. or fb. optimo pbik- 

eipi. To the best prince. 
Op. niY. opi nirinae. To the dirine 

Ops. 
Opei. oPKimins. Opeimius (the name 

of a personage). 
Opum opELins. Opelius (the name of 

a personage). 
Opi. divxm. n. p. cos. n. opi. nnmrae 

TBilranitia potestate coksuI ii. (ii. 

stands for secundum.) To the divine 

Ops ; exercising the tribunitial power, 

and consul for the second time. 
Oppivs. gapit. pbope. tumv, cla. oppius 

CAPiTO pBOPsaetor piLBFectos CLAssis. 

Oppins Capito, governor and com- 
mander of the fleet. 
Orb. tek. onsis Tsnrarum. Alluding to 

the extent of the Soman empire. 
Or. or OTACiL. Oracilia or oxAciiius. 

OtaciUa (the name of an empress), or 

Otacilius (the name of a personage). 



P* pater, or patriae, or per, or perenssa, 
or peipetuuB, or plus, or pontifex, 
or populus, or posuit, or praefectus, 
or primus, or prinoeps, or pro- 
Tincae, or publius, or publico. 
Father, or of the country, or (the 
preposition) by, or struck, or per- 
petual, or pious, or pontiff, or the 
people, or he has placed, or praefect, 
or the first, or a prince, or of a pro- 
vince, or Publius (name of a per- 
sonage), or to the public. 

F, A. pietas Augusti or Augusta. The 
piety of Augustus, or Augustan piety. 

Pac. or PACi. PACifico. To the pacific 
Mars. 

Pacb. p. b. tbbba. habiq. pabta. ianvu. 
CLVsrr. PACE populi Bomani tebba 
MABiane pabta jaituh clusit. He 
has shut the temple of Janus, having 
procured peace for the Roman people 
upon land and sea. 

P. Auno. Im xemio. n. vn. publio 



Auno Lueio xekio nuum-ml. Under 
the Duumvirs Publius Alitius and 
Lucius Menius. 

PAmroN. PAHHONiae. For Pannonia. 

Papi. PAPirius. Papirius (name of a 
personage). 

P. Aa. percussa Aauileiae. Struck at 
AquUia (a town in Italy, on the coast 
of the Adriatic). 

P. AB. percussa Aaelate. Struck at Are- 
late (now Aries in France). 

P. AB. AD. parthicns ABabicus Aniabeni* 
cus. Parthicus Arabicus Adiabenicus 
(titles given to emperors for their 
conquests or victoria obtained in 
these countries.) 

P AB. PABthicus. Parthicus (a title 
given to the emperors for victories 
over the Parthians.) 

P. ABL. pecunia ABCLatensis or per- 
cussa ABCLate. The money of Aries, 
or struck at Aries. 

Pat. pATCr PATriae. Father of the coun- 
try. 

Pax. avo. pax Auousta. The Augustan 
peace. 

Pax. p. box. pax Populi Boiiani. The 
peace of the Boman people. 

P. c. CMB. pater caii cissaris. The 
father of Caius Caesar. 

P. c. L. vAUBBiAirra. publius Cornelius 
licinius valebiantts. Publius Cor- 
nelius Licinius Yalerianus (name of 
an emperor.) 

P. n. populo Datum. Given to the 
people. 

Pblao. pELAoia. Pelagia (a title given 
to Venus). 

Penates, p. B. penates populi Bomani. 
The Penates of the Roman people. 

Peb. PEBmissu. By the permission. 

Feb. a. or pebfet. avo. PEBpetuus 

Augustus, or PEBPETUUS ATJOUStUS. 

Perpetual Augustus. 

Pebjc. divi. avo. col. boh. PEBMiseu 
nivi Avousti coLonia BOMulea. The 
colony Romulea, by 'the permission 
of the divine Augustus. 

PsBx. IMP. COB. PEBMissn iMperatoris 
coBinthi. Of Corinth, by permission 
of the emperor. 

Pkbm. IMP. OEBM. pFJtMissu ixperatorls 
GEBManici. By the permission of 
the emperor Germanicus (alluding to 
Domitian, who had that surname). 



620 



ABBSETIATIOlBrB OTSC BOMAIT 00IN8. 



PUtmSBT L. APBOMI. PR0008. UX. PBS- 

JCX88U Lucii APROKii psooonsul ni. 

By permission of Lucius Apronios, 

prooonsul for the third time., 
P. R. p. peeunia stomae perouflsa. 

Money struck at Rome. 
PxBT. PEKTinax. Fertinax (name of 

an emperor). 
Pescxn. PEscximius. Pescemuua (Niger), 

(name of an emperor), • 

P. p. pins pelix, or pia pidelia, or 

primus pecit. Pious and happy, or 

pious and faithful, or first done. 
P. p. publii piliuB, or pii pilia. The 

son of Publius, or the daughter 

of the Pius (that is, of Antoninus 

Pius). 
P. H. c. provinoiae Hispaniae cite- 

rioris. Of the proTinoe ot £^ain 

Citerioris. 
Ph. cond. PHilippus coNintor. Philip 

the founder. 
P. X. or p&iK. iVYXiT. prinoeps juventutis 

or p&iNceps juTENtutis. The prince 

of youth. 
PiET. AYG. FiBTas ATJousta. Augustau 

piety. 
P. X. percuflsa xarthagine. Struck at 

Carthage. 
Plas. tban. PLAstorius TRAvquillus. 

Plaetorius TranquiUus (name of a 

personage). 

P. L. COK. SAL. publius LiciuluS COK- 

nelius sALoninus. Publius Licinius 
CknueliuB Saloninus (name of an 
emperor). 

P. L. o. N. percussa LUgduni officinA' 
Novft or Non&. Struck at Lugdunum 
in the new, or ninth office. 

P. M. pontifex Maximus. The sove- 
reign pontiff. 

P. X. 8. COL. Tix. provincae xoesiae 
Buperioris coLonia vixiniaeum or 
vminacium. The colony Yiminiacum, 
or Yiminacium, in the proyinoe of 
Upper Moesia (now Widin, in 
Serria). 

Pol. polIIo. Pollio (name of a per- 
sonage). 

Pox. poxpelus. Pompey (name of a 
personage). 

PoBT. osT. poBTus osTiensls. The port 
of Ostia. 

P. p. pater patriae. Father of the 
country., 



P. p. ATo. perpetuoa Avoxafbaa, 

petual Augustus. 
P. POMPON, ex. n. Tix. puplio poxposio 

citispo, or cxispino Duumynto. Under 

the Duumyir PupUus Pompooiiifl 

Grispus, or Crisinnus. 
P. X. percussa xomae. Stntck at Rome. 

PXA. CLAS. XT OXAX. XARXT. PXXEPeCtXS 

CLAssis XT ORAX xAxiTixnae. Pne- 

foct of the fleet and of the marixe 

coasts. 
PxiKP. oxRK. pxspectuB oxxxanonuB. 

Praefect of the Germans. 
Px. COS. pxoconsaU Prooonaul. 
PxiMi. DEcxv. PKixi DXCBimales. The 

first Decennials. 

PXIKCXP. rVYENT. FBXITCIPl JITVXMTUtis. 

To the prince of youth. 
PxoB. pxoBUS. ProbuB (name ef aa 

emperor). 
Pxoc. PBoconsul. Prooonsul. 
Fxoc. SIC. pxooonsul siciliae. Pro- 
consul of Sicily. 
P. Kox. percussa xoxae. Strode at 

Bome. 
Pxoir. pxoNepoB. Orand-nephev. 
pxop. or pxo. p. PROPraetor or fbo- 

praetore. Propraetor, or for the 

prsBtor. 
PxoQ. or PRO. Q. PRoauaestor or pxo- 

Quaestore. Proqusstor, or for the 

quGBstor. 
Pxov. DEox. PBOTidentlae or pxoTidex- 

ti& xtxoKum. To the pnmdexoe, or 

the providence of the gods. 

FXOTIDENT. SBNAT. PKOVXDXNTia BEKATUa. 

To the foresight of the senate. 
Px. s. p. PBOvinciae syriae palestinl. 

Of the province of Syria, in Palestine. 
Px. vxB. pxaefectos vxbis or naetor 

vxBis. PrsBfect or prsBtor of tiw city. 
P. 8. percussa sisciae. Struck at 

Siscia (in Croatia, now Sisseg). 
P. T. percussa ireveris. Stmek at 

Treveris (in Germany, now Treves). 
PvDic. puDicitia. Modesty. 
Pvpix. pupiEUus. Pupienxia (name of 

an emperor). 

a 

Q. Quaestor or Quinarius or avintns 
or Quinquennaiis or Quod. A quSBS- 
tor, or Quinarius (the name of a 
personage), or every fifth year,or quod, 
that. 



ABBBEYIATIONS OK BOMAN COD^S. 



621 



Q. CAB. oaintns CAsains. Quintua Cassias 

(the name of a i)ersonage). 
Q. c. X. p. X. anintus cecilius xetellua 

pins imperator. Quintna Cecilius 

Metellua Fins, ocnnmander. 
Q. DES. Quaestor oesignatua. Appointed 

a quarator. 

Q. HSR. ETR. XES. DSC. KOB. C QUintUS 

HEBenniua etkuscus uxasiua Dscius 

woBilia caeaar. Quintna Herenniue 

Etmscus Messina Deeiua, noble Caeaar. 
Q. Hxap. auaeator Hiapaniae. Qunstor 

of Spain. 
Q. M. Quintus icareius. Quintna Mar- 

ciua {the name of a personage). 
Q. o. c. FAB. Quinto ogulnio (et) caio fabIo. 

To Quintos Ogulniua and to Caius 

Fabiua. 
Q. p. auaeator praetoris. ausBstor of 

the preetor. 

Q. PAPIB. OAB. Q. TER. VOX. QUiuto 

PAPiRio CARboni (et) QUinto Tsnen- 
tio MOKtano. To Quintus Papirius 
Carbo and to Quintus Terentius 
Moatanos. 
Q. PR. Q. PRO. c. or COS. Quaestor 
pROYiaciae, or Quaestor pro consule or 
pRoeonsulis. Quaestor of the province, 
or quflBStor of the proconsul. 

Q. TBRSMT. CVLLEON. PRO. COS. III. QUlUto 
TRRBKTiO CtTLLEONi FROCONSUU xer- 

tium. To Quintus Terentius Culleonis, 

proeonsul for the third time. 
Qtad. QTTADratus. Quadratus (the name 

of a personage). 
Qtaobao. rxk. QVADRAoesima RSMissa. 

The quadragesima (a tax so called) 

remitted. 
QviN. ITER. QviKquennalis iTERum. 

Quinquennial repeated. 
Q. ▼. or QTOB. v. X. s. Quod viae xuni- 

tae aint, or aunt. That the roads 

may be defended. 
Q. VRB. Quaeetor vRsia. Qusestor of 

the city. 

R. 

B. semissa, or noma, or sestitnit, or 
Bomanua. Remitted, or Rome, or 
he has restored, or Roman. 

Ba. BAvemia. RaTenna(acit7of Italy). 

R. 0. Romani ciyea. Roman citLzens. 

B. cc. Remisaa c c. The two hundredth 
remitted. 

BxcEP. RBCBPta. Beoeived. 



Rxc. ORB. RECtor ORsis. Ruler of the 

world. 
RsF. RBFecta. Rebuilt or repaired. 

RbLIQYA. VETERA. HS. NOVIES. XIL. ABOUT. 
RELXQUA VETERA HS. MOVIES XILIC 

ABOLiT. The state debt, to the value 

of nine thousand sesterces, abolished, 

by payment (hs. signifies sesterces). 
Res. RBstitutus or Rsstituit. Restored, 

or he haa restored. 
Rest. ital. REsritutor iTALiae. Ike 

restorer of Italy. 
Rest. mvx. Rssrituta Kuxidia or nitk- 

mum REsritutnm. Numidia restored, 

or the SKmey reminted. 
Rex. arx. dat. rex ARxeniae datub. 

A king given to Armenia. 
Bex. part. dat. rex PARThis datus. 

A king given to the Farthians. 
Rex. ptol. rex PTOLcmaeus. King 

Ptolemy. 
R. X. or REi. xiL. Rei xilitaris or rei 

xnitaris. Military affairs. 
Ro. Romae. To Rome. 
Rox. JETER. Romae ^TERnae. To 

eternal Rome. 
RoxA. RENASC. ROXA RXKASCcns. Re- 
viving Rome. 
Rox. COL. Roxulea coLonia. The colony 

Romulea. 
Rox. ET. Avo. Roxae et Avousto. To 

Rome and to Augustus. ^ 

Rox. RESVRO. Roxa RESURocns. Re- 
viving Rome. 
RoxvL. AVO. BoxcLO Arousto. To 
Romulus Augustus. 

RoXVL. CONDIT. ROXTTLO CONDITOri. TO 

Romulus the founder. 

Ro. p. s. Romae pecunia slgnata. Money 
struck at Rome. 

R. p. Romae percussa. Struck at 
Rome. 

R. p. c. Rei publicae constituendae. For 
the re-establishing of the Republic. 

R. s. Romae signata. Struck at Rome. 

R. V. Roma victrix. Victorious Rome, 

R. p. s. Ravennae pecunia signata. 
Money struck at Ravenna. 

R. XL. Rcmissa xl. The fortieth re- 
mitted. 

S. 

S. sacerdoa, or sacra, or semissus, or 
senatus, or senator, or senior, or sex- 



622 



jiBBBSYIiiTIOirS OX BOMAS^ GOIETS. 



tw, or loli, or spes, or susoepto, 
or flisciae. Priests, or tilings to be 
sacrificed, or the half of the Roman 
As, or the senate, or senator, or 
ancient,'or Sextos (the name of a];»er. 
Bonage), or the sun, or Sisda (a town 
in Croatia). 
6. ▲. saIqb, or baIus Augnsti, or sxcnritas 
Augnsti, or signataAntiochiae. Sains, 
the goddess of health, or the health or 
security of Augustus, or struck at 
Antioch (speaking of money). 

SaCZKD. coop. in. OHK. C0LL.Or OOML. STPBA 

NVM. SAOsBoos cooptatus IK oMida 
coixegia (or coNLegia) supba mjxe. 
rum. Supernumerary priests ap- 
pointed in all the colleges. 

Sac. p. BAcris paclundum or sAcra pa- 
ciens. Sacrifices to the gods to be 
performed, or being performed. 

Sacb. ps&. sAcna pE&iodica. Period^ 
ical sacrifices. 

Sjecylab,. atqo. ascuiiABes Avousto- 
rum. Secular games of the Au- 
gustus's. 

Sacvlab. sac. BAcuLABia BAcra. Secu- 
lar sacrifices. 

SjECTL. PBVOIP. SiBCXTLO PBUoipero. To 

a fertile period. 
Sao. SAountum. Saguntum, a town 

in Spain. 
Sal. , 8ALU8, or BAi^uba, or sALoninus, 

or SALonina. The goddess of health ; 

or Salduba (a town in Spain); or 

Saloninus, or Salonina. 
Sal. gen. hvh. salus oxNeris mricani. 

The health of the human race. 
Sall. babb. sALLustia BABBia (Orbia- 

na). Sallustia Barbia Orbiana. (The 

names of an empress). 
Salm. SALMantica. Sahnantica (a town 

in Spain). 
S. ABL. signata ABelate. Struck at Aries 

(in France). 
Sabjc. SABHaticus. Sarmatious (a title 

giren to an emperor for his conquests 

over the Sarmatians). 
Savp. BATTPfeia or SAVPfeius. Saufll^eia 

(the name of a Roman family), or 

Sauffeius (the name of a personage). 
8. c. senatus consulto. By decree of 

the senate, which allowed money to 

be coined. 
Sai. AP. scipio Apricanus. Scipio 

Africanus. 



Scip. ASIA, scipio ASiAtieufl. Scipio the 

Asiatic. 
S. coirsT. signata coNsrantiiiopoh. 

Struck at Constantinople. 
ScB. scBibonia or scRibonius. Scritao. 

nia (the name of a B^man family) or 

Scribonius (the name of a personage). 
Sxo or SJBC. sECfuritas or S2Bculum. 

Security, or the age. 
Sec. obb. sEcuritas obbis. Tlie seen. 

rity of the uniyerae. 
Sbmp. BEXPronius or sEMpronia. Sem- 

proniuB (the name of a personage), or 

Sempronia (the name of a family). 
Sen. BENior. Elder. 
Semti. SENTia. Sentia (the name of a 

Soman family). 
Sep. col. latd. sEPtimia coLonia lavd- 

icea. The seventh year of the colony 

of Laudicea (for Laodicea). 
Sept. bey. sEPrimius BEverus. Sep- 

timius Severus. 
Sept. ttb. met. SEprima ttbus xx- 

Tropolis. The seventh of the 

metropolitan city of Tyre, in 

Phoenicia. 
See. SEBvius. Servius (the name of a 

personage). ,, 

Seben. sebenus. Serenus (the name 

of a personage). 
Sebvili. SEBviLia. Servilia (the name 

of a Roman family). 
Sev. sEverus. Severus (the name of 

a personage). 
Sex. p. BExti pilius. The son of Sextns. 
S. p. saeculi, pelicitas. The happiness 

of the age. 
SiciL. siciLia. Sicily. 
SiDEB. Recept. siDEBibus bbceptIs. 

Received among the constellations. 
Sio. BECEPT. sionis BBCEPtis. The stan- 

dards being received. 
SiL. siiius. Silius (the name of a per- 
sonage). 
S. I. X. soli mvicto xithrae. To 

Mithras the invincible sun. 
SiB. or siBX. siBxium. Sirmirun (now 

Simach in Slavonia). 
Sisc. sisciae. Of Siscia (alludin^^ to 

money struck there). 
SiBG. p. sisciae percussa (moneta). Money 

struck at Siscia. 
S. X. A. signata, or sacra xoneta Anti- 

ochiae. Money struck at Antioeh, 

or the sacred money of Antioch. 



ABBBEYIATIONS ON BOMAN COINS. 



623 



S. K. ▲. a. r. sacra voneta Aquileiee 
percossa. Sacred money stxuck at 
Aquileia. 

S. X. HXK. signata Moneta Esaacleae. 
Money struck at Heraclea. 

8, u, o. B. signata uoneta ofS.cina 
secunda. Money struck in the second 
monetary office. 

S. K. V. sacra or signata moneta Nar- 
bonae or Nicomediae. Sacred money 
of Narbonne or Nicomedia, or struck 
at Narbonne or Nieomedia. 

8. M. B. signata Moneta nomae. Money 
struck at Aome. 

S. X. &. Q. signata xoneta nomae 
officina quarta. Money struck at 
Bome in the fourth monetary 
oflOce, expressed by the letter a. 

S. X. sisc. signata xoneta sisciae. 
Money struck at Siscia. 

S. X. SK. signata xoneta TBeyeris. 
Money struck at Treves. 

8. X. T. 8. B. sacra xoneta Treveris 
signata, officina secunda. Sacred 
money of Treyes, b signifying of the 
second monetary office. 

£^. SFurius. Spurius (the name of a 
pei«pnage). 

Sp. AvrnvTA.. spes auousta. The Au- 
gustan hope. 

8pbs. p. n. sPEs populi aomani. The 
hope of the B^man people. 

S. p. Q. B. ADSERT. LIBE&T. SeuatUS 

populus Que Bomanus AssEBxori 
UBSKTatis. The Roman senate and 
people to the assertor of liberty. 
S. p. a. B A. N. p. p. senatus populus- 
que Bomanus Anno Matali (scilicet 
urbis) Fieri pecit (optimo principi). 
Which may be freely interpreted, as 
struck by the senate and people of 
Bome, &c. in honour of the year of 
the birth of the best prince. 

8. p. a. B. IXP. CJa. QYOD. V. X. 8. EX. BA. 

p. Q. IS. AD. A. n. senatus populus 
aue Bomanus ixperator ciBsari anon 
viae xunitae sunt ex ba pecunia 
(tuam IS AD Aerarium netulit. Money 
struck by the senate and people, &c. 
in order that the public roads might 
bo maintained. 
8. p. a. B. ivLLiB. AuovsT. scuatus po- 
pulus Que Romanus julub AuousTae. 
The senate and Boman people to Julia 
Augusta. 



S. p. a. B. oPTixo. PBiKciPi. senatus po- 
pulus Que Bomanus optixo pbimcipi. 
The senate and Boman people to the 
best prince. 

S. p. Q. B. svF. p. D. senatus populus 
Que Bomanus supfamenta popuIo 
Data. The senate and Boman people^ 
a grant of corn given to the people. 

S. p. Q. B. V. s. PRO. B. ciBs. seuatus 
populus Que Bomanus vota solvunt 
PBO Beditu cjBsare. The senate and 
Boman people make votive offerings 
for the return of CsBsar. 

S. B. senatus Bomanus or salus 
Bomanorum or spes Beipublicae or 
sacris Beceptis, or Bestitutis. The 
Boman senate, or the heal^ of the 
Bomans, or the hope of the republic, 
or sacrifices received, or sacrifices 
revived. 

S. T. signata xreveris or securitas 
xemporum. Money struck at Treves, 
or the security of the times. 

Stabil. STABiLitas, Stability. 

SvLL. siTixa or sylla. Sulla or Sylla 
(the name of a personage). 

Ss. sestertium. The sestertii were 
pieces of money valued at two ases 
and a half. 



T. 

T, Titus, or Treveris, or Tribunus, or 
Tutelaris. Titus (name of a person- 
agre), or Treveris (in Germany, now 
Treves), or tribune, or tutelar. 

T. AB. Tcrtia ABclate. Struck in the 
third monetary office of Arelate (now 
Arle«j). 

T. CAES. DIVI, VESP. P. AVO. P. X. TB. P. 

p. COS. VIII. Titus CAEsar divi vks- 
pasiani pilius Avoustus pontifex 
xaximus TRibuniti& potestate pater 
patriae consul viii. Titus Caesar, 
son of the divine Vespasian (so styled, 
because he had been deified by the 
Bomans), Augustus, high pontiff, 
exercising the tribunitian power, 
father of the oountry, consul for the 
eighth time. 

TbXPL. mv. AVO. BEST. cos. IIII. TEX- 

PLum Divi Avousti REsxitutum con- 
eul quartum. The temple of the divine 
Augustus (restored), consul for the 
fourth time. 



624 



ABBBETIATIOKS OTST BOMAK 0OIK8. 



Txft. TBBentias. TerentiiiB (name of a 

penonage). 
Tis. TBwalonieae. Of Thessalonica. 
T. p. Titi Filia or Temporam Felicitas. 
Daughter of Titus, or the felieity of 
the tiznee. 
T. VL. ritiu FLayias. Titoa FlayiuB. 

(name of a personage). 
T. G. ▲. Tutelaris oenius Aegrjrpti. The 

tutelary genius of Egypt. 
Thxopo. thbopoIIb. Theopolis (a name 
given to the city of Antioch in the 
reign of Justinian, Emperor of the 
East). 
Ti. Tiberius. Tiberias (name of an 

emperor). 
Ti. K. Tiberii Nepos. Kephew of 

Tiberius. 
Ti. F. Tiberii rilius. Son of Tiberius. 
T. X. AP. ex. Titus Kanlius (et) Appius 
CLaudius. Titus Manlius and Appius 
Claudius (names of persons). 
T. p., or TR. POT., or tbib. pot. Tribu- 
nitia potestas, or Tnibunilia porestas, 
or TBiBunitia poTOstas. The tribuni- 
tian power. 
T. p. or TR. POT., or tbib. pot. v. &c. Tri- 
bunitia potestas, or TRibunitia pot. 
estas, or TRiBunitia poTestas t. The 
tribunitian power, or exerclBing the 
tribunitian power for the fifth time. 
Tr. TReveris. Treveris, of Treves. 
Tbai. TRAjranus. Trajan (name of a 

personage). 
Traiv. TRANquillus. TranquiUus (name 

of a personage). 
Tranq. TRAMQuillitas. Tranquillity. 
Trxbak. TrbbamIus. Trebanius (name 

of a personage). 
Trebon or TR£B. TRXBONianus or trxb- 
onianus. Trebonianus (name of a 
Itersonage). 
Tr. p. TRajana Fortis. The legion 
Trajana Fortis (a distinctive title of 
this legion). 
Trivhph. TRivxPHator. Triumpher. 
T R. OBs. or o. B. s. TReveris OBsignata 
or offlcina b. signata. Struck at 
Treves (in Germany), or struck in 
the office b (that is, of the second 
office or division of the mint ; the 
offices being distinguished by a. b. 
for the first, second, &c., a system 
common in Roman monetary nume- 
rals). 



Tb. I.EO. n. TRlbunus LBokmis n. The 

military tribune of the second legion. 
Tb. p. TBCveris percnssa or peonma. 

Struck at Treves, or the nimey of 

Treves (in Germany). 
Tb. pi». d. TBibunus PLebis DesSgnatos. 

Cihosen tribune for the people. 
Tb.v. k. TBiumviri Monetales. Monetary 

triumvirs. 
T. T. Trevirorum. (Coinages) of Treves. 
Tvl. h. or HOST. tulIus HoetUius. hobt- 

ilius. Tullns Hostilius (name of 

one of the kings of Borne) . 

V. 

y. Quinque, or verus, or vietriz, or vir, 

or virtus, or voto, or votivus, or urbs. 

Five, or Yerus (name of a personage), 

or virtue, or by the vow, or votive, or 

the city. 
Y. AST. virtus AETema. Eternal virtue. 
Yal. or VALER. VALerius or VAXcBianus 

(names of personages). 
Yar. bvf. vABius BUFUS. Ysrius Bufus 

(name of a personage). 
Yen. fbl. vsireri FSLici. To the happy 

Yenus. ^ 

YBNEB. VICTR. TEMBBi VIGTRift TO 

Yenus the victorious. 
Yent. vBNTidius. Yentidius (name of 

a personage). 
Yesp. vsspasianus. Yespasian (name 

of an emperor). 
Yetbr. VETEBanorum. Of the veterans. 
Yet. lako. YEttius LANOuidus. Yettina 

Languidus (name of a personage). 
Y. I. vota imperiL The vows of tlie 

empire. 
YiB. viBius. Yibius (name of a per- 
sonage). 
Yic. Ave. victoria ATxoustL The vietory 

of Augustus. 
Yic. geru. victoria GERxanica. The 

Germanic victory. 
Yic. par. k. victoria pAsthiea xax- 

ima. The greatest Parthian victory. 
Yic 8. victoria sicilia. The Sieiliaxi 

victory. 
Yic. bbatissix. gabss. victoria beatis- 

sixorum CAEsarum. The victory of 

the most sacred CsDsars. 
Yic. BRIT. p. X. victoria BBiramiiea 

Fontifex xaximus. The Britie^ vio- 

tory, the high Pontiff. 



J 



ABBEEYIATIONS OS" EOMAN COINS. 



625 



Victor, aom. vzcTO&ia ROManorum. 

The Tictory of the BomanB. 
Vict. p. gal. avo. vicroria parthica 

Gj^Jieni Auonsti. The Parthian 

victory of the Emperor Gallienus 

Angnstns. 
Vni. vin. Eight (this flgrure generally 

when it appears on silver coins and 

signifies that they are worth eight 

ases). 
Vn. vni. Epv. vn vxai BPiilonnm. 

The Epnlonean Septemvlr (a sacred 

dignity among the Bomans). 
Via. virtus. Virtue, or courage, or 

valour. 
Vi. VIE. A. VI. viK. Aroustus. The 

Augustan Sexemvir or Sevir (a titular 

rank among the Bomans). 
V. K. u. R. rrbis Nicomediae Moneta 

Bestituta. The restored money of 

the city of Nicomedia. 
Vol. voLuslus. Volusius (name of a 

personage). 
VoLEE. voLERO. Volcro (name of a 

personage). 
VoTA. PVB. voTA PUsUca. Public vows. 
YoT. DBCEN. voTa DBCBNualia. De- 

cennalian vows. 

Vox. IX. MVL. XXX. VOTa XX. MITL- 

tiplica XXX. The vows for twenty 
years increased to thirty. 



V. p. vota publica or vota populi. 

public vows or vows of the people. 
V. V. vota V. Quinquennalian vows. 



X. 



X. 



X. 



Decem. Ten, or Decennalia (feasts) 
or denoting the value of x ases on a 
Boman denarius. 

p. X. Faciendum. An officer ap- 
pointed for striking silver money 
(x signifying the silver denarii, which 
were originally worth ten ases). 

Xl. r. XL. Remissa. The fortieth (a 
tax so called) remitted. 

Xvi. XVI. The later denarii are marked 
thus; this coin was formerly only 
worth ten ases but rose to the value 
of sixteen, with which figures they 
were marked. 

Xv. XV. Money worth fifteen denarii. 

Xv. viR. SAO. PAC. XV. viRi sactIs pa- 
ciundis. Fifteen men appointed for 
performing the sacrifices. 

Xx. V. XX. vota. Thanks returned on 
the twentieth year. 



S 8 



A LIST OF THE EOMAN COLONIAL COINS, 

ICABKINO THS DEGREES OF BARITT. 
FBOM &A£E 1, (R.^), TO BABE 8, (B.^}. 



THX NAMB8 IN BKAOKXTS A&B TSS MODEKN VAMXS OF THB PLACXS. 

The Odd ia marked Q. ; the Brome, Br.; the SOverj S. ; the Lead, L.; and Potin 

or Jkise Metal, Po. 



Abdera {Adra). Colonial imperial: Br.. 
— R.^ Of Tiberias. Latin, and Latin 
and Phoenician legends. 

Acci (Guadix el Yiejo). Colonial impe- 
rial : Br. — ^B.* B.* From Augustus 
to Caligula. 

Aelia Chipitolina (Eud-el-Cherif. Ilia, 
Gerusalemme). Colonial imperial : Br. 
— C. B.^ From Adrian to Hostilianus. 
Latin legends. 

Agrigentum {GirgGnXi). Colonial autono- 
mous : 8. — R.8 Br. — ^R.* Colonial 
imperial : Br. — ^B.*. Of Augustus. 
These colonial pieces, having Latin 
legends, are remarkable, as there are 
few of this class in Sicily and 
Italy. 

Agrippina (Cologne). Colonial imperial. 
Br. — 'R.fi Of Postumus. 

Alexandria Troas (£ski-Stambul). Co- 
lonial autonomous: Br. — C. B.^ 
Latin legend. Colonial Imperial : 
Br. — C. B.* From Trajan to Salo- 
ninus. Latin legend. 

Antiochia ad Orontem (Antak. Antakie). 
Colonial imperial : Br. — C. R.* From 
Antoninus Pius to Valerian the Elder. 

Antiochia (Ak-Chiehere). Colonial auto- 
nomous : Br — R.* Latin legend. 
Colonial imperial : Br. — C. R.* 
From Tiberius to Claudius Gothicus. 
Latin legend. 



Asturica (Astorga). Colonial imperial: 
Br. — B.^ Of Augustus. The piece 
attributed to this town bearing only 
the inscription " Col. Ast. Augusta,** 
may be of Asta, Astapa, or of Astigi» 
all towns in Baetican Spain. 



B. 

Berytua (Beyrat, Baruti). Colonial an- 
tonomous: Br. — R.* Latin legend. 
Colonial imperial : Br. — C. R.' From 
Julius Ceesar to Saloninus. Latin 
legend. 

JBostra (Bostra). Colonial imperial : 
Br.— R.* R.* From Heliogabalus to 
Decius. Latin legends. 

Buthrotum (Butronto, Butrinto). Go- 
lonial autonomous : Br. — ^R.^ Latin 
legend. Colonial imperial : Br. — 
R.* B.^ From Augustus to Tiberius. 
Latin legend. 

C. 

OabelUo {Cay tMlon). Colonial imperial : 

S. — ^R.6. Br. — B.* Of Auerostus. 
Oaesarea (Kayserie). Colonial imperial : 

Br. — C. B.* From Domitian to 

Gallienus. Latin legend. 
Oaesarea (Arche, Archis, Arka). Colo- 

nial imperial : Br. — B.* FromCara- 

calla to Alexander Severus. 
Cfarthago Nova (Cartagena). ColoiuaX 



BABITY OF BOMAN COLONLiL COINS. 



627 



y. 



imperial: Br. — ^B.^ B.* From Au- 
irugtas to Caligula. 

Oarrhae. Colonial imperial : Br. — ^B.^ 
B.^ From Marcus Aurelius to Tran- 
qoiUianus. 

OasMoindrea (Elassandra-Capusi). Colo- 
nial autonomous: Br. — ^B.' B.^ 
jLatin legend. Colonial imperial: 
8.— B.« Po.— B.6 Br.— C. B.« 
From Claudius to Philip. Latin 
legend. One of the Colonial autono- 
mous coins of this series bears a Greek 
legend, but is of doubtful attribution. 

CeUa (Yelilla de Ebro). .Colonial im- 
perial : Br. — C. B.* Of Augustas 
and of Tiberius. 

Clattdiopolis. Colonial autonomous : Br. 
— B.* Latin legend. 

Oi^mana (Al Bostan). Colonial Imperial : 
Br. — ^B.* Of Antoninus Pius and 
Caracalla. Latin legend. 

Cbrdubavel Patricia {CorAobti). With the 
name of Patricia. Colonial Imperial : 
Br. — ^B.« B.* Of Augustus. This 
town took the name of Colonia Pa- 
tricia, on becoming a Boman colony. 

CbfHnthus (Eorito, Corinto). Achaian 
league. Colonial autonomous : Br. — 
C. B*. Colonial imperial : Br. — C. 
B.'' From Augustus to Gordian the 
Pions. All these coins have Latin 
legrends, except those of Antinoiis, 
which have Greek inscriptions. 



D. 



Dacia in general. Colonial imperial : 
Br. — C. B.* From Philip to GaUienus. 
These pieces bear the dates of a period 
beginning with the year 247 b.c, 
and have Latin legends. No money 
was coined in Dacia before the time 
of the Emperor Philip. 

Dama9c%u (Chiam, Damich, Damasco). 
Colonial imperial: Br. — B,*B*. From 
Alexander Seyerus to Saloninus. 
Latin legend. 

DetUtum (Derkon). Colonial imperial : 
Br.— B.* B.« From Trajan to Philip 
the younger. These pieces are nume- 
rous and have Latin legends. 

JH%tm (Stan-dia). Colonial imperial : Br. 
— C. B.<^ From Augustus to Saloni- 
nus. Latin legend. 



Emerita (Merida). Colonial imperial : 
8.— C. Br. — C. B.* Of Augustus, 
Tiberius, and of Julia. 

Emim (Hams). Colonial imperial : Po. 
— B.8 Br.— B.8 B.» From Julia 
Domna to Solpicios Antoninus. 

H. 

Heliopolis (Baalbeck). Colonial imperial : 
Br.— B.i B.* From Nerva to Gal- 
liciaus. Latin legend. 

I. 

leoniutn (Ednyah, Konyeh, Cogni). Co- 
lonial imperial: Br. — ^B.* B.* Of 
Gordian the Pious, Valerian, and 
GaUienus. Latin legend. 

Iliei (Elche). Colonial imperial : Br.— • 
B.* B.^ Of Augustus and Tiberius. 



J. 

JtUia (Antequera et Lucena). Colonial 
autonomous : Br. — B.^ 

L. 

Laodicea (Latakie, Latakkia). Colonial 
imperial : Br. — C. B.* From Septi- 
mus Seyerus to Valerian. lAtin 
legend. 

Lugdimum-Oopia (Lyon). Colonial au- 
tonomous : 8. — ^B.* Colonial impe- 
rial : Br. — C. B.* Of Julius Caesar 
and Augustus. 

N. 

NeapoUa (Nabolos, Napuloso). Colonial 
imperial: Br. — C. B.* From Philip 
to Valerian. 

Nemausm (Nlsmes). Colonial autono- 
mous : S.— B.* B.« Br.— B.« B.*— 
Colonial imperial: Br. — C. B.* Of 
Augustus and Agrippa. 

Norha (Brozas). Colonial autonomous : 
Br. — ^B.^ Of doubtful attribution. 



P. 

Panormtu (Palermo). Colonial autono- 
mous : Br. — ^B.^ Some of these pieces 
bear the legend Hispanorum. 

8 b2 



628 



BARITT OF BOMA.K COLOITIAL COINS. 



Farium (Eiemer, Kamares, Porto-Cam- 
era). Colonial autonomous : Br. — ^R.* 
B.* Latin legend. Colonial imperial : 
Br. — ^B.* B.8 From Julius Cesar to 
Saloninus. Latin legend. 

Pairae (Patra, Patrasso). Achalan league. 
Colonial autonomous : Br. — B.* Co. 
lonial imperial : Br. — C. B.« From 
Augustus to Oordian the Pious. — 
Most of these pieces have Latin le- 
gends ; but a few are Greek. 

Farlais. Colonial imperial : Br. — ^B.* B.* 
From Marcus Aurelius to Maximin. 
Latin legend. 

Pella (Ala-Clissa, Telia yel Palatisa). 
Colonial imperial : Br. — Q. B.* From 
Trajan to Philip the younger. Latin 
legends. 

PMlippopolii. Colonial imperial : Br. — 
C. B.* Of MarinuB, PhiUp and Otacilia. 
Greek legends. 

PMiippi (Filippi). Colonial autonomous : 
Br. — ^B.* Colonial imperial : Br. — 
B.* B*. From Augustus to Gallienus. 

PtoUmaii. Colonial imperial : Br. — C. 
B.^ From Claudius to Saloninus. 
Latin legend. 

B. 

Jtomula (SevUla). Colonial imperial : Br. 

— B.'B.'' Of Augustus, Tiberius, and 

their families. 
Ruscino (le Boussillon). Colonial impe- 

rial : Br. — ^B.^ Of Augustus. 



S. 

SebatU (Chiemrum). Colonial imperial : 
Br. — B.* Of Julia Domna, and Ca- 
raealla and Geta. Latin legend. 



Sidon (Seida). Colonial imperial : Br. — 

C. B.^ Latin legend. Of Helioga. 

balus and his family, and of Alexan- 

der Seyerus. 
8inope (Sinub, Sinab, Sinope). Ck>lonial 

autonomous : Br. — B.^ Latin legpend. 

Colonial imperial : Br. — C. B.^ From 

Julius Cesar to Gallienus. Latin 

legend. 
Siptis Magna (Sebida). Colonial autono- 

mous : Br. — B.^ B.' Latin legend. 



T. 

Tarraco (Tarragona). Colonial autono- 
mous : Br. — ^B.^ Colonial imperial : 
Br. — ^B.* B.* From Augustas to 
Drusus. 

Tradueta (Algeciras). Colonial imperial : 
Br. — ^B.* B.'' Of Augustus, and Cains, 
and Lucius Cesar. These coins bear 
the legend ** Julia Tradueta." 

Tyana (Tiana). Colonial imperial : Br. 
— C. B.* Of Julia Domna and of 
Caracalla. Latin legends. 

Tyru8 (Tur, Tiro). Colonial imperial : 
Br. — C. B.® From Septimus Severus 
to Saloninus. Latin legends. 



V. 



Vtminiaeum (Bam). Colonial imperial : 
Br. — C.B.« From Philip to Gallienus. 
These pieces bear dates of an era 
commencing at the year 240 b.c. — 
The legends are Latin. 

Vienna (Yiaina). Colonial imperial: 
Br. — B.^ Of Julius Cesar with An- 
gustus, of Augustus, and of Augustus 
with Agrippa. 



COGNOMINA, SUKNAMES, AND ADOPTED NAMES, 

WHICH ARE FOUND ON ROMAN CONSULAR COINS, 

WITH THE FAMILIES TO WHICH THEY BBLOMO. 



KAXB. 


VAMILT. 


KAm. 


• 


VAMILT. 


ACISCTLTS . . . 


Valeria. 


Calvinvb 


> • • 


Domitia. 


AOHIPPA .... 


Liiria. 
^ YipBania. 


Capella 


» • • 


NaeYia. 
Fonteia. 


Ahala .... 


Senrilia. 


Capito . 


. . . 


Maria. 


Ahsnobarbys . . 


Domitia. 






Oppia. 


Albints .... 


PoBtumia. 


Capitolimvb 




Petellia. 


Antiaticvs . . . 


Maenia. 


Cabbo . . 




Papiria. 


AaVIMYB .... 


Caecilia. 


Casga 




SerYilia. 


Abiaobmes . . . 


Cornelia. 


Cato . . 




Porcia. 


At&atixvs . . . 


Sexnpronia. 


Catvllvb 




Valeria. 


AVGVaiNVB . . . 


Minutia. 


Celeb . . 




Cas8i%. 


AVIOLA .... 


AciUa. 


Celbyb . 




Papia. 






Cenbobimys 




Marcia. 


Bai^ 


Acilia. 


Cebco 




Lutatia. 




/"Aoilia. 


Cestianys 




Plaetoria 




Antonia. 


CETHEaYS 




Cornelia. 




Atia. 


Chilo, Cilo 




Flaminia 


Balbts . . . . • 


Coelia. 


CiCEBO . . 




Tullia. 


Cornelia. 


ClNNA . . 




Cornelia. 




Mindia. 


COGLES . , 




Horatia. 




Naevia. 


COBBYLO 




Domitia. 




^Thoria. 


COBDYS . . 




Marcia. 


Babbatvb Soets . 


Valeria. 


Cobnytyb 




Caecilia. 


Basbts .... I 


BetelienoB. 


COSSYB . . 




Cornelia. 


Pomponia. 


Costa . . 




Pedania. 


BlBVLVB .... 


Calpumia. 


COTTA . . 




Aurelia. 


Bl.ANDyB . . . 


Rubellia. 


Cbabsipes 




Furia. 


Blabio .... 


Cornelia. 


Cbassys . . 


•*;'l 


[ Canidia. 


BOLANTS . . . 


Vettia. 


LIcinia. 


Bbocchvb . . . 


Furia. 


Cbispinys. . 




Quinctia. 


Bbvtvs .... 


Junia. 


Cyllxo . . 




Terentia. 


BVCA 


Aemilia. 








Bybbio .... 


Julia. 


Dolabella , 




Cornelia. 






Dosbemyb 




Rubria. 


Caxiciants . . . 


Cassia. 






t 


Cabpxo .... 


Servilia. 


Fabatyb . . 




Roscla. 


Caebab .... 


Julia. 


Faystvlys . 




Pompeia. 


Caldvb .... 


Coelia. 


Faystyb . . 




Cornelia. 


Calbkvb .... 


Fufla. 


Felix . . 




Cornelia. 



630 



COGNOMIKA, STTHITAMES, ETC. 



ICAXB. 


VAMILT. 




f Pomponia. 


Flaccvs .... 


Rutilia. 
Thoria. 


, 


Valeria. 


Florys .... 


Aquilia. 


Fxvoi 


Calpumia. 


Gal 


Memmia, 


Galba .... 


Sulpicia. 


, 


, Asinia. 
Caninia. 
LiYineia. 
Ogulnia. 


Gallts . . . . ! 


• 


GSM 


Aburia. 


Geta 


Hosidia. 


Glabrio . . . 


AciUa. 


Grac 


Antestia. 


Graccys .... 


Sempronia 


Hemic .... 


FlaYia. 


HlSPANIRNSIS . . 


Fabia. 


Hypsasys . . . 


Plautia. 


Italtcys , , . . 


Silia. 


Iydkt .... 


Vettia. 


Iynianys . . . 


Licinia. 


Labeo » 4 , , 


Fabia. 


Labibkys / . . 


Atia 


Laeca 4 . . . 


Porcfa. 


Lamia . « . . 


Aelia. 


TiABISCOLYg . . . 


Accoleia« 


Lentylys . . . 


Cornelia. 


Lefidys. .... 


Aemilia. 




/ Marcia. 


LiBO ..«..- 


Scribonia. 
Junia. 




I Statilia. 


LlCINIYS . . . 


Porcia. 


LiMETAKYS 4 * . 


Mamilia* 


LOMOINYB t i . 


Cassia. 


LOMOYS .... 


Mussidia. 


Lycahys .... 


Terentia. 


Lypbrcys . . . 


Gallia. 


Lypys • » . . 


Cornelia. 




Claudia. 


Macer .... 


Sicinia. 




Sepullia. 


Maonys .... 


Pompeia. 


MAIiLEOLYS . . . 


Poblicia. 


MARCELLntYS . . 


Cornelia. 


Marcelt.ys . . . 


Claudia. 



NAm. 


VAVIX.T. 


Maridiaitys 


. CosButia. 


Marsys . . . 


. Vibia. 


Maximyb . . . 


r Egnatia. 
• \ Fabia. 


Meksor . . . 


. Farsuleia. 


Messala . . 


. Valeria. 


MbTELIiYS . . 


. CaeciHa. 


MOLO . . . 


. Pomponia. 


Myctanys . . 


. Licinia. 


Myrcys . . . 


. Statia. 


Myrxma . . . 


. Licinia. 


Myba . . . 


. Pomponia. 


Naso , . . . 


/ Antonia. 
•( Axia. 


Natta . . . 


. Pinaria. 




C Cocoeia. 


Nerya . . . 


. < Licinia. 




( Silia. 


NiOER . . . 


. Vettia. 


NONIANYS . , 


. Considia. 


OTHd .... 


. SaMa. 


Paetys . . . 


1 AeUa. 
* \ Considia. 


Palicanvs, Pali- 

KANYS . . . 


JLoUia. 


Pamsa . t . 


. Vibia. 


Paterhys . . 


. Fabricia. 


Payllys . . . 


. Aemilia. 


Philippys . . 


. Marcia. 


Philyb . , . 


. Furia. 


PlOTOR . . . 


. Fabia. 


Piso .... 


. Calpumia. 


PlTlO .... 


. Sempronia 


PrYB .... 


r Caedlia. 


^**»* • • • • 


' 1 Pompeia. 


PliANCtS . . . 


\ Munatia. 
• ( Plautia. 


Platorinyb . . 


. Sulpieia« 


POLLIO . . . 


. Asinia. 


Priscys . . . 


. Tarquitia. 


Proclys . , . 


. Sulpida. 


Pylcheb . . . 


. Claudia. 


Pyhpyreo . . 


. Furia. 


Qyinctit.ianys . 


. Nonia. 


Keoinys • • . 


. Antestia. 


Regylyb . . . 


. LiYineia. 


Bebtio . . . 


. Antia. 


ROCYS . . . 


. Crepereia. 



COGNOMIIS^A, SI7BNAMES, ETC. 



631 



MAMB. 


VAXILT. 




fAureUa. 




aaudia. 




Cordia. 




LucilUa. 




Maecia. 


TP^y ■■■U 


Mescinia. 


ttvrvB •...-< 


Minucia. 




FacuTia. 




Plotia. 




Pompeia. 




Pomponia. 




^Sulpicia. 


Rtllvs .... 


Servilia. 


Kt8 


Aufidia. 


( 


Minatia. 


Sabikvs . . . .^ 


Tituria. 


1 


Yettia. 


Sabvla. .... 


CoBsutia. 


Saldiatoil . . . 


Oppia. 


Sabakts .... 


AtUia. 


Sasebka .... 


HostiUa. 


Satvrkinvs • . . 


Sentia. 


SCARFTS .... 


Pinaria. 


SCATBTS . . . . j 


Aemilia. 
Aurelia. 


Suii'io . • . . 1 


Caecilia. 
Cornelia. 


SECvmnrs . . . 


Arria. 


SSJAHVB .... 


Aelia. 


8X£ 


Manila. 



mAUu. 



VAKILT. 



Sn^NYs . . . 


/ Caecilia. 
• ( Junia. 


SiuAmrs . . 


. . Licinia. 


SlLYS . . 


. . Sergia. 


SiSEKNA . . 


, . Cornelia. 


Spinthek 


. . Cornelia. 


Stolo . . 


. . Licinia. 


Strabo . . 


. . Volteia. 


Stpbhvs • . 


. . Nonia. 


Stlla . . 


. . Cornelia. 


SVLPICIANVS 


. Quinotia. 


SVEDINVS . . 


. Naevia. 


Tajcpilys 


. . Baebia. 


Tavrv» , . 


. . Statilia. 


Thekvts 


. . Minucia. 


TOEftVATVS . 


. . Manila. 


T&IOBMI^rVB 


. . Curiatia. ^ 


Two . . . 


( Lucretia. 
• '(Aburia. 


Tboots . . 


. . Maria. 


TVBBVLVS 


. . HostiUa. 


TVLLVS . . 


, . Maecilia. 


TVHDVS . . 


. . Papiria. 


TVBPIIJANVS 


. Petronia. 


Vaala . . . 


. Numonia. 


Ya&ko . . , 


. Terentia. 


VaBV8 , , . 


/ Plancia. 
• ( VibU. 


Vbtvs . . . 


. Antestia. 


VlTVLVS . . , 


. Yoconia. 



THE COINS OF THE EOMAN FAMILIES, 

(sometimes tebmed consular coins) 

IK 
STATING THEIB COMFABATIVE DEOBSEB OF BABITT. 



7%e Gold are marked G.; the Silver, 8.; the Copper, Br. (/or Bronze) ; the EUcsrum, E.; 
the Lead, PL or L. ; and Base Silver, Po. or Pot., for Potin. Those marksd C. cere 
Common ; those of the highest degree of rarity, R."^ or R.^, <ftc. ; and of the louter dtgrtes 
of rarity, R.* or R.', <fec. 



A. 

AJburia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. R.* 

The brass coins of this family are 

parts of the As. 
Aceoleia (A Plebeian family). S. — R.^ 
AciJia (Plebeian family ?) S.— C. The 

brass coins of this family are Ases and 

parts of the As. 
Abulia (a family of uncertain extraction). 

The name of this family is found on 

the colonial coins of CaBsarea Augusta 

and Corinth. 
AeHa, and Allia (a Plebeian funily). 

S.— C. 
Aemilia (a Patrician family). G. — ^R.» 

8. — C. The brass series is colonial. 
4/yama (a Plebeian family). S. — R.^ The 

brass coins of this family are Ases and 

parts of the As. 
AUienus, S. — ^R.^ AUienus is a but- 

name, and does not indicate the 

name of the family which is lost. 
Annia (a Plebeian family). S. — R.^ 

The brass coins of this family are of 

the reign of Augustus. 



Antestia, or Antistia (a Plebeiai family). 

G.— R.8 S. — C. The briss coin 

of this family are Ases and parts of 

the As. 
Antia (a Plebeian family). 8.— R.« 
Antonia (a Patrician family). ' G. — ^R.' 

S. — C. R.^ The coins of Marc 

Antony without his head are classed 

with this family. 
Appuleia (a Plebeian family), fhe brass 

coins of this ftunily are Ases aid parts 

of the As. 
Apronia (a Plebeian family). Tke brass 

coins of this family are either colonial, 

or of the reign of Augustus. 
ul^t22ia (a Plebeian andPatricianfamily). 

S.— R.i 
Arria (a Plebeian family). G.— R,« 6. 

— R.* The brass coins of this fiunily 

are colonial. 
Aainia (a Plebeian family). The brass 

pieces of this family are of the rdgn 

of Augustus. 
Atia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.^ S.— 

R.8 Br.— R.8 
Atilia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 



BABITY or BOMAN COKSULAB COINAGE. 



683 



The copper coins of this family are 

either Ases, or parts of Ases. 
Atifidia (a Plebeian family). S.— R.» 
Aurelia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 
Avtronia (An uncertain family). 8. — R.* 
Axia (A Plebeian family). 8.— R.^ The 

bronze pieces of this family are parts 

of the As. 



B. 

fo^ftia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^R.^ The 
copper pieces of this family are either 
Ases, parts of Ases, or colonial coins. 

Betilienua. This is a surname, and it is 
not known to which family it belongs. 
The copper pieces bearing this name 
are of the reign of Augustus. 



C. 

Ca cUia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.« 
8. — C. Some of the silTcr pieces 
of this family were restored by 
Trajan. The name of this family is 
seen on the cistophores of Pergamus. 
The copper pieces of this family are 
either Ases or parts of the As. 

(hedna. This is a surname, and it is 
not known to what family it belongs. 
The copper pieces which bear this 
inscription are either Ases or parts of 
the As. 

CaeHa (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.« 

OaUdia (A Plebeian family). 8.— R.^ 

Oalpwmia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 
'B..^ The bronze pieces of this family 
are of the monetaries of Marc Antony 
Augustus. 

Oanidia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^R.^ 

Oaninia (a Plebeian family). - The silver 
pieces of this family are of the mint 
of Augustus. The copper are colonial. 

Carina (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. R.' 
Some of the silver coins of this family 
are of the mint of Augustus and 
colonial of the town of Emerita. The 
brass pieces are colonial. 

OarvUia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 
The bronze pieces of this family are 
^ parts of the As. 

OoMia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
8. — C. There are some silver pieces 
which were restored by Trajan. The 



bronze pieces of this family are Ases 
or parts of Ases ; others of the mint 
of Augustus, and some colonial. 

Ccs^Mf (a Plebeian family). G.— R.* The 
copper pieces of this family are Greek 
imperial. 

Oepia (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.^ Br. 
— R.« 

Claudia (a 8abine and Patrician family). 
G. — R.* 8. — C. The silver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. The name 
of this family is to be found on some 
of the Greek tetradrachms termed 
cistophori. The bronze pieces are of 
the mintage of Augustus. 

Clovia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 
pieces of this family are of the mint 
of Julius Ceesar. 

Oloulia (a Patrician family). 8. — C. 

Cocceia (an uncertain family). 8. — ^R.* 

Ooelia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.® 
8.— C. 

Ootmdia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 
R.* 

Ooponi<i (afamilyof imcertain extraction). 
8.— R.« 

Cordia (a family of uncertain extraction). 
8.— C. R.6 

Cornelia (a Patrician and Plebeian family) . 
G.— R.* 8.— C. R.« The name of 
this family may be seen on some of 
the cistophores. The copper pieces of 
this family are either Ases, parts of 
the As, or of the mintage of Augustus. 

Oomujieia (a Plebeian family). G. — R.® 
8. — R.* 8ome of the silver pieces 
of this family were restored by Trajan. 

Coseonia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Coastttia (a family of the Equestrian order) . 
8. — R.' Some of these pieces are of 
the mint of Julius Ceesar. 

Crepereia (an Equestrian family). 8. — C. 
R.* 

Crepttsia (a family of uncertain ex- 
traction). 8. — C. 

Critonia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.* 

Cupiennia (a family of uncertain origin). 
8. — R.^ The copper pieces of this 
family are parts of the As. 

Curiatia (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.^ 
R.* The copper pieces of this family 
are parts of the As. 

Ourtia (a Plebeian family). S.— R,* 
The copper pieces of this family are 
parts of the As. 



634 



BABITY OF BOMAK COKBTJLAB OOnTAGS. 



D. 

Dtita (a Plebeian famUy). S.— B.^ B.* 
DomiHa (a Plebeian but afterwards a 

Patrician famUy). G. — R.« S.— C. 

The copper pieces of this family are 

parts of the As. 
Dwmia. The gold and silver pieces of 

this family are of the mintage of 

Aug^tns. 

E. 

Egnatia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.* 
Egnatvleia. S. — C. 

Eppia. 8.— B.* The bronze pieces are 
either Ases or parts of the As. 

F. 

JViftia (a Patrician family). 8. — C. The 
bronze pieces are Ases, parts of the 
As, or imperial Greek coins. 

Fabricia (a Plebeian family). Br.— B.* 

Fabrinia. The bronze pieces are parts 
of the As. 

Fannia (a Plebeian family). 8.^ — ^B.* 
The name of this family may be found 
on tiie cistophores of Tralles. 

Fartuieia (a Plebeian family). S.---C. 

Flaminia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Flaoia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Fonteia (a Plebeian family). 8. — G. The 
copper pieces are either Ases, parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Marc Antony. 

JV{/!a (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.» The 
gold coins attributed to this family 
are false. 

Fid^na (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Fwi^Lania (a Plebeian faniily). 8. — C. 

Furia (a Patrician family). O. — B.^ 
S. — C. The bronze pieces are Ases 
or parts of the As. 

G. 

Gallia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 
pieces are of the mint of Augustus. 

Qtilia, 8. — B.» B.« 8ome of the silver 
coins are of the mint of Maro Antony 
and Augustus. 



H. 

Herennia (a Plebeian family), 8.— C. 
Hirtia (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B,* 



HoraUa (a Patrician family). &>— B." 
These pieces were restotred by Tr^ian. 

Hotidia. 8. — ^B.^ 

HotfUia (a Patrieian fma^j). ».—SJ 
Br.— B.* 



iifia. S.— B.« 



I. 



J. 



JfOia (a Patrician famUy). G.— B.* 
8.— C.— B.* This is the family of 
Julius CflBsar. Its name appean <hl 
the coins of J. Cassar. 

JiuUa (a Patrician and PlebeLaa family). 
8. — C. This is the fanuly of Marcos 
Junius Brutus. Some eilver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. 

L. 

Lieinia (a Plebeian family). S.—'BJ 
Br. — -C. Some silver pieces of the 
mint of Augustus bear the name of 
this family. 8ome of these coins are 
Ases or parts of the As. 

Lhineia (a Plebeian family). 6.— B. 
8. — C. 8ome silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. The bronae pieees 
of this family are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

LolUa (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.* The 
copper pieces of tlds family were 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

iMcilia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.^ 

Lucretia (a Patrician and Plebeian tu 
mily). 8. — C. 8ome pieces vete 
restored by Tn^an. 

Luria (a, family of doubtful extraetitan). 
The copper pieces of this fiumly are 
of the mint of Aug^ustus. 

LuteOia (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.' 

M. 

MaecUia (a Plebeian family). The cop- 
per pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Maenia (a Plebeian family), & — ^B.^ 
Br.— B.« 

Maiania (an uncertain family). S.— B.^ 
The bronze pieces of this family sze 
either parts of the As or of the mint 
of Augustus. 



BABITT OF BOlCAier CONSITLAB COIKAQE. 



635 



MamiiUt (the lioblest Tuscany and Pie- 
beian lUMnan family). S. — C. Some 
pieces were restored by Trepan. 
Mtmlim (a Patrician family). O. — R.^ 
S.— C. 

Mareia (a Patrician and afterwards a 
Plebeian family). Several pieces of 
this family are either parts of the As 
or of the mint of Au^stos. 

Jforta (a Plebeian family). S. — ^R.^ Some 
of the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Au^stus, 
some of them were restored by 
Tn^an. 

Memmia (a Plebeian family). 8.-^. 
Some silver pieces were restored by 
Tn^an. Some of the copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Ases. 

Metcinia (a Plebeian family). Some of 
the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Augoatns. 

Jiettia. S. — ^R.* Some of the pieces 
of this family in gold or silver, are of 
the mint of Julius Ceesar. 

UmaUa (a Plebeian family). The silver 
pieces which bear the name of this 
family are of Gneins Pompey the 
younger. 

Mmeia (an tmeertain family). Br. — ^R.' 

MSnueia (a Plebeian family). O. — ^R.* 
S. — C. The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. The copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Ases. 

MUreia (an uncertain family). The 
copper pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Mucia (a Plebeian family). S.— R.^ 

Mmuaia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^R.^ 
The gold and silver pieces of this 
family are <A Marc Antony. 

Miu$id4a (a family of doubtful extrac- 
tion). 8. — R.* Some of the pieces 
ol this family in gold and silver are 
coins of the Triumvirs. The copper 
pieces of this family are of the mint 
of Augustas. 

V. 
Noma (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

The copper pieces of this family are 

of the mint of Augustus. 
NrnMin (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the silver pieces bearing the name 

of this family were struck by Seztus 

Pompeius. 



Neria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

JVonta (a Plebeian family). S. — R.* The 
copper pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

N&rbamm, G. — R.^ 8. — C. This is a snr- 
nune ; but to what family it belongs 
is not known. Some silver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. 

JHwnxt&tia (a Plebeian family). 8.-— R.^ 
The bronee pieces are parts of the As. 

Ifumoma (a Plebeian family). G. — R." 
S. — R.* The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. 

0. 

Ogulnia (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 

Opeimia (a Plebeian family). S. — R.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 
Oppia (a Plebeian family). Br. — C. 
Some of the bronze pieces of this 
family were struck in Cyrenaica. 

P. 

Paeutna or Paquia (a family of doubtful 

extraction). Br.— R.* 
Fapia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. R.* 
Papiria (a Plebeian family). S. — C, 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of Ases. 
Pedania (a Plebeian family). S. — ^R.' 
PeUllia (a Plebeian family). 8.— R.' 
Petronia (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.* 

Some of the gold pieces of this family 

are of the mint of Augustus. 
Pinaria (a Patrician family). Some of 

the bronze pieces of this family are of 

Marc Antony. 
Plaetoria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Some of the silver pieces of Brutus 

bear the name of this family. 
Planda (a Plebeian family). 8.— R.* 
Plcmtia or Plutia (a Plebeian family). 

8.— C— R.1 
Phtia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 

pieces of this family are of the mint 

of Augustus. This family seems to 

be the same as the preceding one. 
Pbblicia (a Plebeian (family). . 8.— C. 

Some of the pieces of Cneius Pompey 

the younger bear the name of this 

family. 



686 



BABITT OF BOMAK COKSTTLAB COINAGE. 



Pompeia (a Plebeian family). O. — B.^ 
S. — C. Some of the pieces of Sextus 
Pompey the younger have the name 
of this funily. 
Fomponia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ 
Forda (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. The 
copper pieces were struck in Cyrenaica. 
Fiistumia (a Patrician family). S. — C. 
FYociUa (a Plebeian family). Br.— B.^ 
Frocukia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^B.^ 
Fupia (a family of doubtful extraction). 
The bronze pieces of this family were 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

Q. 

Qidnctia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). 8. — B.^ Some pieces 
of this family were struck in Mace- 
donia. The copper pieces are either 
Ases, or of the mint of Augustus. 

B. 

Renia. 8. — C. 

Boscia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Bubellia (an equestrian family). The 

bronze pieces of this family are of 

the mint of Augustus. 
Bubria (a Plebeian famUy). 8. — C. Some 

sUver pieces were restored by Trajan. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of the As. 
Bmtia, G.— B.8 8.— B.^ 
ButUia (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.^ 

S. 

Salvia (a Plebeian family). Some silver 
and copper pieces with the name of 
this family are of the mint of Augus- 
tus, as are th68e of the uncertain 
family named Sanquinia. 

Sabrienu8. S. — C. This is a surname, 
but to what family it belongs is not 
known. 

Saufeia (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.* 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of Ases. 

Scribonia (a Plebeian family). G. — B..^ 
S. — C. Some of the silver pieces were 
restored by Trajan. The bronze pieces 
are Ases, or parts of the As. 

Sempronia (a family of uncertain ex- 
traction). 8. — C. Some gold and 



silver pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus and Julius Csesar. The 
bronze pieces are Asea, or parts <tf 
the As, or of the mint of Msre 
Antony and Augustus. 

SetUia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Sq^lia (a family of uncertain extractkm}. 
8. — B.' B.8 Some silver pieces are 
of the mint of Augustas and Mare 
Antony. 

Bergia (a Patrician family). S. — B^. 

Servilia (a Patrician but afterwards 
Plebeian family). G.— R,* 8.— C. 
The bronze pieces are parts of Ases. 

Sestia, (A Patrician but afterwards Ple> 
beian family). 8.— B.* R.* 

Sicinia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). S. — B.^ 

SUia (a Plebeian family). G.— B.' 
8. — B.^ The bronze pieces are of 
the mint of Augustus. 

Sosia (a Plebeian family). Br.— B.* 
Some of the pieces are of Maze 
Antony. 

SpttrUia (a family of doubtful extractioD). 
8.— B.1 

Statia (a Plebeian family). S.^B.^ 
Br.— B.« 

Statilia, Some of the bronze pieces of 
this family are of the mint of Au- 
gustus, or Spanish pieces. 

Sulpicia (a Patrician and Plebeian famfly). 
G. — B.* 8. — C. Br. — ^B,* Some of the 
sUver pieces were restored by Tn^an. 

T. 

Tarquitia (a Patrician and Plebeian 

family). 8— B." 
Terentia (a Plebeian family). 8.— C. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or pfttti 

of Ases, or of the mint of Augostos. 
Thoria (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 
Titia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C.—B.* 

Some of the silver pieces were restored 

by Trajan. The bronze pieces were 

Ases or parts of the As. 
TiHnia (a Patrician and Plebeian family. 

8. — C. The bronze pieces are AseSi 

or parts of the As. 
nturia. 8.— C. 
TrAania, 8. — ^B.^ The bronze piMCs 

are Ases, or i>arts of the As. 
Tidlia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 

S. — ^B.^ Some silver pieces <tf tiua 



SOMAN IMPEETAL COIKAaE. 



637 



family were restored by Trajan. The 
name may be seen on some cistophori 
of Laodicea in Phrygia. Upon an 
autonomous bronze coin of Magrnesia, 
in Lydia, this name is found with a 
portrait attributed to Cicero. 



V. 

Valeria (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
8. — C. Borne of the gold and silver 
pieces of this family are of the mints 
of Augustus and Marc Antony. 

Varffttnteia. 8. — ^R.^ The bronze pieces 
are parts of the As. 

Ventidia (a Plebeian family). There is 
a silver piece of Marc Antony which 
bears the name of this family. 

Tettia. 8. — R.« 



Veiuria (a Patrician family). G. — "R.* 
8.— R.« 

ribia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.' 8. 
— C. The bronze pieces are Ases, 
or parts of the As. 

Vmicia (a Plebeian family). S.--R.» 
8ome silver pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

Voconia (a Plebeian family). 8ome of 
the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mints of Julius 
Ceesar and Octavius. 

Volteia. 8.~-C. 

Of the uncertain coins of the families. 
G.— C— -R." 8.— C— R.« Under 
this head are classed those pieces 
which were struck under the Re- 
public, without indication of the mints 
or divisions of the As. 



IMPERIAL COINAGE OF ROME. 

♦ 

COINS OF THE EMPERORS, EMPRESSES, C^SARS, AND 
TYRANTS, OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 

AND OTHER PBRSOKAGES WHOSE PORTRAITS OR KAMES OCCUR ON THE ROMAN COINAOE, 
FROM POMPBY THE GREAT TO THE FALL OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. 

STATING THEIB COMPARATITE DBOBEE8 OF BARITY. 



The Gold are marked G.; the Silver, S.; the.£ronzef or Copper, Br. (for Bronze); the Lead 
is marked L.; Electrum, El. G. expresses Common; B}, Bare; R>, more rare; H^, 
sUU more so, up to R7 and R^. 



Cisaeus Fompeitis (Magnus). Bom 106 
B.O. ; killed 48 b.c. G. — R.* S. — 
B.^ B.* ; Br. — ^R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with his sons Cnaeus Pom- 
peiiu and Sextus Pompeius. — ^There 
are some silver coins restored hy 
Trajan. 

Oaius Juiius Ceesor, Bom 100 B.C. ; 
made Perpetual Dictator 44 e.g. ; and 
killed the same year. G. — R.^ R.'^ 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. Many coins 
represent him with Maro Antony and 
Augustus. 

CkasuB Pompeius, son of Pompey the 
Great. Born — b.c. ; killed 45 b.c. 



8. — ^R.i R.'' Some coins represent 
him with his father Cnaeus Pompeius 
Magnus, and his brother Sextus Pom- 
peius. He bore, like his father, the 
surname of Magnus. 

Sezttis Pompeius, second son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom 65 b.c. ; killed 35 b.c. 
G.— R.« S.— R.1 R.* *With and 
without his head. Some coins repre- 
sent him with his father and brother, 
Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cnaeus 
Pompeius the Younger. 

Marcus Junius Brutus. Bom 85 b.c; 
died 42 b.c. G.— R.» S.— R.* R.« 
With and without portrait ; with the 



686 



BABITY OF ROMAN COKSULA.B COINAGE. 



Pompeia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.® 
8. — C. Some of the pieces of Sextos 
Pompey the younger have the name 
of this family. 
Pomponia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^R.^ 
Forda (a Plebeian family). 8.— €. The 
copper pieces were struck in Cyrenaica. 
FoBtumia (a Patrician family). S. — C. 
BrooiUa (a Plebeian family). Br.— R.^ 
Proculeia (a Plebeian family). Br. — R.^ 
Pupia (a family of doubtful extraction). 
The bronze pieces of thia family were 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

a 

Quinelia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). S. — R.^ Some pieces 
of this family were struck in Mace- 
donia. The copper pieces are either 
Ases, or of the mint of Augustus. 

R. 

Benia, S. — C. 

Boscia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

JRubellia (an equestrian family). The 

bronze pieces of this famUy are of 

the mint of Augustus. 
Bubria (a Plebeian family). S. — C. Some 

silver pieces were restored by Trajan. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of the As. 
Bwtia, G.— R.8 S.— R.^ 
Butilia (a Plebeian family). S.— R.^ 

S. 

Salvia (a Plebeian family). Some silver 
and copper pieces with the name of 
this family are of the mint of Augus- 
tus, as are th68e of the uncertain 
family named Sanquinia. 

Sabrienus. 8. — C. This is a surname, 
but to what family it belongs is not 
known. 

Saufeia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of Ases. 

Scribonia (a Plebeian family). G. — "R.^ 
8. — C. Some of the silver pieces were 
restored by Trajan. The bronze pieces 
are Ases, or parts of the As. 

Sempronia (a family of uncertain ex- 
traction). S. — C. Some gold and 



silver pieces are of tlie mint of 
Augustus and Julius Csesar. The 
bronze pieces are Ases, or parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Hare 
Antony and Augustus. 

Seniia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Sepullia (a family of uncertain extractum). 
S. — ^R.* R.8 Some silver pieces axe 
of the mint of Augustus and Mare 
Antony. 

Sergio (a Patrician family). S. — R*. 

Servilia (a Patrician but afterwards 
Plebeian famUy). G. — ^R.* 8.— a 
The bronze pieces are parts of Ases. 

Sestia, (A Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). S.— R.« B.* 

Sieinia (a Patrician but afterwarda Pie- 
beian family). S. — ^R.^ 

SUia (a Plebeian family). G.—R' 
8. — R.^ The bronze pieces are of 
the mint of Augustus. 

Sotia (a Plebeian family). Br.— B.' 
Some of the pieces are of Mare 
Antony. 

Spurilia (a family of doubtful extraction). 
8.— R.1 

Statia (a Plebeian famUy). S.— B.' 
Br.— B.« 

Statilia, Some of the bronze pieces of 
this family are of the mint of Au- 
gustus, or Spanish pieces. 

Sulpicia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
G. — B.8 8. — C.Br. — ^R.* Some of the 
sUver pieces were restored by Tnyaa. 



T. 

Torquitia (a Patrician and Plebdaa 

famUy). 8— R.» 
Terentia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of Ases, or of the mint of Augustas. 
Thoria (a Plebeian family). S.— X:i. 
ntia (a Plebeian famUy). 8.— C.— R« 

Some of the silver pieces were restored 

by Trajan. The bronze pieces were 

Ases or parts of the As. 
TUinia (a Patrician and Plebeiioi family)t 

S. — C. The bronze pieoes are ilaei, 

or parts of the As. 
Tituria, 8. — C. 
TVe&onia. S. — ^R.^ The bronze pileei 

are Ases, or parts of the As. 
Tullia (a Patrician and Plebeian &inily). 

8. — ^R.^ Some silyer pieces of this 



EOMAN IM7EBIAL COINAGE. 



637 



Ikmfly were restored by Trajan. The 
name may be seen on some cistopbori 
of Laodicea in Fhrygia. Upon an 
autonomous bronze coin of Magnesia, 
in Lydia, this name is found with a 
portrait attributed to Cicero. 



V. 

Valeria (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
8. — C. Some of the gold and silver 
pieces of this family are of the mints 
of Augustus and Marc Antony. 

Vargunteia. 8. — R.* The bronze pieces 
are parts of the As. 

Ventidia (a Plebeian family). There is 
a silver piece of Marc Antony which 
bears the name of this family. 

VHHa, S.— R.« 



Veturia (a Patrician family). G. — "R,* 

8.— R.« 
Tibia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.'' 8. 

— C. The bronze pieces are Ases, 

or parts of the As. 
nnida (a Plebeian family). 8.— R.» 

8ome silver pieces are of the mint of 

Augustus. 
Voeonia (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the gold and silver pieces of this 

family are of the mints of Julius 

Ceesar and Octavius. 
Volteia. 8. — C. 
Of the uncertain coins of the families. 

G.— C— R.« 8.— C— R.» Under 

this head are classed those pieces 

which were struck under the Re- 

public, without indication of the mints 

or divisions of the As. 



IMPERIAL COINAGE OE ROME. 

— ♦ 

COINS OF THE EMPERORS, EMPRESSES, CiESARS, AND 
TYRANTS, OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 

AKD OTHER PXB80KA0ES WHOSE P0BTKA1T8 OB KAUES OCCUB OV THE BOHAN COINAaS, 
FBOM POMPBT THE OBEAT TO THE FALL OF THE EABTEBN EMPIBB. 

STATINa THEIR COMFARATIYE DEGREES OF RARITY. 



The Gold are marked Gr.; the Silver, S.; the Bronze, or Copper, Br. (for Bronte); the Lead 
is marked L.; Electrum, £1. G. expresses Common; R^, Bare; R^, more rare; R3, 
still more so, up to R7 and R^. 



Onaeut Pompeius (Magnus). Bom 106 
B.C.; kiUed 48 b.c. G. — R.* S. — 
B.* B.* ; Br. — ^R.^ Some coins repre- 
sent him with his sons Cnaeus Pom- 
peius and Sextus Pompeius. — There 
are s<nne silver coins restored hy 
Trajan. 

CbtM Julius Ocesar, Bom 100 B.C. ; 
made Perpetual Dictator 44 b.c. ; and 
killed the same year. G. — ^R.^ R.'^ 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. Many coins 
represent him with Marc Antony and 
Augustus. 

(hasus Pompeius, son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom — b.c; killed 45 b.c. 



S. — ^R.* R.' Some coins represent 
him with his father Cnaeus Pompeius 
Magnus, and his brother Sextus Pom- 
peius. He bore, like his father, the 
surname of Magnus. 

Sextus Pompeius, second son of Pomi>ey the 
Great. Bom 65 b.c. ; kiUed 35 b.c. 
Q.—BJ 8.— R.1 R.* .With and 
without his head. Some coins repre- 
sent him with his father and brother, 
Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cnaeus 
Pompeius the Younger. 

Marcus Junitu Brutus. Born 85 b.c. ; 
died 42 b.c. G. — R.'' S. — ^R.* R.« 
With and without portrait ; with the 



638 



BOliAK IHPB&IAX COIKAGE. 



beads of the two Brutnses. There 
are among these, some coins restored 
by Trig an. 

Oaim Oaumu Longimus. Date of birth 
unknown ; died 42 b.c. G. — B..^ S. 
— ^B.^ B.* These coins do not bear 
the head of Cassius. 
Marctu JSmilius Lepidtu, Date of birth 
unknown ; died 18 b.c. G. — ^B.^ 
S. — B.' B.^ Some coins represent 
bim with Marc Antony and OctaTins. 

Marcus Antonius. Bom 83 b.c. ; died 
30 B.C. G.— B.» B.» S.— C.— B.* Br. 
B.^ B.^ With and without his head. 
Some coins represent him with Julias 
CsBsar, Lepidns, Cleopatra, Maro An- 
tony (his eon), Lucius Antonius, and 
Augustus. 

OctaviOf wife of Maro Antony. Died 
10 or 11 B.C. G.— B.8 This coin 
represents her with Marc Antony. 

Marcus Antonius^ son of Marc Antony. 
Killed 36 b.c G. — B.^ This coin 
represents him with Marc Antony, his 
father. 

Cleopatra^ Queen of Egypt. Made queen 
66 B.C. ; killed herself 36 b.c. G. — 
B.® S.— B.* Br.— B.* Most of these 
coins represent her with Marc Antony. 
The gold coins are doubtful. 

CHaius AntoniuSy brother of Marc Antony. 
KiUed 44 or 43 B.C. G.— R.« With- 
out portrait. 

iMcius AntoniuSy brother of Marc Antony. 
Bom-—; died—. G.— B.* S.— B.* 
These coins represent him with Marc 
Antony, his brother. 

Caius Ociamus Oaepeas Augustus, Bom 
63 B.C. ; declared Emperor 29 b.c. ; 
obtained the name of Augustus 27 
B.C. ; died 14 a.d. G. — C.— B.8 8. — 
C. — ^B.« Br. — C. — ^B.* Some coins 
represent him with Julius Caesar, Le- 
pidus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Julia, Caius 
and Julias, and Germanicus. There 
are many of his coins restored by 
Claudius, Nero, Titus, Domitian, 
Nerya) and Trajan. The coins of 
Augustus are numerous. 

JAoiay wife of Augustus. Bom 57 B.c. ; 
died 29 a.b. S. — C. — ^B.* The coins 
of this princess, struck in Bome, do 
not bear her head ; she is repre- 
sented as Justice, Piety, and Health, 
and she is called Julia Augusta. 



The name of JuUa sbe took liter 
Augustus's death. On Greek mooej 
she is called Liria. 
Marcus A^fr^puj Bon«in.]aw of Augttatas. 
Bom 68 B.C. ; die^ 12 b.c. G.— IL» 
8. — ^B.«B.'Br. — C. — ^R.* SomecfMOB 
represent him witb Augustus. There 
are coins restored by Titus, Domitiaii, 
and Trajan. 
Julia^ daughter <^ Ai^fistuB, wife eC 
MariuB Maooellinus, Marcus Agrqipa, 
and, lastly, of Tiberius. Bom 89 b.c. ; 
died of starvation by comBoaad of 
Tiberius, a.d. 14. Her name aj^ean 
on the coins of Aagtustns, with tiu 
beads of her sons Caius and Lucius. 
There are Greek coins witb the por- 
trait of this princess alone. 

Oaius et Lucius, sons of Marcus Agri^t 
and Julia. Caius, bom 20 b.c. ; 
Csesar, 17 b.c; died 4 a.d. Lucius, 
bom 17 B.C.; Ceesar, the same year; 
died 2 a.]). These two princes are 
named together on the coins of 
Augustus. We do not find their 
^ portraits except on Colonial coins. 

Agrippa Postumus^ son of Marcus Agrippa 
and Julia. Bom 12 b.c. ; obtained 
the name of Csesar 4 a.d. ; killed 14 
A.D. Of this Ceesar no coins are 
known, except a Greek and one 
colonial. 

TSberiuSy son-in-law of Augustus. Bom 
42 B.C. ; obtained the title of Caesar 
4 A.D. ; declared l^peror 14 a.d. ; 
smothered, by order of Caligula, 37 
A.D. G.— C.— B.« 8. — C— B.« Br.— 
C. — B..^ Some coins are without his 
head; others represent bim with 
Augrustus and Drusus the Younger. 
There are some coins restored by Titus, 
Domitian, and Trajan. 

Drusus Junior, son of Tiberius. Born 
1 3 B.C. ; poisoned by his wife, 23 a.i). 
Br. — C. — B.* Most of the eoins of this 
prince,uid all those in silrer, represent 
him on the reverse of Tiberius. Some 
of them are without bis portrait. 
There are coins restored by Titos ami 
Domitian. 

Drusus Senior, brother of Tiberius. Bom 
38 B.C. ; died 9 a.d. G. — ^B.* S.— 
B.* Br. — B.* There are some eoini 
struck by Claudius, and others re- 
stored by Titos and Domitian. 



BOMAN IMPETlTATi COINAGE. 



639 



.AMtomOf itife of Driwas Senior. Bom 
9% B.C. ; poisoned ft8 ▲.!>. G. — B..* 
8.— K.* 
GermanieuSf son of Dmsns Senior and 
Antonia. BomlSs.c. ; obtained the 
title of CsBsar 4 a.d. ; was poisoned 
19 A.D. G.— E.* B.« 8.— R.* R.« 
Br. — C. — B,.^ Nearly all the coins 
represent him 'with Augustus, CaH- 
gula, and Agrippina. There are 
o<Hius restored by Titus and Domitian. 
Agrippina Senior, wife of Germanicus. 
Bom 15 B.C. ; was starred to death, 
by order of Tiberius 83 a.d. G. — ^R.* 
B.8 S.—R.4 Br.— R.«R.8 Most of 
the coins represent her with Caligula 
and Germanicus. There are coins 
restored by Titus. 

2fero and Drusut, sons of Germanicus 
and Agrippina. Nero bom 7 a.d. ; 
died of starvation, by order of 
Tiberius 31 a.i>. Druflusbom 8 a.d. ; 
died of hunger by command of Tibe- 
rius 33 A.D. Br. — C. They are 
represented together on horseback. 

Oaiua oommonly called Cb2^«/a,8on of Ger- 
manicus and Agrippina. Bom 1 2 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 37 a.d.; killed 
41 A.D. G.— R.* R.* 8.— R.« R.* 
Br. — C. — R.3 The name of Caligula 
was giyen to this emperor, because 
he had worn from his infancy the 
military boot (Caliga). Some coins 
represent him with Germanicus and 
his mother Agrippina. 

OlaudiOy first wife of Caligula. Date of 
birth imknown ; married 33 a.d. ; 
died 86 a.d. The eoins which are 
attributed to this princess are false. 
This first wife of Caligula is some 
times called by writers Junia Clau- 
diUa. 

Gaesoniaf fourth wife of Caligula. Born 
— ; married 39 a.d. ; killed 41 a.d. 
The coins which are attributed to this 
princess do not belong to her. 

J)ruaiila, daughter of Caesonia. Bom 
— ; killed 41 a.d. The coins which 
are attributed to this princess are 
folse. 

Dnuilla, sister of Caligula. Bom 17 a.d. ; 
died 38 a.d. There are no Roman 
ooins of this princess; those which are 
attributed to her being false. Some 
•ay that there is the head of this 



princess on the reverse of a gold coin 
of Caligula. There are Greek coins 
of Drusilla. 
JTttKa Livilta, sister of Caligula. Bom 
18 A.D. ; killed 41 A.D. This princess 
is called by historians Julia or Liyilla. 
No Roman coin can be attributed to 
this princess wit^ certainty. Julia 
Livilla may be found on Greek coins. 

CflauditUf Boa of Drusus Senior (the bro- 
ther of Tiberius) and Antonia. Bom 
10 B.C.; declared Emperor 41 a.d.; 
died by poison 54 a.d. G. — ^R.^ R.» 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. — R.* Some 
coins represent him with Agrippina 
the Younger. Some of his ooins 
were restored by Titus and Trajan. 
Claudius betrothed two women, but 
did not marry then, JSmilia Lepida 
and livia Medullina Camilla ; and 
had three wives, Plautia Urgulanilla, 
Aelia Fetina, and Valeria Messalina. 
The first four are not mentioned on 
any coins. 

Valeria Meeealina, third wife of Claudius. 
Bom — ; killed 48 a.d. No coins 
of this princess are known, except 
some Colonial Greek. 

Agrij^^ina the Tomiger, sister of Caligula 
and fourth wife of Claudius. Born 
16 A.D. ; assassinated 50 a.d. G. — 
R." 8.— R.1 R.« Br.— R.» Some 
ooins represent her with Claudius 
and with Nero. 

Claudia^ daughter of Claudius and Plautia 
Urgulanilla. Bom — ; killed 65 
A.D. We do not know of any Roman 
coins of this princess. Her name is 
to be found on a Colonial coin, and 
her portrait on two pieces— on a Co- 
lonial and the other of Alexandria. 

Brit€mnieu8^ son of Claudius and Messa- 
lina. Bora 42 a.d. ; was poisoned 
55 A.D. Br. — ^R.8 

Nero, the younger son of Cnaeus Domi- 
tius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, and 
son-in-law of Claudius. Bom 37 a.d. ; 
obtained the name of Ceesar 50 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 54 a.d. ; killed 
himself 68 A.D. G. — C. — R.* 8. — C. 
— .R.* Br.— C— R.6 The coins of this 
emperor are numerous. Some of 
them represent him with Agrippina 
the Younger. 

Odaviaf first wife of Nero. Born 42 or 



640 



TLOUXS IHFEBIAL COINAGE. 



43 A.D. ; compelled to kill herself by 
opening her veins 62 a.d. No Roman 
coins are known of this princess. 
There are, however, some Colonial 
Greek. 
Foppaea, second wife of Nero. Bom 

— ; died 66 ▲.&., from the effects 
of a kick given her by Nero. We do 
not know of any coins of this princess 
except a silver Greek, which is doabt- 
fal, and two Colonial coppers of her 
daughter Claudia (also uncertain), 
which bear her name on the reverse. 

Statilla Measalina^ third wife of Nero. 
Bom — ; died a.d. No Roman 
coins are known of this empress, but 
there are some Greek. 

ClaudiOy daughter of Nero and Foppaea. 
Bom 64 A.n. ; died the same year, 
aged 4 months. There are no coins 
of this princess except a leaden one, 
which bears her head on the reverse 
of a coin of Nero her father ; also two 
Colonial bronze, which .bear her 
name, but these are doubtftil. 

Clodius Macer. Born — ; depriyed of 
his power in Africa where he was 
governor 68 a.d. ; and was killed the 
same year. S. — R.® R.^ These coins 
were struck in Africa. 

Galba. Born 3 B.C. ; declared Emperor 

68 A.D. ; killed 69 a.d. G.— R.« R.* 
S.—C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.« Some of' 
these coins were restored by Titus and 
by Trajan. 

Otho, Bom 32 a.d. ; declared Emperor 

69 A.D. ; conquered by Yitellius and 
killed himself the same year. G. — R.* 
S. — ^R.* R.' There are only Colonial 
Brass of Otho. 

VUellius. Born 15 a.d.; declared Em- 
peror 69 A.D. ; and put to death by Ves- 
pasian's soldiers the same year. G. — 
R.* R.8 S.— C— R.* Br.— R.« R.* 

Lucius VUellius, father of VitelUus. 
Bom — ; died 48 or 49 a.d. G, 

— R.* S. — R.* Some coins re- 
present him with the Emperor Yitel- 
lius his son. 

Vespasianus. Bom 9 a.d. ; declared 
Emperor 69, died 79. G.— C— R.* 
S.— C— R.* Br.— C— R.* The coins 
of Vespasian are numerous ; some of 
them represent him with his sons Titus 
and Domitian, others only bear their 
names. Some of the Roman coins of 



Vespasian were struck in Antioeh in 
Syria. Some of thrae coins were 
restored by Trajan. 

JTorta DomitUla, wife of Ve^uisbB. 
Bom — ; died before her husband 
was made emperor. G. — ^R.8 8. — 
R.* R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Vespasian. 

Domitilla, daughter of Vespasian and 
Flavia Domitilla. Born — ; died 
before her father became emperor. 
Br. — ^R.« Without her portrait. 

Polla, mother of Vespasian. Bom — . 
died — . The coins attributed to 
the mother of Vespasian are folse. 

TituSy son of Vespasian and Flavia Domi. 
tilla. Bom 41 a.d. ; obtained the 
title of CsBsar 69. Shared the sov^ 
reign power with his father, with the 
title of Emperor 71.; became sole 
emperor 79 ; died 81. G. — C. — ^R.* 
S. — C. — ^R.^ Br. — C. — ^R.4 The coins 
of Titus are numerous ; sonoe repre- 
sent him with Vespasian, Domitian, 
and with his daughter Julia. Arricidia 
(who is not named on any coin) and 
Marcia Fumilla were his wives. 

Marda Fumilla^ second wife ot Titus. 
Born — . Repudiated by Titos be- 
fore his advancement to the throne. 
Died — . No Roman coins are known 
of Fumilla. There is a Greek coin 
attributed to her. 

JuliOf daughter of Titus and Forni^. 
Bom -^ ; died — G. — C. — B..^ 8. — 
R.* R.6 Br.— R.« 

VonUtianus, son of Vespasian and Fla- 
via Domitilla. Bom 51 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name of Ceesar 69 ; declared 
Emperor 81 ; assassinated 96. G. — 
C— R.8 s.— C.— R.8 Br. — C.— R.* 
The coins of this emperor are nxmia. 
ous ; some represent him vFith Ves- 
pasian, Titus, and with his wife 
Domitia. 

Domitia, wife of Domitian. Bpm — ; 
died 140 a.d. G.— R.6 8. — R.* E.« 
Br. — R.* R.8 Some coins represent 
her with Domitian and with his 
son. 

AnonymuSy son of Domitian and DomitiJL 
Born 82 a.d. ; died young ? This child 
whose name is not known is repr^ 
sented on the coins with his mother. 

Vespctsianus the Younger^ son of Flavins 
dementis Domitianus. We knov 



BOMAir IMPEBIAIi COINAGE. 



641 



nothing of this parent of Vespasian. 
Of Yespasian the Younger there are 
only some Greek coins of Smyrna 
known. 
Nerva^ Bom 32 a.d. ; declared Em- 
pcTor96; died98. G.— R.«R.8 8.— 
C. — ^R.* Br. — C. — ^> The coins of 
this prince are numerous. Some re- 
present him with Trajan. 

Tr<jQa/MM. Bom 53 a.d. ; associated in 
the Empire with Nerva, with the 
titles of CflBsar and Emperor, hut 
without that of Augustus 97 ; de- 
clared sole Emperor 98 ; died 117. 
G.— C— B.6 s.— C— B.8 Br.— C. 
— B.* Trajan restored many of the 
coins of the Boman Families and of 
his predecessors. Many coins repre- 
sent him with Nerva his father, 
Plotina, and Hadrian. The coins of 
Trajan are very numerous, and it is to 
be remarked that his coins are struck 
with the metals of different countries, 
such as Dalmatia, Pannonia, &c. 

PlotinOf wife of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 129 a.d. G— B.* B.« S.— B.« 
Some coins represent her with Trajan, 
Matidia, and Hadrian. 

Trcff'anus Pater^ father of the Emperor 
Trajan. Bom — ; died 100 a.d.; 
G. — ^R.* S. — B.* These coins repre- 
sent him with the Emperor Trajan 
his son. 

Mardanay sister of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 144 a.d. G.— B.« S.— B.» Br. 
"— R.* Some of her coins hear the 
name of Matidia. 

Matidia, daughter of Marciana. Born — ; 
died in the reign of Antoninus. 
G.— B.« 8.— B.6 Br.— B.» Some 
coins represent her with Plotina, 
others bear the name of Marciana. 

ffadtianuSf son-in-law of Matidia and 
Trajan. Born 76 a.d. ; adopted by 
Trajan 117 ; made Emperor the same 
year ; died 138. G. — C. — B.* S.— 
C. — B.® Br. — C. — B.® Some coins 
represent him with Trajan, Plotina, 
Sabina, and Antoninus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. It is 
to be remarked that many bear the 
names of the different proyinces over 
which he travelled. 
Sainnaf wife of Hadrian. Bora — ; 
killed herself 137 a.d. G.— B.' S. 



— C. — B.* Br. — C. — ^E.* Some coins 
represent her with Hadrian. 

JSlitu. Bom — ; adopted by Hadrian 
135 or 136 a.d., with the name of 
Caesar; died 138 a.d. G.— R.* B.* 
S.— B.a Br.— C— B8. 

Antinotu, the favourite of Hadrian. Bom 
— ; died 130 a.d. There are only 
Greek coins of Antinous. 

Antoninus Pius. Born 86 a.d. ; adopted 
by Hadrian and named Caesar, 138 
A.D. ; declared Emperor the same 
year; died 161 A.D. G.—C.—R.3 S. 
— C. — R.« Br. — C. — B.® Some coins 
represent him with Hadrian, Faustina, 
Marcus AureUus, and Lucius Yerus. 
The coins of this emperor are nume- 
rous. We must remark that a great 
many of them are bronze medallions. 

Faustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius. 
BomlOSA.D.; died 141 a.d. G. — C. — 
B.» S.— C— B.» Br.— C— R.=^ Some 
coins represent her with Antoninus. 
The coins of Faustina, the mother, 
are numerous. 

Galerius Antoninus, son of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina. Bom — ; died 
young, before his father came to the 
throne. There are only Greek coins 
known of this child. 

Marcus AureUus, son-in-law of Antoninus 
Pius. Bom 121 a.d.; adopted by 
Antoninus, 138, with the name of 
Csesar ; made Emperor 161 ; died 180. 
G.— C— R.« S.— C— R.* Br.— C— 
R.B Some coins represent him with 
Antoninus, Faustina the Young, Lu- 
cius Yerus, and Conmiodus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Faustina the Totmger, cousin and wife of 
Marcus Aurelius. Bom — ; died 175 
A.D. G.— C.— B.' S.— C— R.» Br.— 
C. — R.6 Some coins represent her 
with Marcus Aurelius. The coins of 
Faustina the Younger are very 
numerous. 

Annius Verus, the yoimgest son of Marcus 
Aurelius andFaustina. Bom 163 a.d. ; 
obtained the name of Ccesar 166; 
died 170. B.— B.e R.» 
Lucius Verus, son of JSlius Coesar, and 
son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius. Born 
130 A.D. ; adopted by Antoninus, 
without the title of Ceesar, 137 ; as- 
sociated in the empire, with the titles 

T T 



642 



BOHAK IMPEBIiX COURAGE. 



of Ceenar and AnguBtuB, by Marons 
Aurelins, 151 ; poisoned 169. G. — 
C— R.» S.— C.— R.6 Br.— C— R.6 
Some coins represent him with Anto- 
ninus and Marcus Aurelius. The 
coins of Lucius Yems are yery 
numerous. 

Lueilla, the youngest daughter of Marcus 
Aurelius and Faustina, and wife of 
Lucius YeruB. Bom 147 a. n. ; exiled 
183 to Caprse, by order of Commodus, 
and put to death soon afterwards. G. 
— R.1 B.« S.--C.— R.« Br.— C.— R.' 

Oommodu8y elder son of Marcus Aurelius 
and Faustina the Younger. Bom 161 
A.D. ; obtained the name of Ceesar 
166 ; associated in the empire, with 
the title of Emperor, 176 ; obtained 
the name of Augustus 177 ; declared 
sole emperor 180 ; strangled 192. G. 
— R.*R.8 8.— C— R.* Br.— C.— R.8 
Some coins represent him with Mar- 
cus Aurelius, Crispina, and Annius 
Yerus. On some of his coins we meet 
with the head of a woman without 
any name. We belieye it to be that 
of the concubine of Ck)mmoduB whose 
name was Marcia. Gommodus had 
a particular devotion forHerculeB,and 
he is often represented with the attri- 
butes of this Demigod, and he is called 
the Herculean Commodus. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

Crispinaf wife of Commodus. Bom — ; 
died young, 183 A.D. G. — R* S. — 
C. — R.i Br. — C. — R.*^ Some coins 
represent her with Commodus. 

Pertinax. Bom 126 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 192 ; assassinated by the soldiers 
after a reign of 87 days. G.— R.* R.« 
S.— R.* R.« Br.— R.* R.' 

TitianOy wife of Pertinax. Bom — ; 
On the death of her husband she 
retired from public life, where she 
died. There are only Greek coins of 
this Princess. 

JHdius Julianua. Bom 183 a.d. ; de- 
clared Emperor 198 ; put to death 
after a reign of 66 days. G. — R.8 
S.— R.* Br.— R.» R.6 

Manlia ScantiUay wife of Didius Julianue. 
Bom — ; retired from public life, 
on the death of her husband. G. — 
R.« S.— R.6 Br.— R.* R.' 

Didia Olaraj daughter of Didius Julianus 



and ScantUIa. Bom 153 a.2>. ; died 
— ; G.— R.8 S.— R.« Br.— B.* 

Peacmniu8 Niger, Bom — ; declared 
himself Emperor in Syria 193 ; lolled 
194. G.— R.8 S.— R.» R.' The Roman 
coins of Pescennius Niger were struck 
in Syria, probably at Antioch. 

Ohdius Albin^ia. Born — ; named Cssar 
by Septimus Severus 193 ; being 
at that time Governor of Britain, he 
took the title of Emperor of Britain 
and Gau], 196 ; defeated and killed 
by Septimus Severue 197 ; G — ^R.* 
S. — R.* R.* Br. — R.*R.8 The Roman 
coins of Albinus with the title of 
Caesar, were struck at Borne during 
the time that there existed an alliance 
between him and Septimus Severus 
when the latter conferred upon Albi- 
nus the title of Csesar. Those eoins 
which bear the title of Emperor and 
of Augustus were struck in Gaul, 
and perhaps some of them in Britain 
after Albinus had taken the title of 
emperor. 

SepUmus Severus. Bom 146 a.i>. ; de- 
clared Emperor 193 ; became master 
of the whole empire 197; died 211. 
G.— R.« R.« S.— C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.« 
8<mie coins represent him with Julia 
Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. The 
coins of this emperor are numerous. 

Julia Domna, wife of Septimus Severus. 
Bom — ; starved herself to death 
217. G.— R.«R.8 S.— C.— R.» Br.— 
C. — R®. Some coins represent -her 
with Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and 
Geta. The coins of this emj^ress are 
numerous. 

Marcus Aurelius Antomnus, commonly 
called Oaracalla, son of Septimus Se- 
verus and Julia. Bom 188 A.D.; ob- 
tained the name of Caesar 196 ; that of 
Augustus 198 ; Emperor with his bro- 
ther Geta 211; sole emperor 212; 
assassinated 217. G. — B..^ R.» S. — C. 
—R.6 Br. — C. — R.' The name of 
Caracalla was given to the eldest son 
of Septimus Severus from a new sort 
of garment which he introduced and 
frequently wore. Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, Geta, and Plautilla. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

Fulvia Flavtillaf wife of Caracalla. Bom 



BOMAir IMPEBIAL COINAGE. 



643 



— ; put to death 212 a.d. G. — "R.^ 
R.' S.— C.— R.« Br.— R.1 R.® Some 
coins represent her with Caracalla. 
Getay second son of Septimus Severas and 
Julia Domna. Born 189 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name of Csesar 198; and that 
of Augxistus 209 ; Emperor with his 
eldest brother Caracalla 211 ; assassi- 
nated by him in the arms of his 
mother 212. G.— R.*R.« S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.^ Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, and Caracalla. The coins of 
Geta are numerous. 
Macrinvs, Bom 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 217 ; kiUed 218. G.—R.* R.' 
S.— R.i R.* Br.— R.i R.» 
Diadumenianus^ son of Macrinus. Bom 
208 A.D. ; obtained the name of Ceesar 
217 ; and that of Augustus the same 
year; killed 218. G.— R.s S.— R«. 
R.« Br.— R.* R.* Many of his coins 
were struck at Antioch in Syria. 
Marcus Aurelius AntoninitSj commonly 
called JElagahalus. Bom 205 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 218 ; put to death 
222. G.— R.»R.» S.— C.— R.* Br.— 
C. — R.'' The name of Elagabalus was 
given to this emperor because he was 
in his infancy made Pontiff to the 
God Elagabalus, (the Sun) at Emisa 
in Syria, his country. Proclaimed 
emperor as bastard of Caracalla, he 
took his name Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus. Some coins represent him 
with Aquila Severa, Annia Faustina, 
and Julia Soaemias. 
JtiUa Cornelia Paula^ first wife of 
Elagabalus. Bom — ; divorced 220 ; 
died in private life. G. — R.« R.* 
S. — R.* R.' Br. — R.* R.* The name 
of Cornelia is only foimd on Greek 
coins. 
Agwlia Severa^ second wife of Elagabalus. 
Bom — ; died after the emperor. 
G.—R.® 8.— R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.* 
• Some coins represent her with Elaga- 
balus. 
Annia FauHinay third wife of Elagaba- 
lus. Bom — ; divorced as soon as 
she was married; died — . G. — 
R» S.— R.* Br.— R.« The gold coin 
is doubtful, as it bears on the reverse 
a portrait of Elagabalus. 
JuUa Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus. 



Born — A.D. ; killed 222 a.d. ; G. — 
R.6 S. — C. — R.* Br. — C. — R.* Some 
coins represent her with Elagabalus. 
Jt4ia Maesa^ aunt to Elagabalus. 
Bom — ; died 223. G.— R« S.— C. 
— R.* Br.— C— R.* 
Alexander Severus, cousin of Elagabalus. 
Born 205 a.d. ; adopted by Elaga- 
balus with the name of Ceesar 221 ; 
Emperor 222 ; assassinated 235. G. 
— C. R.8 S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C— R.» 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Mamaea and Orbiana. The coins of 
this prince are very numerous. 
3£emmia, second wife of Severus Alex- 
ander. No particulars are known 
respecting this princess, and the coin 
attributed to her is very doubtful. 
Orhioinaf third wife of Alexander Severus. 
No details are known respecting this 
princess. G.— R.® 8.— R.* R.8 Br. 
— R.* R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Alexander Severus and Mamaea. 
This princess is not spoken of by 
ancient authors ; some consider her 
to have been the wife of Decius, 
although she appears on the coins 
with Alexander Severus. 
J%dia Mamaea, sister of Soaemias, and 
mother of Severus Alexander. Born 
— ; assassinated 235 a.d. Some 
coins represent her with Alexander 
Severus and Orbiana. The coins of 
Mamaea are numerous. 
Uranius Antoninus. Bom — ; had him- 
self proclaimed Emperor in Asia in 
the town of Emisa in Syria, during 
the reign of Alexander Severus ; but 
was defeated and taken prisoner soon 
after. G. — R.^ This piece of Roman 
money is the only one which is known 
of his; it was struck in Asia, and 
probably at Emisa in Syria. 
Miiximinus I. Bom 173 a.d. ; Emperor 
235 ; assassinated 238. G. — R.<> R.» 
S. — C. — ^R."^ Br. — C. — R.8 Some coins 
represent him with his son Maximus. 
PauUnat wife of Maximinus. No par- 
ticulars are known respecting this 
princess. S. — R.* Br. — R.* R.* We 
believe this princess to be the wife 
of Maximinus, from the great resem- 
blance which the portrait of Maximus 
on his coins bears to hers, and the 
great likeness between the coins of 

T T 2 



644 



BOMAN IMFEBIAL COURAGE. 



Maximiniu and Maximus and hers. 
All the coins of Paulina represent her 
consecration, so that it is believed she 
died before her husband. 

MaximuSf son of Maximinus. Bom — ; 
obtained the name of Csesar 235 a.d. ; 
killed 238 a.d. G.— K* 8.— R.* a.« 
Br. — R.^ R.8 Some coins represent 
him with his father Maximinus. 

Junia FadillUf wife of Maximus. All 
that is known of this princess is, that 
Maximinus wished to marry his son 
to her, being grandniece to the 
Emperor Antoninus, but this marriage 
was not effected, as the father and 
son were both killed. The coins 
attributed to this princess are 
false. 

TUus Quartinua. Proclaimed himself 
Emperor in Germany during the 
reign of Maximinus ; lulled soon 
after. There is a coin attributed to 
him, bearing on one side the inscrip. 
tion " Divo Tito," and on the reverse 
*' Consecratio;" but this coin is one 
of those struck by Gallienus in 
honour of his predecesssors who had 
been ranked among the gods ; the 
present one is in honour of Titus. 

Gordianus Africanua /. (Pater). Bom 
158 A.D. ; proclaimed Emperor in 
Africa, and acknowledged by the 
senate ; killed himself about forty 
days afterwards. S. — R.* R.* Br. — 
R.^ R.^. These Latin coins were 
struck, without doubt, at Carthage. 

Oordianua Africantts II. (Filius) son of 
Gordianus Africanus I. Born ] 92 a.d.; 
Emperor with his father 238; killed 
about forty days afterwards. S. — R.* 
Br. — R.* These coins were, without 
doubt, minted in Carthage, like those 
of his father. 

Balhirma. Bom 178 a.d.; Emperor with 
Pupienus 238 ; massacred after a 
reign of three months. G. — "B? S. — 
R.1R.3 Br.— R.«R.* 

Pupienus. Born 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror with Balbinus 238 ; massacred 
about three months afterwards. G. 
— R.8 S.— R.« Br.— R.« R.« 

Gordianus Pius III., nephew of Gordianus 
Africanus. Born 222 a.d. ; CsDsar 
238 ; Emperor the same year ; assassi- 
nated 244. G.— R.iR.» S.— C— R.' 



Br. — C. — R.6 The coins of this prince 
are numerous. 

TranquilUnaf wife of Gordianus III. Bom 
— ; died after her hiisband. S. — ^R,* 
Br.— R.8 

PlUUpptu I. (Pater). Bom 204 a. d. ; 
Emperor 244 ; kiUed 249. G.— R.« 
R." S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.« Some 
coins represent him with Otaciliaand 
Philip, his son. The coins of Philip 
are numerous. 

Marcia Otacilia iSevera (wife of Philip 
the elder). Bom — ; died after 
her husband. G. — R.* R.« S.— C. 
— ^R.* Br. — C. — ^R'. Some coins re- 
present her with Philip the father and 
son. 

Philippus II. (FiUus). Bom 287 a.d, 
Csesar, 244. Associated in the em- 
pire with the title of Augustus, 247 ; 
killed 249. G.— R.* R.* S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.' Some coins represoit 
him with Philip the elder. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Marinus. Proclaimed Emperor in Moesia 
and Pannonia, 249 a.d. ; killed soon 
afterwards. The coins which have been 
attributed to this prince are Greek, but 
their attribution is doubtful. These 
coins were minted in Arabia, and most 
likely belong to a relation of the Em- 
peror Philip, and perhaps to his 
father. 

Jotapianus. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Syria, 248 a.d. ; put to death soon 
after. S. — ^R.* This coin was, with- 
out doubt, minted in Syria. 

Pacatianus. This personage was pro- 
claimed Emperor about this period, 
and is only known by his coins. S. — 
R.^ It is thought firom his coins that 
Pacatianus had himself proclaimed 
emperor in the leign of Philip or 
Trajanus Decius ; but it is uncertain. 
It is believed that he reigned in 
Greece, because his coins were fou&d 
there. Some authors think that' he 
was proclaimed in Moesia and Pan- 
nonia ; others, that Marinus and Pa- 
catianus were the same persons. 

Sponsianus. Proclaimed Emperor abont 
this period, and only known by his 
coins. G. — ^R.' We believe that Spon- 
sianus was declared emperor aboot 
this timei the fabric of his ooiiu 



E0MA2f IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



645 



1)eingr evidently of this epoch. The 
place of his revolt is imcertain, as 
he is not mentioned by any of the 
ancient authors. 

TrqjanuaDeciua. Born 201 a.d. ; Emperor, 
249; drowned in a bog, 251. G. — 
K.* R.* S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.6 
Some coins represent him with Etrus- 
cilla, Hostilius, and Herennius. 

EtruacUla (wife of Decius). This prin- 
cess is only known by her coins. G. — 
R.* 8.— C.— R.1 Br.— C— R.* 

Eerenniiu Etruscua (son of Decius). 
CsBsar, 249 ; Augustus, 251 ; killed 
same year. G. — ^R.^ S. — C. — R.* 
Br.— R*. R.8 

Hostilianw (son of Decius). Caesar, 
249 ; Emperor with Gallus, 251 ; died 
same year. G. — R.^ S. — C. — R.* 
Br. — ^R.« R.6. Some coins represent 
him with Yolusianus. 

yoluaianus (son of Gallus). Cassar, 251 ; 
Emperor, 252 ; kiUed, 254. G.— R*. 
R.6 8.— C— R.* Br.— C.— R7. 

AemUius A&milianus. Bom 208 a.d. ; 
Emperor in Mcesla, 253 ; killed, 254. 
G.— R.» 8.— R.^ R.* Br.— R.« 

(Amelia Supera (wife of Aemilianus). 
This princess is only known by her 
coins. 8. — R.8 Br.— R.8 It was 
long believed that she was the wife of 
Gallus or of Valerian, but Eckhel has 
proved to the contrary. 

Valerianua Senior. Bom 190 a.d. ; 
Emperor, 253 ; made prisoner to the 
Persians, 260 ; died, 263. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Hariniana, believed to be the second 
wife of Valerian. This princess is 
only known by her coins. G. — R.^ 
R*. 8.— R«. R.* 

GaUienxu (son of Valerian, by his first 
'Wife). Emperor, 253 ; assassinated, 
268. G.— R.«R.« 8.— R.« Po.— C. 
— R.* Br. — C. — R.» R.» During 
the reign of Gallienus, many generals 
declared themselves emperors ; and 
M their number was about thirty, 
they have been called the thirty 
tyrants. 

'Sofenjna (wife of Gallienus). Assassinated 
208. G.— R.* R.« S.— R.» Po.— 
C— R.« Br.— C— R.* 

^loninus (son of Gallienns) . Born242A .D. ; 
Caesar, 253 ; put to death, 259. G.— 



R.» R.8 8.— R.8 Po.— C— R.* 8.— 
C. — R8. Some coins represent him 
with Gallienus. 

QuintiM Julius Gallienus (youngest son of 
Gallienus) . No coins can be attributed 
to this prince with any certainty. 

VeUerianus Junior (brother of Gallienus). 
Assassinated 268. The coins that 
were attributed to this prince have 
been restored to Saloninus. 

lAeinia Qalliena (aunt to Gallienus). No 
particulars are known of this princess* 
The coins attributed to her are false. 

Postumus (Pater.) Proclaimed Emperor 
in Gaul, 258; killed in 267. G.— 
R.* R.8 Po.— C.— R.8 8.— C— R.fi. 
Some coins of Postumus bear also 
another head, which has long been 
considered to be that of his son. The 
coins of Postumus are numerous. All 
were struck in Gaul. 

Julia Donata (believed to be the wife of 
Postumus.) Nothing is known of this 
empress, whose existence is hardly 
proved. The coins that have been 
published are false. 

Postumtu (Filius). Declared Augrustus in 
Gaul 258 ; killed in 267. Nothing is 
known of this emperor, except that 
there are coins attributed to him, 
which truly belong to his father, and 
the heads which appear on the reverse 
of the coins of the latter, are pro- 
bably those of Mars and Hercules. All 
the coins of Postumus the Younger 
(if any exist) were struck in Gaul. 

Laelianus. Little is known of this per- 
sonage, who caused himself to be ac- 
knowledged Emperor in Gaul during 
the reign of Gallienus. G. — R.8 Po. 
—R.8 R.* Br.— R.« R.* Laelianus 
and the two following — Lollianus and 
Aelianus — according to their money, 
appear to be three different person- 
ages. It must be observed that a 
great number of coins attributed to 
these three are doubtful. The coins 
of Laelianus were struck in Gaul. 

Lollianus. No details are known of this 
prince. Br. — R.8 

Quintus Valens Aelianus. No facts are 
known of this emperor. Br. — ^R.8 
See the observations on Laelianus. 

VicUyrinus (Pater). Associated in the 
empire of Gaul by Postumus 265 ; 



646 



SOMAN IKPBSIAL COINAGE. 



killed 267. G.— R/ R.« Po.—C.— 
R.' Br. — C. — R.* The coins of the 
Roman standard were struck in Gaul. 

Vietorinus (Filins). Made CsBsar in 
Ganl 267 ; died soon afterwards. The 
coins formerly attributed to this 
prince have been restored to his 
father. 

Victorina, mother of Yictorinus Senior, 
Died, according to general opinion 
in 268 Br.— R.8 The coin that 
has been published of this princess 
is false. 

Marita. Proclaimed Emperor in Gaul 
in 267 ; killed after a reign of three 
days. G.--R.» Po.— R.« R.» Br.— 
R.^ R.* Historians say that he 
was killed by one of his comrades, 
after a reign of three days ; and 
the comparative abundance of his 
coins prove they were minted before 
he assumed the title of emperor. 

Tetricus (Pater). Proclaimed Emperor 
in Gaul in 267 ; restored his pro- 
vinces to Aurelian 273. G. — R.® R.® 
Po. — R.* Br. — C. — R*. Some coins 
represent him with his son. A great 
many of this emi>eror's coins are of 
the second brass, which are of bar- 
barous execution, and bear illegible 
inscriptions. The coins of Tetricus 
and his son were all struck in Gaul. 

Tetricus (Filius). CsBsar in Gaul 267 ; 
retired from public life on the abdi- 
cation of his father 273. G. — ^R.«R.8 
Po.— R.« Br. — C.— R«. It is a ques- 
tion whether this emperor was ever 
made Augustus or not. 

Oyriades. Proclaimed Emperor in Asia 
in 257 ; killed 258. No coins are 
known of this emperor. 

Mctcrianvs (Pater). Proclaimed Emperor 
in the East 261 ; was killed by his 
soldiers 262, with his two sons. The 
coins published as those of the father 
have been restored to his son. 

Mouyrianus (Filius). He was made 
Augustus during his father's reign. 
Po. — R.* R,* His coins were struck 
in the East, perhaps in Syria. 

Q^ietitSj brother of the preceding. Killed 
with his father and brother at Emisa. 
G.— R.8 Po.— R.« R.3 Br. — R.8 
These coins were struck in the East. 

Bcdista, Proclaimed Emperor in Syria 



262; kiUed 264. The Goins pubUfihed 
of Balista are false. 
Ingenmis. Proclaimed Emperor in Mcesia 
and Pannonia 262 ; killed in tliree 
months. Cioins all doubtful. 
Regalianiu. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Mcesia 261; killed 263. S.— R.^ 
These coins, if true, were stroick in 
Mcesia. 
DryantUla wife of Regalianus. Nothing 
is known of this princess. S. — R.* 
The fact of Dryantilla being the wife 
of Regalianus is doubtful. 
Valens. Emperor in Achaia 261 ; kffled 
the same year. The coins at present 
known of Valens are doubtful. 
IHso Frugi. Emperor in Thesaalia 261 ; 
killed same year. The known coins 
of this eniperor are false. 
Alexander Aemiliantts. Proclaimed Em- 
peror in Egypt 262 ; killed the same 
year. The coins of Alexander are toJse. 
Satuminus I. Proclaimed Emperor 263 ; 
died shortly afterwards. No authen- 
ticated coins are known of tMs tyrant. 
Trebellionus. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Isauria 264 ; killed soon afterwards. 
The coins attributed to this person- 
age are false. 
Celsus, Proclaimed Emperor of Carthage 
in 265 ; killed after a reign of seven 
days. No true coins are known of 
Celsus. 
Atireolus. Proclaimed Emperor in H- 
lyria and in Rhetia in 267 ; killed 
268. G.— R.® Br.— R.8 These coins 
were either struck in Rhetia, Italy 
Superior, or in Milan. 
Sulpicms Antoninus. Proclaimed Em- 
peror in Syria 267 ; died soon after, 
wards. No coins are known of 
Antoninus. 
Claudius Gothicus. Born 214 a.d. ; Em- 
peror in 268 ; died of the plague 270. 
G.— R.« R.8 Br.— C— R.* After the 
reign of Claudius no coins in billon are 
known, for at this period they were 
so thinly coated with silver that it 
has in most cases all worn off except 
when the coin is in singularly fine 
preservation. 
Gensorinus. Proclaimed Emperor at Bou- 
logne 270 ; killed seven days after. 
The coins that have been publiflhed 
are false. 



BOMA^ IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



647 



QttinHltta, brother of Claudius Gothicus. 
Proclaimed Emperor near Aquileia 
270 ; committed suicide eight days 
after. G.— R.® Br.— C. R.« The 
coiiLs of QuintUlus are too numerous, 
to heliere that his reign was so short 
as it is said by historians to have 
been ; it is probable that he reigned 
about two months aecording to 
Zozimus. 

Aurelianus. Bom207A.D.; Emperor 270; 
assassinated 275 ; G. — R** R.* Br. — 
C. — ^R.* The coins of this emperor 
are numerous. Some coins represent 
him with Severina and Yabalathus 
Athenodorus. 

Severina, wife of AureUanus. No details 
are known of this empress. G. — R.* 
R.« Br.— C.— R.« 

Septimus Odenathus. King of Palmyra 
261 ; associated in the empire by 
Gallienus 264 ; assassinated 266 — 7. 
There are no true coins known of 
this emperor. 

Zenohia, last wife of Odenathus. Queen 
of Palmyra 261 ; vanquished by Au- 
relianus 273. There are some coins 
of this queen struck in Egypt, but 
there are no true autonomous coins. 

Herodes, son of Odenathus by his first 
wife. Augustus 264; killed 267. The 
coins of this prince are false. 
Timolatis, son of Odenathus and Zenobia. 
Named Augustus by his mother 266 ; 
taken prisoner by Aurelian 273. He 
has no true coin of Roman mintage, 
but there is one Greek coin that 
belongs to him. 

Vabalathus Athenodorus^ son of Zenobia. 
Emperor in Syria 266 ; taken prisoner 
by Aurelian 273 ; Br. — R.«R.« These 
coins were struck in Syria. 

Jfaconius. Proclaimed Emperor 267 ; 
killed shortly afterwards. The coins 
attributed to Maconius are false. 

Firmus. Proclaimed Emperor in Egypt 
in 275 ; defeated and put to death 
the following year. The coins attri- 
buted to Firmus are false. 
Tacitus, Emperor 275 ; assassinated 276 ; 
G.— R.*R.* Br.— C— R.8 The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 
Florianus. Bom 232 a.d. ; Emperor 276 ; 
killed same year. G.— R.'' R.® Br. 
— C.— R. 



Prohus. Born 232 a.d. ; Emperor 276 ; 
massacred 282; G. — R,* R.6 S. — R.8 
Br. — C. — R.* The coins of this em- 
peror are so numerous and so diverse 
in their types, that the Abb^ Rothlin 
had a collection of upwards of 2000 
coins, all different in some minute 
respect. 

Bonositis. Proclaimed Emperor of Gaul 
280; died 281. There are no true 
coins of this emperor. 

Saturnitms. Emperor of Egypt and 
Palestine 280 ; killed shortly after, 
wards. The coins of Saturninus are 
false. 

JProculus. Emperor of Cologne 280 ; put 
to death the same year. The coins of 
this emperor are entirely false. 

Oarus. Bom 230 a.d.; Emperor, 282; 
killed by lightning, 283. G.— R.* R.* 
S. — C. — ^R6. Some coins represent him 
with Carinus. 

Num&rianus. Bom, 254 a.d.; CsBsar, 282 ; 
Augustus, 283 ; died 284. G. — R.^ 
R.« S.— -C. — R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with Carinus. 

Oarimis. Born 249 a.d.; C8B8ar,282; Em- 
peror, 283; killed, 284. G.— R.» 
R.s Some coins represent him with 
Numerianus and Magnia Urbica. 

Mctgnia Urbica, This princess is only 
known by her coins. G. — R.* S. — 
R.* R.« It was a long time believed 
that she was the wife of Carus. 

Ififfrimamts (son of Carus). This prince 
is only known by his coins. G. — R.* 
8.— R.» R.8 

JifarcttsAureliamtsJuliantts. Proclaimed 
EmperorinPannonia,284; killed, 285. 
These coins were most^probably struck 
in Italy Superior. 

Diooletianus. Born 245 ; Emperor 284 ; 
adopted Galerius, 292 ; abdicated, 
305 ; died, 313. G.— R.« R.» S.— 
R.1 R.8 Br.— C. R«. The coins of 
this emperor are numerous. It is 
in this reign that the Roman em- 
pire was first divided by common 
consent among four emperors; two 
Augustus's and two Caesars. 

Maximianus Hercules. Bom 250 ; asso- 
ciated in the Empire with Diocletian 
in 286 ; gave to Constantius Chlorus 
the title of Ceesar ; abdicated 305 ; 
retook the empire, 806 ; abdicated 



648 



BOMAN IHPSBIAL OOXNAaS. 



afresh, 308 ; proclaimed himself em- 
peror again in 309 ; strangled him- 
self, 310. G.— R.1 R.« 8.— R.^ R.* 
Br. — C. R.« Some coins represent 
him with Galerius and Diocletian. 
His coins are numerous. 

JEutropiOf wife of Maximian. No details 
are known of this princess. No true 
coins are attributed to her. 

Amandus, Emperor in Gaul 285 ; killed 
287. The coins published of this 
personage are very suspicious. 

Aeliantts. Emperor in Gaul 285 ; killed 
287. The coins of this emperor are 
likewise doubtful. 

OarausiuB. Emperor in England 287 ; 
assassinated 289. G. — ^R.® 8. — R.' 
R."' Br. — R.* R.® These coins were 
struck in England. 

Alleetus. Emi>eror in England 293; 
killed 296. G.--R.8 8.— R.» Br. 
— R.* R.» These coins were struck 
in England. 

Achilleus. Emperor in Egypt about 292 ; 
put to death soon afterwards. There 
are no true coins known of this per- 
sonage. 

Domitius Domitianua. Emperor in Egypt 

305. Br. — R.* These coins were 
struck in Egypt. 

Oonstantius I, (Chlorus). Bom 250 ; 
Caesar 292 ; Emperor 305 ; died 

306. G.— R.i R.* S.— R.1 R.* Br. 
— C. R.* Some coins represent him 
with Diocletian. His coins are very 
numerous. 

Helenay first wife of Constantius Chlorus. 
Born about 248 A.n. ; died about 328 ; 
Br.— C. R.* 

TJieodora^ second wife of Constantius 
Chlorus. 8. — R.» Br. — C. 

Galerius Valerius Mcueimianus, Adopted 
and named CoBsar by Diocletian, in 
292 ; Augrustus and Emperor in 305 ; 
died 311. G.— R.« R.« 8.— R.« R.« 
Br. — C. R.* Some pieces represent 
him with the Herculeian Maximianus 
and Constantius Chlorus. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Valeria^ second wife of Galerius Maxi- 
mianus. Put to death in 315 a.d. 
G.— R.« 8.— R.6 Br.— C. R.* 

Flavins Valerius Severus. Named Csesar 
by the Herculeian Maximian in 305 ; 
Augustus and Emperor in 306; put 



to death in 307. G.— B.* R.* 8.— 
R.* Br. — C. R.* 

Maximinus Daza^ son of Galerias, 
named Csesar by Diocletian in 305 \ 
given the title of the son of 13ie Au- 
gusti in 807 j proclaimed himself 
Emperor in 308 ; poisoned himself 
in 313 A.i>. G.— R». R.* S.— B.* 
R.* Br. — C. R*. The coins of this 
emperor are numerous. A iwirt 
of these pieces in Roman coin must 
have been struck in the East, pro- 
bably in SjTia. 

Maxentius. Born about 282 a.d. ; pro- 
claimed himself Emperor at Rome in 
306, and drowned in the Tiber in 
312 A.D. G.— R.« R.« 8.— B.« R.' 
Br. — C. R.* One piece represents 
him with his son Romulus. The 
coins of Maxentius are very numerous. 

BonmluSt son of Maxentius. Bom about 
the year 306 a.d. ; named Caesar 
in 307 ; Augustus in a short time 
afterwards; died in 309. G. — R.^ 
8. — R.* Br.— R.* R.8 One coin re- 
presents him with Maxentius his 
father. 

Alexander. Proclaimed Emperor at Car- 
thage in 306 ; defeated and put to 
death in 311 a.d. S. — ^R.* Br.— R.* 
R.8 The Roman coins of AlOEander 
were struck in Africa, and probably 
at Carthage. 

lAciniuSf senior son-in-law of Constantiiu 
Chlorus. Bom 263 a.d. ; named 
Csesar and Augustus, and associated in 
the empire with Galerius Maximianus 
307 ; conquered and taken prisoner 
by his brother-in-law, Constantine, 
and strangled in 323. G. — ^R.* R.* 
8. — R.a R.6 Po. — R.a Br. — C. R.» 
Some coins represent him with his 
son Licinius. The coins of this 
prince are very numerous. 

GonstantiOf wife of the elder Licinius. 
Died 330 a.d. The pieces which were 
published of this princess were &lse. 

LiciniuSf junior, son of the elder Li- 
cinius. Bom 315 A.D. ; named Ccesar 
817 ; deprived of the title in 323 ; put 
to death in 326. G.— R.* R.6 S.— R.* 
B. C. R.^ Some pieces represent 
him with his father, Licinius Crispus, 
and others with Constantine the 
Great. The Roman coins of this 



BOMAN IMPERIAL COIKAaE. 



649 



prince were struck in Pannonia and 
RhGetia. 
^'ta^elius Valerius Valens. Named Csesar, 
and perhaps Augustus, by Licinius in 
3-14 ; but was deprived of his dignities 
and killed. The supposed coin is rery 
doubtful. 

M4iurtimanus. Created CsBsar and Augrustus 
at Byzantium by Licinius in 323 ; put 
to death two months afterwards. Br. 
— 'BL.^ These Roman coins were most 
probably struck at Nicomedia. 

Oonstantius Magnus^ son of Constantius 
Chlorus and Helena. Bom 274 a.d.; 
named Csesar and Augustas in 306 ; 
deprived of the last title ; again 
named Augustus by the Herculeian 
MaximianuB iu 307 ; then only son 
of the Augusti^ given again the name 
of Augustus in 306 ; converted to the 
Christian religion in 311 ; made sole 
emperor in 323 ; changed the name of 
Bysantium to Constantinople, which 
he made the seat of his government, 
336; died in 337. G.— R-iR®. S.— R*. 
B.^ Br. — C. R®. Some pieces 
represent him with Crispus, Constan- 
tine the younger, and Licinius senior. 
The coins of this emperor are very 
numerous. Since his reign all the 
coins of the emperors of the East 
were struck at Constantinople. 

Fattstay wife of Constantine the Great, 
smothered in a warm bath, by her 
husband's order, in the year 326 a.d. 
G.—R.8 S.— R.* Br.— C. R.* 

CfrUpuSj son of Constantine and Miner- 
vina. Bom about 300 a.d. ; named 
Ceesar in 317 ; put to death by order 
of his father in 326. G.— R.* R.* 
Br.— C. R.* 

Selena, wife of Crispus. This princess is 
only known by one coin. Br. — R.* 
It is not certain whether she was ever 
Crispus' wife or not. 

Delmatius, Named Ceesar in 335 ; ob- 
tained in the division, Thrace, Mace- 
donia, and Achaia in 335 ; killed 
337. G.— R.« S.— R.* Br.— R.i 
Some pieces represent him with Con- 
stantine. . It is doubtful whether 
these pieces were struck in Con. 
fttantinople or in the provinces which 
he obtained in the division. 

Hanniball%€mu9t brother to Delmatius. 



Made King of Pontus, Cappadocia 
and Armenia in the year 335 ; died 
337. Br. — R.* It is not known 
whether these pieces were struck in 
Constantinople or in the dominions of 
his sovereignty. 

Omstantintu II., eldest son of Constan- 
tine and Fausta. Born 316 a.d. ; 
named Csesar 317 ; obtained in the 
division, in 335, Gaul, Spain, and 
England ; named Emperor and Angus- 
tus in 337 ; defeated and killed in 
340. G.— R.3R.* S.— R.*R.* Br.— 
— C — ^R.' The coins of this emperor 
are numerous. These coins, probably, 
or at least a part, were struck in the 
countries assigned to him in the divi- 
sion. 

Oonstans I., youngest son of Constantine 
the Great and Fausta. Born about 
320 A.D. ; named Csesar in 333 ; ob- 
tained in the division in 335, Italy, 
lUyria, and Africa, called Emperor 
and Augustus in 337 ; made Emperor 
• of the East in 346 ; and assassinated 
in 350. G.— C. R.» S.— R.i R.* 
Br. — C. R.'^ The coins of this em- 
peror are numerous. These, or part 
of these coins were probably struck 
in the countries assigned to him. 

Satuminus, This personage is only 
known by one coin, he was proclaimed 
Emperor under the reigns of Constans 
I. or II. The piece produced is 
doubtful. 

CbnstantVMM II., son of Constantine the 
Great and Fausta. Born 317 a.d.; 
named Ceesar in 323 ; obtained in 
the division, in 335, the East ; named 
Augustus in 337 ; master of all the 
Empire in 350 ; died 351. G.— C. R.^ 
S.— R.i B."^ Br. — C. R.* The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Fausta, wife of Constantius II. Br. — R.^ 
It is doubtful whether she was ever 
the wife of Constantius or not. 

Nepotianus, son of Eutropia, sister of 
Constantine the Great. Proclaimed 
Emperor at Rome in 350 ; killed after 
a reign of 28 days. Br. — R.'' These 
pieces were probably struck at 
Rome. 

Vetranius. Proclaimed Emperor in Pan- 
nonia in 350 ; abdicated after reigning 
10 months ; died 356 ; G.— R.« S.— 



650 



SOMAN IMPXBIAX COINAGE. 



JL^ Br. — ^R.* R.« These pieces were 
probably struck in Fannonia. 

Jfonius. Historians do not mention this 
personage. The pieces attributed to 
this Nonius are doubtful. 

Moffnentius. Born about 308 a.d. ; pro- 
claimed Emperor at Autun 350 ; and 
kUled himself in 353. O.—B,*, B..'' 
S. — R.* R.' Br.— C. B.« These 
pieces were either struck in Oaul or 
Italy. 

Ikcentiuij brother of Magnentius. Named 
CflBsar in 351 ; and strangled himself 
in 353. G.— B*. R.'' S.—R.* R.' 
Br.-^. R.^ These pieces were struck 
in Gaul or in Italy. 

DesideriuSf brother of Magnentius. Named 
Ceesar in 351 ; stabbed by his brother 
in 353 ; but not killed as it was 
thought. The published pieces of this 
prince are false. 

Oonatantiua Gallua. Bom 325 a.d. ; 
named CsBsar in 351 ; condemned to 
death and executed in 354. G.— <-R.' 
R.* 8.— R.*R.* Br.— C. R.» 

Constantina^ wife first of Hanniballianus 
and secondly of Constantius Gallus. 
Died 354 a.d. The published pieces 
of this princess are very doubtful. 

Sylvanus. Proclaimed Emperor of Co- 
logne, in 355 ; killed after a reign of 
twenty-eight or twenty-nine days. 
The published pieces of Sylrunus are 
false. 

Julianm ILy son of Julius Constantius, 
brother to Constantine the Great. 
Bom 331 A.B. ; named Csesar in 355 ; 
proclaimed Emperor at Paris, 360 ; 
sole Emperor, 361 ; killed in a battle 
against the Persians la 363. Gold. — 
R«. R.*. 8.— C— R.« Br.— C— R.* 
The coins of Julian are very numerous. 

Helena^ wife of Julian II. died 360. 
G.— R.« Br.— C. 

Jovianus, Bom 331 A.n. ; Emperor in 
363 ; died 364. G.— R.^ R.8 S.— 
R.« R.8 Br.— C— R.« 

Valentinianus J. Bom 821 a.d. ; Em- 
peror in 364 ; died 375. G. — C. R.* 
S.—C— R.« Br.— C. R.8 The coins 
of Yalentinian were partly struck at 
Rome, and partly ia the East. 

Valeria Severay first wife of Valentinian I. 
Dledin the reign of Gratian. The pub- 
lished pieces are false. 



JttsUnat second wife of Yalentinisii I. 
Born — A.D. ; died 387. The published 
pieces are false. 

Flcmtu ValenSf brother of YalentimaiL 
Bom 328 a.d. Associated in the Em- 
pire and given the najne of Augustus 
in 364 ; had the East for his divisioii; 
was burnt alive in 3 7 8. G. — C.— E.« 
8.— C— R.» Br.— 0.— R.» 

Dominica, wife of Yalens. Died in tiie 
reign of Theodosius the Great. The 
published piece of this princess is 
false. 

Procopitu. Bom about 334 a.d. ; pro- 
claimed Augustus at Constantinople, 
in 365 ; put to death in 366. 6.— 
R.' S.— R,» Br.— R.«R.' 

GratifmvSf son of Yalentinian I. Bom 
350 A.D. Named Augustus at Amiens 
in 861 ; Emperor in 376 ; killed in 
389. G.— C— R.8 S.— R.* Br.— 
C. — R.8 The coins of this prince were 
struck in the West and probably in 
Gaul and Italy. 

Oonstimtiaf wife of Gratian. Bom 863 
A.D. ; died 383. The published pieces 
of this princess are false. 
Valentinianus 11,, son of Yalentinian I. 
Bom 371 A.D. Named Augustus and 
associated in the empire, 375 ; had 
for his division, Italy, Illyria, uid 
Africa ; Emperor of all the Western 
empire, 383 ; was assassinated in 892. 
G.— C.— R.8 8.— C.— R.« Br.— C. 
R.* The coins of Yalentinian IL 
cannot all be attributed with cer- 
tainty, and may be confounded with 
those of his father, or those of Yalen- 
tinian III. These coins were probably 
struck in Italy. 

Theodositu Jfoffma I., born 346 a.d. 
Named Augustus, and associated in 
the Empire, by Gratian in 379 ; had 
for his division the East. Died in 
395. G.— C.— R.» S.— C— R.« Br. 
C— R.* 

Flaccilla, first wife of Theodosius I. Died 
388. G.— R.* S. B..^ Br.— R.1 

Magnus Maximua, assumed the name of 
Augustus in Britain, in 383 ; acknow- 
ledged Emperor; seized upon Italy 
in 387 ; and was put to death in 388. 
G.— R.1 R.« 8.- R.1 R.« Br.— C. 
These pieces were struck in Britain, 
Gaul, or Italy. 



BOMAir IMPEBIAI. COOTAaE. 



651 



Flavins Victor^ son of Magnus Maximns. 
Named Augustus in 383 ; put to death 
in 888. G.— R.* 8.— K«. Br.— 
B. These pieces were struck in Gaul. 
Arcadiua, son of Theodosius the Great. 
Sorn 377 ; made Augustus in 388; 
Emperor of the East in 395 ; died in 
408. G.— C.— R.6 S.— R.1 R.« Br. 
— C— R.» 
JEtedocia, irife oi Arcadius. Died 404. 
The pieces attributed to this princess 
hare been restored by Eckhel to Eudo- 
cia, the wife of Thedosius n. 
Sonoriua^ the youngest son of Honorius 
and Flaccilla. Born 384 ; named 
Augustus 893 ; Emperor of the West 
395 ; died 428. G.— C.— R.' S.— 
C. — ^R* Br. — C. — R.* These pieces 
were probably struck at Rome. 

Oonstantitu III., Honorius' sister's hus- 
band. Named Augustus, and associated 
in the empire of the West in 421 ; 
died the same year. G. — R*. R''. 
S. — R.'^ These pieces were struck in 
Italy. 

Gotta J^laeidia, wife of Constantius III. 
Widow of Ataulf, king of the Goths 
414 ; wife of Constantius III. in 417 ; 
died in 483. G.— R.» R.'' S.— R.* 
R.* Br. — R.* R.' These pieces were 
struck in Italy. 

Cbnstantinua III. Augustus in England 
and Gaul 407 ; taken prisoner and 
put to death 411. G.-~R.« S.— R.* 
Br. — ^R.' The coins of this prince 
hare frequently been confounded with 
those of Constantine I. and II. These 
eoins were struck in Gaul. 

GoMtems, son of Constantinus III. Au- 
gustus in Gaul 408 ; assassiuated in 
411. S. — R.^ These pieces were pro- 
bably struck in Gaul. 

Maj^itnui. Emperor in Spain 409 ; abdi- 
cated 411. 8. — ^R.^ These pieces 
were probably struck in Spain. 

Jovinus. Emperor at May ence 411; be- 
headed 418. G.— R.<S.— R.» Br.— 
R.B These coins were struck in 
Gaul. 

Stifttstiantay brother of Joyinus^ Asso- 
ciated in the soTereign power by his 
brother in 412; beheaded in 413. 
8. — R.^ These coins were struck in 
Gaul. 

Friscus Attalue. Made emperor by 



Alaric at Rome 409; depriyed of 
that title ; reassumed it in Gaul 410 ; 
died in the isle of Lipari. G. — R.* 
8. — R.*R. 8 Br. R.* R.» These 
pieces were struck at Rome. 

Theodosiua II., son of Arcadius. Bom 
401 ; Augustus 402 ; Emperor of the 
East 418; died 450. G.— C— R.« 
8.— R.S R.* Br.— R.* R.« These 
coins must not be confounded with 
those of Theodosius I. 

Sudoxia, wife of Theodosius II. Bom 
about 393 a.b. ; died 460. G. — R.' 
R* 8. — R*. Br. — R.* Some of the 
coins of this princess have falsely 
been attributed to Eudoeia wife of 
Arcadius. 

Johannes. Bom 383 ; Emperor at Rome 
423 ; died 425. G^-R.^ R.« 8.— 
R.' R.* Br. — ^R.* These coins were 
struck in Rome. 

Valentinianus III., son of Constantine 
III. Bom at Rome 419 ; Emperor 
425 ; assassinated 455. G. — 0.— R.^ 
8.— R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.» These 
coins were struck in Rome. 

Licinia JEudoxia, wife of Yalentinian. 
Bom 423 ; died — . G.— R.* These 
coins were struck in Italy. 

Sonoria, sister of Yalentinian. Bom 
417 ; Augustus 438 ; died 454. G. — 
R.* R.« 8. — R.^ These coins were 
struck in Italy. 

AUila, King of the Huns. Bom — ; 
King 434 ; died 453. There are no 
true autonomous coins of this king. 

Petronitu Maximus. Bom 895 ; Emperor 
at Rome 455. G.— R.* 8.— R.* 
Br. — R.* All these were stmck at 
Rome. 

Mardanus, husband of the 
Theodosius II. Bom 391 ; 
of the East 450 ; died 457. 
R.« 8.— R.* Br.— R.« 

Pulcheria, wife of Marcianus. Bom 399 ; 
died 453. G. — R.* 8.— R.* Br. 
— R.« 

Amtus. Bom — ; Emperor 455 ; abdi- 
cated and turned bishop 466. G. — 
R.* Br.— R.« 

Leo I. Born — ; Emperor of the East 
457; died 474. G.— C.— Br.— R.* 

Verina, wife of Leo I. Born — ; died 
484. G.— R.* 

Mqforianus. Bom — ; Emperor 457 ; 



sister of 

Emperor 

G.— R.» 



652 



BOMAN IMFEBIAL COINAGE. 



aaBa88inated461. O.— R.i R.« S.-— E.» 
Br.— R.* R.» 
Lihius Severus, Born — ; Emperor 
461 ; poisoned 465. G.— R.» S. — 
B.« Br. — R.» These were struck in 
Italy. 

AnthemiuB. Bom — ; Emperor 467 ; 
assassinated 472. G.— R.« 8. — R.' 
Br.— R.« 

Euphemia. Bom — ; died — . G. — R.« 
These were stmck in Italy. 

Olybrius, Bom — ; Emperor of the 
West 472 ; died same year. G.— R.* 
R.* S.— R.« Pl.--R.« These were 
stmck in Italy. 

Plaeidia, wife of Olybrios. Bom — ; 
died — . Her portrait is only found 
on the coins of her husband. 

Glyeeriua. Bora — ; Augustus at Ra- 
venna 473 ; dethroned 474 ; died 
480. G.— R.* 8.— R.' These coins 
were struck in Italy. 

Leo II. Bom about 459 a.d ; Emperor 
473 ; Emperor of the East 474. G.— 
R.* These pieces represent him with 
Zeno. 

Zeno^ son-in-law of Leo I., and father of 
Leo II. Born 426 a.d. ; associated 
in the Eastern Empire by his son, 
Leo II., 474 ; sole Emperor in the 
same year; deposed 476; re-esta- 
blished 477 ; died 491. G.— C— 8. 
— R.« Br.— R.i R.« 

Batiliacus. Bom — ; Emperor of the 
East 476 ; dethroned by Zeno and 
died of hunger 477. G. — R.* R.^ 
S. — R.* Br. — ^R.* Some pieces re- 
present him with Marcus his son. 

Aelia Zenonis^ wife of Basiliscus. Bom 
— ; starved with her husband 477 ; 
G.— R.» 

Jfareus, son of Basiliscus. Bom — ; 
Augrustus and associated in the Em- 
pire, 476 ; starved to death with his 
parents 477. This prince only on 
the coins of Basiliscus. 

Leontius I. Born — ; Augustus at Tar- 
sus in Cilicia in 482 ; conquered and 
put to death 488. G. — R.« These 
pieces were struck in Asia Minor. 

Julius Nepos. Bom — ; Emperor of the 
West 474; driven from Rome 475 ; 
assassinated 480. G. — R.^ R.* 8.— 
R.* Br. — R.8 These pieces were 
struck in Italy. 



Bomulus Augustulus. Born — ; EmpeTor 
of the West 475 ; dethroned by 
Odoacer, King of the Heruli, who 
proclaimed himself King of Italy, and 
thus terminated the Empire ,of the 
West 476. G.— R.* Br.— -R.* These 
pieces were struck in Italy. 

THE GOTHIC PRINCES OF ITALY, 
AFRICA, &c. 

Theodoric. The Ostrogotli Bom — . 
occupied Pannonia and Illjrria; in- 
vaded Italy and crowned King 493 ; 
died 526. 8.— R.i Br.— R.* Some 
coins represent him with Anastasins 
and Justin. The coins of this prince 
were undoubtedly struck in Italy. 

Baduila, an uncertain king. Historians 
do not mention this king, but he 
must not be confounded with Baduela, 
or Baduila, a Gothic king. 

Theia, or Thela^ an uncertain king. Not 
known in history. He is only found 
on the coins of Anastasius. 

AthalarictUy nephew to Theodoric. Bora 
— ; King of the Goths 526 ; died 
534. 8.- R.1 R.« Br.— R.1 R.' These 
coins were struck in Italy. 

Theodohatus. Born — ; King of the 
Goths in Italy 534 ; killed 536. S.— 
R.« Br.— R.1 R.* 

WUiges, Born — ; King of the Goths 
536 ; conquered by Belisarius 540 ; 
died soon after. 8. — ^R.* Br. — ^R.* 

Sildibadua. Born — ; King of the 
Goths in Italy 540 ; killed 541. No 
coins are known of this barbarian. 

AraricuSf or Eraricua. Bom — ; King 
of the Goths in Italy 541; kiUed 
same year. No coins are known of 
this prince. 

BadtteUiy or Baduila. Bom — ; King of 
the Goths in Italy 541 ; conquered 
by Narses 552. 8.— R.* Br.— R.» 
R.* This prince is called by the 
Greeks Totila. These coins were 
struck in Italy. 

TTieias. Bom — ; King of the Goths in 
Italy 552 ; defeated by Narses 553 ; 
his death put an end to the Gothic 
princes in Italy. No coins are known 
of this prince. 

Gunthamundas. Bom — ; Vandal King 
in Africa 484 ; died 496. 8.— R.^ 



BOMjL^ IMPEBTATi COINAGE. 



653 



IV-iaamundus, Bom — ; Yandal King 
in Africa 496; died 523. S.— R> 
These Vandal coins are also classed 
in the coins of the peoples, and towns, 
and were struck in Carthage. 

JSUdericus. Bom — ; Vandal King in 
Africa 528 ; dethroned 530. 8.— ».• 

Geiimarvs, or Geilamir. Bom — ; Van- 
dal King in Africa 530 ; defeated by 
Belisarius 534, which put an end to 
the Vandal princes in Africa. S. — R.^ 

Theo<i^ertu3. Bom — ; King of Aus- 
trasla 534 ; killed in hunting 548. 
The coins of Theodebert belong pro- 
perly to the coins of Gaul, but they 
are here classed with the Eoman 
emperors, because this king took the 
title of Augustus. 

EASTERN EMPIRE AFTER THE 
FINAL FALL OF WESTERN EMPIRE. 

Anastasius I, Bom 430 a.d. ; succeeded 
to the Eastern Empire 491 ; was 
struck by lightning in the year 518. 
G.— C— S.— R.1 R.« Br.— C. 

Ju8tinus I. Bom 450 ; Emperor 518 ; 
died in 527. G.— C— R.* S.— R.i 
B.' Br. — C. There are some coins 
which bear this emperor on the 
ohverse, and the heads of either 
Theodoric or Athalaric, both lungs 
of the Ostrogoths on the reverse. 

JEuphemiay wife of Justinus I. No decided 
dates are known of this princess. 
Some pieces have been falsely attri- 
buted to her. 

Viialianus. Proclaimed Emperor in 5 1 4 ; 
assassinated 520. G. — R.^ 

Jtutianua 7., nephew to Justinus. Bom 
483 ; associated in the Empire 527 ; 
sole Emperor 528 ; died 565. G. — 
C— R." S.— R.1R.* Br.— C. Many 
coins represent him with Athalaric, 
Theodohatus, Witiges, and Baduila 
king of the Goths. 

Justin JI. Bom at a date unknown ; 
Emperor of the East 565 ; died in 
578. G.— C— R.« S.— R.* Br. — 
C— R.* 
Sophia, wife of Justin II. Bom 545 ; 
died in the reign of Maurice. Br. — 
R.» R.* 
JVierwa II. (Constantinus), son-in-law 
to Justin. Date of birth imknown ; 



associated in the Empire 574 ; sole 
Emperor 578 ; died in 582. G.— R.* 
R.» S.— R.« R.* Br.— C. 

Maurice (Tiberius), son-in-law of Tibe. 
rius II. Born 539 ; made Emperor 
582 ; and put to death together with 
his wife and children by Phocas 602. 
G.— C— R.» S.— R.3 R.* Br.-— C. 
— R.' Some coins represent this em- 
I>eror with his wife Constantina and 
his son Theodosius. 

Oonstantinay wife of Maurice. Date of 
birth unknown ; killed with her hus- 
band and children 602. The portraits 
of this princess are only found on the 
coins of Maurice. 

Theodosius, son of Maurice. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 590 ; killed with his parents 
602. 

Phocas. Date of birth unknown; sue- 
ceeded to the throne 602 ; was be- 
headed 610. On coins this emperor's 
name is written thus, foca, or focas. 
Some coins represent him with his 
wife Leontia. 

Leontia, wife of Phocas. Date both of 
birth and death unknown. The por- 
trait of this empress is only found on 
coins of Phocas. 

Seraclius I. Born about the year 575 ; 
declared Emperor 610 ; died in 641. 
G.— C.— R.1 S.— R.» Br.— C— R.» 
On some coins are found together 
portraits of this emperor and of his 
son Constantine IV. 

Flavia Eudocia, first wife of Heraclius. 
Date of birth unknown; died 612. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Constantine IV., son of Heraclius and 
Flavia. Bom 612 ; Emperor with 
his brother Heracleonas in 641 ; was 
poisoned in the same year. G. — R.'^ 
S.— R.» R.* Br.— R.« R*. Some 
coins represent this monarch with 
his father Heraclius, his wife Gre- 
goria, Heracleonas his brother, and 
Constans his son. 

Gregoria, wife of Constantine IV. Date of 
both birth and death unknown. There 
are no portraits found of this princess 
except on the coins of her husband. 

Martina, second wife of Heraclius I. 
Date of birth unknown ; made regent 
with her son Heracleonas 641 ; was 



654 



BOMiLir nCPEBIAL COn^AGE. 



exiled. No coins are knoim of this 
empress. 

Tiberiiu 111.^ son of Heradius and Mar- 
tina. Date of birth unknown ; created 
CeBsar in 640; associated leith his 
brother in the empire 641 ; year of 
death unknown. No coins are known 
of this emperor. 

Conatans II., son of Constantine lY. and 
Oregoria. Bom 630; associated in 
the Empire with his uncles Tiberius 
III. and Heracleonas in 641 ; Bole 
Emperor the same year ; assassinated 
in 668. G.--R.1 K.* 8.— R.s R.* 
Br. — ^E.* R.' Some coins of this 
emperor have portraits of a female, 
supposed to be his wife, whose name 
is unknown, and also portraits of his 
sons Constantine Y., Heraclius, and 
Tiberius. 

Oon»t<mtine V., son of Gonstans n. Date 
of birth unknown, associated with 
his father 654 ; sole Emperor 668 ; 
died in 685. G.— C— R.« 8.— R.« 
R.* Br. — R.* R*. 8ome of his coins 
bear portraits of his father. 

Heraclius and IHberiua, brothers of Con- 
stantine v. Named Ceesars 659 ; 
associated in the Empire by their 
brother in 668 ; and put to death in 
674. Portraits of these princes are 
only found on the coins of Constans 
II., their father. 

Juttinian II. (Rhinotmetus), son of Con- 
stantine Y. Bom 670 ; created Au- 
gustus 682 ; reigned alone in 685 ; 
dethroned after having had his nose 
cut off in 695 ; restored in 705 ; 
dethroned anew and killed 711. O. 
— R.1 R.» 8.— R.' Br.— R.« Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Tiberius IV. 

liberiu* /F., son of Justinian II. Born 
701 ; declared Ceesar and Augustus in 
706 ; put to death in 711. The por- 
trait of this prince is only found on 
the coins of Justinian his father. 

Leo II. Date of birth unknown; pro- 
claimed Emperor 695 ; dethroned 
and placed in a monastery 698 ; 
after having had his nose and ears 
cut off, put to death in 705. G. — ^R.^ 
Br. — B.® Coins have been attributed 
to this monarch which rightfully 
belong to Leo I. 



Jl&mtt# r. (Absimams). Date of birth 
unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 693 ; 
put to death by Justinian 705. G. 
—R.1 R." S.— R« Br.— R.' 

FUepicus (Bardanes) . Proclaimed Emperor 
in 711 ; dethroned and deprived of 
his sight 713 ; died shortly after- 
war^. G.— R.« R.* S.— R> 

Anatta*iut II. Date of birth miknown ; 
proclaimed Emperor 713 ; abdicated 
in 716 ; but shortly afterwards taken 
and put to death. G. — R.« R.» 8. 
— ^R.* It was about this time that a 
mixture of Greek and Latin letters was 
introduced in the inscriptions of the 
coins. 

7%eodonu$ IH. (Adramytenus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperrar 
715; abdicated in 717. G.— E.* 
8.— R.» 

Leo III. (Isaurus). Date of birth un- 
known; proclaimed Emperor 717; 
died in 741. G.— C.— R.i S.— R.' 
Br. — R.* Many coins of this emperor 
represent him with his son Constan- 
tine YL, and his grandson Leo lY. 

Chnstantine VI. (Copronymus), son erf 
Leo III. EL— R.« R.8 S.— R.' Br. 
— ^R.* Some coins represent him with 
Leo lY. and Artavasdus. 

Irene, first wife of Constantine YI. Date 
of birth unknown ; died in 750. No 
coins are known of this empress. 

Jfaria, second wife of Constantine Yl. 
Date of birth unknown ; died 751. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Eudoeia, third wife of Constantine YI. 
Date of birth and death unknown. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Artavasi^ts, son-in-law to Leo m. 
Date of birth unknown ; proclaimed 
Emperor 742 ; made prisoner and 
exiled after having had his eyes put 
out in 743. G.— R.« EL— R.» Br. 
-— R.^ Some coins represent him 
with his son Nicephorus and with 
Constantine YI. 

Nicephorue, son of Artavasdus and Anna 
sister of Constantine YI. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated with his 
father 742 ; made prisoner and exiled 
after having had his eyes put out like 
his father in 7 4 3 . The portrait of this 
prince is only found on coins of 
Artavasdus. 



BOMAir IMPBEIiX COTNAQE. 



655 



Christopha and Nieephorus, sons of Con. 
stantine YI. and Eudocia. Dates of 
their birth unknown ; created Csesars 
in 769 ; exiled after having had their 
tongiies and eyes burned out ; put to 
death by order of Irene 797. No 
coins are known of these prinees. 

Leo IV. (Chazarus), son of C!onstantine 
YI. and Irene. Born 750 ; oreated 
Augustus 751; reigned alone 775; 
died in 780. G.— ^R.* Br.— R.* 

Lrene^ wife of Leo lY. Date of birth un. 
kncwn ; made regent of the Empiie 
dturing the minority of her son Con- 
stantino YII. in 780 ; she caused his 
eyes to be put out for the purpose of 
reigning alone ; was imprisoned in 
the isle of Lesbos by Kicephorus 
Logothetus 802 ; died in 803. G. — 
R,* S.— R.6 Br.— R.8 

Oonstantine VIL^ son of Leo IT. Born 
771 ; made Augustus in 776 ; reigned 
wiUi his mother 780 ; died after 
having had his eyes put out by order 
of his mother 797. G.— R.« S.— R.' 
Br.— R.*. R.8 

Nicephorus I. (Logothetus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 
802; killed 811. G.— R.« Br.— R.« 
Some pieces represent him with his son 
Stauracius. It was during the reigrn of 
Nicephorus that the second empire of 
the West commenced. 

Staureufku, son of Nicephorus I. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated in the 
I^pire in 803 ; abdicated the throne 
with his father 811 ; died 812. G.— 
R.^ Br. — R.^ Some pieces represent 
this emperor with his father Ni- 
cephorus. 

Mtchctel I. (Rhangabe and Caropalata), 
son-in-law of Nicephorus. Date of 
birth unknown ; elected Emperor 811; 
abdicated 813 ; died 845. G. — ^R.^ 
8. — R.* Br. — R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with his son Theophylactus. 
Those coins of Michael I., upon which 
bis son is not represented, can be 
equally attributed >to the other empe- 
rors of the same name. 

TheophylactuSf son of Michael. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 811; entered into a monas- 
tery after having been mutilated by 
order of Leo V. G.— R,* Br.— R.* 



The coins of this prince represent 
him with his father.* 
Leo V. (Armenius.) Date of birth un- 
known; proclaimed Emperor in 813 ; 
assassinated in 820. Br. — R.^ These 
coins bear the portrait of his son Con- 
stantine YIII. 
Oonstantine VUL, son of Leo V. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated with 
his father 213 ; mutilated and exiled 
by order of Michael II. 820. Br. — 
R.^ Some coins represent him with 
his father Leo Y. 
Michael IL (Balbus.) Date of birth un- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor 820 ; 
died 829. G.— R.« R.» 8.— R.' Br. 
— -R.^ Some coins represent him with 
his son Theophilus. 
TheophiluSj son of Michael. G. — R." R.' 
EL— R.« S.— R.* Br.— C.— R.S There 
exists a coin bearing the busts of 
Theophilus, and of a prince named 
Constantine who probably was his 
son, but the piece is doubtful. There 
are some pieces which were formerly 
attributed to Theophilus which are 
now restored to Michael III. 
TheodorOf wife of Theophilus. Date of 
birth unknown ; acted as regent to her 
son Michael III. 842 ; was shut up in 
a monastery by order of her son 857. 
Her coins bear portraits of Michael 
III. on the reverse. 
Miohctel IJI.^ son of Theophilus. Bom 
836 ; succeeded his father 842 under 
his mother; reigned alone 857 ; died 
867. G.— R.»R' S.— R.& Br.— R.'' 
Some pieces represent him with 
Theodora his mother, Thecia his 
sister, Constantine his son, and Basi- 
lius I. 
Chnstantinua was formerly supposed to 
have been the son of Theophilus, but 
really the son of Michael II. This 
prince is unknown in history. G. — 
R,"^ Some coins represent him with 
Theophilus but most with Michael III. 
Theela, daughter of Theophilus. Date 
of birth unknown ; shut up in a 
monastery with her mother in 857. 
G. — R.® 8. — ^R.* The coins of this 
princess represent her with her brother 
Michael III. 
Basiliut J. (Macedo.) Date of birth un- 
known ; associated in the Empire by 



656 



BOMA^ IMFEKIAL COINAGE. 



Michael m. in S66 ; reigned alone 
in 867 ; died 886. G.—R.* R.* 8. 
— R.» Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him vith his sons Constan- 
tine IX., Leo YI., and Alexander. 
There are some coins falsely attri- 
buted to BasiliuB I., which really 
belong' to Basilius II. 

Constantine JX., son of Basilius I. Bom 
about 853 ; associated in the Empire 
868; died 879. G.— R.« R.* 8.— 
R.* Br. — C. Some coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. 

Leo VI. (Sapiens), second son of Basilius. 
Bom 865 ; associated in the Empire 
870 ; reigned with his brother Alex- 
ander in 886; died 911. G. — ^R.' 
R.« S.— R.* Br. R.» R.» Some 
coins represent him with Basilius I. 
his son Constantine X., and his bro- 
ther Alexander. 

Zoe (Carbonopsina), the wife of Leo 
VI. Date of birth unknown ; regent 
over her son Constantine X. 912 ; 
shut up in a monastery by her son 
919. Br.— R.* R.» Her coins re- 
present her with her son Constantine 
XI. 

Alexander^ third son of Basilius. Born 
870 ; reigned with his brother Leo 
VL in 886; died in 912. G.— R.* 
Br. — R.* Some of his coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. and his 
brother Leo VI. 

Eomanus I. (Lecapenus.) Date of birth 
unknown ; associated in the empire 
with Constantine X. in 919 ; seized, 
dethroned, and exiled by his son 
Stephen in 944 ; died in 946. G. — 
R.^ R.^ His coins bear the names 
*',p( Christopher, Stephen, and Con- 
stantine XI. son of Leo VI. 

Ohriatopher^ son of Romanus I. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 920 ; died 931. G.— R.» R.* 
Br. — R.^ Some coins represent him 
with his father Romanus I. 

StephantiSf second son of Romanus. Date 
of birth imknown ; associated in the 
Empire in 931 ; dethroned and exiled 
his father 944 ; exiled by Constantine 
XI. in 945 ; died 964. The name of 
this prince is only found on the coins 
of his father. 
Canstantine X., third son of Romanus. 



Date of birth unknown ; made Angus- 
tus in 945 ; put to death shortly after- 
wards. This prince is only found on 
the coins of his father. 

CkmstanHne XZ,, son of Leo VL Boia 
905 ; succeeded his father 911 ; first 
under the regency of Alexander his 
uncle, and then of his mother Zoe; 
reigned alone 945 ; died 953. G.— 
R.3R.* S.— R.« Br.— R.1R* Some 
coins represent him with hiB fatber 
Leo VI., his mother Zoe, his son Bo- 
manus II., and with Romanus L liis 
colleague. 

Bomanus, son of Constantine XI. Bom 
in 938 ; succeeded his father 959 ; 
died 963. G.— R." R.* S. — ^R.« Br.— 
R.S Some coins represent him wiUi 
his father Constantine. These coins 
are not of certain attribution. 

IheophanOy wife of Romanus IL Date gI 
birth unknown ; r^ent for her eons 
Basilius and Constantine in 963 ; she 
married the same year Nicephorus II., 
caused him to be assassinated in 969 ; 
exiled by John Zimisces ; recalled by 
her sons in 975 ; died 980. S.— R.* 

Nicephorus II. (Phocas). Bom in 912 ; 
proclaimed Emperor 963 ; assassi- 
nated by his wife 969. G. — ^R.« S. 
^-R.* Br. — ^R.^ — R.* Some coins re- 
present him with Basilius II. 

John I. (Zimisces). Date of birth un> 
known; proclaimed Emperor 969; 
died from poison 975. S. — ^R,* Br. 
— C. — R.^ It is' in this reignii, for 
the first time, that the figure of Christ 
is placed upon the coins inRteaH of 
the i>ortTait of the emperor. Some of 
the coins of this reign are of doubtful 
attribution. 

Basilius II., son of Romanus H. Bon 
956 ; created Augustus 960 ; reigned 
with his brother Constantine XIL 
after the death of John Zimisces in 
975; died 1025. G.— R.* B,» 
S.— R.» R.6 Br.— C. Some coins 
represent him with his brothor 
Constantine. -Some coins Bie attri* 
buted to Basilius I. which rightly be- 
long to this monarch. 

Oonstantine XII. , youngest son of Roma- 
nus. Born 961 ; reigned with his 
brother Basilius 975 ; sole emperor 
1025; died 1028. G.— R.« K* S. 



BOHAK IMPEBIAL COiyAQY. 



657 



— ^B-.* B/ Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him with his brother Ba- 
sUius. 

Jiomantta III. (Argyrus), 8on.in.law of 
Constantine. Bom 973 ; emperor 
1028 ; smothered by his wife Zoe in 
1034. There are no certain coins of 
this emperor. 

Mickael IV, (Paphlago). Date of birth 
unknown ; married Zoe and sue- 
ceeded to the throne 1034 ; retired 
into a monastery and died there 1041 . 
There are no certain coins of this 
emperor. 

Michael F., son of the sister of Michael 
IV. Date of birth unknown ; suc- 
ceeded to the throne 1041 ; shut up 
by his aunt in a monastery after hay- 
ing had his eyes put out 1042. 
There are no coins known of this 
emperor. 

Oonstantme XIII. (Monomachus). Mar- 
ried ZoS and commenced his reign 
1042 ; died 1054. G.— B.* 8.— B.' 

2^f daughter of C!onstantine XII. and 
wife of Bomanus III., Michael lY., 
and Constantine XIII. Bom 978 ; 
poisoned her first husband 1034 ; after 
the death of her second in 1041 she 
adopted Michael Y. (Calaphates) ; she 
was exiled by him but caused the 
I>eople to rise against him, had his 
eyes put out, and reigned two months 
with her sister Theodora in 1042 ; 
espoused in the same year Constan- 
tine ; died 1050 ; The coins that 
haTe been published of this empress 
are not to be found in any cabinet. 

Theodora^ daughter of Ck)nstantine XII. 
Bom 981 ; at first she became a nun 
but was proclaimed Empress with her 
ulster Zo@ in 1042 ; and preserved 
the title af Augusta during the reign 
of Constantine XIII., and after his 
- death in 1054, reigned alone till 1056. 
G.— B.'* B.« 

Michael VI. (Stratioticus). Emperor in 
1056 ; forced to abdicate 1057 ; died 
1059. There are no certain coins 
of this emperor. 

Jaaae I. (Comnenus). Proclaimed Em- 
peror 1057 ; abdicated in favour of 
Constantine XIV. in 1059 ; died in 
1061. G.— B.» Br. — B.* 
CkmttantvM XIV. (Ducas). Bom 1007 ; 



proclaimed emperor 1059 ; died 1067. 
G.— B.» 8.— B.» PI.— B.8 

Eudocia Dalassena^ first wife of Constan- 
tine XIV. afterwards Bomanus IV. 
After the death of Constantine in 
1067 she governed in the name of 
her sons ; married Bomanus and pro- 
claimed him Emperor 1068 ; shut up 
in a monastery by her son Michael 
VII. in 1071 ; died after the year 
1096. G. — B.» Br. — B.*' Some 
coins represent her with her sons 
Michael VII., Constantine, and Andro- 
nicus, and^ her second husband Bo- 
manus IV. 

Bomantta IV. (Diogenes). Married 
Eudocia who proclaimed him Em- 
peror 1068 ; prisoner of the Turks 
1070 ; set free and had his eyes put 
out by order of Michael VII. ; shut 
up in a monastery 1071, where he 
soon after died. G. — B.' B.' Br. — 
B.s PI. — B.* Some coins represent 
him with Eudocia, Michael VII., Con- 
stantine and Andronicus. 

Michael VII. (Ducas), son of Constantine 
XIV. Succeeded his father with 
his brothers Constantine and An- 
dronicus, under the regency of 
their mother in 1067 ; gave up the 
throne to Bomanus ; reascended the 
throne during his captivity, and 
maintained it by putting out his eyes 
on his return, and shutting him up in 
a monastery 1071. Michael was de- 
throned in 1071, and retired into a 
monastery ; afterwards Archbishop 
of Ephesus ; died in the reign of 
Alexius Comnenus. G. — B.* B.® 
S. — ^B.^ Some coins represent him 
'with his wife Maria. 

MariOf wife* first of Michael VII. and 
then of Nicephorus III. Betired 
into a monastery with her first 
husband in 1078 ; espoused Ni- 
cephorus 1080, and retired for the 
second time into a monastery in 
1081. G. — B.* B.— B.' This 
empress is only found on coins of 
Michael VII. 

Oonatantinus (Ducas Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Constantine XIV. and Eudocia. 
Made Emperor with his brothers 
Michael and Andronicus under the 
regency of his mother in 1067 ; 

V V 



698 



BOMAN IMPEBIAL COINAGE. 



abdicated 1078; died 1082. O. 
— R.*R.^ Br.— R.» PL— B.« Coins 
that represent this prince are, either 
of Eudocia or Bomanus IV. 

Andronieutf third son of Constantine XIY . 
Associated in the Empire with his 
"brothers; died young. G.-«-B.^ PI. 
— B.^ The coins that represent this 
prince are of Bomaniu IV. 

Oonstantinut (Ducas Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Michael VII. Bom 1074 ; shut 
up in a monastery by Nicephorns III. 
1078 ; died jn the reign of Alexius 
Comnenus. There are no certain 
coins of this prince. 

Jfieephorua III. (Botaniates.) Bom ; 

proclaimed emperor 1077 ; dethroned 
Michael VII. 1078 ; ^dethroned 1081 ; 
retired into a monastery and died 
shortly afterwards. O.— B.* Br. — 

B.» 

AUxiu8 /. (Comnenus). Bom 1048; 
proclaimed emperor 1081 ; died 
1118, a.— B.* 8.— B.* Br.— B.* 

John U. (Comnenus Porphyrog^tus), 
son of Alexius I. Bora 1088 ; em* 
peror 1118; died 1143. G.~B.« 
B.» S.— B.» Br^— B.< 

Manuel I. (Comnenus Porphyr<^nitus 
Ducas), son of John lit. Born 1120 ; 
made emperor 1143; died 1180. 
G.— B.» 8.— B.«B.* Po.— B.* Br. 
— C— B.« 

Alexius II. (Comnemis), son of Manuel I. 
Born 1167-9 ; Emperor under the re- 
gency of his mother Mam 1180 ; 
strangled by command of Andronicus 
Comnenus in 1183. G. — B.* Br. — 
B.^ One coin represents him with 
Andronicus I. 

Andronicus I. (Comnenus), son of Isaac, 
brother of John II. Sei^d upon 
the throne 1183; dethroned and 
torn in pieces by the people 1185. 
G.— B.* 8.— B.« 

Isaae II., son of Andronicus Commenus. 
Elected Emperor 1185 ; deposed and 
imprisoned by his brother Alexius 
III. 1195 ; re-established by the Cru- 
saders 1203; died 1204. G.— B.« 
8.— B.* Br.— B.« 

Alexius III. (Angelas), brother of Isaiac 
II. Seized upon the throne 1195 ; 
deposed by the Crusaders 1203 ; shut 
up in a monastery after having had 



his eyes put out. There are no 
certain coins of this prinoe. How- 
ever it is possible that some of those 
attributed to Alexius I. really be- 
long to Alexius IIL 

Alexius IV. (Angelus), son of Isaac II. 
Associated with his father 1203; 
dethroned and strangled by Alexius 
Murzuphlns 1204. The same obser- 
vation as above may be made heve. 

Alexius V. (Murzuphlus). Seized upon 
the throne 1204 ; put to death by 
the Crusaders, who established a 
new empir^at Constantinople. Same 
observation as fbr Alexias ni. 



FBENCH EMPERORS. 

Baldwin J., son of Baldwin Vm., Count 
of Flanders. Elected Emperor by the 
Crusaders in 1204 ; conquered and 
taken prisoner by the Bulgarians 
1205 ; died 1206. Br.— B,* 

Henry, brother of Baldwin. Regent 
during his brother's captivity 1205 ; 
Emperor 1206 ; died 1216. 

Petrus de Oowrinay (Altissiodori Comes). 
Elected Emperor 1216 ; crowned 
at Borne by Pope Honoriua II. 1207 ; 
taken prisoner by Theodorus Angelus 
Prince of Epirus; died 1218; during 
his captivity " his wife Jolande 
governed in his stead. No coins are 
known of this emperor. 

Bohert^ son of the preceding. Emperor 
1221 after an interregnum ; died 1228. 
No coins are known of this emperor. 

Baldwin II., brother of Bobert. 
Elected Emperor 1228 ; dethroned by 
Michael Paleologus, who put an end 
to the empire of the French in 
the East, and re-established the Greek 
empire at Constantinople 1261 ; died 
1272. No coins are known of this 
emperin:. 

BYZANTINE EMPERORS 
RESTORED. 

ITieodorus I. (Lascaris), son of Abbi. 
Comnena daughter of Alexius ni. 
Bom 1176; retired into Asia after 
the taking of Constantinople hy the 
Crusaders ; declared Emperor at Nice 



BOMAN IMPEBIAL COINAGE. 



659 



1205 ; died 1222. The coins that 
could be attributed to Theodore I. 
and III., not being of certain attribu- 
tion, may be more safely attributed to 
Theodorus II. 

JJteodonu II., son ot SdbnAngebia, King 
of Epirus, he took the title of Em- 
X>eror at Thessalonlca in Macedonia 
1223; Tanquished and taken prisoner 
by the Bulgarians 1230 ; had his eyes 
put out; recovered his liberty but 
abdicated in favour of his son John, 
who was dethroned by John III. (Va- 
tatzea). Ar.— B.* Br.-.-B.' The coins 
of this emperor were probably struck 
in Macedonia and Epirus. Those 
which belong to Theodore I. and HI. 
are undoubtedly struck in Bithynia. 
John HI. (Yatatzes), son-in-law to 
Theodore I. Bom 1193 ; succeeded 
to the Empire 1222 ; died 1255. Br. 
— B.8 These coins were struck in 
Bythynia. 

Theodorus III. (Lasearis Junior), son of 
John III. Born 
his father 1255 ; 
certain coins are 
prince. 

John IV, (Lasearis), son of Theodorus 
III. Bom 1251 ; succeeded his 
father 1259 ; divided the Empire 
with his brother Michael VIII. ; kept 
prisoner in a castle after having had 
his eyes put out 1261. No coins are 
known of this emperor, 

Michael VIII. (Paleologus). Proclaimed 
Bmperor with his brother 1259 ; sole 
Emperor in 1261 ; died 1282. G. — 
K.' Br.— B.8 After this reign the 
Greek coins were again struck at 
Constantinople. One coin represents 
him with his son Andronkus. 

Andronicus II., son of Michael VIII. 
Bom 1258; named Emperor 1273; 



1223 ; succeeded 



died 1259. 
known of 



No 
this 



succeeded his father 1282 ; dethroned 
by Andronicus III. 1328 ; died 3132. 
G.— B.* S.— B.» Br.— E.* Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Michael IX. 

Michael IX. (Paleologus), son of Andro- 
nicus II. Born 1277; associated with 
his father 1295; died 1320. G.— 
R.* Br.— R*. 

Andronietis III., son of Michael IX. 
Bom 1295 ; associated in the Empire 
1325 ; died 1341. No certain coins 
are known of this emperor. 

John v., son of Andronicus III. Bom 
1332 ; succeeded his father 1341 ; 
dethroned by his son Andronicus 
1371 ; re-established 1373 ; died 
1391. No coins are known of this 
emperor. 

John VI. (Cantacuzenus). Regent 1341 ; 
proclaimed colleague of John V. 1347 ; 
renounced the throne 1 355. PI. — R.* 
Of doubtful attribution. 

Manuel II., son of Andronicus IV. Bom 
1348; succeeded his father 1393; died 
1491. No coins are known of this 
prince. 

John VII. (Paleolofifus). Associated in 
the Empire 1399 ; renounced the 
throne 1402; died in a monastery. 
No coins are known of this emperor. 

John Vin., son of Manuel II. Bora 1390; 
declared Augustus 1419 ; succeeded 
his father 1425 ; died 1448. G.— R.* 
This coin is doubtful. 

Conatantine XV., son of Manuel II. 
Bom 1403 ; succeeded his brother 
1448; killed in the taking of Con- 
stantinople by the Turks 29th of May, 
1453, (the 2206th year from the 
foundation of ancient Rome). Thus 
ended the Empire of the Csesars. 
G. — R.* The coins of this emperor 
are doubtful. 



17 u 2 



660 



PRICES or BOMAK COTS&. 



A LIST OF THE PRESENT PRICES OF ROMAN COINS, 

OF 

&o\Si, ZiXatx, avLO Copper. 

FROM JULIUS CAESAR TO THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE. 

▲B RSALISED AT THE THOMASy PEMBBORE, AND OTHER RECENT SALES. 

« 

The prices o/auch coins as have not recently been brought to the' hammer are takffn 
from MionneVs list of prices, since the pi^lieation of tohich the scale 
has rather risen. To r. signifies turned to the Rtght, to I. itemed to the 
Left ; S. Siiver ; G. Gold ; Br. Bronze ; rev. Reverse ; obr. Obverse ; t. s. 
T?iomas*s Sale, p. s. Pembroke Sale. The terms First or Large Brass, Second or 
Middle Brass, Third or Small Brass, are used indiscriminately. 



JULIUS CAESAR (from B.C. 44 to 40). 

The obyerse bears his head ; c. caesar 
DicT. PERP. PONT. MAX I (rev.) bare 
head of Octavius ; c. caesar cos. 
PONT. AUG. ; fine and scarce. — G. 
li;. 15«. (t. 8.) 

Laureate head, behind it a vase; caesar 
Die. : \Tev.) bare head of Anthony 
and a lituus ; m. anto. imp. ; very 
rare and fine. — G. 231. 10s. (t. s.) 

(Obv.) CAES. Die. QVAR. ; bust of Venus : 
(rev.) cos. quinc. ; in a wreath of 
laurel, very rare, and in good pre- 
servation ; weight 1 2 S^. — G. 21. is. 
(p. 8.) 

(Obv.) c. CAESAR IMP. COS. ITER. ; head 
of Venus to r. : (rev.) a. allienvs 
PRO. COS. ; figure standing to /., 
triquetra in r. hand ; r. foot on 
prow of galley ; fine and extremely 
rare. — S. II. lis, (p. s.) 

A lot consisting of four coins, the 
reverses being respectively, 1st, 
Venus, P. SEPVLLivs ; 2d, p. ser- 
viLivs ; 8d, globe, caduceus, &c., 
MvssiDivs ; 4th, calf, Q. Vogonius. 
vitvlvs ; sold together for 21, 12s. 
(t. 8.) 

(Rev.) Augustus. — First brass. — II, Is. 
(t.s.) _ 



(Obv.) winged bust of Victory ; caesar 
Die. TER. : (rev.) Minerva with 
Medusa's head on the aegis ; c. 
CLovi ; very fine, with five others. — 
Second brafs. 11. Is. (p. s.) 

Third brass about bs, 

Pompey the Oreat. 
G. about 211. 

(Rev.) the Sicilian Brothers carrying 
their parents ; Neptune, and usual 
legend, and two common coins of 
Julius Caesar. — S. 3/. 6s. (t. s.) 

Large brass (Mionnet). — 3«. 

Second brass (Mionnet). — 2s. 

Oneius Pompey. 
Gold unique in the Hunterum Cd- 

lection. — 211. 
Silver about 1/. 10«. 

Sexfus Pompey. 
With the heads of his father and 

brother (Mionnet). — G. 201. 
With bis portrait and name (Mionnet). 

—S. SI. 12s. 
Without his head (Mionnet). — Br. 6«. 

Marcus Brutus, 

(Obv.) head of Marcus Bmtus : (rev.) 
cap of liberty between two da^eiB ; 
bid. mar. — G. 2Sl. (t. 8.) 
(Obv.) head : (rev.) a cap of liberty be- 



PEICES OF BOMAN COINS. 



661 



tweentwo daggers; kid. hab. ; very 
fine and rare. — S. I5l,l0s. (t. a.) 
J£€weus Lepidtta, 

(Obv.) M. LXPIDV8 III. YIB. ». P. C. ; 

bare head to r : (rev.) l. reqvlvs. 
xin. viR. A.p.B. ; yelled female to /., 
with simpulum in extended r. hand, 
and haata pura in {. ; extremely 
rare and in fine condition ; weight, 
123 grs.— G. 28 J. (p. s.) 

(Rey.) head of Angustos, better pre- 
served than usual. — S. U, 10«. 
(t.s,) 

First brass of the colony of Cabe, in 
Spain, about 5/. 5$. 
Marc Antony. 

(Obv.) M. Ain'ONiMys in. yin. n. p. c. ; 
bare head of Antony, with slight 
beard ; lituus behind : (rey.) c. 
CASSA& ni. yiB. n. p. c. ; bare head 
of Octayius ; extremely rare. — G. 
18^. (p. 8.) 

(Oby.) X. AMTON. IMP. ; his bare head, 
with cropped beard to r. ; behind, 
lituus : (rey.) CassAB,. di. . . laureate 
head of Julius,Caesar to r., behind, 
prcefericulum ; rare and yery fine. — 
S. i;. 16a. (p. 8.) 

(Oby.) M. Amto. cob. hi. imp. iiii. 
head of Jupiter Ammon to r. : (rey.) 
A Ay scABpys iM ; Victory to r., with 
palm and wreath ; rare and' well- 
preseryed. — 7». (p. s.) 

Middle brass (Mionnet), with head of 
Augustus. — Sa. 

With his head and Cleopatra's (Mion- 
net). — 12*. 
Mare Antony {the aon.) 

A imique gold coin : (rer.) his father 
(Mionnet).~50/. 
Cleopatra. 

Gold (Mionnet). — SO/. 

SUyer, the usual size (Mionnet). — 2/. 

Middle brass (Mionnet). — 12«. 

Third brass (Mionnet). — 10#. 
Caiua Antonitu, 

(Bey.) sacrificial instruments and the 
hasta pura (Mionnet). — S. 3/. I2a. 
Luciua Antoniua, 

(Oby.) his head : (rey.) Marc Antony 
(Mionnet) .~S. 1/. 10«. 

AUGUSTUS (from b. g. 29 to 14 a. d.) 

(Oby.) CAESAB : (rey.l a bull walking ; 
Ayovsrys, yery fine. — G. 7/. 5s. (t.s.) 



Same type restored by Trajan. — 5/. ba. 

(t. 8.) 

(Oby.) CABSAB Ayoysrys nrvi. f. pateb. 
PATRIAE ; laureate head of Augustus : 
(rey.) ti. cabsab Aye. p. tb. pot. xy. 
Tiberius laureate, and holding the 
Boman standard in a quadriga, the 
horses walking ; in good condition, 
and rare ; weight 120-i*o gn^s. — 
S{. 6s. (p. 8.) 

(Oby.) AyoysTi nrvi b. ; head of 
Augnistus, laureated ; (rey.) tb. pot. 
XXX. ; winged Victory seated on a 
globe, forming a wreath with both 
hands (half aureus) ; in middling 
condition, and somewhat bruised, 
but rare; weight 60^. — G. 15», 
(p. 8.) 

(Oby.) CAESAB. Ayoysrys ; bare head 
to I. : (rey.) yotiye buckler inscribed 
8. p. Q. B. CL. y. ; yery fine and ex- 
tremely rare, with the head to the 
left. — S. ba, (p. 8.) 

(Oby.) Ayoysrys niyi. f. ; bare head to 
r. : (rey.) m. SANayiMiys. iii. yiB. ; 
head of Augustus to r. ; laureate 
and surmounted with a radiated 
star ; fine and yery rare. — 16«. 

First brass, three coins: (rey.) niyys 
AvoyBTVS pateb; restored by Titus ; 
rare and fine : (rey.) imp. NEByA, 
&c. ; restored by Nerya, rare and 
well-preseryed : (oby.) quadriga 
with elephants and four riders : 
(rey.) ti.caesab ; fine ; sold together 
for 4/. 12s. (t.s.) 

Same type as one last mentioned, re- 
stored by Nerya (Mionnet). — lOs. * 

Middle brass (Mionnet) : (rey.) head 
of Tiberius. — 12s. 

Small brass : (oby.) incus, (rey.) 8. c. 
Apronia, with six others. — 21. 4s. 
(p. 8.) 
lAvia. 

First Brass : (oby.) s. p. a. b. fvliax. 
AVGUST. ; carpentum to r., drawn 
by two mules : (rey.) ti. caesab 
Diyi Ayo. p. AyoysT ; p. m. tb. pot. 
xxiiii. round a large so. struck by 
Tiberius. — \l. 8s. (t. s.) 

Second brass (Mionnet). — About 4s. 
Agrippa. 

Gold, supposed by Mionnet to be 
unique. — 40i. 

(Bey.) Augustus; bare heads; yery 



662 



PBICE8 OF BOMAir COINS. 



well preserred a&d scarce. — S. 7/. 

(t. 8.) 

Fint brass; of the colony of Gadet. — 

6/. (t. 8.) 
Middle brass, restored by Titiu.— From 

4m. 
Third brass (Mioimet) .;— 1 U 
Julia {wife of Affrippa). 
Large brass struck at lol (Hionnet). — 

U. 48. 
Same In middle braas.^— 1S«. 
Third brass. — 8/. 
iMekts Oueaar. 
Middle brass : (rev.) Angnstos (Mien. 

net). — 21, 10c. 
Same in small.^l?. 
Oaiui Otusar, 

Same as last in all respects. 
Agrippa Oaesar, 
Third brass; Colonial of Corinth 
(Mionnet). — 3/. 

TIBERIUS (a. d. 14 to 37). 

(Rev.) head of Angnstns ; star, and 
DiTos. AVOV8T. Mvi. F. ; rather 
scarce. — <J. 21. 16«. (t. b.) 

Bestored by Titus. — 6/. 

(Obv.) Ti. Divi. F. AV0T8TVB ; laureate 
head of Tiberius to r. : (rev.) tr. 
POT. XVII. ; Victory winged and 
draped, seated on a globe to r., 
forming a wreath with both hands ; 
good condition and scarce (half 
Aureus) ; weight, ©Oj^g. — 11. 5«. 
(p. B.) 

(Ber.) the emperor seated. — S. 11». 
(t. 8.) 

(Obr.) TI. CASSAK. ATOV8T. F. M- 

PEBATOH.TII.; head to r. of Tiberius, 
laurelled: (rer.) hom. et. avg.; 
decorated altar between two cippi, on 
each a Victory winged, and holding 
wreath. — First brass, poor, .3/. 16«. 
(p. s.); ./!««, worth 20f. 

(Bev.) PONTIF. MAX. 8. c", wlth four 
others. — Middle brass. 2^. 15«. 
(t. s.) 

Third brass (Mionnet). — is. 
Julia {tcife of Tiberius). 

Third brass (Mionnet) : (rer.) Tibe- 
rius. — SI. 
Drusus {son of TiJberiut). 

SiWer (Mionnet) : (rer.) Tiberius. — 

lo;. 



Second brass (Mioimet), same (tct.)— 
1/. 

Second brass, Pontif Tbzbuk, &c. 5«. 
Drusns^ senior. 

Gold, rare, about %l. 

Silver, rare, about 2/. 

(Obr.) TI. cibivmrs. c^bsas. Ave. 
F. x. tk. f. IMP. P. P. ; head <A 
CUiudius laureate to r. : (rev.) srEso. 

CLAVDIYS. DRVSVS. OEXXAH. IMP.; 

Drusus on horseback to r., on a 
triumphal arch between two trc^hiea, 
struck by Claudius ; scaroe. — First 
brass, lis. (p. s.) 

AnUmia {tD\fe qf DruattSf 8en») 

Gold (Mionnet). — 32. 

Siiver (Mionnet).—- 2<. 

(Bev.) Claudius (Mumnet).— 'Second 
brass. II. 

Third brass. 2/. 
Oermanieus. 

(Bev.) head of Caligula ; a well pre- 
served and rare medal. — 6. 102. bs. 
(t. 8.) 

Laureate- head of Caligula, very fine 
and scarce. — 8. 2/. 6«. (t. b.) 

(Bev.) Caligula (Miomiet). — First 
brass. \bl. 10«. 

Second brass (Mionnet). — 3s. %d. 

Third brass, restored by Domitiaa. — is. 
Agrippina, senior {toife of Germmucus). 

(Bev.) head of Caligula.-^}, lli. 15i. 
(t. s.) 

(Bev.) laureate head of Caligula, weU 
preserved and rare. — B. 2/. bs. 
(t. s.) 

Fii-st brass, about 21. 

CALIGULA (a. d. 37 to 41). 

(Bev.) radiated head of Augustus; 

Diws. Avo. fates, patriae ; scarce, 

and in good condition. — G. (t.s.) 141. 
(Bev.) Victory holding a garland, and 

sitting on a globe ; p. m. tr. pot. 

COS. ; fine and rare, half aureus. — 

11. 10s. (t.s.) 

(Obv.) C. CAESAR AYO. PON. X. TR. POT. 

ni. COS. in. ; laureate head of 
Caligula to r. : (rev.) diws. avo. 
PATBR. patriae; ludlate head <^ 
Augustus to r. ; fine condition, and 
very rare; weight, 119 ^ grs.—* 
bl. bs, (p. 8.) 
(Bev.) radiated head of Augustas; 
DIWS. avovbtvs pater patriae; 






J 



PBIOES OF BOICAN COINS. 



663 



▼ery fine, and comparatively scarce, 

as are his coins in all the three metals 

—8. 21. 78. (t. 8.) 
(obt.) c. cassab avo. gbrmakicys pox. 

X. TK. POT. ; head of Caligula to I. 

laoreated : (rev.) adlocutio. coh. ; 

the emperor addressing five soldiers ; 

scarce. — First brass. 11. (p. s.) 
(Ilev.) Vesta seated, with three others 

->-coins Middle brass. 41, 6<. (t. s.) 
Third brass (Mionnet).-^5«. 

CLAUDIUS (a. d. 42.) 

(Obv.) DIWS. CLAVDrVS. AVOVSTVB.; 

head of Claudius laureate to /. : 
(rev.) EX. so. (in exergue); triumphal 
quadriga, the horses walking to r. ; 
the apex of the car ornamented with 
four horses galloping abreast, and 
winged Victories; other figures 
on the side and front ; in very good 
condition, and very rare ; weight, 
I20|fijj grs.. — G. 21. 13a. (p. s.) 

(Obv.) TI. CLAVD. CAE8AR. AVO. OEBM. 

P. H. TRIE. POT P. P. ; laureate head 
of Claudius to r. : (rev.) nebo. clavd. 

CABS. DBVSVS. GERM. PBIKC. IWEMT. ; 

bust of Nero, with bare head to I. ; 
extremely rare ; weight, 118 grs. — 
41. 4a. (p. 8.) 
(Kev.) a triumphal arch, and the 
emperor on horseback between two 
trophies on its summit ; de. bbitanni; 
in excellent condition. — S. 6^. 2a. 6d. 
(t. 8.) 

(Obv.) TI. CLAVDIVS. CAESAB. AVO. 

P. u. TB. P. IMP. P. P. ; head of 
Claudius to r. laureate : (rev.) 
within oak wreath ; ex sc. pp. ob. 
civKs. 8EBVATOS ; finely preserved. — 
First brass. 3/. 

Bestored by Trajan (Mionnet). — 8/. 

Middle brass (Mionnet). — 3a. 

Small Brass about 4s. 
MessaXina (tri/c of Claudius). 

Second brass Col. (Mionnet).— U. 10a. 

Third brass Col. (Mionnet.) — 2/. 

Egyptian Fotin medallions 15a. 
Agripptna^ junior {wife of Claudius). 

{Daughter of Germanicus) : (rev. ) heads 
of Agrlppina and Nero, face to face : 
(rev.) an oaken garland within it; 
BX. s. c. — G. il. 3a. (t. s.) 

(Obv.) empress and her son Nero face 



to face : (rev.) oak garland ; ex. 

c. &c. — 8. 7a. (r. s.) 
First brass (Mionnet).— 22^. 10a. 
Colonial third brass. — 10a. 
Britannicus {son qf dauditu and Mes- 

salina). 
Large brass (Mionnet). — 501, 
Small brass, with the title of Augustus 

(Mionnet). — 5/. 



NEBO (a.d. 55). 

(Bcv.) the emperor and Fortuna 
standing ; avovstvs. avovsta ; ex- 
ceedingly fine. — G. Zl. 8a. (t. s.) 

Jupiter seated ; ivpiteb. cvstos ; 
fine. — 1^. 11a. (t. s.) 

(Bev.) temple vesta. — S. 8a. (t. s.) 

(Obv.) IXP. KEBO. CAESAB. AVO. P. 

MAX. TB. P. P. P. Head of Nero, to 
I. laureated ; pace. pb. tebba. mariq 

PABTA. lAKVM. CLV8IT. 8. C. TcmplC 

of Janus. — 1^ la. (p. s.) 
Second brass (Mionnet). — 10a. 
Third brass (Mionnet) .-^3a. 
Octavia {wife of Nero). 
Mionnet afilrms that no Boman coins 

are known of this empress ; this 

remark applies, also, to Poppaea and 

Messalina. 
CHodius Macer. 
Silver (Mionnet) .without his head. — 6/. 
Small brass, with his head. — 152. 



GALEA (a. ». 68). 

(Bev.) a military figure ; boma. 
bemasc. ; very fine. — G. 9/. 10a. 
(t. s.) 

(Bev.) a female, with ears of com, 
standing ; imp. avo. very fine, from 
the Trattle collection. — 12^ 15a. 
(t. 8.) 

(Bev.) a female standing; diva, av- 
ovsta; fine. — Zl. 9a. 

(Obv.) IMP. SEB. SVLP. GALBA. CABS. 

AVO. TB. P. Head of Galba to r. 
laureated : (rev.) libebta atjo ; 
liberty standing to I. ; s. c— First 
brass. 12a. (p.s.) 

(Obv.) SEB. GALBA. IMP. CAES. AVO. TB. 

P. ; head of Galba to r. laureated : 
(rev.) 8. c. ; winged Victory to /., 
with palm branch. — 1/. 9a. (p. b.) 



654 



BO^Air nCPEBIAL COIKjLGE. 



exiled. No coins are knoim of this 
empress. 

Tiberius 111.^ son of Heradius and Mar- 
tina. Date of birth unknown ; created 
Gffisar in 640; associated -with his 
brother in the empire 641 ; year of 
death unknown. No coins are known 
of this emperor. 

Oanatans 11., son of Constantine lY. and 
Gregoria. Bom 630 ; associated in 
the Empire with his uncles Tiberius 
III. and Heracleonas in 641 ; sole 
Emperor the same year ; assassinated 
in 668. G.— R.1 B.* 8.— R.s R.* 
Br. — ^E.* R.' Some coins of this 
emperor have portraits of a female, 
supposed to be his wife, whose name 
is unknown, and also portraits of his 
sons Ck>nstantine Y., Heraclius, and 
Tiberius. 

OotutoMtme F., son of Ckmstans II. Date 
of birth unknown, associated with 
his father 654; sole Emperor 668; 
died in 685. G.— C— R.« 8.— R.« 
R." Br. — R.«R*. Some of his coins 
bear portraits of his father. 

SeracUua and IHberitUf brothers of Coo- 
stantine Y. Named Csssars 659 ; 
associated in the Empire by their 
brother in 668 ; and put to death in 
674. Portraits of these princes are 
only fotmd on the coins of Constans 
II., their father. 

Jutiinian II. (Rhinotmetus), son of Con- 
stantine Y. Bom 670 ; created Au- 
gustus 682 ; reigned alone in 685 ; 
dethroned after having had his nose 
cut off in 695 ; restored in 705 ; 
dethroned anew and killed 711. G. 
—R.» R.* 8.— R.' Br.— R.» Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Tiberius IV. 

IHberiut JF., son of Justinian II. Boin 
701 ; declared Ceesar and Augustus in 
706 ; put to death in 711. The por- 
trait of this prince is only found on 
the coins of Justinian his father. 

Leo II. Date of birth unknown; pro- 
claimed Emperor 695 ; dethroned 
and placed in a monastery 698 ; 
after having had his nose and ears 
cut off, put to death in 705. G. — R.* 
Br. — R.* Coins have been attributed 
to this monarch which rightfully 
belong to Leo I. 



TtberitttV. (Absimaras). Date of birth 
unknown ; proclaimed "Eniperot 693 ; 
put to death by Justinian 705. G. 
~R.i R.« 8.— R« Br.— R.' 

FUepiciu (Bardanes). Proclainked Emperor 
in 711 ; dethroned and deprived of 
his sight 713; died shortly after- 
wards. G. — R.« R.* S. — R.6 

Anattatitu II. Date of birth unknown ; 
proclaimed Emperor 713; abdicated 
in 7 16 ; but shortly afterwards taken 
and put to death. G. — R.* R.* 8. 
' — ^R.* It was about this time that a 
mixture of Greek and Latin letters was 
introduced in the inscriptions of the 
coins. 

ITieodositu HI. (Adramytenus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 
715; abdicated in 717. G.— R.* 
8.— R.« 

Leo III. (Isaurus). Date of birth mi- 
known; proclaimed Emperor 717; 
died in 741. G.— C.— R.i S.—BJ 
Br. — R.* Many coins of this emi)eror 
represent him with his son Ck>nstan- 
tine YI., and his grandson Leo lY. 

Cbnstantine VI. (Copronymus), eon of 
Leo in. El.— R.«R.8 8. — ^R.* Br. 
— ^R.^ Some coins represent him with 
Leo lY. and Artavasdus. 

Irene, first wife of Constantine VI. Date 
of birth unknown ; died in 750. No 
coins are known of this empress. 

Maria, second wife of Constantine XL 
Date of birth unknown ; died 751. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

JEudocia, third wife of Constantine TL 
Date of birth and death unknown, 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Ariavasdue, son-in-law to Leo IIL 
Date of birth unknown ; proclaimed 
Emperor 742 ; made prisoner and 
exiled after having had his eyes put 
outin74«. G.— R.« El. — K.« Br.i 
•— R.^ Some coins represent biBl 
with his son Nicei^ortis and witk| 
Constantine YI. 

Mcephorva, son of Artavasdus and 

sister of Constantine YI. Date rfl 
birth unknown ; associated with Ui [ 
father 742 ; made prisoner and 
after having had his eyes put out ] 
his father in 743. The portrait of tbii| 
prince is only found on coiBS d\ 
Artavasdus. 



EOMAJff IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



655 



(^riatopha and Nleephortts^ sons of Con- 
stfuitme YI. and Eudocia. Dates of 
their birth, unknown ; created CsBsars 
in 769 ; exiled after haying had their 
tongues and eyes burned out ; pat to 
death by order of Irene 797. No 
coins are known of these prinees. 
Leo IV, (Chazarus), son of Constantine 
TI. and Irene. Born 7 50 ; created 
Augustus 751; reigned alone 775; 
died in 780. G.— *.* Br.— R.* 
Irene^ wife of Leo IV. Date of birth un- 
known ; made regent of the Empire 
during the minority of her son Con- 
stantine YII. in 780 ; she caused his 
eyes to be pnt out for the purpose of 
reigning alone ; was imprisoned in 
the isle of Lesbos by Nicephorus 
Logothetus 802 ; died in 803. G. — 
R,* S.— R.6 Br.— R.8 
GonsUmiine Vll.y son of Leo IV. Born 
771 ; made Augustus in 776 ; reigned 
with his mother 780 ; died after 
having had his eyes put out by order 
of his mother 797. G.— R.* S.— R.' 
Br.— R.*. R.8 
Nicephorua I, (Logothetus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 
802; kUledSU. G.— R.« Br.— R.» 
^ Some pieces represent him with his son 

'^ Staufacius. It was during the reign of 

^ Nicephorus that the second empire of 

the West commenced. 
'^ Stauradus, son of Nicephorus I. Date 
li' of birth unknown ; associated in the 

;: Empire in 803 ; abdicated the throne 

with his father 811; died 812. G.— 
ii'- R.* Br. — R.8 Some pieces represent 

gp this emperor with his father Ni- 

[tji cephorus. 

'; ' IHchfxel I. (Rhangabe and Caropalata), 

(i ' fion^in-law of Nicephorus. Date of 

; tr« birth unknown ; elected Emperor 811; 

^^- abdicated 813; died 845. G.— R.^ 

Ir 8. — R.* Br. — ^R.* Some coins repre- 

^ff sent him with his son Theophylactus. 

•^' Those coins of Michael I., upon which 

hiA son is not represented, can be 

^t equally attributed «to the other empe- 

^ Vl rors of the same name. 

^' TheophylacttiSf son of Michael. Date of 

]^t birth unknown ; associated in the 

^f. Empire 811; entered into a monas- 

yl^' tery after having been mutilated by 

Zi $' order of Leo V. G.— R,* Br.— R.* 



The coins of this prince represent 
him with his father.* 

JLeo V. (Armenius.) Date of birth un- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor in 813 ; 
assassinated in 820. Br. — R.^ These 
coins bear the portrait of his son Con- 
stantine YIII. 

Constantine VIIL^ son of Leo V. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated with 
his father 213 ; mutilated and exiled 
by order of Michael II. 820. Br. — 
R.6 Some coins represent him with 
his father Leo Y. 

Michael II. (Balbus.) Date of birth nn- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor 820 ; 
died 829. G.— R.« R.^ S.— R.' Br. 
•— R.^ Some coins represent him with 
his son Theophilus. 

I%eophUu8y son of Michael. G. — R.* R.* 
El.— R.« S.— R.» Br.— C.— R.S There 
exists a coin bearing the busts of 
Theophilus, and of a prince named 
Constantine who probably was his 
son, but the piece is doubtful. There 
are some pieces which were formerly 
attributed to Theophilus which are 
now restored to Michael III. 

TheodorOy wife of Theophilus. Date of 
birth unknown ; acted as regent to her 
son Michael III. 842 ; was shut up in 
a monastery by order of her son 857. 
Her coins bear portraits of Michael 
III. on the reverse. 

Michaellll.y son of Theophilus. Bom 
836 ; succeeded his father 842 under 
his mother ; reigned alone 857 ; died 
867. G.— R.»R' S.— R.* Br.— R.» 
Some pieces represent him with 
Theodora his mother, Thecla his 
sister, Constantine his son, and Basi- 
lius I. 

Oonatantinus was formerly supposed to 
have been the son of Theophilus, but 
really the son of Michael IT. This 
prince is unknown in history. G. — 
R.^ Some coins represent him with 
Theophilus but most with Michael III. 

TkeelOy daughter of Theophilus. Date 
of birth unknown ; shut up in a 
monastery with her mother in 857. 
G. — R.* S. — ^R.* The coins of this 
princess represent her with her brother 
Michael III. 

Bcks%Hu» I. (Macedo.) Date of birth nn- 

I known ; associated in the Empire by 



G56 



ROMAIC IMFEBIXL COINA&E. 



Michael III. in S66 ; reigned alone 
in 867 ; died 886. G.— It.» R.* S. 
— H.* Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him with his sons Cktnstan- 
tine IX., Leo YI., and Alexander. 
There are some coins falsely attri- 
buted to Basilius I., which really 
belong to Basilius II. 

Constantine JX., son of Basilius I. Bom 
about 853 ; associated in the Empire 
868 ; died 879. G.— R.« R.* S.— 
R.^ Br. — C. Some coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. 

Leo VI. (Sapiens), second son of Basilius. 
Born 865 ; associated in the Empire 
870 ; reigned with his brother Alex- 
ander in 886; died 911. G.— R.* 
R.« S.— R.» Br. R.» R.» Some 
coins represent him with Basilius I. 
his son Constantine X., and his bro- 
ther Alexander. 

Zoe (Carbonopsina), the wife of Leo 
YI. Date of birth unknown ; regent 
over her son Constantine X. 912 ; 
shut up in a monastery by her son 
919. Br.— R.J R.3 Her coins re- 
present her with her son Constantine 
XI. 

Alexander^ third son of Basilius. Bom 
870 ; reigned with his brother Leo 
VL in 886; died in 912. G.— R.* 
Br. — R.' Some of his coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. and his 
brother Leo VI. 

Bomanus I, (Lecapenus.) Date of birth 
unknown ; associated in the empire 
with Constantine X. in 919; seized, 
dethroned, and exiled by his son 
Stephen in 944 ; died in 946. G. — 
R.^ R.^ His coins bear the names 
\ol Christopher, Stephen, and Con- 
stantine XI. son of Leo YI. 

Christopher f son of Romanus I. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 920 ; died 931. G.— R.* R.* 
Br. — R.^ Some coins represent him 
with his father Romanus I. 

StephanuSy second son of Romanus. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire in 931 ; dethroned and exiled 
his father 944 ; exiled by Constantine 
XI. in 945 ; died 964. The name of 
this prince is only found on the coins 
of his father. 
Comtantine X., third son of Romanus. 



Date of birth unknown ; made Aogus. 
tus in 945 ; put to death shortly after- 
wards. This prince is onlj found on 
the coins of his father. 

Constantine X/., son at Leo YI. Bom 
905 ; succeeded his father 911 ; first 
under the regency of Alexander his 
uncle, and then of his mother Zoe; 
reigned alone 945 ; died 952. G. — 
R.3 R.* S.— R.« Br.— R.1 B? Some 
coins represent him with his father 
Leo YI., his mother Zoe, hia son Ro- 
manus II., and with Romanos L his 
colleague. 

Bomanua^ son of Constantine XII. Bom 
in 938 ; succeeded his father 959 ; 
died 963. G.— R.» R.* S.— R.« Br.— 
R.3 Some coins represent him with 
his father Constantine. These coins 
are not of certain attribution. 

UieophanOy wife of Romanus II. Date of 
birth unknown ; reg^ent for her sons 
Basilius and Constantine in 963 ; she 
married the same year Nicephorus EL., 
caused him to be assassinated in 969 ; 
exiled by John Zimisces ; recalled by 
her sons in 975 ; died 980. 8.— R.^ 

Nicephorus II. (Phocas). Born in 912 ; 
proclaimed Emperor 963 ; assassi- 
nated by his wife 969. G. — 'B..* S. 
— R.« Br. — ^R.»— R.* Some coins re- 
present him with Basilius II. 

John I. (Zimisces). Date of birth un- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor 969 ; 
died from poison 975. S. — R.* Br. 
— C. — R.^ It is in this reign, for 
the first time, that the figure of Christ 
is placed upon the coins instead (rf 
the portrait of the emperor. Some of 
the coins of this reign are of doubtfol 
attribution. 

Barilita II., son of Romanus II. Bom 
956 ; created Augustus 960 ; reigned 
witii his brother Constantine Xn. 
after the death of John Zimiaoes in 
975; died 1025. G. — R.» B.» 
S. — R.*R.» Br.— C. Some coins 
represent him with his brother 
Constantine. 'Some coins are attri- 
buted to Basilius I. which rightly be- 
long to this monarch. 

Oonstantitie XII. , youngest son of Roma- 
nus. Born 961 ; reigned with his 
brother Basilius 975; sole emperor 
1025; died 1028. G.— -R.' R.» S. 



BOMAK IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



657 



— R.* E.* Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him with his brother Ba- 
silius. 

Bomaniu III. (Argyrus), son-in-kiw of 
Constantine. Bom 978 ; emperor 
1028 ; smothered by his wife Zoe in 
1034. There are no certain coins of 
this emperor. 

Michael IV, (Paphlago). Date of birth 
unknown ; married Zoe and suc- 
ceeded to the throne 1034 ; retired 
into a monastery and died there 1041 . 
There are no certain coins of this 
emperor. , 

Mchael F., son of the sister of Michael 
IT. Date of birth unknown ; suc- 
ceeded to the throne 1041 ; shut up 
by his aunt in a monastery after hav- 
ing had his eyes put out 1042. 
There are no coins known of this 
emperor. 

Constantine XIII. (Monomachus). Mar- 
ried Zo€ and commenced his reign 
1042 ; died 1054. G.— R.* S.— R.» 

Zoe\ daughter of Constantine XII. and 
wife of Romanus III., Michael lY., 
and Constantine XIII. Bom 978 ; 
poisoned her first husband 1034 ; after 
the death of her second in 1041 she 
adopted Michael Y. (Calaphates) ; she 
was exiled by him but caused the 
people to rise against him, had his 
eyes put out, and reigned two months 
with her sister Theodora in 1042; 
espoused in the same year Constan- 
tine; died 1050; The coins that 
have been published of this empress 
are not to be found in any cabinet. 

TTieodora, daughter of Constantine XII. 
Bom 981 ; at first she became a nun 
but was proclaimed Empress with her 
sister Zo@ in 1042 ; and preserved 
the title of Augusta during the reign 
of Constantine XIII., and after his 
death in 1054, reigned alone till 1056. 
G R.3 R.6 

Michael VI. (Stratioticus). Emperor in 
1056 ; forced to abdicate 1057 ; died 
1059. There are no certain coins 
of this emperor. 

Imoc I. (Comnenus). Proclaimed Em- 
peror 1057 ; abdicated in favour of 
Constantine XIY. in 1059 ; died in 
1061. G,— R.» Br.— R.* 
Oonttantme XIV. (Ducas). Bom 1007 ; 



proclaimed emperor 1059 ; died 1067. 
G.— R.» S.— R.» PI.— R.» 

Eudocia Dalasaena^ first wife of Constan- 
tino XIY. afterwards Romanus lY. 
After the death of Constantine in 
1067 she governed in the name of 
her sons ; married Romanus and pro- 
claimed him Emperor 1068; shut up 
in a monastery by her son Michael 
YII. in 1071 ; died after the year 
1096. G. — R.» Br. — R.' Some 
coins represent her with her sons 
Michael YII., Constantine, and Andro- 
nicus, andj her second husband Ro- 
manus lY. 

Romanus IV. (Diogenes). Married 
Eudocia who proclaimed him Em- 
peror 1068 ; prisoner of the Turks 
1070 ; set free and had his eyes put 
out by order of Michael YII. ; shut 
up in a monastery 1071, where he 
soon after died. G. — R.« R.' Br. — 
R.S PI. — R.® Some coins represent 
him with Eudocia, Michael YII., Con- 
stantine and Andronicus. 

Miehiel VII. (Ducas), son of Constantine 
XIY. Succeeded his father with 
his brothers Constantine and An- 
dronicus, under the regency of 
their mother in 1067 ; gave up the 
throne to Romanus ; reascended the 
throne during his captivity, and 
maintained it by putting out his eyes 
on his return, and shutting him up in 
a monastery 1071. Michael was de- 
throned in 1071, and retired into a 
monsistery ; afterwards Archbishop 
of Ephesus ; died in the reign of 
Alexius Comnenus. G. — R.* R.® 
8. — R.* Some coins represent him 
With his wife Maria. 

Maria^ wife first of Michael YII. and 
then of Nicephorus III. Retired 
into a monastery with her first 
husband in 1078 ; espoused Ni- 
cephorus 1080, and retired for the 
second time into a monastery in 
1081. G. — R.* B.— R.' This 
empress is only found on coins of 
Michael YII. 

Oonstantinua (Ducas Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Constantine XIY. and Eudocia. 
Made Emperor with his brothers 
Michael and Andronicus under the 
regency of his mother in 1067 ; 

TJ u 



658 



BOMAN IMFEBIAL COINAGE. 



abdicated 1078; died 1082. O. 
--R.*R.' Br.— R.» PL— R.» Coins 
that represent this prince are, either 
of Eudoda or Bomaniu IV. 

AndronicuSf third son of Constantine XIY . 
Associated in the Empire with his 
4>rother8 ; died young. G. — Bj PI. 
— R.^ The coins that represent this 
prince are of Komaaua IV. 

Oonstantituu (Ducas Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Miehael VII. Born 1074 ; shut 
up in a numastery by Nioephorus III. 
1078 ; died Ja the reign of Alexius 
Comnenus. There are no certain 
coins of thus prince. 

Jiteephorm III. (Botaniates.) Bom ; 

proclaimed empercnr 1077 ; dethroned 
Michael VII. 1078 ; dethroned 1081 ; 
retired into a monastery and died 
shortly afterwards. .Q.->B.^ Br. — 

AUxitu J. (Comnenus). Bom 1048; 
proclaimed emperor 1081 ; died 
1118, Q.— R.* 8.— R.* Br.— R.* 

John U. (Comnenus Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Alexius I. Bom 1088 ; eoL- 
peror 1118; died 1148. G.— R,« 
R.» S.— R.» Br^— B.« 

Manuel I. (Comnenus Porphyrogenitus 
Ducas), son of John U. Born 1 120 ; 
made emperor 1143; died 1180. 
G.— R.» S.— R.*R,* Po.— R.* Br. 
— C— R.« 

AlexitM II. (Comnenus), son of Manuel I. 
Born 1167-9 ; Emperor under the re. 
gency of his mother Maria 1180 ; 
strangled by command of Andronicus 
Comnenus in 1183. G. — R.» Br. — 
R.^ One coin represents him with 
Andronicus I. 

Andronicus I. (Comnenus), son of Isaac, 
brother of John II. Seized upon 
the throne 1183; dethroned and 
torn in pieces by the people 1185. 
G.— R.* 8.— R.« 

Isaac Il.y son of Andronicus Commenus. 
Elected Emperor 1185 ; deposed and 
imprisoned by his brother Alexius 
III. 1195 ; re-established by the Cm. 
saders 1203; died 1204. G.— R.* 
S.— R.* Br.— R.« 

Ahxiua III. (Angelus), brother of Isaac 
II. Seized upon the throne 1195 ; 
deposed by the Crusaders 1203 ; shut 
up in a monastery after having had 



his eyes put out. There are no 
certain coins of this prinoe. How- 
ever it is possible that some of those 
attributed to Alexius I. really be- 
long to Alexius IIL 

Alexitu IV. (Angelus), son of Isaae II. 
Associated with his father 1203 ; 
dethroned and strangled by Alexias 
Murzuphlus 1204. The same obser- 
yation as above may be made here. 

Aleanut V. (Murzuphlus). Seized upon 
the throne 1204 ; put to death by 
the Crusaders, who established a 
new empir^at Constantinople. Same 
observation as for Alexius III. 



FRENCH EMPERORS. 

Baldwin J., son of Baldwin VUL, Count 
of Flanders. Elected Emperor by the 
Crusaders in 1204; conquered and 
taken prisoner by the Bulgarians 
1205 ; died 1206. Br.— R,* 

Henry, brother of Baldwin. Regent 
during his brother's captivity 1205 ; 
Emperor 1206 ; died 1216. 

Petrus de Cburfnajf (Altissiodori Comes). 
Elected Emperor 1216 ; crowned 
at Rome by Pope Honorius II. 1207 ; 
taken prisoner by Theodorus Angelas 
Prince of Eplrus; died 1218; during 
his captivity ' his wife Jolande 
governed in his stead. No coins are 
known of this emperor. 

Itobert^ son of the preceding. Emperor 
1221 after an interregnum ; died 1228. 
No coins are known of this emperor. 

Baldtoin II., brother of Robert. 
Elected Emperor 1228 ; dethroned by 
Michael Paleologus, who put an end 
to the empire of the French in 
the East, and re-established the Greek 
empire at Constantinople 1261 ; died 
1272. No coins are known of this 
emperor. 

BYZANTINE EMPERORS 
RESTORED. 

Theodoma I. (Lascaris), son of Ansa 
Comnena daughter of Alexias HI. 
Bom 1176; retired into Asia after 
the taking of Constantinople by the 
I Crusaders ; declared Emperor at Nice 



EOMAN IHPEBIAL COINAGE. 



659 



1205 ; died 1222. The coins fhat 
could be attributed to Theodore I. 
and III., not being of certain attribu- 
tion, may be more safely attributed to 
TheodoruB II. 

J%«Nloru« 7J., son of John Angehia. King 
of Epirus, he took the title of Em- 
peror at Thessalonica in Macedonia 
1228; vanquished and taken prisoner 
by the Bulgarians 1230 ; had his eyes 
put out; recovered his liberty but 
abdicated in favour of his son John, 
who was dethroned by John III. (Ya- 
tatzes). Ar. — R.* Br.-r-R.* The coins 
of this emperor were probably struck 
in Macedonia and Epirus. Those 
which belong to Theodore I. and HI. 
are undoubtedly struck in Bithynia. 
John III. (Yatatzes), son-in-law to 
Theodore I. Bom 1193 ; succeeded 
to the Empire 1222 ; died 1255. Br. 
— R.^ These coins were struck in 
Bythynia. 

Theodorttt III. (Lascaris Junior), son of 
John III. Born 
his father 1255 ; 
certain coins are 
prince. 

John IV. (Lascaris), son of Theodorns 
III. Bom 1251 ; succeeded his 
father 1259 ; divided the Empire 
with his brother Michael YIII. ; kept 
prisoner in a castle after having had 
his eyes put out 1261. No coins are 
known of this emperor. 

Michael VIII. (Paleologus). Proclaimed 
Emperor with his brother 1259 ; sole 
Emperor in 1261 ; died 1282. G. — 
R.' Br. — R.* After this reign the 
Greek coins were again struck at 
Ck>nstantinople. One coin represents 
him with his son Andronicus. 

Andronieus II. ^ son of Michael YIII. 
Bom 1258; named Emperor 1273; 



1223 ; succeeded 



died 1259. 
known of 



No 

this 



succeeded his father 1282 ; dethroned 
by Andronicus III. 1328 ; died 3132. 
G. — R.* 8. — R.» Br. — R.* Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Michael IX. 

Mic?uiel IX. (Paleologas), son of Andro- 
nicus II. Born 1277; associated with 
his father 1295; died 1320. G.— 
R.* Br.— R*. 

Andronietu Ill.f son of Michael IX. 
Bom 1295 ; associated in the Empire 
1825 ; died 1341. No 'certain coins 
are known of this emperor. 

John V.t son of Andronicus III. Bom 
1832 ; succeeded his father 1341 ; 
dethroned by his son Andronicus 
1371 ; re-established 1373 ; died 
1391. No coins are known of this 
emperor. 

John VI. (Cantacuzenus). Regent 1341 ; 
proclaimed colleague of John Y. 1347 ; 
renounced the throne 1 855. PI. — R.^ 
Of doubtful attribution. 

Manuel 11., son of Andronicus lY. Bom 
1848; succeeded his father 1393; died 
1491. No coins are known of this 
prince. 

John VII. (Paleologus). Associated in 
the Empire 1399 ; renounced the 
throne 1402 ; died in a monastery. 
No coins are known of this emperor. 

John VIII., son of Manuel II. Bom 1390; 
declared Augustus 1419 ; succeeded 
his father L425 ; died 1448. G.— R.^ 
This coin is doubtful. 

Oonstanttne XV., son of 
Bom 1403 ; succeeded 
1448; killed in the taking of Con- 
stantinople by the Turks 29th of May, 
1453, (the 2206th year from the 
foundation of ancient Rome). Thus 
ended the Empire of the Ceesars. 
G. — R.* The coins of this emperor 
are doubtful. 



Manuel II. 
his brother 



v u 2 



660 



PRICES or BOMAK coiirs. 



A LIST OF THE PRESENT PRICES OF ROMAN COINS, 

OF 

ea% &iXatt, and Copirnr* 

FROM JULIUS CAESAR TO THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE. 

AS BSALISBD AT THB THOMAfi» PEMBBOKJE, AND OTHER RECENT SALES. 

« 

27^ prices of such coins as have not recently been brought to the hammer are taken 
from MionneVs list of prices^ since the publication of which the scale 
has rather risen. To r. signifies turned to the Right , to 1. twm^ to the 
Left ; S, Silver; G. Gold; Br. Bronze; rev. Reverse; obv. Obverse; t. s. 
Thomas''s Sale, p. a. Pembroke Sale, The terms First or Large Brass, Second or 
Middle Brass, Third or Small Brass, are used indiscriminatehf. 



JULIUS CAESAR (from B.C. 44 to 40). 

The obverse bears his head ; c. caxsab, 
DicT. PE&p. PONT. KAX : (rcv.) bare 
head of Octavius ; c. caesab cos. 
PONT. AT7G. ; fine and scarce. — G. 
11/. 15«. (t. 8.) 

Laureate head, behind it a rase; caesak 
Die. : ^rev.) bare head of Anthony 
and a lituus ; m. anto. imp. ; very 
rare and fine. — G. 232. 10«. (t. s.) 

(Obv.) CAEs. DIG. avAa. ; bust of Venus : 
(rev.) COS. quinc. ; in a wreath of 
laurel, very rare, and in good pre- 
servation ; weight 1 2 3-^. — G. 2/. 8«. 
(p. s.) 

(Obv.) c. CASSAK IMP. COS. ITER. ; head 
of Venus to r. : (rev.) a. allibnvs 
PRO. COS. ; figure standing to /., 
triquetra in r. hand ; r. foot on 
prow of galley ; fine and extremely 
rare. — S. 1/. 11#. (p. s.) 

A lot consisting of four coins, the 
reverses being respectively, 1st, 
Venus, p. SEFVLUvs ; 2d, p. ser. 
vxLivs ; Sd, globe, caduceus, &c., 
MvssiDivs ; 4th, calf, Q. Voconivs. 
viTVLvs ; sold together for 21. 12s. 
(t. s.) 

(Rev.) Augustus. — First brass. — II. Is. 
(t.s.) _ 



(Obv.) winged bust of Victory ; cassar 
Die. ter. : (rev.) Minerva with 
Medusa's head on the aegis ; c. 
CLOvi ; very fine, with five others. — 
Second bra^s. 1/. Is. (p. s.) 

Third brass about bs, 
Pompey the Great. 
G. about 21/. 

(Rev.) the Sicilian Brothers carrying 
their parents ; Neptune, and usual 
legend, and two common coins of 
Julius Caesar. — S. S/. 6s. (t. s.) 

Large brass (Mionnet). — Zs. 

Second brass (Mionnet). — 2s. 

(Meius Pompey. 
Gold unique in the Hunteilan Cd- 

lection. — 21/. 
Silver about 1/. 10«. 

Sextus Pompey. 
With the heads of his father and 

brother (Mionnet). — G. 20/. 
With his portrait and name (Mionnet). 

— S. 8/. 12*. 
Without his head (Mionnet). — ^Br. 6s, 

Marcus Brutus, 

(Obv.) head of Marcus Brutus : (rev.) 
cap of liberty between two daggeis ; 

BID. MAR. — G. 28/. (t. 8.) 

(Obv.) head : (rev.) a cap of liberty be- 






PBICES OF BOMAir OOIKS. 



661 



tweentwo daggers; sid. mas. ; very 
fine and rare. — S. 151. lOs, (t. s.) 
Mareuf Lepidua. 

(Obv.) H. LXPIDVS III. VIR. B. P. c. ; 

bare head to r : (rev.) l. regvlts. 
xui. YiB. A.P.E. ; Teiled female to /., 
with simpnlum in extended r. hand, 
and hasta pura in I. ; e2;,tremely 
rare and ia fine condition ; weight, 
123 grs. — G. 28?. (p. s.) 
(Bey.) head of Augustus, better pre- 
served than usual. — S. \U 10«. 
(t. 8.) 
First brass of the colony of Cabe, in 
Spain, about 5/. 5«. 
Marc Antony. 

(Obv.) M. AlVTOMIMVS IH. VIB. B. P. C. ; 

bare head of Antony, with slight 
beard ; lituus behind : (rev.) c. 
CAssAB III. VIB. B. P. c. ; bare head 
of Octavius ; extremely rare. — G. 
IZl. (p. 8.) 

(Obv.) If. AKTON. iKP. ; his bare head, 
with cropped beard to r. ; behind, 
lituus : (rev.) GaBSAB. nx. . . laureate 
head of Julius.Caesar to r., behind, 
prsBferioulum ; rare and very fine. — 
8. i;. 16«. (p. 8.) 

(Obv.) M. Anto. cos. III. IMP. nil. 
head of Jupiter Ammon to r. : (rev.) 
A Av scABPVS iM ; Yictory to r., with 
palm and wreath ; rare and' well- 
preserved. — Is. (p. s.) 

Middle brass (Mionnet), with head of 
Augustus. — 3«. 

With his head and Cleopatra's (Mion- 
net). — 12». 
Uare Antony {the ton.) 

A unique gold coin : (rer.) his father 
(Mionnet). — 50/. 
Cleopatra. 

Gold (Mionnet).— 80/. 

SUver, the usual size (Mionnet). — 2/. 

Middle brass (Mionnet). — 12«. 

Third brass (Mionnet).— 10«. 
Caitu Antonius. 

(Rev.) sacrificial instruments and the 
hasta pura (Mionnet). — S. 3/. 12«. 
lucifu Antoniut. 

(Obv.) his head : (rev.) Marc Antony 
(Mionnet).— S. 1/. 10*. 

AUGUSTUS (ftrom b. c. 29 to 14 a. d.) 

(Obv.) CABSAB : (rev.) a bull walking ; 
AVOV8TV8, very fine. — G. 71. 6*. (t.s.) 



Same type restored by Trajan. — 5/. 5s. 

(t. 8.) 
(Obv.) CABSAB AVQVSTVS DIVI. F. PATBB. 

PATBiAE ; laureate head of Augustus : 

(rev.) TI. CAESAB AVG. F. TB. POT. XV. 

Tiberius laureate, and holding the 
Roman standard in a quadriga, the 
horses walking ; in good condition, 
and rare ; weight 120-^^ grs. — 
8/. 6*. (p. 8.) 

(Obv.) AVovBTi DIVI E. ; head of 
Augustus, laureated ; (rev.) tb. pot. 
XXX. ; winged Yictory seated on a 
globe, forming a wreath with both 
hands (half aureus) ; in middling 
condition, and somewhat bruised, 
but rare; weight 60^. — G. 15», 
(p. 8.) 

(Obv.) CAESAB. AVQVSTVS ; bare head 
to /. : (rev.) votive buckler inscribed 
8. p. Q. B. CL. V. ; very fine and ex- 
tremely rare, with the head to the 
left. — S. 5s. (p. 8.) 

(Obv.) AVQVSTVS DIVI. F. ; bare head to 
r. : (rev.) h. sanqvinivs. hi. vib. ; 
head of Augustus to r. ; laureate 
and surmounted with a radiated 
star ; fine and very rare. — 16*. 

First brass, three coins: (rev.) diws 
AVQVSTVS PATEB ; rcstorcd by Titus ; 
rare and fine : (rev.) imp. nebva, 
&c. ; restored by Nerva, rare and 
well-preserved : (obv.) quadiiga 
with elephants and four riders : 
(rev.) TI. CAESAB ; fine ; sold together 
for 4/. 12*. (t.s.) 

Same type as one last mentioned, re- 
stored by Nerva (Mionnet). — 10*. ' 

Middle brass (Mionnet) : (rev.) head 
of Tiberius. — 12*. 

Small brass : (obv.) incus, (rev.) s. c. 
Apronla, with six others. — 2/. 4*. 



(p. s.) 
Livia. 

First Brass 
avgust. ; 



(obv.) 8. p. Q. B. IVLIAE. 

carpentum to r., drawn 
by two mules : (rev.) ti. gaesab 

DIVI AVO. F. AVGVST ; p. M. TB. POT. 

xxiui. round a large sc. struck by 

Tiberius. — 1/. 8*. (t. s.) 
Second brass (Mionnet). — About 4*. 
Agrippa, 

Gold, supposed by Mionnet to be 

unique. — 40/. 
(Rev.) Augustus; bare heads; very 



654 



BOMAir IMPEBIAL COINAGX. 



exiled. No coiiu are known of this 
empress. 

Tiberiut JILf son of Heradius and Mar- 
tina. Date of birth unknown ; created 
Cnsar in 640; associated with his 
brother in the empire 641 ; year of 
death unknown. No coins are known 
of this emperor. 

Oonstana 11.^ son of Constantine IV. and 
Gregoria. Bom 630; associated in 
the Empire with his uncles Tiberius 
III. and Heracleonas in 641 ; sole 
Emperor the same year ; assassinated 
in 668. Q.— R.» R.* S.— R.8 R.* 
Br. — tL* R.^ Some coins of this 
emperor have portraits of a female, 
supposed to be his wife, whose name 
is unknown, and also portraits of his 
sons Constantine Y., Heraclius, and 
Tiberius. 

Oonstantine F., son of Gonstans n. Date 
of birth unknown, associated with 
his father 654 ; sole Emperor 668 ; 
died in 685. G.— C— R.« 8.— R.» 
'RJ* Br. — R.* R*. Some of his coins 
bear portraits of his father. 

Heraelius and TiherivMj brothers of Con- 
stantine y. Named Caesars 659 ; 
associated in the Empire by their 
brother in 668 ; and put to death in 
674. Portraits of these princes are 
only found on the coins of Constans 
II., their father. 

Jtutinian II. (Rhinotmetus), son of Con- 
stantine Y. Bom 670 ; created Au- 
gustus 682 ; reigned alone in 685 ; 
dethroned after having had his nose 
cut off in 695 ; restored in 705 ; 
dethroned anew and killed 711. G. 
—R.I R.* 8.— R.' Br.— R.» Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Tiberius IV. 

TSberius IV.^ son of Justinian II. Born 
701 ; declared CeBsar and Augustus in 
706 ; put to death in 711. The por- 
trait of this prince is only found on 
the coins of Justinian his father. 

Leo II. Date of birth unknown; pro- 
claimed Emperor 695 ; dethroned 
and placed in a monastery 698 ; 
after having had his nose and ears 
cut off, put to death in 7 05. G. — ^R.* 
Br. — R.* Coins have been attributed 
to this monarch which rightfully 
belong to Leo I. 



Tibernu F. (Absimarns). Bate of birth 
unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 693 ; 
put to death by Justinian 705. G. 
— R.1 R." S.— R8 Br.— R.' 

Ulepicus (Bardanes) . Proclauned Emperor 
in 711 ; dethroned and deprived of 
his sight 713; died shortly after- 
wards. G.— R.« R.» S. — R.« 

Muutatius II. Date of birth unknown ; 
proclaimed Emperor 713 ; abdicated 
in 7 16 ; but shortly afterwards takra 
and put to death. G. — ^R.* R.^ 8. 
— ^R.* It was about this time that a 
mixture of Greek and Latin letters was 
introduced in the inscriptions of the 
coins. 

7%eod(mtu J77. (Adramytenus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 
715; abdicated in 717. G.— R.* 
8.— R.« 

Leo III. (Isaurus). Date of birth un- 
known; proclaimed Emperor 717; 
died in 741. G.— C.— R.i S.— R.« 
Br. — R.' Many coins of this emperor 
represent him with his son Constan- 
tine VI., and his grandson Leo IV. 

Omstantine VI. (Copronymus), son of 
Leo III. EL— R.8R.8 S.— R.» Br. 
— ^R.* Some coins represent him with 
Leo lY. and Artavasdus. 

Irene, first wife of Constantine VI. Date 
of birth unknown ; died in 750. No 
coins are known of this empress. 

Martay second wife of Constantine YI. 
Date of birth unknown ; died 751. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Hudoexa, third wife of Constantine TI. 
Date of birth and death unknown. 
No coins are known of this empress. 

Artav(tsdu8t son-in-law to Leo m. 
Date of birth unknown ; proclaimed 
Emperor 742; made prisoner and 
exiled after having had his eyes put 
out in 743. G.— R.8 El.— R.« Br. 
— ^R.8 Some coins represent him 
with his son Nicephorus and with 
Constantine VI. 

lfioephoru8f son of Artavasdus and Anna 
sister of Constantine VI. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated with his 
father 742 ; made prisoner and exiled 
after having had his eyes put out like 
his father in 743. The portrait of this 
prince is only found on coins of 
Artavasdus. 



EOMijr IMPEBIAX COINAGE. 



655 



Cfhristopha and Nieephorus, sans of Con- 
atantine YI. and Eadocia. Dates of 
their birth, unknown ; created Csesars 
in 7 69 ; exiled after haying had their 
tongues and eyes burned out ; put to 
death by order of Irene 797. No 
coins are known of these princes. 

Leo IV, (Chazarus), son of Constantine 
TI. and Irene. Born 750 ; created 
Augustus 751; reigned alone 775; 
died in 780. G.— R.* Br.— R.* 

Irene^ wife of Leo IV. Date of birth un- 
known ; made regent of the Empiie 
during the minority of her son Con- 
stantine YII. in 780 ; she caused his 
eyes to be put out for the purpose of 
reigning alone ; was imprisoned in 
the isle of Lesbos by Nicephorus 
Logothetus 802 ; died in 808. G. — 
R,* S.— R.« Br.— R.8 

Oonstantine VIL., son of Leo IV. Born 
771 ; made Augustus in 776 ; reigned 
with his mother 780 ; died after 
having had his eyes put out by order 
of his mother 797. G.— R.« S.— R."' 
Br.— R.*. R.8 

Nic^horta I. (Logothetus). Date of 
birth unknown ; proclaimed Emperor 
802; killed 811. G.— R.^ Br.— R.» 
Some pieces represent him with his son 
Stauracius. It was during the reign of 
Nicephorus that the second empire of 
the West commenced. 
Stauraenu, son of Nicephorus I. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire in 803 ; abdicated the throne 
with his father 811 ; died 812. G.— 
R.' Br. — R.8 Some pieces represent 
this emperor with his father Ni- 
cephorus. 

Michael I, (Rhangabe and Curopalata), 
son-.in-law of Nicephorus. Date of 
birth unknown ; elected Emperor 811; 
abdicated 813; died 845. G.— R.^ 
S. — R.* Br. — ^R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with his son Theophylactus. 
Those coins of Michael I., upon which 
his son is not represented, can be 
equally attributed ^to the other empe- 
rors of the same name. 
Theophylacttts, son of Michael. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 811; entered into a monas- 
tery after having been mutilated by 
order of Leo V. G.— R,* Br.— R.* 



The ceins of this prince represent 
him with his father.' 

Leo V. (Armenius.) Date of birth un- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor in 813 ; 
assassinated in 820. Br. — ^R.^ These 
coins bear the portrait of his son Con- 
stantine VIII. 

Oonstantine VIJI.^ son of Leo V. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated with 
his father 213 ; mutilated and exiled 
by order of Michael II. 820. Br. — 
R.6 Some coins represent him with 
his father Leo V. 

Michael II. (Balbus.) Date of birth un- 
known ; proclaimed Emperor 820 ; 
died 829. G.— R.« R.* 8.— R.'' Br. 
— R.^ Some coins represent him with 
his son Theophilus. 

Theophiltts, son of Michael. G. — R.* R.* 
El.— R.« S.— R.» Br.— C.— R.8 There 
exists a coin bearing the busts of 
Theophilus, and of a prince named 
Constantine who probably was his 
son, but the piece is doubtful. There 
are some pieces which were formerly 
attributed to Theophilus which are 
now restored to Michael III. 

Theodora^ wife of Theophilus. Date of 
birth unknown ; acted as regent to her 
son Michael III. 842 ; was shut up in 
a monastery by order of her son 857. 
Her coins bear portraits of Michael 
III. on the reverse. 

Michael III., son of Theophilus. Bom 
836 ; succeeded his father 842 under 
his mother ; reigned alone 857 ; died 
867. G.— R.'R' 8.— R.* Br.— R.'' 
Some pieces represent him with 
Theodora his mother, Thecla his 
sister, Constantine his son, and Basi- 
lius I. 

Oonstantinus was formerly supposed to 
have been the son of Theophilus, but 
really the son of Michael II. This 
prince is unknown in history. G. — 
R,* Some coins represent him with 
Theophilus but most with Michael III. 
I%eela, daughter of Theophilus. Date 
of birth unknown ; shut up in a 
monastery with her mother in 857. 
G.— R.* S.— R.* The coins of this 
princess represent her with her brother 
Michael III. 
Basilius I. (Macedo.) Date of birth un- 
known ; associated in the Empire by 



656 



BOMAir IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



Michael III. in S66 ; reigned alone 
in 867 ; died 886. G.-~R.« R.* S. 
— Ji.* Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him with his sons Constan- 
tino IX., Leo YI., and Alexander. 
There are some coins falsely attri- 
buted to Basilius I., which really 
belong to Basilius II. 

Cunstantine IX.^ son of Basilius I. Bom 
about 853 ; associated in the Empire 
868 ; died 879. G.— R.« R.* 8.— 
R.^ Br. — C. Some coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. 

Leo VI. (Sapiens), second son of Basilius. 
Bom 865 ; associated in the Empire 
870 ; reigned with his brother Alex- 
ander in 886; died 911. G. — R.* 
R.* S.— R.» Br. R.» R.» Some 
coins represent him with Basilius I. 
his son Constantine X., and his bro- 
ther Alexander. 

JZb0 (Carbonopsina), the wife of Leo 
YI. Date of birth unknown ; regent 
over her son Constantine X. 912 ; 
shut up in a monastery by her son 
919. Br.— R.> R.» Her coins re- 
present her with her son Constantine 
XI. 

AlexathdeTf third son of Basilius. Bom 
870 ; reigned with his brother Leo 
VL in 886; died in 912. G.— R.* 
Br. — R.^ Some of his coins represent 
him with his father Basilius I. and his 
brother Leo VI. 

Somantu I. (Lecapenus.) Date of birth 
unknown ; associated in the empire 
with Constantine X. in 919; seized, 
dethroned, and exiled by his son 
Stephen in 944 ; died in 946. G. — 
R.^ R.^ His coins bear the names 
'lof Christopher, Stephen, and Con- 
stantine XI. son of Leo YI. 

Christopher^ son of Romanus I. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire 920 ; died 931. G.— R.^ R.* 
Br. — R.^ Some coins represent him 
with his father Romanus I. 

Stephanus, second son of Romanus. Date 
of birth unknown ; associated in the 
Empire in 931 ; dethroned and exiled 
his father 944 ; exiled by Constantine 
XI. in 945 ; died 964. The name of 
this prince is only found on the coins 
of his father. 
Constantine X., third son of Romanus. 



Date of birth unknown ; made Ai^ns* 
tus in 945 ; put to death shortly after, 
wards. This prince is only found on 
the coins of his father. 

Constantine XL, son of Leo YL Bom 
905 ; succeeded his father 911 ; first 
under the regency of Alexander his 
uncle, and then of his mother Zoe; 
reigned alone 945 ; died 953. G.— 
R.8 R.* S.—R.« Br.— R-i R» Some 
coins represent him with his father 
Leo YI., his mother Zoe, his son. Ro- 
manus II., and with Bomanus I. his 
colleague. 

BomantUf son of Constantine XI. Bom 
in 938 ; succeeded his father 959 ; 
died 963. G.— R.»R.* S.— .R.« Br.— 
R.S Some coins represent him with 
his father Constantine. These coins 
are not of certain attribution. 

J%eophanOf wife of Romanus II. Date of 
birth unknown ; regent for her sons 
Basilius and Constantine in 963 ; she 
married the same year Nicephorus n., 
caused him to be assassinated in 969 ; 
exiled by John Zimisces ; recalled by 
her sons in 975 ; died 980. S. — ^R.* 

Nicephortts II, (Phocas). Born in 912 ; 
proclaimed Emperor 963 ; assassi- 
nated by his wife 969. G. — ^R.* S. 
— R." Br. — R.* — ^R.* Some coins re- 
present him with Basilius U. 

John I. (Zimisces). Date of birth un. 
known ; proclaimed Emperor 969 ; 
died from poison 975. S. — R.* Br. 
— C. — R.^ It is" in this re^^ for 
the first time, that the figure of Christ 
is placed upon the coins instead of 
the portrait of the emperor. Some of 
the coins of this reign are of doubtful 
attribution. 

Basilius II., son of Romanus II. Bom 
956 ; created Augustus 960 ; reigned 
with his brother Constantine XII. 
after the death of John Zimisoes in 
975; died 1026. G. — R.» B.* 
S. — R.* R.« Br. — C. Some coins 
represent him with his brother 
Constantine. -Some coins are attri- 
buted to Basilius I. which r^htly be- 
long to this monarch. 

Constantine XII., youngest son of Roma- 
nus. Bom 961 ; reigned with his 
brother Basilius 975; sole esaperor 
1026 ; died 1028. G.—R.* BJ S. 



BOMAK IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



657 



-— B** R.* Br. — C. Some coins re- 
present him with his brother Ba- 
silins. 

JRomanus III. (Argyrus), son-in-law of 
Constantine. Bom 973 ; emperor 
1028 ; smothered by his wife Zoe in 
1034. There are no certain coins of 
this emperor. 

Michael IK (Paphlago). Date of birth 
unknown ; married Zoe and suc- 
ceeded to the throne 1034 ; retired 
into a monastery and died there 1041 . 
There are no certain coins of this 
emperor. . 

Miehaei F., son of the sister of Michael 
IV. Date of birth unknown ; suc- 
ceeded to the throne 1041 ; shut up 
by his aimt in a monastery after hav- 
ing had his eyes put out 1042. 
There are no coins known of this 
emperor. 

Constantine XIII. (Monomachus). Mar- 
ried Zoe and commenced his reign 
1042 ; died 1054. G.— R.* S.— R."^ 

Zoe^ daughter of (Constantino XII. and 
wife of Romanus III., Michael IV., 
and Constantine XIII. Bom 978 ; 
poisoned her first husband 1034 ; after 
the death of her second in 1041 she 
adopted Michael V. (Calaphates) ; she 
was exiled by him but caused the 
people to rise against him, had his 
eyes put out, and reigned two months 
with her sister Theodora in 1042 ; 
espoused in the same year Constan- 
tine; died 1050; The coins that 
have been published of this empress 
are not to be found in any cabinet. 

Theodora^ daughter of Constantine XII. 
Bom 981 ; at first she became a nun 
but was proclaimed Empress with her 
sister Zoe in 1042 ; and preserved 
the title of Augusta during the reign 
of Constantine XIII., and after his 
- death in 1054, reigned alone till 1056. 
G.— R.» R.6 

Michael VI. (Stratioticus). Emperor in 
1056 ; forced to abdicate 1057 ; died 
1059. There are no certain colas 
of this emperor. 

Isaac I. (Comnenus). Proclaimed Em- 
peror 1057 ; abdicated in favour of 
Ctonstantine XIV. in 1059 ; died in 
1061. G.— R.* Br. — R.* 
ChnstanUne XIV. (Ducas). Bom 1007 ; 



proclaimed emperor 1059 ; died 1067. 
G.— R.S S.— R.» PI.— R.8 

JEudocia Balassenay first wife of Constan- 
tine XIV. afterwards Romanus IV. 
After the death of Constantine in 
1067 she governed in the name of 
her sons ; married Romanus and pro- 
claimed him Emperor 1068; shut up 
in a monastery by her son Michael 
VII. in 1071 ; died after the year 
1096. G. — R.* Br.— •R.'' Some 
coins represent her with her sons 
Michael VII., Constantine, and Andro- 
nicus, and^ her second husband Ro- 
manus IV. 

Romanus IV. (Diogenes). Married 
Eudocia who proclaimed him Em- 
peror 1068 ; prisoner of the Turks 
1070 ; set free and had his eyes put 
out by order of Michael VII. ; shut 
up in a monastery 1071, where he 
soon after died. G. — R.' R.' Br. — 
R.3 PI. — R.* Some coins represent 
him with Eudocia, Michael VII., Con- 
stantino and Andronicus. 

Michiel VII. (Ducas), son of Constantine 
XIV. Succeeded his father with 
his brothers Constantine and An- 
dronicus, under the regency of 
their mother in 1067 ; gave up the 
throne to Romanus ; reascended the 
throne during his captivity, and 
maintained it by putting out his eyes 
on his return, and shutting him up in 
a monastery 1071. Michael was de- 
throned in 1071, and retired into a 
monastery ; afterwards Archbishop 
of Ephesus ; died in the reign of 
Alexius Comnenus. G. — R.* R.^ 
S. — ^R.* Some coins represent him 
"with his wife Maria. 

Jforta, wife* first of Michael VII. and 
then of Nicephorus III. Retired 
into a monastery with her first 
husband in 1078 ; espoused Ni- 
cephorus 1080, and retired for the 
second time into a monastery in 
1081. G. — R.* B.— R.' This 
empress is only found on coins of 
Michael VII. 

Oonstantinus (Ducas Porphyrogenitus), 
son of Constantine XIV. and Eudocia. 
Made Emperor with his brothers 
Michael and Andronicus under the 
regency of his mother in 1067 ; 

u u 



648 



BOMAK IMPEBIAL COINAaS. 



afresh, 308 ; proclaimed himself em- 
peror again in 309 ; strangled him- 
self, 310. G.— R.1 R.« S.— R.1 R.« 
Br. — C. B..* Some coins represent 
him with Galerius and Diocletian. 
His coins are numerous. 

JEutropia, wife of Maximian. No details 
are known of this princess. No true 
coins are attributed to her. 

Amandus. Emperor in Gaul 285 ; killed 
287. The coins published of this 
personage are very suspicious. 

AelicMtts. Emperor in Gaul 285 ; killed 
287. The coins of this emperor are 
likewise doubtful. 

Oarausius. Emperor in England 287 ; 
assassinated 289. G. — R.® 8. — R.' 
R.' Br. — R.* R.* These coins were 
struck in England. 

Allecttts. Emperor in England 293; 
killed 296. G.— R.8 8.— R.» Br. 
— R.* R.« These coins were struck 
in England. 

Achilleus. Emperor in Egypt about 292 ; 
put to death soon afterwards. There 
are no true coins known of this per- 
sonage. 

Domitius Domitianus. Emperor in Egypt 

305. Br. — R.* These coins were 
struck in Egypt. 

(hnstaniim I. (Chlorus). Born 250 ; 
Caesar 292 ; Emperor 305 ; died 

306. G.— R.i R.* S.— R.IR.* Br. 
— C. R.* Some coins represent him 
with Diocletian. His coins are very 
numerous. 

Helena^ first wife of Constantius Chlorus. 
Born about 248 a.d. ; died about 328 ; 
Br.— C. R.* 

Theodoray second wife of Constantius 
Chlorus. 8. — R.« Br. — C. 

Oalentis Valerius Mcueimiantts, Adopted 
and named Ceesar by Diocletian, in 
292 ; Augustus and Emperor in 805 ; 
died 311. G.— R.« R.« S.— R.« R.« 
Br. — C. R.* Some pieces represent 
him with the Herculeian Maximianus 
and Constantius Chlorus. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Valeria^ second wife of Galerius Maxi- 
mianus. Put to death in 315 a.d. 
G.— R.6 8.— R.6 Br.— C. R.* 

Flavins Valerius Severus. Named Ceesar 
by the Herculeian Maximian in 305 ; 
Augustus and Emperor in 806; put 



1 



to death in 307. G. — ^E.* R.' 8.— 
R.* Br.— C. R.* 

Maxiinin%t8 Daza^ son of Galerius, 
named Ceesar by Diocletian in 305 \ 
given the title of the son of ISie Au- 
gust! in 307 ; proclaimed himsdf 
Emperor in 308 ; poisoned himself 
in 313 A.D. G.— R». R.* S.— a.* 
R.» Br. — C. R». The coins of thU 
emperor are numerous. A part 
of these pieces in Roman coin must 
have been struck in the East, pro- 
bably in Syria. 

Maaentius. Bom about 282 A.n. ; pro- 
claimed himself Emperor at Rome in 
306, and drowned in the Tiber in 
312 A.D. G.— R.« R.« S.— R.« R.' 
Br. — C. R.* One piece represents 
him with his son Romulus. The 
coins of Maxentius are very numerotu. 

Romulus^ son of Maxentius. Bom about 
the year 306 a.d. ; named Ceesar 
in 307 ; Augustus in a short time 
afterwards; died in 309. G. — R.^ 
8. — R.* Br. — ^R.* R.8 One coin re- 
presents him with Maxentius his 
father. 

Alexander, Proclaimed Emperor at Car- 
thage in 306 ; defeated and put to 
death in 311 a.d. S. — ^R.® Br.— R.* 
R.B The Roman coins of Alexandn 
were struck in Africa, and probably 
at Carthage. 

Lidniusy senior son-in-law of Conatantiiu 
Chlorus. Bom 263 a.d. ; named 
Ceesar and Augustus, and associated in 
the empire with Galerius Maximiantu 
307 ; conquered and taken prisoner 
by his brother-in-law, Constantise, 
and strangled in 323. G. — BJ SJ 
8. — R.2 R.6 Po. — R.« Br. — C. R.» 
Some coins represent him "with hs 
son Licinius. The coins of this 
prince are very numerous. 

Cbnstaniiay wife of the elder Liidnioa. 
Died 330 a.d. The pieces which. w«» 
published of this princess were false. 

LidniuSf junior, son of the elder li- 
cinius. Bom 315 A.D. ; named. Csesar 
317 ; deprived of the title in 323 ; pot 
to death in 326. G.— R.* R.» S. — JL* 
B. C. R.^ Some pieces repreMst 
him with his father, Licinius Crispoi, 
and others with Constantinc tte 
Great. The Roman coins of thft 



BOMAN IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



649 



lif 



kX- 



iP 



title i»^ 



prince were struck in Pannonia and 
iUieetia. 

Aurelius Valerius Valens. Named Ceesar, 
and perhaps Augustus, by Licinius in 
S14 ; but was deprived of his dignities 
and killed. The supposed coin is rery 
doubtful. 

Martimanus. Created Csesar and Augustus 
at Bysantium by Licinius in 323 ; put 
to death two months afterwards. Br. 
— B.B These Roman coins were most 
probably struck at Nicomedia. 

Cbnstantius Magnus^ son of Constantius 
Chlorus and Helena. Born 274 a.d.; 
named CeBsar and Augustus in 306 ; 
deprived of the last title ; again 
named Augustus by the Herculeian 
Maximianus in 307 ; then only son 
of the Augustl.; given again the name 
of Angrustus in 306 ; converted to the 
Christian religion in 311; made sole 
emperor in 323 ; changed the name of 
Byzantiimi to Constantinople, which 
he made the seat of his government, 
836; died in 837. G.— R.iR«. 8.-— R*. 
K.* Br. — C. R®. Some pieces 
represent him with Crispus, Constan- 
tine the younger, and Licinius senior. 
The coins of this emperor are very 
numerous. Since his reign all the 
coins of the emperors of the East 
were struck at Constantinople. 

Faustaj wife of Constantine the Great, 
smothered in a warm bath, by her 
hnsband's order, in the year 326 a.d. 
G. — ^R.8 S.— R.* Br.— C. R.» 

CHspt««, son of Constantine and Miner- 
-vina. Bom about 300 a.d. ; named 
CfBsar in 317 ; put to death by order 
of his father in 326. G.— R.* R.« 
Br.— C. R.* 

Helena^ wife of Crispus. This princess is 
only known by one coin. Br. — R.« 
It is not certain whether she was ever 
Crispus' wife or not. 

Delmatiua, Named CeBsar in 335 ; ob- 
tained in the division, Thrace, Mace- 
donia, and Achaia in 335 ; killed 
337. G.— R.6 S.— R.* Br.— R.i 
Some pieces represent him with Con- 
Btantine. « It is doubtful whether 
these pieces were struck in Con- 
stantinople or in the provinces which 
he obtained in the division. 

JELannibaUianmf brother to Delmatius. 



Made King of Fontus, Cappadocia 
and Armenia in the year 335 ; died 
337. Br. — R.* It is not known 
whether these pieces were struck in 
Constantinople or in the dominions of 
his sovereignty. 

Oonstaniinua ILy eldest son of Constan- 
tine and Fausta. Born 316 a.d. ; 
named Caesar 317 ; obtained in the 
division, in 335, Gaul, Spain, and 
England ; named Emperor and Augus- 
tus in 337 ; defeated and killed in 
340. G.— R.3R.* S.— R.«R.* Br.— 
— C — ^R.* The coins of this emperor 
are nimierous. These coins, probably, 
or at least a part, were struck in the 
coxmtries assigned to him in the divi. 
sion. 

Ckmatctns J., youngest son of Constantine 
the Great and Fausta. Bom about 
320 A.D. ; named Ceesar in 333 ; ob- 
tained in the division in 385, Italy, 
lUyria, and Africa, called Emperor 
and Augustus in 337 ; made Emperor 
• of the East in 346 ; and assassinated 
in 350. G.— C. R.« 8.— R.i R.* 
Br. — C. R.^ The coins of this em- 
peror are numerous. These, or part 
of these coins were probably struck 
in the countries assigned to him. 

Satuminua. This personage is only 
known by one coin, he was proclaimed 
Emperor under the reigns of Constans 
I. or II. The piece produced is 
doubtful. 

Cbnstantinus 77., son of Constantine the 
Great and Fausta. Bom 317 a.d. ; 
named Caesar in 323 ; obtained in 
the division, in 335, the East ; named 
Augrustus in 337 ; master of all the 
Empire in 350 ; died 351. G.— C. R.^ 
8.— R.iR.* Br. — C. R.* The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Fausttty wife of Constantius II. Br. — R.6 
It is doubtful whether she was ever 
the wife of Constantius or not. 

NepotianuSy son of Eutropia, sister of 
Constantine the Great. Proclaimed 
Emperor at Rome in 350 ; killed after 
a reign of 28 days. Br.— R.'' These 
pieces were probably struck at 
Rome. 

Vetranius. Proclaimed Emperor in Pan- 
nonia in 350 ; abdicated after reigning 
10 months ; died 356 ; G.— R.8 S.— 



640 



BOKAN IMFEBIAX. COINAGE. 



43 A.D. ; compelled to kill herself by 
opening her veins 62 a.d. No Boman 
coins are known of this princess. 
There are, however, some Colonial 
Greek. 

Poppeuay second wife of Nero. Bom 
— ; died 66 a.d., from the effects 
of a kick griven her by Nero. We do 
not know of any coins of this princess 
except a silver Greek, which is doubt- 
fal, and two Colonial coppers of her 
daughter Claudia (also uncertain), 
which bear her name on the reverse. 

Statilla Mesaalina, third wife of Nero. 
Bom — ; died a.d. No Boman 
coins are known of this empress, but 
there are some Greek. 

Claudia^ daughter of Nero and Poppaea. 
Born 64 a.d. ; died the same year, 
aged 4 months. There are no coins 
of this princess except a leaden one, 
which bears her head on the reverse 
of a coin of Nero her father ; also two 
Colonial bronze, which .bear her 
name, but these are doubtftil. 



Clodius Macer. Born 



deprived of 



his power in Africa where he was 
governor 68 a.d. ; and was killed the 
same year. S. — R.^ R.® These coins 
were struck in Africa. 
Galha. Bom 8 b.c. ; declared Emperor 

68 A.D. ; killed 69 a.d. G. — R.« R.* 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. — R.« Some of' 
these coins were restored by Titus and 
by Trajan. 

Otho. Bom 32 a.d. ; declared Emperor 

69 A.D. ; conquered by Yitellius and 
killed himself the same year. G. — R.* 
S. — ^R.^ R.» There are only Colonial 
Brass of Otho. 

VitelHtu. Bom 15 a.d.; declared Em- 
peror 69 A.D. ; and put to death by Ves- 
pasian's soldiers the same year. G. — 
R.* R.8 8.— C.— R.* Br.— R.« R.* 

Lucius ViteUnUf father of Yitellius. 
Bom — ; died 48 or 49 a.d. G, 
— R.8 8. — R.* Some coins re- 
present him with the Emperor Yitel- 
lius his son. 

Vespasiamts. Born 9 a.d. ; declared 
Emperor 69, died 79. G. — C. — R.* 
8.— C— R.« Br.— C— B.* The coins 
of Vespasian are numerous ; some of 
them represent him with his sons Titus 
and Domitian, others only bear their 
names. Some of the Roman coins of 



Vespasian were struck in A&tioeh in 
Syria. Some of these coins were 
restored by Trajan. 

Flavia Domitillay wife of Yespaaan. 
Bom — ; died before her hosbasd 
was made emperor. G. — ^R.« S. — 
R.* R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Vespasian. 

Domitilkif daughter of Vespasian and 
Flavia Domitilla. Bom — ; died 
before her father became emperor. 
Br. — ^R.* Without her portrait. 

PollOf mother of Vespasian. Bom — . 
died — . The coins attribfuted to 
the mother of Vespasian are false. 

TUuSf son of Vespasian and Flavia Domi- 
tilla. Bom 41 A.D. ; obtained the 
title of Ceesar 69. Shared the sove- 
reign power with his father, with the 
title of Emperor 71.; became sole 
emperor 79; died 81. G. — C. — ^R.* 
S. — C. — R.^ Br. — C. — R;* The coins 
of Titus are numerous ; some repre- 
sent him with Vespasian, Domitian, 
and with his daughter Julia. Arricidia 
(who is not named on any coin) and 
if arcla Fumilla were his wives. 

Marcia Fumilla^ second wife of Titus. 
Born — . Repudiated by Titus be- 
fore his advancement to the throne. 
Died — . No Roman coins are known 
of Fumilla. There is a Greek coin 
attributed to her. 

JtUiOf daughter of Titus and FomiBa. 
Bom -«- ; died — G. — C. — R.8 S.— 
R.* R.6 Br.— R.« 

J)omitianuSy son of Vespasian and Fla- 
via Domitilla. Bom 51 a.d. ; ob- 
tainedthenameofC8esar69 ; declared 
Emperor 81 ; assassinated 96. G. — 
C— R.8 S.— C.— R.» Br. — C.— R.* 
The coins of this emperor are numer- 
ous ; some represent him with Ves- 
pasian, Titus, and with his wife 
Domitia. 

Domitiaf wife of Domitian. Bom — ; 
died 140 A.D. G.— R.6 8. — ^R.*B.* 
Br. — ^R.* R.^ Some coins represent 
her with Domitian and wiHi his 
son. 

Anonymu9j son of Domitian and Domitia. 
Born 82 a.d. ; died young ! This child 
whose name is not known is repre- 
sented on the coins with his motlier. 

Vespcuianus the Younger^ son of FlaviiiB 
dementis Domitianus. We know 



fiOMAN IMPSBIAL COINAGE. 



641 



nothing of this parent of Vespasian. 
Of Vespasian the Younger there are 
only some Greek coins of Smyrna 
known. 

Nerva, Bom 32 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 96 ; died 98. G.— R.«R.6 S.— 
C. — B..^ Br. — C. — R> The coins of 
this prince are numerous. Some re- 
present him with Trajan. 

I^qfanus. Bom 53 ▲.n. ; associated in 
the Empire with Nerva, with the 
titles of Ceesar and Emperor, hut 
without that of Augustus 97 ; de- 
clared sole Emperor 98 ; died 117. 
G.— C— R.6 S.— C— B.8 Br.— C. 
— B^* Trajan restored many of the 
coins of the Roman Families and of 
his predecessors. Many coins repre- 
sent him with Nerva his father, 
Plotina, and Hadrian. The coins of 
Trajan are very numerous, and it is to 
be remarked that his coins are struck 
with the metals of different countries, 
snch as Dalmatia, Fannonia, &c. 

Plotifuit wife of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 129 a.d. O— R.* R.* S.— R.« 
Some coins represent her with Trajan, 
Matidia, and Hadrian. 

Trcff'anus Pater^ father of the Emperor 
Trajan. Born — ; died 100 a.d.; 
G. — ^R.* S. — R.* These coins repre- 
sent him with the Emperor Trajan 
his son. 

Marciafiat sister of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 144 a.d. G.— R.« S.— R.« Br. 
— R.* Some of her coins bear the 
name of Matidia. 

Matidia^ daughter of Marciana. Born — ; 
died in the reign of Antoninus. 
G.— R.6 S.— R.6 Br.— R.8 Some 
coins represent her with Flotina, 
others bear the name of Marciana. 

HadriantUj son-in-law of Matidia and 
Trajan. Born 76 a.d. ; adopted by 
Trajan 117 ; made Emperor the same 
year ; died 188. G.— C. — R.* 8.— 
C. — R.® Br. — C. — R.* Some coins 
represent him with Trajan, Plotina, 
8abina, and Antoninus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. It is 
to be remarked that many bear the 
names of the different provinces over 
which he travelled. 
BabinOy wife of Hadrian. Born — ; 
killed herself 137 a.d. G.— R.* S. 



— C. — R.* Br. — C. — ^R.* Some coins 
represent her with Hadrian. 

^i%u. Bom — ; adopted by Hadrian 
135 or 136 a.d., with the name of 
Caesar; died 188 a.d. G.— R.* R.* 
S.— R.2 Br.— C.— R8. 

Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian. Bom 
— ; died 130 a.d. There are only 
Greek coins of Antinous. 

Antoninus Piua. Born 86 a.d. ; adopted 
by Hadrian and named Ceesar, 188 
A.D. ; declared Emperor the same 
year ; died 161 a.d. G. — C. — ^R.3 S. 
— C. — R.« Br. — C. — "R.^ Some coins 
represent him with Hadrian, Faustina, 
Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus. 
The coins of this emperor are nume- 
rous. We must remark that a great 
many of them are bronze medallions. 

Faustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius. 
Boml05A.D.; died 141 a.d. G. — C. — 
R.» S.— C— R.» Br.— C— R.* Some 
coins represent her with Antoninus. 
The coins of Faustina, the mother, 
are numerous. 

Galerius Antoninus, son of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina. Bom — ; died 
young, before his father came to the 
throne. There are only Greek coins 
known of this child. 

Marcus Aurelius, son-in-law of Antoninus 
Pius. Born 121 a.d.; adopted by 
Antoninus, 138, with the name of 
Cessar ; made Emperor 161 ; died 180. 
G.— C— R.« S.— C— R.* Br.— C— 
R.^ Some coins represent him with 
Antoninus, Faustina the Young, Lu- 
cius Verus, and Commodus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Faustina the Younger, cousin and wife of 
Marcus Aurelius. Bora — ; died 175 
A.D. G.— C.— R.* S.— C— R.« Br.— 
C. — R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Marcus Aurelius. The coins of 
Faustina the Younger are very 
numerous. 
Annius Verus, the youngest son of Marcus 
Aurelius and Faustina. Bom 1 63 a.d. ; 
obtained the name of Ceesar 166 ; 
died 170. B.— R.6 R.* 
Lucius Verus, son of JElius Ceesar, and 
son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius. Born 
130 A.D. ; adopted by Antoninus, 
without the title of Ceesar, 137 ; as- 
sociated in the empire, with the titles 

T T 



642 



BO>£Air IMFEBUX COUTAGE. 



of Cflenar and Augustus, by Marcus 
Aurelius, 151 ; poisoned 169. G. — 
C— R.' S.—C.—R.fi Br.— C— R,6 
Some coins represent him with Anto- 
ninus and Marcus Aurelius. The 
coins of Lucius Yerus are yery 
numerous. 

Lueilla^ the youngest daughter of Marcus 
Aurelius and Faustina, and wife of 
Lucius Yerus. Bom 147 a. n. ; exiled 
183 to CaprsD, by order of Commodus, 
and put to death soon afterwards. G. 
— B.1 R.« S.-'C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.' 

OommodtUf elder son of Marcus Aurelius 
and Faustina the Younger. Bom 161 
A.D. ; obtained the name of Caesar 
166 ; associated in the empire, with 
the title of Emperor, 176 ; obtained 
the name of Augustus 177 ; declared 
sole emperor 180 ; strangled 192. G. 
— R.*R.8 8.— C— R.* Br.— C.— R.8 
Some coins represent him with Mar- 
cus Aurelius, Crispina, and Annius 
Yerus. On some of his coins we meet 
with the head of a woman without 
any name. We beliere it to be that 
of the concubine of Commodus whose 
name was Marcia. Conmiodus had 
a particular devotion forHerculea,and 
he is often represented with the attri- 
butes of this Demigod, and he is called 
the Herculean Commodus. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

ChrispinUy wife of Commodus. Bom — ; 
died young, 183 A.D. G. — ^R.^ S. — 
C. — R.^ Br. — C. — R.'' Some coins 
represent her with Commodus. 

Fertinax. Bom 126 a.d. ; declared Em. 
peror 192; assassinated by the soldiers 
after a reign of 8 7 days. G. — R.* R.« 
S.— R.* R.« Br.— R.» R.' 

Tttiana, wife of Pertinax. Bom — ; 
On the death of her husband she 
retired from public life, where she 
died. There are only Greek coins of 
this Princess. 

JHdius Juliarms. Bom 133 a.d. ; de- 
clared Emperor 198 ; put to death 
after a reign of 66 days. G. — R.^ 
S.— R.« Br.— R.« R.» 

Manlia Seantillay wife of Didius Julianus. 
Born — ; retired from public life, 
on the death of her husband. G. — 
R.8 S.— R.6 Br.— R.* R.^ 

Hidia (Mara, daughter of Didius Julianus 



and Scantilla. Bom 158 aj>. ; died 
— ; G.— R.8 S.— R.« Br.— R.4 

Peteennius Niger. Bom — ; declared 
himself Emperor in S3rria 193 ; lolled 
194. G.— R.8 S.— R.* R.' The Roman 
coins of Pescennius Niger were struck 
in Syria, probably at Antioch. 

Ohdiiu Albiims. Born — ; named GsDsar 
by Septimus Severus 193 ; being 
at that time Governor of Britain, be 
took the title of Emperor oi Britain 
and Gaul, 196 ; defeated and killed 
by Septimus Severus 197 ; G — ^R.* 
S. — R.«R.* Br.— R.*R.8 The Roman 
coins of Albinos with tke title of 
Cffisar, were struck at Borne during 
the time that there existed an alliance 
between him and Septimus Severus 
when the latter conferred upon Albi- 
nos the title of Csesar. Those coins 
which bear the title of Emperor and 
of Augustus were struck in Gaul, 
and perhaps some of them in Britain 
after Albinus had taken the title of 
emperor. 

Septimus Severus. Bom 146 a.d.; de- 
clared Emperor 193 ; became master 
of the whole empire 197 ; died 211. 
G.— R.« R.« S.— C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.« 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. The 
coins of this emperor are numerous. 

Julia Domna, wife of Septimus Severus. 
Bom — ; starved herself to death 
217. G.— R.«R.8 S.— C.— R.» Br.— 
C. — R®. Some coins represent -her 
with Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and 
Geta. The coins of this empress are 
numerous. 

Mareta Aurelius Antoninus, commonly 
called Oaraoalla, son of Septimus Se- 
verus and Julia. Bom 188 A.n.; ob- 
tained the name of Caesar 196 ; that of 
Augustus 198 ; Emperor with his bro- 
ther Geta 211; sole emperor 212; 
assassinated 2 17. G. — B..^ R.* S. — C. 
— R.6 Br.— C. — R.' The name of 
Caracalla was given to the eldest son 
of Septimus Severus f^om a new sort 
of garment which he introduced and 
frequently wore. Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Jidia 
Domna, Geta, and Plautilla. The coins 
of this emperor are very nimierous. 

Fulvia Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. Bom 



EOMAK IMPEEIAL COINAaE. 



643 



— ; put to death 212 a.d. G. — ^R.* 
R."* S. — C— R.« Br. — R.1 R.^ Some 
coins represent her with Caracalla. 

Geta, second son of Septimus Severus and 
Julia Domna. Born 189 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name of Caesar 198 ; and that 
of Augustus 209 ; Emperor with his 
eldest brother Caracalla 211 ; assassi- 
nated by him in the arms of his 
mother 212. G.— R.*R.« S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.^ Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, and Caracalla. The coins of 
Geta are numerous. 

Macrinus. Bom 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 217 ; killed 218. G.— R.* R.' 
S.— R.1 R.^ Br.— R.i R.8 

DiadumenianuSt son of Macrinus. Bom 
208 A.D. ; obtained the name of Ceesar 
217 ; and that of Augustus the same 
year ; killed 218. G.— R.8 S.— R«. 
R.» Br.— R.« R.* Many of his coins 
were struck at Antioch in Syria. 

Marcus Aurelius AntoninuSy commonly 
called Elagabalus. Bom 205 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 218 ; put to death 
222. G.— R.«R.» S.— C— R.* Br.- 
C. — ^R.'' The name of Elagabalus was 
given to this emperor because he was 
in his infancy made Pontiff to the 
God Elagabalus, (the Sun) at Emisa 
in Syria, his country. Proclaimed 
emperor as bastard of Caracalla, he 
took his name Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus. Some coins represent him 
with Aquila Severa, Annia Faustina, 
and Julia Soaemias. 

JvUa Cornelia Paula, first wife of 
Elagabalus. Bom — ; divorced 220 ; 
died in private life. G.— R.« R.^ 
S.— R.^R.'' Br.— R.»R.* The name 
of Cornelia is only found on Greek 
coins. 

Aquilia Severa, second wife of Elagabalus. 
Bom — ; died after the emperor. 
G.— R.» 8.— R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.* 
• Some coins represent her with Elaga- 
balus. 
Annia Faustina, third wife of Elagaba- 
lus. Born — ; divorced as aocm as 
she was married ; died — . G. — 
RS g, — R.8 Br. — R.« The gold coin 
is doubtful, as it bears on the reverse 
a portrait of Elagabalus. 
Julia Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus. 



Bom — A.D. ; killed 222 a.d. ; G. — 
R.6 s.— C.— R.* Br.— C— R.* Some 
coins represent her with Elagabalus. 
Julia Maesa, aunt to Elagabalus. 
Born — ; died 228. G.— R» S.— C. 
— R.* Br.— C— R.* 
Alexander Severus, cousin of Elagabalus. 
Bom 205 A.D. ; adopted by Elaga- 
balus with the name of Ceesar 221 ; 
Emperor 222 ; assassinated 235. G. 
— C. R.8 S.— C— R.8 Br.— C— R.« 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Mamaea and Orbiana. The coins of 
this prince are very numerous. 
Memtnia, second wife of Severus Alex- 
ander. No particulars are known 
respecting this princess, and the coin 
attributed to her is very doubtful. 
OrUana, third wife of Alexander Severus. 
No details are known respecting this 
princess. G.— R.® S.— R.* R.8 Br. 
— R.i R.8 Some coins represent her 
with Alexander Severus and Mamaea. 
This princess is not spoken of by 
ancient authors ; some consider her 
to have been the wife of Declus, 
although she appears on the coins 
with Alexander Severus. 
Julia Mamaea, sister of Soaemias, and 
mother of Severus Alexander. Bom 
— ; assassinated 235 a.d. Some 
coins represent her with Alexander 
Severus and Orbiana. The coins of 
Mamaea are numerous. 
Uranius Antotiinus. Bom — ; had him- 
self proclaimed Emperor in Asia in 
the town of Emisa in Syria, during 
the reign of Alexander Severus ; but 
was defeated and taken prisoner soon 
after. G. — B,.^ This piece of Roman, 
money is the only one which is known 
of his; it was struck in Asia, and 
probably at Emisa in Sjniia. 
Jliaximinus J. Bom 173 a.d. ; Emperor 
235 ; assassinated 238. G. — 'RJ^ R.^ 
S. — C. — R.' Br. — C. — R.8 Some coins 
represent him with his son Maximus. 
Paulina, wife of Maximinus. No par- 
ticulars are known respecting this 
princess. S.— R.* Br. — R.« R.* We 
believe this princess to be the wife 
of Maximinus, from the great resem- 
blance which the portrait of Maximus 
on his coins bears to hers, and the 
great likeness between the coins of 

T T 2 



644 



BOMAN IMPEEIAL COURAGE. 



Maximinus and Maximus and hen. 
All the coins of Paulina represent her 
consecration, so that it is believed she 
died before her husband. 

MaximuSy son of Maximinus. Bom — ; 
obtained the name of CsBsar 235 a.d. ; 
killed 238 a.d. G.— R* 8.— R.* *.» 
Br. — R.^ R.B Some coins represent 
him "with his father Maximinus. 

Junia Fadilla^ wife of Maximus. All 
that is known of this princess is, that 
Maximinus wished to marry his son 
to her, being grandniece to the 
Emperor Antoninus, but this marriage 
was not effected, as the father and 
son were both killed. The coins 
attributed to this princess are 
false. 

TUus Quartinus. Proclaimed himself 
Emperor in Germany during the 
reign of Maximinus ; killed soon 
after. There is a coin attributed to 
him, bearing on one side the inscrip- 
tion " Divo Tito," and on the reverse 
" Consecratio;" but this coin is one 
of those struck by Gallienus in 
honour of his predecesssors who had 
been ranked among the gods ; the 
present one is in honour of Titus. 

Gordianus Africaniu I. (Pater). Bom 
158 A.i>. ; proclaimed Emperor in 
Africa, and acknowledged by the 
senate ; killed himself about forty 
days afterwards. S. — R.* R.* Br. — 
R.^ R.^. These Latin coins were 
struck, without doubt, at Carthage. 

Gordianus Jfricantu II. (FiUus) son of 
Gordianus Africanus I. Born ] 92 a.d.; 
Emperor with his father 238 ; killed 
about forty days afterwards. S. — R.* 
Br. — R.* These coins were, without 
doubt, minted in Carthage, like those 
of his father. 

Balhimia. Born 178 a.d. ; Emperor with 
Pupienus 238 ; massacred after a 
reign of three months. G. — ^R* S. — 
R.1R.S Br.— R.«R.« 

Pupienus. Born 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror with Balbinus 238 ; massacred 
about three months afterwards. G. 
— R.8 S.— R.« Br.— R.« R.« 

Gordianus Pius III.^ nephew of Gordianus 
Africanus. Born 222 a.d. ; Caesar 
238 ; Emperor the same year ; assassi- 
nated 244. G.— R.i R.» S.— C.— R.' 



Br. — C. — R.® The coins of this prince 
are numerous. 

Tranquillinaf wife of Gordianus in. Born 
— ; died after her husband. S.— JL* 
Br.— R.» 

PlUlippus I. (Pater). Bom 204 a.d.; 
Emperor 244 ; killed 249. G.— R.« 
R.8 S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.6 Some 
coins represent him with Otacilia and 
Philip, his son. The coins of Philip 
are numerous. 

Ifarcia Otacilia Severa (wife of Philip 
the elder). Bom — ; died after 
her husband. G. — K.* B,.* S.— C 
— R.* Br. — C. — ^R'. Some coins re- 
present her with Philip the father and 
son. 

Philippus II. (FiUus). Bom 237 a.d. 
Caesar, 244. Associated in the em- 
pire with the title of Augustus, 247 ; 
killed 249. G.— R.* R.* S,— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.' Some coins represent 
him with Philip the elder. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Marinus. Proclaimed Emperor in MoesU 
and Pannonia, 249 a.d. ; killed soon 
afterwards. The coins which have been 
attributed to this prince are Greek, but 
their attribution is doubtful. These 
coins were minted in Arabia, and most 
likely belong to a relation of the Em. 
peror Philip, and perhaps to his 
father. 

Jotapianus, Proclaimed Emperor in 
Syria, 248 a.d. ; put to death soon 
after. S. — ^R.* This coin was, with- 
out doubt, minted in Syria. 

Pacatianus. This personage was pro* 
claimed Emperor about this i>eriod, 
and is only known by his coins. S. — 
R.^ It is thought from his coins that] 
Pacatianus had himself proclaime 
emperor in the reign of Philip 
Trajanus Decius ; but it is uncerts 
It is believed that he reigned 
Greece, because his coins were foi 
there. Some authors think that- 
was proclaimed in Moesia and Pa 
nonia ; others, that Marinus and 
catianus were the same persons. 

Sponsianus. Proclaimed Emperor at 
this period, and only known by 
coins. G. — ^R.'' We believe that Sj 
sianus was declared emperor al 
this time, the fabric of his 



BOMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



645 



being eyidently of this epoch. The 
place of his revolt is uncertain, as 
he is not mentioned by any of the 
ancient authors. 

TVc^anusDecius. Bom 201 a.b. ; Emperor, 
249; drowned in a hog, 251. G. — 
K.* R.* S.—C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.6 
Some coins represent him with Etrus- 
cilla, Hostilius, and Herennius. 

JEtrtucilla (wife of Decius). This prin- 
cess is only known by her coins. G. — 
R.» S.— C.— R.1 Br.— C— R.* 

Serenniua Mruacua (son of Decius). 
Caesar, 249 ; Augustus, 251 ; killed 
same year. G. — ^R.^ S. — C. — R.** 
Br.— R«. R.8 

Sostilianus (son of Decius). Ceesar, 
249 ; Emperor with Gallus, 251 ; died 
same year. G. — R.^ 8. — C. — R.* 
Br. — ^R.* R.6. Some coins represent 
him with Yolusianus. 

Volusicmus (son of Gallus). Caesar, 251 ; 
Emperor, 252 ; killed, 254. G. — R*. 
R.6 S.—C— R.* Br.— C.— R'. 

Aemilius Aemilianus, Bom 208 a.d. ; 
Emperor in Moesia, 253 ; killed, 254. 
G.— R.» 8.— R.1 R.« Br.— R.« 

Cornelia Supera (wife of Aemilianus). 
This princess is only known by her 
coins. S. — R.* Br. — R.® It was 
long believed that she was the wife of 
Gallus or of Valerian, but Eckhel has 
proved to the contrary. 

Vdlerianua Senior. Born 190 A.n. ; 
Emperor, 253 ; made prisoner to the 
Persians, 260 ; died, 263. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Mariniana, believed to be the second 
wife of Valerian. This princess is 
only known by her coins. G. — R.^ 
R». 8.— R«. R.* 

GalliefiitB (son of Valerian, by his first 
wife). Emperor, 253 ; assassinated, 
268. G.— R.«R.« 8.- R.» Po. — C. 
— B.fi Br. — C— R.* R.» During 
the reign of Gallienus, many generals 
declared themselves emperors ; and 



was about thirty, 
called the thirty 



as their number 

they have been 

tyrants. 
Salonina (wife of Gallienus). Assassinated 

208. G.— R.* R.« 8.— R.« Po.— 

C— R.« Br.— C— R.* 
Saloninus (sonof Gallienns). Bom242A.n.; 

Ceesar, 253 ; put to death, 259. G. — 



R.« R.8 S.— R.8 Po.— C— R.* 8.— 
C. — R8. Some coins represent him 
with Gallienus. 

Quintfis Julius Gallienus (youngest son of 
Gallienus) . No coins can be attributed 
to this prince with any certainty. 

Valerianus Junior (brother of GaUienus). 
Assassinated 268. The coins that 
were attributed to this prince have 
been restored to Saloninus. 

Lieinia Galliena (aunt to Gallienus). No 
particulars are known of this princess. 
The coins attributed to her are false. 

Postumus (Pater.) Proclaimed Emperor 
in Gaul, 258 ; killed in 267. G.— 
R.* R.8 Po.— C— R.8 8.— C— R.6. 
Some coins of Postumus bear also 
another head, which has long been 
considered to be that of his son. The 
coins of Postumus are numerous. All 
were struck in Gaul. 

Julia Donata (believed to be the wife of 
Postumus.) Nothing is known of this 
empress, whose existence is hardly 
proved. The coins that have been 
published are false. 

Fostumus (Pilius). Declared Augustus in 
Gaul 258 ; killed in 267. Nothing is 
known of this emperor, except that 
there are coins attributed to him, 
which truly belong to his father, and 
the heads which appear on the reverse 
of the coins of the latter, are pro- 
bably those of Mars and Hercules. All 
the coins of Postumus the Younger 
(if any exist) were struck in Gaul. 

Laelianus. Little is known of this per- 
sonage, who caused himself to be ac- 
knowledged Emperor in Gaul during 
the reign of Gallienus. G. — R.8 Po. 
— R.» R.» Br.— R.« R.* Laelianus 
and the two following — Lollianus and 
Aelianus — according to their money, 
appear to be three different person- 
ages. It must be observed that a 
great number of coins attributed to 
these three are doubtful. The coins 
of Laelianus were struck in Graul. 

Lollianus, No details are known of this 
prince. Br. — ^R.8 

Q^intus Valens Aelianus. No facts are 
known of this emperor. Br. — R.8 
See the observations on Laelianus. 

Victcrinus (Pater). Associated in the 
empire of Gaul by Postumus 265 ; 



636 



BABITT or BOMAK CONSFLAB OOIKAGE. 



Pompeia (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B.^ 
S. — C. Some of the pieces of Sextus 
Fompey the younger have the name 
of this family. 
Fomponia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ 
Poreia (a Plebeian family). 8.— C. The 
copper pieces were struck in Cyrenaica. 
Fostumia (a Patrician family). S. — C. 
B-oeiUa (a Plebeian famUy). Br.— B.^ 
Froculeia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^B.^ 
Fupia (a family of doubtful extraction). 
The bronze pieces of this family were 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

a 

Quinetia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). S. — B.^ Some pieces 
of this family were struck in Mace- 
donia. The copper pieces are either 
Ases, or of the mint of Augustus. 

B. 

Senia, S. — C. 

JRoscia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Btibellia (an equestrian family). The 

bronze pieces of this family are of 

the mint of Augustus. 
Eubria (a Plebeian family). S. — C. Some 

silver pieces were restored by Trajan. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of the As. 
Rustia. G.— B.8 S.—B.^ 
EtOiUa (a Plebeian famUy). S.— B.^ 

8. 

Salvia (a Plebeian family). Some silver 
and copper pieces with the name of 
this family are of the mint of Angus- 
tus, as are th6se of the uncertain 
family named Sanquinia. 

Sabrienus. S. — C. This is a surname, 
but to what family it belongs is not 
known. 

Saufeia (a Plebeian family). S. — H.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of Ases. 

Scribonia (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B.^ 
S. — C. Some of the silver pieces were 
restored by Trajan. The bronze pieces 
are Ases, or parts of the As. 

Sempronia (a family of uncertain ex- 
traction). S. — C. Some gold and 



silver pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus and Julius Csesar. The 
bronze pieces are Ases, or parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Mare 
Antony and Augustus. 

Sentia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Sepullia (a family of uncertain extraction). 
S. — B.* B.^ Some silver pieces are 
of the mint of Augustus and Mare 
Antony. 

Sergia (a Patrician family). S. — ^B^. 

ServUia (a Patrician but afterwards 
Plebeian famUy). G. — ^B.* 8.— C. 
The bronze pieces are parts of Ases. 

Sestia, (A Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). S.— B.« R.* 

Sicinia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). 8. — ^B.^ 

SUia (a Plebeian family). G.>-B.^ 
8. — B.^ The bronze pieces are of 
the mint of Augustus. 

Sosia (a Plebeian family). Br. — B.* 
Some of the pieces are of Mare 
Antony. 

SpurUia (a family of doubtful extraction). 
S.--B.1 

Statia (a Plebeian family). S.^B.^ 
Br.— B.« 

Statilia, Some of the bronze pieces of 
this family are of the mint ot An- 
gustus, or Spanish pieces. 

Sulpicia (a Patrician and Plebeian family) . 
G. — B.8 8. — C.Br. — ^B.* Some of the 
silver pieces were restored by Tnjaa. 

T. 

Tarquitia (a Patrician and Plebeian 

family). 8— B.« 
Terentia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parti 

of Ases, or of the mint of Augustas. 
Thoria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 
TUia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C.— B.« 

Some of the silver pieces were resfeored 

by Trajan. The bronze pieces were 

Ases or parts of the As. 
TUinia (a Patrician and Plebeian ISsmil)^. 

8. — C. The bronze pieces are Aaes, 

or parts of the As. 
TUuria. 8.— C. 
Trebania, S. — ^B.^ The bronze piiees 

are Ases, or parts of the As. 
Tidlia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 

8. — ^B.^ Some silver piecea ni this 



EOMAK IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



637 



family were restored by Trajan. The 
name may be seen on some cistophori 
of Laodicea in Fhrygria. Upon an 
antonomons bronze coin of Magrnesia, 
in Lydia, this name is foand with a 
portrait attribnted to Cicero. 



V. 

Valeria (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
S. — C. Some of the gold and silyer 
pieces of this family are of the mints 
of Augustus and Marc Antony. 

Vargunteia. S. — "R?- The bronze pieces 
are parts of the As. 

Ventidia (a Plebeian family). There is 
a silver piece of Marc Antony which 
bears the name of this family. 

fettia, S. — ^R. 



Veturia (a Patrician family). G. — 'R* 

8.— R.« 
Vibia (a Plebeian family). G.— K.'' 8. 

— C. The bronze pieces are Ases, 

or parts of the As. 
Vinieia (a Plebeian family). 8.— E.« 

Some silver pieces are of the mint of 

Augustus. 
Voeonia (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the gold and silver pieces of this 

family are of the mints of Julius 

Ceesar and Octavius. 
Volteia. S. — C. 
Of the uncertain coins of the families. 

G.— C— E.» S.— C— R.» Under 

this head are classed those pieces 

which were struck under the Re- 

public, without indication of the mints 

or divisions of the As. 



IMPERIAL COINAGE OF ROME. 

» 

COINS OF THE EMPERORS, EMPRESSES, C^SARS, AND 
TYRANTS, OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 

AlTD OTHSS PBB80KAOB8 WHOSE POBTKAITS OB KAHBS OCCUB OK THE BOHAK COINAOB, 
FBOM POHPBT THE OBBAT TO THE FALL OF THE BABTEBN EHPIBE. 

STATING THEIR COMFARATITE DEGREES OT RARITY. 



The Gold are marked G. ; the Silver, S.; the Bronae^ or Copper, Br. (for Bronze) ; the Lead 
is marked L.; Electrum, El. C. expresses Common; R^, Boure; R^ more rare; R^, 
9tiU more so, up to B7 and R^. 



C^MMiM Pompeius (Magnus). Bom 106 
B.O. ; killed 48 e.g. G. — R.* S. — 
R.* R." ; Br. — ^R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with his sons Cnaeus Pom. 
peius and Sextus Pompeius. — ^There 
are some silver coins restored by 
Trajan. 

Oaiua Julius Ceesar, Bom 100 b.c. ; 
made Perpetual Dictator 44 b.c. ; and 
killed the same year. G. — ^R.^ R.'' 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. Many coins 
represent him with Marc Antony and 
Augustus. 

Chaeus Pompeius, son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom — b.c; killed 45 b.c. 



S. — ^R.* R.'' Some coins represent 
him with his father Cnaeus Pompeius 
Magnus, and his brother Sextus Pom- 
peius. He bore, like his father, the 
surname of Magnus. 

Sextus Pompeius, second son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom 65 e.g. ; killed 35 b.c. 
G.— R.» S.— R.1 R.* .With and 
without his head. Some coins repre- 
sent him with his father and brother, 
Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cnaeus 
Pompeius the Younger. 

Marcus Junius Brutus. Bom 85 b.c. ; 
died 42 b.c. G.-— R.' S.— R.* R.« 
With and without portrait ; with the 



638 



BOMAN IMPIBIA.L COINAGE. 



heads of the two Brutases. There 
are among these, some coins restored 
by Trajan. 
Oaiut Oasaiu$ Longmua. Date of birth 
unknown ; died 42 B.C. O. — ^B.* S. 
— ^B.^ B.* These coins do not bear 
the head of Cassius. 
Marcw ^militts Lepidui. Date of birth 
unknown ; died 18 B.C. O. — ^B.' 
S. — B.' B.^ Some coins represent 
him with Marc Antony and OctaTins. 
Marcus Antoniua, Bom 83 b.c. ; died 
80 B.C. G.— B.» B.» S.— C.— B.* Br. 
B.1 B.^ With and without his head. 
Some coins represent him with Julius 
Cffisar, Lepidus, Cleopatra, Marc An- 
tony (his son), Lucius Anton^us, and 
Augustus. 
OctaviOf wife of Mare Antony. Died 
10 or 11 B.C. G. — ^B.* This coin 
represents her with Marc Antony. 
Marctu Antonius, son of Marc Antony. 
Killed 36 B.c. G. — B.* This coin 
represents him with Marc Antony, his 
father. 
CleopatrOf Queen of Egypt. Made queen 
66 B.C. ; killed herself 36 b.c G. — 
B.« 8. — B.* Br. — B.* Most of these 
coins represent her with Marc Antony. 
The gold coins are doubtful. 
Ckiiua Antonitu, brother of Marc Antony. 
KiUed 44 or 43 B.C. G.— B.« With- 
out portrait. 
iMcius Antoniuiy brother of Marc Antony. 
Bom — ; died—. G.— B.* 8.— B.* 
These coins represent him with Marc 
Antony, his brother. 
Caitu Octavitu Oaepeas Auffttsttu. Bom 
63 B.C. ; declared Emperor 29 b.c. ; 
obtained the name of Augustus 27 
B.C. ; died 14 a.d. G. — C.— B.* 8. — 
C. — ^B.« Br. — C. — ^B.» Some coins 
represent him with Julius Caesar, Le- 
pidus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Julia, Caius 
and Julius, and Germanicus. There 
are many of his coins restored by 
Claudius, Nero, Titus, Domitian, 
Nerva) and Trajan. The coins of 
Augustus are numerous. 
lAvia, wife of Augustus. Bom 57 b.c ; 
died 29 a.d. S. — C. — ^B.* The coins 
of this princess, struck in Bome, do 
not bear her head ; she is repre- 
sented as Justice, Piety, and Health, 
and she is called Julia Augusta. 



The name of Julia she took after 
Augustus's death. On Greek mcney 
she is called Livia. 
Maretu Agr^^pa, son-in-law of AngMtm. 
Bom 68 B.C. ; died 12 B.C. G.— S.* 
S. — ^B.'B.'Br. — C. — ^R.* Someooiu 
represent him with Au^^stas. There 
are coins restored by Titos, DomitkBi, 
and Trajan. 
Jf(/ta, daughter oi Augustas, wife d 
Maritts Maroellinus, Marcus Agrippa, 
and, lastly, of Tiberius. BmrnSSB-c.; 
died of stanration by command of 
Tiberius, a.d. 14. Her name appesn 
on the coins of Augustas, with the 
heads of her sons Caius and Lucios. 
There are Greek coins with the por- 
trait of this princess alone. 

Oaius et ZuctiM, sons of Marcos AgriHi* 
and Julia. Caius, bom 20 b.c. ; 
Cfl&sar, 17 b.c; dieid 4 a.d. Lucios, 
bom 17 B.C.; Cssar, the same year; 
died 2 a.d. These two princes are 
named t<^r^her <mi tiie coins of 
Augustus. We do not find their 
portraits except on Colonial coins. 

AffHppa PostumtUy son of Marcus Agrippa 
and Julia. Bom 12 B.c. ; obtained 
the name of Csesar 4 a.d. ; killed 14 
A.D. Of this Ceesar no coins are 
known, except a Greek and one 
colonial. 

Tf^erkUy son-in-law of Augustus. Bom 
42 B.C. ; obtained the title of Ceesar 
4 A.D. ; declared Emperor 14 a.d. ; 
smothered, by order of Caligula, 37 
A.D. G.— C.— B.« S. — C. — ^B.* Br.— 
C. — ^B.** Some coins are without his 
head; others represent him with 
Augustus and Drusus the Younger. 
There are some coins restored by Titos, 
Domitian, and Trajan. 

Druatis Junior, son of Tiberius. Bom 
13 B.C. ; poisoned by his wife, 23 a.i). 
Br. — C. — B.« Most of the eoins of this 
prinee,and all those in silrer, represent 
him on the reverse of Tiberius. Some 
of them are without his portiait 
There are eoins restored by Titus and 
Domitian. 

Drusus Senior, brother of Tiberius. Bon 
88 B.C. ; died 9 a.d. G. — B.* 6,— 
B.* Br. — B.* There are some coini 
struck by Claudius, and othen re- 
stored by Titus and Domitian. 



BOMAjr IMPEBIAL COINAGE. 



639 



A^ntoma, wife of Drnsus Senior. Bom 
88 B.C. ; poisoned 88 a.d. G. — "R,* 
8.— R.* 

iSrermanieus, son of Dmsus Senior and 
Antonia. BomlSB.c. ; obtained the 
title of Cffisar 4 a.d. ; was poisoned 
19 A.D. G.— E.* Il.« S.— R.* R.« 
Br. — C. — ^R.8 Nearly all the ooins 
represent him "vrith Angrustus, CaU. 
^ola, and Agrippina. There are 
e<Hns restored by Titus and Domitian. 

Affrijppina Senior^ 'wife of Germanicus. 
Bom 15 B.C. ; was starred to death, 
by <wdcr of Tiberius 83 a.d. G. — ^R.* 
B.8 g.— R.4 Br.— R.«R.8 Most of 
the coins represent her with Caligrola 
and Germanicus. There are coins 
Te8t<Nred by Titus. 

Nero and Drtt8tt$, sons of Germanicus 
and Agrippina. Nero bom 7 a.d. ; 
died of starvation, by order of 
Tiberius 31 a.d. Drususbom 8 a.d. ; 
died of hunger by command of Tibe- 
rius 33 A.D. Br. — C. They are 
represented t(^ether on horseback. 

Oaiua commonly called CbZ^rit;a,son of Ger- 
manicus and Agrippina. Bom 1 2 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 37 a.d.; killed 
41 A.D. G.— R.* R.* S.— R.« R.* 
Br. — C. — ^R.^ The name of Caligula 
was given to this emperor, because 
he had worn from his infancy the 
military boot (Caliga). Some coins 
represent him with Germanicus and 
his mother Afrrippina. 

OlaudiOy first wife of Caligula. Date of 
birth unknown ; married 33 a.d. ; 
died 36 a.d. The coins which are 
attributed to this princess are false. 
This first wife of Caligula is some 
times called by writers Junia Clau- 
dilla. 

Oaeaonia^ fourth wife of Caligula. Born 
— ; married 39 a.d. ; killed 41 a.d. 
The coins which are attributed to this 
princess do not belong to her. 

Druailla, daughter of Caesonia. Born 
— ; killed 41 a.d. The ooins which 
are attributed to this princess are 
false. 

JDrtuUla, sister of Caligula. Bom 1 7 a.d. ; 
died 38 a.d. There are no Roman 
coins of this princess ; those which are 
attributed to her being false. Some 
•ay that there is the head of this 



princess on the reverse of a gold coin 
of Caligula. There «re Greek coins 
of DrusiUa. 
JiOia lAvUlaf sister of Caligula. Bom 
18 A.D. ; killed 41 a.d. This princess 
is called by historians Julia or Livilla. 
No Roman coin can be attributed to 
this princess with certainty. Julia 
Livilla may be found on Greek coins. 

OlattdiitSf son of Drusus Senior (the bro- 
ther of Tiberius) and Antonia. Bom 
10 B.C.; declared Emperor 41 a.d.; 
died by poiscm 54 a.d. G. — ^R.^ R.« 
S.— -C. — R.3 Br.— C. — R.* Some 
coins represent him with Agrippina 
the Tounger. Some of his coins 
were restored by Titus and Trajan. 
Claudius betrothed two women, but 
did not marry then, .£milia Lepida 
and Livia Medullina Camilla ; and 
had three wives, Plautita Urgulanilla, 
Aelia Fetina, and Valeria Messalina. 
The first four are not mentioned on 
any coins. 

Valeria Meaaalina^ third wife of Claudius. 
Bom — ; killed 48 a.d. No coins 
of this princess are known, except 
some Colonial Greek. 

Agrippina the Younger^ sister of Caligula 
and fourth wife of Claudius. Born 
16 A.D. ; assassinated 59 a.d. G. — 
R." S.— R.1 R.« Br.— R.» Some 
ooins represent her with Claudius 
and with Nero. 

Claudia^ daughter of Claudius and Plautia 
Urgulanilla. Born — ; killed 65 
A.D. We do not know of any Roman 
coins of this princess. Her name is 
to be found on a Colonial coin, and 
her portrait on two pieces— on a Co- 
lonial and the other of Alexandria. 

Britanrtieus^ son of Claudius and Messa- 
lina. Bom 42 A.D. ; was poisoned 
55A.D. Br. — R.8 

Nero, the younger son of Cnaeus Domi- 
tins Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, and 
son-in-law of Claudius. Bom 87 a.d. ; 
obtained the name of Cssar 50 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 54 a.d. ; killed 
himself 68 A.D. G.— C— R.* S.— C. 
— R.* Br. — C. — ^R.6 The coins of this 
emperor are numerous. Some of 
them represent him with Agrippina 
the Tounger. 

Odaviay first wife of Nero. Bom 42 or 



640 



BOHAN IMFEBIJLL COTNXQJU. 



43 A.B. ; compelled to kill herself by 
opening her veins 6 2 a.d. No Roman 
coins are known of this princess. 
There are, however, some Colonial 
Greek. 

PoppaeOf second wife of Nero. Bom 
— ; died 66 a.d., from the effects 
of a kick given her by Nero. "We do 
not know of any coins of this princess 
except a silver Greek, which is doubt- 
fol, and two Colonial coppers of her 
daughter Claudia (also uncertain), 
which bear her name on the reverse. 

StoHlla Messalinay third wife of Nero. 
Bom — ; died a.d. No Soman 
coins are known of this empress, but 
there are some Greek. 

Claudia^ daughter of Nero and Poppaea. 
Bom 64 A.D. ; died the same year, 
aged 4 months. There are no coins 
of this princess except a leaden one, 
which bears her head on the reverse 
of a coin of Nero her father ; also two 
Colonial bronze, which .bear her 
name, but these are doubtful. 



Clodius Macer. Born 



deprived of 



his power in Africa where he was 
governor 68 a.d. ; and was killed the 
same year. 8. — R.® R.* These coins 
were struck in Africa. 
Oalba. Born 8 b.c. ; declared Emperor 

68 A.D. ; killed 69 a.d. G.— R." R.* 
8.— C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.« Some of 
these coins were restored by Titus and 
by Trajan. 

Otho. Bom 32 a.d. ; declared Emperor 

69 A.D. ; conquered by Yitellius and 
killed himself the same year. G. — R.* 
8. — ^R.^ R.S There are only Colonial 
Brass of Otho. 

ViteUius. Bom 15 a.d.; declared Em- 
peror 69 A.D. ; and put to death by Yes. 
pasian's soldiers the same year. G. — 
R.* R.8 s.— C— R.* Br.— R.« R.* 

Lucius yitellius^ father of Yitellius. 
Bom — ; died 48 or 49 a.d. G. 
— R.* 8. — R.* Some coins re- 
present him with the Emperor Yitel- 
lius his son. 

Vespasianua. Born 9 a.d. ; declared 
Emperor 69, died 79. G. — C. — ^R.* 
S. — C. — R.* Br.— C— R.* The coins 
of Yespasian are numerous ; some of 
them represent him with his sons Titus 
and Domitian, others only bear their 
names. Some of the Roman coins of 



Yespasian were struclc in Antiofih in 
Syria. Some of these coins were 
restored by Trajan. 

Fkma DomUillat wife of YespasiBn. 
Bom — ; died before her hnsband 
was made ranperor. G. — R.* 8. — 
R.A R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Yespasian. 

DomitUlaf daughter of Yespasian and 
Flavia Domitilla. Bom — ; died 
before her father became emperor. 
Br. — R.* Without her portrait. 

PoUot mother of Yespasian. Bom — . 
died — . The coins attributed to 
the mother of Yespasian are false. 

TituSf son of Yespasian and Flavia Domi^ 
tilla. Bom 41 a.d. ; obtained the 
title of Ceesar 69. Shared the sove- 
reign power with his father, with the 
title of Emperor 71.; became sole 
emperor 79 ; died 81. G. — C. — R.* 
S. — C. — ^R.^ Br.— C. — ^R.* Theooias 
of Titus are numerous ; some repre- 
sent him with Yespasian, Domitian, 
and with his daughter Julia. Arricidia 
(who is not named on any coin) and 
Marcia Fumilla were his wives. 

Mareia Fumilla^ second wife of Titus. 
Born — . Repudiated by Titus be- 
fore his advancement to the throne. 
Died — . No Roman coins are known 
of Furnilla. There is a Greek coin 
attributed to her. 

Jtt/ta, daughter of Titus and Fumilla. 
Bom -»- ; died — G.— C— R.8 S.— 
R.*R.« Br.— R.« 

DomitianuSf son of Yespasian and Fla- 
via Domitilla. Born 51 a.d.; ob- 
tained the name of Ceesar 69 ; declared 
Emperor 81 ; assassinated 96. G. — 
C— R.8 s.— C.— R.8 Br.— «.— R.* 
The coins of this emperor are numo*- 
ous ; some represent him with Yes- 
pasian, Titus, and with his wife 
Domitia. 

DomUia, vnfe of Domitian. Bom — ; 
died 140 A.D. G.— R.6 8.— R.*R.* 
Br. — ^R.* R.^ Some coins r^yresent 
her with Domitian and wiUi his 
son. 

Anonymw, son of Domitian emd Domitia. 
Born 82 a.d. ; died young ? 7%iB child 
whose name is not known is repre- 
sented on the coins with his moflier. 

Vespasianus the Yotmger^ son of Flavins 
Clementis Domitianus. We know 



JEtOMA^ IMPERIAL COINAGE. 



641 



nothing of this parent of Vespasian. 
Of Vespasian the Younger there are 
only some Greek coins of Smyrna 
known. 
Jferva, Bom 32 A.n. ; declared Em- 
peror 96 ; died 98. G.— R.« R.« 8.— 
C. — ^R.* Br. — C. — R.^* The coins of 
this prince are numerous. Some re- 
present him with Trajan. 

I^qfonus. Born 53 a.d. ; associated in 
the Empire with Nerva, with the 
titles of Ceesar and Emperor, but 
without that of Augustus 97 ; de- 
clared sole Emperor 98 ; died 117. 
G.— C— R.6 S.— C— R.8 Br.— C. 
— R.* Trajan restored many of the 
coins of the Roman Families and of 
his predecessors. Many coins repre- 
sent him with Nerya his father, 
Plotina, and Hadrian. The coins of 
Trajan are very numerous, and it is to 
be remarked that his coins are struck 
with the metals of different countries, 
such as Dalmatia, Pannonia, &c. 

Plotinaf wife of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 129 a.d. G— R.* R.» S.— R.« 
Some coins represent her with Trajan, 
Matidia, and Hadrian. 

Trqf'antu Pater^ father of the Emperor 
Trajan. Bom — ; died 100 a.d. ; 
G. — ^R.* S. — R.* These coins repre- 
sent him with the Emperor Trajan 
his son. 

Marciana^ sister of Trajan. Bom — ; 
died 144 a.d. G.— R.« S.— R.« Br. 
— R.* Some of her coins bear the 
name of Matidia. 

Matidia^ daughter of Marciana. Bom — ; 
died in the reign of Antoninus. 
G.— R.« S.— R.« Br.— R.8 Some 
ccnns represent her with Plotina, 
others bear the name of Marciana. 

SadrianuSf son-in-law of Matidia and 
Trajan. Bom 76 a.d. ; adopted by 
Trajan 117 ; made Emperor the same 
year ; died 138. G.— C.— R.* S.— 
C. — R.® Br. — C. — R.® Some coins 
represent him with Trajan, Plotina, 
Sabina, and Antoninus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. It is 
to be remarked that many bear the 
names of the different provinces over 
which he travelled. 

Ba(nnay wife of Hadrian. Born — ; 
killed herself 137 a.d. G,— R.« S. 



— C. — R.* Br. — C. — ^R.* Some coins 
represent her with Hadrian. 

M,iu8. Born — ; adopted by Hadrian 
135 or 136 A.n., with the name of 
Ceesar; died 138 a.d. G.— R.* R.* 
S.— R.a Br.— C.— R8. 

Antinow, the favourite of Hadrian. Born 
— ; died 130 a.d. There are only 
Greek coins of Antiuous. 

Antoninus Pius. Bom 86 a.d. ; adopted 
by Hadrian and named Ceesar, 138 
A.D. ; declared Emperor the same 
year; died 161 A.D. G.—C.—R.8 S. 
— C. — R.« Br. — C. — R.8 Some coins 
represent him with Hadrian, Faustina, 
Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus. 
The coins of this emperor are nume- 
rous. "We must remark that a great 
many of them are bronze medallions. 

Faustina Seninr^ wife of Antoninus Pius. 
BomlOdA.D.; died 141 a.d. G. — C. — 
R.» S.— C— R.* Br.— C— R.^ Some 
coins represent her with Antoninus. 
The coins of Faustina, the mother, 
are numerous. 

Galerius Antoninus^ son of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina. Bom — ; died 
young, before his father came to the 
throne. There are only Greek coins 
known of this child. 

Marcus AureliuSf son-in-law of Antoninus 
Pius. Bom 121 a.d.; adopted by 
Antoninus, 138, with the name of 
Ceesar ; made Emperor 161 ; died 180. 
G.— C— R.* S.— C.— R.* Br.— C— 
R." Some coins represent him yritli 
Antoninus, Faustina the Toung, Lu- 
cius Verus, and Ck>mmodus. The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

Faustina the YenrngeTf cousin and wife of 
Marcus Aurelius. Bom — ; died 175 
A.D. G.— C.— R.* S.— C— R.* Br.— 
C. — R.6 Some coins represent her 
with Marcus Aurelius. The coins of 
Faustina the Younger are very 
numerous. 
Anniiu VeruSy the youngest son of Marcus 
Aurelius andFaustina. Bom 163 a.d. ; 
obtained the name of Csesar 166 ; 
died 170. B.— R.6 R.» 
Lucius VeruSy son of JSlius Csesar, and 
son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius. Born 
130 A.D. ; adopted by Antoninus, 
without the title of Ceesar, 137 ; as- 
sociated in the empire, with the titles 

T T 



642 



BOHAX IMPERIAL COiKjL&E. 



of Caflar and Augustus, by Marcus 
Aurelius, 151 ; poisoned 169. G. — 
C— R.« S.— C— R.8 Br.— C.— R.« 
Some coins represent him with Anto- 
ninus and Marcus Aurelius. The 
coins of Lucius Yerus are very 
numerous. 

Lueilla, the youngest daughter of Marcus 
Aurelius and Faustina, and wife of 
Lucius Yerus. Bom 147 a. n. ; exiled 
183 to Capr», by order of Gommodus, 
and put to death soon afterwards. G. 
— R.i R.» S.— C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.7 

ChmmoduSy elder son of Marcus Aurelius 
and Faustina the Younger. Bom 161 
▲.n. ; obtained the name of Csesar 
166 ; associated in the empire, with 
the title of £mperor, 176 ; obtained 
the name of Augustus 177 ; declared 
sole emperor 180 ; strangled 192. G. 
— R.»R.» 8.— C— R.* Br.— C— R.8 
Some coins represent him with Mar- 
cus Aurelius, Crispina, and Annius 
Yerus. On some of his coins we meet 
with the head of a woman without 
any name. We beliere it to be that 
of the concubine of Commodus whose 
name was Marcia. Commodus had 
a particular devotion forHerculeB,and 
he is often represented with the attri- 
butes of this Demigod, and he is called 
the Herculean Commodus. The coins 
of this emperor are yery numerous. 

CW«pt»a, wife of Commodus. Bom — ; 
died young, 183 A.D. G. — R.* S. — 
C. — R.^ Br. — C. — R.'' Some coins 
represent her with Commodus. 

Pertinax. Bom 126 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 192 ; assassinated by the soldiers 
after a reign of 87 days. G. — R.* R.« 
S.— R.*R.« Br.— R.*R.'' 

Titiana^ wife of Pertinax. Bom — ; 
On the death of her husband she 
retired from public life, where she 
died. There are only Greek coins of 
this Princess. 

Vidius Julianus. Bom 138 a.d. ; de- 
clared Emperor 198 ; put to death 
after a reign of 66 days. G. — R.* 
S.— R.« Br.— R.« R.« 

Manlia Scantilla, wife of Didius Julianus. 
Bom — ; retired from public life, 
on the death of her husband. G. — 
R.8 S.— R.6 Br.— R.* R.' 

Hidia Glara^ daughter of Didius Julianus 



and Scantilla. Bom 158 xj^. ; died 
— ; G.— R.» S.— R.« Br.— R.* 

Peteennius Niger. Bom — ; declared 
himself Emperor in Syria 193 ; killed 
194. G.— R.8 S.— R.» R.' The Roman 
eoins of Pescennius Niger were struck 
in Syria, probably at Antioch. 

CHodkis AVnwus. Bom — ; named Caesar 
by Septimus Sevens 193 ; being 
at that time Governor of Britain, he 
took the title of Emperor of Britain 
and Gaul, 196; defeated and killed 
by Septimus Severus 197 ; G — ^R.* 
S. — ^R.*R.* Br. — R.*R.8 The Roman 
coins of Albinus with the title of 
Caesar^ were struck at Rome during 
the time that there existed an alliance 
between him and Septimus Severus 
when the latter conferred upon Albi- 
BUS the title of Ceesar. Those coins 
which bear the title of Emperor and 
of Augustus were struck in Gaul, 
and perhaps some of them in Britain 
after Albinus had taken the title of 
emperor. 

SqpUmus Severut. Bom 146 a.d. ; de- 
dared Emperor 193 ; became master 
of the whole empire 197; died 211. 
G.— R.« R.« S.— C.— R.* Br.— C.— R.« 
Some coins represent him with JuHa 
Donma, Caracalla, and Geta. The 
coins of this emperor are numerous. 

Julia Domna, wife of Septimus Severus. 
Bom — ; starved herself to death 
217. G.— R.«R.8 S.— C.— R.» Br.— 
C. — R*. Some coins represent • her 
with Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and 
Geta. The coins of this empress are 
numerous. 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus^ commonly 
called Oaracalla, son of Septimus Se- 
verus and Julia. Bom 188 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name of Csesar 196 ; that of 
Augustus 198 ; Emperor with his bro- 
ther Geta 211; sole emperor 212; 
assassinated 217. G. — ^R.* R.» S. — C. 
— B.fi Br. — C. — R.' The name of 
Caracalla was given to the eldest son 
of Septimus Severus from a new sort 
of garment which he introduced and 
frequently wore. Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, Geta, and Plautilla. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

Fulvia Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. Bom 



EOMAK IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



643 



— ; put to death 212 a.d. G. — 'R.^ 
R.^ S.— C— R.« Br.— R.1 R.* Some 
coins represent her with Caxacalla. 
Geta, second son of Septimus Severus and 
Julia Domna. Born 189 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name'of Csesar 198; and that 
of Augustus 209 ; Emperor with his 
eldest brother Caracalla 211 ; assassi- 
nated by him in the arms of his 
mother 212. G.— R.*R.« S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.^ Some coins represent 
Mm with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, and Caracalla. The coins of 
Geta are numerous. 
JIfaerimts. Born 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 217 ; killed 218. G.— R.* R.'^ 
S.— R.1R.* Br.— R.iR.» 
Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus. Bom 
208 A.D. ; obtained the name of Cesar 
217 ; and that of Aug:ustu8 the same 
year; killed 218. G.— R.s S.— R«. 
R.« Br.— R.« R.* Many of his coins 
were struck at Antioch in Syria. 
Marcus Aurelius AntoninuSf commonly 
called Magabalus. Bom 205 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 218 ; put to death 
222. G.— R.«R.» S.— C— R.* Br.— 
C. — ^R.'' The name of Elagabalus was 
given to this emperor because he was 
in his infancy made Pontiff to the 
God Elagabalus, (the Sun) at Emisa 
in Syria, his country. Proclaimed 
emperor as bastard of Caracalla, he 
took his name Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus. Some coins represent him 
with Aquila Severa, Annia Faustina, 
and Julia Soaemias. 
Julia Cornelia Paula^ first wife of 
Elagabalus. Bom — ; divorced 220 ; 
died in private life. G.— R.« R." 
S. — R.*R.* Br. — R.^R.* The name 
of Cornelia is only found on Greek 
coins. 
AgvUia Severa, second wife of Elagabalus. 
Bom — ; died after the emperor. 
G.— R.» 8.— R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.* 
• Some coins represent her with Elaga- 
balus. 
Annia Faustina^ third wife of Elagaba- 
lus. Born — ; divorced as bo<hi as 
she was married ; died — . G. — 
R» S.— R.* Br.— R.» The gold coin 
is doubtful, as it bears on the reverse 
a portrait of Elagabalus. 
Julia Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus. 



Bom — A.D. ; killed 222 a.d. ; G. — 
R.« S. — C.— R.* Br.— C— R.* Some 
coins represent her with Elagabalus. 
Julia Maesa^ aunt to Elagabalus. 
Bom — ; died 223. G.— R» S.— C. 
— R.* Br.— C.— R.* 
Alexander Severus, cousin of Elagabalas. 
Born 205 a.d. ; adopted by Elaga- 
balus with the name of Ceesar 221 ; 
Emperor 222 ; assassinated 235. G. 
— C. R.8 S.— C— R.8 Br.— C— R.» 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Mamaea and Orbiana. The coins of 
this prince are very numerous. 
Memmiay second wife of Severus Alex- 
ander. No particulars are known 
respecting this princess, and the coin 
attributed to her is very doubtful. 
Orbiana, third wife of Alexander Severus. 
No details are known respecting this 
princess. G.— R.8 S.— R.« R.s Br. 
— R.* R.® Some coins represent her 
with Alexander Severus and Mamaea. 
This princess is not spoken of by 
ancient authors ; some consider her 
to have been the wife of Declus, 
although she appears on the coins 
with Alexander Severus. 
Julia Mamaea, sister of Soaemias, and 
mother of Severus Alexander. Born 
— ; assassinated 235 a.d. Some 
coins represent her with Alexander 
Severus and Orbiana. The coins of 
Mamaea are numerous. 
Uranius Antofiinus. Bom — ; had him- 
self proclaimed Emperor in Asia in 
the town of Emisa in Syria, during 
the reign of Alexander Severus ; but 
was defeated and taken prisoner soon 
after. G. — ^R.^ This piece of Roman 
money is the only one which is known 
of his; it was struck in Asia, and 
probably at Emisa in Syria. 
Maximinus I. Bom 173 a.d. ; Emperor 
235 ; assassinated 238. G. — ^R.*^ R.^ 
S.— C— R.'' Br. — C.— R.8 Some coins 
represent him with his son Maximus. 
PauUna, wife of Maximinus. No par- 
ticulars are known respecting this 
princess. S. — ^R.* Br. — R.* R.* We 
believe this princess to be the wife 
of Maximinus, from the great resem. 
blance which the portrait of Maximus 
on his coins bears to hers, and the 
great likeness between the coins of 

T T 2 



6a4 



BABITT 07 BOMAir COlfSULAB OOOTAQB. 



Dirfea (a Plebeian famUy). S.— K.^ R.« 
Domitia (a Plebeian but afterwards a 

Patrician family). G. — R.® 8.— C. 

Tbe copper pieces of this family are 

parts of the As. 
Durmia. The gold and silver pieces of 

this family are of the mintage of 

Augustus. 

E. 

Egnatia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.* 
Egnatuleia, 8. — C. 

Eppia, 8.— B.* The bronze pieces are 
either Ases or parts of the As. 

F. 

i^oftia (a Patrician family). S. — C. The 
bronze pieces are Ases, parts of the 
As, or imperial Greek coins. 

Fabricia (a Plebeian family). Br. — R.* 

Fabrinia, The bronze pieces are parts 
of the As. 

Fannia (a Plebeian family). 8. — R.* 
The name of this family may be found 
on the clBtophores of Tralles. 

Fa/r8uleia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Flaminia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Flavia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Fonteia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. The 
copper pieces are either Ases, parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Marc Antony. 

JVio (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.» The 
gold coins attributed to this family 
are false. 

Fulma (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Fundania (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Furia (a Patrician family). G. — R.^ 
S. — C. The bronze pieces are Ases 
or parts of the As. 

G. 

Gallia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 
pieces are of the mint of Augustus. 

Gellia. 8. — B..^ B..* Some of the silver 
coins are of the mint of Marc Antony 
and Augustus. 



H. 

Merennia (a Plebeian family), S. — C. 
jSirtia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.» 



Horatia (a Patrician family). &—B.' 
These pieces were restored b^^ Tn4^. 

HoHdia, 8.— B.^ 

HottUia (a Patiieian family). 8.—B.^ 
Br.— .R.* 



Ria, S.— R.» 



I. 



J. 



Jtflta (a Patridan family). G.— B.^ 
8. — C. — ^B.* This is the family of 
Julius Cffisar. Its name appears oa 
the coins of J. Ceesar. 

Junia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
S. — C. This is the family of Marcos 
Junius Brutus. Some silver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. 

L. 

lAdnia (a Plebeian family). S. — B.^ 
Br. — €. Some silver pieces of the 
mint of Augustus bear the name of 
this family. Some of these ooins are 
Ases or parts of the As. 

Lwineia (a Plebeian family). G.<— B. 
8. — C. Some silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. The bronze pieeei 
of this family are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

Lollia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.* The 
copper pieces of this family wete 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

LudUa (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.^ 

Lucretia (a Patrician and Plebeian tM^ 
mily). S. — C. Some pieces were 
restored by Trajan. 

Luria (a family of doubtful extraction). 
The copper pieces of this family are 
of the mint of Augustus. 

lAdaUa (a Plebeian family). S.— B.^ 



M. 

Maecilia (a Plebeian family). The cop- 
per pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Maenia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^R.^ 
Br.— R.* 

Jfaiania (an uncertain family). S. — B.^ 
The bronze pieces of this family are 
either parts of the As or of the mint 
of Augustus. 



BABITT OF BOMAK CONSULAB COIKAQB. 



635 



MarniHa (the noblest Tnacany and Pie- 
beian Boman family). S. — C. Some 
pieces were restored by Trajan. 

MoHlia (a Flitrieian family). Q.— B.< 
S.— C. 

Marcia (a Patrieiaa and afterwards a 
Plebeian family). Several pieces of 
this family are either parts of the As 
or of the mint of Ang^stus. 

Jforia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ Some 
of the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Angustus, 
some of them were restored by 
Tn^an, 

Memmia (a Plebeian family). S.— C. 
Some silver pieces were restored by 
Trajan. Some of the copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Ases. 

Mueinia (a Plebeian family). Some of 
the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Augustus. 

Mettia. S. — ^B.^ Some of the pieces 
of this family in gold or silver, are of 
the mint of Julius Cessar. 

Mmatia (a Plebeian family). The silver 
pieces which bear the name of this 
family are of Cneios Pompey the 
younger. 

Mmeia (an uncertain family). Br. — ^B.' 

JflfMfcia (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B,* 
8. — C. The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. The copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Ases. 

MUreia (an uncertain family). The 
copper pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Mveia (a Plebeian family). S.— B.^ 

Mumatia (a Plebeian famUy). Br.— B.* 
The gold and silver pieces of this 
family are <A Marc Antony. 

Munidia (a family of doubtfni extrac- 
tion). 8. — B.* Some of the pieces 
of this family in gold and silver are 
coins of the Triumvirs. The copper 
pieces of this family are of the mint 
of Augustas. 

K. 

JVmtmi (a Plebeian fttmily). 8. — C. 

The copper pieces of this family are 

of the mint of Augustus. 
IfMidia (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the sUver pieces bearing the name 

of this family were struck by Sextus 

Pompeius. 



ITeria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Nonia (a Plebeian family). S. — B..^ The 
copper pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

Xorbantts, G. — B.*' S. — C. This is a sur- 
nune ; but to what family it belongs 
is not known. Some silver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. 

ytmitoria (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.* 
The bronse pieces are parts of the As. 

Ifumonia (a Plebeian family). G. — B." 
S. — B.* The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. 

O. 

Offulma (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 

Opeimia (a Plebeian family). S. — B.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 
Oppia (a Plebeian family). Br. — C. 
Some of the bronze pieces of this 
family were struck in Cyrenaica. 

P. 

Paewfia or Paquia (a family of doubtful 

extraction). Br. — B.* 
Papia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. B.« 
Papiria (a Plebeian family). S. — C, 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of Ases. 
Pedania (a Plebeian family). S. — "BJ 
Petillia (a Plebeian family). S.~B.s 
Petronia (a Plebeian family). S. — B.« 

Some of the gold pieces of this family 

are of the mint of Augustus. 
Pinoria (a Patrician family). Some of 

the bronze pieces of this family are of 

Marc Antony. 
Plaetoria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Some of the silver pieces of Brutus 

bear the name of this family. 
Pkmda (a Plebeian family). S. — B.^ 
Plautia or Plutia (a Plebeian family). 

S.— C— B.1 
Plotia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 

pieces of this family are of the mint 

of Augustus. This family seems to 

be the same as the preceding one. 
Poblieia (a Plebeian (family). . S.~C. 

Some of the pieces of Cneius Pompey 

the younger bear the name of this 

family. 



634 



BABITY OS" aOMAlT COKSTTLAB OOINAGB. 



D. 

i)t<2ta (a Plebeian famUy). 6.— R.^ R.* 
DomiHa (a Plebeian but afterwards a 

Patrician family). G.— R.® S.— C. 

The copper pieces of this family are 

parts of the As. 
Dttrmia. The gold and silyer pieces of 

this family are of the mintage of 

Augostns. 

E. 

Egnatia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.* 
JSfffuUtdeia. 8. — C. 

Eppia, 8.— R.* The bronze pieces are 
either Ases or parts of the As. 

F. 

JViMa (a Patridan family). S. — C. The 
bronze pieces are Ases, parts of the 
As, or imperial Greek coins. 

Fahrieia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^R.* 

Fabrinia. The bronze pieces are parts 
of the As. 

Fannia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.^ 
The name of this family may be found 
on the cistophores of Tralles. 

Farmleia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Flaminia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Flema (a Plebeian family). 8. — G* 

J^on««Ms (a Plebeian family). 8.— C. The 
copper pieces are either Ases, parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Maro Antony. 

Fi^ (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^R.i The 
gold coins attributed to this family 
are false. 

FuJma (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Fundania (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

FxMria (a Patrician family). G. — ^R.^ 
8. — C. The bronze pieces are Ases 
or parts of the As. 

G. 

Gallia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 
pieces are of the mint of Augustus. 

Qellia, 8. — R.* R.' Some of the silver 
coins are of the mint of Maro Antony 
and Augustus. 



H. 

Berennia (a Plebeian family)^ 8. — C. 
Hirtia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.^ 



HonUia (a Patrician famfly). &r-B.* 
These pieces were restored by Tn^an. 

Ho9idia, 8.— R.^ 

HoMtUia (a Patrieian family). S^-Sl.^ 
Br.— R.* 



nia. S.— R.« 



I. 



J. 



Jtaia (a Patrician family). G.— R.* 
8.— C.— R.* This is the family of 
Julius Caesar. Its name appears on 
the coins of J. Caesar. 

Junta (a Patrician and Plebeian fainily). 
8. — C. This is the family of Mareof 
Junius Brutus. Some silyer pieces 
were restored by Trs^an. 



Lieinia (a Plebeian fandly). 8.— R.^ 
Br. — -C, Some silver pieces <^ the 
mint of Augustus bear tlie name of 
this family. Some of these eoins are 
Ases or parts of the As. 

Livineia (a Plebeian family). O. — ^B. 
8. — C. Some silver pieces were re> 
stored by Trajan. The bronze pleoes 
of this family are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

LolUa (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.« The 
copper pieces of this familj wen 
Btruck in Cyrenaica. 

LueiUa (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ 

Lticretia (a Patrician and. Plebeian CiE> 
mily). 8. — C. Some pieces w«e 
restored by Tngan. 

Luria (a family of doubtful eztractioa). 
The copper pieces of this fjunily vn 
of the mint of Augustus. 

LutaUa (a Plebeian family). 8. — B,^ 

M. 

MaecUia (a Plebeian family). The cop- 
per pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Maenia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ 
Br.--R.« 

Maiania (an uncertain family). S.-~B.^ 
The bronze pieces of this family sze 
either parts of the As or of the mint 
of Augustus. 



BABITT OF BOMAK COKSTJLAB COIKAGE. 



635 



M€UHiH^ (the noblest Tuscany and Fie. 
beiaa Bolnsn family). 8. — C. Some 
pieces were restored by Tri^an. 
MmUia (a Patrician family). G. — ^R.« 

S, — C. 
Mareia (a Patrieiaa and afterwards a 
Plebeian family). Several pieces of 
this family are either parts of the As 
or of the mint of Aagustus. 
JTorta (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ Some 
of the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Angxtstus, 
some of them were restored by 
Tn^an. 
Memmia (a Plebeian family). 8.-^. 
Some silyer pieces were restored by 
Tra|an. Some of the copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Asee. 

Mucinia (a Plebeian family). Some of 
the gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of the mint of Augustus. 

Mettia. S. — ^B.* Some of the pieces 
of this family in gold or silver, are of 
the mint of Julius Cnsar. 

Minatia (a Plebeian family). The silver 
pieces which bear the name of this 
family are of Gneius P(»npey the 
younger. 

KtfMta (an uncertain family). Br. — ^B.' 

MUwda (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B.* 
8. — C. The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. The copper pieces 
of this family are parts of Ases. 

MUrtia (an uncertain family). The 
copper pieces of this family are of the 
mint of Augustus. 

Mveia (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.^ 

Muin€U%a (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^B.* 
The gold and silver pieces of this 
family are of Marc Antony. 

JTimmMmi (a family of doubtful extrac- 
tion). 8. — B.* Some of the pieces 
of this family in gold and silver are 
coins of the Triumvirs. The copper 
pieces of this family are of the mint 
of Augustas. 

W. 

Katvia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

The copper pieces of this family are 

of the mint of Augustus. 
Kmidia (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the silver pieces bearing the name 

of this family were struck by Sextus 

Pompeiui. 



Ntria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Nonia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ The 
copper pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus. 

Ndrhanm. G. — 'Bifi 8. — C. This is a sur- 
name ; but to what family it belongs 
is not known. Some silver pieces 
were restored by Trajan. 

TTumitotia (a Plebeian family). 8. — "R,* 
The bronse pieces are parts of the As. 

Kwnonia (a Plebeian family). G. — B.' 
8. — B.* The silver pieces were re- 
stored by Trajan. 

O. 

Offulnia (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 

Opeimia (a Plebeian family). 8. — B.^ 
The bronze piecra are Ases, or parts 
of the As. 
Oppia (a Plebeian family). Br. — C. 
Some of the bronze pieces of this 
family were struck in Cyrenaica. 

P. 

Paoutfia or Paquia (a family of doubtful 

extraction). Br» — B.* 
Papia (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. B.« 
Papiria (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of Ases. 
Pedania (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.* 
PeUllia (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.* 
Petronia (a Plebeian family). S. — B." 

Some of the gold pieces of this family 

are of the mint of Augustus. 
Pinaria (a Patrician family). Some of 

the bronze pieces of this family are of 

Marc Antony. 
Plaetoria (a Plebeian family). 8. — C. 

Some of the silver pieces of Brutus 

bear the name of this family. 
Pkmcia (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.* 
Ptautia or Plutia (a Plebeian family). 

8.— C— B.1 
Plotia (a Plebeian family). The bronze 

pieces of this family are of the mint 

of Augustus. This family seems to 

be the same as the preceding one. 
P&blicia (a Plebeian (family). . 8.— C. 

Some of the pieces of Cneius Pompey 

the younger bear the name of tiiis 

family. 



686 



BABITT 07 BOICAN G0NST7Li.B COIKAGE. 



Pimpeia (a Plebeian family). G.— R.^ 
8.— C. Some of the pieces of Sextos 
Pompey the younger haTe the name 
of this family. 
Pomponia (a Plebeian family). S. — ^B.^ 
Foreia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. The 
copper pieces were struck in Cyrenaica. 
Pottumia (a Patrician family). S. — C. 
BroeOia (a Plebeian famUy). Br.— B.^ 
Proctileia (a Plebeian family). Br. — ^B.^ 
Fupia (a famUy of doubtful extraction). 
The bronze pieces of this family were 
struck in Cyrenaica. 

a 

Qmnetia (a Patrician but afterwards Pie- 
beian family). S. — B.^ Some pieces 
of this family were struck in Mace- 
donia. The copper pieces are either 
Ases, or of the mint of Augustus. 

B. 

JRenia, 8. — C. 

Jioscia (a Plebeian family). S. — C. 

Eubellia (an equestrian family). The 

bronze pieces of this family are of 

the mint of Augustus. 
Rubria (a Plebeian family). S. — C. Some 

silver pieces were restored by Trajan. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 

of the As. 
Rwtia. G.— B.8 8.— B.* 
ButUia (a Plebeian family). 8.— B.^ 

8. 

Salvia (a Plebeian family). Some silyer 
and copper pieces with the name of 
this family are of the mint of Augus- 
tus, as are th6se of the uncertain 
family named Sanquinia. 

Sabrientu. S. — C. This is a surname, 
but to what family it belong^ is not 
known. 

Saufeia (a Plebeian family). 8. — ^B.^ 
The bronze pieces are Ases, or parts 
of Ases. 

Scribonia (a Plebeian family). G. — ^B.8 
8. — C. Some of the silyer pieces were 
restored by Trajan. The bronze pieces 
are Ases, or parts of the As. 

Sempronia (a family of uncertain ex- 
traction). 8. — C. Some gold and 



silver pieces are of the mint of 
Augustus and JuUxas Caesar. The 
bronze pieces are Asea, or parts of 
the As, or of the mint of Mare 
Antony and Augustus. 

SetUia (a Plebeian family). 3. — C. 

Sqndlia (a family of xincertain extraction}. \ 
8. — B.* B.^ Some silver pieces sic < 
of the mint of Augastua and Mare 
Antony. 

Sergio (a Patrician family). S. — ^B^. 

Servilia (a Patrician but afterwards 
Plebeian family). G. — ^B.* 8.— C. 
The bronze pieces are parts of Ases. 

Sutia, (A Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). 8. — B.' B.^ 

Sidnia (a Patrician but afterwards Ple- 
beian family). 8. — B.^ 

SiUa (a Plebeian family). G.— B.' 
8. — ^B.^ The bronze pieces are of 
the mint of Augustus. 

Sotia (a Plebeian family). Br.— B.* 
Some of the pieces are of Marc 
Antony. 

Spurilia (a fEunily of doubtful extraction). 
8.— B.1 

Statia (a Plebeian family). S.^B.^ 
Br.— B.« 

Statilia, Some of the bronze pieces of 
this family are of the mint of Au- 
gustus, or Spanish pieces. 

Sulpicia (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
G. — B."* 8. — C.Br. — K* Some of the 
sUver pieces were restored by Tn^jan. 



T. 

Tarquiiia (a Patrician and Plebeian 

family). 8— B.« 
Tereniia (a Plebeian family). S.— 0. 

The bronze pieces are Ases, or psrts 

of Ases, or of the mint of Augustus. 
Thoria (a Plebeian family). S.^ — C. 
TUia (a Plebeian family). 8.— C.—B.* 

Some of the silver pieces were restored 

by Trajan. The bronze pieces wears 

Ases or parts of the As. 
JUinia (a Patrician and Plebeian familf). 

8. — C. The bronze pieces are Ams, 

or parts of the As. 
nturia. 8.— C. 
I^ebania, 8. — ^B.^ The bronse piioes 

are Ases, or parts of the As. 
I\aiia (a Patrician and Plebeian fisBiily). 

S. — ^B.^ Some silver pieces of this 



EOMAN IMPERIAL OOITiTAaE. 



637 



fkmily were restored by Trajan. The 
name may be seen on some ciBtophori 
of LAodicea in Phrygia. Upon an 
aatonomous bronze coin of Magnesia, 
in Lydia, this name is found with a 
I)ortrait attributed to Cicero. 



V. 

Valeria (a Patrician and Plebeian family). 
S. — C. Some of the gold and silver 
pieces of this family are of the mints 
of Augustus and Marc Antony. 

Vargunteia. S. — B,.^ The bronze pieces 
are parts of the As. 

Ventidia (a Plebeian family). There is 
a silver piece of Marc Antony which 
bears the name of this family. 

Vettia. S.— R.» 



Veturia (a Patrician family). G. — B.* 

8.— E.« 
rma (a Plebeian family). O.— K.» 8. 

— C. The bronze pieces are Ases, 

or parts of the As. 
rinicia (a Plebeian family). 8.— R.« 

Some silver pieces are of the mint of 

Augustus. 
Voconia (a Plebeian family). Some of 

the gold and silver pieces of this 

family are of the mints of Julius 

Caesar and Octavius. 
Volteia. 8. — C. 
Cf the uncertain coins of the families. 

G.— C— B.» 8.— C— R.8 Under 

this head are classed those pieces 

which were struck under the Re- 

public, without indication of the mints 

or divisions of the As. 



IMPEEIAL COINAGE OF ROME. 

♦ 

COINS OF THE EMPERORS, EMPRESSES, C^SARS, AND 
TYRANTS, OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 

AKD OTHBB PBB80NA0EB WHOSE POBTKAITS OB KAMES OGCUB OK THE BOHAK COINAQB, 
FBOM POMPBY THE OEEAT TO THE FALL OF THE EABTEBN EMPIRE. 

STATING THEIR OOMFARATITE DEGREES OF RARITY. 



The Gold are marked G. ; the Silver, S.; the Brcnze, or Copper, Br. (for Bronte) ; the Lead 
is marked L.; Eleetrum, £1. G. expresses Common; R^, Rare; R^ more rare; R', 
<(ia mare so, up to B7 and R^. 



Onaeut Pompeitu (Magnus). Bom 106 
B.O.; killed 48 b.c. G. — R.« S. — 
R.1 R.' ; Br. — R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with his sons Cnaeus Pom- 
peius and Sextus Pompeius. — There 
are some silver coins restored by 
Trajan. 

Oaiue Julius Ceesar, Bom 100 b.c. ; 
made Perpetual Dictator 44 b.c. ; and 
killed the same year. G. — R.^ R.'' 
8. — C. — R.* Br. — C. Many coins 
represent him with Maro Antony and 
Augustus. 

Onaeus Pompeius^ son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom — b.c. ; killed 45 b.c. 



S. — ^R.^ R.'' Some coins represent 
him with his father Cnaeus Pompeius 
Magnus, and his brother Sextus Pom. 
peius. He bore, like his father, the 
surname of Magnus. 

Sextus Ponq>eiu8, second son of Pompey the 
Great. Bom 65 b.c. ; killed 35 b.c 
G.— R.« S.— R.1 R.* .With and 
without his head. Some coins repre- 
sent him with his father and brother, 
Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cnaeus 
Pompeius the Younger. 

Marcus Junius Brutus. Bom 85 b.c. ; 
died 42 b.c G.— R.'' S.— R.* R.« 
With and without portrait ; with the 



650 



BOMAN IMPEBIAL COINAGE. 



BJ Br. — R.* R.» These pieces were 
probably struck in Pannonia. 

Jfom'tM. Historians do not mention this 
personage. The pieces attributed to 
this Nonius are doubtftiL 

Magnentiu*. Born aboat 303 a.d. ; pro- 
claimed Emperor at Aatun 350 ; and 
kUled himself in 353. O.^K*. R.^ 
S. — R.* R.' Br.— C. R.» These 
pieces were either struck in Oanl or 
Italy. 

DecMtfttM, brother of Magnentius. Named 
Caesar in 351 ; and strangled himself 
in 358. G.— R*. R.' S.— R.* R.' 
Br. — C. R.* These pieces were struck 
in Oaul or in Italy. 

Deaideritu, brother of Magnentius. Named 
Cffisar in 351 ; stabbed by his brother 
in 353 ; but not killed as it was 
thought. The published pieces of this 
prince are false. 

Ckmstantiitt Gallia. Bom 325 a.d.; 
named Ceesar in 351 ; condemned to 
death and executed in 354. G. — R.* 
R.* S.— R.« R.* Br.— C. R.* 

Cbnstantinat wife first of Hanniballianus 
and secondly of Constantius Qallus. 
Died 354 a.d. The published pieces 
of this princess are very doubtful. 

Sylvanus. Proclaimed Emperor of Co- 
logne, in 355 ; killed after a reign of 
twenty-eight or twenty-nine days. 
The published pieces of Sylranus are 
false. 

Julianua II, ^ son of Julius Constantius, 
brother to Constantine the Great. 
Bom 331 A.D. ; named Ctesar in 355 ; 
proclaimed Emperor at Paris, 360 ; 
sole Emperor, 361 ; killed in a battle 
against the Persians in 363. Gold. — 
R«. R.*. S.— C— R.» Br.— C.— R.* 
The coins of Julian are yery numerous. 

Helena^ wife of Julian II. died 360. 
G. — ^R.« Br. — C. 

Jovianus. Bom 331 a.d. ; Emperor in 
363 ; died 364. G.— R.» R.8 S.— 
R.« R.8 Br.— C— R.« 

Valentinianus I. Born 321 a.d. ; Em- 
peror in 364 ; died 375. G. — C. R.* 
S._c.— R.« Br.— C. R.S The coins 
of Valentinian were partly struck at 
Rome, and partly in the East. 

Valeria SeverOy first wife of Valentinian I. 
Diedin the reign of Gratian. The pub. 
lished pieces are false. 



Ju&Hna, second wife of Yalentinisn I. 
Bom — A.D.; died 387. ThepuUished 
pieces are false. 
Flaviiu ValetUt brother of Yalentiman. 
Bom 828 a.d. Associated in the Em- 
pire and giyen Hie name of Augustus 
in 364 ; had the East for his division; 
was burnt alire in 3 7 8 . G. — C.— R.« 
8.— C— R.» Br.— C.— R.* 

Dommtca, wife of Yalens. Died in the 
reign of Theodosius the Great. The 
publislrad piece of this princess is 
false. 

Proeopitu. Bom about 334 a.d. ; pro- 
claim»l Augustus at Constantinople, 
in 365 ; put to death in 366. G.— 
R.' S.— R.* Br.— R.«R.' 

OraHanuSf son of Valentinian L Bora 
350 A.D. Named Augustus at Amiens 
in 361 ; Emperor in 375 ; killed in 
389. G.— C— R.» S.— R.* Br.— 
C. — ^R.* The coins of this prince were 
struck in the West and probably in 
Gaul and Italy. 

OonstanHOf wife of Gratian. Bom 362 
A.D. ; died 383. The published pieces 
of this princess are false. 

Valentinianus 11,, son of Valentinian I. 
Bom 371 A.D. Named Augustus and 
associated in the empire, 375 ; had 
for his di-vision, Italy, Illyria, and 
Africa ; Emperor of all the Western 
empire, 383 ; was assassinated in 392. 
G.— C— R.8 8.— C.— R.« Br.— C. 
R.* The coins of Valentinian IL 
cannot all be attributed with cer- 
tainty, and may be confounded with 
those of his father, or those of Valen- 
tinian III. These coins wer« probably 
struck in Italy. 

Theodosiita Magnus /., born 346 a.d. 
Named Augustus, and associated in 
the Empire, by Gratian in 379 ; had 
for his division the East. Died in 
395. G.— C— R.» S.— C— R.« Br. 
C— R.« 

Maceilla, first wife of Theodosius I. Died 
388. G.— R.* S. R.* Br. — ^R.^ 

Magnus MaximuSf assumed the name of 
Augustus in Britain, in 383 ; acknow- 
ledged Emperor; seized upon Italy 
in 387 ; and was put to death in 388. 
G.— R.1 R.« S.— R.1 R.« Br.— C. 
These pieces were struck in Britain, 
Gaul, or Italy. 



BOMAI^ IMPERIAL COOTAGE. 



661 



Flaviu9 Victor^ son of Magnus Mazimns. 
l^amed Augustas in 383 ; put to death 
in 888. G.— R.* S.--R«. Br.— 
B. These pieces were struck in Gaul. 
ArcaditUf son of Theodosius the Great. 
Bom 377 ; made Augustus in 383; 
£mx>eror of the East in 395 ; died in 
408. G.— C.— R.« S.— R.iR.« Br. 
— C— R.* 
Eftfdocia, wife of A'rcadius. Died 404. 
The pieces attributed to this princess 
have been restored by Eckhel to Eudo- 
cia, the wife of Thedosius II. 

JffonorkUf the youngest son of Honorius 
and Flaccilla. Born 384 ; named 
Augustus 893 ; Emperor of the West 
395 ; died 428. G.— C.-— R.' S.— 
C. — R* Br. — C. — R.* These pieces 
were probably struck at Rome. 

Ctorutantitts III.j Honorius' sister's hus- 
band. Named Augustus, and associated 
in the empire of the West in 421 ; 
died the same year. G. — R*. R'. 
S. — R.'' These pieces were struck in 
Italy. 

Qalla Flacidiaf wife of Constantius III. 
Widow of Ataulf, king of the Goths 
414 ; wife of Constantius III. ia 417 ; 
died in 433. G.— R.* R.' 8.— R.* 
R.* Br. — R.* R.' These pieces were 
struck in Italy. 

Oonstantinxa III. Augustus in England 
and Gaul 407 ; taken prisoner and 
put to death 411. G.— R.« S.— R.« 
Br. — ^R.* The coins of this prince 
hare frequently been confounded with 
those of Constantino I. and II. These 
coins were struck in Gaul. 

Cfonstemtf son of Constantinus III. Au- 
gustus in Gaul 408 ; assassinated in 
411. 8. — R.* These pieces were pro- 
bably struck in Gaul. 

Maxiuwi, Emperor in Spain 409 ; abdi- 
cated 411. S. — R.^ These pieces 
were probably struck in Spain. 

Jovintu. Emperor at May ence 411; be- 
headed 418. G.— R.<S.— R.» Br.— 
R.^ These coins were struck in 
Gaul. 

Sti>aatianu»y brother of Jovinus. Asso- 
ciated in the soyereign power by his 
brother in 412 ; beheaded in 413. 
8. — R.^ These coins were struck in 
Gaul. 

Friacus Attaltu, Made emperor by 



Alario at Rome 409; deprived of 
that title ; reassumed it in Gaul 410 ; 
died in the isle of Lipari. G. — R.* 
8. — R.*R. 8 Br. R.* R.« These 
pieces were struck at Rome. 

I%eodosin8 II., son of Arcadius. Bom 
401 ; Augustus 402 ; Emperor of the 
East 418; died 450. G.— C— R.« 
8.— R.» R.* Br.— R.* R.8 These 
coins must not be confounded with 
those of Theodosius I. 

Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius II. Bom 
about 893 A.©. ; died 460. O.— R.» 
R* S.— R*. Br.— R.* Some of the 
coins of this princess have fateely 
been attributed to Eudoeia wife of 
Arcadius. 

Johanne9, Bom 383 ; Emperor at Rome 
423 ; died 425. G^— R.» R.« 8.— 
R.* R.* Br. — ^R.* These coins were 
struck in Rome. 

Valentinianua III., son of Constantino 
III. Bom at Rome 419; Emperor 
425 ; assassinated 455. G. — 0. — R.^ 
S.~R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.» These 
coins were struck in Rome. 

lAcinia Eudoxia, wife of Yalentinian. 
Bom 423 ; died — . G.— R.* These 
coins were struck in Italy. 

Honoria, sister of Yalentinian. Bom 
417 ; Augustus 433 ; died 454. G.— 
R.* R.« 8. — R.* These coins were 
struck in Italy. 

AUila, King of the Huns. Bom — ; 
King 434 ; died 453. There are no 
true autonomous coins of this king. 

Petronius Maximus. Born 395 ; Emperor 
at Rome 455. G.— R.* S.— R.* 
Br. — R.» All these were stmck at 
Rome. 

Mardanus, husband of the sister of 
Theodosius II. Bom 391 ; Emperor 
of the East 450 ; died 457. G.— R." 
R.« 8.— R.* Br.— R.« 

Pukheria, wife of Marcianus. Bora 899 ; 
died 453. G. — R.* S.—R.* Br. 
— R.« 

Aoitua. Bom — ; Emperor 455 ; abdi- 
cated and turned bishop 456. G. — 
R.* Br.— R.« 

Leo J. Bom — ; Emperor of the East 
457 ; died 474. G.— €.— Br.— R.* 

Verina, wife of Leo I. Bom — ; died 
484. G.— R.* 

Mcff'orianus. Born — ; Emperor 457 ; 



642 



BOHAN IMPEBUX COIXAOE. 



of C»flar and AngustuB, by Marcos 
Aurelios, 151 ; poisoned 169. G. — 
C— R.» S.— C.— R.6 Br.— C— B.6 
Some coins represent him with Anto- 
ninus and Marcus Aurelius. The 
coins of Lucius Yerus are very 
numerous. 

Lueilla, the youngest daughter of Marcus 
Aurelius and Faustina, and wife of 
Lucius Yerus. Born 147 a. n. ; exiled 
183 to Capr®, by order of Commodus, 
and piit to death soon afterwards. G. 
— B.1 R.« 8.— C.— B.« Br.— C.— B.' 

OommoduSy elder son of Marcus Aurelius 
and Faustina the Younger. Bom 161 
▲.D. ; obtained the name of Csesar 
166 ; associated in the empire, with 
the title of Emperor, 176 ; obtained 
the name of Augustus 177 ; declared 
sole emperor 180 ; strangled 192. G. 
— B.»B.8 8.— C— B.* Br.— C— B.8 
Some coins represent him with Mar- 
cus Aurelius, Crispina, and Annius 
Yerus. On some of his coins we meet 
with the head of a woman without 
any name. We belieTC it to be that 
of the concubine of Commodus whose 
name was Marcia. Commodus had 
a particular devotion for Herculea,and 
he is often represented with the attri- 
butes of this Demigod, and he is called 
the Herculean Gommodus. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

Oriajnnaf wife of Commodus. Bom — ; 
died young, 188 a.d. G. — B.* S. — 
C. — R.i Br. — C. — B.' Some coins 
represent her with Commodus. 

Pertinax. Bom 126 xj>. ; declared Em- 
peror 192 ; assassinated by the soldiers 
after a reign of 87 days. G. — B.' B.* 
S.— B.*B.« Br.— B.'^B.' 

TitianOf wife of Pertinax. Bom — ; 
On the death of her husband she 
retired from public life, where she 
died. There are only Greek coins of 
this Princess. 

Didius Julianua, Bom 133 a.d. ; de- 
clared Emperor 198 ; put to death 
after a reigrn of 66 days. G. — B.^ 
S.— B.6 Br.— B.» B.« 

Manlia Scantilla^ wife of Didius Julianus. 
Bom — ; retired from public life, 
on the death of her husband. G. — 
B.8 S.— B.6 Br.— B.* R.' 

Didia Okn-a^ daughter of Didius Julianus 



and Scantilla. Bom 153 a.i>. ; died 
— ; G.— B.» S.— B.» Br.— R.4 

Petoenntus Niger. Bom — ; declared 
himself Emperor in Syria 193 ; lulled 
194. G. — ^B.s S.— B.* R.' The Roman 
eoins of Pescennius Niger were struck 
in Syria, probably at Antioch. 

Olodku AUntuts. Bom — ; named Csesar 
by Septimus Sererus 193 ; being 
at that time Governor of Britain, he 
took the title of Emperor of Britain 
and Gaul, 196 ; defeated and killed 
by Septimus SeTerus 197 ; G — BJ 
8. — R.»B.* Br.— B.*R.* TheBoman 
coins of AlbinuB with the title of 
Ceesary were struck at Borne during 
the time that there existed an alliance 
between him and Septimus SeTerus 
when the latter conferred upon Albi- 
nns the title of Csesar. Those coins 
which bear the title of Emperor and 
of Augustus were struck in Gaul, 
and perhaps some of them in Britain 
after Albinus had taken the title of 
emperor. 

Septimus Severtu. Bom 146 ▲.!>.; de- 
dared Emperor 193 ; became master 
of the whole empire 197; died 211. 
G.— B.«B.« 8.— C.— B.* Br.— C.— B.« 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. The 
coins of this emperor are numerous. 

Julia Domna, wife of Septimus Severus. 
Bom — ; starved herself to death 
217. G.— B."B.8 S.— C.— B.« Br.— 
C. — B*. Some coins represent • her 
with Septimus ScTcrus, Curacalla, and 
Geta. The coins of this empress are 
numerous. 

Marcus Aurelius AntonimtSf oommonlv 
called Oaraoallaf son of Septimus Se- 
verus and Julia. Bom 188 A.X).; ob- 
tained the name of Caesar 196 ; that of 
Augustus 198 ; Emperor with his bro- 
ther Geta 211; sole emperor 212; 
assassinated 217. G. — B.* B.» S. — C. 
— ^B.6 Br. — C. — B.' The name of 
Caracalla was given to the eldest son 
of Septimus Severus fh>m a new sort 
of garment which he introduced and 
frequently wore. Some coins represent 
him with Septimus SeTcruB, Julia 
Domna, Geta, and Plautilla. The coins 
of this emperor are very numerous. 

Fulvia Plavtilla, wife of Caracalla. Bom 



EOMAK IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



643 



— ; put to death 212 a.d. G. — 'R.^ 
R.' S. — C— R.« Br. — "R.^ R.^ Some 
coins represent her with Caracalla. 
GetOf second son of Septimus Severus and 
Julia Domna. Born 189 a.d. ; ob- 
tained the name of Csesar 198; and that 
of Augustus 209 ; Emperor with his 
eldest brother Caracalla 211; assassi- 
nated by him in the arms of his 
mother 212. G.— R.*R.» S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.6 Some coins represent 
him with Septimus Severus, Julia 
Domna, and Caracalla. The coins of 
Geta are numerous. 
Macri7»is. Born 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror 217 ; killed 218. G.— R.* R.'' 
S.— R.1 R.* Br.— R.1 R.» 
DiadumenianuSf son of Macrinus. Bom 
208 A.D. ; obtained the name of Caesar 
217 ; and that of Augustus the same 
year; killed 218. G.— R.8 S.— R". 
R.6 Br.— R.* R.* Many of his coins 
were struck at Antioch in S3rria. 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, commonly 
called Elagahalus. Bom 205 a.d. ; 
declared Emperor 218 ; put to death 
222. G.— R.'R.'* S.— C— R.* Br.— 
C. — ^R.'' The name of Elagahalus was 
given to this emperor because he was 
in his infancy made Pontiff to the 
God Elagahalus, (the Sun) at Emisa 
in Syria, his country. Proclaimed 
emperor as bastard of Caracalla, he 
took his name Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus. Some coins represent him 
with Aquila Sevcra, Annia Faustina, 
and Julia Soaemias. 
Juiia Cornelia Paula, first wife of 
Elagahalus. Bom — ; divorced 220 ; 
died in private life. G. — R.« R.* 
8. — R.^R.* Br.- R.'R.* The name 
of Cornelia is only found on Greek 
coins. 
Aquilia Severa, secondwife of Elagahalus. 
Bom — ; died after the emperor. 
G.— R.8 S.— R.« R.* Br.— R.« R.* 
• 8ome coins represent her with Elaga- 
halus. 
Annia Faustina, third wife of Elagaha- 
lus. Bom — ; divorced as soon as 
she was married ; died — . G. — 
B* S.— R.« Br.— R.« The gold coin 
is doubtful, as it bears on the reverse 
a portrait of Elagahalus. 
Jidia Soaemias, mother of Elagahalus. 



Bora — A.D. ; killed 222 a.d. ; G. — 
R.6 S. — C. — R.* Br. — C. — R.* Some 
coins represent her with Elagahalus. 
Jt4ia Maesa, aunt to Elagahalus. 
Bom — ; died 223. G.— R« S.— C. 
— R.* Br.— C— R.* 
Alexa^tder Severus, Qo\x«in of Elagahalus. 
Born 205 a.d. ; adopted by Elaga- 
halus with the name of Ceesar 221 ; 
Emperor 222 ; assassinated 235. G. 
— C. R.8 S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C— R.« 
Some coins represent him with Julia 
Mamaea and Orbiana. The coins of 
this prince are very numerous. 
Memmia, second wife of Severus Alex- 
ander. No particulars are known 
respecting this princess, and the coin 
attributed to her is very doubtful. 
Orbiana, third wife of Alexander Severus. 
No details are known respecting this 
princess. G.— R.» S.— R.« R.s Br. 
— R.^ R.^ Some coins represent her 
with Alexander Severus and Mamaea. 
This princess is not spoken of by 
ancient authors ; some consider her 
to have been the wife of Decius, 
although she appears on the coins 
with Alexander Severus. 
Julia Mamaea, sister of Soaemias, and 
mother of Severus Alexander. Born 
— ; assassinated 235 a.d. Some 
coins represent her with Alexander 
Severus and Orbiana. The coins of 
Mamaea are numerous. 
Uranius AnUminus. Bom — ; had him- 
self proclaimed Emperor in Asia in 
the town of Emisa in Syria, during 
the reign of Alexander Severus ; but 
was defeated and taken prisoner soon 
after. G. — R.^ This piece of Roman 
money is the only one which is known 
of his; it was struck in Asia, and 
probably at Emisa in Syria. 
Maximinus I. Bom 173 a.d. ; Emperor 
235 ; assassinated 238. G. — R.^ R.^ 
8.— C. — R.'' Br. — C. — R.8 Some coins 
represent him with his son Maximus. 
Pa/uUna, wife of Maximinus. No par- 
ticulars are known respecting this 
princess. S. — R.* Br. — ^R.* R.* We 
believe this princess to he the wife 
of Maximinus, from the great resem- 
hlance which the portrait of Maximus 
on his coins bears to hers, and the 
great likeness between the coins of 

T T 2 



644 



BOMAN IMPEEIAL COURAGE. 



MaximiniiB and Maximus and hers. 
All the coins of Paulina represent her 
consecration, so that it is believed she 
died before her husband. 

MaximtUf son of Maximinus. Born — ; 
obtained the name of Caesar 235 a.d. ; 
killed 238 a.d. G.— K* 8.— R.* b." 
Br. — R.* R.* Some coins represent 
him with his father Maximinus. 

Junia Fadilla^ wife of Maximus. All 
that is known of this princess is, that 
Maximinus wished to marry his son 
to her, being grandniece to the 
Emperor Antoninus, but this marriage 
was not effected, as the father and 
son were both killed. The coins 
attributed to this princess are 
false. 

Titus Quartinus, Proclaimed himself 
Emperor in Germany during the 
reign of Maximinus ; killed soon 
after. There is a coin attributed to 
him, bearing on one side the inscrip. 
tion " Divo Tito," and on the reverse 
** Consecratio;" but this coin is one 
of those struck by Gallienus in 
honour of his predecesssors who had 
been ranked among the gods ; the 
present one is in honour of Titus. 

Gordianus AJricanus I. (Pater). Bom 
158 A.D. ; proclaimed Emperor in 
Africa, and acknowledged by the 
senate ; killed himself about forty 
days afterwards. S. — R.* R.* Br. — 
R.* R.^. These Latin coins were 
struck, without doubt, at Carthage. 

Gordianus Africanus II. (Filius) son of 
Gordianus Africanus I. Born ] 92 a.d.; 
Emperor with his father 238 ; killed 
about forty days afterwards. S. — R.' 
Br. — R.* These coins were, without 
doubt, minted in Carthage, like those 
of his father. 

BalHnus. Bom 178 a.d. ; Emperor with 
Pupienus 238 ; massacred after a 
reign of three months. G. — ^R* S. — 
R.iR.3 Br.— R.«R.» 

Pupienus. Born 164 a.d. ; declared Em- 
peror with Balbinus 238 ; massacred 
about three months afterwards. G. 
— R.8 S.— R.* Br.— R.2 R.« 

Gordianus Pius III., nephew of Gordianus 
Africanus. Born 222 a.d. ; Caesar 
238 ; Emperor the same year ; assassi- 
nated 244. G.— R.i R.8 S.— C— R.' 



Br. — C. — R.® The coins of this prince 
are numerous. 

jyanqtUllinaf wife of Gordianus III. Bom 
— ; died after her husband. S. — ^R.* 
Br.— R.8 

I^dlippus I. (Pater), Bom 204 a.d.; 
Emperor 244 ; killed 249. G.— R.» 
R.8 S.— C.— R.8 Br.— C.— R.6 Some 
coins represent him with Otacilia and 
Philip, his son. The coins of Philip 
are numerous. 

Marcia Otacilia Severa (wife of Philip 
the elder). Bom — ; died after 
her husband. G. — R.* R.^ S.— C. 
— R.* Br. — C. — R'. Some coins re- 
present her with Philip the father and 
son. 

Philippus II. (Filius). Born 237 a.d, 
Ceesar, 244. Associated in the em- 
pire with the title of Augustus, 247 ; 
killed 249. G.— R.* R.^ S.— C.— R.* 
Br. — C. — R.'' Some coins represent 
him with Philip the elder. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Marinus. Proclaimed Emperor in Moesia 
and Pannonia, 249 a.d. ; killed soon 
afterwards. The coins which have been 
attributed to this prince are Greek, but 
their attribution is doubtful. These 
coins were minted in Arabia, and most 
likely belong to a relation of the Em- 
peror Philip, and perhaps to his 
father. 

Jotapianus. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Syria, 248 a.d. ; put to death soon 
after. S. — B..^ This coin was, with- 
out doubt, minted in Syria. 

Pacatianus. This personage was pro- 
claimed Emperor about this i>eriod, 
and is only known by his coins. S. — 
R.^ It is thought from his coins that 
Pacatianus had himself proclaimed 
emperor in the leign of Philip or 
Trajanus Decius ; but it is uncertain. 
It is believed that he reigned in 
Greece, because his coins were fonnd 
there. Some authors think that<he 
was proclaimed in Moesia and Pan- 
nonia ; others, that Marinus and Pa- 
catianus were the same persons^ 

Sponsianus. Proclaimed Emperor about 
this period, and only known by his 
coins. G. — R.*^ "We believe that Spon- 
sianus was declared emperor about 
this time, the fabric of his coins 



EOMAN IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



645 



being eTidently of this epoch. The 
place of his revolt is uncertain, as 
he is not mentioned by any of the 
ancient authors. 

Trqjantts Decius. Bom 201 a.d. ; Emperor, 
249; drowned in a bog, 251. G. — 
R.* R.* S.— C— R.8 Br.— C— R.6 
Some coins represent him with Etrus- 
cilla, Hostilius, and Herennius. 

JEtruacilla (wife of Decius). This prin- 
cess is only known by her coins. G. — 
R.» 8.— C— R.1 Br.— C— R.** 

Herennius JEtruscus (son of Decius). 
Caesar, 249 ; Augustus, 251 ; killed 
same year. G. — R.^ 8. — C. — R."* 
Br.— R*. R.8 

Sbstilianxts (son of Decius). Ceesar, 
249 ; Emperor with Gallus, 251 ; died 
same year. G. — R.® 8. — C. — R.* 
Br. — ^R.* R.6. Some coins represent 
him with Yolusianus. 

Folusianus (son of Gallus). Caesar, 251 ; 
Emperor, 252 ; killed, 254. G. — R*. 
R.« 8.— C— R.* Br.— C.— R^ 

AemUius Aemiliatius. Bom 208 a.d. ; 
Emperor in Moesia, 253 ; killed, 254. 
G.— R.* 8.— R.1 R.« Br.— R.» 

Cornelia Supera (wife of Aemilianus). 
This princess is only known by her 
coins. 8. — R.* Br. — R.^ It was 
long believed that she was the wife of 
Gallus or of Valerian, but Eckhel has 
proved to the contrary. 

Valerianus Senior. Bom 190 a.d. ; 
Emperor, 253 ; made prisoner to the 
Persians, 260 ; died, 263. The coins 
of this emperor are nimierous. 

Jfariniana, believed to be the second 
wife of Valerian. This princess is 
only known by her coins. G. — R.^ 
R^ 8.— R». R.* 

Gallienxts (son of Valerian, by his first 
wife). Emperor, 253 ; assassinated, 
268, G.— R.«R.« 8.- R.<» Po. — C. 
— R.* Br. — C— R.» R.» During 
the reign of Gallienus, many generals 
declared themselves emperors ; and 
as their number was about thirty, 
they have been called the thirty 
tyrants. 

Salonina (wife of Gallienus). Assassinated 
208. G.— R.* R.« 8.- R.« Po.— 
C— R.« Br.— C— R.* 

SaUminus (sonof Gallienns). Born242A.D.; 
Caesar, 253 ; put to death, 259. G. — 



R.» R.8 8.— R.8 Po.— C— R.* 8.— 
C. — R^. Some coins represent him 
with Gallienus. 

Quintus Julitu Gallienus (youngest son of 
Gallienus). No coins can be attributed 
to this prince with any certainty. 

Valeriemus Junior (brother of Gallienus). 
Assassinated 268. The coins that 
were attributed to this prince have 
been restored to Saloninus. 

lAcinia Qalliena (aunt to Gallienus). No 
particulars are known of this princess. 
The coins attributed to her are false. 

Postumus (Pater.) Proclaimed Emperor 
in Gaul, 258 ; killed in 267. G.— 
R.* R.8 Po.— C.— R.8 8.— C— R.«. 
Some coins of Postumus bear also 
another head, which has long been 
considered to be that of his son. The 
coins of Postumus are numerous. All 
were struck in Gaul, 

Julia Donata (believed to be the wife of 
Postumus.) Nothing is known of this 
empress, whose existence is hardly 
proved. The coins that have been 
published are false. 

Postumus (Filius). Declared Augustus in 
Gaul 258 ; killed in 267. Nothing is 
known of this emperor, except that 
there are coins attributed to him, 
which truly belong to his father, and 
the heads which appear on the reverse 
of the coins of the latter, are pro- 
bably those of Mars and Hercules. All 
the coins of Postumus the Younger 
(if any exist) were struck in Gaul. 

Laelia/nus, Little is known of this per- 
sonage, who caused himself to be ac- 
knowledged Emperor in Graul during 
the reign of Gallienus. G. — R.® Po. 
— R.« R.* Br.— R.* R."^ Laelianus 
and the two following — Lolllanus and 
Aelianus — according to their money, 
appear to be three different person- 
ages. It must be observed that a 
great number of coins attributed to 
these three are doubtful. The coins 
of Laelianus were struck in Gaul. 

Lollianus, No details are known of this 
prince. Br. — ^R.® 

Quintus Valens Aelianus. No facts are 
known of this emperor. Br. — R.® 
See the observations on Laelianus. 

Victorinus (Pater). Associated in the 
empire of Gaul by Postumus 26.') ; 



646 



SOMAN IMPESLLI. COINAGE. 



killed 267. G.— K.« R." Po.— C.— 
R.* Br. — C. — R,» The coins of the 
Roman standard were struck in Gaul. 

Vi4>torinu» (Filius). Made CsBsar in 
Gaul 267 ; died soon afterwards. The 
coins formerly attributed to this 
prinoe hare been restored to his 
father. 

VuttorinOf mother of Yletorinus Senior, 
Died, according to general opinion 
in 268 Br.— R.8 The coin that 
has been published of this princess 
is false. 

Marim. Proclaimed Emperor in Graul 
in 267 ; killed after a reign of three 
days. G.— R.* Po. — R.» R.* Br. — 
R.^ R.* Historians say that he 
was killed by one of his comrades, 
after a reign of three days ; and 
the comparative abundance of his 
coins prove they were minted before 
he assumed the title of emperor. 

Tetrieus (Pater). Proclaimed Emperor 
in Gaul in 267 ; restored his pro. 
vinces to Aurelian 27S. G. — B.* R.* 
Po. — R.* Br. — C. — R*. Some coins 
represent him with his son. A great 
many of this emi>eror's coins are of 
the second brass, which are of bar- 
barous execution, and bear illegible 
inscriptions. The coins of Tetricus 
and his son were all struck in Gaul. 

Tetricus (Filius). Ceesar in Gaul 267; 
retired from public life on the abdi- 
cation of his father 273. G. — R.«R.8 
Po.— R.« Br.— C.— R«. It is a ques- 
tion whether this emperor was ever 
made Augustus or not. 

Cyriades. Proclaimed Emperor in Asia 
in 257 ; killed 258. No coins are 
known of this emperor. 

M(zcrianu9 (Pater). Proclaimed Emperor 
in the East 261 ; was killed by his 
soldiers 262, with his two sons. The 
coins published as those of the father 
have been restored to his son. 

Macrianua (Filius). He was made 
Augustus during his father's reign. 
Po. — R.* R.' His coins were struck 
in the East, perhaps in Syria. 

Q^iettl»y brother of the preceding. Killed 
with his father and brother at Emisa. 
G.— R.» Po.— R.« R.» Br. — R.8 
These coins were struck in the East. 

Balista. Proclaimed Emperor in Syria 



262 ; killed 264. The coins paUished 
of Balista are false. 

IngenuM. Proclaimed Emperor in M«Bsia 
and Pannonia 262 ; killed in three 
months. Coins all doubtfuL 

Begalianus. Proclaimed £nii>eror in 
Moesia 261; killed 263. S.— E.^ 
These coins, if true, were struck in 
Moesia. 

DryantUla wife of Regalianus. Nothing 
is known of this princess. S. — R.' 
The fact of Dryantilla being the wife 
of Regalianus is doubtful. 

VeUena. Emperor in Achaia 261 ; killed 
the same year. The coins at present 
known of Yalens are doubtful. 

Fiso Fruffi. Emperor in Thesealia 261 ; 
killed same year. The known coins 
of this emperor are false. 

Alezcmder Aemilianus. Proclaimed Em- 
peror in Egypt 262 ; killed the same 
year. The coins of Alexander are false. 

Satumintu I. Proclaimed Emperor 263 ; 
died shortly afterwards. No authen- 
ticated coins are known of this tyrant, 

Trt^ellianua. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Isauria 264 ; killed soon afterwnrda. 
The coins attributed to this person- 
age are false. 

Celmi, Proclaimed Emperor of Carthage 
in 265 ; killed after a reign of seven 
days. No true coins are known of 
Celsus. 

Aureolus. Proclaimed Emperor in H- 
lyria and in Rhetia in 267 ; killed 
268. G.— R.8 Br. — ^R.® These coins 
were either struck in Rhetia, Italy 
Superior, or in MUan. 

Sulpicius Antoninus. Proclaimed Em- 
peror in S3nria 267 ; died soon after- 
wards. No coins are known of 
Antoninus. 
Claudius Gothicus, Born 214 A.n. ; Em- 
peror in 268 ; died of the plague 270. 
G.— R.« R.8 Br.— C— R.* After the 
reign of Claudius no coins in billon are 
known, for at this period they were 
so thinly coated with silver that it 
has in most cases all worn off except 
when the coin is in singularly fine 
preservation. 
Oensorinus. Proclaimed Emperor at Boa- 
logne 270 ; killed seven days after. 
The coins that have been pnblished 
are false. 



BOMAir IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



647 



Qtuntilita, brother of Claudius GotMcus. 
Proclaimed Emperor near Aquileia 
270 ; committed suicide eight days 
after. G.— R.8 Br.— C. R.* The 
coins of Qnintillus are too numerous, 
to believe that his reign was so short 
as it is said by historians to have 
been ; it is probable that he reigned 
about two months according to 
Zozimus. 

Aurelianus. Bom207A.D.; Emperor 270; 
assassinated 275 ; G. — R** R.* Br. — 
C. — ^R.* The coins of this emperor 
are numerous. Some coins represent 
him with Severina and Yabalathus 
Athenodorus. 

Severinay wife of Aurelianus. No details 
are known of this empress. G. — R.^ 
R.« Br.— C.— R.« 

Septimus Odenathua. King of Palmyra 
261 ; associated in the empire by 
Gallienus 264 ; assassinated 266 — 7. 
There are no true coins known of 
this emperor. 

ZenobiOy last wife of Odenathus. Queen 
of Palmyra 261 ; vanquished by Au- 
relianus 273. There are some coins 
of this queen struck in Egypt, but 
there are no true autonomous coins. 

HerodeSf son of Odenathus by his first 
wife. Augustus 264; killed 267. The 
coins of this prince are false. 
TimolauSf son of Odenathus and Zenobia. 
Named Aug^ustus by his mother 266 ; 
taken prisoner by Aurelian 278. He 
has no true coin of Roman mintage, 
but there is one Greek coin that 
belongs to him, 
Vabalathtts Athenodorus^ son of Zenobia. 
Emperor in Syria 266 ; taken prisoner 
by Aurelian 273 ; Br.— R.«R.* These 
coins were struck in Syria. 

Jfaconius. Proclaimed Emperor 267 ; 
killed shortly afterwards. The coins 
attributed to Maconius are false. 

Firmus. Proclaimed Emperor in Egypt 
in 275 ; defeated and put to death 
the following year. The coins attri- 
buted to Firmus are false. 
Tacitus, Emperor 275 ; assassinated 276 ; 
G.— R.*R.* Br.— C— R.e The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 
Florianus. Bom 232 a.d. ; Emperor 276 ; 
killed same year. G.— R.^ R.6 Br. 
— C.— R.« 



iVo&tM. Bom 232 a.d. ; Emperor 276 ; 
massacred 282 ; G. — R.* R.6 S.— R.s 
Br. — C. — ^R.® The coins of this em- 
peror are so numerous and so diverse 
in their types, that the Abbe Rothlin 
had a collection of upwards of 2000 
coins, all different in some minute 
respect. 

Bonosius. Proclaimed Emperor of Gaul 
280; died 281. There are no true 
coins of this emperor. 

Satuminns. Emperor of Egypt and 
Palestine 280; killed shortly after, 
wards. The coins of Satuminus are 
false. 

Froculus. Emperor of Cologne 280 ; put 
to death the same year. The coins of 
this emperor are entirely false. 

Cams. Bom 230 a.d.; Emperor, 282; 
killed by lightning, 283. G.— R.* R.« 
S. — C. — R6. Som« coins represent him 
with Carinus. 

Numeriarms. Bom, 254 a.d.; Cassar, 282 ; 
Augustus, 283 ; died 284. G. — R.^ 
R.« S.— C. — R.* Some coins repre- 
sent him with Carinus. 

CfaHmis. Born 249 a.d.; Ceesar, 282; Em- 
peror, 283; killed, 284. G.— R.3 
R.s Some coins represent him with 
Numerianus and Magnia Urbica. 

Mctgnia UrUca. This princess is only 
known by her coins. G. — R.* 8. — 
R.* R.* It was a long time believed 
that she was the wife of Carus. 

Nigriiwmus (son of Carus). This prince 
is only known by his coins. G. — R.^ 
8.— R.» R.8 

Marcus Aurelianus Julianus, Proclaimed 
Emperor in Pannonia,284; killed, 285. 
These coins were most^probably struck 
in Italy Superior. 

Diocletianus. Bom 245 ; Emperor 284 ; 
adopted Galerius, 292 ; abdicated, 
305 ; died, 313. G.— R.« R.* S.— 
R.1 R.8 Br. — C. R«. The coins of 
this emx>eror are numerous. It is 
in this reign that the Roman em- 
pire was first divided by common 
consent among four emperors; two 
Augustus's and two Caesars. 

Maximianus Hercules. Bom 250 ; asso- 
ciated in the Empire with Diocletian 
in 286 ; gave to Constantius Chlorus 
the title of Ceesar ; abdicated 305 ; 
retook the empire, 306 ; abdicated 



648 



BOKAK IHPSBIAIi COTETAOE. 



afiresh, 308 ; proclaimed himself em- 
peror again in 309 ; strangled him- 
uelf, 810. G.— R.1 R/ 8.— R.i R.» 
Br. — C. R.* Some coins represent 
him with Galerius and Diocletian. 
His coins are numerous. 

Sutropiaf wife of Maximian. No details 
are known of this princess. No true 
coins are attributed to her. 

Amandus. Emperor in Gaul 285 ; killed 
287. The coins published of this 
personage are very suspicions. 

Aelianits. Emperor in Gaul 285 ; kUled 
287. The coins of this emperor are 
likewise doubtful. 

Cktrautius. Emperor in England 287 ; 
assassinated 289. G. — ^R.^ 8. — R.* 
R."' Br. — ^R.* R.* These coins were 
struck in England. 

AUeetus. Emperor in England 293; 
killed 296. G.— R.a 8.— R.» Br. 
— R.* R.« These coins were struck 
in England. 

Achilleus. Emperor in Egypt about 292 ; 
put to death soon afterwards. There 
are no true coins known of tliis per- 
sonage. 

Domitius Domitianta, Emperor in Egypt 

305. Br. — R.* These coins were 
struck in Egypt. 

Oonstantius I. (Chlorus). Bom 250 ; 
CflBsar 292 ; Emperor 305 ; died 

306. G.— R.1 R.» S.— R.i R.* Br. 
— C. R.* Some coins represent him 
with Diocletian. His coins are very 
numerous. 

nelenoy first wife of Constantius Chlorus. 
Born about 248 a.d. ; died about 328 ; 
Br.— C. R.* 

Theodora^ second wife of C!onstantius 
Chlorus. 8. — R.» Br. — C. 

Galerius Valerius Maximiantts. Adopted 
and named Caesar by Diocletian, in 
292 ; Augustus and Emperor in 305 ; 
died 311. G.— R.« R.« 8.— R.« R.« 
Br.— C. R.* Some pieces represent 
him with the Herculeian Maximianus 
and Constantius Chlorus. The coins 
of this prince are numerous. 

Valeria^ second wife of Galerius Maxi- 
mianus. Put to death in 315 a.d. 
G.— R.6 S.— R.6 Br.— C. R.* 

Flavius Valeritts Severus. Named Ceesar 
by the Herculeian Maximian in 305 ; 
Augustus and Emperor in 306; put 



todeathin 307. G. — ^E.* R.« B.— 
R.* Br.— C. R.* 

Maasimimu Daza, son of Gclerntt, 
named Caesar by Diocletian in 305 j 
given the title of the son of tbie An- 
gnsti in 307 $ proclaimed hiBisdf 
Emperor in 308 ; poisoned himseif 
in 313 A.D. G.— R». R.* 8.— R.* 
R.» Br. — C. R'. The eoins of this 
emperor are numerotis. A part 
of these pieces in Roman coin must 
have been struck in the East, pro- 
bably in Syria. 

Mdxentitu. Bom about 282 a.d. ; pro. 
claimed himself Emperor at Rmne in 
306, and drowned in the Tiber in 
312 A.D. G.— R.* R.* S.— B.6 R.' 
Br. — C. R.* One piece represents 
him with his son Romulus. The 
coins of Maxentius are very nnmeroufl. 

BomuluSy son of Maxentius. Bom about 
the year 306 a.d. ; named Caesar 
in 307 ; Augustus in a short time 
afterwards; died in 309. G. — R.* 
8.— R.« Br.— R.* R.8 One coin re- 
presents him with MaxentiuB his 
father. 

Alexander. Proclaimed Emperor at Car- 
thage in 306 ; defeated and put to 
death in 311 a.d. 8. — ^R.* Br. — ^R.* 
R.8 The Roman coins of Alexander 
were struck in Africa, and probably 
at Carthage. 

lAciniuSy senior son-in-law of Omistantius 
Chlorus. Bom 263 a.d. ; named 
Ceesar and Augustus, and associated in 
the empire with Galerius Maximianus 
307 ; conquered and taken prisoner 
by his brother-in-law, Constantine, 
and strangled in 323. G. — ^R.* R.* 
S. — R.8 R.6 Po.— R.« Br. — C. R.* 
Some coins represent him with his 
son Licinius. The coins of this 
prince are very numerous. 

Oonstantiay wife of the elder Licinius. 
Died 330 a.d. The pieces which were 
published of this princess were false. 

LicmiuSf junior, son of the elder Li- 
cinius. Bom 315 A.D. ; named Caesar 
317 ; deprived of the title in 323 ; put 
to death in 326. G.— R.* R.* 8.— R.* 
B. C. R.^ Some pieces represent 
him with his father, Licinius Crispus, 
and others with Constantine the 
Great. The Roman coins of tiiis 



BOMAN IMPEEIAL COINAGE. 



649 






ft 
it 



prince were struck in Pannonia and 
Rhsetia. 
utf^elius Valerius Valens. Named Ceesar, 
and perhaps Au^stus, by Licinius in 
S14 ; but was deprived of Ms dignities 
aad killed. The supposed coin is very 
doubtful. 
Ji£artinianu9. Created Csesar and Augustus 
at Byzantium by Licinius in 323 ; put 
to death two months afterwards. Br. 
— B.^ These Boman coins were most 
probably struck at Nicomedia. 

Chnstantius MagnuSy son of Constantius 
Cblorus and Helena. Bom 274 a.d.; 
named Ceesar and Augxistus in 306 ; 
deprived of the last title ; again 
named Augustus by the Herculeian 
Maximianus in 307 ; then only son 
of the Augusti^ given again the name 
of Augustus in 306 ; converted to the 
Christian religion in 311 ; made sole 
emperor in 323 ; changed the name of 
Byzantium to Constantinople, which 
he made the seat of his government, 
336; died in 337. G.— E.iR«. 8.— R*. 
B.i Br. — C. B*. Some pieces 
represent him with Crispus, Constan- 
tine the younger, and Licinius senior. 
The coins of this emperor are very 
namerous. Since his reign all the 
coins of the emperors of the East 
were struck at Constantinople. 

Fattsta^ wife of Constantino the Great, 
smothered in a warm bath, by her 
husband's order, in the year 326 a.d. 
G.— B.8 8.— B.* Br.— C. B.5 

Crispus^ son of Constantino and Miner- 
vina. Bom about 300 a.d. ; named 
Ceesar in 317 ; put to death by order 
of his father in 326. G. — ^E.^ B.» 
Br. — C, B.* 

Helenay wife of Crispus. This princess is 
only known by one coin. Br. — B.* 
It is not certain whether she was ever 
Crispus' wife or not. 

Delfnatitis. Named Ceesar in 335 ; ob- 
tained in the division, Thrace, Mace- 
donia, and Achaia in 335 ; killed 
337. G.— B.6 S.— B.* Br.— B.1 
Some pieces represent him with Con- 
Btantine. . It is doubtful whether 
these pieces were struck in Con- 
stantinople or in the provinces which 
he obtained in the division. 

Sanniballianus, brother to Delmatius. 



Made King of Pontus, Cappadocia 
and Armenia in the year 335 ; died 
337. Br. — B.* It is not known 
whether these pieces were struck in 
Constantinople or in the dominions of 
his sovereignty. 

Obnstantintis II.j eldest son of Constan- 
tino and Fausta. Born 316 a.d. ; 
named Caesar 317 ; obtained in the 
division, in 335, Gaul, Spain, and 
England ; named Emperor and Augus- 
tus in 337 ; defeated and killed in 
340. G.— B.3B.* S.— B.«B.* Br.— 
— C — B.' The coins of this emperor 
are numerous. These coins, probably, 
or at least a part, were struck in the 
countries assigned to him in the divi- 
sion. 

Oonstans J., youngest son of Constantino 
the Great and Fausta. Born about 
320 A.D. ; named Ceesar in 333 ; ob- 
tained in the division in 335, Italy, 
Illyria, and Africa, called Emperor 
and Augrustus in 337 ; made Emperor 
• of the East in 346 ; and assassinated 
in 350. G.— C. B.« S.— B.^ B.* 
Br. — C. B.' The coins of this em- 
peror are numerous. These, or part 
of these coins were probably struck 
in the countries assigned to him. 

Satuminus, This personage is only 
known by one coin, he was proclaimed 
Emperor under the reigns of Constans 
I. or II. The piece produced is 
doubtful. 

Cbnstantinus II., son of Constantino the 
Great and Fausta. Bom 317 a.d. ; 
named Ceesar in 323 ; obtained in 
the division, in 335, the East ; named 
Augustus in 337 ; master of all the 
Empire in 350 ; died 351. G. — C. B.^ 
8.— B.i B.* Br. — C. B.^ The coins 
of this emperor are numerous. 

FaustOy wife of Constantius II. Br. — B.^ 
It is doubtful whether she was ever 
the wife of Constantius or not. 

Nepotianua, son of Eutropia, sister of 
Constantino the Great. Proclaimed 
Emperor at Bome in 350 ; killed after 
a reign of 28 days. Br.— B."' These 
pieces were probably struck at 
Bome. 

Vetranim. Proclaimed Emperor in Pan- 
nonia in 350 ; abdicated after reigning 
10 months ; died 356 ; G.— B.8 S.— 



650 



BOMAK IMPXBIAL COINAGE. 



lU* Br. — ^B.* B.* These pieces were 
probably struck in Fannonift. 

Jfonius. Historians do not mention this 
personage. The pieces attribated to 
this Nonius are doubtful, 

Magnentius, Bom about 303 a.i>. ; pro- 
claimed Emperor at Autun 350 ; and 
kUled himself in 333. O.— B*. B.'' 
S. — B.* B.' Br.— C. B.« These 
pieces were either struck in Gaul or 
Italy. 

2>ecen<tt», brother of Magnentius. Named 
Cesar in 351 ; and strangled hxmself 
in 358. G.—B*. B.' S.— B.* B.' 
Br. — C. B.^ These pieces irere struck 
in Gaul or in Italy. 

DeaideritUy brother of Magnentius. Named 
CsBsar in 35 1 ; stabbed by his brother 
in 353 ; but not killed as it was 
thought. The published pieces of this 
prince are false. 

Ckmttantiua GcUltu. Bom 325 a.d. ; 
named CsBsar in 351 ; condemned to 
death and executed in 354. G. — ^B.' 
B.* 8.— B.»B.* Br.— C. B.* 

Omstantinay wife first of Hannlballianus